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Sample records for site chihuahua mexico

  1. Heterogeneous seepage at the Nopal I natural analogue site, Chihuahua, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, Patrick F.; Cook, Paul J.; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A.; Rodriguez, J. Alfredo; Villalba, Lourdes; de la Garza, Rodrigo

    2008-10-25

    An integrated field, laboratory, and modeling study of the Pena Blanca (Chihuahua, Mexico) natural analogue site is being conducted to evaluate processes that control the mobilization and transport of radionuclides from a uranium ore deposit. One component of this study is an evaluation of the potential for radionuclide transport through the unsaturated zone (UZ) via a seepage study in an adit at the Nopal I uranium mine, excavated 10 m below a mined level surface. Seasonal rainfall on the exposed level surface infiltrates into the fractured rhyolitic ash-flow tuff and seeps into the adit. An instrumented seepage collection system and local automated weather station permit direct correlation between local precipitation events and seepage within the Nopal I +00 adit. Monitoring of seepage within the adit between April 2005 and December 2006 indicates that seepage is highly heterogeneous with respect to time, location, and quantity. Within the back adit area, a few zones where large volumes of water have been collected are linked to fast flow path fractures (0-4 h transit times) presumably associated with focused flow. In most locations, however, there is a 1-6 month time lag between major precipitation events and seepage within the adit, with longer residence times observed for the front adit area. Seepage data obtained from this study will be used to provide input to flow and transport models being developed for the Nopal I hydrogeologic system.

  2. REGIONAL HYDROLOGY OF THE NOPAL I SITE, SIERRA DE PENA BLANCA, CHIHUAHUA, MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Rodriguez-Pineda; P. Goodell; P.F. Dobson; J. Walton; R. Oliver; De La Garza; S. Harder

    2005-07-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy sponsored the drilling of three wells in 2003 near the Nopal I uranium deposit at the Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico. Piezometric information is being collected to understand groundwater flow at local and regional levels as part of an ongoing natural analogue study of radionuclide migration. Water level monitoring reported at these and other wells in the region is combined with archival data to provide a better understanding of the hydrology at Nopal I. Initial results suggest that the local hydrology is dependent on the regional hydrologic setting and that this groundwater system behaves as an unconfined aquifer. The region is dominated by an alternating sequence of highlands and basins that step down from west to east. The Sierra de Pena Blanca was downdropped from the cratonic block to the west during Cenozoic extension. The Nopal I area is near the intersection of two large listric faults, and the questa of ash flow tuffs that hosts the deposit has been subjected to complex structural events. The Pena Blanca Uranium District was originally characterized by 105 airborne radiometric anomalies, indicating widespread uranium mineralization. The Nopal I uranium deposit is located in the Sierra del Pena Blanca between the Encinillas Basin to the west, with a mean elevation of 1560 m, and the El Cuervo Basin to the east, with a mean elevation of 1230 m. The Nopal I + 10 level is at an intermediate elevation of 1463 m, with a corresponding groundwater elevation of approximately 1240 m. The regional potentiometric surface indicates flow from west to east, with the El Cuervo Basin being the discharge zone for the regional flow system. However, it appears that the local groundwater potential beneath the Nopal I site is more in accordance with the water table of the El Cuervo Basin than with that of the Encinillas Basin. This might indicate that there is limited groundwater flow between the Encinillas Basin and the Nopal I area.

  3. Heterogeneous seepage at the Nopal I natural analogue site, Chihuahua, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, Patrick F.; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A.; Cook, Paul J.; Rodríguez-Pineda, J. Alfredo; Villalba, Lourdes; de La Garza, Rodrigo

    2012-02-01

    A study of seepage occurring in an adit at the Nopal I uranium mine in Chihuahua, Mexico, was conducted as part of an integrated natural analogue study to evaluate the effects of infiltration and seepage on the mobilization and transport of radionuclides. An instrumented seepage collection system and local automated weather station permit direct correlation between local precipitation events and seepage. Field observations recorded between April 2005 and December 2006 indicate that seepage is highly heterogeneous with respect to time, location, and quantity. Seepage, precipitation, and fracture data were used to test two hypotheses: (1) that fast flow seepage is triggered by large precipitation events, and (2) that an increased abundance of fractures and/or fracture intersections leads to higher seepage volumes. A few zones in the back adit recorded elevated seepage volumes immediately following large (>20 mm/day) precipitation events, with transit times of less than 4 h through the 8-m thick rock mass. In most locations, there is a 1-6 month time lag between the onset of the rainy season and seepage, with longer times observed for the front adit. There is a less clear-cut relation between fracture abundance and seepage volume; processes such as evaporation and surface flow along the ceiling may also influence seepage.

  4. Characterization of U-series disequilibria at the Pena Blanca natural analogue site, Chihuahua, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, V.; Goodell, P.C.; Anthony, E.Y.

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate radionuclide migration from a uranium-mineralized breccia pipe. The site provides an excellent opportunity to evaluate radionuclide mobility in a geochemical environment similar to that around the proposed high-level waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Samples represent fracture-infillings from both within and outside the breccia pipe. Mineral assemblages within the fractures include (1) pure kaolinite, (2) a mixture of iron-oxyhydroxides (goethite and hematite) with associated alunite and jarosite, which the authors refer to as the Fe-mineral assemblage, and (3) carbonates. Uranophane, weeksite, soddyite, and boltwoodite are associated with samples from within the breccia zone. The authors obtain radionuclide activities from gamma-ray rather than alpha spectroscopy, and the methodology for these measurements is presented in detail. Plots of {sup 230}Th/{sup 238}U vs. {sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th show three distinct mobility trends. (1) The majority of the Fe-mineral samples from within the breccia pipe yield values between 1.0 and 1.1 for both ratios, (2) Fe-mineral samples from outside the ore zone and a kaolinite from within the ore zone have {sup 230}Th/{sup 238}U of 0.58 to 0.83 and {sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th of 1.09 to 1.42, and (3) some Fe-mineral samples from within the breccia pipe have values of 1.2 and 0.9 respectively. These data, combined with those from other studies at Pena Blanca suggest that U and Ra are sometimes mobile in the near-surface environment and that multiple episodes of enrichment and leaching are required to explain the trends.

  5. Meteorite fail at pueblito de allende, chihuahua, Mexico: preliminary information.

    PubMed

    King, E A; Schonfeld, E; Richardson, K A; Eldridge, J S

    1969-02-28

    Specimens from the meteorite fall at 1:05 a. m., on 8 February 1969 at Pueblito de Allende, Chihuahua, Mexico, have been recovered. The meteorite is a chondrite (C3 and C4) with both opaque and microcrystalline matrices. Specimens were brought to a low background gamma counter less than 4 (1/2) days after the fall, and gamma rays from short-lived isotopes have been observed.

  6. Gamma-ray characterization of uranium-series nuclides and its application to the study of the Pena Blanca natural analogue site, Chihuahua, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Virgina

    Two natural analogue sites located in the Pena Blanca Uranium District, Chihuahua, Mexico were characterized for radionuclide mobility. Analogue I is used to assess the long-term behavior of uranium-series nuclides in a host rock and geochemical environment that is similar to the proposed high-level waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Analogue II represents a former dump site to assess short-term radionuclide mobility. Gamma-ray spectroscopy analysis was used to measure radioactivity of the U-series nuclides. Samples analyzed from Analogue I consist of: (1) fracture-infillings associated with different alteration assemblages collected within and outside the breccia pipe from various levels of the deposit and (2) fracture-infillings collected along an east-west trending fracture which intersects the breccia pipe and extends into the host rock. Alteration mineralogy, established via X-ray diffraction analysis, consists of pure kaolinite, a mixture of Fe-oxyhydroxide (goethite, hematite) With inclusions of jarosite and alunite, and carbonates. Results from activity ratios of 230Th/238U versus 226Ra/230Th indicate that majority of the Fe-oxyhydroxides from the breccia zone show a slight disequilibrium with respect to Ra enrichment and U depletion. This observation is modeled as requiring a multiple-event history of U mobility. An amorphous Fe sample distal to the breccia zone shows similar behavior but to a greater extent. This extreme behavior is ascribed to initially low U content and greater late-stage U removal. Two Fe-oxyhydroxide samples from Within the breccia pipe also display multiple-event stages but exhibit both Ra and U leaching. This behavior is shared by Fe-oxyhydroxide samples collected inside and peripheral to the breccia zone from the east-west trending fracture. Finally, three samples, two Fe phase samples outside the breccia zone and a kaolinite inside the breccia zone, show Ra and U enrichment. Also, a distal Fe-oxyhydroxide sample from the

  7. Water quality assessment of the Rio Conchos, Chihuahua, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez, M.; Borrego, P.

    1999-07-01

    A baseline study was conducted to evaluate the overall quality of the Rio Conchos (Chihuahua, Mexico) and to identify those chemical parameters that can best represent the water quality in different segments of the river. Chemical analyses included the measurement of 62 elements at more than 100 sampling stations along the river, in addition to conventional field analyses (e.g., pH, conductivity). Concentrations of these elements are reported and water quality indicators were identified. Based on the element concentration patterns, the segment of the river in which the water quality is most endangered corresponds to that receiving irrigation drain returns near the confluence of the Rio San Pedro. Self-cleaning and dilution processes account for the improvement in water quality observed as the Rio Conchos approaches the Rio Grande.

  8. Wind Transport of Radionuclide- Bearing Dust, Peña Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velarde, R.; Goodell, P. C.; Gill, T. E.; Arimoto, R.

    2007-05-01

    This investigation evaluates radionuclide fractionation during wind erosion of high-grade uranium ore storage piles at Peña Blanca (50km north of Chihuahua City), Chihuahua, Mexico. The aridity of the local environment promotes dust resuspension by high winds. Although active operations ceased in 1983, the Peña Blanca mining district is one of Mexico`s most important uranium ore reserves. The study site contains piles of high grade ore, left loose on the surface, and separated by the specific deposits from which they were derived (Margaritas, Nopal I, and Puerto I). Similar locations do not exist in the United States, since uranium mining sites in the USA have been reclaimed. The Peña Blanca site serves as an analog for the Yucca Mountain project. Dust deposition is collected at Peña Blanca with BSNE sediment catchers (Fryrear, 1986) and marble dust traps (Reheis, 1999). These devices capture windblown sediment; subsequently, the sample data will help quantify potentially radioactive short term field sediment loss from the repository surface and determine sediment flux. Aerosols and surface materials will be analyzed and radioactivity levels established utilizing techniques such as gamma spectroscopy. As a result, we will be able to estimate how much radionuclide contaminated dust is being transported or attached geochemically to fine grain soils or minerals (e.g., clays or iron oxides). The high-grade uranium-bearing material is at secular equilibrium, thus the entire decay series is present. Of resulting interest is not only the aeolian transport of uranium, but also of the other daughter products. These studies will improve our understanding of geochemical cycling of radionuclides with respect to sources, transport, and deposition. The results may also have important implications for the geosciences and homeland security, and potential applications to public health. Funding for this project is provided in part via a NSF grant to Arimoto.

  9. Characterization of urban solid waste in Chihuahua, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, Guadalupe; Meneses, Montserrat; Ballinas, Lourdes; Castells, Francesc

    2008-12-15

    The characterization of urban solid waste generation is fundamental for adequate decision making in the management strategy of urban solid waste in a city. The objective of this study is to characterize the waste generated in the households of Chihuahua city, and to compare the results obtained in areas of the city with three different socioeconomic levels. In order to identify the different socioeconomic trends in waste generation and characterization, 560 samples of solid waste were collected during 1 week from 80 households in Chihuahua and were hand sorted and classified into 15 weighted fractions. The average waste generation in Chihuahua calculated in this study was 0.676 kg per capita per day in April 2006. The main fractions were: organic (48%), paper (16%) and plastic (12%). Results show an increased waste generation associated with the socioeconomic level. The characterization in amount and composition of urban waste is the first step needed for the successful implementation of an integral waste management system.

  10. Geologic studies in the Sierra de Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes-Cortes, Ignacio Alfonso

    The Sierra del Cuervo has been endowed with uranium mineralization, which has attracted many geological studies, and recently the author was part of a team with the goal of selecting a site of a radioactive waste repository. The first part of the work adds to the regional framework of stratigraphy and tectonics of the area. It includes the idea of a pull apart basin development, which justifies the local great thickness of the Cuervo Formation. It includes the regional structural frame work and the composite stratigraphic column of the Chihuahua Trough and the equivalent Cretaceous Mexican Sea. The general geologic features of the NE part of the Sierra del Cuervo are described, which include the folded ignimbrites and limestones in that area; the irregular large thicknesses of the Cuervo Formation; and the western vergence of the main folding within the area. Sanidine phenocrystals gave ages of 54.2 Ma and 51.8 Ma ± 2.3 Ma. This is the first time these dates have been reported in print. This age indicates a time before the folded structures which outcrop in the area, and 44 Ma is a date after the Cuervo Formation was folded. The Hidalgoan orogeny cycle affected the rocks between this lapse of time. Since then the area has been partially affected by three tensional overlapped stages, which resulted in the actual Basin and Range physiography. The jarosite related to the tectonic activity mineralization has been dated by the Ar-Ar method and yields an age of 9.8 Ma. This is the first report of a date of mineralization timing at Pena Blanca Uranium District in the Sierra del Cuervo. These are some of the frame work features that justify the allocation of a radioactive waste repository in the Sierra del Cuervo. An alluvial fan system within the Boquilla Colorada microbasin was selected as the best target for more detailed site assessment. The study also included the measurement of the alluvium thicknesses by geoelectric soundings; studies of petrography and weathered

  11. Persistent environmental pollutants in eggs of aplomado falcons from Northern Chihuahua, Mexico, and south Texas, USA.

    PubMed

    Mora, M A; Montoya, A B; Lee, M C; Macías-Duarte, A; Rodríguez-Salazar, R; Juergens, P W; Lafón-Terrazas, A

    2008-01-01

    The northern aplomado falcon (Falco femoralis septentrionalis) disappeared from south Texas in the 1940s. Due to great success in the release of captive-reared aplomado falcons in south Texas, there are currently more than 40 established nesting pairs in the region. Addled eggs from aplomado falcons nesting in northern Chihuahua and south Texas were analyzed to determine organochlorine (OC) and inorganic element contaminant burdens and their potential association with egg failures and effects on reproduction. Among the OCs, DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene] was present at the highest concentrations (range 262-21487 ng/g wet weight) followed by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, range 88-3274 ng/g ww). DDE was greater (P=0.03) in eggs from El Sueco (Chihuahua, Mexico) than in those from Matagorda Island (Texas, USA). DDE concentrations in eggs of aplomado falcons from El Sueco were elevated; however, reproductive success in the two Chihuahuan populations did not seem to be affected by DDE. DDE and metals in potential avian prey of the aplomado falcon from Matagorda Island were very low and below levels in the diet at which some negative effects might be expected. Except for mercury (Hg), metal concentrations in eggs were fairly low and were not different among locations in Chihuahua and south Texas. Hg was somewhat elevated and was greater (P<0.001) in Texas than in the Chihuahua locations. Periodic monitoring of Hg concentrations in addled eggs of aplomado falcons in south Texas is recommended to continue evaluating potential negative effects on their recovery. PMID:17669494

  12. Persistent environmental pollutants in eggs of aplomado falcons from Northern Chihuahua, Mexico, and South Texas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mora, M.A.; Montoya, A.B.; Lee, M.C.; Macias-Duarte, Alberto; Rodriguez-Salazar, R.; Juergens, P.W.; Lafon-Terrazas, A.

    2008-01-01

    The northern aplomado falcon (Falco femoralis septentrionalis) disappeared from south Texas in the 1940s. Due to great success in the release of captive-reared aplomado falcons in south Texas, there are currently more than 40 established nesting pairs in the region. Addled eggs from aplomado falcons nesting in northern Chihuahua and south Texas were analyzed to determine organochlorine (OC) and inorganic element contaminant burdens and their potential association with egg failures and effects on reproduction. Among the OCs, DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene] was present at the highest concentrations (range 262-21487??ng/g wet weight) followed by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, range 88-3274??ng/g ww). DDE was greater (P = 0.03) in eggs from El Sueco (Chihuahua, Mexico) than in those from Matagorda Island (Texas, USA). DDE concentrations in eggs of aplomado falcons from El Sueco were elevated; however, reproductive success in the two Chihuahuan populations did not seem to be affected by DDE. DDE and metals in potential avian prey of the aplomado falcon from Matagorda Island were very low and below levels in the diet at which some negative effects might be expected. Except for mercury (Hg), metal concentrations in eggs were fairly low and were not different among locations in Chihuahua and south Texas. Hg was somewhat elevated and was greater (P < 0.001) in Texas than in the Chihuahua locations. Periodic monitoring of Hg concentrations in addled eggs of aplomado falcons in south Texas is recommended to continue evaluating potential negative effects on their recovery. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Persistent environmental pollutants in eggs of aplomado falcons from Northern Chihuahua, Mexico, and south Texas, USA.

    PubMed

    Mora, M A; Montoya, A B; Lee, M C; Macías-Duarte, A; Rodríguez-Salazar, R; Juergens, P W; Lafón-Terrazas, A

    2008-01-01

    The northern aplomado falcon (Falco femoralis septentrionalis) disappeared from south Texas in the 1940s. Due to great success in the release of captive-reared aplomado falcons in south Texas, there are currently more than 40 established nesting pairs in the region. Addled eggs from aplomado falcons nesting in northern Chihuahua and south Texas were analyzed to determine organochlorine (OC) and inorganic element contaminant burdens and their potential association with egg failures and effects on reproduction. Among the OCs, DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene] was present at the highest concentrations (range 262-21487 ng/g wet weight) followed by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, range 88-3274 ng/g ww). DDE was greater (P=0.03) in eggs from El Sueco (Chihuahua, Mexico) than in those from Matagorda Island (Texas, USA). DDE concentrations in eggs of aplomado falcons from El Sueco were elevated; however, reproductive success in the two Chihuahuan populations did not seem to be affected by DDE. DDE and metals in potential avian prey of the aplomado falcon from Matagorda Island were very low and below levels in the diet at which some negative effects might be expected. Except for mercury (Hg), metal concentrations in eggs were fairly low and were not different among locations in Chihuahua and south Texas. Hg was somewhat elevated and was greater (P<0.001) in Texas than in the Chihuahua locations. Periodic monitoring of Hg concentrations in addled eggs of aplomado falcons in south Texas is recommended to continue evaluating potential negative effects on their recovery.

  14. Geochemical characterization and leaching behavior of slags: by-product materials from an old lead smelter in Chihuahua, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espejel-Garcia, D.; Wenglas-Lara, G.; Villalobos-Aragon, A.; Espejel-Garcia, V. V.

    2012-12-01

    Steel slags are stored in piles or stocks around or near the smelter site. Currently, there is an increasing interest in the use of waste materials, especially in the construction industry, to replace natural aggregates, help the environment and reduce the costs. Slags are being used widely as road ballast, road base or sub-base material, sandblasting agents or cement additives, but normally contain high concentrations of potentially toxic metals. Although these metals are associated with glass, silicate and oxide minerals, with slow solubilities in water, a characterization of the leaching behavior is essential in environmental evaluation for reuse scenarios. The state of Chihuahua is located in northern Mexico, and mining has been an important economic activity since the 18th century. In the early 1900's, a lead smelter operated in Avalos, Chihuahua (in the southern surroundings of Chihuahua city), and left considerable slag piles after their closure in the 1980's. In this study, this material has been geochemically analyzed to identify the metals contained in it, and used in "tank tests" experiments, to assess its leaching behavior. The slags from Chihuahua contain Pb (0.5 - 4 wt.%), Zn (15-35 wt.%) and As (0.6 wt.%) in different minerals such as hardystonite (Ca2ZnSi2O7), melanotekite (Pb2Fe3+3O2Si2O7), kentrolite (Pb2Mn2Si2O9) and sphalerite (ZnS) or trapped in the glass. Major elements are present in phases such as monticellite (CaMgSiO4), kirschsteinite (CaFe2+SiO4), hedenbergite (CaFeSi2O6), babingtonite (Fe2Si3O9), magnetite (Fe3O4), and calcite (CaCO3). The leaching experiments were performed for 6, 24, 168 and 360 hours in mixtures of 30 and 50% of slags with natural road base material using distilled water at a pH 5 and 8 to recreate acidic and alkaline waters. The amounts of leached Pb ranges from 0.1 to 0.5 ppm, Zn from 0.1 to 0.6 ppm, As from 0 to 0.09 ppm, and Ca from 40 to 180 ppm, being the acidic experiments the ones that leached out the highest

  15. Uranium series isotopes concentration in sediments at San Marcos and Luis L. Leon reservoirs, Chihuahua, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Méndez-García, C.; Montero-Cabrera, M. E.; Renteria-Villalobos, M.; García-Tenorio, R.

    2008-01-01

    Spatial and temporal distribution of the radioisotopes concentrations were determined in sediments near the surface and core samples extracted from two reservoirs located in an arid region close to Chihuahua City, Mexico. At San Marcos reservoir one core was studied, while from Luis L. Leon reservoir one core from the entrance and another one close to the wall were investigated. ²³²Th-series, ²³⁸U-series, ⁴⁰K and ¹³⁷Cs activity concentrations (AC, Bq kg⁻¹) were determined by gamma spectrometry with a high purity Ge detector. ²³⁸U and ²³⁴U ACs were obtained by liquid scintillation and alpha spectrometry with a surface barrier detector. Dating of core sediments was performed applying CRS method to ²¹⁰Pb activities. Results were verified by ¹³⁷Cs AC. Resulting activity concentrations were compared among corresponding surface and core sediments. High ²³⁸U-series AC values were found in sediments from San Marcos reservoir, because this site is located close to the Victorino uranium deposit. Low AC values found in Luis L. Leon reservoir suggest that the uranium present in the source of the Sacramento – Chuviscar Rivers is not transported up to the Conchos River. Activity ratios (AR) ²³⁴U/²³⁸U and ²³⁸U/²²⁶Ra in sediments have values between 0.9–1.2, showing a behavior close to radioactive equilibrium in the entire basin. ²³²Th/²³⁸U, ²²⁸Ra/²²⁶Ra ARs are witnesses of the different geological origin of sediments from San Marcos and Luis L. Leon reservoirs.

  16. Spatial analysis techniques applied to uranium prospecting in Chihuahua State, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinojosa de la Garza, Octavio R.; Montero Cabrera, María Elena; Sanín, Luz H.; Reyes Cortés, Manuel; Martínez Meyer, Enrique

    2014-07-01

    To estimate the distribution of uranium minerals in Chihuahua, the advanced statistical model "Maximun Entropy Method" (MaxEnt) was applied. A distinguishing feature of this method is that it can fit more complex models in case of small datasets (x and y data), as is the location of uranium ores in the State of Chihuahua. For georeferencing uranium ores, a database from the United States Geological Survey and workgroup of experts in Mexico was used. The main contribution of this paper is the proposal of maximum entropy techniques to obtain the mineral's potential distribution. For this model were used 24 environmental layers like topography, gravimetry, climate (worldclim), soil properties and others that were useful to project the uranium's distribution across the study area. For the validation of the places predicted by the model, comparisons were done with other research of the Mexican Service of Geological Survey, with direct exploration of specific areas and by talks with former exploration workers of the enterprise "Uranio de Mexico". Results. New uranium areas predicted by the model were validated, finding some relationship between the model predictions and geological faults. Conclusions. Modeling by spatial analysis provides additional information to the energy and mineral resources sectors.

  17. Lifetime Effective Dose Assessment Based on Background Outdoor Gamma Exposure in Chihuahua City, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Luevano-Gurrola, Sergio; Perez-Tapia, Angelica; Pinedo-Alvarez, Carmelo; Carrillo-Flores, Jorge; Montero-Cabrera, Maria Elena; Renteria-Villalobos, Marusia

    2015-10-01

    Determining ionizing radiation in a geographic area serves to assess its effects on a population's health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the background environmental outdoor gamma dose rates in Chihuahua City. This study also estimated the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risks of the population of this city. To determine the outdoor gamma dose rate in air, the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risk, 48 sampling points were randomly selected in Chihuahua City. Outdoor gamma dose rate measurements were carried out by using a Geiger-Müller counter. Outdoor gamma dose rates ranged from 113 to 310 nGy·h(-1). At the same sites, 48 soil samples were taken to obtain the activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K and to calculate their terrestrial gamma dose rates. Radioisotope activity concentrations were determined by gamma spectrometry. Calculated gamma dose rates ranged from 56 to 193 nGy·h(-1). Results indicated that the lifetime effective dose of the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is on average 19.8 mSv, resulting in a lifetime cancer risk of 0.001. In addition, the mean of the activity concentrations in soil were 52, 73 and 1097 Bq·kg(-1), for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. From the analysis, the spatial distribution of (232)Th, (226)Ra and (40)K is to the north, to the north-center and to the south of city, respectively. In conclusion, the natural background gamma dose received by the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is high and mainly due to the geological characteristics of the zone. From the radiological point of view, this kind of study allows us to identify the importance of manmade environments, which are often highly variable and difficult to characterize. PMID:26437425

  18. Lifetime Effective Dose Assessment Based on Background Outdoor Gamma Exposure in Chihuahua City, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Luevano-Gurrola, Sergio; Perez-Tapia, Angelica; Pinedo-Alvarez, Carmelo; Carrillo-Flores, Jorge; Montero-Cabrera, Maria Elena; Renteria-Villalobos, Marusia

    2015-01-01

    Determining ionizing radiation in a geographic area serves to assess its effects on a population’s health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the background environmental outdoor gamma dose rates in Chihuahua City. This study also estimated the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risks of the population of this city. To determine the outdoor gamma dose rate in air, the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risk, 48 sampling points were randomly selected in Chihuahua City. Outdoor gamma dose rate measurements were carried out by using a Geiger-Müller counter. Outdoor gamma dose rates ranged from 113 to 310 nGy·h−1. At the same sites, 48 soil samples were taken to obtain the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K and to calculate their terrestrial gamma dose rates. Radioisotope activity concentrations were determined by gamma spectrometry. Calculated gamma dose rates ranged from 56 to 193 nGy·h−1. Results indicated that the lifetime effective dose of the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is on average 19.8 mSv, resulting in a lifetime cancer risk of 0.001. In addition, the mean of the activity concentrations in soil were 52, 73 and 1097 Bq·kg−1, for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. From the analysis, the spatial distribution of 232Th, 226Ra and 40K is to the north, to the north-center and to the south of city, respectively. In conclusion, the natural background gamma dose received by the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is high and mainly due to the geological characteristics of the zone. From the radiological point of view, this kind of study allows us to identify the importance of manmade environments, which are often highly variable and difficult to characterize. PMID:26437425

  19. A Concurrent Exposure to Arsenic and Fluoride from Drinking Water in Chihuahua, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    González-Horta, Carmen; Ballinas-Casarrubias, Lourdes; Sánchez-Ramírez, Blanca; Ishida, María C.; Barrera-Hernández, Angel; Gutiérrez-Torres, Daniela; Zacarias, Olga L.; Saunders, R. Jesse; Drobná, Zuzana; Mendez, Michelle A.; García-Vargas, Gonzalo; Loomis, Dana; Stýblo, Miroslav; Del Razo, Luz M.

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) and fluoride (F−) are naturally occurring drinking water contaminants. However, co-exposure to these contaminants and its effects on human health are understudied. The goal of this study was examined exposures to iAs and F− in Chihuahua, Mexico, where exposure to iAs in drinking water has been associated with adverse health effects. All 1119 eligible Chihuahua residents (>18 years) provided a sample of drinking water and spot urine samples. iAs and F− concentrations in water samples ranged from 0.1 to 419.8 µg As/L and from 0.05 to 11.8 mg F−/L. Urinary arsenic (U-tAs) and urinary F− (U-F−) levels ranged from 0.5 to 467.9 ng As/mL and from 0.1 to 14.4 µg F−/mL. A strong positive correlation was found between iAs and F− concentrations in drinking water (rs = 0.741). Similarly, U-tAs levels correlated positively with U-F− concentrations (rs = 0.633). These results show that Chihuahua residents exposed to high iAs concentrations in drinking water are also exposed to high levels of F−, raising questions about possible contribution of F− exposure to the adverse effects that have so far been attributed only to iAs exposure. Thus, investigation of possible interactions between iAs and F− exposures and its related health risks deserves immediate attention. PMID:25918912

  20. Geochemical and Petrological Studies of Peralkaline Rocks from Laborcita de San Javier, Chihuahua, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano, J. E.; Espejel-Garcia, V. V.; Villalobos-Aragon, A.

    2013-05-01

    Peralkaline igneous rocks are characterized by a lower total aluminum content in comparison to the total alkalis content (Na + K), and are important to determine the tectonic environment in which they formed. The majority of the volcanic activity in Chihuahua State, northern Mexico, is mostly related to the formation of the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO), product of the subduction of the Farallon plate. Volcanic activity of Paleogene age (late Oligocene) to the SW of Chihuahua city, specifically in the towns of Laborcita de San Javier and Cusihuiriachic, includes 27.5 M.a. peralkaline tuffs, capping the older rhyolites and andesites of the SMO. This sequence becomes thicker and more prominent towards the west. A volcanic section of more than 1,000 m thick is exposed in the Laborcita area, which ranges in age from 27 to 35 Ma. The oldest (bottom) unit is a calc-alkaline felsic ash-flow tuff and rhyolitic lavas interbedded with flows of mafic to intermediate composition. Overlying this unit, there is a basaltic andesite with an age of 30 to 33 Ma. Right at the top of this sequence, there is the widespread peralkaline ash-flow tuff (27.5 M.a.), focus of this study. Geochemical analyses performed to rhyolitic tuffs by Mauger and Dayvault (1983), have a peralkalinity index ranging from 0.94 to 1.20, while analyses prepared for this project only reach an index of 0.60. The appearance of peralkaline rocks in the Chihuahua State indicates the change of tectonic regime from compression (Farallon plate subduction) to distension (Basin and Range and/or Rio Grande Rift), about 27 M.a. ago.

  1. A concurrent exposure to arsenic and fluoride from drinking water in Chihuahua, Mexico.

    PubMed

    González-Horta, Carmen; Ballinas-Casarrubias, Lourdes; Sánchez-Ramírez, Blanca; Ishida, María C; Barrera-Hernández, Angel; Gutiérrez-Torres, Daniela; Zacarias, Olga L; Saunders, R Jesse; Drobná, Zuzana; Mendez, Michelle A; García-Vargas, Gonzalo; Loomis, Dana; Stýblo, Miroslav; Del Razo, Luz M

    2015-04-24

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) and fluoride (F-) are naturally occurring drinking water contaminants. However, co-exposure to these contaminants and its effects on human health are understudied. The goal of this study was examined exposures to iAs and F- in Chihuahua, Mexico, where exposure to iAs in drinking water has been associated with adverse health effects. All 1119 eligible Chihuahua residents (>18 years) provided a sample of drinking water and spot urine samples. iAs and F- concentrations in water samples ranged from 0.1 to 419.8 µg As/L and from 0.05 to 11.8 mg F-/L. Urinary arsenic (U-tAs) and urinary F- (U-F-) levels ranged from 0.5 to 467.9 ng As/mL and from 0.1 to 14.4 µg F-/mL. A strong positive correlation was found between iAs and F- concentrations in drinking water (rs = 0.741). Similarly, U-tAs levels correlated positively with U-F- concentrations (rs = 0.633). These results show that Chihuahua residents exposed to high iAs concentrations in drinking water are also exposed to high levels of F-, raising questions about possible contribution of F- exposure to the adverse effects that have so far been attributed only to iAs exposure. Thus, investigation of possible interactions between iAs and F- exposures and its related health risks deserves immediate attention.

  2. Uranium in the Surrounding of San Marcos-Sacramento River Environment (Chihuahua, Mexico)

    PubMed Central

    Rentería-Villalobos, Marusia; Cortés, Manuel Reyes; Mantero, Juan; Manjón, Guillermo; García-Tenorio, Rafael; Herrera, Eduardo; Montero-Cabrera, Maria Elena

    2012-01-01

    The main interest of this study is to assess whether uranium deposits located in the San Marcos outcrops (NW of Chihuahua City, Mexico) could be considered as a source of U-isotopes in its surrounding environment. Uranium activity concentrations were determined in biota, ground, and surface water by either alpha or liquid scintillation spectrometries. Major ions were analyzed by ICP-OES in surface water and its suspended matter. For determining uranium activity in biota, samples were divided in parts. The results have shown a possible lixiviation and infiltration of uranium from geological substrate into the ground and surface water, and consequently, a transfer to biota. Calculated annual effective doses by ingestion suggest that U-isotopes in biota could not negligibly contribute to the neighboring population dose. By all these considerations, it is concluded that in this zone there is natural enhancement of uranium in all environmental samples analyzed in the present work. PMID:22536148

  3. Geochemical registers of Late Quaternary paleoclimatic conditions at Sonora and Chihuahua Deserts, Mexico: comparison and synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, P.; Perez-Cruz, L. L.; Lozano-Garcia, S.

    2011-12-01

    Sonora and Chihuahua Deserts form the southwestern and southeastern parts of North American Desert system and spread over at least 5 different states in the northern Mexico. Presently, Sonora Desert receives annual precipitation in a bi-modal distribution, whereas Chihuahua Desert receives dominant summer precipitation. Paleoclimatic registers from Mojave Desert suggest that the spatial extent and magnitude of both the summer and winter precipitation varied during the last glacial period and such fluctuations were linked to the volume of the Laurentide ice sheet, changing winter-summer insolation, North Atlantic climatic variability and ENSO dynamics. We present multi-elemental concentrations, magnetic susceptibility, organic and inorganic carbon from 750 cm long sediment core collected from paleolake San Felipe (31°N, western Sonora Desert) and 970 cm long sediment core collected from paleolake Babicora (29°N, western Chihuahua Desert) in order to understand the paleohydrological and paleoclimatic evolution in the arid region of northern Mexico. 6 AMS 14C dates constrain the San Felipe sediment core between 49 cal kyr BP and present. Similarly, 8 AMS 14C dates put the Babicora core in the age bracket between 76 cal kyr BP and present with two different hiatus at 4-8 cal kyr BP and 40-45 cal kyr BP. Due to the special geomorphology of San Felipe basin, Ti concentration was used as a proxy for pluvial discharge and to differentiate regimes of dominant summer and winter precipitation. Aeolian deposition was constrained at >48 cal kyr BP. Period of lower pluvial discharge during 14-48 cal kyr BP is related to a regime of dominant winter frontal storms. During 3-14 cal kyr BP, higher catchment erosion and transportation of REE bearing heavy minerals into the basin are possibly as a result of higher pluvial discharge related to a regime of dominant summer precipitation. In paleolake Babicora, high resolution Ti suggests higher pluvial inflow prior to 60 cal kyr BP (H

  4. Characterization of drought patterns through remote sensing over The Chihuahua Desert, Mexico"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madrigal, J. M.; Lopez, A.; Garatuza, J.

    2013-12-01

    Drought is a phenomenon that has intensified during the last few decades in the arid and semi-arid zones of northern Mexico. In the Chihuahua desert, across Chihuahua, Durango and Coahuila states has caused loss of food sustainability (agriculture, livestock), an increase in human health problems, and detriment of ecosystem services as well as important economic losses. In order to understand this phenomenon, it is necessary to create tools that allow monitoring the territory's spatial heterogeneity and multi-temporality. With this purpose we propose the implementation of a drought model which includes the traditional indexes of climatic drought, such as the Palmer Drought Severity Index PDSI, the Standardized Index of Rainfall SPI, data from meteorological stations and biophysical variations obtained from the MODIS sensors product MOD13 NDVI from 2001 to 2010, as well as biophysical variables characteristic of the environment, such as land use and vegetation coverage, Eco-regions, soil moisture, digital elevation model and irrigate agriculture districts. With the MODIS images, a spatially coherent time series was created analyzing the study area's phenology (TIMESAT) created the Seasonal Greenness (SG) and Start of Season Anomaly (SOSA) for the mentioned nine years. Through this, the annual cycles were established. With a decision tree model, all the previously mentioned proposed variables were integrated. The proposed model produces a general map which characterizes the vegetation condition (extreme drought, severe drought, moderate drought, near normal). Even though different techniques have been proposed on the monitoring of droughts, most of them generate drought indexes with a spatial resolution of 1km (Wardlow, B. et. al 2008; Levent T. et al. 2013). One of the main concerns of researchers on the matter is on improving the spatial information content and on having a better representation of the phenomenon. We use the normalized difference vegetation index

  5. Coliform and Metal Contamination in Lago de Colina, a Recreational Water Body in Chihuahua State, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Rubio-Arias, Hector; Rey, Nora I.; Quintana, Rey M.; Nevarez, G. Virginia; Palacios, Oskar

    2011-01-01

    Lago de Colina (Colina Lake) is located about 180 km south of the city of Chihuahua (Mexico), and during the Semana Santa (Holy Week) vacation period its recreational use is high. The objective of this study was to quantify coliform and heavy metal levels in this water body before and after the Holy Week vacation period in 2010. Twenty sampling points were randomly selected and two water samples were collected at each point near the surface (0.30 m) and at 1 m depth. After the Holy Week vacation the same twenty points were sampled at the same depths. Therefore, a total 80 water samples were analyzed for fecal and total coliforms and levels of the following metals: Al, As, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Si and Zn. It was hypothesized that domestic tourism contaminated this water body, and as a consequence, could have a negative impact on visitor health. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) study was performed for each element and its interactions considering a factorial design where factor A was sample date and factor B was sample depth. Fecal coliforms were only detected at eight sampling points in the first week, but after Holy Week, both fecal and total coliforms were detected at most sampling points. The concentrations of Al, B, Na, Ni and Se were only statistically different for factor A. The levels of Cr, Cu, K and Mg was different for both date and depth, but the dual factor interaction was not significant. The amount of Ca and Zn was statistically different due to date, depth and their interaction. No significant differences were found for any factor or the interaction for the elements As, Fe and Mn. Because of the consistent results, it is concluded that local tourism is contaminating the recreational area of Colina Lake, Chihuahua, Mexico. PMID:21776236

  6. Crustal deformation and seismic measurements in the region of McDonald Observatory, West Texas. [Texas and Northern Chihuahua, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorman, H. J.

    1981-01-01

    The arrival times of regional and local earthquakes and located earthquakes in the Basin and Range province of Texas and in the adjacent areas of Chihuahua, Mexico from January 1976 to August 1980 at the UT'NASA seismic array are summarized. The August 1931 Texas earthquake is reevaluated and the seismicity and crustal structure of West Texas is examined. A table of seismic stations is included.

  7. Epidemiologic investigation of tuberculosis in a Mexican population from Chihuahua State, Mexico: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Chittoor, Geetha; Arya, Rector; Farook, Vidya S; David, Randy; Puppala, Sobha; Resendez, Roy G; Rivera-Chavira, Blanca E; Leal-Berumen, Irene; Zenteno-Cuevas, Roberto; López-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Bastarrachea, Raul A; Curran, Joanne E; Dhandayuthapani, Subramanian; Gonzalez, Lupe; Blangero, John; Crawford, Michael H; Vlasich, Esteban M; Escobedo, Luis G; Duggirala, Ravindranath

    2013-12-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) and its co-morbid conditions have become a burden on global health economies. It is well understood that susceptibility of the host to TB infection/disease is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors and their interactions. The aims of this pilot case-control study are to characterize the sociodemographic and environmental factors related to active TB disease (TB/case) and latent TB infection (LTBI/control) status, and to identify risk factors associated with progression from LTBI to TB. We recruited 75 cases with TB (mean age=46.3y; females=41%) and 75 controls with LTBI (mean age=39.0y; females=37%), from the Mestizo population of Cuidad Juárez, Mexico. In addition to the determination of case/control status, information on environmental variables was collected (e.g., socioeconomic status, smoking, alcohol consumption, substance abuse, nutritional status, household demographics, medical histories and presence of type 2 diabetes [T2DM]). The data were analyzed to identify the environmental correlates of TB and LTBI using univariate and multivariate statistical approaches. Following multivariate logistic regression analysis, TB was associated with poor nutrition, T2DM, family history of TB, and non-Chihuahua state of birth. These preliminary findings have relevance to TB control at the Mexico-United States border, and contribute to our future genetic study of TB in Mexicans.

  8. PBDEs, PCBs, and DDE in eggs and their impacts on aplomado falcons (Falco femoralis) from Chihuahua and Veracruz, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mora, M A; Baxter, C; Sericano, J L; Montoya, A B; Gallardo, J C; Rodríguez-Salazar, J R

    2011-12-01

    Eggs from aplomado falcons (Falco femoralis septentrionalis) nesting in Chihuahua and Veracruz, Mexico, were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and PBDEs. p,p'-DDE was the only organochlorine found in all eggs at concentrations ranging from 0.13 to 7.85 μg/g wet weight. PCBs ranged from 0.04 to 2.80 μg/g wet weight and PBDEs from 62 to 798 ng/g lipid weight. DDE concentrations in eggs were not significantly different among regions; however, PCBs were significantly greater (P = 0.015) in Tinaja Verde, Chihuahua than in the other three regions. Also, PBDEs were significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in eggs from Veracruz than in those from Chihuahua. DDE concentrations in eggs were much lower than those associated with eggshell thinning. PBDEs and PCBs were lower than those reported in raptors from industrialized countries. Overall, contaminant concentrations observed suggest no likely impact on hatching success. The PBDE concentrations are among the first to be reported in raptor species in Mexico. PMID:21903314

  9. PBDEs, PCBs, and DDE in eggs and their impacts on aplomado falcons (Falco femoralis) from Chihuahua and Veracruz, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mora, M A; Baxter, C; Sericano, J L; Montoya, A B; Gallardo, J C; Rodríguez-Salazar, J R

    2011-12-01

    Eggs from aplomado falcons (Falco femoralis septentrionalis) nesting in Chihuahua and Veracruz, Mexico, were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and PBDEs. p,p'-DDE was the only organochlorine found in all eggs at concentrations ranging from 0.13 to 7.85 μg/g wet weight. PCBs ranged from 0.04 to 2.80 μg/g wet weight and PBDEs from 62 to 798 ng/g lipid weight. DDE concentrations in eggs were not significantly different among regions; however, PCBs were significantly greater (P = 0.015) in Tinaja Verde, Chihuahua than in the other three regions. Also, PBDEs were significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in eggs from Veracruz than in those from Chihuahua. DDE concentrations in eggs were much lower than those associated with eggshell thinning. PBDEs and PCBs were lower than those reported in raptors from industrialized countries. Overall, contaminant concentrations observed suggest no likely impact on hatching success. The PBDE concentrations are among the first to be reported in raptor species in Mexico.

  10. Post-paleozoic structural styles in northern Sierra de Palomas: Chihuahua, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Sivils, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Sierra de Palomas is the largest and most northerly range of the Boca Grande trend in northwestern Chihuahua, Mexico. Sierra de Palomas is composed of more than 1.5 km of late Paleozoic shelf carbonates and clastics. Detailed mapping the northern 150 km/sup 2/ of the range (at a scale of 1:12,500) has shown that four post-Paleozoic tectonic events have affected the range. The Laramide orogeny, two separate periods of basin and range extension, and recent (Rio Grande rift.) extension have left very distinct structures in the range. Laramide structures are predominantly vergent to the northeast, and are manifested as folds and thrusts. Folds are asymmetric and northwest trending, with amplitudes on the order of 10-50 m. Major thrusts in the range have minimum displacements on the order of a few kilometers. Basin and range structures include two distinct sets of high-angle faults; an early northeast-trending set is truncated by a late northwest-trending set. Recent Rio Grande rift(.) extension in the area is evident in fault scarps that offset alluvial fan deposits and in steeply eastward-tilted alluvial deposits.

  11. Migration behavior of naturally occurring radionuclides at the Nopal I uranium deposit, Chihuahua, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prikryl, James D.; Pickett, David A.; Murphy, William M.; Pearcy, English C.

    1997-04-01

    Oxidation of pyrite at the Nopal I uranium deposit, Peña Blanca district, Chihuahua, Mexico has resulted in the formation of Fe-oxides/hydroxides. Anomalous U concentrations (i.e. several hundred to several thousand ppm) measured in goethite, hematite, and amorphous Fe-oxyhydroxides in a major fracture that crosscuts the deposit and the absence of U minerals in the fracture suggest that U was retained during secondary mineral growth or sorbed on mineral surfaces. Mobilization and transport of U away from the deposit is suggested by decreasing U concentrations in fracture-infilling materials and in goethite and hematite with distance from the deposit. Greater than unity {234U}/{238U} activity ratios measured in fracture-infilling materials indicate relatively recent ( < 1 Ma) U uptake from fluids that carried excess 234U. Systematic decreases in {234U}/{238U} activity ratios of fracture materials with distance from the deposit suggest a multistage mobilization process, such as remobilization of U from 234U-enriched infill minerals or differential or diminished transport of U-bearing solutions containing excess 234U.

  12. Measurements and Slope Analyses of Quaternary Cinder Cones, Camargo Volcanic Field, Chihuahua, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallegos, M. I.; Espejel-Garcia, V. V.

    2012-12-01

    The Camargo volcanic field (CVF) covers ~3000 km2 and is located in the southeast part of the state of Chihuahua, within the Basin and Range province. The CVF represents the largest mafic alkali volcanic field in northern Mexico. Over a 300 cinder cones have been recognized in the Camargo volcanic field. Volcanic activity ranges from 4.7 to 0.09 Ma revealed by 40Ar/39Ar dating methods. Previous studies say that there is a close relationship between the cinder cone slope angle, due to mechanical weathering, and age. This technique is considered a reliable age indicator, especially in arid climates, such as occur in the CVF. Data were acquired with digital topographic maps (DRG) and digital elevation models (DEM) overlapped in the Global Mapper software. For each cone, the average radius (r) was calculated from six measurements, the height (h) is the difference between peak elevation and the altitude of the contour used to close the radius, and the slope angle was calculated using the equation Θ = tan-1(h/r). The slope angles of 30 cinder cones were calculated showing angles ranging from 4 to 15 degrees. A diffusion model, displayed by an exponential relationship between slope angle and age, places the ages of these 30 cones from 215 to 82 ka, within the range marked by radiometric methods. Future work include the analysis of more cinder cones to cover the whole CVF, and contribute to the validation of this technique.

  13. Thermal Waters in Maguarichi, Chihuahua, Mexico: Influence on Volcanic Rocks Alteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascote, C. R.; Espejel-Garcia, V. V.; Villalobos-Aragon, A.

    2013-05-01

    Piedras de Lumbre, Maguarichi, is located 294 km. to the SW of Chihuahua city, in northern Mexico, in the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO). The study area is composed of a set of igneous volcanic rocks affected by hydrothermal flows, which apparently run along a fault. Outcrops of hot springs, going out with high pressure, are active all over the year and have no seasonal flow changes. The hydrothermal flows, approximately 20, that reach the surface area at Piedras de Lumbre, are altering the volcanic rocks that surround the hot springs. The study area is highly altered, and evidenced by a variety range of colors in the rock surfaces. The rock samples collected at the region show a crystal growth due to the influence of the salts from the thermal water. The rocks closest to the water openings have a change in its mineralogy, with the mafic minerals, present in andesites, been replaced by carbonates and sulfates, leaving only the clear mineral pseudomorphs. On the crust of the rocks a white layer of material (salts), product of the thermal waters has precipitated. The alteration is perceived only about 5 m. or less around the hot springs. The water, which has high contents of arsenic and sulfates has exerted a strong alteration in rhyolitic and andesitic rocks.

  14. Exposure Assessment to Environmental Chemicals in Children from Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Martinez, Angeles C; Orta-Garcia, Sandra T; Rico-Escobar, Edna M; Carrizales-Yañez, Leticia; Del Campo, Jorge D Martin; Pruneda-Alvarez, Lucia G; Ruiz-Vera, Tania; Gonzalez-Palomo, Ana K; Piña-Lopez, Iris G; Torres-Dosal, Arturo; Pérez-Maldonado, Ivan N

    2016-05-01

    It has been demonstrated that the human biomonitoring of susceptible populations is a valuable method for the identification of critical contaminants. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the exposure profile for arsenic (As), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), 1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane (DDT), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene (DDE), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in children living in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico (a major manufacturing center in Mexico). In 2012, we evaluated a total of 135 healthy children living in Ciudad Juarez since birth. The total PBDEs levels ranged from nondetectable (< LOD) to 215 ng/g lipid, with a mean total PBDEs level of 29.5 ± 53.0 ng/g lipid (geometric mean ± standard deviation). The mean total PCBs level in the study participants was 29.0 ± 10.5 ng/g lipid (range 4.50-50.0 ng/g lipid). The mean concentration of total DDT (DDT + DDE) was 11.9 ± 6.70 ng/g lipid (range 3.00-26.0 ng/g lipid). The mean 1-OHP levels was 1.2 ± 1.1 µmol/mol creatinine (range

  15. Molecular Survey of Bartonella Species and Yersinia pestis in Rodent Fleas (Siphonaptera) From Chihuahua, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Fernández-González, Adriana M; Kosoy, Michael Y; Rubio, André V; Graham, Christine B; Montenieri, John A; Osikowicz, Lynn M; Bai, Ying; Acosta-Gutiérrez, Roxana; Ávila-Flores, Rafael; Gage, Kenneth L; Suzán, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Rodent fleas from northwestern Chihuahua, Mexico, were analyzed for the presence of Bartonella and Yersinia pestis. In total, 760 fleas belonging to 10 species were tested with multiplex polymerase chain reaction analysis targeting the gltA (338-bp) and pla genes (478-bp) of Bartonella and Y. pestis, respectively. Although none was positive for Y. pestis, 307 fleas were infected with Bartonella spp., resulting in an overall prevalence of 40.4%. A logistic regression analysis indicated that the presence of Bartonella is more likely to occur in some flea species. From a subset of Bartonella-positive fleas, phylogenetic analyses of gltA gene sequences revealed 13 genetic variants clustering in five phylogroups (I–V), two of which were matched with known pathogenic Bartonella species (Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis and Bartonella washoensis) and two that were not related with any previously described species or subspecies of Bartonella. Variants in phylogroup V, which were mainly obtained from Meringis spp. fleas, were identical to those reported recently in their specific rodent hosts (Dipodomys spp.) in the same region, suggesting that kangaroo rats and their fleas harbor other Bartonella species not reported previously. Considering the Bartonella prevalence and the flea genotypes associated with known pathogenic Bartonella species, we suggest that analysis of rodent and flea communities in the region should continue for their potential implications for human health. Given that nearby locations in the United States have reported Y. pestis in wild animals and their fleas, we suggest conducting larger-scale studies to increase our knowledge of this bacterium.

  16. Molecular Survey of Bartonella Species and Yersinia pestis in Rodent Fleas (Siphonaptera) From Chihuahua, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Fernández-González, Adriana M; Kosoy, Michael Y; Rubio, André V; Graham, Christine B; Montenieri, John A; Osikowicz, Lynn M; Bai, Ying; Acosta-Gutiérrez, Roxana; Ávila-Flores, Rafael; Gage, Kenneth L; Suzán, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Rodent fleas from northwestern Chihuahua, Mexico, were analyzed for the presence of Bartonella and Yersinia pestis. In total, 760 fleas belonging to 10 species were tested with multiplex polymerase chain reaction analysis targeting the gltA (338-bp) and pla genes (478-bp) of Bartonella and Y. pestis, respectively. Although none was positive for Y. pestis, 307 fleas were infected with Bartonella spp., resulting in an overall prevalence of 40.4%. A logistic regression analysis indicated that the presence of Bartonella is more likely to occur in some flea species. From a subset of Bartonella-positive fleas, phylogenetic analyses of gltA gene sequences revealed 13 genetic variants clustering in five phylogroups (I–V), two of which were matched with known pathogenic Bartonella species (Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis and Bartonella washoensis) and two that were not related with any previously described species or subspecies of Bartonella. Variants in phylogroup V, which were mainly obtained from Meringis spp. fleas, were identical to those reported recently in their specific rodent hosts (Dipodomys spp.) in the same region, suggesting that kangaroo rats and their fleas harbor other Bartonella species not reported previously. Considering the Bartonella prevalence and the flea genotypes associated with known pathogenic Bartonella species, we suggest that analysis of rodent and flea communities in the region should continue for their potential implications for human health. Given that nearby locations in the United States have reported Y. pestis in wild animals and their fleas, we suggest conducting larger-scale studies to increase our knowledge of this bacterium. PMID:26576933

  17. Exposure Assessment to Environmental Chemicals in Children from Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Martinez, Angeles C; Orta-Garcia, Sandra T; Rico-Escobar, Edna M; Carrizales-Yañez, Leticia; Del Campo, Jorge D Martin; Pruneda-Alvarez, Lucia G; Ruiz-Vera, Tania; Gonzalez-Palomo, Ana K; Piña-Lopez, Iris G; Torres-Dosal, Arturo; Pérez-Maldonado, Ivan N

    2016-05-01

    It has been demonstrated that the human biomonitoring of susceptible populations is a valuable method for the identification of critical contaminants. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the exposure profile for arsenic (As), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), 1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane (DDT), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene (DDE), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in children living in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico (a major manufacturing center in Mexico). In 2012, we evaluated a total of 135 healthy children living in Ciudad Juarez since birth. The total PBDEs levels ranged from nondetectable (< LOD) to 215 ng/g lipid, with a mean total PBDEs level of 29.5 ± 53.0 ng/g lipid (geometric mean ± standard deviation). The mean total PCBs level in the study participants was 29.0 ± 10.5 ng/g lipid (range 4.50-50.0 ng/g lipid). The mean concentration of total DDT (DDT + DDE) was 11.9 ± 6.70 ng/g lipid (range 3.00-26.0 ng/g lipid). The mean 1-OHP levels was 1.2 ± 1.1 µmol/mol creatinine (range

  18. Seasonal characterization of municipal solid waste (MSW) in the city of Chihuahua, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, Guadalupe; Meneses, Montserrat; Ballinas, Lourdes; Castells, Francesc

    2009-07-15

    Management of municipal solid waste (MSW) has become a significant environmental problem, especially in fast-growing cities. The amount of waste generated increases each year and this makes it difficult to create solutions which due to the increase in waste generation year after year and having to identify a solution that will have minimum impact on the environment. To determine the most sustainable waste management strategy for Chihuahua, it is first necessary to identify the nature and composition of the city's urban waste. The MSW composition varied considerably depending on many factors, the time of year is one of them. Therefore, as part of our attempt to implement an integral waste management system in the city of Chihuahua, we conducted a study of the characteristics of MSW composition for the different seasons. This paper analyzes and compares the findings of the study of the characterization and the generation of solid waste from households at three different socio-economic levels in the city over three periods (April and August, 2006 and January, 2007). The average weight of waste generated in Chihuahua, taking into account all three seasons, was 0.592 kg capita{sup -1} day{sup -1}. Our results show that the lowest income groups generated the least amount of waste. We also found that less waste was generated during the winter season. The breakdown for the composition of the waste shows that organic waste accounts for the largest proportion (45%), followed by paper (17%) and others (16%)

  19. Modeling of U-series Radionuclide Transport Through Soil at Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekar, K. E.; Goodell, P. C.; Walton, J. C.; Anthony, E. Y.; Ren, M.

    2007-05-01

    The Nopal I uranium deposit is located at Pena Blanca in Chihuahua, Mexico. Mining of high-grade uranium ore occurred in the early 1980s, with the ore stockpiled nearby. The stockpile was mostly cleared in the 1990s; however, some of the high-grade boulders have remained there, creating localized sources of radioactivity for a period of 25-30 years. This provides a unique opportunity to study radionuclide transport, because the study area did not have any uranium contamination predating the stockpile in the 1980s. One high-grade boulder was selected for study based upon its shape, location, and high activity. The presumed drip-line off of the boulder was marked, samples from the boulder surface were taken, and then the boulder was moved several feet away. Soil samples were taken from directly beneath the boulder, around the drip-line, and down slope. Eight of these samples were collected in a vertical profile directly beneath the boulder. Visible flakes of boulder material were removed from the surficial soil samples, because they would have higher concentrations of U-series radionuclides and cause the activities in the soil samples to be excessively high. The vertical sampling profile used 2-inch thicknesses for each sample. The soil samples were packaged into thin plastic containers to minimize the attenuation and to standardize sample geometry, and then they were analyzed by gamma-ray spectroscopy with a Ge(Li) detector for Th-234, Pa-234, U-234, Th-230, Ra-226, Pb-214, Bi-214, and Pb-210. The raw counts were corrected for self-attenuation and normalized using BL-5, a uranium standard from Beaverlodge, Saskatchewan. BL-5 allowed the counts obtained on the Ge(Li) to be referenced to a known concentration or activity, which was then applied to the soil unknowns for a reliable calculation of their concentrations. Gamma ray spectra of five soil samples from the vertical profile exhibit decreasing activities with increasing depth for the selected radionuclides

  20. Guarijio de Arechuyvo, Chihuahua (Guarijio of Arechuyvo, Chihuahua).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Wick R.

    This document is one of 17 volumes on indigenous Mexican languages and is the result of a project undertaken by the Archivo de Lenguas Indigenas de Mexico. This volume contains information on Guarijio, an indigenous language of Mexico spoken in Arechuyvo, Chihuahua. The objective of collecting such a representative sampling of the linguistic…

  1. Chronic Exposure to Arsenic and Markers of Cardiometabolic Risk: A Cross-Sectional Study in Chihuahua, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Michelle A.; González-Horta, Carmen; Sánchez-Ramírez, Blanca; Ballinas-Casarrubias, Lourdes; Cerón, Roberto Hernández; Morales, Damián Viniegra; Terrazas, Francisco A. Baeza; Ishida, María C.; Gutiérrez-Torres, Daniela S.; Saunders, R. Jesse; Drobná, Zuzana; Fry, Rebecca C.; Buse, John B.; Loomis, Dana; García-Vargas, Gonzalo G.; Del Razo, Luz M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to arsenic (As) concentrations in drinking water > 150 μg/L has been associated with risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, but little is known about the effects of lower exposures. Objective This study aimed to examine whether moderate As exposure, or indicators of individual As metabolism at these levels of exposure, are associated with cardiometabolic risk. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional associations between arsenic exposure and multiple markers of cardiometabolic risk using drinking-water As measurements and urinary As species data obtained from 1,160 adults in Chihuahua, Mexico, who were recruited in 2008–2013. Fasting blood glucose and lipid levels, the results of an oral glucose tolerance test, and blood pressure were used to characterize cardiometabolic risk. Multivariable logistic, multinomial, and linear regression were used to assess associations between cardiometabolic outcomes and water As or the sum of inorganic and methylated As species in urine. Results After multivariable adjustment, concentrations in the second quartile of water As (25.5 to < 47.9 μg/L) and concentrations of total speciated urinary As (< 55.8 μg/L) below the median were significantly associated with elevated triglycerides, high total cholesterol, and diabetes. However, moderate water and urinary As levels were also positively associated with HDL cholesterol. Associations between arsenic exposure and both dysglycemia and triglyceridemia were higher among individuals with higher proportions of dimethylarsenic in urine. Conclusions Moderate exposure to As may increase cardiometabolic risk, particularly in individuals with high proportions of urinary dimethylarsenic. In this cohort, As exposure was associated with several markers of increased cardiometabolic risk (diabetes, triglyceridemia, and cholesterolemia), but exposure was also associated with higher rather than lower HDL cholesterol. Citation Mendez MA, González-Horta C, Sánchez-Ramírez B

  2. Associations between Arsenic Species in Exfoliated Urothelial Cells and Prevalence of Diabetes among Residents of Chihuahua, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Currier, Jenna M.; Ishida, María C.; González-Horta, Carmen; Sánchez-Ramírez, Blanca; Ballinas-Casarrubias, Lourdes; Gutiérrez-Torres, Daniela S.; Cerón, Roberto Hernández; Morales, Damián Viniegra; Terrazas, Francisco A. Baeza; Del Razo, Luz M.; García-Vargas, Gonzalo G.; Saunders, R. Jesse; Drobná, Zuzana; Fry, Rebecca C.; Matoušek, Tomáš; Buse, John B.; Mendez, Michelle A.; Loomis, Dana

    2014-01-01

    Background: A growing number of studies link chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) with the risk of diabetes. Many of these studies assessed iAs exposure by measuring arsenic (As) species in urine. However, this approach has been criticized because of uncertainties associated with renal function and urine dilution in diabetic individuals. Objectives: Our goal was to examine associations between the prevalence of diabetes and concentrations of As species in exfoliated urothelial cells (EUC) as an alternative to the measures of As in urine. Methods: We measured concentrations of trivalent and pentavalent iAs methyl-As (MAs) and dimethyl-As (DMAs) species in EUC from 374 residents of Chihuahua, Mexico, who were exposed to iAs in drinking water. We used fasting plasma glucose, glucose tolerance tests, and self-reported diabetes diagnoses or medication to identify diabetic participants. Associations between As species in EUC and diabetes were estimated using logistic and linear regression, adjusting for age, sex, and body mass index. Results: Interquartile-range increases in trivalent, but not pentavalent, As species in EUC were positively and significantly associated with diabetes, with ORs of 1.57 (95% CI: 1.19, 2.07) for iAsIII, 1.63 (1.24, 2.15) for MAsIII, and 1.31 (0.96, 1.84) for DMAsIII. DMAs/MAs and DMAs/iAs ratios were negatively associated with diabetes (OR = 0.62; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.83 and OR = 0.72; 95% CI: 0.55, 0.96, respectively). Conclusions: Our data suggest that uncertainties associated with measures of As species in urine may be avoided by using As species in EUC as markers of iAs exposure and metabolism. Our results provide additional support to previous findings suggesting that trivalent As species may be responsible for associations between diabetes and chronic iAs exposure. Citation: Currier JM, Ishida MC, González-Horta C, Sánchez-Ramírez B, Ballinas-Casarrubias L, Gutiérrez-Torres DS, Hernández Cerón R, Viniegra Morales D, Baeza

  3. Variation in the Distribution of Four Cacti Species Due to Climate Change in Chihuahua, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Cortes, Leonor; Domínguez, Irma; Lebgue, Toutcha; Viramontes, Oscar; Melgoza, Alicia; Pinedo, Carmelo; Camarillo, Javier

    2013-01-01

    This study is about four cacti species in the state of Chihuahua, (Coryphantha macromeris, Mammillaria lasiacantha, Echinocereus dasyacanthus and Ferocactus wislizenii). Geographic distribution was inferred with MaxEnt. Projection was estimated under three scenarios simulated from IPCC (A2, B1 and A1B) and four periods (2000, 2020, 2050 and 2080) with 19 climatic variables. MaxEnt projects a species decrease in 2020 under scenario A2, increasing in the following years. In 2080 all species, except E. dasyacanthus, will occupy a larger area than their current one. Scenario B1 projected for 2050 a decrease for all species, and in 2080 all species except E. dasyacanthus will increase their area. With A1B, C. macromeris decreases 27% from 2020 to 2050. E. dasyacanthus increases from 2020 to 2050 and decreases 73% from 2020 to 2080. M. lasiacantha decreases 13% from 2020 to 2080 and F. wislizenii will increase 13% from 2020 to 2080. Some species will remain stable on their areas despite climate changes, and other species may be affected under the conditions of the A1B scenario. It is important to continue with studies which give a broader perspective about the consequences of climate change, thus enabling decision-making about resource management. PMID:24368429

  4. Variation in the distribution of four cacti species due to climate change in Chihuahua, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cortes, Leonor; Domínguez, Irma; Lebgue, Toutcha; Viramontes, Oscar; Melgoza, Alicia; Pinedo, Carmelo; Camarillo, Javier

    2014-01-01

    This study is about four cacti species in the state of Chihuahua, (Coryphantha macromeris, Mammillaria lasiacantha, Echinocereus dasyacanthus and Ferocactus wislizenii). Geographic distribution was inferred with MaxEnt. Projection was estimated under three scenarios simulated from IPCC (A2, B1 and A1B) and four periods (2000, 2020, 2050 and 2080) with 19 climatic variables. MaxEnt projects a species decrease in 2020 under scenario A2, increasing in the following years. In 2080 all species, except E. dasyacanthus, will occupy a larger area than their current one. Scenario B1 projected for 2050 a decrease for all species, and in 2080 all species except E. dasyacanthus will increase their area. With A1B, C. macromeris decreases 27% from 2020 to 2050. E. dasyacanthus increases from 2020 to 2050 and decreases 73% from 2020 to 2080. M. lasiacantha decreases 13% from 2020 to 2080 and F. wislizenii will increase 13% from 2020 to 2080. Some species will remain stable on their areas despite climate changes, and other species may be affected under the conditions of the A1B scenario. It is important to continue with studies which give a broader perspective about the consequences of climate change, thus enabling decision-making about resource management.

  5. Heavy Metal Content in Soils under Different Wastewater Irrigation Patterns in Chihuahua, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, V. M.; Rubio Arias, H. O.; Quintana, R.; Saucedo, R.A.; Gutierrez, M.; Ortega, J. A.; Nevarez, G.V.

    2008-01-01

    An area near the city of Chihuahua has been traditionally irrigated with wastewater to grow forage crops. It has been hypothesized that metal levels could be found in these soils high enough to cause potential health problems to the population. The objective of this study was to determine heavy metal concentrations in different soils due to irrigation practices. Four soil types were evaluated; a soil with a past and present history of wastewater irrigation (S1), a soil with a history of wastewater irrigation until 2003 (S2), a soil with no irrigation history (S3), and a soil similar to S1 and adjacent to the river where the wastewater is transported (S11). Three soil depths were evaluated; 0–15, 15–30 and 30–50 cm. Consequently, a total of 150 soil samples were analyzed evaluating pH, EC, OM and the following elements; Na, K, Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cu and Fe. The pH (P=0.000) and EC (P=0.000) were different for each soil type but no differences were noted for soil depth and the interaction. Maximum pH levels were noted in S3 with a value of 8.74 while maximum EC was observed in S1 with a value of 0.850 dSm−1. The OM level was different for soil type (P=0.000), soil depth (P=0.005) and the interaction (P=0.014). S1 and S11 obtained maximum levels of OM while minimum levels were noted in S3. Maximum OM levels were observed at the 0–15 cm depth followed by the 15–30 cm depth and finally at the 30–50 cm depth. The highest concentration of metals was as follows: K in S1 (359.3 mg kg−1); Cd in S1 (4.48 mg kg−1); Pb in S11 (155.83 mg kg−1); Ni in S1 (10.74 mg kg−1); Cu in S1 (51.36 mg kg−1); B in S3 (41.5 mg kg−1); Fe in S3 (20,313.0 mg kg−1), Cr in S3 (44.26 mg kg−1) and Na in S3 (203.0 mg kg−1). The conclusion is that some metals are present in the soils due to anthropogenic activities but others are present in natural forms. PMID:19151441

  6. Heavy metals in water of the San Pedro River in Chihuahua, Mexico and its potential health risk.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Roberto L; Rubio-Arias, Hector; Quintana, Ray; Ortega, Juan Angel; Gutierrez, Melida

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the seasonal and downstream water quality variations of the San Pedro River in Chihuahua, Mexico. Water samples were collected monthly from October 2005 to August 2006 in triplicate, totaling 165 water samples. The five sampling locations were: below the Francisco I. Madero dam (LP); between Rosales and Delicias (RD); Meoqui (M); El Torreon (ET), and Julimes (LJ). The levels of As, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr, Ti, Ta, V and Zn were measured using an Inductively Coupled Plasma- Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) Perkin Elmer 2100. In addition, temperature, pH, electrical conductivity and total and fecal coliformes were determined. The statistical analysis considered a factorial treatment design; where factor A was the location point and factor B was sampling date. In addition, a multivariate technique looking for principal components was performed. The results indicated that some samples exceeded Mexican standards for As, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr and Zn. The As level must be considered for a red flag to the communities along the Rio San Pedro because both the monthly average level (0.10 mg L-1) and location (0.10 mg L-1) exceeded the Mexican and International norms. The multivariate analysis showed a predominant aggregation at the LP location, meaning that there was a predominance of As, Sr, Fe and Li. At the rest of the locations the elements did not present a tendency for aggregation. Statistics applied to sampling month showed that December, January, March and April were aggregated in a negative quadrant of component 1 indicating a predominance of V, Ni, Be, Fe and As. Overall, the results confirmed that this stretch of the San Pedro River is contaminated with heavy metals and other contaminants that might affect human health as well as the health of the ecosystem.

