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Sample records for site evaluation aquatic

  1. New approach for evaluating biological toxicity at aquatic hazardous-waste sites. Professional paper

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, R.K.; Lapota, D.

    1989-08-01

    The impact of hazardous wastes on aquatic systems is an important consideration in the Navy's Installation Restoration Program. A majority of the Navy's assets are located in coastal and estuarine areas which are complex, dynamic ecosystems, important both economically and ecologically. The purpose of this paper is to survey methods available to assess the toxicity of hazardous wastes on aquatic ecosystems, identify the most practical methods for use in determining the potential impact of hazardous waste sites and the selection of remedial alternatives. Current techniques for measuring toxicity using bacteria, phytoplankton, crustaceans, molluscs, and other organisms are reviewed. These methods can be used in developing the information required by the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) during the Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study (RI/FS) process. There is a need to develop new and innovative bioassays for assessing toxicity. Once these tests and their results are compared, it may be practical to use only a few species for routine monitoring.

  2. Evaluation of Daphnia ambigua for Routine Aquatic Toxicity Testing at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.; Harmon, S.M.

    1997-09-01

    Short-term whole effluent toxicity testing, which is currently a requirement of the U.S. EPA`s National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES), commonly uses the cladoceran species Ceriodaphnia dubia. Despite the advantages to using a common test species to model the toxic effects of effluents, it could be argued that toxicity test results would be more meaningful if a wider variety of test organisms were commonly used. One particular argument against C. dubia is that tests conducted with this species do not always reflect local, site-specific conditions. The careful selection and use of an indigenous test species would produce a more realistic model of local instream effects and would account for regional differences in water quality. Permitted effluent discharges from Savannah River Site (SRS), a government weapons facility operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, require toxicity testing with C. dubia. However, water quality in these receiving streams is markedly different (lower pH and hardness) from standard laboratory water used for the culturing and testing of C. dubia, and it has been shown that this receiving water presents varying degrees of toxicity to C. dubia. Based on these results, it is possible that toxic effects observed during an effluent study could be the result of test organism stress from the dilution water and not the effects of SRS effluents. Therefore, this study addressed the substitution of C. dubia with an indigenous cladoceran species, Daphnia ambigua for routine regulatory testing at SRS. Given the indigenous nature of this species, combined with the fact that it has been successfully cultured by other investigators, D. ambigua was ideal for consideration as a replacement for C. dubia, but further study of the overall success and sensitivity of laboratory-reared D. ambigua was required. This investigation determined that D. ambigua could be laboratory cultured with only minimal changes to established regulatory protocol and

  3. Development of a Geographic Information System-Based Decision Support Tool for Evaluating Windfarm Sitings in Great Lakes Aquatic Habitats

    SciTech Connect

    Wehrly, Kevin E.; Rutherford, Edward S.; Wang, Lizhu; Breck, Jason; Mason, Lacey; Nelson, Scott

    2011-07-31

    As an outcome of our research project, we developed software and data for the Lakebed Alteration Decision Support Tool (LADST), a web-based decision support program to assist resource managers in making siting decisions for offshore wind farms (as well as other lakebed-altering projects) in the United States' waters of the Great Lakes. Users of the LADST can create their own offshore wind farm suitability maps, based upon suitability criteria of their own choosing by visiting a public web site. The LADST can be used to represent the different priorities or values of different Great Lakes stakeholders for wind farm siting, as well as the different suitability requirements of wind farms (or different types of development projects) in a single suitability analysis system. The LADST makes this type of customized suitability analysis easily accessible to users who have no specialized software or experience with geographic information systems (GIS). It also may increase the transparency of the siting and permitting process for offshore wind farms, as it makes the suitability analysis equally accessible to resource managers, wind farm developers, and concerned citizens.

  4. Evaluation of microorganisms cultured from injured and repressed tissue regeneration sites in endangered giant aquatic Ozark Hellbender salamanders.

    PubMed

    Nickerson, Cheryl A; Ott, C Mark; Castro, Sarah L; Garcia, Veronica M; Molina, Thomas C; Briggler, Jeffrey T; Pitt, Amber L; Tavano, Joseph J; Byram, J Kelly; Barrila, Jennifer; Nickerson, Max A

    2011-01-01

    Investigation into the causes underlying the rapid, global amphibian decline provides critical insight into the effects of changing ecosystems. Hypothesized and confirmed links between amphibian declines, disease, and environmental changes are increasingly represented in published literature. However, there are few long-term amphibian studies that include data on population size, abnormality/injury rates, disease, and habitat variables to adequately assess changes through time. We cultured and identified microorganisms isolated from abnormal/injured and repressed tissue regeneration sites of the endangered Ozark Hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi, to discover potential causative agents responsible for their significant decline in health and population. This organism and our study site were chosen because the population and habitat of C. a. bishopi have been intensively studied from 1969-2009, and the abnormality/injury rate and apparent lack of regeneration were established. Although many bacterial and fungal isolates recovered were common environmental organisms, several opportunistic pathogens were identified in association with only the injured tissues of C.a. bishopi. Bacterial isolates included Aeromonas hydrophila, a known amphibian pathogen, Granulicetella adiacens, Gordonai terrae, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Aerococcus viridans, Streptococcus pneumoniae and a variety of Pseudomonads, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. stutzeri, and P. alcaligenes. Fungal isolates included species in the genera Penicillium, Acremonium, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Fusarium, Streptomycetes, and the Class Hyphomycetes. Many of the opportunistic pathogens identified are known to form biofilms. Lack of isolation of the same organism from all wounds suggests that the etiological agent responsible for the damage to C. a. bishopi may not be a single organism. To our knowledge, this is the first study to profile the external microbial consortia cultured from a

  5. Aquatic Ecosystem Enhancement at Mountaintop Mining Sites Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Black, D. Courtney; Lawson, Peter; Morgan, John; Maggard, Randy; Schor, Horst; Powell, Rocky; Kirk, Ed. J.

    2000-01-12

    Welcome to this symposium which is part of the ongoing effort to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) regarding mountaintop mining and valley fills. The EIS is being prepared by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Office of Surface Mining, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, in cooperation with the State of West Virginia. Aquatic Ecosystem Enhancement (AEE) at mountaintop mining sites is one of fourteen technical areas identified for study by the EIS Interagency Steering Committee. Three goals were identified in the AEE Work Plan: 1. Assess mining and reclamation practices to show how mining operations might be carried out in a way that minimizes adverse impacts to streams and other environmental resources and to local communities. Clarify economic and technical constraints and benefits. 2. Help citizens clarify choices by showing whether there are affordable ways to enhance existing mining, reclamation, mitigation processes and/or procedures. 3. Ide identify data needed to improve environmental evaluation and design of mining projects to protect the environment. Today’s symposium was proposed in the AEE Team Work Plans but coordinated planning for the event began September 15, 1999 when representatives from coal industry, environmental groups and government regulators met in Morgantown. The meeting participants worked with a facilitator from the Canaan Valley Institute to outline plans for the symposium. Several teams were formed to carry out the plans we outlined in the meeting.

  6. Baseline aquatic ecological risk assessment at a zinc smelter site

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, J.E.; Becker, D.S.; Pastorok, R.A.; Ginn, T.C.; Shields, W.J.

    1995-12-31

    A baseline ecological risk assessment was conducted at the National Zinc smelter site (Bartlesville, Oklahoma). Surface water, sediments, and aquatic biota (whole fish and crayfish) in the North Tributary, West Tributary, Eliza Creek, and Sand Creek were analyzed for selected metals. Water toxicity tests (fathead minnow and cladoceran) and sediment toxicity tests (amphipod and chironomid) were also conducted. Metals in water and sediments in most of the North Tributary, West Tributary, and parts of Eliza Creek were elevated above reference values. Metal distributions in surface water showed no influence of the releases from the Site on Sand Creek, with the exception of a slight elevation of cadmium concentration relative to reference area values. In all cases, concentrations of metals in Sand Creek sediments were similar to or lower than mean reference values. Spatial distribution patterns for metals of concern in surface water were similar to those in sediments. Analyses of dissolved metals in surface water, SEM/AVS ratios for sediments, and tissue residues demonstrated that metals were bioavailable. No adverse effects were detected in the fathead minnow test for any of the site stations. A low level of toxicity was observed in the cladoceran test for several site stations. Little sediment toxicity was observed at the study area based on the amphipod survival endpoint. Sublethal effects were detected when chironomid growth at several site stations was compared with reference conditions. The ecological risks posed by surface water and sediment throughout most of the study area were not significant and bioaccumulation of metals of concern was restricted to a limited portion of the study area close to the Site.

  7. OVERVIEW OF THE DRAFT METHODOLOGY FOR CONDUCTING BIOLOGICAL EVALUATIONS OF AQUATIC LIFE CRITERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will provide an overview of the draft methodology used in developing biological evaluations of aquatic life criteria specifically addressing aquatic and aquatic-dependent threatened and endangered species.

  8. INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT, SEDIMENT SAMPLING TECHNOLOGY, AQUATIC RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS, RUSSIAN PEAT BORER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Russian Peat Borer designed and fabricated by Aquatic Research Instruments was demonstrated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in April and May 1999 at sites in EPA Regions 1 and 5, respectively. In additio...

  9. Radiological bioconcentration factors for aquatic, terrestrial, and wetland ecosystems at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Cummins, C.L.

    1994-09-01

    As a result of operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS), over 50 radionuclides have been released to the atmosphere and to onsite streams and seepage basins. Now, many of these radionuclides are available to aquatic and/or terrestrial organisms for uptake and cycling through the food chain. Knowledge about the uptake and cycling of these radionuclides is now crucial in evaluating waste management and clean-up alternatives for the site. Numerous studies have been conducted at the SRS over the past forty years to study the uptake and distribution of radionuclides in the Savannah River Site environment. In many instances, bioconcentration factors have been calculated to quantify the uptake of a radionuclide by an organism from the surrounding medium (i.e., soil or water). In the past, it has been common practice to use bioconcentration factors from the literature because site-specific data were not readily available. However, because of the variability of bioconcentration factors due to experimental or environmental conditions, site-specific data should be used when available. This report compiles and summarizes site-specific bioconcentration factors for selected radionuclides released at the Savannah River Site (SRS). An extensive literature search yielded site-specific bioconcentration factors for cesium, strontium, cobalt, plutonium, americium, curium, and tritium. These eight radionuclides have been the primary radionuclides studied at SRS because of their long half lives or because they are major contributors to radiological dose from exposure. For most radionuclides, it was determined that the site-specific bioconcentration factors were higher than those reported in literature. This report also summarizes some conditions that affect radionuclide bioavailability to and bioconcentration by aquatic and terrestrial organisms.

  10. Estimating site occupancy rates for aquatic plants using spatial sub-sampling designs when detection probabilities are less than one

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielson, Ryan M.; Gray, Brian R.; McDonald, Lyman L.; Heglund, Patricia J.

    2011-01-01

    Estimation of site occupancy rates when detection probabilities are <1 is well established in wildlife science. Data from multiple visits to a sample of sites are used to estimate detection probabilities and the proportion of sites occupied by focal species. In this article we describe how site occupancy methods can be applied to estimate occupancy rates of plants and other sessile organisms. We illustrate this approach and the pitfalls of ignoring incomplete detection using spatial data for 2 aquatic vascular plants collected under the Upper Mississippi River's Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP). Site occupancy models considered include: a naïve model that ignores incomplete detection, a simple site occupancy model assuming a constant occupancy rate and a constant probability of detection across sites, several models that allow site occupancy rates and probabilities of detection to vary with habitat characteristics, and mixture models that allow for unexplained variation in detection probabilities. We used information theoretic methods to rank competing models and bootstrapping to evaluate the goodness-of-fit of the final models. Results of our analysis confirm that ignoring incomplete detection can result in biased estimates of occupancy rates. Estimates of site occupancy rates for 2 aquatic plant species were 19–36% higher compared to naive estimates that ignored probabilities of detection <1. Simulations indicate that final models have little bias when 50 or more sites are sampled, and little gains in precision could be expected for sample sizes >300. We recommend applying site occupancy methods for monitoring presence of aquatic species.

  11. Spatially-explicit bioaccumulation modeling in aquatic environments: Results from two demonstration sites.

    PubMed

    von Stackelberg, Katherine; Williams, Marc A; Clough, Jonathan; Johnson, Mark S

    2017-03-11

    Bioaccumulation models quantify the relationship between sediment and water exposure concentrations and resulting tissue levels of chemicals in aquatic organisms, and represent a key link in the suite of tools used to support decision making at contaminated sediment sites. Predicted concentrations in the aquatic food web provide exposure estimates for human health and ecological risk assessments, which, in turn, provide risk-based frameworks for evaluating potential remedial activities and other management alternatives based on the fish consumption pathway. Despite the widespread use of bioaccumulation models to support remedial decision-making, concerns remain about the predictive power of these models. A review of the available literature finds the increased mathematical complexity of typical bioaccumulation model applications is not matched by the deterministic exposure concentrations used to drive the models. We tested a spatially explicit exposure model (FishRand) at two nominally contaminated sites and compared results to estimates of bioaccumulation based on conventional, non-spatial techniques and monitoring data. Differences in predicted fish tissue concentrations across applications were evident, although these demonstration sites were only mildly contaminated and would not warrant management actions on the basis of fish consumption. Nonetheless, predicted tissue concentrations based on the spatially-explicit exposure characterization consistently outperformed conventional, non-spatial techniques across a variety of model performance metrics. These results demonstrate the improved predictive power as well as greater flexibility in evaluating the impacts of food web exposure and fish foraging behavior in a heterogeneous exposure environment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Oviposition site choice under conflicting risks demonstrates that aquatic predators drive terrestrial egg-laying

    PubMed Central

    Touchon, Justin C.; Worley, Julie L.

    2015-01-01

    Laying eggs out of water was crucial to the transition to land and has evolved repeatedly in multiple animal phyla. However, testing hypotheses about this transition has been difficult because extant species only breed in one environment. The pantless treefrog, Dendropsophus ebraccatus, makes such tests possible because they lay both aquatic and arboreal eggs. Here, we test the oviposition site choices of D. ebraccatus under conflicting risks of arboreal egg desiccation and aquatic egg predation, thereby estimating the relative importance of each selective agent on reproduction. We also measured discrimination between habitats with and without predators and development of naturally laid aquatic and arboreal eggs. Aquatic embryos in nature developed faster than arboreal embryos, implying no cost to aquatic egg laying. In choice tests, D. ebraccatus avoided habitats with fish, showing that they can detect aquatic egg predators. Most importantly, D. ebraccatus laid most eggs in the water when faced with only desiccation risk, but switched to laying eggs arboreally when desiccation risk and aquatic predators were both present. This provides the first experimental evidence to our knowledge that aquatic predation risk influences non-aquatic oviposition and strongly supports the hypothesis that it was a driver of the evolution of terrestrial reproduction. PMID:25948689

  13. Oviposition site choice under conflicting risks demonstrates that aquatic predators drive terrestrial egg-laying.

    PubMed

    Touchon, Justin C; Worley, Julie L

    2015-06-07

    Laying eggs out of water was crucial to the transition to land and has evolved repeatedly in multiple animal phyla. However, testing hypotheses about this transition has been difficult because extant species only breed in one environment. The pantless treefrog, Dendropsophus ebraccatus, makes such tests possible because they lay both aquatic and arboreal eggs. Here, we test the oviposition site choices of D. ebraccatus under conflicting risks of arboreal egg desiccation and aquatic egg predation, thereby estimating the relative importance of each selective agent on reproduction. We also measured discrimination between habitats with and without predators and development of naturally laid aquatic and arboreal eggs. Aquatic embryos in nature developed faster than arboreal embryos, implying no cost to aquatic egg laying. In choice tests, D. ebraccatus avoided habitats with fish, showing that they can detect aquatic egg predators. Most importantly, D. ebraccatus laid most eggs in the water when faced with only desiccation risk, but switched to laying eggs arboreally when desiccation risk and aquatic predators were both present. This provides the first experimental evidence to our knowledge that aquatic predation risk influences non-aquatic oviposition and strongly supports the hypothesis that it was a driver of the evolution of terrestrial reproduction.

  14. An evaluation of the aquatic hazard of cumene (isopropyl benzene).

    PubMed

    Glickman, A H; Alexander, H C; Buccafusco, R J; Morris, C R; Francis, B O; Surprenant, D C; Ward, T J

    1995-08-01

    Cumene manufacturers were required under a TSCA Section 4(a) test rule to evaluate the aquatic toxicity of cumene to daphnids, rainbow trout, mysid shrimp, and sheepshead minnows. Because of cumene's high volatility (vapor pressure, 3.2 mm Hg at 20 degrees C), all tests were conducted under flowthrough conditions using a proportional diluter system. The 96-hr LC50s for rainbow trout, sheepshead minnow, and mysid shrimp, based on mean measured concentrations, were 4.8, 4.7, and 1.3 mg/liter, respectively. The 48-hr daphnid EC50 was 4.0 mg/liter. Although cumene is considered moderately toxic to aquatic organisms under rigorous laboratory conditions, its volatility and biodegradability greatly reduce its hazard to the aquatic environment.

  15. Aquatic Natural Areas Analysis and Evaluation: Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Baranski, Dr. Michael J.

    2011-04-01

    This report presents an assessment of the natural area value of eight Aquatic Natural Areas (ANAs) and seven Aquatic Reference Areas (ARAs) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Anderson and Roane Counties in east Tennessee. It follows a previous study in 2009 that analyzed and evaluated terrestrial natural areas on the Reservation. The purpose of both studies was to evaluate and rank those specially designated areas on the Reservation that contain sensitive species, special habitats, and natural area value. Natural areas receive special protections through established statutes, regulations, and policies. The ORR contains 33,542 acres (13,574 ha) administered by the Department of Energy. The surface waters of the Reservation range from 1st-order to 5th-order streams, but the majority of the streams recognized as ANAs and ARAs are 1st- and 2nd-order streams. East Fork Poplar Creek is a 4th-order stream and the largest watershed that drains Reservation lands. All the waters of the Reservation eventually reach the Clinch River on the southern and western boundaries of the ORR. All available information was collected, synthesized, and evaluated. Field observations were made to support and supplement the available information. Geographic information system mapping techniques were used to develop several quantitative attributes about the study areas. Narrative descriptions of each ANA and ARA and tables of numerical data were prepared. Criteria for assessment and evaluation were developed, and eight categories of factors were devised to produce a ranking system. The evaluation factors used in the ranking system were: (A) size of area, (B) percentage of watershed protected, (C) taxa present with protected status, (D) overall biotic diversity, (E) stream features, (F) water quality and use support ratings, (G) disturbance regime, and (H) other factors. Each factor was evaluated on a 5-point ranking scale (0-4), and each area received a composite score, where 32 was the

  16. Evaluation of seven aquatic sampling methods for amphibians and other aquatic fauna

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gunzburger, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    To design effective and efficient research and monitoring programs researchers must have a thorough understanding of the capabilities and limitations of their sampling methods. Few direct comparative studies exist for aquatic sampling methods for amphibians. The objective of this study was to simultaneously employ seven aquatic sampling methods in 10 wetlands to compare amphibian species richness and number of individuals detected with each method. Four sampling methods allowed counts of individuals (metal dipnet, D-frame dipnet, box trap, crayfish trap), whereas the other three methods allowed detection of species (visual encounter, aural, and froglogger). Amphibian species richness was greatest with froglogger, box trap, and aural samples. For anuran species, the sampling methods by which each life stage was detected was related to relative length of larval and breeding periods and tadpole size. Detection probability of amphibians varied across sampling methods. Box trap sampling resulted in the most precise amphibian count, but the precision of all four count-based methods was low (coefficient of variation > 145 for all methods). The efficacy of the four count sampling methods at sampling fish and aquatic invertebrates was also analyzed because these predatory taxa are known to be important predictors of amphibian habitat distribution. Species richness and counts were similar for fish with the four methods, whereas invertebrate species richness and counts were greatest in box traps. An effective wetland amphibian monitoring program in the southeastern United States should include multiple sampling methods to obtain the most accurate assessment of species community composition at each site. The combined use of frogloggers, crayfish traps, and dipnets may be the most efficient and effective amphibian monitoring protocol. ?? 2007 Brill Academic Publishers.

  17. Use of Unicellular Algae for Evaluation of Potential Aquatic Contaminants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-05-01

    UNICELLULAR ALGAE FOR EVALUATION First Annual Report OF POTENTIAL AQUATIC CONTAMINANTS 1 Sep - 31 May 76 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER ANNUAL...p’dioctyldephrylamine RJ-5 Phenyl-a-napthylamine Lubrication Additives Unsymmetrical Dimethylhydrazine Hydrazine Symmetrical Dimethylhydrazine [continusd on .bnckj 20...Force Contract AF33615-76-C-5005. Work under this portion of the contract covers the period September 1 , 1975 to May 31, 1976. The project is

  18. Evaluating the feasibility of planting aquatic plants for habitat restoration in shallow Mississippi lakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Planting aquatic plants is a technique used to restore native aquatic plant communities in lakes lacking aquatic plants. However, the feasibility of using this restoration technique in Mississippi lakes has not been evaluated. We conducted two exclosure experiments to evaluate the success of planti...

  19. Navy Aquatic Hazardous Waste Sites: The Problem and Possible Solutions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    surrounded by Liberty Bay, Dogfish Bay, and a shallow lagoon. NUWES has been nominated for addition to the NPL due to past disposal practices. Disposal sites...supports commercial oyster fishing, and both Dogfish and Liberty bays are used for recreational fishing and shellfish gathering activities: Contaminants of

  20. Evaluation of Eurasian Watermilfoil Control Techniques Using Aquatic Herbicides in Fort Peck Lake, Montana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    most likely to support spring growth of Eurasian watermilfoil and other invasive aquatic ERDC/EL TR-15-6 38 plants and to target areas that are...river that could support year-round or year-season growth of Eurasian watermilfoil or other invasive aquatic plants . • Increase boater awareness...ER D C/ EL T R- 15 -6 Aquatic Plant Control Research Program Evaluation of Eurasian Watermilfoil Control Techniques Using Aquatic

  1. Evaluation of invasions and declines of submersed aquatic macrophytes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chambers, P.A.; Barko, J.W.; Smith, C.S.

    1993-01-01

    During the past 60 yr, sightings of aquatic macrophyte species in geographic regions where they had previously not been found have occurred with increasing frequency, apparently due to both greater dispersal of the plants as a result of human activities as well as better documentation of plant distribution. Intercontinental invasions, such as Myriophyllum spicatum and Hydrilla into North America, Elodea canadensis into Europe and Elodea nuttallii, Egeria densa and Cabomba caroliniana into Japan, have generally been well documented. However, the spread of an exotic species across a continent after its initial introduction (e.g., Potamogeton crispus in North America) or the expansion of a species native to a continent into hitherto unexploited territory (e.g.,the expansion of the North American native Myriophyllum heterophyllum into New England) have received little attention. Natural declines in aquatic macrophyte communities have also received little scientific study although there are many accounts of macrophyte declines. The best-documented example comes from the marine literature where extensive declines of eelgrass (Zostera) occurred in the 1930s along the Atlantic coast due to a pathogenic marine slime mold (''wasting disease''). The aim of this workshop was to identify examples of invasions or natural declines of aquatic macrophyte species throughout the world and assess the importance of environmental factors in their control. Forty-five scientists and aquatic plant managers from ten countries participated in the workshop. Eleven of the participants contributed written evaluations of species invasions and declines in their geo-graphic region. These were distributed to registered participants prior to the meeting and served as the starting-point of workshop discussions. To address the topics raised in the working papers, the participants divided into four working groups to evaluate: 1. Environmental controls of species invasions. 2. Biotic controls of species

  2. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-52, 146-FR Radioecology and Aquatic Biology Laboratory Soil, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-022

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Capron

    2008-06-27

    The 100-F-52 waste site consisted of the soil under and around the former 146-FR Radioecology and Aquatic Biology Laboratory. The laboratory was used for studies of the effects of pre-reactor and post-reactor process water on fish eggs, young fish, and other small river creatures of interest. In accordance with this evaluation, the confirmatory sampling results support a reclassification of this site to No Action. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  3. Local environmental pollution strongly influences culturable bacterial aerosols at an urban aquatic superfund site.

    PubMed

    Dueker, M Elias; O'Mullan, Gregory D; Juhl, Andrew R; Weathers, Kathleen C; Uriarte, Maria

    2012-10-16

    In polluted environments, when microbial aerosols originate locally, species composition of the aerosols should reflect the polluted source. To test the connection between local environmental pollution and microbial aerosols near an urban waterfront, we characterized bacterial aerosols at Newtown Creek (NTC), a public waterway and Superfund site in a densely populated area of New York, NY, USA. Culturable bacterial aerosol fallout rate and surface water bacterial concentrations were at least an order of magnitude greater at NTC than at a neighboring, less polluted waterfront and a nonurban coastal site in Maine. The NTC culturable bacterial aerosol community was significantly different in taxonomic structure from previous urban and coastal aerosol studies, particularly in relative abundances of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. Twenty-four percent of the operational taxonomic units in the NTC overall (air + water) bacterial isolate library were most similar to bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences previously described in terrestrial or aquatic environments contaminated with sewage, hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and other industrial waste. This study is the first to examine the community composition and local deposition of bacterial aerosols from an aquatic Superfund site. The findings have important implications for the use of aeration remediation in polluted aquatic environments and suggest a novel pathway of microbial exposure in densely populated urban communities containing contaminated soil and water.

  4. Radiological bioconcentration factors for aquatic, terrestrial, and wetland ecosystems at the Savannah River site

    SciTech Connect

    Friday, G.P.; Cummins, C.L.; Schwartzman, A.L.

    1996-12-31

    Since the early 1950s, the Savannah River Site (SRS) released over 50 radionuclides into the environment while producing nuclear defense materials. These releases directly exposed aquatic and terrestrial biota to ionizing radiation from surface water, soil, and sediment, and also indirectly by the ingestion of items in the food chain. As part of new missions to develop waste management strategies and identify cost-effective environmental restoration options, knowledge concerning the uptake and distribution of these radionuclides is essential. This report compiles and summarizes site-specific bioconcentration factors for selected radionuclides released at SRS.

  5. Influences of Availability on Parameter Estimates from Site Occupancy Models with Application to Submersed Aquatic Vegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, Brian R.; Holland, Mark D.; Yi, Feng; Starcevich, Leigh Ann Harrod

    2013-01-01

    Site occupancy models are commonly used by ecologists to estimate the probabilities of species site occupancy and of species detection. This study addresses the influence on site occupancy and detection estimates of variation in species availability among surveys within sites. Such variation in availability may result from temporary emigration, nonavailability of the species for detection, and sampling sites spatially when species presence is not uniform within sites. We demonstrate, using Monte Carlo simulations and aquatic vegetation data, that variation in availability and heterogeneity in the probability of availability may yield biases in the expected values of the site occupancy and detection estimates that have traditionally been associated with low-detection probabilities and heterogeneity in those probabilities. These findings confirm that the effects of availability may be important for ecologists and managers, and that where such effects are expected, modification of sampling designs and/or analytical methods should be considered. Failure to limit the effects of availability may preclude reliable estimation of the probability of site occupancy.

  6. KSC Vertical Launch Site Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Lynne V.

    2007-01-01

    RS&H was tasked to evaluate the potential available launch sites for a combined two user launch pad. The Launch sites were to be contained entirely within current Kennedy Space Center property lines. The user launch vehicles to be used for evaluation are in the one million pounds of first stage thrust range. Additionally a second evaluation criterion was added early on in the study. A single user launch site was to be evaluated for a two million pound first stage thrust vehicle. Both scenarios were to be included in the report. To provide fidelity to the study criteria, a specific launch vehicle in the one million pound thrust range was chosen as a guide post or straw-man launch vehicle. The RpK K-1 vehicle is a current Commercial Orbital Transportation System (COTS), contract awardee along with the SpaceX Falcon 9 vehicle. SpaceX, at the time of writing, is planning to launch COTS and possibly other payloads from Cx-40 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station property. RpK has yet to declare a specific launch site as their east coast US launch location. As such it was deemed appropriate that RpK's vehicle requirements be used as conceptual criteria. For the purposes of this study those criteria were marginally generalized to make them less specifiC.

  7. METHODOLOGY FOR THE EVALUATION OF CUMULATIVE EPISODIC EXPOSURE TO CHEMICAL STRESSORS IN AQUATIC RISK ASSESSMENT.

    EPA Science Inventory

    An ecological risk assessment method was developed to evaluate the magnitude, duration, and episodic nature of chemical stressors on aquatic communities. The percent of an ecosystem's species at risk from a designated chemical exposure scenario is generated. In effects assessment...

  8. Optimize facility-siting evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, S.J.; Hunter, B.L. )

    1994-05-01

    Case histories show how to combine hazard-evaluation tools that effectively assess facility siting. Depending on the complexity of the process and equipment, more than one tool and hazard analysis method (HAZOP, FMEA, etc.) may be needed. Operating facilities must use all possible resources such as checklists, plot plans/elevation drawings, models, tours, etc., when performing a process hazard analysis (PHA). More importantly, the facility-siting evaluation techniques must be cost-effective, user friendly and results oriented. Facility siting, mandated by federal regulation (OSHA 1910.119), calls for a how to methodology. Because it is an interpretation of risk due to location, facility siting has no single correct method. Operating companies must equip their PHA teams with an optimum combination of hazard-evaluation methods that address actual process consequences and their effects on worker safety. This paper discusses the use of these resources in hazard analysis, then illustrates the methods with several case histories from a refinery, a papermill, and a manufacturing facility.

  9. Aquatic biological communities and associated habitats at selected sites in the Big Wood River Watershed, south-central Idaho, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacCoy, Dorene E.; Short, Terry M.

    2016-09-28

    Assessments of streamflow (discharge) parameters, water quality, physical habitat, and biological communities were completed between May and September 2014 as part of a monitoring program in the Big Wood River watershed of south-central Idaho. The sampling was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Blaine County, Trout Unlimited, the Nature Conservancy, and the Wood River Land Trust to help identify the status of aquatic resources at selected locations in the watershed. Information in this report provides a basis with which to evaluate and monitor the long-term health of the Big Wood River and its major tributaries. Sampling sites were co-located with existing U.S. Geological Survey streamgaging stations: three on the main stem Big Wood River and four on the North Fork Big Wood River (North Fork), Warm Springs Creek (Warm Sp), Trail Creek (Trail Ck), and East Fork Big Wood River (East Fork) tributaries.The analytical results and quality-assurance information for water quality, physical habitat, and biological community samples collected at study sites during 2 weeks in September 2014 are summarized. Water-quality data include concentrations of major nutrients, suspended sediment, dissolved oxygen, and fecal-coliform bacteria. To assess the potential effects of nutrient enrichment on algal growth, concentrations of periphyton biomass (chlorophyll-a and ash free dry weight) in riffle habitats were determined at each site. Physical habitat parameters include stream channel morphology, habitat volume, instream structure, substrate composition, and riparian vegetative cover. Biological data include taxa richness, abundance, and stream-health indicator metrics for macroinvertebrate and fish communities. Statistical summaries of the water-quality, habitat, and biological data are provided along with discussion of how these findings relate to the health of aquatic resources in the Big Wood River watershed.Seasonal discharge patterns using statistical

  10. Aquatic assessment of the Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund site, Corinth, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piatak, Nadine M.; Argue, Denise M.; Seal, Robert R., II; Kiah, Richard G.; Besser, John M.; Coles, James F.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Levitan, Denise M.; Deacon, Jeffrey R.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    The Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund site in Corinth, Orange County, Vermont, includes the Eureka, Union, and Smith mines along with areas of downstream aquatic ecosystem impairment. The site was placed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) National Priorities List in 2004. The mines, which operated from about 1847 to 1919, contain underground workings, foundations from historical structures, several waste-rock piles, and some flotation tailings. The mine site is drained to the northeast by Pike Hill Brook, which includes several wetland areas, and to the southeast by an unnamed tributary that flows to the south and enters Cookville Brook. Both brooks eventually drain into the Waits River, which flows into the Connecticut River. The aquatic ecosystem at the site was assessed using a variety of approaches that investigated surface-water quality, sediment quality, and various ecological indicators of stream-ecosystem health. The degradation of surface-water quality is caused by elevated concentrations of copper, and to a lesser extent cadmium, with localized effects caused by aluminum, iron, and zinc. Copper concentrations in surface waters reached or exceeded the USEPA national recommended chronic water-quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life in all of the Pike Hill Brook sampling locations except for the location farthest downstream, in half of the locations sampled in the tributary to Cookville Brook, and in about half of the locations in one wetland area located in Pike Hill Brook. Most of these same locations also contained concentrations of cadmium that exceeded the chronic water-quality criteria. In contrast, surface waters at background sampling locations were below these criteria for copper and cadmium. Comparison of hardness-based and Biotic Ligand Model (BLM)-based criteria for copper yields similar results with respect to the extent or number of stations impaired for surface waters in the affected area. However, the BLM

  11. Interaction of mining activities and aquatic environment: A review from Greek mine sites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasileiou, Eleni; Kallioras, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In Greece a significant amount of mineral and ore deposits have been recorded accompanied by large industrial interest and a long mining history. Today many active and/or abandoned mine sites are scattered within the country; while mining activities take place in different sites for exploiting various deposits (clay, limestone, slate, gypsum, kaolin, mixed sulphide ores (lead, zinc, olivine, pozzolan, quartz lignite, nickel, magnesite, aluminum, bauxite, gold, marbles etc). The most prominent recent ones are: (i) the lignite exploitation that is extended in the area of Ptolemais (Western Macedonia) and Megalopolis (Central Peloponnese); and (ii) the major bauxite deposits located in central Greece within the Parnassos-Ghiona geotectonic zone and on Euboea Island. In the latter area, significant ores of magnesite were exploited and mixed sulphide ores. Centuries of intensive mining exploitation and metallurgical treatment of lead-silver deposits in Greece, have also resulted in significant abandoned sites, such as the one in Lavrion. Mining activities in Lavrio, were initiated in ancient times and continued until the 1980s, resulting in the production of significant waste stockpiles deposited in the area, crucial for the local water resources. Ιn many mining sites, environmental pressures are also recorded after the mine closure to the aquatic environment, as the surface waters flow through waste dump areas and contaminated soils. This paper aims to the geospatial visualization of the mining activities in Greece, in connection to their negative (surface- and/or ground-water pollution; overpumping due to extensive dewatering practices) or positive (enhanced groundwater recharge; pit lakes, improvement of water budget in the catchment scale) impacts on local water resources.

  12. Problems in evaluating radiation dose via terrestrial and aquatic pathways.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, B E; Soldat, J K; Schreckhise, R G; Watson, E C; McKenzie, D H

    1981-12-01

    This review is concerned with exposure risk and the environmental pathways models used for predictive assessment of radiation dose. Exposure factors, the adequacy of available data, and the model subcomponents are critically reviewed from the standpoint of absolute error propagation. Although the models are inherently capable of better absolute accuracy, a calculated dose is usually overestimated by from two to six orders of magnitude, in practice. The principal reason for so large an error lies in using "generic" concentration ratios in situations where site specific data are needed. Major opinion of the model makers suggests a number midway between these extremes, with only a small likelihood of ever underestimating the radiation dose. Detailed evaluations are made of source considerations influencing dose (i.e., physical and chemical status of released material); dispersal mechanisms (atmospheric, hydrologic and biotic vector transport); mobilization and uptake mechanisms (i.e., chemical and other factors affecting the biological availability of radioelements); and critical pathways. Examples are shown of confounding in food-chain pathways, due to uncritical application of concentration ratios. Current thoughts of replacing the critical pathways approach to calculating dose with comprehensive model calculations are also shown to be ill-advised, given present limitations in the comprehensive data base. The pathways models may also require improved parametrization, as they are not at present structured adequately to lend themselves to validation. The extremely wide errors associated with predicting exposure stand in striking contrast to the error range associated with the extrapolation of animal effects data to the human being.

  13. Problems in evaluating radiation dose via terrestrial and aquatic pathways.

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, B E; Soldat, J K; Schreckhise, R G; Watson, E C; McKenzie, D H

    1981-01-01

    This review is concerned with exposure risk and the environmental pathways models used for predictive assessment of radiation dose. Exposure factors, the adequacy of available data, and the model subcomponents are critically reviewed from the standpoint of absolute error propagation. Although the models are inherently capable of better absolute accuracy, a calculated dose is usually overestimated by from two to six orders of magnitude, in practice. The principal reason for so large an error lies in using "generic" concentration ratios in situations where site specific data are needed. Major opinion of the model makers suggests a number midway between these extremes, with only a small likelihood of ever underestimating the radiation dose. Detailed evaluations are made of source considerations influencing dose (i.e., physical and chemical status of released material); dispersal mechanisms (atmospheric, hydrologic and biotic vector transport); mobilization and uptake mechanisms (i.e., chemical and other factors affecting the biological availability of radioelements); and critical pathways. Examples are shown of confounding in food-chain pathways, due to uncritical application of concentration ratios. Current thoughts of replacing the critical pathways approach to calculating dose with comprehensive model calculations are also shown to be ill-advised, given present limitations in the comprehensive data base. The pathways models may also require improved parametrization, as they are not at present structured adequately to lend themselves to validation. The extremely wide errors associated with predicting exposure stand in striking contrast to the error range associated with the extrapolation of animal effects data to the human being. PMID:7037381

  14. Evaluating Aquatic Life Benefits of Reducing Nutrient Loading ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Theoretical linkages between excess nutrient loading, nutrient-enhanced community metabolism (i.e., production and respiration), and hypoxia in estuaries are well-understood. In seasonally-stratified estuaries and coastal systems (e.g., Chesapeake Bay, northern Gulf of Mexico), hypoxia is predominantly seasonal, such that the spatial extent indicates potential aquatic life impacts. However, in relatively small and shallow Gulf of Mexico bays and bayous, hypoxia frequently occurs episodically or on a diel basis. This study utilized continuous DO monitoring and 3-D hydrodynamic (Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code) and water quality (Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program) models to examine physical and biological controls on DO dynamics and ecosystem metabolism in Weeks Bay, AL. Observed vertical DO gradients varied on a diel basis, with larger amplitude variations at depth relative to the surface, underscoring the importance of benthic production and respiration as a driver of ecosystem metabolism in shallow estuaries. Hydrodynamic and water quality models simulated seasonal and event-driven dynamics, but struggled to resolve the amplitude of daily DO fluctuations, particularly in bottom waters. Using these data in conjunction with the 10-year continuous O2 record from Weeks Bay, we applied empirical relationships and simple scaling relations to predict how reducing nutrient loading may affect the frequency, severity and duration of hypoxia. We further applied

  15. DNAPL SITE EVALUATION - Project Summary

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dense nonaqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLs), especially chlorinated solvents, are among the most prevalent subsurface contaminants identified in ground-water supplies and at waste disposal sites. There are several site-characterization issues specific to DNAPL sites including (a) the...

  16. Diversity of mosquitoes and the aquatic insects associated with their oviposition sites along the Pacific coast of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The abundance, richness and diversity of mosquitoes and aquatic insects associated with their oviposition sites were surveyed along eight states of the Pacific coast of Mexico. Diversity was estimated using the Shannon index (H’), similarity measures and cluster analysis. Methods Oviposition sites were sampled during 2–3 months per year, over a three year period. Field collected larvae and pupae were reared and identified to species following adult emergence. Aquatic insects present at oviposition sites were also collected, counted and identified to species or genus. Results In total, 15 genera and 74 species of mosquitoes were identified: Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, An. albimanus and Aedes aegypti were the most abundant and widely-distributed species, representing 47% of total mosquito individuals sampled. New species records for certain states are reported. Anopheline diversity was lowest in Sinaloa state (H’ = 0.54) and highest in Chiapas (H’ = 1.61) and Michoacán (H’ = 1.56), whereas culicid diversity was lowest in Michoacán (H’ = 1.93), Colima (H’ = 1.95), Sinaloa (H’ = 1.99) and Jalisco (H’ = 2.01) and highest in Chiapas (H’ = 2.66). In total, 10 orders, 57 families, 166 genera and 247 species of aquatic insects were identified in samples. Aquatic insect diversity was highest in Chiapas, Oaxaca and Michoacán (H’ = 3.60-3.75). Mosquito larval/pupal abundance was not correlated with that of predatory Coleoptera and Hemiptera. Conclusion This represents the first update on the diversity and geographic distribution of the mosquitoes and aquatic insects of Mexico in over five decades. This information has been cataloged in Mexico’s National Biodiversity Information System (SNIB-CONABIO) for public inspection. PMID:24450800

  17. EVALUATION OF MINIMUM DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR ACUTE TOXICITY VALUE EXTRAPOLATION WITH AQUATIC ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Buckler, Denny R., Foster L. Mayer, Mark R. Ellersieck and Amha Asfaw. 2003. Evaluation of Minimum Data Requirements for Acute Toxicity Value Extrapolation with Aquatic Organisms. EPA/600/R-03/104. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effects Re...

  18. HABITAT EVALUATIONS OF AQUATIC CREATURES USING HSI MODEL CONSIDERING THE RIVER WATER TEMPERATURE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nukazawa, Kei; Shiraiwa, Jun-Ichi; Kazama, So

    Habitats of aquatic creatures (fishes Oncorhynchus masou masou, Plecoglossus altivelis altivel and Cyprinus carpio, fireflies Luciola cruciata and Luciola lateralis, and frogs Anura sp) in the Natori River basin located at the middle of Miyagi prefecture were evaluated dynamically using the water temperature as one of the environmental indices. HSI (Habitat Suitability Index) and WUA (Weighted Useable Area) of aquatic creatures were quantitatively calculated from numerical map information and hydrological simulation with a heat budget model. As results, general HSI of fireflies increased but of frogs decreased by adding the factor water temperature. Migration of Plecoglossus altivelis altivel could be represented by the variation of WUA.

  19. Hazard evaluation of soil contaminants with aquatic animals and plant toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan, A.; Burks, S.L.

    1996-12-31

    Deleterious effects upon the biota should be one of the principal characteristics used to perform the initial assessment of contamination and the acceptable level of clean-up at hazardous waste sites. Acute toxicity tests are probably the best means for conducting rapid preliminary assessment of distribution and extent of toxic conditions at a site. On the other hand acute toxicity tests may not be adequate indicators of potential effects at critical life stages or responses to longer term exposure to contaminants. Chronic toxicity tests are generally more sensitive than acute tests, and can be used to predict {open_quotes}no effect{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}safe{close_quotes} levels of contamination. In addition, chronic tests provide a better index of field population responses and more closely mimic actual exposure in the field. Partial chronic tests such as the 7 d Ceriodaphnia sp. survival and reproduction test and 7 d fathead minnow survival and growth test are widely used to predict effects upon critical stages in the life cycle of chemical and mixtures. The overall objective of this project was to evaluate the potential hazard of contaminants at an abandoned oil refinery upon aquatic ecosystems within the vicinity. A battery of acute and partial chronic toxicity tests were used to evaluate potential effects of contaminated soil and leachates of soil upon rice seed germination and root growth, Ceriodaphnia acute survival, fathead minnow acute survival, Microtox acute response, 7 d Ceriodaphnia survival and reproduction, and 7 d fathead minnow survival and growth. The specific tests used to accomplish the overall objective included; (1) To estimate phytotoxicity of the soil at the selected contaminated areas within the refinery, (2) to determine potential for leaching at the selected contaminated areas within the refinery, and (3) to assess the relative toxicity of each of the six contaminated areas in the refinery. 13 refs., 3 tabs.

  20. Predicting Scenarios for Successful Autodissemination of Pyriproxyfen by Malaria Vectors from Their Resting Sites to Aquatic Habitats; Description and Simulation Analysis of a Field-Parameterizable Model

    PubMed Central

    Kiware, Samson S.; Corliss, George; Merrill, Stephen; Lwetoijera, Dickson W.; Devine, Gregor; Majambere, Silas; Killeen, Gerry F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Large-cage experiments indicate pyriproxifen (PPF) can be transferred from resting sites to aquatic habitats by Anopheles arabiensis - malaria vector mosquitoes to inhibit emergence of their own offspring. PPF coverage is amplified twice: (1) partial coverage of resting sites with PPF contamination results in far higher contamination coverage of adult mosquitoes because they are mobile and use numerous resting sites per gonotrophic cycle, and (2) even greater contamination coverage of aquatic habitats results from accumulation of PPF from multiple oviposition events. Methods and Findings Deterministic mathematical models are described that use only field-measurable input parameters and capture the biological processes that mediate PPF autodissemination. Recent successes in large cages can be rationalized, and the plausibility of success under full field conditions can be evaluated a priori. The model also defines measurable properties of PPF delivery prototypes that may be optimized under controlled experimental conditions to maximize chances of success in full field trials. The most obvious flaw in this model is the endogenous relationship that inevitably occurs between the larval habitat coverage and the measured rate of oviposition into those habitats if the target mosquito species is used to mediate PPF transfer. However, this inconsistency also illustrates the potential advantages of using a different, non-target mosquito species for contamination at selected resting sites that shares the same aquatic habitats as the primary target. For autodissemination interventions to eliminate malaria transmission or vector populations during the dry season window of opportunity will require comprehensive contamination of the most challenging subset of aquatic habitats (Clx) that persist or retain PPF activity (Ux) for only one week (Clx→1, where Ux = 7 days). To achieve >99% contamination coverage of these habitats will necessitate values for the product of

  1. 7 CFR 205.508 - Site evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Accreditation of Certifying Agents § 205.508 Site evaluations. (a)...

  2. 7 CFR 205.508 - Site evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Accreditation of Certifying Agents § 205.508 Site evaluations. (a)...

  3. 7 CFR 205.508 - Site evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Accreditation of Certifying Agents § 205.508 Site evaluations. (a)...

  4. 7 CFR 205.508 - Site evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Accreditation of Certifying Agents § 205.508 Site evaluations. (a)...

  5. 7 CFR 205.508 - Site evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Accreditation of Certifying Agents § 205.508 Site evaluations. (a)...

  6. Neurotoxicity in Aquatic Systems: Evaluation of Anthropogenic Trace Substances

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is evaluating methods to screen and prioritize large numbers of chemicals for developmental toxicity, as well as acute and developmental neurotoxicity. In this endeavor, one of our focuses is on contaminants found in drinking water. To exp...

  7. Use of Unicellular Algae for Evaluation of Potential Aquatic Contaminants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    might result from theuse of conventional JP-4, JP-8 and Shale -Derived JPc8 with and without clay treatment. Chemical analyses were performed to evaluate...were RJ-4, RJ-5, shale -derived JP-8 with clay treatment, JP-9 and JP-10. The bioassays were conducted to determine the No Effect Levels (NOEL), and...understanding of the relative toxicities of the dissolved versus emulsified fractions of JP-4, JP-8, and shale -derived JP-8 with and without clay

  8. Evaluation of the Environmental DNA Method for Estimating Distribution and Biomass of Submerged Aquatic Plants

    PubMed Central

    Matsuhashi, Saeko; Doi, Hideyuki; Fujiwara, Ayaka; Watanabe, Sonoko; Minamoto, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    The environmental DNA (eDNA) method has increasingly been recognized as a powerful tool for monitoring aquatic animal species; however, its application for monitoring aquatic plants is limited. To evaluate eDNA analysis for estimating the distribution of aquatic plants, we compared its estimated distributions with eDNA analysis, visual observation, and past distribution records for the submerged species Hydrilla verticillata. Moreover, we conducted aquarium experiments using H. verticillata and Egeria densa and analyzed the relationships between eDNA concentrations and plant biomass to investigate the potential for biomass estimation. The occurrences estimated by eDNA analysis closely corresponded to past distribution records, and eDNA detections were more frequent than visual observations, indicating that the method is potentially more sensitive. The results of the aquarium experiments showed a positive relationship between plant biomass and eDNA concentration; however, the relationship was not always significant. The eDNA concentration peaked within three days of the start of the experiment in most cases, suggesting that plants do not release constant amounts of DNA. These results showed that eDNA analysis can be used for distribution surveys, and has the potential to estimate the biomass of aquatic plants. PMID:27304876

  9. Evaluation of the Environmental DNA Method for Estimating Distribution and Biomass of Submerged Aquatic Plants.

    PubMed

    Matsuhashi, Saeko; Doi, Hideyuki; Fujiwara, Ayaka; Watanabe, Sonoko; Minamoto, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    The environmental DNA (eDNA) method has increasingly been recognized as a powerful tool for monitoring aquatic animal species; however, its application for monitoring aquatic plants is limited. To evaluate eDNA analysis for estimating the distribution of aquatic plants, we compared its estimated distributions with eDNA analysis, visual observation, and past distribution records for the submerged species Hydrilla verticillata. Moreover, we conducted aquarium experiments using H. verticillata and Egeria densa and analyzed the relationships between eDNA concentrations and plant biomass to investigate the potential for biomass estimation. The occurrences estimated by eDNA analysis closely corresponded to past distribution records, and eDNA detections were more frequent than visual observations, indicating that the method is potentially more sensitive. The results of the aquarium experiments showed a positive relationship between plant biomass and eDNA concentration; however, the relationship was not always significant. The eDNA concentration peaked within three days of the start of the experiment in most cases, suggesting that plants do not release constant amounts of DNA. These results showed that eDNA analysis can be used for distribution surveys, and has the potential to estimate the biomass of aquatic plants.

  10. Laboratory evaluation of Ethiopian local plant Phytolacca dodecandra extract for its toxicity effectiveness against aquatic macroinvertebrates.

    PubMed

    Karunamoorthi, K; Bishaw, D; Mulat, T

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the toxicity effectiveness of berries crude extract of Endod [vernacular name (local native language, Amharic); Phytolacca dodecandra] against aquatic macroinvertebrates Baetidae (Mayflies) and Hydropsychidae (Caddisflies), under laboratory conditions. In Ethiopia, toxic plant, berries of Phytolacca dodecandra are being commonly used for washing clothes and to control fresh water snails. Macroinvertebrates are useful biological indicators of change in the aquatic ecosystems. The present study clearly revealed that the LC50 and LC90 values for berries crude extract of Phytolacca dodecandra against Baetidae were 181.94 and 525.78 mg/l and lethal doses (LC50 and LC90) required for Hydropsychidae were 1060.69 and 4120.4 mg/l respectively. The present investigation demonstrated that Baetidae was more susceptible than Hydropsychidae, even at shorter exposure period of 2 h. From our preliminary investigation the toxicity effectiveness of crude extracts of Phytolacca dodecandra has been clearly shown. In addition, it requires further explorations which address both the toxicity activity and the active principles that are responsible for its toxicity effectiveness. Ultimately, the release/introduction of Phytolacca dodecandra plant berries extracts into the river/streams leads to disruption of food chain in the aquatic ecosystem. Therefore, at this moment preserving the aquatic ecosystem is extremely essential and inevitable.

  11. Improved field experimental designs and quantitative evaluation of aquatic ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    McKenzie, D.H.; Thomas, J.M.

    1984-05-01

    The paired-station concept and a log transformed analysis of variance were used as methods to evaluate zooplankton density data collected during five years at an electrical generation station on Lake Michigan. To discuss the example and the field design necessary for a valid statistical analysis, considerable background is provided on the questions of selecting (1) sampling station pairs, (2) experimentwise error rates for multi-species analyses, (3) levels of Type I and II error rates, (4) procedures for conducting the field monitoring program, and (5) a discussion of the consequences of violating statistical assumptions. Details for estimating sample sizes necessary to detect changes of a specified magnitude are included. Both statistical and biological problems with monitoring programs (as now conducted) are addressed; serial correlation of successive observations in the time series obtained was identified as one principal statistical difficulty. The procedure reduces this problem to a level where statistical methods can be used confidently. 27 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  12. [Concentrations and safety evaluation of heavy metals in aquatic products of Yancheng, Jiangsu Province].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Fu, Qiang; Gao, Jun; Xu, Wang-Gu; Yin, Bo; Cao, Ya-Qiao; Qin, Wei-Hua

    2013-10-01

    Current status and intake risk of heavy metal pollution in aquatic products were studied in Yancheng, Jiangsu Province. Twenty-two kinds of aquatic products were sampled in May 2012, and the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cr in muscles were measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Single factor pollution index (Pg) and metal pollution index (MPI) were used to evaluate the degree of pollution, and provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) and carcinogenic risks were used to assess the edible safety and health risk, respectively. We found all the aquatic products were contaminated, and the pollutions by Cd, Pb and Cr were more serious, with the exceeding rates of 31.8% , 31.8% and 40.9% , respectively. Pi indices indicated the contents of Cd, Pb and Cr exceeded the allowable criteria of " Light Pollution", while Cd and Pb in freshwater fish, Pb and Cr in shellfish, and Cr in cephalopoda reached the criteria of " Heavy Pollution". The MPI results showed that heavy metal pollution in shellfish was the most severe, followed by crustacean, freshwater fish, and cephalopoda, while it was slight in marine fish. At present, the edible safety of heavy metals in aquatic products was acceptable in Yancheng, but the Cr intake of shellfish and cephalopoda was approaching PTWI and that of a minority of marine fishes even exceeded the PTWI value. The model estimation for health risk indicated that the health risk value of heavy metal ingestion was still below the maximal acceptable level (5.0 x 10(-5) a-1), recommended by International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) , but the values of Cr for shellfish and cephalopoda were approaching the criterion. In summary, heavy metal pollution in aquatic products in Yancheng is rather severe, especially for Cr pollution, and more attention should be paid to the pollution status, edible safety and health risk.

  13. Aquatic macrophytes as feeding site for small fishes in the Rosana Reservoir, Paranapanema River, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Casatti, L; Mendes, H F; Ferreira, K M

    2003-05-01

    In the present investigation we studied the feeding habits of the fishes associated with aquatic macrophytes in the Rosana Reservoir, southeastern Brazil. Twenty fish species were collected during four field trips, regularly distributed across the dry and wet seasons. Focal snorkeling observations of the fishes were made over a total of six hours. Nine species were present in abundances of more than 1% and, therefore, had their feeding habits analyzed. Hemigrammus marginatus, Roeboides paranensis, Hyphessobrycon eques, Astyanax altiparanae, Serrasalmus spilopleura, and Bryconamericus stramineus were predominantly invertivores, with predominance of aquatic insects (Diptera, Ephemeroptera, and Trichoptera immatures) among their food items. The predominantly algivores were Apareiodon affinis, Serrapinnus notomelas, and Satanoperca pappaterra, with high frequency of filamentous blue-green algae, diatoms, clorophyts, and periderm. The different microhabitat exploitation plus diet composition suggests partitioning of resources and absence of food competition among the most representative fish species in the studied community, indicating the importance of the naturalistic approach to fish ecology studies.