  7. Heavy metals in water of the San Pedro River in Chihuahua, Mexico and its potential health risk

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Roberto L.; Rubio-Arias, Hector; Quintana, Ray; Ortega, Juan Angel; Gutierrez, Melida

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the seasonal and downstream water quality variations of the San Pedro River in Chihuahua, Mexico. Water samples were collected monthly from October 2005 to August 2006 in triplicate, totaling 165 water samples. The five sampling locations were: below the Francisco I. Madero dam (LP); between Rosales and Delicias (RD); Meoqui (M); El Torreon (ET), and Julimes (LJ). The levels of As, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr, Ti, Ta, V and Zn were measured using an Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) Perkin Elmer 2100. In addition, temperature, pH, electrical conductivity and total and fecal coliformes were determined. The statistical analysis considered a factorial treatment design; where factor A was the location point and factor B was sampling date. In addition, a multivariate technique looking for principal components was performed. The results indicated that some samples exceeded Mexican standards for As, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr and Zn. The As level must be considered for a red flag to the communities along the Rio San Pedro because both the monthly average level (0.10 mg L−1) and location (0.10 mg L−1) exceeded the Mexican and International norms. The multivariate analysis showed a predominant aggregation at the LP location, meaning that there was a predominance of As, Sr, Fe and Li. At the rest of the locations the elements did not present a tendency for aggregation. Statistics applied to sampling month showed that December, January, March and April were aggregated in a negative quadrant of component 1 indicating a predominance of V, Ni, Be, Fe and As. Overall, the results confirmed that this stretch of the San Pedro River is contaminated with heavy metals and other contaminants that might affect human health as well as the health of the ecosystem. PMID:18678922

  8. U-Sries Disequilibra in Soils, Pena Blanca Natural Analog, Chihuahua, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    D. French; E. Anthony; P. Goodell

    2006-03-16

    The Nopal I uranium deposit located in the Sierra Pena Blanca, Mexico. The deposit was mined in the early 1980s, and ore was stockpiled close by. This stockpile area was cleared and is now referred to as the Prior High Grade Stockpile (PHGS). Some of the high-grade boulders from the site rolled downhill when it was cleared in the 1990s. For this study soil samples were collected from the alluvium surrounding and underlying one of these boulders. A bulk sample of the boulder was also collected. Because the Prior High Grade Stockpile had no ore prior to the 1980s a maximum residence time for the boulder is about 25 years, this also means that the soil was at background as well. The purpose of this study is to characterize the transport of uranium series radionuclides from ore to the soil. Transport is characterized by determining the activities of individual radionuclides and daughter to parent ratios. Isotopes of the uranium series decay chain detected include {sup 210}Pb, {sup 234}U, {sup 230}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 214}Pb, and {sup 214}Bi. Peak areas for each isotope are determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy with a Canberra Ge (Li) detector and GENIE 2000 software. The boulder sample is close to secular equilibrium when compared to the standard BL-5 (Beaver Lodge Uraninite from Canada). Results for the soils, however, indicate that some daughter/parent pairs are in secular disequilibrium. These daughter/parent (D/P) ratios include {sup 230}Th/{sup 234}U, which is greater than unity, {sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th, which is also greater than unity, and {sup 210}Pb/{sup 214}Bi, which is less than unity. The gamma-ray spectrum for organic material lacks {sup 230}Th peaks, but contains {sup 234}U and {sup 226}Ra, indicating that plants preferentially incorporate {sup 226}Ra. Our results, combined with previous studies require multistage history of mobilization of the uranium series radionuclides. Earlier studies at the ore zone could limit the time span for mobilization only

  9. Federalization of Education in Chihuahua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marak, Andrae M.

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the politics behind the initial centralization of primary education in Chihuahua, Mexico during the 1920s and 1930s. The article argues that the centralization of primary education was one of many tools used by the federal government to consolidate its power in the wake of the Mexican Revolution (1910-1917) and create a…

  10. Plutonic and metamorphic xenoliths from the Cascada Tuff, Chihuahua, Mexico, as evidence indicating the composition of the basement rocks beneath the Sierra Madre Occidental

    SciTech Connect

    Duex, T.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Sierra Madre Occidental of western Mexico is composed dominantly of Mid-Tertiary felsic and subordinate mafic volcanic rocks with only sparse outcrops of non-volcanic rocks. There are widely scattered but small exposure of plutonic rocks but regionally metamorphosed rocks are not known to occur in the Sierra. To this date the only known area where plutonic and metamorphic xenoliths have been found is near the village of Basaseachic in western Chihuahua where thick outcrops of the Cascada Tuff occur. The xenoliths are the only known occurrence of regionally metamorphosed rocks for a distance of about 400 km between exposures of Precambrian rocks to the west in Sonora and the east in central Chihuahua. Non-volcanic xenoliths from a few cm to about one meter in diameter occur most abundantly in the upper portions of the Cascada Tuff. They can be divided into four main groups in decreasing order of abundance as follows: (1) coarse-grained phaneritic felsic igneous rocks; (2) cataclastically deformed plutonic rocks; (3) fine-grained phaneritic, mafic to intermediate igneous rocks; and (4) low-grade schistose, gneissic, and non-foliated metamorphic rocks. The lithological composition of the xenoliths is grossly similar to that described for Precambrian metamorphic and plutonic rocks from northern Mexico and the southwestern US.

  11. Geospatial Mapping of Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Sb in Urban Soil, Cd. Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaya, M. A.; Grimida, S. E.; Elkekli, A. R.; Aldouri, R. K.; Benedict, B. A.; Pingitore, N. E., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Population-based random stratified sampling of the city of Cd. Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico provided 500 city blocks for study. We collected soil from the public space (where present) in front of each house on a selected block; equal measured small volumes of these were combined to produce a composite sample for analysis. Such composite samples (1) decrease, by an order of magnitude, laboratory processing and analysis costs, and (2) smooth the data to represent blocks as averages of individual houses. Retention of the unanalyzed samples of the individual houses permits their later analysis should the composites suggest further study of individual houses on an anomalous block. Elemental analysis of 10 mg pressed powders was performed on a Panalytical Epsilon5 EDS-XRF, via 8 secondary targets and 12 USGS and NIST multi-element rock standards. The mean and (range) of concentration for Pb was 43 (13-550) ppm; for Cr, 31 (1.8-76); for Cu, 22 (6-550); for Zn 84 (42-415) ppm; for Cd, 1.9 (0.1-6.2); and for Sb, 5.9 (2.7-29). The old urban core of Cd. Juarez was marked by high levels of Pb, Cr, Cu, and Zn, and, to a smaller degree, of Cd and Sb. This pattern mirrors that of contiguous El Paso, Texas, USA, directly across the narrow Rio Grande. Businesses, industrial facilities, transportation (both railroads and highways), traditional "downtown" shopping, and old residential districts cluster in this urban core. A Pb-Cu-Zn smelter, which operated for more than a century until 1999, is present in the US adjacent to the Rio Grande, about two km away from downtown Cd. Juarez. Thus the city has been subject to both traditional metal sources (e.g., leaded gasoline, highway debris) and smelter emissions. The poplation of Cd. Juarez has exploded in the last few decades to some 1.5 million inhabitants due both to natural growth and in-migration from rural districts for economic opportunity. Most of this growth has been accommodated by radial expansion of the city into the surrounding

  12. Development of cleaner-burning brick kilns in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Charles W; Corral, Alba Yadira; Lara, Antonio S

    2007-04-01

    The following results provide a comparison between net airborne contamination produced by the traditional form of kiln used in Northern Mexico and by those modified according to a design by Dr. Robert Marquez. What has become known as the MK style kiln was intended to significantly reduce contaminant emissions. The concept involves covering the kiln with a dome and channeling the output of an active kiln through a second, identical loaded kiln for its additional filtration of the effluents. Kilns of a pair are connected via clay brick channels. The roles are reversed after the initial kiln is refilled. Significant reductions in the particulate and gaseous emissions were achieved in the prototype system, but a connectional problem with recent kiln pairs has also limited the degree of operational success. The problem did not mask the potential of the MK kiln, as will be shown. Additional anticipated benefits to the owners of MK kilns, such as reduced operating cycles and decreased quantities of fuel, also have been verified. Key measurements made during all of the burns were of aerosol densities and buoyancies in the flues, kiln temperatures, and, on a number of occasions, chemical analyses of both aerosol and gaseous effluents. Continuous time histories of aerosol densities for most burns (of a total of -40) provide a basis for examining features and the effects of differing styles of operation with respect to burn efficiency and net contaminant masses. Covering the active kiln with a dome produces a net reduction in dry aerosol effluent mass of a factor between 5 and 10, whereas the addition of a filter kiln produces a net reduction of about a factor of 2. The use of used motor oil as a fuel further reduced aerosol contamination by -1 order of magnitude.

  13. Soft-sediment deformation structures interpreted as seismites in the uppermost Aptian to lowermost Albian transgressive deposits of the Chihuahua basin (Mexico)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanc, E.J.-P.; Blanc-Aletru, M. -C.; Mojon, P.-O.

    1997-01-01

    Several levels of soft-sediment deformation structures (s.-s.d.s.) cut by synsedimentary normal faults have been observed in the transition beds between the "Las Vigas" and "La Virgen" formations (Cretaceous) in the northeastern part of the Chihuahua basin in Mexico. These structures consisted of four kinds of motifs (floating breccias, flame-like structures, large pillow structures, and wavy structures). They are restricted to five "stratigraphic" levels (??1-??5) and surrounded by undeformed beds in fluvio-lacustrine and tidal deposits and can be traced over a distance of several hundred meters. This deformation is interpreted to have resulted from the combined effects of liquidization and shear stress in soft-sediments due to local earthquakes in the area which could have been generated during the rifting stage of the Chihuahua basin. New constraints placed on the age of the "Las Vigas" Formation (bracketed by Late Aptian charophytes at the bottom and colomiellids of late Aptian to earliest Albian age at the top) suggest that this synrift tectonism lasted at least until the end of the Aptian.

  14. Soft-sediment deformation structures interpreted as seismites in the uppermost Aptian to lowermost Albian transgressive deposits of the Chihuahua basin (Mexico)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanc, E.J.-P.; Blanc-Aletru, M. -C.; Mojon, P.-O.

    1998-01-01

    Several levels of soft-sediment deformation structures (s.-s.d.s.) cut by synsedimentary normal faults have been observed in the transition beds between the "Las Vigas" and "La Virgen" formations (Cretaceous) in the northeastern part of the Chihuahua basin in Mexico. These structures consisted of four kinds of motifs (floating breccias, flame-like structures, large pillow structures, and wavy structures). They are restricted to five "stratigraphie" levels (Z1-Z5) and surrounded by undeformed beds in fluvio-lacustrine and tidal deposits and can be traced over a distance of several hundred meters. This deformation is interpreted to have resulted from the combined effects of liquidization and shear stress in soft-sediments due to local earthquakes in the area which could have been generated during the rifting stage of the Chihuahua basin. New constraints placed on the age of the "Las Vigas" Formation (bracketed by Late Aptian charophytes at the bottom and colomiellids of late Aptian to earliest Albian age at the top) suggest that this synrift tectonism lasted at least until the end of the Aptian. ?? Springer-Verlag 1998.

  15. Soft-sediment deformation structures interpreted as seismites in the uppermost Aptian to lowermost Albian transgressive deposits of the Chihuahua basin (Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, E. J.-P.; Blanc-Alétru, M.-C.; Mojon, P.-O.

    Several levels of soft-sediment deformation structures (s.-s.d.s.) cut by synsedimentary normal faults have been observed in the transition beds between the ``Las Vigas'' and ``La Virgen'' formations (Cretaceous) in the northeastern part of the Chihuahua basin in Mexico. These structures consisted of four kinds of motifs (floating breccias, flame-like structures, large pillow structures, and wavy structures). They are restricted to five ``stratigraphic'' levels (Σ1-Σ5) and surrounded by undeformed beds in fluvio-lacustrine and tidal deposits and can be traced over a distance of several hundred meters. This deformation is interpreted to have resulted from the combined effects of liquidization and shear stress in soft-sediments due to local earthquakes in the area which could have been generated during the rifting stage of the Chihuahua basin. New constraints placed on the age of the ``Las Vigas'' Formation (bracketed by Late Aptian charophytes at the bottom and colomiellids of late Aptian to earliest Albian age at the top) suggest that this synrift tectonism lasted at least until the end of the Aptian.

  16. Natural radioactivity in groundwater and estimates of committed effective dose due to water ingestion in the state of Chihuahua (Mexico).

    PubMed

    Villalba, L; Montero-Cabrera, M E; Manjón-Collado, G; Colmenero-Sujo, L; Rentería-Villalobos, M; Cano-Jiménez, A; Rodríguez-Pineda, A; Dávila-Rangel, I; Quirino-Torres, L; Herrera-Peraza, E F

    2006-01-01

    The activity concentration of 222Rn, 226Ra and total uranium in groundwater samples collected from wells distributed throughout the state of Chihuahua has been measured. The values obtained of total uranium activity concentration in groundwater throughout the state run from <0.03 up to 1.34 Bq l-1. Generally, radium activity concentration was <0.16 Bq l-1, with some exceptions; in spring water of San Diego de Alcalá, in contrast, the value reached approximately 5.3 Bq l-1. Radon activity concentration obtained throughout the state was from 1.0 to 39.8 Bq l-1. A linear correlation between uranium and radon dissolved in groundwater of individual wells was observed near Chihuahua City. Committed effective dose estimates for reference individuals were performed, with results as high as 134 microSv for infants in Aldama city. In Aldama and Chihuahua cities the average and many individual wells showed activity concentration values of uranium exceeding the Mexican norm of drinking water quality.

  17. Stratigraphy of the PB-1 well, Nopal I uranium deposit, Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, P.; Fayek, M.; Goodell, P.; Ghezzehei, T.; Melchor, F.; Murrell, M.; Oliver, R.; Reyes-Cortes, I.A.; de la Garza, R.; Simmons, A.

    2008-08-01

    The Nopal I site in the Pena Blanca uranium district has a number of geologic and hydrologic similarities to the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, making it a useful analogue to evaluate process models for radionuclide transport. The PB-1 well was drilled in 2003 at the Nopal I uranium deposit as part of a DOE-sponsored natural analogue study to constrain processes affecting radionuclide transport. The well penetrates through the Tertiary volcanic section down to Cretaceous limestone and intersects the regional aquifer system. The well, drilled along the margin of the Nopal I ore body, was continuously cored to a depth of 250 m, thus providing an opportunity to document the local stratigraphy. Detailed observations of these units were afforded through petrographic description and rock-property measurements of the core, together with geophysical logs of the well. The uppermost unit encountered in the PB-1 well is the Nopal Formation, a densely welded, crystal-rich, rhyolitic ash-flow tuff. This cored section is highly altered and devitrified, with kaolinite, quartz, chlorite, and montmorillonite replacing feldspars and much of the groundmass. Breccia zones within the tuff contain fracture fillings of hematite, limonite, goethite, jarosite, and opal. A zone of intense clay alteration encountered in the depth interval 17.45-22.30 m was interpreted to represent the basal vitrophyre of this unit. Underlying the Nopal Formation is the Coloradas Formation, which consists of a welded lithic-rich rhyolitic ash-flow tuff. The cored section of this unit has undergone devitrification and oxidation, and has a similar alteration mineralogy to that observed in the Nopal tuff. A sharp contact between the Coloradas tuff and the underlying Pozos Formation was observed at a depth of 136.38 m. The Pozos Formation consists of poorly sorted conglomerate containing clasts of subangular to subrounded fragments of volcanic rocks, limestone, and chert

  18. Mexican Queso Chihuahua: functional properties of aging cheese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Queso Chihuahua, a traditional, semi-hard cheese manufactured from raw milk (RM) in northern Mexico, is being replaced by pasteurized milk (PM) versions because of food safety concerns and to extend shelf-life. In this study, the functional traits of authentic Mexican Queso Chihuahua made with RM o...

  19. The historical seismicity of northeastern Sonora and northwestern Chihuahua, Mexico (28 32°N, 106 111°W)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suter, Max

    2001-10-01

    A detailed compilation of the historical seismicity of northeastern Sonora and northwestern Chihuahua (28-32°N, 106-111°W) for the period 1887-1999 from catalogs, archives, and newspaper reports yielded 64 events (excluding aftershocks). The most significant ones are the 3 May 1887 Bavispe, Sonora ( MW=7.4±0.3), 26 May 1907 Colonia Morelos, Sonora ( Imax=VIII, MI=5.2±0.4), 17 May 1913 Huásabas, Sonora ( Imax=VIII, MI=5.0±0.4), 18 December 1923 Granados-Huásabas, Sonora ( Imax=IX, MI=5.7±0.4) and 28 October 1965 Nicolás Bravo, Chihuahua ( mb=5.0) earthquakes. Most of the compiled seismicity is concentrated in the epicentral region of the 1887 Bavispe earthquake, whose surface rupture is >100 km long. Other seismicity clusters have been located in the Valle de Guaymas graben and in the regions of Fronteras-Nacozari, Granados-Huásabas, and Ciudad Juárez-El Paso. These are most likely tectonic earthquakes related to normal faults of the southern Basin and Range province and the Rio Grande rift.

  20. NoWMex: Continuous GNSS Sites in Northwest Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, J. J.; Gonzalez-Ortega, J. A.

    2008-05-01

    Nowadays GPS has become part of daily life activities. In the near future, with the GPS modernization and the use of Glonass and Galileo as a Global Navigation Satellite System will give relative location precision from decimeters to millimeters in near real time applications. In order to realize this, we need a global array of continuously operating GNSS stations built to meet the standards of the geophysical communities and linked with gravimetric local measurements to discern the vertical component of our active Earth. Trying to follow this revolution, CICESE has been working with GPS since 1985. The GPS site CICE was built as an IGS reference station in 1995. Afterward we built 5 more continuous GPS sites in Northwest Mexico with the support of SCIGN. The CGPS NoWMex network is currently made up of six sites: CIC1, SPMX, CORX, GUAX, USMX and YESX (sopac.ucsd.edu). Recently, we implemented an experimental GPS processing lab as part of the Geodesy and Geodynamics Laboratory in the Seismology Department at CICESE. 30 stations are now currently processed from the network Red Geodesica Nacional Activa (RGNA-INEGI), NoWMex, and sites in neighbor countries. Fiducials solutions in ITRF2000 are obtained using GAMIT/GLOBK 10.31 with final igs orbits, every month since 2006. In order to make a contribution to densification of ITRF and support NAREF, SIRGAS and SNARF issues related to scientific and geomatics results; we are looking for internal (Mexican) and external colleagues as well as funding for maintenance and increase the number of CGNSS in NoWMeX including southern Basin and Ranger (Sonora, Chihuahua, Sinaloa and Durango), Gulf of California islands, Peninsular Californias, Nayarit, Jalisco, Colima and the Mexican Pacific islands: Guadalupe (2 more sites), Cedros, Socorro (DORIS site), Clarion and Tres Marias. We must to build more and free available CGNSS sites in and around Mexico to contribute to sea level rise and global change studies.

  1. Lung cancer mortality and radon concentration in a chronically exposed neighborhood in Chihuahua, Mexico: a geospatial analysis.

    PubMed

    Hinojosa de la Garza, Octavio R; Sanín, Luz H; Montero Cabrera, María Elena; Serrano Ramirez, Korina Ivette; Martínez Meyer, Enrique; Reyes Cortés, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    This study correlated lung cancer (LC) mortality with statistical data obtained from government public databases. In order to asses a relationship between LC deaths and radon accumulation in dwellings, indoor radon concentrations were measured with passive detectors randomly distributed in Chihuahua City. Kriging (K) and Inverse-Distance Weighting (IDW) spatial interpolations were carried out. Deaths were georeferenced and Moran's I correlation coefficients were calculated. The mean values (over n = 171) of the interpolation of radon concentrations of deceased's dwellings were 247.8 and 217.1 Bq/m(3), for K and IDW, respectively. Through the Moran's I values obtained, correspondingly equal to 0.56 and 0.61, it was evident that LC mortality was directly associated with locations with high levels of radon, considering a stable population for more than 25 years, suggesting spatial clustering of LC deaths due to indoor radon concentrations.

  2. Lung Cancer Mortality and Radon Concentration in a Chronically Exposed Neighborhood in Chihuahua, Mexico: A Geospatial Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hinojosa de la Garza, Octavio R.; Sanín, Luz H.; Montero Cabrera, María Elena; Serrano Ramirez, Korina Ivette; Martínez Meyer, Enrique; Reyes Cortés, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    This study correlated lung cancer (LC) mortality with statistical data obtained from government public databases. In order to asses a relationship between LC deaths and radon accumulation in dwellings, indoor radon concentrations were measured with passive detectors randomly distributed in Chihuahua City. Kriging (K) and Inverse-Distance Weighting (IDW) spatial interpolations were carried out. Deaths were georeferenced and Moran's I correlation coefficients were calculated. The mean values (over n = 171) of the interpolation of radon concentrations of deceased's dwellings were 247.8 and 217.1 Bq/m3, for K and IDW, respectively. Through the Moran's I values obtained, correspondingly equal to 0.56 and 0.61, it was evident that LC mortality was directly associated with locations with high levels of radon, considering a stable population for more than 25 years, suggesting spatial clustering of LC deaths due to indoor radon concentrations. PMID:25165752

  3. Southern Cordilleran Basaltic Andesite suite, southern Chihuahua, Mexico: A link between Tertiary continental arc and flood basalt magmatism in the North America

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, K. L.; Nimz, G. J.; Kuentz, D.; Niemeyer, S.; Gunn, S.

    1989-06-10

    Mid-Cenozoic orogenic andesites and ignimbrites of western Mexico, southwestern New Mexico, and Arizona are commonly capped by basaltic andesites, most from 29--20 Ma. We refer to these mafic lavas as the Southern Cordilleran Basaltic Andesite (SCORBA) suite, and they may constitute the most extensive Cenozoic basaltic suite in North America. The SCORBA suite has trace element and isotopic characteristics of orogenic (arc) rocks (i.g., Ba/Nb/gt/40), and silica content (53--56% SiO/sub 2/) like the Grande Ronde Basalt, which represents about 80% of the volume of the Columbia River Group. Geochemical and isotopic data are presented on SCORBA lavas and rare mafic lavas (PRE-SCORBA) interlayered with older ignimbrites from a 700-km-long NE-SW transect of southern Chihuahua, Mexico. SCORBA and PRE-SCORBA lavas with relatively low K/P (/lt/7) and differing Ba/Nd (50 versus 18) have similar isotopic compositions, arguing against their isotopic signatures being controlled by crustal assimilation. Along the entire length of the transect, the basaltic rocks have /var epsilon//sub Nd/ and /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr near bulk Earth and /sup 206/Pb//sup 204/Pb and /sup 207/Pb//sup 204/Pb ratios that lie along a 1.7 Ga pseudoisochron. The Pb isotopic variation is geographically controlled, becoming more radiogenic from east to west, reflecting mixing in mantle source regions. The eastern mantle source has low/sup 206/Pb//sup 204/Pb and is a mixture of an enriched, enriched-mantle-like (EMI) component with one or more depleted components, which could include an intraplate component with relatively high Nb/Y (/gt/0.8).

  4. Isotopes in the Hueco Bolson aquifer, Texas (USA) and Chihuahua (Mexico): local and general implications for recharge sources in alluvial basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastoe, Christopher J.; Hibbs, Barry J.; Olivas, Alfredo Granados; Hogan, James F.; Hawley, John; Hutchison, William R.

    2008-06-01

    Stable isotope data for the Hueco Bolson aquifer (Texas, USA and Chihuahua, Mexico) distinguish four water types. Two types relate to recharge from the Rio Grande: pre-dam (pre-1916) river water with oxygen-18 and deuterium (δ18O, δD, ‰) from (-11.9, -90) to (-10.1, -82), contrasts with present-day river water (-8.5, -74) to (-5.3, -56). Pre-dam water is found beneath the Rio Grande floodplain and Ciudad Juárez, and is mixed with post-dam river water beneath the floodplain. Two other types relate to recharge of local precipitation; evidence of temporal change of precipitation isotopes is present in both types. Recharge from the Franklin and Organ Mountains plots between (-10.9, -76) and (-8.5, -60) on the global meteoric water line (GMWL), and is found along the western side of the Hueco Bolson, north of the Rio Grande. Recharge from the Diablo Plateau plots on an evaporation trend originating on the GMWL near (-8.5, -58). This water is found in the southeastern Hueco Bolson, north of the river; evaporation may be related to slow recharge through fine-grained sediment. Pre-dam water, recognizable by isotope composition, provides information on groundwater residence times in this and other dammed river basins.

  5. Leaching Behavior of Slags from AN Old Lead Smelter in Chihuahua, Mexico: Metals, Chlorides, Nitrates, Sulfates and Tds Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espejel-Garcia, D.; Wenglas-Lara, G.; Villalobos-Aragon, A.; Espejel-Garcia, V. V.

    2013-05-01

    Waste materials (such as, smelter slags, waste glass, tires, plastics, rubbish, ashes, etc.), have a large potential to substitute natural materials, reducing costs, especially for the construction industry. Smelter slags are resistant and have better compression strength values in comparison to natural aggregates, and generally are far beyond of what the standard ratios need to qualify a material as a good one for construction. But this material has a big problem within it: the existence of toxic elements and compounds in high concentrations, which means that water and soil contamination can be present after water infiltrates through this material; so we perform leaching experiments to characterize and measure the possible contamination under controlled conditions. To perform the slags-leaching experiments, we used an EA-NEN-7375-2004 tank test standard from Netherlands. This test was selected because to our knowledge it is the only one which allows the use of coarse material, as the one utilized in construction. The leaching experiments sampling was performed at different times: 6, 24, 168 and 360 hours, to compare the leachate concentration at the two different pH's values (5 and 8) selected to simulate real conditions. For the leaching experiments, the slags were mixed with natural road base material (gravel-sands from volcanic rocks) at different proportions of 30% and 50%. In order to understand the slags' leaching behavior, other experiments were carried out with the pure material, for both (slags and natural aggregates). After analyses by ICP-OES , the slags from this smelter in Chihuahua contain Pb (0.5 - 4 wt.%), Zn (15-35 wt.%) and As (0.6 wt.%), as well such as: bicarbonates, chlorides, nitrates, sulfates, Mg, K, Na, Ca and TDS. Based on the results of the leaching analyses, via atomic absorption technique, we conclude that Pb and As concentrations are provided by the slags, meanwhile, the bicarbonates, chlorides, Na and Ca are contributed by the road

  6. Geology and geochemistry of newly discovered Tertiary carbonatite occurrences near Villa Ahumada area, Basin and Range province, Chihuahua, northern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandigam, Ravi Chenchu

    This study targets some newly discovered carbonatite occurrences located in the eastern Mexican Basin and Range province, a few kilometers to the east of Villa Ahumada, Chihuahua. The region containing these occurrences experienced compression related to subduction of the Farallon plate until about 32 Ma that was followed by Basin and Range extension. Geological mapping (1:5,000 scale), petrography, study of drill hole cuttings and satellite images, and major and trace element chemical analyses were utilized to understand the intrusive style of the carbonatites, their mineralogy and petrogenesis. The carbonatites, named Yuca, Mariana and El Indio, collectively intrude limestones, granitic intrusives and subduction-related tuffs and lavas mainly as a stock, breccias and dikes. The Yuca carbonatite was emplaced as a 900-m diameter stock, 500 x 350 m breccia body, numerous dikes and networks of fracture fillings. Crosscutting field relationships at Yuca suggest at least two stages of carbonatite emplacement. At Mariana, carbonatite was emplaced as a 750 x 350 m breccia. Four out of nine reverse circulation drill holes penetrated and bottomed in the breccia at an average depth of about 300 m At El Indio, carbonatite was emplaced as a 20 m diameter breccia pipe and a 1m thick sill. Major minerals present are calcite, Fe-rich calcite and hematite. Sporadic presence of fluorite is common. At Mariana, two generations of grossular-rich garnets associated with limestones and granite porphyry respectively are recognized. It is inferred that garnets in granite porphyry represent metasomatic alteration due to the emplacement of carbonatite breccia. Parental magmas of Yuca carbonatites have undergone differentiation under low fO2 conditions during which they were progressively enriched in iron. The carbonatite compositional types recognized based on major element data, in the sequence of least to most highly differentiated, are (1) magnesio-, (2) calcio- and (3

  7. REGIONAL HYDROLOGY OF THE NOPAL 1 SITE, SIERRA PENA BLANCA, CHIHUAHUA, MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Rodriguez-Pineda; P. Goodell; P. Dobson; J. Walton; R. Olver; R. de la Garza; S. Harder

    2005-10-01

    The objectives of this report are: (1) Determine the main source of the groundwater (GW) found within the DOE wells (PB-1, PB-2, and PB-3); and (2) Determine whether the Nopal I GW has any relationship to the connectivity between the regional Encinillas Aquifer to the west and the El Cuervo Aquifer to the east.

  8. Historic Seismicity, Computed Peak Ground Accelerations, and Seismic Site Conditions for Northeast Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montalvo-Arriet, J. C.; Galván-Ramírez, I. N.; Ramos-Zuñiga, L. G.; Navarro de León, I.; Ramírez-Fernández, J. A.; Quintanilla-López, Y.; Cavazos-Tovar, N. P.

    2007-05-01

    In this study we present the historic seismicity, computed peak ground accelerations, and mapping of seismic site conditions for northeast Mexico. We start with a compilation of the regional seismicity in northeast Mexico (24- 31°N, 87-106°W) for the 1787-2006 period. Our study area lies within three morphotectonic provinces: Basin and Range and Rio Grande rift, Sierra Madre Oriental and Gulf Coastal Plain. Peak ground acceleration (PGA) maps were computed for three different scenarios: 1928 Parral, Chihuahua (MW = 6.5); 1931 Valentine, Texas (MW = 6.4); and a hypothetical earthquake located in central Coahuila (MW = 6.5). Ground acceleration values were computed using attenuation relations developed for central and eastern North America and the Basin and Range province. The hypothetical earthquake in central Coahuila is considered a critical scenario for the main cities of northeast Mexico. The damage associated with this hypothetical earthquake could be severe because the majority of the buildings were constructed without allowance for seismic accelerations. The expected PGA values in Monterrey, Saltillo and Monclova range from 30 to 70 cm/s2 (0.03 to 0.07g). This earthquake might also produce or trigger significant landslides and rock falls in the Sierra Madre Oriental, where several cities are located (e.g. suburbs of Monterrey). Additionally, the Vs30 distribution for the state of Nuevo Leon and the cities of Linares and Monterrey are presented. The Vs30 data was obtained using seismic refraction profiling correlated with borehole information. According to NEHRP soil classification, sites classes A, B and C are dominant. Sites with class D occupy minor areas in both cities. Due to the semi-arid conditions in northeast Mexico, we obtained the highest values of Vs30 in Quaternary deposits (alluvium) cemented by caliche. Similar values of Vs30 were obtained in Reno and Las Vegas, Nevada. This work constitutes the first attempt at understanding and

  9. A predictable suite of helminth parasites in the long-billed dowitcher, Limnodromus scolopaceus, from the Chihuahua desert in Texas and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Canaris, Albert G; Ortiz, Rafael; Canaris, Gay J

    2010-12-01

    Eighty-eight long-billed dowitchers, Limnodromus scolopaceus, were examined for helminth parasites, 62 from Texas and 26 from Mexico. In total, 3,558 helminth parasites were obtained from this host, 2,273 from Texas birds and 1,285 from birds from Mexico. The component communities consisted of 22 species of helminths in Texas, and 19 in Mexico. Of a total of 26 helminth species recorded from the 2 localities, 15 were common to both, 7 found only in Texas, and 4 only in Mexico. Fifty-nine of 62 Texas birds and 25 of 26 birds from Mexico were infected. The most prevalent helminth for Texas was the cestode Shipleya inermis. The cestode Aploparaksis retroversa was the most abundant, accounting for 37% of the total abundance, and was second highest in prevalence. Five species of cestodes, A. retroversa, Aploparaksis diagonalis, Aploparaksis occidentalis, Aploparaksis rissae, and Shipleya inermis accounted for 79% of total abundance. In the sample from Mexico, S. inermis was also highest in prevalence, followed by the nematode Hystrichis tricolor. The cestode A. retroversa was highest in abundance at 50% of the total, and was third highest in prevalence. Mean species richness, diversity, and evenness were similar among the component communities of Texas and Mexico. A predictable suite of aploparaksid cestodes, together with the cestode S. inermis, constituted 79%, and 61%, of total abundance for the component communities of Texas and Mexico, respectively, and were present in all component communities for locality, season, and year. The cestodes, A. retroversa and S. inermis, were the dominant species in all component communities. Differences among component communities and low similarities for all other comparisons were largely caused by less predictable suites of helminth species. A checklist of helminth parasites reported for long-billed dowitchers is included.

  10. Corima: A Bilingual Experiment in the Tarahumara Region in the State of Chihuahua, Mexico. How Does It Measure against Transitional Bilingual Programs in the United States?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunez, Mario A.

    This report explores two bilingual educational approaches currently in use in Mexico and the United States. The study pursues a limited comparison between two modalities of bilingual instruction, as observed and reported in the consulted literature. The U.S. model featured is known as the two-way bilingual model, an additive approach to…

  11. The character of Queso Chihuahua

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meeting consumer demand for safe, high quality Hispanic-style cheese is problematic for cheese makers because of the lack of data on the quality traits of many of these cheeses. Our research on the Mexican cheese Queso Chihuahua (QC) determined many factors that influenced its quality traits and hel...

  12. Determining Deep Basin Structure of the Hueco and southern Mesilla Bolsons, West Texas, Southern New Mexico and Northern Chihuahua Using Nonseismic Geophysical Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doser, D. I.; Avila, V.; Budhathoki, P.; Marrufo, S.; Montana, C. J.; Kaip, G.; Moncada, M.; Dena Ornelas, O.

    2012-12-01

    The Hueco and southern Mesilla bolsons are the primary groundwater source for much of the El Paso/Ciudad Juarez metropolitan region of over 1 million residents. The bolsons lie at the point where the strike of the southern Rio Grande rift changes from north-south to northwest-southeast, likely due to its interaction with pre-existing Mesozoic and Paleozoic structures. Tectonic activity continues with recent (< 750,000 years) movement along basin bounding and low level (M<4) seismicity. Over the past 4 years we have been using a conjunction of microgravity, magnetic, water well logs and electrical resistivity studies to image the complex structure of these basins within a heavily urbanized environment. These studies suggest the presence of several northwest-southeast striking cross faults within the southern Mesilla Bolson as well as an extensive subsurface andesite body related to the Cristo Rey laccolith. Intrabasin faults in the Hueco Bolson appear to cut the basin into at least 3 smaller subbasins and to control the boundary between fresh and saline water within the aquifer system beneath El Paso. We are also able to trace the East Franklins Mountain fault (last movement < 15,000 ya) at least 15 km south of the U.S.-Mexico border.

  13. New Mexico aggregate production sites, 1997-1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orris, Greta J.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents data, including latitude and longitude, for aggregate sites in New Mexico that were believed to be active in the period 1997-1999. The data are presented in paper form in Part A of this report and as Microsoft Excel 97 and Data Interchange Format (DIF) files in Part B. The work was undertaken as part of the effort to update information for the National Atlas. This compilation includes data from: the files of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS); company contacts; the New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, New Mexico Bureau of Mine Inspection, and the Mining and Minerals Division of the New Mexico Energy, Minerals and Natural Resources Department (Hatton and others, 1998); the Bureau of Land Management Information; and direct communications with some of the aggregate operators. Additional information on most of the sites is available in Hatton and others (1998).

  14. Border Environmental Education Resource Guide: Southern New Mexico, South Texas, Northern Chihuahua, Northern Coahuila, Northern Nuevo Leon, Northern Tamaulipas = Guia de Recursos de Educacion Ambiental en la Frontera: Sur de Nuevo Mexico, Sur de Texas, Norte de Chihuahua, Norte de Coahuila, Norte de Nuevo Leon, Norte de Tamaulipas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meissner, David, Comp.

    This guide provides educators and residents of the border with useful information about environmental education program offerings along the eastern half of the United States-Mexico border. The programs listed in the guide represent a broad range of educational efforts focused on understanding the environment and solving environmental problems in…

  15. A Record of Uranium-Series Transport in Fractured, Unsaturated Tuff at Nopal I, Sierra Peña Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denton, J.; Goldstein, S. J.; Paviet, P.; Nunn, A. J.; Amato, R. S.; Hinrichs, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    In this study we utilize U-series disequilibria measurements to investigate mineral fluid interactions and the role fractures play in the geochemical evolution of an analogue for a high level nuclear waste repository, the Nopal I uranium ore deposit. Samples of fracture-fill materials have been collected from a vertical drill core and surface fractures. High uranium concentrations in these materials (12-7700 ppm) indicate U mobility and transport from the deposit in the past. U concentrations generally decrease with horizontal distance away from the ore deposit but show no trend with depth. Isotopic activity ratios indicate a complicated geochemical evolution in terms of the timing and extent of actinide mobility, possibly due to changing environmental (redox) conditions over the history of the deposit. 234U/238U activity ratios are generally distinct from secular equilibrium and indicate some degree of open system U behavior during the past 1.2 Ma. However, calculated closed system 238U-234U-230Th model ages are generally >313 ka and >183 ka for the surface fracture and drill core samples respectively, suggesting closed system behavior for U and Th over this most recent time period. Whole rock isochrons drawn for the drill core samples show that at two of three depths fractures have remained closed with respect to U and Th mobility for >200 ka. However, open system behavior for U in the last 350 ka is suggested at 67 m depth. 231Pa/235U activity ratios within error of unity suggest closed system behavior for U and Pa for at least the past 185 ka. 226Ra/230Th activity ratios are typically <1 (0.7-1.2), suggesting recent (<8 ka) radium loss and mobility due to ongoing fluid flow in the fractures. Overall, the mainly closed system behavior of U-Th-Pa over the past ~200 ka provides one indicator of the geochemical immobility of these actinides over long time-scales for potential nuclear waste repositories sited in fractured, unsaturated tuff.

  16. National priorities list sites: New Mexico, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. It clearly describes what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. Compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund Program.

  17. Identification and Mapping of the Edwards Stratigraphic Sequence in the State of Chihuahua Assisted by ten ArcMap Based Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Pina, C.; Granados, A.; Goodell, P.

    2007-05-01

    Edwards Formation is a reef limestone that hosts one of the largest aquifers of the State of Texas. In 2004 the United States and Mexico signed an agreement intended to characterize and identify the shared binational underground resources. Texas Water Development Board Report 360 established for the Edwards Aquifer an area of more than 31,000 km2, half of which is in the State of Coahuila, Mexico (the agreement did not include the State of Chihuahua). This led to the idea that Chihuahua may also have hydrologic potential in the Edwards equivalent, where numerous large cavern systems are already recognized (Naica's Sword Cavern, and the Coyame, Nombre de Dios and Bocagrande Caverns). The objective of this study is to establish the existence, in the State of Chihuahua, of the stratigraphic sequence and geohydrologic properties such as faulting, sinkholes, and springs, within the Edwards equivalent. The Consejo de Recursos Minerales geologic map, INEGI's hydrologic study, petroleum, mining and hydrogeology studies of Chihuahua, and many others, constitute the database used. ArcMap is used to define the geologic framework and construct different thematic layers (structural, lithological, hydrological) that would aid in the identification of the stratigraphic sequence. The results show that all the Edwards Stratigraphic Sequence (ESS) exists in Chihuahua; that there are isolated areas of groundwater production in eastern Chihuahua possibly from ESS but this is not well established. Overall the ESS presents an unusual opportunity as a potentially productive aquifer in the State of Chihuahua.

  18. Crustal Deformation Analysis at CGPS Sites Spanning Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez, G. E.; Bennett, R. A.; Spinler, J. C.; Grejner-Brzezinska, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    We conducted a study using data from continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) stations throughout Mexico to understand a variety of factors that may have an impact on crustal deformation of Mexico—a research topic investigated for many years. This arises from the fact that Mexico is directly influenced by the interactions between the North American, Pacific, Cocos, Caribbean and Rivera tectonic plates. We analyzed CGPS data originating from several networks covering Mexico. These stations have been installed to serve diverse purposes and applications, and are administered by diverse organizations that include government agencies and public universities. We evaluated a total of 80 CGPS stations operating in Mexico; where dual-frequency geodetic-grade GPS receivers collected data continuously during periods between 1994 and 2014.5, in order to provide a synoptic view of the crustal velocity field of Mexico. The CGPS sites located in the Mexican territory were processed with respect to 133 sites outside of Mexico (i.e., Caribbean, Pacific, South and North American plates) in order to evaluate crustal deformation in Mexico in the context of the relative motions among these tectonic plates. Given the heterogeneous nature of the available GPS networks, we performed an analysis of time-series in terms of their duration and precision, finding generally high precision. From the estimated crustal velocities, we observe that these are very comparable (± 1 mm) with respect to previously derived values for stations located at the Baja Peninsula and the Oaxaca—Guerrero region. In general, the behavior of the northern CGPS spanning Mexico are very consistent with North American plate motion.

  19. Site Observational Work Plan for the UMTRA Project Site at Shiprock, New Mexico. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The site observational work plan (SOWP) for the Shiprock, New Mexico, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Site is one of the first documents for developing an approach for achieving ground water compliance at the site. This SOWP applies Shiprock site information to a regulatory compliance framework, which identifies strategies for meeting ground water compliance at the site. The compliance framework was developed in the UMTRA ground water programmatic environmental impact statement.

  20. The Tarahumara of Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paciotto, Carla

    This paper reviews factors contributing to the loss of language and culture of the Tarahumara people of Mexico and describes a program aimed at preserving Tarahumara language and culture. The Tarahumara people reside in the Sierra Tarahumara in the northern state of Chihuahua, Mexico. Although the Tarahumara people successfully avoided…

  1. 76 FR 11772 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION...-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Northern New Mexico (known locally as the Northern New Mexico Citizens... Norte, Espanola, New Mexico 87532. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Menice Santistevan, Northern...

  2. 76 FR 18540 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION...-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Northern New Mexico (known locally as the Northern New Mexico Citizens....m.-4 p.m. ADDRESSES: Holiday Inn Express and Suites, 60 Entrada Drive, Los Alamos, New Mexico...

  3. 78 FR 10612 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico AGENCY: Department of Energy... Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Northern New Mexico. The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L... Mexico Citizens' Advisory Board (NNMCAB), 94 Cities of Gold Road, Santa Fe, NM 87506. Phone (505)...

  4. 77 FR 26273 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ... Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico AGENCY: Department of Energy, DoE... Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Northern New Mexico. The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L... New Mexico Citizens' Advisory Board (NNMCAB), 94 Cities of Gold Road, Santa Fe, NM 87506. Phone...

  5. 76 FR 36101 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Northern New Mexico. The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L... Drive, Los Alamos, New Mexico. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Menice Santistevan, Northern New Mexico... Board: The purpose of the Board is to make recommendations to DOE-EM and site management in the areas...

  6. Gnome-Coach, New Mexico Site Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-27

    The Gnome-Coach Site is located in southern Eddy County, New Mexico, 11 miles east of the Pecos River and 25 miles southeast of the city of Carlsbad. The site is approximately 680 acres. The land is currently withdrawn from all forms of disposition under the public land laws, including U.S. mining laws and leasing under mineral leasing laws. On December 10, 1961, a 3-kiloton-yield nuclear device was detonated at a depth of 1,183 feet belowground surface in a thick, bedded salt deposit within the Salado Formation.

  7. 1994 Site Environmental Report Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Shyr, L.J.; Wiggins, T.; White, B.B.

    1995-09-01

    This 1994 report contains data from routine radiological and nonradiological environmental monitoring activities. Summaries of significant environmental compliance programs in progress, such as National Environmental Policy Act documentation, environmental permits, environmental restoration, and various waste management programs for Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, are included. The maximum off-site dose impact from air emissions was calculated to be 1.5 x 10{sup -4} millirem. The total population within a 50-mile radius of Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico received an estimated collective dose of 0.012 person-rem during 1994 from the laboratories` operations. This report is prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy in compliance with DOE Order 5400.1.

  8. Mexican Queso Chihuahua: functional properties of aging cheese.

    PubMed

    Olson, D W; Van Hekken, D L; Tunick, M H; Tomasula, P M; Molina-Corral, F J; Gardea, A A

    2011-09-01

    Queso Chihuahua, a semi-hard cheese manufactured from raw milk (RM) in northern Mexico, is being replaced by pasteurized milk (PM) versions because of food safety concerns and the desire for longer shelf life. In this study, the functional traits of authentic Mexican Queso Chihuahua made from RM or PM were characterized to identify sources of variation and to determine if pasteurization of the cheese milk resulted in changes to the functional properties. Two brands of RM cheese and 2 brands of PM cheese obtained in 3 seasons of the year from 4 manufacturers in Chihuahua, Mexico, were analyzed after 0, 4, 8, 12, and 16 wk of storage at 4°C. A color measurement spectrophotometer was used to collect color data before and after heating at 232°C for 5 min or 130°C for 75 min. Meltability was measured using the Schreiber Melt Test on samples heated to 232°C for 5 min. Sliceability (the force required to cut through a sample) was measured using a texture analyzer fitted with a wire cutter attachment. Proteolysis was tracked using sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE. Compared with PM cheeses, RM cheeses showed less browning upon heating, melted more at 232°C, and initially required a greater cutting force. With aging, cheeses increased in meltability, decreased in whiteness when measured before heating, and required less cutting force to slice. Seasonal variations in the cheesemilk had minimal or no effect on the functional properties. The differences in the functional properties can be attributed, in part, to the mixed microflora present in the RM cheeses compared with the more homogeneous microflora added during the manufacture of PM cheeses. The degree of proteolysis and subsequent integrity of the cheese matrix contribute to melt, slice, and color properties of the RM and PM cheeses. Understanding the functional properties of the authentic RM cheeses will help researchers and cheesemakers develop pasteurized versions that maintain the traditional traits desired in the

  9. Characterization of atmospheric bioaerosols at 9 sites in Tijuana, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtado, Lilia; Rodríguez, Guillermo; López, Jonathan; Castillo, J. E.; Molina, Luisa; Zavala, Miguel; Quintana, Penelope J. E.

    2014-10-01

    The atmosphere is not considered a habitat for microorganisms, but can exist in the atmosphere as bioaerosols. These microorganisms in the atmosphere have great environmental importance through their influence on physical processes such as ice nucleation and cloud droplet formation. Pathogenic airborne microorganisms may also have public health consequences. In this paper we analyze the microbial concentration in the air at three sites in Tijuana, Mexico border during the Cal-Mex 2010 air quality campaign and from nine sites over the following year. Samples were collected by impaction with the air analyzer Millipore M Air T, followed by incubation and counting as colony forming units (CFU) of viable colonies. Airborne microbial contamination average levels ranged from a low of 230 ± 130 CFU/m³ in the coastal reference site to an average of 40,100 ± 21,689 CFU/m³ in the Tijuana river valley. We found the highest microbial load in the summer and the lowest values in the winter. Potentially pathogenic bacteria were isolated from the samples, with Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis being most common. This work is the first evaluation of bioaerosols in Tijuana, Mexico.

  10. 76 FR 70120 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION...-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Northern New Mexico. The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463... Taos Highway 68, San Juan Pueblo, New Mexico 87566. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Menice...

  11. 78 FR 49739 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION...-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Northern New Mexico. The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463... Pueblo Sur, Taos, New Mexico 87571. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Menice Santistevan, Northern...

  12. 75 FR 53280 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION...-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Northern New Mexico. The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463... Pueblo Sur, Taos, New Mexico 87571. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Menice Santistevan, Northern...

  13. 78 FR 38305 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION...-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Northern New Mexico. The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463... 87544. ] FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Menice Santistevan, Northern New Mexico Citizens'...

  14. 76 FR 11773 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION...-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Northern New Mexico. The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463..., Santa Fe, New Mexico 87507. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Menice Santistevan, Northern New...

  15. Site Characterization Work Plan for Gasbuggy, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    2000-12-14

    Project Gasbuggy was the first of three joint government-industry experiments conducted to test the effectiveness of nuclear explosives to fracture deeply buried, low-permeability natural gas reservoirs to stimulate production. The scope of this work plan is to document the environmental objectives and the proposed technical site investigation strategies that will be utilized for the site characterization of the Project Gasbuggy Site. Its goal is the collection of data in sufficient quantity and quality to determine current site conditions, support a risk assessment for the site surfaces, and evaluate if further remedial action is required to achieve permanent closure of the site that is both protective of human health and the environment. The Gasbuggy Site is located approximately 55 air miles east of Farmington, New Mexico, in Rio Arriba County within the Carson National Forest in the northeast portion of the San Juan Basin. Historically, Project Gasbuggy consisted of the joint government-industry detonation of a nuclear device on December 10, 1967, followed by reentry drilling and gas production testing and project evaluation activities in post-detonation operations from 1967 to 1976. Based on historical documentation, no chemical release sites other than the mud pits were identified; additionally, there was no material buried at the Gasbuggy Site other than drilling fluids and construction debris. Although previous characterization and restoration activities including sensitive species surveys, cultural resources surveys, surface geophysical surveys, and limited soil sampling and analysis were performed in 1978 and again in 2000, no formal closure of the site was achieved. Also, these efforts did not adequately address the site's potential for chemical contamination at the surface/shallow subsurface ground levels or the subsurface hazards for potential migration outside of the current site subsurface intrusion restrictions. Additional investigation activities

  16. Environmental waste site characterization utilizing aerial photographs and satellite imagery: Three sites in New Mexico, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Van Eeckhout, E.; Pope, P.; Becker, N.; Wells, B.; Lewis, A.; David, N.

    1996-04-01

    The proper handling and characterization of past hazardous waste sites is becoming more and more important as world population extends into areas previously deemed undesirable. Historical photographs, past records, current aerial satellite imagery can play an important role in characterizing these sites. These data provide clear insight into defining problem areas which can be surface samples for further detail. Three such areas are discussed in this paper: (1) nuclear wastes buried in trenches at Los Alamos National Laboratory, (2) surface dumping at one site at Los Alamos National Laboratory, and (3) the historical development of a municipal landfill near Las Cruces, New Mexico.

  17. Value of Information Analysis Project Gnome Site, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Pohll; Jenny Chapman

    2010-01-01

    The Project Gnome site in southeastern New Mexico was the location of an underground nuclear detonation in 1961 and a hydrologic tracer test using radionuclides in 1963. The tracer test is recognized as having greater radionuclide migration potential than the nuclear test because the tracer test radionuclides (tritium, 90Sr, 131I, and 137Cs) are in direct contact with the Culebra Dolomite aquifer, whereas the nuclear test is within a bedded salt formation. The tracer test is the topic here. Recognizing previous analyses of the fate of the Gnome tracer test contaminants (Pohll and Pohlmann, 1996; Pohlmann and Andricevic, 1994), and the existence of a large body of relevant investigations and analyses associated with the nearby Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site (summarized in US DOE, 2009), the Gnome Site Characterization Work Plan (U.S. DOE, 2002) called for a Data Decision Analysis to determine whether or not additional characterization data are needed prior to evaluating existing subsurface intrusion restrictions and determining long-term monitoring for the tracer test. Specifically, the Work Plan called for the analysis to weigh the potential reduction in uncertainty from additional data collection against the cost of such field efforts.

  18. Site Observational Work Plan for the UMTRA project site at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    Ground water compliance for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites, including the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, site, is governed by the Uranium Mills Tailings Radiation Control Act (42 USC {section}7901 et seq.) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s Health and Environmental Protection Standards for Uranium and Thorium Mill Tailings (40 CFR Part 192; 60 FR 2854). The EPA standards describe specific conditions for which the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) may apply for supplemental standards for contaminated ground water rather than meeting background levels or numerical standards. To achieve compliance with Subpart A of the EPA standards the residual radioactive materials are currently being consolidated on the site by the DOE in a disposal cell, isolating them from direct human or ecological contact and further dispersion into the environment. Completion of the disposal cell is scheduled for early 1995. An environmental assessment and a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) were completed in 1987. Concurrence with the UMTRA Surface Project Ambrosia Lake remedial action plan (RAP) was granted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and state of New Mexico in 1990. The DOE deferred compliance with Subpart B of the EPA standards in the Surface Project RAP. This site observational work plan (SOWP) is the first document to address ground water compliance under Subpart B at the Ambrosia Lake site. The Ambrosia Lake UMTRA Project site is within the Grants Mineral Belt and was one of numerous uranium mills supplied by many local mines. Ground water contamination at the site occurred as a result of uranium mill operations. Contamination of ground water resulted from discharge of waste water, infiltration of water through the tailings pile, hydraulic placement of mill tailings in nearby mines, and water pumped from mine shafts.

  19. 78 FR 23759 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ... Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION...-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Northern New Mexico. The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463... Drive, Santa Fe, NM 87501. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Menice Santistevan, Northern New...

  20. 77 FR 47047 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION...-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Northern New Mexico. The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463... Road, Pojoaque, NM 87506. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Menice Santistevan, Northern New...

  1. 1996 Site environmental report Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, C.H.; Duncan, D.; Sanchez, R.

    1997-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) is operated in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mission to provide weapon component technology and hardware for national security needs, and to conduct fundamental research and development (R&D) to advance technology in energy research, computer science, waste management, electronics, materials science, and transportation safety for hazardous and nuclear components. In support of this mission, the Environmental Safety and Health (ES&H) Center at SNL/NM conducts extensive environmental monitoring, surveillance, and compliance activities to assist SNL`s line organizations in meeting all applicable environmental regulations applicable to the site including those regulating radiological and nonradiological effluents and emissions. Also herein are included, the status of environmental programs that direct and manage activities such as terrestrial surveillance; ambient air and meteorological monitoring; hazardous, radioactive, and solid waste management; pollution prevention and waste minimization; environmental restoration (ER); oil and chemical spill prevention; and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation. This report has been prepared in compliance with DOE order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection.

  2. Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie

    The text explores Mexico's history, geography, art, religion, and lifestyles in the context of its complex economy. The text focuses on Mexico's economy and reasons for its current situation. Part I of this teaching unit includes: Teacher Overview, Why Study Mexico, Mexico Fact Sheet, Map of Mexico, the Land and Climate, History, Government,…

  3. 78 FR 49737 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... locally as the Northern New Mexico Citizens' Advisory Board ). The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L..., suggestions and opinions to the NNMCAB regarding waste management operations at the Los Alamos site....

  4. Site Characterization Work Plan for the Gnome-Coach Site, New Mexico (Rev. 1, January 2002)

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office

    2002-01-14

    Project Gnome was the first nuclear experiment conducted under the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), predecessor to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Plowshare Program. The Plowshare Program focused on developing nuclear devices exclusively for peaceful purposes. The intent of the Gnome experiment was to evaluate the effects of a nuclear detonation in a salt medium. Historically, Project Gnome consisted of a single detonation of a nuclear device on December 10, 1961 with the Salado Formation. Since the Gnome detonation, the AEC/DOE has conducted surface restoration, site reconnaissance, and decontamination and decommissioning activities at the site. In addition, annual groundwater sampling is performed under a long-term hydrological monitoring program begun in 1972. Coach, an experiment to be located near the Gnome project, was initially scheduled for 1963. Although construction and rehabilitation were completed for Coach, the experiment was canceled and never executed. Known collectively as Project Gnome-Coach, the site is located approximately 25 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico, in Eddy County, and is comprised of nearly 680 acres, of which approximately 60 acres are disturbed from the combined AEC/DOE operations. The scope of this work plan is to document the environmental objectives and the proposed technical site investigation strategies that will be utilized for the site characterization of the project. The subsurface at the Gnome-Coach site has two contaminant sources that are fundamentally different in terms of both their stratigraphic location and release mechanism. The goal of this characterization is to collect data of sufficient quantity and quality to establish current site conditions and to use the data to identify and evaluate if further action is required to protect human health and the environment and achieve permanent closure of the site. The results of these activities will be presented in a subsequent corrective action decision document.

  5. Site Characterization Work Plan for Gnome-Coach Site, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    2001-02-13

    Project Gnome was the first nuclear experiment conducted under the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), predecessor to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Plowshare Program. Gnome was part of a joint government-industry experiment focused on developing nuclear devices exclusively for peaceful purposes. The intent of the Gnome experiment was to evaluate the effects of a nuclear detonation in a salt medium. Historically, Project Gnome consisted of a single detonation of a nuclear device on December 10, 1961. Since the Gnome detonation, the AEC/DOE has conducted surface restoration, site reconnaissance, and decontamination and decommissioning activities at the site. In addition, annual groundwater sampling is performed under a long-term hydrological monitoring program begun in 1980. Coach, an experiment to be located near the Gnome project, was initially scheduled for 1963. Although construction and rehabilitation were completed for Coach, the experiment was canceled and never executed. Known collectively as Project Gnome-Coach, the site is situated within the Salado Formation approximately 25 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico, in Eddy County, and is comprised of nearly 680 acres, of which 60 acres are disturbed from the combined AEC/DOE operations. The scope of this work plan is to document the environmental objectives and the proposed technical site investigation strategies that will be utilized for the site characterization of the project. The subsurface at the Gnome-Coach site has two contaminant sources that are fundamentally different in terms of both their stratigraphic location and release mechanism. The goal of this characterization is to collect data of sufficient quantity and quality to establish current site conditions and to use the data to identify and evaluate if further action is required to protect human health and the environment and achieve permanent closure of the site. The results of these activities will be presented in a subsequent corrective

  6. 77 FR 39234 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Environmental Management Site... Board is to make recommendations to DOE-EM and site management in the areas of environmental...

  7. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA project site at Shiprock, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The site observational work plan (SOWP) for the Shiprock, New Mexico, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Site is the initial document for developing site-specific activities to achieve regulatory compliance in the UMTRA Ground Water Project. The regulatory framework used to select the proposed ground water compliance strategies is presented along with a discussion of the relationship of this SOWP to other UMTRA Ground Water Project programmatic documents. The Shiprock site consists of two, interconnected hydrogeologic systems: the terrace system and the floodplain system. Separate compliance strategies are proposed for these two systems. The compliance strategy for the terrace aquifer is no remediation with the application of supplemental standards based on classification of the terrace aquifer as having Class III (limited-use) ground water. The compliance strategy for the floodplain aquifer is active remediation using a subsurface biological barrier. These strategies were selected by applying site-specific data to the compliance framework developed in the UMTRA Ground Water programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) (DOE, 1994a). The site conceptual model indicates that milling-related contamination has impacted the ground water in the terrace and floodplain aquifers. Ground water occurs in both aquifers in alluvium and in fractures in the underlying Cretaceous age Mancos Shale. A mound of ground water related to fluids from the milling operations is thought to exist in the terrace aquifer below the area where settling ponds were in use during the mill operations. Most of the water occurring in the floodplain aquifer is from recharge from the San Juan River.

  8. 1993 Site environmental report Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, T.A.; Cheng, C.F.; Cox, W.; Durand, N.; Irwin, M.; Jones, A.; Lauffer, F.; Lincoln, M.; McClellan, Y.; Molley, K.

    1994-11-01

    This 1993 report contains monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological environmental surveillance activities. Summaries of significant environmental compliance programs in progress, such as National Environmental Policy Act documentation, environmental permits, environmental restoration, and various waste management programs for Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, are included. The maximum offsite dose impact was calculated to be 0.0016 millirem. The total population within a 50-mile (80 kilometer) radius of Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico received an estimated collective dose of 0.027 person-rem during 1993 from the laboratories operations, As in the previous year, the 1993 operations at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico had no discernible impact on the general public or on the environment. This report is prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy in compliance with DOE Order 5400.1.

  9. Ecosystem studies at the Los Medanos site, Eddy County, New Mexico. Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, J.S.

    1981-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of biological studies conducted during 1980 at the Los Medanos site in southeastern New Mexico. The studies include: (1) densities and species composition of the avifauna of the Los Medanos site; (2) aquatic ecosystems of the lower Pecos drainage; (3) floristic studies at the Los Medanos site; (4) plant successional, grazing, trampling, and salt studies on the Los Medanos site; (5) soil and vegetation studies at the Los Medanos site; (6) arthropod and decomposition studies at the WIPP site; (7) amphibians, reptiles and mammals at the Los Medanos site; (8) vertebrate ecology at the Los Medanos site; and (9) statistical analysis and data management. 7 refs. (ACR)

  10. 1995 Site environmental report Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Shyr, L.J.; Duncan, D.; Sanchez, R.

    1996-09-01

    This 1995 report contains data from routine radiological and non-radiological environmental monitoring activities. Summaries of significant environmental compliance programs in progress, such as National Environmental Policy Act documentation, environmental permits, environmental restoration and various waste management programs at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, are included.

  11. 75 FR 35446 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ... Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Environmental Management Site... the areas of environmental restoration, waste management, and related activities. Tentative Agenda 1...

  12. Gulf of Mexico miocene CO₂ site characterization mega transect

    SciTech Connect

    Meckel, Timothy; Trevino, Ramon

    2014-12-01

    This project characterized the Miocene-age sub-seafloor stratigraphy in the near-offshore portion of the Gulf of Mexico adjacent to the Texas coast. The large number of industrial sources of carbon dioxide (CO₂) in coastal counties and the high density of onshore urbanization and environmentally sensitive areas make this offshore region extremely attractive for long-term storage of carbon dioxide emissions from industrial sources (CCS). The study leverages dense existing geologic data from decades of hydrocarbon exploration in and around the study area to characterize the regional geology for suitability and storage capacity. Primary products of the study include: regional static storage capacity estimates, sequestration “leads” and prospects with associated dynamic capacity estimates, experimental studies of CO₂-brine-rock interaction, best practices for site characterization, a large-format ‘Atlas’ of sequestration for the study area, and characterization of potential fluid migration pathways for reducing storage risks utilizing novel high-resolution 3D (HR3D) seismic surveys. In addition, three subcontracted studies address source-to-sink matching optimization, offshore well bore management and environmental aspects. The various geologic data and interpretations are integrated and summarized in a series of cross-sections and maps, which represent a primary resource for any near-term commercial deployment of CCS in the area. The regional study characterized and mapped important geologic features (e.g., Clemente-Tomas fault zone, the regionally extensive Marginulina A and Amphistegina B confining systems, etc.) that provided an important context for regional static capacity estimates and specific sequestration prospects of the study. A static capacity estimate of the majority of the Study area (14,467 mi2) was estimated at 86 metric Gigatonnes. While local capacity estimates are likely to be lower due to reservoir-scale characteristics, the

  13. 47 CFR 90.383 - RSU sites near the U.S./Canada or U.S./Mexico border.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false RSU sites near the U.S./Canada or U.S./Mexico... Communications Service (dsrcs) § 90.383 RSU sites near the U.S./Canada or U.S./Mexico border. Until such time as agreements between the United States and Canada or the United States and Mexico, as applicable,...

  14. 47 CFR 90.383 - RSU sites near the U.S./Canada or U.S./Mexico border.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false RSU sites near the U.S./Canada or U.S./Mexico... Communications Service (dsrcs) § 90.383 RSU sites near the U.S./Canada or U.S./Mexico border. Until such time as agreements between the United States and Canada or the United States and Mexico, as applicable,...

  15. Chihuahua: a water reuse case in the desert.

    PubMed

    Espino, M S; Navarro, C J; Pérez, J M

    2004-01-01

    Water supply for all kind of uses in Chihuahua is mainly groundwater. During the last decade this city has been damaged with a heavy hydrologic crisis because of a persistent drought. This came up with the overexploitation of groundwater aquifers; therefore a deficit between demand and offer was done. To minimize this problem the government authorities have started an integral plan of optimizing hydrologic resources which considers the treatment of wastewater and the use of reclaimed water. The secondary wastewater treatment facility of the city treats about 30,000 m3/d of a wastewater with high organic contents, and produces an effluent with low concentration of suspended solids, organic matter, fats, detergents, and metals. Reclaimed water is conveyed toward strategic sites for the irrigation of great green areas in sport clubs, educational institutions and industrial zones, besides of its utilization on some manufacturing processes, road service, and also over construction industry. The potential reuse of this water goes farther from those activities; the treatment of the secondary effluent until the required levels of the water-bearing recharge criteria are met for drinking water supply is considered as the next step to achieve through a suitable planning strategy for the best integral resource advantage. PMID:15344808

  16. Chihuahua: a water reuse case in the desert.

    PubMed

    Espino, M S; Navarro, C J; Pérez, J M

    2004-01-01

    Water supply for all kind of uses in Chihuahua is mainly groundwater. During the last decade this city has been damaged with a heavy hydrologic crisis because of a persistent drought. This came up with the overexploitation of groundwater aquifers; therefore a deficit between demand and offer was done. To minimize this problem the government authorities have started an integral plan of optimizing hydrologic resources which considers the treatment of wastewater and the use of reclaimed water. The secondary wastewater treatment facility of the city treats about 30,000 m3/d of a wastewater with high organic contents, and produces an effluent with low concentration of suspended solids, organic matter, fats, detergents, and metals. Reclaimed water is conveyed toward strategic sites for the irrigation of great green areas in sport clubs, educational institutions and industrial zones, besides of its utilization on some manufacturing processes, road service, and also over construction industry. The potential reuse of this water goes farther from those activities; the treatment of the secondary effluent until the required levels of the water-bearing recharge criteria are met for drinking water supply is considered as the next step to achieve through a suitable planning strategy for the best integral resource advantage.

  17. 76 FR 51361 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico AGENCY: Department of Energy (DoE). ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Environmental Management... the areas of environmental restoration, waste management, and related activities. Tentative Agenda 1...

  18. 75 FR 64719 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ...-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Northern New Mexico. The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463...: Wednesday, November 17, 2010, 1 p.m.-7 p.m. ADDRESSES: The Lodge at Santa Fe, 750 North St. Francis Drive... purpose of the Board is to make recommendations to DOE-EM and site management in the areas...

  19. January 2011 Groundwater Sampling at the Gnome-Coach, New Mexico, Site (Data Validation Package)

    SciTech Connect

    2011-11-01

    Annual sampling was conducted January 19, 2011, to monitor groundwater for potential radionuclide contamination at the Gnome-Coach site in New Mexico. The sampling was performed as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351, continually updated). Well LRL-7 was not sampled per instruction from the lead. A duplicate sample was collected from well USGS-1.Water levels were measured in the monitoring wells onsite.

  20. Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of Mexico was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. In areal extent, Mexico is the third largest country on the continent of North America (not counting Greenland, which is a province of Denmark), comprised of almost 2 million square kilometers (756,000 square miles) of land. Home to roughly 100 million people, Mexico is second only to the United States in population, making it the world's largest Spanish-speaking nation. To the north, Mexico shares its border with the United States-a line that runs some 3,100 kilometers (1,900 miles) east to west. About half of this border is defined by the Rio Grande River, which runs southeast to the Gulf of Mexico (partially obscured by clouds in this image) and marks the dividing line between Texas and Mexico. Toward the upper left (northwest) corner of this image is the Baja California peninsula, which provides the western land boundary for the Gulf of California. Toward the northwestern side of the Mexican mainland, you can see the Sierra Madre Occidental Mountains (brownish pixels) running southeast toward Lake Chapala and the city of Guadalajara. About 400 km (250 miles) east and slightly south of Lake Chapala is the capital, Mexico City. Extending northward from Mexico City is the Sierra Madre Oriental Mountains, the irregular line of brownish pixels that seem to frame the western edges of the bright white cumulus clouds in this image. Between these two large mountain ranges is a large, relatively dry highland region. To the south, Mexico shares borders with Guatemala and Belize, both of which are located south of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula. Image courtesy Reto Stockli, Brian Montgomery, and Robert Simmon, based on data from the MODIS Science Team

  1. Expeditions to Drill Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Pacific Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffin, Millard F.

    2005-04-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), an international collaboration of Earth, ocean, and life scientists that began in 2003, offers scientists worldwide unprecedented opportunities to address a vast array of scientific problems in all submarine settings. Recently, the scientific advisory structure of the proposal-driven IODP scheduled drilling expeditions, targeting critical scientific problems in the Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Pacific Ocean, for 2005 and early 2006 (Figure 1, Table 1). The IODP, which is co-led by Japan and the United States, with strong contributions from the European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD) and China, is guided by an initial science plan, ``Earth, Oceans, and Life'' (www.iodp.org). For the first time, through the IODP, scientists have at their disposal both a riser (drilling vessel which has a metal tube surrounding the drill pipe that enables the return of drilling fluid and cuttings to the drill ship; the ``riser'' is attached to a ``blow-out preventer'' or shut-off device at the seafloor) and riserless drilling vessel (which lacks a riser pipe and blow-out preventer), as well as mission-specific capabilities such as drilling barges and jack-up rigs for shallow-water and Arctic drilling.

  2. Mexico.

    PubMed

    1988-02-01

    Focus in this discussion of Mexico is on the following: geography; the people; history; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations; and relations between the US and Mexico. As of July 1987, the population of Mexico numbered 81.9 million with an estimated annual growth rate of 2.09%. 60% of the population is Indian-Spanish (mestizo), 30% American Indian, 9% white, and 1% other. Mexico is the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world and the 2nd most populous country in Latin America. Education is decentralized and expanded. Mexico's topography ranges from low desert plains and jungle-like coastal strips to high plateaus and rugged mountains. Hernan Cortes conquered Mexico in 1919-21 and founded a Spanish colony that lasted for almost 300 years. Independence from Spain was proclaimed by Father Miguel Hidalgo on September 16, 1810; the republic was established on December 6, 1822. Mexico's constitution of 1917 provides for a federal republic with a separation of powers into independent executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government. Significant political themes of the administration of President Miguel de la Madrid Hurtado, who began his 6-year term in 1982, have been restructuring the economy, liberalizing trade practices, decentralizing government services, and eliminating corruption among public servants. In 1987, estimates put the real growth of the Mexican economy at 1.5%; the gross domestic product (GDP) had shrunk by 3.5% in 1986. Yet, on the positive side, Mexico's international reserves increased to record levels in 1987 (to about $15 billion), and its current account surplus reached more than $3 billion. Mexico has made considerable progress in moving to restructure its economy. It has substantially reduced impediments to international trade and has moved to reduce the number of parastatal firms. 1987 was the 2nd consecutive year in which Mexico recorded triple-digit inflation; inflation reached 158.8%. Other problems include

  3. Seismic hazard study for selected sites in New Mexico and Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, J. C.

    1983-12-01

    Seismic hazard evaluations were conducted for specific sites in New Mexico and Nevada. For New Mexico, a model of seismicity was developed from historical accounts of medium to large shocks and the current microactivity record from local networks. Ninety percent confidence levels at Albuquerque and Roswell were computed to be 56 gals for a 10-year period and 77 gals for a 20-year period. Values of ground motion for Clovis were below these values. Peak velocity and displacement were also computed for each site. Deterministic spectra based on the estimated maximum credible earthquake for the zones which the sites occupy were also computed. For the sites in Nevada, the regionalizations used in Battis (1982) for the uniform seismicity model were slightly modified. For 10- and 20-year time periods, peak acceleration values for Indian Springs were computed to be 94 gals and 123 gals and for Hawthorne 206 gals and 268 gals. Deterministic spectra were also computed. The input parameters were well determined for the analysis for the Nevada sites because of the abundance of data. The values computed for New Mexico, however, are likely upper limits. As more data are collected from the area of the Rio Grande rift zone, the pattern of seismicity will become better understood. At this time a more detailed, and thus more accurate, model may emerge.

  4. Monitoring and Modeling Carbon Dynamics at a Network of Intensive Sites in the USA and Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birdsey, R.; Wayson, C.; Johnson, K. D.; Pan, Y.; Angeles, G.; De Jong, B. H.; Andrade, J. L.; Dai, Z.

    2013-05-01

    The Forest Services of the USA and Mexico, supported by NASA and USAID, have begun to establish a network of intensive forest carbon monitoring sites. These sites are used for research and teaching, developing forest management practices, and forging links to the needs of communities. Several of the sites have installed eddy flux towers to basic meteorology data and daily estimates of forest carbon uptake and release, the processes that determine forest growth. Field sampling locations at each site provide estimates of forest biomass and carbon stocks, and monitor forest dynamic processes such as growth and mortality rates. Remote sensing facilitates scaling up to the surrounding landscapes. The sites support information requirements for implementing programs such as Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+), enabling communities to receive payments for ecosystem services such as reduced carbon emissions or improved forest management. In addition to providing benchmark data for REDD+ projects, the sites are valuable for validating state and national estimates from satellite remote sensing and the national forest inventory. Data from the sites provide parameters for forest models that support strategic management analysis, and support student training and graduate projects. The intensive monitoring sites may be a model for other countries in Latin America. Coordination among sites in the USA, Mexico and other Latin American countries can ensure harmonization of approaches and data, and share experiences and knowledge among countries with emerging opportunities for implementing REDD+ and other conservation programs.

  5. Digital Accessible Knowledge and well-inventoried sites for birds in Mexico: baseline sites for measuring faunistic change

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Sigüenza, Adolfo G.; Martínez-Meyer, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Background Faunal change is a basic and fundamental element in ecology, biogeography, and conservation biology, yet vanishingly few detailed studies have documented such changes rigorously over decadal time scales. This study responds to that gap in knowledge, providing a detailed analysis of Digital Accessible Knowledge of the birds of Mexico, designed to marshal DAK to identify sites that were sampled and inventoried rigorously prior to the beginning of major global climate change (1980). Methods We accumulated DAK records for Mexican birds from all relevant online biodiversity data portals. After extensive cleaning steps, we calculated completeness indices for each 0.05° pixel across the country; we also detected ‘hotspots’ of sampling, and calculated completeness indices for these broader areas as well. Sites were designated as well-sampled if they had completeness indices above 80% and >200 associated DAK records. Results We identified 100 individual pixels and 20 broader ‘hotspots’ of sampling that were demonstrably well-inventoried prior to 1980. These sites are catalogued and documented to promote and enable resurvey efforts that can document events of avifaunal change (and non-change) across the country on decadal time scales. Conclusions Development of repeated surveys for many sites across Mexico, and particularly for sites for which historical surveys document their avifaunas prior to major climate change processes, would pay rich rewards in information about distributional dynamics of Mexican birds.

  6. Digital Accessible Knowledge and well-inventoried sites for birds in Mexico: baseline sites for measuring faunistic change

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Sigüenza, Adolfo G.; Martínez-Meyer, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Background Faunal change is a basic and fundamental element in ecology, biogeography, and conservation biology, yet vanishingly few detailed studies have documented such changes rigorously over decadal time scales. This study responds to that gap in knowledge, providing a detailed analysis of Digital Accessible Knowledge of the birds of Mexico, designed to marshal DAK to identify sites that were sampled and inventoried rigorously prior to the beginning of major global climate change (1980). Methods We accumulated DAK records for Mexican birds from all relevant online biodiversity data portals. After extensive cleaning steps, we calculated completeness indices for each 0.05° pixel across the country; we also detected ‘hotspots’ of sampling, and calculated completeness indices for these broader areas as well. Sites were designated as well-sampled if they had completeness indices above 80% and >200 associated DAK records. Results We identified 100 individual pixels and 20 broader ‘hotspots’ of sampling that were demonstrably well-inventoried prior to 1980. These sites are catalogued and documented to promote and enable resurvey efforts that can document events of avifaunal change (and non-change) across the country on decadal time scales. Conclusions Development of repeated surveys for many sites across Mexico, and particularly for sites for which historical surveys document their avifaunas prior to major climate change processes, would pay rich rewards in information about distributional dynamics of Mexican birds. PMID:27651986

  7. Mexico.

    PubMed

    1984-09-01

    Although Mexico has serious economic and population growth problems, the country is making progress toward solving both of these problems. Mexico has a population of 77.7 million and a population density of 102 persons/square mile. The country has a birth rate of 32/1000, a death rate of 6/1000, and an annual growth rate of 2.6%. The estimated infant mortality rate is 55/1000. The median age of the population is 17.4. Mexico City, with a population of 15 million, is the 3rd largest city in the world, and by 1995, it is expected to be the largest city in the world, with a projected population of 25.2 million. The government vigorously promotes family planning, and the annual population growth rate slowed down from a high of 3.2% in 1970-75 to the current rate of 2.6%. Mexico hopes to achieve replacement level fertility by the year 2000. Other government policies promote income equality, agricultural development, and regional equalization of population growth. In 1982 Mexico's per capita income was US$2270, exports totaled US$21 billion, and imports totaled US$15 billion. By 1976, Mexico's international debt was US$30.2 billion, and inflation was rampant. Recently, the newly elected president, Miguel de la Madrid of the Partido Revolucionario Institutional, obtained a grant of US$39 million from the International Monetary Fund and removed price controls. These efforts should help stabilize Mexico's economy. The country will also need to expand its exports and increase its cultivatable acreage.

  8. Mexico.

    PubMed

    1984-09-01

    Although Mexico has serious economic and population growth problems, the country is making progress toward solving both of these problems. Mexico has a population of 77.7 million and a population density of 102 persons/square mile. The country has a birth rate of 32/1000, a death rate of 6/1000, and an annual growth rate of 2.6%. The estimated infant mortality rate is 55/1000. The median age of the population is 17.4. Mexico City, with a population of 15 million, is the 3rd largest city in the world, and by 1995, it is expected to be the largest city in the world, with a projected population of 25.2 million. The government vigorously promotes family planning, and the annual population growth rate slowed down from a high of 3.2% in 1970-75 to the current rate of 2.6%. Mexico hopes to achieve replacement level fertility by the year 2000. Other government policies promote income equality, agricultural development, and regional equalization of population growth. In 1982 Mexico's per capita income was US$2270, exports totaled US$21 billion, and imports totaled US$15 billion. By 1976, Mexico's international debt was US$30.2 billion, and inflation was rampant. Recently, the newly elected president, Miguel de la Madrid of the Partido Revolucionario Institutional, obtained a grant of US$39 million from the International Monetary Fund and removed price controls. These efforts should help stabilize Mexico's economy. The country will also need to expand its exports and increase its cultivatable acreage. PMID:12339665

  9. 2015 Groundwater Monitoring and Inspection Report Gnome-Coach, New Mexico, Site

    SciTech Connect

    Findlay, Rick

    2016-01-01

    The Gnome-Coach, New Mexico, Site was the location of a 3-kiloton-yield underground nuclear test in 1961 and a groundwater tracer test in 1963. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted the groundwater tracer test using four dissolved radionuclides-tritium, iodine-131, strontium-90, and cesium-137-as tracers. Site reclamation and remediation began after the underground testing and was conducted in several phases at the site. The New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) issued a Conditional Certificate of Completion in September 2014, which documents that surface remediation activities have been successfully completed in accordance with the Voluntary Remediation Program. Subsurface activities have included annual sampling and monitoring of wells at and near the site since 1972. These annual monitoring activities were enhanced in 2008 to include monitoring hydraulic head and collecting samples from the onsite wells USGS-4, USGS-8, and LRL-7 using the low-flow sampling method. In 2010, the annual monitoring was focused to the monitoring wells within the site boundary. A site inspection and annual sampling were conducted on January 27-28, 2015. A second site visit was conducted on April21, 2015, to install warning/notification signs to fulfill a requirement of the Conditional Certificate of Completion that was issued by the NMED for the surface.

  10. Long-term surveillance plan for the Shiprock disposal site, Shiprock, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Shiprock, New Mexico, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Shiprock disposal cell. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP is being submitted to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a requirement for issuance of a general license for custody and long-term care for the disposal site. The general license requires that the disposal cell be cared for in accordance with the provisions of this LTSP. This Shiprock, New Mexico, LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the US or an Indian tribe and describes in detail the long-term care program through the UMTRA Project Office.

  11. PROTEIN & SENSORY ANALYSIS TO CHARACTERIZE MEXICAN CHIHUAHUA CHEESES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been established that native microflora in raw milk cheeses, including Queso Chihuahua, a Mexican cheese variety, contributes to the development of unique flavors through degradation of milk proteins resulting in the release of free amino acids and short peptides that influence the taste and ...

  12. Infrared sky noise survey. [over observing sites in the U.S., Mexico, and Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphal, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    A 10 micron infrared sky noise survey, which was conducted during the period from June 1, 1970 to June 30, 1974, is reported along with associated electronics and recording equipment which was developed and deployed for periods up to 18 months at various potential or existing infrared observing sites in the U.S., Mexico, and Chile. The results of the data activity are given, and variables are defined which influence the intensity and duration of the sky noise.

  13. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Ecosystem studies at the Los Medanos Site Eddy County, New Mexico. Volume I of III

    SciTech Connect

    Braswell, J.; Hart, J.S.

    1982-03-01

    This document summarizes the results of biological studies conducted at the Los Medanos site in southeastern New Mexico during 1981. Complete study reports prepared by the principal investigators are included as an appendix to this document. Biological studies have been underway at the Los Medanos site since 1975; this work constitutes a portion of the site characterization effort the US Department of energy (DOE) is pursuing in preparation for the development of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). WIPP is to be a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive waste material produced through national defense activities. The appendix contains the following: Avifauna Baseline Studies at the Los Medanos Site, Southeastern New Mexico; Aquatic Ecosystems of the Lower Pecos Drainage in New Mexico; Floristic Studies at the Los Medanos Site; Los Medanos Project - Soil Studies; Arthropod and Decomposition Studies at the WIPP Site; Ecology of Amphibians, Reptiles, and Mammals at the Los Medanos Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project Area of New Mexico; Vertebrate Ecology at the Los Medanos Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, New Mexico; and Statistical Evaluation of Plant Density Data Collected at the Los Medanos Site, New Mexico (1978-1980).

  14. Survey of subsurface treatment technologies for environmental restoration sites at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect

    McGrath, Lucas K.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Wright, Jerome L.

    2003-08-01

    This report provides a survey of remediation and treatment technologies for contaminants of concern at environmental restoration (ER) sites at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico. The sites that were evaluated include the Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater, Technical Area V, and Canyons sites. The primary contaminants of concern at these sites include trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PCE), and nitrate in groundwater. Due to the low contaminant concentrations (close to regulatory limits) and significant depths to groundwater ({approx}500 feet) at these sites, few in-situ remediation technologies are applicable. The most applicable treatment technologies include monitored natural attenuation and enhanced bioremediation/denitrification to reduce the concentrations of TCE, PCE, and nitrate in the groundwater. Stripping technologies to remove chlorinated solvents and other volatile organic compounds from the vadose zone can also be implemented, if needed.

  15. January 2012 Groundwater Sampling at the Gnome-Coach, New Mexico, Site (Data Validation Package)

    SciTech Connect

    2012-12-01

    Annual sampling was conducted January 18, 2012, to monitor groundwater for potential radionuclide contamination at the Gnome-Coach site in New Mexico. The sampling was performed as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351, continually updated). Well LRL-7 was not sampled per instruction from the lead. A duplicate sample was collected from well USGS-1 and water levels were measured in the monitoring wells onsite.

  16. Long-term surveillance plan for the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Ambrosia Lake disposal site in McKinley County, New Mexico, describes the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the disposal site. The DOE will carry out this program to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials.

  17. Long-term surveillance plan for the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Ambrosia Lake disposal site in McKinley County, New Mexico, describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the disposal site. The DOE will carry out this program to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials.

  18. 2010 Groundwater Monitoring and Inspection Report Gnome-Coach Site, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    2011-02-01

    This report presents the 2010 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) at the Gnome-Coach (Gnome) Site in New Mexico (Figure 1). Groundwater monitoring consisted of collecting hydraulic head data and groundwater samples from the wells on site. Historically, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) had conducted these annual activities under the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program (LTHMP). LM took over the sampling and data collection activities in 2008 but continues to use the EPA Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada, to analyze the water samples. This report summarizes groundwater monitoring and site investigation activities that were conducted at the site during calendar year 2010.

  19. Calendar year 2002 annual site environmental report for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Katrina; Sanchez, Rebecca V.; Mayeux, Lucie; Koss, Susan I.; Salinas, Stephanie A.

    2003-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) is a government-owned, contractor-operated facility overseen by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) through the Sandia Site Office (SSO), Albuquerque, New Mexico. Sandia Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, operates SNL/NM. This annual report summarizes data and the compliance status of Sandia Corporation's environmental protection and monitoring programs through December 31, 2002. Major environmental programs include air quality, water quality, groundwater protection, terrestrial surveillance, waste management, pollution prevention (P2), environmental restoration (ER), oil and chemical spill prevention, and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program (DOE 1990) and DOE Order 231.1, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting (DOE 1996).

  20. Calendar year 2004 annual site environmental report:Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect

    Montoya, Amber L.; Goering, Teresa Lynn; Wagner, Katrina; Koss, Susan I.; Salinas, Stephanie A.

    2005-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) is a government-owned, contractor-operated facility owned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and managed by the Sandia Site Office (SSO), Albuquerque, New Mexico. Sandia Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, operates SNL/NM. This annual report summarizes data and the compliance status of Sandia Corporation's environmental protection and monitoring programs through December 31, 2004. Major environmental programs include air quality, water quality, groundwater protection, terrestrial surveillance, waste management, pollution prevention (P2), environmental restoration (ER), oil and chemical spill prevention, and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program (DOE 2005) and DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting (DOE 2004a). (DOE 2004a).

  1. Calendar year 2003 annual site environmental report for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Katrina; Sanchez, Rebecca V.; Mayeux, Lucie; Koss, Susan I.; Salinas, Stephanie A.

    2004-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) is a government-owned, contractor-operated facility owned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and managed by the Sandia Site Office (SSO), Albuquerque, New Mexico. Sandia Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, operates SNL/NM. This annual report summarizes data and the compliance status of Sandia Corporation's environmental protection and monitoring programs through December 31, 2003. Major environmental programs include air quality, water quality, groundwater protection, terrestrial surveillance, waste management, pollution prevention (P2), environmental restoration (ER), oil and chemical spill prevention, and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 450.1, ''Environmental Protection Program'' (DOE 2003a) and DOE Order 231.1 Chg.2, ''Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting'' (DOE 1996).

  2. Mexico.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    The background notes on Mexico provide text and recent statistical information on the geography, population, government, economy, and foreign relations, specifically the North American Free Trade Agreement with US. The 1992 population is estimated at 89 million of which 60% are mestizo (Indian-Spanish), 30% are American Indian, 9% are Caucasian, and 1% are other. 90% are Roman Catholic. There are 8 years of compulsory education. Infant mortality is 30/1000 live births. Life expectancy for males is 68 years and 76 years for females. The labor force is comprised of 30% in services, 24% in agriculture and fishing, 19% in manufacturing, 13% in commerce, 7% in construction, 4% in transportation and communication, and .4% in mining. There are 31 states and a federal district. Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was $3200 in 1991. Military expenditures were .5% of GDP in 1991. The average inflation rate is 19%. Mexico City with 20 million is the largest urban center in the world. In recent years, the economy has been restructured with market oriented reforms; the result has been a growth of GDP of 3.6% in 1991 from 2% in 1987. Dependence on oil exports has decreased. There has been privatization and deregulation of state-owned companies. Subsidies to inefficient companies have been stopped. Tariff rates were reduced. The financial debt has been reduced and turned into a surplus of .8% in 1992. Mexico's foreign debt has been reduced from its high in 1987 of $107 billion. Agricultural reforms have been ongoing for 50 years. Land was redistributed, but standards of living and productivity have improved only slightly. Rural land tenure regulations have been changed, and other economic reforms are expected. Mexico engages in ad hoc international groups and is selective about membership in international organizations. PMID:12178052

  3. Mexico.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    The background notes on Mexico provide text and recent statistical information on the geography, population, government, economy, and foreign relations, specifically the North American Free Trade Agreement with US. The 1992 population is estimated at 89 million of which 60% are mestizo (Indian-Spanish), 30% are American Indian, 9% are Caucasian, and 1% are other. 90% are Roman Catholic. There are 8 years of compulsory education. Infant mortality is 30/1000 live births. Life expectancy for males is 68 years and 76 years for females. The labor force is comprised of 30% in services, 24% in agriculture and fishing, 19% in manufacturing, 13% in commerce, 7% in construction, 4% in transportation and communication, and .4% in mining. There are 31 states and a federal district. Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was $3200 in 1991. Military expenditures were .5% of GDP in 1991. The average inflation rate is 19%. Mexico City with 20 million is the largest urban center in the world. In recent years, the economy has been restructured with market oriented reforms; the result has been a growth of GDP of 3.6% in 1991 from 2% in 1987. Dependence on oil exports has decreased. There has been privatization and deregulation of state-owned companies. Subsidies to inefficient companies have been stopped. Tariff rates were reduced. The financial debt has been reduced and turned into a surplus of .8% in 1992. Mexico's foreign debt has been reduced from its high in 1987 of $107 billion. Agricultural reforms have been ongoing for 50 years. Land was redistributed, but standards of living and productivity have improved only slightly. Rural land tenure regulations have been changed, and other economic reforms are expected. Mexico engages in ad hoc international groups and is selective about membership in international organizations.

  4. Site Selection for DOE/JIP Gas Hydrate Drilling in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.R.; Shelander, D.; Dai, J.; McConnell, D.; Shedd, W.; Frye, M.; Ruppel, C.; Boswell, R.; Jones, E.; Collett, T.S.; Rose, K.; Dugan, B.; Wood, W.; Latham, T.

    2008-07-01

    In the late spring of 2008, the Chevron-led Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project (JIP) expects to conduct an exploratory drilling and logging campaign to better understand gas hydrate-bearing sands in the deepwater Gulf of Mexico. The JIP Site Selection team selected three areas to test alternative geological models and geophysical interpretations supporting the existence of potential high gas hydrate saturations in reservoir-quality sands. The three sites are near existing drill holes which provide geological and geophysical constraints in Alaminos Canyon (AC) lease block 818, Green Canyon (GC) 955, and Walker Ridge (WR) 313. At the AC818 site, gas hydrate is interpreted to occur within the Oligocene Frio volcaniclastic sand at the crest of a fold that is shallow enough to be in the hydrate stability zone. Drilling at GC955 will sample a faulted, buried Pleistocene channel-levee system in an area characterized by seafloor fluid expulsion features, structural closure associated with uplifted salt, and abundant seismic evidence for upward migration of fluids and gas into the sand-rich parts of the sedimentary section. Drilling at WR313 targets ponded sheet sands and associated channel/levee deposits within a minibasin, making this a non-structural play. The potential for gas hydrate occurrence at WR313 is supported by shingled phase reversals consistent with the transition from gas-charged sand to overlying gas-hydrate saturated sand. Drilling locations have been selected at each site to 1) test geological methods and models used to infer the occurrence of gas hydrate in sand reservoirs in different settings in the northern Gulf of Mexico; 2) calibrate geophysical models used to detect gas hydrate sands, map reservoir thicknesses, and estimate the degree of gas hydrate saturation; and 3) delineate potential locations for subsequent JIP drilling and coring operations that will collect samples for comprehensive physical property, geochemical and other

  5. 26Al production: The Allende meteorite (Chihuahua) stellar nucleosynthesis and solar models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo-Escalona, V.; Andrade, E.; Barrón-Palos, L.; Canto, C.; Favela, F.; Huerta, A.; de Lucio, O.; Ortiz, M. E.; Solís, C.; Chávez, E.

    2015-07-01

    In 1969 a meteorite fell near the small town of Allende, state of Chihuahua in the north of Mexico. Its study yielded information that changed the current understanding of the solar model. In particular traces of 26Al were found. Abundances of that isotope had been seen in the universe and were related to regions of active heavy nucleosynthesis. Its presence on the solar system was unexpected. It is now understood that cosmic rays induce nuclear reactions on materials to produce 26Al, on Earth this is well known and it is the basis of many environmental studies, so it is not only the product of some high metalicity star collapse. Taking advantage of the recently reinforced laboratory infrastructure of the Instituto de Física, at UNAM in Mexico City, we proposed to measure the cross section for 26Al production via some of the most likely reactions, from the nuclear physics point of view (highest Q-values). In this paper the study of the 28Si(d,α)26 Al nuclear reaction is shown. A target is prepared by a mixture of silicon and aluminum powders. It is irradiated with a deuteron beam (≈1 µA current) at the MV CN-Van de Graaff accelerator laboratory. The number of projectiles is deduced by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). The produced 26Al nuclei are then counted at the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory.

  6. {sup 26}Al production: The Allende meteorite (Chihuahua) stellar nucleosynthesis and solar models

    SciTech Connect

    Araujo-Escalona, V.; Andrade, E.; Barrón-Palos, L.; Canto, C.; Favela, F.; Huerta, A.; Lucio, O. de; Ortiz, M. E.; Solís, C.; Chávez, E.

    2015-07-23

    In 1969 a meteorite fell near the small town of Allende, state of Chihuahua in the north of Mexico. Its study yielded information that changed the current understanding of the solar model. In particular traces of {sup 26}Al were found. Abundances of that isotope had been seen in the universe and were related to regions of active heavy nucleosynthesis. Its presence on the solar system was unexpected. It is now understood that cosmic rays induce nuclear reactions on materials to produce {sup 26}Al, on Earth this is well known and it is the basis of many environmental studies, so it is not only the product of some high metalicity star collapse. Taking advantage of the recently reinforced laboratory infrastructure of the Instituto de Física, at UNAM in Mexico City, we proposed to measure the cross section for {sup 26}Al production via some of the most likely reactions, from the nuclear physics point of view (highest Q-values). In this paper the study of the {sup 28}Si(d,α){sup 26} Al nuclear reaction is shown. A target is prepared by a mixture of silicon and aluminum powders. It is irradiated with a deuteron beam (≈1 µA current) at the MV CN-Van de Graaff accelerator laboratory. The number of projectiles is deduced by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). The produced {sup 26}Al nuclei are then counted at the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory.

  7. Snowpack chemistry at selected sites in Colorado and New Mexico during winter 1999-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingersoll, George P.

    2000-01-01

    Snowpacks at two high-elevation (> 3,000 m) sampling sites near McPhee and Sanchez Reservoirs in southern Colorado were selected to collect representative samples of atmospheric deposition to the surrounding watersheds during winter 1999-2000. In February 2000, annual snowpacks at two sites were sampled to determine concentrations of nitrate and sulfate; concentrations of the trace elements arsenic, mercury, and selenium; and the sulfur isotope ratios that result from atmospheric deposition to the area. Snowpack chemistry data at the two sites sampled in 1999-2000 are compared to 1993-99 averages at 10 other snow-sampling sites in Colorado and New Mexico that generally are downwind of the Four Corners area of the southwestern United States. Although concentrations of ammonium and nitrate in the 1999-2000 snowpacks were fairly typical compared to averages established at nearby sites in southern Colorado and northern New Mexico, chloride and sulfate concentrations were below the 1993-99 average, while arsenic, mercury, and selenium in snow were much below the 1993-99 average. However, very similar sulfur-isotope ratios (that are not a function of precipitation amounts) deposited in snowpacks at the nearby sites indicate the snowpack chemistries at the new sampling locations near McPhee and Sanchez reservoirs were affected by similar sources of sulfate. Representative samples of coal burned during the 1999-2000 snowfall season at three power plants near Four Corners also were analyzed for sulfur content and trace elements. Results from separate, independent laboratories show similar concentrations and provide an initial baseline that will be used for general comparisons of coal chemistry to snowpack chemistry.

  8. Supplement to the site observational work plan for the UMTRA project site at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide additional and more detailed information to supplement review of the site observational work plan (SOWP) (DOE, 1995) for the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. This document includes a discussion of the average linear velocity of the ground water in the alluvium and a discussion of the ground water quality of the alluvium, weathered Mancos Shale, and the Tres Hermanos-C Member of the Mancos Shale. The data from a 1989 aquifer test were analyzed using the curve-matching software AQTESOLV and then compared with the original results. A hydrograph of the ground water elevations in monitoring wells screened in the alluvium is presented to show how the ground water elevations change with time. Stiff and Piper diagrams were created to describe the changes in ground water geochemistry in the alluvium/weathered Mancos Sahel unit, the Tres Hermanos-C Sandstone unit, the Tres Hermanos-B Sandstone unit, and the Dakota Sandstone. Background information on other related topics such as site history, cell construction, soil characteristics, and well construction are presented in the SOWP. A geologic cross section depicts the conceptual model of the hydrostratigraphy and ground water chemistry of the Ambrosia Lake site. Hydrogeologic information of each hydrostratigraphic unit is presented.

  9. Supplement to the site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project Site at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide additional and more detailed information to supplement review of the site observational work plan (SOWP) for the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. This document includes a discussion of (1) the average linear velocity of the ground water in the alluvium; (2) the ground water quality of the alluvium, weathered Mancos Shale, and the Tres Hermanos-C Member of the Mancos Shale; and (3) the fate and transport of contaminants from the uppermost aquifer to the Westwater Canyon Member of the Morrison Formation. The data from a 1989 aquifer test were analyzed using the curve-matching software AQTESOLV and then compared with the original results. A hydrograph of the ground water elevations in monitoring wells screened in the alluvium is presented to show how the ground water elevations change with time. Stiff and Piper diagrams were created to describe the changes in ground water geochemistry in the alluvium/weathered Mancos Shale unit, the Tres Hermanos-C Sandstone unit, the Tres Hermanos-B Sandstone unit, and the Dakota Sandstone. Background information on other related topics such as site history, cell construction, soil characteristics, and well construction are presented in the SOWP. Figure 1 is a geologic cross section depicting the conceptual model of the hydrostratigraphy and ground water chemistry of the Ambrosia Lake site. Table 1 presents hydrogeologic information of each hydrostratigraphic unit.

  10. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project site at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Ambrosia Lake Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site is within the Grants Mineral Belt and was one of numerous uranium mills supplied by many local mines. Ground water contamination at the site occurred as a result of uranium mill operations. The potential for impacts to human health and the environment from contaminated ground water currently does not exist. No domestic or livestock wells accessing ground water from the uppermost aquifer have been identified within a 5 mile radius from the site. Therefore, no current exposure pathways to humans, livestock, or wildlife exist, nor are any foreseen. The proposed ground water compliance strategy under consideration for application at the Ambrosia Lake site is to perform no remediation, based on the application of supplemental standards because the ground water has ``limited use.``

  11. Temporal variation of fine particle mass at two sites in Mexico City

    SciTech Connect

    Serrano, P.; Allen, G.; Castillejos, M.; Gold, D.; Speizer, F.; Hernandez, M.; Hayes, C.; McDonnell, W.

    1994-12-31

    Simultaneous sampling of fine mass (PM{sub 2.5}, using an integrated 24 hour gravimetric method) and the particle scattering extinction coefficient (b{sub sp}, using a heated integrating nephelometer) were used to estimate continuous fine particle concentration at two sites in Mexico City. Linear regression analysis of the 24 h averages of b{sub sp} and the PM{sub 2.5} integrated samples was done on a seasonal basis. The coefficients of determination (R{sup 2}) between these methods ranged from 0.84 to 0.90 for the different sampling periods. These data are the first attempt to describe the diurnal variation of fine mass in Mexico City. Distinct and different diurnal patterns were observed for both sites. For the site located near an industrialized area, a sharp peak occurred between 0700 and 0900 hours and a second smaller but broader peak occurred late at night. This site is characterized by the presence of primary pollutants, with PM{sub 10} annual mean concentrations exceeding 150 {micro}g {center_dot} m{sup {minus}3}. The second bite is located in a residential area down wind of the industrialized area, and is characterized by the presence of secondary pollutants with much lower PM{sub 10} concentrations (annual mean of under 50 {micro}g {center_dot} m{sup {minus}3}). The diurnal fine mass pattern at this site had a broad peak between 0900 and 1200 hours. On individual days, fine mass was sometimes highly correlated with ozone.

  12. 2011 Groundwater Monitoring and Inspection Report Gnome-Coach Site, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    2012-02-01

    Gnome-Coach was the site of a 3-kiloton underground nuclear test in 1961. Surface and subsurface contamination resulted from the underground nuclear testing, post-test drilling, and groundwater tracer test performed at the site. The State of New Mexico is currently proceeding with a conditional certificate of completion for the surface. As for the subsurface, monitoring activities that include hydraulic head monitoring and groundwater sampling of the wells onsite are conducted as part of the annual site inspection. These activities were conducted on January 19, 2011. The site roads, monitoring well heads, and the monument at surface ground zero were observed as being in good condition at the time of the site inspection. An evaluation of the hydraulic head data obtained from the site indicates that water levels in wells USGS-4 and USGS-8 appear to respond to the on/off cycling of the dedicated pump in well USGS-1 and that water levels in wells LRL-7 and DD-1 increased during this annual monitoring period. Analytical results obtained from the sampling indicate that concentrations of tritium, strontium-90, and cesium-137 were consistent with concentrations from historical sampling events.

  13. View From a Megacity: Aerosol Light Absorption and Scattering at Four Sites in and Near Mexico City.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paredes-Miranda, G.; Arnott, W. P.; Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.

    2006-12-01

    As part of the Megacity Impacts on Regional and Global Environments, MIRAGE-Mex deployment to Mexico City in the period of 30 days, March 2006, a suite of photoacoustic spectrometers (PAS) were installed to measure at ground level the light absorption and scattering by aerosols at four sites: an urban site at Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexican Oil Institute, denoted by IMP), a suburban site at the Technological University of Tecamac, a rural site at "La Biznaga" ranch, and a site at the Paseo de Cortes (altitude 3,810 meters ASL) in the rural area above Amecameca in the State of Mexico, on the saddle between the volcanoes Popocatepetl and Iztaccihuatl. The IMP site gave in-situ characterization of the Mexico City plume under favorable wind conditions while the other sites provided characterization of the plume, mixed in with any local sources. The second and third sites are north of Mexico City, and the fourth site is south. The PAS used at IMP operates at 532 nm, and conveniently allowed for characterization of gaseous absorption at this wavelength as well. Instruments at the second and third sites operate at 870 nm, and the one at the fourth site at 780 nm. Light scattering measurements are accomplished within the PAS by the reciprocal nephelometery method. In the urban site the aerosol absorption coefficient typically varies between 40 and 250 Mm-1 during the course of the day and significant diurnal variation of the aerosol single scattering albedo was observed. Comparisons with TSI nephelometer scattering and Aetholemeter absorption measurements at the T0 site will be presented. We will present a broad overview of the diurnal variation of the scattering and absorption as well as the single scattering albedo and fraction of absorption due to gases at the IMP site. Insight on the dynamical connections will be discussed.

  14. Annual Site Environmental Report Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Calendar year 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Agogino, Karen; Sanchez, Rebecca

    2008-09-30

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) is a government-owned/contractor-operated facility. Sandia Corporation (Sandia), a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, manages and operates the laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The DOE/NNSA Sandia Site Office (SSO) administers the contract and oversees contractor operations at the site. This annual report summarizes data and the compliance status of Sandia Corporation’s environmental protection and monitoring programs through December 31, 2007. Major environmental programs include air quality, water quality, groundwater protection, terrestrial surveillance, waste management, pollution prevention (P2), environmental restoration (ER), oil and chemical spill prevention, and implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program (DOE 2007a) and DOE Manual 231.1-1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting (DOE 2007).

  15. Calendar Year 2009 Annual Site Environmental Report for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Karen; Bailey-White, Brenda; Bonaguidi, Joseph; Brown, Mendy; Byrd, Caroline; Cabble, Kevin; Castillo, Dave; Coplen, Amy; Curran, Kelsey; Deola, Regina; Duran, Leroy; Eckstein, Joanna; Evelo, Stacie; Fitzgerald, Tanja; French, Chris; Gerard, Morgan; Gonzales, Linda; Gorman, Susan; Jackson, Timothy; Jarry, Jeff; Jones, Adrian; Lauffer, Franz; Mauser, Joseph; Mayeux, Lucie; McCord, Samuel; Miller, Mark; Oborny, Stephanie; Perini, Robin; Puissant, Pamela; Reiser, Anita; Roma, Charles; Salinas, Stephanie; Skelly, Michael; Ullrich, Rebecca; Wagner, Katrina; Wrons, Ralph

    2010-09-30

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) is a government-owned/contractor operated facility. Sandia Corporation (Sandia), a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation (LMC), manages and operates the laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The DOE/NNSA, Sandia Site O ffice (SSO) administers the contract and oversees contractor operations at the site. This annual report summarizes data and the compliance status of Sandia Corporation’s environmental protection and monitoring programs through December 31, 2009. Major environmental programs include air quality, water quality, groundwater protection, terrestrial surveillance, waste management, pollution prevention (P2), environmental restoration (ER), oil and chemical spill prevention, and implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 450.1A, Environmental Protection Program (DOE 2008a) and DOE Manual 231.1-1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting (DOE 2007).

  16. June 2011 Natural Gas and Produced Water Sampling at the Gasbuggy, New Mexico, Site

    SciTech Connect

    2011-10-01

    Annual natural gas and produced water monitoring was conducted for gas wells adjacent to Section 36, where the Gasbuggy test was conducted, in accordance with the draft Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the Gasbuggy Site, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico. Sampling and analysis were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351, continually updated). Natural gas samples were collected for tritium and carbon-14 analyses. Produced water samples were collected and analyzed for tritium, gamma-emitting radionuclides (by high-resolution gamma spectrometry), gross alpha, and gross beta. A duplicate produced water sample was collected from well 30-039-21743. Produced water samples were not collected at locations 30-039-30161 and 30-039-21744 because of the lack of water. Samples were not collected from location 30-039-29988 because the well was shut-in.

  17. Long-term surveillance plan for the Shiprock Disposal site, Shiprock, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Shiprock, New Mexico, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Shiprock disposal cell. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). This LTSP documents the land ownership interests and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  18. July 2010 Natural Gas and Produced Water Sampling at the Gasbuggy, New Mexico, Site

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    Annual natural gas and produced water monitoring was conducted for gas wells adjacent to Section 36, where the Gasbuggy test was conducted, in accordance with the draft Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the Gasbuggy Site, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico. Sampling and analysis was conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites. (LMS/PLN/S04351, continually updated). Natural gas samples were collected for tritium and carbon-14 analysis. Produced water samples were collected and analyzed for tritium, gamma-emitting radionuclides (by high-resolution gamma spectrometry), gross alpha, and gross beta. An additional water sample was collected from well 29-6 Water Hole for analysis of tritium and gamma-emitting radionuclides. A duplicate produced water sample was collected from well 30-039-21743.

  19. Site Characterization Work Plan for Gasbuggy, New Mexico (Rev.1, Jan. 2002)

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office

    2002-01-25

    Project Gasbuggy was the first of three joint government-industry experiments conducted to test the effectiveness of nuclear explosives to fracture deeply buried, low-permeability natural gas reservoirs to stimulate production. The scope of this work plan is to document the environmental objectives and the proposed technical site investigation strategies that will be utilized for the site characterization of the Project Gasbuggy Site. Its goal is the collection of data in sufficient quantity and quality to determine current site conditions, support a risk assessment for the site surfaces, and evaluate if further remedial action is required to achieve permanent closure of the site that is both protective of human health and the environment. The Gasbuggy Site is located approximately 55 air miles east of Farmington, New Mexico, in Rio Arriba County within the Carson National Forest in the northeast portion of the San Juan Basin. Historically, Project Gasbuggy consisted of the joint government-industry detonation of a nuclear device on December 10, 1967, followed by reentry drilling and gas production testing and project evaluation activities in post-detonation operations from 1967 to 1976. Based on historical documentation, no chemical release sites other than the mud pits were identified; additionally, there was no material buried at the Gasbuggy Site other than drilling fluids and construction debris. Although previous characterization and restoration activities including sensitive species surveys, cultural resources surveys, surface geophysical surveys, and limited soil sampling and analysis were performed in 1978 and again in 2000, no formal closure of the site was achieved. Also, these efforts did not adequately address the site's potential for chemical contamination at the surface/shallow subsurface ground levels or the subsurface hazards for potential migration outside of the current site subsurface intrusion restrictions. Additional investigation activities

  20. Reloading Continuous GPS in Northwest Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, J. J.; Suarez-Vidal, F.; Gonzalez-Ortega, J. A.

    2007-05-01

    For more than 10 years we try to follow the steps of the Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN) and the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) in USA, this gives us the opportunity to be in position to contribute to develop a modern GPS Network in Mexico. During 1998 and 2001, three stations were deployed in Northwest Mexico in concert with the development of SCIGN: SPMX in north central Baja California state at the National Astronomical Observatory, UNAM in the Sierra San Pedro Martir; CORX in Isla Coronados Sur, offshore San Diego, Ca./Tijuana, Mexico and GUAX in Guadalupe island 150 miles offshore Baja California peninsula, which provide a unique site on the Pacific plate in the Northamerica/Pacific boundary zone in Las Californias. The former IGS station in CICESE, Ensenada, CICE installed in 1995, was replaced by CIC1 in 1999. In 2004 and 2005 with partial support from SCIGN and UNAVCO to University of Arizona a volunteer team from UNAVCO, Caltech, U.S. Geological Survey, Universidad de la Sierra at Moctezuma Sonora and CICESE built two new shallow-braced GPS sites in northwest Mexico. The first site USMX is located at east-central Sonora and the second YESX is located high in the Sierra Madre Occidental at Yecora near the southern border of Sonora and Chihuahua. All data is openly available at SOPAC and/or UNAVCO. The existing information has been valuable to resolve the "total" plate motion between the Pacific plate (GUAX) and the Northamerica plate (USMX and YESX) in the north- central Gulf of California. Since the last year we have the capability of GPS data processing using GAMIT/GLOBK, and after gain some practice with survey mode data processing we can convert us in a GPS processing center in Mexico. Currently only 2 sites are operational: CIC1 and USMX. With new energy we are ready to contribute to the establishment of a modern GPS network in Mexico for science, hazard monitoring and infrastructure.

  1. Aerosol Light Absorption and Scattering at Four Sites in and Near Mexico City: Comparison with Las Vegas, Nevada, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnott, W. P.; Miranda, G. P.; Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.

    2007-05-01

    Four photoacoustic spectrometers (PAS) for aerosol light scattering and absorption measurements were deployed in and near Mexico City in March 2006 as part of the Megacity Impacts on Regional and Global Environments (MIRAGE). The four sites included: an urban site at Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexican Oil Institute, denoted by IMP); a suburban site at the Technological University of Tecamac; a rural site at "La Biznaga" ranch; and a site at the Paseo de Cortes (altitude 3,810 meters ASL) in the rural area above Amecameca in the State of Mexico, on the saddle between the volcanoes Popocatepetl and Iztaccihuatl. A similar campaign was held in Las Vegas, Nevada, USA in January-February, 2003. The IMP site gave in-situ characterization of the Mexico City plume under favorable wind conditions while the other sites provided characterization of the plume, mixed in with any local sources. The second and third sites are north of Mexico City, and the fourth site is south. The PAS used at IMP operates at 532 nm, and conveniently allowed for characterization of gaseous absorption at this wavelength as well. Instruments at the second and third sites operate at 870 nm, and the one at the fourth site at 780 nm. Light scattering measurements are accomplished within the PAS by the reciprocal nephelometery method. In the urban site the aerosol absorption coefficient typically varies between 20 and 180 Mm-1 during the course of the day and significant diurnal variation of the aerosol single scattering albedo was observed probably as a consequence of secondary aerosol formation. Comparisons with TSI nephelometer scattering at the T0 site will be presented. We will present the diurnal variation of the scattering and absorption as well as the single scattering albedo and fraction of absorption due to gases at the IMP site and compare with Las Vegas diurnal variation. Mexico City 'breaths' more during the course of the day than Las Vegas, Nevada in part because the latitude of

  2. Assessment of hydrologic transport of radionuclides from the Gnome underground nuclear test site, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Earman, S.; Chapman, J.; Pohlmann, K.; Andricevic, R.

    1996-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is operating an environmental restoration program to characterize, remediate, and close non-Nevada Test Site locations that were used for nuclear testing. Evaluation of radionuclide transport by groundwater from these sites is an important part of the preliminary site risk analysis. These evaluations are undertaken to allow prioritization of the test areas in terms of risk, provide a quantitative basis for discussions with regulators and the public about future work at the sites, and provide a framework for assessing data needs to be filled by site characterization. The Gnome site in southeastern New Mexico was the location of an underground detonation of a 3.5-kiloton nuclear device in 1961, and a hydrologic tracer test using radionuclides in 1963. The tracer test involved the injection of tritium, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 137}Cs directly into the Culebra Dolomite, a nine to ten-meter-thick aquifer located approximately 150 in below land surface. The Gnome nuclear test was carried out in the Salado Formation, a thick salt deposit located 200 in below the Culebra. Because salt behaves plastically, the cavity created by the explosion is expected to close, and although there is no evidence that migration has actually occurred, it is assumed that radionuclides from the cavity are released into the overlying Culebra Dolomite during this closure process. Transport calculations were performed using the solute flux method, with input based on the limited data available for the site. Model results suggest that radionuclides may be present in concentrations exceeding drinking water regulations outside the drilling exclusion boundary established by DOE. Calculated mean tritium concentrations peak at values exceeding the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking water standard of 20,000 pCi/L at distances of up to almost eight kilometers west of the nuclear test.

  3. Assessment of hydrologic transport of radionuclides from the Gasbuggy underground nuclear test site, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Earman, S.; Chapman, J.; Andricevic, R.

    1996-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is operating an environmental restoration program to characterize, remediate, and close non-Nevada Test Site locations that were used for nuclear testing. Evaluation of radionuclide transport by groundwater from these sites is an important part of the preliminary risk analysis. These evaluations are undertaken to allow prioritization of the test areas in terms of risk, provide a quantitative basis for discussions with regulators and the public about future work at the sites, and provide a framework for assessing data needs to be filled by site characterization. The Gasbuggy site in northwestern New Mexico was the location of an underground detonation of a 29-kiloton nuclear device in 1967. The test took place in the Lewis Shale, approximately 182 m below the Ojo Alamo Sandstone, which is the aquifer closest to the detonation horizon. The conservative assumption was made that tritium was injected from the blast-created cavity into the Ojo Alamo Sandstone by the force of the explosion, via fractures created by the shot. Model results suggest that if radionuclides produced by the shot entered the Ojo Alamo, they are most likely contained within the area currently administered by DOE. The transport calculations are most sensitive to changes in the mean groundwater velocity, followed by the variance in hydraulic conductivity, the correlation scale of hydraulic conductivity, the transverse hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient, and uncertainty in the source size. This modeling was performed to investigate how the uncertainty in various physical parameters affects calculations of radionuclide transport at the Gasbuggy site, and to serve as a starting point for discussion regarding further investigation at the site; it was not intended to be a definitive simulation of migration pathways or radionuclide concentration values.

  4. Mexico.

    PubMed

    De Sherbinin, A

    1990-02-01

    Results of Mexico's 1987 National Survey of Fertility and Health (ENFES) shows significant changes in total fertility rates (TFR) and contraceptive prevalence rates. These changes are due i large part to the institutionalization of a population policy enacted in 1972 that has continued to receive strong support from the government. The TFR declined from 6.3 to 3.8 with urban rates falling 50% and rural rates 3/4. Between 1976-86 use of modern contraception doubled, going from 23-45%. Use of the pill declined while female sterilization increased for 9-36%; IUD's remained the 2nd most popular method at 18%. Contraceptive prevalence rates mirror changes in desired family sizes; women between 15-19 now desire 2.6 children while women at the end of their reproductive cycle expect to have 4. Infant mortality rates dropped from 85 to 47/1000 between 1970 and 1987. 62% of illiterate women wish to stop childbearing as compared with 49% of women with secondary schooling. This difference is related to differences in the ages of the 2 groups; as education has spread, women without any schooling tend to be older and have higher parity; and in spite of wanting to stop childbearing, they are 10 times less likely to use contraception than their more educated counterparts. 67% of the women interviewed received prenatal care from a doctor, with higher rates among the urban population. Between 80-90% of women breastfed their children, with higher rates among the rural poor.

  5. New Mexico state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    SciTech Connect

    2014-12-31

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of New Mexico. It contains a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations.

  6. New Mexico state information handbook formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-31

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Informaion Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of New Mexico. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations.

  7. Calendar Year 2013 Annual Site Environmental Report for Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, Stacy

    2014-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico is a government-owned/contractor-operated facility. Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, manages and operates the laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The DOE/NNSA, Sandia Field Office administers the contract and oversees contractor operations at the site. This annual report summarizes data and the compliance status of Sandia Corporation’s sustainability, environmental protection, and monitoring programs through December 31, 2013. Major environmental programs include air quality, water quality, groundwater protection, terrestrial surveillance, waste management, pollution prevention, environmental restoration, oil and chemical spill prevention, and implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act. Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 231.1B, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting (DOE 2012).

  8. Pylorogastric intussusception in a Chihuahua puppy. A case report.

    PubMed

    Lideo, L; Mutinelli, F; Milan, R

    2010-12-01

    A three-month-old Chihuahua dog was presented with acute abdominal pain, vomiting and cardiovascular shock. Abdominal ultrasound (US) and iodated contrast gastrogram revealed suspected pylorogastric intussusception. Because of the poor prognosis the dog was euthanatized. Diagnosis of pylorogastric intussusception was confirmed at necropsy. Parasitological, virological, serological and histological examinations were also performed. This report documents the sixth case of pylorogastric (i.e. duodenogastric, gastrogastric) intussusception in the veterinary medical literature and it is the first report on a puppy dog in which US and radiographic diagnosis were confirmed post mortem.

  9. January 2015 Groundwater Sampling at the Gnome-Coach, New Mexico, Site

    SciTech Connect

    Findlay, Rick; Kautsky, Mark

    2015-12-01

    Annual sampling was conducted January 27, 2015, to monitor groundwater for potential radionuclide contamination at the Gnome-Coach site in New Mexico. Samples were collected from wells USGS-1, USGS-4, and USGS-8 during this monitoring event. The sampling was performed as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for US. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). A duplicate sample was collected from well USGS-8 and water levels were measured in all the monitoring wells onsite. Refer to the sample location map for well locations. Samples were analyzed by GEL Laboratories in Charleston, South Carolina. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry, strontium-90, and tritium. The sample from well USGS-1 was analyzed for tritium using the enrichment method to achieve a lower minimum detectable concentration (MDC). Radionuclide contaminants were detected in wells USGS-4 and USGS-8. The detection of radionuclides in these wells was expected because the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a tracer test between these wells in 1963 using the dissolved radionuclides tritium, strontium-90, and cesium-137 as tracers. Radionuclide time-concentration graphs are included in this report for these wells. Analytical data obtained from this and past sampling events are also available in electronic format on the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Geospatial Environmental Mapping System website at http://gems.lm.doe.gov/#site=GNO.

  10. Status of the ground water flow model for the UMTRA Project, Shiprock, New Mexico, site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    A two-dimensional numerical model was constructed for the alluvial aquifer in the area of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Shiprock, New Mexico, site. This model was used to investigate the effects of various hydrologic parameters on the evolution of the ground water flow field. Results of the model are useful for defining uncertainties in the site conceptual model and suggesting data collection efforts to reduce these uncertainties. The computer code MODFLOW was used to simulate the two-dimensional flow of ground water in the alluvium. The escarpment was represented as a no-flow boundary. The San Juan River was represented with the MODFLOW river package. A uniform hydraulic conductivity distribution with the value estimated by the UMTRA Project Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) and a uniform recharge distribution was used. Infiltration from the flowing artesian well was represented using the well package. The ground water flow model was calibrated to ground water levels observed in April 1993. Inspection of hydrographs shows that these levels are representative of typical conditions at the site.

  11. 47 CFR 90.383 - RSU sites near the U.S./Canada or U.S./Mexico border.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... border. 90.383 Section 90.383 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND... Communications Service (dsrcs) § 90.383 RSU sites near the U.S./Canada or U.S./Mexico border. Until such time as... effective governing border area use of the 5850-5925 MHz band for DSRCS, authorizations to operate...

  12. 47 CFR 90.383 - RSU sites near the U.S./Canada or U.S./Mexico border.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... border. 90.383 Section 90.383 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND... Communications Service (dsrcs) § 90.383 RSU sites near the U.S./Canada or U.S./Mexico border. Until such time as... effective governing border area use of the 5850-5925 MHz band for DSRCS, authorizations to operate...

  13. 47 CFR 90.383 - RSU sites near the U.S./Canada or U.S./Mexico border.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... border. 90.383 Section 90.383 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND... Communications Service (dsrcs) § 90.383 RSU sites near the U.S./Canada or U.S./Mexico border. Until such time as... effective governing border area use of the 5850-5925 MHz band for DSRCS, authorizations to operate...

  14. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Shiprock site, Shiprock, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Shiprock site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Shiprock, New Mexico. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.5 million dry tons of tailings at the Shiprock site constitutes the most significant environental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The eight alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through VIII). Cost estimates for the eight options range from about $13,400,000 for stabilization in place to about $37,900,000 for disposal at a distance of about 16 miles. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Shiprock tailings were examined: (a) heap leaching; (b) treatment at an existing mill; and (c) reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $230/lb by heap leach and $250/lb by conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery is not economically attractive.

  15. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Phillips/United Nuclear site, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah, Inc., has reevaluated the Phillips/United Nuclear site in order to revise the December 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from 2.6 million dry tons of tailings at the Phillips/United Nuclear site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site. Cost estimates for the four options range from about $21,500,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $45,200,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Phillips/United Nuclear tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing.The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $87/lb of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ by either heap leach or conventional plant process. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Reprocessing the Phillips/United Nuclear tailings for uranium recovery does not appear to be economically attractive under present or foreseeable market conditions.

  16. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Shiprock Site, Shiprock, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    1981-07-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Shiprock site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Shiprock, New Mexico. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.5 million dry tons of tailings at the Shiprock site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The eight alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of the stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through VIII). Cost estimates for the eight options range from about $13,400,000 for stabilization in place to about $37,900,000 for disposal at a distance of about 16 miles. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Shiprock tailings were examined: (a) heap leaching; (b) treatment at an existing mill; and(c) reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $230/lb by heap leach and $250/lb by conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery is not economically attractive.

  17. Sensory and protein profiles of Mexican Chihuahua cheese.

    PubMed

    Paul, Moushumi; Nuñez, Alberto; Van Hekken, Diane L; Renye, John A

    2014-11-01

    Native microflora in raw milk cheeses, including the Mexican variety Queso Chihuahua, contribute to flavor development through degradation of milk proteins. The effects of proteolysis were studied in four different brands of Mexican Queso Chihuahua made from raw milk. All of the cheeses were analyzed for chemical and sensory characteristics. Sensory testing revealed that the fresh cheeses elicited flavors of young, basic cheeses, with slight bitter notes. Analysis by gel electrophoresis and reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) revealed that the Queseria Blumen (X) and Queseria Super Fino (Z) cheeses show little protein degradation over time while the Queseria America (W) and Queseria Lago Grande (Y) samples are degraded extensively when aged at 4 °C for 8 weeks. Analysis of the mixture of water-soluble cheese proteins by mass spectrometry revealed the presence of short, hydrophobic peptides in quantities correlating with bitterness. All cheese samples contained enterococcal strains known to produce enterocins. The W and Y cheese samples had the highest number of bacteria and exhibited greater protein degradation than that observed for the X and Z cheeses. PMID:26396342

  18. Site Fidelity in Space Use by Spider Monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Fernandez, Gabriel; Smith Aguilar, Sandra E.; Schaffner, Colleen M.; Vick, Laura G.; Aureli, Filippo

    2013-01-01

    Animal home ranges may vary little in their size and location in the short term but nevertheless show more variability in the long term. We evaluated the degree of site fidelity of two groups of spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) over a 10- and 13-year period, respectively, in the northeastern Yucatan peninsula, Mexico. We used the Local Convex Hull method to estimate yearly home ranges and core areas (defined as the 60% probability contour) for the two groups. Home ranges varied from 7.7 to 49.6 ha and core areas varied from 3.1 to 9.2 ha. We evaluated the degree of site fidelity by quantifying the number of years in which different areas were used as either home ranges or core areas. Large tracts were used only as home ranges and only for a few years, whereas small areas were used as either core area or home range for the duration of the study. The sum of the yearly core areas coincided partially with the yearly home ranges, indicating that home ranges contain areas used intermittently. Home ranges, and especially core areas, contained a higher proportion of mature forest than the larger study site as a whole. Across years and only in one group, the size of core areas was positively correlated with the proportion of adult males in the group, while the size of home ranges was positively correlated with both the proportion of males and the number of tree species included in the diet. Our findings suggest that spider monkey home ranges are the result of a combination of long-term site fidelity and year-to-year use variation to enable exploration of new resources. PMID:23675427

  19. Environmental state and tendencies of the Puerto Morelos CARICOMP site, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Rosa E; Ruíz-Rentería, Francisco; van Tussenbroek, Brigitta; Barba-Santos, Guadalupe; Escalante-Mancera, Edgar; Jordán-Garza, Guillermo; Jordán-Dahlgren, Eric

    2010-10-01

    The CARICOMP site at Puerto Morelos, Mexico was monitored from 1993 to 2005. No significant changes in air temperature, wind patterns, periodicity and quantity of rainfall, sea-surface temperature and water transparency were observed between sampling years. During the study four hurricane impacts were registered. At the coral reef site overall mean cover of fleshy algae (47%) and turf algae (36%) were high, whereas cover of corals (2%) and sponges (3%), and abundance of sea-urchins (0.04 org m(-2)) were consistently low. Gorgonians were dominant and showed changes in their community structure; the number of species increased from 1993 to 1995, their abundance decreased after Hurricane Roxanne (1995) and recovered by 2001. At four seagrass sites total community biomass remained constant (707.1-929.6 g dry m(-2)) but the above-ground biomass of the seagrass Syringodium filiforme and fleshy algae increased gradually. Total biomass (531-699 g dry m(-2)) and leaf productivity (0.89-1.56 g dry m(-2) d(-1)) of the seagrass Thalassia testudinum remained constant, but the species invested proportionally more biomass in above-ground leaf tissues at the end of the study. The minor hurricanes from 1993 until 2005 had no detectable impacts on the seagrass beds, however, the major Hurricane Wilma (October 2005) changed the community composition at three stations and caused complete burial of the vegetation at a coastal station. The gradual changes in the seagrass and reef communities recorded in the 12 years of continuous monitoring of the CARICOMP site may reflect the increased pollution caused by the rapid augment in urban and tourist developments along the coasts and inland from Puerto Morelos, coupled with poor water management practices.

  20. Site fidelity in space use by spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) in the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Fernandez, Gabriel; Smith Aguilar, Sandra E; Schaffner, Colleen M; Vick, Laura G; Aureli, Filippo

    2013-01-01

    Animal home ranges may vary little in their size and location in the short term but nevertheless show more variability in the long term. We evaluated the degree of site fidelity of two groups of spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) over a 10- and 13-year period, respectively, in the northeastern Yucatan peninsula, Mexico. We used the Local Convex Hull method to estimate yearly home ranges and core areas (defined as the 60% probability contour) for the two groups. Home ranges varied from 7.7 to 49.6 ha and core areas varied from 3.1 to 9.2 ha. We evaluated the degree of site fidelity by quantifying the number of years in which different areas were used as either home ranges or core areas. Large tracts were used only as home ranges and only for a few years, whereas small areas were used as either core area or home range for the duration of the study. The sum of the yearly core areas coincided partially with the yearly home ranges, indicating that home ranges contain areas used intermittently. Home ranges, and especially core areas, contained a higher proportion of mature forest than the larger study site as a whole. Across years and only in one group, the size of core areas was positively correlated with the proportion of adult males in the group, while the size of home ranges was positively correlated with both the proportion of males and the number of tree species included in the diet. Our findings suggest that spider monkey home ranges are the result of a combination of long-term site fidelity and year-to-year use variation to enable exploration of new resources.

  1. Archaeomagnetic Study of Limeplasters from Pre-hispanic Sites from Central Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueda, Y. T.; Soler, A. M.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J. H.; Rebolledo, M.; Goguitchaichvili, A.; Caballero, C. I.; Tarling, D. H.

    2001-05-01

    In this work, we report the new archeomagnetic data from limeplasters of the archeological sites Teopancazco, Teotihuacan, Xochicalco and Templo Mayor, which correspond to Classical, Epi-Classical and Post-Classical periods of Mesoamerica, respectively. The results obtained allowed us to improve the existing paleosecular variation reference curve for Mesoamerica. The previously reported results, we used for our database belongs to Latham et al., 1986, (stalagmite with a time span from 750 A.D. to 1941 A.D.), and from Urrutia-Fucugauchi, 1996, (historic eruptions). We also incorporated some declination data from explorers and mexican scientists during 1587 to 1869. The observatory data used in this study come from the Teoloyucan magnetic observatory, run by UNAM in central Mexico since 1923. Results of unburned limeplasters permit date the time of elaboration of the limeplasters. Moreover, we were able to discriminate between different construction steps for studied archaeological sites. From the study of burned samples it is possible to date the re-occupation of Teotihuacan culture by the Aztecs.

  2. 2012 Groundwater Monitoring and Inspection Report Gnome-Coach, New Mexico, Site

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    Gnome-Coach was the site of a 3-kiloton underground nuclear test conducted in 1961. Surface and subsurface contamination resulted from the underground nuclear testing, post-test drilling, and a groundwater tracer test performed at the site. Surface reclamation and remediation began after the underground testing. A Completion Report was prepared, and the State of New Mexico is currently proceeding with a conditional certificate of completion for the surface. Subsurface corrective action activities began in 1972 and have generally consisted of annual sampling and monitoring of wells near the site. In 2008, the annual site inspections were refined to include hydraulic head monitoring and collection of samples from groundwater monitoring wells onsite using the low-flow sampling method. These activities were conducted during this monitoring period on January 18, 2012. Analytical results from this sampling event indicate that concentrations of tritium, strontium-90, and cesium-137 were generally consistent with concentrations from historical sampling events. The exceptions are the decreases in concentrations of strontium-90 in samples from wells USGS-4 and USGS-8, which were more than 2.5 times lower than last year's results. Well USGS-1 provides water for livestock belonging to area ranchers, and a dedicated submersible pump cycles on and off to maintain a constant volume in a nearby water tank. Water levels in wells USGS-4 and USGS-8 respond to the on/off cycling of the water supply pumping from well USGS-1. Well LRL-7 was not sampled in January, and water levels were still increasing when the transducer data were downloaded in September. A seismic reflection survey was also conducted this year. The survey acquired approximately 13.9 miles of seismic reflection data along 7 profiles on and near the site. These activities were conducted from February 23 through March 10, 2012. The site roads, monitoring well heads, and the monument at surface ground zero were in good

  3. An air quality modeling study comparing two possible sites for the new international airport for Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Jazcilevich, Aron D; García, Agustín R; Ruiz-Suárez, L Gerardo; Cruz-Nuñez, Xóchitl; Delgado, Javier C; Tellez, Carlos; Chias, Luis B

    2003-03-01

    Using an air quality model, two future urban scenarios induced by the construction of the new international airport for Mexico City are compared at a regional level. The air quality model couples the meteorology model MM5 and state-of-the-art photochemistry. The air quality comparison is made using metrics for the criterion gases selected for the study. From the two urban scenarios compared, the option for Tizayuca is moderately better than the option for Texcoco, because relative reductions in O3 and other photochemical pollutants are achieved over highly populated areas. Regardless of the site, the air quality for the central region of Mexico in the future will deteriorate. In the region of central Mexico, SO2 and NO2 will become important pollutants.

  4. Geohydrology of the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site, Los Medanos area, southeastern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mercer, Jerry W.

    1983-01-01

    Geohydrologic data have been collected in the Los Medanos area at the U.S. Department of Energy 's proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site in southeastern New Mexico since 1975 as part of an intensive study evaluating the feasibility of storing defense-associated nuclear wastes within the bedded salt of the Salado Formation of Permian age. Drilling and hydrologic testing have identified three principal water-producing zones above the salt, including the Rustler-Salado Formational contact and the Culebra and Magenta Dolomite Members of the Permian Rustler Formation. Below the bedded salt there is another water-bearing zone, the channel sandstones of the Bell Canyon formation of the Permian Delaware Mountain Group. Most data collected from 33 hydrologic test holes indicate that the water-bearing zones are characterized by low transmissivities and contain slightly saline to briny water. Data collected from drill-stem tests in the Bell Canyon Formation indicate the channel sandstones have hydraulic conductivities ranging from 0.02 to 0.36 feet per day grade vertically and laterally into siltstones and shales of very low permeability. The Rustler Formation contains the principal water-producing zones identified at the WIPP site. The Rustler-Salado formational contact has the least transmissivity, ranging from 0.00003 to 0.003 feet squared per day. The Culebra Dolomite is the most productive unit at the WIPP site with transmissivities ranging from 0.001 to 73 feet squared per day; the greater values result from fracturing in the dolomite created by dissolution of underlying halite. Minute vertical permeabilities prevent movement of water between hydrologic units. (USGS)

  5. Ozone concentrations at a selected high-elevation forest site downwind Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-JArdon, R.