  14. Evaluation of the aquatic toxicity of two veterinary sulfonamides using five test organisms.

    PubMed

    De Liguoro, Marco; Di Leva, Vincenzo; Gallina, Guglielmo; Faccio, Elisabetta; Pinto, Gabriele; Pollio, Antonino

    2010-10-01

    The aquatic toxicity of sulfaquinoxaline (SQO) and sulfaguanidine (SGD) was evaluated on the following test organisms: Daphnia magna (reproduction test), Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Scenedesmus dimorphus, Synecococcus leopoliensis (algal growth inhibition test) and Lemna gibba (duckweed growth inhibition test). Furthermore, the additivity of the two compounds was measured on D. magna (acute immobilisation test) and P. subcapitata (algal growth inhibition test) using the isobologram method. Results show that SQO and SGD are more toxic to green algae and daphnids, respectively, than other veterinary sulfonamides (SAs) and that their mixtures have a less then additive interaction. Taking into account the highest concentrations detected so far in surface waters for SQO (0.112 μg L(-1)) and for SGD (0.145 μg L(-1)) and the lowest NOECs obtained with the five test organisms, divided by an assessment factor of 10, the following PNECs and risk quotients (RQs) were calculated. SQO: PNEC 2 μg L(-1); RQ 0.056. SGD: PNEC 39.5 μg L(-1); RQ 0.004. Consequently, at the concentrations actually detected in the aquatic environment, the two SAs alone should not harm the freshwater organisms. However, it seems advisable, for veterinary mass treatments, the use of other SAs that have a lesser impact on the aquatic environment. Furthermore, considering the high probability of having complex mixtures of different SAs residues in water, each individual contamination should be evaluated by applying to the SAs mixtures the conservative criteria of additivity.

  15. Differential accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in the aquatic food web at the Kalamazoo River Superfund site, Michigan.

    PubMed

    Kay, Denise P; Blankenship, Alan L; Coady, Katherine K; Neigh, Arianne M; Zwiernik, Matthew J; Millsap, Stephanie D; Strause, Karl; Park, Cyrus; Bradley, Patrick; Newsted, John L; Jones, Paul D; Giesy, John P

    2005-08-15

    A series of field studies were conducted to gain a better understanding of the bioaccumulation and dynamics of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in the aquatic food web of the Kalamazoo River flood plain. Representative species of passerine birds, mammals, fish, aquatic plants, invertebrates, and colocated sediments were collected from areas located within submerged portions of the former Trowbridge impoundment and also from areas located at an upstream reference location. In most matrixes, total concentrations of PCBs were significantly greater in the downstream study area compared to the upstream reference location. Patterns of PCB congeners varied among trophic levels due to selective bioaccumulation of more chlorinated congeners in upper trophic level organisms. There were no statistically significant differences in total PCB concentrations among sampling grids within either site or temporally among three sampling seasons between May and September. The greatest total PCB concentrations were detected in adult tree swallows (mean = 8.7 mg/kg wet weight (ww)) and fish (mean = 4.4 mg/ kg ww) collected from the former Trowbridge impoundment. Concentrations of total 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs) were greatest in egg, nestling, and adult tree swallows collected from the former Trowbridge impoundment. There was not a significant correlation between concentrations of total PCBs and TEQs at either site in the mammalian or avian food webs. The relative potency of the mixture of PCBs, expressed as the ratio of TEQs to total PCBs, increased with trophic position in the avian and mammalian aquatic food webs located within the former Trowbridge impoundment.

  16. Lunar resource evaluation and mine site selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bence, A. Edward

    1992-01-01

    Two scenarios in this evaluation of lunar mineral resources and the selection of possible mining and processing sites are considered. The first scenario assumes that no new surface or near-surface data will be available before site selection (presumably one of the Apollo sites). The second scenario assumes that additional surface geology data will have been obtained by a lunar orbiter mission, an unmanned sample return mission (or missions), and followup manned missions. Regardless of the scenario, once a potentially favorable mine site has been identified, a minimum amount of fundamental data is needed to assess the resources at that site and to evaluate its suitability for mining and downstream processing. Since much of the required data depends on the target mineral(s), information on the resource, its beneficiation, and the refining, smelting, and fabricating processes must be factored into the evaluation. The annual capacity and producing lifetime of the mine and its associated processing plant must be estimated before the resource reserves can be assessed. The available market for the product largely determines the capacity and lifetime of the mine. The Apollo 17 site is described as a possible mining site. The use of new sites is briefly addressed.

  17. Off-site impacts of wildfires on aquatic systems - Biomarker responses of the mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Bruno; Silva, Vera; Campos, Isabel; Pereira, Joana Luísa; Pereira, Patrícia; Keizer, Jan Jacob; Gonçalves, Fernando; Abrantes, Nelson

    2017-03-01

    The number of wildfires has markedly increased in Mediterranean Europe, including in Portugal. Wildfires are environmentally concerning, not only due to the loss of biodiversity and forest area, but also as a consequence of environmental contamination by specific compounds including metals and polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs). These contaminants, mostly bound to ashes, can reach downstream water bodies, namely through surface runoff, being ultimately dispersed by vast areas and contacting with aquatic biota. Being toxicologically noteworthy, the potential toxic outcomes of the input of such chemicals across the aquatic compartment must be characterized. In this context, the present study used a biomarker-based approach to find early-warning signals of toxicity triggered by the exposure of the mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki, to affected aqueous runoff and stream water samples collected from a forest burnt area. The chemical analysis revealed concerning levels of metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in both runoff and stream water samples. Biological responses elicited by the collected samples showed the occurrence of pro-oxidative modifications, specifically driven by enzymatic forms involved in the metabolism of glutathione. Despite these effects, no further signs of involvement of metals and PAHs were elicited in terms of neurotoxicity. The overall set of data implicates chemicals resulting from wildfires in clear deleterious effects in exposed fish.

  18. [Correlation between aquatic plant diversity and water environment in the typical sites of Hangzhou section of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal].

    PubMed

    Lu, Yin; Xu, Xiao-Lu; Zhang, De-Yong; Wang, Li; Zhu, Xu-Ni; Feng, Feng; Zhou, Qiao-Jun; Xie, Peng

    2014-05-01

    Community characteristics of aquatic plant are important indicators for water quality. In order to understand the distribution characteristics of aquatic plants in aquatic ecosystem of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal ( Hangzhou section) , and to analyze the relationship between water quality and plant community, an investigation of the aquatic plants in five typical sites was made in this study. Species composition, biological diversity, quantity distribution and dominant species of aquatic plants in five sites were studied for ecological changes. Physicochemical factors such as temperature, pH value, transparency, dissolved oxygen and main elements of living were also analyzed. Based on the results, the distribution of phytoplankton diversity and environment factor correlations by multivariate statistical analysis were discussed. The trophic levels of these sites were assessed by using related biological standards. Results indicated that the diversity of aquatic plant mainly depends on the diversity of phytoplankton in the typical sites of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal. We observed and identified 35 genus algae, including advantage community of Hyalodiscus Ehrenberg and Melosira Agardh, which belonged to Bacillariophyta. According to the impact on the phytoplankton diversity and distribution, factors such as dissolved oxygen, transparency, water temperature, etc. had an obvious influence on the distribution of phytoplankton in the existing 6 environmental factors, while the influence of pH value was the highest. In terms of water quality eutrophication, site Tangxi Bridge and Maiyu Bridge showed a relatively lighter pollution, while site Yiqiao Bridge, Gujia Bridge and Gongchen Bridge showed a higher pollution, and the pollution of site Yiqiao Bridge was the most serious.

  19. Evaluation of estrogenic activities of aquatic herbicides and surfactants using an rainbow trout vitellogenin assay.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lingtian; Thrippleton, Kelly; Irwin, Mary Ann; Siemering, Geoffrey S; Mekebri, Abdou; Crane, David; Berry, Kevin; Schlenk, Daniel

    2005-10-01

    Estrogenic potencies of four herbicides (triclopyr, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), diquat dibromide, glyphosate), two alkylphenol ethoxylate-containing surfactants (R-11 and Target Prospreader Activator (TPA)), and the binary mixture of surfactants with the herbicides were evaluated using an in vivo rainbow trout vitellogenin assay. Juvenile rainbow trout exposed to 2,4-D (1.64 mg/l) for 7 days had a 93-fold increase in plasma vitellogenin (Vtg) levels compared with untreated fish, while rainbow trout exposed to other pesticides alone did not show elevated vitellogenin levels compared to the control fish. When combined with surfactants, trends indicated enhanced estrogenicity for all combinations, but only 2,4-D and triclopyr caused significant induction of Vtg. Concentration-response studies demonstrated that the lowest observed effect concentrations (LOECs) for 2,4-D and triclopyr were 0.164 mg/l and 1 mg/l, respectively. In terms of measured 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), the LOECs of R-11 and TPA were 20 micro/l and 9.5 microg/l, respectively. Binary mixtures of TPA and 2,4-D showed a greater than additive estrogenic response at the lowest concentrations tested, but a less than additive response at the highest combined concentrations. Binary mixtures of TPA with triclopyr also caused greater than additive Vtg responses in two middle concentrations when compared to TPA or triclopyr alone. When trout were exposed to water collected from a site where triclopyr was used in combination with TPA, a concentration-dependent increase in Vtg expression was observed. Measured values of 4-NP were 3.7 microg/l, and triclopyr concentrations were below detection (<5 ng/l). Estradiol equivalents (EEQs) of the lake water were calculated from an estradiol concentration-response curve and were similar (8.5 +/- 7.7 ng/l) to the mean values for the combined triclopyr + TPA treatments (9.9-12.2 ng/l) in the laboratory, suggesting the estrogenicity of the water may have been due to

  20. Evaluating the Impact of Land Use Change on Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Stressors in Mobile Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Quattrochi, Dale; Thom, Ronald; Woodruff, Dana; Judd, Chaeli; Ellis, Jean; Watson, Brian; Rodriquez, Hugo; Johnson, Hoyt

    2009-01-01

    Alabama coastal systems have been subjected to increasing pressure from a variety of activities including urban and rural development, shoreline modifications, industrial activities, and dredging of shipping and navigation channels. The impacts on coastal ecosystems are often observed through the use of indicator species. One such indicator species for aquatic ecosystem health is submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). Watershed and hydrodynamic modeling has been performed to evaluate the impact of land use change in Mobile and Baldwin counties on SAV stressors and controlling factors (temperature, salinity, and sediment) in Mobile Bay. Watershed modeling using the Loading Simulation Package in C++ (LSPC) was performed for all watersheds contiguous to Mobile Bay for land use scenarios in 1948, 1992, 2001, and 2030. Landsat-derived National Land Cover Data (NLCD) were used in the 1992 and 2001 simulations after having been reclassified to a common classification scheme. The Prescott Spatial Growth Model was used to project the 2030 land use scenario based on current trends. The LSPC model simulations provided output on changes in flow, temperature, and sediment for 22 discharge points into the Bay. Theses results were inputted in the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Computer Code (EFDC) hydrodynamic model to generate data on changes in temperature, salinity, and sediment on a grid with four vertical profiles throughout Mobile Bay. The changes in the aquatic ecosystem were used to perform an ecological analysis to evaluate the impact on SAV habitat suitability. This is the key product benefiting the Mobile Bay coastal environmental managers that integrates the influences of temperature, salinity, and sediment due to land use driven flow changes with the restoration potential of SAVs.

  1. Evaluation of in silico development of aquatic toxicity species sensitivity distributions.

    PubMed

    Barron, Mace G; Jackson, Crystal R; Awkerman, Jill A

    2012-07-15

    Determining the sensitivity of a diversity of species to environmental contaminants continues to be a significant challenge in ecological risk assessment because toxicity data are generally limited to a few standard test species. This study assessed whether species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) could be generated with reasonable accuracy using only in silico modeling of toxicity to aquatic organisms. Ten chemicals were selected for evaluation that spanned several modes of actions and chemical classes. Median lethal concentrations (LC50s) were estimated using three internet-based quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) tools that employ different computational approaches: ECOSAR (Ecological Structure Activity Relationships), ASTER (Assessment Tools for the Evaluation of Risk), and TEST (Toxicity Estimation Software Tool). Each QSAR estimate was then used as input into the SSD module of the internet-based toxicity estimation program Web-ICE to generate an in silico estimated fifth percentile hazard concentration (HC5) for each of the ten chemicals. The accuracy of the estimated HC5s was determined by comparison to measured HC5s developed from an independent dataset of experimental acute toxicity values for a diversity of aquatic species. Estimated HC5s showed generally poor agreement with measured HC5s determined for all available aquatic species, but showed better agreement when species composition of the chemical specific SSDs were identical. These results indicated that LC50 variability and species composition were large sources of error in estimated HC5s. Additional research is needed to reduce uncertainty in HC5s using only in silico approaches and to develop computational approaches for predicting species sensitivity.

  2. Aquatic assessment of the Ely Copper Mine Superfund site, Vershire, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seal, Robert R., II; Kiah, Richard G.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Besser, John M.; Coles, James F.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Argue, Denise M.; Levitan, Denise M.; Deacon, Jeffrey R.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2010-01-01

    The information was used to develop an overall assessment of the impact on the aquatic system that appears to be a result of the acid rock drainage at the Ely Mine. More than 700 meters of Ely Brook, including two of the six ponds, were found to be severely impacted, on the basis of water-quality data and biological assessments. The reference location was of good quality based on the water quality and biological assessment. More than 3,125 meters of Schoolhouse Brook are also severely impacted, on the basis of water-quality data and biological assessments. The biological community begins to recover near the confluence with the Ompompanoosuc River. The evidence is less conclusive regarding the Ompompanoosuc River. The sediment data suggest that the sediments could be a source of toxicity in Ely Brook and Schoolhouse Brook. The surface-water assessment is consistent with the outcome of a surface-water toxicity testing program performed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for Ely Brook and Schoolhouse Brook and a surface-water toxicity testing program and in situ amphibian testing program for the ponds.

  3. Gasbuggy Site Assessment and Risk Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    2011-03-01

    This report describes the geologic and hydrologic conditions and evaluates potential health risks to workers in the natural gas industry in the vicinity of the Gasbuggy, New Mexico, site, where the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission detonated an underground nuclear device in 1967. The 29-kiloton detonation took place 4,240 feet below ground surface and was designed to evaluate the use of a nuclear detonation to enhance natural gas production from the Pictured Cliffs Formation in the San Juan Basin, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, on land administered by Carson National Forest. A site-specific conceptual model was developed based on current understanding of the hydrologic and geologic environment. This conceptual model was used for establishing plausible contaminant exposure scenarios, which were then evaluated for human health risk potential. The most mobile and, therefore, the most probable contaminant that could result in human exposure is tritium. Natural gas production wells were identified as having the greatest potential for bringing detonation-derived contaminants (tritium) to the ground surface in the form of tritiated produced water. Three exposure scenarios addressing potential contamination from gas wells were considered in the risk evaluation: a gas well worker during gas-well-drilling operations, a gas well worker performing routine maintenance, and a residential exposure. The residential exposure scenario was evaluated only for comparison; permanent residences on national forest lands at the Gasbuggy site are prohibited

  4. Usability Evaluation of Public Web Mapping Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.

    2014-04-01

    Web mapping sites are interactive maps that are accessed via Webpages. With the rapid development of Internet and Geographic Information System (GIS) field, public web mapping sites are not foreign to people. Nowadays, people use these web mapping sites for various reasons, in that increasing maps and related map services of web mapping sites are freely available for end users. Thus, increased users of web mapping sites led to more usability studies. Usability Engineering (UE), for instance, is an approach for analyzing and improving the usability of websites through examining and evaluating an interface. In this research, UE method was employed to explore usability problems of four public web mapping sites, analyze the problems quantitatively and provide guidelines for future design based on the test results. Firstly, the development progress for usability studies were described, and simultaneously several usability evaluation methods such as Usability Engineering (UE), User-Centered Design (UCD) and Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) were generally introduced. Then the method and procedure of experiments for the usability test were presented in detail. In this usability evaluation experiment, four public web mapping sites (Google Maps, Bing maps, Mapquest, Yahoo Maps) were chosen as the testing websites. And 42 people, who having different GIS skills (test users or experts), gender (male or female), age and nationality, participated in this test to complete the several test tasks in different teams. The test comprised three parts: a pretest background information questionnaire, several test tasks for quantitative statistics and progress analysis, and a posttest questionnaire. The pretest and posttest questionnaires focused on gaining the verbal explanation of their actions qualitatively. And the design for test tasks targeted at gathering quantitative data for the errors and problems of the websites. Then, the results mainly from the test part were analyzed. The

  5. Evaluating the Relationship between Equilibrium Passive Sampler Uptake and Aquatic Organism Bioaccumulation.

    EPA Science Inventory

    For decades, biomonitoring organisms have been used to assess the bioavailability of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) at contaminated sediment Superfund sites across the country. Specific applications include evaluating remedy effectiveness and pre- and post-remediation l...

  6. Gasbuggy Site Assessment and Risk Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    2011-03-01

    The Gasbuggy site is in northern New Mexico in the San Juan Basin, Rio Arriba County (Figure 1-1). The Gasbuggy experiment was designed to evaluate the use of a nuclear detonation to enhance natural gas production from the Pictured Cliffs Formation, a tight, gas-bearing sandstone formation. The 29-kiloton-yield nuclear device was placed in a 17.5-inch wellbore at 4,240 feet (ft) below ground surface (bgs), approximately 40 ft below the Pictured Cliffs/Lewis shale contact, in an attempt to force the cavity/chimney formed by the detonation up into the Pictured Cliffs Sandstone. The test was conducted below the southwest quarter of Section 36, Township 29 North, Range 4 West, New Mexico Principal Meridian. The device was detonated on December 10, 1967, creating a 335-ft-high chimney above the detonation point and a cavity 160 ft in diameter. The gas produced from GB-ER (the emplacement and reentry well) during the post-detonation production tests was radioactive and diluted, primarily by carbon dioxide. After 2 years, the energy content of the gas had recovered to 80 percent of the value of gas in conventionally developed wells in the area. There is currently no technology capable of remediating deep underground nuclear detonation cavities and chimneys. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) must continue to manage the Gasbuggy site to ensure that no inadvertent intrusion into the residual contamination occurs. DOE has complete control over the 1/4 section (160 acres) containing the shot cavity, and no drilling is permitted on that property. However, oil and gas leases are on the surrounding land. Therefore, the most likely route of intrusion and potential exposure would be through contaminated natural gas or contaminated water migrating into a producing natural gas well outside the immediate vicinity of ground zero. The purpose of this report is to describe the current site conditions and evaluate the potential health risks posed by the most plausible

  7. Evaluation of OECD guidelines for testing of chemicals with aquatic organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Blaylock, B.G.; McCarthy, J.F.; Frank, M.L.; Singley, P.T.

    1983-10-01

    The protocols in the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) guidelines for testing of chemicals with aquatic organisms were evaluated for the following tests: (1) Fish, Acute Toxicity Test, (2) Bioaccumulation: Flow-through Fish Test, (3) Daphnia sp., 14-day Reproduction Test (including an Acute Immobilization Test), and (4) Alga, Growth Inhibition Test. The protocols were evaluated by conducting the tests with different classes of chemicals (i.e., water soluble, less water soluble requiring a chemical carrier, and volatile chemical). Flow-through and semistatic Fish, Acute Toxicity Tests were conducted with cupric chloride and acridine. The Bioaccumulation Flow-Through Fish Test was conducted with naphthalene and DDE. Three chemicals - cupric chloride, acridine, and di-n-butyl phthalate - were used to evaluate the Daphnia sp., 14-day Reproduction Test. The Alga, Growth Inhibition Test was evaluated with three chemicals: cupric chloride, acridine, and paradichlorobenzene. By following the OECD guidelines in conducting these tests, results were obtained that are comparable with literature data obtained with other methods. An evaluation of each test protocol is given with recommendations for the guidelines for conducting the tests.

  8. Toxicity of fluoride to aquatic species and evaluation of toxicity modifying factors.

    PubMed

    Pearcy, Krysta; Elphick, James; Burnett-Seidel, Charlene

    2015-07-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the toxicity of fluoride to a variety of freshwater aquatic organisms and to establish whether water quality variables contribute substantively to modifying its toxicity. Water hardness, chloride, and alkalinity were tested as possible toxicity modifying factors for fluoride using acute toxicity tests with Hyalella azteca and Oncorhynchus mykiss. Chloride appeared to be the major toxicity modifying factor for fluoride in these acute toxicity tests. The chronic toxicity of fluoride was evaluated with a variety of species, including 3 fish (Pimephales promelas, O. mykiss, and Salvelinus namaycush), 3 invertebrates (Ceriodaphnia dubia, H. azteca, and Chironomus dilutus), 1 plant (Lemna minor), and 1 alga (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata). Hyalella azteca was the most sensitive species overall, and O. mykiss was the most sensitive species of fish. The role of chloride as a toxicity modifying factor was inconsistent between species in the chronic toxicity tests.

  9. The Potential Impacts of OTEC Intakes on Aquatic Organisms at an OTEC Site under Development on Kauai, HI

    SciTech Connect

    Oney, Stephen K.; Hogan, Timothy; Steinbeck, John

    2013-08-31

    Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is a marine renewable energy technology with the potential to contribute significantly to the baseload power needs of tropical island communities and remote U.S. military installations. As with other renewable energy technologies, however, there are potential challenges to its commercialization: technological, financial, social, and environmental. Given the large volumes of seawater required to drive the electricity-producing cycle, there is potential for the intakes to negatively impact the marine resources of the source waterbody through the impingement and entrainment of marine organisms. The goal of this project was to identify feasible warm water intake designs for a land-based OTEC facility proposed for development in Port Allen, Kauai and to characterize the populations of ichthyoplankton near the proposed warm water intake location that could be at risk of entrainment. The specific objectives of this project were to: • Complete a site-specific assessment of available and feasible warm water intake technologies to determine the best intake designs for minimizing impacts to aquatic organisms at the proposed land-based OTEC site in Port Allen, Kauai. • Complete a field sampling program to collect biological data to characterize the baseline populations of ichthyoplankton near the sites being considered for the warm water intake at the proposed land-based OTEC site in Port Allen, Kauai. Various intake design options are presented with the focus on providing adequate environmental protection to the local ichthyoplankton population while providing an economically viable intake option to the OTEC developer. Further definition by NOAA and other environmental regulators is required to further refine the designs presented to meet all US regulations for future OTEC development.

  10. Preliminary survey of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in aquatic habitats and Great Blue Herons on the Hanford Site. [Ardea herodias

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, R.G.; Bean, R.M.; Fitzner, R.E.; Neitzel, D.A.; Rickard, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), constituents of insulating fluids used in electrical transformers and capacitors, were identified during a preliminary survey of waters, sediments, and fish from five locations on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State: Gable Mountain Pond, B Pond, West Pond, White Bluffs Slough on the Columbia River, and a pond on the Wahluke Slope. These aquatic areas are all within the foraging range of great blue herons (Ardea herodias) that nest on the Hanford Site. Of those waters that contained PCBs, concentrations were found to be somewhat over 1 ng/L, but less than 20 ng/L, and equal to or less than concentrations reported for other freshwater regions of the United States. The PCBs in sediments and fish closely resembled the chromatographic profile of Aroclor 1260, a commercial PCB mixture produced in the United States by the Monsanto Company. Concentrations of PCBs detected in the sediments were 10 to 100 times lower than those found in soils and sediments from other areas of the nation. Concentrations of PCBs in fat from Hanford great blue herons ranged from 3.6 to 10.6 ppM, while PCB concentrations in herons from other areas of the Pacific Northwest ranged from 0.6 to 15.6 ppM. Great blue herons at Hanford contained PCB isomer distributions closely matching that of Aroclor 1260; great blue herons from other locations contained isomer distributions indicating the presence of a mixture of aroclors. 21 refs., 13 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. Target detection and mapping of aquatic hazardous waste sites in Massachusetts Bay utilizing sidescan sonar

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, D.J.; Capone, V.; Cook, G.S.; Casey, D.A.; Wiley, D.N.

    1992-01-01

    The oceans have frequently been used for disposal for a variety of industrial, chemical, and low-level radioactive wastes. In Massachusetts Bay, several areas have been used for the permitted and possible non-permitted disposal of waste containers with environmentally sensitive materials. During the Summer and Fall of 1991, the Industrial Waste Site (IWS) and the Boston Lightship Dumping Ground (BLDG) in Massachusetts Bay were the subject of intensive surveys to determine the areal extent, distribution and location of waste containers.

  12. Impact of Data Availability on Site Assessment and Predictive Behavior of Aquatic Invasive Species

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    before predicting which specific sites will be susceptible to invasion. Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) Current distribution: Established...populations in California (Chinese Mitten Crab Working Group (CMCWG) 2003; Hanson and Sytsma 2008; U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 2008). Reports from the...and introduced ranges of Chinese mitten crabs . Invaded estuaries varied in size from 200 to 1328 km (average 602 km), tidal intrusion varied from 100

  13. Evaluation of Time- and Concentration-dependent Toxic Effect Models for use in Aquatic Risk Assessments, Oral Presentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Various models have been proposed for describing the time- and concentration-dependence of toxic effects to aquatic organisms, which would improve characterization of risks in natural systems. Selected models were evaluated using results from a study on the lethality of copper t...

  14. Ecotoxicity of nitroaromatics to aquatic and terrestrial species at Army Superfund sites

    SciTech Connect

    Hovatter, P.S.; Talmage, S.S.; Opresko, D.M.; Ross, R.H.

    1997-09-01

    Nitroaromatic compounds, including 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, RDX, HMX, tetryl, and associated degradation products, are released into the environment during the manufacturing, loading, packing, and assembling of munitions at US Army Ammunition Plants. With the exception of 2A46DNT, nitroaromatic compounds are more toxic to freshwater fishes than to freshwater invertebrates. Rainbow trout are the most sensitive test species with LC{sub 50} values ranging from 0.43 to 6.4 mg/L for TNT, RDX, and HMX. These compounds produce negative effects on reproductive endpoints in terrestrial mammals at doses >1 mg/kg/day. Limited data indicate that nitroaromatics are not toxic to terrestrial plants and soil invertebrates. Additional studies need to be undertaken to completely characterize the toxicity of these compounds; however, the criteria and screening benchmarks presented in this paper can be used to assess the risks to indigenous flora and fauna at Army Superfund sites.

  15. Aquatic toxicology: fact or fiction

    SciTech Connect

    Macek, K.J.

    1980-02-01

    The science of aquatic toxicology is a relatively new science. The development of the field of aquatic toxicology since 1930 is traced. The state of the art of aquatic toxicology compared with that of classical toxicology is evaluated. The science of aquatic toxicology is expected to undergo a significant period of rapid growth and development, leading ultimately to the formation of a mature science.

  16. Pristine aquatic systems in a Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site of the Brazilian Cerrado.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Bárbara Medeiros; de Mendonça-Galvão, Luciana

    2014-12-01

    The maintenance of limnological monitoring programs in the Cerrado Domain is crucial as a provision of useful information about temporal variations in land use and their respective water quality responses, considering its importance as water source for different Brazilian hydrographic basins. The purpose of this research was to describe limnological variables of low-order lotic systems located in the Cerrado Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site (Environmental Protection Area (APA) Gama and Cabeça de Veado, Federal District of Brazil). Altogether, nine different streams were considered in this study. Samplings were conducted between 2010 and 2012, concentrated in the dry and rainy seasons. The sampling sites were generally characterized by low nutrient concentrations (e.g., medians, TP = 14.8 μg L(-1), TN = 20.0 μg L(-1), NO3 = 13.8 μg L(-1)) and slightly acidic waters (median, pH = 5.3), with quite low electrical conductivity values (median = 6.4 μS cm(-1)). However, water quality degradation as a response to diffuse pollution was reported in some sampling points (e.g., Onça and Gama streams), expressed by relatively higher N and P concentrations, which were probably highlighted by the good water quality of the data set as whole. Although there was a trend to higher values of nitrogen forms during the dry season, significant statistical differences between the seasonal periods were reported only for the variables temperature and dissolved silica, which were higher in the dry and rainy season, respectively. The streams located in the preserved areas inside the ecological stations of APA Gama and Cabeça de Veado can still be considered good examples of reference lotic systems in the Cerrado Domain; notwithstanding, this study reported incipient signs of water quality degradation which cannot be overlooked in future limnological monitoring.

  17. EVALUATION OF BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF VITELLOGENIN EXPRESSION IN DIFFERENT AQUATIC MESOCOSM TROPIC LEVELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic mesocosms were dosed with an environmentally relevant concentration of 17-a-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) to study the significance of trophic status (N, P levels) on the attenuation and bioavailability of synthetic estrogens in aquatic ecosystems. Estrogenic activity was asse...

  18. Sampling Plan for FY2001 Aquatic Mercury Assessment at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, N.V.

    2001-03-13

    The State of Georgia has declared that seven segments of the Savannah River, including the reach adjacent to the Savannah River Site, are impaired for fish consumption due to high levels of mercury (U. S. EPA 2000). The Clean Water Act requires states to determine a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for pollutants that are responsible for impairment. The TMDL is the total amount of pollutant that can be assimilated by the receiving water body while achieving the water quality target that is protective of fish consumption. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (U. S. EPA) Region 4 issued a proposed TMDL for mercury in the Savannah River on February 8, 2000. The TMDL process establishes the allowable loading of pollutants for a water body, based on the relationship between pollution sources and in-stream water quality conditions, so that states can establish water-quality based controls to reduce pollution and restore and maintain the quality of their water resources (U. S. EPA 2000). The first phase of the proposed TMDL specifies a target mercury concentration of 1 ng/L for the Savannah River and point source discharges. The rationale for this target concentration is to protect human health from mercury toxicity caused by the consumption of contaminated fish. Due to the complexity of mercury cycling, inadequate data and difficulty in quantifying nonpoint source loads of mercury, nonpoint source loads are not considered in this first phase of the TMDL.

  19. Derivation of site-specific surface water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic ecosystems near a Korean military training facility.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seung-Woo; An, Youn-Joo

    2014-01-01

    This study suggested the first Korean site-specific ecological surface water quality criteria for the protection of ecosystems near an artillery range at a Korean military training facility. Surface water quality (SWQ) criteria in Korea address human health protection but do not encompass ecological criteria such as limits for metals and explosives. The first objective of this study was to derive site-specific SWQ criteria for the protection of aquatic ecosystems in Hantan River, Korea. The second objective was to establish discharge criteria for the artillery range to protect the aquatic ecosystems of Hantan River. In this study, we first identified aquatic organisms living in the Hantan River, including fishes, reptiles, invertebrates, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and amphibians. Second, we collected ecotoxicity data for these aquatic organisms and constructed an ecotoxicity database for Cd, Cu, Zn, TNT, and RDX. This study determined the ecological maximum permissible concentrations for metals and explosives based on the ecotoxicity database and suggested ecological surface water quality criteria for the Hantan River by considering analytical detection limits. Discharge limit criteria for the shooting range were determined based on the ecological surface water quality criteria suggested for Hantan River with further consideration of the dilution of the contaminants discharged into the river.

  20. Prospective safety performance evaluation on construction sites.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xianguo; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Limao; Skibniewski, Miroslaw J; Wang, Yanhong

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a systematic Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) based approach for Prospective Safety Performance Evaluation (PSPE) on construction sites, with causal relationships and interactions between enablers and the goals of PSPE taken into account. According to a sample of 450 valid questionnaire surveys from 30 Chinese construction enterprises, a SEM model with 26 items included for PSPE in the context of Chinese construction industry is established and then verified through the goodness-of-fit test. Three typical types of construction enterprises, namely the state-owned enterprise, private enterprise and Sino-foreign joint venture, are selected as samples to measure the level of safety performance given the enterprise scale, ownership and business strategy are different. Results provide a full understanding of safety performance practice in the construction industry, and indicate that the level of overall safety performance situation on working sites is rated at least a level of III (Fair) or above. This phenomenon can be explained that the construction industry has gradually matured with the norms, and construction enterprises should improve the level of safety performance as not to be eliminated from the government-led construction industry. The differences existing in the safety performance practice regarding different construction enterprise categories are compared and analyzed according to evaluation results. This research provides insights into cause-effect relationships among safety performance factors and goals, which, in turn, can facilitate the improvement of high safety performance in the construction industry.

  1. How Can Multi-Site Evaluations Be Participatory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrenz, Frances; Huffman, Douglas

    2003-01-01

    Multi-site evaluations are becoming increasingly common in federal funding portfolios. Although much thought has been given to multi-site evaluation, there has been little emphasis on how it might interact with participatory evaluation. Therefore, this paper reviews several National Science Foundation educational, multi-site evaluations for the…

  2. Empirical evaluation of the conceptual model underpinning a regional aquatic long-term monitoring program using causal modelling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irvine, Kathryn M.; Miller, Scott; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Archer, Erik; Roper, Brett B.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Conceptual models are an integral facet of long-term monitoring programs. Proposed linkages between drivers, stressors, and ecological indicators are identified within the conceptual model of most mandated programs. We empirically evaluate a conceptual model developed for a regional aquatic and riparian monitoring program using causal models (i.e., Bayesian path analysis). We assess whether data gathered for regional status and trend estimation can also provide insights on why a stream may deviate from reference conditions. We target the hypothesized causal pathways for how anthropogenic drivers of road density, percent grazing, and percent forest within a catchment affect instream biological condition. We found instream temperature and fine sediments in arid sites and only fine sediments in mesic sites accounted for a significant portion of the maximum possible variation explainable in biological condition among managed sites. However, the biological significance of the direct effects of anthropogenic drivers on instream temperature and fine sediments were minimal or not detected. Consequently, there was weak to no biological support for causal pathways related to anthropogenic drivers’ impact on biological condition. With weak biological and statistical effect sizes, ignoring environmental contextual variables and covariates that explain natural heterogeneity would have resulted in no evidence of human impacts on biological integrity in some instances. For programs targeting the effects of anthropogenic activities, it is imperative to identify both land use practices and mechanisms that have led to degraded conditions (i.e., moving beyond simple status and trend estimation). Our empirical evaluation of the conceptual model underpinning the long-term monitoring program provided an opportunity for learning and, consequently, we discuss survey design elements that require modification to achieve question driven monitoring, a necessary step in the practice of

  3. Evaluating the impact of municipal water fluoridation on the aquatic environment.

    PubMed Central

    Osterman, J W

    1990-01-01

    Although highly beneficial for dental health, low concentrations of fluoride in environmental waters may be toxic to several organisms. In an era of heightened public awareness about the environment, this may lead city officials to withhold implementing water fluoridation for environmental reasons. This paper presents a mass balance approach to evaluate this perceived risk. Generally speaking, fluoridated water loss during use, dilution of sewage by rain and ground water infiltrate, fluoride removal during secondary sewage treatment, and diffusion dynamics at effluent outfall combine to eliminate fluoridation-related environmental effects. In Montreal, water fluoridation would raise average aquatic fluoride levels in the waste water plume immediately below effluent outfall by only 0.05-0.09 mg/l. Downstream, these changes would be only 0.02-0.05 mg/l at 1 km, and 0.01-0.03 mg/l at 2 km below outfall. Overall river fluoride concentrations theoretically would be raised by 0.001-0.002 mg/l, a value not measurable by current analytical techniques. All resulting concentrations would be well below those recommended for environmental safety and would not exceed natural levels found elsewhere in Quebec. A literature review did not reveal any examples of municipal water fluoridation causing recommended environmental concentrations to be exceeded, although excesses occurred in several cases of severe industrial water pollution. PMID:2400035

  4. Probabilistic ecological hazard assessment: evaluating pharmaceutical effects on aquatic higher plants as an example.

    PubMed

    Brain, Richard A; Sanderson, Hans; Sibley, Paul K; Solomon, Keith R

    2006-06-01

    The practicality of a probabilistic ecological hazard assessment (PEHA) methodology using intraspecies endpoint sensitivity distributions (IESDs) and chemical toxicity distributions (CTDs) was evaluated on data sets of pharmaceutical toxicity to aquatic macrophytes. A PEHA does not use an exposure distribution but rather uses a point estimate, which is useful for applications with sufficient effects data but lacking in comprehensive exposure data or when a criterion concentration is desired. The probability of finding an effect measure or potency value below a threshold can be calculated from the effects distribution. PEHA analyses using CTDs for both EC(10) and EC(25)Lemna gibba toxicity values indicated a <1% probability of encountering an antibiotic with toxicity below 1 microg/L. IESDs for microcosm mixture studies with eight pharmaceuticals (8PM) and four tetracyclines showed that the probability was nearly 20% for Myriophyllum sibiricum and 13% for L. gibba (8PM data). Hazard quotients calculated from the 1% and 5% distribution thresholds indicated potential risk only in certain cases.

  5. Evaluation of fish population effects due to creosote exposure in aquatic mesocosms

    SciTech Connect

    Munro, K.A.; Bestari, K.T.; Robinson, R.D.; Gensemer, R.W.; Solomon, K.R.

    1995-12-31

    Creosote is a coal tar distillate, consisting primarily of a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Its widespread use as a wood preservative presents a potential risk to aquatic ecosystems. Studying fish responses in mesocosms enabled evaluation of the total impact of creosote exposure, resulting from both direct toxic effects and indirect community-level interactions. Two methods of creosote application were used: liquid creosote treatment and creosote-impregnated pilings treatment. Survival and egg production of adult Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were monitored for two successive 30-day periods (0--30 and 35--65 days posttreatment). In addition, juvenile Fatheads produced during these periods were harvested 90 days posttreatment, to determine impacts to population weight/frequency distributions. Results for both field seasons showed that higher creosote concentrations caused strong decreases in both adult and juvenile survival, as well as egg production. Bile fluorescence levels measured at intervals during the exposure period reflected changes in total aqueous PAH concentrations in the mesocosms. Effects of creosote exposure on survival of adult fish were markedly reduced for fish introduced to ponds 35 days posttreatment compared to those exposed in the initial 0--30 day period.

  6. Evaluating the Relationship between Equilibrium Passive Sampler Uptake and Aquatic Organism Bioaccumulation.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Abigail S; Portis, Lisa M; Parks, Ashley N; Burgess, Robert M

    2016-11-01

    This Critcal Review evaluates passive sampler uptake of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in water column and interstitial water exposures as a surrogate for organism bioaccumulation. Fifty-seven studies were found where both passive sampler uptake and organism bioaccumulation were measured and 19 of these investigations provided direct comparisons relating passive sampler uptake and organism bioaccumulation. Polymers compared included low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polyoxymethylene (POM), and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and organisms ranged from polychaetes and oligochaetes to bivalves, aquatic insects, and gastropods. Regression equations correlating bioaccumulation (CL) and passive sampler uptake (CPS) were used to assess the strength of observed relationships. Passive sampling based concentrations resulted in log-log predictive relationships, most of which were within one to 2 orders of magnitude of measured bioaccumulation. Mean coefficients of determination (r(2)) for LDPE, PDMS, and POM were 0.68, 0.76, and 0.58, respectively. For the available raw, untransformed data, the mean ratio of CL and CPS was 10.8 ± 18.4 (n = 609). Using passive sampling as a surrogate for organism bioaccumulation is viable when biomonitoring organisms are not available. Passive sampling based estimates of bioaccumulation provide useful information for making informed decisions about the bioavailability of HOCs.

  7. 7 CFR 1924.115 - Single Family Housing site evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Single Family Housing site evaluation. 1924.115 Section 1924.115 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... Work § 1924.115 Single Family Housing site evaluation. (a) Site review. The site approval official...

  8. External Validity in Policy Evaluations That Choose Sites Purposively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Robert B.; Orr, Larry L.; Bell, Stephen H.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Evaluations of the impact of social programs are often carried out in multiple sites, such as school districts, housing authorities, local TANF offices, or One-Stop Career Centers. Most evaluations select sites purposively following a process that is nonrandom. Unfortunately, purposive site selection can produce a sample of sites that is not…

  9. 7 CFR 1924.115 - Single Family Housing site evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Single Family Housing site evaluation. 1924.115 Section 1924.115 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... Work § 1924.115 Single Family Housing site evaluation. (a) Site review. The site approval official...

  10. Subsurface characterization and geohydrologic site evaluation West Chestnut Ridge site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-25

    The West Chestnut Ridge Site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is being considered for use as a repository for low-level radioactive waste. The purposes of this study were to provide a geohydrological characterization of the site for use in pathways analysis, and to provide preliminary geotechnical recommendations that would be used for development of a site utilization plan. Subsurface conditions were investigated at twenty locations and observation wells were installed. Field testing at each location included the Standard Penetration Test and permeability tests in soil and rock. A well pumping test was ocmpleted at one site. Laboratory testing included permeability, deformability, strength and compaction tests, as well as index and physical property tests. The field investigations showed that the subsurface conditions include residual soil overlying a weathered zone of dolomite which grades into relatively unweathered dolomite at depth. The thickness of residual soil is typically 80 ft (24 m) on the ridges, but can be as little as 10 ft (3 m) in the valleys. Trench excavations to depths of 30 ft (9 m) should not present serious slope stability problems above the water table. On-site soils can be used for liners or trench backfill but these soils may require moisture conditioning to achieve required densities. 19 figures, 8 tables.

  11. Evaluating the Structure of Web Sites. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimlich, Joe E.; Wang, Katy

    This document explains the key issues related to the evaluation of the structure of Web sites. Six themes include: (1) "Purpose of Focus of the Web Site"; (2) "Audience or Target for the Web Site"; (3) "Access to Information in the Site"; (4) "Logical Design or Construction of the Site"; (5) "Visual…

  12. Evaluation of metal contamination and phytoremediation potential of aquatic macrophytes of East Kolkata Wetlands, India

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The present study analyzes metal contamination in sediment of the East Kolkata Wetlands, a Ramsar site, which is receiving a huge amount of domestic and industrial wastewater from surrounding areas. The subsequent uptake and accumulation of metals in different macrophytes are also examined in regard to their phytoremediation potential. Methods Metals like cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), and lead (Pb) were estimated in sediment, water and different parts of the macrophytes Colocasia esculenta and Scirpus articulatus. Results The concentration of metals in sediment were, from highest to lowest, Mn (205.0±65.5 mg/kg)>Cu (29.9±10.2 mg/kg)>Pb (22.7±10.3 mg/kg)>Cd (3.7±2.2 mg/kg). The phytoaccumulation tendency of these metals showed similar trends in both native aquatic macrophyte species. The rate of accumulation of metals in roots was higher than in shoots. There were strong positive correlations (p<0.001) between soil organic carbon (OC) percentage and Mn (r =0.771), and sediment OC percentage and Pb (r=0.832). Cation exchange capacity (CEC) also showed a positive correlation (p<0.001) with Cu (r=0.721), Mn (r=0.713), and Pb (r=0.788), while correlations between sediment OC percentage and Cu (r=0.628), sediment OC percentage and Cd (r=0.559), and CEC and Cd (r=0.625) were significant at the p<0.05 level. Conclusions Bioaccumulation factor and translocation factors of these two plants revealed that S. articulatus was comparatively more efficient for phytoremediation, whereas phytostabilization potential was higher in C. esculenta. PMID:27669754

  13. An empirical comparison of effective concentration estimators for evaluating aquatic toxicity test responses

    SciTech Connect

    Bailer, A.J.; Hughes, M.R.; Denton, D.L.; Oris, J.T.

    2000-01-01

    Aquatic toxicity tests are statistically evaluated by either hypothesis testing procedures to derive a no-observed-effect concentration or by inverting regression models to calculate the concentration associated with a specific reduction from the control response. These latter methods can be described as potency estimation methods. Standard US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) potency estimation methods are based on two different techniques. For continuous or count response data, a nominally nonparametric method that assumes monotonic decreasing responses and piecewise linear patterns between successive concentration groups is used. For quantal responses, a probit regression model with a linear dose term is fit. These techniques were compared with a recently developed parametric regression-based estimator, the relative inhibition estimator, RIp. This method is based on fitting generalized linear models, followed by estimation of the concentration associated with a particular decrement relative to control responses. These estimators, with levels of inhibition (p) of 25 and 50%, were applied to a series of chronic toxicity tests in a US EPA region 9 database of reference toxicity tests. Biological responses evaluated in these toxicity tests included the number of young produced in three broods by the water flea (Ceriodaphnia dubia) and germination success and tube length data from the giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera). The greatest discrepancy between the RIp and standard US EPA estimators was observed for C. dubia. The concentration-response pattern for this biological endpoint exhibited nonmonotonicity more frequently than for any of the other endpoint. Future work should consider optimal experimental designs to estimate these quantities, methods for constructing confidence intervals, and simulation studies to explore the behavior of these estimators under known conditions.

  14. Remediation System Evaluation, Higgins Farm Superfund Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Higgins Farm Superfund Site is located in a rural portion of Franklin Township, Somerset County, New Jersey, approximately 4 miles northeast of Princeton, New Jersey. The site occupies approximately 75 acres southeast of New Jersey State Highway 518...

  15. Remediation System Evaluation, Havertown PCP Superfund Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Havertown PCP site is located in Havertown, Haverford Township, Delaware County, in southeastern Pennsylvania. The site contamination was first discovered in 1962 when the Pennsylvania State Department of Health became aware of contaminants in ...

  16. Report of early site suitability evaluation of the potential repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Younker, J.L.; Andrews, W.B.; Fasano, G.A.; Herrington, C.C.; Mattson, S.R.; Murray, R.C.; Ballou, L.B.; Revelli, M.A.; Ducharme, A.R.; Shephard, L.E.; Dudley, W.W.; Hoxie, D.T.; Herbst, R.J.; Patera, E.A.; Judd, B.R.; Docka, J.A.; Rickertsen, L.D.

    1992-01-01

    This study evaluated the technical suitability of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a potential site for a mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of radioactive waste. The evaluation was conducted primarily to determine early in the site characterization program if there are any features or conditions at the site that indicate it is unsuitable for repository development. A secondary purpose was to determine the status of knowledge in the major technical areas that affect the suitability of the site. This early site suitability evaluation (ESSE) was conducted by a team of technical personnel at the request of the Associate Director of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Geologic Disposal, a unit within the DOE`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The Yucca Mountain site has been the subject of such evaluations for over a decade. In 1983, the site was evaluated as part of a screening process to identify potentially acceptable sites. The site was evaluated in greater detail and found suitable for site characterization as part of the Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE, 1986) required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA). Additional site data were compiled during the preparation of the Site Characterization Plan (SCP) (DOE, 1988a). This early site suitability evaluation has considered information that was used in preparing both-documents, along with recent information obtained since the EA and SCP were published. This body of information is referred to in this report as ``current information`` or ``available evidence.``

  17. The benefits of a watershed approach to evaluating risks for multiple hazardous waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Burris, J.A.; Pease, A.; Jop, K.; Connely, R.

    1994-12-31

    An integrated sampling program including chemical analyses of surface waters and sediments, measurement of water quality parameters, sampling of macroinvertebrate communities, and toxicity testing of soils and sediments was implemented on a US DOD Facility within three watersheds where multiple waste sites are located. The results of the study were used to identify the migration and distribution of contamination from individual waste sites, to identify any areas of obvious biological stress where future studies should be focused, to evaluate the need for sampling and analyses of aquatic organisms, to evaluate the influence of other non-point source and point sources of contamination of other stressors, and to identify sediment contamination in relation to the waste sites. This information was necessary to the design and implementation of ecological risk assessment for the individual waste sites. The methodology used to complete the study and its results will be presented. The focus of the discussion will be on the benefits of a watershed based sampling design (versus a more traditional site by site approach) in terms of cost savings, remedial decision making, and time savings. An additional discussion will focus on how this approach can be used to address the potential additive risks to a watershed resulting from the presence of multiple waste sites.

  18. Evaluation of site-site bridge diagrams for molecular fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vatamanu, J.; Cann, N. M.

    2004-10-01

    The presence of bridge functions in formally exact integral equation theories is the primary obstacle preventing the extraction of exact fluid structure from these theories. The bridge functions are typically neglected but in many fluids their impact may be significant. Each bridge function can be subdivided into bridge diagrams, which are well defined but difficult to evaluate. The calculation of bridge diagrams for the Chandler-Silbey-Ladanyi (CSL) integral equation theory [D. Chandler, R. Silbey, and B. Ladanyi, Mol. Phys. 46, 1335 (1982)] is the subject of this paper. In particular, we evaluate the diagrams required to yield an exact theory up to the first power in density [O(ρ1)] and provide algorithms that remain feasible for any molecule. Further, the bridge diagrams are evaluated and compared with the f-bond and h-bond formulations. Exact bridge diagrams are numerically evaluated for several chiral molecules, for two polar dimers, and for SPC/E water [W. L. Jorgensen, J. Chandrasekhar, J. D. Madura, R. W. Impey, and M. L. Klein, J. Chem. Phys. 79, 926 (1983)]. The quality of the diagrams is assessed in two ways: First, the predicted interatomic distributions are compared with those obtained from Monte Carlo simulations. Second, the connectivity constraints are evaluated and the errors in satisfying these exact relationships are compared for the f-bond and h-bond formulations. For apolar fluids, a clear improvement in CSL theory is evident with the inclusion of O(ρ0) and O(ρ1) diagrams. In contrast, for polar fluids, the inclusion of bridge diagrams does not lead to improvement in the structural predictions.

  19. 40 CFR 300.410 - Removal site evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Removal site evaluation. 300.410 Section 300.410 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY... PLAN Hazardous Substance Response § 300.410 Removal site evaluation. (a) A removal site...

  20. 40 CFR 300.410 - Removal site evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Removal site evaluation. 300.410 Section 300.410 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY... PLAN Hazardous Substance Response § 300.410 Removal site evaluation. (a) A removal site...

  1. 40 CFR 300.410 - Removal site evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Removal site evaluation. 300.410 Section 300.410 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY... PLAN Hazardous Substance Response § 300.410 Removal site evaluation. (a) A removal site...

  2. 40 CFR 300.410 - Removal site evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Removal site evaluation. 300.410 Section 300.410 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY... PLAN Hazardous Substance Response § 300.410 Removal site evaluation. (a) A removal site...

  3. Benchmarking: A Tool for Web Site Evaluation and Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misic, Mark M.; Johnson, Kelsey L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a case study on how benchmarking was used to determine how one organization's Web site compared to Web sites of related schools and professional organizations. Highlights include application of metrics, the Web site evaluation form, functional/navigational issues, content and style, and top site generalizations. (Author/LRW)

  4. AQUATIC VERTEBRATE ASSEMBLAGES AT LEAST- AND MOST-IMPACTED STREAM AND RIVER SITES IN THE WESTERN FORESTED MOUNTAINS AGGREGATE ECOREGIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the West, development of indicators of aquatic vertebrate assemblages condition in streams and rivers is challenged by low species richness (often < 3 species), by strong natural gradients (e.g., elevation), by human impact gradients that often co-vary with natural gradients, ...

  5. Use of Hyperspectral Remote Sensing to Evaluate Efficacy of Aquatic Plant Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive aquatic weeds negatively affect biodiversity, fluvial dynamics, water quality, and water storage and conveyance for a variety of human resource demands. In California’s Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta one submersed species - Brazilian waterweed (Egeria densa) - and one floating species ...

  6. Incorporating Aquatic Interspecies Toxicity Estimates into Large Databases: Model Evaluations and Data Gains

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Chemical Aquatic Fate and Effects (CAFE) database, developed by NOAA’s Emergency Response Division (ERD), is a centralized data repository that allows for unrestricted access to fate and effects data. While this database was originally designed to help support decisions...

  7. EVALUATION OF GENETIC DAMAGE IN FISH EXPOSED TO PESTICIDES IN FIELD AQUATIC MICROCOSMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Single cell gel electrophoresis (SCG) and micronucleus (MN) assays were used to measure DNA strand breaks and chromosomal damage in fish blood erythrocytes as biological indicators of exposure to alachlor and atrazine in a surrogate aquatic ecosystem. Caged common carp (Cyprinus...

  8. Mechanical Harvesting of Aquatic Plants. Report 3. Evaluation of the Limnos System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    portions are characterized by hard- wood swamps and some marshlands. The target problem aquatic plant in this environment is the waterhyacinth ( Eichhornia ... crassipes (Hart.) Solms). In situ densities of this plant range from 40 to over 150 tons per acre. Distribution of the plant is predominately aligned

  9. Remediation System Evaluation, Ellis Property Superfund Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Ellis Property Superfund Site is located in a rural area of Burlington County, New Jersey. Most ofthe land at the site has not been developed. However, there is a building in a fenced area that is used tohouse the remedial system..

  10. Remediation System Evaluation, SMS Instruments Superfund Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The SMS Instruments Superfund Site is located at 120 Marcus Boulevard in Deer Park, Suffolk County,New York. The site consists of a 34,000 square foot building located on a 1.5-acre lot that is surroundedby other light industrial facilities.

  11. Off-site impacts of agricultural composting: role of terrestrially derived organic matter in structuring aquatic microbial communities and their metabolic potential.

    PubMed

    Pommier, Thomas; Merroune, Asmaa; Bettarel, Yvan; Got, Patrice; Janeau, Jean-Louis; Jouquet, Pascal; Thu, Thuy D; Toan, Tran D; Rochelle-Newall, Emma

    2014-12-01

    While considered as sustainable and low-cost agricultural amendments, the impacts of organic fertilizers on downstream aquatic microbial communities remain poorly documented. We investigated the quantity and quality of the dissolved organic matter leaching from agricultural soil amended with compost, vermicompost or biochar and assessed their effects on lake microbial communities, in terms of viral and bacterial abundances, community structure and metabolic potential. The addition of compost and vermicompost significantly increased the amount of dissolved organic carbon in the leachate compared with soil alone. Leachates from these additions, either with or without biochar, were highly bioavailable to aquatic microbial communities, although reducing the metabolic potential of the community and harbouring more specific communities. Although not affecting bacterial richness or taxonomic distributions, the specific addition of biochar affected the original lake bacterial communities, resulting in a strongly different community. This could be partly explained by viral burst and converging bacterial abundances throughout the samples. These results underline the necessity to include off-site impacts of agricultural amendments when considering their cascading effect on downstream aquatic ecosystems.

  12. [PAHs concentrations in aquatic products and food safety evaluation in the coupled mangrove planting-aquaculture ecological system].

    PubMed

    Chen, Guan-Qiu; Li, Yao-Chu; Huang, Jin-Mu; Nan, Yan; Lin, Mao-Hong

    2012-06-01

    In order to know about the PAHs concentration in aquatic products from mangrove planting-aquaculture ecological system and to make sure of food quality and food safety, HPLC was used to determine concentrations of 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Tilapia mossambica, Mugil cephalu and Concha ostreae from coupled mangrove planting-aquaculture ponds, food safety in aquatic products was also evaluated. The 13 PAHs were Fluorene (Flu), Phenanthrene (Phe), Anthracene (Ant), Fluoranthene (Fla), Pyrene (Pyr), Benz[a] anthraces (BaA), Chrysene (Chr), Benzo[b] fluoranthene (BbF), Benzo[k] fluoranthene (BkF), Benzo[a] Pyrene (BaP), Dibenzo [a, h] anthercene (DahA), Benzo [g, h, i] perylene (BghiP) and Indeno [1,2,3-c, d] pyrene (InP). Concentrations of PAHs were the highest in Concha ostreae which were in the range of 89.79-98.49 microg x kg(-1) dry weight, while those were in the range of 25.97-34.64 microg x kg(-1) in Mugil cephalu and 12.31-14.41 microg x kg(-1) in Tilapia mossambica. The content of fat affected the levels of PAHs content in different aquatic products. The individual composition of PAHs was characterized by 3 rings in samples with the range of 41.58% - 83.35%. Comparing with other areas, PAHs pollution of aquatic products in the studied area was in the mild level. Values of the total BaP(eq) concentration ranged from 0.0689 microg x kg(-1) to 1.0373 microg x kg(-1), which were lower than the maximum level set by European Union.

  13. Jumping into the deep-end: results from a pilot impact evaluation of a community-based aquatic exercise program.

    PubMed

    Barker, Anna L; Talevski, Jason; Morello, Renata T; Nolan, Genevieve A; De Silva, Renee D; Briggs, Andrew M

    2016-06-01

    This multi-center quasi-experimental pilot study aimed to evaluate changes in pain, joint stiffness, physical function, and quality of life over 12 weeks in adults with musculoskeletal conditions attending 'Waves' aquatic exercise classes. A total of 109 adults (mean age, 65.2 years; range, 24-93 years) with musculoskeletal conditions were recruited across 18 Australian community aquatic centers. The intervention is a peer-led, 45 min, weekly aquatic exercise class including aerobic, strength, flexibility, and balance exercises (n = 67). The study also included a control group of people not participating in Waves or other formal exercise (n = 42). Outcomes were measured using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and EuroQoL five dimensions survey (EQ-5D) at baseline and 12 weeks. Satisfaction with Waves classes was also measured at 12 weeks. Eighty two participants (43 Waves and 39 control) completed the study protocol and were included in the analysis. High levels of satisfaction with classes were reported by Waves participants. Over 90 % of participants reported Waves classes were enjoyable and would recommend classes to others. Waves participants demonstrated improvements in WOMAC and EQ-5D scores however between-group differences did not reach statistical significance. Peer-led aquatic exercise classes appear to improve pain, joint stiffness, physical function and quality of life for people with musculoskeletal conditions. The diverse study sample is likely to have limited the power to detect significant changes in outcomes. Larger studies with an adequate follow-up period are needed to confirm effects.

  14. Remediation System Evaluation, Raymark Superfund Site (PDF)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Raymark site occupies 7 acres off Jacksonville Road in an industrial part of Hatboro, Pennsylvania.The pump-and-treat system addresses groundwater contamination, primarily trichloroethylene (TCE),associated with the operations of various ...

  15. Remediation System Evaluation, Peerless Plating Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Peerless Plating Superfund Site is located at 2554 South Getty Street, north of the intersection of South Getty Street and East Sherman Boulevard in Muskegon, Michigan. Copper, nickel, chromium, cadmium, and zinc electroplating operations as well as...

  16. Remediation System Evaluation, Mattiace Petrochemical Superfund Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Mattiace Petrochemical Superfund Site, located in an industrial area near the harbor of Glen Cove, isapproximately 1.9 acres and has extensive soil and groundwater contamination of volatile organiccompounds stemming from the operations of...

  17. Remediation System Evaluation, Groveland Wells Superfund Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Groveland Wells Superfund site is located in Groveland, Essex County, Massachusetts and has soiland ground water contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) and its degradation products. Soil andground water impacts result from operations and...

  18. Remediation System Evaluation, Summitville Mine Superfund Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Summitville Mine Superfund Site is located in the southeastern portion of the San Juan Mountains,in Rio Grande County, approximately 60 miles west of Alamosa, Colorado and 10 to 15 miles south ofDel Norte, Colorado.

  19. Remediation System Evaluation, Hellertown Manufacturing Superfund Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Hellertown Manufacturing Superfund Site, located in Hellertown, Pennsylvania 1.5 miles south of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, is approximately 8.6 acres and addresses trichloroethylene (TCE) contamination of the groundwater resulting from operations of a fo

  20. Evaluation of tire reefs for enhancing aquatic communities in concrete-lined canals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, Gordon; Liston, Charles R.

    1994-01-01

    Large earthen canals in the arid southwest are being lined with concrete to reduce seepage and conserve limited water supplies. Lining reduces habitat and increases operational velocities (relative to unaltered streams), which are detrimental to aquatic communities. Fish communities that become reestablished in these waterways exhibit lower species diversity, densities, and biomass than they did in the former earthen canals. Placement of low-profile tire reefs in the Coachella Canal, California, and the Hayden-Rhodes Aqueduct, Arizona, reversed these trends. Comparative sampling revealed that invertebrate and fish densities were 3 and 20 times higher, respectively, in reef areas than in typical canal sections without reefs. Tire reefs are recommended as an effective means of enhancing aquatic communities in concrete canals.

  1. A rapid approach to evaluate putative nursery sites for penaeid prawns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Matthew D.; Smith, James A.; Boys, Craig A.; Whitney, Hannah

    2016-08-01

    Identifying nursery habitats for an aquatic species generally requires tracing adult individuals back through time and space to the area or habitat in which they developed as juveniles. We develop and trial a study design and analytical approach to evaluate the suitability of using stable isotopes to trace emigrating prawns to putative nursery sites, and evaluate assumptions inherent in the application of the approach using two penaeid species with Type-II life cycles: Penaeus (Melicertus) plebejus and Metapenaeus macleayi. Prawns were collected in putative nursery sites within the Hunter River, Australia, and analysed as composite samples of 6 individuals to provide habitat-specific isotopic signatures. Prawns emigrating from the mouth of the river were used as a proxy for individuals recruiting to the adult population, and assigned to putative nursery sites using a probabilistic mixing model and a simple, distance-based approach. Bivariate (δ15N and δ13C) isotopic data was sufficient to distinguish prawns from different putative nursery sites, and isotopic composition correlated closely with salinity. Approximately 90% of emigrating prawns collected could be assigned to these sites using bivariate isotopic data, and both analytical approaches gave similar results. The design developed here is broadly applicable to a suite of penaeid species, but its application will be most powerful when sampling is also aimed at understanding nursery function by simultaneous monitoring of size structure/growth, density, and trophic relationships within nursery habitats.

  2. Remediation System Evaluation, Greenwood Chemical Superfund Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Greenwood Chemical Site (“site”) is an inactive chemical manufacturing facility located inNewtown, Albemarle County, Virginia on VA Route 690 approximately 0.75 miles west of the town ofGreenwood, Virginia and approximately 20 miles west...

  3. RateThisFacultyEvaluationSite.com

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Gail Braccidiferro

    2010-01-01

    What qualities are the essence of a top-notch university professor? "Enthusiastic." "Fun." "Interesting." "Cares about students." These attributes are listed in student reviews of America's number one professor for 2009, as determined by the Web site ratemyprofessor.com. Other students made these comments about the same instructor: "Very easy A,"…

  4. 40 CFR 300.420 - Remedial site evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... that shall provide a process for obtaining data of sufficient quality and quantity to satisfy data... quality objectives and measures necessary to achieve adequate data for use in site evaluation and hazard... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Remedial site evaluation....

  5. 40 CFR 300.420 - Remedial site evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Remedial site evaluation. 300.420 Section 300.420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY... PLAN Hazardous Substance Response § 300.420 Remedial site evaluation. (a) General. The purpose of...

  6. Corrections Education Evaluation System Project. Site Visit Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Orville; And Others

    Site visits to five correctional institutions in Wisconsin were conducted as part of the development of an evaluation model for the competency-based vocational education (CBVE) project for the Wisconsin Correctional System. The evaluators' perceptions of the CBVE system are presented with recommendations for improvement. Site visits were conducted…

  7. Digital Discernment: An E-Commerce Web Site Evaluation Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigman, Betsy Page; Boston, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    Students entering the business workforce today may well share some responsibility for developing, revising, or evaluating their company's Web site. They may lack the experience, however, to critique their employer's Web presence effectively. The purpose of developing Digital Discernment, an e-commerce Web site evaluation tool, was to prepare…

  8. Evaluation of Subsurface Engineered Barriers at Waste Sites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-08-01

    Evaluation of Subsurface Engineered Barriers at Waste Sites United States Environmental Protection Agency Office of Solid Waste and Emergency...of Subsurface Engineered Barriers at Waste Sites 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...1998 www.epa.gov clu-in.com EVALUATION OF SUBSURFACE ENGINEERED BARRIERS AT WASTE SITES i NOTICE This document was prepared for the U.S. Environmental

  9. Monitored retrievable storage facility site screening and evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1985-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 directs the Department of Energy to complete a detailed study of the need for and feasibility of, and to submit to the Congress a proposal for, the construction of one or more monitored retrievable storage facilities for high level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.'' The Act directs that the proposal includes site specific designs. Further, the proposal is to include, for the first such facility, at least three alternative sites and at least five alternative combinations of such proposed site and facility designs...'' as well as a recommendation of the combination among the alternatives that the Secretary deems preferable.'' An MRS Site Screening Task Force has been formed to help identify and evaluated potential MRS facility sites within a preferred region and with the application of a siting process and criteria developed by the DOE. The activities of the task force presented in this report includes: site screening (Sections 3, 4, and 5), the MRS facilities which are to be sited are described; the criteria, process and outcome of the screening process is presented; and descriptions of the candidate MRS facility sites are given, and site evaluations (Sections 6 through 9) where the rational for the site evaluations are presented, along with each evaluation and findings of the Task Force.

  10. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph E.; Ross, Steven B.; Buxton, Kenneth A.; England, Jeffery L.; McConnell, Paul E.; Massaro, Lawrence M.; Jensen, Philip J.

    2015-09-30

    A preliminary evaluation of removing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from 13 shutdown nuclear power reactor sites was conducted. At these shutdown sites the nuclear power reactors have been permanently shut down and the sites have been decommissioned or are undergoing decommissioning. The shutdown sites were Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, San Onofre, and Vermont Yankee. The evaluation was divided into four components: (1) characterization of the SNF and greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC waste) inventory, (2) a description of the on-site infrastructure and conditions relevant to transportation of SNF and GTCC waste, (3) an evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and experience relevant to shipping transportation casks containing SNF and GTCC waste, including identification of gaps in information, and (4) an evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove SNF and GTCC waste. Every site was found to have at least one off-site transportation mode option for removing its SNF and GTCC waste; some have multiple options. Experience removing large components during reactor decommissioning provided an important source of information used to identify the transportation mode options for the sites. Especially important in conducting the evaluation were site visits, through which information was obtained that would not have been available otherwise. Extensive photographs taken during the site visits proved to be particularly useful in documenting the current conditions at or near the sites. It is expected that additional site visits will be conducted to add to the information presented in the evaluation.

  11. EPA'S SUPERFUND INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION (SITE) PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1986, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agen- cy`s Offices of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER), and the Office of Research and Develop- ment (ORD) established a technology research, dem- onstration, and evaluation program to promote the development and use of alterna...

  12. Genotoxic effects of environmental endocrine disruptors on the aquatic insect Chironomus riparius evaluated using the comet assay.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Paz, Pedro; Morales, Mónica; Martínez-Guitarte, José Luis; Morcillo, Gloria

    2013-12-12

    Genotoxicity is one of the most important toxic endpoints in chemical toxicity testing and environmental risk assessment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic potential of various environmental pollutants frequently found in aquatic environments and characterized by their endocrine disrupting activity. Monitoring of DNA damage was undertaken after in vivo exposures of the aquatic larvae of the midge Chironomus riparius, a model organism that represents an abundant and ecologically relevant macroinvertebrate, widely used in freshwater toxicology. DNA-induced damage, resulting in DNA fragmentation, was quantified by the comet assay after short (24 h) and long (96 h) exposures to different concentrations of the selected toxicants: bisphenol A (BPA), nonylphenol (NP), pentachlorophenol (PCP), tributyltin (TBT) and triclosan (TCS). All five compounds were found to have genotoxic activity as demonstrated by significant increases in all the comet parameters (%DNA in tail, tail length, tail moment and Olive tail moment) at all tested concentrations. Persistent exposure did not increase the extent of DNA damage, except for TCS at the highest concentration, but generally there was a reduction in DNA damage thought to be associated with the induction of the detoxification processes and repairing mechanisms. Comparative analysis showed differences in the genotoxic potential between the chemicals, as well as significant time and concentration-dependent variations, which most likely reflect differences in the ability to repair DNA damage under the different treatments. The present report demonstrates the sensitivity of the benthic larvae of C. riparius to these environmental genotoxins suggesting its potential as biomonitor organism in freshwater ecosystems. The results obtained about the DNA-damaging potential of these environmental pollutants reinforce the need for additional studies on the genotoxicity of endocrine active substances that, by linking genotoxic

  13. A full evaluation for the enantiomeric impacts of lactofen and its metabolites on aquatic macrophyte Lemna minor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Liu, Donghui; Qu, Han; Chen, Li; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Wang, Peng

    2016-09-15

    Pesticide pollution of surface water represents a considerable danger for the aquatic plants which play very crucial roles in aquatic system such as oxygen production, nutrient cycling, water quality controlling and sediment stabilization. In this work, the toxic effects of the chiral herbicide lactofen and its three metabolites (desethyl lactofen, acifluorfene and amino acifluorfene) to the aquatic plant Lemna minor (L. minor) on enantiomeric level were evaluated. The influences on growth rate, fresh weight, content of photosynthetic pigment, protein and malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activities of antioxidant defense enzymes (catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) were measured after 7 days of exposure. L. minor growth was inhibited in the order of (S)-desethyl lactofen > racemic-desethyl lactofen > (R)-desethyl lactofen > racemic-lactofen > (S)-lactofen > (R)-lactofen > acifluorfene > amino acifluorfene, and the IC50 (7d) values showed desethyl lactofen was the most powerful compound which was about twice as toxic as lactofen. The contents of chlorophylls (Chl) and carotenoids (Car) were significantly reduced by the chemicals, while, the levels of protein, MDA and the activity of CAT and SOD enzymes increased in most cases. The obtained results revealed that lactofen and its metabolites had an undesirable effect on L. minor, in terms of physiological and biochemical aspects. Besides, enantioselective toxicity of lactofen and desethyl lactofen to L. minor was observed. The S-enantiomer of desethyl lactofen was more toxic than the corresponding R-enantiomer. Furthermore, racemic lactofen was more toxic than the individual enantiomers. The side effects of pesticide metabolites and the enantioselectivity should be considered in developing optically pure products and risk assessment.

  14. Evaluation of graphite for environmental toxicity using the standard aquatic microcosm. Technical report, June 1986-March 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Landis, W.G.; Chester, N.A.; Haley, M.V.; Johnson, D.W.; Tauber, R.M.

    1988-08-01

    The impact of a graphite dust on an aquatic ecosystem model, the Standard Aquatic microcosm (SAM), was investigated. Graphite dust produced effects that resembled eutrophication in that a diversity decreased, ammonia increased, and a photosynthesis/respiration ratio of less than one was observed in the highest concentration. Compared to brass dust, graphite has much less potential to adversely impact aquatic ecosystems.

  15. COMPARISON OF RANDOM AND SYSTEMATIC SITE SELECTION FOR ASSESSING ATTAINMENT OF AQUATIC LIFE USES IN SEGMENTS OF THE OHIO RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is a description of field work and data analysis results comparing a design comparable to systematic site selection with one based on random selection of sites. The report is expected to validate the use of random site selection in the bioassessment program for the O...

  16. Nest success, cause-specific nest failure, and hatchability of aquatic birds at selenium-contaminated Kesterson Reservoir and a reference site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlendorf, Harry M.; Hothem, Roger L.; Welsh, Daniel

    1989-01-01

    During 1983-1985, we studied the reproductive success of several species of aquatic birds (coots, ducks, shorebirds, and grebes) nesting at two sites in Merced County, California: a selenium-contaminated site (Kesterson Reservoir) and a nearby reference site (Volta Wildlife Area). We used a computer program (MICROMORT) developed for the analysis of radiotelemetry data (Heisey and Fuller 1985) to estimate nest success and cause-specific failure rates, and then compared these parameters and hatchability between sites and among years. Nest success and causes of failure varied by species, site, and year. The most important causes of nest failure were usually predation, desertion, and water-level changes. However, embryotoxicosis (mortality, deformity, and lack of embryonic development) was the most important cause of nest failure in Eared Grebes (Podiceps nigricollis) at Kesterson Reservoir. Embryotoxicosis also reduced the hatchability of eggs of all other species at Kesterson in one or more years; embryonic mortality occurred rarely at Volta, and abnormalities were not observed.

  17. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph E.; Ross, Steven B.; Buxton, Kenneth A.; England, Jeffery L.; McConnell, Paul E.

    2013-09-30

    This report fulfills the M2 milestone M2FT-13PN0912022, “Stranded Sites De-Inventorying Report.” In January 2013, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issued the Strategy for the Management and Disposal of Used Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste (DOE 2013). Among the elements contained in this strategy is an initial focus on accepting used nuclear fuel from shutdown reactor sites. This focus is consistent with the recommendations of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future, which identified removal of stranded used nuclear fuel at shutdown sites as a priority so that these sites may be completely decommissioned and put to other beneficial uses (BRC 2012). Shutdown sites are defined as those commercial nuclear power reactor sites where the nuclear power reactors have been shut down and the site has been decommissioned or is undergoing decommissioning. In this report, a preliminary evaluation of removing used nuclear fuel from 12 shutdown sites was conducted. The shutdown sites were Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, and San Onofre. These sites have no other operating nuclear power reactors at their sites and have also notified the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission that their reactors have permanently ceased power operations and that nuclear fuel has been permanently removed from their reactor vessels. Shutdown reactors at sites having other operating reactors are not included in this evaluation.

  18. Effects of clothianidin on aquatic communities: Evaluating the impacts of lethal and sublethal exposure to neonicotinoids.

    PubMed

    Miles, Jesse C; Hua, Jessica; Sepulveda, Maria S; Krupke, Christian H; Hoverman, Jason T

    2017-01-01

    The widespread usage of neonicotinoid insecticides has sparked concern over their effects on non-target organisms. While research has largely focused on terrestrial systems, the low soil binding and high water solubility of neonicotinoids, paired with their extensive use on the landscape, puts aquatic environments at high risk for contamination via runoff events. We assessed the potential threat of these compounds to wetland communities using a combination of field surveys and experimental exposures including concentrations that are representative of what invertebrates experience in the field. In laboratory toxicity experiments, LC50 values ranged from 0.002 ppm to 1.2 ppm for aquatic invertebrates exposed to clothianidin. However, freshwater snails and amphibian larvae showed high tolerance to the chemical with no mortality observed at the highest dissolvable concentration of the insecticide. We also observed behavioral effects of clothianidin. Water bugs, Belostoma flumineum, displayed a dose-dependent reduction in feeding rate following exposure to clothianidin. Similarly, crayfish, Orconectes propinquus, exhibited reduced responsiveness to stimulus with increasing clothianidin concentration. Using a semi-natural mesocosm experiment, we manipulated clothianidin concentration (0.6, 5, and 352 ppb) and the presence of predatory invertebrates to explore community-level effects. We observed high invertebrate predator mortality with increases in clothianidin concentration. With increased predator mortality, prey survival increased by 50% at the highest clothianidin concentration. Thus, clothianidin contamination can result in a top-down trophic cascade in a community dominated by invertebrate predators. In our Indiana field study, we detected clothianidin (max = 176 ppb), imidacloprid (max = 141 ppb), and acetamiprid (max = 7 ppb) in soil samples. In water samples, we detected clothianidin (max = 0.67 ppb), imidacloprid (max = 0.18 ppb), and thiamethoxam (max = 2

  19. Effects of aqueous soil-biochar extracts on representative aquatic organisms: a first evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastos, A. C.; Abrantes, N.; Prodana, M.; Verheijen, F.; Keizer, J. J.; Soares, A. M. V. M.; Loureiro, S.

    2012-04-01

    Increasing considerations of biochar application to soils has raised concerns over implications to overall environmental quality, associated to some of its components. The heterogeneity of biochar composition is well documented in relation to co-existing chemical species, as a function of feedstock and pyrolysis conditions. Robust ecotoxicology studies with focus on bioavailable biochar components in soil remain scarce and have only started to emerge. This pilot study provides an insight into the potential ecotoxicological effects of aqueous extracts of biochar-amended soil on a range of aquatic organisms (Vibrio fischeri, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Daphnia magna), using a battery of standard aquatic bioassays. The use of such bioassays in environmental risk assessment of soil-biochar elutriates is here suggested as a crucial tool, to bridge the gap between biochar's 'inert' fraction in soil and that bioavailable to edaphic organisms. Aqueous extracts were obtained from LUFA 2.2 standard soil (control) and following amendment with pine biochar at common field application rates (80 ton ha-1). Acute exposure to soil-biochar extracts allowed estimating toxicity parameters and developing dose-response curves for all tested species, through well-established methodological guidelines. The bioluminescent bacteria V. fischeri showed negligible EC50 (effect concentration corresponding to 50% luminescence decline) values in the MICROTOX® basic test (independent of exposure time), suggesting low susceptibility to soil-biochar extracts. Mild toxicity was also observed in the microalgae P. subcapitata growth inhibition test, where significant deleterious effects on growth rate occurred only at the highest (100%) extract concentration (p<0.05). Among the tested species, toxicity was generally more marked in the primary consumer D. magna, with an EC50 (effect concentration corresponding to 50% immobilisation) of 2.95%. The pattern and extent of observed effects were

  20. Effects of clothianidin on aquatic communities: Evaluating the impacts of lethal and sublethal exposure to neonicotinoids

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Jesse C.; Hua, Jessica; Sepulveda, Maria S.; Krupke, Christian H.

    2017-01-01

    The widespread usage of neonicotinoid insecticides has sparked concern over their effects on non-target organisms. While research has largely focused on terrestrial systems, the low soil binding and high water solubility of neonicotinoids, paired with their extensive use on the landscape, puts aquatic environments at high risk for contamination via runoff events. We assessed the potential threat of these compounds to wetland communities using a combination of field surveys and experimental exposures including concentrations that are representative of what invertebrates experience in the field. In laboratory toxicity experiments, LC50 values ranged from 0.002 ppm to 1.2 ppm for aquatic invertebrates exposed to clothianidin. However, freshwater snails and amphibian larvae showed high tolerance to the chemical with no mortality observed at the highest dissolvable concentration of the insecticide. We also observed behavioral effects of clothianidin. Water bugs, Belostoma flumineum, displayed a dose-dependent reduction in feeding rate following exposure to clothianidin. Similarly, crayfish, Orconectes propinquus, exhibited reduced responsiveness to stimulus with increasing clothianidin concentration. Using a semi-natural mesocosm experiment, we manipulated clothianidin concentration (0.6, 5, and 352 ppb) and the presence of predatory invertebrates to explore community-level effects. We observed high invertebrate predator mortality with increases in clothianidin concentration. With increased predator mortality, prey survival increased by 50% at the highest clothianidin concentration. Thus, clothianidin contamination can result in a top-down trophic cascade in a community dominated by invertebrate predators. In our Indiana field study, we detected clothianidin (max = 176 ppb), imidacloprid (max = 141 ppb), and acetamiprid (max = 7 ppb) in soil samples. In water samples, we detected clothianidin (max = 0.67 ppb), imidacloprid (max = 0.18 ppb), and thiamethoxam (max = 2

  1. Evaluating effects of potential changes in streamflow regime on fish and aquatic-invertebrate assemblages in the New Jersey Pinelands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennen, Jonathan G.; Riskin, Melissa L.

    2010-01-01

    Changes in water demand associated with population growth and changes in land-use practices in the Pinelands region of southern New Jersey will have a direct effect on stream hydrology. The most pronounced and measurable hydrologic effect is likely to be flow reductions associated with increasing water extraction. Because water-supply needs will continue to grow along with population in the Pinelands area, the goal of maintaining a sustainable balance between the availability of water to protect existing aquatic assemblages while conserving the surficial aquifer for long-term support of human water use needs to be addressed. Although many aquatic fauna have shown resilience and resistance to short-term changes in flows associated with water withdrawals, sustained effects associated with ongoing water-development processes are not well understood. In this study, the U.S. Geological Survey sampled forty-three 100-meter-long stream reaches during high- and low-flow periods across a designed hydrologic gradient ranging from small- (4.1 square kilometers (1.6 square miles)) to medium- (66.3 square kilometers (25.6 square miles)) sized Pinelands stream basins. This design, which uses basin size as a surrogate for water availability, provided an opportunity to evaluate the possible effects of potential variation in stream hydrology on fish and aquatic-invertebrate assemblage response in New Jersey Pinelands streams where future water extraction is expected based on known build-out scenarios. Multiple-regression models derived from extracted non-metric multidimensional scaling axis scores of fish and aquatic invertebrates indicate that some variability in aquatic-assemblage composition across the hydrologic gradient is associated with anthropogenic disturbance, such as urbanization, changes in stream chemistry, and concomitant changes in high-flow runoff patterns. To account for such underlying effects in the study models, any flow parameter or assemblage attribute that

  2. Evaluation of volcanic pumice stone as media in fixed bed sequence batch reactor for atrazine removal from aquatic environments.

    PubMed

    Derakhshan, Zahra; Ehrampoush, Mohammad Hassan; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Faramarzian, Mohammad; Mokhtari, Mehdi; Mazloomi, Seyed Mohammad

    2016-12-01

    Atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine) is a component of S-triazine. Its characteristics make it a pollutant of ecosystems and a probable human carcinogen. The present study evaluated volcanic pumice stone as a suitable media for biological growth and biofilm development in a fixed-bed sequencing batch reactor (FBSBR) for atrazine removal from aquatic environments. The FBSBR was fed with synthetic wastewater containing sucrose and atrazine at four hydraulic retention times to assess biodegradation of atrazine by a microbial consortium for removal from aquatic environments. The maximum efficiency for atrazine and soluble chemical oxygen demand removal were 97.9% and 98.9%, respectively. The results of this research showed that the Stover-Kincannon model was a very good fit (R(2) > 99%) for loading atrazine onto the FBSBR. Increasing the initial concentration of atrazine increased the removal efficiency. There was no significant inhibition of the mixed aerobic microbial consortia by the atrazine. Atrazine degradation depended on its initial concentration in the wastewater and the amount of atrazine in the influent. Although this system shows good potential for atrazine removal from aqueous environments, that remaining in the effluent does not yet meet international standards. Further research is required to make this system effective for removal of atrazine from the environment.

  3. Evaluation of aquatic toxicities of chromium and chromium-containing effluents in reference to chromium electroplating industries.

    PubMed

    Baral, A; Engelken, R; Stephens, W; Farris, J; Hannigan, R

    2006-05-01

    This study evaluated aquatic toxicities of chromium and chromium-containing laboratory samples representative of effluents from chromium electroplating industries, and compared the aquatic environmental risks of hexavalent and trivalent chromium electroplating operations. Trivalent chromium electroplating has emerged as an acceptable alternative to hazardous hexavalent chromium electroplating. This process substitution has reduced the human health impact in the workplace and minimized the production of hazardous sludge regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The thrust behind this research was to investigate whether trivalent chromium electroplating operations have lower adverse impacts on standardized toxicity test organisms. Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas were used to investigate toxicities of trivalent chromium (Cr (III)), hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)), and industrial effluents. In agreement with previous studies, Cr (III) was found to be less toxic than Cr (VI). Despite having several organic and inorganic constituents in the effluents obtained from trivalent chromium plating baths, they exhibited less adverse effects to C. dubia than effluents obtained from hexavalent chromium electroplating baths. Thus, transition from hexavalent to trivalent chromium electroplating processes may be justified. However, because of the presence of organic constituents such as formate, oxalate, and triethylene glycol in effluents, trivalent chromium electroplating operations may face additional regulatory requirements for removal of total organic carbon.

  4. Evaluation of salinity effect on quantitative analysis of aquatic humic substances using nonionic DAX-8 resin.

    PubMed

    Kida, Morimaru; Ohtsuka, Toshiyuki; Kato, Taku; Suzuki, Takeshi; Fujitake, Nobuhide

    2016-03-01

    A nonionic macroporous resin, Amberlite(®) XAD-8, or its substitute, Supelite™ DAX-8, is used when isolating or quantifying aquatic humic substances (AHS). However, the effect of salinity on the adsorption behavior of AHS onto the resin is yet to be confirmed, rendering the possibility of salinity-induced changes in the values of quantified amounts or characteristics of AHS obtained from a salty system. To verify the results of quantification and isolation of AHS using the resin in different salinity systems, the effect of salinity on such quantitative analyses of AHS has been examined. It has been concluded that the salinity effect is in general trivial and will not hinder comparison of results regardless of sample solution salinity.

  5. External Validity in Policy Evaluations that Choose Sites Purposively.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Robert B; Orr, Larry L; Bell, Stephen H; Stuart, Elizabeth A

    2013-01-01

    Evaluations of the impact of social programs are often carried out in multiple "sites," such as school districts, housing authorities, local TANF offices, or One-Stop Career Centers. Most evaluations select sites purposively following a process that is nonrandom. Unfortunately, purposive site selection can produce a sample of sites that is not representative of the population of interest for the program. In this paper, we propose a conceptual model of purposive site selection. We begin with the proposition that a purposive sample of sites can usefully be conceptualized as a random sample of sites from some well-defined population, for which the sampling probabilities are unknown and vary across sites. This proposition allows us to derive a formal, yet intuitive, mathematical expression for the bias in the pooled impact estimate when sites are selected purposively. This formula helps us to better understand the consequences of selecting sites purposively, and the factors that contribute to the bias. Additional research is needed to obtain evidence on how large the bias tends to be in actual studies that select sites purposively, and to develop methods to increase the external validity of these studies.

  6. AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS,

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic ecosystems are a vital part of the urban water cycle (and of urban areas more broadly), and, if healthy, provide a range of goods and services valued by humans (Meyer 1997). For example, aquatic ecosystems (e.g., rivers, lakes, wetlands) provide potable water, food resou...

  7. Aquatic Environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquatic microbiology can be defined as the study of microorganisms and microbial communities in water environments. Aquatic environments occupy more than 70% of the earth’s surface including oceans, estuaries, rivers, lakes, wetlands, streams, springs, and aquifers. Water is essential for life and m...

  8. Selected Water- and Sediment-Quality, Aquatic Biology, and Mine-Waste Data from the Ely Copper Mine Superfund Site, Vershire, VT, 1998-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Argue, Denise M.; Kiah, Richard G.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R., II; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Hathaway, Edward; Coles, James F.

    2008-01-01

    The data contained in this report are a compilation of selected water- and sediment-quality, aquatic biology, and mine-waste data collected at the Ely Copper Mine Superfund site in Vershire, VT, from August 1998 through May 2007. The Ely Copper Mine Superfund site is in eastern, central Vermont (fig. 1) within the Vermont Copper Belt (Hammarstrom and others, 2001). The Ely Copper Mine site was placed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) National Priorities List in 2001. Previous investigations conducted at the site documented that the mine is contributing metals and highly acidic waters to local streams (Hammarstrom and others, 2001; Holmes and others, 2002; Piatak and others, 2003, 2004, and 2006). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the USEPA, compiled selected data from previous investigations into uniform datasets that will be used to help characterize the extent of contamination at the mine. The data may be used to determine the magnitude of biological impacts from the contamination and in the development of remediation activities. This report contains analytical data for samples collected from 98 stream locations, 6 pond locations, 21 surface-water seeps, and 29 mine-waste locations. The 98 stream locations are within 3 streams and their tributaries. Ely Brook flows directly through the Ely Copper Mine then into Schoolhouse Brook (fig. 2), which joins the Ompompanoosuc River (fig. 1). The six pond locations are along Ely Brook Tributary 2 (fig. 2). The surface-water seeps and mine-waste locations are near the headwaters of Ely Brook (fig. 2 and fig. 3). The datasets 'Site_Directory' and 'Coordinates' contain specific information about each of the sample locations including stream name, number of meters from the mouth of stream, geographic coordinates, types of samples collected (matrix of sample), and the figure on which the sample location is depicted. Data have been collected at the Ely Copper Mine Superfund site by the

  9. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph E.; Ross, Steven B.; Buxton, Kenneth A.; England, Jeffery L.; McConnell, Paul E.; Massaro, Lawrence M.; Jensen, Philip J.

    2014-10-01

    This report presents a preliminary evaluation of removing used nuclear fuel (UNF) from 12 shutdown nuclear power plant sites. At these shutdown sites the nuclear power reactors have been permanently shut down and the sites have been decommissioned or are undergoing decommissioning. The shutdown sites are Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, and San Onofre. The evaluation was divided into four components: characterization of the UNF and greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC waste) inventory; a description of the on-site infrastructure and conditions relevant to transportation of UNF and GTCC waste; an evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and experience relevant to shipping transportation casks containing UNF and GTCC waste, including identification of gaps in information; and, an evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove UNF and GTCC waste. The primary sources for the inventory of UNF and GTCC waste are the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) RW-859 used nuclear fuel inventory database, industry sources such as StoreFUEL and SpentFUEL, and government sources such as the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The primary sources for information on the conditions of site and near-site transportation infrastructure and experience included observations and information collected during visits to the Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, and Zion sites; information provided by managers at the shutdown sites; Facility Interface Data Sheets compiled for DOE in 2005; Services Planning Documents prepared for DOE in 1993 and 1994; industry publications such as Radwaste Solutions; and Google Earth. State and Regional Group representatives, a Tribal representative, and a Federal Railroad Administration representative participated in six of the shutdown site

  10. Monitored retrievable storage facility site screening and evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1985-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 directs the Department of Energy to complete a detailed study of the need for and feasibility of, and to submit to the Congress a proposal for, the construction of one or more monitored retrievable storage facilities for high level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.'' The Act directs that the proposal includes site specific designs. Further, the proposal is to include, for the first such facility, at least three alternative sites and at least five alternative combinations of such proposed sites and facility designs{hor ellipsis}'' as well as a recommendation of the combination among the alternatives that the Secretary deems preferable.'' An MRS Site Screening Task Force has been formed to help identify and evaluate potential MRS facility sites within a preferred region and with the application of a siting process and criteria developed by the DOE. The activities of the Task Force presented in this report include: site evaluations (sections 10 through 12) where the rationale for the site evaluations are presented, along with each evaluation and findings of the Task Force. This in Volume 2 of a three volume document.

  11. Monitored Retrievable Storage facility site screening and evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1985-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 directs the Department of Energy to complete a detailed study of the need for and feasibility of, and to submit to the Congress a proposal for, the construction of one or more monitored retrievable storage facilities for high level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.'' The Act directs that the proposal includes site specific designs. Further, the proposal is to include, for the first such facility, at least three alternative sites and at least five alternative combinations of such proposed sites and facility designs {hor ellipsis}'' as well as a recommendation of the combination among the alternatives that the Secretary deems preferable.'' An MRS Site Screening Task Force has been formed to help identify and evaluate potential MRS facility sites within a preferred region and with the application of a siting process and criteria developed by the DOE. The activities of the Task Force presented in this report, all site evaluations (sections 13 through 16) where the rationale for the site evaluations are presented, along with each evaluation and findings of the Task Force. This is Volume 3 of a three volume document. References are also included in this volume.

  12. Web Site Projects Evaluation: A Case Study of Romanian Faculties of Economics Web Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    vultur, Sidonia Otilia; Marincas, Delia Adriana

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, an evaluation of web sites regarded like projects is discussed. We give an overview of the Web Assessment Index (WAI), by presenting a web sites of Romanian Faculties of Economics case study. The WAI contains five categories: accessibility, access speed, navigability, content and reliability. We analyzed and presented a detailed…

  13. Psoriasis comprehensive care: an evaluation of a web site.

    PubMed

    Molina-Leyva, Alejandro; Leyva-Garcia, Ana; Ruiz-Carrascosa, Jose Carlos; Naranjo-Sintes, Ramon; Jiménez-Moleon, Jose Juan

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis is a disease that affects many facets of life. Psoriasis patients have needs that cannot be addressed within the traditional consultation structure. Although the Internet provides a number of health resources, the quality of the information is variable, and many sites are not editorially independent. After reviewing the contents available on the Internet related to psoriasis, the staff of the psoriasis unit at San Cecilio University Hospital (Granada, Spain) developed a Web site to meet the needs of psoriasis patients. A group of 241 patients who attended a follow-up visit to our psoriasis unit evaluated the Web site and provided feedback through an online survey. The result of the Web development process was the creation of "Psoriasis365" (https://sites.google.com/site/psoriasis365/). Overall, the Web site achieved high scores, the most popular section being "research." These results suggest that the Web site can complement the healthcare of psoriasis patients and is potentially useful for research purposes.

  14. The relationship between involvement in and use of evaluation in multi-site evaluations.

    PubMed

    Roseland, Denise; Lawrenz, Frances; Thao, Mao

    2015-02-01

    This research explores the relationship between participation in evaluation and the use of evaluation findings and processes within three large-scale multi-site evaluations. Using canonical correlation analysis and a collection of 20 interviews, this study describes and tests the relationship between these two critical conceptual powerhouses in evaluation. Using data that were collected as a part of the NSF-funded research Beyond Evaluation Use (Lawrenz & King, 2009), this study found that some theories and beliefs about participatory evaluation contribute to use and influence in similar ways as in single-site evaluations. The differences identified in this research highlight potential planning and implementation considerations that might allow multi-site evaluators and funders of multi-site evaluation to enhance use and influence of multi-site evaluations.

  15. Aquatic ecosystem protection and restoration: Advances in methods for assessment and evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bain, M.B.; Harig, A.L.; Loucks, D.P.; Goforth, R.R.; Mills, K.E.

    2000-01-01

    Many methods and criteria are available to assess aquatic ecosystems, and this review focuses on a set that demonstrates advancements from community analyses to methods spanning large spatial and temporal scales. Basic methods have been extended by incorporating taxa sensitivity to different forms of stress, adding measures linked to system function, synthesizing multiple faunal groups, integrating biological and physical attributes, spanning large spatial scales, and enabling simulations through time. These tools can be customized to meet the needs of a particular assessment and ecosystem. Two case studies are presented to show how new methods were applied at the ecosystem scale for achieving practical management goals. One case used an assessment of biotic structure to demonstrate how enhanced river flows can improve habitat conditions and restore a diverse fish fauna reflective of a healthy riverine ecosystem. In the second case, multitaxonomic integrity indicators were successful in distinguishing lake ecosystems that were disturbed, healthy, and in the process of restoration. Most methods strive to address the concept of biological integrity and assessment effectiveness often can be impeded by the lack of more specific ecosystem management objectives. Scientific and policy explorations are needed to define new ways for designating a healthy system so as to allow specification of precise quality criteria that will promote further development of ecosystem analysis tools.

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL AUDITING: Patterns of Aquatic Species Imperilment in the Southern Appalachians: An Evaluation of Regional Databases.

    PubMed

    Flebbe; Herrig

    2000-06-01

    / For regional analyses of species imperilment patterns, data on species distributions are available from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and from the state heritage programs. We compared these two different databases as sources of best available information for regional analyses of patterns of aquatic species imperilment for 132 counties in the southern Appalachians and examined patterns produced from the databases. The heritage program database contained information about a greater number of imperiled species because species need not be federally listed as threatened or endangered to be included in this database. In the southern Appalachians, about half of imperiled molluscs and about one-fourth of imperiled fish were listed as threatened or endangered; much smaller proportions of other taxonomic groups were federally listed. Most threatened and endangered species appeared on both lists, but for about 40% of the species inconsistencies exist, notably a lack of recent records in the heritage program dataset. Numbers of species in each county were significantly different between the two datasets for Georgia, Tennessee, and Virginia, where the largest number of threatened and endangered species reside. Nevertheless, some counties always appeared as centers of imperilment, and the general spatial patterns of imperilment were similar.

  17. Carcinogenesis studies in rodents for evaluating risks associated with chemical carcinogens in aquatic food animals.

    PubMed Central

    Huff, J; Bucher, J; Yang, R

    1991-01-01

    Fish and shellfish caught in polluted waters contain potentially dangerous amounts of toxic and carcinogenic chemicals. Public concern was heightened when a large percentage of winter flounder taken from Boston Harbor was found to have visible cancer of the liver; winter flounder outside the estuary area had no liver lesions. Long-term chemical carcinogenesis studies could be easily and feasibly designed using laboratory rodents offered diets containing fish caught in polluted waters. Induced cancers in rodents would corroborate field observations in fish; positive results from these studies would provide further evidence about potential human health hazards from eating substantial amounts of chemically contaminated fish. Nonetheless, fish and aquatic organisms should be viewed as environmental biological monitors of pollution or of potential human health hazards, and authorities responsible for assuring clean and safe rivers, bodies of water, and biota should give more attention to these valid biological indicators or sentinels of environmental pollution. Consequently, fish and other sea creatures alone should serve as alarms regarding whether water areas constitute public health hazards. PMID:2050050

  18. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Siting Guide, Site selection and evaluation criteria for an early site permit application. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-24

    In August 1991, the Joint Contractors came to agreement with Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Department of Energy (DOE) on a workscope for the cost-shared Early Site Permit Demonstration Program. One task within the scope was the development of a guide for site selection criteria and procedures. A generic Siting Guide his been prepared that is a roadmap and tool for applicants to use developing detailed siting plans for their specific region of the country. The guide presents three fundamental principles that, if used, ensure a high degree of success for an ESP applicant. First, the site selection process should take into consideration environmentally diverse site locations within a given region of interest. Second, the process should contain appropriate opportunities for input from the public. Third, the process should be applied so that it is clearly reasonable to an impartial observer, based on appropriately selected criteria, including criteria which demonstrate that the site can host an advanced light water reactor (ALWR). The Siting Guide provides for a systematic, comprehensive site selection process in which three basic types of criteria (exclusionary, avoidance, and suitability) are presented via a four-step procedure. It provides a check list of the criteria for each one of these steps. Criteria are applied qualitatively, as well as presented numerically, within the guide. The applicant should use the generic guide as an exhaustive checklist, customizing the guide to his individual situation.

  19. Evaluating aquatic toxicity by visual inspection of thallus color in the green macroalga Ulva: testing a novel bioassay.

    PubMed

    Han, Young-Seok; Brown, Murray T; Park, Gyoung Soo; Han, Taejun

    2007-05-15

    A novel bioassaythat uses visual inspection of reproduction of the aquatic green macroalga Ulva has been developed for testing toxic chemicals. The method employs a technique to quantify percentage reproduction based on thallus color change during the progression of reproduction. The validity of visual inspection as a reliable method was supported by a high test score (80.4) from a test of the ability of 97 first year university students with no biology background to evaluate reproduction by visual observation after 30 min training. The sensitivity of the method was assessed using a reference toxicant (sodium dodecyl sulfate; SDS; EC50 = 7.1 mg x L(-1)), heavy metals Cu (0.063 mg x L(-1)), Cd (0.217 mg x L(-1, Pb (0.840 mg x L(-1)), Zn (0.966 mg x L(-1)), formalin (1.458 mg x L(-1)), diesel fuel (3.7 mL x L(-1)), and is shown to be similar or better than more established aquatic toxicity bioassays. Toxicity data obtained by the Ulva bioassay for elutriates of sludge collected from nine different locations were directly compared with the commercially available Microtox test. Ulva reproduction was significantly inhibited in all elutriates with the greatest and least toxic effects, estimated by toxicity units (TU) observed in elutriates from industrial waste (13.1 TU) and a filtration bed (4.8 TU), whereas values ranging from 1 to 4.5 TU were obtained from the Microtox test, confirming that the Ulva bioassay is more sensitive. Correlation analyses for EC50 data versus the concentrations of toxicants in the sludge indicated a significant relationship between toxicity and four heavy meals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn) for the Ulva bioassay but no such correlation was detected by the Microtox test. The new bioassay method is simple to use, easy to interpret, economical, and eco-relevant so would be a valuable addition to aquatic toxicity testing protocols for a wide range of toxicants. Moreover, since Ulva has a wide geographical distribution and species have similar reproductive

  20. Ecotoxicological monitoring for the evaluation of environmental recovery of aquatic ecosystems using Poecilia reticulata

    SciTech Connect

    DaSilva, E.M.; Navarro, M.F.T.; Mota, M.F.; Chastinet, C.B.A.

    1995-12-31

    Groundwater contamination has led to a considerable environmental impact on the humic acid-rich lake systems of Jaua and Interiagos (Camagari-BA). This was caused by the seepage of rainwater through a dune, which was used for some time as a dumping ground of a titanium dioxide plant. The pH fall in the water has conducted to a precipitation of the humic acids and the disappearance of the local fish fauna. The plant (TIBRAS S/A) initiated a recovery program in 1992 to seal up the contaminated dune, thus avoiding further contamination of the groundwater. During the last two years, ecotoxicity tests have been carried out with lake water, employing young individual of the guppy (Poecilia reticulate), an endemic species, as a test organism. Results for 1993 indicated and confined the contamination of five water stations from a total of eight sampled nearby. The LT{sub 50} were in some cases lower than 60 min. In the end of 1993, a severe drought caused the total disappearance of the surface water in the whole aquatic ecosystem. In May 1994, the testing series restarted and some considerable changes have been detected: the return of the water color for the whole system, an increase in pH and a considerable decrease of toxicity in two other stations. LT{sub 50} values for five stations were above 96 hours. These results are not yet an indicative that the dune sealing has been carried out properly, but are able to show and follow improvements in the biological quality of water bodies.

  1. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-33, 146-F Aquatic Biology Fish Ponds, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-021

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-08-25

    The 100-F-33, 146-F Aquatice Biology Fish Ponds waste site was an area with six small rectangular ponds and one large circular pond used to conduct tests on fish using various mixtures of river and reactor effluent water. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification and applicable confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  2. Ecotoxicological evaluation of sodium fluoroacetate on aquatic organisms and investigation of the effects on two fish cell lines.

    PubMed

    Zurita, Jorge L; Jos, Angeles; Cameán, Ana M; Salguero, Manuel; López-Artíguez, Miguel; Repetto, Guillermo

    2007-02-01

    Sodium monofluoroacetate (compound 1080) is one of the most potent pesticides. It is also a metabolite of many other fluorinated compounds, including anticancer agents, narcotic analgesics, pesticides or industrial chemicals. Other sources of water contamination are the atmospheric degradation of hydrofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons. However, there is little information available about the adverse effects of sodium fluoroacetate in aquatic organisms. Firstly, the bacterium Vibrio fischeri (decomposer), the alga Chlorella vulgaris (1st producer) and the cladoceran Daphnia magna (1st consumer) were used for the ecotoxicological evaluation of SMFA. The most sensitive models were C. vulgaris and D. magna, with a NOAEL of 0.1 and an EC50 of 0.5 mM at 72 h, respectively. According to the results after the acute exposure and due to its high biodegradation rate and low bioaccumulation potential, sodium fluoroacetate is most unlikely to produce deleterious effects to aquatic organisms. Secondly, two fish cell lines were employed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of toxicity in tissues from 2nd consumers. The hepatoma fish cell line PLHC-1 was more sensitive to SMFA than the fibroblast-like fish cell line RTG-2, being the uptake of neutral red the most sensitive bioindicator. Lysosomal function, succinate dehydrogenase and acetylcholinesterase activities were inhibited, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity was particularly stimulated, and metallothionein and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase levels were not modified. Intense hydropic degeneration, macrovesicular steatosis and death mainly by necrosis but also by apoptosis were observed. Moreover, sulphydryl groups and oxidative stress could be involved in PLHC-1 cell death induced by SMFA more than changes in calcium homeostasis.

  3. Evaluation of habitat suitability index models by global sensitivity and uncertainty analyses: a case study for submerged aquatic vegetation.

    PubMed

    Zajac, Zuzanna; Stith, Bradley; Bowling, Andrea C; Langtimm, Catherine A; Swain, Eric D

    2015-07-01

    Habitat suitability index (HSI) models are commonly used to predict habitat quality and species distributions and are used to develop biological surveys, assess reserve and management priorities, and anticipate possible change under different management or climate change scenarios. Important management decisions may be based on model results, often without a clear understanding of the level of uncertainty associated with model outputs. We present an integrated methodology to assess the propagation of uncertainty from both inputs and structure of the HSI models on model outputs (uncertainty analysis: UA) and relative importance of uncertain model inputs and their interactions on the model output uncertainty (global sensitivity analysis: GSA). We illustrate the GSA/UA framework using simulated hydrology input data from a hydrodynamic model representing sea level changes and HSI models for two species of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in southwest Everglades National Park: Vallisneria americana (tape grass) and Halodule wrightii (shoal grass). We found considerable spatial variation in uncertainty for both species, but distributions of HSI scores still allowed discrimination of sites with good versus poor conditions. Ranking of input parameter sensitivities also varied spatially for both species, with high habitat quality sites showing higher sensitivity to different parameters than low-quality sites. HSI models may be especially useful when species distribution data are unavailable, providing means of exploiting widely available environmental datasets to model past, current, and future habitat conditions. The GSA/UA approach provides a general method for better understanding HSI model dynamics, the spatial and temporal variation in uncertainties, and the parameters that contribute most to model uncertainty. Including an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis in modeling efforts as part of the decision-making framework will result in better-informed, more robust

  4. Evaluation of habitat suitability index models by global sensitivity and uncertainty analyses: a case study for submerged aquatic vegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zajac, Zuzanna; Stith, Bradley M.; Bowling, Andrea C.; Langtimm, Catherine A.; Swain, Eric D.

    2015-01-01

    Habitat suitability index (HSI) models are commonly used to predict habitat quality and species distributions and are used to develop biological surveys, assess reserve and management priorities, and anticipate possible change under different management or climate change scenarios. Important management decisions may be based on model results, often without a clear understanding of the level of uncertainty associated with model outputs. We present an integrated methodology to assess the propagation of uncertainty from both inputs and structure of the HSI models on model outputs (uncertainty analysis: UA) and relative importance of uncertain model inputs and their interactions on the model output uncertainty (global sensitivity analysis: GSA). We illustrate the GSA/UA framework using simulated hydrology input data from a hydrodynamic model representing sea level changes and HSI models for two species of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in southwest Everglades National Park: Vallisneria americana (tape grass) and Halodule wrightii (shoal grass). We found considerable spatial variation in uncertainty for both species, but distributions of HSI scores still allowed discrimination of sites with good versus poor conditions. Ranking of input parameter sensitivities also varied spatially for both species, with high habitat quality sites showing higher sensitivity to different parameters than low-quality sites. HSI models may be especially useful when species distribution data are unavailable, providing means of exploiting widely available environmental datasets to model past, current, and future habitat conditions. The GSA/UA approach provides a general method for better understanding HSI model dynamics, the spatial and temporal variation in uncertainties, and the parameters that contribute most to model uncertainty. Including an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis in modeling efforts as part of the decision-making framework will result in better-informed, more robust

  5. Evaluation of habitat suitability index models by global sensitivity and uncertainty analyses: a case study for submerged aquatic vegetation

    PubMed Central

    Zajac, Zuzanna; Stith, Bradley; Bowling, Andrea C; Langtimm, Catherine A; Swain, Eric D

    2015-01-01

    Habitat suitability index (HSI) models are commonly used to predict habitat quality and species distributions and are used to develop biological surveys, assess reserve and management priorities, and anticipate possible change under different management or climate change scenarios. Important management decisions may be based on model results, often without a clear understanding of the level of uncertainty associated with model outputs. We present an integrated methodology to assess the propagation of uncertainty from both inputs and structure of the HSI models on model outputs (uncertainty analysis: UA) and relative importance of uncertain model inputs and their interactions on the model output uncertainty (global sensitivity analysis: GSA). We illustrate the GSA/UA framework using simulated hydrology input data from a hydrodynamic model representing sea level changes and HSI models for two species of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in southwest Everglades National Park: Vallisneria americana (tape grass) and Halodule wrightii (shoal grass). We found considerable spatial variation in uncertainty for both species, but distributions of HSI scores still allowed discrimination of sites with good versus poor conditions. Ranking of input parameter sensitivities also varied spatially for both species, with high habitat quality sites showing higher sensitivity to different parameters than low-quality sites. HSI models may be especially useful when species distribution data are unavailable, providing means of exploiting widely available environmental datasets to model past, current, and future habitat conditions. The GSA/UA approach provides a general method for better understanding HSI model dynamics, the spatial and temporal variation in uncertainties, and the parameters that contribute most to model uncertainty. Including an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis in modeling efforts as part of the decision-making framework will result in better-informed, more robust

  6. Evaluation of health effects from hazardous waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Andelman, J.B.; Underhill, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    This information and data for evaluating health effects from hazardous waste sites stems from the efforts of specialists representing leading research centers, hospitals, universities, government agencies and includes consultant as well as corporate viewpoints. The work evolved from the Fourth Annual Symposium on Environmental Epidemiology sponsored by the Center for Environmental Epidemiology at the University of Pittsburgh and the U.S. EPA. Contents-One: Scope of the Hazardous Wastes Problems. Evaluating Health Effects at Hazardous Waste Sites. Historical Perspective on Waste Disposal. Two: Assessment of Exposure to Hazardous Wastes. Chemical Emissions Assessment for Hazardous Waste Sites. Assessing Pathways to Human Populations. Methods of Defining Human Exposures. Three: Determining Human Health Effects. Health Risks of Concern. Expectations and Limitations of Human Health Studies and Risk Assessment. Four: Case Studies. Love Canal. Hardeman County, Tennessee. Cannonsburg, Pennsylvania. Five: Defining Health Risks at Waste Sites. Engineering Perspectives from an Industrial Viewpoint. Role of Public Groups. Integration of Governmental Resources in Assessment of Hazards.

  7. Comparison of seasonal changes in fluorescent dissolved organic matter among aquatic lake and stream sites in the Green Lakes Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Matthew P.; McKnight, Diane M.