    2013-05-01

    Torres-Jardón, R.*, Rosas-Pérez, I., Granada-Macías, L. M., Ruiz-Suárez, L. G. Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, UNAM, México D. F. México * rtorres@unam.mx For many years, the vegetation of forest species such as Abies religiosa in natural parks located in the southwest mountains of Mexico City has attracted much attention since these parks have been experiencing a severe decline of unclear etiology. The high ozone levels in the area and the observed naked eye macroscopic, histological and cytological injuries on these species, strongly suggest an important contribution of tropospheric ozone to this deterioration process. Apart of historical short monitoring campaigns for measuring ozone levels in these mountains, it is known just a little is known about the present exposure levels at which the local vegetation is exposed. A continuous ozone analyzer has been in operation since 2011 at a high-elevation forest site (Parque Nacional Miguel Hidalgo, PNMH; 3110 m above mean sea level) located downwind of Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA), in order to characterize the local ozone diel amplitude and its seasonal trend, as well as the influence of MCMA on the local O3 concentrations. Hourly average ozone data in PNMH shows that in general, the diel of ozone concentrations in the forest site has a statistical significant correlation with the pattern of ozone levels observed in several monitoring sites (smog receptor sites) within the MCMA, although the high elevation O3 levels are relatively lower than those in the urban area (around 2200 m above mean sea level). It is possible that a part of the oxidants in the air masses are removed by sink deposition processes during the air mass transport across the hills. The diel amplitude of ozone concentrations is small in the cold season, increasing as the seasons advance to June. As in the city, the highest ozone concentrations occur in April or May and the lowest levels during the rainy season, which extends from

  6. An Ethnographic Study of Special Education Services in a Rural Area of Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argus-Calvo, Beverley; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Overviews the current status of special education programs in Mexico in general and in Ciudad Juarez (Chihuahua) and surrounding rural areas. Two special education administrators employed in the Ciudad Juarez school system discuss problems associated with teacher training and lack of administrative support, and the importance of parental and…

  7. 1998 Annual Site Environmental Report Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, D.K.; Fink, C.H.; Sanchez, R.V.

    1999-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) is operated in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) mission to provide weapon component technology and hardware for national security needs. SNL/NM also conducts fundamental research and development to advance technology in energy research, computer science, waste management, microelectronics, materials science, and transportation safety for hazardous and nuclear components. In support of SNL's mission, the Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Center and the Environmental Restoration (ER) Project at SNL/NM have established extensive environmental programs to assist SNL's line organizations in meeting all applicable local, State, and Federal environmental regulations and DOE requirements. This annual report for calendar year 1998 (CY98) summarizes the compliance status of environmental regulations applicable to SNL site operations. Environmental program activities include terrestrial surveillance; ambient air and meteorological monitoring hazardous, radioactive, and solid waste management; pollution prevention and waste minimization; environmental remediation; oil and chemical spill prevention; and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) activities. This report has been prepared in compliance with DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program (DOE 1990).

  8. Passive soil venting at the Chemical Waste Landfill Site at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Phelan, J.M.; Reavis, B.; Cheng, W.C.

    1995-05-01

    Passive Soil Vapor Extraction was tested at the Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) site at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNLIW). Data collected included ambient pressures, differential pressures between soil gas and ambient air, gas flow rates into and out of the soil and concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) in vented soil gas. From the differential pressure and flow rate data, estimates of permeability were arrived at and compared with estimates from other studies. Flow, differential pressure, and ambient pressure data were collected for nearly 30 days. VOC data were collected for two six-hour periods during this time. Total VOC emissions were calculated and found to be under the limit set by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Although a complete process evaluation is not possible with the data gathered, some of the necessary information for designing a passive venting process was determined and the important parameters for designing the process were indicated. More study is required to evaluate long-term VOC removal using passive venting and to establish total remediation costs when passive venting is used as a polishing process following active soil vapor extraction.

  9. Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) measurements at a remote site in New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Prestbo, E. ); Gaffney, J.S. )

    1988-09-01

    Photochemical oxidants are not limited to the criteria pollutant, ozone. Peroxyactyl nitrate (PAN) is probably one of the better known non-criteria oxidants. PAN was originally referred to as compound X, as it caused a unique type of plant damage to numerous crops in southern California. PAN was associated with Los Angeles photochemical smog and ozone in the late 1950s and 60s. It should not be confused with X-agent which has also been associated with photochemical oxidants. PAN has been found to be an important means of transporting NOx in remote regions. This is due to its rather long atmospheric lifetime. It reacts slowly with OH radical, is photochemically stable, and has a low water solubility. Its principal loss is due to unimolecular decomposition. The authors have been making ozone, NO, NO{sup 2}, and PAN measurements at a remote site near Los Alamos, New Mexico for an extended period of time. An automated gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector is used to make the PAN measurements. Diffusion tubes with PAN/n-tridecane solutions are used to calibrate the instrument. Typical PAN data obtained at the sight are presented. The collected PAN and oxidant data are examined, and have been modeled to determine the possible concentrations of peracetic acid and methyl hydroperoxide in remote air. These studies are discussed in light of their possible implications for peroxide contributions to environmental impacts and aqueous chemistry reactions.

  10. Authigenic clay minerals in the Rustler Formation, WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) Site area, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Brookins, D.G.; Ward, D.B. . Dept. of Geology); Lambert, S.J. )

    1990-05-01

    Transuranic waste is planned for disposal in the Late Permian evaporites of the Delaware Basin, southeastern New Mexico, at the WIPP Site. The disposal horizon is located in the bedded halite of the Salado Formation, which is overlain by the impure haliteanhydrite(gypsum)-siltstone-mudstone of the Rustler Formation. The Rustler Formation also contains two dolomite members, the Magenta and Culebra, which transmit water. The Culebra Member is suspected to have actively interacted with waters at time(s) from the Late Permian to the present, and it is important to assess the reactivity of these waters in conjunction with WIPP stability. We have investigated the Rb--Sr systematics of clay minerals from the Culebra Member and elsewhere in the Rustler Formation. The authigenic fraction is especially sensitive to chemical and isotopic exchange with waters, and an episodic exposure to a large amount of water will reset the clay minerals to such a time. Our data yield 259 {plus minus} 22 MaRb--Sr isochron, which is consistent with the Late Permian age of the Rustler Formation. This age demonstrates that age-determining cations in these clay minerals have preserved their isotopic and chemical integrity since the Late Permian. 16 refs.

  11. 76 FR 22090 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ...-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Northern New Mexico. The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463..., 464 North Riverside Drive, Espanola, New Mexico 87532. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Menice... INFORMATION: Purpose of the Board: The purpose of the Board is to make recommendations to DOE-EM and...

  12. Hidrogeochemistry of Maguarichi's thermal waters, Chihuahua, México

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villalobos-Aragon, A.; Rascon-Oaxaca, E.; Espejel-Garcia, V. V.

    2012-12-01

    The surface expression of the Piedras de Lumbre Geothermal Zone comprises hot springs and steaming fumaroles, which occur in the vicinity of fractures within the rhyolites related to the Sierra Madre Occidental. Waters from hot springs and fumaroles were sampled in order to classify their temperature, hydrogeochemical behavior and origin. Maguarichi, is located in the southwestern part of the mexican state of Chihuahua, in the high Sierra Tarahumara, 350 km southwest from Chihuahua City. Previous work characterized the water as having a sulfate-chloride and sodium-chloride composition, and a temperature (calculated with geothermometers) of 130°C. In 2001, after close to ten years of geological, geochemical and geophysical work made by the Mexican Federal Electrical Commission (CFE), a small geothermal power plant was installed at a cost of US$1.3 million. This small (300 kW) binary-cycle unit supplied energy to the nearby Maguarichi village, 6 kilometers away. The unit was dismantled in 2007 when the electric grid reached the village. In 2012, after a visit by the Mexican president, a plan to develop this area as a touristic attraction is under way. In order to determine the hydrogeochemistry of the thermal waters, two sampling expeditions (October 2011 and May 2012) were performed and the preliminary results show that samples have temperatures ranging from 80°C to 98°C, with major ion and heavy element concentrations below the maximum permissible levels for human consumption waters (NOM-127-SSA1-1994). Sulfate values range from 198 to 222 mg/l, while arsenic ranges from 0.009 to 0.015mg/l. By using H and O stable isotopes we expect to determine the origin of this waters (meteoric or magmatic).

  13. Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II: Results from the Alaminos Canyon 21 Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godfriaux, P. D.; Shedd, W.; Frye, M.; Collett, T. S.; Lee, M. W.; Boswell, R. M.; Cook, A.; Mrozewski, S.; Guerin, G.; McConnell, D.; Dufrene, R.; Jones, E.

    2009-12-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II drilling program visited three sites in the Gulf of Mexico during a 21 day drilling program in April and May, 2009. Using both petroleum systems and seismic stratigraphic approaches, the exploration focus for Leg II was to identify sites with the potential for gas hydrate-saturated sand reservoirs. Two holes were drilled at the AC 21 site in the Diana Basin located in the western Gulf of Mexico. The data acquired consist of a comprehensive suite of high resolution LWD logs including gamma ray, density, porosity, sonic, and resistivity tools. No physical samples were taken in the field. The primary objective of each well was to determine the presence or absence of gas hydrate from the log data at the predetermined primary targets in a Pleistocene basin floor turbidite complex approximately 500 ft below seafloor. At the AC 21-A location, two high net to gross target sands were encountered that measured 15 ft and 60 ft, respectively. The AC 21-A well was drilled through the interpreted base of gas hydrate stability to a depth approximately 1500 ft below sea floor. The AC 21-B well encountered a single high net to gross target sand measuring over 120 ft thick. At both AC 21 well locations, all target sand intervals had elevated formation resistivity measurements relative to clearly wet, stratigraphically equivalent sands encountered in the region, interpreted to indicate low to moderate levels of gas hydrate saturation. The likely discovery of thick gas hydrate-filled sands at the AC 21 site validates the exploration approach, and strongly indicates that gas hydrate can be found in reservoir quality sands. The LWD acquired data provided unprecedented information on the nature of the sediments and the occurrence of gas hydrate in the Gulf of Mexico.

  14. 77 FR 64800 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ..., issues pertaining to groundwater, surface water and work required under the New Mexico Environment.... Discussion on Draft Recommendations to DOE 7. 2:45 p.m. Presentation on Environmental Clean-up at Los...

  15. Behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes during the manufacture and ripening of Manchego and Chihuahua Mexican cheeses.

    PubMed

    Solano-López, C; Hernández-Sánchez, H

    2000-12-01

    The ability of Listeria monocytogenes to survive the Mexican Manchego and Chihuahua cheese-making processes and its persistence during the ripening stages of both cheeses was examined. Commercial pasteurized and homogenized whole milk was inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes (strain ATCC 19114) to a level between 2 x 10(6) and 9 x 10(6) CFU/ml. The milk was used to make Mexican Manchego and Chihuahua cheeses in a 25-l vat. Mexican Manchego cheese was ripened for 5 days and Chihuahua cheese for 6 weeks at 12 degrees C and 85% RH. Listeria present in the cheese was enumerated by diluting samples in sterile 0.1% peptone water and plating on Oxford agar. Duplicate samples were taken at each step of the manufacturing process. During the first week of ripening samples were taken daily from both cheeses. For Chihuahua cheese, samples were taken weekly after the first week of the ripening stage. During the manufacture of Mexican Manchego cheese, Listeria counts remained relatively constant at 10(6) CFU/ml, while with Chihuahua cheese there was a one log decrease in numbers (10(6) to 10(5) CFU/ml). After pressing both curds overnight, numbers of bacteria decreased in Mexican Manchego cheese to 8.2 x 10(5) but increased in Chihuahua cheese from 1.7 x 10(5) to 1.2 x 10(6) CFU/ml. During the ripening stage, counts of Listeria remained constant in both cheeses. However, since the Chihuahua cheese ripening stage is about 6 weeks, the number of bacteria decreased from 2 x 10(6) to 4 x 10(4) CFU/g. The results show that Listeria monocytogenes is able to survive the manufacture and ripening processes of both Mexican cheeses. PMID:11139015

  16. 78 FR 72751 - Unblocking of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons Pursuant to the Foreign...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... SERVICIO AEREO LEO LOPEZ, S.A. DE C.V., Chihuahua, Chihuahua, Mexico; Calle Septima No. 1401, Villa Juarez... C.V., Chihuahua, Chihuahua, Mexico; Fernando De Borja 509, Chihuahua, Chihuahua 31240, Mexico; DOB 04 Nov 1945; POB Aquiles Serdan, Chihuahua, Mexico; nationality Mexico; citizen Mexico;...

  17. Automatic Monitoring of Criteria Pollutants and Meteorological Parameters in Boundary Sites of Mexico City under QA/QC Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, A.; Ramos, R.; Sánchez, A.; Retama, A.; Fentanes, O.; Muñoz, R.; Mar, B.; Ruiz, L. G.; Torres, R.; Torres, A.; Martínez, J.

    2007-05-01

    MILAGRO, an extensive air quality monitoring campaign, was conducted in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during March 2006, in order to assess the air pollutants transport and their influence at regional and global scales. In support of this campaign a number of criteria pollutants and meteorological parameters measurements were conducted in boundary sites of the MCMA in order to determine the surface conditions in these transition sites. The boundary sites were selected based on results from previous studies, information provided systematically by the Mexico City Ambient Air Monitoring Network (Sistema de Monitoreo Atmosférico, SIMAT), pollutants trends and meteorological and climatic factors that participate in the dispersion and transport under different ventilation scenarios. Seven mobile units and two fixed stations were deployed for the continuous determination of criteria pollutants and meteorological parameters. In order to warranty the pollutants concentrations measurements' quality and comparability, calibrations and verifications were implemented at the designated monitoring sites. Data had been analyzed with statistical tools and comparisons were made against nearby SIMAT stations. Several interesting conclusions were achieved.

  18. Language Policy, Indigenous Languages and the Village School: A Study of Bilingual Education for the Tarahumara of Northern Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paciotto, Carla

    2004-01-01

    In 1991, the Bilingual Bicultural Education Program (BBEP) was launched in Chihuahua, Mexico, as a way of responding to the educational needs of the indigenous Tarahumara populations and the growing threat to their language and culture. Using a conceptual framework based on the literatures of curriculum inquiry, language shift and maintenance,…

  19. GPS-PWV Estimation and Analysis for CGPS Sites Operating in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, O.; Vazquez, G. E.; Bennett, R. A.; Adams, D. K.

    2014-12-01

    Eighty permanent Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking stations that belong to several networks spanning Mexico intended for diverse purposes and applications were used to estimate precipitable water vapor (PWV) using measurement series covering the period of 2000-2014. We extracted the GPS-PWV from the ionosphere-free double-difference carrier phase observations, processed using the GAMIT software. The GPS data were processed with a 30 s sampling rate, 15-degree cutoff angle, and precise GPS orbits disseminated by IGS. The time-varying part of the zenith wet delay was estimated using the Global Mapping Function (GMF), while the constant part is evaluated using the Neil tropospheric model. The data reduction to compute the zenith wet delay follows the step piecewise linear strategy, which is subsequently transformed to PWV estimated every 2-hr. Although there exist previous isolated studies for estimating PWV in Mexico, this study is an attempt to perform a more complete and comprehensive analysis of PWV estimation throughout the Mexican territory. Our resulting GPS-based PWV were compared to available PWV values for 30 stations that operate in Mexico and report the PWV to Suominet. This comparison revealed differences of 1 to 2 mm between the GPS-PWV solution and the PWV reported by Suominet. Accurate values of GPS-PWV will help enhance Mexico ability to investigate water vapor advection, convective and frontal rainfall and long-term climate variability.

  20. Geologic framework of nonmarine cretaceous-tertiary boundary sites, raton basin, new mexico and colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pillmore, C.L.; Tschudy, R.H.; Orth, C.J.; Gilmore, J.S.; Knight, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    Indium concentrations are anomalously high at the palynological Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in fluvial sedimentary rocks of the lower part of the Raton Formation at several localities in the Raton Basin of New Mexico and Colorado. The iridium anomaly is associated with a thin bed of kaolinitic claystone in a discontinuous carbonaceous shale and coal sequence.

  1. 75 FR 9886 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ...-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Northern New Mexico. The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463...: Wednesday, March 31, 2010, 1 p.m.-7 p.m. ADDRESSES: The Lodge at Santa Fe, 750 North Saint Francis Drive... Board: The purpose of the Board is to make recommendations to DOE-EM in the areas of...

  2. Geologic framework of nonmarine cretaceous-tertiary boundary sites, raton basin, new Mexico and colorado.

    PubMed

    Pillmore, C L; Tschudy, R H; Orth, C J; Gilmore, J S; Knight, J D

    1984-03-16

    Iridium concentrations are anomalously high at the palynological Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in fluvial sedimentary rocks of the lower part of the Raton Formation at several localities in the Raton Basin of New Mexico and Colorado. The iridium anomaly is associated with a thin bed of kaolinitic claystone in a discontinuous carbonaceous shale and coal sequence.

  3. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Shiprock, New Mexico. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    This baseline risk assessment at the former uranium mill tailings site near Shiprock, New Mexico, evaluates the potential impact to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in an on-site disposal cell in 1986 through the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project. There are no domestic or drinking water wells in the contaminated ground water of the two distinct ground water units: the contaminated ground water in the San Juan River floodplain alluvium below the site and the contaminated ground water in the terrace alluvium area where the disposal cell is located. Because no one is drinking the affected ground water, there are currently no health or environmental risks directly associated with the contaminated ground water. However, there is a potential for humans, domestic animals, and wildlife to the exposed to surface expressions of ground water in the seeps and pools in the area of the San Juan River floodplain below the site. For these reasons, this risk assessment evaluates potential exposure to contaminated surface water and seeps as well as potential future use of contaminated ground water.

  4. Geomorphic criteria for selecting stable uranium tailings disposal sites in New Mexico. Volume 1. Technical report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, S.G.; Gardner, T.W.

    1985-03-01

    Essential to the disposal of uranium mill tailings in northwestern New Mexico is the geomorphic stability of the disposal site. Geomorphic stability assessment involves 3 steps: (1) evaluating the site's past geomorphic stability by determining the age of the landscape and its associated deposits; (2) quantifying short- and long-term geomorphic processes operating in the site area; and (3) evaluating the impact of mining activity and reclamation on the geomorphic stability of the site area. A heirarchy of geomorphic hazards which might impact a site area include: (1) drainage network extension/channel headcutting, (2) piping and gullying, (3) bank erosion and meander growth, (4) drainage network and channel incision, (5) channel aggradation, and (6) valley floor deposition and wind erosion. All of these processes operate on a scale of meters of change per year over historic time periods. Landscapes which have undergone significant changes in historic and Holocene time periods are valley floors. Valley floors are considered one of the most unstable landscapes for siting of uranium mill tailings.

  5. Environmental Assessment of remedial action at the Ambrosia Lake uranium mill tailings site, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    This document assesses and compares the environmental impacts of various alternatives for remedial action at the Ambrosia Lake uranium mill tailings site located near Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. The designated site covers 196 acres and contains 111 acres of tailings and some of the original mill structures. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA), Public Law 95-604, authorizes the US Department of Energy to clean up the site to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at the site and at associated properties off the site. The US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated standards for th remedial action (40 CFR Part 192). Remedial action must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The proposed action is to stabilize the tailings at their present location by consolidating the tailings and associated contaminated materials into a recontoured pile. A radon barrier would be constructed over the pile and various erosion protection measures would be taken to assure the long-term stability of the pile. Another alternative which would involve moving the tailings to a new location is also assessed in this document. This alternative would generally involve greater short-term impacts and costs but would result in stabilization of the tailings at an undeveloped location. The no action alternative is also assessed in this document.

  6. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Shiprock uranium mill tailings site, Shiprock, New Mexico: Volume 1, Text

    SciTech Connect

    1984-05-01

    This document assesses and compares the environmental impacts of various alternatives for remedial action at the shiprock uranium mill tailings site located on the Navajo Indian Reservation, one mile south of Shiprock, New Mexico. The site contains 72 acres of tailings and four of the original mill buildings. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), Public Law 95-604, authorizes the US Department of Energy to clean up the site to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at the site and at associated properties off the site. The US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated standards for the remedial actions (40 CFR 192). Remedial actions must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The proposed action is to stabilize the tailings at their present location by consolidating the tailings and associated contaminated soils into a recontoured pile. A seven-foot-thick radon barrier would be constructed over the pile and various erosion control measures would be taken to assure the long-term integrity of the pile. Three other alternatives which involve moving the tailings to new locations are assessed in this document. These alternatives which involve moving the tailings to new locations are assessed in this document. These alternatives generally involve greater short-term impacts and are more costly but would result in the tailings being stabilized in a more remote location. The no action alternative is also assessed. 99 refs., 40 figs., 58 tabs.

  7. Stratigraphy and Geologic Structure at the SCC and NISC Building Sites, Technical Area 3, Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Lavine, A.; Krier, D.; Caporuscio, F.; Gardner, J.

    1998-09-01

    Ten closely spaced, shallow (<100 ft) drill cores were obtained from the 1.22-Ma-old Bandelier Tuff at a 4-acre site for proposed construction at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico. The goal of the investigation was to identify faults that may have potential for earthquake-induced surface ruptures at the site. Careful mapping of contact surfaces within the Bandelier Tuff was supplemented with results of geochemical analyses to establish unit boundaries with a high degree of accuracy. Analysis shows that the upper contact surface of Unit 3 of the Bandelier Tuff provides no evidence of faults beneath the building site, and that the subsurface structure is consistent with a shallowly dipping (< 2{degree}), unbroken block. Because no significant or cumulative faulting events have disturbed the site in the last 1.22 million years, it is unlikely that surface rupture will occur at the site in future large earthquakes. Uncertainty analysis suggests that this method would detect faults with {ge}2 ft of cumulative stratigraphic separation.

  8. Formation of natural gypsum megacrystals in Naica, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Ruiz, Juan Manuel; Villasuso, Roberto; Ayora, Carlos; Canals, Angels; Otálora, Fermín

    2007-04-01

    Exploration in the Naica mine (Chihuahua, Mexico) recently unveiled several caves containing giant, faceted, and transparent single crystals of gypsum (CaSO4•2H2O) as long as 11 m. These large crystals form at very low supersaturation. The problem is to explain how proper geochemical conditions can be sustained for a long time without large fluctuations that would trigger substantial nucleation. Fluid inclusion analyses show that the crystals grew from low-salinity solutions at a temperature of ˜54 °C, slightly below the one at which the solubility of anhydrite equals that of gypsum. Sulfur and oxygen isotopic compositions of gypsum crystals are compatible with growth from solutions resulting from dissolution of anhydrite previously precipitated during late hydrothermal mineralization, suggesting that these megacrystals formed by a self-feeding mechanism driven by a solution-mediated, anhydrite-gypsum phase transition. Nucleation kinetics calculations based on laboratory data show that this mechanism can account for the formation of these giant crystals, yet only when operating within the very narrow range of temperature identified by our fluid inclusion study. These singular conditions create a mineral wonderland, a site of scientific interest, and an extraordinary phenomenon worthy of preservation.

  9. Diversity of mosquitoes and the aquatic insects associated with their oviposition sites along the Pacific coast of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The abundance, richness and diversity of mosquitoes and aquatic insects associated with their oviposition sites were surveyed along eight states of the Pacific coast of Mexico. Diversity was estimated using the Shannon index (H’), similarity measures and cluster analysis. Methods Oviposition sites were sampled during 2–3 months per year, over a three year period. Field collected larvae and pupae were reared and identified to species following adult emergence. Aquatic insects present at oviposition sites were also collected, counted and identified to species or genus. Results In total, 15 genera and 74 species of mosquitoes were identified: Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, An. albimanus and Aedes aegypti were the most abundant and widely-distributed species, representing 47% of total mosquito individuals sampled. New species records for certain states are reported. Anopheline diversity was lowest in Sinaloa state (H’ = 0.54) and highest in Chiapas (H’ = 1.61) and Michoacán (H’ = 1.56), whereas culicid diversity was lowest in Michoacán (H’ = 1.93), Colima (H’ = 1.95), Sinaloa (H’ = 1.99) and Jalisco (H’ = 2.01) and highest in Chiapas (H’ = 2.66). In total, 10 orders, 57 families, 166 genera and 247 species of aquatic insects were identified in samples. Aquatic insect diversity was highest in Chiapas, Oaxaca and Michoacán (H’ = 3.60-3.75). Mosquito larval/pupal abundance was not correlated with that of predatory Coleoptera and Hemiptera. Conclusion This represents the first update on the diversity and geographic distribution of the mosquitoes and aquatic insects of Mexico in over five decades. This information has been cataloged in Mexico’s National Biodiversity Information System (SNIB-CONABIO) for public inspection. PMID:24450800

  10. Prevalence and genetic diversity of Bartonella strains in rodents from northwestern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rubio, André V; Ávila-Flores, Rafael; Osikowicz, Lynn M; Bai, Ying; Suzán, Gerardo; Kosoy, Michael Y

    2014-12-01

    Bartonella infections were investigated in wild rodents from northwestern Chihuahua, Mexico. A total of 489 rodents belonging to 14 species were surveyed in four areas. Bartonella bacteria were cultured from 50.1% of rodent samples (245/489). Infection rates ranged from 0% to 83.3% per rodent species, with no significant difference between sites except for Cynomys ludovicianus. Phylogenetic analyses of the citrate synthase gene (gltA) of the Bartonella isolates revealed 23 genetic variants (15 novel and 8 previously described), clustering into five phylogroups. Three phylogroups were associated with Bartonella vinsonii subsp. vinsonii, B. vinsonii subsp. arupensis, and B. washoensis, respectively. The other two phylogroups were not genetically related to any known Bartonella species. The genetic variants and phylogenetic groups exhibited a high degree of host specificity, mainly at the genus and family levels. This is the first study that describes the genetic diversity of Bartonella strains in wild rodents from Mexico. Considering that some variants found in this study are associated with Bartonella species that have been reported as zoonotic, more investigations are needed to further understand the ecology of Bartonella species in Mexican wildlife and their implications for human health.

  11. Prevalence and genetic diversity of Bartonella strains in rodents from northwestern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rubio, André V; Ávila-Flores, Rafael; Osikowicz, Lynn M; Bai, Ying; Suzán, Gerardo; Kosoy, Michael Y

    2014-12-01

    Bartonella infections were investigated in wild rodents from northwestern Chihuahua, Mexico. A total of 489 rodents belonging to 14 species were surveyed in four areas. Bartonella bacteria were cultured from 50.1% of rodent samples (245/489). Infection rates ranged from 0% to 83.3% per rodent species, with no significant difference between sites except for Cynomys ludovicianus. Phylogenetic analyses of the citrate synthase gene (gltA) of the Bartonella isolates revealed 23 genetic variants (15 novel and 8 previously described), clustering into five phylogroups. Three phylogroups were associated with Bartonella vinsonii subsp. vinsonii, B. vinsonii subsp. arupensis, and B. washoensis, respectively. The other two phylogroups were not genetically related to any known Bartonella species. The genetic variants and phylogenetic groups exhibited a high degree of host specificity, mainly at the genus and family levels. This is the first study that describes the genetic diversity of Bartonella strains in wild rodents from Mexico. Considering that some variants found in this study are associated with Bartonella species that have been reported as zoonotic, more investigations are needed to further understand the ecology of Bartonella species in Mexican wildlife and their implications for human health. PMID:25514119

  12. Evaluation of the radionuclide tracer test conducted at the project Gnome Underground Nuclear Test Site, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Pohll, G.; Pohlmann, K.

    1996-08-01

    A radionuclide tracer test was conducted in 1963 by the U.S. Geological Survey at the Project Gnome underground nuclear test site, approximately 40 km southeast of Carlsbad, New Mexico. The tracer study was carried out under the auspices of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) to study the transport behavior of radionuclides in fractured rock aquifers. The Culebra Dolomite was chosen for the test because it was considered to be a reasonable analogue of the fractured carbonate aquifer at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), the principal location of U.S. underground nuclear tests. Project Gnome was one of a small number of underground nuclear tests conducted by the AEC at sites distant from the NTS. The Gnome device was detonated on December 10, 1961 in an evaporate unit at a depth of 360 m below ground surface. Recently, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) implemented an environmental restoration program to characterize, remediate, and close these offsite nuclear test areas. An early step in this process is performance of a preliminary risk analysis of the hazard posed by each site. The Desert Research Institute has performed preliminary hydrologic risk evaluations for the groundwater transport pathway at Gnome. That evaluation included the radioactive tracer test as a possible source because the test introduced radionuclides directly into the Culebra Dolomite, which is the only aquifer at the site. This report presents a preliminary evaluation of the radionuclide tracer test as a source for radionuclide migration in the Culebra Dolomite. The results of this study will assist in planning site characterization activities and refining estimates of the radionuclide source for comprehensive models of groundwater transport st the Gnome site.

  13. PIXE and XRF analysis of atmospheric aerosols from a site in the West area of Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, R. V.; López-Monroy, J.; Miranda, J.; Espinosa, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Due to geographical factors, most of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City features, on average, similar heights above the sea level, climate, wind speed and direction, with very uniform pollution degrees in most of the frequently studied sites. A site with different characteristics, Cuajimalpa de Morelos, was studied. It is located to the West of the urban area at 2760 m above sea level, in contrast to other sites (2240 m). Here, the wind is mostly directed towards the center of the city. Then, the site should not be affected by pollutants from the Northern/Northeastern industrial zones, so lower aerosol concentrations are expected. In this work, the elemental composition of coarse (PM10-2.5) and fine (PM2.5) fractions of atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Cuajimalpa is studied. The sampling period covered the cold-dry season in 2004-2005 (December 1st, 2004 to March 31, 2005), exposing polycarbonate filters with a Stacked Filter Unit of the Gent design along 24 h, every two days. The samples were analyzed with Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), to obtain elemental concentrations. The EPA code UNMIX was used to determine the number of possible influencing polluting sources, which were then identified through back-trajectory simulations with the HYSPLIT modeling software. Four sources (mostly related to soil) were found in the coarse fraction, while the fine fraction presented three main sources (fuel oil, industry and biomass burning).

  14. Remedial action plan and site conceptual design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. Volume 1, Text, Appendices A, B, and C: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, M.L.; Mitzelfelt, R.

    1991-11-01

    This Remedial Action Plan (RAP) has been developed to serve a dual purpose. It presents the series of activities that is proposed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to stabilize and control radioactive materials at the inactive Phillips/United Nuclear uranium processing site designated as the Ambrosia Lake site in McKinley County, New Mexico. It also serves to document the concurrence of both State of New Mexico and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the remedial action. This agreement, upon execution by the DOE and the state and concurrence by NRC, becomes Appendix B of the Cooperative Agreement.

  15. Emanation of tritiated water from disposal sites at Los Alamos, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Abeele, W.V.

    1982-01-01

    The level of contamination induced by the presence of tritiated water (HTO) on the Bandelier tuff near Los Alamos, New Mexico has been seen to decrease vertically and horizontally at the same rate. This decrease in radioactivity with distance from the source has been measured around three different disposal shafts and found to be somewhat slower than the decrease in emanation rate with distance from the source. Physical factors, suspected of influencing HTO emanation, were entered as independent variables in a regression equation including measurements taken over a 14 month period. The physical variables studied were of thermal, hydrological, and meteorological origin or a combination of the above. Only four variables were retained as significant although they explained only 71% of the variation in the HTO flux.

  16. Surface-wave and refraction tomography at the FACT Site, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, Robert E.; Bartel, Lewis Clark; Pullammanappallil, Satish; Engler, Bruce Phillip

    2006-08-01

    We present a technique that allows for the simultaneous acquisition and interpretation of both shear-wave and compressive-wave 3-D velocities. The technique requires no special seismic sources or array geometries, and is suited to studies with small source-receiver offsets. The method also effectively deals with unwanted seismic arrivals by using the statistical properties of the data itself to discriminate against spurious picks. We demonstrate the technique with a field experiment at the Facility for Analysis, Calibration, and Testing at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. The resulting 3-D shear-velocity and compressive-velocity distributions are consistent with surface geologic mapping. The averaged velocities and V{sub p}/V{sub s} ratio in the upper 30 meters are also consistent with examples found in the scientific literature.

  17. 47 CFR 90.533 - Transmitting sites near the U.S./Canada or U.S./Mexico border.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..../Mexico border. 90.533 Section 90.533 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED..../Canada or U.S./Mexico border. This section applies to each license to operate one or more public safety...) or within 120 kilometers (75 miles) of the U.S.-Mexico border, until such time as agreements...

  18. 47 CFR 90.533 - Transmitting sites near the U.S./Canada or U.S./Mexico border.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..../Mexico border. 90.533 Section 90.533 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED..../Canada or U.S./Mexico border. This section applies to each license to operate one or more public safety...) or within 120 kilometers (75 miles) of the U.S.-Mexico border, until such time as agreements...

  19. 47 CFR 90.533 - Transmitting sites near the U.S./Canada or U.S./Mexico border.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..../Mexico border. 90.533 Section 90.533 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED..../Canada or U.S./Mexico border. This section applies to each license to operate one or more public safety...) or within 120 kilometers (75 miles) of the U.S.-Mexico border, until such time as agreements...

  20. 47 CFR 90.533 - Transmitting sites near the U.S./Canada or U.S./Mexico border.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..../Mexico border. 90.533 Section 90.533 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED..../Canada or U.S./Mexico border. This section applies to each license to operate one or more public safety...) or within 120 kilometers (75 miles) of the U.S.-Mexico border, until such time as agreements...

  1. 47 CFR 90.533 - Transmitting sites near the U.S./Canada or U.S./Mexico border.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..../Mexico border. 90.533 Section 90.533 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED..../Canada or U.S./Mexico border. This section applies to each license to operate one or more public safety...) or within 120 kilometers (75 miles) of the U.S.-Mexico border, until such time as agreements...

  2. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Phillips/United Nuclear site, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah, Inc., has reevaluated the Phillips/United Nuclear site in order to revise the December 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 2.6 million dry tons of tailings at the Phillips/United Nuclear site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site. Cost estimates for the four options range from about $21,500,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $45,200,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Phillips/United Nuclear tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $87/lb of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ by either heap leach or conventional plant process. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Reprocessing the Phillips/United Nuclear tailings for uranium recovery does not appear to be economically attractive under present or foreseeable market conditions.

  3. Near Surface Geophysical Exploration at The Archaeological Site of San Miguel Tocuila, Basin of Mexico.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arciniega, A.; Hernandez, E.; Cabral-Cano, E.; Diaz-Molina, O.; Morett, L.; Soler, A.

    2008-12-01

    The village of Tocuila is located on the western margin of Lake Texcoco in central Mexico. Volcanic activity during the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene closed the basin's drainage and facilitated the development of a lacustrine environment and subsequent deposition of volcano-sedimentary sequences with abundant archaeological and paleontological record. Tocuila was one of the most prominent suburbs of the main civic ceremonial complex of the Aztecs. The rapid expansion of Mexico City's Metropolitan areas in the last three decades strongly influenced Tocuila's environment and has compromised several of its archaeological and ancient human settlements. A near surface geophysical survey including magnetometry, seismic refraction tomography and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) techniques was conducted to investigate pre-Hispanic structures. The magnetometric survey was performed using an Overhauser magnetometer with an omnidirectional, 0.015 nT/Hz sensor and 1Hz sampling rate over a 80x100 m area, yielding 990 measurements of total intensity magnetic field at 1.0m height above the ground surface. Thirty seismic refraction profiles were obtained with a 48-channel 24 bits Geometrics StrataVisor NZ seismograph, 14 Hz natural frequency vertical geophones with a 2m separation array and an impact source of 5 kg. The GPR survey consisted of 15 cross sections at two different resolutions with a GSSI SIR-3000 instrument, using a GSSI 200 MHz and a RadarTeam 70 MHz antennas. All surveys were georeferenced with a dual frequency GPS local station and a GPS rover attached to the surveying geophysical instruments. Seismic refraction tomography and GPR radargrams show a platform structure of approx. 80x60 m which can be subdivided in three distinctive layers with a total height of ~10m. Based on the history of ancient settlements in the area surrounding Lake Texcoco and considering the characteristics of shape and height of the surveyed structure, we interpreted that the resulting

  4. 78 FR 75552 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... and Remediation Committee and Waste Management Committee of the Environmental Management Site-Specific... restoration, waste management, and related activities. Purpose of the Environmental Monitoring and Remediation... environmental remediation activities resulting from historical Los Alamos National Laboratory operations and,...

  5. 77 FR 74838 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ..., Surveillance and Remediation Committee and Waste Management Committee of the Environmental Management Site... activities. Purpose of the Environmental Monitoring, Surveillance and Remediation Committee (EMS&R): The EMS... remediation activities resulting from historical Los Alamos National Laboratory operations and, in...

  6. 78 FR 22255 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ..., Surveillance and Remediation Committee and Waste Management Committee of the Environmental Management Site... activities. Purpose of the Environmental Monitoring, Surveillance and Remediation Committee (EMS&R): The EMS... remediation activities resulting from historical Los Alamos National Laboratory operations and, in...

  7. 76 FR 59392 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ..., Surveillance and Remediation Committee and Waste Management Committee of the Environmental Management Site... related activities. Purpose of the Environmental Monitoring, Surveillance and Remediation Committee (EMS&R... remediation activities resulting from historical Los Alamos National Laboratory operations and, in...

  8. 77 FR 20376 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ..., Surveillance and Remediation Committee and Waste Management Committee of the Environmental Management Site... related activities. Purpose of the Environmental Monitoring, Surveillance and Remediation Committee (EMS&R... remediation activities resulting from historical Los Alamos National Laboratory operations and, in...

  9. 78 FR 31911 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ..., Surveillance and Remediation Committee and Waste Management Committee of the Environmental Management Site... activities. Purpose of the Environmental Monitoring, Surveillance and Remediation Committee (EMS&R): The EMS... remediation activities resulting from historical Los Alamos National Laboratory operations and, in...

  10. 77 FR 51789 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ..., Surveillance and Remediation Committee and Waste Management Committee of the Environmental Management Site... related activities. Purpose of the Environmental Monitoring, Surveillance and Remediation Committee (EMS&R... remediation activities resulting from historical Los Alamos National Laboratory operations and, in...

  11. Assessing Pesticide Contamination to Fresh Water in Some Agricultural Sites, Close to Oaxaca City, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomas, G.

    2002-12-01

    This study presents the results of a survey on pesticides in fresh water in shallow aquifers, rivers and dams in Zaachila, Tlacolula and Etla and agricultural valleys close to Oaxaca City, SW of Mexico. In the study zones, there are generalized uses of pesticides and the impact on the water resources by inadequate use of agricultural activities. Water is used for irrigation and drinking. Surveying criteria was to sample the aquifer (production wells), its water table (dig wells) and a regional water collector (Plan Benito Juarez Yuayapan dam). A total of 14 samples were analyzed for the identification and quantification of organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticides. Method was 508-EPA. Gas chromatographer was a 5890 series II Hewlett Packard, calibrated with several patterns. Results: 10 samples are contaminated with some pesticide of the used patterns; Dieldrin, Chlordano, Malathion, Mirex were not found; Traces of organophosphorus compounds were found in 8 samples, mainly Merphos, Parathion Ethylic and Disulfoton ; There was detected traces of world-forbidden insecticides as Metoxychlor, Parathion Ethylic and Disulfoton; and In one sample (Cuilapam well #1) DDT exceeds, the Mexican maximum limit for potable water (1 mg/l),

  12. Evaluation of Environmental Risk of Metal Contaminated Soils and Sediments Near Mining Sites in Aguascalientes, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Kerry Nigel; Ramos Gómez, Magdalena Samanta; Guerrero Barrera, Alma Lilian; Yamamoto Flores, Laura; Flores de la Torre, Juan Armando; Avelar González, Francisco Javier

    2016-08-01

    A total of sixteen composite soil and sediment samples were collected during the rainy and dry season in Asientos, Aguascalientes, Mexico, an area recently affected by increased mining operations. Physicochemical characterization showed that substrates were moderately to strongly calcareous with predominantly neutral to slightly alkaline pH, moderate to high cation-exchange capacity and high organic matter content. Due to these conditions, Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn were not water leachable despite high concentrations; up to 105.3, 7052.8, 414.7 and 12,263.2 mg kg(-1) respectively. However, Cd and Pb were considered to be easily mobilizable as they were found predominantly associated with exchangeable and carbonate fractions, whereas Cu and Zn were found associated with Fe/Mn oxide and organic matter fractions. The results highlighted the influence of physicochemical substrate properties on the mobility of metals and its importance during the evaluation of the potential current and future risk metal contamination presents in affected areas.

  13. Evaluation of Environmental Risk of Metal Contaminated Soils and Sediments Near Mining Sites in Aguascalientes, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Kerry Nigel; Ramos Gómez, Magdalena Samanta; Guerrero Barrera, Alma Lilian; Yamamoto Flores, Laura; Flores de la Torre, Juan Armando; Avelar González, Francisco Javier

    2016-08-01

    A total of sixteen composite soil and sediment samples were collected during the rainy and dry season in Asientos, Aguascalientes, Mexico, an area recently affected by increased mining operations. Physicochemical characterization showed that substrates were moderately to strongly calcareous with predominantly neutral to slightly alkaline pH, moderate to high cation-exchange capacity and high organic matter content. Due to these conditions, Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn were not water leachable despite high concentrations; up to 105.3, 7052.8, 414.7 and 12,263.2 mg kg(-1) respectively. However, Cd and Pb were considered to be easily mobilizable as they were found predominantly associated with exchangeable and carbonate fractions, whereas Cu and Zn were found associated with Fe/Mn oxide and organic matter fractions. The results highlighted the influence of physicochemical substrate properties on the mobility of metals and its importance during the evaluation of the potential current and future risk metal contamination presents in affected areas. PMID:27178544

  14. Geochemistry of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Site, Southeastern New Mexico, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, S.J.

    1992-05-01

    An extensive geochemical data base, including analyses of major and minor solutes, mineralogical studies of core samples, and isotopic studies of waters, carbonates and sulfates, has been assembled for evaporites and related rocks in the northern Delaware Basin of southeastern New Mexico. These data were compiled for the geological and hydrological characterization of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is excavated in the evaporites of the Salado Formation. These data were evaluated in order: 1. to determine the stability of the evaporite mineralogy over geological time; 2. to compare the aqueous geochemistry with host rock mineralogy; 3. to delineate the nature and timing of water-rock interactions, such as dissolution and recrystallization; and 4. to determine the geological and climatic conditions that have governed groundwater recharge. The resulting synthesis of data and current hypotheses concerning the origin, composition and history of waters in the evaporite rocks and related units of the Delaware Basin provides a tentative conceptual model for the behavior of the water-rock system since the deposition of the evaporites in the Permian. Essential components of this model include: 1. widespread Late Triassic/Early Jurassic evaporite recrystallization; 2. accumulation of deep-basin brines isolated from meteoric recharge; 3. evaporite dissolution by meteoric waters flowing in carbonates and sulfates interbedded in the uppermost Permian section and at the basin margin; 4. lateral rather than vertical infiltration of pre-Holocene meteoric waters in the uppermost Permian section; 5. climatic conditions presently less conducive to recharge than in the late Pleistocene.

  15. Pregnancy outcomes, site of delivery, and community schisms in regions affected by the armed conflict in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Brentlinger, Paula E; Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor Javier; Cedeño, Marcos Arana; Morales, Lic Guadalupe Vargas; Hernán, Miguel A; Micek, Mark A; Ford, Douglas

    2005-09-01

    The Zapatista armed conflict began in the state of Chiapas, Mexico, in 1994, and overlaps pre-existing local disputes about land, religion, and other issues. Related disruptions in access to and utilization of health services have been alleged to have compromised local health status, particularly in vulnerable subgroups such as indigenous women and infants. The study objective was to measure maternal and perinatal mortality ratios and utilization of pregnancy-related health services in the region affected by the Zapatista conflict, and to describe associations between these primary outcome measures, socioeconomic and demographic factors, and factors associated with inter-party and intra-community conflict. A cross-sectional, population-based survey was conducted in 46 communities in three regions. The study subjects were 1227 women, 13-49 years old, who had been pregnant during the preceding 2 years (1999-2001). Principal outcome measures were maternal and perinatal mortality, and site of delivery. Secondary analyses explored associations between primary outcomes and socioeconomic, demographic, and conflict-related factors. Most births (87.1%) occurred at home. The crude observed maternal and perinatal mortality ratios were 607/100,000 and 23.5/1000 live births, respectively. Those who died had difficulty accessing emergency obstetrical care. Both home birth and mortality were associated with descriptors of intra-community conflict. Observed maternal and perinatal mortality ratios were substantially higher than those officially reported for Mexico or Chiapas. Reduction of high reproductive mortality ratios will require attention to socioeconomic and conflict-related problems, in addition to improved access to emergency obstetrical services.

  16. Anthropogenic effects on soil quality in ancient terraced agricultural fields of Chihuahua, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural soil quality was investigated in ancient field systems near Casas Grandes (also known as Paquimé), one of the largest and most complex prehistoric settlements in the North American Southwest. This research was completed as part of an interdisciplinary study of the anthropogenic ecology...

  17. INITIAL TEST WELL CONDITIONING AT NOPAL I URANIUM DEPOSIT, SIERRA PENA BLANCA, CHIHUAHUA, MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    R.D. Oliver; J.C. Dinsmoor; S.J. Goldstein; I. Reyes; R. De La Garza

    2005-07-11

    Three test wells, PB-1, PB-2, and PB-3, were drilled at the Nopal I uranium deposit as part of a natural analogue study to evaluate radionuclide transport processes during March-April 2003. The initial pumping to condition the wells was completed during December 2003. The PB-1 well, drilled immediately adjacent to the Nopal I ore body, was continuously cored to a depth of 250 m, terminating 20 m below the top of the measured water level. The PB-2 and PB-3 wells, which were drilled on opposite sides of PB-1 at a radial distance of approximately 40 to 50 m outside of the remaining projected ore body, were also drilled to about 20 m below the top of the measured water level. Each test well was completed with 4-inch (10.2-cm) diameter PVC casing with a slotted liner below the water table. Initial conditioning of all three wells using a submersible pump at low pump rates [less than 1 gallon (3.8 1) per minute] resulted in measurable draw down and recoveries. The greatest drawdown ({approx}15 m) was observed in PB-2, whereas only minor (<1 m) drawdown occurred in PB-3. For PB-1 and PB-2, the water turbidity decreased as the wells were pumped and the pH values decreased, indicating that the contamination from the drilling fluid was reduced as the wells were conditioned. Test wells PB-1 and PB-2 showed increased inflow after several borehole volumes of fluid were removed, but their inflow rates remained less that the pumping rate. Test well PB-3 showed the smallest drawdown and least change in pH and conductivity during initial pumping and quickest recovery with a rise in measured water level after conditioning. The 195 gallons (750 l) of water pumped from PB-3 during conditioning was discharged through a household sponge. That sponge showed measurable gamma radiation, which decayed to background values in less than 12 hours. Preliminary interpretations include filtration of a radioisotope source with a short half-life or of a radioisotope that volatized as the sponge dried, such as Rn-222 and its short-lived daughters. No filtration was used during the pumping of PB-1 or PB-2.

  18. Metabolomic Characteristics of Arsenic-Associated Diabetes in a Prospective Cohort in Chihuahua, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Elizabeth; González-Horta, Carmen; Rager, Julia; Bailey, Kathryn A.; Sánchez-Ramírez, Blanca; Ballinas-Casarrubias, Lourdes; Ishida, María C.; Gutiérrez-Torres, Daniela S.; Hernández Cerón, Roberto; Viniegra Morales, Damián; Baeza Terrazas, Francisco A.; Jesse Saunders, R.; Drobná, Zuzana; Mendez, Michelle A.; Buse, John B.; Loomis, Dana; Jia, Wei; García-Vargas, Gonzalo G.; Del Razo, Luz M.; Stýblo, Miroslav; Fry, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) has been linked to an increased risk of diabetes, yet the specific disease phenotype and underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In the present study we set out to identify iAs exposure-associated metabolites with altered abundance in nondiabetic and diabetic individuals in an effort to understand the relationship between exposure, metabolomic response, and disease status. A nested study design was used to profile metabolomic shifts in urine and plasma collected from 90 diabetic and 86 nondiabetic individuals matched for varying iAs concentrations in drinking water, body mass index, age, and sex. Diabetes diagnosis was based on measures of fasting plasma glucose and 2-h blood glucose. Multivariable models were used to identify metabolites with altered abundance associated with iAs exposure among diabetic and nondiabetic individuals. A total of 132 metabolites were identified to shift in urine or plasma in response to iAs exposure characterized by the sum of iAs metabolites in urine (U-tAs). Although many metabolites were altered in both diabetic and nondiabetic 35 subjects, diabetic individuals displayed a unique response to iAs exposure with 59 altered metabolites including those that play a role in tricarboxylic acid cycle and amino acid metabolism. Taken together, these data highlight the broad impact of iAs exposure on the human metabolome, and demonstrate some specificity of the metabolomic response between diabetic and nondiabetic individuals. These data may provide novel insights into the mechanisms and phenotype of diabetes associated with iAs exposure. PMID:25577196

  19. Thorium isotopes in colloidal fraction of water from San Marcos Dam, Chihuahua, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral-Lares, M.; Melgoza, A.; Montero-Cabrera, M. E.; Renteria-Villalobos, M.

    2013-07-01

    The main interest of this stiidy is to assess the contents and distribution of Th-series isotopes in colloidal fraction of surface water from San Marcos dam, because the suspended particulate matter serves as transport medium for several pollutants. The aim of this work was to assess the distribution of thorium isotopes (232Th and 230Th) contained in suspended matter. Samples were taken from three surface points along the San Marcos dam: water input, midpoint, and near to dam wall. In this last point, a depth sampling was also carried out. Here, three depth points were taken at 0.4, 8 and 15 meters. To evaluate the thorium behavior in surface water, from every water sample the colloidal fraction was separated, between 1 and 0.1 μm. Thorium isotopes concentraron in samples were obtained by alpha spectrometry. Activity concentrations obtained of 232Th and 230Th in surface points ranged from 0.3 to 0.5 Bq ṡ L-1, whereas in depth points ranged from 0.4 to 3.2 Bq ṡ L-1, respectively. The results show that 230Th is in higher concentration than 232Th in colloidal fraction. This can be attributed to a preference of these colloids to adsorb uranium. Thus, the activity ratio 230Th/232Th in colloidal fraction showed values from 2.3 to 10.2. In surface points along the dam, 230Th activity concentration decreases while 232Th concentration remains constant. On the other hand, activity concentrations of both isotopes showed a pointed out enhancement with depth. The results have shown a possible lixiviation of uranium from geological substrate into the surface water and an important fractionation of thorium isotopes, which suggest that thorium is non-homogeneously distributed along San Marcos dam.

  20. STRATIGRAPHY OF THE PB-1 WELL, NOPAL 1 URANIUM DEPOSIT, PENA BLANCA, CHIHUAHUA, MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    P. Dobson

    2005-09-14

    The objectives of this report are: (1) Stratigraphic study part of integrated research project examining migration of radionuclides at Pena Blanca; (2) Immediate objectives of study include: locate stratigraphic contacts in third dimension; measure rock properties (matrix permeability, porosity, mineralogy, cation exchange capacity) of cored section; determine fracture frequency and orientation; (3) Results of study serve as primary inputs to flow and transport models.

  1. STRATIGRAPHY OF THE PB-1 WELL, NOPAL I URANIUM DEPOSIT, SIERRA PENA BLANCA, CHIHUAHUA, MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2005-06-25

    Three wells, PB-1, PB-2, and PB-3, were drilled in 2003 at the Nopal I uranium deposit as part of a natural analogue study to evaluate radionuclide transport processes. The wells penetrate through the Tertiary volcanic section down to the Cretaceous limestone basement, and intersect the top of the regional aquifer system. The PB-1 well, drilled immediately adjacent to the Nopal I ore body, was cored to a depth of 250 m, thus providing an opportunity to document the local stratigraphy. The uppermost unit encountered in the PB-1 well is the Nopal Formation, a densely welded, crystal-rich rhyolitic ash-flow tuff. The cored section is highly altered and devitrified, with kaolinite, quartz, chlorite, and montmorillonite replacing feldspars and much of the groundmass. Breccia zones within the tuff contain fracture fillings of hematite, limonite, and goethite. A zone of intense clay alteration encountered in the depth interval 17.45-22.30 m was interpreted to represent the basal vitrophyre of this unit. Underlying the basal vitrophyre is the Coloradas Formation, which consists of a welded, lithic-rich rhyolitic ash-flow tuff. The cored section of this unit has undergone devitrification and oxidation, and has a similar alteration mineralogy to that observed in the Nopal tuff. The Nopal I ore body is restricted to a brecciated zone that intersects these two volcanic units. A sharp contact between the Coloradas tuff and the underlying Pozos Formation was observed at a depth of 136.38 m. The Pozos Formation in the PB-1 core consists of interbedded, poorly sorted sandstone and conglomerate layers. The conglomeratic clasts consist of subangular to subrounded fragments of volcanic rocks, limestone, and chert. Thin (2-6 m) intervals of intercalated pumiceous tuffs were observed within this unit. The contact between the Pozos Formation and the underlying Cretaceous limestone basement was observed at a depth of 244.4 m.

  2. Metabolomic characteristics of arsenic-associated diabetes in a prospective cohort in Chihuahua, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Martin, Elizabeth; González-Horta, Carmen; Rager, Julia; Bailey, Kathryn A; Sánchez-Ramírez, Blanca; Ballinas-Casarrubias, Lourdes; Ishida, María C; Gutiérrez-Torres, Daniela S; Hernández Cerón, Roberto; Viniegra Morales, Damián; Baeza Terrazas, Francisco A; Saunders, R Jesse; Drobná, Zuzana; Mendez, Michelle A; Buse, John B; Loomis, Dana; Jia, Wei; García-Vargas, Gonzalo G; Del Razo, Luz M; Stýblo, Miroslav; Fry, Rebecca

    2015-04-01

    Chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) has been linked to an increased risk of diabetes, yet the specific disease phenotype and underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In the present study we set out to identify iAs exposure-associated metabolites with altered abundance in nondiabetic and diabetic individuals in an effort to understand the relationship between exposure, metabolomic response, and disease status. A nested study design was used to profile metabolomic shifts in urine and plasma collected from 90 diabetic and 86 nondiabetic individuals matched for varying iAs concentrations in drinking water, body mass index, age, and sex. Diabetes diagnosis was based on measures of fasting plasma glucose and 2-h blood glucose. Multivariable models were used to identify metabolites with altered abundance associated with iAs exposure among diabetic and nondiabetic individuals. A total of 132 metabolites were identified to shift in urine or plasma in response to iAs exposure characterized by the sum of iAs metabolites in urine (U-tAs). Although many metabolites were altered in both diabetic and nondiabetic 35 subjects, diabetic individuals displayed a unique response to iAs exposure with 59 altered metabolites including those that play a role in tricarboxylic acid cycle and amino acid metabolism. Taken together, these data highlight the broad impact of iAs exposure on the human metabolome, and demonstrate some specificity of the metabolomic response between diabetic and nondiabetic individuals. These data may provide novel insights into the mechanisms and phenotype of diabetes associated with iAs exposure.

  3. Site Selection for DOE/JIP Gas Hydrate Drilling in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Collett, T.S.; Riedel, M.; Cochran, J.R.; Boswell, R.M.; Kumar, Pushpendra; Sathe, A.V.

    2008-07-01

    Studies of geologic and geophysical data from the offshore of India have revealed two geologically distinct areas with inferred gas hydrate occurrences: the passive continental margins of the Indian Peninsula and along the Andaman convergent margin. The Indian National Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP) Expedition 01 was designed to study the occurrence of gas hydrate off the Indian Peninsula and along the Andaman convergent margin with special emphasis on understanding the geologic and geochemical controls on the occurrence of gas hydrate in these two diverse settings. NGHP Expedition 01 established the presence of gas hydrates in Krishna- Godavari, Mahanadi and Andaman basins. The expedition discovered one of the richest gas hydrate accumulations yet documented (Site 10 in the Krishna-Godavari Basin), documented the thickest and deepest gas hydrate stability zone yet known (Site 17 in Andaman Sea), and established the existence of a fully-developed gas hydrate system in the Mahanadi Basin (Site 19).

  4. Electromagnetic Induction Survey at an Archaeological Site in Chapingo (Central Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas, J. L.; Arango, C.; Cabral-Cano, E.; Arciniega-Ceballos, A.; Vergara, F.; Novo, X.

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this work is to locate buried remains of ancient civil constructions belonging to the Teotihuacan culture in Chapingo, Central Mexico. Several housing structures of this culture have been found during the excavation of a pipe trench within the University of Chapingo campus in the town of Chapingo. These units were found at 6 m deep covered by recent lacustrine sediments. In order to further explore the extension of this settlement that could guide further excavations and shed more light into these settlements, we have initiated a multi technique geophysical exploration. Here we present the initial results from this survey. An electromagnetic induction survey (EMI) was carried out to characterize the subsurface in an area of about 16,000 m2. We used a GF Instruments CMD-4 conductivity meter to map the horizontal distribution of the subsurface electrical conductivity. This instrument was operated in a continuous mode and linked to a single frequency GPS receiver attached to the probe to georeference the survey. The distance between the probe coils was 3.77 m and the investigation depth range was 4-6 m. The resulting electrical conductivity map shows two low conductivity zones with a NW-SE orientation. The inphase map also presented these characteristics. Since the electrical conductivity is associated with the material compaction, low conductivity values are expected for highly consolidated material; thus our results suggest that these low conductivity features could be related to areas that were the soil was compacted to serve as foundation of these ancient structures. The EMI survey present good initial results and will be expanded along with other techniques such as electrical tomography and ground penetrating radar in the near future in order to better map the extend of Teotihuacan culture in the region.

  5. 77 FR 12044 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... Albuquerque, Mayor R.J. Berry (invited) Approval of Agenda and January 25, 2012, Meeting Minutes 1:30 p.m.--Public Comment Period 1:45 p.m.--Old Business Written Reports Report on Waste Management Symposia, Manuel... Chairs' Meeting, Ralph Phelps Other Items 2:15 p.m.--Update From Los Alamos Site Manager, Kevin Smith...

  6. 77 FR 59181 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ... operations at the Los Alamos site. Tentative Agenda 1. Approval of Agenda 2. Approval of Minutes of September... Designated Federal Officer 5. Election of Officers for Fiscal Year 2013 Election of Chair and Vice Chair for... oral statements pertaining to agenda items should contact Menice Santistevan at the address...

  7. 75 FR 43517 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ..., Surveillance and Remediation Committee and Waste Management Committee of the Environmental Management Site... Environmental Monitoring, Surveillance and Remediation Committee (EMS&R): The EMS&R Committee provides a citizens' perspective to NNMCAB on current and future environmental remediation activities resulting...

  8. 75 FR 35446 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ..., Surveillance and Remediation Committee and Waste Management Committee of the Environmental Management Site... Remediation Committee (EMS&R): The EMS&R Committee provides a citizens' perspective to NNMCAB on current and future environmental remediation activities resulting from historical Los Alamos National...

  9. Bibliography of reports by US Geological Survey personnel pertaining to underground nuclear testing and radioactive waste disposal at the Nevada Test Site, and radioactive waste disposal at the WIPP Site, New Mexico, January 1, 1979-December 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Glanzman, V.M.

    1980-01-01

    This bibliography presents reports released to the public between January 1, 1979, and December 31, 1979, by personnel of the US Geological Survey. Reports include information on underground nuclear testing and waste management projects at the NTS (Nevada Test Site) and radioactive waste projects at the WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) site, New Mexico. Reports on Project Dribble, Tatum Dome, Mississippi, previously prepared as administrative reports and released to the public as 474-series reports during 1979 are also included in this bibliography.

  10. Diurnal variations of airborne pollen concentration and the effect of ambient temperature in three sites of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Ríos, B; Torres-Jardón, R; Ramírez-Arriaga, E; Martínez-Bernal, A; Rosas, I

    2016-05-01

    Pollen is an important cause of allergic respiratory ailments in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). However, very little is known if ambient air temperature correlates with the early blooming of plants observed in other urban areas around the world. A research study was conducted during the dry season of 2012-2013 at three representative sites of the MCMA with different urban characteristics with the aim to understand the relationships between the profusion and diversity of pollen against temperature and other meteorological variables and degree of urbanization. Pollen samples were collected using a Hirst-type trap sampler in the sites: Merced (highly urbanized), Iztapalapa (medium-high urbanized) and Coyoacan (moderately urbanized). Urbanization levels were determined using a composite index based on population density, proportion of surface covered by construction and asphalt, and urban heat island intensity. A set of representative pollen sampling tapes were assayed under a light microscope at magnification of ×1,000 and converted to grains per cubic meter. The most representative pollen types found in the three sites were, regardless of urbanization levels were: Fraxinus, Cupressaceae/Taxodiaceae, Casuarina, Alnus, Myrtaceae, and Pinus. Total pollen concentration was greatest in the moderately urbanized area, although earlier blooming took place at the highly urbanized zone. Total pollen concentration in the medium-high urbanized site has the lowest because the green areas in this zone of MCMA are few. In a diurnal basis, the most abundant pollen types peaked near midday or in the afternoon evening at the three sites. A Spearman test showed a positive correlation among bihourly pollen concentrations, temperature and relative humidity in all sites, but wind speed just correlated in Iztapalapa and Coyoacan. The results obtained suggest that Urban Heat Island Intensity can disturb flowering periods and pollen concentrations, largely in the highly urbanized

  11. Diurnal variations of airborne pollen concentration and the effect of ambient temperature in three sites of Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ríos, B.; Torres-Jardón, R.; Ramírez-Arriaga, E.; Martínez-Bernal, A.; Rosas, I.

    2016-05-01

    Pollen is an important cause of allergic respiratory ailments in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). However, very little is known if ambient air temperature correlates with the early blooming of plants observed in other urban areas around the world. A research study was conducted during the dry season of 2012-2013 at three representative sites of the MCMA with different urban characteristics with the aim to understand the relationships between the profusion and diversity of pollen against temperature and other meteorological variables and degree of urbanization. Pollen samples were collected using a Hirst-type trap sampler in the sites: Merced (highly urbanized), Iztapalapa (medium-high urbanized) and Coyoacan (moderately urbanized). Urbanization levels were determined using a composite index based on population density, proportion of surface covered by construction and asphalt, and urban heat island intensity. A set of representative pollen sampling tapes were assayed under a light microscope at magnification of ×1,000 and converted to grains per cubic meter. The most representative pollen types found in the three sites were, regardless of urbanization levels were: Fraxinus, Cupressaceae/Taxodiaceae, Casuarina, Alnus, Myrtaceae, and Pinus. Total pollen concentration was greatest in the moderately urbanized area, although earlier blooming took place at the highly urbanized zone. Total pollen concentration in the medium-high urbanized site has the lowest because the green areas in this zone of MCMA are few. In a diurnal basis, the most abundant pollen types peaked near midday or in the afternoon evening at the three sites. A Spearman test showed a positive correlation among bihourly pollen concentrations, temperature and relative humidity in all sites, but wind speed just correlated in Iztapalapa and Coyoacan. The results obtained suggest that Urban Heat Island Intensity can disturb flowering periods and pollen concentrations, largely in the highly urbanized

  12. Radiometric dating of Ochoan (Permian) evaporites, WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) site, Delaware Basin, New Mexico, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Brookins, D.G.; Lambert, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    We have attempted radiometric dating of halide-sulfate salts and clay minerals from the Delaware Basin, New Mexico, USA, as part of geochemical study of the stability of the evaporite sequence at the WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - a US DOE facilty) site. We undertook this dating to determine: (1) primary age of evaporite genesis or time(s) of recrystallization; (2) if previously undated evaporite minerals (leonite, polyhalite, kieserite) give useful data; and (3) if the detrital clay minerals have been radiometrically reset at any time following their incorporation into the evaporite medium. We have shown earlier that polyhalites can indeed be successfully dated by the K-Ar method, and once corrections are applied for admixed halide minerals, dates of 210-230 Ma for the Delaware Basin are obtained. Rb-Sr isochrons from early stage sylvites-polyhalites- anhydrites yield 220 +- 10 Ma, even when some sylvites yield lower K-Ar dates due to loss of *40-Ar. K-Ar dates on leonites and kieserities are also low due to *40-Ar loss, but their Rb-Sr dates are higher. Detrital clay minerals from the Delaware Basin collectively yield a highly scattered isochron (390 +- 77 Ma), but samples from a local area, such as the WIPP Site, give a much better age of 428 +- 7 Ma. These dates show that the interaction between the clay minerals and the evaporitic brines was insufficient to reset the clay minerals Rb-Sr systematics. In a related study, we note that a dike emplaced into the evaporite at 34 Ma had only very limited effect on the intruded rocks; contact phenomena were all within 2 m of the dike. All of our geochemical (radio-metric and trace element) studies of the WIPP site argue for preservation of the isotopic and chemical integrity of the major minerals for the past 200 Ma.

  13. Using Diffuse Field Theory to Interpret the H/V Spectral Ratio from Earthquake Records in a Mexico City site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinas, V.; Luzón, F.; Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.; Kawase, H.; Matsushima, S.; Suárez, M.; Cuéllar, A.; Rivet, D. N.; Campillo, M.