    2010-03-01

    The spectral characteristics of whole water dissolved organic matter (DOM) and fulvic acid were studied in samples collected from an alpine lake, a subalpine lake, and a subalpine stream during snowmelt and the summer growing season. Excitation-emission matrices of whole water DOM and fulvic acid were analyzed by parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). Allochthonous inputs of terrestrially derived fulvic acid DOM were dominant during snowmelt at the alpine lake, and during both snowmelt and summer at the subalpine sites. At the alpine lake, autochthonous inputs of DOM dominated during the summer phytoplankton bloom, and the spectral characteristics of the whole water DOM diverged from those of the fulvic acid. For example, the quinone-like fluorophores in whole water DOM at the alpine lake were more oxidized and microbially derived than the fulvic acid fraction during the summer. At the subalpine sites, the seasonal changes in the source and redox state of the quinone-like fluorophores of the whole water DOM tracked those of the fulvic acid pool. However, at both lake sites there was a greater contribution of amino acid-like fluorophores in the whole water DOM than the fulvic acid fraction. This trend was not observed at the subalpine stream site. Principal components analysis (PCA) of the PARAFAC components suggests that during snowmelt, the chemical quality of the DOM at the alpine lake was similar to that of the subalpine stream; whereas the alpine site was more similar to the subalpine lake during the summer. Spectral characterization and PCA of the PARAFAC components suggest that nonhumic quinone-like and amino acid-like fluorophores were produced in the alpine lake during the summer phytoplankton bloom. Our results show that different types of water bodies produce different seasonal patterns in whole water DOM and fulvic acid quantity and quality.

  8. Mercury Contaminated Sediment Sites- An Evaluation of Remedial Options

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury (Hg) is a naturally-occurring element that is ubiquitous in the aquatic environment. Though efforts have been made in recent years to decrease Hg emissions, historically-emitted Hg can be retained in the sediments of aquatic bodies where they may be slowly converted to m...

  9. Siting Evaluation for Biomass-Ethanol Production in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, C.M.; Zhou, J.

    2000-10-15

    This report examines four Hawaiian islands, Oahu, Hawaii, Maui, and Kauai, to identify three best combinations of potential sites and crops for producing dedicated supplies of biomass for conversion to ethanol. Key technical and economic factors considered in the siting evaluation include land availability (zoning and use), land suitability (agronomic conditions), potential quantities and costs of producing biomass feedstocks, infrastructure (including water and power supplies), transportation, and potential bioresidues to supplement dedicated energy crops.

  10. Primer for evaluating ecological risk at petroleum release sites.

    PubMed

    Claff, R

    1999-02-01

    Increasingly, risk-based approaches are being used to guide decision making at sites such as service stations and petroleum product terminals, where petroleum products have been inadvertently released to the soil. For example, the API Decision Support System software, DSS, evaluates site human health risk along six different routes of exposure. The American Society for Testing and Materials' Risk-Based Corrective Action (RBCA) standard, ASTM 1739, establishes a tiered framework for evaluating petroleum release sites on the basis of human health risk. Though much of the risk assessment focus has been on human health risk, regulatory agencies recognize that protection of human health may not fully protect the environment; and EPA has developed guidance on identifying ecological resources to be protected through risk-based decision making. Not every service station or petroleum product terminal site warrants a detailed ecological risk assessment. In some cases, a simple preliminary assessment will provide sufficient information for decision making. Accordingly, the American Petroleum Institute (API) is developing a primer for site managers, to assist them in conducting this preliminary assessment, and in deciding whether more detailed ecological risk assessments are warranted. The primer assists the site manager in identifying relevant ecological receptors and habitats, in identifying chemicals and exposure pathways of concern, in developing a conceptual model of the site to guide subsequent actions, and in identifying conditions that may warrant immediate response.

  11. Same Play, Different Actors: The Aquatic Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanis, Ira B.; Saccente, Joseph

    1988-01-01

    Provided are background information, equipment lists, and procedures for four activities for teaching aquatic ecology. Activities include "The Aquatic Food Chain Game"; "Two-Liter Aqua-Vivariums"; "A Sealed World"; and "Weaving a Web: Evaluation." (CW)

  12. Evaluating the Relationship between Equilibrium Passive Sampler Uptake and Aquatic Organism Bioaccumulation

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Critcal Review evaluates passive sampler uptake of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in water column and interstitial water exposures as a surrogate for organism bioaccumulation. Fifty-seven studies were found where both passive sampler uptake and organism bioaccumulat...

  13. Evaluating the Relationship between Equilibrium Passive Sampler Uptake and Aquatic Organism Bioaccumulation,

    EPA Science Inventory

    Objectives. This review evaluates passive sampler uptake of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in water column and interstitial water exposures as a surrogate for organism bioaccumulation. Approach/Activities. Fifty-five studies were found where both passive sampler uptake...

  14. Evaluating the Relationship between Equilibrium Passive Sampler Uptake and Aquatic Organism Bioaccumulation..

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review evaluates passive sampler uptake of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in water column and interstitial water exposures as a surrogate for organism bioaccumulation. Fifty-four studies were found where both passive sampler uptake and organism bioaccumulation wer...

  15. Risk evaluation of liquefaction on the site of Damien (Haiti)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jean, B. J.; Boisson, D.; Thimus, J.; Schroeder, C.

    2013-12-01

    Under the proposed relocation of all faculties to the campus of Damien, owned by Université d'Etat d'Haïti (UEH), the Unité de Recherche en Géotechnique (URGéo) of the Faculté des Sciences (FDS) of UEH conducted several operations whose objective was to evaluate the risk of liquefaction on this site. This abstract presents a comprehensive and coherent manner the entire processus of assessing the risk of liquefaction. This evaluation was conducted mainly from seismic thechniques, laboratory tests and the response of a one-dimensional soil column. Then, we summarize the results of this evaluation on the various techniques through synthetic maps interpretations of MASW 1D and H/V and also measures on site response to seismic loading from the SPT test applied to evaluation of liquefaction potential.

  16. An evaluation of public preferences for Superfund site cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, W.

    1995-12-31

    This study evaluates public preferences for cleanup of NPL sites. The National Priority List (NPL) was created to allocate use of Superfund monies. In spite of the expert view that NPL sites pose little immediate threat, substantial evidence suggests that people living near such sites believe they are at risk. The seriousness of the public view is captured by the large losses in property values that have occurred near such sites. Complete sit cleanup would presumably restore property values, thus property losses can approximate public willingness to pay for complete cleanup. Since complete cleanup is extremely expensive, a key question is, what level of cleanup would be acceptable to the public? A pilot market research study was used in an attempt to develop a methodology to answer this question. A survey instrument was developed that presented a hypothetical NPL site with a large population in close proximity, informed respondents of expert assessments of risk and the potential environmental effects of the site, and provided detailed information on cleanup options. Respondents selected their most preferred option. Implications of the research were further explored by examining potential aggregate benefits for cleanup of non-Federal NPL sites. Some preliminary conclusions emerged. (1) NPL listing of a site appears to exacerbate the fears of nearby citizens. (2) Results suggest that many people are satisfied with options other than complete cleanup, particularly when there are risks associated with complete cleanup. (3) Values for cleanup estimated in the pilot study are consistent with estimates from property value evidence. (4) High priority should be placed on expedited cleanup of sites with large enough nearby populations to pass a benefit-cost test based on public preferences. (5) Public preferrences should be incorporated into decisions regarding the extent of cleanup at NPL sites.

  17. SITE CHARACTERIZATION ANALYSIS PENETROMETER SYSTEM (SCAPS) - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In August 1994, a demonstration of cone penetrometer-mounted sensor technologies took place to evaluate their effectiveness in sampling and analyzing the physical and chemical characteristics of subsurface sod at hazardous waste sites. he effectiveness of each technology was eval...

  18. 40 CFR 300.420 - Remedial site evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... that shall provide a process for obtaining data of sufficient quality and quantity to satisfy data... quality objectives and measures necessary to achieve adequate data for use in site evaluation and hazard... section is to describe the methods, procedures, and criteria the lead agency shall use to collect data,...

  19. Environmental Quality Research, Use of Unicellular Algae for Evaluation of Potential Aquatic Contaminants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-11-01

    3 . RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER AMRL-TR-78-86 4 . TITLE (and Subtitle) 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Use of Unicellular Algae for Evaluation of...1 LIST OF TABLES ................... .................... 3 SUMMARY .................... ... ........................ 4 INTRODUCTION... 4 2 COMPOUNDS TESTED AND TEST CONDITIONS OF 1976/77 BIOASSAYS .................. ....................... 6 3 COMPOUNDS TESTED AND TEST CONDITIONS OF

  20. Monitoring and evaluation of aquatic resource health and use suitability in Tennessee Valley Authority reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Dycus, D.L.; Meinert, D.L.

    1993-06-01

    TVA initiated a Reservoir Monitoring Program in 1990 with two objectives -- to evaluate the health of the reservoir ecosystem and to examine how well each reservoir meets the swimmable and fishable goals of the Clean Water Act. In 1990 reservoir health was evaluated subjectively using a weight-of-evidence approach (a reservoir was deemed healthy if most of the physical, chemical, and biological monitoring components appeared healthy). In the second year (1991) a more objective, quantitative approach was developed using information on five important indicators of reservoir health -- dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll, sediment quality, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fishes. The most recent information (1992) was evaluated with the same basic approach, modified to incorporate improvements based on comments from reviewers and additional data. Reservoirs were stratified into two groups for evaluation: run-of-the-river reservoirs and tributary storage reservoirs. Key locations are sampled in each reservoir (forebay, transition zone or midreservoir, inflow, and major embayments) for most or all of these five reservoir health indicators. For each indicator (or metric), scoring criteria have been developed that assign a score ranging from 1 to 5 representing poor to good conditions, respectively. Scores for the metrics at a location are summed and then the sums for all locations are totaled. Each reservoir has one to four sample locations depending on reservoir characteristics. The resultant total is divided by the maximum possible score (all metrics good at all locations) for the reservoir. Thus, the possible range of scores is from 20 percent (all metrics poor) to 100 percent (all metrics good). This reservoir ecological health evaluation method is proving to be a valuable tool for providing the public with information about the condition of the Valley`s reservoirs, for allowing meaningful comparisons among reservoirs, and for tracking changes in reservoir health with time.

  1. Library of Habitat Models to Evaluate Benefits of Aquatic Restoration Projects on Fishes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-01

    pool, and oxbow lake . An HSI of 1.0 was assigned to the habitat with the highest mean abundance of a particular guild, and the mean abundances in... oxbow lakes (Table 1). For each model, the location and a description of the water body size and other geomorphic conditions are provided. These...evaluations. Models represent large navigable rivers with both upland and lowland tributaries. In addition, wetlands and oxbow lakes that are

  2. Hanford performance evaluation program for Hanford site analytical services

    SciTech Connect

    Markel, L.P.

    1995-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5700.6C, Quality Assurance, and Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 830.120, Quality Assurance Requirements, states that it is the responsibility of DOE contractors to ensure that ``quality is achieved and maintained by those who have been assigned the responsibility for performing the work.`` Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Plan (HASQAP) is designed to meet the needs of the Richland Operations Office (RL) for maintaining a consistent level of quality for the analytical chemistry services provided by contractor and commmercial analytical laboratory operations. Therefore, services supporting Hanford environmental monitoring, environmental restoration, and waste management analytical services shall meet appropriate quality standards. This performance evaluation program will monitor the quality standards of all analytical laboratories supporting the Hanforad Site including on-site and off-site laboratories. The monitoring and evaluation of laboratory performance can be completed by the use of several tools. This program will discuss the tools that will be utilized for laboratory performance evaluations. Revision 0 will primarily focus on presently available programs using readily available performance evaluation materials provided by DOE, EPA or commercial sources. Discussion of project specific PE materials and evaluations will be described in section 9.0 and Appendix A.

  3. Evaluation of Colloidal Stability and Ecotoxicity of Metal-based Nanoparticles in the Aquatic and Terrestrial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokhrel, Lok Raj

    Intrinsic to the many nano-enabled products are atomic-size multifunctional engineered nanomaterials, which upon release contaminate the environments, raising considerable health and safety concerns. This Ph.D. dissertation is designed to investigate (i) whether metals or oxide nanoparticles are more toxic than ions, and if MetPLATE(TM) bioassay is applicable as a rapid nanotoxicity screening tool; (ii) how variable water chemistry (dissolved organic carbon (DOC), pH, and hardness) and organic compounds (cysteine, humic acid, and trolox) modulate colloidal stability, ion release, and aquatic toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNP); and (iii) the developmental responses of crop plants exposed to Ag- or ZnO- (zinc oxide) nanoparticles. Results suggest that the MetPLATE can be considered a high-throughput screening tool for rapid nanotoxicity evaluation. Detectable changes in the colloidal diameter, surface charge, and plasmonic resonance revealed modulating effects of variable water chemistry and organic ligands on the particle stability, dissolution, and toxicity of AgNPs against Escherichia coli or Daphnia magna. Silver dissolution increased as a function of DOC concentrations but decreased with increasing hardness, pH, cysteine, or trolox levels. Notably, the dissociated Ag+ was inadequate to explain AgNP toxicity, and that the combined effect of AgNPs and dissolved Ag+ under each ligand treatment was lower than of AgNO 3. Significant attenuation by trolox signifies an oxidative stress-mediated AgNP toxicity; its inability to attenuate AgNO3 toxicity, however, negates oxidative stress as Ag+ toxicity mechanism, and that cysteine could effectively quench free Ag+ to alleviate AgNO 3 toxicity in D. magna. Surprisingly, DOC-AgNPs complex that apparently formed at higher DOC levels might have led daphnids filter-feed on aggregates, potentially elevating internal dose, and thus higher mortality. Maize root anatomy showed differential alterations upon exposure to Ag

  4. Evaluation of Aquacel Ag for Autogenous Skin Donor Sites.

    PubMed

    Haith, Linwood R; Stair-Buchmann, Megan E; Ackerman, Bruce H; Herder, Diane; Reigart, Cynthia L; Stoering, Marla; Guilday, Robert E; Patton, Mary Lou; Ross, Kerry M

    2015-01-01

    An ongoing objective of burn research is to evaluate wound dressings and develop new treatments to expedite wound healing. This was a single-center, prospective, randomized, controlled study to evaluate the effectiveness of Aquacel Ag as a dressing for autogenous skin donor sites compared with Xeroform. We hypothesized that donor sites treated with Aquacel Ag would heal faster. Patients were considered for enrollment if they required skin grafting with two donor sites >100 cm at least 2 inches apart. Dressings were observed daily starting on post-op day #2 until discharge and then weekly in the outpatient burn clinic. Assessments evaluated pain, infection, and reapplication. Photographs were taken on post-op day #2, upon "90% re-epithelialization," and at post-op day #30-45. Scar assessments and blinded photographic reviews were completed to assess cosmetic healing. Twenty-nine patients completed the study. Re-epithelialization occurred faster with Xeroform (15.2 days vs. 17.6 days). Daily pain scores were higher with Xeroform (6.72 vs. 5.68) and Aquacel Ag needed to be replaced more often (1.72 times vs. 0.10 times). Three patients developed donor site infections with Aquacel Ag. Scar scores between the donor sites were not statistically significant. The blinded photo review concluded that Xeroform had a better cosmetic outcome (24 vs. 10%). Although patients complained of more pain with Xeroform, it demonstrated shorter healing times and better cosmetic outcomes. Aquacel Ag needed to be replaced more often and represented the only three donor site infections.

  5. Evaluation of Graphite for Environmental Toxicity Using the Standard Aquatic Microcosm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    suspended as possible. The exposure concentrations were set so that a no effect and an effect level could be expected as estimated by Daphnia magna 48-hr...development. 2 ,3,4,5#6 During the last 3 years, we participated in the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) supported round-robin evaluation of the method...F.B., and Read, P.L., Standardized Aauatic Microcosm Protocol, Contract No. 223-80-2352, Vol I1, Food and Drug Administration, Washington, DC, 1983. 9

  6. Mechanical harvesting of aquatic plants. Report 3. Evaluation of the Limnos System

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.L.

    1984-05-01

    The Limnos Mechanical Harvesting System consists of a separate cutter machine; a harvester, which includes a gathering and conveyor pickup unit and a processor; and two transport tank barges. System operational tests were conducted on the Withlacoochee River in central Florida during the summer of 1979. Plants harvested were primarily topped-out hydrilla with small amounts of waterhyacinth. Productivity of the cutter unit was evaluated separately and in conjunction with the harvester. Tests were conducted with the harvester with the tank barges to remove the plant material from the water and also without the barges, which allowed the processed plant materials to be discharged directly into the water body. High productivity of the harvester in dense hydrilla (and water-hyacinth mixtures) required reducing the width of cut of the plant material or using 18-ft cuts at two depths (3 and 6 ft). This procedure limited the mass of material that had to be handled by the harvester. Several potential areas requiring additional research were identified as a result of these tests: improved procedures for evaluating mechanical harvesting machines, and possible improvements to the Limnos harvester system to allow higher productivity. 5 figures, 4 tables.

  7. Aquatic Sediments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanville, W. D.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of aquatic sediments and its effect upon water quality, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) sediment water interchange; (2) chemical and physical characterization; and (3) heavy water in sediments. A list of 129 references is also presented. (HM)

  8. Process notebook for aquatic ecosystem simulation. [Evaluation of fish models for impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Swartzman, G.; Smith, E.; McKenzie, D.; Haar, B.; Fickeisen, D.

    1980-01-01

    This notebook contains a detailed comparison of 14 models of fish growth, energetics, population dynamics, and feeding. It is a basic document for the evaluation of thes models' usefulness for impact assessment. Model equations are categorized into 18 subprocesses comprising the major processes of consumption, predation, metabolic processes, growth, fecundity, and mortality. The model equations are compared in a standard notation and the equation rationales are considered and put into a historical framework with historical precedence charts. Model parameters are computed in standard units and data sources and techniques used for parameter estimation are identified. A translator compares standard notation with the notation used in the models. The major contribution of this work is that, for the first time, fish models are arrayed with their assumptions laid bare and their parameter values compared, allowing elucidation of model differeances and evaluaton of model behavior and data needs by using the process notebook as a base for further simulation comparison.

  9. Evaluating the elimination of Brazilian entomopathogenic Bacillus by non-target aquatic species: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Filho, Eduardo C; Ramos, Felipe R; Miranda, Barbara C G; Muniz, Daphne H F; Monnerat, Rose G

    2014-10-01

    Ecotoxicity tests are key to predict environmental hazards resulting from chemical and biological pesticides in non-target species. In order to assess the effects of microbial pesticides it is important to determine if they cause infection in test organisms. At present the microbial elimination rate or clearance is not included in ecotoxicological regulatory protocols. This study evaluated the elimination of Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus sphaericus from fish and snails, after 30 days' exposure to commercial formulations of such entomopathogens. Data obtained showed that in clean water the tendency to eliminate microbial agents from the body of the exposed organisms is gradual over time but after 7 days the fish and snails were free of the two tested Bacillus spp.

  10. Evaluation of the effect of water type on the toxicity of nitrate to aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Baker, Josh A; Gilron, Guy; Chalmers, Ben A; Elphick, James R

    2017-02-01

    A suite of acute and chronic toxicity tests were conducted to evaluate the sensitivity of freshwater organisms to nitrate (as sodium nitrate). Acute exposures with rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) and amphipods (Hyalella azteca), as well as chronic exposures with H. azteca (14-d survival and growth), midges (Chironomus dilutus; 10-d survival and growth), daphnids (Ceriodaphnia dubia; 7-d survival and reproduction), and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas; 7-d survival and growth) were used to determine sublethal and lethal effect concentrations. Modification of nitrate toxicity was investigated across a range of ionic strengths, created through the use of very soft water, and standard preparations of synthetic soft, moderately-hard and hard dilution waters. The most sensitive species tested were C. dubia and H. azteca, in soft water, with reproduction and growth IC25 values of 13.8 and 12.2 mg/L NO3-N, respectively. All of the organisms exposed to nitrate demonstrated significantly reduced effects with increasing ionic strength associated with changes in water type. Possible mechanisms responsible for the modifying effect of increasing major ion concentrations on nitrate toxicity are discussed.

  11. Evaluation of the suitability of the WIPP site

    SciTech Connect

    Neill, R.H.; Channell, J.K.; Chaturvedi, L.; Little, M.S.; Rehfeldt, K.; Spiegler, P.

    1983-05-01

    Determination of the suitability of the site for WIPP is only the first major phase in the evaluation of the radiological impact of the repository on the public health and safety. The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) will continue to independently review the design of the facility, the operational procedures, the criteria for packaging and shipment of the waste, the plans, procedures and results of the WIPP experiments, emergency preparedness, adherence to EPA and pertinent NRC regulations, and other important features of the project. EEG has concluded from existing evidence that the Los Medanos site for the WIPP project has been characterized in sufficient detail to warrant confidence in the validation of the site for the permanent emplacement of approximately 6 million cubic feet of defense transuranic waste. This conclusion is based on the assumption that the maximum surface dose rate for the unshielded remote-handled transuranic waste canisters will be 100 rem/hr with a maximum radionuclide concentration of 23 Ci/liter. The Site and Preliminary Design Validation program, through the drilling of two shafts to the selected repository level at 2160 ft below the surface and excavation of about 9000 ft of tunnels, has confirmed the interpretations made about the subsurface geological conditions at the site. For an assessment of the potential radiation effects of the nuclear waste repository on the public health and safety, it is necessary to understand the regional geological and hydrological setting. Much work has been done to understand these conditions and to address several specific issues which have arisen as a result of such studies. However, it is almost inevitable that some questions remain unanswered at a given time in the decision-making process. EEG has identified work which still needs to be done at the Los Medanos site in order to improve confidence in the worst case scenario models of possible breaches of the repository.

  12. Utilizing Isotopic Uranium Ratios in Groundwater Evaluations at FUSRAP Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, W.T.; Keil, K.G.; Rhodes, M.C.; Peterson, J.M.; MacDonell, M.M.

    2007-07-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Buffalo District is evaluating environmental radioactive contamination at several Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) sites throughout New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Indiana. The investigations follow the process defined in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Groundwater data from the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) in Lewiston, New York were evaluated for isotopic uranium ratios, specifically uranium-234 versus uranium-238 (U- 234 and U-238, respectively), and the results were presented at Waste Management 2006. Since uranium naturally occurs in all groundwater, it can be difficult to distinguish where low-concentration impacts from past releases differ from the high end of a site-specific natural background range. In natural groundwater, the ratio of U-234 to U-238 exceeds 1 (unity) due to the alpha particle recoil effect, in which U-234 is preferentially mobilized to groundwater from adjacent rock or soil. This process is very slow and may take hundreds to thousands of years before a measurable increase is seen in the natural isotopic ratio. If site releases are the source of uranium being measured in groundwater, the U-234 to U-238 ratio is commonly closer to 1, which normally reflects FUSRAP-related, uranium-contaminated wastes and soils. This lower ratio occurs because not enough residence time has elapsed since the 1940's and 1950's for the alpha particle recoil effect to have significantly altered the contamination-derived ratio. An evaluation of NFSS-specific and regional groundwater data indicate that an isotopic ratio of 1.2 has been identified as a signature value to help distinguish natural groundwater, which may have a broad background range, from zones impacted by past releases. (authors)

  13. Evaluation and ranking of restoration strategies for radioactively contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Zeevaert, T; Bousher, A; Brendler, V; Jensen, P H; Nordlinder, S

    2001-01-01

    An international project, whose aim was the development of a transparent and robust method for evaluating and ranking restoration strategies for radioactively contaminated sites (RESTRAT), was carried out under the Fourth Framework of the Nuclear Fission Safety Programme of the EU. The evaluation and ranking procedure used was based on the principles of justification and optimisation for radiation protection. A multi-attribute utility analysis was applied to allow for the inclusion of radiological health effects, economic costs and social factors. Values of these attributes were converted into utility values by applying linear utility functions and weighting factors, derived from scaling constants and expert judgement. The uncertainties and variabilities associated with these utility functions and weighting factors were dealt with by a probabilistic approach which utilised a Latin Hypercube Sampling technique. Potentially relevant restoration techniques were identified and their characteristics determined through a literature review. The methodology developed by this project has been illustrated by application to representative examples of different categories of contaminated sites; a waste disposal site, a uranium tailing site and a contaminated freshwater river.

  14. An evaluation of a reagentless method for the determination of total mercury in aquatic life

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haynes, Sekeenia; Gragg, Richard D.; Johnson, Elijah; Robinson, Larry; Orazio, Carl E.

    2006-01-01

    Multiple treatment (i.e., drying, chemical digestion, and oxidation) steps are often required during preparation of biological matrices for quantitative analysis of mercury; these multiple steps could potentially lead to systematic errors and poor recovery of the analyte. In this study, the Direct Mercury Analyzer (Milestone Inc., Monroe, CT) was utilized to measure total mercury in fish tissue by integrating steps of drying, sample combustion and gold sequestration with successive identification using atomic absorption spectrometry. We also evaluated the differences between the mercury concentrations found in samples that were homogenized and samples with no preparation. These results were confirmed with cold vapor atomic absorbance and fluorescence spectrometric methods of analysis. Finally, total mercury in wild captured largemouth bass (n = 20) were assessed using the Direct Mercury Analyzer to examine internal variability between mercury concentrations in muscle, liver and brain organs. Direct analysis of total mercury measured in muscle tissue was strongly correlated with muscle tissue that was homogenized before analysis (r = 0.81, p < 0.0001). Additionally, results using this integrated method compared favorably (p < 0.05) with conventional cold vapor spectrometry with atomic absorbance and fluorescence detection methods. Mercury concentrations in brain were significantly lower than concentrations in muscle (p < 0.001) and liver (p < 0.05) tissues. This integrated method can measure a wide range of mercury concentrations (0-500 ??g) using small sample sizes. Total mercury measurements in this study are comparative to the methods (cold vapor) commonly used for total mercury analysis and are devoid of laborious sample preparation and expensive hazardous waste. ?? Springer 2006.

  15. Evaluation of surface water quality in aquatic bodies under the influence of uranium mining (MG, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Rodgher, Suzelei; de Azevedo, Heliana; Ferrari, Carla Rolim; Roque, Cláudio Vítor; Ronqui, Leilane Barbosa; de Campos, Michelle Burato; Nascimento, Marcos Roberto Lopes

    2013-03-01

    The quality of the water in a uranium-ore-mining area located in Caldas (Minas Gerais State, Brazil) and in a reservoir (Antas reservoir) that receives the neutralized acid solution leaching from the waste heaps generated by uranium mining was investigated. The samples were collected during four periods (October 2008, January, April and July 2009) from six sampling stations. Physical and chemical analyses were performed on the water samples, and the data obtained were compared with those of the Brazilian Environmental Standards and WHO standard. The water samples obtained from waste rock piles showed high uranium concentrations (5.62 mg L(-1)), high manganese values (75 mg L(-1)) and low average pH values (3.4). The evaluation of the water quality at the point considered the limit between the Ore Treatment Unit of the Brazilian Nuclear Industries and the environment (Consulta Creek) indicated contamination by fluoride, manganese, uranium and zinc. The Antas reservoir showed seasonal variations in water quality, with mean concentrations for fluoride (0.50 mg L(-1)), sulfate (16 mg L(-1)) and hardness (20 mg L(-1)) which were low in January, evidencing the effect of rainwater flowing into the system. The concentrations for fluoride, sulfate and manganese were close or above to the limits established by current legislation at the point where the treated mining effluent was discharged and downstream from this point. This study demonstrated that the effluent discharged by the UTM affected the quality of the water in the Antas reservoir, and thus the treatments currently used for effluent need to be reviewed.

  16. Relative risk site evaluations for Yakima Training Center

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.M.; Whelan, G.

    1996-11-01

    All 20 U.S. Army Yakima Training Center (YTC) sites evaluated were given a `low` relative risk. At Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) 22, a `minimum` soils contaminant hazard factor was assigned even though 6,700 mg/kg TPH-diesel was found in surface soil. SWMU 22 is physically located on top of and with the fence surrounding Area of Concern (AOC) 4. Because the diesel is most likely associated with AOC 4, and plans are to clean up AOC 4, any further actions regarding these contaminated soils should be addressed as part of the planned actions for AOC 4. Contaminant hazard factors of `moderate` were assigned to the soil pathway for SWMUs 4 and 7 because dieldrin and arsenic, respectively, were found in surface soil samples at concentrations exceeding standards. A `moderate` contaminant hazard factor was also assigned to the sediment pathway for AOC 1 because arsenic detected in sediments in `Larry`s Swimming Pool` exceeded the standard. All other contaminant hazard factors were rated as minimal. The receptor factor for all sites and pathways was rated `limited,` except for SWMU 54 in which the groundwater receptor factor was rated `potential.` A `potential` rating was assigned to the groundwater pathway at this site to be conservative. The site is located on the south side of the syncline axis where the unconfined aquifer may be present and there are no monitoring wells at the site to confirm or deny the presence of groundwater contamination.

  17. Evaluating the risk to aquatic ecosystems posed by leachate from tire shred fill in roads using toxicity tests, toxicity identification evaluations, and groundwater modeling.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Patrick J; Warmerdam, John M; Ogle, Scott; Humphrey, Dana N; Patenaude, Stacey M

    2006-02-01

    The risk to adjacent aquatic systems posed by leachates from scrap tires used in engineering applications has not been characterized adequately. Toxicity testing, toxicity identification evaluation (TIE), and groundwater modeling were used to determine the circumstances under which tire shreds could be used as roadbed fill with negligible risk to aquatic organisms in adjacent water bodies. Elevated levels of iron, manganese, and several other chemicals were found in tire shred leachates. However, chronic toxicity tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) showed no adverse effects caused by leachates collected from tire shreds installed above the water table. Exposure to leachates collected from tire shreds installed below the water table resulted in significant reductions to both survival and reproduction in C. dubia. The TIE results indicated that exposure to soluble metals (likely ferrous iron primarily) and the formation of iron hydroxide precipitates on this invertebrate species likely were the causes of the observed effects. The available chemistry data show that iron concentrations in the affected groundwater decreased substantially within a short distance (0.61 m) downgradient of tire shred fill. Based on geochemical modeling, the use of tire shreds in applications below the water table is appropriate in settings where dissolved oxygen is greater than 2.0 mg/L, pH is greater than 5.8, and a downgradient buffer of approximately 3.0 m exists between the fill and the surface water. For settings with lower dissolved oxygen concentrations or lower pH, results of groundwater modeling indicate that a greater buffer distance (approximately 11 m) is needed to dilute the leachate to nontoxic levels under various soil and groundwater conditions solely through advection and dispersion processes.

  18. Evaluation method of leachate leaking from carcass burial site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S.; Kim, H.; Lee, M.; Lee, K.; Kim, S.; Kim, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, T.; Han, J.

    2012-12-01

    More than 150,000 cattle carcasses and 3,140,000 pig carcasses were buried all over the nation in Korea because of 2010 outbreak of foot and mouth disease (FMD). Various disposal Techniques such as incineration, composting, rendering, and burial have been developed and applied to effectively dispose an animal carcass. Since a large number of carcasses should be disposed for a short-term period to prevent the spread of FMD virus, most of the carcasses were disposed by mass burial technique. However, a long-term management and monitoring of leachate discharges are required because mass burial can cause soil and groundwater contamination. In this study, we used key parameters related to major components of leachate such as NH4-N, NO3-N, Cl-, E.coli and electrical conductivity as potential leachate contamination indicator to determine leachate leakage from the site. We monitored 300 monitoring wells in both burial site and the monitoring well 5m away from burial sites to identify leachate leaking from burial site. Average concentration of NH3-N in 300 monitoring wells, both burial site and the well 5m away from burial sites, were 2,593 mg/L and 733 mg/L, respectively. 24% out of 300 monitoring wells showed higher than 10 mg/L NH4-N, 100 mg/L Cl- and than 800 μS/cm electrical conductivity. From this study, we set up 4 steps guidelines to evaluate leachate leakage like; step 1 : High potential step of leachate leakage, step 2 : Middle potential step of leachate leakage, step 3 : Low potential step of leachate leakage, step 4 : No leachate leakage. On the basis of this result, we moved 34 leachate leaking burial sites to other places safely and it is necessary to monitor continuously the monitoring wells for environmental protection and human health.

  19. A multiple testing approach for hazard evaluation of complex mixtures in the aquatic environment: the use of diesel oil as a model.

    PubMed

    Johnson, B T; Romanenko, V I

    1989-01-01

    Traditional single species toxicity tests and multiple component laboratory-scaled microcosm assays were combined to assess the toxicological hazard of diesel oil, a model complex mixture, to a model aquatic environment. The immediate impact of diesel oil dosed on a freshwater community was studied in a model pond microcosm over 14 days: a 7-day dosage and a 7-day recovery period. A multicomponent laboratory microcosm was designed to monitor the biological effects of diesel oil (1.0 mg litre(-1)) on four components: water, sediment (soil + microbiota), plants (aquatic macrophytes and algae), and animals (zooplanktonic and zoobenthic invertebrates). To determine the sensitivity of each part of the community to diesel oil contamination and how this model community recovered when the oil dissipated, limnological, toxicological, and microbiological variables were considered. Our model revealed these significant occurrences during the spill period: first, a community production and respiration perturbation, characterized in the water column by a decrease in dissolved oxygen and redox potential and a concomitant increase in alkalinity and conductivity; second, marked changes in microbiota of sediments that included bacterial heterotrophic dominance and a high heterotrophic index (0.6), increased bacterial productivity, and the marked increases in numbers of saprophytic bacteria (10 x) and bacterial oil degraders (1000 x); and third, column water acutely toxic (100% mortality) to two model taxa: Selenastrum capricornutum and Daphnia magna. Following the simulated clean-up procedure to remove the oil slick, the recovery period of this freshwater microcosm was characterized by a return to control values. This experimental design emphasized monitoring toxicological responses in aquatic microcosm; hence, we proposed the term 'toxicosm' to describe this approach to aquatic toxicological hazard evaluation. The toxicosm as a valuable toxicological tool for screening aquatic

  20. A multiple testing approach for hazard evaluation of complex mixtures in the aquatic environment: the use of diesel oil as a model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, B. Thomas

    1989-01-01

    Traditional single species toxicity tests and multiple component laboratory-scaled microcosm assays were combined to assess the toxicological hazard of diesel oil, a model complex mixture, to a model aquatic environment. The immediate impact of diesel oil dosed on a freshwater community was studied in a model pond microcosm over 14 days: a 7-day dosage and a 7-day recovery period. A multicomponent laboratory microcosm was designed to monitor the biological effects of diesel oil (1·0 mg litre−1) on four components: water, sediment (soil + microbiota), plants (aquatic macrophytes and algae), and animals (zooplanktonic and zoobenthic invertebrates). To determine the sensitivity of each part of the community to diesel oil contamination and how this model community recovered when the oil dissipated, limnological, toxicological, and microbiological variables were considered. Our model revealed these significant occurrences during the spill period: first, a community production and respiration perturbation, characterized in the water column by a decrease in dissolved oxygen and redox potential and a concomitant increase in alkalinity and conductivity; second, marked changes in microbiota of sediments that included bacterial heterotrophic dominance and a high heterotrophic index (0·6), increased bacterial productivity, and the marked increases in numbers of saprophytic bacteria (10 x) and bacterial oil degraders (1000 x); and third, column water acutely toxic (100% mortality) to two model taxa: Selenastrum capricornutum and Daphnia magna. Following the simulated clean-up procedure to remove the oil slick, the recovery period of this freshwater microcosm was characterized by a return to control values. This experimental design emphasized monitoring toxicological responses in aquatic microcosm; hence, we proposed the term ‘toxicosm’ to describe this approach to aquatic toxicological hazard evaluation. The toxicosm as a valuable toxicological tool for screening

  1. Semifield testing of a bioremediation tool for atrazine-contaminated soils: evaluating the efficacy on soil and aquatic compartments.

    PubMed

    Chelinho, Sónia; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Silva, Cátia; Costa, Catarina; Viana, Paula; Viegas, Cristina A; Fialho, Arsénio M; Ribeiro, Rui; Sousa, José Paulo

    2012-07-01

    The present study evaluated the bioremediation efficacy of a cleanup tool for atrazine-contaminated soils (Pseudomonas sp. ADP plus citrate [P. ADP + CIT]) at a semifield scale, combining chemical and ecotoxicological information. Three experiments representing worst-case scenarios of atrazine contamination for soil, surface water (due to runoff), and groundwater (due to leaching) were performed in laboratory simulators (100 × 40 × 20 cm). For each experiment, three treatments were set up: bioremediated, nonbioremediated, and a control. In the first, the soil was sprayed with 10 times the recommended dose (RD) for corn of Atrazerba and with P. ADP + CIT at day 0 and a similar amount of P. ADP at day 2. The nonbioremediated treatment consisted of soil spraying with 10 times the RD of Atrazerba (day 0). After 7 d of treatment, samples of soil (and eluates), runoff, and leachate were collected for ecotoxicological tests with plants (Avena sativa and Brassica napus) and microalgae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) species. In the nonbioremediated soils, atrazine was very toxic to both plants, with more pronounced effects on plant growth than on seed emergence. The bioremediation tool annulled atrazine toxicity to A. sativa (86 and 100% efficacy, respectively, for seed emergence and plant growth). For B. napus, results point to incomplete bioremediation. For the microalgae, eluate and runoff samples from the nonbioremediated soils were extremely toxic; a slight toxicity was registered for leachates. After only 7 d, the ecotoxicological risk for the aquatic compartments seemed to be diminished with the application of P. ADP + CIT. In aqueous samples obtained from the bioremediated soils, the microalgal growth was similar to the control for runoff samples and slightly lower than control (by 11%) for eluates.

  2. Performance evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste: Volume 3, Site evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M.

    1996-03-01

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a performance evaluation to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Volume 1 summarizes the process for selecting the fifteen sites, the methodology used in the evaluation, and the conclusions derived from the evaluation. Volume 2 provides details about the site-selection process, the performance-evaluation methodology, and the overall results of the analysis. Volume 3 contains detailed evaluations of the fifteen sites and discussion of the results for each site.

  3. Hanford Site Annual Report Radiological Dose Calculation Upgrade Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Sandra F.

    2010-02-28

    Operations at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington, result in the release of radioactive materials to offsite residents. Site authorities are required to estimate the dose to the maximally exposed offsite resident. Due to the very low levels of exposure at the residence, computer models, rather than environmental samples, are used to estimate exposure, intake, and dose. A DOS-based model has been used in the past (GENII version 1.485). GENII v1.485 has been updated to a Windows®-based software (GENII version 2.08). Use of the updated software will facilitate future dose evaluations, but must be demonstrated to provide results comparable to those of GENII v1.485. This report describes the GENII v1.485 and GENII v2.08 dose exposure, intake, and dose estimates for the maximally exposed offsite resident reported for calendar year 2008. The GENII v2.08 results reflect updates to implemented algorithms. No two environmental models produce the same results, as was again demonstrated in this report. The aggregated dose results from 2008 Hanford Site airborne and surface water exposure scenarios provide comparable dose results. Therefore, the GENII v2.08 software is recommended for future offsite resident dose evaluations.

  4. Remedial evaluation of a UST site impacted with chlorinated hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Ilgner, B.; Rainey, E. ); Ball, M.; Schutt, M.

    1993-10-01

    During assessment and remedial planning of an underground storage tank (UST) site, it was discovered that chlorinated hydrocarbons were present. A network of selected wells were sampled for analysis of halogenated volatile organics and volatile organic compounds to determine the extent of constituents not traditionally associated with refined petroleum motor fuel products. The constituents detected included vinyl chloride, tetrachloroethylene (PCE), bromodichloromethane, and 2-chloroethylvinyl ether. These analytical data were evaluated as to what effect the nonpetroleum hydrocarbon constituents may have on the remedial approach utilized the site hydrogeologic properties to its advantage and took into consideration the residential nature of the impacted area. The geometry of the dissolved plume is very flat and broad, emanating from the site and extending downgradient under a residential area situated in a transmissive sand unit. Ground-water pumping was proposed from two areas of the dissolved plume including five wells pumping at a combined rate of 55 gallons per minute (gpm) at a downgradient position, and two wells on-site to remove free product and highly impacted ground water. Also, to assist in remediation of the dissolved plume and to control vapors, a bioventing system was proposed throughout the plume area.

  5. Comparison of methods for determining streamflow requirements for aquatic habitat protection at selected sites on the Assabet and Charles Rivers, Eastern Massachusetts, 2000-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, Gene W.; Armstrong, David S.; Richards, Todd A.

    2004-01-01

    Four methods used to determine streamflow requirements for habitat protection at nine critical riffle reaches in the Assabet River and Charles River Basins were compared. The methods include three standard setting techniques?R2Cross, Wetted Perimeter, and Tennant?and a diagnostic method, the Range of Variability Approach. One study reach is on the main stem of the Assabet River, four reaches are on tributaries to the Assabet River (Cold Harbor Brook, Danforth Brook, Fort Meadow Brook, and Elizabeth Brook), three are on the main stem of the Charles River, and one is on a tributary to the Charles River (Mine Brook). The strength of the R2Cross and Wetted-Perimeter methods is that they may be applied at ungaged locations whereas the Tennant method and the Range of Variability Approach require a period of streamflow record for analysis. Fish community assessments conducted at or near riffle sites in flowing reaches of the Assabet River and Charles River Basins were used to indicate ecological conditions. The fish communities in the main stem and tributary reaches of both the Assabet and Charles River Basins indicated degraded aquatic ecosystems. However, the degree of degradation differs between the two basins. The extreme predominance of tolerant, generalist species in the Charles River fish community demon-strates the cumulative impacts of flow, habitat, and water-chemistry degradation, combined with the effects of nearby impoundments and changing land use. The range of discharges for nine ungaged riffle reaches defined by the median R2Cross 3-of-3 criteria, R2Cross 2-of-3 criteria, and Wetted-Perimeter streamflow requirements, was 0.86 cubic foot per second per square mile, 0.18 cubic foot per second per square mile, and 0.23 cubic foot per second per square mile, respectively. Application of R2Cross and Wetted-Perimeter methods to sites with altered streamflows or at sites that are riffles only at low to moderate flows can result in a greater variability of

  6. Evaluation of waste stabilized by the Soliditech site technology

    SciTech Connect

    Grube, W.E.

    1990-01-01

    The Soliditech technology demonstration was conducted at the Imperial Oil Company/Champion Chemicals Superfund Site in Monmouth County, New Jersey. Contamination at the site includes PCBs, lead (with various other metals) and oil and grease. The process mixes the waste material with proprietary additives, pozzolanic materials, and water, in a batch mixer. Technical criteria used to evaluate its effectiveness include (1) short-term extraction and engineering tests; (2) long-term extraction and and leaching tests; (3) petrographic examination; and (4) structural integrity observations. Three different waste types-contaminated soil, waste filter cake material and oily sludge-and a sand blank were treated. Neither PCBs nor volatile organic compounds were detected in the extracts of treated wastes. Significantly reduced amounts of metals were detected in the extracts of treated wastes compared to untreated.

  7. Evaluation and Criteria of the World Wide Web: Reference Web Sites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csir, Floyd J.

    This paper applies an evaluation method for World Wide Web sites that provide access to online reference materials at academic and public libraries. The evaluation of Web sites was performed with a questionnaire form focusing on Web site currency, accuracy and relevancy; Web site organization/structure; Web site presentation; URL maintenance; and…

  8. Arid sites stakeholder participation in evaluating innovative technologies: VOC-Arid Site Integrated Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, T.S.; McCabe, G.H.; Brockbank, B.R.

    1995-05-01

    Developing and deploying innovative environmental cleanup technologies is an important goal for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), which faces challenging remediation problems at contaminated sites throughout the United States. Achieving meaningful, constructive stakeholder involvement in cleanup programs, with the aim of ultimate acceptance of remediation decisions, is critical to meeting those challenges. DOE`s Office of Technology Development sponsors research and demonstration of new technologies, including, in the past, the Volatile Organic Compounds Arid Site Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID), hosted at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The purpose of the VOC-Arid ID has been to develop and demonstrate new technologies for remediating carbon tetrachloride and other VOC contamination in soils and ground water. In October 1994 the VOC-Arid ID became a part of the Contaminant Plume Containment and Remediation Focus Area (Plume Focus Area). The VOC Arid ID`s purpose of involving stakeholders in evaluating innovative technologies will now be carried on in the Plume Focus Area in cooperation with Site Technology Coordination Groups and Site Specific Advisory Boards. DOE`s goal is to demonstrate promising technologies once and deploy those that are successful across the DOE complex. Achieving that goal requires that the technologies be acceptable to the groups and individuals with a stake in DOE facility cleanup. Such stakeholders include groups and individuals with an interest in cleanup, including regulatory agencies, Native American tribes, environmental and civic interest groups, public officials, environmental technology users, and private citizens. This report documents the results of the stakeholder involvement program, which is an integral part of the VOC-Arid ID.

  9. A Model Evaluation Data Set for the Tropical ARM Sites

    DOE Data Explorer

    Jakob, Christian

    2008-01-15

    This data set has been derived from various ARM and external data sources with the main aim of providing modelers easy access to quality controlled data for model evaluation. The data set contains highly aggregated (in time) data from a number of sources at the tropical ARM sites at Manus and Nauru. It spans the years of 1999 and 2000. The data set contains information on downward surface radiation; surface meteorology, including precipitation; atmospheric water vapor and cloud liquid water content; hydrometeor cover as a function of height; and cloud cover, cloud optical thickness and cloud top pressure information provided by the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP).

  10. Chronic toxicity evaluation of the Savannah River Site DETF discharges and three locations on Tims Branch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    Chronic toxicity tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia were conducted June 6--August 1, 1990, on the Savannah River Site M-Area supernate discharge effluent (M-004), the A-014 effluent discharge with and without DETF process flow, and for stream samples collected in Tims Branch upstream and downstream from A-014. A secondary objective of the study was to determine what DETF flow rate would not cause instream impact to the aquatic community. 2 figs., 68 tabs.

  11. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Regulatory criteria evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The primary objective of the ESPDP is to demonstrate successfully the use of 10CFR52 to obtain ESPs for one or more US sites for one (or more) ALWR nuclear power plants. It is anticipated that preparation of the ESP application and interaction with NRC during the application review process will result not only in an ESP for the applicant(s) but also in the development of criteria and definition of processes, setting the precedent that facilitates ESPs for subsequent ESP applications. Because siting regulatory processes and acceptance criteria are contained in over 100 separate documents, comprehensive licensing and technical reviews were performed to establish whether the requirements and documentation are self-consistent, whether the acceptance criteria are sufficiently well-defined and clear, and whether the licensing process leading to the issuance of an ESP is unambiguously specified. The results of the technical and licensing evaluations are presented in this report. The purpose, background, and organization of the ESPDP is delineated in Section 1. Section 11 contains flowcharts defining siting application requirements, environmental report requirements, and emergency planning/preparedness requirements for ALWRS. The licensing and technical review results are presented in Section III.

  12. Site characterization at the Rabbit Valley Geophysical Performance Evaluation Range

    SciTech Connect

    Koppenjan, S,; Martinez, M.

    1994-06-01

    The United States Department of Energy (US DOE) is developing a Geophysical Performance Evaluation Range (GPER) at Rabbit Valley located 30 miles west of Grand Junction, Colorado. The purpose of the range is to provide a test area for geophysical instruments and survey procedures. Assessment of equipment accuracy and resolution is accomplished through the use of static and dynamic physical models. These models include targets with fixed configurations and targets that can be re-configured to simulate specific specifications. Initial testing (1991) combined with the current tests at the Rabbit Valley GPER will establish baseline data and will provide performance criteria for the development of geophysical technologies and techniques. The US DOE`s Special Technologies Laboratory (STL) staff has conducted a Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey of the site with its stepped FM-CW GPR. Additionally, STL contracted several other geophysical tests. These include an airborne GPR survey incorporating a ``chirped`` FM-CW GPR system and a magnetic survey with a surfaced-towed magnetometer array unit Ground-based and aerial video and still frame pictures were also acquired. STL compiled and analyzed all of the geophysical maps and created a site characterization database. This paper discusses the results of the multi-sensor geophysical studies performed at Rabbit Valley and the future plans for the site.

  13. Using Remotely Sensed Data and Hydrologic Models to Evaluate the Effects of Climate Change on Shallow Aquatic Ecosystems in the Mobile Bay, AL Estuary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, M. G.; Al-Hamdan, M. Z.; Thom, R.; Judd, C.; Woodruff, D.; Ellis, J. T.; Quattrochi, D.; Swann, R.

    2012-01-01

    Coastal systems in the northern Gulf of Mexico, including the Mobile Bay, AL estuary, are subject to increasing pressure from a variety of activities including climate change. Climate changes have a direct effect on the discharge of rivers that drain into Mobile Bay and adjacent coastal water bodies. The outflows change water quality (temperature, salinity, and sediment concentrations) in the shallow aquatic areas and affect ecosystem functioning. Mobile Bay is a vital ecosystem that provides habitat for many species of fauna and flora. Historically, submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) and seagrasses were found in this area of the northern Gulf of Mexico; however the extent of vegetation has significantly decreased over the last 60 years. The objectives of this research are to determine: how climate changes affect runoff and water quality in the estuary and how these changes will affect habitat suitability for SAV and seagrasses. Our approach is to use watershed and hydrodynamic modeling to evaluate the impact of climate change on shallow water aquatic ecosystems in Mobile Bay and adjacent coastal areas. Remotely sensed Landsat data were used for current land cover land use (LCLU) model input and the data provided by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) of the future changes in temperature, precipitation, and sea level rise were used to create the climate scenarios for the 2025 and 2050 model simulations. Project results are being shared with Gulf coast stakeholders through the Gulf of Mexico Data Atlas to benefit coastal policy and climate change adaptation strategies.

  14. Using Remotely Sensed Data and Hydrologic Models to Evaluate the Effects of Climate Change on Shallow Aquatic Ecosystems in the Mobile Bay, AL Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estes, M. G.; Al-Hamdan, M. Z.; Thom, R.; Judd, C.; Ellis, J.; Woodruff, D.; Quattrochi, D.; Rose, K.; Swann, R.

    2012-12-01

    Coastal systems in the northern Gulf of Mexico, including the Mobile Bay, AL estuary, are subject to increasing pressure from a variety of activities including climate change. Climate changes have a direct effect on the discharge of rivers that drain into Mobile Bay and adjacent coastal water bodies. The outflows change water quality (temperature, salinity, and sediment concentrations) in the shallow aquatic areas and affect ecosystem functioning. Mobile Bay is a vital ecosystem that provides habitat for many species of fauna and flora. Historically, submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) and seagrasses were found in this area of the northern Gulf of Mexico; however the extent of vegetation has significantly decreased over the last 60 years. The objectives of this research are to determine: how climate changes affect runoff and water quality in the estuary and how these changes will affect habitat suitability for SAV and seagrasses. Our approach is to use watershed and hydrodynamic modeling to evaluate the impact of climate change on shallow water aquatic ecosystems in Mobile Bay and adjacent coastal areas. Remotely sensed Landsat data were used for current land cover land use (LCLU) model input and the data provided by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) of the future changes in temperature, precipitation, and sea level rise were used to create the climate scenarios for the 2025 and 2050 model simulations. Project results are being shared with Gulf coast stakeholders through the Gulf of Mexico Data Atlas to benefit coastal policy and climate change adaptation strategies.

  15. Are standard tests sensitive enough to evaluate effects of human pharmaceuticals in aquatic biota? Facing changes in research approaches when performing risk assessment of drugs.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Martínez, G V; Owuor, M A; Garrido-Pérez, C; Salamanca, M J; Del Valls, T A; Martín-Díaz, M L

    2015-02-01

    Nowadays, the presence of pharmaceutical products in aquatic environments is not only common, but is also of significant concern regarding the adverse effect they may produce to aquatic biota. In order to determine the adverse effects of caffeine (CAF), ibuprofen (IBU), carbamazepine (CBZ) and novobiocin (NOV), at environmental occurring concentrations, standardized endpoints applied in current guidelines were evaluated in four organisms including bioluminescence response in Vibrio fischeri, growth inhibition in Isochrysis galbana (marine water) and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (fresh water) and fertilization and embryo-larval development in Paracentrotus lividus. To reach this aim bioassays were implemented by exposing organisms to water spiked with drugs dissolved in DMSO (0.001% v/v). Risk characterization was performed, calculating the environmental impact of drugs by calculating environmental concentration and predicted no effect concentration ratio (MEC/PNEC). Results indicate that acute toxicity was found above environmental concentrations in the order of mg L(-1) for bacteria bioluminescence, microalgae growth inhibition and sea urchin fertilization. However, teratogenicity was observed on sea urchin after exposure to environmental concentrations of drugs at 0.00001 mg L(-1); at this concentration CBZ and IBU were found to reduce significantly the embryo-larval development compared to controls (p<0.01). The risk calculated for selected drugs suggested they are harmless for aquatic environment except when applying the embryo-larval development endpoint. Endpoints applied in this study showed the necessity of using more sensitive responses, when assessing risk of pharmaceuticals in aquatic environments, since endpoints applied in current guidelines may not be suitable.

  16. Ecological criteria for evaluating candidate sites for marine reserves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, Callum M.; Andelman, Sandy; Branch, George; Bustamante, Rodrigo H.; Castilla, Juan Carlos; Dugan, Jenifer; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Leslie, Heather; Lubchenco, Jane; McArdle, Deborah; Possingham, Hugh P.; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Warner, Robert R.

    2003-01-01

    Several schemes have been developed to help select the locations of marine reserves. All of them combine social, economic, and biological criteria, and few offer any guidance as to how to prioritize among the criteria identified. This can imply that the relative weights given to different criteria are unimportant. Where two sites are of equal value ecologically, then socioeconomic criteria should dominate the choice of which should be protected. However, in many cases, socioeconomic criteria are given equal or greater weight than ecological considerations in the choice of sites. This can lead to selection of reserves with little biological value that fail to meet many of the desired objectives. To avoid such a possibility, we develop a series of criteria that allow preliminary evaluation of candidate sites according to their relative biological values in advance of the application of socioeconomic criteria. We include criteria that, while not strictly biological, have a strong influence on the species present or ecological processes. Our scheme enables sites to be assessed according to their biodiversity, the processes which underpin that diversity, and the processes that support fisheries and provide a spectrum of other services important to people. Criteria that capture biodiversity values include biogeographic representation, habitat representation and heterogeneity, and presence of species or populations of special interest (e.g., threatened species). Criteria that capture sustainability of biodiversity and fishery values include the size of reserves necessary to protect viable habitats, presence of exploitable species, vulnerable life stages, connectivity among reserves, links among ecosystems, and provision of ecosystem services to people. Criteria measuring human and natural threats enable candidate sites to be eliminated from consideration if risks are too great, but also help prioritize among sites where threats can be mitigated by protection. While our

  17. Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration Project: Cross-Site Evaluation Methods

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Rebecca E.; Mehta, Paras; Thompson, Debbe; Bhargava, Alok; Carlson, Coleen; Kao, Dennis; Layne, Charles S.; Ledoux, Tracey; O'Connor, Teresia; Rifai, Hanadi; Gulley, Lauren; Hallett, Allen M.; Kudia, Ousswa; Joseph, Sitara; Modelska, Maria; Ortega, Dana; Parker, Nathan; Stevens, Andria

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: The Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (CORD) project links public health and primary care interventions in three projects described in detail in accompanying articles in this issue of Childhood Obesity. This article describes a comprehensive evaluation plan to determine the extent to which the CORD model is associated with changes in behavior, body weight, BMI, quality of life, and healthcare satisfaction in children 2–12 years of age. Design/Methods: The CORD Evaluation Center (EC-CORD) will analyze the pooled data from three independent demonstration projects that each integrate public health and primary care childhood obesity interventions. An extensive set of common measures at the family, facility, and community levels were defined by consensus among the CORD projects and EC-CORD. Process evaluation will assess reach, dose delivered, and fidelity of intervention components. Impact evaluation will use a mixed linear models approach to account for heterogeneity among project-site populations and interventions. Sustainability evaluation will assess the potential for replicability, continuation of benefits beyond the funding period, institutionalization of the intervention activities, and community capacity to support ongoing program delivery. Finally, cost analyses will assess how much benefit can potentially be gained per dollar invested in programs based on the CORD model. Conclusions: The keys to combining and analyzing data across multiple projects include the CORD model framework and common measures for the behavioral and health outcomes along with important covariates at the individual, setting, and community levels. The overall objective of the comprehensive evaluation will develop evidence-based recommendations for replicating and disseminating community-wide, integrated public health and primary care programs based on the CORD model. PMID:25679060

  18. Pesticides in stream sediment and aquatic biota: distribution, trends, and governing factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Capel, Peter D.

    1999-01-01

    More than 20 years after the ban of DDT and other organochlorine pesticides, pesticides continue to be detected in air, rain, soil, surface water, bed sediment, and aquatic and terrestrial biota throughout the world. Recent research suggests that low levels of some of these pesticides may have the potential to affect the development, reproduction, and behavior of fish and wildlife, and possibly humans. Pesticides in Stream Sediment and Aquatic Biota: Distribution, Trends, and Governing Factors assesses the occurrence and behavior of pesticides in bed sediment and aquatic biota-the two major compartments of the hydrologic system where organochlorine pesticides are most likely to accumulate. This book collects, for the first time, results from several hundred monitoring studies and field experiments, ranging in scope from individual sites to the entire nation. Comprehensive tables provide concise summaries of study locations, pesticides analyzed, and study outcomes. Comprehensive and extensively illustrated, Pesticides in Stream Sediment and Aquatic Biota: Distribution, Trends, and Governing Factors evaluates the sources, environmental fate, geographic distribution, and long-term trends of pesticides in bed sediment and aquatic biota. The book focuses on organochlorine pesticides, but also assesses the potential for currently used pesticides to be found in bed sediment and aquatic biota. Topics covered in depth include the effect of land use on pesticide occurrence, mechanisms of pesticide uptake and accumulation by aquatic biota, and the environmental significance of observed levels of pesticides in stream sediment and aquatic biota.

  19. Partitioning taxonomic diversity of aquatic insect assemblages ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Biological diversity can be divided into: alpha (α, local), beta (β, difference in assemblage composition among locals), and gamma (γ, total diversity). We assessed the partitioning of taxonomic diversity of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT) and of functional feeding groups (FFG) in Neotropical Savanna (southeastern Brazilian Cerrado) streams. To do so, we considered three diversity components: stream site (α), among stream sites (β1), and among hydrologic units (β2). We also evaluated the association of EPT genera composition with heterogeneity in land use, instream physical habitat structure, and instream water quality variables. The percent of EPT taxonomic α diversity (20.7%) was lower than the β1 and β2 diversities (53.1% and 26.2%, respectively). The EPT FFG α diversity (26.5%) was lower than the β1 diversity (55.8%) and higher than the β2 (17.7%) diversity. The collector-gatherer FFG was predominant and had the greatest β diversity among stream sites (β1, 55.8%). Our findings support the need for implementing regional scale conservation strategies in the Cerrado biome, which has been degraded by anthropogenic activities. Using adaptations of the US EPA’s National Aquatic Resource Survey (NARS) designs and methods, Ferreira and colleagues examined the distribution of taxonomic and functional diversity of aquatic insects among basins, stream sites within basins, and within stream sample reaches. They sampled 160 low-order stre

  20. An Evaluation Guide for Fuel Cell Deployments at EPA Superfund Sites

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This guidebook aims to educate potential project site personnel and regional planners on various considerations to be evaluated when pursuing a hydrogen fuel cell project on an EPA Superfund site for on-site energy generation needs.

  1. Laboratory evaluation of aqueous leaf extract of Tephrosia vogelii against larvae of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and non-target aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Li, Weisheng; Huang, Congling; Wang, Kun; Fu, Jiantao; Cheng, Dongmei; Zhang, Zhixiang

    2015-06-01

    Mosquito control using insecticides has been the most successful intervention known to reduce malaria prevalence or incidence. However, vector control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. In this research, the leaf aqueous leachate of Tephrosia vogelii was evaluated for its toxicity against larvae of the most invasive mosquito worldwide, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae), and toward adults of the water flea, Daphnia magna (Cladocera: Crustacea) and Oreochromis niloticus, two non-target aquatic organisms that share the same ecological niche of A. albopictus. The leaf aqueous leachate of T. vogelii was evaluated against fourth-instar larvae, non-blood fed 3-5 days old laboratory strains of A. albopictus under laboratory condition. In addition, the objective of the present work was to study the environmental safety evaluation for aquatic ecosystem. Mortality was then recorded after 7d exposure. The leaf aqueous leachate of T. vogelii showed high mosquitocidal activity against larvae of A. albopictus, with a LC50=1.18μg/mL. However, it had a remarkable acute toxicity also toward adults of the non-target arthropod D. magna, with a LC50=0.47μg/L and O. niloticus with a LC50=5.31μg/L. The present findings have important implications in the practical control of mosquito larvae in the aquatic ecosystem, as the medicinal plants studied are commonly available in large quantities. The extract could be used in stagnant water bodies for the control of mosquitoes acting as vector for many communicable diseases.

  2. Helium mining on the Moon: Site selection and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, Eugene N.

    1992-01-01

    The feasibility of recovering helium (He) from the Moon as a source of fusion energy on Earth is currently being studied at the University of Wisconsin. Part of this study is selection and evaluation of potential sites for lunar He mining. Selection and evaluation of potential mining sites are based on four salient findings by various investigators of lunar samples: (1) Regoliths from areas underlain by highland materials contain less than 20 wppm He; (2) Certain maria regoliths contain less than 20 wppm He, but other contain 25 to 49 wppm; (3) The He content of a mare regolith is a function of its composition; regoliths rich in Ti are relatively rich in He; and (4) He is concentrated in the less than 100-micron size fractions of regoliths. The first three findings suggest that maria are the most promising mining sites, specifically, those that have high-Ti regoliths. Information on the regional distribution and extent of high-Ti regoliths comes mainly from two sources: direct sampling by various Apollo and Luna missions, and remote sensing by gamma-ray spectroscopy and Earth-based measurements of lunar spectral reflectance. Sampling provides essential control on calibration and interpretation of data from remote sensing. These data indicate that Mare Tranquillitatis is the principal area of high-Ti regolith of the eastern nearside, but large areas of high-Ti regolith are indicated in the Imbrium and Procellarum regions. Recovery of significant amounts of He-3 will require mining billions of tonnes of regolith. Large individual areas suitable for mining must therefore be delineated. The concentration of He in the finer size fractions and considerations of ease of mining mean that mining areas must be as free as possible of sizable craters and blocks of rock. Pending additional lunar missions, information regarding these features must be obtained from lunar photographs, photogeologic maps, and radar surveys. The present study is decidedly preliminary; available

  3. [Aquatic insects and water quality in Peñas Blancas watershed and reservoir].

    PubMed

    Mora, Meyer Guevara

    2011-06-01

    The aquatic insects have been used to evaluate water quality of aquatic environments. The population of aquatic insects and the water quality of the area were characterized according to the natural and human alterations present in the study site. During the monthly-survey, pH, DO, temperature, water level, DBO, PO4 and NO3 were measured. Biological indexes (abundance, species richness and the BMWP-CR) were used to evaluate the water quality. No relation between environmental and aquatic insects was detected. Temporal and spatial differences attributed to the flow events (temporal) and the presence of Peñas Blancas reservoir (spatial). In the future, the investigations in Peñas Blancas watershed need to be focused on determining the real influence of the flows, sediment release and the possible water quality degradation because of agriculture activities.

  4. 1992 UPDATE OF U.S. EPA'S SUPERFUND INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION (SITE) EMERGING TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Emerging Technology Program (ETP) has encouraged and financially supported further development of bench- and pilot-scale testing and evaluation of innovative technologies suitable for use at hazardous waste sites for five year...

  5. Cytotechnologists and On-Site Evaluation of Adequacy

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Jennifer A.; Novak, Anna; Ali, Syed Z.

    2013-01-01

    While fine needle aspiration (FNA) is certainly not a new biopsy technique, recent developments in advanced imaging techniques, molecular testing, and targeted therapies have coincided with a rapid increase in the number of FNA procedures being performed. Concurrently, the demand for on-site evaluation of adequacy (OSEA) has also increased, outstripping the capacity of available cytopathologists at some institutions. Among the several alternatives to cytopathologist-performed OSEA, cytotechnologist-attended OSEA stands out because it preserves the representation of the pathology service at the time of the procedure. Herein, we review the current literature about OSEA and the necessity of cytotechnologists to expand access of this useful pathology service to a broader patient population. We also examine how cytotechnologists are likely to fit into the emerging practice of telecytology. PMID:24255627

  6. Landsat evaluation of trumpeter swan historical nesting sites in Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockrell, Laura Elizabeth

    The trumpeter swan (Cygnus buccinator) has historically nested in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem of Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming. Declines in habitat quality may be limiting the growth of the Tri-State Flock. The purpose of this study was to map historical nesting areas for trumpeter swans in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) and evaluate Landsat images for changes to habitat. Historical nesting sites were evaluated through image classification and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and compared to field conditions. Swan nesting records were analyzed in comparison to drought index and human visitation rates to determine if these factors may contribute to the decline of trumpeter swans nesting in YNP. Vegetation type and water quality were evaluated at 36 wetlands identified as historical nesting locations. Potamogetonaceae was the largest family represented in plant samples and had the highest frequency of occurrence in samples. There was no significant difference in whether swans were present or absent in wetlands with regards to water quality parameters tested or physical parameters identified. There was an association between certain drought index values and the number of cygnets fledged and the number of territories occupied by swan pairs. I was unsuccessful in using image classification to define pixel characteristics common among historical nesting territories of swans in YNP based on 5 Landsat images from 1975, 1979, 1990, 1999, and 2005. I was also unable to distinguish aquatic plant species composition, emergent and submergent plants, open water versus aquatic vegetation, wetland classification, or swan preference using image classification. No relationship was found in a regression model of NDVI values and swan pair occupancy or number of swans fledged, with the exception of a weak, positive relationship between pair occupancy and positive NDVI values, and a strong, positive relationship between swan fledge rates and positive NDVI values

  7. Evaluating Web Sites Featuring Primary Sources on United States History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congleton, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    Most library Web sites offer lists of recommended Web sites for primary sources with only cursory summaries of the sites. While many of the resources listed are outstanding, too many are dubious in quality, often referring to dead URLs or sites containing no information on their sponsor, source of material, or other information needed to evaluate…

  8. Evaluation of the toxicity of sediments from the Anniston PCB Site to the mussel Lampsilis siliquoidea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schein, Allison; Sinclair, Jesse A.; MacDonald, Donald D.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Kemble, Nile E.; Kunz, James L.

    2015-01-01

    The Anniston Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Site is located in the vicinity of the municipality of Anniston in Calhoun County, in the north-eastern portion of Alabama. Although there are a variety of land-use activities within the Choccolocco Creek watershed, environmental concerns in the area have focused mainly on releases of PCBs to aquatic and riparian habitats. PCBs were manufactured by Monsanto, Inc. at the Anniston facility from 1935 to 1971. The chemicals of potential concern (COPCs) in sediments at the Anniston PCB Site include: PCBs, mercury, metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of PCB-contaminated sediments to the juvenile fatmucket mussel (Lampsilis siliquoidea) and to characterize relationships between sediment chemistry and the toxicity of sediment samples collected from the Anniston PCB Site using laboratory sediment testing. Samples were collected in August 2010 from OU-4 of the Anniston PCB Site, as well as from selected reference locations. A total of 32 samples were initially collected from six test sites and one reference site within the watershed. A total of 23 of these 32 samples were evaluated in 28-day whole-sediment toxicity tests conducted with juvenile mussels (L. siliquoidea). Physical and chemical characterization of whole sediment included grain size, total organic carbon (TOC), nutrients, PCBs, parent and alkylated PAHs, organochlorine pesticides, PCDD/PCDFs, total metals, simultaneously extracted metals (SEM), and acid volatile sulfide (AVS). Sediment collected from Snow Creek and Choccolocco Creek contained a variety of COPCs. Organic contaminants detected in sediment included PCBs, organochlorine pesticides, PCDDs/PCDFs, and PAHs. In general, the highest

  9. Using Remotely Sensed Data and Watershed and Hydrodynamic Models to Evaluate the Effects of Land Cover Land Use Change on Aquatic Ecosystems in Mobile Bay, AL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Judd, Chaeli; Thom, Ron; Woodruff, Dana; Ellis, Jean T.; Quattrochi, Dale; Watson, Brian; Rodriquez, Hugo; Johnson, Hoyt

    2012-01-01

    Alabama coastal systems have been subjected to increasing pressure from a variety of activities including urban and rural development, shoreline modifications, industrial activities, and dredging of shipping and navigation channels. The impacts on coastal ecosystems are often observed through the use of indicator species. One such indicator species for aquatic ecosystem health is submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). Watershed and hydrodynamic modeling has been performed to evaluate the impact of land cover land use (LCLU) change in the two counties surrounding Mobile Bay (Mobile and Baldwin) on SAV stressors and controlling factors (temperature, salinity, and sediment) in the Mobile Bay estuary. Watershed modeling using the Loading Simulation Package in C++ (LSPC) was performed for all watersheds contiguous to Mobile Bay for LCLU scenarios in 1948, 1992, 2001, and 2030. Remotely sensed Landsat-derived National Land Cover Data (NLCD) were used in the 1992 and 2001 simulations after having been reclassified to a common classification scheme. The Prescott Spatial Growth Model was used to project the 2030 LCLU scenario based on current trends. The LSPC model simulations provided output on changes in flow, temperature, and sediment for 22 discharge points into the estuary. These results were inputted in the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Computer Code (EFDC) hydrodynamic model to generate data on changes in temperature, salinity, and sediment on a grid throughout Mobile Bay and adjacent estuaries. The changes in the aquatic ecosystem were used to perform an ecological analysis to evaluate the impact on SAV habitat suitability. This is the key product benefiting the Mobile Bay coastal environmental managers that integrates the influences of temperature, salinity, and sediment due to LCLU driven flow changes with the restoration potential of SAVs. Data products and results are being integrated into NOAA s EcoWatch and Gulf of Mexico Data Atlas online systems for

  10. Evaluation of Mapping Methodologies at a Legacy Test Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sussman, A. J.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.; Roback, R. C.; Kelley, R. E.; Drellack, S.; Reed, D.; Miller, E.; Cooper, D. I.; Sandoval, M.; Wang, R.

    2013-12-01

    On June 12th, 1985, a nuclear test with an announced yield between 20-150kt was detonated in rhyolitic lava in a vertical emplacement borehole at a depth of 608m below the surface. This test did not collapse to the surface and form a crater, but rather resulted in a subsurface collapse with more subtle surface expressions of deformation, providing an opportunity to evaluate the site using a number of surface mapping methodologies. The site was investigated over a two-year time span by several mapping teams. In order to determine the most time efficient and accurate approach for mapping post-shot surface features at a legacy test site, a number of different techniques were employed. The site was initially divided into four quarters, with teams applying various methodologies, techniques, and instrumentations to each quarter. Early methods included transect lines and site gridding with a Brunton pocket transit, flagging tape, measuring tape, and stakes; surveying using a hand-held personal GPS to locate observed features with an accuracy of × 5-10m; and extensive photo-documentation. More recent methods have incorporated the use of near survey grade GPS devices to allow careful location and mapping of surface features. Initially, gridding was employed along with the high resolution GPS surveys, but this was found to be time consuming and of little observational value. Raw visual observation (VOB) data included GPS coordinates for artifacts or features of interest, field notes, and photographs. A categorization system was used to organize the myriad of items, in order to aid in database searches and for visual presentation of findings. The collected data set was imported into a geographic information system (GIS) as points, lines, or polygons and overlain onto a digital color orthophoto map of the test site. Once these data were mapped, spectral data were collected using a high resolution field spectrometer. In addition to geo-locating the field observations with 10cm

  11. Preliminary evaluation of a proposed injection site in Mellones

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, N.V.; Rada, H.M.

    1996-08-01

    A hydrogeological evaluation was carried out in the Melones area to determine the feasibility of disposing brackish water and brines associated with oil production activities. The region is located towards north-central Hamaca, in the Anzoategui state, and covers an area of approximately 454 km{sup 2}. The study was based on the examination and interpretation of available stratigraphic and structural maps, well logs and formation water analysis. Engineering properties were estimated from 42 wells, selected from a total of 575 wells, where complete sets of well logs were available. The most suitable injection interval, integrated by the 02/3, D1-D2-D3-D4 and E1-E2 sands from the upper part of the Oficina Formation, was selected by addressing certain technical requirements for suitable potential disposal sites and injection intervals. A two-dimensional finite difference flow model was used to simulate the long-term hydraulic head buildup under projected operating conditions. After examination of the important characteristics considered in the evaluation process, it appears that the Melones area favorably meets most criteria.

  12. Useless arithmetic or useful scientific tools? Evaluation of the current state and future perspectives of aquatic biogeochemical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arhonditsis, G.

    2009-04-01

    What is the capacity of the current models to simulate the dynamics of environmental systems? How carefully do modelers develop their models? Which model features primarily determine our decision to utilize a specific model? How rigorously do we assess what a model can or cannot predict? The first part of my presentation is to answer some of these questions by reviewing the state of aquatic biogeochemical modeling; a research tool that has been extensively used for understanding and quantitatively describing aquatic ecosystems. Mechanistic aquatic biogeochemical models have form the scientific basis for environmental management decisions by providing a predictive link between management actions and ecosystem response; they have provided an important tool for elucidating the interactions between climate variability and plankton communities, and thus for addressing questions regarding the pace and impacts of climate change. The sizable number of aquatic ecosystem modeling studies which successfully passed the scrutiny of the peer-review process along with the experience gained from addressing a breadth of management problems can objectively reveal the systematic biases, methodological inconsistencies, and common misconceptions characterizing the modeling practice in environmental science. My arguments are that (i) models are not always developed in a consistent manner, clearly stated purpose, and predetermined acceptable model performance level, (ii) the potential "customers" select models without properly assessing their technical value, and (iii) oceanic modeling is a dynamic area of the current modeling practice whereas, model application for addressing environmental management issues on a local scale faces challenges as a scientific tool. The second part of my presentation argues that (i) the development of novel methods for rigorously assessing the uncertainty underlying model predictions should be a top priority of the modeling community, and (ii) the model

  13. Wetland Biomass Production: emergent aquatic management options and evaluations. A final subcontract report. [Includes a bibliography containing 686 references on Typha from biological abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, D.C.; Dubbe, D.R.; Garver, E.G.; Linton, P.J.

    1984-07-01

    The high yield potential and attractive chemical composition of Typha make it a particularly viable energy crop. The Minnesota research effort has demonstrated that total annual biomass yields equivalent to 30 dry tonnes/ha (13 tons/acre) are possible in planted stands. This compares with yields of total plant material between 9 and 16 dry tonnes/ha (4 to 7 tons/acre) in a typical Minnesota corn field. At least 50% of the Typha plant is comprised of a belowground rhizome system containing 40% starch and sugar. This high level of easily fermentable carbohydrate makes rhizomes an attractive feedstock for alcohol production. The aboveground portion of the plant is largely cellulose, and although it is not easily fermentable, it can be gasified or burned. This report is organized in a manner that focuses on the evaluation of the management options task. Results from stand management research performed at the University of Minnesota during 1982 and 1983 are integrated with findings from an extensive survey of relevant emergent aquatic plant research and utilization. These results and findings are then arranged in sections dealing with key steps and issues that need to be dealt with in the development of a managed emergent aquatic bio-energy system. A brief section evaluating the current status of rhizome harvesting is also included along with an indexed bibliography of the biology, ecology, and utilization of Typha which was completed with support from this SERI subcontract. 686 references, 11 figures, 17 tables.

  14. Evaluation of natural attenuation rate at a gasoline spill site.

    PubMed

    Kao, C M; Prosser, J

    2001-04-20

    Contamination of groundwater by gasoline and other petroleum-derived hydrocarbons released from underground storage tanks (USTs) is a serious and widespread environmental problem. Natural attenuation is a passive remedial approach that depends upon natural processes to degrade and dissipate contaminants in soil and groundwater. Currently, in situ column technique, microcosm, and computer modeling have been applied for the natural attenuation rate calculation. However, the subsurface heterogeneity reduces the applicability of these techniques. In this study, a mass flux approach was used to calculate the contaminant mass reduction and field-scale decay rate at a gasoline spill site. The mass flux technique is a simplified mass balance procedure, which is accomplished using the differences in total contaminant mass flux across two cross-sections of the contaminant plume. The mass flux calculation shows that up to 87% of the dissolved total benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) isomers removal was observed via natural attenuation at this site. The efficiency of natural biodegradation was evaluated by the in situ tracer method, and the first-order decay model was applied for the natural attenuation/biodegradation rate calculation. Results reveal that natural biodegradation was the major cause of the BTEX mass reduction among the natural attenuation processes, and approximately 88% of the BTEX removal was due to the natural biodegradation process. The calculated total BTEX first-order attenuation and biodegradation rates were 0.036 and 0.025% per day, respectively. Results suggest that the natural attenuation mechanisms can effectively contain the plume, and the mass flux method is useful in assessing the occurrence and efficiency of the natural attenuation process.

  15. SITE program update: Evaluation of waste stabilized by the soliditech SITE technology

    SciTech Connect

    Grube, W.E. Jr. )

    1990-03-01

    The Soliditech technology demonstration was conducted at the Imperial Oil Company/Champion Chemicals Superfund Site in Monmouth County, New Jersey. Contamination at this site includes PCBs, lead (with various other metals), and oil and grease. The Soliditech process mixes the waste material with proprietary additives, pozzolanic materials, and water, in a batch mixer. Technical criteria used to evaluate its effectiveness include (1) short-term extraction and engineering tests; (2) long-term extraction and leaching tests; (3) petrographic examination; and (4) structural integrity observations. Three different waste types-contaminated soil, waste filter cake material, and oily sludge-and a sand blank were treated. Fourteen cubic yards of treated waste monoliths, and nearly 300 cast cylindrical mold samples were produced. Neither PCBs nor volatile organic compounds were detected in the TCLP extracts of treated wastes. Significantly reduced amounts of metals were detected in the TCLP, EP, BET, and ANS 16.1 extracts of treated wastes compared to untreated. Low concentrations of phenols and cresols were detected in post-treatment TCLP extracts. The pH of treated waste was near 12. Unconfined compressive strength of treated wastes was high; permeability was very low. Weight loss after wet/dry and freeze/thaw cycles was very low. Portland cement contributed several metals to the treated waste. Physical stability of treated wastes was high. Data from all extraction and leaching tests showed negligible release of contaminants. Phenols and cresols appeared to be formed during the stabilization reactions. Morphologic observations confirmed changes in physical stability of large blocks of treated waste over time.

  16. Assessment of mechanisms of metal-induced reproductive toxicity in aquatic species as a biomarker of exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.; George, W.; Preslan, J.

    1996-05-02

    This project discusses the following studies: identification and quantitation of heavy metals and petroleum products present in Bayou Trepagnier relative to control sites; assessment of the uptake and bioaccumulation of metals and organic contaminants of interest in aquatic species; establishment and use of polarographic methods for use in metal speciation studies to identify specific chemical forms present in sediments, waters and organism; and evaluation of contaminants on reproductive function of aquatic species as potential biomarkers of exposure. 14 refs.

  17. WHAT ARE THE BEST MEANS TO ASSESS SITES AND MOVE TOWARD CLOSURE, USING APPROPRIATE SITE SPECIFIC RISK EVALUATIONS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    To facilitate evaluation of existing site characterization data, ORD has developed on-line tools and models that integrate data and models into innovative applications. Forty calculators have been developed in four groups: parameter estimators, models, scientific demos and unit ...

  18. Surveillance and evaluation of the infection risk of free-living amoebae and Legionella in different aquatic environments.

    PubMed

    Ji, Wen-Tsai; Hsu, Bing-Mu; Chang, Tien-Yu; Hsu, Tsui-Kang; Kao, Po-Min; Huang, Kuan-Hao; Tsai, Shiou-Feng; Huang, Yu-Li; Fan, Cheng-Wei

    2014-11-15

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) are ubiquitous in various aquatic environments. Several amoebae species are pathogenic and host other pathogens such as Legionella, but the presence of FLA and its parasites as well as the related infection risk are not well known. In this study, the presence of pathogenic FLA and Legionella in various water bodies was investigated. Water samples were collected from a river, intake areas of drinking water treatment plants, and recreational hot spring complexes in central and southern Taiwan. A total of 140 water samples were tested for the presence of Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria spp., Vermamoeba vermiformis, and Legionella. In addition, phylogenetic characteristics and water quality parameters were also assessed. The pathogenic genotypes of FLA included Acanthamoeba T4 and Naegleria australiensis, and both were abundant in the hot spring water. In contrast, Legionella pneumophila was detected in different aquatic environments. Among the FLA assessed, V. vermiformis was most likely to coexist with Legionella spp. The total bacteria level was associated with the presence of FLA and Legionella especially in hot spring water. Taken together, FLA contamination in recreational hot springs and drinking water source warrants more attention on potential legionellosis and amoebae infections.

  19. Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface

    SciTech Connect

    2012-12-18

    Fishes and marine mammals may suffer a range of potential effects from exposure to intense underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities such as pile driving, shipping, sonars, and underwater blasting. Several underwater sound recording (USR) devices have been built to acquire samples of the underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities. Software becomes indispensable for processing and analyzing the audio files recorded by these USRs. The new Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface Utility Software (AAMI) is specifically designed for analysis of underwater sound recordings to provide data in metrics that facilitate evaluation of the potential impacts of the sound on aquatic animals. In addition to the basic functions, such as loading and editing audio files recorded by USRs and batch processing of sound files, the software utilizes recording system calibration data to compute important parameters in physical units. The software also facilitates comparison of the noise sound sample metrics with biological measures such as audiograms of the sensitivity of aquatic animals to the sound, integrating various components into a single analytical frame.

  20. Remediation System Evaluation, MacGillis and Gibbs Superfund Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The site was a wood preserving facility that is no longer active. Key contaminants at the site includepentachlorophenol (PCP), chromium, and to a much lesser extent dioxin, arsenic, and polynucleararomatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

  1. Remediation System Evaluation, Selma Pressure Treating Superfund Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Selma Pressure Treating site is located 15 miles south of Fresno, adjacent to the city limits of Selma,California and has subsurface contamination from a former wood treating facility. The site occupiesapproximately 40 acres, including...

  2. Remediation System Evaluation, Ott/Story/Cordova Superfund Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Ott/Story/Cordova Superfund Site occupies approximately 20 acres in Dalton Township, MuskegonCounty, Michigan. The remedies at the site address contamination stemming from a specialty organicchemical production facility operated under a series of..

  3. Pilot randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of aquatic and land physical therapy on musculoskeletal dysfunction of sickle cell disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Zanoni, Camila Tatiana; Galvão, Fábio; Cliquet Junior, Alberto; Saad, Sara Teresinha Olalla

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the effect of aquatic and land-based physiotherapy in reducing musculoskeletal hip and lower back pain and increasing overall physical capabilities of sickle cell disease patients. Methods Informed written consent was obtained from all volunteers who were submitted to evaluations using different functional scales: Lequesne's Algofunctional Questionnaire and Oswestry Disability Index, trunk and hip range of motion, goniometry, trunk and hip muscle strength assessment using load cell, and surface electromyography of the iliocostalis, long dorsal (longissimus), gluteus maximus, gluteus medius and tensor fasciae latae muscles. Ten patients were randomized into two groups: aquatic physiotherapy with a mean age of 42 years (range: 25–67) and conventional physiotherapy with a mean age of 49 years (range: 43–59). Both groups were submitted to a twelve-week program of two sessions weekly. Results After the intervention, significant improvements were observed regarding the Lequesne index (p-value = 0.0217), Oswestry Disability Index (p-value = 0.0112), range of motion of trunk extension (p-value = 0.0320), trunk flexion muscle strength (p-value = 0.0459), hip extension and abduction muscle strength (p-value = 0.0062 and p-value = 0.0257, respectively). Range of motion of trunk and hip flexion, extension, adduction and abduction, trunk extensor muscle strength and all surface electromyography variables showed no significant statistical difference. Conclusion Physical therapy is efficient to treat musculoskeletal dysfunctions in sickle cell disease patients, irrespective of the technique; however, aquatic therapy showed a trend toward improvement in muscle strength. Further studies with a larger patient sample and longer periods of therapy are necessary to confirm these results. PMID:25818817

  4. Evaluation of potential geopressure geothermal test sites in southern Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Bassiouni, Z.

    1980-04-01

    Six geopressured-geothermal prospects in southern Louisiana were studied in detail to assess their potential use as test sites for the production of geopressure-geothermal energy. Each of the six sites contains substantial quantities of energy. Three of these prospects, Grand Lake, Lake Theriot, and Bayou Hebert, appear to be suitable for a test site. A summary of the findings is presented.

  5. 7 CFR 1924.115 - Single Family Housing site evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... site will be provided by the appraiser or site approval official on a form provided by RHS and... from: (1) A hard surfaced or all weather road which is developed in full compliance with public body...; or (2) An all weather extended driveway which can serve no more than two sites connecting to a...

  6. Remediation System Evaluation, American Creosote Works Site, Pensacola, Florida

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The American Creosote Works (ACW) site is located on 1800 Gimble Street on the abandoned AmericanCreosote Works wood preserving plant in Pensacola, Florida. The site is approximately 18 acres in area.The site is about 600 yards north of Pensacola Bay..

  7. An Evaluation Guide for Selecting a Junior College Site.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reida, G. W.

    Emphasis is placed upon conceiving the site as an integral part of the total educational environment. Preliminary steps are suggested for planning a junior college campus, placing emphasis upon the need for a master plan. Criteria for site selection are discussed for site size, student enrollment, land use patterns, and accessibility. Directions…

  8. Never Too Young to Learn: Web Site Evaluation Is Elementary!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Lori L.

    2006-01-01

    This article is based on a series of lessons prepared for a class of third graders who were going to research specific planets. With so many Web sites on the Internet, there is a need to be concerned about information overload for the audience. The NASA site (www.nasa.gov) is filled with lots of sites providing factual information about the…

  9. Evaluating the Effectiveness of College Web Sites for Prospective Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Wendy G.

    2011-01-01

    College Web sites are often the first structured encounter a student has with a prospective college or university. Outside of serving as a marketing tool (Williams 2000), very little literature exists on the functional purpose of a college's Web site. Almost all college sites show an informational and transactional tool for currently enrolled…

  10. DNA barcodes for assessment of the biological integrity of aquatic ecosystems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality regulations and aquatic ecosystem monitoring increasingly rely on direct assessments of biological integrity. Because these aquatic “bioassessments” evaluate the incidence and abundance of sensitive aquatic species, they are able to measure cumulative ecosystem eff...

  11. Probabilistic seismic and geotechnical evaluation at a dam site

    SciTech Connect

    Vanmarcke, E.H.

    1983-09-01

    This report examines the use of probabilistic methods in dealing with the problem of potential earthquake-induced liquefaction of foundation soils at an example dam site located in the central United States, near the New Madrid earthquake zone. The example dam is assumed to be a 1-mile long rolled-filled embankment founded on a 100-ft deep deposit of interbedded alluvial gravels, sands, silts, and clays. The study is seen as an opportunity to examine probabilistic concepts and procedures in the framework of an example engineering project. In this context, the main practical value of a probabilistic approach is that it permits more informed decision making about further data acquisition, additional engineering analysis, and if necessary, remedial action. The specific aim of the study is to show how probabilistic procedures complement and help to reinterpret the results of deterministic (earthquake-induced) liquefaction analysis. The procedures focus on evaluating the impact of the different sources of variability (in the input parameters) on the uncertainty in performance predictions, and they permit results of the liquefaction analyses to be seen in the broader framework of assessment of earthquake-related dam failure risks.

  12. Clinical evaluations of mineralized collagen in the extraction sites preservation

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Lu; Zhang, Liang; Cui, Yun; Song, Tian-Xi; Qiu, Zhi-Ye; Wang, Xiu-Mei; Tan, Bao-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the different effects between biomimetic mineralized collagen (MC) and ordinary physically blended hydroxyapatite/collagen (HA/Col) composite in evaluating new bone formation and regenerated bone height in human extraction sockets. Thirty-four patients who cannot retain teeth caused by trauma or decay were randomly selected from Department of Stomatology of Dongzhimen Hospital from December 2013 to December 2014. The patients were randomly divided into two groups. After the operation of tooth extraction, 17 patients were implanted with biomimetic MC (MC group), and other 17 patients were implanted with ordinary physically blended nHA/Col composite (nHA/Col group). X-ray positioning projection by auto-photographing was taken to test the distance between the lowest position and the neighboring CEJm-CEJd immediately, 1 month and 3 months after the operation. The height of new bone formation of the MC group was significantly higher than the nHA/Col group. Biomimetic MC showed better clinical outcomes in the bone formation for extraction site preservation and would have broad application prospect in the field of oral and maxillofacial surgeries. PMID:26815224

  13. Library construction and evaluation for site saturation mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Bradford; Walton, Adam Z; Stewart, Jon D

    2013-06-10

    We developed a method for creating and evaluating site-saturation libraries that consistently yields an average of 27.4±3.0 codons of the 32 possible within a pool of 95 transformants. This was verified by sequencing 95 members from 11 independent libraries within the gene encoding alkene reductase OYE 2.6 from Pichia stipitis. Correct PCR primer design as well as a variety of factors that increase transformation efficiency were critical contributors to the method's overall success. We also developed a quantitative analysis of library quality (Q-values) that defines library degeneracy. Q-values can be calculated from standard fluorescence sequencing data (capillary electropherograms) and the degeneracy predicted from an early stage of library construction (pooled plasmids from the initial transformation) closely matched that observed after ca. 1000 library members were sequenced. Based on this experience, we suggest that this analysis can be a useful guide when applying our optimized protocol to new systems, allowing one to focus only on good-quality libraries and reject substandard libraries at an early stage. This advantage is particularly important when lower-throughput screening techniques such as chiral-phase GC must be employed to identify protein variants with desirable properties, e.g., altered stereoselectivities or when multiple codons are targeted for simultaneous randomization.

  14. Evaluation of Robotic Systems to Carry Out Traverse Execution, Opportunistic Science, and Landing Site Evaluation Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.; Leonard, Matther J.; Pacal, Lee

    2011-01-01

    This report covers the execution of and results from the activities proposed and approved in Exploration Analogs and Mission Development (EAMD) Field Test Protocol HMP2010: Evaluation of Robotic Systems to carry out Traverse Execution, Opportunistic Science, and Landing Site Evaluation Tasks. The field tests documented in this report examine one facet of a larger program of planetary surface exploration. This program has been evolving and maturing for several years, growing from a broad policy statement with a few specified milestones for NASA to an international effort with much higher fidelity descriptions of systems and operations necessary to accomplish this type of exploration.

  15. Watershed and Hydrodynamic Modeling for Evaluating the Impact of Land Use Change on Submerged Aquatic Vegetation and Seagrasses in Mobile Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, Maurice G.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammed; Thom, Ron; Quattrochi, Dale; Woodruff, Dana; Judd, Chaeli; Ellism Jean; Watson, Brian; Rodriguez, Hugo; Johnson, Hoyt

    2009-01-01

    There is a continued need to understand how human activities along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast are impacting the natural ecosystems. The gulf coast is experiencing rapid population growth and associated land cover/land use change. Mobile Bay, AL is a designated pilot region of the Gulf of Mexico Alliance (GOMA) and is the focus area of many current NASA and NOAA studies, for example. This is a critical region, both ecologically and economically to the entire United States because it has the fourth largest freshwater inflow in the continental USA, is a vital nursery habitat for commercially and recreational important fisheries, and houses a working waterfront and port that is expanding. Watershed and hydrodynamic modeling has been performed for Mobile Bay to evaluate the impact of land use change in Mobile and Baldwin counties on the aquatic ecosystem. Watershed modeling using the Loading Simulation Package in C++ (LSPC) was performed for all watersheds contiguous to Mobile Bay for land use Scenarios in 1948, 1992, 2001, and 2030. The Prescott Spatial Growth Model was used to project the 2030 land use scenario based on observed trends. All land use scenarios were developed to a common land classification system developed by merging the 1992 and 2001 National Land Cover Data (NLCD). The LSPC model output provides changes in flow, temperature, sediments and general water quality for 22 discharge points into the Bay. These results were inputted in the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Computer Code (EFDC) hydrodynamic model to generate data on changes in temperature, salinity, and sediment concentrations on a grid with four vertical profiles throughout the Bay s aquatic ecosystems. The models were calibrated using in-situ data collected at sampling stations in and around Mobile bay. This phase of the project has focused on sediment modeling because of its significant influence on light attenuation which is a critical factor in the health of submerged aquatic

  16. Development of advanced process-based model towards evaluation of boundless biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial-aquatic continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Tadanobu; Maksyutov, Shamil

    2014-05-01

    Recent research shows inland water may play some role in continental biogeochemical cycling though its contribution has remained uncertain due to a paucity of data (Battin et al. 2009). The author has developed process-based National Integrated Catchment-based Eco-hydrology (NICE) model (Nakayama, 2008a-b, 2010, 2011a-b, 2012a-c, 2013; Nakayama and Fujita, 2010; Nakayama and Hashimoto, 2011; Nakayama and Shankman, 2013a-b; Nakayama and Watanabe, 2004, 2006, 2008a-b; Nakayama et al., 2006, 2007, 2010, 2012), which incorporates surface-groundwater interactions, includes up- and down-scaling processes between local, regional and global scales, and can simulate iteratively nonlinear feedback between hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological processes. In this study, NICE was extended to evaluate global hydrologic cycle by using various global datasets. The simulated result agreed reasonably with that in the previous research (Fan et al., 2013) and extended to clarify further eco-hydrological process in global scale. Then, NICE was further developed to incorporate the biogeochemical cycle including the reaction between inorganic and organic carbons (DOC, POC, DIC, pCO2, etc.) in the biosphere (terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems including surface water and groundwater). The model simulated the carbon cycle, for example, CO2 evasion from inland water in global scale, which is relatively in good agreement in that estimated by empirical relation using the previous pCO2 data (Aufdenkampe et al., 2011; Global River Chemistry Database, 2013). This simulation system would play important role in identification of full greenhouse gas balance of the biosphere and spatio-temporal hot spots in boundless biogeochemical cycle (Cole et al. 2007; Frei et al. 2012). References; Aufdenkampe, A.K., et al., Front. Ecol. Environ., doi:10.1890/100014, 2011. Battin, T.J., et al., Nat. Geosci., 2, 598-600, 2009. Cole, J.J. et al., Ecosystems, doi:10.1007/s10021-006-9013-8, 2007. Fan, Y. et al

  17. Evaluation of the potential of Pistia stratiotes L. (water lettuce) for bioindication and phytoremediation of aquatic environments contaminated with arsenic.

    PubMed

    Farnese, F S; Oliveira, J A; Lima, F S; Leão, G A; Gusman, G S; Silva, L C

    2014-08-01

    Specimens of Pistia stratiotes were subjected to five concentrations of arsenic (As) for seven days. Growth, As absorption, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, photosynthetic pigments, enzymatic activities, amino acids content and anatomical changes were assessed. Plant arsenic accumulation increased with increasing metalloid in the solution, while growth rate and photosynthetic pigment content decreased. The MDA content increased, indicating oxidative stress. Enzymatic activity and amino acids content increased at the lower doses of As, subsequently declining in the higher concentrations. Chlorosis and necrosis were observed in the leaves. Leaves showed starch accumulation and increased thickness of the mesophyll. In the root system, there was a loss and darkening of roots. Cell layers formed at the insertion points on the root stems may have been responsible for the loss of roots. These results indicate that water lettuce shows potential for bioindication and phytoremediation of As-contaminated aquatic environments.

  18. Initial evaluation of developmental malformation as an end point in mixture toxicity hazard assessment for aquatic vertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, D.A.; Wilke, T.S. )

    1991-04-01

    The joint toxic action of three binary mixtures was determined for the embryo malformation endpoint of the aquatic FETAX (frog embryo teratogenesis assay: Xenopus) test system. Osteolathyrogenic compounds and short-chain carboxylic acids, representing separate, distinct modes of action for induction of malformation, were selected for testing in 96-hr, static-renewal tests. Three mixtures were tested for each combination, with each combination being tested on three separate occasions. Using toxic unit analysis, the combination of osteolathyrogens and the combination of carboxylic acids produced strictly additive (concentration addition) rates of malformation, while the combination of an osteolathyrogen and a carboxylic acid was less-than-additive (response addition) for induction of malformation. Therefore, developmental malformation may have value as an endpoint in mixture toxicity hazard assessment.

  19. 10 CFR 100.10 - Factors to be considered when evaluating sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Factors to be considered when evaluating sites. 100.10 Section 100.10 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REACTOR SITE CRITERIA Evaluation Factors for Stationary Power Reactor Site Applications Before January 10, 1997 and for Testing Reactors §...

  20. 10 CFR 100.10 - Factors to be considered when evaluating sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Factors to be considered when evaluating sites. 100.10 Section 100.10 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REACTOR SITE CRITERIA Evaluation Factors for Stationary Power Reactor Site Applications Before January 10, 1997 and for Testing Reactors §...

  1. 10 CFR 100.10 - Factors to be considered when evaluating sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Factors to be considered when evaluating sites. 100.10 Section 100.10 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REACTOR SITE CRITERIA Evaluation Factors for Stationary Power Reactor Site Applications Before January 10, 1997 and for Testing Reactors §...

  2. 10 CFR 100.10 - Factors to be considered when evaluating sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Factors to be considered when evaluating sites. 100.10 Section 100.10 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REACTOR SITE CRITERIA Evaluation Factors for Stationary Power Reactor Site Applications Before January 10, 1997 and for Testing Reactors §...

  3. 10 CFR 100.10 - Factors to be considered when evaluating sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Factors to be considered when evaluating sites. 100.10 Section 100.10 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REACTOR SITE CRITERIA Evaluation Factors for Stationary Power Reactor Site Applications Before January 10, 1997 and for Testing Reactors §...

  4. Measuring cytochrome P450 activity in aquatic invertebrates: a critical evaluation of in vitro and in vivo methods.

    PubMed

    Gottardi, Michele; Kretschmann, Andreas; Cedergreen, Nina

    2016-03-01

    The first step in xenobiotic detoxification in aquatic invertebrates is mainly governed by the cytochrome P450 mixed function oxidase system. The ability to measure cytochrome P450 activity provides an important tool to understand macroinvertebrates' responses to chemical stressors. However, measurements of P450 activity in small aquatic invertebrates have had variable success and a well characterized assay is not yet available. The general lack of success has been scarcely investigated and it is therefore the focus of the present work. In particular, the suitability of the substrate selected for the assay, the sensitivity of the assay and the possible inhibition/attenuation of enzymatic activity caused by endogenous substances were investigated. 7-ethoxycoumarin-O-dealkylation activity of Daphnia magna, Chironomus riparius larvae and Hyalella azteca was assessed in vivo and in vitro and possible inhibition of enzymatic activity by macroinvertebrates homogenate was investigated. Activities of D. magna and C. riparius larvae measured in vivo were 1.37 ± 0.08 and 2.2 ± 0.2 pmol h(-1) organism(-1), respectively, while activity of H. azteca could not be detected. In vitro activity could be measured in C. riparius larvae only (500-1000 pmol h(-1) mg microsomal protein(-1)). The optimization of the in vitro assay has been especially long and resource consuming and particularly for D. magna, substances that inhibited cytochrome P450 activity seemed to be released during tissue homogenization preventing activity measurements in vitro. We therefore recommend testing the P450 inhibition potential of homogenate preparations prior to any investigation of P450 activity in vitro in macroinvertebrates.

  5. Evaluation of peroxidase as a biochemical indicator of toxic chemical exposure in the aquatic plant Hydrilla verticillata, Royle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byl, T.D.; Sutton, H.D.; Klaine, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    Laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine the utility of peroxidase (POD) activity as a biochemical indicator of contaminant exposure in the aquatic plant Hydrilla verticillata, Royle. The plants were exposed to anthracene, sulfometuron methyl (Oust??), Cd2+, Cr6+, Cu2+, Mn2+, and Se4+ in concentration factors of 10. POD was extracted and measured by spectrophotometric assay. There was a significant increase in POD activity after a 5-d exposure to each of the chemicals at 1 mg/L. The optimum pH for POD activity after exposure to the chemicals was 5.5 to 6.0. The increase in POD was found to be dose dependent for each of the chemicals. The lowest concentration of chemical to induce a significant POD increase was 0.01 mg/L for anthracene, Oust, Cd, Cr, and Cu; 0.1 mg/L for Se; and 1.0 mg/L for Mn.Laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine the utility of peroxidase (POD) activity as a biochemical indicator of contaminant exposure in the aquatic plant Hydrilla verticillata, Royle. The plants were exposed to anthracene, sulfometuron methyl (Oust), Cd2+, Cr6+, Cu2+, Mn2+, and Se4+ in concentration factors of 10. POD was extracted and measured by spectrophotometric assay. There was a significant increase in POD activity after a 5-d exposure to each of the chemicals at 1 mg/L. The optimum pH for POD activity after exposure to the chemicals was 5.5 to 6.0. The increase in POD was found to be dose dependent for each of the chemicals. The lowest concentration of chemical to induce a significant POD increase was 0.01 mg/L for anthracene, Oust, Cd, Cr, and Cu: 0.1 mg/L for Se; and 1.0 mg/L for Mn.

  6. Using Remotely Sensed Data and Watershed and Hydrodynamic Models to Evaluate the Effects of Land Cover Land Use Change on Aquatic Ecosystems in Mobile Bay, AL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Judd, Chaeli; Woodruff, Dana; Ellis, Jean; Quattrochi, Dale; Watson, Brian; Rodriquez, Hugo; Johnson, Hoyt

    2012-01-01

    Alabama coastal systems have been subjected to increasing pressure from a variety of activities including urban and rural development, shoreline modifications, industrial activities, and dredging of shipping and navigation channels. The impacts on coastal ecosystems are often observed through the use of indicator species. One such indicator species for aquatic ecosystem health is submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). Watershed and hydrodynamic modeling has been performed to evaluate the impact of land cover land use (LCLU) change in the two counties surrounding Mobile Bay (Mobile and Baldwin) on SAV stressors and controlling factors (temperature, salinity, and sediment) in the Mobile Bay estuary. Watershed modeling using the Loading Simulation Package in C++ (LSPC) was performed for all watersheds contiguous to Mobile Bay for LCLU scenarios in 1948, 1992, 2001, and 2030. Remotely sensed Landsat-derived National Land Cover Data (NLCD) were used in the 1992 and 2001 simulations after having been reclassified to a common classification scheme. The Prescott Spatial Growth Model was used to project the 2030 LCLU scenario based on current trends. The LSPC model simulations provided output on changes in flow, temperature, and sediment for 22 discharge points into the estuary. These results were inputted in the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Computer Code (EFDC) hydrodynamic model to generate data on changes in temperature, salinity, and sediment on a grid throughout Mobile Bay and adjacent estuaries. The changes in the aquatic ecosystem were used to perform an ecological analysis to evaluate the impact on SAV habitat suitability. This is the key product benefiting the Mobile Bay coastal environmental managers that integrates the influences of temperature, salinity, and sediment due to LCLU driven flow changes with the restoration potential of SAVs. Data products and results are being integrated into NOAA s EcoWatch and Gulf of Mexico Data Atlas online systems for

  7. [Evaluation of an internet site on evidence-based medicine].

    PubMed

    Mathys, J; Steurer, J

    2000-10-19

    The present study evaluated a Swiss internet provider of Evidence-based Medicine (EBM) with regard to its utilization and function for medical practitioners. The internet provider under study (www.evimed.ch) primarily provides abstracts of original articles relevant to medical practice that are presented according to the criteria of EBM and includes information about EBM itself. In March 1999 a survey was conducted to better appraise the benefits gained from the information provided from the website visitors' point of view. Around 400 persons who had entered their names in the homepage guest book were informed about the survey by e-mail. A total of 167 questionnaires were filled in online, which is equivalent to the reply rate of close to 42%. The majority of the replies (63.5%) were from private-practice physicians, 22.2% from hospital-based physicians. The average age ranged between 40 and 49 years. 67.7% of the 167 respondents had internet access at their workplace, 72.5% had private internet access. For their own practical work, 61.1% of the respondents rated the information provided by www.evimed.ch as generally useful. The clinical relevance of the studies presented in the Journal Club was rated as good by 55.7% and as very good by 26.9%. The reliability of the information provided was rated as good by 56.3% and as very good by 35.3%. The majority regarded the following homepage sites as personally important: Journal Club (55.7%), articles about EBM (46.1%), MEDLINE access (37.7%) and article citations/links (41.3%). The homepage was visited at an average frequency of 1-3 times a month. 50.3% preferred electronic media (40.1% using various internet providers, 10.2% www.evimed.ch) and 44.3% preferred print media to search for specialist information on a specific medical subject. With regard to new medical findings, 44.9% of the respondents stated that they used print media, 17.4% the www.evimed.ch homepage and 28.7% other internet sources as their primary

  8. Remediation System Evaluation, Bog Creek Farm Superfund Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Bog Creek Farm Superfund site is located in Howell Township, Monmouth County, New Jersey onCounty Road 547. The site is bordered by two residences to the west, the north branch of SquankumBrook to the north, and open fields to the south and east.

  9. EVALUATION OF WASTE STABILIZED BY THE SOLIDITECH SITE TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Soliditech technology demonstration was conducted at the Imperial Oil Company/Champion Chemicals Superfund Site in Monmouth County, New Jersey. ontamination at this site includes PCBs, lead (with various other metals) and oil and grease. his process mixes the waste material w...

  10. Notification: Evaluation of Cherryvale, Kansas National Zinc Company site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    July 12, 2012. The purpose of this memorandum is to notify you that the OIG plans to conduct a review ofthe process followed by EPA Region 7 in the handling of site related contamination at the Cherryvale, Kansas National Zinc Company site.

  11. Remediation System Evaluation, Elmore Waste Disposal Superfund Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Elmore Waste Disposal, Inc. Superfund site is located in Greer, South Carolina. The originalElmore Site occupies approximately half an acre between South Carolina Route 290 on the south, a CSXrail line on the north and is bounded on the west by...

  12. Remediation System Evaluation, Douglas Road Landfill Superfund Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Douglas Road Landfill Superfund Site is located in St. Joseph County just north of Mishawaka,Indiana. The site consists of a 16-acre capped landfill located on an approximately 32-acre lot (includingthe land purchased in 1999 for a wetlands...

  13. Remediation System Evaluation, Northwest Pipe and Casing Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Northwest Pipe and Casing Site is located in Clackamas, Oregon, approximately 20 miles southeastof Portland. The site consists of approximately 53 acres, and has historically been divided into two parcels(Parcel A to the north and Parcel B to the..

  14. SUPERFUND INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION (SITE) PROGRAM ANNUAL REPORT TO CONGRESS 2003

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program has successfully promoted the development, commercialization and implementation of innovative hazardous waste treatment technologies for 17 years. SITE offers a mechanism for conducting joint technology demonstration a...

  15. DEMONSTRATION AND EVALUATION OF INNOVATIVE REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES THROUGH THE EPA SITE PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program has successfuly promoted the development, commercialization and implementation of innovative hazardous waste treatment technologies for 18 years. SITE offers a mechanism for conducting joint technology demonstration an...

  16. Report of the Peer Review Panel on the early site suitability evaluation of the Potential Repository Site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    1992-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Yucca mountain Site Characterization Project Office (YMPO) assigned Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), the Technical and Management Support Services (T&MSS) contractor to the YmPo, the task of conducting an Early Site Suitability Evaluation (ESSE) of the Yucca mountain site as a potential site for a high-level radioactive waste repository. First, the assignment called for the development of a method to evaluate a single site against the DOE General Guidelines for Recommendation of Sites for Nuclear Waste Repositories, 10 CFR Part 960. Then, using this method, an evaluation team, the ESSE Core Team, of senior YMP scientists, engineers, and technical experts, evaluated new information obtained about the site since publication of the final Environmental Assessment (DOE, 1986) to determine if new suitability/unsuitability findings could be recommended. Finally, the Core Team identified further information and analyses needed to make final determinations for each of the guidelines. As part of the task, an independent peer review of the ESSE report has been conducted. Expertise was solicited that covered the entire spectrum of siting guidelines in 10 CFR Part 960 in order to provide a complete, in-depth critical review of the data evaluated and cited in the ESSE report, the methods used to evaluate the data, and the conclusions and recommendations offered by the report. Fourteen nationally recognized technical experts (Table 2) served on the Peer Review Panel. The comments from the Panel and the responses prepared by the ESSE Core Team, documented on formal Comment Response Forms, constitute the body of this document.