    2011-12-01

    It has been recently demonstrated that averaging the autocorrelations of ground motions within a diffuse field lead to the imaginary part of the corresponding Green's functions. This diffuse field assumption (DFA) is at the core of the proposed explanation for the microtremor H/V spectral ratio. An application was completely developed for a layered medium (Sánchez-Sesma et al., 2011). On the other hand, for sufficiently deep sources producing almost no surface waves at a 1D configuration, the 1D-DFA allows to relate the average H/V spectral ratio from earthquakes in terms of 1D Green's functions (Kawase et al., 2011). In this work we consider earthquake data recorded at the Cibeles station belonging to the Mexico City Accelerometric Network. This site is in very soft ground and more than one hundred earthquakes of various magnitudes and locations have been recorded there between 1996 and 2008. A priori we did not know if the set of records could be regarded as realizations of a diffuse field. In order to explore the characteristics of this data set, we did the averages of the autocorrelations of windows for these earthquakes. We consider various receiver-source configurations in terms of theoretical incidence angle and consider separately, when that was possible, P, S and Coda waves. We made a parametric study considering the various attributes for this data set. Although we expected significant differences for the, say, S and Coda windows, we found instead remarkable consistency of H/V for the various combinations, perhaps with some deviations for P windows. Moreover, we found that the H/V of the recorded data matches very well with the theoretical spectra computed using the imaginary part of 3D Green's function for the standard layered structure of the site. This fact strongly suggests that, thanks to multiple scattering, the seismic fields from various earthquakes can be regarded as realizations of 3D diffuse fields. Comparisons are provided for microtremor

  14. Diarrheal diseases in children from a water reclamation site in Mexico city.

    PubMed Central

    Cifuentes, Enrique; Suárez, Leticia; Solano, Maritsa; Santos, René

    2002-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the risk of enteric diseases among children living in a water reclamation area in Mexico City. A geographic information system was used to define eligible wells and surrounding homesteads. Sixty-five water samples from five wells were tested for fecal coliform bacteria per 100 mL (FC/100 mL) during visits to 750 eligible households; caretakers only in those dwellings with children under 5 years old were interviewed throughout repeated cross-sectional surveys, conducted during 1999-2000. Data on diarrheal diseases were obtained from 761 children during the rainy season and 732 children during the dry season; their guardians also provided information on drinking water supply, sanitation, and socioeconomic variables. The presence of indicator organisms in groundwater samples pointed to fecal pollution; bacterial indicators, however, did not predict the health risk. The rates of diarrhea were 10.7% in the dry season and 11.8% in the rainy season. Children 1 year old showed the highest rate of diarrhea during the dry season [odds ratio (OR) = 2.1 with 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.99-4.71], particularly those from households perceiving unpleasant taste of tap water (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 0.97-2.92) and consuming vegetables washed only with water (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.10-4.39). Lower risk was observed in individuals enjoying full-day water supply (OR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.27-0.86) and a flushing toilet (OR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.16-0.67), as well as those storing water in covered receptacles (OR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.15-0.80). Rainy season data suggested that children from households perceiving a color to their water had a higher rate of diarrhea than did those without such complaint (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 0.93-3.67); recent consumption of food sold by street vendors was also a significant risk factor (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 0.98-2.87). Groundwater is at risk of contamination, as indicated by the presence of FC/100 mL. The endemic pattern of diarrhea, however, reflects

  15. Diarrheal diseases in children from a water reclamation site in Mexico city.

    PubMed

    Cifuentes, Enrique; Suárez, Leticia; Solano, Maritsa; Santos, René

    2002-10-01

    This study was conducted to assess the risk of enteric diseases among children living in a water reclamation area in Mexico City. A geographic information system was used to define eligible wells and surrounding homesteads. Sixty-five water samples from five wells were tested for fecal coliform bacteria per 100 mL (FC/100 mL) during visits to 750 eligible households; caretakers only in those dwellings with children under 5 years old were interviewed throughout repeated cross-sectional surveys, conducted during 1999-2000. Data on diarrheal diseases were obtained from 761 children during the rainy season and 732 children during the dry season; their guardians also provided information on drinking water supply, sanitation, and socioeconomic variables. The presence of indicator organisms in groundwater samples pointed to fecal pollution; bacterial indicators, however, did not predict the health risk. The rates of diarrhea were 10.7% in the dry season and 11.8% in the rainy season. Children 1 year old showed the highest rate of diarrhea during the dry season [odds ratio (OR) = 2.1 with 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.99-4.71], particularly those from households perceiving unpleasant taste of tap water (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 0.97-2.92) and consuming vegetables washed only with water (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.10-4.39). Lower risk was observed in individuals enjoying full-day water supply (OR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.27-0.86) and a flushing toilet (OR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.16-0.67), as well as those storing water in covered receptacles (OR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.15-0.80). Rainy season data suggested that children from households perceiving a color to their water had a higher rate of diarrhea than did those without such complaint (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 0.93-3.67); recent consumption of food sold by street vendors was also a significant risk factor (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 0.98-2.87). Groundwater is at risk of contamination, as indicated by the presence of FC/100 mL. The endemic pattern of diarrhea, however, reflects

  16. Environmenal analysis of the Bayo Canyon (TA-10) Site, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ferenbaugh, R.W.; Buhl, T.E.; Stoker, A.K.; Hansen, W.R.

    1982-05-01

    The radiological survey of the old TA-10 site in Bayo Canyon found low levels of surface contamination in the vicinity of the firing sites and subsurface contamination in the old waste disposal area. The three alternatives proposed for the site are: (1) to take no action; (2) to restrict usage of the area of subsurface contamination to activities that cause no subsurface disturbance (minimal action); and (3) to remove the subsurface conamination to levels below the working criteria. Dose calculations indicate that doses from surface contamination for recreational users of the canyon, permanent residents, and construction workers and doses for workers involved in excavation of contaminated soil under the clean up alternative are only small percentages of applicable guidelines. No environmental impacts are associated with either the no-action or minimal action alternatives. The impact associated with the cleanup alternative is small, especially considering that the area already has been affected by the original TA-10 decommissioning action, but nevertheless, the preferred alternative is the minimal action alternative, where 0.6 hectare of land is restricted to surface activities. This leaves the rest of the canyon available for development with up to 400 homes. The restricted area can be used for a park, tennis courts, etc., and the /sup 90/Sr activity will decay to levels permitting unrestricted usage in about 160 y.

  17. Revisiting a classification scheme for U.S.-Mexico alluvial basin-fill aquifers.

    PubMed

    Hibbs, Barry J; Darling, Bruce K

    2005-01-01

    Intermontane basins in the Trans-Pecos region of westernmost Texas and northern Chihuahua, Mexico, are target areas for disposal of interstate municipal sludge and have been identified as possible disposal sites for low-level radioactive waste. Understanding ground water movement within and between these basins is needed to assess potential contaminant fate and movement. Four associated basin aquifers are evaluated and classified; the Red Light Draw Aquifer, the Northwest Eagle Flat Aquifer, the Southeast Eagle Flat Aquifer, and the El Cuervo Aquifer. Encompassed on all but one side by mountains and local divides, the Red Light Draw Aquifer has the Rio Grande as an outlet for both surface drainage and ground water discharge. The river juxtaposed against its southern edge, the basin is classified as a topographically open, through-flowing basin. The Northwest Eagle Flat Aquifer is classified as a topographically closed and drained basin because surface drainage is to the interior of the basin and ground water discharge occurs by interbasin ground water flow. Mountains and ground water divides encompass this basin aquifer on all sides; yet, depth to ground water in the interior of the basin is commonly >500 feet. Negligible ground water discharge within the basin indicates that ground water discharges from the basin by vertical flow and underflow to a surrounding basin or basins. The most likely mode of discharge is by vertical, cross-formational flow to underlying Permian rocks that are more porous and permeable and subsequent flow along regional flowpaths beneath local ground water divides. The Southeast Eagle Flat Aquifer is classified as a topographically open and drained basin because surface drainage and ground water discharge are to the adjacent Wildhorse Flat area. Opposite the Eagle Flat and Red Light Draw aquifers is the El Cuervo Aquifer of northern Chihuahua, Mexico. The El Cuervo Aquifer has interior drainage to Laguna El Cuervo, which is a phreatic

  18. Revisiting a classification scheme for U.S.-Mexico alluvial basin-fill aquifers.

    PubMed

    Hibbs, Barry J; Darling, Bruce K

    2005-01-01

    Intermontane basins in the Trans-Pecos region of westernmost Texas and northern Chihuahua, Mexico, are target areas for disposal of interstate municipal sludge and have been identified as possible disposal sites for low-level radioactive waste. Understanding ground water movement within and between these basins is needed to assess potential contaminant fate and movement. Four associated basin aquifers are evaluated and classified; the Red Light Draw Aquifer, the Northwest Eagle Flat Aquifer, the Southeast Eagle Flat Aquifer, and the El Cuervo Aquifer. Encompassed on all but one side by mountains and local divides, the Red Light Draw Aquifer has the Rio Grande as an outlet for both surface drainage and ground water discharge. The river juxtaposed against its southern edge, the basin is classified as a topographically open, through-flowing basin. The Northwest Eagle Flat Aquifer is classified as a topographically closed and drained basin because surface drainage is to the interior of the basin and ground water discharge occurs by interbasin ground water flow. Mountains and ground water divides encompass this basin aquifer on all sides; yet, depth to ground water in the interior of the basin is commonly >500 feet. Negligible ground water discharge within the basin indicates that ground water discharges from the basin by vertical flow and underflow to a surrounding basin or basins. The most likely mode of discharge is by vertical, cross-formational flow to underlying Permian rocks that are more porous and permeable and subsequent flow along regional flowpaths beneath local ground water divides. The Southeast Eagle Flat Aquifer is classified as a topographically open and drained basin because surface drainage and ground water discharge are to the adjacent Wildhorse Flat area. Opposite the Eagle Flat and Red Light Draw aquifers is the El Cuervo Aquifer of northern Chihuahua, Mexico. The El Cuervo Aquifer has interior drainage to Laguna El Cuervo, which is a phreatic

  19. Applications of the JARS method to study levee sites in southern Texas and southern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ivanov, J.; Miller, R.D.; Xia, J.; Dunbar, J.B.

    2007-01-01

    We apply the joint analysis of refractions with surface waves (JARS) method to several sites and compare its results to traditional refraction-tomography methods in efforts of finding a more realistic solution to the inverse refraction-traveltime problem. The JARS method uses a reference model, derived from surface-wave shear-wave velocity estimates, as a constraint. In all of the cases JARS estimates appear more realistic than those from the conventional refraction-tomography methods. As a result, we consider, the JARS algorithm as the preferred method for finding solutions to the inverse refraction-tomography problems. ?? 2007 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  20. Target and Non-target Site Mechanisms Developed by Glyphosate-Resistant Hairy beggarticks (Bidens pilosa L.) Populations from Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Alcántara-de la Cruz, Ricardo; Fernández-Moreno, Pablo T.; Ozuna, Carmen V.; Rojano-Delgado, Antonia M.; Cruz-Hipolito, Hugo E.; Domínguez-Valenzuela, José A.; Barro, Francisco; De Prado, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    In 2014 hairy beggarticks (Bidens pilosa L.) has been identified as being glyphosate-resistant in citrus orchards from Mexico. The target and non-target site mechanisms involved in the response to glyphosate of two resistant populations (R1 and R2) and one susceptible (S) were studied. Experiments of dose-response, shikimic acid accumulation, uptake-translocation, enzyme activity and 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene sequencing were carried out in each population. The R1 and R2 populations were 20.4 and 2.8-fold less glyphosate sensitive, respectively, than the S population. The resistant populations showed a lesser shikimic acid accumulation than the S population. In the latter one, 24.9% of 14C-glyphosate was translocated to the roots at 96 h after treatment; in the R1 and R2 populations only 12.9 and 15.5%, respectively, was translocated. Qualitative results confirmed the reduced 14C-glyphosate translocation in the resistant populations. The EPSPS enzyme activity of the S population was 128.4 and 8.5-fold higher than the R1 and R2 populations of glyphosate-treated plants, respectively. A single (Pro-106-Ser), and a double (Thr-102-Ile followed by Pro-106-Ser) mutations were identified in the EPSPS2 gene conferred high resistance in R1 population. Target-site mutations associated with a reduced translocation were responsible for the higher glyphosate resistance in the R1 population. The low-intermediate resistance of the R2 population was mediated by reduced translocation. This is the first glyphosate resistance case confirmed in hairy beggarticks in the world. PMID:27752259

  1. {Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aliphatic hydrocarbons in gas and particle phases in two sites of Mexico: MILAGRO project}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amador-Muñoz, O.; Villalobos-Pietrini, R.; Castro, T.; Gaspariano-Larino, R.

    2009-04-01

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons are markers of anthropogenic and biogenic emission sources1; meanwhile PAHs are generated by incomplete combustion sources2. The last ones are important compounds due to their carcinogenic and mutagenic properties3,4. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify aliphatic hydrocarbons and PAHs in gas and particles phases of the atmospheric aerosol and to determine the day and night time behavior during the MILAGRO (Megacity Initiative: Local Global and Research Observations) campaign. The gas phase was collected on polyurethane foam, while particles less than 2.5 m (PM2.5) were collected on glass fiber filters covered with Teflon (TIGF, pallflex) of 8x10 in. Samplings were carried out with a high volume sampler (Tisch) with a flow of 1.13 m3 min-1 at two sites: Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo (T0) and Tecamac (T1) located at North and Northeast of Mexico City, respectively during day (7:00 am-7:00 pm) and night time (7:00 pm-7:00 am) from 1 to 29 of March, 2006. Ninteen PAHs and 23 aliphatic hydrocarbons from n-C13H28 to n-C35H72 were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in impact mode. The samples were spiked with deuterads PAHs and aliphatics hydrocarbons before ultrasound extraction. Medians comparisons were made with Mann-Whitney U test. PAHs with molecular weight (MW) less than 228 g mol-1 were distributed in the gas phase, in both sites. Higher concentrations of PAHs ≥ 228 g mol-1 in PM2.5, were observed during night period (p

  2. Biogeochemical variability of plants at native and altered sites, San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gough, L.P.; Severson, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    The San Juan Basin is becoming a major energy resource region. The anticipated increase in strip mining for coal can be expected to alter the geochemical and biogeochemical environment. because such activities destroy the native vegetation communities, rearrange the rock strata, and disrupt natural soil development. This study investigated the variability in the biogeochemistry of native plant species at both undisturbed and altered sites and assessed the importance of the observed differences. Three studies are involved in this investigation: Study 1, the biogeochemical variability of native species found at sites throughout that part of the basin underlain by economically recoverable coal; Study 2, the biogeochemical variability of native species growing on soils considered favorable for use in the topsoiling of spoil areas; and Study 3, the biogeochemical variability of native species on rehabilitated sites at the San Juan coal mine. Summary statistics for concentrations of 35 elements (and ash yield) are reported in Study 1 for galleta grass, broom snakeweed, and fourwing saltbush. The concentrations of manganese, molybdenum, nickel, and uranium (and possibly iron and selenium) in galleta show regional patterns, with the highest values generally found in the south-central region and western edge of the study area. Differences in the concentration of elements between species was generally subtle (less than a factor of two) except for the following: ash yield of saltbush was two times that of the other plants; boron in snakeweed and saltbush was four times greater than in galleta; iron in galleta was two times greater than in saltbush; and, calcium, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, and sulfur were generally highest in saltbush. Summary statistics (including the 95-percent expected range) for concentrations of 35 elements (and ash yield) are reported from Study 2 for galleta and broom snakeweed growing on the Sheppard, Shiprock, and Doak soil association

  3. GPR and Magnetic Modeling on an Archaeological Site in Central Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez, R. E.; Argote, D. L.; Camara, M. E.; Cifuentes, G.; Lopez, P.

    2007-05-01

    A geophysical study was carried out in an archaeological site called Los Teteles de Ocotitla, which means `bunch of rocks'. The area is located within the central portion of the Sierra de Ocotitla, towards the northeast of La Malinche volcano, in the municipality of Altzayanca, State of Tlaxcala. This site is conformed of several artificial terraces with evidence of human occupation, probably from the Teotihuacan or Tenanyecac phase. At first the presence of several hills, which are the remains of small pyramids can be seen. Also, some exposed walls and floors can be appreciated. The geophysical work included magnetic (vertical field) and GPR observations in five terraces. The magnetic data depicted a series of dipolar anomalies probably related to walls, and stairways. A report from a previous archaeological excavation carried out almost 30 years ago on an upper terrace, mentioned the discovery of an ancient burial. The tomb was a room (3x2x2 m3) to a depth of 1 m, where corpse remains were found, along other archaeological artifacts. Magnetic and GPR profiles were observed in this area to define geophysical signatures of the mentioned ancient structure, to later compare with anomalies obtained in other terraces. Two interesting anomalies were observed in two lower terraces that compared well with the signatures obtained. The magnetic anomalies were modeled employing a 3D inverse approach, assuming that the Earth is conformed of a series of magnetic dipoles. The final result produced a magnetic block of 5x3x3 m3 to a depth of 1.5 m, approximately. The GPR anomalies helped to constrain the initial geometry of the archaeological structure.

  4. Diel distribution of zooplankton at the Mobil OTEC site (29/sup 0/N 88/sup 0/W) in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Steen, Jr, J P; Gunter, G; Hartwig, E O

    1982-01-01

    In the study 128 copepod species and 43 other zooplankton taxa were identified from four depth strata (0 to 50 m, 50 to 100 m, 100 to 300 m and 300 to 500 m). Duplicate step-oblique tows at six hour intervals over 24 hours were taken at a site in the Gulf of Mexico. The distribution of zooplankton numbers and sizes, and species diversity, richness and evenness through a diel period are described.

  5. Computer analysis of sound recordings from two Anasazi sites in northwestern New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loose, Richard

    2002-11-01

    Sound recordings were made at a natural outdoor amphitheater in Chaco Canyon and in a reconstructed great kiva at Aztec Ruins. Recordings included computer-generated tones and swept sine waves, classical concert flute, Native American flute, conch shell trumpet, and prerecorded music. Recording equipment included analog tape deck, digital minidisk recorder, and direct digital recording to a laptop computer disk. Microphones and geophones were used as transducers. The natural amphitheater lies between the ruins of Pueblo Bonito and Chetro Ketl. It is a semicircular arc in a sandstone cliff measuring 500 ft. wide and 75 ft. high. The radius of the arc was verified with aerial photography, and an acoustic ray trace was generated using cad software. The arc is in an overhanging cliff face and brings distant sounds to a line focus. Along this line, there are unusual acoustic effects at conjugate foci. Time history analysis of recordings from both sites showed that a 60-dB reverb decay lasted from 1.8 to 2.0 s, nearly ideal for public performances of music. Echoes from the amphitheater were perceived to be upshifted in pitch, but this was not seen in FFT analysis. Geophones placed on the floor of the great kiva showed a resonance at 95 Hz.

  6. Radiological surveillance of Remedial Action activities at the processing site, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, April 12--16, 1993. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-04-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project`s Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) performed a radiological surveillance of the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC), MK-Ferguson and CWM Federal Environmental Services, Inc., at the processing site in Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. The requirements and attributes examined during the audit were developed from reviewing working-level procedures developed by the RAC. Objective evidence, comments, and observations were verified based on investigating procedures, documentation, records located at the site, personal interviews, and tours of the site. No findings were identified during this audit. Ten site-specific observations, three good practice observations, and five programmatic observations are presented in this report. The overall conclusion from the surveillance is that the radiological aspects of the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, remedial action program are performed adequately. The results of the good practice observations indicate that the site health physics (HP) staff is taking the initiative to address and resolve potential issues, and implement suggestions useful to the UMTRA Project. However, potential exists for improving designated storage areas for general items, and the RAC Project Office should consider resolving site-specific and procedural inconsistencies.

  7. Late Holocene stratigraphy of the Tetimpa archaeological sites, northeast flank of Popocatepetl volcano, central Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panfil, M.S.; Gardner, T.W.; Hirth, K.G.

    1999-01-01

    Late Holocene (240 km2 on the east side of the volcano with >25 cm of tephra. Lavas from eruptive sequence I dammed drainage in the lowland area near the town of San Nicolas and caused local upstream deposition of as much as 30 m of lacustrine silts, clays, and sands. These lacustrine deposits record an eruptive hiatus for the Tetimpa area of about 750 14C yr: between ca. 2100 and ca. 1350 yr B.P., no major tephras were deposited in the Tetimpa area. In upland areas, this time period is represented by an unconformity and by Entisols formed in the top of pumice deposits and lavas from eruptive sequence I. Artifacts, agricultural furrows, and dwellings record human reoccupation of this surface. At the end of this hiatus, several lahars were deposited above the lacustrine sequence and locally above the Entisol in upland positions adjacent to streams. Between ca. 1350 and ca. 1200 yr B.P., tephras from eruptive sequence II buried these paleosols, occupation sites, lacustrine sediments, and lahars. Andesitic (~62% SiO2) pumice lapilli deposits in the Tetimpa area record three pumice-fall eruptions directed northeast and east of the crater. The first and smallest of these (maximum Tetimpa area thickness = 12 cm; >52 km2 covered by >25 cm) took place at ca. 1350 yr B.P. and was accompanied by pyroclastic surge events preserved in the Tetimpa area by charcoal, sand waves, and cross-stratified sand-sized tephra. At ca. 1200 yr B.P., the products of two Plinian-style events and additional pyroclastic surges reached the Tetimpa area. The largest of these tephra-fall events covered the Tetimpa area with 0.5-1 m of tephra and blanketed an area of >230 km2 with a thickness of >25 cm. The Tetimpa record confirms two of the four periods of explosive volcanism recognized by studies conducted around Popocatepetl in the past 30 yr. Eruptive sequence I corresponds to the explosive period between 2100 and 2500 yr B.P., and eruptive sequence II corresponds to the period between 900 and

  8. Mexican Pharmacies and Antibiotic Consumption at the US-Mexico Border

    PubMed Central

    Homedes, Núria; Ugalde, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study antibiotic dispensing to US and Mexican residents, at Mexican pharmacies at the US-Mexico border, and the pharmacy clerks’ capability to promote appropriate use. Methods: The site selected was Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua (pop. 1.2 million) separated from El Paso, Texas (pop. 800,000) by the Rio Grande River. A convenience sample of 32 pharmacies located near the international bridges, major shopping centers, and interior neighborhoods was selected. Pharmacy clients were interviewed (n=230) and 152 interactions between clients and pharmacy clerks were observed. Information was obtained about education and pharmaceutical training of 113 clerks working in 25 pharmacies. A senior pharmacy clerk in each of the 25 pharmacies was interviewed and asked for their recommendations to clients presenting two clinical scenarios and seven diagnoses. Findings: Professionally trained pharmacists only spend a few hours a week in some pharmacies. Clerks’ education levels are very low; some have only completed primary education. There is no required pharmaceutical training and their knowledge about pharmaceuticals comes mostly from representatives of the pharmaceutical industry. Clerks’ knowledge of antibiotics, the most frequently sold class of medicines (65% without prescription), is very limited. Clients trust pharmacy clerks and tend to follow their advice. Conclusions: The findings raise concerns about dispensing of antibiotics at Mexican border pharmacies and antibiotic overuse due to lack of control. Because inappropriate antibiotic use contributes to increased resistance, pharmacy clerks should receive independent training to dispense antibiotics and promote their appropriate use. PMID:23532456

  9. Paired charcoal and tree-ring records of high-frequency Holocene fire from two New Mexico bog sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, C.D.; Anderson, R. Scott; Jass, R.B.; Toney, J.L.; Baisan, C.H.

    2008-01-01

    Two primary methods for reconstructing paleofire occurrence include dendrochronological dating of fire scars and stand ages from live or dead trees (extending back centuries into the past) and sedimentary records of charcoal particles from lakes and bogs, providing perspectives on fire history that can extend back for many thousands of years. Studies using both proxies have become more common in regions where lakes are present and fire frequencies are low, but are rare where high-frequency surface fires dominate and sedimentary deposits are primarily bogs and wetlands. Here we investigate sedimentary and fire-scar records of fire in two small watersheds in northern New Mexico, in settings recently characterised by relatively high-frequency fire where bogs and wetlands (Chihuahuen??os Bog and Alamo Bog) are more common than lakes. Our research demonstrates that: (1) essential features of the sedimentary charcoal record can be reproduced between multiple cores within a bog deposit; (2) evidence from both fire-scarred trees and charcoal deposits documents an anomalous lack of fire since ???1900, compared with the remainder of the Holocene; (3) sedimentary charcoal records probably underestimate the recurrence of fire events at these high-frequency fire sites; and (4) the sedimentary records from these bogs are complicated by factors such as burning and oxidation of these organic deposits, diversity of vegetation patterns within watersheds, and potential bioturbation by ungulates. We consider a suite of particular challenges in developing and interpreting fire histories from bog and wetland settings in the Southwest. The identification of these issues and constraints with interpretation of sedimentary charcoal fire records does not diminish their essential utility in assessing millennial-scale patterns of fire activity in this dry part of North America. ?? IAWF 2008.

  10. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated activity of particulate organic matter from the Paso del Norte airshed along the U.S.-Mexico border.

    PubMed Central

    Arrieta, Daniel E; Ontiveros, Cynthia C; Li, Wen-Whai; Garcia, Jose H; Denison, Michael S; McDonald, Jacob D; Burchiel, Scott W; Washburn, Barbara Shayne

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we determined the biologic activity of dichloromethane-extracted particulate matter < 10 micro m in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) obtained from filters at three sites in the Paso del Norte airshed, which includes El Paso, Texas, USA; Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, and Sunland Park, New Mexico, USA. The extracts were rich in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and had significant biologic activity, measured using two in vitro assay systems: ethoxyresorufin-(O-deethylase (EROD) induction and the aryl hydrocarbon-receptor luciferase reporter system. In most cases, both EROD (5.25 pmol/min/mg protein) and luciferase activities (994 relative light units/mg) were highest in extracts from the Advance site located in an industrial neighborhood in Juarez. These values represented 58% and 55%, respectively, of induction associated with 1 micro M ss-naphthoflavone exposures. In contrast, little activity was observed at the Northeast Clinic site in El Paso, the reference site. In most cases, luciferase and EROD activity from extracts collected from the Tillman Health Center site, situated in downtown El Paso, fell between those observed at the other two sites. Overall, a statistically significant correlation existed between PM10 and EROD and luciferase activities. Chemical analysis of extracts collected from the Advance site demonstrated that concentrations of most PAHs were higher than those reported in most other metropolitan areas in the United States. Calculations made with these data suggest a cancer risk of 5-12 cases per 100,000 people. This risk estimate, as well as comparisons with the work of other investigators, raises concern regarding the potential for adverse health effects to the residents of this airshed. Further work is needed to understand the sources, exposure, and effects of PM10 and particulate organic material in the Paso del Norte airshed. PMID:12896850

  11. Recurrence of Mexican long-tongued bats (Choeronycteris mexicana) at historical sites in Arizona and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cryan, P.M.; Bogan, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    status and habitat requirements of the species need to be determined. Furthermore, the majority of C. mexicana historically encountered north of the Mexican border were adult females and young (Petryszyn and Cockrum In Press), indicating that the southwestern US is an important breeding area. The objective of this study was to assess recurrence of C. mexicana at historical roost sites in Arizona and New Mexico, count numbers of bats present, and gather data on roost and habitat characteristics.

  12. Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria Isolated from Surface Water in Bassaseachic Falls National Park, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Gardea, Ma. Carmen E.; Tamez-Guerra, Patricia; Gomez-Flores, Ricardo; Zavala-Díaz de la Serna, Francisco Javier; Eroza-de la Vega, Gilberto; Nevárez-Moorillón, Guadalupe Virginia; Pérez-Recoder, María Concepción; Sánchez-Ramírez, Blanca; González-Horta, María del Carmen; Infante-Ramírez, Rocío

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens are a leading cause of waterborne disease, and may result in gastrointestinal outbreaks worldwide. Inhabitants of the Bassaseachic Falls National Park in Chihuahua, Mexico show seasonal gastroenteritis problems. This aim of this study was to detect enteropathogenic microorganisms responsible for diarrheal outbreaks in this area. In 2013, 49 surface water samples from 13 selected sampling sites along the Basaseachi waterfall and its main rivers, were collected during the spring, summer, autumn, and winter seasons. Fecal and total coliform counts were determined using standard methods; the AutoScan-4 system was used for identification of isolates and the antibiotic resistance profile by challenging each organism using 21 antibiotics. Significant differences among seasons were detected, where autumn samples resulted in the highest total (p < 0.05) and fecal (p < 0.001) coliform counts, whereas the lowest total coliform counts were recorded in spring. Significant differences between sampling sites were observed, where samples from sites 6, 8, and 11 had the highest total coliform counts (p < 0.009), whereas samples from site 9 exhibited the lowest one. From the microbiological analysis, 33 bacterial isolates from 13 different sites and four sampling seasons were selected; 53% of isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, and 15% exhibited a multidrug resistance (MDB) phenotype. MDB were identified as Klebsiella oxytoca (two out of four identified isolates), Escherichia coli (2/7), and Enterobacter cloacae (1/3). In addition, some water-borne microorganisms exhibited resistance to cefazoline, cefuroxime, ampicillin, and ampicillin-sulbactam. The presence of these microorganisms near rural settlements suggests that wastewater is the contamination source, providing one possible transmission mechanism for diarrheal outbreaks. PMID:27322297

  13. Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria Isolated from Surface Water in Bassaseachic Falls National Park, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Gardea, Ma Carmen E; Tamez-Guerra, Patricia; Gomez-Flores, Ricardo; Zavala-Díaz de la Serna, Francisco Javier; Eroza-de la Vega, Gilberto; Nevárez-Moorillón, Guadalupe Virginia; Pérez-Recoder, María Concepción; Sánchez-Ramírez, Blanca; González-Horta, María Del Carmen; Infante-Ramírez, Rocío

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens are a leading cause of waterborne disease, and may result in gastrointestinal outbreaks worldwide. Inhabitants of the Bassaseachic Falls National Park in Chihuahua, Mexico show seasonal gastroenteritis problems. This aim of this study was to detect enteropathogenic microorganisms responsible for diarrheal outbreaks in this area. In 2013, 49 surface water samples from 13 selected sampling sites along the Basaseachi waterfall and its main rivers, were collected during the spring, summer, autumn, and winter seasons. Fecal and total coliform counts were determined using standard methods; the AutoScan-4 system was used for identification of isolates and the antibiotic resistance profile by challenging each organism using 21 antibiotics. Significant differences among seasons were detected, where autumn samples resulted in the highest total (p < 0.05) and fecal (p < 0.001) coliform counts, whereas the lowest total coliform counts were recorded in spring. Significant differences between sampling sites were observed, where samples from sites 6, 8, and 11 had the highest total coliform counts (p < 0.009), whereas samples from site 9 exhibited the lowest one. From the microbiological analysis, 33 bacterial isolates from 13 different sites and four sampling seasons were selected; 53% of isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, and 15% exhibited a multidrug resistance (MDB) phenotype. MDB were identified as Klebsiella oxytoca (two out of four identified isolates), Escherichia coli (2/7), and Enterobacter cloacae (1/3). In addition, some water-borne microorganisms exhibited resistance to cefazoline, cefuroxime, ampicillin, and ampicillin-sulbactam. The presence of these microorganisms near rural settlements suggests that wastewater is the contamination source, providing one possible transmission mechanism for diarrheal outbreaks. PMID:27322297

  14. Development of the TLALOCNet GPS-Met Network in Northwestern Mexico: Supporting Continuous Water Vapor Observations of the North American Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galetzka, J.; Feaux, K.; Cabral, E.; Salazar-Tlaczani, L.; Adams, D. K.; Serra, Y. L.; Mattioli, G. S.; Miller, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    TLALOCNet is a combined atmospheric and tectonic cGPS-Met network in Mexico designed for the investigation of climate, atmospheric processes, the earthquake cycle, and tectonics. While EarthScope-Plate Boundary Observatory (conterminous US, Alaska, Puerto Rico) is among the networks poised to become a nucleus for hemisphere-scale GPS observations, the completion of TLALOCNet at the end of 2015 will close a gap between PBO and other Latin American GPS networks that include COCONet (Central America, Caribbean, and Northern South America), CAnTO, CAP, and IGS extending from Alaska to Patagonia. The National Science Foundation funded the construction and operation of TLALOCNet, with significant matching funds and resources provided by the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM). The project will involve the construction or refurbishment of 38 cGPS-Met stations in Mexico built to PBO standards. The first three TLALOCNet stations were installed in the northern Mexican states of Sonora and Chihuahua in July 2014, following the North American Monsoon GPS Transect Experiment 2013. Together these observations better characterize critical components of water transport in the region. Data from these stations are now available through the UNAVCO data archive and can be downloaded from http://facility.unavco.org/data/dai2/app/dai2.html#. By the end of 2014, TLALOCNet data, together with complementary data from other regional cGPS networks in Mexico, will also be openly available through a Mexico-based data center. We will present the status of the project to date, including an overview of the station hardware, data communications, data flow, construction schedule, and science objectives. We will also present some of the challenges encountered, including regional logistics, shipping and importation, site security, and other issues associated with the construction and operation of a large continuous GPS network.

  15. The source of groundwater and solutes to Many Devils Wash at a former uranium mill site in Shiprock, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Andrew J.; Ranalli, Anthony J.; Austin, Stephen A.; Lawlis, Bryan R.

    2016-04-21

    The Shiprock Disposal Site is the location of the former Navajo Mill (Mill), a uranium ore-processing facility, located on a terrace overlooking the San Juan River in the town of Shiprock, New Mexico. Following the closure of the Mill, all tailings and associated materials were encapsulated in a disposal cell built on top of the former Mill and tailings piles. The milling operations, conducted at the site from 1954 to 1968, created radioactive tailings and process-related wastes that are now found in the groundwater. Elevated concentrations of constituents of concern—ammonium, manganese, nitrate, selenium, strontium, sulfate, and uranium—have also been measured in groundwater seeps in the nearby Many Devils Wash arroyo, leading to the inference that these constituents originated from the Mill. These constituents have also been reported in groundwater that is associated with Mancos Shale, the bedrock that underlies the site. The objective of this report is to increase understanding of the source of water and solutes to the groundwater beneath Many Devils Wash and to establish the background concentrations for groundwater that is in contact with the Mancos Shale at the site. This report presents evidence on three working hypotheses: (1) the water and solutes in Many Devils Wash originated from the operations at the former Mill, (2) groundwater in deep aquifers is upwelling under artesian pressure to recharge the shallow groundwater beneath Many Devils Wash, and (3) the groundwater beneath Many Devils Wash originates as precipitation that infiltrates into the shallow aquifer system and discharges to Many Devils Wash in a series of springs on the east side of the wash. The solute concentrations in the shallow groundwater of Many Devils Wash would result from the interaction of the water and the Mancos Shale if the source of water was upwelling from deep aquifers or precipitation.In order to compare the groundwater from various wells to groundwater that has been

  16. A Precambrian cratonic block in the west-central Chihuahua - The Sierra del Nido cratonic block

    SciTech Connect

    Goodell, P.C. . Dept. of Geological)

    1993-02-01

    Precambrian rocks in west-central Chihuahua have been recognized by Denison (1969) and Mauger et al. (1983), on the basis of radiometric dating. The rocks are rhyolite clasts, and an allucthonous block, respectively, however their source direction and vergence can be measured. They point back to and are on the edge of a large, uniform, negative Bouguer gravity anomaly, having values greater than 200 milligals. The isotopic geochemical character of several Tertiary felsic fields within this anomalous are has been determined, and initial strontium isotopic ratios are all greater than 0.7055. Outside the anomalous area these ratios are lower, and Basin and Range extension tectonism is more evident. It is proposed that a Precambrian cratonic block, the Sierra del Nido, is present in the crust in west-central Chihuahua. It is reasonable to propose that it was decreted from North America during a Precambrian extensional (1.1. By ) event, from somewhere along the Arizona Transition Zone-Texas Linament region. The Sierra del Nido Block is separated form the ATZ-TL by a region of disrupted craton and extended crust, the Basin and Range Province. Implications of the pressure of the Sierra del Nido Block on other regional tectonic events will be discussed.

  17. The Chihuahua dog: A new animal model for neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis CLN7 disease?

    PubMed

    Faller, Kiterie M E; Bras, Jose; Sharpe, Samuel J; Anderson, Glenn W; Darwent, Lee; Kun-Rodrigues, Celia; Alroy, Joseph; Penderis, Jacques; Mole, Sara E; Gutierrez-Quintana, Rodrigo; Guerreiro, Rita J

    2016-04-01

    Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are a group of incurable lysosomal storage disorders characterized by neurodegeneration and accumulation of lipopigments mainly within the neurons. We studied two littermate Chihuahua dogs presenting with progressive signs of blindness, ataxia, pacing, and cognitive impairment from 1 year of age. Because of worsening of clinical signs, both dogs were euthanized at about 2 years of age. Postmortem examination revealed marked accumulation of autofluorescent intracellular inclusions within the brain, characteristic of NCL. Whole-genome sequencing was performed on one of the affected dogs. After sequence alignment and variant calling against the canine reference genome, variants were identified in the coding region or splicing regions of four previously known NCL genes (CLN6, ARSG, CLN2 [=TPP1], and CLN7 [=MFSD8]). Subsequent segregation analysis within the family (two affected dogs, both parents, and three relatives) identified MFSD8:p.Phe282Leufs13*, which had previously been identified in one Chinese crested dog with no available ancestries, as the causal mutation. Because of the similarities of the clinical signs and histopathological changes with the human form of the disease, we propose that the Chihuahua dog could be a good animal model of CLN7 disease. PMID:26762174

  18. 76 FR 43685 - Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) in the Gulf of Mexico Off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... of the Atchafalaya River, St. Mary Parish, LA AGENCY: Region 6, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency... of an ODMDS in the Gulf of Mexico off the mouth of the Atchafalaya River, St. Mary Parish, LA... for Voluntary Preparation of National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Documents (63 FR 58045), and...

  19. Water-quality assessment of the Rio Grande Valley, Colorado, New Mexico and Texas; fish communities at selected sites, 1993-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, L.F.

    1997-01-01

    Fish communities at 10 sites in the Rio Grande Basin were sampled during low-flow periods between 1993 and 1995 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The ecology of fish communities is one of several lines of evidence used to characterize water-quality conditions. This report describes the fish communities at selected sites in the Rio Grande Basin and relates the structure of these fish communities to the physical and chemical characteristics of the streams. Twenty-nine species of fish representing 10 families were identified in 25 samples collected during this study. Species richness ranged from 1 to 13. Cluster analysis of the 25 samples collected during this study delineated four groups of sites that were based on the similarity of the fish communities. The first two groups were individual sites with low species richness. The third group contained the most samples, and the fourth group consisted of samples from the Rio Grande at Isleta, New Mexico, and the Rio Grande at El Paso, Texas. The shift in community structure of samples from group 3 to group 4 reflects changes from predominantly coldwater fishes to warmwater fishes. Four metrics of biotic integrity (percentages of introduced individuals, omnivores, tolerant individuals, and anomalies) were used in this study to provide a broad overview of the community structure. The relative percentages of introduced species at the Rio Grande near Del Norte, Colorado; Saguache Creek near Saguache, Colorado; Rio Grande below Taos Junction Bridge, near Taos, New Mexico; and Rio Grande at Isleta are indicative of biological stress on the communities at these sites. The dominance of omnivores in samples from the Rio Grande below Taos Junction Bridge, near Taos; Rio Chama near Chamita, New Mexico; Rio Grande at Isleta; and Rio Grande at El Paso is an indication of environmental stress at these sites. In 1995, tolerant species accounted for the entire fish community at the Rio

  20. Summary statistics and trend analysis of water-quality data at sites in the Gila River basin, New Mexico and Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldys, Stanley; Ham, L.K.; Fossum, K.D.

    1995-01-01

    Summary statistics and temporal trends for 19 water-chemistry constituents and for turbidity were computed for 13 study sites in the Gila River basin, Arizona and New Mexico. A nonparametric technique, the seasonal Kendall tau test for flow-adjusted data, was used to analyze temporal changes in water-chemistry data. For the 19 selected constituents and turbidity, decreasing trends in concentrations outnumbered increasing trends by more than two to one. Decreasing trends in concentrations of constituents were found for 49 data sets at the 13 study sites. Gila River at Calva and Gila River above diversions, at Gillespie Dam (eight each) had the most decreasing trends for individual sites. The largest number of decreasing trends measured for a constituent was six for dissolved lead. The next largest number of decreasing trends for a constituent was for dissolved solids and total manganese (five each). Hardness, dissolved sodium, and dissolved chloride had decreasing trends at four of the study sites. Increasing trends in concen- trations of constituents were found for 24 data sets at the 13 study sites. The largest number of increasing trends measured for a single constituent was for pH (four), dissolved sulfate (three), dissolved chromium (three) and total manganese (three). Increased concentrations of constituents generally were found in three areas in the basin-at Pinal Creek above Inspiration Dam, at sites above reservoirs, and at sites on the main stem of the Gila River from Gillespie Dam to the mouth.

  1. The source of groundwater and solutes to Many Devils Wash at a former uranium mill site in Shiprock, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Andrew J.; Ranalli, Anthony J.; Austin, Stephen A.; Lawlis, Bryan R.

    2016-04-21

    The Shiprock Disposal Site is the location of the former Navajo Mill (Mill), a uranium ore-processing facility, located on a terrace overlooking the San Juan River in the town of Shiprock, New Mexico. Following the closure of the Mill, all tailings and associated materials were encapsulated in a disposal cell built on top of the former Mill and tailings piles. The milling operations, conducted at the site from 1954 to 1968, created radioactive tailings and process-related wastes that are now found in the groundwater. Elevated concentrations of constituents of concern—ammonium, manganese, nitrate, selenium, strontium, sulfate, and uranium—have also been measured in groundwater seeps in the nearby Many Devils Wash arroyo, leading to the inference that these constituents originated from the Mill. These constituents have also been reported in groundwater that is associated with Mancos Shale, the bedrock that underlies the site. The objective of this report is to increase understanding of the source of water and solutes to the groundwater beneath Many Devils Wash and to establish the background concentrations for groundwater that is in contact with the Mancos Shale at the site. This report presents evidence on three working hypotheses: (1) the water and solutes in Many Devils Wash originated from the operations at the former Mill, (2) groundwater in deep aquifers is upwelling under artesian pressure to recharge the shallow groundwater beneath Many Devils Wash, and (3) the groundwater beneath Many Devils Wash originates as precipitation that infiltrates into the shallow aquifer system and discharges to Many Devils Wash in a series of springs on the east side of the wash. The solute concentrations in the shallow groundwater of Many Devils Wash would result from the interaction of the water and the Mancos Shale if the source of water was upwelling from deep aquifers or precipitation.In order to compare the groundwater from various wells to groundwater that has been

  2. CENSUS AND STATISTICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SOIL AND WATER QUALITY AT ABANDONED AND OTHER CENTRALIZED AND COMMERCIAL DRILLING-FLUID DISPOSAL SITES IN LOUISIANA, NEW MEXICO, OKLAHOMA, AND TEXAS

    SciTech Connect

    Alan R. Dutton; H. Seay Nance

    2003-06-01

    Commercial and centralized drilling-fluid disposal (CCDD) sites receive a portion of spent drilling fluids for disposal from oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) operations. Many older and some abandoned sites may have operated under less stringent regulations than are currently enforced. This study provides a census, compilation, and summary of information on active, inactive, and abandoned CCDD sites in Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas, intended as a basis for supporting State-funded assessment and remediation of abandoned sites. Closure of abandoned CCDD sites is within the jurisdiction of State regulatory agencies. Sources of data used in this study on abandoned CCDD sites mainly are permit files at State regulatory agencies. Active and inactive sites were included because data on abandoned sites are sparse. Onsite reserve pits at individual wells for disposal of spent drilling fluid are not part of this study. Of 287 CCDD sites in the four States for which we compiled data, 34 had been abandoned whereas 54 were active and 199 were inactive as of January 2002. Most were disposal-pit facilities; five percent were land treatment facilities. A typical disposal-pit facility has fewer than 3 disposal pits or cells, which have a median size of approximately 2 acres each. Data from well-documented sites may be used to predict some conditions at abandoned sites; older abandoned sites might have outlier concentrations for some metal and organic constituents. Groundwater at a significant number of sites had an average chloride concentration that exceeded nonactionable secondary drinking water standard of 250 mg/L, or a total dissolved solids content of >10,000 mg/L, the limiting definition for underground sources of drinking water source, or both. Background data were lacking, however, so we did not determine whether these concentrations in groundwater reflected site operations. Site remediation has not been found necessary to date for most abandoned

  3. Proximal impact deposits at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in the Gulf of Mexico: a restudy of DSDP Leg 77 Sites 536 and 540.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, W; Smit, J; Lowrie, W; Asaro, F; Margolis, S V; Claeys, P; Kastner, M; Hildebrand, A R

    1992-08-01

    Restudy of Deep Sea Drilling Project Sites 536 and 540 in the southeast Gulf of Mexico gives evidence for a giant wave at Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary time. Five units are recognized: (1) Cenomanian limestone underlies a hiatus in which the five highest Cretaceous stages are missing, possibly because of catastrophic K-T erosion. (2) Pebbly mudstone, 45 m thick, represents a submarine landslide possibly of K-T age. (3) Current-bedded sandstone, more than 2.5 m thick, contains anomalous iridium, tektite glass, and shocked quartz; it is interpreted as ejecta from a nearby impact crater, reworked on the deep-sea floor by the resulting tsunami. (4) A 50-cm interval of calcareous mudstone containing small Cretaceous planktic foraminifera and the Ir peak is interpreted as the silt-size fraction of the Cretaceous material suspended by the impact-generated wave. (5) Calcareous mudstone with basal Tertiary forams and the uppermost tail of the Ir anomaly overlies the disturbed interval, dating the impact and wave event as K-T boundary age. Like Beloc in Haiti and Mimbral in Mexico, Sites 536 and 540 are consistent with a large K-T age impact at the nearby Chicxulub crater.

  4. Proximal impact deposits at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in the Gulf of Mexico: A restudy of DSDP Leg 77 Sites 536 and 540

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, W.; Asaro, F. ); Smit, J. ); Lowrie, W. ); Asaro, F. ); Margolis, S.V.; Claeys, P. ); Kastner, M. ); Hildebrand, A.R. )

    1992-08-01

    Restudy of Deep Sea Drilling Project Sites 536 and 540 in the southeast Gulf of Mexico gives evidence for a giant wave at Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary time. Five units are recognized: (1) Cenomanian limestone underlies a hiatus in which the five highest Cretaceous stages are missing, possibly because of catastrophic K-T erosion. (2) Pebbly mudstone, 45 m thick, represents a submarine landslide possibly of K-T age. (3) Current-bedded sandstone, more than 2.5 m thick, contains anomalous iridium, tektite glass, and shocked quartz; it is interpreted as ejecta from a nearby impact crater, reworked on the deep-sea floor by the resulting tsunami. (4) A 50-cm interval of calcareous mudstone containing small Cretaceous planktic foraminifera and the Ir peak is interpreted as the silt-size fraction of the Cretaceous material suspended by the impact-generated wave. (5) Calcareous mudstone with basal Tertiary forams and the uppermost tail of the Ir anomaly overlies the disturbed interval, dating the impact and wave event as K-T boundary age. Like Beloc in Haiti and Mimbral in Mexico, Sites 536 and 540 are consistent with a large K-T age impact at the nearby Chicxulub crater.

  5. Post burial alteration of the Permian Rustler Formation Evaporites, WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) site, New Mexico: Textural, stratigraphic and chemical evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Lowenstein, T.K.

    1987-04-01

    The Rustler Formation is a Late Permian (Ochoan Series) evaporite found in the subsurface and in outcrop in New Mexico and west Texas. The main rock types of the Rustler Formation are anhydrite, gypsum, halite, dolostone and siliciclastic sandstone and mudstone. Across the WIPP site, located in southeastern New Mexico, some of the Rustler rock types and their thicknesses change dramatically over short lateral distances. These lateral variations have mainly been attributed to post-burial dissolution of evaporites. The aim of the present study is to distinguish syndepositional features from post burial alteration features in the Rustler Formation. Four borehole cores of the complete Rustler Formation were examined. Primary sedimentary structures, textures and fabrics were identified, based on comparison with modern evaporite deposits. Vertical and lateral patterns of primary sedimentary features were recorded. From this information, depositional settings have been assembled which best account for the observed types of primary features and their vertical and lateral distribution. With this framework, post-depositional diagenetic overprints were identified in the Rustler Formation. The question of whether subsurface diagenetic alteration is presently active at the WIPP site is addressed.

  6. Proximal impact deposits at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in the Gulf of Mexico: a restudy of DSDP Leg 77 Sites 536 and 540

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez, W.; Smit, J.; Lowrie, W.; Asaro, F.; Margolis, S. V.; Claeys, P.; Kastner, M.; Hildebrand, A. R.

    1992-01-01

    Restudy of Deep Sea Drilling Project Sites 536 and 540 in the southeast Gulf of Mexico gives evidence for a giant wave at Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary time. Five units are recognized: (1) Cenomanian limestone underlies a hiatus in which the five highest Cretaceous stages are missing, possibly because of catastrophic K-T erosion. (2) Pebbly mudstone, 45 m thick, represents a submarine landslide possibly of K-T age. (3) Current-bedded sandstone, more than 2.5 m thick, contains anomalous iridium, tektite glass, and shocked quartz; it is interpreted as ejecta from a nearby impact crater, reworked on the deep-sea floor by the resulting tsunami. (4) A 50-cm interval of calcareous mudstone containing small Cretaceous planktic foraminifera and the Ir peak is interpreted as the silt-size fraction of the Cretaceous material suspended by the impact-generated wave. (5) Calcareous mudstone with basal Tertiary forams and the uppermost tail of the Ir anomaly overlies the disturbed interval, dating the impact and wave event as K-T boundary age. Like Beloc in Haiti and Mimbral in Mexico, Sites 536 and 540 are consistent with a large K-T age impact at the nearby Chicxulub crater.

  7. Proximal impact deposits at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in the Gulf of Mexico: a restudy of DSDP Leg 77 Sites 536 and 540.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, W; Smit, J; Lowrie, W; Asaro, F; Margolis, S V; Claeys, P; Kastner, M; Hildebrand, A R

    1992-08-01

    Restudy of Deep Sea Drilling Project Sites 536 and 540 in the southeast Gulf of Mexico gives evidence for a giant wave at Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary time. Five units are recognized: (1) Cenomanian limestone underlies a hiatus in which the five highest Cretaceous stages are missing, possibly because of catastrophic K-T erosion. (2) Pebbly mudstone, 45 m thick, represents a submarine landslide possibly of K-T age. (3) Current-bedded sandstone, more than 2.5 m thick, contains anomalous iridium, tektite glass, and shocked quartz; it is interpreted as ejecta from a nearby impact crater, reworked on the deep-sea floor by the resulting tsunami. (4) A 50-cm interval of calcareous mudstone containing small Cretaceous planktic foraminifera and the Ir peak is interpreted as the silt-size fraction of the Cretaceous material suspended by the impact-generated wave. (5) Calcareous mudstone with basal Tertiary forams and the uppermost tail of the Ir anomaly overlies the disturbed interval, dating the impact and wave event as K-T boundary age. Like Beloc in Haiti and Mimbral in Mexico, Sites 536 and 540 are consistent with a large K-T age impact at the nearby Chicxulub crater. PMID:11538163

  8. Plant cover, soil temperature, freeze, water stress, and evapotranspiration conditions. [Lower Rio Grande Valley Test Site: Weslaco, Texas; Falco Reservoir and the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L.; Nixon, P. R.; Gausman, H. W.; Namken, L. N.; Leamer, R. W.; Richardson, A. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. HCMM day/night coverage 12 hours apart cannot be obtained at 26 deg N latitude; nor have any pairs 36 hours apart been obtained. A day-IR scene and a night scene for two different dates were analyzed. A profile across the test site for the same latitude shows that the two profiles are near mirror images of each other over land surfaces and that the temperature of two large water bodies, Falcon Reservoir and the Gulf of Mexico, are nearly identical on two dates. During the time interval between overpasses, the vegetative cover remained static due to winter dormancy. The data suggest that day/night temperature differences measured weeks apart may yield meaningful information about the contrast between daytime maximum and nighttime minimum temperatures for a given site.

  9. Deformation Analysis of 2004-2013 Dome Extrusions at Volcan de Colima, Mexico Using Tilt Meter Surveys Registered on Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-Ruiz, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Volcán de Colima, Mexico is located on the Central Western part of this country and it is considered one of the most active volcano in Mexico. During the period of 2004-2013 three extrusions have occurred with the presence of inflation- deflation. Measurements of deformation tilt changes during the period 2004-2013 at Volcán de Colima (Mexico) was carried out to determine the origin of the activity during this period that is characterized by a sequence of effusive-explosive episodes. These sequences occurred on October 2004 and February 2007 was registered by sequences of inflation-deflation principally on two tilt sensors deployed around the volcano edifice. The tiltmeter net used in this study is composed of 5 sensors deployed around the volcano edifice at altitudes of 3060 masl (COIA), 3200 masl (PCJ1), 2590 masl (PC02), 2200 masl (EHJ1) and 2070 masl (PC01). The activity of Volcán de Colima during this period 2004-2013 can be summarized by the occurrence of three lava extrusions in October 2004, February 2007, and 2012. An explosive activity sequences in year 2005 and 2012. After the extrusion on February 2007 a deflation phase is registered with the tilt sensors until 2010 which explain the low activity that characterize the behavior of the volcano during the periods of time. Here we show the analysis of the activity during the 2004-2013 period using the tiltmeter surveys of the Volcan de Colima net.

  10. High fertility of Old Colony Mennonites in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Felt, J C; Ridley, J C; Allen, G; Redekop, C

    1990-10-01

    Old Colony Mennonites in Mexico appear to demonstrate natural fertility, using no form of artificial birth control and apparently not attempting to limit family size. The resulting fertility is nearly as high as that of the Hutterites, although the Mennonites lack the communal economic system of the latter. Most Mennonites in Mexico migrated from Canada in the 1920s, and the largest single settlement, called the Manitoba Colony, is one of four in the state of Chihuahua. A 1967 partial census obtained data from 38% of the Mennonite households. Family size in the sample was close to that in a local survey taken in the same year. Available church records matched with census forms permitted verification of and corrections to 560 female reproductive histories. The median number of live births to women over age 45 years was 9.5, compared with 10.4 in the Hutterites. Age-specific marital fertility rates and birth intervals closely resembled those of the Hutterites.

  11. Search for Impact Craters in the Volcanic and Volcano-Sedimentary Terrains of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartali, R.; Fucugauchi, J. U.

    2011-12-01

    . Aeromagnetic anomaly data from low-altitude surveys have been used to characterize the structures, together with geological and topographic maps. For the promising sites, low altitude aerial images and on-site reconnaissance surveys and sampling are completed. Sites studied include isolated structures built on low relief terrains as well as multiple crater-like structures on volcanic terrains. Here we present initial results of the project in the Chihuahua region and discuss the methods, findings and difficulties in identification of impact structures.

  12. Diet of pumas (Puma concolor) in Sonora, Mexico, as determined by GPS kill sites and molecular identified scat, with comments on jaguar (Panthera onca) diet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cassaigne, Ivonne; Medellin, Rodrigo A.; Thompson, Ron W.; Culver, Melanie; Ochoa, Alexander; Vargas, Karla; Childs, Jack L.; Sanderson, Jim; List, Rurik; Torres-Gomez, Armando

    2016-01-01

    We documented puma (Puma concolor) and jaguar (Panthera onca) prey consumption in northeastern Sonora, Mexico, by investigating global positioning system cluster sites (n = 220), and conducting molecular analyses of scat (n = 116) collected between 2011 and 2013. We used camera trap data (n = 8,976 camera days) to estimate relative abundances of pumas and jaguars. Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) was the most frequent prey for puma found at kill sites (67%) and identified from scat (74%), although based on relative numbers of prey consumed, deer represented 45% and lagomorphs 20% of the proportion of all individuals eaten. A variety of small prey (weighing <15 kg) comprised the majority (52%) of the jaguar kill sites. From prey found at kill sites, jaguars killed calves (Bos taurus) at a lower frequency than previously reported, whereas pumas preyed on calves at a higher frequency than previously reported in the same area. In our study area, jaguars preyed on calves at approximately the same rate as pumas (jaguars 3.7 calves per year, pumas 4.9 calves per year). Calculated predation rates were limited only to collared animals within our study area and therefore should not be considered applicable to all pumas and jaguars in Sonora.

  13. The oxidative potential and biological effects induced by PM10 obtained in Mexico City and at a receptor site during the MILAGRO Campaign.

    PubMed

    Quintana, Raul; Serrano, Jesús; Gómez, Virginia; de Foy, Benjamin; Miranda, Javier; Garcia-Cuellar, Claudia; Vega, Elizabeth; Vázquez-López, Inés; Molina, Luisa T; Manzano-León, Natalia; Rosas, Irma; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro R

    2011-12-01

    As part of a field campaign that studied the impact of Mexico City pollution plume at the local, sub-regional and regional levels, we studied transport-related changes in PM(10) composition, oxidative potential and in vitro toxicological patterns (hemolysis, DNA degradation). We collected PM(10) in Mexico City (T(0)) and at a suburban-receptor site (T(1)), pooled according to two observed ventilation patterns (T(0) → T(1) influence and non-influence). T(0) samples contained more Cu, Zn, and carbon whereas; T(1) samples contained more of Al, Si, P, S, and K (p < 0.05). Only SO(4)(-2) increased in T(1) during the influence periods. Oxidative potential correlated with Cu/Zn content (r = 0.74; p < 0.05) but not with biological effects. T(1) PM(10) induced greater hemolysis and T(0) PM(10) induced greater DNA degradation. Influence/non-influence did not affect oxidative potential nor biological effects. Results indicate that ventilation patterns had little effect on intrinsic PM(10) composition and toxicological potential, which suggests a significant involvement of local sources. PMID:21899937

  14. An Overall Water Quality Index (WQI) for a Man-Made Aquatic Reservoir in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Rubio-Arias, Hector; Contreras-Caraveo, Manuel; Quintana, Rey Manuel; Saucedo-Teran, Ruben Alfonso; Pinales-Munguia, Adan

    2012-01-01

    A Water Quality Index (WQI) is a useful statistical tool for simplifying, reporting and interpreting complex information obtained from any body of water. A simple number given by any WQI model explains the level of water contamination. The objective was to develop a WQI for the water of the Luis L. Leon dam located in the state of Chihuahua, Mexico. Monthly water samples were obtained in 2009; January 10, February 12, March 8, May 20, June 10, July 9, August 12, September 10, October 11, November 15 and December 13. Ten sampling sites were randomly selected after dividing the study area using a geographic package. In each site, two samples at the top depth of 0.20 m and 1.0 m were obtained to quantify physical-chemical parameters. The following 11 parameters were considered to calculate the WQI; pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), color, turbidity, ammonia nitrogen, fluorides, chlorides, sulfates, Total Solids (TS) and phosphorous (P). The data analysis involved two steps; a single analysis for each parameter and the WQI calculation. The resulted WQI value classified the water quality according to the following ranges: <2.3 poor water; from 2.3 to 2.8 good water; and >2.8 excellent water. The results showed that the WQI values changed from low levels (WQI < 2.3) in some points during autumn time to high levels (WQI > 2.8) most of the year and the variation was due to time of sampling generally rainy season. PMID:22754466

  15. Illegal sales of cigarettes to minors--Ciudad Juárez, Mexico; El Paso, Texas; and Las Cruces, New Mexico, 1999.

    PubMed

    1999-05-21

    In 1996, the United States-Mexico Binational Commission (US-MBC) Health Working Group identified prevention of tobacco use, particularly among adolescents, as a priority and subsequently recommended joint efforts toward reducing illegal sales of cigarettes to minors. A 1997 survey of 561 commercial cigarette outlets in Mexico City found that 79% of retailers sold cigarettes to minors. To assess the illegal sale of cigarettes to minors in other regions of Mexico and on both sides of the U.S.-Mexico border, during January-February 1999 the General Directorate of Epidemiology in Mexico, the Chihuahua State Department of Health Services (CDH), the Ciudad Juarez Department of Health (CJDH), the Texas Department of Health (TDH), and the New Mexico Department of Health (NMDH) surveyed cigarette outlets in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico; El Paso, Texas; and Las Cruces, New Mexico. This report summarizes the results of these surveys, which indicate that almost all retailers in the surveyed outlets in Ciudad Juarez sold cigarettes to minors and that sales rates to minors were substantially lower in El Paso and Las Cruces.

  16. Advance of the Monitor of Drought for the Northern Region of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes Gomez, V. M.; Nunez Lopez, D.

    2007-05-01

    In the last 13 years, the State of Chihuahua suffered a lingering drought that caused social, economical and environmental impacts hardly quantifiable. Since 2002, a monitoring system was implemented to watch the evolution of the meteorological drought in Chihuahua, recently being broadened for the states in the North of Mexico. Evaluation of the Meteorological Drought The Monitoring System on the Drought in Chihuahua includes the following steps: missing data gaps were completed basing on the statistical procedures described by Young (1992); the source code, was compiled to create a computer program, with which it can be derived a level of climatic station, historical series of values for the SPI in time scales of 1 to 48 months; under this classification scheme, it is considered that a drought event begins when the values of the SPI are inferior to -0.7 (McKee et al. 1995). The spatial distribution of the SPI was determined through spatial interpolation techniques using a reverse method of the distance between stations included in Arc/Info©. This same procedure was applied for the States of Sonora, Sinaloa, Durango and Zacatecas with the purpose of implementing this tool for the north of Mexico. Advances on the Monitoring System The monitoring system allows an analysis of the frequency, duration and intensity of the drought events that took place in several climatic regions (Núñez-López et al., 2005); un map of spatial distribution of the SPI for the northern region of Mexico, in the States of Sonora, Sinaloa, Durango and Chihuahua. The generated map will be published in a section on the CEISS web page (www.sequia.edu.mx), together with the monthly bulletin available to the public in general; it is monitoring to an annual scale, the tendencies of the deficits or surplus of the runoff volumes on three of the main dams in the State of Chihuahua Conclusions The Drought Monitoring System in Chihuahua complies with the following international rules for the

  17. Investigations in Well EPNG 10-36 at the Gasbuggy Nuclear Test Site, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Lyles, Brad; Chapman, Jenny; Gillespie, David

    2004-01-05

    Well EPNG 10-36 began as a production well in the San Juan Basin of northwester New Mexico. In 1967, the Gasbuggy underground nuclear test was conducted neaby as part of an effort to study nuclear stimulation of low-permeability reservoirs. The proximity of the well to the nuclear test required it to be p lugged prior to the test. Re-entry into the well after the test was not possible due to the original producing horizon in the Pictured Cliffs Formatino, so the well was completed as a groundwater monitoring well in the Ojo Alamo Formation. The well was sampled annually and in the mid-1980s, tritium was detected. A pressure test and subsequent sampling and analysis confirmed that the casing had been compromised. There are unresolved issues as to the original source of the tritium and discrepancies in the location of tritium in the wellbore.

  18. Invasive alien species water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes as abode for macroinvertebrates in hypertrophic Ramsar Site, Lake Xochimilco, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rocha-Ramirez, A; Robles-Valderrama, E; Ramirez-Flores, E

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents information on the density, diversity and functional feeding groups of macroinvertebrate assemblages associated with water hyacinth in Antiguo Canal Cuemanco, part of Lake Xochimilco in Mexico City. Rare (low frequency and density) and dominant (high frequency and density) taxa prevailed in the assemblages, with the most predominant being Hyalella azteca, Chironomus plumosus and Ischnura denticollis. Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling confirmed two climatic seasons: warm-rainy and cold-dry; the former with the highest diversity and density of taxa. Canonical Correspondence Analysis showed that conductivity, nitrates and turbidity explained the density variations of taxa. Antiguo Canal Cuemanco waters are spatially homogeneous with the characteristics of hypertrophic shallow lakes, inhabited by scrapers and gathering-collectors. The species found were tolerant to organic pollution.

  19. Multicomponent, 3-D, and High-Resolution 2-D Seismic Characterization of Gas Hydrate Study Sites in the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines, S. S.; Hart, P. E.; Ruppel, C. D.; Collett, T. S.; Shedd, W.; Lee, M. W.; Miller, J.

    2012-12-01

    High saturations of gas hydrates have been identified within coarse-grained sediments in the Green Canyon 955 and Walker Ridge 313 lease blocks of the deepwater northern Gulf of Mexico. The thickness, lateral extent, and hydrate saturations in these deposits are constrained by geological and geophysical data and state-of-the-art logging-while-drilling information obtained in multiple boreholes at each site during a 2009 expedition. Presently lacking are multicomponent seismic data that can provide a thorough understanding of the in-situ compressional and shear seismic properties of the hydrate-bearing sediments. Such data may represent an important tool for future characterization of gas hydrate resources. To address this data gap, the U.S. Geological Survey, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management will collaborate on a 20-day research expedition to acquire wide-angle ocean bottom seismometer and high-resolution vertical incidence 2-D seismic data at the study sites. In preparation for this mid-2013 expedition, we have analyzed existing industry 3-D seismic data, along with numerically modeled multicomponent data. The 3-D seismic data allow us to identify and rank specific survey targets and can be combined with the numerical modeling results to determine optimal survey line orientation and acquisition parameters. Together, these data also provide a more thorough understanding of the gas hydrate systems at these two sites.

  20. Air-sea flux of methane from selected marine hydrate/seep sites in the northern Gulf of Mexico during HYFLUX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, L.; Yvon-Lewis, S. A.; Kessler, J. D.; MacDonald, I.

    2009-12-01

    Methane is one of the most important greenhouse gases, playing a significant role in global climate change and atmospheric chemistry. In spite of tremendous efforts made to constrain the strength of its sources and sinks, large uncertainties remain for some individual sources. Based on the previous observations and modeling studies, the flux of CH4 from marine hydrates and seeps to the atmosphere comprises a significant fraction of the entire methane flux from the global ocean. However, most of the estimates are based on the seafloor methane flux or discrete water column concentrations of methane and the averaged atmospheric methane ratios. In this study, we investigated three marine hydrate/seep sites in northern Gulf of Mexico in July of 2009 during the HYFLUX cruise. Continuous saturation-anomaly (deviation from equilibrium) measurements of methane, ethane and propane were made by alternately sampling the air or the headspace of Weiss-type equilibrator and analyzing it in a GC-FID system. Some 13CH4 measurements were also made continuously using a cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS). During this cruise, the maximum concentrations observed at the 3 marine hydrate/seep sites MC118, GC600, and GC185 were 14.5, 5.1, and 2.2 nmol/L, respectively. The air-sea fluxes, calculated from saturation anomalies, are used to create extremely high resolution flux maps for the three marine hydrate/seeps sites.

  1. A record of uranium-series transport at Nopal I, Sierra Pena Blanca, Mexico: Implications for natural uranium deposits and radioactive waste repositories

    DOE PAGES

    Denton, J. S.; Goldstein, S. J.; Paviet, P.; Nunn, A. J.; Amato, R. S.; Hinrichs, K. A.

    2016-04-10

    Studies of uranium-series (U-series) disequilibria within and around ore deposits provide valuable information on the extent and timing of actinide mobility, via mineral-fluid interaction, over a range of spatial and temporal scales. Such information is useful in studies of analogs of high-level nuclear-waste repositories, as well as for mining and mineral extraction sites, locations of previous nuclear weapons testing, and legacy nuclear waste contamination. In this study we present isotope dilution mass spectrometry U-series measurements for fracture-fill materials (hematite, goethite, kaolinite, calcite, dolomite and quartz) from one such analog; the Nopal I uranium ore deposit situated at Peña Blanca inmore » the Chihuahua region of northern Mexico. The ore deposit is located in fractured, unsaturated volcanic tuff and fracture-fill materials from surface fractures as well as fractures in a vertical drill core have been analyzed. High uranium concentrations in the fracture-fill materials (between 12 and 7700 ppm) indicate uranium mobility and transport from the deposit. Furthermore, uranium concentrations generally decrease with horizontal distance away from the deposit but in this deposit there is no trend with depth below the surface.« less

  2. The Crsut Structure of Northwest Mexico Through Multipath Surface Waves Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hincapie, J.; Doser, D. I.; Ortega, R.

    2005-12-01

    The location of the crystalline basement and other crustal features in Northwestern Mexico (Sonora, and Chihuahua) is not well defined. This information is required to better understand its tectonic setting. Several researchers have carried out preliminary studies with results that show a great uncertainty about the velocity structure of the region as well. The only conclusion those studies agree upon is that the region has remarkable similarities with the southwestern U.S. Our study uses information from earthquakes originating in the Gulf of California, and recorded at broadband stations in the U.S. (Arizona, New Mexico, Texas) to determine the velocity structure of the region. Because earthquake sources occur along a 1200km long zone within the gulf, we are able to sample a variety of travel paths within Northwest Mexico. We will analyze Pnl waveforms, coda dacay, and surface waves to build a regional velocity attenuation model. The results are compared to regional gravity and magnetic maps.

  3. The Role of the Environmental Management Site Specific Advisory Board under the Federal Advisory Committee Act, With Emphasis on the Northern New Mexico Citizens' Advisory Board - 12482

    SciTech Connect

    Santistevan, Menice B.

    2012-07-01

    The Environmental Management Site Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB) is comprised of eight Citizens' Advisory Boards, chartered under the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA) by the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Management for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of the EM SSAB is to provide the DOE with recommendations regarding Environmental Management issues from legacy waste produced at major sites across the DOE Complex. The Northern New Mexico Citizens' Advisory Board (NNMCAB) is the site specific advisory board to the DOE on issues of environmental monitoring, remediation, waste management and long-term stewardship at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The other boards are located at: Hanford, Idaho, Nevada, Paducah, Portsmouth, Oak Ridge and Savannah River. Using broad citizen outreach and input, the SSAB provides an official mechanism for the citizenry at each of these sites to monitor current activities affecting the region and also to have input into the prioritization of future activities. 'The mission of the EM SSAB is to more directly involve stakeholders in EM Planning and decision-making processes for the nuclear weapons complex cleanup. DOE has various means of involving the public in its planning and decision-making processes; the EM SSAB is only one component of EM's public participation program, and is not intended to be an exclusive means of public participation. It is the policy of DOE and EM to conduct it programs in an open and responsive manner, thereby encouraging and providing the opportunity for public participation in its planning and decision-making processes. EM SSAB members are appointed to a two year term and may serve up to three terms. During this time, members are able to hear many presentation from subject matter experts, attend several site tours at their site and across the DOE complex and are able to express their concerns and give input to the prioritization of clean up at each site. It is an

  4. Geologic and well-construction data for the H-9 borehole complex near the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site, southeastern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drellack, S.L.; Wells, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    The H-9 complex, a group of three closely spaced boreholes, is located 5.5 miles south of the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site in east-central Eddy County, New Mexico. The holes were drilled during July, August, and September 1979 to obtain geologic and hydrologic data to better define the regional ground-water-flow system. The geologic data presented in this report are part of a site-characterization study for the possible storage of defense-associated radioactive wastes within salt beds of the Salado Formation of Permian age. The geologic data include detailed descriptions of cores, cuttings, and geophysical logs. Each borehole was designed to penetrate a distinct water-bearing zone: H-9a (total depth 559 feet) was completed just below the Magenta Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation; H-9b (total depth 708 feet) was completed just below the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation; H-9c (total depth 816 feet) was completed below the Rustler Formation-Salado Formation contact. The geologic units penetrated in borehole H-9c are eolian sand of Holocene age (0-5 feet); the Gatuna Formation of Pleistocene age; (5-25 feet); and the Dewey Lake Red Beds (25-455 feet), the Rustler Formation (455.791 feet), and part of the Salado Formation (791-816 feet), all of Permian age. Three sections (494-501 feet, 615-625 feet, 692-712 feet) in the Rustler Formation penetrated by borehole H-9c are composed of remnant anhydrite (locally altered to gypsum) and clay and silt residue from the dissolution of much thicker seams of argillaceous and silty halite. This indicates that the eastward-moving dissolution within the Rustler Formation, found just to the west of the WIPP site, is present at the H-9 site. (USGS)

  5. Geologic and well-construction data for the H-8 borehole complex near the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site, southeastern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, J.G.; Drellack, S.L.

    1982-01-01

    The H-8 complex, a group of three closely-spaced boreholes, is located 9 miles south of the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site in southeastern Eddy County, New Mexico. The holes were drilled during July, August, and September of 1979 to obtain geologic and hydrologic data to better define the regional ground-water-flow system. The geologic data presented in this report are part of a site-characterization study for the possible disposal of defense-associated radioactive wastes within salt beds of the Salado Formation of Permian age. The geologic data include detailed descriptions of cores, cuttings, and geophysical logs. Each borehole was designed to penetrate a distinct water-bearing zone: H-8a (total depth 505 feet) was completed just below the Magenta Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation of Permian Age; H-8b (total depth 624 feet) was completed just belows the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation; and H-8c (total depth 808 feet) was completed just below the Rustler Formation-Salado Formation contact. The geologic units penetrated in borehole H-8c are surficial alluvium and eolian sand of Holocene age (0-4 feet); the Mescalero caliche (4-10 feet) and Gatuna Formation (10-153 feet) , both of Pleistocene age; and the Dewey Lake Red Beds (153-399 feet), the Rustler Formation (399-733 feet), and part of the Salado Formation penetrated by borehole H-8c is composed of residue from dissolution of halite and associated rocks, and the hydration of anhydrite to gypsum, indicating that the eastward-moving dissolution front on top of the Salado, found just to the west of the WIPP site, has reached the H-8 site. (USGS)

  6. Geologic and well-construction data for the H-10 borehole complex near the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site, southeastern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, J.G.; Drellack, S.L.

    1983-01-01

    The H-10 borehole complex, a group of three closely spaced boreholes, is located 3 1/2 miles southeast of the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site in west-central Lea County, New Mexico. The geological data presented in this report are part of a site-characterization study for the possible storage of defense-associated radioactive wastes within salt beds of the Salado Formation of Permian age. Each borehole was designated to penetrate a distinct water-bearing zone: H-10a (total depth 1 ,318 feet) was completed just below the Magenta Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation of Permian age; H-10b (total depth 1 ,398 feet) was completed just below the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation; and H-10c (total depth 1,538 feet) was completed below the Rustler Formation-Salado Formation contact. The geologic units penetrated in borehole H-10c are surficial alluvium and eolian sand of Holocene age (0-5 feet); the Mescalero caliche (5-9 feet) and the Gatuna Formation (9-90 feet) of Pleistocene age; formation in the Dockum Group (Chinle Formation, 90-482 feet and Santa Rosa Sandstone, 482-658 feet) of Late Triassic age; and the Dewey Lake Red Beds (658-1,204 feet), the Rustler Formation (1,204-1,501 feet), and part of the Salado Formation (1,501-1,538 feet), all of Permian age. The sections of the Rustler and Salado Formations penetrated by borehole H-10c are complete and contain little or no evidence of dissolution of halite and associated rocks, indicating that the eastward-moving dissolution on top of the Salado, found just to the west of the WIPP site, has not reached the H-10 site. (USGS)

  7. Temporal Variation of Wood Density and Carbon in Two Elevational Sites of Pinus cooperi in Relation to Climate Response in Northern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pompa-García, Marín; Venegas-González, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Forest ecosystems play an important role in the global carbon cycle. Therefore, understanding the dynamics of carbon uptake in forest ecosystems is much needed. Pinus cooperi is a widely distributed species in the Sierra Madre Occidental in northern Mexico and future climatic variations could impact these ecosystems. Here, we analyze the variations of trunk carbon in two populations of P. cooperi situated at different elevational gradients, combining dendrochronological techniques and allometry. Carbon sequestration (50% biomass) was estimated from a specific allometric equation for this species based on: (i) variation of intra-annual wood density and (ii) diameter reconstruction. The results show that the population at a higher elevation had greater wood density, basal area, and hence, carbon accumulation. This finding can be explained by an ecological response of trees to adverse weather conditions, which would cause a change in the cellular structure affecting the within-ring wood density profile. The influence of variations in climate on the maximum density of chronologies showed a positive correlation with precipitation and the Multivariate El Niño Southern Oscillation Index during the winter season, and a negative correlation with maximum temperature during the spring season. Monitoring previous conditions to growth is crucial due to the increased vulnerability to extreme climatic variations on higher elevational sites. We concluded that temporal variability of wood density contributes to a better understanding of environmental historical changes and forest carbon dynamics in Northern Mexico, representing a significant improvement over previous studies on carbon sequestration. Assuming a uniform density according to tree age is incorrect, so this method can be used for environmental mitigation strategies, such as for managing P. cooperi, a dominant species of great ecological amplitude and widely used in forest industries. PMID:27272519

  8. Temporal Variation of Wood Density and Carbon in Two Elevational Sites of Pinus cooperi in Relation to Climate Response in Northern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pompa-García, Marín; Venegas-González, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Forest ecosystems play an important role in the global carbon cycle. Therefore, understanding the dynamics of carbon uptake in forest ecosystems is much needed. Pinus cooperi is a widely distributed species in the Sierra Madre Occidental in northern Mexico and future climatic variations could impact these ecosystems. Here, we analyze the variations of trunk carbon in two populations of P. cooperi situated at different elevational gradients, combining dendrochronological techniques and allometry. Carbon sequestration (50% biomass) was estimated from a specific allometric equation for this species based on: (i) variation of intra-annual wood density and (ii) diameter reconstruction. The results show that the population at a higher elevation had greater wood density, basal area, and hence, carbon accumulation. This finding can be explained by an ecological response of trees to adverse weather conditions, which would cause a change in the cellular structure affecting the within-ring wood density profile. The influence of variations in climate on the maximum density of chronologies showed a positive correlation with precipitation and the Multivariate El Niño Southern Oscillation Index during the winter season, and a negative correlation with maximum temperature during the spring season. Monitoring previous conditions to growth is crucial due to the increased vulnerability to extreme climatic variations on higher elevational sites. We concluded that temporal variability of wood density contributes to a better understanding of environmental historical changes and forest carbon dynamics in Northern Mexico, representing a significant improvement over previous studies on carbon sequestration. Assuming a uniform density according to tree age is incorrect, so this method can be used for environmental mitigation strategies, such as for managing P. cooperi, a dominant species of great ecological amplitude and widely used in forest industries.

  9. Temporal Variation of Wood Density and Carbon in Two Elevational Sites of Pinus cooperi in Relation to Climate Response in Northern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Pompa-García, Marín; Venegas-González, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Forest ecosystems play an important role in the global carbon cycle. Therefore, understanding the dynamics of carbon uptake in forest ecosystems is much needed. Pinus cooperi is a widely distributed species in the Sierra Madre Occidental in northern Mexico and future climatic variations could impact these ecosystems. Here, we analyze the variations of trunk carbon in two populations of P. cooperi situated at different elevational gradients, combining dendrochronological techniques and allometry. Carbon sequestration (50% biomass) was estimated from a specific allometric equation for this species based on: (i) variation of intra-annual wood density and (ii) diameter reconstruction. The results show that the population at a higher elevation had greater wood density, basal area, and hence, carbon accumulation. This finding can be explained by an ecological response of trees to adverse weather conditions, which would cause a change in the cellular structure affecting the within-ring wood density profile. The influence of variations in climate on the maximum density of chronologies showed a positive correlation with precipitation and the Multivariate El Niño Southern Oscillation Index during the winter season, and a negative correlation with maximum temperature during the spring season. Monitoring previous conditions to growth is crucial due to the increased vulnerability to extreme climatic variations on higher elevational sites. We concluded that temporal variability of wood density contributes to a better understanding of environmental historical changes and forest carbon dynamics in Northern Mexico, representing a significant improvement over previous studies on carbon sequestration. Assuming a uniform density according to tree age is incorrect, so this method can be used for environmental mitigation strategies, such as for managing P. cooperi, a dominant species of great ecological amplitude and widely used in forest industries. PMID:27272519

  10. Subsurface Analysis of the Mesaverde Group on and near the Jicarilla Apache Indian Reservation, New Mexico-its implication on Sites of Oil and Gas Accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Ridgley, Jennie

    2001-08-21

    The purpose of the phase 2 Mesaverde study part of the Department of Energy funded project ''Analysis of oil-bearing Cretaceous Sandstone Hydrocarbon Reservoirs, exclusive of the Dakota Sandstone, on the Jicarilla Apache Indian Reservation, New Mexico'' was to define the facies of the oil-producing units within the subsurface units of the Mesaverde Group and integrate these results with outcrop studies that defined the depositional environments of these facies within a sequence stratigraphic context. The focus of this report will center on (1) integration of subsurface correlations with outcrop correlations of components of the Mesaverde, (2) application of the sequence stratigraphic model determined in the phase one study to these correlations, (3) determination of the facies distribution of the Mesaverde Group and their relationship to sites of oil and gas accumulation, (4) evaluation of the thermal maturity and potential source rocks for oil and gas in the Mesaverde Group, and (5) evaluation of the structural features on the Reservation as they may control sites of oil accumulation.

  11. Qualitative evidence on abortion stigma from Mexico City and five states in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sorhaindo, Annik M; Juárez-Ramírez, Clara; Díaz Olavarrieta, Claudia; Aldaz, Evelyn; Mejía Piñeros, María Consuelo; Garcia, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Social manifestations of abortion stigma depend upon cultural, legal, and religious context. Abortion stigma in Mexico is under-researched. This study explored the sources, experiences, and consequences of stigma from the perspectives of women who had had an abortion, male partners, and members of the general population in different regional and legal contexts. We explored abortion stigma in Mexico City where abortion is legal in the first trimester and five states-Chihuahua, Chiapas, Jalisco, Oaxaca, and Yucatán-where abortion remains restricted. In each state, we conducted three focus groups-men ages 24-40 years (n = 36), women 25-40 years (n = 37), and young women ages 18-24 years (n = 27)-and four in-depth face-to-face interviews in total; two with women (n = 12) and two with the male partners of women who had had an abortion (n = 12). For 4 of the 12 women, this was their second abortion. This exploratory study suggests that abortion stigma was influenced by norms that placed a high value on motherhood and a conservative Catholic discourse. Some participants in this study described abortion as an "indelible mark" on a woman's identity and "divine punishment" as a consequence. Perspectives encountered in Mexico City often differed from the conservative postures in the states.

  12. Cross-cultural and site-based influences on demographic, well-being, and social network predictors of risk perception in hazard and disaster settings in Ecuador and Mexico: predictors of risk perception in hazard and disaster settings in Ecuador and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Jones, Eric C; Faas, Albert J; Murphy, Arthur D; Tobin, Graham A; Whiteford, Linda M; McCarty, Christopher

    2013-03-01

    Although virtually all comparative research about risk perception focuses on which hazards are of concern to people in different culture groups, much can be gained by focusing on predictors of levels of risk perception in various countries and places. In this case, we examine standard and novel predictors of risk perception in seven sites among communities affected by a flood in Mexico (one site) and volcanic eruptions in Mexico (one site) and Ecuador (five sites). We conducted more than 450 interviews with questions about how people feel at the time (after the disaster) regarding what happened in the past, their current concerns, and their expectations for the future. We explore how aspects of the context in which people live have an effect on how strongly people perceive natural hazards in relationship with demographic, well-being, and social network factors. Generally, our research indicates that levels of risk perception for past, present, and future aspects of a specific hazard are similar across these two countries and seven sites. However, these contexts produced different predictors of risk perception-in other words, there was little overlap between sites in the variables that predicted the past, present, or future aspects of risk perception in each site. Generally, current stress was related to perception of past danger of an event in the Mexican sites, but not in Ecuador; network variables were mainly important for perception of past danger (rather than future or present danger), although specific network correlates varied from site to site across the countries.

  13. Groundwater Budget Analysis of Cross Formational Flow: Hueco Bolson (Texas and Chihuahua)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchison, W. R.

    2005-12-01

    Groundwater from the Hueco Bolson supplies the majority of municipal water in El Paso, Texas and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, the largest international border community in the world. For over 100 years, water managers and researchers have been developing an understanding of Hueco Bolson groundwater occurrence and movement, and the interaction between surface water and groundwater. Since 2001, isotopic studies of groundwater chemistry on both sides of the border have provided valuable insights into the occurrence of groundwater and its historic movement. Numerical groundwater flow models of the area have been developed and used since the 1970s. The results of the most recent model were used to develop a detailed analysis of the groundwater inflows, outflows and storage change of the entire area and subregions of the model domain from 1903 to 2002. These detailed groundwater budgets were used to quantify temporal and spatial flow changes that resulted from groundwater pumping: induced inflow of surface water, decreased natural outflows, and storage declines. In addition, the detailed groundwater budgets were used to quantify the changes in cross formational flow between the Rio Grande Alluvium and the Hueco Bolson, as well as the changes in vertical flow within the Hueco Bolson. The groundwater budget results are consistent with the results of the isotopic analyses, providing a much needed confirmation of the overall conceptual model of the numerical model. In addition, the groundwater budgets have provided information that has been useful in further interpreting the results of the isotopic analyses.

  14. Analytical results from an environmental investigation of six sites on Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico, 1993-94

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilcox, Ralph

    1995-01-01

    The six sites investigated include silver recovery units; a buried caustic drain line; a neutralization pit; an evaporation/infiltration pond; the Manzano fire training area; and a waste oil underground storage tank. Environmental samples of soil, pond sediment, soil gas, and water and gas in floor drains were collected and analyzed. Field quality-control samples were also collected and analyzed in association with the environmental samples. The six sites were investigated because past or current activities could have resulted in contamination of soil, pond sediment, or water and sediment in drains.

  15. Neutron activation analysis and numerical taxonomy of thin orange ceramics from the manufacturing site of Rio Carnero, Puebla, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Rattray, E. . Inst. de Investigaciones Antropologicas); Harbottle, G. )

    1991-04-01

    Examples of different types of Thin Orange ceramics found at the recently-discovered manufacturing sites in the state of Puebla have been analyzed by neutron activation. A full multivariate numerical analysis indicates that this material is chemically identical with the well-known Thin Orange of Teotihuacan.'' 33 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Shiprock, New Mexico. Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This report evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell on the site in 1986 by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating groundwater contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Groundwater Project. This risk assessment follows the approach outlined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The first step is to evaluate groundwater data collected from monitor wells at the site. Evaluation of these data showed that the main contaminants in the floodplain groundwater are arsenic, magnesium, manganese, nitrate, sodium, sulfate, and uranium. The complete list of contaminants associated with the terrace groundwater could not be determined due to the lack of the background groundwater quality data. However, uranium, nitrate, and sulfate are evaluated since these chemicals are clearly associated with uranium processing and are highly elevated compared to regional waters. It also could not be determined if the groundwater occurring in the terrace is a usable water resource, since it appears to have originated largely from past milling operations. The next step in the risk assessment is to estimate how much of these contaminants people would be exposed to if a drinking well were installed in the contaminated groundwater or if there were exposure to surface expressions of contaminated water. Potential exposures to surface water include incidental contact with contaminated water or sediments by children playing on the floodplain and consumption of meat and milk from domestic animals grazed and watered on the floodplain.

  17. Natural Analog Studies at Pena Blanca, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    A.M. Simmons

    2005-07-11

    The significance of the Pena Blanca uranium deposits in the State of Chihuahua, Mexico as potential natural analogs for a nuclear waste repository in unsaturated welded tuff was first recognized in the 1980s. In the 1970s, the Pena Blanca region was a major target of uranium exploration and exploitation by the Mexican government. Since then the Nopal I uranium deposit has been studied extensively by researchers in the U.S., Mexico, and Europe. The Nopal I deposit represents an environment similar to that of the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain in many ways. Both are located in semi-arid regions. Both are located in Tertiary rhyolitic tuffs overlying carbonate rocks that have been subjected to basin and range-style tectonic deformation. Both are located in a chemically oxidizing, unsaturated zone 200 m or more above the water table. The alteration of uraninite to secondary minerals at Nopal I may be similar to the alteration of uranium fuel rods in this type of setting. Investigations at Nopal I and in the surrounding Sierra Pena Blanca have included detailed outcrop mapping, hydrologic and isotopic studies of flow and transport, studies of mineral alteration, modeling, and performance assessment.

  18. Proyecto Costa Escondida: Interdisciplinary Research at the Ancient Maya Port Site of Vista Alegre, Quintana Roo, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, J.; Rissolo, D.; Beddows, P. A.; Goodman, B.; Smith, D.

    2013-05-01

    At the northeast tip of the Yucatan Peninsula - where the Caribbean meets the Gulf - lies the ancient Maya port site of Vista Alegre. The inhabitants of this site, much like the people living nearby today, were forced to contend with the challenging coastal environment of Laguna Holbox. The sediment-rich, low gradient of the north coast presents a contrasting landscape compared to the Caribbean coast, where water resources are of much larger magnitude and evident in the extensive systems of cenotes (sinkholes) and underground rivers that supported pre-Columbian sites along this eastern rocky sediment-poor coastline. For past inhabitants the north coast was a mosaic of low-lying, non-arable zones where access to potable water was a challenge for inhabitants well into the 20th century. By bringing together scholars from the fields of archaeology, coastal ecology, geoarchaeology, and hydrogeology, the Proyecto Costa Escondida is focusing on the dynamic relationship between the Maya and their coastal landscape over the past 3000 years. To date we have collected 12 manual push-cores from the shallow waters surrounding Vista Alegre, which have been analyzed at 1 cm resolution using standard methods for Loss on Ignition (LOI), δ18Ocarb and δ13Ccarb of bulk carbonate, granulometry, micropalentology, and AMS radiocarbon dating. In addition to have baseline comparative data, we have conducted near-shore and terrestrial coastal ecological surveys along with the mapping of coastal water salinity and temperatures in the dry and wet seasons. Overall, the chemical proxies, lithology, and paleosalinity model reconstructed to date reveal four onlapping parasequences representing an overall transgression of the coastline with strong seasonality of water chemistry that has been changing under the control of rising sea levels over the past 3000 years. The sedimentation rate and timing of the transition to marine is in reasonable agreement with local sea level curves meaning that the

  19. Does the "sleeping Dragon" Really Sleep?: the Case for Continuous Long-Term Monitoring at a Gulf of Mexico Cold Seep Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, R. M.; Lapham, L.; Farr, N.; Lutken, C.; MacDonald, I. R.; Macelloni, L.; Riedel, M.; Sleeper, K.; Chanton, J.

    2011-12-01

    Continuous porewater monitoring indicates that the methane flux away from exposed hydrate mounds can vary considerably over time. Recently, we retrieved a Pore Fluid Array instrument pack from a hydrate outcrop adjacent to a NEPTUNE Canada observatory node. The sampler was designed to continuously collect and store sediment pore fluids over the course of 9 months. On analysis, we observed a 35mM variation in methane concentrations corresponding with an abrupt shift in current direction at the site. Video and resistivity data have led to previous speculation that hydrate growth and dissolution/dissociation may be seasonally variable. Cumulatively, these findings suggest that the persistence of hydrate outcrops may be extremely dynamic, driven by fluctuations in physical conditions on short time scales. Short-term monitoring in the Gulf of Mexico within Mississippi Canyon lease block 118 (MC118), a known hydrate-bearing site, indicates that physical conditions even at these depths (~540-890m) may be highly variable. Pressure can vary within hours, and recorded temperature changes of ~1.5°C have been associated with passing storms. Moreover, increased particle abundance was observed at the site in 2007 suggesting that organic matter flux to the sediments may vary on the scale of months to years. These inputs have the potential to alter the chemical environment surrounding the hydrate, thereby affecting dissolution rates. Continuous, long-term observations of physical conditions at MC118 could provide information about the potential for natural perturbations to impact hydrate dynamics on the scale of weeks or even days necessary for assessing the long-term persistence of hydrate outcrops. Sleeping Dragon is a massive hydrate outcrop at MC118 that has been monitored since 2006. Three years ago, researchers returning to the site found it visibly diminished relative to previous observations. This apparent shift toward net dissolution of the mound may have been

  20. The first educational interferometer in Mexico (FEYMANS): A novel project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villicana Pedraza, Ilhuiyolitzin; Guesten, Rolf; Saucedo Morales, Julio Cesar; Carreto, Francisco; Valdes Estrada, Erik; Wendolyn Blanco Cardenas, Monica; Rodríguez Garza, Carolina B.; Pech Castillo, Gerardo A.; Ángel Vaquerizo, Juan

    2016-07-01

    An interferometer is composed of several radio telescopes (dishes) separated by a defined distance and used in synchrony. This kind of array produces a superior angular resolution, better than the resolution achieved by a single dish of the same combined area. In this work we propose the First Educational Youth Mexican Array North South, FEYMANS. It consists of an educational interferometer with initially four dishes. This array harvests Mexico's geography by locating each dish at the periphery of the country; creating new scientific links of provincial populations with the capital. The FEYMANS project focus in high school students and their projects on physics, chemistry and astronomy as a final project. Also, it can be used for bachelor theses. The initial and central dish-node is planed to be in Mexico City. After its construction, the efforts will focus to build subsequent nodes, on the Northwest region, Northeast, or Southeast. Region Northwest will give service to Baja California, Sonora and Chihuahua states. Region Northeast will cover Coahuila, Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas. Finally, region Southeast will give access to Yucatan, Quintana Roo, Campeche, Tabasco and Chiapas. This project has been conceived by young professional astronomers and Mexican experts that will operate each node. Also, we have the technical support of the "Max Planck Institute fuer Radioastronomy in Bonn Germany" and the educational model of the "PARTNeR" project in Spain. This interferometer will be financed by Mexico's Federal Congress and by Mexico City's Legislative Assembly (ALDF).

  1. Methyl tert-butyl ether biodegradation by microbial consortia obtained from soil samples of gasoline-polluted sites in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Morales, Marcia; Velázquez, Elia; Jan, Janet; Revah, Sergio; González, Uriel; Razo-Flores, Elías

    2004-02-01

    Microbial consortia obtained from soil samples of gasoline-polluted sites were individually enriched with pentane, hexane, isooctane and toluene. Cometabolism with methyl tert-butyl ether, (MTBE), gave maximum degradation rates of 49, 12, 32 and 0 mg g(-1)protein h(-1), respectively. MTBE was fully degraded even when pentane was completely depleted with a cometabolic coefficient of 1 mgMTBE mg(-1)pentane. The analysis of 16S rDNA from isolated microorganisms in the pentane-adapted consortia showed that microorganisms could be assigned to Pseudomonas. This is the first work reporting the cometabolic mineralization of MTBE by consortium of this genus.

  2. Differences in health symptoms among residents living near illegal dump sites in Los Laureles Canyon, Tijuana, Mexico: a cross sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Al-Delaimy, Wael K; Larsen, Catherine Wood; Pezzoli, Keith

    2014-09-01

    Living near landfills is a known health hazard prompting recognition of environmental injustice. The study aim was to compare self-reported symptoms of ill health among residents of four neighborhoods, living in haphazardly constructed settlements surrounded by illegal dumpsites in Tijuana, Mexico. One adult from each of 388 households located in Los Laureles Canyon were interviewed about demographics, health status, and symptoms. Distance from each residence to both the nearest dumpsite and the canyon bottom was assessed. The neighborhoods were selected from locations within the canyon, and varied with respect to proximity to dump sites. Residents of San Bernardo reported significantly higher frequencies of ill-health symptoms than the other neighborhoods, including extreme fatigue (OR 3.01 (95% CI 1.6-5.5)), skin problems/irritations (OR 2.73 (95% CI 1.3-5.9)), stomach discomfort (OR 2.47 (1.3-4.8)), eye irritation/tears (OR 2.02 (1.2-3.6)), and confusion/difficulty concentrating (OR 2.39 (1.2-4.8)). Proximity to dumpsites did not explain these results, that varied only slightly when adjusted for distance to nearest dumpsite or distance to the canyon bottom. Because San Bernardo has no paved roads, we hypothesize that dust and the toxicants it carries is a possible explanation for this difference. Studies are needed to further document this association and sources of toxicants.

  3. Long-lasting insecticide-treated house screens and targeted treatment of productive breeding-sites for dengue vector control in Acapulco, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Che-Mendoza, Azael; Guillermo-May, Guillermo; Herrera-Bojórquez, Josué; Barrera-Pérez, Mario; Dzul-Manzanilla, Felipe; Gutierrez-Castro, Cipriano; Arredondo-Jiménez, Juan I.; Sánchez-Tejeda, Gustavo; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo; Ranson, Hilary; Lenhart, Audrey; Sommerfeld, Johannes; McCall, Philip J.; Kroeger, Axel; Manrique-Saide, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Background Long-lasting insecticidal net screens (LLIS) fitted to domestic windows and doors in combination with targeted treatment (TT) of the most productive Aedes aegypti breeding sites were evaluated for their impact on dengue vector indices in a cluster-randomised trial in Mexico between 2011 and 2013. Methods Sequentially over 2 years, LLIS and TT were deployed in 10 treatment clusters (100 houses/cluster) and followed up over 24 months. Cross-sectional surveys quantified infestations of adult mosquitoes, immature stages at baseline (pre-intervention) and in four post-intervention samples at 6-monthly intervals. Identical surveys were carried out in 10 control clusters that received no treatment. Results LLIS clusters had significantly lower infestations compared to control clusters at 5 and 12 months after installation, as measured by adult (male and female) and pupal-based vector indices. After addition of TT to the intervention houses in intervention clusters, indices remained significantly lower in the treated clusters until 18 (immature and adult stage indices) and 24 months (adult indices only) post-intervention. Conclusions These safe, simple affordable vector control tools were well-accepted by study participants and are potentially suitable in many regions at risk from dengue worldwide. PMID:25604761

  4. Differences in Health Symptoms among Residents Living Near Illegal Dump Sites in Los Laureles Canyon, Tijuana, Mexico: A Cross Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Al-Delaimy, Wael K.; Wood Larsen, Catherine; Pezzoli, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Living near landfills is a known health hazard prompting recognition of environmental injustice. The study aim was to compare self-reported symptoms of ill health among residents of four neighborhoods, living in haphazardly constructed settlements surrounded by illegal dumpsites in Tijuana, Mexico. One adult from each of 388 households located in Los Laureles Canyon were interviewed about demographics, health status, and symptoms. Distance from each residence to both the nearest dumpsite and the canyon bottom was assessed. The neighborhoods were selected from locations within the canyon, and varied with respect to proximity to dump sites. Residents of San Bernardo reported significantly higher frequencies of ill-health symptoms than the other neighborhoods, including extreme fatigue (OR 3.01 (95% CI 1.6–5.5)), skin problems/irritations (OR 2.73 (95% CI 1.3–5.9)), stomach discomfort (OR 2.47 (1.3–4.8)), eye irritation/tears (OR 2.02 (1.2–3.6)), and confusion/difficulty concentrating (OR 2.39 (1.2–4.8)). Proximity to dumpsites did not explain these results, that varied only slightly when adjusted for distance to nearest dumpsite or distance to the canyon bottom. Because San Bernardo has no paved roads, we hypothesize that dust and the toxicants it carries is a possible explanation for this difference. Studies are needed to further document this association and sources of toxicants. PMID:25226411

  5. Tornadoes, Florida's Miami Tequesta Site, Memphremagog, America's Stonehenge, A.S., Mexico/Rumford ME, and Some Applied Physics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mc Leod, Edward M.; Mc Leod, David M.; Mc Leod, Roger D.

    2002-04-01

    Hay or dust devils, firestorm "twisters", waterspouts, and Fujita's entire range of F1 to F5 tornadoes have a completely explainable common source. These can exist only where the earth's electromagnetic field, EMF, makes loops, or their associated breaks and reorganizations, like those observable at sunspots. Fujita's F1 tornadoes require ionized air in modest thunderclouds with ordinary up- or downdrafts. The equivalent charge-velocity vector then is in "cross-product" with the "hypothesized," but detectable, "tubes" of magnetic field. This creates the familiar vortex that the ionic flow forms, which initially emerges somewhat horizontally from the thundercloud; this can work its way down the loop to touchdown. Fujita's F2 and F3 tornadoes may need the intersection of an ionized jet stream with a high-level EMF loop. The F4 and F5 variety possibly require the combined effects of vertical storm drafts and a jet stream to reach rotational speeds of 318 mph. We have been at EMF sites detectable by blue-light phenomena, A.S. and tornado sites visually qualify.

  6. Development of a prototype plan for the effective closure of a waste disposal site in Los Alamos, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Nyhan, J.; Barnes, F.

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a prototype plan for the effective closure and stabilization of a semiarid low-level waste disposal site. This prototype plan will provide demonstrated closure techniques for a trench in a disposal site at Los Alamos based on previous shallow land burial (SLB) field research both at the Los Alamos Experimental Engineered Test Facility (EETF), and at a waste disposal area at Los Alamos. The accuracy of modeling soil water storage by two hydrologic models was tested by comparing simulation results with field measurements of soil moisture in eight experimental landfill cover systems at Waste Disposal Area B having a range of well-defined soil profiles and vegetative covers. Regression analysis showed that one of the two models tested represented soil moisture more accurately than the second model. The accuracy of modeling all of the parameters of the water balance equation was then evaluated using field data from the Integrated Systems Demonstration plots at the EETF. Optimized parameters were developed for one model to describe observed values of deep percolation, evapotranspiration, and runoff from the field plots containing an SLB trench cap configuration.

  7. A conceptual model for hydrocarbon accumulation and seepage processes inside Chapopote asphalt volcanism site, Southern Gulf of Mexico: from high resolution seismic point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, F.; Spiess, V.; Fekete, N.; Keil, H.; Bohrmann, G.

    2007-05-01

    As part of the German R/V Meteor M67/2 expedition in 2006 to the southern Gulf of Mexico, a set of 2D high resolution seismic profiles was acquired across the Chapopote knoll to study sea floor asphalt occurrences and their origin. Based on regional seismic stratigraphy studies, correlated to DSDP sites, a higher reflective coarse grained sediment unit of Late Miocene age is identified as a potential shallow gas reservoir, overlain by a low permeability fine grained Pliocene and Pleistocene cover. As a result of salt diapirism, local uplift has caused reduced accumulation rates above the diaper since the late Pliocene, while the rates had been uniform throughout the area before. This has further improved the seal properties, since more fine grained material deposited in elevated locations. Nevertheless, on the crest of Chapopote, sediments above the coarse sediment unit are only around 150-75 m thick. Since oil and gas production can well be expected at depth in Jurassic and Tertiary source rocks, the presence of high amplitude reflector packages within the reservoir unit is interpreted as a result of the presence of hydrocarbons. This interpretation is further supported by the observation that some reflectors are cross-cutting and/or reveal a drop in instantaneous frequency. But, the thin seal above the reservoir unit, located directly underneath a widespread occurrence of asphalts at the sea floor, probably facilitates the leakage of hydrocarbons trapped inside the reservoir through a ~ 750 m wide acoustically chaotic zone partly aided by faulting. Since the top of Chapopote shows a high structural complexity, more seepage sites may exist beyond where seafloor asphalts have been found so far. Evolution and structure of the migration and reservoir system, which may be deep rooted, will be discussed both with respect to shallow gas and asphalt occurrences.

  8. On the behavior of site effects in central Mexico (the Mexican volcanic belt - MVB), based on records of shallow earthquakes that occurred in the zone between 1998 and 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemente-Chavez, A.; Zúñiga, F. R.; Lermo, J.; Figueroa-Soto, A.; Valdés, C.; Montiel, M.; Chavez, O.; Arroyo, M.

    2014-06-01

    The Mexican volcanic belt (MVB) is a seismogenic zone that transects the central part of Mexico with an east-west orientation. The seismic risk and hazard of this seismogenic zone has not been studied in detail due to the scarcity of instrumental data as well as because seismicity in the continental regime of central Mexico is not too frequent. However, it is known that there are precedents of large earthquakes (Mw > 6.0) that have taken place in this zone. The valley of Mexico City (VM) is the sole zone, within the MVB, that has been studied in detail. Studies have mainly focused on the ground amplification during large events such as the 1985 subduction earthquake that occurred off coast of Michoacán. The purpose of this article is to analyze the behavior of site effects in the MVB zone based on records of shallow earthquakes (data not reported before) that occurred in the zone between 1998 and 2011. We present a general overview of site effects in the MVB, a classification of the stations in order to reduce the uncertainty in the data when obtaining attenuation parameters in future works, as well as some comparisons between the information presented here and that presented in previous studies. A regional evaluation of site effects and Fourier acceleration spectrum (FAS) shape was estimated based on 80 records of 22 shallow earthquakes within the MVB zone. Data of 25 stations were analyzed. Site effects were estimated by using the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) methodology. The results show that seismic waves are less amplified in the northeast sites of the MVB with respect to the rest of the zone and that it is possible to classify two groups of stations: (1) stations with negligible site amplification (NSA) and (2) stations with significant site amplification (SSA). Most of the sites in the first group showed small (<3) amplifications while the second group showed amplifications ranging from 4 to 6.5 at frequencies of about 0.35, 0.75, 15 and 23

  9. On the behavior of site effects in Central Mexico (the Mexican Volcanic Belt - MVB), based on records of shallow earthquakes that occurred in the zone between 1998 and 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemente-Chavez, A.; Zúñiga, F. R.; Lermo, J.; Figueroa-Soto, A.; Valdés, C.; Montiel, M.; Chavez, O.; Arroyo, M.

    2013-11-01

    The Mexican Volcanic Belt (MVB) is a seismogenic zone that transects the central part of Mexico with an east-west orientation. The risk and hazard seismic of this seismogenic zone has not been studied at detail due to the scarcity of instrumental data as well as because seismicity in the continental regimen of Central Mexico is not too frequent, however, it is known that there are precedents of large earthquakes (Mw > 6.0) that have taken place in this zone. The Valley of Mexico City (VM) is the sole zone, within the MVB, which has been studied in detail; mainly focusing on the ground amplification during large events such as the 1985 subduction earthquake that occurred in Michoacan. The purpose of this article is to analyze the behavior of site effects in the MVB zone based on records of shallow earthquakes (data not reported before) that occurred in the zone between 1998 and 2011. We present a general overview of site effects on the MVB, a classification of the stations in order to reduce the uncertainty in the data to obtain attenuation parameters in future works, and some comparisons between the information presented here and that presented in previous studies. A regional evaluation of site effects and Fourier Acceleration Spectrum (FAS) shape was estimated based on 80 records of 22 shallow earthquakes within the MVB zone. Data of 25 stations were analyzed. Site effects were estimated by using the Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) methodology. The results show that seismic waves are less amplified in the northeast sites of the MVB with respect to the rest of the zone and that it is possible to classify two groups of stations: (1) stations with Negligible Site Amplification (NSA) and (2) stations with Significant Site Amplification (SSA). Most of the sites in the first group showed small (< 3) amplifications while the second group showed amplifications ranging from 4 to 6.5 at frequencies of about 0.35, 0.75, 15 and 23 Hz. With these groups of

  10. Exposure of commuters to carbon monoxide in Mexico City II. Comparison of in-vehicle and fixed-site concentrations.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Bremauntz, A A; Ashmore, M R

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to compare measurements of carbon monoxide taken concurrently inside vehicles and at fixed-site monitoring stations (FSMs), in order to assess if the FSM stations can be used to estimate commuters' exposure to this pollutant. During the study period ambient CO concentrations were very high. Five selected stations reported concentrations in excess of the Mexican (13 ppm) and United States (9 ppm) 8-hour standards for CO. Since, for all modes of transportation, the in-vehicle concentrations were always larger than the concurrent ambient concentrations, the differences between them were always positive and the ratios were always greater than one. Average, in-vehicle/ambient ratios for each mode of transportation were: automobile, 5.2; minivan, 5.2; minibus, 4.3; bus, 3.1; trolleybus 3.0; and metro, 2.2. A series of simple regression models with a moderate predictive power (R2 = 0.47 to 0.71) were developed for metro, bus, minibus, and automobile commuters. The models include the FSM measurements and also, depending on the mode of transportation, other variables, such as vehicular speed, the route of travel, and the wind speed. In the future, the models should be validated in two ways to determine their predictive power. First, they should be verified against additional samples taken under similar conditions; and second, their applications under different conditions should be explored through sampling during a different season of the year or on other commuting routes.

  11. Prospects for regional groundwater contamination due to karst landforms in Mescalero caliche at the WIPP site near Carlsbad, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    Plutonium from nuclear weapons production will be permanently buried in Permian salt beds at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located in the Nash Draw watershed. Overlying the salt beds are cavernous Rustler dolomite aquifers, the most likely flow paths for contaminated water from WIPP to the biosphere. Overlying the Rustler are sandstones, siltstones, Mescalero caliche, and windblown sand. The WIPP site contains thousands of closed topographic depressions. If some are karst features, the ability of WIPP to isolate nuclear waste cannot be demonstrated. A water balance and geochemical analysis of the Nash Draw watershed and nearby brine springs were undertaken to determine: (1) which Rustler aquifers discharge where, and in what quantities; (2) the rates of evapotranspiration and natural groundwater recharge; (3) the most likely discharge point for contaminated water from WIPP. Laguna Grande, a natural salt lake in Nash Draw, is the outlet for the Rustler dolomite aquifers and for plutonium contaminations from WIPP. The recharge time for the Rustler may be only 6 to 8 years. WIPP is unsuitable for nuclear waste isolation because: (1) Rustler groundwater flow paths and travel times are inherently unpredictable; (2) caliche and sandstones allow rainwater recharge of the Rustler; (3) pressurized brine underneath WIPP can carry dissolved waste up the WIPP shafts to the Rustler; (4) geologic barriers between the brine and WIPP are unreliable; and (5) WIPP is vulnerable to human intrusion.

  12. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Peru Mill Industrial Park in the City of Deming, New Mexico. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Kiatreungwattana, K.; Geiger, J.; Healey, V.; Mosey, G.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Peru Mill Industrial Park site in the City of Deming, New Mexico, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  13. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Chino Mine in Silver City, New Mexico. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Kiatreungwattana, K.; Geiger, J.; Healey, V.; Mosey, G.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Chino Mine site in Silver City, New Mexico, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  14. Microenvironmental air and soil monitoring of contaminants: An evaluation of indoor and outdoor levels in Chihuahua City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado-Rios, Marcos

    Like most of the cities around the world Chihuahua City suffers atmospheric and soil pollution. This is a problem that requires immediate attention from both public authorities and the scientific community. Although it is known that high levels of heavy metals are present in the airborne particulate matter, soil and dust in many urban regions, the information about personal exposure to these pollutants in Chihuahua City is nonexistent. This study focuses on the analysis and characterization of lead and arsenic in the airborne and soil particulate matter present in the interiors of households and their surrounding outdoor environments in the southern part of Chihuahua City. The sampling area chosen for this study was located in the southern part of Chihuahua City. An atmospheric sampling point selected by the Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV) was selected as a geographical center, with a 2 km radius forming the sampling area. The households selected for analyses were located on Lombardo Toledano Street, a high-traffic street. The main objectives of this study were to establish the maximum exposure level in outdoor and indoor environments for particulate matter less than 10 mum (PM 10), Pb, and As, to determine the background level of Chihuahua City for these same elements, to determine the isotopic ratios of Pb206 and Pb207 in the indoor and outdoor atmospheric samples, and to verify if the source of the pollution is from anthropogenic and/or natural sources. Additionally, a comparison of the analytical data from X-ray fluorescence (XRF) versus the analytical data from inductively coupled plasma with optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) was conducted. The comparison of these techniques was based on sample preparation, speed of analysis, and accuracy of results. In the case of sample preparation, two extraction techniques were performed for a comparison of the extraction/leaching of Pb and As from the samples. These microwave

  15. Measurements of volatile organic compounds at a suburban ground site (T1) in Mexico City during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign: Measurement comparison, emission ratios, and source attribution

    SciTech Connect

    Bon, D.M.; Springston, S.; M.Ulbrich, I.; de Gouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.; Kuster, W. C.; Alexander, M. L.; Baker, A.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Blake, D.; Fall, R.; Jimenez, J. L., Herndon, S. C.; Huey, L. G.; Knighton, W. B.; Ortega, J.; Vargas, O.

    2011-03-16

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) mixing ratios were measured with two different instruments at the T1 ground site in Mexico City during the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) campaign in March of 2006. A gas chromatograph with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) quantified 18 light alkanes, alkenes and acetylene while a proton-transfer-reaction ion-trap mass spectrometer (PIT-MS) quantified 12 VOC species including oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) and aromatics. A GC separation system was used in conjunction with the PIT-MS (GC-PIT-MS) to evaluate PIT-MS measurements and to aid in the identification of unknown VOCs. The VOC measurements are also compared to simultaneous canister samples and to two independent proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometers (PTR-MS) deployed on a mobile and an airborne platform during MILAGRO. VOC diurnal cycles demonstrate the large influence of vehicle traffic and liquid propane gas (LPG) emissions during the night and photochemical processing during the afternoon. Emission ratios for VOCs and OVOCs relative to CO are derived from early-morning measurements. Average emission ratios for non-oxygenated species relative to CO are on average a factor of {approx}2 higher than measured for US cities. Emission ratios for OVOCs are estimated and compared to literature values the northeastern US and to tunnel studies in California. Positive matrix factorization analysis (PMF) is used to provide insight into VOC sources and processing. Three PMF factors were distinguished by the analysis including the emissions from vehicles, the use of liquid propane gas and the production of secondary VOCs + long-lived species. Emission ratios to CO calculated from the results of PMF analysis are compared to emission ratios calculated directly from measurements. The total PIT-MS signal is summed to estimate the fraction of identified versus unidentified VOC species.

  16. Ciliated protists from the nepheloid layer and water column of sites affected by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Joseph A.; McCurry, Chelsea; Tominack, Sarah; Romero, Isabel C.; Hollander, David; Jeffrey, Wade H.; Snyder, Richard A.

    2015-12-01

    Benthic marine protists have been well documented from shallow marine benthic habitats but remain understudied in deeper habitats on continental shelves and slopes, particularly in the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico (NEGOM). This region was affected by a deep water oil well failure (BP-Deepwater Horizon, 2010). The combination of a lack of information on deep sea microbenthic communities and the potential for benthic microbial petroleum mineralization prompted this investigation. Water column and nepheloid layer samples were obtained via Niskin bottles and a multicorer respectively at stations across the NEGOM to: (1) determine whether nepheloid and water column communities are distinct and (2) assess benthic species richness relative to sediment PAH contamination. Phylum specific 18S rRNA gene amplification was used to construct clone libraries of ciliate assemblages. BLAST searches in the NCBI database indicated that a majority (~75%) of the clone sequences corresponded (94-100% similarity) with listed, yet unclassified sequences. Several putative species were common at most site locations and depths. Many known benthic ciliates, such as Uronychia transfuga, Uronychia setigera, and Spirotrachelostyla tani, were common in the nepheloid layer samples and not recovered in water column samples. Ciliated protist species richness increased with PAH levels found in surface sediments, suggesting a positive microbial response to petroleum enrichment of the benthos. The presence of previously unknown microbenthic communites in the nephaloid layer over oceanic clay-silt muds alters our view of microbial processes in the deep sea and merits investigation of the microbial processes and rates of microbial mineralization and biomass production important to global biogeochemistry.

  17. Numerical simulations of depressurization-induced gas production from gas hydrate reservoirs at the Walker Ridge 312 site, northern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Myshakin, Evgeniy M.; Gaddipati, Manohar; Rose, Kelly; Anderson, Brian J.

    2012-06-01

    In 2009, the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Gas Hydrates Joint-Industry-Project (JIP) Leg II drilling program confirmed that gas hydrate occurs at high saturations within reservoir-quality sands in the GOM. A comprehensive logging-while-drilling dataset was collected from seven wells at three sites, including two wells at the Walker Ridge 313 site. By constraining the saturations and thicknesses of hydrate-bearing sands using logging-while-drilling data, two-dimensional (2D), cylindrical, r-z and three-dimensional (3D) reservoir models were simulated. The gas hydrate occurrences inferred from seismic analysis are used to delineate the areal extent of the 3D reservoir models. Numerical simulations of gas production from the Walker Ridge reservoirs were conducted using the depressurization method at a constant bottomhole pressure. Results of these simulations indicate that these hydrate deposits are readily produced, owing to high intrinsic reservoir-quality and their proximity to the base of hydrate stability. The elevated in situ reservoir temperatures contribute to high (5–40 MMscf/day) predicted production rates. The production rates obtained from the 2D and 3D models are in close agreement. To evaluate the effect of spatial dimensions, the 2D reservoir domains were simulated at two outer radii. The results showed increased potential for formation of secondary hydrate and appearance of lag time for production rates as reservoir size increases. Similar phenomena were observed in the 3D reservoir models. The results also suggest that interbedded gas hydrate accumulations might be preferable targets for gas production in comparison with massive deposits. Hydrate in such accumulations can be readily dissociated due to heat supply from surrounding hydrate-free zones. Special cases were considered to evaluate the effect of overburden and underburden permeability on production. The obtained data show that production can be significantly degraded in comparison with a case using

  18. Water-quality assessment of the Rio Grande Valley, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas; summary and analysis of water-quality data for the basic-fixed-site network, 1993-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, D.F.

    1997-01-01

    evapotranspiration and from anthropogenic sources such as irrigation- return flows, urban runoff, and wastewater-treatment plant discharges. The smallest median dissolved-solids concentration detected at a basic- fixed site was 58 milligrams per liter and the largest was 1,240 milligrams per liter. The spatial distribution of calcium, magnesium, sodium, sulfate, chloride, and fluoride was similar to the spatial distribution of dissolved solids. The spatial distribution of potassium and bicarbonate varied slightly from that of dissolved solids. Median silica concentrations generally decreased in a downstream direction. Of all cations, calcium and sodium had the largest concentrations at most basic-fixed sites. Bicarbonate and sulfate were the anions having the largest concentrations at most sites. The largest median silica concentration was at Rito de los Frijoles in Bandelier National Monument, New Mexico, where silica composed approximately 50 percent of the dissolved solids. The largest concentrations and largest median concentrations of dissolved-nutrient analytes were detected at Santa Fe River above Cochiti Lake, New Mexico, and Rio Grande at Isleta, New Mexico. The relatively large dissolved-nutrient concentrations at these sites probably were due to discharges from wastewater-treatment plants and urban runoff. The largest concentrations and largest median concentrations of total ammonia plus organic nitrogen and total phosphorus were detected at Rio Puerco near Bernardo, New Mexico. The largest concentrations of these nutrients at this site were associated with runoff from summer thunderstorms. Dissolved-iron concentrations ranged from censored concentrations to 914 micrograms per liter. Median dissolved-iron concentrations ranged from 3 to 160 micrograms per liter. Dissolved-manganese concentrations ranged from censored concent

  19. Measurements of aerosol absorption and scattering in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during the MILAGRO field campaign: a comparison of results from the T0 and T1 sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marley, N. A.; Gaffney, J. S.; Castro, T.; Salcido, A.; Frederick, J.

    2008-07-01

    Measurements of aerosol absorption and scattering were obtained in Mexico City during the MILAGRO (Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations) field campaign in March 2006. A comparison of aerosol absorption and scattering was obtained in Mexico City at site T0 located in the northern part of Mexico City at the Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo Laboratories and at site T1 located at the Universidad Tecnológica de Tecamac, 18 miles northwest of T0. Hourly averages of aerosol absorption were similar at both sites, ranging from 6 93 Mm-1 with an average of 31 Mm-1 at T0; and from 2 104 Mm-1 with an average of 19 Mm-1 at T1. Aerosol scattering at T0 ranged from 16 344 Mm-1 with an average of 105 Mm-1; while the scattering values at T1 were lower than T0 ranging from 2 136 with an average of 53 Mm-1. Aerosol single scattering albedos (SSAs) were determined at both sites using these data. SSAs at T1 ranged from 0.44 0.90 with an average 0.75 as compared to hose at T0, range 0.51 0.93 with an average of 0.77. Broadband UV-B intensity was found to be higher at site T0, with an average of 64 μW/cm2 at solar noon, than at site T1, which had an average of 54 μW/cm2 at solar noon. Comparisons of clear-sky modeled UV-B intensities with the simultaneous UV-B measurements obtained at site T0 and at site T1 for cloudless days indicate a larger diffuse radiation field at site T0 than at site T1. The determination of aerosol scattering Ångstrom coefficient at T0 suggests the larger diffuse radiation is due to the predominance of submicron aerosols at T0 with aerosol scattering of UV-B radiation peaked in the forward direction, leading to the enhancement observed at ground level.

  20. Another Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Carlin

    2009-01-01

    A Mexican saying holds that "Como Mexico no hay dos"--There is only one Mexico. American media these days interpret that notion with a vengeance. Story after story depicts a country overrun by out-of-control drug wars and murder, where corrupt police officers trip over beheaded victims more often than they nab perpetrators. South of the border, a…

  1. FIXED-SITE AIR AND BIOMARKER MEASUREMENTS OF VOCS IN A NON-OCCUPATIONALLY EXPOSED POPULATION ALONG THE ARIZONA-MEXICO BORDER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goals of the NHEXAS-Border Study are to obtain environmental exposure and biomarker data for a representative population residing along the Arizona-Mexico border, and compare the distributions to similar distributions previously obtained for the state of Arizona (NHEXAS-Ari...

  2. Mental health outcomes of Mexico's drug war in Ciudad Juárez: A pilot study among university students.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Kathleen; Vizcaino, Maricarmen; Benavides, Nora A

    2014-03-01

    During the most intense period of armed conflict related to the drug trade in Mexico, forty students attending the Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez (UACJ) in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico, were surveyed in this pilot study for symptoms of depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist. The percentage of participants who scored positively for symptoms of PTSD depression and anxiety were 32.5%, 35% and 37.5%, respectively. Criteria for post-traumatic stress were analyzed separately. The most frequently-reported traumatic events included extortion or robbery, confinement to home, injury to loved one, being in an armed conflict, witnessing a killing or dead body and being beaten. Trauma events positively associated with depression, anxiety and PTSD symptoms included robbery or extortion, armed conflict situation, exposure to frequent arms fire, and witnessing a killing or dead body.

  3. Social and Environmental Influences Shaping Risk Factors and Protective Behaviors in two Mexico-US Border Cities

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Rebeca; Ferreira-Pinto, João B.; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Ramos, Maria Elena; Lozada, Remedios M.; Firestone-Cruz, Michelle; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2009-01-01

    The economic, social, cultural and political milieus that influence HIV risk behaviors along the U.S.- Mexico border are understudied. In an effort to appropriately inform interventions targeting structural influences, we compared injecting drug using populations living in two cities—Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua and Tijuana, Baja California— situated on the Mexico-U.S. border. These populations presented with similar demographic profiles, but differed significantly in terms of social and environmental influences that can influence both risk and protective factors (e.g., family drug use, migration, drug use patterns). We observed distinct behavioral and structural influences in these two border cities that will require tailored intervention strategies to reduce HIV transmission. PMID:19464228

  4. Real-time PCR genotyping assay for canine progressive rod-cone degeneration and mutant allele frequency in Toy Poodles, Chihuahuas and Miniature Dachshunds in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kohyama, Moeko; Tada, Naomi; Mitsui, Hiroko; Tomioka, Hitomi; Tsutsui, Toshihiko; Yabuki, Akira; Rahman, Mohammad Mahbubur; Kushida, Kazuya; Mizukami, Keijiro; Yamato, Osamu

    2016-03-01

    Canine progressive rod-cone degeneration (PRCD) is a middle- to late-onset, autosomal recessive, inherited retinal disorder caused by a substitution (c.5G>A) in the canine PRCD gene that has been identified in 29 or more purebred dogs. In the present study, a TaqMan probe-based real-time PCR assay was developed and evaluated for rapid genotyping and large-scale screening of the mutation. Furthermore, a genotyping survey was carried out in a population of the three most popular breeds in Japan (Toy Poodles, Chihuahuas and Miniature Dachshunds) to determine the current mutant allele frequency. The assay separated all the genotypes of canine PRCD rapidly, indicating its suitability for large-scale surveys. The results of the survey showed that the mutant allele frequency in Toy Poodles was high enough (approximately 0.09) to allow the establishment of measures for the prevention and control of this disorder in breeding kennels. The mutant allele was detected in Chihuahuas for the first time, but the frequency was lower (approximately 0.02) than that in Toy Poodles. The mutant allele was not detected in Miniature Dachshunds. This assay will allow the selective breeding of dogs from the two most popular breeds (Toy Poodle and Chihuahua) in Japan and effective prevention or control of the disorder. PMID:26549343

  5. Real-time PCR genotyping assay for canine progressive rod-cone degeneration and mutant allele frequency in Toy Poodles, Chihuahuas and Miniature Dachshunds in Japan

    PubMed Central

    KOHYAMA, Moeko; TADA, Naomi; MITSUI, Hiroko; TOMIOKA, Hitomi; TSUTSUI, Toshihiko; YABUKI, Akira; RAHMAN, Mohammad Mahbubur; KUSHIDA, Kazuya; MIZUKAMI, Keijiro; YAMATO, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    Canine progressive rod-cone degeneration (PRCD) is a middle- to late-onset, autosomal recessive, inherited retinal disorder caused by a substitution (c.5G>A) in the canine PRCD gene that has been identified in 29 or more purebred dogs. In the present study, a TaqMan probe-based real-time PCR assay was developed and evaluated for rapid genotyping and large-scale screening of the mutation. Furthermore, a genotyping survey was carried out in a population of the three most popular breeds in Japan (Toy Poodles, Chihuahuas and Miniature Dachshunds) to determine the current mutant allele frequency. The assay separated all the genotypes of canine PRCD rapidly, indicating its suitability for large-scale surveys. The results of the survey showed that the mutant allele frequency in Toy Poodles was high enough (approximately 0.09) to allow the establishment of measures for the prevention and control of this disorder in breeding kennels. The mutant allele was detected in Chihuahuas for the first time, but the frequency was lower (approximately 0.02) than that in Toy Poodles. The mutant allele was not detected in Miniature Dachshunds. This assay will allow the selective breeding of dogs from the two most popular breeds (Toy Poodle and Chihuahua) in Japan and effective prevention or control of the disorder. PMID:26549343

  6. Possible Scenarios of Impacts of Climatic Change on Potential Evapotranspiration in the Watershed of the Conchos River, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raynal-Villasenor, J. A.; Rodriguez-Pineda, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    The watershed of the Conchos River is the main watershed of the state of Chihuahua, Mexico, and it is the main source of water of the watershed of the Grande river downstream El Paso, Texas. Such part of the watershed of the Grande River is also the border between Mexico and the United States of America, from El Paso-Ciudad Juarez up to Brownsville-Matamoros. It is very important for the state of Chihuahua and Mexico as a whole, to construct possible scenarios of the effects of the global climatic change in the potential evapotranspiration in such watershed and to construct likely scenarios which results will help to define an integrated watershed management to mitigate those global climate change impacts. The results of a recent study sponsored by the alliance between WWF-Fundacion Gonzalo Rio Arronte, are presented in the paper. The study was conducted to construct possible scenarios on the effects of the global climatic change on the potential evapotranspiration in the watershed of the Conchos River in Mexico. Three watershed characteristic meteorological stations were selected to conduct such study. The predictions of change of the surface air temperature and the change of the rainfall produced by the global climatic change, by the end of the XXI Century, were those published by the Hadley Center. The results show that air temperature increment of one degree centigrade increases evapotranspiration values between 3 and 3.5% with respect current values. As a consequence moisture deficiency increases from 9% to 40%. With an air temperature increment of three degrees centigrades, the potential evapotranspiration increases between 8.8% and 10% increasing moisture deficiency from 27.5% up to 116%. The expected rainfall increment values show a negligible contribution for the potential evapotranspiration reduction in the Rio Conchos watershed. These results conclude that immediate actions need to be taken to mitigate climate change impacts all along the watershed.

  7. Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology of Cambrian to Triassic miogeoclinal and eugeoclinal strata of Sonora, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gehrels, G.E.; Stewart, John H.

    1998-01-01

    One hundred and eighty two individual detrital zircon grains from Cambrian through Permian miogeoclinal strata, Ordovician eugeoclinal rocks, and Triassic post-orogenic sediments in northwestern Sonora have been analyzed. During Cambrian, Devonian, Permian, and Triassic time, most zircons accumulating along this part of the Cordilleran margin were shed from 1.40-1.45 and 1.62-1.78 Ga igneous rocks that are widespread in the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. Zircons with ages of approximately 1.11 Ga are common in Cambrian strata and were apparently shed from granite bodies near the sample site. The sources of 225-280 Ma zircons in our Triassic sample are more problematic, as few igneous rocks of these ages are recognized in northwestern Mexico. Such sources may be present but unrecognized, or the grains could have been derived from igneous rocks of the appropriate ages to the northwest in the Mojave Desert region, to the east in Chihuahua and Coahuila, or to the south in accreted(?) arc-type terranes. Because the zircon grains in our Cambrian and Devonian to Triassic samples could have accumulated in proximity to basement rocks near their present position or in the Death Valley region of southern California, our data do not support or refute the existence of the Mojave-Sonora megashear. Ordovician strata of both miogeoclinal and eugeoclinal affinity are dominated by >1.77 Ga detrital zircons, which are considerably older than most basement rocks in the region. Zircon grains in the miogeoclinal sample were apparently derived from the Peace River arch area of northwestern Canada and transported southward by longshore currents. The eugeoclinal grains may also have come from the Peace River arch region, with southward transport by either sedimentary or tectonic processes, or they may have been shed from off-shelf slivers of continents (perhaps Antarctica?) removed from the Cordilleran margin during Neoproterozoic rifting. It is also possible that the

  8. Phanerozoic tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the Trans-Pecos and Permian basin regions (Mexico, Texas, New Mexico) using Landsat imagery, subsurface and outcrop data

    SciTech Connect

    Markello, J.R.; Sarg, J.F.

    1996-08-01

    Integrating regional Landsat imagery, outcrop field studies, and subsurface data has resulted in a more comprehensive understanding and delineation of the tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the Trans-Pecos region. Landsat imagery were acquired and registered to the existing 1:25000 scale maps and mosaiced to create a regional view of the Trans-Pecos and Permian basin region. The imagery were used to extrapolate and map key stratigraphic and tectonic elements after calibration from documented outcrop and subsurface data. The interpretations aided in the extrapolation of scattered control information and were critical in the complete reconstruction of the geologic history of the area. The Trans-Pecos Phanerozoic history comprises five tectono-depositional phases, and these have controlled the shape of the modem landscape: (1) Late Proterozoic rifting (Gondwana from Laurentia), and development of the Early-Middle Paleozoic Tobosa basin; (2) Pennsylvanian collision (South and North Americas), and differentiation of the Tobosa basin into the Midland, Delaware, Orogrande, and Pedregosa basins separated by basement blocks: Central Basin Platform, Diablo Platform, Burro-Florida Platform; (3) Middle Mesozoic transtensional rifting (Mexico from North America), and Late Jurassic failed rifting of the Mexican Chihuahua and Coahuila Troughs west and south of the Diablo Platform; (4) Late Mesozoic Laramide collision (Mexico and Texas), and development of the Chihuahua fold/thrust belt limited by the western margin of the Diablo Platform; (5) Late Cenozoic North American basin and Range rifting, and development of Rio Grande grabens, block-faulted mountains, and volcanics. The Tobosa basin was a passive-margin interior sag; its continental margin was south of the Marathons.

  9. Carbon and Aerosol Emissions from Biomass Fires in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, W. M.; Flores Garnica, G.; Baker, S. P.; Urbanski, S. P.

    2009-12-01

    Biomass burning is an important source of many atmospheric greenhouse gases and photochemically reactive trace gases. There are limited data available on the spatial and temporal extent of biomass fires and associated trace gas and aerosol emissions in Mexico. Biomass burning is a unique source of these gases and aerosols, in comparison to industrial and biogenic sources, because the locations of fires vary considerably both daily and seasonally and depend on human activities and meteorological conditions. In Mexico, the fire season starts in January and about two-thirds of the fires occur in April and May. The amount of trace gases and aerosols emitted by fires spatially and temporally is a major uncertainty in quantifying the impact of fire emissions on regional atmospheric chemical composition. To quantify emissions, it is necessary to know the type of vegetation, the burned area, the amount of biomass burned, and the emission factor of each compound for each ecosystem. In this study biomass burning experiments were conducted in Mexico to measure trace gas emissions from 24 experimental fires and wildfires in semiarid, temperate, and tropical ecosystems from 2005 to 2007. A range of representative vegetation types were selected for ground-based experimental burns to characterize fire emissions from representative Mexico fuels. A third of the country was surveyed each year, beginning in the north. The fire experiments in the first year were conducted in Chihuahua, Nuevo Leon, and Tamaulipas states in pine forest, oak forest, grass, and chaparral. The second-year fire experiments were conducted on pine forest, oak forest, shrub, agricultural, grass, and herbaceous fuels in Jalisco, Puebla, and Oaxaca states in central Mexico. The third-year experiments were conducted in pine-oak forests of Chiapas, coastal grass, and low subtropical forest on the Yucatan peninsula. FASS (Fire Atmosphere Sampling System) towers were deployed for the experimental fires. Each FASS

  10. Tree Ring Chronologies in Mexico and Dendroclimatic and Ecological Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva-Diaz, J.; Cerano-Paredes, J.; Stahle, D. W.; Therrell, M. D.; Luckman, B. H.

    2007-05-01

    The understanding of historic hydroclimate variability is basic to determine the impact of atmospheric circulatory patterns and to plan for a proper management of limited water resources and ecosystem conservation purposes. The objective of this study was to develop a network of tree-ring chronologies for climate reconstruction and to analyze the influence of the ENSO warm phase in northern Mexico by using the Tropical Rainfall Index. Climatic sensitive tree-ring chronologies were developed in mountain ranges and riparian ecosystems of the Sierras Madre Oriental and Occidental, and central Mexico. A grid of over 30 new Douglas-fir, baldcypress, and pinyon pine chronologies were developed and seasonal winter-spring and summer precipitation reconstructions have been produced for northern and central Mexico. The seasonal winter-spring precipitation reconstructions extended 353 years (1450 - 2002) and 530 years (1472 - 2002) for Chihuahua, 228 years (1765 - 1993) and 504 years (1500 - 2003) for Durango, 602 years (1400 - 2002) for Nuevo Leon, 522 years (1474 - 1995) for Tamaulipas; and 342 years (1659 - 2001) and 410 years (1595 - 2004) for Coahuila. Some of the low frequency events were specific for each reconstruction, but common low frequency events (decadal resolution) were present in most of the reconstructions; specific cases are the droughts of the 1780s, 1810s, 1860s, 1870s, 1950s, and 1990s; and the wet episodes of the 1820s, 1830s, and 1890s.Trends in dry or wet periods were disrupted by above or below normal precipitation as affected by the ENSO phenomena, especially in the winter- spring period when this circulatory pattern produced in times abundant rains in northern Mexico. However, the ENSO influence on winter-spring precipitation has fluctuated through time. Cold fronts and hurricanes impacting the Gulf of Mexico may explain some of the hydrological behavior detected for northeastern Mexico. These results indicate that winter-spring hydroclimate

  11. Geophysical and Hydrological Characterization of Alluvial Fans in the Valle El Sauz Encinillas, Chihuahua, México.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villalobos-Aragón, A.; Chávez-Aguirre, R.; Osuna-Vizcarra, A.; Espejel-García, V. V.