  17. Aquatic plants for removal of mevinphos from the aquatic environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1975-01-01

    Fragrant waterlily (Nymphaea odorata, Ait.), joint-grass (Paspalum distichum L.), and rush (Juncus repens, Michx.) were used to evaluate the effectiveness of vascular aquatic plants in removing the insecticide mevinphos (dimethyl-1-carbomethoxy-1propen-2-yl phosphate) from waters contaminated with this chemical. The emersed aquatic plants fragrant waterlily and joint-grass removed 87 and 93 ppm of mevinphos from water test systems in less than 2 weeks without apparent damage to the plants; whereas rush, a submersed plant, removed less insecticide than the water-soil controls. Water-soil control still contained toxic levels of this insecticide, as demonstrated by fish bioassay studies, after 35 days.

  18. Site fire protection projects review board engineering evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Fayfich, R.R.

    1992-12-31

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been safely operated since its beginning in the early 1950`s with an effective, highly successful program of fire prevention. However, in the mid 1980`s the Department of Energy directed the site to identify and install fire protection measure in addition to the reliance on prevention. To address the site needs, independent fire protection surveys were conducted by Factory Mutual Research Corporation and Professional Loss Control, Inc. in 1986 and 1987. The results of these surveys identified 1400 fire protection improvements needed in existing facilities to comply with DOE Orders and NFPA Codes and Standards.

  19. An evaluation of SAO sites for laser operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorp, J. M.; Bush, M. A.; Pearlman, M. R.

    1974-01-01

    Operational criteria are provided for the selection of laser tracking sites for the Earth and Ocean Physics Applications Program. A compilation of data is given concerning the effect of weather conditions on laser and Baker-Nunn camera operations. These data have been gathered from the Smithsonian astrophysical observing station sites occupied since the inception of the satellite tracking program. Also given is a brief description of each site, including its characteristic weather conditions, comments on communications and logistics, and a summary of the terms of agreement under which the station is or was operated.

  20. Site evaluation for laser satellite-tracking stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, N. H.; Mohr, P. A.

    1976-01-01

    Twenty-six locations for potential laser satellite-tracking stations, four of them actually already occupied in this role, are reviewed in terms of their known local and regional geology and geophysics. The sites are also considered briefly in terms of weather and operational factors. Fifteen of the sites qualify as suitable for a stable station whose motions are likely to reflect only gross plate motion. The others, including two of the present laser station sites (Arequipa and Athens), fail to qualify unless extra monitoring schemes can be included, such as precise geodetic surveying of ground deformation.

  1. Remediation System Evaluation, Savage Municipal Water Supply Superfund Site (PDF)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Savage Municipal Water Supply Superfund Site, located on the western edge of Milford, New Hampshire, consists of a source area and an extended plume that is approximately 6,000 feet long and 2,500 feet wide.

  2. EVALUATION OF UNSATURATED/VADOSE ZONE MODELS FOR SUPERFUND SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mathematical models of water and chemical movement in soils are being used as decision aids for defining groundwater protection practices for Superfund sites. Numerous transport models exist for predicting movementand degradation of hazardous chemicals through soils. Many of thes...

  3. Remediation System Evaluation, Silresim Chemical Corp. Superfund Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Silresim Superfund Site is located in an industrial area of Lowell, Massachusetts. This Superfund siteaddresses contamination associated with a chemical waste reclamation facility that was operated bySilresim Chemical Corporation between 1971 and..

  4. Remediation System Evaluation, Baird and McGuire Superfund Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The 32.5-acre Baird and McGuire Superfund Site, located in Holbrook, Massachusetts, addresses VOC,SVOC, and arsenic contamination from a chemical mixing and batching plant that operated between 1912and 1983.

  5. Remediation System Evaluation, Reilly Tar and Chemical Superfund Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Reilly Industries site is an active chemical manufacturing facility surrounded by a mix of residential,industrial and commercial properties. All residences in the area of contaminated ground water have beenconnected to the municipal water supply.

  6. Notification: Evaluation of Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project #OPE-FY14-0043, June 27, 2014. The EPA OIG plans to begin preliminary research on the EPA's work related to the siting of renewable energy on currently and formerly contaminated properties across the nation.

  7. Evaluation of CADASTER QSAR models for the aquatic toxicity of (benzo)triazoles and prioritisation by consensus prediction.

    PubMed

    Cassani, Stefano; Kovarich, Simona; Papa, Ester; Roy, Partha Pratim; Rahmberg, Magnus; Nilsson, Sara; Sahlin, Ullrika; Jeliazkova, Nina; Kochev, Nikolay; Pukalov, Ognyan; Tetko, Igor; Brandmaier, Stefan; Durjava, Mojca Kos; Kolar, Boris; Peijnenburg, Willie; Gramatica, Paola

    2013-03-01

    QSAR regression models of the toxicity of triazoles and benzotriazoles ([B]TAZs) to an alga (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), Daphnia magna and a fish (Onchorhynchus mykiss), were developed by five partners in the FP7-EU Project, CADASTER. The models were developed by different methods - Ordinary Least Squares (OLS), Partial Least Squares (PLS), Bayesian regularised regression and Associative Neural Network (ASNN) - by using various molecular descriptors (DRAGON, PaDEL-Descriptor and QSPR-THESAURUS web). In addition, different procedures were used for variable selection, validation and applicability domain inspection. The predictions of the models developed, as well as those obtained in a consensus approach by averaging the data predicted from each model, were compared with the results of experimental tests that were performed by two CADASTER partners. The individual and consensus models were able to correctly predict the toxicity classes of the chemicals tested in the CADASTER project, confirming the utility of the QSAR approach. The models were also used for the prediction of aquatic toxicity of over 300 (B)TAZs, many of which are included in the REACH pre-registration list, and were without experimental data. This highlights the importance of QSAR models for the screening and prioritisation of untested chemicals, in order to reduce and focus experimental testing.

  8. Labile ruthenium(ii) complexes with extended phenyl-substituted terpyridyl ligands: synthesis, aquation and anticancer evaluation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huaiyi; Zhang, Pingyu; Chen, Yu; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui

    2015-09-21

    Ruthenium complexes have been considered as promising substitutes for cisplatin in cancer chemotherapy. However, novel ruthenium-based therapies are faced with some limitations, such as unimpressive cytotoxicity toward solid tumors. Herein, we designed and synthesized phenyl-substituted terpyridyl ruthenium(ii) complexes ([Ru(tpy)(bpy)Cl](+) (Ru1), [Ru(phtpy)(bpy)Cl](+) (Ru2) and [Ru(biphtpy)(bpy)Cl](+) (Ru3)) which exhibited distinctly different anticancer activity. Ru1-Ru3 all underwent moderate aquation in buffer solution and this process was significantly inhibited by high chloride concentration. Cancer cells were found to readily uptake the relatively hydrophobic Ru3, as quantified using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Ru1 was found to be non-cytotoxic (IC50 > 100 μM) while Ru3 exhibited very promising cytotoxicity on both two-dimensional (2D) cancer cell monolayers and 3D MCTSs. An antiproliferative assay revealed that Ru3 significantly inhibited cellular DNA replication which ultimately induced apoptosis of cancer cells.

  9. Evaluation of the toxicity of superfine materials to change the physiological functions of aquatic organisms of different trophic levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgalev, S.; Morgaleva, T.; Gosteva, I.; Morgalev, Yu

    2015-11-01

    We assessed ecological and biological effects caused by the physical and chemical properties of nanomaterials on the basis of the laboratory researches into water test-organisms of different trophic levels. We studied the physiological functions of water organisms on adding into the environment superfine materials of various chemical nature and structural characteristics: metallic nanoparticles of nikel (nNi), argentum (nAg), platinum (nPt), aurum (nAu), binary NPs (powder of titanium dioxide - nTiO2, aluminum oxide - nAl2O3, zink oxide - nZnO, silicon nitride - nSi3N4, silicon carbide (nSiC) and carbon nanotubes (BT-50, MCD- material). We observed the dependence of developing the complex of unfavourable biological effects in water plants and entomostracans’ organisms on the physical and chemical properties of superfine materials. We determined the values of NOEC, L(E)C20 and L(E)C50 for aquatic organisms of various regular groups. We found out the most vulnerable elements of the communities’ trophic structure and the possibility of a breakdown in the water ecosystem food pyramid.

  10. Phylogeography of a semi-aquatic bug, Microvelia horvathi (Hemiptera: Veliidae): an evaluation of historical, geographical and ecological factors

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Zhen; Zhu, Gengping; Damgaard, Jakob; Chen, Xin; Chen, Pingping; Bu, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    Subtropical China is a centre of speciation and well known for its high biological diversity and endemism. To understand the impact of historical, geographical and ecological factors on the intraspecific lineage divergence of invertebrates, we examined these processes in a semiaquatic bug, Microvelia horvathi (Hemiptera: Veliidae). Three hypotheses were developed using ecological niche models (ENM). We tested these hypotheses using mitochondrial (COI + COII) and nuclear data (ITS1 + 5.8S + ITS2). The phylogenic analysis revealed a shallow divergence in mitochondrial data. Clade I was mostly confined to the northern region and clade II was nearly restricted to the southern region. The historical process of Pleistocene climatic fluctuations during the LGM promoted divergence, along with such geographical barriers as the Wuyi, Nanling and Xuefeng mountains and ecological factors of temperature and vegetation type, contributed to these shallow genetic divergences and helped maintain them. The north-south population differentiation probably occurred during the transition from LIG to LGM, with post-LGM population expansion. The results of genetic data were mostly consistent with the spatial predictions from ENM. Our study emphasizes the multiple effects influencing genetic population differentiation, and also contributes to our knowledge of the phylogeography of other aquatic organisms in subtropical China. PMID:26923804

  11. Phylogeography of a semi-aquatic bug, Microvelia horvathi (Hemiptera: Veliidae): an evaluation of historical, geographical and ecological factors.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhen; Zhu, Gengping; Damgaard, Jakob; Chen, Xin; Chen, Pingping; Bu, Wenjun

    2016-02-29

    Subtropical China is a centre of speciation and well known for its high biological diversity and endemism. To understand the impact of historical, geographical and ecological factors on the intraspecific lineage divergence of invertebrates, we examined these processes in a semiaquatic bug, Microvelia horvathi (Hemiptera: Veliidae). Three hypotheses were developed using ecological niche models (ENM). We tested these hypotheses using mitochondrial (COI + COII) and nuclear data (ITS1 + 5.8S + ITS2). The phylogenic analysis revealed a shallow divergence in mitochondrial data. Clade I was mostly confined to the northern region and clade II was nearly restricted to the southern region. The historical process of Pleistocene climatic fluctuations during the LGM promoted divergence, along with such geographical barriers as the Wuyi, Nanling and Xuefeng mountains and ecological factors of temperature and vegetation type, contributed to these shallow genetic divergences and helped maintain them. The north-south population differentiation probably occurred during the transition from LIG to LGM, with post-LGM population expansion. The results of genetic data were mostly consistent with the spatial predictions from ENM. Our study emphasizes the multiple effects influencing genetic population differentiation, and also contributes to our knowledge of the phylogeography of other aquatic organisms in subtropical China.

  12. Evaluation of water-effect ratio methodology for establishing site-specific water quality criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Welsh, P.G.; Lipton, J.; Chapman, G.A.

    2000-06-01

    One approach outlined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) for derivation of site-specific water quality criteria for metals in natural surface waters involves the development of water-effect ratios (WERs). This approach entails multiplying national water quality criteria by an experimentally derived WER, where the WER is defined as the ratio of the toxicity of the metal in the site water to the toxicity of the same metal in standard laboratory water. The authors discuss technical issues associated with test methods described in the US EPA WER guidance documents that may lead to inappropriate WERs. Critical issues include accounting for differences in calcium and magnesium concentrations (Ca:Mg ratios), alkalinity, and pH between site and laboratory waters; ensuring appropriate fish acclimation; and accounting for interspecies variability, multiple metals interactions, end-point variability, and temporal and spatial variability in the derivation of the WER. Failure to address these issues may have the unintended effect of deriving site-specific water quality criteria that are underprotective of aquatic life. The authors recommend that WER testing and future regulatory guidance for derivation of site-specific water quality criteria incorporate consideration of these potential confounding variables so that site-specific criteria can be established with greater confidence.

  13. Evaluating the adequacy of a reference site pool for ecological assessments in environmentally complex regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ode, Peter R.; Rehn, Andrew C.; Mazor, Raphael D.; Schiff, Kenneth C.; Stein, Eric D.; May, Jason; Brown, Larry R.; Herbst, David B.; Gillette, D.D.; Lunde, Kevin; Hawkins, Charles P.

    2016-01-01

    Many advances in the field of bioassessment have focused on approaches for objectively selecting the pool of reference sites used to establish expectations for healthy waterbodies, but little emphasis has been placed on ways to evaluate the suitability of the reference-site pool for its intended applications (e.g., compliance assessment vs ambient monitoring). These evaluations are critical because an inadequately evaluated reference pool may bias assessments in some settings. We present an approach for evaluating the adequacy of a reference-site pool for supporting biotic-index development in environmentally heterogeneous and pervasively altered regions. We followed common approaches for selecting sites with low levels of anthropogenic stress to screen 1985 candidate stream reaches to create a pool of 590 reference sites for assessing the biological integrity of streams in California, USA. We assessed the resulting pool of reference sites against 2 performance criteria. First, we evaluated how well the reference-site pool represented the range of natural gradients present in the entire population of streams as estimated by sites sampled through probabilistic surveys. Second, we evaluated the degree to which we were successful in rejecting sites influenced by anthropogenic stress by comparing biological metric scores at reference sites with the most vs fewest potential sources of stress. Using this approach, we established a reference-site pool with low levels of human-associated stress and broad coverage of environmental heterogeneity. This approach should be widely applicable and customizable to particular regional or programmatic needs.

  14. Aquatic Therapy for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucher, Greta; Moore, Kelsey; Rodia, Rachel; Moser, Christy Szczech

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic therapy has long been highlighted in the literature as a potentially powerful therapeutic intervention. This review will highlight basic definitions of aquatic therapy, review salient research, and identify specific diagnoses that may benefit from aquatic therapy. Online resources, blogs, and books that occupational therapists may find…

  15. The creation and evaluation of an ambulatory orthopedic surgical patient education web site to support empowerment.

    PubMed

    Heikkinen, Katja; Suomi, Reima; Jääskeläinen, Miika; Kaljonen, Anne; Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Salanterä, Sanna

    2010-01-01

    The use and evaluation of Web sites in ambulatory surgery patients' education are rare; hence, innovative approaches to educate these patients should be adopted and evaluated. The aim of this study was to describe the creation of and evaluate the utility and usability of an ambulatory orthopedic surgical patient education Web site. A descriptive study design was used. The evaluators were 72 ambulatory orthopedic surgery patients receiving education through a Web site. The data were collected after education preoperatively and 2 weeks postoperatively. Two instruments were used: "Patients' Evaluation of Education" and "Diary of the Use of the Website." Web site evaluators' scores for utility of the Web site ranged from 57.56 to 87.87 of 100. Utility of the Web site evaluations was significantly higher (P < .05) 2 weeks postoperatively than immediately after the operation. Web site evaluators' scores for usability of the Web site ranged from 85.69 to 88.32. The use of this program as educational material for orthopedic surgery patients was supported by the patients' opinions of the usability and utility of the Web site.

  16. SITE PROGRAM EVALUATION OF THE SONOTECH PULSE COMBUSTION BURNER TECHNOLOGY - TECHNICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of demonstration tests was performed at the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Incineration Research Facility (IRF) under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. These tests, twelve in all, evaluated a pulse combustion burner technology dev...

  17. Evaluation of the health status of a coastal ecosystem in southeast Mexico: Assessment of water quality, phytoplankton and submerged aquatic vegetation.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Silveira, Jorge A; Morales-Ojeda, Sara M

    2009-01-01

    The coastal environment of the Yucatan Peninsula (SE, Mexico) includes a wide variety of ecosystems ranging from mangroves to coral reefs, resulting in a heterogeneous landscape. Specifically, the marine system is characterized by environmental differences which respond to regional and local forcing functions such as marine currents and groundwater discharges (GD). Such functional characteristics were used here to define four subregions across the Yucatan coast and diagnose the health status of this coastal marine ecosystem. To achieve this goal, we conducted an analysis and integration of water quality variables, an eutrophic assessment, evaluated changes in submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV), and analyzed the community structure and distribution of harmful phytoplankton. The first step was to determine the reference values for each subregion based on data previously collected from 2002 to 2006 along the coast of Yucatan, 200m offshore. The trophic index (TRIX) and Canadian index for aquatic life (CCMEWQI) were used to diagnose each subregion and then the ASSETS approach was conducted for Dzilam and Progreso, sampling localities on each end of the health status continuum (those with the best and worst conditions). Overall, results indicated that the marine coastal ecosystem of Yucatan is in good condition; however, differences were observed between subregions that can be attributed to local forcing functions and human impacts. Specifically, the central region (zone HZII, Progreso-Telchac) showed symptoms of initial eutrophication due to nutrient inputs from human activities. The eastern region (zone HZ III, Dzilam-Las Bocas) showed a meso-eutrophic condition linked to natural groundwater discharges, while the other two subregions western (zone HZI Celestun-Palmar) and caribbean (zone HZ IV Ria Lagartos-El Cuyo) exhibited symptoms of oligo-mesotrophic condition. These findings may be considered baseline information for coastal ecosystem monitoring programs in

  18. EVALUATING NATURAL BIODEGRADATION OF MTBE AT MULTIPLE UST SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Until very recently, methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) was considered non-biodegradable in the subsurface. This has been an impediment in applying remediation by natural attenuation (RNA) as a remedial strategy at MTBE-impacted sites. Although a number of recent studies have demonst...

  19. Evaluation of potential water conservation using site-specific irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the advent of site-specific variable-rate irrigation (VRI) systems, irrigation can be spatially managed within sub-field-sized zones. Spatial irrigation management can optimize spatial water use efficiency and may conserve water. Spatial VRI systems are currently being managed by consultants ...

  20. Remediation System Evaluation, Boomsnub/Airco Superfund Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Boomsnub/Airco Superfund Site is located in Hazel Dell, Clark County, Washington north ofVancouver, Washington and consists of the 0.75-acre Boomsnub property, the 11-acre BOC Gasesproperty, and a co-mingled ground water plume of chromium and...

  1. 40 CFR 300.420 - Remedial site evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... pursuant to the Hazard Ranking System (HRS) if warranted. (2) A remedial PA shall consist of a review of... defined in § 300.5 to: (i) Eliminate from further consideration those sites that pose no threat to public... a threat of a release of a hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant; and (B) Whether...

  2. A green infrastructure experimental site for developing and evaluating models

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ecosystems Research Division (ERD) of the U.S. EPA’s National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) in Athens, GA has a 14-acre urban watershed which has become an experimental research site for green infrastructure studies. About half of the watershed is covered by pervious la...

  3. 40 CFR 300.420 - Remedial site evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... section is to describe the methods, procedures, and criteria the lead agency shall use to collect data, as...) Remedial preliminary assessment. (1) The lead agency shall perform a remedial PA on all sites in CERCLIS as... health or the environment; (ii) Determine if there is any potential need for removal action; (iii)...

  4. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: NOVOCS EVALUATION AT NAS NORTH ISLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a SITE Technology Capsule. The MACTEC, Inc. (MACTEC), NoVOCs(TM) in-well volatile organic compounds (VOC) stripping technology is an in-situ groundwater remediation technology designed for the cleanup of groundwater contaminated with VOCs. The NoVOCs(TM) technology was ev...

  5. 10 CFR 100.20 - Factors to be considered when evaluating sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Section 100.20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REACTOR SITE CRITERIA Evaluation Factors for Stationary Power Reactor Site Applications on or After January 10, 1997 § 100.20 Factors to be... determining the acceptability of a site for a stationary power reactor: (a) Population density and...

  6. Risk management study for the retired Hanford Site facilities: Qualitative risk evaluation for the retired Hanford Site facilities. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Coles, G.A.; Shultz, M.V.; Taylor, W.E.

    1993-09-01

    This document provides a risk evaluation of the 100 and 200 Area retired, surplus facilities on the Hanford Site. Also included are the related data that were compiled by the risk evaluation team during investigations performed on the facilities. Results are the product of a major effort performed in fiscal year 1993 to produce qualitative information that characterizes certain risks associated with these facilities. The retired facilities investigated for this evaluation are located in the 100 and 200 Areas of the 1,450-km{sup 2} (570-mi{sup 2}) Hanford Site. The Hanford Site is a semiarid tract of land in southeastern Washington State. The nearest population center is Richland, Washington, (population 32,000) 30-km (20 mi) southeast of the 200 Area. During walkdown investigations of these facilities, data on real and potential hazards that threatened human health or safety or created potential environmental release issues were identified by the risk evaluation team. Using these findings, the team categorized the identified hazards by facility and evaluated the risk associated with each hazard. The factors contributing to each risk, and the consequence and likelihood of harm associated with each hazard also are included in this evaluation.

  7. 33 CFR 148.415 - When conducting site evaluation and pre-construction testing, what must be reported?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Within 120 days after the site evaluation or pre-construction testing, a final written report must be... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When conducting site evaluation... Site Evaluation and Pre-Construction Testing § 148.415 When conducting site evaluation and...

  8. Hanford Site storm water comprehensive site compliance evaluation report for the reporting period July 1, 1996 through June 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, C.J.

    1997-09-18

    On September 9, 1992, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued General Permit No. WA-R-00-OOOF, Authorization to Discharge Under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) for Storm Water Discharges Associated with Industrial Activity to the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL). RL submitted a Notice of Intent to comply with this permit to EPA in conformance with the General Permit requirements on October 1, 1992. On February 14, 1994, EPA issued a Storm Water General Permit Coverage Notice and assigned WA-R-00-Al7F as the Hanford Site`s National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) storm water permit number. The Hanford Site Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) (WHC 1996a) was certified by J. E Rasmussen, Director Environmental Assurance, RL, on September 24, 1996, in compliance with Part IV.B(i) of the General Permit. As required by General Permit No. WA-R-00-OOOF (WA-R-00-Al7F), Section IV, Part D, Section 4.c, an annual report must be developed by RL and retained on site to verify that the requirements listed in the General Permit are being implemented. The previous Hanford Site Storm Plater Comprehensive Site Compliance Evaluation Report (WHC 1996b) addressed the period from July 1995 through June 1996. This document fulfills the requirement to prepare an annual report and contains the results of inspections of the storm water outfalls listed in the SWPPP (WHC 1996a). This report also describes the methods used to conduct the 1100 Storm Plater Comprehensive Site Compliance Evaluation (SWCSCE) as required in Part IV, Section D.4.c in the General Permit; summarizes the results of the compliance evaluation; and documents significant leaks and spills. The reporting year for this SWCSCE report is July 1, 1996 through June 30, 1997.

  9. Sharing Designer and User Perspectives of Web Site Evaluation: A Cross-Campus Collaborative Learning Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collings, Penny; Pearce, Jon

    2002-01-01

    Presents an online collaborative process that facilitates usability evaluation of Web sites. Describes how the system was designed and used by students and staff at two Australian universities and shows that the process provides feedback on Web site usability and the experience of usability evaluation from the perspectives of a user and a…

  10. Accountability Procedures Manual for On-Site Evaluations, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    This Accountability Procedures Manual (APM) is designed to be used by Texas Education Agency staff and other education system personnel as a guide for on-site evaluations. It is the responsibility of each member of an on-site peer review team to become familiar with the contents of the APM. Quality peer review evaluations demand consistency,…

  11. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel From Nine Shutdown Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph; Ross, Steven B.; Buxton, Kenneth A.; England, Jeffery L.; McConnell, Paul

    2013-04-30

    The Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future identified removal of stranded used nuclear fuel at shutdown sites as a priority so that these sites may be completely decommissioned and put to other beneficial uses. In this report, a preliminary evaluation of removing used nuclear fuel from nine shutdown sites was conducted. The shutdown sites included Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, and Zion. At these sites a total of 7649 used nuclear fuel assemblies and a total of 2813.2 metric tons heavy metal (MTHM) of used nuclear fuel are contained in 248 storage canisters. In addition, 11 canisters containing greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste are stored at these sites. The evaluation was divided in four components: • characterization of the used nuclear fuel and GTCC low-level radioactive waste inventory at the shutdown sites • an evaluation of the onsite transportation conditions at the shutdown sites • an evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and experience relevant to the shipping of transportation casks containing used nuclear fuel from the shutdown sites • an evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove used nuclear fuel and GTCC low-level radioactive waste from the shutdown sites. Using these evaluations the authors developed time sequences of activities and time durations for removing the used nuclear fuel and GTCC low-level radioactive waste from a single shutdown site, from three shutdown sites located close to each other, and from all nine shutdown sites.

  12. Cross-species evaluation of molecular target sequence and structural conservation as a line of evidence for identification of susceptible taxa to inform derivation of aquatic life criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1985 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidelines for Deriving Aquatic Life Criteria (ALC) require acute and chronic toxicity testing with a fixed list of taxa that cover aquatic organisms from vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants. In considering Guideline revision...

  13. Evaluation of the physical hazards associated with two remedial alternatives at a Superfund site.

    PubMed

    Scott, P K; Pittignano, A; Finley, B L

    2001-02-01

    This study presents an evaluation of the risks due to the physical hazards associated with two remedial alternatives for a former chemical manufacturing facility in New Jersey. Both the on-site and off-site risk of work-related fatalities during remedy implementation and the risks of accident or accident-related fatalities during the off-site transport of site-related materials were evaluated. The two remedial alternatives evaluated were on-site containment and excavation with off-site incineration. The risk of at least one fatality due to a work-related accident was estimated for on-site activities associated with each remedial alternative, and for off-site incineration. The risks of at least one accident and of one accident-related fatality were calculated with accident and fatality data from the U.S. Department of Transportation. In addition, the risk of at least one accident that might potentially affect a natural resource (e.g., river, lake, or national park) was evaluated. This evaluation indicates that the risk of a work-related fatality is over an order of magnitude higher, and the risk of an accident or accident-related fatality is over three orders of magnitude higher, for the excavation/off-site incineration remedial alternative than for the on-site containment alternative. Overall, this study indicates that the physical hazards associated with excavation and off-site incineration are much greater than those associated with on-site containment for this site. Therefore, if a choice between the two remedial alternatives were to be made based solely on physical hazards and accident risk, the on-site containment alternative would be more protective of human health and the environment than the excavation/off-site incineration alternative.

  14. Liguefaction Evaluations at the Savannah River Site a Case History

    SciTech Connect

    McHood, M.D.

    2003-09-23

    Over the past decade, liquefaction assessments have been performed for many existing and planned critical facilities at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). The assessments incorporated site-specific Cyclic Resistance Ratio (CRR) and K with the use of the cone penetration test (CPT). The SRS-specific CRR and K were developed from laboratory testing of carefully collected samples. Test results show SRS soils have increased liquefaction resistance of two to three times when compared to standard literature for Holocene-age deposits. This increase in strength can be attributed to many factors such as aging and overconsolidation. The purpose of this paper is to discuss liquefaction methodologies used at the SRS. Specifically, (1) use of the CPT and correlations of CPT-derived results with that of high-quality undisturbed samples; (2) aging; and (3) K vertical confining stress factor.

  15. Evaluation of criticality alarm response at the WEMCO Fernald site

    SciTech Connect

    Broadhead, B.L.; Childs, R.L.; Westfall, R.M.; Parks, C.V.

    1992-11-01

    This work quantifies the expected dose rates at a series of criticality alarm locations due to several postulated criticality accidents at the Westinghouse Environmental MANAGEMENT COMPANY OF OHIO (WEMCO) Fernald site. One- and two-dimensional discrete- ordinates calculations were performed for seven different shielding configurations using leakage spectra corresponding to two specific postulated critical events. In addition, an estimate of the gaseous fission products released during the hypothetical accident was made using ORIGEN-S point-depletion code.

  16. Evaluation of transition year Canadian test sites. [Saskatchewan Province

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payne, R. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The spring small grain proportion accuracy in 15 Saskatchewan test sites was found to be comparable to that of the Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment Phase 3 and Transition Year results in the U.S. spring wheat states. Spring small grain labeling accuracy was 94%, and the direct wheat labeling accuracy was 89%, despite the low barley separation accuracy of 30%.

  17. Evaluation of School-Based Right to Read Sites; Volume IV, Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contemporary Research, Inc., Los Angeles, CA.

    This collection of appendices to the "Evaluation of School-Based Right to Read Sites" includes "Evaluation of Right to Read Materials," which presents an overview and discusses the evaluation procedure and evaluation results; "Instruments," which includes mail-out materials and regional conference materials;…

  18. Propagation and Production of Native Aquatic Plants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    ERDC/TN APCRP-EA-11 September 2005 Propagation and Production of Native Aquatic Plants by Gary Owen Dick , R. Michael Smart, and Joe R. Snow...small, protected plant colonies at strategic locations within unvegetated reservoirs (Smart and Dick 1999). Once successfully established, these...specific treatment of this information is given in Smart and Dick (1999). FACILITIES FOR OFF-SITE PRODUCTION: Production of aquatic plants requires

  19. Assessment and evaluation of engineering options at a low-level radioactive waste storage site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanehiro, B. Y.; Guvanasen, V.

    1982-09-01

    Solutions to hydrologic and geotechnical problems associated with existing disposal sites were sought and the efficiency of engineering options that were proposed to improve the integrity of such sites were evaluated. The Weldon Spring site is generally like other low-level nuclear waste sites, except that the wastes are primarily in the form of residues and contaminated rubble from the processing of uranium and thorium ores rather than industrial isotopes or mill tailings.

  20. Oxidation mechanism and overall removal rates of endocrine disrupting chemicals by aquatic plants.

    PubMed

    Reis, A R; Tabei, K; Sakakibara, Y

    2014-01-30

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate experimentally and theoretically the oxidation mechanisms and overall removal rates of phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) by aquatic plants. EDCs used in this study were bisphenol-A (BPA), 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 4-tert-octylphenol (4-t-OP), and pentachlorophenol (PCP). Referring to reported detection levels in aquatic environments and contaminated sites, the feed concentration of each EDC was set from 1 to 100μg/L. Experimental results showed that, except for PCP, phenolic EDCs were stably and concurrently removed by different types of aquatic plants over 70 days in long-term continuous treatments. Primal enzymes responsible for oxidation of BPA, 2,4-DCP, and 4-t-OP were peroxidases (POs). Moreover, enzymatic removal rates of BPA, 2,4-DCP, and 4-t-OP by POs were more than 2 orders of magnitude larger than those by aquatic plants. Assuming that overall removal rates of EDCs are controlled by mass transfer rates onto liquid films on the surface of aquatic plants, an electrochemical method based on the limiting current theory was developed to measure the mass transfer rates of EDCs. Because of extremely large removal rates of EDCs by POs, observed removal rates by aquatic plants were in reasonably good agreement with calculated results by a mathematical model developed based on an assumption that mass transfer limitation is a rate-limiting step.

  1. Disposable electrochemical sensor to evaluate the phytoremediation of the aquatic plant Lemna minor L. toward Pb(2+) and/or Cd(2+).

    PubMed

    Neagu, Daniela; Arduini, Fabiana; Quintana, Josefina Calvo; Di Cori, Patrizia; Forni, Cinzia; Moscone, Danila

    2014-07-01

    In this work a miniaturized and disposable electrochemical sensor was developed to evaluate the cadmium and lead ion phytoremediation potential by the floating aquatic macrophyte Lemna minor L. The sensor is based on a screen-printed electrode modified "in-situ" with bismuth film, which is more environmentally friendly than the mercury-based sensor usually adopted for lead and cadmium ion detection. The sensor was coupled with a portable potentiostat for the simultaneous measurement of cadmium and lead ions by stripping analysis. The optimized analytical system allows the simultaneous detection of both heavy metals at the ppb level (LOD equal to 0.3 and 2 ppb for lead and cadmium ions, respectively) with the advantage of using a miniaturized and cost-effective system. The sensor was then applied for the evaluation of Pb(2+) or/and Cd(2+) uptake by measuring the amount of the heavy metals both in growth medium and in plant tissues during 1 week experiments. In this way, the use of Lemna minor coupled with a portable electrochemical sensor allows the set up of a model system able both to remove the heavy metals and to measure "in-situ" the magnitude of heavy metal removal.

  2. Hazard ranking system evaluation of CERCLA inactive waste sites at Hanford: Volume 3: Unplanned-release sites (HISS data base)

    SciTech Connect

    Jette, S.J.; Lamar, D.A.; McLaughlin, T.J.; Sherwood, D.R.; Van Houten, N.C.; Stenner, R.D; Cramer, K.H.; Higley, K.A.

    1988-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to formally document the assessment activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. These activities were carried out pursuant to the DOE orders that address the Comprehensive Environmental Response, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Program for the cleanup of inactive waste sites. The DOE orders incorporate the US Environmental Protection Agency methodology, which is based on the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. This methodology includes:PA/SI, remedial investigation/feasibility study, record of decision, design and implementation or remedial action, operation and monitoring, and verification monitoring. Volume 1 of this report discusses the CERCLA inactive waste-site evaluation process, assumptions, and results of the Hazard Ranking System methodology employed. Volume 2 presents the data on the individual CERCLA engineered-facility sites at Hanford, as contained in the Hanford Inactive Site Surveillance (HISS) Data Base. Volume 3 presents the data on the individual CERCLA unplanned-release sites at Hanford, as contained in the HISS Data Base. 13 figs.

  3. Resource evaluation and site selection for microalgae production systems

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, E.L.; Folger, A.G.; Hogg, S.E.

    1985-05-01

    Climate, land, and water resource requirements of microalgae production systems (MPS) were examined relative to construction costs, operating costs, and biomass productivity. The objective was the stratification of the southwestern United States into zones of relative suitability for MPS. Maps of climate (insolation, freeze-free period, precipitation, evaporation, thunderstorm days), land (use/cover, ownership, slope), and water (saline groundwater) resource parameters were obtained. These maps were transformed into digital overlays permitting the cell-by-cell compositing of selected resource parameters to form maps representing relative productivity, make-up water, climate suitability, land suitability, water suitability, and overall suitability. The Southwest was selected for this study because of its high levels of insolation, saline water resources, and large areas of relatively low valued land. The stratification maps cannot be used for the selection of specific sites because of their low resolution (12,455-acre cells). They can be used to guide future resource studies and site selection efforts, however, by limiting these efforts to the most suitable regions. Future efforts should concentrate on saline water resources, for which only limited data are currently available. 13 refs., 44 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Usability Evaluation of a Research Repository and Collaboration Web Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Tao; Maron, Deborah J.; Charles, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports results from an empirical usability evaluation of Human-Animal Bond Research Initiative Central as part of the effort to develop an open access research repository and collaboration platform for human-animal bond researchers. By repurposing and altering key features of the original HUBzero system, Human-Animal Bond Research…

  5. Resource Evaluation and Site Selection for Microalgae Production in India

    SciTech Connect

    Milbrandt, A.; Jarvis, E.

    2010-09-01

    The study evaluates climate conditions, availability of CO2 and other nutrients, water resources, and land characteristics to identify areas in India suitable for algae production. The purpose is to provide an understanding of the resource potential in India for algae biofuels production and to assist policymakers, investors, and industry developers in their future strategic decisions.

  6. Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration project: Cross-site evaluation method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (CORD) project links public health and primary care interventions in three projects described in detail in accompanying articles in this issue of Childhood Obesity. This article describes a comprehensive evaluation plan to determine the extent to which th...

  7. Evaluation in the Field: The Need for Site Visit Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Michael Quinn

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of programs is enhanced when trained, skilled, and observant evaluators go "into the field"--the real world where programs are conducted--paying attention to what's going on, systematically documenting what they see, and reporting what they learn. The article opens by presenting and illustrating twelve reasons for…

  8. Data Mining for Web Site Evaluation: An Exploration of Site Usage by Graduate Social Work Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santhiveeran, Janaki

    2006-01-01

    This paper evaluates the actual use of a course Website by graduate social work students. The study utilized data mining techniques to discover meaningful trends by using the data from server logs. The course Website was accessed 24,730 times by all 49 graduate students during a semester. The students utilized the course Website 23 hours a day, 7…

  9. Evaluation of soil radioactivity data from the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    Since 1951, 933 nuclear tests have been conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and test areas on the adjacent Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR). Until the early 1960s. the majority of tests were atmospheric, involving detonation of nuclear explosive devices on the ground or on a tower, suspended from a balloon or dropped from an airplane. Since the signing of the Limited Test Ban Treaty in 1963, most tests have been conducted underground, although several shallow subsurface tests took place between 1962 and 1968. As a result of the aboveground and near-surface nuclear explosions, as well as ventings of underground tests, destruction of nuclear devices with conventional explosives, and nuclear-rocket engine tests, the surface soil on portions of the NTS has been contaminated with radionuclides. Relatively little consideration was given to the environmental effects of nuclear testing during the first two decades of operations at the NTS. Since the early 1970s, however, increasingly strict environmental regulations have forced greater attention to be given to contamination problems at the site and how to remediate them. One key element in the current environmental restoration program at the NTS is determining the amount and extent of radioactivity in the surface soil. The general distribution of soil radioactivity on the NTS is already well known as a result of several programs carried out in the 1970s and 1980s. However, questions have been raised as to whether the data from those earlier studies are suitable for use in the current environmental assessments and risk analyses. The primary purpose of this preliminary data review is to determine to what extent the historical data collected at the NTS can be used in the characterization/remediation process.

  10. A preclinical evaluation of alternative site for islet allotransplantation

    PubMed Central

    He, Sirong; Yuan, Yujia; Han, Pengfei; Wang, Dan; Chen, Younan; Liu, Jingping; Tian, Bole; Yang, Guang; Yi, Shounan; Gao, Fabao; Zhong, Zhihui; Li, Hongxia; Cheng, Jingqiu; Lu, Yanrong

    2017-01-01

    The bone marrow cavity (BMC) has recently been identified as an alternative site to the liver for islet transplantation. This study aimed to compare the BMC with the liver as an islet allotransplantation site in diabetic monkeys. Diabetes was induced in Rhesus monkeys using streptozocin, and the monkeys were then divided into the following three groups: Group1 (islets transplanted in the liver with immunosuppressant), Group 2 (islets transplanted in the tibial BMC), and Group 3 (islets transplanted in the tibial BMC with immunosuppressant). The C-peptide and blood glucose levels were preoperatively measured. An intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) was conducted to assess graft function, and complete blood cell counts were performed to assess cell population changes. Cytokine expression was measured using an enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) and MILLIPLEX. Five monkeys in Group 3 exhibited a significantly increased insulin-independent time compared with the other groups (Group 1: 78.2 ± 19.0 days; Group 2: 58.8 ± 17.0 days; Group 3: 189.6 ± 26.2 days) and demonstrated increases in plasma C-peptide 4 months after transplantation. The infusion procedure was not associated with adverse effects. Functional islets in the BMC were observed 225 days after transplantation using the dithizone (DTZ) and insulin/glucagon stains. Our results showed that allogeneic islets transplanted in the BMC of diabetic Rhesus monkeys remained alive and functional for a longer time than those transplanted in the liver. This study was the first successful demonstration of allogeneic islet engraftment in the BMC of non-human primates (NHPs). PMID:28358858

  11. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Field methods to measure aquatic plant treatment method efficacy. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Killgore, K.J.; Payne, B.S.

    1984-04-01

    The Aquatic Plant Control Research Program (APCRP) of the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) is developing field techniques to measure treatment efficacy and to determine site characteristics that influence the treatment efficacy. Treatment efficacy is considered a quantitative determination of the extent and duration of changes in problem aquatic plant populations attributable to the use of a treatment method (i.e., chemical, mechanical, biological, environmental). Depending on the plant species, efficacy can be determined or indicated by changes in biomass, areal distribution, or height of an aquatic plant in response to treatment. Aquatic plant biomass is sampled with a WES aquatic biomass sampler; areal distribution of aquatic plants is determined by aerial photography or with an electronic positioning system; and submersed aquatic plant height is measured with a fathometer (depth recorder) used with an electronic positioning and repositioning system (AGNAV). The APCRP has also developed field techniques to determine site characteristics that influence efficacy using commercially available instrumentation. This instrumentation can be used to measure treatment efficacy and to determine site characteristics simultaneously.

  12. Complexation of copper by aquatic humic substances from different environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKnight, Diane M.; Feder, Gerald L.; Thurman, E. Michael; Wershaw, Robert L.

    1983-01-01

    The copper-complexing properties of aquatic humic substances isolated from eighteen different environments were characterized by potentiometric titration, using a cupric ion selective electrode. Potentiometric data were analyzed using FITEQL, a computer program for the determination of chemical equilibrium constants from experimental data. All the aquatic humic substances could be modelled as having two types of Cu(II)-binding sites: one with K equal to about 106 and a concentration of 1.0 ± 0.4 × 10−6 M(mg C)−1 and another with K equal to about 108 and a concentration of 2.6 ± 1.6 × 10−7 M(mg C)−1.A method is described for estimating the Cu(II)-binding sites associated with dissolved humic substances in natural water based on a measurement of dissolved organic carbon, which may be helpful in evaluating chemical processes controlling speciation of Cu and bioavailability of Cu to aquatic organisms.

  13. Study of a conceptual nuclear energy center at Green River, Utah. Site selection

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    The siting requirements are described for a NEC. The methodology used, primary and secondary screening criteria and the results and conclusions are also presented. Appended to the report are detailed discussions of two siting factors, and evaluation of Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) demographic siting criteria and a fatal flaw analyses for terrestrial and aquatic ecology.

  14. Aquatic toxicity evaluation of TiO2 nanoparticle produced from sludge of TiCl4 flocculation of wastewater and seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, B. C.; Kim, S.; Shon, H. K.; Vigneswaran, S.; Kim, S. D.; Cho, J.; Kim, In S.; Choi, K. H.; Kim, J. B.; Park, H. J.; Kim, J.-H.

    2009-11-01

    Flocculation using titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) as a coagulant is an efficient and economical application because the flocculated sludge can be recycled to produce a valuable byproduct, namely titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles. However, toxicity of TiCl4 has not yet been assessed while it is used in water treatment. The aquatic toxicity of TiCl4 flocculation process was investigated to assess the environmental safety of the coagulant. D. magna and V. fischeri bioassays were carried out to evaluate the supernatant toxicity after TiCl4 flocculation. Artificial wastewater, biologically treated sewage effluent, and seawater were used to study the toxicity of TiCl4 flocculation. Results showed that supernatant toxicity was very low when TiCl4 flocculation was conducted (no observed effect concentration = 100 mg/L and lowest observed effect concentration = 150 mg/L exposed to D. magna and V. fischeri, respectively). Similarly, TiO2 nanoparticles recovered from wastewater and seawater flocculated sludge were also found to have low toxicity. The regenerated TiO2 nanoparticles indicated low toxicity values when compared to the commercial-TiO2 nanoparticle, P-25.

  15. Development and evaluation of a dynamic multimedia model (ECORAME) for local scale assessment of aquatic ecological exposure to chemicals originating from sources in environmental media.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ja Eun; Kim, Yoon Kwan; Song, Jee Hey; Lee, Dong Soo

    2014-12-01

    Use of multimedia models (MMMs) has been limited in exposure assessment for aquatic ecosystems at local scale typically due to their coarse spatial resolution and inability to predict the individual concentrations of multiple streams within a watershed cell. An MMM named ECORAME is presented which overcomes the limitations by treating each water segment as an independent cell rather than a compartment within a watershed cell. This offers two advantages for exposure assessment, i.e., i) the spatial resolution for water is readily adjustable and ii) multiple water streams within one watershed cell could be handled individually. Model evaluation with respect to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) demonstrated that ECORAME's prediction of relative concentration agreed with measured values within a factor of five or less. A case study of PAHs using ECORAME shows that the concentration can change by more than 10 fold over the 40km main stream stretch of the Han River in Seoul, Korea. The concentration difference among multiple streams in the same watershed cell could be substantial (greater than 100 fold). Besides a need of finer spatial resolutons than those typically used in MMMs, the results strongly suggest that exposure prediction capability for individual streams in the same watershed is necessary for local scale assessment. As demostrated with ECORAME, the need can be effectively met by handling the water segments as individual cells in future MMMs.

  16. Toxicity evaluation of sediments from potential reference sites in San Francisco Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Taberski, K.M.; Hunt, J.W.; Anderson, B.S.; Fairey, W.R.; Puckett, H.M.; Stephenson, M.; Smith, R.W.; Hanson, S.R.; Wortham, G.G.

    1995-12-31

    Relatively uncontaminated sites in San Francisco Bay, Tomales Bay and Bolinas Lagoon were evaluated as reference sites for sediment quality assessment studies. Toxicity test results from reference sites can be used to characterize natural variation among sites in the absence of contaminant effects. This natural variation, which includes variation in space, time and sediment composition, can then be used as the variance component in a ``reference envelope`` statistical analysis to determine whether toxicity observed at potentially contaminated sites is statistically significant. In this study, the authors collected field-replicated sediment samples from seven potential reference sites and three contaminated sites. Solid phase sediment and pore water from each site were tested three separate times with protocols for Eohaustorius, Neanthes, Ampelisca, Nebalia, Strongylocentrotus, and Mytilus. Results indicated consistently low toxicity for many potential reference sites, unexplained toxicity at some uncontaminated sites (which are being investigated with TIES) , and high toxicity at two known contaminated sites. Of the protocols employed, the sea urchin larval development test gave the most consistent results, while the Neanthes growth and survival test did not respond at highly contaminated sites. Test performance and reference site selection are discussed in terms of their effects on sediment quality assessment.

  17. Remediation System Evaluation, Streamlined Remediation System Evaluation (RSE-Lite), Circuitron Corporation Superfund Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Circuitron Corporation Superfund Site is located at 82 Milbar Boulevard, East Farmingdale, Suffolk County, New York. The site is situated on a 1-acre lot in an industrial/commercial area that is surrounded by similar small manufacturers...

  18. Evaluating environmental impact of STPs situated on streams in the Czech Republic: an integrated approach to biomonitoring the aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Zlabek, Vladimir; Turek, Jan; Velisek, Josef; Pulkrabova, Jana; Kolarova, Jitka; Sudova, Eliska; Berankova, Petra; Hradkova, Petra; Hajslova, Jana; Randak, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    Sewage water treatment plants (STPs) are frequently associated with the release of xenobiotics and, consequently, with biological responses of fish to these substances. The impact of three STPs situated on small streams was assessed in 2009. Brown trout (Salmo trutta fario L.), captured upstream and downstream of these STPs, were used as biomonitors. The concentrations of 39 organic pollutants (PCBs, OCPs, PBDEs, HBCDs, and MCs), and the biological responses related to oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation and carbonyl protein), and antioxidant responses (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase) were measured. Through chemometrics of these parameters, three groups with 97.62% of the total accumulated variance were distinguished. Integration of the assessed biomarkers using the IBR index, ranked environment impact on sites as: DS Pacov > DS Prachatice > DS Brloh > US Pacov > US Prachatice > US Brloh (most to least affected). STPs are a major source of xenobiotic pollution in streams of the Czech Republic. The combined use of chemical analysis and biological responses is necessary to validate the efficacy of a battery of biomarkers chosen to detect environmental stress due to pollution.

  19. Aquatic toxicity of triclosan.

    PubMed

    Orvos, David R; Versteeg, Donald J; Inauen, Josef; Capdevielle, Marie; Rothenstein, Arthur; Cunningham, Virginia

    2002-07-01

    The aquatic toxicity of triclosan (TCS), a chlorinated biphenyl ether used as an antimicrobial in consumer products, was studied with activated-sludge microorganisms, algae, invertebrates, and fish. Triclosan, a compound used for inhibiting microbial growth, was not toxic to wastewater microorganisms at concentrations less than aqueous solubility. The 48-h Daphnia magna median effective concentration (EC50) was 390 microg/L and the 96-h median lethal concentration values for Pimephales promelas and Lepomis macrochirus were 260 and 370 microg/L, respectively. A no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) and lowest-observed-effect concentration of 34.1 microg/L and 71.3 microg/L, respectively, were determined with an early life-stage toxicity test with Oncorhynchus mykiss. During a 96-h Scenedesmus study, the 96-h biomass EC50 was 1.4 microg/L and the 96-h NOEC was 0.69 microg/L. Other algae and Lemna also were investigated. Bioconcentration was assessed with Danio rerio. The average TCS accumulation factor over the five-week test period was 4,157 at 3 microg/L and 2,532 at 30 microg/L. Algae were determined to be the most susceptible organisms. Toxicity of a TCS-containing wastewater secondary effluent to P. promelas and Ceriodaphnia was evaluated and no observed differences in toxicity between control and TCS-treated laboratory units were detected. The neutral form of TCS was determined to be associated with toxic effects. Ionization and sorption will mitigate those effects in the aquatic compartment.

  20. Technology Evaluation Report: Biological Treatment of Wood Preserving Site Groundwater by Biotrol, Inc

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biological Treatment of Wood Preserving SITE Groundwater by Biotrol, Inc. BioTrol's pilot-scale, fixed-film biological treatment system was evaluated for its effectiveness at removing pentachlorophenol from groundwater. The system employs indigenous microorganisms amended wit...

  1. Notification: Evaluation of Time-Critical Removal Actions for Superfund Sites

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project #OPE-FY15-0019, February 4, 2015. The EPA OIG plans to begin preliminary research on the evaluation of the effectiveness of time-critical removal actions for Superfund sites on February 24, 2015.

  2. Technology Evaluation Report - SITE PROGRAM DEMONSTRATION OF THE ULTROX INTERNATIONAL ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION OXIDATION TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In support of EPA's Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program, this report presents the results of the Ultrox International technology demonstration. The Ultrox® technology (a registered trademark of Ultrox International) simultaneously uses ultraviolet (UV) radi...

  3. Estimates of External Validity Bias When Impact Evaluations Select Sites Nonrandomly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Stephen H.; Olsen, Robert B.; Orr, Larry L.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Evaluations of educational programs or interventions are typically conducted in nonrandomly selected samples of schools or districts. Recent research has shown that nonrandom site selection can yield biased impact estimates. To estimate the external validity bias from nonrandom site selection, we combine lists of school districts that were…

  4. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2-3 - Comparative evaluation of all sites proposed for nomination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Comparative evaluation of all sites proposed for nomination. 960.3-2-2-3 Section 960.3-2-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines §...

  5. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2-1 - Evaluation of all potentially acceptable sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evaluation of all potentially acceptable sites. 960.3-2-2-1 Section 960.3-2-2-1 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-2-1...

  6. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2-3 - Comparative evaluation of all sites proposed for nomination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Comparative evaluation of all sites proposed for nomination. 960.3-2-2-3 Section 960.3-2-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines §...

  7. 10 CFR 960.3-1-5 - Basis for site evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basis for site evaluations. 960.3-1-5 Section 960.3-1-5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A... understanding of the potential effects of engineered barriers on the overall performance of the...

  8. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2-3 - Comparative evaluation of all sites proposed for nomination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Comparative evaluation of all sites proposed for nomination. 960.3-2-2-3 Section 960.3-2-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines §...

  9. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2-1 - Evaluation of all potentially acceptable sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Evaluation of all potentially acceptable sites. 960.3-2-2-1 Section 960.3-2-2-1 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-2-1...

  10. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2-1 - Evaluation of all potentially acceptable sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evaluation of all potentially acceptable sites. 960.3-2-2-1 Section 960.3-2-2-1 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-2-1...

  11. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2-1 - Evaluation of all potentially acceptable sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evaluation of all potentially acceptable sites. 960.3-2-2-1 Section 960.3-2-2-1 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-2-1...

  12. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2-3 - Comparative evaluation of all sites proposed for nomination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Comparative evaluation of all sites proposed for nomination. 960.3-2-2-3 Section 960.3-2-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines §...

  13. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2-1 - Evaluation of all potentially acceptable sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evaluation of all potentially acceptable sites. 960.3-2-2-1 Section 960.3-2-2-1 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-2-1...

  14. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2-3 - Comparative evaluation of all sites proposed for nomination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Comparative evaluation of all sites proposed for nomination. 960.3-2-2-3 Section 960.3-2-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines §...

  15. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: BIOTROL SOIL WASHING SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF A WOOD PRESERVING SITE - VOLUME II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The SITE Program demonstration of one configuration of the BioTrol Soil Washing System (BSWS) was conducted to obtain reliable performance and cost data that can be used to evaluate the potential applicability of the technology as a remediation alternative for sites contaminated ...

  16. Aquatic Activities for Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, H. David; And Others

    Designed to meet the diverse educational needs of youth groups, this aquatic program consists of eight individual lesson units, each devoted to one aspect of the aquatic world. Unit topics include: fish aquariums; raising earthworms; simulation of coastal planning; entomology and water; rope; calculating stream flow; saltwater aquariums; and fish…

  17. Evaluation of municipal waste incinerator fly ash toxicity and the role of cadmium by two aquatic toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneko, Hidehiro

    1996-12-31

    Fly ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator in Japan is regulated under the hazardous waste regulation Waste under Special Control, according to the Amendment of the Waste Disposal and Public Cleansing Law, because it contains high concentrations of heavy metals which are available for leaching. To evaluate the toxicity of fly ash, a fly ash leachate was prepared according to the Japanese standard leaching procedure. The chemical analysis of the leachate showed that possibly one of the most toxic substances was cadmium. The toxicity of the leachate and the cadmium was determined by algal assay and a Daphnia acute toxicity test. The results showed that the leachate was about seven times more toxic to the growth of algae and 20 to 30 times more toxic to the survival of Daphnia than expected from its cadmium concentration. The toxicity interaction between cadmium and the other constituents in the leachate was also examined. The toxicity of cadmium showed an additive effect with the other constituents in the leachate in algal assay. In the Daphnia test, however, cadmium showed an antagonistic effect.