    2007-05-01

    The Valle El Sauz Encinillas (VESE) is located 92 km north of Chihuahua City, México. Despite being the principal aquifer feeding Chihuahua City, and being flanked by two well studied geological features (Bloque Calera-Del Nido to the West, and the Sierra Peña Blanca to the East), a lack of available hydrogeological data prevails in the valley. The goals of this study are two: 1) geomorphometrical analysis of the sub-basins and alluvial fans, and 2) determination of the alluvial fan geoelectrical units via electrical-resistivity soundings. The Basin and Range system forms a closed sub-basin with a lacustrine basin system in extinction process. The aquifer is located in alluvial Quaternary sediments, with varying granulometry, reaching a thickness of 600 meters at the center of the valley. The biggest alluvial fan in the VESE is located at the Cañón de Santa Clara, and intersects the playa-lake deposits of the Laguna de Encinillas. This fan has a surface of 73.2 km2 and an average slope of 0.437°. The geomorphometrical analysis included the sub-basins, currents, and the fans in the area. These analyses allow a comparison between alluvial fans in the VESE and those in Death Valley, California, USA. The alluvial fans in both areas show a similar behavior in all plots. Twenty electrical resistivity soundings (Schlumberger array, AB/2 distance of 400 m) were performed in the alluvial fan. The basement and four other geoelectrical units were identified in the fan. The geophysical data, granulometric determinations, plus geochemical information of twelve wells in the area were analyzed. These data show how the decrease in granulometry, both frontally and laterally in the fan, results in a rise of the hydraulic conductivity and transmisivity values (water wells in Los Sauces and El Faro). However, both the permeability and the water quality in its distal portion, are affected by the playa lake deposits, the raising ratio of clay-size sediments (and evaporites) in the

  12. [Discharges for external injuries from a hospital in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Díaz-Apodaca, Beatriz A; De Cosio, Federico G; Moye-Elizalde, Gustavo; Fornelli-Laffon, Felipe F

    2012-05-01

    In Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, morbidity and mortality from injuries have increased alarmingly since 2008. This paper aims to examine the changes in the number of hospital discharges for external injuries recorded during the 2008-2010 period in a hospital in Ciudad Juarez. A descriptive retrospective study conducted at the Ciudad Juarez General Hospital looked at the incidence of external injuries as the reason for hospital discharges during the period under analysis. The average proportion of hospital discharges attributed to external injuries was 27%, with the 25-44-year-old age group being the most affected. More than half of the discharges were for fractures. The incidence rate of hospital discharges attributed to injuries in Ciudad Juarez was almost four times greater than that reported at the national level.

  13. Navigator Approach to Improve Quality of Care for Vulnerable Populations in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Rebeca; Ferreira-Pinto, João; Loza, Oralia

    2015-01-01

    For nearly 30 years, Programa Compañeros Inc (Compañeros) has worked in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, to ensure that vulnerable populations can exercise their rights to receive HIV and substance abuse prevention and treatment services. Compañeros staff has worked to ameliorate the negative results that limit access to care to the most vulnerable individuals: those who are poor, homeless, sex workers, addicted, and others whose life context put them at greater risk for being infected with HIV. With support from the MAC AIDS Foundation, Compañeros has expanded its capacity to deliver services to persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and to HIV-vulnerable populations. This short communication describes findings from an internal evaluation conducted to investigate the effectiveness of the MAC AIDS-funded navigator-based program implemented at Compañeros.

  14. Mexico City

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    ... Two small brighter patches within the hazy area indicate low fog. In the left-hand panel, the city basin appears significantly clearer, but ... very high altitudes, in contrast to the low-lying haze and fog near Mexico City. When the stereo retrieval determines that a location is ...

  15. Mexico's Oxbridge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haussman, Fay

    1979-01-01

    For 400 years the National Autonomous University of Mexico has remained at the hub of the country's intellectual and political life. The history of the University from the Mayas and the Aztecs, University expansion, upward mobility of students, and student pressure groups and politics are described. (MLW)

  16. Las Tierras de Nuevo Mexico. [The Lands of New Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swadesh, Frances Leon; And Others

    New Mexico was inhabited thousands of years ago. Each group of settlers saw the land in distinct ways. For some, its beauty consisted of its quality, the abundance of water, and the hope of a good harvest. For others, its beautiful sites were of more importance. Thus, each group established its own manner of living on the land and of using it.…

  17. Sequence Stratigraphic Analysis and Facies Architecture of the Cretaceous Mancos Shale on and Near the Jicarilla Apache Indian Reservation, New Mexico-their relation to Sites of Oil Accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Ridgley, Jennie

    2001-08-21

    The purpose of phase 1 and phase 2 of the Department of Energy funded project Analysis of oil- bearing Cretaceous Sandstone Hydrocarbon Reservoirs, exclusive of the Dakota Sandstone, on the Jicarilla Apache Indian Reservation, New Mexico was to define the facies of the oil producing units within the Mancos Shale and interpret the depositional environments of these facies within a sequence stratigraphic context. The focus of this report will center on (1) redefinition of the area and vertical extent of the ''Gallup sandstone'' or El Vado Sandstone Member of the Mancos Shale, (2) determination of the facies distribution within the ''Gallup sandstone'' and other oil-producing sandstones within the lower Mancos, placing these facies within the overall depositional history of the San Juan Basin, (3) application of the principals of sequence stratigraphy to the depositional units that comprise the Mancos Shale, and (4) evaluation of the structural features on the Reservation as they may control sites of oil accumulation.

  18. Sports Facilities, Zapopan, Jalisco, Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amelar, Sarah

    2001-01-01

    Highlights a new K-12 school gymnasium in Mexico that changes and reacts to weather conditions, requires no air conditioning, and, on typical days, uses sunlight filtering through its ample clerestory as the sole source of illumination. Includes numerous photographs, a section drawing, and a site plan. (GR)

  19. The Role of Science in Advising the Decision Making Process: A Pathway for Building Effective Climate Change Mitigation Policies in Mexico at the Local Level

    PubMed Central

    Barraza, Roberto; Velazquez-Angulo, Gilberto; Flores-Tavizón, Edith; Romero-González, Jaime; Huertas-Cardozo, José Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    This study examines a pathway for building urban climate change mitigation policies by presenting a multi-dimensional and transdisciplinary approach in which technical, economic, environmental, social, and political dimensions interact. Now, more than ever, the gap between science and policymaking needs to be bridged; this will enable judicious choices to be made in regarding energy and climate change mitigation strategies, leading to positive social impacts, in particular for the populations at-risk at the local level. Through a case study in Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, we propose a multidimensional and transdisciplinary approach with the role of scientist as policy advisers to improve the role of science in decision-making on mitigation policies at the local level in Mexico. PMID:27128933

  20. The Role of Science in Advising the Decision Making Process: A Pathway for Building Effective Climate Change Mitigation Policies in Mexico at the Local Level.

    PubMed

    Barraza, Roberto; Velazquez-Angulo, Gilberto; Flores-Tavizón, Edith; Romero-González, Jaime; Huertas-Cardozo, José Ignacio

    2016-04-27

    This study examines a pathway for building urban climate change mitigation policies by presenting a multi-dimensional and transdisciplinary approach in which technical, economic, environmental, social, and political dimensions interact. Now, more than ever, the gap between science and policymaking needs to be bridged; this will enable judicious choices to be made in regarding energy and climate change mitigation strategies, leading to positive social impacts, in particular for the populations at-risk at the local level. Through a case study in Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, we propose a multidimensional and transdisciplinary approach with the role of scientist as policy advisers to improve the role of science in decision-making on mitigation policies at the local level in Mexico.

  1. The Role of Science in Advising the Decision Making Process: A Pathway for Building Effective Climate Change Mitigation Policies in Mexico at the Local Level.

    PubMed

    Barraza, Roberto; Velazquez-Angulo, Gilberto; Flores-Tavizón, Edith; Romero-González, Jaime; Huertas-Cardozo, José Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    This study examines a pathway for building urban climate change mitigation policies by presenting a multi-dimensional and transdisciplinary approach in which technical, economic, environmental, social, and political dimensions interact. Now, more than ever, the gap between science and policymaking needs to be bridged; this will enable judicious choices to be made in regarding energy and climate change mitigation strategies, leading to positive social impacts, in particular for the populations at-risk at the local level. Through a case study in Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, we propose a multidimensional and transdisciplinary approach with the role of scientist as policy advisers to improve the role of science in decision-making on mitigation policies at the local level in Mexico. PMID:27128933

  2. Final report: survey and removal of radioactive surface contamination at environmental restoration sites, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, K.A.; Mitchell, M.M.; Jean, D.; Byrd, C.S.

    1997-09-01

    This report describes the survey and removal of radioactive surface contamination at Sandia`s Environmental Restoration (ER) sites. Radiological characterization was performed as a prerequisite to beginning the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) corrective action process. The removal of radioactive surface contamination was performed in order to reduce potential impacts to human health and the environment. The predominant radiological contaminant of concern was depleted uranium (DU). Between October 1993 and November 1996 scanning surface radiation surveys, using gamma scintillometers, were conducted at 65 sites covering approximately 908 acres. A total of 9,518 radiation anomalies were detected at 38 sites. Cleanup activities were conducted between October 1994 and November 1996. A total of 9,122 anomalies were removed and 2,072 waste drums were generated. The majority of anomalies not removed were associated with a site that has subsurface contamination beyond the scope of this project. Verification soil samples (1,008 total samples) were collected from anomalies during cleanup activities and confirm that the soil concentration achieved in the field were far below the target cleanup level of 230 pCi/g of U-238 (the primary constituent of DU) in the soil. Cleanup was completed at 21 sites and no further radiological action is required. Seventeen sites were not completed since cleanup activities wee precluded by ongoing site activity or were beyond the original project scope.

  3. Implementation of an efficacious intervention for high risk women in Mexico: protocol for a multi-site randomized trial with a parallel study of organizational factors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies of implementation of efficacious human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention interventions are rare, especially in resource-poor settings, but important, because they have the potential to increase the impact of interventions by improving uptake and sustainability. Few studies have focused on provider and organizational factors that may influence uptake and fidelity to core intervention components. Using a hybrid design, we will study the implementation of an efficacious intervention to reduce sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers (FSWs) in 12 cities across Mexico. Our protocol will test a ‘train-the-trainer’ implementation model for transporting the Mujer Segura (Healthy Woman) intervention into community-based organizations (CBOs). Methods We have partnered with Mexican Foundation for Family Planning (Mexfam), a non-governmental organization that has CBOs throughout Mexico. At each CBO, trained ethnographers will survey CBO staff on characteristics of their organization and on their attitudes toward their CBO and toward the implementation of evidence-based interventions (EBIs). Then, after CBO staff recruit a sample of 80 eligible FSWs and deliver a standard-care, didactic intervention to 40 women randomly selected from that pool, a Mexfam staff person will be trained in the Mujer Segura intervention and will then train other counselors to deliver Mujer Segura to the 40 remaining participating FSWs. FSW participants will receive a baseline behavioral assessment and be tested for HIV and STIs (syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia); they will be reassessed at six months post-intervention to measure for possible intervention effects. At the same time, both qualitative and quantitative data will be collected on the implementation process, including measures of counselors’ fidelity to the intervention model. After data collection at each CBO is complete, the relative efficacy of the Mujer Segura intervention will be

  4. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OF STATE DATA RELATED TO ABANDONED CENTRALIZED AND COMMERCIAL DRILLING-FLUID DISPOSAL SITES IN LOUISIANA, NEW MEXICO, OKLAHOMA, AND TEXAS

    SciTech Connect

    H. Seay Nance

    2003-03-01

    This 2003 Spring Semi-Annual Report contains a summary of the Final Technical Report being prepared for the Soil Remediation Requirements at Commercial and Centralized Drilling-Fluid Disposal (CCDD) Sites project funded by the United States Department of Energy under DOE Award No. DE-AC26-99BC15225. The summary describes (1) the objectives of the investigation, (2) a rationale and methodology of the investigation, (3) sources of data, assessment of data quality, and data availability, (4) examples of well documented centralized and commercial drilling-fluid disposal (CCDD) sites and other sites where drilling fluid was disposed of, and (5) examples of abandoned sites and measures undertaken for their assessment and remediation. The report also includes most of the figures, tables, and appendices that will be included in the final report.

  5. The historical seismicity and prediction of ground motion in northeast Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galván-Ramírez, Iván N.; Montalvo-Arrieta, Juan C.

    2008-02-01

    This work constitutes the first attempt to understand the seismic hazard in northeast Mexico. We present a compilation of regional seismicity in northeast Mexico (24-31°N, 97-106°W), finding 148 earthquakes for the 1787-2006 period. The study area lies within three morphotectonic provinces: Basin, Range, and Rio Grande rift; Sierra Madre Oriental; and Gulf coastal plain. Peak ground acceleration (PGA) maps were computed for three different scenarios: 1928 Parral, Chihuahua ( MW = 6.5); 1931 Valentine, Texas ( MW = 6.4); and a hypothetical earthquake located in central Coahuila. Ground motion values were computed using attenuation relations developed for central and eastern North America and the Basin and Range provinces. The earthquake in central Coahuila is considered a critical scenario for the main cities of northeast Mexico. The damage associated with this hypothetical earthquake could be severe because most buildings were constructed without seismic criteria. The expected PGA values in Monterrey, Saltillo, and Monclova are between 30 and 70 cm/s 2. This earthquake might also produce or trigger significant landslides and rock falls in the Sierra Madre Oriental, where several cities are located on the mountain range.

  6. On-site evaluation of the suitability of a wetted instream habitat in the Middle Rio Grande, New Mexico, for the Rio Grande silvery minnow (Hybognathus amarus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2011-01-01

    Two in-situ exposure studies were conducted with the federally-listed endangered Rio Grande silvery minnow (Hybognathus amarus). One-year-old adults were exposed in cages deployed at three sites in the Middle Rio Grande, N. Mex., for 4 days to assess survival and for 26 days to evaluate survival, growth, overall health, and whole-body elemental composition. The test sites were located on the Pueblo of Isleta in the (1) main channel of the Middle Rio Grande, (2) 240-Wasteway irrigation return drain, and (3) wetted instream habitat created below the outfall of the 240-Wasteway irrigation return drain. During the cage exposures, temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity, and turbidity were monitored continuously (15-minute intervals) and common constituents, nutrients, carbons, metals, and pesticides were measured at discrete intervals. In both studies, there were statistical differences in several water-quality parameters among sites; and except for turbidity, these differences were small and were not considered to be biologically significant. The cages used in the 4-day exposure study were ineffective at preventing access to the fish by predators, and survival was highly variable (20 percent to 90 percent) across sites. In the 26-day chronic exposure study, weight and condition factor of caged-exposed fish at all sites were significantly lower than those at test initiation. After 26 days of exposure, there were no significant differences in survival, total length, weight, or condition factor of fish across sites, but absolute weight loss and relative reduction in condition factor were significantly greater in fish at the wetted instream habitat site compared to those at the Middle Rio Grande site. There were no statistical differences in health assessment indices, mesenteric fat indices, or prevalence of abnormalities in cage-exposed fish among sites. Cage-exposed fish had higher health assessment indices and prevalence of fin anomalies and a lower mesenteric

  7. Instrumentation used for hydraulic testing of potential water-bearing formations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site in southeastern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Basler, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Requirements for testing hydrologic test wells at the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico, necessitated the use of inflatable formation packers and pressure transducers. Observations during drilling and initial development indicated small formation yields which would require considerable test times by conventional open-casing methods. A pressure-monitoring system was assembled for performance evaluation utilizing commercially available components. Formation pressures were monitored with a down-hole strain-gage transducer. An inflatable packer equipped with a 1/4-inch-diameter steel tube extending through the inflation element permitted sensing formation pressures in isolated test zones. Surface components of the monitoring system provided AC transducer excitation, signal conditioning for recording directly in engineering units, and both analog and digital recording. Continuous surface monitoring of formation pressures provided a means of determining test status and projecting completion times during any phase of testing. Maximum portability was afforded by battery operation with all surface components mounted in a small self-contained trailer. (USGS)

  8. Cardicola langeli sp. n. (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from heart of sheepshead, Archosargus probatocephalus (Actinopterygii: Sparidae) in the Gulf of Mexico, with an updated list of hosts, infection sites and localities for Cardicola spp.

    PubMed

    Bullard, Stephen A

    2013-02-01

    Cardicola langeli n. sp. (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) infects the heart of sheepshead, Archosargus probatocephalus (Walbaum, 1792) (Perciformes: Sparidae) in the northern Gulf of Mexico off Horn Island (type locality), Mississippi, USA. The new species is described herein using light and scanning electron microscopy of adult specimens and can be most easily distinguished from the other 24 accepted species of Cardicola Short, 1953 by the combination of having (i) an ovovitelline duct that extends anteriad and that (ii) is posterior to the ootype, (iii) a male genital pore that is lateral to the oviducal seminal receptacle and (iv) a female genital pore lateral to the ootype. The new species is the only member of Cardicola so-far reported to have tegumental spines that are distally flattened and broad, rather than pointed. The new species generally resembles the two other species of Cardicola that infect sparids, i.e. Cardicola cardiocolum (Manter, 1947) (type species) from jolthead porgy, Calamus bajonado (Block et Schneider), in the Gulf of Mexico and Cardicola aurata Holzer, Montero, Repullés, Sitja-Bobadilla, Alvarez-Pellitero, Zarza et Raga, 2008, from gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata Linnaeus, in the Mediterranean Sea, by having a spheroid anterior sucker with concentric rows of minute spines anterior to the mouth and by having a similar general arrangement of the vitellarium, gonads and genitalia. However, it differs from them by having the combination of the aforementioned five features plus asymmetrical posterior caeca and a dextral posterior caecum that extends beyond the posterior margin of the ovary. Probable eggs of C. langeli n. sp. that contain a ciliated miracidium infect gill epithelium and are spheroid. An updated list of hosts, infection sites and geographic localities for the 25 accepted species of Cardicola is provided. PMID:23539948

  9. Heavy metals in the clam Megapitaria squalida collected from wild and phosphorite mine-impacted sites in Baja California, Mexico: considerations for human health effects.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Lia; Palacios, Elena; Acosta, Baudilio; Monsalvo-Spencer, Pablo; Alvarez-Castañeda, Ticul

    2006-06-01

    The "chocolate clam" Megapitaria squalida, is widely consumed by the population of several localities along the Pacific coast. Clams collected from seven stations in Bahía de la Paz, a bay within the Gulf of California, before and after the summer rainy season were analyzed for Pb, Ni, Cd, Mn, Zn, Cu, and Fe. The location of the sampling sites significantly affected the concentration of metals in clam tissues, but not in relation to the proximity to alleged contaminated sites. Clams from a site close to a phosphate mine had the highest levels of Pb, but only in April, and the highest concentrations of Cd were recorded in clams collected in areas with no anthropogenic activities. Clams from sites considered clean had higher levels of Cd, Fe, Zn, and Mn. The mean concentrations (microg/g dry weight) ranged from 0.1 to 7.8 for Pb, from 1.9 to 8.8 for Ni, from 1.5 to 11.1 for Cd, from 2.5 to 14.1 for Mn, from 47.2 to 64.6 for Zn, from 5.4 to 18.7 for Cu, and from 154 to 558 for Fe. Collecting clams in sites apparently pristine is no guarantee that metals will be in low concentrations.

  10. Determination of black carbon in fine particles using a semi-continuous method at two sites in the city of Guadalajara, Mexico, during 2007.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Mena, Leonel; Saldarriaga-Noreña, Hugo; Murillo-Tovar, Mario A; Amador-Muñoz, Omar; López-López, Alberto; Waliszewski, Stefan M

    2011-09-01

    The black carbon is a pollutant species primarily emitted from the combustion of fossil fuels (diesel). Their concentrations associated to PM2.5 were monitoring at two sites in the city of Guadalajara. From January to May (except April), downtown site shown 2.7, 2.6, 4.0 and 2.3 times higher monthly concentrations. The dry season two showed higher concentrations respect to at least one of the others seasons (p < 0.0001) at each site, probably due to atmospheric conditions less favorable for the dispersal of pollutants. During the 24 h period were observed at the year two peaks of concentrations: the highest morning peak and lower night peak, both probably related to anthropogenic activity.

  11. Water-quality assessment of the Rio Grande Valley, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas; occurrence and distribution of selected pesticides and nutrients at selected surface-water sites in the Mesilla Valley, 1994-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, D.F.

    1996-01-01

    The Rio Grande Valley study unit of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program conducted a two-phase synoptic study of the occurrence and distribution of pesticides and nutrients in the surface water of the Mesilla Valley, New Mexico and Texas. Phase one, conducted in April-May 1994 during the high-flow irrigation season, consisted of a 6-week time- series sampling event during which 17 water-column samples were collected at 3 main-stem sites on the Rio Grande and a synoptic irrigation-run sampling event during which 19 water-column samples were collected at 7 main-stem sites, 10 drain sites, and 2 sites at the discharges of wastewater-treatment plants. Three samples are included in both the time-series and irrigation-run events. Phase two, conducted in January 1995 during the low-flow non-irrigation season, consisted of a non-irrigation synoptic sampling event during which 18 water-column samples were collected at seven main-stem sites, nine drain sites, and two sites at the discharges of wastewater-treatment plants and a bed- material sampling event during which 6 bed-material samples were collected at six sites near the mouths of drains that discharge to the Rio Grande. The 51 water-column samples were analyzed for 78 pesticides and metabolites and 8 nutrients along with other constituents. The six bed-material samples were analyzed for 21 pesticides and metabolites, gross polychlorinated biphenyls, and gross polychlorinated naphthalenes. The presence of dissolved pesticides in the surface water of the Mesilla Valley is erratic. A total of 100 detections of 17 different pesticides were detected in 44 of the water-column samples. As many as 38 percent of these detections may be attributed to pesticide use upstream from the valley or to nonagricultural pesticide use within the valley. There were 29 detections of 10 different pesticides in 17 samples during the irrigation run and 41 detections of 13 pesticides in 16 samples during the non

  12. Disrupted by violence: children's well-being and families' economic, social, and cultural capital in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Alma A; Grineski, Sara E

    2012-05-01

    Since 2008, Ciudad Juarez (Chihuahua, Mexico) has been undergoing a wave of violence due to a drug war, making the city a difficult environment in which to raise a family. This study uses qualitative methodology that incorporates 16 in-depth interviews with parents of children ages 0-5 years and 9 sets of photos from a subset of interviewed parents. The study explores how families' economic, social, and cultural capital has been disrupted by the violence and how it affects children's well-being. Social and economic capital declined significantly because of the violence as families experienced crime, had increased difficulty finding and maintaining employment, and decreased their interactions outside the home. Interviews also suggested that opportunities to gain cultural capital decreased because of this isolation. Understanding the detrimental effects of violence on families' capital can contribute to understanding children's well-being in violence-stricken communities.

  13. Dataset of aggregate producers in New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orris, Greta J.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents data, including latitude and longitude, for aggregate sites in New Mexico that were believed to be active in the period 1997-1999. The data are presented in paper form in Part A of this report and as Microsoft Excel 97 and Data Interchange Format (DIF) files in Part B. The work was undertaken as part of the effort to update information for the National Atlas. This compilation includes data from: the files of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS); company contacts; the New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, New Mexico Bureau of Mine Inspection, and the Mining and Minerals Division of the New Mexico Energy, Minerals and Natural Resources Department (Hatton and others, 1998); the Bureau of Land Management Information; and direct communications with some of the aggregate operators. Additional information on most of the sites is available in Hatton and others (1998).

  14. Final report: survey and removal of radioactive surface contamination at environmental restoration sites, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, K.A.; Mitchell, M.M.; Jean, D.; Byrd, C.S.

    1997-09-01

    This report contains the Appendices A-L including Voluntary Corrective Measure Plans, Waste Management Plans, Task-Specific Health and Safety Plan, Analytical Laboratory Procedures, Soil Sample Results, In-Situ Gamma Spectroscopy Results, Radionuclide Activity Summary, TCLP Soil Sample Results, Waste Characterization Memoranda, Waste Drum Inventory Data, Radiological Risk Assessment, and Summary of Site-Specific Recommendations.

  15. Geology, coal resources, and chemical analyses of coal from the Fruitland Formation, Kimbeto EMRIA study site, San Juan County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, Gary B.; Hildebrand, Rick T.; Affolter, Ronald H.

    1979-01-01

    The Kimbeto EMRIA study site, an area of about 20 square miles (52 km2), is located on the south margin of the San Juan Basin on the gently northward-dipping strata of the Upper Cretaceous Fruitland Formation and the Kirtland Shale. The coal beds are mainly in the lower 150 feet (45 m) of the Fruitland Format ion. Coal resources--measured, indicated, and inferred--with less than 400 feet (120 m) of overburden in the site are 69,085,000 short tons (62,660,100 metric tons), 369,078,000 short tons (334,754,000 metric tons), and 177,803,000 short tons (161,267,000 metric tons) respectively. About 68 percent of these resources are overlain by 200 feet (60 m) or less of overburden. The apparent rank of the coal ranges from subbituminous B to subbituminous A. The average Btu/lb value of 14 core samples from the site on the as-received basis is 8,240 (4580 Kcal/kg), average ash content is 23.4 percent, and average sulfur content is 0.5 percent. Analyses of coal from the Kimbeto EMRIA study site show significantly higher ash content and significantly lower contents of volatile matter, fixed carbon, carbon, and a significantly lower heat of combustion when compared with other coal analyses from the Rocky Mountain province.

  16. Millennial-scale records of North American Monsoon in time and space during the last glacial period: reconstructions from arid northern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, P.; Quiroz-Jiménez, D.; Charles-Polo, M.; Lozano-Santacruz, R.

    2013-05-01

    The arid northern Mexico is part of the Sonora and Chihuahua Deserts and both the deserts belong to the North American Desert system. The North American Monsoon (NAM) or Mexican Monsoon refers to the system that brings summer precipitation to arid northern Mexico and southwestern USA. It contributes ca. 70-80% of total annual precipitation along the western slopes of the Sierra Madre Occidental (northern Mexico) and ca. 40-50% of total precipitation in Arizona and New Mexico (southwest USA). High-resolution geochemical data from lacustrine deposits located between 23°N and 31°N (paleolakes La Salada, Babicora and San Felipe) provide spatio-temporal and millennial-scale paleohydrological records related to the dynamics of summer precipitation as well as westerly winter storms over the last glacial period. The inverse relationship between proxy records of runoff into lacustrine basins of northern Mexico and winter precipitation over the southwestern USA indicate that the westerly winter storms had minimal influence south of 30°N and the paleohydrological changes are mainly summer precipitation controlled. The variation in summer season precipitation between 20 and 60 cal. kyr BP was driven by long term changes in summer insolation. During an interval of lower summer insolation (i.e. >60 cal. kyr BP), the higher summer precipitation could be related to the NAM expansion as a result of reduced north hemisphere ice sheets. On a millennial-scale, the region received more than average precipitation during the warm interstadials and vice versa.

  17. Ocean thermal energy conversion preliminary data report for the February 1978 GOTEC-03 cruise to the Gulf of Mexico, mobile site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-06-01

    Preliminary physical, chemical, and biological data obtained on the GOTEC-03 cruise in February 27 to March 3, 1978 to the Mobile Site near 29 deg N, 88 deg W are presented in tabular and graphic form. The physical and chemical data consists of salinities and dissolved oxygens derived from water samples and temperatures from XBT's. The biological data includes biomass indicators (chlorophyll a, phaeophytin, and adenosine triphosphate), and zooplankton samples.

  18. High concentrations of heavy metals in neighborhoods near ore smelters in northern Mexico.

    PubMed Central

    Benin, A L; Sargent, J D; Dalton, M; Roda, S

    1999-01-01

    In developing countries, rapid industrialization without environmental controls has resulted in heavy metal contamination of communities. We hypothesized that residential neighborhoods located near ore industries in three northern Mexican cities would be heavily polluted with multiple contaminants (arsenic, cadmium, and lead) and that these sites would be point sources for the heavy metals. To evaluate these hypotheses, we obtained samples of roadside surface dust from residential neighborhoods within 2 m of metal smelters [Torreón (n = 19)] and Chihuahua (n = 19)] and a metal refinery [Monterrey (n = 23)]. Heavy metal concentrations in dust were mapped with respect to distance from the industrial sites. Correlation between dust metal concentration and distance was estimated with least-squares regression using log-transformed data. Median dust arsenic, cadmium, and lead concentrations were 32, 10, and 277 microg/g, respectively, in Chihuahua; 42, 2, and 467 microg/g, respectively, in Monterrey, and 113, 112, and 2,448 microg/g, respectively, in Torreón. Dust concentrations of all heavy metals were significantly higher around the active smelter in Torreón, where more than 90% of samples exceeded Superfund cleanup goals. At all sites, dust concentrations were inversely related to distance from the industrial source, implicating these industries as the likely source of the contamination. We concluded that residential neighborhoods around metal smelting and refining sites in these three cities are contaminated by heavy metals at concentrations likely to pose a health threat to people living nearby. Evaluations of human exposure near these sites should be conducted. Because multiple heavy metal pollutants may exist near smelter sites, researchers should avoid attributing toxicity to one heavy metal unless others have been measured and shown not to coexist. Images Figure 1 Figure 2-3 Figure 4-5 Figure 6-7 Figure 8 PMID:10090706

  19. Characterization of Volatile Organic Compounds measured in the lower troposphere around the Deep Water Horizon oil spill site (Gulf of Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barletta, B.; Meinardi, S.; Blake, N. J.; Leifer, I.; Rowland, F. S.; Blake, D. R.

    2010-12-01

    The focus of this study is the analysis of ground level air samples collected on June 22-27 in close proximity of the Deep Water Horizon oil spill site. To investigate the effects of this large marine oil spill on the lower troposphere, a total of 48 canisters were filled on board the NOAA vessel Thomas Jefferson. The samples were analyzed for a wide variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including hydrocarbons, halocarbons, alkyl nitrates and selected sulphur compounds. The specific gases (and their amount) entering the atmosphere strongly depends on their dissolution in the water column and because of the considerable depth of the oil spill source (about 1,500 m) the dissolution losses were significant. The analysis of the samples collected around the oil spill site shows a clear enhancement of selected species such as long chain alkanes and aromatic compounds. The total nonmethane hydrocarbon load calculated for the samples collected in close proximity to the spill site (31 canisters filled within about 10 km from the Deep Water Horizon drilling rig) ranges between 0.001 - 61 ppmC, with an average of 3.0 ppmC.

  20. Water-Level Reconstruction and its Implications for Late Pleistocene Paleontological Site Formation in Hoyo Negro, a Submerged Subterranean Pit in Quintana Roo, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rissolo, D.; Reinhardt, E. G.; Collins, S.; Kovacs, S. E.; Beddows, P. A.; Chatters, J. C.; Nava Blank, A.; Luna Erreguerena, P.

    2014-12-01

    A massive pit deep within the now submerged cave system of Sac Actun, located along the central east coast of the Yucatan Peninsula, contains a diverse fossil assemblage of extinct megafauna as well as a nearly complete human skeleton. The inundated site of Hoyo Negro presents a unique and promising opportunity for interdisciplinary Paleoamerican and paleoenvironmental research in the region. Investigations have thus far revealed a range of associated features and deposits which make possible a multi-proxy approach to identifying and reconstructing the natural and cultural processes that have formed and transformed the site over millennia. Understanding water-level fluctuations (both related to, and independent from, eustatic sea level changes), with respect to cave morphology is central to understanding the movement of humans and animals into and through the cave system. Recent and ongoing studies involve absolute dating of human, faunal, macrobotanical, and geological samples; taphonomic analyses; and a characterization of site hydrogeology and sedimentological facies, including microfossil assemblages and calcite raft deposits.

  1. Characterization of trace metals of risk to human health in airborne particulate matter (PM2.5) at two sites in Guadalajara, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Saldarriaga-Noreña, Hugo; Hernández-Mena, Leonel; Ramírez-Muñiz, Martín; Carbajal-Romero, Patricia; Cosío-Ramírez, Ricardo; Esquivel-Hernández, Benjamín

    2009-04-01

    PM2.5 samples were collected at two locations in Guadalajara: Centro and Miravalle, during 2007. The first site (Centro) is located downtown and characterized by high vehicular traffic. Miravalle is in the southern part of the city, and influenced by emissions from high industrial and vehicular activity. Samples were collected for 24 h and the annual median concentrations of PM2.5 observed were 44.1 and 52.8 microg m(-3) at Centro and Miravalle, respectively. The concentration of PM2.5 observed at the Miravalle site was significantly higher (p < 0.002). Ca, Fe, Zn, Mg and Pb were the most abundant elements found at both sites. Miravalle showed higher annual concentrations of Ca, Pb, Cu, Cr, Sr, Ni, Mo, Fe, Mn, and Sb with levels of 1013.9, 74.9, 28.2, 9.4, 6.3, 4.4, 1.0, 628.0, 23.7 and 4.6 ng m(-3), respectively. At Centro and Miravalle quarterly and annual concentrations of Pb did not exceed 290 ng m(-3) and all values are well below those specified by air quality standards. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Cluster Analysis and the enrichment factor (EF) based on the concentrations of each element indicated that the main source of particulates at Centro was of geological origin, while Miravalle receives emissions from natural and anthropogenic sources. Both contribute to the chemical composition of PM2.5 in Guadalajara. PMID:19557245

  2. Rain Rate Statistics in Southern New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulic, Frank J., Jr.; Horan, Stephen

    1997-01-01

    The methodology used in determining empirical rain-rate distributions for Southern New Mexico in the vicinity of White Sands APT site is discussed. The hardware and the software developed to extract rain rate from the rain accumulation data collected at White Sands APT site are described. The accuracy of Crane's Global Model for rain rate predictions is analyzed.

  3. Potential human health risk by 234,238U and 210Po due to consumption of fish from the "Luis L. Leon" reservoir (Northern Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna-Porres, M. Y.; Rodríguez-Villa, M. A.; Herrera-Peraza, E.; Cabral-Lares, M.; Renteria-Villalobos, M.; Montero-Cabrera, M. E.

    2014-07-01

    The Conchos River is one of the most important in northern Mexico and the main surface waterway in the arid state of Chihuahua. The Luis L. Leon dam produces the Luis L. Leon Reservoir, which is the last major reservoir before the Conchos River enters the Rio Grande at the Texas-Chihuahua border. Activity concentrations (AC) of 234,238U and 210Po in fillet and liver of three stocked fish species (Lepomis cyanellus, Cyprinus carpio and Ictalurus furcatus), as well as in water from the Luis L. Leon reservoir were determined. 238U and 234U ACs in fillet samples showed values of 0.007-0.014 and 0.01-0.02 Bq kg-1 wet weight (ww), respectively. Liver samples for Lepomis cyanellus, Cyprinus carpio and Ictalurus furcatus species, present 210Po AC of 1.16-3.26 0.70-1.13 and 0.93-1.37 Bqṡkg-1 ww. The elemental Bioaccumulation Factor (BAF) for fish tissues respect to their concentrations in water was determined. Lepomis cyanellus species showed the highest BAF for total uranium in fillet, with value 1.5. The annual effective dose for uranium in adults by fish consumption in this work ranged from 4.46×10-3 to 3.68×10-2 μSvṡyear-1. The difference in concentrations of uranium in fillet among the studied species is likely primarily due to their differences in diet and habitat.

  4. Developing a robust geochemical and reactive transport model to evaluate possible sources of arsenic at the CO[subscript 2] sequestration natural analog site in Chimayo, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, Hari; Dai, Zhenxue; Lopano, Christina; Keating, Elizabeth; Hakala, J. Alexandra; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Zheng, Liange; Gutherie, George D.; Pawar, Rajesh

    2012-10-24

    Migration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from deep storage formations into shallow drinking water aquifers is a possible system failure related to geologic CO{sub 2} sequestration. A CO{sub 2} leak may cause mineral precipitation/dissolution reactions, changes in aqueous speciation, and alteration of pH and redox conditions leading to potential increases of trace metal concentrations above EPA National Primary Drinking Water Standards. In this study, the Chimayo site (NM) was examined for site-specific impacts of shallow groundwater interacting with CO{sub 2} from deep storage formations. Major ion and trace element chemistry for the site have been previously studied. This work focuses on arsenic (As), which is regulated by the EPA under the Safe Drinking Water Act and for which some wells in the Chimayo area have concentrations higher than the maximum contaminant level (MCL). Statistical analysis of the existing Chimayo groundwater data indicates that As is strongly correlated with trace metals U and Pb indicating that their source may be from the same deep subsurface water. Batch experiments and materials characterization, such as: X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and synchrotron micro X-ray fluorescence ({mu}-XRF), were used to identify As association with Fe-rich phases, such as clays or oxides, in the Chimayo sediments as the major factor controlling As fate in the subsurface. Batch laboratory experiments with Chimayo sediments and groundwater show that pH decreases as CO{sub 2} is introduced into the system and buffered by calcite. The introduction of CO{sub 2} causes an immediate increase in As solution concentration, which then decreases over time. A geochemical model was developed to simulate these batch experiments and successfully predicted the pH drop once CO{sub 2} was introduced into the experiment. In the model, sorption of As to illite, kaolinite and smectite through surface complexation proved to be the key reactions in

  5. Alternative diagenetic models for cretaceous talus deposits, Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 536, Gulf of Mexico: Chapter 8 in Initial reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halley, Robert B.; Pierson, B. J.; Schlager, Wolfgang

    1984-01-01

    Talus deposits recovered from Site 536 show evidence of aragonite dissolution, secondary porosity development, and calcite cementation. Although freshwater diagenesis could account for the petrographic features of the altered talus deposits, it does not uniquely account for isotopic or trace-element characteristics. Also, the hydrologic setting required for freshwater alteration is not easily demonstrated for the Campeche Bank. A mixing-zone model does not account for the available trace-element data, but does require somewhat less drastic assumptions about the size of the freshwater lens. Although a seawater (bottom-water) alteration model requires no hydrologic difficulties, unusual circumstances are required to account for the geochemical characteristics of the talus deposits using this model.

  6. Geohydrology of the High Energy Laser System Test Facility site, White Sands Missile Range, Tularosa Basin, south-central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Basabilvazo, G.T.; Nickerson, E.L.; Myers, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    The Yesum-HoHoman and Gypsum land (hummocky) soils at the High Energy Laser System Test Facility (HELSTF) represent wind deposits from recently desiccated lacustrine deposits and deposits from the ancestral Lake Otero. The upper 15-20 feet of the subsurface consists of varved gypsiferous clay and silt. Below these surfidai deposits the lithology consists of interbedded clay units, silty-clay units, and fine- to medium-grained quartz arenite units in continuous and discontinuous horizons. Clay horizons can cause perched water above the water table. Analyses of selected clay samples indicate that clay units are composed chiefly of kaolinire and mixed-layer illite/ smectite. The main aquifer is representative of a leaky-confined aquifer. Estimated aquifer properties are: transmissivity (T) = 780 feet squared per day, storage coefficient (S) = 3.1 x 10-3, and hydraulic conductivity (K) = 6.0 feet per day. Ground water flows south and southwest; the estimated hydraulic gradient is 5.3 feet per mile. Analyses of water samples indicate that ground water at the HELSTF site is brackish to slightly saline at the top of the main aquifer. Dissolved-solids concentration near the top of the main aquifer ranges from 5,940 to 11,800 milligrams per liter. Predominant ions are sodium and sulfate. At 815 feet below land surface, the largest dissolved-solids concentration measured is 111,000 milligrams per liter, which indicates increasing salinity with depth. Predominant ions are sodium and chloride.

  7. Estimating maquiladora hazardous waste generation on the U.S./Mexico border

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, Mace M.; Kontuly, Thomas; Hepner, George F.

    1995-03-01

    Maquiladoras, manufacturing plants that primarily assemble foreign components for reexport, are located in concentrations along the northern frontier of the US/Mexico border. These plants process a wide variety of materials using modern industrial technologies within the context of developing world institutions and infrastructure. Hazardous waste generation by maquiladoras represents a critical environmental management issue because of the spatial concentration of these plants in border municipalities where the infrastructure for waste management is nonexistent or poor. These border municipalities contain rapidly increasing populations, which further stress their waste handling infrastructure capacities while exposing their populations to greater contaminant risks. Limited empirical knowledge exists concerning hazardous waste types and generation rates from maquiladorsas. There is no standard reporting method for waste generation or methodology for estimating generation rates at this time. This paper presents a method that can be used for the rapid assessment of hazardous waste generation. A first approximation of hazardous waste generation is produced for maquiladoras in the three municipalities of Nogales, Sonora, Mexicali, Baja California, and Cd. Juarez, Chihuahua, using the INVENT model developed by the World Bank. In addition, our intent is to evaluate the potential of the INVENT model for adaptation to the US/Mexico border industrial situation. The press of border industrial development, especially with the recent adoption of the NAFTA, make such assessments necessary as a basis for the environmental policy formulation and management needed in the immediate future.

  8. Drinking water intake and source patterns within a US-Mexico border population.

    PubMed

    Regnier, Adam; Gurian, Patrick; Mena, Kristina D

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to identify water intake and source patterns among a population that resides in a hot, arid region on the US-Mexico border. A cross-sectional community-based survey was conducted among households in the neighbouring cities of El Paso, TX, USA and Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico to obtain data on the quantity and source of water consumed. The study was also designed to identify factors that impact water consumption patterns, including gender, demographics, socio-economic status, cultural characteristics, health status, types of occupations and residences, available water sources and outdoor temperature, among many others. Of all factors studied, outdoor air temperature was found to have the strongest impact upon water intake quantity. Specifically, among the survey participants, when the outdoor air temperature exceeded 90 °F, water consumption increased by 28 %. Additionally, it was found that participants in this region consumed approximately 50 % more water than the values reported in previous studies.

  9. Occurrence and treatment of arsenic in groundwater and soil in northern Mexico and southwestern USA.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Lucy Mar; Gutiérrez, Mélida; Alarcón-Herrera, Maria Teresa; Villalba, Maria de Lourdes; Deng, Shuguang

    2011-04-01

    This review focuses on the occurrence and treatment of arsenic (As) in the arid region of northern Mexico (states of Chihuahua and Coahuila) and bordering states of the southwestern US (New Mexico, Arizona, and Texas), an area known for having high As concentrations. Information assembled and assessed includes the content and probable source of As in water, soil, and sediments and treatment methods that have been applied in the area. High As concentrations were found mainly in groundwater, their source being mostly from natural origin related to volcanic processes with significant anthropogenic contributions near mining and smelting of ores containing arsenic. The affinity of As for solid phases in alkaline conditions common to arid areas precludes it from being present in surface waters, accumulating instead in sediments and shifting its threat to its potential remobilization in reservoir sediments and irrigation waterways. Factors such as oxidation and pH that affect the mobility of As in the subsurface environment are mentioned. Independent of socio-demographic variables, nutritional status, and levels of blood lead, cognitive development in children is being affected when exposed to As. Treatments known to effectively reduce As content to safe drinking water levels as well as those that are capable of reducing As content in soils are discussed. Besides conventional methods, emergent technologies, such as phytoremediation, offer a viable solution to As contamination in drinking water.

  10. Joint air pollution sampling program in twin cities on the U.S.-Mexico border.

    PubMed

    Dávila, G H

    1976-01-01

    Ciudad Juárez (Chihuahua) and El Paso (Texas), two cities on the U.S.-Mexico border, form a single environmental system in which the same natural resources, especially air and water, are shared. It also constitutes a single metropolitan area which is characterized by high rates of pipulation growth, economic development, and urban expansion, all these factors mitigating against air quality. Early in 1972 the health authorities in El Paso and Ciudad Juárez initiated a joint air pollution sampling program with assistance from the Pan American Health Organization. The nearby city of Las Cruces (New Mexico) was later included in the program as well. Activities are carried out in accordance with a document entitled "Bases of Cooperation." The guiding criteria of the program are: functional simplicity, operational economy, and complementarity with other sampling programs conducted by the participating services. An Air Pollution Control Subcommittee is responsible for execution coordination of the program. Three studies are currently underway to determine levels of dust pollution in the air. A fourth study is aimed at measuring sulfur dioxide levels through the use of sulfation plates. The results collected reveal concentrations of particulates in the ambient air levels higher than the U.S. Federal primary standards. The program should be expanded to include the study of other pollutants and a joint inventory of emissions. In this way criteria on air quality may be established and joint plans of action and strategies drawn up for the control of air pollution in this important area.

  11. Psychology in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Eleonora Rubio

    2011-01-01

    The first formal psychology course taught in Mexico was in 1896 at Mexico's National University; today, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM in Spanish). The modern psychology from Europe and the US in the late 19th century were the primary influences of Mexican psychology, as well as psychoanalysis and both clinical and experimental…

  12. Religious Syncretism in Mexico. Project Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhea, David

    This document is an outline for a three-week unit of study focusing on religious syncretism in Mexico as part of a community college course in comparative religions or philosophy of religion. While this outline is intended to give information and direction to the instructor wishing to use Mexico as an example of religious syncretism, unit goals…

  13. 78 FR 31519 - Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC697 Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council... Mexico Fishery Management Council will convene a meeting of the Coastal Migratory Pelagics (CMP) Advisory... posted to the Gulf Council's Web site. Council address: Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council,...

  14. 77 FR 41376 - Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings...), Commerce. ACTION: Council to convene public meetings. SUMMARY: The Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management... Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council's Web site at www.gulfcouncil.org for instructions....

  15. 76 FR 81480 - Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA908 Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Council to convene public meeting. SUMMARY: The Gulf of Mexico Fishery.... Please go to the Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council's Web site at www.gulfcouncil.org...

  16. Comparison of vertebral δ13C and δ15N records with organism-based isoscapes to identify fish migration, site fidelity and food-web preferences of fishes in the eastern Gulf of Mexico, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radabaugh, K. R.; Wallace, A. A.; Huelster, S. A.; Hollander, D. J.; Peebles, E. B.

    2011-12-01

    Geographic variation in stable isotopic composition of dissolved and particulate nitrogen and carbon enables the use of stable isotopes as endogenous markers to track the origin and migration of motile marine species. Variation in river discharge, the light environment, and biological activity result in δ13C and δ15N spatial heterogeneity within coastal marine food webs. SEAMAP (Southeast Area Monitoring and Assessment Program) groundfish surveys at more than 130 locations were used to acquire samples from >1,600 samples of fish muscle and primary producers for bulk δ13C and δ15N analysis, allowing the creation of isoscapes for the West Florida Shelf (eastern Gulf of Mexico, USA). The δ15N isoscapes exhibited strong latitudinal and longitudinal isotopic gradients for all fish species examined, with high interannual and seasonal stability. δ15N was 3-4 % higher in the northwest region of the study compared to the southeast for both Syacium papillosum (dusky flounder) and Synodus foetens (inshore lizardfish). Low individual variability in δ15N values revealed strong site fidelities for these trawl-caught fishes. δ13C isoscapes exhibited depth gradients with greater seasonal and interannual variability. This study assesses the utility of combining isotopic analyses of fish vertebrae with organism-based isoscapes to investigate the migration routes of individual fishes. Unlike muscle isotopes that provide an integrated perspective of recent spatial and temporal environmental variation (at a scale dependent on muscle turnover rates), analysis of δ13C and δ15N along the growth radii of fish vertebrae enables chronological reconstruction of individual histories. When corrected for trophic level and metabolic fractionation, comparison of isotopic life history to the established isoscapes may enable reconstruction of migration routes and changing food-web positions of commercial and recreational fisheries species.

  17. Site clearance working group

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana continue to be areas with a high level of facility removal, and the pace of removal is projected to increase. Regulations were promulgated for the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana requiring that abandoned sites be cleared of debris that could interfere with fishing and shrimping activities. The site clearance regulations also required verification that the sites were clear. Additionally, government programs were established to compensate fishermen for losses associated with snagging their equipment on oil and gas related objects that remained on the water bottoms in areas other than active producing sites and sites that had been verified as clear of obstructions and snags. The oil and gas industry funds the compensation programs. This paper reviews the regulations and evolving operating practices in the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana where site clearance and fisherman`s gear compensation regulations have been in place for a number of years. Although regulations and guidelines may be in place elsewhere in the world, this paper focuses on the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana. Workshop participants are encouraged to bring up international issues during the course of the workshop. Additionally, this paper raises questions and focuses on issues that are of concern to the various Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana water surface and water bottom stakeholders. This paper does not have answers to the questions or issues. During the workshop participants will debate the questions and issues in an attempt to develop consensus opinions and/or make suggestions that can be provided to the appropriate organizations, both private and government, for possible future research or policy adjustments. Site clearance and facility removal are different activities. Facility removal deals with removal of the structures used to produce oil and gas including platforms, wells, casing, piles, pipelines, well protection structures, etc.

  18. Analysis of the magnitude and frequency of the 4-day annual low flow and regression equations for estimating the 4-day, 3-year low-flow frequency at ungaged sites on unregulated streams in New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waltemeyer, Scott D.

    2002-01-01

    Two regression equations were developed for estimating the 4- day, 3-year (4Q3) low-flow frequency at ungaged sites on unregulated streams in New Mexico. The first, a statewide equation for estimating the 4Q3 low-flow frequency from drainage area and average basin mean winter precipitation, was developed from the data for 50 streamflow-gaging stations that had non-zero 4Q3 low-flow frequency. The 4Q3 low-flow frequency for the 50 gaging stations ranged from 0.08 to 18.7 cubic feet per second. For this statewide equation, the average standard error of estimate was 126 percent and the coefficient of determination was 0.48. The second, an equation for estimating the 4Q3 low-flow frequency in mountainous regions from drainage area, average basin mean winter precipitation, and average basin slope, was developed from the data for 40 gaging stations located above 7,500 feet in elevation. For this regression equation, the average standard error of estimate was 94 percent and the coefficient of determination was 0.66. A U.S. Geological Survey computer-program interface for a geographical information system (GIS), called the GIS Weasel, was used to determine basin and climatic characteristics for 84 gaging stations that were not affected by regulation. Mean monthly precipitation estimates from 1961 to 1990 were used in the GIS Weasel to compute the climatic characteristics of average basin winter precipitation and annual mean precipitation. The U.S. Geological Survey National Elevation Dataset, which currently consists of the 7.5-minute, 30-meter digital elevation model for each State, was used in the GIS Weasel to compute the basin characteristics of drainage area, average basin slope, average basin elevation, and average basin aspect. Basin and climatic characteristics that were statistically significant in the regression equation with the 4Q3 low-flow frequency were drainage area, which ranged from 1.62 to 5,900 square miles; average basin mean winter precipitation, which

  19. Decision support model for evaluating biofuel development along the U.S.-Mexico border.

    SciTech Connect

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Correa, Alberto; Maxwell, Paul; Malczynski, Leonard A.

    2010-04-01

    Recently, Sandia National Laboratories and General Motors cooperated on the development of the Biofuels Deployment Model (BDM) to assess the feasibility, implications, limitations, and enablers of producing 90 billion gallons of ethanol per year by 2030. Leveraging the past investment, a decision support model based on the BDM is being developed to assist investors, entrepreneurs, and decision makers in evaluating the costs and benefits associated with biofuels development in the U.S.-Mexico border region. Specifically, the model is designed to assist investors and entrepreneurs in assessing the risks and opportunities associated with alternative biofuels development strategies along the U.S.-Mexico border, as well as, assist local and regional decision makers in understanding the tradeoffs such development poses to their communities. The decision support model is developed in a system dynamics framework utilizing a modular architecture that integrates the key systems of feedstock production, transportation, and conversion. The model adopts a 30-year planning horizon, operating on an annual time step. Spatially the model is disaggregated at the county level on the U.S. side of the border and at the municipos level on the Mexican side. The model extent includes Luna, Hildalgo, Dona Anna, and Otero counties in New Mexico, El Paso and Hudspeth counties in Texas, and the four munipos along the U.S. border in Chihuahua. The model considers a variety of feedstocks; specifically, algae, gitropha, castor oil, and agricultural waste products from chili and pecans - identifying suitable lands for these feedstocks, possible yields, and required water use. The model also evaluates the carbon balance for each crop and provides insight into production costs including labor demands. Finally, the model is fitted with an interactive user interface comprised of a variety of controls (e.g., slider bars, radio buttons), descriptive text, and output graphics allowing stakeholders to

  20. Sierra Madre Oriental, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This view of the Sierra Madre Oriental, Mexico (26.5N, 102.0W) west of Monclova, shows a mining region of northern Mexico. Mine tailings can be seen on the mountain slopes and in the valley floor. In addition to mining activity, several irrigated agricultural areas supporting the local communities can be seen in the area.

  1. Gulf of Mexico

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... article title:  Continued Spread of Gulf of Mexico Oil Slick       View Larger ... on NASA's Terra spacecraft passed over the Deepwater Horizon oil slick in the Gulf of Mexico on May 8, 2010, at approximately 16:50 UTC ...

  2. 77 FR 29683 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Consolidated Central Gulf of Mexico Planning Area Sale; 216/222

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Consolidated Central Gulf of Mexico... site: Gulf of Mexico Region Public Information Office, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, 1201 Elmwood... Gulf of Mexico (Agreement). Bidders are advised to refer to the Bids on Blocks Near...

  3. Petroleum and Mexico's future

    SciTech Connect

    Falk, P.S.

    1987-01-01

    Addressing the effects of the 1982 crisis, through the late 1980s, on Mexico's economic and political systems and assessing the country's potential for entering a period of strong economic growth, contributors to this volume focus on oil, the primary source of Mexico's foreign exchange earnings, and on trade with the U.S., the primary means for earning foreign exchange. The authors argue that the problems Mexico faced during the crisis period are not over; indeed, the most difficult challenges lie ahead. For the remainder of the century Mexico must earn adequate revenue to service a substantial debt and to permit the economy to grow at a rate that provides opportunity for a labor force already enduring a high rate of unemployment and rising inflation. Contributors agree that the key to Mexico's economic and political stability will be control of inflation, unemployment, and large public sector deficits.

  4. Mineralogical composition of the meteorite El Pozo (Mexico): a Raman, infrared and XRD study.

    PubMed

    Ostrooumov, Mikhail; Hernández-Bernal, Maria del Sol

    2011-12-01

    The Raman (RMP), infrared (IR) and XRD analysis have been applied to the examination of mineralogical composition of El Pozo meteorite (an ordinary chondrite L5 type; village Valle of Allende, founded in State of Chihuahua, Mexico: 26°56'N and 105°24'W, 1998). RMP measurements in the range of 100-3500 cm(-1) revealed principal characteristic bands of the major minerals: olivine, two polymorph modifications of pyroxene (OPx and CPx) and plagioclase. Some bands of the minor minerals (hematite and goethite) were also identified. All these minerals were clearly distinguished using IR and XRD techniques. XRD technique has shown the presence of some metallic phases such as kamacite and taenite as well as troilite and chromite. These minerals do not have characteristic Raman spectra because Fe-Ni metals have no active modes for Raman spectroscopy and troilite is a weak Raman scatterer. Raman mapping microspectroscopy was a key part in the investigation of El Pozo meteorite's spatial distribution of the main minerals because these samples are structurally and chemically complex and heterogeneous. The mineral mapping by Raman spectroscopy has provided information for a certain spatial region on which a spatial distribution coexists of the three typical mineral assemblages: olivine; olivine+orthopyroxene; and orthopyroxene.

  5. The USAID/DOE Mexico Renewable Energy Program: Using technology to build new markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanley, Charles J.

    1997-02-01

    Under the Mexico Renewable Energy Program, managed by Sandia National Laboratories, sustainable markets for renewable energy technologies are developed through the implementation of pilot projects. Sandia provides technical assistance to several Mexican rural development organizations so they can gain the technical and institutional capability to appropriately utilize renewables within their ongoing programs. Activities in the area of water pumping have shown great replication potential, where the tremendous rural demand for water represents a potential renewable market of over 2 billion. Thirty-six photovoltaic water pumping projects have been installed thus far in the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Sonora, Baja California Sur, and Quintana Roo, and 60 more will be implemented this year. The majority of these projects are in partnership with the Mexican Trust for Shared Risk (FIRCO), which has asked Sandia for assistance in extending the program nationwide. This replication is beginning in five new states, and will continue to grow. Sandia is keeping the U.S. renewable energy industry involved in the program through facilitating partnerships between U.S. and Mexican vendors, and through commercialization assistance with new systems technologies. The program is sponsored by the Department of Energy and the U.S. Agency for International Development.

  6. Faulting in eastern New Mexico: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, P.J.

    1987-08-01

    This area in eastern New Mexico is being studied because of its proximity to a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. Regional and local tectonics must be thoroughly understood in order to be able to predict future tectonic activities in the site region. Hydrogeologic studies indicate that ground-water recharge, for regional deep and shallow aquifer systems, occurs primarily within the study area. Regional, easterly ground-water flow may be significantly affected by the spacing, orientation, and character of faults identified in this report. The tectonic history of eastern New Mexico is developed from information from 660 exploratory wells. A history of recurrent tectonic movements is evident, beginning possibly in the late Precambrian and extending into the late Cenozoic. The nature of the evidence includes the lateral and vertical distribution and the lithology of these deposits. The results are presented mainly as isopach and structure contour maps and as structural cross sections. The Paleozoic tectonic history of eastern New Mexico is similar and related to the history of the Texas Panhandle. Differences occur primarily in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic histories; tectonic uplift persisted for longer periods and faults show evidence of repeated movements in eastern New Mexico. This is probably a result of the proximity of the area to the Laramide and Basin and Range deformational events. 442 refs., 35 figs.

  7. Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Project: Summary of activities

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, S.; Goldstein, S.; Dobson, P.F.; Goodell, P.; Ku, T.-L.; Abdel-Fattah, A.; Saulnier, G.; Fayek, M.; de la Garza, R.

    2011-02-01

    The inactive Nopal I uranium mine in silicic tuff north of Chihuahua City, Chihuahua, Mexico, was studied as a natural analogue for an underground nuclear-waste repository in the unsaturated zone. Site stratigraphy was confirmed from new drill cores. Data from site studies include chemical and isotopic compositions of saturated- and unsaturated-zone waters. A partial geochronology of uranium enrichment and mineralization was established. Evidence pertinent to uranium-series transport in the soil zone and changing redox conditions was collected. The investigations contributed to preliminary, scoping-level performance assessment modeling.

  8. Pena blanca natural analogue project: summary of activities

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, Schon S; Goldstein, Steven J; Abdel - Fattah, Amr I

    2010-12-08

    The inactive Nopal I uranium mine in silicic tuff north of Chihuahua City, Chihuahua, Mexico, was studied as a natural analogue for an underground nuclear-waste repository in the unsaturated zone. Site stratigraphy was confirmed from new drill core. Datafrom site studies include chemical and isotopic compositions of saturated- and unsaturated-zone waters. A partial geochronology of uranium enrichment and mineralization was established. Evidence pertinent to uranium-series transport in the soil zone and changing redox conditions was collected. The investigations contributed to preliminary, scoping-level performance assessment modeling.

  9. Forests of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Cairns, M.A.; Dirzo, R.; Zadroga, F.

    1995-07-01

    Forest of Mexico as elsewhere provide essential goods and services for both local citizens and the international community. Benefits include climate regulation, biodiversity, and wood and nonwood products for local consumption and economic activity. Deforestation is a matter of great environmental and economic concern. This article assesses rates of deforestation, the present status of forest in Mexico, and the major factors responsible for deforestation in the tropical southeastern region.

  10. Pathogenic Landscape of Transboundary Zoonotic Diseases in the Mexico-US Border Along the Rio Grande.

    PubMed

    Esteve-Gassent, Maria Dolores; Pérez de León, Adalberto A; Romero-Salas, Dora; Feria-Arroyo, Teresa P; Patino, Ramiro; Castro-Arellano, Ivan; Gordillo-Pérez, Guadalupe; Auclair, Allan; Goolsby, John; Rodriguez-Vivas, Roger Ivan; Estrada-Franco, Jose Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Transboundary zoonotic diseases, several of which are vector borne, can maintain a dynamic focus and have pathogens circulating in geographic regions encircling multiple geopolitical boundaries. Global change is intensifying transboundary problems, including the spatial variation of the risk and incidence of zoonotic diseases. The complexity of these challenges can be greater in areas where rivers delineate international boundaries and encompass transitions between ecozones. The Rio Grande serves as a natural border between the US State of Texas and the Mexican States of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas. Not only do millions of people live in this transboundary region, but also a substantial amount of goods and people pass through it everyday. Moreover, it occurs over a region that functions as a corridor for animal migrations, and thus links the Neotropic and Nearctic biogeographic zones, with the latter being a known foci of zoonotic diseases. However, the pathogenic landscape of important zoonotic diseases in the south Texas-Mexico transboundary region remains to be fully understood. An international perspective on the interplay between disease systems, ecosystem processes, land use, and human behaviors is applied here to analyze landscape and spatial features of Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Hantavirus disease, Lyme Borreliosis, Leptospirosis, Bartonellosis, Chagas disease, human Babesiosis, and Leishmaniasis. Surveillance systems following the One Health approach with a regional perspective will help identifying opportunities to mitigate the health burden of those diseases on human and animal populations. It is proposed that the Mexico-US border along the Rio Grande region be viewed as a continuum landscape where zoonotic pathogens circulate regardless of national borders. PMID:25453027

  11. Obstetric emergencies at the United States–Mexico border crossings in El Paso, Texas

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Jill A.; Rishel, Karen; Escobedo, Miguel A.; Arellano, Danielle E.; Cunningham, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the frequency, characteristics, and patient outcomes for women who accessed Emergency Medical Services (EMS) for obstetric emergencies at the ports of entry (POE) between El Paso, Texas, United States of America, and Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico. Methods A descriptive study of women 12–49 years of age for whom an EMS ambulance was called to an El Paso POE location from December 2008–April 2011 was conducted. Women were identified through surveillance of EMS records. EMS and emergency department (ED) records were abstracted for all women through December 2009 and for women with an obstetric emergency through April 2011. For obstetric patients admitted to the hospital, additional prenatal and birth characteristics were collected. Frequencies and proportions were estimated for each variable; differences between residents of the United States and Mexico were tested. Results During December 2008–December 2009, 47.6% (68/143) of women receiving EMS assistance at an El Paso POE had an obstetric emergency, nearly 20 times the proportion for Texas overall. During December 2008–April 2011, 60.1% (66/109) of obstetric patients with ED records were admitted to hospital and 52 gave birth before discharge. Preterm birth (23.1%; No. = 12), low birth weight (9.6%; No. = 5), birth in transit (7.7%; No. = 4), and postpartum hemorrhage (5.8%; No. = 3) were common; fewer than one-half the women (46.2%; No. = 24) had evidence of prenatal care. Conclusions The high proportion of obstetric EMS transports and high prevalence of complications in this population suggest a need for binational risk reduction efforts. PMID:25915011

  12. CELT site testing program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoeck, Matthias; Erasmus, D. Andre; Djorgovski, S. George; Chanan, Gary A.; Nelson, Jerry E.

    2003-01-01

    The California Extremely Large Telescope, CELT, is a proposed 30-m telescope. Choosing the best possible site for CELT is essential in order to extract the best science from the observations and to reduce the complexity of the telescope. Site selection is therefore currently one of the most critical pacing items of the CELT project. In this paper, we first present selected results from a survey of the atmospheric transparency at optical and infrared wavelengths over the southwestern USA and northern Mexico using satellite data. Results of a similar study of South America have been reported elsewhere. These studies will serve as the pre-selection criterion of the sites at which we will perform on-site testing. We then describe the current status of on-site turbulence evaluation efforts and the future plans of the CELT site testing program.

  13. New Mexico and Cultural Pluralism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Thomas R., Jr.

    In this paper, the cultural pluralism which exists in New Mexico is discussed. Most citizens of New Mexico have been placed in 1 of 3 categories: Indians, Anglo-Americans, and Spanish Americans. Since Spanish and English are the official languages of New Mexico, making it the only officially bilingual state, the Spanish American culture is…

  14. Reflectance Measurements of Vegetation Communities in Arid Rangelands of New Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA ARS Jornada Experimental Range (Jornada) in southern New Mexico and the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge (Sevilleta) in Central New Mexico are Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) sites that provide unique opportunities to study changing rangeland communities using remote sensing techniqu...

  15. Persistent pesticides in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Albert, L A

    1996-01-01

    As part of the recent increase in the international interest in persistent organic pollutants and their environmental and health hazards, it was found that although most of them have been severely controlled in developed countries, in most developing countries--including Mexico--their import, use, and in some cases production have continued up to the present without sufficient or adequate controls. Despite the large and continuing use of persistent organic chemicals in Mexico in agriculture, public health, and industry, data on their import, production, use, disposal, and the presence of their residues in the environment, food, and human tissues are extremely scarce and widely dispersed. This review is devoted only to the use of persistent pesticides in Mexico; it is the first effort to locate, gather, and analyze this information and to summarize and discuss the past and current situation of the control of these chemicals in Mexico. This review discusses the general background for the use of these pesticides in the country, including historical development, the reasons for substitution by less persistent products in crops intended for export, and the undesirable effect of this substitution on the health of migratory agricultural workers. The current status of the legal framework for the control of pesticides in Mexico is presented with emphasis on its slow and haphazard development; the legal, technical, and administrative reasons for the insufficient enforcement and oversight of the existing regulations and standards are highlighted. The low priority of this research area for the Mexican science and technology authorities and the negative consequences of this low priority on the existence of sufficient reliable data on pesticide residues in the environment and humans in Mexico are also discussed. The available data on production and uses of persistent pesticides in Mexico are presented, and the existing information on their residues in the environment, biota

  16. Avian influenza in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, C

    2009-04-01

    The outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N2 in Mexico in 1994 led to a clear increase in biosecurity measures and improvement of intensive poultry production systems. The control and eradication measures implemented were based on active surveillance, disease detection, depopulation of infected farms and prevention of possible contacts (identified by epidemiological investigations), improvement of biosecurity measures, and restriction of the movement of live birds, poultry products, by-products and infected material. In addition, Mexico introduced a massive vaccination programme, which resulted in the eradication of HPAI in a relatively short time in two affected areas that had a high density of commercial poultry.

  17. [Dermatophytoses in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Arenas, Roberto

    2002-06-01

    The dermatophytic infections are superficial mycoses common in Mexico, they have an estimated frequency of 5% in dermatological outpatients. In this review we present a global view of these mycoses as well as their etiological agents in tinea capitis, tinea pedis, tinea corporis, tinea cruris and onychomycosis and also uncommon infections such as tinea imbricata and epidermophytosis of the diaper area. We also analyze these infections in diabetic patients, healthy carriers and dermatophytic infections in pets and laboratory animals. The most important publications about dermatophytosis in Mexico in the dermatological, epidemiological or mycological area are reviewed, specially those published in the last ten years.

  18. Characterization of Archaeological Sediments Using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and Portable X-ray Fluorescence (pXRF): An Application to Formative Period Pyro-Industrial Sites in Pacific Coastal Southern Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Neff, Hector; Bigney, Scott J; Sakai, Sachiko; Burger, Paul R; Garfin, Timothy; George, Richard G; Culleton, Brendan J; Kennett, Douglas J

    2016-01-01

    Archaeological sediments from mounds within the mangrove zone of far-southern Pacific coastal Chiapas, Mexico, are characterized in order to test the hypothesis that specialized pyro-technological activities of the region's prehistoric inhabitants (salt and ceramic production) created the accumulations visible today. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is used to characterize sediment mineralogy, while portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) is used to determine elemental concentrations. Elemental characterization of natural sediments by both instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and pXRF also contribute to understanding of processes that created the archaeological deposits. Radiocarbon dates combined with typological analysis of ceramics indicate that pyro-industrial activity in the mangrove zone peaked during the Late Formative and Terminal Formative periods, when population and monumental activity on the coastal plain and piedmont were also at their peaks. PMID:26767637

  19. Burn site groundwater interim measures work plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Witt, Jonathan L.; Hall, Kevin A.