  18. Bioconcentration, bioaccumulation, and metabolism of pesticides in aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Katagi, Toshiyuki

    2010-01-01

    The ecotoxicological assessment of pesticide effects in the aquatic environment should normally be based on a deep knowledge of not only the concentration of pesticides and metabolites found but also on the influence of key abiotic and biotic processes that effect rates of dissipation. Although the bioconcentration and bioaccumulation potentials of pesticides in aquatic organisms are conveniently estimated from their hydrophobicity (represented by log K(ow), it is still indispensable to factor in the effects of key abiotic and biotic processes on such pesticides to gain a more precise understanding of how they may have in the natural environment. Relying only on pesticide hydrophobicity may produce an erroneous environmental impact assessment. Several factors affect rates of pesticide dissipation and accumulation in the aquatic environment. Such factors include the amount and type of sediment present in the water and type of diet available to water-dwelling organisms. The particular physiological behavior profiles of aquatic organisms in water, such as capacity for uptake, metabolism, and elimination, are also compelling factors, as is the chemistry of the water. When evaluating pesticide uptake and bioconcentration processes, it is important to know the amount and nature of bottom sediments present and the propensity that the stuffed aquatic organisms have to absorb and process xenobiotics. Extremely hydrophobic pesticides such as the organochlorines and pyrethroids are susceptible to adsorb strongly to dissolved organic matter associated with bottom sediment. Such absorption reduces the bioavailable fraction of pesticide dissolved in the water column and reduces the probable ecotoxicological impact on aquatic organisms living the water. In contrast, sediment dweller may suffer from higher levels of direct exposure to a pesticide, unless it is rapidly degraded in sediment. Metabolism is important to bioconcentration and bioaccumulation processes, as is

  19. An evaluation of aquatic toxicity data with a population growth model for application to environmental hazard assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, W.D.

    1991-05-01

    Acute and chronic bioassays with the cladocerans Ceriodaphnia dubia and Daphnia magna were conducted using four chemicals, each having a different mode of action. The chemicals were: cadmium (chloride), pentachlorophenol (PCP), 1-octanol, and 1-naphthyl-N-methylcarbamate (carbaryl). The data obtained from the tests were used to compare species sensitivities, endpoint sensitivities, and the relative toxicities of the chemicals. In the acute bioassays, estimates of the median lethal concentrations (48-h LC{sub 50}S) were used to compare the species sensitivities. Ceriodaphnia dubia was more sensitive than D. magna to all four chemicals, and carbaryl was the most toxic chemical to both species. The sensitivity of three endpoints (survival, reproduction and the intrinsic rate of natural increase, r) were used to evaluate the chronic toxicity of the four chemicals to C. dubia and D. magna. Survival, reproduction and r all declined with greater concentrations of the chemicals. These effects were evident in both the 7- or 14-d exposures. The lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) determined from studies with the four chemicals showed that neither survival nor reproduction was consistently the more sensitive endpoint for either C. dubia or D. magna. The LOECs for r were the same for both exposure durations for each species. The data from this study demonstrate that the calculations of r from chronic toxicity data can provide equally sensitive bioassay results for protecting the environment, while eliminating conflicting interpretations of toxicant effects on separate endpoints. Furthermore, statistical decisions drawn from comparisons of the toxicity of exposure concentrations with the controls may not provide the most ecologically meaningful criteria for environmental protection. 103 refs., 16 figs., 15 tabs.

  20. Water Operations Technical Support Program: Techniques for Evaluating Aquatic Habitats in Rivers, Streams, and Reservoirs. Proceedings of a Workshop Held in Vicksburg, Mississippi on 8-10 August 1989.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    Stream capture occurs when the headwater( s ) of one stream erodes through the banks of another and captures that tributary. Drainage density Basins develop ...AND DATES COVERED August 1991 Final report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S . FUNDING NUMBERS Techniques for Evaluating Aquatic Habitats in Rivers, Streams, and...Reservoirs; Proceedings of a Workshop 6. AUTHOR( S ) Larry G. Sanders, Compiler 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING

  1. Assessment of potential aquatic herbicide impacts to California aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Siemering, Geoffrey S; Hayworth, Jennifer D; Greenfield, Ben K

    2008-10-01

    A series of legal decisions culminated in 2002 with the California State Water Resources Control Board funding the San Francisco Estuary Institute to develop and implement a 3-year monitoring program to determine the potential environmental impacts of aquatic herbicide applications. The monitoring program was intended to investigate the behavior of all aquatic pesticides in use in California, to determine potential impacts in a wide range of water-body types receiving applications, and to help regulators determine where to direct future resources. A tiered monitoring approach was developed to achieve a balance between program goals and what was practically achievable within the project time and budget constraints. Water, sediment, and biota were collected under "worst-case" scenarios in close association with herbicide applications. Applications of acrolein, copper sulfate, chelated copper, diquat dibromide, glyphosate, fluridone, triclopyr, and 2,4-D were monitored. A range of chemical analyses, toxicity tests, and bioassessments were conducted. At each site, risk quotients were calculated to determine potential impacts. For sediment-partitioning herbicides, sediment quality triad analysis was performed. Worst-case scenario monitoring and special studies showed limited short-term and no long-term toxicity directly attributable to aquatic herbicide applications. Risk quotient calculations called for additional risk characterizations; these included limited assessments for glyphosate and fluridone and more extensive risk assessments for diquat dibromide, chelated copper products, and copper sulfate. Use of surfactants in conjunction with aquatic herbicides was positively associated with greater ecosystem impacts. Results therefore warrant full risk characterization for all adjuvant compounds.

  2. Exposure pathway evaluations for sites that processed asbestos-contaminated vermiculite.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Barbara A; Dearwent, Steve M; Durant, James T; Dyken, Jill J; Freed, Jennifer A; Moore, Susan McAfee; Wheeler, John S

    2005-01-01

    The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) is currently evaluating the potential public health impacts associated with the processing of asbestos-contaminated vermiculite at various facilities around the country. Vermiculite ore contaminated with significant levels of asbestos was mined and milled in Libby, Montana, from the early 1920s until 1990. The majority of the Libby ore was then shipped to processing facilities for exfoliation. ATSDR initiated the National Asbestos Exposure Review (NAER) to identify and evaluate exposure pathways associated with these processing facilities. This manuscript details ATSDR's phased approach in addressing exposure potential around these sites. As this is an ongoing project, only the results from a selected set of completed site analyses are presented. Historical occupational exposures are the most significant exposure pathway for the site evaluations completed to date. Former workers also probably brought asbestos fibers home on their clothing, shoes, and hair, and their household contacts may have been exposed. Currently, most site-related worker and community exposure pathways have been eliminated. One community exposure pathway of indeterminate significance is the current exposure of individuals through direct contact with waste rock brought home for personal use as fill material, driveway surfacing, or soil amendment. Trace levels of asbestos are present in soil at many of the sites and buried waste rock has been discovered at a few sites; therefore, future worker and community exposure associated with disturbing on-site soil during construction or redevelopment at these sites is also a potential exposure pathway.

  3. Toxicological effects of pyrethroids on non-target aquatic insects.

    PubMed

    Antwi, Frank B; Reddy, Gadi V P

    2015-11-01

    The toxicological effects of pyrethroids on non-target aquatic insects are mediated by several modes of entry of pyrethroids into aquatic ecosystems, as well as the toxicological characteristics of particular pyrethroids under field conditions. Toxicokinetics, movement across the integument of aquatic insects, and the toxicodynamics of pyrethroids are discussed, and their physiological, symptomatic and ecological effects evaluated. The relationship between pyrethroid toxicity and insecticide uptake is not fully defined. Based on laboratory and field data, it is likely that the susceptibility of aquatic insects (vector and non-vector) is related to biochemical and physiological constraints associated with life in aquatic ecosystems. Understanding factors that influence aquatic insects susceptibility to pyrethroids is critical for the effective and safe use of these compounds in areas adjacent to aquatic environments.

  4. Usability of American Nurses Association State Web Sites: A Follow-up Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Koch, Gina; Wakefield, Bonnie J; Alexander, Gregory L; Wilson, Melissa A; Becker, Colleen

    2016-05-01

    The American Nurses Association supports professional nurses through Web sites administered by state nursing associations, providing important information for current and potential members. Optimal usability of these Web sites is critical for nurses to obtain the information they seek. Heuristic evaluations are general criteria used to evaluate the usability of technology such as Web sites. A study published in 2014, using heuristic criteria from Nielsen's 10 principles and Health on The Web, evaluated 27 state nursing Web sites to identify usability concerns that could prevent nurses from obtaining accurate information regarding state nursing practice. The purpose of this study is to conduct a second heuristic evaluation to assess for changes in a subset of 12 Web sites. The analysis comparing the evaluation from 2012 to 2014 found that mean scores increased and variance decreased; however, no statistically significant difference was found between the two studies. Scores increased in 2014 for "help users to diagnose, and recover from errors," "match between the system and real world," and "consistency and standards." Scores decreased due to absence of mission statements and identification of intended audience. Ideally, Web site designers will use the feedback from this study and make changes that improve their usability to provide information to nurses.

  5. MULTI-SITE EVALUATIONS OF CANDIDATE METHODOLOGIES FOR DETERMINING COARSE PARTICULATE MATTER (PMC) CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comprehensive field studies were conducted to evaluate the performance of sampling methods for measuring the coarse fraction of PM10 in ambient air. Five separate sampling approaches were evaluated at each of three sampling sites. As the primary basis of comparison, a discrete ...

  6. MULTI-SITE EVALUATIONS OF CANDIDATE METHODOLOGIES FOR DETERMINING COARSE PARTICULATE MATTER (PMC) CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comprehensive field studies were conducted to evaluate the performance of sampling methods for measuring the coarse fraction of PM10 in ambient air. Five separate sampling approaches were evaluated at each of three sampling sites. As the primary basis of comparison, a discret...

  7. Young Volunteers in Action. Goal Accomplishment and Perceived Outcomes Evaluation. Supplemental Site Visit Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACTION, Washington, DC.

    This report presents the findings of an evaluation of goal accomplishment at Young Volunteers in Action (YVA) projects at three sites: ALexander City, Alabama; Gainesville, Florida; and New Orleans, Louisiana. First, a brief introduction describes the YVA program and discusses the evaluation approach. The next three sections present case studies…

  8. The unique character of involvement in multi-site evaluation settings.

    PubMed

    Toal, Stacie A; King, Jean A; Johnson, Kelli; Lawrenz, Frances

    2009-05-01

    As the number of large federal programs increases, so, too, does the need for a more complete understanding of how to conduct evaluations of such complex programs. The research literature has documented the benefits of stakeholder participation in smaller-scale program evaluations. However, given the scope and diversity of projects in multi-site program evaluations, traditional notions of participatory evaluation do not apply. The purpose of this research is to determine the ways in which stakeholders are involved in large-scale, multi-site STEM evaluations. This article describes the findings from a survey of 313 program leaders and evaluators and from follow-up interviews with 12 of these individuals. Findings from this study indicate that attendance at meetings and conferences, planning discussions within the project related to use of the program evaluation, and participation in data collection should be added to the list of activities that foster feelings of evaluation involvement among stakeholders. In addition, perceptions of involvement may vary according to breadth or depth of evaluation activities, but not always both. Overall, this study suggests that despite the contextual challenges of large, multi-site evaluations, it is feasible to build feelings of involvement among stakeholders.

  9. Evaluation of the Significance of Starch Surface Binding Sites on Human Pancreatic α-Amylase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaohua; Caner, Sami; Kwan, Emily; Li, Chunmin; Brayer, Gary D; Withers, Stephen G

    2016-11-01

    Starch provides the major source of caloric intake in many diets. Cleavage of starch into malto-oligosaccharides in the gut is catalyzed by pancreatic α-amylase. These oligosaccharides are then further cleaved by gut wall α-glucosidases to release glucose, which is absorbed into the bloodstream. Potential surface binding sites for starch on the pancreatic amylase, distinct from the active site of the amylase, have been identified through X-ray crystallographic analyses. The role of these sites in the degradation of both starch granules and soluble starch was probed by the generation of a series of surface variants modified at each site to disrupt binding. Kinetic analysis of the binding and/or cleavage of substrates ranging from simple maltotriosides to soluble starch and insoluble starch granules has allowed evaluation of the potential role of each such surface site. In this way, two key surface binding sites, on the same face as the active site, are identified. One site, containing a pair of aromatic residues, is responsible for attachment to starch granules, while a second site featuring a tryptophan residue around which a malto-oligosaccharide wraps is shown to heavily influence soluble starch binding and hydrolysis. These studies provide insights into the mechanisms by which enzymes tackle the degradation of largely insoluble polymers and also present some new approaches to the interrogation of the binding sites involved.

  10. [Study on artificial neural network combined with multispectral remote sensing imagery for forest site evaluation].

    PubMed

    Gong, Yin-Xi; He, Cheng; Yan, Fei; Feng, Zhong-Ke; Cao, Meng-Lei; Gao, Yuan; Miao, Jie; Zhao, Jin-Long

    2013-10-01

    Multispectral remote sensing data containing rich site information are not fully used by the classic site quality evaluation system, as it merely adopts artificial ground survey data. In order to establish a more effective site quality evaluation system, a neural network model which combined remote sensing spectra factors with site factors and site index relations was established and used to study the sublot site quality evaluation in the Wangyedian Forest Farm in Inner Mongolia Province, Chifeng City. Based on the improved back propagation artificial neural network (BPANN), this model combined multispectral remote sensing data with sublot survey data, and took larch as example, Through training data set sensitivity analysis weak or irrelevant factor was excluded, the size of neural network was simplified, and the efficiency of network training was improved. This optimal site index prediction model had an accuracy up to 95.36%, which was 9.83% higher than that of the neural network model based on classic sublot survey data, and this shows that using multi-spectral remote sensing and small class survey data to determine the status of larch index prediction model has the highest predictive accuracy. The results fully indicate the effectiveness and superiority of this method.

  11. The use of aquatic macrophytes in monitoring and in assessment of biological integrity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, P.M.; Scribailo, R.W.; Simon, T.P.; Gerhardt, A.

    1999-01-01

    Aquatic plant species, populations, and communities should be used as indicators of the aquatic environment, allowing detection of ecosystem response to different stressors. Plant tissues bioaccumulate and concentrate toxin levels higher than what is present in the sediments; and this appears to be related to organic matter content, acidification, and buffering capacity. The majority of toxicity studies, most of these with heavy metals, have been done with several Lemna species and Vallisneria americana. Organic chemicals reviewed include pesticides and herbicides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and other industrial contaminants. The use of aquatic plant communities as bioindicators of environmental quality was evaluated for specific characteristics and indices that may assess biological integrity. Indices such as the floristic quality index (FQI) and coefficient of conservatism (C) are pioneering efforts to describe the quality of natural areas and protect native biodiversity. Our case study in the Grand Calumet Lagoons found that 'least-impacted' sites had the greatest aquatic plant species richness, highest FQI and C values, and highest relative abundance. Lastly, we introduce the concepts necessary for the development of a plant index of biotic integrity. Development of reference conditions is essential to understanding aquatic plant community structure, function, individual health, condition, and abundance. Information on guild development and tolerance definition are also integral to the development of a multi-metric index.

  12. Assessing the representativeness of wind data for wind turbine site evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renne, D. S.; Corotis, R. B.

    1982-01-01

    Once potential wind turbine sites (either for single installations or clusters) are identified through siting procedures, actual evaluation of the sites must commence. This evaluation is needed to obtain estimates of wind turbine performance and to identify hazards to the machine from the turbulence component of the atmosphere. These estimates allow for more detailed project planning and for preliminary financing arrangements to be secured. The site evaluation process can occur in two stages: (1) utilizing existing nearby data, and (2) establishing and monitoring an onsite measurement program. Since step (2) requires a period of at least 1 yr or more from the time a potential site has been identified, step (1) is often an essential stage in the preliminary evaluation process. Both the methods that have been developed and the unknowns that still exist in assessing the representativeness of available data to a nearby wind turbine site are discussed. How the assessment of the representativeness of available data can be used to develop a more effective onsite meteorological measurement program is also discussed.

  13. Membrane filtration studies of aquatic humic substances and their metal species: a concise overview. Part 2. Evaluation of conditional stability constants by using ultrafiltration.

    PubMed

    Nifant'eva, T I; Shkinev, V M; Spivakov, B Y; Burba, P

    1999-02-01

    The assessment of conditional stability constants of aquatic humic substance (HS) metal complexes is overviewed with special emphasis on the application of ultrafiltration methods. Fundamentals and limitations of stability functions in the case of macromolecular and polydisperse metal-HS species in aquatic environments are critically discussed. The review summarizes the advantages and application of ultrafiltration for metal-HS complexation studies, discusses the comparibility and reliability of stability constants. The potential of ultrafiltration procedures for characterizing the lability of metal-HS species is also stressed.

  14. Describing Anopheles arabiensis aquatic habitats in two riceland agro-ecosystems in Mwea, Kenya using a negative binomial regression model with a non-homogenous mean.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Benjamin G; Griffith, Daniel; Muturi, Ephantus; Caamano, Erick X; Shililu, Josephat; Githure, John I; Novak, Robert J

    2009-01-01

    This research illustrates a geostatistical approach for modeling the spatial distribution patterns of Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Patton) aquatic habitats in two riceland environments. QuickBird 0.61 m data, encompassing the visible bands and the near-infra-red (NIR) band, were selected to synthesize images of An. arabiensis aquatic habitats. These bands and field sampled data were used to determine ecological parameters associated with riceland larval habitat development. SAS was used to calculate univariate statistics, correlations and Poisson regression models. Global autocorrelation statistics were generated in ArcGISfrom georeferenced Anopheles aquatic habitats in the study sites. The geographic distribution of Anopheles gambiae s.l. aquatic habitats in the study sites exhibited weak positive autocorrelation; similar numbers of log-larval count habitats tend to clustered in space. Individual rice land habitat data were further evaluated in terms of their covariations with spatial autocorrelation, by regressing them on candidate spatial filter eigenvectors. Each eigenvector generated from a geographically weighted matrix, for both study sites, revealed a distinctive spatial pattern. The spatial autocorrelation components suggest the presence of roughly 14-30% redundant information in the aquatic habitat larval count samples. Synthetic map pattern variables furnish a method of capturing spatial dependency effects in the mean response term in regression analyses of rice land An. arabiensis aquatic habitat data.

  15. Use of enzymatic tools for biomonitoring inorganic pollution in aquatic sediments: a case study (Bor, Serbia)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sediment bacterial communities are key players in biogeochemical cycling of elements in the aquatic environment. Copper mining, smelting, and processing operations located in Bor area (Serbia) are major environmental hot spots in the lower Danube Basin and Western Balkans. In the present study, we evaluate the influence of trace element (TE) concentration in sediments and physico-chemical properties of water on sediment microbial communities in water streams adjacent to the Copper Smelter Complex Bor (RTB Bor, Serbia). The degree to which metabolic activities of bacterial biota inhabiting differently polluted sites is inhibited by inorganic pollution were compared using selected enzymatic bioindicators. Results Cu, Zn, Pb, and As concentrations systematically exceeded the target values for metal loadings in aquatic sediments. Water electrical conductivity (WEC) followed the same pattern of spatial variation, irrespective of season. Interestingly, the most intense enzymatic activity occurred at the reference site although this site showed the greatest TE levels in aquatic sediments. Catalase activity (CA), potential dehydrogenase activity (PDA), actual dehydrogenase activity (ADA), urease activity (UA), and phosphatase activity (PA) in aquatic sediments displayed heterogeneous patterns of spatio-temporal variation. Inorganic pollution greatly affected CA, ADA, and PDA, but much less so UA and PA. Canonical correlation analysis showed that pH and WEC were the strongest determinants of enzymatic activity in bacterial biota, with the latter variable being reversely correlated with the enzymatic indicator of sediment quality (EISQ). The median values of EISQ increased with distance from the major sources of pollution. In addition, it was found that sites with different degrees of inorganic pollution can be appropriately classified by applying cluster analysis to EISQ, TE levels in sediments, and physico-chemical properties of water. Conclusions Because EISQ

  16. Temporal changes in aquatic-invertebrate and fish assemblages in streams of the north-central and northeastern U.S.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennen, Jonathan G.; Sullivan, Daniel J.; May, Jason T.; Bell, Amanda H.; Beaulieu, Karen M.; Rice, Donald E.

    2012-01-01

    Many management agencies seek to evaluate temporal changes in aquatic assemblages at monitoring sites, but few have sites with ecological time series that are long enough for this purpose. Trends in aquatic-invertebrate and fish assemblage composition were assessed at 27 long-term monitoring sites in the north-central and northeastern United States. Temporal changes were identified using serial trend analysis. Sites with significant serial trends were further evaluated by relating explanatory environmental variables (e.g., streamflow, habitat, and water chemistry) to changes in assemblage composition. Significant trends were found at 19 of 27 study sites; however, differences in the sensitivity of the aquatic fauna to environmental stressors were identified. For example, significant trends in fish assemblages were found at more sites (15 of 27) than for aquatic-invertebrate assemblages (10 of 27 sites). In addition, trends in the invertebrate assemblage were most often explained by changes in streamflow processes (e.g., duration and magnitude of low- and high-flows, streamflow variability, and annual rates of change), whereas trends in the fish assemblage were more related to changes in water chemistry. Results illustrate the value of long-term monitoring for the purpose of assessing temporal trends in aquatic assemblages. The ability to detect trends in assemblage composition and to attribute these changes to environmental factors is necessary to understand mechanistic pathways and to further our understanding of how incremental anthropogenic alterations modify aquatic assemblages over time. Finally, this study's approach to trends analysis can be used to better inform the design of monitoring programs as well as support the ongoing management needs of stakeholders, water-resource agencies, and policy makers.

  17. On-site evaluation of commercial-scale hybrid catfish production using cryopreserved blue catfish sperm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryopreservation is an effective tool for conservation of genetic resources and is becoming increasingly used worldwide with aquatic species. Broadening the application of this technology to a commercial scale through high-throughput approaches has become essential for use with aquatic species. This...

  18. Respiration in Aquatic Insects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFarland, John

    1985-01-01

    This article: (1) explains the respiratory patterns of several freshwater insects; (2) describes the differences and mechanisms of spiracular cutaneous, and gill respiration; and (3) discusses behavioral aspects of selected aquatic insects. (ML)

  19. Developing a Collegiate Aquatics Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, Paul A.

    2001-01-01

    Presents suggestions for departments of health, physical education, and recreation that are planning to develop their own aquatics programs, focusing on: the prevalence of collegiate aquatics programs; course offerings in an aquatics minor; practicums and internships; graduate programs in aquatics; cross-disciplinary appeal; marketing the aquatics…

  20. Molecular ecology of aquatic microbes

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    Abstracts of reports are presented from a meeting on Molecular Ecology of Aquatic Microbes. Topics included: opportunities offered to aquatic ecology by molecular biology; the role of aquatic microbes in biogeochemical cycles; characterization of the microbial community; the effect of the environment on aquatic microbes; and the targeting of specific biological processes.

  1. Evaluation of Suitability of Selected Set of Coal Plant Sites for Repowering with Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Belles, Randy; Copinger, Donald A; Mays, Gary T; Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Poore III, Willis P

    2013-03-01

    This report summarizes the approach that ORNL developed for screening a sample set of small coal stations for possible repowering with SMRs; the methodology employed, including spatial modeling; and initial results for these sample plants. The objective in conducting this type of siting evaluation is to demonstrate the capability to characterize specific sample coal plant sites to identify any particular issues associated with repowering existing coal stations with SMRs using OR-SAGE; it is not intended to be a definitive assessment per se as to the absolute suitability of any particular site.

  2. Development and evaluation of a web site to improve recovery from hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Dukeshire, Steven; Gilmour, Donna; MacDonald, Norman; MacKenzie, Kate

    2012-03-01

    Following surgery, information received upon discharge for recovery at home varies depending on the hospital, and the information is typically given to the patient all at once rather than timed to the recovery process. To address these information challenges, a Web site to help women recovering at home after hysterectomy was developed and evaluated. The Web site was designed to guide the hysterectomy patient through her postsurgical recovery by providing timely and relevant information tailored to the patient's stage of recovery. The Web site required patients to complete a checkup assessing 18 symptoms related to their recovery, and advice was given on how to deal with any symptom the patient had. The Web site also provided care tips specific to the patient's day of recovery along with general information regarding hysterectomy and recovery. Thirty-one women participated in the evaluation, which consisted of preoperative and postoperative surveys as well as a telephone interview. Results indicated that patients frequently used and were highly satisfied with the Web site. Patients reported that the Web site was easy to use and informative, helped to guide their recovery, reduced worry and anxiety, and helped to inform decisions of when and how to contact health professionals. Based on the findings, the Web site represents a potentially cost-effective means to aid women recovering from hysterectomy.

  3. Site Selection for Ground Based Free Electron Laser Technology Integration Experiment (GBFEL-TIE), Volume 3: Preferred Site Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    established that the GBFEL-TIE could be accomplished at any of the three candidate sites. However, based on differences identified during site investigations...construction and operation of the GBFEL-TIE, including environmental mitigation costs, differed only slightly among the three sites, with the Orogrande site...the differences in the findings that would affect site selection, and established a relative ranking of the three sites under consideration. The

  4. Manuals Used in the National Aquatic Resource Surveys

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Various manuals are used to communicate the methods and guidelines for the National Aquatic Resource Surveys. The Field Operations Manual: outlines the field protocols that crews will utilize to sample sites.

  5. Aquatic arsenic: phytoremediation using floating macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M Azizur; Hasegawa, H

    2011-04-01

    Phytoremediation, a plant based green technology, has received increasing attention after the discovery of hyperaccumulating plants which are able to accumulate, translocate, and concentrate high amount of certain toxic elements in their above-ground/harvestable parts. Phytoremediation includes several processes namely, phytoextraction, phytodegradation, rhizofiltration, phytostabilization and phytovolatilization. Both terrestrial and aquatic plants have been tested to remediate contaminated soils and waters, respectively. A number of aquatic plant species have been investigated for the remediation of toxic contaminants such as As, Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb, Cr, Hg, etc. Arsenic, one of the deadly toxic elements, is widely distributed in the aquatic systems as a result of mineral dissolution from volcanic or sedimentary rocks as well as from the dilution of geothermal waters. In addition, the agricultural and industrial effluent discharges are also considered for arsenic contamination in natural waters. Some aquatic plants have been reported to accumulate high level of arsenic from contaminated water. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), duckweeds (Lemna gibba, Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza), water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica), water ferns (Azolla caroliniana, Azolla filiculoides, and Azolla pinnata), water cabbage (Pistia stratiotes), hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata) and watercress (Lepidium sativum) have been studied to investigate their arsenic uptake ability and mechanisms, and to evaluate their potential in phytoremediation technology. It has been suggested that the aquatic macrophytes would be potential for arsenic phytoremediation, and this paper reviews up to date knowledge on arsenic phytoremediation by common aquatic macrophytes.

  6. Evaluation of fall chinook salmon spawning adjacent to the In-Situ Redox Manipulation treatability test site, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, R.P.; Geist, D.R.

    1998-10-02

    The In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) experiment is being evaluated as a potential method to remove contaminants from groundwater adjacent to the Columbia River near the 100-D Area. The ISRM experiment involves using sodium dithionate (Na{sub 2}O{sub 6}S{sub 2}) to precipitate chromate from the groundwater. The treatment will likely create anoxic conditions in the groundwater down-gradient of the ISRM treatability test site; however, the spatial extent of this anoxic plume is not exactly known. Surveys were conducted in November 1997, following the peak spawning of fall chinook salmon. Aerial surveys documented 210 redds (spawning nests) near the downstream island in locations consistent with previous surveys. Neither aerial nor underwater surveys documented fall chinook spawning in the vicinity of the ISRM treatability test site. Based on measurements of depth, velocity, and substrate, less than 1% of the study area contained suitable fall chinook salmon spawning habitat, indicating low potential for fall chinook salmon to spawn in the vicinity of the ISRM experiment.

  7. Evaluation of Five Sedimentary Rocks Other Than Salt for Geologic Repository Siting Purposes

    SciTech Connect

    Croff, A.G.; Lomenick, T.F.; Lowrie, R.S.; Stow, S.H.

    2003-11-15

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), in order to increase the diversity of rock types under consideration by the geologic disposal program, initiated the Sedimary ROck Program (SERP), whose immediate objectiv eis to evaluate five types of secimdnary rock - sandstone, chalk, carbonate rocks (limestone and dolostone), anhydrock, and shale - to determine the potential for siting a geologic repository. The evaluation of these five rock types, together with the ongoing salt studies, effectively results in the consideration of all types of relatively impermeable sedimentary rock for repository purposes. The results of this evaluation are expressed in terms of a ranking of the five rock types with respect to their potential to serve as a geologic repository host rock. This comparative evaluation was conducted on a non-site-specific basis, by use of generic information together with rock evaluation criteria (RECs) derived from the DOE siting guidelines for geologic repositories (CFR 1984). An information base relevant to rock evaluation using these RECs was developed in hydrology, geochemistry, rock characteristics (rock occurrences, thermal response, rock mechanics), natural resources, and rock dissolution. Evaluation against postclosure and preclosure RECs yielded a ranking of the five subject rocks with respect to their potential as repository host rocks. Shale was determined to be the most preferred of the five rock types, with sandstone a distant second, the carbonate rocks and anhydrock a more distant third, and chalk a relatively close fourth.

  8. Potential toxicity of pesticides measured in midwestern streams to aquatic organisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Battaglin, W.; Fairchild, J.

    2002-01-01

    Society is becoming increasingly aware of the value of healthy aquatic ecosystems as well as the effects that man's activities have on those ecosystems. In recent years, many urban and industrial sources of contamination have been reduced or eliminated. The agricultural community also has worked towards reducing off-site movement of agricultural chemicals, but their use in farming is still growing. A small fraction, estimated at <1 to 2% of the pesticides applied to crops are lost from fields and enter nearby streams during rainfall events. In many cases aquatic organisms are exposed to mixtures of chemicals, which may lead to greater non-target risk than that predicted based on traditional risk assessments for single chemicals. We evaluated the potential toxicity of environmental mixtures of 5 classes of pesticides using concentrations from water samples collected from ???50 sites on midwestern streams during late spring or early summer runoff events in 1989 and 1998. Toxicity index values are calculated as the concentration of the compound in the sample divided by the EC50 or LC50 of an aquatic organism. These index values are summed within a pesticide class and for all classes to determine additive pesticide class and total pesticide toxicity indices. Toxicity index values greater than 1.0 indicate probable toxicity of a class of pesticides measured in a water sample to aquatic organisms. Results indicate that some samples had probable toxicity to duckweed and green algae, but few are suspected of having significant toxicity to bluegill sunfish or chorus frogs.

  9. A usability evaluation exploring the design of American Nurses Association state web sites.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Gregory L; Wakefield, Bonnie J; Anbari, Allison B; Lyons, Vanessa; Prentice, Donna; Shepherd, Marilyn; Strecker, E Bradley; Weston, Marla J

    2014-08-01

    National leaders are calling for opportunities to facilitate the Future of Nursing. Opportunities can be encouraged through state nurses association Web sites, which are part of the American Nurses Association, that are well designed, with appropriate content, and in a language professional nurses understand. The American Nurses Association and constituent state nurses associations provide information about nursing practice, ethics, credentialing, and health on Web sites. We conducted usability evaluations to determine compliance with heuristic and ethical principles for Web site design. We purposefully sampled 27 nursing association Web sites and used 68 heuristic and ethical criteria to perform systematic usability assessments of nurse association Web sites. Web site analysis included seven double experts who were all RNs trained in usability analysis. The extent to which heuristic and ethical criteria were met ranged widely from one state that met 0% of the criteria for "help and documentation" to states that met greater than 92% of criteria for "visibility of system status" and "aesthetic and minimalist design." Suggested improvements are simple yet make an impact on a first-time visitor's impression of the Web site. For example, adding internal navigation and tracking features and providing more details about the application process through help and frequently asked question documentation would facilitate better use. Improved usability will improve effectiveness, efficiency, and consumer satisfaction with these Web sites.

  10. Developing a Hierarchical Decision Model to Evaluate Nuclear Power Plant Alternative Siting Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingga, Marwan Mossa

    A strong trend of returning to nuclear power is evident in different places in the world. Forty-five countries are planning to add nuclear power to their grids and more than 66 nuclear power plants are under construction. Nuclear power plants that generate electricity and steam need to improve safety to become more acceptable to governments and the public. One novel practical solution to increase nuclear power plants' safety factor is to build them away from urban areas, such as offshore or underground. To date, Land-Based siting is the dominant option for siting all commercial operational nuclear power plants. However, the literature reveals several options for building nuclear power plants in safer sitings than Land-Based sitings. The alternatives are several and each has advantages and disadvantages, and it is difficult to distinguish among them and choose the best for a specific project. In this research, we recall the old idea of using the alternatives of offshore and underground sitings for new nuclear power plants and propose a tool to help in choosing the best siting technology. This research involved the development of a decision model for evaluating several potential nuclear power plant siting technologies, both those that are currently available and future ones. The decision model was developed based on the Hierarchical Decision Modeling (HDM) methodology. The model considers five major dimensions, social, technical, economic, environmental, and political (STEEP), and their related criteria and sub-criteria. The model was designed and developed by the author, and its elements' validation and evaluation were done by a large number of experts in the field of nuclear energy. The decision model was applied in evaluating five potential siting technologies and ranked the Natural Island as the best in comparison to Land-Based, Floating Plant, Artificial Island, and Semi-Embedded plant.

  11. Mercury bioaccumulation along food webs in temperate aquatic ecosystems colonized by aquatic macrophytes in south western France.

    PubMed

    Gentès, Sophie; Maury-Brachet, Régine; Guyoneaud, Rémy; Monperrus, Mathilde; André, Jean-Marc; Davail, Stéphane; Legeay, Alexia

    2013-05-01

    Mercury (Hg) is considered as an important pollutant for aquatic systems as its organic form, methylmercury (MeHg), is easily bioaccumulated and bioamplified along food webs. In various ecosystems, aquatic periphyton associated with macrophyte was identified as an important place for Hg storage and methylation by microorganisms. Our study concerns temperate aquatic ecosystems (South Western France) colonized by invasive macrophytes and characterized by high mercury methylation potentials. This work establishes original data concerning Hg bioaccumulation in organisms (plants, crustaceans, molluscs and fish) from five contrasting ecosystems. For low trophic level species, total Hg (THg) concentrations were low (from 27±2ngTHgg(-1)dw in asiatic clam Corbicula fluminea to 418±114ngTHgg(-1)dw in crayfish Procambarus clarkii). THg concentrations in some carnivorous fish (high trophic level) were close to or exceeded the International Marketing Level (IML) with values ranging from 1049±220ngTHgg(-1)dw in pike perch muscle (Sander lucioperca) to 3910±1307ngTHgg(-1)dw in eel muscle (Anguilla Anguilla). Trophic levels for the individuals were also evaluated through stable isotope analysis, and linked to Hg concentrations of organisms. A significant Hg biomagnification (r(2)= 0.9) was observed in the Aureilhan lake, despite the absence of top predator fish. For this site, Ludwigia sp. periphyton, as an entry point of Hg into food webs, is a serious hypothesis which remains to be confirmed. This study provides a first investigation of Hg transfer in the ecosystems of south western France and allows the assessment of the risk associated with the presence of Hg in aquatic food webs.

  12. Criticality Safety Evaluation of Hanford Site High Level Waste Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    ROGERS, C.A.

    2000-02-17

    This criticality safety evaluation covers operations for waste in underground storage tanks at the high-level waste tank farms on the Hanford site. This evaluation provides the bases for criticality safety limits and controls to govern receipt, transfer, and long-term storage of tank waste. Justification is provided that a nuclear criticality accident cannot occur for tank farms operations, based on current fissile material and operating conditions.

  13. Economic evaluation of inactive uranium mill tailings, Gunnison Site, Gunnison, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Teel, J H

    1982-12-01

    Mountain States Research and Development was contracted on March 1, 1981 to make an economic evaluation study at each of 12 abandoned uranium mill tailings sites in the western states. The objective of this work was to obtain the data necessary at each site to determine the possible revenue that could be derived from reprocessing the tailings. To accomplish this objective a drilling and sampling program was established for each site to determine the total amount of tailings and subbase material available for treatment and the amount of recoverable uranium, vanadium and molybdenum. These three metals were selected due to their common occurrence in uranium ores and common extractability in the leaching process. Laboratory leaching was then conducted on the samples obtained to determine the extractability of each of these metals and the optimum plant process to be applied. As the metal contents were generally low and represented mineral that had not been leached during previous processing, the economic evaluation is limited to consideration of the direct capital and operating costs required in connection with processing of each respective site material. Excavating, transportation and disposal of the material from each site in an environmentally acceptable location and manner was not within the scope of this project. It will be necessary to complete a separate study of these areas in order to determine the total costs involved. This report contains the results of the investigations of the Old Rifle Site.

  14. Economic evaluation of inactive uranium mill tailings, Old Rifle Site, Rifle, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Teel, J H

    1982-12-01

    Mountain States Research and Development was contracted on March 1, 1981 to make an economic evaluation study at each of 12 abandoned uranium mill tailings sites in the western states. The objective of this work was to obtain the data necessary at each site to determine the possible revenue that could be derived from reprocessing the tailings. To accomplish this objective a drilling and sampling program was established for each site to determine the total amount of tailings and subbase material available for treatment and the amount of recoverable uranium, vanadium and molybdenum. These three metals were selected due to their common occurrence in uranium ores and common extractability in the leaching process. Laboratory leaching was then conducted on the samples obtained to determine the extractability of each of these metals and the optimum plant process to be applied. As the metal contents were generally low and represented mineral that had not been leached during previous processing, the economic evaluation is limited to consideration of the direct capital and operating costs required in connection with processing of each respective site material. Excavating, transportation and disposal of the material from each site in an environmentally acceptable location and manner was not within the scope of this project. It will be necessary to complete a separate study of these areas in order to determine the total costs involved. This report contains the results of the investigations of the Old Rifle Site.

  15. Test performance of a local examination at a nonlocal site for evaluation of surgical clerks.

    PubMed

    Dunnington, G; Witzke, D; Hassett, J; Reisner, L; Fulginiti, J; Rubeck, R

    1990-08-01

    Surgical clerkships frequently use locally prepared examinations or nationally available test item banks as an alternative to Surgery Shelf Examinations from the National Board of Medical Examiners (SSNBME) for student evaluation. This study examines performance of a well-designed, item-analyzed local examination (available nationally through the Association for Surgical Education) at a nonlocal site. A 100-item test with a stratified sample from a 442-item bank was administered to 72 third-year students in addition to the SSNBME. The Pearson product moment correlation coefficient between the two examinations was 0.61 (p less than 0.001). Test performance between the local site and nonlocal site was compared by the Kuder-Richardson formula 20 for subtest reliability (internal consistency) and difficulty index (percent correct responses) and the point biserial correlation coefficient (correlation of a student's performance on one item with performance on the rest of the items) for test item analysis. Data show that despite fair correlation with SSNBME, significant deteriorations in both test item performance and reliability occur with the use of a local examination at a nonlocal site. This likely results from problems with content validity at the nonlocal site. Clerkships that use local examinations or national test bank items are strongly advised to evaluate test performance and revise appropriately before using results for formal student evaluation.

  16. THE POTENTIAL OF AN EARTHWORM AVOIDANCE TEST FOR EVALUATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An earthworm avoidance test has potential advantages for use in evaluation of hazardous wastes sites. Because organisms often exhibit behavioral responses at lower levels of stress than those that acute toxicity tests are able to detect, avoidance tests could provide increased se...

  17. Toward Web-Site Quantitative Evaluation: Defining Quality Characteristics and Attributes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsina, L; Rossi, G.

    This paper identifies World Wide Web site characteristics and attributes and groups them in a hierarchy. The primary goal is to classify the elements that might be part of a quantitative evaluation and comparison process. In order to effectively select quality characteristics, different users' needs and behaviors are considered. Following an…

  18. Preliminary evaluation of the Accident Response Mobile Manipulation System for accident site salvage operations

    SciTech Connect

    Trujillo, J.M.; Morse, W.D.; Jones, D.P.

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes and evaluates operational experiences with the Accident Response Mobile Manipulation System (ARMMS) during simulated accident site salvage operations which might involve nuclear weapons. The ARMMS is based upon a teleoperated mobility platform with two Schilling Titan 7F Manipulators.

  19. Evaluation of Practice Site Learning Experience for Entry-Level Doctor of Pharmacy Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erstad, Brian L; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Evaluated a practice-site learning experience for 55 doctoral pharmacy students, using student logs and written summaries and pre- and post-experience surveys concerning student awareness, understanding, and mastery of desired outcomes. Students indicated increased awareness and understanding of desired outcomes, and found patient interaction…

  20. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: EVALUATION OF AN ENGINEERED BIODEGRADATION SYSTEM AT THE NASHUA, N.H. SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The treatability study report presents the results of both laboratory and field studies conducted by Koppers on soils from the Nashua, N.H., NPL site. The purpose of these studies was to provide the necessary data to evaluate a ull-scale design for the Engineered Biodeg...

  1. Evaluation of Metatags of Web Sites of the Ohio Public Library Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karpenko, Volodymyr

    This study was to conducted to define how metatags are used by Ohio public library webmasters and to determine the de facto standard for metatag usage. The 106 Ohio public library World Wide Web sites accessible through the Ohio Public Libraries Information Network (OPLIN) were evaluated using a statistical analysis of the HTLM code and content of…

  2. Evaluating Ecological Risk to Invertebrate Receptors from PAHs in Sediments at Hazardous Waste Sites (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Ecological Risk Assessment Support Center (ERASC) announced the release of the final report, Evaluating Ecological Risk to Invertebrate Receptors from PAHs in Sediments at Hazardous Waste Sites. The report provides an overview of an approach for assessing risk to ...

  3. Use of a World Wide Web Site Evaluation Tool in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Paul C.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the importance of assessment of materials on the World Wide Web that may be freely accessible to both instructors and students. Evaluates web sites that cover the periodic table in terms of content and design. (Contains 16 references.) (Author/YDS)

  4. Student Evaluation Web Sites as Potential Sources of Consumer Information in the United Arab Emirates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Stephen; Epps, Alun

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the attitudes of students in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) towards non-institutionally sanctioned student evaluation web sites, and to consider how educational institutions might respond to the demands of students for specific information. Design/methodology/approach: The study involved a…

  5. Trace element accumulation in aquatic plants: a literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Ganje, T.J.; Elseewi, A.A.; Page, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    Trace elements in sediments and its overlying waters are important constituents of an aquatic plant ecosystem. This review was undertaken to evaluate trace element accumulation in aquatic plants and ascertain to what extent sediment and its overlying waters play in trace element accumulation by aquatic plant species. Aquatic vascular plants tend to accumulate trace elements in relation to the trace element concentration of the water body and sediment in which they are grown and the extent of exposure to the water body. Trace element composition of bryophytes and algae is also closely related to composition of their aquatic environment. It is increasingly apparent that sediments and overlying waters alter the bioavailability of trace elements to aquatic plants in both natural and artificial water bodies, particularly where industrial and agricultural waters are discharged into waterways.

  6. Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for decontamination at the St. Louis Downtown Site, St. Louis, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Picel, M.H.; Hartmann, H.M.; Nimmagadda, M.R. ); Williams, M.J. )

    1991-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is implementing a cleanup program for three groups of properties in the St. Louis, Missouri, area: the St. Louis Downtown Site (SLDS), the St. Louis Airport Site (SLAPS) and vicinity properties, and the Latty Avenue Properties, including the Hazelwood Interim Storage Site (HISS). The general location of these properties is shown in Figure 1; the properties are referred to collectively as the St. Louis Site. None of the properties are owned by DOE, but each property contains radioactive residues from federal uranium processing activities conducted at the SLDS during and after World War 2. The activities addressed in this environmental evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) report are being proposed as interim components of a comprehensive cleanup strategy for the St. Louis Site. As part of the Department's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), DOE is proposing to conduct limited decontamination in support of proprietor-initiated activities at the SLDS, commonly referred to as the Mallinckrodt Chemical Works. The primary goal of FUSRAP activity at the SLDS is to eliminate potential environmental hazards associated with residual contamination resulting from the site's use for government-funded uranium processing activities. 17 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Sequential evaluation of the potential geologic repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Bjerstedt, T.W.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the changes that are planned for the characterization program at Yucca Mountain due to budget changes. Yucca Mountain is the only site being studied in the US for a geologic repository. Funding for the site characterization program at Yucca Mountain program was cut by roughly one half from the 1994 projected budget to complete three major milestones. These project milestones included: (1) a time-phased determination of site suitability, and if a positive finding, (2) completion of an Environmental Impact Statement, and (3) preparation of a License Application to the US NRC to authorize repository construction. In reaction, Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project has shifted from parallel development of these milestones to a sequenced approach with the site suitability evaluation being replaced with a management assessment. Changes to the regulatory structure for the disposal program are under consideration by DOE and the NRC. The possibility for NRC and Doe to develop a site-specific regulatory structure follows from the National Energy Policy Act of 1992 that authorized the US EPA to develop a site specific environmental standard for Yucca Mountain.

  8. Coal ash basin effects (particulates, metals, acidic pH) upon aquatic biota: an eight-year evaluation. [Gambusia affinis; Plathemis lydia; Libellula spp

    SciTech Connect

    Cerry, D.S.; Guthrie, R.K.; Davis, E.M.; Harvey, R.S.

    1984-08-01

    Coal ash effluent effects including particulates, acidic pH excursions, elemental concentrations and bioconcentration in selected organisms have been studied as changes in water quality and densities of benthic macroinvertebrate and mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) populations in a swanmp drainage system over an eight-year period. Initial density of the aquatic biota was altered severely by heavy ash siltation, followed by acidic pH excursions, and perhaps overall by elemental concentrations and bioaccumulation. Heavy ash siltation, followed by acidic pH excursions after the addition of fly ash to the original settling basin system, had the most profound effect on biota. Dipterans (chironomids) and some odonates (Plathemis lydia and Libellula spp.) were resistant to heavy ash siltation, while mosquitofish, which showed no discernible responses to ash siltation, were absent at acidic pH along with the few previously surviving invertebrate populations. Elemental concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, selenium, and zinc did not appear to limit aquatic flora and fauna on a short-term, acute basis. Long-chronic elemental exposures may have been instrumental in retarding the recovery of all forms of aquatic life in the receiving system. Elemental concentrations (except for arsenic and selenium) in the receiving system were generally one to two orders of magnitude higher than the Water Quality Criteria set by the US Environmental Protection Agency (1980) for protection of aquatic life for the minimum and 24-hour mean values. By 1978, when the new settling basin systems were operating effectively, invertebrate populations were largely recovered, and mosquito-fish populations recovered within one year afterward.

  9. A FIELD EVALUATION OF IN-SITU BIODEGRADATION OF CHLORINATED ETHENES: PART I, METHODOLOGY AND FIELD SITE CHARACTERIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Careful site characterization and implementation of quantitative monitoring methods are prerequisites for a convincing evaluation of enhanced biostimulation for aquifer restoration. This paper describes the characterization of a site at Moffett Naval Air Station, Mountain View, C...

  10. Survey of aquatic macroinvertebrates and amphibians at Wupatki National Monument, Arizona, USA: An evaluation of selected factors affecting species richness in ephemeral pools

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, T.B.

    2002-01-01

    Ephemeral aquatic habitats in Wupatki National Monument vary from naturally formed pools in arroyos over 5000 years old, to constructed catchment basins with ages estimated at 60-1000+ years old, and borrow pits and stock ponds 30-60 years old. The different ages of these pools provide different histories of colonization by amphibians and aquatic invertebrates, especially temporary pool specialists such as spadefoot toads and branchiopod crustaceans. Ten pools of five different origins and ages were surveyed in August and/or September 1997 for aquatic organisms; a total of 13 surveys were conducted. Twenty-two taxa were found, with the number of species in a pool during any survey ranging from one to 10. Species composition of the communities changed from one sampling date to the next within individual pools. Community structure is an amalgam of species with different dispersal mechanisms that are influenced by different pool characteristics. Age appears to have little effect overall, but may have influenced branchiopod presence/absence. Distance to permanent water, frequency of disturbance, and current pool size were correlated with presence/absence of some species.

  11. Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Site Evaluation - Module 2, Objectives, Script, and Sources of Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

    This module describes important criteria to use in evaluating land for waste treatment sites and tells where the necessary information for such evaluation can be obtained. Among the important criteria for evaluation are climate, land use of potential site and surrounding areas, topography, drainage characteristics, soil properties, and geology.…

  12. Progress in centralised ethics review processes: Implications for multi-site health evaluations.

    PubMed

    Prosser, Brenton; Davey, Rachel; Gibson, Diane

    2015-04-01

    Increasingly, public sector programmes respond to complex social problems that intersect specific fields and individual disciplines. Such responses result in multi-site initiatives that can span nations, jurisdictions, sectors and organisations. The rigorous evaluation of public sector programmes is now a baseline expectation. For evaluations of large and complex multi-site programme initiatives, the processes of ethics review can present a significant challenge. However in recent years, there have been new developments in centralised ethics review processes in many nations. This paper provides the case study of an evaluation of a national, inter-jurisdictional, cross-sector, aged care health initiative and its encounters with Australian centralised ethics review processes. Specifically, the paper considers progress against the key themes of a previous five-year, five nation study (Fitzgerald and Phillips, 2006), which found that centralised ethics review processes would save time, money and effort, as well as contribute to more equitable workloads for researchers and evaluators. The paper concludes with insights for those charged with refining centralised ethics review processes, as well as recommendations for future evaluators of complex multi-site programme initiatives.

  13. Evaluation of a soil contaminated site and clean-up criteria: A geostatistical approach

    SciTech Connect

    Leonte, D.; Schofield, N.

    1996-12-31

    A case study of soil contamination assessment and clean-up in a site proposed for residential development is presented in this paper. The contamination consists mainly of heavy metals of which lead is the most important contaminant. The site has been sampled on an approximately 25 x 25 square meter grid to between 1 and 3 meters depth to evaluate the extent of the contamination. Three hotspots were identified based on eyeballing the lead sample values and a crude contouring. A geostatistical approach is proposed to map the lead contamination and provide an alternate evaluation. The results suggest a significantly different evaluation of the area for clean-up based on the probability of the lead concentration exceeding allowable levels.

  14. The aquatic vascular plant Ruppia maritima as an indicator organisms for contaminated sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Tagliabue, M.D.; Thursby, G.B.; Walker, H.A.; Johnston, R.K.

    1994-12-31

    An ongoing estuarine ecological risk assessment case study for the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard in the Great Bay (Kittery, ME, Portsmouth, NH) has been the catalyst for continued methods development with a rooted aquatic plant for a sediment toxicity test. A test using the aquatic vascular plant Ruppia maritima would be similar in it`s utility to the Algal (Champia parvula) Reproduction Test, an accepted, short term test (US EPA Short term Methods for Estimating the Chronic Toxicity of Effluents and Receiving Waters to Marine and Estuarine Organisms). Laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate effects of lead, the primary site contaminant on R. maritima in the Great Bay. Morphology and life cycle of R. maritima are similar to that of the aquatic vascular plant Zostra marina which comprises up to 46% of the Great Bay habitat (Short 1992). R. maritima`s reduced size makes it a practical laboratory organism and Ruppia`s effects may offer useful insights into potential effects on Zostra or other aquatic vascular plants. Presently rooted vascular plants are not found in the site of concern (Clark Cove). This can be contributed to either of two factors; the physical parameters of the site, i.e., a depositional zone or the chemical parameters, i.e., metals contamination, specifically lead. Exposure of bedded and nonbedded plants occurred over a four day and ten day period using lead sulfate. Concentrations for bedded exposures were as follows, 0.3, 0.5, 0.8, 1.0 simultaneously extracted metal/acid volatile sulfide (SEM/AVS) molar ratios, and 0.1, 1.0, 10.0 and 100.0mg/l Pb for water only exposures. Some reduction in cumulative leaf growth was observed in the site samples as well as the spiked samples as compared to site controls. Results of this study and associated research which focuses on the further development of the Ruppia test methods will be presented.

  15. Adapting a GIS-Based Multicriteria Decision Analysis Approach for Evaluating New Power Generating Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Blevins, Brandon R; Jochem, Warren C; Mays, Gary T; Belles, Randy; Hadley, Stanton W; Harrison, Thomas J; Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Neish, Bradley S; Rose, Amy N

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing need to site new power generating plants that use cleaner energy sources due to increased regulations on air and water pollution and a sociopolitical desire to develop more clean energy sources. To assist utility and energy companies as well as policy-makers in evaluating potential areas for siting new plants in the contiguous United States, a geographic information system (GIS)-based multicriteria decision analysis approach is presented in this paper. The presented approach has led to the development of the Oak Ridge Siting Analysis for power Generation Expansion (OR-SAGE) tool. The tool takes inputs such as population growth, water availability, environmental indicators, and tectonic and geological hazards to provide an in-depth analysis for siting options. To the utility and energy companies, the tool can quickly and effectively provide feedback on land suitability based on technology specific inputs. However, the tool does not replace the required detailed evaluation of candidate sites. To the policy-makers, the tool provides the ability to analyze the impacts of future energy technology while balancing competing resource use.

  16. Natural phenomena evaluations of the K-25 site UF{sub 6} cylinder storage yards

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, K.E.

    1996-09-15

    The K-25 Site UF{sub 6} cylinder storage yards are used for the temporary storage of UF{sub 6} normal assay cylinders and long-term storage of other UF{sub 6} cylinders. The K-25 Site UF{sub 6} cylinder storage yards consist of six on-site areas: K-1066-B, K-1066-E, K-1066-F, K-1066-J, K-1066-K and K-1066-L. There are no permanent structures erected on the cylinder yards, except for five portable buildings. The operating contractor for the K-25 Site is preparing a Safety Analysis Report (SAR) to examine the safety related aspects of the K-25 Site UF{sub 6} cylinder storage yards. The SAR preparation encompasses many tasks terminating in consequence analysis for the release of gaseous and liquid UF{sub 6}, one of which is the evaluation of natural phenomena threats, such as earthquakes, floods, and winds. In support of the SAR, the six active cylinder storage yards were evaluated for vulnerabilities to natural phenomena, earthquakes, high winds and tornados, tornado-generated missiles, floods (local and regional), and lightning. This report summarizes those studies. 30 refs.

  17. A qualitative evaluation of radionuclide concentrations in Hanford Site Wildlife, 1983 through 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, T.M.; Cooper, A.T.

    1994-10-01

    Environmental monitoring has been conducted at the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State since 1945. Fish and wildlife have been monitored since 1945, however, a major emphasis on mammals did not occur until the 1970s. This report focuses on the 10-year period from 1983 through 1992. The objectives of this report are to evaluate {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs concentrations in Site wildlife populations and, when possible, evaluate trends in concentrations over this period of time. No distinct trends in radionuclide concentrations were apparent in most species sampled. Many measurements were at or below the analytical limit of detection. This evaluation found that concentrations of {sup 90}Sr in rabbit and deer bone were elevated in animals collected from areas adjacent to industrialized areas. Similarly, radionuclide concentrations in duck muscle from waterfowl collected at B Pond were elevated with {sup 137}Cs when compared to background concentrations. None of the measured concentrations were high enough to pose any risk to theoretical human consumers of game animals inhabiting the Hanford Site. Estimates of the annual dose from the consumption of 40 kg (88 lb) of Hanford Site wildlife were less than 0.001 times the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements and the DOE guideline of 100 mrem/yr.