    2005-05-01

    This Work Plan identifies and outlines interim measures to address nitrate contamination in groundwater at the Burn Site, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. The New Mexico Environment Department has required implementation of interim measures for nitrate-contaminated groundwater at the Burn Site. The purpose of interim measures is to prevent human or environmental exposure to nitrate-contaminated groundwater originating from the Burn Site. This Work Plan details a summary of current information about the Burn Site, interim measures activities for stabilization, and project management responsibilities to accomplish this purpose.

  20. Mexico--The Past, Present, and Future of Mexico: Democracy and Economic Sustainable Development. Curriculum Projects. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2002 (Mexico).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausler, Mary

    This curriculum project compares Mexican society with the U.S. society. The project takes 4 weeks for classroom implementation, and different concepts are covered each week. A detailed step-by-step procedure is provided for the teacher to follow with 13 suggestions for projects about Mexico. Web sites are identified that offer specific information…

  1. Mexico: Country Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFerren, Margaret

    A survey of the status of language usage in Mexico begins with an overview of language distribution among the population, mono- and multilingualism, changes in patterns of usage between the 1970 and 1980 censuses, and linguistic issues related to assimilation of the Indian population and the role and philosophy of the Instituto Nacional…

  2. Many Faces of Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Octavio Madigan; And Others

    This resource book braids together the cultural, political and economic realities which together shape Mexican history. The guiding question for the book is that of: "What do we need to know about Mexico's past in order to understand its present and future?" To address the question, the interdisciplinary resource book addresses key themes…

  3. Christmas in Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern County Superintendent of Schools, Bakersfield, CA.

    The Christmas season in Mexico starts on December 16 with "las posadas," a series of religious processions in which families or neighbors reenact Joseph's search for shelter for Mary en route to Bethlehem. Those representing pilgrims travel from home to home until they are finally accepted by those representing innkeepers at a home with a…

  4. Child Care in Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Clotilde Juarez

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the following issues pertaining to Mexican child care: history of child care in Mexico; prevalence of child care in the national system; other agencies providing child care and the nature of their services; extent to which working families use child care; circumstances requiring day care; licensing, accreditation, and quality standards;…

  5. Indians of New Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The booklet gives a general introduction to American Indians in New Mexico. Covering historical background and present status, reports are given for these tribes: the 19 Pueblos (i.e., Acoma, Cochiti, Isleta, Jemez, Laguna, and Zuni), the Jicarilla and Mescalero Apaches, and the Navajos. Also included are 26 places of interest such as Acoma…

  6. Sierra University in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celis, Francisco Manuel Orozco

    2003-01-01

    Sierra University was designed to promote the development of the mountain communities in the State of Sonora, Mexico. The university offers high school graduates an opportunity to pursue their studies in their home region, in order to stimulate economic development and contribute to social cohesion in the highlands area. The university is equipped…

  7. The Art of Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saccardi, Marianne

    1997-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of books for grades K and up which explores the folklore, poetry, fiction, and art of Mexico, and focuses on the Mayans and Aztecs and Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo. Also suggests various research, reading, drama, music, social studies, physical education, and art activities and lists related videos and Internet…

  8. Broadcasting in Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Noriega, Luis Antonio; Leach, Frances

    This monograph traces the growth of Mexico's broadcasting services against the background of that country's geographical, cultural, demographic, economic, and political structures. Specific areas dealt with within the six chapters of the monograph are: (1) the national environment for broadcasting; (2) the advent and development of broadcasting in…

  9. [Food security in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Urquía-Fernández, Nuria

    2014-01-01

    An overview of food security and nutrition in Mexico is presented, based on the analysis of the four pillars of food security: availability, access, utilization of food, and stability of the food supply. In addition, the two faces of malnutrition in Mexico were analyzed: obesity and undernourishment. Data were gathered from the food security indicators of the United Nations's Food and Agriculture Organization, from the Mexican Scale of Food Security, and from the National Health and Nutrition Survey. Mexico presents an index of availability of 3 145 kilocalories per person per day, one of the highest indexes in the world, including both food production and imports. In contrast, Mexico is affected by a double burden of malnutrition: whereas children under five present 14% of stunt, 30% of the adult population is obese. Also, more than 18% of the population cannot afford the basic food basket (food poverty). Using perception surveys, people reports important levels of food insecurity, which concentrates in seven states of the Mexican Federation. The production structure underlying these indicators shows a very heterogeneous landscape, which translates in to a low productivity growth across the last years. Food security being a multidimensional concept, to ensure food security for the Mexican population requires a revision and redesign of public productive and social policies, placing a particular focus on strengthening the mechanisms of institutional governance. PMID:25649459

  10. Workforce: New Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    In New Mexico, the demand for well-educated employees will only increase over the next several years. In the decade leading up to 2012, healthcare occupations will see growth of 32 percent. Teachers will be in high demand: nearly 12,380 educators (including librarians) will need to be hired. Managers will see their ranks swell by 21 percent; when…

  11. Real lives 3: Mexico.

    PubMed

    Werner, L

    1994-01-01

    Mexico City's earthquake of September 1985 killed 7000 people and destroyed tens of thousands of inner-city low-income housing units. It also spurred the growth of squatter settlements at the urban edge of the city. Dario Martinez is one such settlement, a colonia populare, to the city's south-east, just inside the federal district state of Mexico. Smoke pollution, garbage, open sewers, and industrial encroachment are typical for squatter settlements on the periphery. Even so, and despite the comparative lack of economic opportunity forcing people to commute to the city center for employment, the physical quality of life is better that what poor families can find further into the city. Residents in Mexico City are often told not to breathe when they go outside. The most common cause of urban flight in Mexico is therefore to escape the unhealthy environment. There are few urban services in the periphery such as electricity and piped water, but people do not suffer the problems of overcrowding, air pollution, chronic water shortages, and earthquake dangers.

  12. [Food security in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Urquía-Fernández, Nuria

    2014-01-01

    An overview of food security and nutrition in Mexico is presented, based on the analysis of the four pillars of food security: availability, access, utilization of food, and stability of the food supply. In addition, the two faces of malnutrition in Mexico were analyzed: obesity and undernourishment. Data were gathered from the food security indicators of the United Nations's Food and Agriculture Organization, from the Mexican Scale of Food Security, and from the National Health and Nutrition Survey. Mexico presents an index of availability of 3 145 kilocalories per person per day, one of the highest indexes in the world, including both food production and imports. In contrast, Mexico is affected by a double burden of malnutrition: whereas children under five present 14% of stunt, 30% of the adult population is obese. Also, more than 18% of the population cannot afford the basic food basket (food poverty). Using perception surveys, people reports important levels of food insecurity, which concentrates in seven states of the Mexican Federation. The production structure underlying these indicators shows a very heterogeneous landscape, which translates in to a low productivity growth across the last years. Food security being a multidimensional concept, to ensure food security for the Mexican population requires a revision and redesign of public productive and social policies, placing a particular focus on strengthening the mechanisms of institutional governance.

  13. Using evidence on violence and injury prevention for policy development and decision making in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Luis Alberto; Pacheco, Sergio; Juárez, Alethia Yurithzi; Palacios, Luis Alexandro; Cerqueira, Maria Teresa

    2012-05-01

    This report describes the implementation process and functional structure of the Observatory of Security and Citizen Conviviality of the Juarez Municipality (Observatorio de Seguridad y Convivencia Ciudadanas del Municipio de Juárez) in Chihuahua, Mexico, and discusses the most relevant lessons learned and main challenges in the near future. The Observatory, created in 2008, is a joint effort of the Juarez Municipal Government, Autonomous University of Ciudad Juarez (Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez), and the Pan American Health Organization. The Observatory's main objective is to propose strategies and public policy recommendations to prevent and control violence and injuries in the Juarez Municipality. Most key federal, state, and local agencies have joined this independent autonomous citizen-based initiative, feed the databases, and benefit from the information produced by a multisectoral, multidisciplinary approach. The Observatory contributes far more than the technical data provided and its facilitating functions. The clear results obtained in such a short time-as seen in the preliminary results of the case study on road injuries from January 2009 to July 2011-demonstrate the appropriateness of this course of action and should stimulate the creation of new observatories whenever and wherever needed. Lessons learned, as discussed here, can open the way to new endeavors, and current challenges show how much work remains to be done.

  14. PHASE ANALYSES OF URANIUM-BEARING MINERALS FROM THE HIGH GRADE ORE, NOPAL I, PENA BLANCA, MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    M. Ren; P. Goodell; A. Kelts; E.Y. Anthony; M. Fayek; C. Fan; C. Beshears

    2005-07-11

    The Nopal I uranium deposit is located in the Pena Blanca district, approximately 40 miles north of Chihuahua City, Mexico. The deposit was formed by hydrothermal processes within the fracture zone of welded silicic volcanic tuff. The ages of volcanic formations are between 35 to 44 m.y. and there was secondary silicification of most of the formations. After the formation of at least part of the uranium deposit, the ore body was uplifted above the water table and is presently exposed at the surface. Detailed petrographic characterization, electron microprobe backscatter electron (BSE) imagery, and selected x-ray maps for the samples from Nopal I high-grade ore document different uranium phases in the ore. There are at least two stages of uranium precipitation. A small amount of uraninite is encapsulated in silica. Hexavalent uranium may also have been a primary precipitant. The uranium phases were precipitated along cleavages of feldspars, and along fractures in the tuff. Energy dispersive spectrometer data and x-ray maps suggest that the major uranium phases are uranophane and weeksite. Substitutions of Ca and K occur in both phases, implying that conditions were variable during the mineralization/alteration process, and that compositions of the original minerals have a major influence on later stage alteration. Continued study is needed to fully characterize uranium behavior in these semi-arid to arid conditions.

  15. Intermediate photovoltaic system application experiment operational performance report, for Lovington Square Shopping Center, Lovington, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-07-01

    Presented are the data accumulated during April 1982 at the photovoltaic project site at the Lovington Square Shopping Center, Lovington, New Mexico. Generated power and environmental (weather) data are presented graphically. Explanations of irregularities not attributable to weather are provided.

  16. BIOGEOGRAPHY OF BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATES IN ESTUARIES ALONG THE GULF OF MEXICO AND WESTERN ATLANTIC COASTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The community composition of benthic macroinvertebrates from 870 estuarine sites was examined to determine boundaries of biogeographical provinces along the Gulf of Mexico and western Atlantic coasts of the United States. Our objective was to confirm or challenge established boun...

  17. Orientational data on the state of stress in northeastern Mexico as inferred from stress-induced borehole elongations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suter, Max

    1987-03-01

    Preferential elongation directions are presented from 46 subvertical wells in northeastern Mexico from depth intervals ranging from 161 to 4,912 m. The measurements document a remarkably consistent west-east to northwest-southeast direction of the contemporary least horizontal stress in the upper crust of this intraplate region. In the regional neotectonic framework, the data suggest that Mexico north of the trans-Mexican volcanic belt is being stretched in west-east to northwest-southeast direction. The measurements from the area of the Laramide Chihuahua and Coahuila fold-thrust belts define the southern extend of the Basin and Range—Rio Grande rift stress province of the southwestern United States into northern Mexico. The least horizontal in situ stress directions recorded in the Gulf Coastal Plain (Burgos and Tampico-Misantla Basins) are oblique to the continental margin of the Gulf of Mexico, but subparallel to the direction measured in the area of the Basin and Range—Rio Grande rift stress province. This suggests that the stress distribution in these basins is not mainly the result of gravitational loading as in the Gulf Coast stress province of the United States, but is controlled by the same lithospheric stress system that characterizes the Basin and Range—Rio Grande rift stress province. This is also supported by the north-south trending zone of Oligocene-Quaternary alkaline volcanism that crosses the Tampico-Misantla Basin. Furthermore, the data indicate that the active deformation of the Mexican Ridges fold belt, east of the study area in the Gulf of Mexico cannot be caused by a compressional external tectonic load. The direction of the least horizontal in situ stress measured in the area of the Laramide Sierra Madre Oriental fold-thrust belt in Hidalgo and San Luis Potosí States is consistent with that of the other zones. However, wellbore elongations were recorded less frequently and show a rather large circular variance, which suggests that

  18. Paleomagnetic results from northeastern Mexico: Evidence for large Mesozoic rotations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gose, Wulf A.; Belcher, Robert C.; Scott, Gary R.

    1982-01-01

    Preliminary paleomagnetic evidence indicates that a significant part of Mexico rotated 130° counterclockwise during early Mesozoic time, coeval with the opening of the Gulf of Mexico, and that a major structural discontinuity must exist between Mexico and cratonic North America. Measurements made on samples from fourteen isolated outcrops of the Huizachal Group, a red-bed sequence exposed in northeastern Mexico indicate that these sediments were deposited in rifted basins and could range in age from post Middle Permian to pre Early Cretaceous. Of samples analyzed from the overlying Zuloaga Limestone (Oxfordian) and the Cuesta del Cura Formation (Aptian-Albian), the oldest yield a paleomagnetic pole position that implies that the sampling area was originally oriented about 130° clockwise relative to stable North America. Progressive counterclockwise rotation continued to Middle Jurassic time. Because of the limited geographical distribution of sampling sites, it is not possible to assess whether most of Mexico shared this rotation or whether the proposed left-lateral motion along major west-northwest trending faults caused the rotation of a smaller crustal block. In either case, our results strongly suggest a major structural discontinuity in northern Mexico. *Present address: Mobil Research and Development Corp., Field Research Laboratory, Dallas, Texas 75221

  19. Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in human blood samples from Mexico City, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Orta-García, Sandra; Pérez-Vázquez, Francisco; González-Vega, Carolina; Varela-Silva, José Antonio; Hernández-González, Lidia; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván

    2014-02-15

    Studies in Mexico have demonstrated exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in people living in different sites through the country. However, studies evaluating exposure to POPs in people living in Mexico City (one of most contaminated places in the world) are scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolite dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) in the blood as exposure biomarkers in people living in Mexico City. A total of 123 participants (blood donors aged 20-60 years) were recruited during 2010 in Mexico City. Quantitative analyses of blood samples were performed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Levels of the assessed compounds ranged from non-detectable (

  20. Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in human blood samples from Mexico City, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Orta-García, Sandra; Pérez-Vázquez, Francisco; González-Vega, Carolina; Varela-Silva, José Antonio; Hernández-González, Lidia; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván

    2014-02-15

    Studies in Mexico have demonstrated exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in people living in different sites through the country. However, studies evaluating exposure to POPs in people living in Mexico City (one of most contaminated places in the world) are scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolite dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) in the blood as exposure biomarkers in people living in Mexico City. A total of 123 participants (blood donors aged 20-60 years) were recruited during 2010 in Mexico City. Quantitative analyses of blood samples were performed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Levels of the assessed compounds ranged from non-detectable (

  1. Measurements of VOCs in Mexico City during the MILAGRO Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A. K.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Blake, N. J.; Meinardi, S.; Atlas, E.; Rowland, F.; Blake, D. R.

    2006-12-01

    During March of 2006 we participated in MILAGRO (Megacities Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations), a multi-platform campaign to measure pollutants in and in outflow from the Mexico City metropolitan area. As part of MILAGRO we collected whole air canister samples at two Mexico City ground sites: the Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, located in the city, northeast of the center, and the Universidad Technologica de Tecamac, a suburban site approximately 50 km northeast of the city center. Samples were also collected in various other locations throughout Mexico City. Over 300 whole air samples were collected and analyzed for a wide range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including methane, carbon monoxide, nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and halocarbons. Propane was the most abundant NMHC at both the urban and suburban locations, with mixing ratios frequently in excess of 10 parts per billion at both locations. This is likely the result of the widespread use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) of which propane is the major component. For most species, median mixing ratios at the urban sites were significantly greater than at the suburban site. Here we compare results from both urban and suburban locations and also examine the influence of transport on the composition of outflow from Mexico City.

  2. Tlaltelolco: The Grammatical-Rhetorical Indios of Colonial Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The force of the grammar-rhetoric-composition program at the Colegio de Santa Cruz de Tlatelolco, a sixteenth-century institution of higher education for sons of the indigenous elite located in one of two large barrios in the valley of Mexico, is measured. Tlaltelolco is a composition-rhetoric site designed for those perceived as needing…

  3. OSL age and stratigraphy of the Strauss sand sheet in New Mexico, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Stephen A.; Goble, Ronald J.

    2015-07-01

    The Strauss sand sheet occurs in south-central New Mexico, USA, and northern Chihuahua, Mexico, covering an area of about 4740 km2. Its chronology is determined by 19 OSL ages. The sand sheet formed primarily during three phases of eolian deflation and deposition, each phase with a separate sand source and under different climatic and environmental circumstances. The first phase of eolian sedimentation occurred 45 to 15 ka with the deposition of unit 1. The sand source for the first phase was beach-related features along the eastern shoreline of pluvial Lake Palomas in Mexico. The glacial-age climate was cool, wet, and windy because of the southern path of the jet stream at that time. After 15 ka, with the onset of warmer conditions of the Bølling-Allerød, the shutting down of the Palomas sand source, and wet conditions of the Younger Dryas, the sand sheet stabilized with weak soil development in unit 1. By 11 ka, the climate shifted to Holocene drying conditions and the second phase of sand accumulation began, forming unit 2; the sand source was the local deflation of the previously deposited unit 1 sand. The sand sheet stabilized again by 1.9 ka with slightly wetter late Holocene climate; a weak soil formed in unit 2 sand. About A.D. 1500 and extending to about A.D. 1850 or later, an A horizon formed on the sand sheet, probably in response to a desert grassland vegetation during the period of wet climate of the Little Ice Age. In an anthropogenic third phase of eolian activity, after A.D. 1850, the vegetation was likely disturbed by overgrazing; and the unit 2 and A horizon (unit 3) sands were deflated, resulting in the deposition of a thin layer of massive eolian sand (unit 4) across the sand sheet. By about A.D. 1900 mesquite shrubs had increased in abundance; and deflated sand, largely from unit 2, began to accumulate around the shrubs, forming coppice dunes (unit 5). Mesquite coppice dunes continued to increase in number and volume during the twentieth

  4. Physical characteristics and fish assemblage composition at site and mesohabitat scales over a range of streamflows in the Middle Rio Grande, New Mexico, winter 2011-12, summer 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braun, Christopher L.; Pearson, Daniel K.; Porter, Michael D.; Moring, J. Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Water-quality properties were only collected during summer 2012, when low-streamflow conditions existed and water-quality properties were thought to be potentially most limiting to aquatic life. Area-weighted mean water temperatures tended to be higher at the sites that were sampled in August 2012 (25.57 degrees Celsius [°C]) compared to June 2012 (24.61 °C). The highest area-weighted mean water temperature at a given site (29.03 °C) was measured at the Lemitar site on August 7, 2012, coincident with the lowest measured discharge (4.13 cubic feet per second [ft3/s]). Area-weighted mean dissolved oxygen concentrations tended to be lower in August (7.46 milligrams per liter [mg/L]) compared to June (8.33 mg/L). The highest area-weighted mean dissolved oxygen concentration (9.13 mg/L) was measured at the Lemitar site on August 7, 2012, and the lowest area-weighted mean dissolved oxygen concentration (6.23 mg/L) was measured at the Los Padillas site on August 10, 2012. Area-weighted specific conductance in the sites upstream from La Joya did not exceed 400 microsiemens per centimeter (μS/cm) at 25 °C, whereas the area-weighted mean specific conductance at La Joya (837 μs/cm at 25 °C), Rio Salado (857 μs/cm at 25 °C), and Lemitar (1,300 μs/cm at 25 °C) were all well above the average of the area-weighted means for the 10 remaining sites (433 μs/cm at 25 °C). Lower area-weighted mean pH values were measured at the 3 sites in and near Albuquerque (La Orilla, Barelas, and Los Padillas—7.98, 8.08, and 7.81, respectively) compared to any of the 10 remaining sites, which had an overall mean pH of 8.44.

  5. Acoustics lecturing in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beristain, Sergio

    2002-11-01

    Some thirty years ago acoustics lecturing started in Mexico at the National Polytechnic Institute in Mexico City, as part of the Bachelor of Science degree in Communications and Electronics Engineering curricula, including the widest program on this field in the whole country. This program has been producing acoustics specialists ever since. Nowadays many universities and superior education institutions around the country are teaching students at the B.Sc. level and postgraduate level many topics related to acoustics, such as Architectural Acoustics, Seismology, Mechanical Vibrations, Noise Control, Audio, Audiology, Music, etc. Also many institutions have started research programs in related fields, with participation of medical doctors, psychologists, musicians, engineers, etc. Details will be given on particular topics and development.

  6. Peritoneal dialysis in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cueto-Manzano, Alfonso M

    2003-02-01

    While Mexico has the thirteenth largest economy, a large portion of the population is impoverished. About 90% of the population is Mestizo, the result of the admixture of Mexican Indians and Spaniards, with the Indigenous peoples concentrated in the southeastern region. Treatment for end-stage renal disease (estimated 268 patients per million population) is largely determined by the limited healthcare system and the individual's access to resources such as private insurance ( approximately 15%) and governmental sources ( approximately 85%). With only 5% of the gross national product spent on healthcare and most treatment providers being public health institutions that are often under severe economic restrictions, it is not surprising that many Mexican patients do not receive renal replacement therapy. Mexico uses proportionately more peritoneal dialysis than other countries; 1% of the patients are on automated peritoneal dialysis, 19% on hemodialysis and 80% on CAPD. Malnutrition and diabetes, important risk factors for poor outcome, are prevalent among the patients in CAPD programs.

  7. Dust storm, northern Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This large dust storm along the left side of the photo, covers a large portion of the state of Coahuila, Mexico (27.5N, 102.0E). The look angle of this oblique photo is from the south to the north. In the foreground is the Sierra Madre Oriental in the states Coahuila and Nuevo Leon with the Rio Grande River, Amistad Reservoir and Texas in the background.

  8. Baja California, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    An interesting view down the axis of Baja California, Mexico (26.5N, 113.0W). At the center of the Scene is Laguna Ojo de Liebre (Bay of Whales) which is a breeding area for the Pacific Grey Whale. The Sea of Cortez, also known as the Gulf of California, is to the left and the Pacific Ocean is to the right.

  9. MANZANO WILDERNESS, NEW MEXICO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maxwell, C.H.; Light, Thomas D.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey the extreme southwestern part of the Manzano Wilderness, New Mexico has a probable mineral-resource potential for the occurrence of gold. A sample from one inactive mine in this area yielded concentrations of gold and silver. Other mines and prospects and associated geologic terrane have little promise for the occurrence of additional mineral resources. No other mineral or energy resource potential was identified in the study.

  10. Baja California, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Sunglint on the surface of the Sea of Cortez near the island of Tiburon (28.5 N, 112.5W) reveals intricate patterns of internal waves under the placid surface. Mexico's state of Sonora and the Sonora Desert is on the mainland and the state of Baja California consists of the entire peninsula. The large bay on the Pacific side of Baja is Laguna Ojo de Libre (Bay of Whales) which is a breeding area for the Pacific Grey Whales.

  11. Seismology in Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lomnitz, C.

    1982-01-01

    Mexico is situated at the intersection of four major crustal Plates: the Americas Plate, the Pacific Plate, the Caribbean Plate, and the Cocos Plate. The interaction of these four plates is very complex. The pattern of earthquake risk is, therefore, among the most complicated in the world. The average release of seismic energy each is 55x1021 ergs-more than twice the figure for California. 

  12. Geophysics in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fucugauchi, J. Urrutia

    The 1986 Annual Meeting of the Union Geofisica Mexicana (UGM) was held in Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico, during November 9-15, 1986. This annual meeting provides an opportunity for the presentation and discussion of new observations, data, interpretations, etc., in the various research areas of geophysics. It is also intended to bring together geophysicists from government institutions, industry, universities, and research centers, along with researchers from other countries. Since a substantial amount of the geophysical data that is gathered in Mexico remains unpublished or is published in internal reports of restricted circulation, it is important to have such a forum for local and foreign researchers. Many U.S. research groups are presently carrying out studies in Mexico (in seismology, tectonics, economic geology, volcanology, etc.), but their participation in these annual meetings has been very limited. Thus, in addition to giving a brief account of the meeting, we would like to encourage future participation by AGU members and also to announce the availability of material published from the meetings (abstracts with program and a proceedings volume).

  13. Mexico City aerosol study

    SciTech Connect

    Falcon, Y.I. ); Ramirez, C.R. )

    1988-01-01

    Mexico City is located in a valley at high elevation (2,268 m) and is subject to atmospheric inversion related problems similar to those found in Denver, Colorado. In addition, Mexico City has a tropical climate (latitude 19{degrees} 25 minutes N), and therefore has more sunlight available for production of photochemical smog. There are approximately 9.5 million people spread in a 1,500 km{sup 2} (25 sq. mi) urban area, and more than two million automobiles (D.G.P.T. 1979) which use leaded gasoline. Furthermore, Mexico City is the principal industrial center in the country with more than 131,000 industries. The growth of the city has led to a serious air pollution problem, and there is concern over the possible pollutant effects on human health. The authors discuss work done to characterize the chemical composition of the aerosol. It is shown that many of the organic compounds which have been detected in urban aerosols are carcinogens.

  14. [Obesity in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Dávila-Torres, Javier; González-Izquierdo, José Jesús; Barrera-Cruz, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Excess body weight (overweight and obesity) is currently recognized as one of the most important challenges of public health in the world, given its size, speed of growth and the negative effect it has on the health of the population that suffers. Overweight and obesity significantly increases the risk of chronic no communicable diseases, premature mortality and the social cost of health. An estimated 90 % of cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus attributable to overweight and obesity. Today, Mexico is second global prevalence of obesity in the adult population, which is ten times higher than that of countries like Japan and Korea. With regard to children, Mexico ranks fourth worldwide obesity prevalence, behind Greece, USA and Italy. In our country, over 70 % of the adult population, between 30 and 60 years are overweight. The prevalence of overweight is higher in men than females, while the prevalence of obesity is higher in women than men. Until 2012, 26 million Mexican adults are overweight and 22 million obese, which represents a major challenge for the health sector in terms of promoting healthy lifestyles in the population and development of public policies to reverse this scenario epidemiology. Mexico needs to plan and implement strategies and action cost effective for the prevention and control of obesity of children, adolescents and adults. Global experience shows that proper care of obesity and overweight, required to formulate and coordinate multisectoral strategies and efficient for enhancing protective factors to health, particularly to modify individual behavior, family and community.

  15. WIPP site and vicinity geological field trip. A report of a field trip to the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant project in Southeastern New Mexico, June 16 to 18, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Chaturvedi, L

    1980-10-01

    The Environmental Evaluation Group is conducting an assessment of the radiological health risks to people from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. As a part of this work, EEG is making an effort to improve the understanding of those geological issues concerning the WIPP site which may affect the radiological consequences of the proposed repository. One of the important geological issues to be resolved is the timing and the nature of the dissolution processes which may have affected the WIPP site. EEG organized a two-day conference of geological scientists, on January 17-18, 1980. On the basis of the January conference and the June field trip, EEG has formed the following conclusions: (1) it has not been clearly established that the site or the surrounding area has been attacked by deep dissolution to render it unsuitable for the nuclear waste pilot repository; (2) the existence of an isolated breccia pipe at the site unaccompanied by a deep dissolution wedge, is a very remote possibility; (3) more specific information about the origin and the nature of the brine reservoirs is needed. An important question that should be resolved is whether each encounter with artesian brine represents a separate pocket or whether these occurrences are interconnected; (4) Anderson has postulated a major tectonic fault or a fracture system at the Basin margin along the San Simon Swale; (5) the area in the northern part of the WIPP site, identified from geophysical and bore hole data as the disturbed zone, should be further investigated to cleary understand the nature and significance of this structural anomaly; and (6) a major drawback encountered during the discussions of geological issues related to the WIPP site is the absence of published material that brings together all the known information related to a particular issue.

  16. Northern New Mexico regional airport market feasibility

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, R.H.; Williams, D.S.

    1998-06-01

    This report is about the market for airline travel in northern New Mexico. Interest in developing a northern New Mexico regional airport has periodically surfaced for a number of years. The New Mexico State Legislature passed a memorial during the 1998 Second Session calling for the conduct of a study to determine the feasibility of building a new regional airport in NNM. This report is a study of the passenger market feasibility of such an airport. In addition to commercial passenger market feasibility, there are other feasibility issues dealing with siting, environmental impact, noise, economic impact, intermodal transportation integration, region-wide transportation services, airport engineering requirements, and others. These other feasibility issues are not analyzed in any depth in this report although none were discovered to be show-stoppers as a by-product of the authors doing research on the passenger market itself. Preceding the need for a detailed study of these other issues is the determination of the basic market need for an airport with regular commercial airline service in the first place. This report is restricted to an in-depth look at the market for commercial passenger air service in NNM. 20 figs., 8 tabs.

  17. Heating the New Mexico Tech Campus with geothermal energy. Final report, July 1, 1978-October 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    LeFebre, V.; Miller, A.

    1980-01-01

    An area between the base of Socorro Peak and the New Mexico Tech Campus (located in central New Mexico) has been proposed as a site for geothermal exploratory drilling. The existing site environment is summarized, a program for site monitoring is proposed, impacts of geothermal production and reinjection are listed, and problems associated with geothermal development are examined. The most critical environmental impact is the increased seismic activity that may be associated with geothermal fluid migration resulting from geothermal production and reinjection.

  18. Gulf of Mexico data being collected

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    This article was written to solicit information on geophysical well logs for the Gulf of Mexico which exhibited low resistivity in the reservoir. Because petroleum is normally a poor conductor of electricity, a low resistivity measurement in the reservoir will normally indicate water. However, as most petroleum geologists know, this is not always the case and should not be used as a sole decision maker in abandoning a well site. Therefore, this author solicits the readers to submit examples of pay zones in low resistivity reservoirs. The results will be published in a future text on this subject.

  19. RYAN HILL ROADLESS AREA, NEW MEXICO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maxwell, C.H.; Ellis, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a geochemical survey, the Ryan Hill Roadless Area, now the Langmuir Research Site in New Mexico has both probable and substantiated resource potential for manganese deposits. The nature of the geologic terrane holds little likelihood for the occurrence of organic fuels. Additional geochemical studies of the manganese vein systems are desirable to better delineate the resource potential; mineralogical and metallurgical studies are needed to determine recoverability of potentially important byproducts, including tungsten and cobalt. Drilling into the vein system at depth would be required to test the continuity of the manganese deposits and evaluate the resource potential of the area for deeply buried base- and precious-metal resources.

  20. Contrasting styles of Pre-Cenozoic and mid-Tertiary crustal evolution in northern Mexico: Evidence from deep crustal xenoliths from La Olivina

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, K.L.; Robinson, J.V.; Kuentz, D.C.; Collerson, K.D.; Niemeyer, S.; Harmon, R.S.; Bohlen, S.R.

    1992-11-10

    The principal deep crustal rock types found at the La Olivina xenolith locality in southeastern Chihuahua, Mexico, are mafic granulites, paragneisses, and intermediate- to silicic-composition orthogneisses. These granulite facies xenoliths are interpreted in terms of two age groups, pre-Cenozoic and mid-Tertiary, based on previous ion probe dating of zircons from the xenoliths and on isotopic comparisons of the xenoliths to rocks of known age. The mafic granulites have Pb, Nd, and Sr isotopic compositions identical to those of Oligocene volcanic rocks from the La Olivina region. Compositionally, they are olivine-normative gabbroic cumulates, and they precipitated from two or more mid-Tertiary basalt to dacite or rhyolite assimilation/fractional crystallization series. Mineral assemblages in the xenoliths record pressures of {le} 7.2 kbar or depths of < 25 km. If these are the maximum pressures the rocks experienced and if the crust was > 35 km thick in Oligocene time as inferred from regional tectonic considerations, then the mafic granulites cannot be samples of basaltic magmas underplated near the crust-mantle boundary. The cumulate protoliths for the mafic granulites probably formed in magma chambers well above the Moho. The mafic granulites are plausibly ignimbrite fields of Mexico. Pre-Cenozoic and mid-Tertiary crustal evolution followed very different paths in northern Mexico. For example, Nd isotopic evidence for crustal recycling is much more evident in rocks associated with the Paleozoic convergence than in rocks produced during mid-Tertiary magmatism. Furthermore, mafic rocks are very rare in the pre-Cenozoic xenolith suite, but they dominate the mid-Tertiary one. The rarity of pre-Cenozoic mafic xenoliths suggests that Proterozoic and Paleozoic lower crust may have delaminated in response to crustal overthickening associated with the Ouachita collision event. 97 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Mexico 1996. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1996 (Mexico).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Salvador

    This paper shares the impressions of a participant from the 1996 Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program in Mexico. These impressions address several current interest topics about international relations with Mexico including: (1) immigration; (2) politics; (3) education; (4) the economy; (5) the environment; (6) the media; (7) religion; and…

  2. Mexico: Rasgos de Su Historia. (Mexico: Highlights of Its History).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orozco, Cecilio

    Intended for both teachers and students, this publication, written in Spanish, briefly traces Mexico's history from its Conquest in 1519 to the overthrow of Porfirio Diaz in 1910. The following are briefly discussed: Mexico's Conquest in 1519; events immediately after the fall of Tenochtitlan; the War for Independence; Texas' separation from…

  3. Star parties in Mexico, extended to Colombia and China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Peimbert, Silvia; Franco, Jose

    2015-08-01

    Sparked by the enthusiasm of the International Year of Astronomy, a set of simultaneous star parties have been held since 2008 in several cities in Mexico. These star parties have raised big expectations among the population and they have been repeated at least yearly. The activity has increased in size and participating sites. The most recent one took place on November 29th 2014, and it included 55 locations across Mexico as well as 5 in Colombia and one in China. To organize this activity a Mexican National Committee was created formed by several universities, the French Embassy, related industries and astronomical societies. We present more information on this activity.

  4. KT boundary impact glasses from the Gulf of Mexico region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claeys, Philippe; Alvarez, Walter; Smit, Jan; Hildebrand, A. R.; Montanari, Alessandro

    1993-01-01

    Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary (KTB) tektite glasses occur at several sites around the Gulf of Mexico. Contrary to rumor among KTB workers, glass fragments have been found by several researchers in the base of the spherule bed at Arroyo el Mimbral in NE Mexico. The presence of green, red, and transparent glass fragments at Mimbral only, demonstrates that the Mimbral glass is not a laboratory contamination by Beloc glass. The chemistry and ages of the glass are consistent with an origin from the Chixculub impact crater in Yucatan. No evidence supports a volcanic origin for the KTB glasses. A discussion of tektite glass from the KT boundary is presented.

  5. Soil-geomorphology and “wet” cycles in the Holocene record of North-Central Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butzer, Karl W.; Abbott, James T.; Frederick, Charles D.; Lehman, Paul H.; Cordova, Carlos E.; Oswald, John F.

    2008-10-01

    The distinction between the impact of climatic periodicities or land-use practices on soil erosion is an important issue for Pre-Hispanic and Colonial Mexico. That question can best be addressed by first documenting the dynamics of changing "wet" cycles during the Holocene in the central Mexican region between the northern limits of Pre-Hispanic agriculture and its southern margins in northwestern Chihuahua. Consequently the Laguna Project targeted a 125,000 km 2 sector of North-Central Mexico, 250 km from north to south and 500 km from east to west, from Saltillo to Durango. Some 40 sedimentary profiles with multiple cumulic soils were studied in the field and laboratory, supported by 163 conventional 14C and AMS dates on charcoal and soil humates. We distinguish: (1) wet floodplains (with humic paleosols, redox phenomena reflecting high water tables, channel-ponding sequences, and interbedded tufas) that imply aquifer recharge, sustained base flow, and mainly low-energy conditions; and (2) high-energy pulses of discharge that mobilized cobble gravels or forced channel entrenchment ("gullying") and were tied to episodic, excessive rains that promoted valley and slope instability. In between such "wet" cycles and recurrent disequilibrium events, climate was similar to today, probably less humid, with limited geomorphologic change or slow soil formation. "Wet" cycles were rare at the end of the Pleistocene, but prominent during the Holocene. Disequilibrium proxies became common and dramatic after 2500 BP. The drainages from the Eastern and Western Sierra Madres responded in phase, but varied in detail. Around AD 1050-1200 "natural" erosion led to loss of soil organic carbon, as alternating severe droughts and heavy rains destroyed the ground cover and led to ecological aridification, well before arrival of Spanish miners and settlers. The evidence that human activity triggered Pre-Hispanic or Colonial erosion in Central Mexico should therefore be re

  6. "Mexico in Transition." Curriculum Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Univ., Eugene. Foreign Language Resource Center.

    These curriculum units were developed in a National Endowment for the Humanities 1994 summer seminar "Mexico in Transition." The 23 lessons are written in Spanish. Lessons are entitled: (1) "La Migracion Mexicana Vista a Traves del Cuento 'Paso del Norte' de Juan Rulfo" (Jose Jorge Armendariz); (2) "Los Grupos Indigenas de Mexico: Condiciones…

  7. Mexico: Democracy and the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruhn, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    During most of the twentieth century, Mexico was governed by one of the longest-ruling authoritarian parties in the contemporary world. Even as most Latin American countries democratized in the 1980s, Mexico remained under the control of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI). It was not until the 2000 presidential election that a two-party…

  8. The Struggle of Rural Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esteva, Gustavo; And Others

    Diverse aspects of rural problems and the social organization of Mexican labor are explored in this summary of Mexican rural history. Achnowledging Mexico's rich, unexhausted, and unexplored natural resources, Mexico is described as a poverty-stricken, hungry nation, with high degrees of malnutrition, deprivation, and illiteracy heavily…

  9. Mexico's National Educational Videoconferencing Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pisanty, Alejandro

    This paper begins with background on the National University of Mexico (UNAM) and its networks. Other distance education projects in Mexico are described, including projects of the Instituto Politecnico Nacional (IPN), the National Distance Education Program operated by the Secretary of Education, and the Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios…

  10. Mosses new to New Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A bryophyte inventory was conducted in the Valles Caldera National Preserve (VCNP), New Mexico, from 2009 to 2011. Specimens representing 113 species of bryophytes were collected. Of those bryophytes, seven of the mosses were new to New Mexico: Atrichum tenellum (Rohling) Bruch & Schimper, Dicranum ...

  11. Environmental lead in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, L.A.; Badillo, F. )

    1991-01-01

    From the data presented here, it can be concluded that environmental exposure to lead is a particularly severe problem in Mexico. As has been shown, there are very important sources of exposure to this metal: (a) for rural populations who manufacture and/or utilize lead-glazed pottery, (b) for urban populations who are exposed to high air lead concentrations due to the continued use of lead fuel additives, (c) for workers of several industries, mainly those of batteries and pigments, (d) for consumers who routinely eat canned foods such as hot peppers and fruit products, and (e) for the general population living in the vicinity of smelters, refineries and other industries that emit lead. Therefore, in Mexico only those native populations living in very primitive communities, far away from all civilized life, could be expected to be free from this exposure. At the same time, and despite the relatively few data available, it can be stated that the exposure to lead of populations in Mexico could be approaching levels that might be highly hazardous, in particular for the neuropsychological health of children. Regarding the presence of lead in the environment, despite the fact that the available studies are not enough, it is evident that pollution by this metal is widespread and that there is a serious lack of studies for most regions of the country, including several that might be expected to be highly polluted. At the same time, it is evident that the official attention paid to the problem, either in regulations, support of further studies, or implementation of effective control measures has been far from the level needed according to the available data.

  12. Ferric Tourmaline from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mason, B; Donnay, G; Hardie, L A

    1964-04-01

    Dark brown crystals, up to 10 mm long, occur in rhyolite at Mexquitic, San Luis Potosi, Mexico. They are short prismatic, showing {1120}, {3030}, {1011}, {0221}, with c/a 0.4521, measured with a goniometer, and distinct {1120} cleavage. With an unusual combination of cell dimensions, high density, high refractive indices, and extreme birefringence, this tourmaline falls outside the known elbaite-schorl and schorl-dravite series. A chemical analysis, recalculated on the basis of cell volume and density, gives close to the theoretical 150 atoms per cell, whether the iron is ferrous or ferric, but the physical properties indicate a ferric tourmaline. PMID:17729799

  13. GILA WILDERNESS, NEW MEXICO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ratte, James C.; Stotelmeyer, Ronald B.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic, geochemical and geophysical indicators delineated during a study of the Gila Wilderness, New Mexico indicate that there are areas of probable and substantiated mineral-resource potential for gold, silver, tellurium, molybdenum, copper, lead, zinc, and fluorite. The areas which have resource potential lie along both sides of the western and southwestern boundaries of the wilderness, and adjacent to the access corridor to the Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument in the eastern part of the wilderness. Areas marked by geothermal springs along Turkey Creek and Middle Fork of the Gila River have a probable potential for geothermal energy. No other energy-resource potential was identified within the study area.

  14. Ferric Tourmaline from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mason, B; Donnay, G; Hardie, L A

    1964-04-01

    Dark brown crystals, up to 10 mm long, occur in rhyolite at Mexquitic, San Luis Potosi, Mexico. They are short prismatic, showing {1120}, {3030}, {1011}, {0221}, with c/a 0.4521, measured with a goniometer, and distinct {1120} cleavage. With an unusual combination of cell dimensions, high density, high refractive indices, and extreme birefringence, this tourmaline falls outside the known elbaite-schorl and schorl-dravite series. A chemical analysis, recalculated on the basis of cell volume and density, gives close to the theoretical 150 atoms per cell, whether the iron is ferrous or ferric, but the physical properties indicate a ferric tourmaline.

  15. [Health technology in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Cruz, C; Faba, G; Martuscelli, J

    1992-01-01

    The features of the health technology cycle are presented, and the effects of the demographic, epidemiologic and economic transition on the health technology demand in Mexico are discussed. The main problems of science and technology in the context of a decreasing scientific and technological activity due to the economic crisis and the adjustment policies are also analyzed: administrative and planning problems, low impact of scientific production, limitations of the Mexican private sector, and the obstacles for technology assessment. Finally, this paper also discusses the main support strategies for science and technology implemented by the Mexican government during the 1980s and the challenges and opportunities that lie ahead.

  16. [Psychiatry in ancient Mexico].

    PubMed

    Calderón Narváez, G

    1992-12-01

    Using studies on prehispanic and early post-conquest documents of Ancient Mexico--such as the Badianus Manuscript, also known as Libellus de Medicinalibus Indorum Herbis, and Brother Bernardino de Sahagún's famous work History of the Things of the New Spain, a description of some existing medical and psychiatric problems, and treatments Ancient Aztecs resorted to, is presented. The structure of the Aztec family, their problems with the excessive ingestion of alcoholic beverages, and the punishments native authorities had implemented in order to check alcoholism up are also described. PMID:1341125

  17. Master Environmental Plan: Fort Wingate Depot Activity, Gallup, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Biang, C.A.; Yuen, C.R.; Biang, R.P.; Antonopoulos, A.A.; Ditmars, J.D.

    1990-12-01

    The master environmental plan is based on an environmental assessment of the areas requiring environmental evaluation (AREEs) at Fort Wingate Depot Activity near Gallup, New Mexico. The Fort Wingate Depot Activity is slated for closure under the Base Closure and Realignment Act, Public Law 100--526. The MEP assesses the current status, describes additional data requirements, recommends actions for the sites, and establishes a priority order for actions. The plan was developed so that actions comply with hazardous waste and water quality regulations of the State of New Mexico and applicable federal regulations. It contains a brief history of the site, relevant geological and hydrological information, and a description of the current status for each AREE along with a discussion of the available site-specific data that pertain to existing or potential contamination and the impact on the environment. 35 refs., 27 figs., 23 tabs.

  18. Microsatellites loci reveal heterozygosis and population structure in vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Romero-Nava, Claudia; León-Paniagua, Livia; Ortega, Jorge

    2014-06-01

    A limited number of studies have focused on the population genetic structure of vampire bats (Desmous rotundus) in America. This medium-sized bat is distributed in tropical areas of the continent with high prevalence in forested livestock areas. The aim of this work was to characterize the vampire population structure and their genetic differentiation. For this, we followed standard methods by which live vampires (caught by mist-netting) and preserved material from scientific collections, were obtained for a total of 15 different locations, ranging from Chihuahua (North) to Quintana Roo (Southeast). Tissue samples were obtained from both live and collected animals, and the genetic differentiation, within and among localities, was assessed by the use of seven microsatellite loci. Our results showed that all loci were polymorphic and no private alleles were detected. High levels of heterozygosis were detected when the proportion of alleles in each locus were compared. Pairwise (ST) and R(ST) detected significant genetic differentiation among individuals from different localities. Our population structure results indicate the presence of eleven clusters, with a high percentage of assigned individuals to some specific collecting site. PMID:25102648

  19. Microsatellites loci reveal heterozygosis and population structure in vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Romero-Nava, Claudia; León-Paniagua, Livia; Ortega, Jorge

    2014-06-01

    A limited number of studies have focused on the population genetic structure of vampire bats (Desmous rotundus) in America. This medium-sized bat is distributed in tropical areas of the continent with high prevalence in forested livestock areas. The aim of this work was to characterize the vampire population structure and their genetic differentiation. For this, we followed standard methods by which live vampires (caught by mist-netting) and preserved material from scientific collections, were obtained for a total of 15 different locations, ranging from Chihuahua (North) to Quintana Roo (Southeast). Tissue samples were obtained from both live and collected animals, and the genetic differentiation, within and among localities, was assessed by the use of seven microsatellite loci. Our results showed that all loci were polymorphic and no private alleles were detected. High levels of heterozygosis were detected when the proportion of alleles in each locus were compared. Pairwise (ST) and R(ST) detected significant genetic differentiation among individuals from different localities. Our population structure results indicate the presence of eleven clusters, with a high percentage of assigned individuals to some specific collecting site.

  20. Mesozoic Continental Sediment-dispersal Systems of Mexico Linked to Development of the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawton, T. F.; Molina-Garza, R. S.; Barboza-Gudiño, R.; Rogers, R. D.

    2013-05-01

    Major sediment dispersal systems on western Pangea evolved in concert with thermal uplift, rift and drift phases of the Gulf of Mexico Basin, and were influenced by development of a continental arc on Pangea's western margin. Existing literature and preliminary data from fieldwork, sandstone petrology and detrital zircon analysis reveal how major drainages in Mexico changed from Late Triassic through Late Jurassic time and offer predictions for the ultimate destinations of sand-rich detritus along the Gulf and paleo-Pacific margins. Late Triassic rivers drained away from and across the present site of the Gulf of Mexico, which was then the location of a major thermal dome, the Texas uplift of recent literature. These high-discharge rivers with relatively mature sediment composition fed a large-volume submarine fan system on the paleo-Pacific continental margin of Mexico. Predictably, detrital zircon age populations are diverse and record sources as far away as the Amazonian craton. This enormous fluvial system was cut off abruptly near the Triassic-Jurassic boundary by extensive reorganization of continental drainages. Early and Middle Jurassic drainage systems had local headwaters and deposited sediment in extensional basins associated with arc magmatism. Redbeds accumulated across northern and eastern Mexico and Chiapas in long, narrow basins whose locations and dimensions are recorded primarily by inverted antiformal massifs. The Jurassic continental successions overlie Upper Triassic strata and local subvolcanic plutons; they contain interbedded volcanic rocks and thus have been interpreted as part of the Nazas continental-margin arc. The detritus of these fluvial systems is volcanic-lithic; syndepositional grain ages are common in the detrital zircon populations, which are mixed with Oaxaquia-derived Permo-Triassic and Grenville age populations. By this time, interior Pangea no longer supplied sediment to the paleo-Pacific margin, possibly because the

  1. 21 CFR 808.81 - New Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false New Mexico. 808.81 Section 808.81 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.81 New Mexico. The following New Mexico medical device requirement is... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: New Mexico Statutes Annotated, section 67-36-16(F)....

  2. 21 CFR 808.81 - New Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false New Mexico. 808.81 Section 808.81 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.81 New Mexico. The following New Mexico medical device requirement is... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: New Mexico Statutes Annotated, section 67-36-16(F)....

  3. Terrorism in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Nordin, Yannick; Cruz-Vega, Felipe; Roman, Fernando

    2003-01-01

    Even though Mexico is considered internationally as a pacifist country, its economic, social, and geopolitical characteristics during the last half of the 20th century have resulted in internal events that can be considered acts of terrorism. Most of the acts of terrorism during the last 15 years have had to do either with political movements or drug-dealing actions. After the 11 September 2001 attacks in the United States, Mexican Health Authorities have strengthened the epidemiological surveillance system. More than 1,372 calls asking for information or reporting suspicious envelopes were received between 16 October and 21 October 2001. Following the earthquake in 1985 that caused great damage and many deaths in Mexico, the National Civil Protection System was created in 1986. This protection system is led by the President and the Secretary of Government. It was developed to improve preparedness for disaster coordination more than for terrorism responses. In addition, the emergency medical systems continue to lack organization, even though some states have shown significant progress in their emergency medical system.

  4. Atmospheric and soil-gas monitoring for surface leakage at the San Juan Basin CO{sub 2} pilot test site at Pump Canyon New Mexico, using perfluorocarbon tracers, CO{sub 2} soil-gas flux and soil-gas hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, Arthur W; Diehl, J Rodney; Strazisar, Brian R; Wilson, Thomas; H Stanko, Dennis C

    2012-05-01

    Near-surface monitoring and subsurface characterization activities were undertaken in collaboration with the Southwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership on their San Juan Basin coal-bed methane pilot test site near Navajo City, New Mexico. Nearly 18,407 short tons (1.670 × 107 kg) of CO{sub 2} were injected into 3 seams of the Fruitland coal between July 2008 and April 2009. Between September 18 and October 30, 2008, two additions of approximately 20 L each of perfluorocarbon (PFC) tracers were mixed with the CO{sub 2} at the injection wellhead. PFC tracers in soil-gas and in the atmosphere were monitored over a period of 2 years using a rectangular array of permanent installations. Additional monitors were placed near existing well bores and at other locations of potential leakage identified during the pre-injection site survey. Monitoring was conducted using sorbent containing tubes to collect any released PFC tracer from soil-gas or the atmosphere. Near-surface monitoring activities also included CO{sub 2} surface flux and carbon isotopes, soil-gas hydrocarbon levels, and electrical conductivity in the soil. The value of the PFC tracers was demonstrated when a significant leakage event was detected near an offset production well. Subsurface characterization activities, including 3D seismic interpretation and attribute analysis, were conducted to evaluate reservoir integrity and the potential that leakage of injected CO{sub 2} might occur. Leakage from the injection reservoir was not detected. PFC tracers made breakthroughs at 2 of 3 offset wells which were not otherwise directly observable in produced gases containing 20–30% CO{sub 2}. These results have aided reservoir geophysical and simulation investigations to track the underground movement of CO{sub 2}. 3D seismic analysis provided a possible interpretation for the order of appearance of tracers at production wells.

  5. Mexico Wind Resource Assessment Project

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, M.N.; Elliott, D.L.

    1995-05-01

    A preliminary wind energy resource assessment of Mexico that produced wind resource maps for both utility-scale and rural applications was undertaken as part of the Mexico-U.S. Renewable Energy Cooperation Program. This activity has provided valuable information needed to facilitate the commercialization of small wind turbines and windfarms in Mexico and to lay the groundwork for subsequent wind resource activities. A surface meteorological data set of hourly data in digital form was utilized to prepare a more detailed and accurate wind resource assessment of Mexico than otherwise would have been possible. Software was developed to perform the first ever detailed analysis of the wind characteristics data for over 150 stations in Mexico. The hourly data set was augmented with information from weather balloons (upper-air data), ship wind data from coastal areas, and summarized wind data from sources in Mexico. The various data were carefully evaluated for their usefulness in preparing the wind resource assessment. The preliminary assessment has identified many areas of good-to-excellent wind resource potential and shows that the wind resource in Mexico is considerably greater than shown in previous surveys.

  6. The Emerging HIV Epidemic on the Mexico-US Border: An International Case Study Characterizing the Role of Epidemiology in Surveillance and Response

    PubMed Central

    Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Mays, Vickie M.; Jimenez, Richard; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose HIV/AIDS surveillance data are critical for monitoring epidemic trends, but can mask dynamic sub-epidemics, especially in vulnerable populations that under-utilize HIV testing. In this case study, we describe community-based epidemiologic data among injection drug users (IDU) and female sex workers (FSWs) in two northern Mexico-US Border States that identified an emerging HIV epidemic and generated a policy response. Methods We draw from quantitative and qualitative cross-sectional and prospective epidemiologic studies and behavioral intervention studies among IDUs and FSWs in Tijuana, Baja California and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua. Results Recognition that the HIV epidemic on Mexico’s northern border was already well established in subgroups where it had been presumed to be insignificant was met with calls for action and enhanced prevention efforts from researchers, NGOs and policy makers. Conclusions Successful policies and program outcomes included expansion of needle exchange programs, a nation-wide mobile HIV prevention program targeting marginalized populations, a successful funding bid from the Global Fund for HIV, TB and Malaria to scale up targeted HIV prevention programs and the establishment of binational training programs on prevention of HIV and substance use. We discuss how epidemiologic data informed HIV prevention policies and suggest how other countries may learn from Mexico’s experience. PMID:22626001

  7. Estimation of seasonal risk caused by the intake of lead, mercury and cadmium through freshwater fish consumption from urban water reservoirs in arid areas of northern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Nevárez, Myrna; Leal, Luz O; Moreno, Myriam

    2015-02-01

    Bioavailability and hence bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish species depends on seasonal conditions causing different risks levels to human health during the lifetime. Mercury, cadmium and lead contents in fish from Chihuahua (Mexico) water reservoirs have been investigated to assess contamination levels and safety for consumers. Muscle samples of fish were collected across the seasons. Lead and cadmium were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, and mercury by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. The highest concentrations of cadmium (0.235 mg/kg), mercury (0.744 mg/kg) and lead (4.298 mg/kg) exceeded the maximum levels set by European regulations and Codex Alimentarius. Lead concentrations found in fish from three water reservoirs also surpassed the limit of 1 mg/kg established by Mexican regulations. The provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) suggested by the World Health Organization for methyl mercury (1.6 µg/kg bw per week) was exceeded in the spring season (1.94 µg/kg bw per week). This might put consumers at risk of mercury poisoning. PMID:25658686

  8. Estimation of seasonal risk caused by the intake of lead, mercury and cadmium through freshwater fish consumption from urban water reservoirs in arid areas of northern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Nevárez, Myrna; Leal, Luz O; Moreno, Myriam

    2015-02-04

    Bioavailability and hence bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish species depends on seasonal conditions causing different risks levels to human health during the lifetime. Mercury, cadmium and lead contents in fish from Chihuahua (Mexico) water reservoirs have been investigated to assess contamination levels and safety for consumers. Muscle samples of fish were collected across the seasons. Lead and cadmium were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, and mercury by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. The highest concentrations of cadmium (0.235 mg/kg), mercury (0.744 mg/kg) and lead (4.298 mg/kg) exceeded the maximum levels set by European regulations and Codex Alimentarius. Lead concentrations found in fish from three water reservoirs also surpassed the limit of 1 mg/kg established by Mexican regulations. The provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) suggested by the World Health Organization for methyl mercury (1.6 µg/kg bw per week) was exceeded in the spring season (1.94 µg/kg bw per week). This might put consumers at risk of mercury poisoning.

  9. Estimation of Seasonal Risk Caused by the Intake of Lead, Mercury and Cadmium through Freshwater Fish Consumption from Urban Water Reservoirs in Arid Areas of Northern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Nevárez, Myrna; Leal, Luz O.; Moreno, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    Bioavailability and hence bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish species depends on seasonal conditions causing different risks levels to human health during the lifetime. Mercury, cadmium and lead contents in fish from Chihuahua (Mexico) water reservoirs have been investigated to assess contamination levels and safety for consumers. Muscle samples of fish were collected across the seasons. Lead and cadmium were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, and mercury by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. The highest concentrations of cadmium (0.235 mg/kg), mercury (0.744 mg/kg) and lead (4.298 mg/kg) exceeded the maximum levels set by European regulations and Codex Alimentarius. Lead concentrations found in fish from three water reservoirs also surpassed the limit of 1 mg/kg established by Mexican regulations. The provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) suggested by the World Health Organization for methyl mercury (1.6 µg/kg bw per week) was exceeded in the spring season (1.94 µg/kg bw per week). This might put consumers at risk of mercury poisoning. PMID:25658686

  10. Mexico City, Mexico as seen from STS-62

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This image is the clearest photo of Mexico City, Mexico taken from U.S. Manned Spacecraft. North is to the upper right. Mexico City sits in a basin surrounded by large volcanoes. The restricted atmospheric circulation in the basin, coupled with the inevitable air emissions produced by a city of 20 million people has created a critical air pollution problem for the city. In most photographs of the region, Mexico City is obscured by haze. The clarity of the photograph allows many key cultural features to be identified, including all of the major boulevards, the horse track (western part of the city), the university (south of the city), and the museum areas. Large, man-made ponds east of the city also stand out.

  11. Intermediate photovoltaic system application experiment operational performance. Executive summary for Lovington Square Shopping Center, Lovington, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-07-01

    Presented are the data accumulated during April 1982 at the photovoltaic project site at the Lovington Square Shopping Center, Lovington, New Mexico. Generated power and environmental (weather) data are presented graphically. Explanations of irregularities not attributable to weather are provided.

  12. 78 FR 28289 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ...; citizen Mexico (individual) . 7. SALAZAR RAMIREZ, Jesus Alfredo (a.k.a. ``INDIO''; a.k.a. ``MUNE''); DOB 24 Mar 1974; POB Chihuahua, Mexico; citizen Mexico (individual) . 8. SOSA CANISALES, Felipe de...

  13. Rise and Demise of a Southern Laramide Hinterland Plateau, US-Mexico Border Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawton, T. F.; Clinkscales, C. A.; Jennings, G. R.

    2011-12-01

    New U-Pb geochronology and stratigraphic data sets suggest that an elevated, altiplano-like plateau existed in the backarc region of what is now southern Arizona and southern New Mexico during Late Cretaceous through Paleogene (~28 Ma) time, and indicate that the Laramide province of the US was thus flanked on both its western and southern sides by hinterland plateaus. The Laramide stratigraphic record of southwestern New Mexico and southeastern Arizona formed during a short time period spanning 75-70 Ma, as indicated by numerous, newly-dated, interbedded tuff beds. The Laramide deposits (Fort Crittenden Formation of Arizona, Ringbone and Skunk Ranch Formations of Arizona, Cabullona Group of Sonora), which contain growth strata developed adjacent to steep thrust faults, accumulated in lake and lake-margin fan-delta and alluvial-fan settings on the northern margin of a volcanic arc whose main magmatic locus lay in northeastern Sonora and northwestern Chihuahua. By the end of basin development, the arc had migrated northward to occupy the former depocenters, such that intermediate volcanic rocks interfinger with and overlie the lacustrine deposits, and subvolcanic plutons, one with an age of 69 Ma, intrude and cross-cut thrust faults. Laramide strata unconformably overlie lowermost Upper Cretaceous (~97 Ma) strata and contractional structures are unconformably truncated beneath Oligocene (~33 Ma) volcaniclastic rocks. Detritus derived from the Cretaceous arc is abundant in Campanian fluvial strata (Kaiparowits Formation and Mesaverde Group) of the southern Colorado Plateau. East-west normal faults with as much as 3 km of displacement and a related array of conjugate NW- and NE-striking normal faults, many of these previously interpreted as reverse and transcurrent faults, are widespread in ranges of southern New Mexico and southeastern Arizona. These faults post-date Laramide contractional structures and are in turn cut by Neogene N-S normal faults. The east

  14. [Necrophilous coleoptera (Scarabaeidae, Silphidae y Trogidae) of Malinalco, State of Mexico, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Trevilla-Rebollar, Antonio; Deloya, Cuauhtémoc; Padilla-Ramírez, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Collections were made during one year, between August 2005 and July 2006, in Malinalco, State of Mexico, in three sites of tropical deciduous forest, a pasture and a induced forest of pine-oak, established in a altitudinal gradient ranging from 1,253 m to 2,300 m. The total of 7,680 specimens Scarabaeidae, Silphidae and Trogidae were captured through NTP-80, representing 18 genera and 38 species. Onthophagus and Canthon contained 46% of the richness of Scarabaeidae. The more distant sites were complementary in their species composition. The lowest complementarity occurred between sites with tropical deciduous forest. It revises the material collected through pitffal traps and light traps funnel type, increasing the list of 38 to 50 species in the study area. Between 40% and 50% of the species in Malinalco are distributed in localities of the province of the basin Balsas and localities of the province of the Sierra Madre del Sur, and 30% in the localities of the province of Pacifica coast. For the first time 17 species of Scarabaeidae and three Trogidae were reported for the State of Mexico.

  15. Surgical education in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    Surgical education in Mexico basically follows the same model as in the United States, with a selection process resembling the matching program. There is a 4-year training period during which residents in their third year spend 4 months as the sole surgeon in a rural community. During the senior year they are entitled to an elective period in a place of their choosing. After completion of the 4 years, residents have to present a thesis and undergo an oral examination before getting a university diploma. They are then encouraged to pass the written and oral examination of the Mexican Board of Surgery before they are fully certified to enter practice in a public or private hospital. PMID:19603225

  16. Mexico's population policy turnaround.

    PubMed

    Nagel, J S

    1978-12-01

    Until 1972 Mexico's officials seemed to believe that the annual population growth rate of 3.5% was not really a problem as long as the economic development rate could be kept ahead of the population growth rate. The General Law of Population of 1947 was actually promoting population growth. It was only during the 1960s that elite opinion shifted, and privately funded family planning programs became increasingly active. By 1972 the population had reached 54 million, from 20 million in 1940. President Echevarria, till then a traditional pronatalist, announced in 1972 the creation of a national family planning program, and, in 1974, the creation of a national population council. Since then the Mexican government has embarked on ambitious programs of mass communication and sex education to make the population receptive to its new attitudes. The plans have worked: by mid-1979 estimates put the population growth rate at 2.9%, within sight of the 2.5% target set for 1982 by new president Lopez Portillo. According to a survey conducted by the National Fertility Survey, by late 1976 41.50% of Mexican women of childbearing age were practicing contraception. Within the 41.50% of active contraceptors, 14.9% use the pill, and 7.8% the IUD. New channels of information and of contraceptive delivery are being explored to reach Mexico's widely scattered rural population, and to bring the average family size down to 2 children from the average of 6.5 children per woman for 1973-1975. The government goal is of a 1% population increase by the year 2000.

  17. Bilingual Education: Research in Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modiano, Nancy

    1978-01-01

    This report concerns public bilingual elementary schools for rural Indian (non-Spanish-speaking) children in Mexico. Materials production efforts as well as completed and projected research projects are described. (SJL)

  18. Relationships between habitat quality and measured condition variables in Gulf of Mexico mangroves

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Ecosystem condition assessments were conducted for 12 mangrove sites in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Nine sites were selected randomly; three were selected a priori based on best professional judgment to represent a poor, intermediate and good environmental condition. D...

  19. Study of radioactive contamination in silts and aerosols at Aldama City, Mexico, due to the operation of a yellow-cake processing plant.

    PubMed

    Montelongo, Michel Y; Herrera, Eduardo F; Ramirez, Elias; Carrillo, Jorge I; Campos, Alfredo; Gomez, Ramón; Montero, Maria E; Rodriguez, Luis M

    2015-08-01

    The city of Aldama, Chihuahua, Mexico is located 30 km NNE of Chihuahua city. Three high-volume collectors with PM10 heads were placed in specific locations in Aldama during the year 2011 to measure radioisotope concentrations in the air. The city area of 16 km² was divided into 64 squares of 500 × 500 m. At the vertices of the grid, silt samples were taken between January and June 2011, before the rains began. The concentrations of natural, cosmogenic, and anthropogenic radioactive isotopes were calculated in both filters and silts samples. The isotopes selected for the measurement were ²³⁸U, ²³²Th, (7)Be, ¹³⁷Cs, and ⁴⁰K. Measurements of PM10 and silts were performed during 2011, coinciding with the accident at Fukushima, Japan, on March 11. For this reason, we could see the ¹³⁷Cs in PM10 increase between April and July; with the arrival of the rains, the ¹³⁷Cs concentration began to decrease in the air. The concentration of PM10 measured by the equipment located at the Mexican Uranium plant (URAMEX, initials in Spanish) that was processing radioactive ores exceeded the standard values in February and March, when the air velocity increases. At City Hall, the concentration of PM10 surpassed the value of the standard between May and July. This increased concentration is likely due to increased automobile traffic because City Hall is located in the city center. At a private home, the concentration of PM10 surpassed the standard on several days during the year because the home is located on the outskirts of the city, where most of the streets are not paved. Due to the high concentrations of PM10, especially at the collection point located at the private home, it is necessary to start taking steps to mitigate their spread before they cause health problems in the younger population and in older adults.

  20. Study of radioactive contamination in silts and aerosols at Aldama City, Mexico, due to the operation of a yellow-cake processing plant.

    PubMed

    Montelongo, Michel Y; Herrera, Eduardo F; Ramirez, Elias; Carrillo, Jorge I; Campos, Alfredo; Gomez, Ramón; Montero, Maria E; Rodriguez, Luis M

    2015-08-01

    The city of Aldama, Chihuahua, Mexico is located 30 km NNE of Chihuahua city. Three high-volume collectors with PM10 heads were placed in specific locations in Aldama during the year 2011 to measure radioisotope concentrations in the air. The city area of 16 km² was divided into 64 squares of 500 × 500 m. At the vertices of the grid, silt samples were taken between January and June 2011, before the rains began. The concentrations of natural, cosmogenic, and anthropogenic radioactive isotopes were calculated in both filters and silts samples. The isotopes selected for the measurement were ²³⁸U, ²³²Th, (7)Be, ¹³⁷Cs, and ⁴⁰K. Measurements of PM10 and silts were performed during 2011, coinciding with the accident at Fukushima, Japan, on March 11. For this reason, we could see the ¹³⁷Cs in PM10 increase between April and July; with the arrival of the rains, the ¹³⁷Cs concentration began to decrease in the air. The concentration of PM10 measured by the equipment located at the Mexican Uranium plant (URAMEX, initials in Spanish) that was processing radioactive ores exceeded the standard values in February and March, when the air velocity increases. At City Hall, the concentration of PM10 surpassed the value of the standard between May and July. This increased concentration is likely due to increased automobile traffic because City Hall is located in the city center. At a private home, the concentration of PM10 surpassed the standard on several days during the year because the home is located on the outskirts of the city, where most of the streets are not paved. Due to the high concentrations of PM10, especially at the collection point located at the private home, it is necessary to start taking steps to mitigate their spread before they cause health problems in the younger population and in older adults. PMID:26211631