  18. Phototoxic evaluation of marine sediments collected from a PAH-contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Boese, B L; Ozretich, R J; Lamberson, J O; Cole, F A; Swartz, R C; Ferraro, S P

    2000-04-01

    The phototoxicity potential of PAH-contaminated field sediment was evaluated and compared to standard sediment toxicity test results. Marine sediments were collected from 30 sites along a presumed PAH sediment pollution gradient in Elliot Bay, WA. Standard 10-day acute and 28-day chronic sediment toxicity tests were conducted with the infaunal amphipods Rhepoxynius abronius and Leptocheirus plumulosus using mortality and the ability to rebury as endpoints. The survivors of these tests were then subjected to 1-h exposures to UV radiation with mortality and reburial again determined. The most highly toxic sediments identified in these experiments were evaluated further for toxicity and phototoxicity by serially diluting them with uncontaminated sediment and repeating the toxicity tests. Standard 10-day toxicity test results indicated that over 70% of the sites sampled in Elliot Bay exhibited measurable toxicity with nine sites being highly toxic to both species of amphipods. Results of standard 28-day chronic sediment toxicity tests were similar. In contrast, almost all of the sites were found to be highly phototoxic. Results indicated that exposure to UV increased toxicity five- to eightfold. This suggests that standard toxicity tests underestimate the potential ecological risk of PAH-contaminated sediments in animals exposed to sunlight. However, only when PAH contamination was between 0.05 and 1.0 toxic units would conducting a phototoxicity evaluation add information to that gained from conducting a standard sediment toxicity test alone.

  19. The Efficacy of an Aquatic Program on Physical Fitness and Aquatic Skills in Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Chien-Yu

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a 14-week aquatic program on physical fitness and aquatic skills for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and their siblings without a disability. Children with ASD (n = 15) and their siblings (n = 15), between 7 and 12 years (8.55 [plus or minus] 2.19 years) participated. In the first 14-week phase,…

  20. Probabilistic evaluation of seismic isolation effect with respect to siting of a fusion reactor facility

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, Masatoshi; Komura, Toshiyuki; Hirotani, Tsutomu; Ohkawa, Yoshinao; Akutsu, Youich

    1995-12-01

    Annual failure probabilities of buildings and equipment were roughly evaluated for two fusion-reactor-like buildings, with and without seismic base isolation, in order to examine the effectiveness of the base isolation system regarding siting issues. The probabilities are calculated considering nonlinearity and rupture of isolators. While the probability of building failure for both buildings on the same site was almost equal, the function failures for equipment showed that the base-isolated building had higher reliability than the non-isolated building. Even if the base-isolated building alone is located on a higher seismic hazard area, it could compete favorably with the ordinary one in reliability of equipment.

  1. Evaluation of the Main Ceos Pseudo Calibration Sites Using Modis Brdf/albedo Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharbouche, Said; Muller, Jan-Peter

    2016-06-01

    This work describes our findings about an evaluation of the stability and the consistency of twenty primary PICSs (Pseudo-Invariant Calibration Sites). We present an analysis of 13 years of 8-daily MODIS products of BRDF parameters and white-sky-albedos (WSA) over the shortwave band. This time series of WSA and BRDFs shows the variation of the "stability" varies significantly from site to site. Using a 10x10 km window size over all the sites, the change in of WSA stability is around 4% but the isotropicity, which is an important element in inter-satellite calibration, can vary from 75% to 98%. Moreover, some PICS, especially, Libya-4 which is one of the PICS which is most employed, has significant and relatively fast changes in wintertime. PICS observations of BRDF/albedo shows that the Libya-4 PICS has the best performance but it is not too far from some sites such as Libya-1 and Mali. This study also reveals that Niger-3 PICS has the longest continuous period of high stability per year, and Sudan has the most isotropic surface. These observations have important implications for the use of these sites.

  2. Development of an informational web site for recruiting research participants: process, implementation, and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hershberger, Patricia E; Kavanaugh, Karen; Hamilton, Rebekah; Klock, Susan C; Merry, Lisa; Olshansky, Ellen; Pierce, Penny F

    2011-10-01

    Internet-based research is increasing, yet there is little known about recruitment approaches that target the Internet. Investigators have been slow to discuss how to plan, develop, and enhance recruitment using the Internet when well-concealed or disparate populations, sensitive topics, or qualitative methods are interspersed into the aims of the study. The twofold purpose of this article was to (1) highlight the major steps and strategies undertaken to develop and implement an innovative Web site for recruiting high-genetic-risk couples who were considering preimplantation genetic diagnosis use, and (2) present the recruitment results and lessons learned based on enrollment, self-evaluation, and descriptive data. The Web site was developed using a five-step process designed by the investigators. A significant step in the process was determining the Web site objectives, which were enacted through contextual and design decisions, and also by incorporating a brief video and study logo into the Web site. The recruitment results indicate that, of the 22 participant couples, ∼82% were recruited via the Internet versus traditional recruitment approaches (ie, clinics, newsletters) and that the majority of couples viewed the Web site prior to enrolling in the study. In conclusion, developing a Web site using the five-step process can facilitate recruitment.

  3. The U.S. Department of Energy's Regulatory and Evaluation Framework for Demonstrating Radiation Protection of the Environment: Implementation at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Antonio, Ernest J.; Tiller, Brett L.; Domotor, S. L.; Higley, Kathryn A.

    2005-08-01

    Abstract. In 2001, a multi-agency study was conducted to characterize potential environmental effects from radiological and chemical contaminants on the near-shore environment of the Columbia River at the 300 Area of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site. Historically, the 300 Area was the location of nuclear fuel fabrication and was the main location for research and development activities from the 1940s until the late 1980s. During past waste handling practices uranium, copper, and other heavy metals were routed to liquid waste streams and ponds near the Columbia River shoreline. The Washington State Department of Health and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Surface Environmental Surveillance Project sampled various environmental components including river water, riverbank spring water, sediment, fishes, crustaceans, bivalve mollusks, aquatic insects, riparian vegetation, small mammals, and terrestrial invertebrates for analyses of radiological and chemical constituents. The radiological analysis results for water and sediment were used as initial input into the RESRAD BIOTA. The RESRAD BIOTA code showed that maximum radionuclide concentrations measured in water and sediment were lower than the initial screening criteria for concentrations to produce dose rates at existing or proposed limits. Radionuclide concentrations measured in biota samples were used to calculate site-specific bioaccumulation coefficients (Biv) to test the utility of the RESRAD BIOTA’s site-specific screening phase. To further evaluate site-specific effects, the default Relative Biological Effect (RBE) for internal alpha particle emissions was reduced by half and the program’s kinetic/allometric calculation approach was initiated. The subsequent calculations showed the initial RESRAD BIOTA results to be conservative, which is appropriate for screening purposes.

  4. Effects of physical and biogeochemical processes on aquatic ecosystems at the groundwater-surface water interface: An evaluation of a sulfate-impacted wild rice stream in Minnesota (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, G. H. C.; Yourd, A. R.; Myrbo, A.; Johnson, N.

    2015-12-01

    Significant uncertainty and variability in physical and biogeochemical processes at the groundwater-surface water interface complicate how surface water chemistry affects aquatic ecosystems. Questions surrounding a unique 10 mg/L sulfate standard for wild rice (Zizania sp.) waters in Minnesota are driving research to clarify conditions controlling the geochemistry of shallow sediment porewater in stream- and lake-beds. This issue raises the need and opportunity to carry out in-depth, process-based analysis into how water fluxes and coupled C, S, and Fe redox cycles interact to impact aquatic plants. Our study builds on a recent state-wide field campaign that showed that accumulation of porewater sulfide from sulfate reduction impairs wild rice, an annual grass that grows in shallow lakes and streams in the Great Lakes region of North America. Negative porewater sulfide correlations with organic C and Fe quantities also indicated that lower redox rates and greater mineral precipitation attenuate sulfide. Here, we focus on a stream in northern Minnesota that receives high sulfate loading from iron mining activity yet maintains wild rice stands. In addition to organic C and Fe effects, we evaluate the degree to which streambed hydrology, and in particular groundwater contributions, accounts for the active biogeochemistry. We collect field measurements, spanning the surrounding groundwater system to the stream, to constrain a reactive-transport model. Observations from seepage meters, temperature probes, and monitoring wells delineate upward flow that may lessen surface water impacts below the stream. Geochemical analyses of groundwater, porewater, and surface water samples and of sediment extractions reveal distinctions among the different domains and stream banks, which appear to jointly control conditions in the streambed. A model based on field conditions can be used to evaluate the relative the importance and the spatiotemporal scales of diverse flux and

  5. Comparison of dissolved oxygen and aquatic biota between a State 303(d)-listed stream segment and USGS biological reference sites in the San Jacinto River Basin, Texas, 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moring, J. Bruce

    2002-01-01

    About 30 percent of the 238 water bodies on the 2000 State of Texas 303(d) list of impaired or threatened waters are included for not meeting optimum conditions for aquatic life (Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission, 2000). Most of the water bodies on the list were assessed using water-column measures such as concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO) and total metals as surrogates for aquatic biological data. Many water bodies were listed because of low concentrations of DO or potentially toxic dissolved metals such as lead; ambient toxicity to nonresident (laboratory) aquatic organisms also could have been a reason for listing. The Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC) has emphasized the use of aquatic biological data to determine if a water body should be included or removed from the 303(d) list. The standards used to determine whether a water body should be on the State 303(d) list generally are statewide standards that have not been adjusted for regional or watershed-scale differences that reflect variability across Texas. Such is the case for DO, which is one of the more common surrogate measures used in the listing of stream segments that do not meet optimum conditions for aquatic life. The statewide minimum concentration of DO to meet optimal conditions for aquatic life is 5.0 milligrams per liter. Many water bodies in Texas with few, if any, anthropogenic influences might have DO concentrations below 5.0 milligrams per liter, especially in the late summer when water temperatures peak and streamflows are at minimums for the year. 

  6. Evaluation of soil gas sampling and analysis techniques at a former petrochemical plant site.

    PubMed

    Hers, I; Li, L; Hannam, S

    2004-07-01

    Methods for soil gas sampling and analysis are evaluated as part of a research study on soil vapour intrusion into buildings, conducted at a former petro-chemical plant site ("Chatterton site"). The evaluation process was designed to provide information on reliability and selection of appropriate methods for soil gas sampling and analysis, and was based on a literature review of data and methods, and experiments completed as part of the research study. The broader context of this work is that soil gas characterization is increasingly being used for input into risk assessment of contaminated sites, particularly when evaluating the potential intrusion of soil vapour into buildings. There are only a limited number of research studies and protocols addressing soil gas sampling and analysis. There is significant variability in soil gas probe design and sample collection and analysis methods used by practitioners. The experimental studies conducted to evaluate soil gas methods address the permeation or leakage of gases from Tedlar bags, time-dependent sorption of volatile organic compound (VOC)-vapours onto probe surfaces and sampling devices, and analytical and quality control issues for light gas and VOC analyses. Through this work, common techniques for soil gas collection and analysis are described together with implications for data quality arising from the different methods used. Some of the potential pitfalls that can affect soil gas testing are identified, and recommendations and guidance for improved protocols are provided.

  7. Effect of emergent aquatic insects on bat foraging in a riparian forest.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Dai; Murakami, Masashi; Nakano, Shigeru; Aoi, Toshiki

    2006-11-01

    1. Riparian zones serve several ecological functions for bats. They provide a source of prey and likely provide favourable structural habitats and shelter from predators. Many studies have shown that bats use the space above streams, ponds or riparian vegetation as feeding habitat. These studies, however, have never distinguished between the effects of habitat structure and prey availability on the foraging activities of bats. Such effects can only be distinguished by an experimental approach. We predicted that bat activity along a stream is influenced by the number of emerged aquatic insects. 2. We evaluated the response of terrestrial consumers, insectivorous bats, to changes in the abundance of emergent aquatic insects by conducting a manipulative field experiment. In a deciduous riparian forest in Japan, aquatic insect flux from the stream to the riparian zone was controlled with an insect-proof cover over a 1.2 km stream reach. 3. We estimated the abundance of emergent aquatic and flying terrestrial arthropods near the treatment and control reaches using Malaise traps. The foraging activity of bats was evaluated in both treatment and control reaches using ultrasonic detectors. 4. The insect-proof cover effectively reduced the flux of emergent aquatic insects to the riparian zone adjacent to the treatment reach. Adjacent to the control reach, adult aquatic insect biomass was highest in spring, and then decreased gradually. Terrestrial insect biomass increased gradually during the summer at both treatment and control reaches. 5. Foraging activity of bats was correlated with insect abundance. In spring, foraging activity of bats at the control reach was significantly greater than at the treatment reach, and increased at both sites with increasing terrestrial insect abundance. 6. Our result suggests that the flux of aquatic insects emerging from streams is one of the most important factors affecting the distribution of riparian-foraging bats. As is the case with

  8. Aquatic Microbiology Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Robert C.; And Others

    This laboratory manual presents information and techniques dealing with aquatic microbiology as it relates to environmental health science, sanitary engineering, and environmental microbiology. The contents are divided into three categories: (1) ecological and physiological considerations; (2) public health aspects; and (3)microbiology of water…

  9. Aquatic Equipment Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sova, Ruth

    Equipment usually used in water exercise programs is designed for variety, intensity, and program necessity. This guide discusses aquatic equipment under the following headings: (1) equipment design; (2) equipment principles; (3) precautions and contraindications; (4) population contraindications; and (5) choosing equipment. Equipment is used…

  10. Investigating Aquatic Dead Zones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Testa, Jeremy; Gurbisz, Cassie; Murray, Laura; Gray, William; Bosch, Jennifer; Burrell, Chris; Kemp, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This article features two engaging high school activities that include current scientific information, data, and authentic case studies. The activities address the physical, biological, and chemical processes that are associated with oxygen-depleted areas, or "dead zones," in aquatic systems. Students can explore these dead zones through both…

  11. Adapted Aquatics and Inclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Martin E.; Conatser, Phillip

    2002-01-01

    Presents strategies and techniques to help instructors and directors promote successful inclusive aquatics programs for students with disabilities, discussing the importance of considering issues related to: teaching style, collaborative planning, goal determination, appropriate inclusive placement, personnel preparation, curriculum adaptation,…

  12. Development of standard evaluation plan for survey and investigation of residual radioactivity on site.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sang Won; Whang, Joo Ho; Lee, Su Hong; Lee, Jea Min

    2011-07-01

    The development of decommissioning technologies, including those for evaluation of the radioactivity inventory and the radiation dose, and a site investigation plan are needed to ensure safe decommissioning. The residual radioactivity should be measured and analysed to release a site for unrestricted use. The methods used for measurement of residual radioactivity have an effect on the workers' manpower and the decommissioning cost. So the development of the measurement methods of residual radioactivity with guidelines for a radiation survey and site investigation is needed to prepare for the future decommissioning of commercial Nuclear Power plants. The major considerations and characteristics of the parameters related to the decision of measurements points have been reviewed. The methods for controlling uncertainty and techniques to determine whether the measurement results achieve the survey objectives have been established.

  13. Evaluation of the likelihood of DNAPL presence at NPL sites: National results. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The document presents the results of a survey undertaken by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund). The survey was designed to estimate the proportion of National Priorities List (NPL) sites where Dense Nonaqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs) may be present. Earlier studies by OERR suggested that DNAPLs may be more common at hazardous waste sites than previously thought, and may act as a continuing source of contamination thus reducing the ability of pump-and-treat systems to attain cleanup goals within expected timeframes (Evaluation of Ground Water Extraction Remedies, Phase II, EPA 9355.4-05). The study represents the first systematic nation-wide review of NPL sites designed to estimate the extent of subsurface DNAPL contamination.

  14. Seismic hazard for the Savannah River Site: A comparative evaluation of the EPRI and LLNL assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Wingo, H.E.

    1992-05-20

    This report was conducted to: (1) develop an understanding of causes for the vast differences between the two comprehensive studies, and (2) using a methodology consistent with the reconciled methods employed in the two studies, develop a single seismic hazard for the Savannah River Site suitable for use in seismic probabilistic risk assessments with emphasis on the K Reactor. Results are presented for a rock site which is a typical because detailed evaluations of soil characteristics at the K Reactor are still in progress that account for the effects of a soil stablizing grouting program. However when the soils analysis is completed, the effects of soils can be included with this analysis with the addition of a single factor that will decrease slightly the seismic hazard for a rock site.

  15. A mud-sampling technique for the study of the ecology of aquatic snails, and its use in the evaluation of the efficacy of molluscicides in field trials*

    PubMed Central

    Crossland, N. O.

    1962-01-01

    The author describes a sampling technique suitable for estimating the population densities of African aquatic snails in the field by the removal of a plug of mud and its subsequent detailed examination. This device has been used in field trials with the molluscicides ICI 24223 and Bayer 73. Estimates of percentage kills were based on counts of live and dead snails in each mud sample before and after molluscicide treatment. Statistical analysis of these counts suggests that most snails killed by the molluscicides were subsequently recovered, thus providing some confirmatory evidence of the validity of these estimates. PMID:13882393

  16. Pesticide toxicity index for freshwater aquatic organisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munn, Mark D.; Gilliom, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program is designed to assess current water-quality conditions, changes in water quality over time, and the effects of natural and human factors on water quality for the Nation's streams and ground-water resources. For streams, one of the most difficult parts of the assessment is to link chemical conditions to effects on aquatic biota, particularly for pesticides, which tend to occur in streams as complex mixtures with strong seasonal patterns. A Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI) was developed that combines pesticide exposure of aquatic biota (measured concentrations of pesticides in stream water) with toxicity estimates (standard endpoints from laboratory bioassays) to produce a single index value for a sample or site. The development of the PTI was limited to pesticide compounds routinely measured in NAWQA studies and to toxicity data readily available from existing databases. Qualifying toxicity data were found for one or more types of test organisms for 75 of the 83 pesticide compounds measured in NAWQA samples, but with a wide range of bioassays per compound (1 to 65). There were a total of 2,824 bioassays for the 75 compounds, including 287 48-hour EC50 values (concentration at which 50 percent of test organisms exhibit a nonlethal response) for freshwater cladocerans, 585 96-hour LC50 values (concentration lethal to 50 percent of test organisms) for freshwater benthic invertebrates, and 1,952 96-hour LC50 values for freshwater fish. The PTI for a particular sample is the sum of toxicity quotients (measured concentration divided by the median toxicity concentration from bioassays) for each detected pesticide. The PTI can be calculated for specific groups of pesticides and for specific taxonomic groups.While the PTI does not determine whether water in a sample is toxic, its values can be used to rank or compare the toxicity of samples or sites on a relative basis for use in further analysis or

  17. Canada's Deep Geological Repository For Used Nuclear Fuel -The Geoscientific Site Evaluation Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschorn, S.; Ben Belfadhel, M.; Blyth, A.; DesRoches, A. J.; McKelvie, J. R. M.; Parmenter, A.; Sanchez-Rico Castejon, M.; Urrutia-Bustos, A.; Vorauer, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) is responsible for implementing Adaptive Phased Management, the approach selected by the Government of Canada for long-term management of used nuclear fuel generated by Canadian nuclear reactors. In May 2010, the NWMO published and initiated a nine-step site selection process to find an informed and willing community to host a deep geological repository for Canada's used nuclear fuel. The site selection process is designed to address a broad range of technical and social, economic and cultural factors. The suitability of candidate areas will be assessed in a stepwise manner over a period of many years and include three main steps: Initial Screenings; Preliminary Assessments; and Detailed Site Characterizations. The Preliminary Assessment is conducted in two phases. NWMO has completed Phase 1 preliminary assessments for the first eight communities that entered into this step. While the Phase 1 desktop geoscientific assessments showed that each of the eight communities contains general areas that have the potential to satisfy the geoscientific safety requirements for hosting a deep geological repository, the assessment identified varying degrees of geoscientific complexity and uncertainty between communities, reflecting their different geological settings and structural histories. Phase 2 activities will include a sequence of high-resolution airborne geophysical surveys and focused geological field mapping to ground-truth lithology and structural features, followed by limited deep borehole drilling and testing. These activities will further evaluate the site's ability to meet the safety functions that a site would need to ultimately satisfy in order to be considered suitable. This paper provides an update on the site evaluation process and describes the approach, methods and criteria that are being used to conduct the geoscientific Preliminary Assessments.

  18. Geoscientific Site Evaluation Approach for Canada's Deep Geological Repository for Used Nuclear Fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Rico Castejon, M.; Hirschorn, S.; Ben Belfadhel, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) is responsible for implementing Adaptive Phased Management, the approach selected by the Government of Canada for long-term management of used nuclear fuel generated by Canadian nuclear reactors. The ultimate objective of APM is the centralized containment and isolation of Canada's used nuclear fuel in a Deep Geological Repository in a suitable crystalline or sedimentary rock formation. In May 2010, the NWMO published and initiated a nine-step site selection process to find an informed and willing community to host a deep geological repository for Canada's used nuclear fuel. The site selection process is designed to address a broad range of technical and social, economic and cultural factors. The site evaluation process includes three main technical evaluation steps: Initial Screenings; Preliminary Assessments; and Detailed Site Characterizations, to assess the suitability of candidate areas in a stepwise manner over a period of many years. By the end of 2012, twenty two communities had expressed interest in learning more about the project. As of July 2015, nine communities remain in the site selection process. To date (July 2015), NWMO has completed Initial Screenings for the 22 communities that expressed interest, and has completed the first phase of Preliminary Assessments (desktop) for 20 of the communities. Phase 2 of the Preliminary Assessments has been initiated in a number of communities, with field activities such as high-resolution airborne geophysical surveys and geological mapping. This paper describes the approach, methods and criteria being used to assess the geoscientific suitability of communities currently involved in the site selection process.

  19. Evaluating the online activity of users of the e-Bug web site.

    PubMed

    de Quincey, Ed; Kostkova, Patty; Jawaheer, Gawesh; Farrell, David; McNulty, Cliodna A M; Weinberg, Julius

    2011-06-01

    Web server log analysis is being increasingly used to evaluate the user behaviour on healthcare resource web sites due to the detailed record of activity that they contain. This study aimed to use this information to evaluate the e-Bug web site, a healthcare resource that provides a range of educational resources about microbes, hand and respiratory hygiene, and antibiotics. This evaluation was conducted by analysing the web server logs of the e-Bug web site for the period January 2008 to November 2009, using a proprietary application named Sawmill. The e-Bug web site has had >900,000 page views generated from >88,000 users, with an increase in May 2009 during the swine flu epidemic and a further increase in September 2009 following the official launch of e-Bug. The majority of visitors were from the UK, but visits were recorded from 190 different countries. Word(®) document resources were downloaded >169,000 times, with the most popular being a swine flu factsheet. PowerPoint(®) document resources were downloaded >36,000 times, with the most popular relating to the 'chain of infection'. The majority of visitor referrals originated from search engines, with the most popular referral keywords being variations on the e-Bug name. The most common non-search engine referrals were from other healthcare resources and agencies. Use of the site has increased markedly since the official launch of e-Bug, with average page views of >200,000 per month, from a range of countries, illustrating the international demand for a teaching resource for microbes, hygiene and antibiotics.

  20. Aquatic Plants and their Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Natural Resources, Lansing.

    Aquatic plants can be divided into two types: algae and macrophytes. The goal of aquatic plant management is to maintain a proper balance of plants within a lake and still retain the lake's recreational and economic importance. Aquatic plant management programs have two phases: long-term management (nutrient control), and short-term management…

  1. Methods for Aquatic Resource Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Methods for Aquatic Resource Assessment (MARA) project consists of three main activities in support of assessing the conditions of the nation’s aquatic resources: 1) scientific support for EPA Office of Water’s national aquatic resource surveys; 2) spatial predications of riv...

  2. Aquatic Pest Control. Manual 99.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the aquatic pest control category. The text discusses various water use situations; aquatic weed identification; herbicide use and effects; and aquatic insects and their control. (CS)

  3. Introduced aquatic plants and algae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-native aquatic plants such as waterhyacinth and hydrilla severely impair the uses of aquatic resources including recreational faculties (lakes, reservoirs, rivers) as well as timely delivery of irrigation water for agriculture. Costs associated with impacts and management of all types of aquatic...

  4. Evaluation of Aqua-Ammonia Chiller Technologies and Field Site Installation

    SciTech Connect

    Zaltash, Abdolreza

    2007-09-01

    The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) has sponsored Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to review, select, and evaluate advanced, gas-fired, 5-ton, aqua-ammonia, chiller technologies. The selection criteria was that units have COP values of 0.67 or better at Air-conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) 95 F outdoor rating conditions, an active refrigerant flow control, and a variable-speed condenser fan. These features are expected to allow these units to operate at higher ambient temperatures (up to the maximum operating temperature of 110 F) with minimal degradation in performance. ORNL evaluated three potential manufacturers of advanced, gas-fired, 5-ton, aqua-ammonia chillers-Robur, Ambian, and Cooling Technologies. Unfortunately, Robur did not meet the COP requirements and Cooling Technologies could not deliver a unit to be tested at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-ORNL environmental chamber testing facility for thermally activated heat pumps. This eliminated these two technologies from further consideration, leaving only the Ambian chillers for evaluation. Two Ambian chillers were evaluated at the DOE-ORNL test facility. Overall these chillers operated well over a wide range of ambient conditions with minimal degradation in performance due to several control strategies used such as a variable speed condenser fan, a modulating burner, and active refrigerant flow control. These Ambian pre-commercial units were selected for installation and field testing at three federal facilities. NFESC worked with ORNL to assist with the site selection for installation and evaluation of these chillers. Two sites (ORNL and Naval Surface Warfare Center [NSWC] Corona) had a single chiller unit installed; and at one site (Naval Amphibious Base [NAB] Little Creek), two 5-ton chillers linked together were installed to provide 10 tons of cooling. A chiller link controller developed under this project was evaluated in the field test at Little Creek.

  5. The aquatic vascular plant Ruppia maritima as an indicator organism for contaminated sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Tagliabue, M.D.; Thursby, G.B.; Walker, H.A.; Johnston, R.K.

    1995-12-31

    An ongoing estuarine ecological risk assessment case study for the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard in the Great Bay Estuary (New Hampshire, Maine) was the catalyst to continue development a rooted aquatic plant sediment toxicity test. Laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate effects of lead, the primary site contaminant on R. maritima in the Great Bay. Although the aquatic vascular plant Zostra marina comprises up to 46% of the Great Bay subtidal habitat, R. maritima`s much smaller size makes it a more practical laboratory organism. Effects on Ruppia may offer useful insights into potential effects on Zostra or other aquatic vascular plants. Presently rooted vascular plants are not found in Clark Cove located adjacent to a landfill disposal site on the shipyard. The absence of rooted vegetation can be contributed to, physical parameters of the site (turbidity, grain size, texture) or chemical parameters (heavy metal/Pb contamination, redox potential). Exposure of bedded and nonbedded plants occurred over a four day and ten day period using lead sulfate. Concentrations for bedded exposures were as follows, 0.3, 0.5, 0.8, 1.0 simultaneously extracted metal/acid volatile sulfide (SEM/AVS) molar ratios, and 0.1, 1.0, 10.0 and 100.0mg/l Pb for water only exposures. Reduction in cumulative leaf growth was observed for the Clark Cove sediments as well as the spiked sediments as compared to reference sediments.

  6. Evaluation of aquatic biota in relation to environmental characteristics measured at multiple scales in agricultural streams of the Midwest, 1993-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hambrook Berkman, Julie A.; Scudder, Barbara C.; Lutz, Michelle A.; Harris, Mitchell A.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the relations between algal, invertebrate, and fish assemblages and physical environmental characteristics of streams at the reach, segment, and watershed scale in agricultural settings in the Midwest. The 86 stream sites selected for study were in predominantly agricultural watersheds sampled as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Species abundance and over 130 biological metrics were used to determine which aspects of the assemblages were most sensitive to change at the three spatial scales. Digital orthophotograph-based riparian land use/land cover was used for analyses of riparian conditions at the reach and segment scales. The percentage area of different land-use/land-cover types was also determined for each watershed. Out of over 230 environmental characteristics examined, those that best explained variation in the biotic assemblages at each spatial scale include the following: 1) reach: bank vegetative cover, fine silty substrate, and open canopy angle; 2) segment: woody vegetation and cropland in the 250-m riparian buffer, and average length of undisturbed buffer; and 3) watershed: land use/land cover (both total forested and row crop), low-permeability soils, slope, drainage area, and latitude. All three biological assemblages, especially fish, correlated more with land use/land cover and other physical characteristics at the watershed scale than at the reach or segment scales. This study identifies biotic measures that can be used to evaluate potential improvements resulting from agricultural best-management practices and other conservation efforts, as well as evaluate potential impairment from urban development or other disturbances.

  7. Site Evaluation for Application of Fuel Cell Technology, Nellis Air Force Base, NV

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-01

    participated in the development and application of advanced fuel cell technology since fiscal yea 1993 (FY93). CERL selected and evaluated application sites...feedback to manufacturers for 29 of 30 commercially available fuel cell power plants and their thermal interfaces installed at Department of Defense...DoD) locations. This report presents an overview of the information collected at Nellis Air Force Base, NV, along with a conceptual fuel cell installation

  8. MX Siting Investigation Geotechnical Evaluation Verification Study - Pine Valley Utah. Volume I. Synthesis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-24

    e.g., igneous , metamorphic, sedimentary). ROTARY WASH DRILLING - A boring technique in which advancement of the hole through overburden is accomplished...tract No. F04704-8O-C0006, CDRL Item 004A6. It contains an evaluation of the suitability of Pine Valley, Utah, for siting the MX Land Mobile Advanced ...process is to identify and rank geotechnically suit- T able areas which are sufficiently large for deployment of the MissilQ-X (MX), an advanced

  9. Analytic study to evaluate associations between hazardous waste sites and birth defects. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, E.G.; Gensburg, L.J.; Geary, N.S.; Deres, D.A.; Cayo, M.R.

    1995-06-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the risk of two types of birth defects (central nervous system and musculoskeletal defects) associated with mothers` exposure to solvents, metals, and pesticides through residence near hazardous waste sites. The only environmental factor showing a statistically significant elevation in risk was living within one mile of industrial or commercial facilities emitting solvents into the air. Residence near these facilities showed elevated risk for central nervous system defects but no elevated risks for musculoskeletal defects.

  10. Evaluation of geologic materials to limit biological intrusion into low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Hakonson, T.E.

    1986-02-01

    This report describes the results of a three-year research program to evaluate the performance of selected soil and rock trench cap designs in limiting biological intrusion into simulated waste. The report is divided into three sections including a discussion of background material on biological interactions with waste site trench caps, a presentation of experimental data from field studies conducted at several scales, and a final section on the interpretation and limitations of the data including implications for the user.

  11. MX Siting Investigation. Geotechnical Evaluation Conterminous United States. Volume I. Coarse Screening.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-06-01

    An Ald 495 FUGRO NATIONAL INC LONG BEACH CA F/I 13/p MX S ITING INVEStIGATION. BEOTECHNICAL EVALUATION CONTrR4M!NOU ’ U--ETC(W,) JUN 77 K L WILSON, R...TEST CHART NATIONAL BUREAU Of STANDARDS 1964 A LLJ 1* MX SITING INVESTIGATION GEOTECHNICAL EVALUATION CONTERMINOUS UNITED STATES VOLUME I COARSE...Space and Missile Systems OrganizationI Norton Air Force Base, California 92409 * By: Fugro National , Inc. 3777 Long Beach BoulevardI Long Beach

  12. Concrete structural analysis tools and properties for Hanford site waste tank evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, C.J.; Peterson, W.S.; Winkel, B.V.; Weiner, E.O.

    1995-09-01

    As Hanford Site Contractors address maintenance and future structural demands on nuclear waste tanks built as early as 1943, it is necessary to address their current safety margins and ensure safe margins are maintained. Although the current civil engineering practice has building codes for reinforced concrete design guidelines, the tanks were not constructed to today`s building codes and future demands potentially result in loads and modifications to the tanks that are outside the original design basis and current practice. The Hanford Site engineering staff has embraced nonlinear finite-element modeling of concrete in an effort to obtain a more accurate understanding of the actual tank margins. This document brings together and integrates past Hanford Site nonlinear reinforced concrete analysis methods, past Hanford Site concrete testing, public domain research testing, and current concrete research directions. This document, including future revisions, provides the structural engineering overview (or survey) for a consistent, accurate approach to nonlinear finite-element modeling of reinforced concrete for Hanford Site waste storage tanks. This report addresses concrete strength and modulus degradation with temperature, creep, shrinkage, long-term sustained loads, and temperature degradation of rebar and concrete bonds. Recommendations are given for parameter studies and evaluation techniques for review of nonlinear finite-element analysis of concrete.

  13. Evaluation of sgRNA target sites for CRISPR-mediated repression of TP53.

    PubMed

    Lawhorn, Ingrid E B; Ferreira, Joshua P; Wang, Clifford L

    2014-01-01

    The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) platform has been developed as a general method to direct proteins of interest to gene targets. While the native CRISPR system delivers a nuclease that cleaves and potentially mutates target genes, researchers have recently employed catalytically inactive CRISPR-associated 9 nuclease (dCas9) in order to target and repress genes without DNA cleavage or mutagenesis. With the intent of improving repression efficiency in mammalian cells, researchers have also fused dCas9 with a KRAB repressor domain. Here, we evaluated different genomic sgRNA targeting sites for repression of TP53. The sites spanned a 200-kb distance, which included the promoter, transcript sequence, and regions flanking the endogenous human TP53 gene. We showed that repression up to 86% can be achieved with dCas9 alone (i.e., without use of the KRAB domain) by targeting the complex to sites near the TP53 transcriptional start site. This work demonstrates that efficient transcriptional repression of endogenous human genes can be achieved by the targeted delivery of dCas9. Yet, the efficiency of repression strongly depends on the choice of the sgRNA target site.

  14. Evaluation of soil bioassays for use at Washington state hazardous waste sites: A pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Blakley, N.; Norton, D.; Stinson, M.; Boyer, R.

    1994-12-31

    The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) is developing guidelines to assess soil toxicity at hazardous waste sites being investigated under the Washington Model Toxics Control Act Cleanup Regulation. To evaluate soil toxicity, Ecology selected five bioassay protocols -- Daphnia, Earthworm, Seedling, Fathead Minnow, and Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay Xenopus (FETAX) -- for use as screening level assessment tools at six State hazardous waste sites. Sites contained a variety of contaminants including metals, creosote, pesticides, and petroleum products (leaking underground storage tanks). Three locations, representing high, medium, and low levels of contamination, were samples at each site. In general, the high contaminant samples resulted in the highest toxic response in all bioassays. The order of site toxicity, as assessed by overall toxic response, is creosote, petroleum products, metals, and pesticides. Results indicate that human health standards, especially for metals, may not adequately protect some of the species tested. The FETAX bioassay had the greatest overall number of toxic responses and lowest variance. The seedling and Daphnia bioassays had lower and similar overall toxic response results, followed by the earthworm and fathead minnow. Variability was markedly highest for the seedling. The Daphnia and fathead minnow variability were similar to the FETAX level, while the earthworm variability was slightly higher.

  15. Evaluation of the H+/site ratio of mitochondrial electron transport from rate measurements.

    PubMed

    Reynafarje, B; Brand, M D; Lehninger, A L

    1976-12-10

    The mitochondrial H+/site ratio (i.e. the number of protons ejected per pair of electrons traversing each of the energy-conserving sites of the respiratory chain) has been evaluated employing a new experimental approach. In this method the rates of oxygen uptake and H+ ejection were measured simultaneously during the initial period of respiration evoked by addition of succinate to aerobic, rotenone-inhibited, de-energized mitochondria. Either K+, in the presence of valinomycin, or Ca2+, was used as mobile cation to dissipate the membrane potential and allow quantitative H+ ejection into the medium. The H+/site ratio observed with this method in the absence of precautions to inhibit the uptake of phosphate was close to 2.0, in agreement with values obtained using the oxygen pulse technique (Mitchell, P. and Moyle, J. (1967) Biochem. J. 105, 1147-1162). However, when phosphate movements were eliminated either by inhibition of the phosphate-hydroxide antiporter with N-ethylamaleimide or by depleting the mitochondria of their endogenous phosphate content, H+/site ratios close to 4.0 were consistently observed. This ratio was independent of the concentration of succinate, of mitochondrial protein, of pH between 6 and 8, and of ionic composition of the medium, provided that sufficient K+ (plus valinomycin) or Ca2+ were present. Specific inhibitors of the hydrolysis of endogenous ATP or transport of other ions (adenine nucleotides, tricarboxylates, HCO3-, etc.) were shown not to affect the observed H+/site ratio. Furthermore, the replacement of succinate by alpha-glycerol phosphate, a substrate which is oxidized on the outer surface of the inner membrane and thus does not need to enter the matrix, gave the same H+/site ratios as did succinate. It is concluded that the H+/site ratio of mitochondrial electron transport, when phosphate movements are eliminated, may be close to 4.0.

  16. Removal site evaluation report for the Isotope Facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    This removal site evaluation (RmSE) report of the Isotope Facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was prepared to provide the Environmental Restoration Program with information necessary to evaluate whether hazardous and/or radiological contaminants in and around the Isotopes Facility pose a substantial risk to human health or the environment and if remedial site evaluations (RSEs) or removal actions are required. The scope of the project included: (1) a review of historical evidence regarding operations and use of the facility; (2) interviews with facility personnel concerning current and past operating practices; (3) a site inspection; and (4) identification of hazard areas requiring maintenance, removal, or remedial actions. The results of RmSE indicate that no substantial risks exist from contaminants present in the Isotope Facilities because adequate controls and practices exist to protect human health and the environment. The recommended correction from the RmSE are being conducted as maintenance actions; accordingly, this RmSE is considered complete and terminated.

  17. Evaluation of poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the aquatic species of Suez Gulf water along El-Sokhna area to the Suez refineries.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nabila A; Ahmed, Omayma E; Doheim, Mamdouh M

    2014-02-01

    The Egyptian Red Sea environment especially along El-Sokhna area to the Suez refineries (Suez) is severely contaminated with organic compounds, as well as overfishing. This may be well contributory to recent serious declines in fish stocks. Fish embryos are also particularly vulnerable to oil exposure, even at extremely low concentrations of less than one part per billion. Consequently, even traces of oil pollution at levels often considered safe for wildlife can cause severe damage to fish. Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in ten fish species of aquatic species by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The compositions of PAHs determined in all samples were measured in order to use them as chemical markers for identifying different sources of PAH pollutants in the studied region. The total content of these16 PAHs ranged from 399.616 up to 67,631.779 ng/g wet weight. The data show that these values are considered to be alarmingly high enough to cause lethal toxicity effect by accumulation. All studied aquatic species samples are characterized by relatively high concentrations of the six-membered ring PAHs. The origin of PAHs in the collected samples is either petrogenic, biogenic, or mixed petrogenic and biogenic.

  18. Evaluation of Site and Continental Terrestrial Carbon Cycle Simulations with North American Flux Tower Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raczka, B. M.; Davis, K. J.; Regional-Interim Synthesis Participants, N.; Site Level Interim Synthesis, N.; Regional/Continental Interim Synthesis Team

    2010-12-01

    Terrestrial carbon models are widely used to diagnose past ecosystem-atmosphere carbon flux responses to climate variability, and are a critical component of coupled climate-carbon model used to predict global climate change. The North American Carbon Program (NACP) Interim Regional and Site Interim Synthesis activities collected a broad sampling of terrestrial carbon model results run at both regional and site level. The Regional Interim Synthesis Activity aims to determine our current knowledge of the carbon balance of North America by comparing the flux estimates provided by the various terrestrial carbon cycle models. Moving beyond model-model comparison is challenging, however, because no continental-scale reference values exist to validate modeled fluxes. This paper presents an effort to evaluate the continental-scale flux estimates of these models using North American flux tower observations brought together by the Site Interim Synthesis Activity. Flux towers present a standard for evaluation of the modeled fluxes, though this evaluation is challenging because of the mismatch in spatial scales between the spatial resolution of continental-scale model runs and the size of a flux tower footprint. We compare model performance with flux tower observations at monthly and annual integrals using the statistical criteria of normalized standard deviation, correlation coefficient, centered root mean square deviation and chi-squared. Models are evaluated individually and according to common model characteristics including spatial resolution, photosynthesis, soil carbon decomposition and phenology. In general all regional models are positively biased for GPP, Re and NEE at both annual and monthly time scales. Further analysis links this result to a positive bias in many solar radiation reanalyses. Positively biased carbon fluxes are also observed for enzyme-kinetic models and models using no nitrogen limitation for soil carbon decomposition. While the former result is

  19. Fish as bioindicators in aquatic environmental pollution assessment: A case study in Lake Victoria wetlands, Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naigaga, I.; Kaiser, H.; Muller, W. J.; Ojok, L.; Mbabazi, D.; Magezi, G.; Muhumuza, E.

    Growing human population and industrialization have led to the pollution of most aquatic ecosystems and consequent deterioration in environmental water quality. Indicator organisms are needed to improve assessment programmes on the ecological impacts of anthropogenic activities on the aquatic environment. Fish have been widely documented as useful indicators of environmental water quality because of their differential sensitivity to pollution. This study investigated the environmental water quality of selected wetland ecosystems using fish as biological indicators. Fish community structure in relation to water quality was assessed in five wetlands along the shoreline of Lake Victoria from August 2006 to June 2008. Four urban wetlands were variedly impacted by anthropogenic activities while one rural wetland was less impacted, and served as a reference site. Fish species diversity, abundance and richness were assessed, and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was used to evaluate the relationship between the fish communities and environmental variables. Results revealed that urban effluent impacted negatively on water quality and consequently the fish community structure. A total of 29 fish species were recorded throughout the study with the lowest number of 15 species recorded in the most impacted site. Shannon diversity and Margalef species richness indices were highest at the references site and lowest at the most impacted site. Wetland haplochromis species dominated the reference site, while oreochromis species dominated the most impacted site. The inshore locations registered higher species diversity and low species richness than the offshore locations. Low dissolved oxygen, pH, secchi depth and high electrical conductivity, total phosphorous, and total nitrogen were strongly associated with the effluent-impacted sites and greatly influenced the fish community structure. This study recommends the use of fish as valuable biological indicators in aquatic

  20. Near-complete 1-m topographic models of the MSL candidate landing sites: Site safety and quality evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, R. L.; Howington-Kraus, E.; Galuszka, D.; Redding, B.; Antonsen, J.; Coker, K.; Foster, E.; Hopkins, M.; Licht, A.; Fennema, A.; Calef, F., III; Nuti, S.; Parker, T. J.; Golombek, M. P.

    2011-10-01

    To support landing site selection for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) we have produced digital topographic models (DTMs) of the candidate sites with 1-m grid spacing from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (MRO HiRISE) stereo image pairs. The delivered DTMs cover 75-95% of each landing uncertainty ellipse plus key traverse areas outside the ellipse containing science targets that the MSL rover would be likely to visit. Rover-scale slopes derived from these DTMs are in the range of 1-2 times those at the roughest past landing site, but meet the criteria for MSL landing safety at all sites. The extensive overlaps between neighboring stereo DTMs in the MSL sites provide a unique opportunity to assess the quality (accuracy, precision, resolution) of our stereo DTM. The results of such assessment agree closely with theoretical estimates of quality based on the image resolution and geometry.

  1. Environment and Spatial Influences on Aquatic Insect Communities in Cerrado Streams: the Relative Importance of Conductivity, Altitude, and Conservation Areas.

    PubMed

    Godoy, B S; Queiroz, L L; Lodi, S; Oliveira, L G

    2017-04-01

    The aquatic insect community is an important element for stream functionality and diversity, but the effects of altitude and conservation areas on the aquatic insect community have been poorly explored in neotropical ecozone. The lack of studies about the relative importance of space and environment on community structure is another obstacle within aquatic insect ecology, which precludes the inclusion of these studies in more current frameworks, like the metacommunity dynamics. We evaluated the relationship between the aquatic insect community structure at 19 streams in the Brazilian Cerrado and spatial and environmental variables, namely geographical distance among sites, stream altitude, chemical variables, and environmental protection areas. We partitioned the variance explained by spatial and environmental components using a partial redundancy analysis. The environment exhibited a strong spatial structure for abundance and number of genera, increasing these community parameters with elevated water conductivity. Only community composition had a large unexplained portion of variance, with a small portion constrained by environmental (altitude and conductivity) and spatial factors. A relevant point in the result was the streams with high conductivity were located outside of the conservation areas. These results suggest that the relationship between number of genera and abundance with environmental conditions is always associated with spatial configuration of streams. Our study shows that altitude is an important determinant of community structure, as it exerts indirect influences, and electrical conductivity directly determines community composition, and that some national parks may be inefficient in maintaining the diversity of aquatic insects in the Cerrado region.

  2. DEMONSTRATION OF AQUAFIX AND SAPS PASSIVE MINE WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES AT SUMMITVILLE MINE SITE, INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency evaluated two passive water treatment (PWT) technologies for metals removal from acid mine drainage (AMD) at the Summitville Mine Superfund Site in southern Colorado...

  3. 75 FR 27783 - Decision To Evaluate a Petition To Designate a Class of Employees From the Mound Site in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... Doc No: 2010-11875] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Decision To Evaluate a Petition To Designate a Class of Employees From the Mound Site in Miamisburg, OH, To Be Included in the Special Exposure... decision to evaluate a petition to designate a class of employees from the Mound site in Miamisburg,...

  4. 77 FR 46439 - Decision To Evaluate a Petition To Designate a Class of Employees From the Baker Brothers Site in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Decision To Evaluate a Petition To Designate a Class of Employees From the Baker Brothers Site in Toledo, Ohio, To Be Included in the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY: National Institute for... to evaluate a petition to designate a class of employees from the Bakers Brothers site in...

  5. From site measurements to spatial modelling - multi-criteria model evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottschalk, Pia; Roers, Michael; Wechsung, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Hydrological models are traditionally evaluated at gauge stations for river runoff which is assumed to be the valid and global test for model performance. One model output is assumed to reflect the performance of all implemented processes and parameters. It neglects the complex interactions of landscape processes which are actually simulated by the model but not tested. The application of a spatial hydrological model however offers a vast potential of evaluation aspects which shall be presented here with the example of the eco-hydrological model SWIM. We present current activities to evaluate SWIM at the lysimeter site Brandis, the eddy-co-variance site Gebesee and with spatial crop yields of Germany to constrain model performance additionally to river runoff. The lysimeter site is used to evaluate actuall evapotranspiration, total runoff below the soil profile and crop yields. The eddy-covariance site Gebesee offers data to study crop growth via net-ecosystem carbon exchange and actuall evapotranspiration. The performance of the vegetation module is tested via spatial crop yields at county level of Germany. Crop yields are an indirect measure of crop growth which is an important driver of the landscape water balance and therefore eventually determines river runoff as well. First results at the lysimeter site show that simulated soil water dynamics are less sensitive to soil type than measured soil water dynamics. First results from the simulation of actuall evapotranspiration and carbon exchange at Gebesee show a satisfactorily model performance with however difficulties to capture initial vegetation growth in spring. The latter is a hint at problems capturing winter growth conditions and subsequent impacts on crop growth. This is also reflected in the performance of simulated crop yields for Germany where the model reflects crop yields of silage maize much better than of winter wheat. With the given approach we would like to highlight the advantages and

  6. Aquatic versus mammalian toxicology: applications of the comparative approach

    SciTech Connect

    Guarino, A.M.

    1987-04-01

    The large body of literature and techniques generated by mammalian toxicity studies provides a conceptual and technical framework within which the absorption, fate, and disposition of xenobiotics in aquatic organisms can be studied. This review emphasizes the similarities and differences between mammalian and aquatic systems, e.g., lung vs. gill as site of absorption and toxicity. These must be taken into consideration when designing aquatic toxicity studies. Studies of phenol red in dogfish shark as an example show physiologic-based pharmacokinetic modeling to be a useful tool for investigating and eventually predicting species differences in xenobiotic disposition and drug differences within the same species. This discussion demonstrates that both laboratory and modeling procedures are now available to carry out sophisticated studies of xenobiotic fate and disposition in fish. Such studies are needed to pinpoint sites and mechanisms of pollutant toxicity in aquatic organisms.

  7. A long-term, multitrophic level study to assess pulp and paper mill effluent effects on aquatic communities in four US receiving waters: characteristics of the study streams, sample sites, mills, and mill effluents.

    PubMed

    Hall, Timothy J; Ragsdale, Renee L; Arthurs, William J; Ikoma, Joan; Borton, Dennis L; Cook, Diana L

    2009-04-01

    Watershed characteristics, study streams, sample sites, mills, and mill effluents are provided for 4 streams included in a long-term study to assess potential effects of pulp and paper mill effluents on US receiving waters. The study streams are Codorus Creek (Pennsylvania, USA), Leaf River (Mississippi, USA) and McKenzie and Willamette rivers (Oregon, USA) and were chosen to represent a blend of mill process types, effluent concentrations, and coldwater/warmwater stream systems. The described effluent quality, water quality, and habitat data sets encompass the initial 7 to 8 y of a study anticipated to continue >10 y and provide a backdrop to a series of articles describing periphyton, macroinvertebrate, and fish community properties in these same streams. The mean in-stream waste concentration (IWC) for these 4 effluent discharges was 32.4%, 2.0%, 0.5%, and 0.2% v/v for Codorus Creek and Leaf, McKenzie, and Willamette rivers, respectively, as compared with a median of 0.4% for US mills. Effluent quality measurements included Selenastrum capricornutum, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Pimephales promelas chronic bioassays as sanctioned by the US Environmental Protection Agency for estimating effluent effects on receiving-water aquatic communities. Based on mean bioassay inhibition concentration for a 25% effect and on mean IWC, a margin of safety against adverse biological effects of 2, 25, 137, and 150 times was indicated for Codorus Creek and Leaf, McKenzie, and Willamette rivers, respectively. Habitat and water quality assessment was carried out over a gradient of sample sites above and below the effluent discharge to determine nonmill-related conditions that might interfere with interpretation of effluent effects. Noneffluent related localized differences in conditions for some parameters, including current velocity (McKenzie River), and surface incident photosynthetically active radiation (Codorus Creek and Willamette River) occurred at the sample stations immediately

  8. Garnering Grantee Buy-In on a National Cross-Site Evaluation: The Case of "ConnectHIV"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Susan J.; Ahmed, Marie; Hamdallah, Myriam; Little, Stacey

    2010-01-01

    Grantees on national projects are often required by their funders to take part in evaluation activities. While the requirement can encourage compliance, grantees can feel overburdened and disempowered with their evaluation experience. Evaluators in a national cross-site evaluation utilized multiple strategies for obtaining buy-in of participating…

  9. Evaluation of chemical sensors for in situ ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, E.M.; Hostetler, D.D.

    1989-03-01

    This report documents a preliminary review and evaluation of instrument systems and sensors that may be used to detect ground-water contaminants in situ at the Hanford Site. Three topics are covered in this report: (1) identification of a group of priority contaminants at Hanford that could be monitored in situ, (2) a review of current instrument systems and sensors for environmental monitoring, and (3) an evaluation of instrument systems that could be used to monitor Hanford contaminants. Thirteen priority contaminants were identified in Hanford ground water, including carbon tetrachloride and six related chlorinated hydrocarbons, cyanide, methyl ethyl ketone, chromium (VI), fluoride, nitrate, and uranium. Based on transduction principles, chemical sensors were divided into four classes, ten specific types of instrument systems were considered: fluorescence spectroscopy, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), spark excitation-fiber optic spectrochemical emission sensor (FOSES), chemical optrodes, stripping voltammetry, catalytic surface-modified ion electrode immunoassay sensors, resistance/capacitance, quartz piezobalance and surface acoustic wave devices. Because the flow of heat is difficult to control, there are currently no environmental chemical sensors based on thermal transduction. The ability of these ten instrument systems to detect the thirteen priority contaminants at the Hanford Site at the required sensitivity was evaluated. In addition, all ten instrument systems were qualitatively evaluated for general selectivity, response time, reliability, and field operability. 45 refs., 23 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Cross-site evaluation of a comprehensive pediatric asthma project: the Merck Childhood Asthma Network, Inc. (MCAN).

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Meera; Mansfield, Carol; Smith, Lucia Rojas; Woodell, Carol; Darcy, Niamh; Ohadike, Yvonne U; Lesch, Julie Kennedy; Malveaux, Floyd J

    2011-11-01

    The Merck Childhood Asthma Network, Inc. (MCAN) initiative selected five sites that had high asthma burden and established asthma programs but were ready for greater program integration across schools, health care systems, and communities. MCAN supported a community-based approach that was tailored to the needs of each program site. As a result, each site was unique in its combination of interventions, but all sites served common goals of integration of care, incorporation of evidence-based programs, and improvement in knowledge, self-management, health, and quality of life. This case study of the MCAN cross-site evaluation discusses the challenges associated with evaluating interventions involving multiple stakeholders that have been adjusted to fit the unique needs of specific communities. The evaluation triangulates data from site-specific monitoring and evaluation data; site documents, site visits, and cross-site meetings; qualitative assessments of families, organizational partners, and other stakeholders; and quantitative data from a common instrument on health indicators before and after the intervention. The evaluation employs the RE-AIM framework--reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance--to assess the barriers and facilitators of translation from theory into practice. Our experience suggests trade-offs between rigor of evaluation and burden of assessment that have applicability for other community-based translational efforts.

  11. Evaluation of serum immunoglobulins among individuals living near six Superfund sites.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Dhelia M; White, Mary C; Poole, Charles; Kleinbaum, David; Vogt, Robert; North, Kari

    2006-07-01

    Residents living in communities near Superfund sites have expressed concern that releases from these facilities affect their health, including adverse effects on their immune systems. We used data from six cross-sectional studies to evaluate whether people who live near several Superfund sites are more likely to have individual immunoglobulin test results (IgA, IgG, and IgM) below or above the reference range than those who live in comparison areas with no Superfund site. Study participants consisted of target-area residents who lived close to a Superfund site and comparison-area residents who were not located near any Superfund or hazardous waste sites. A consistent modeling strategy was used across studies to assess the magnitude of the relationship between area of residence and immunoglobulin test results, adjusting for potential confounders and effect modifiers. In all study areas, the results suggest that people who live near a Superfund site may have been more likely to have IgA test results above the reference range than comparison areas residents regardless of modeling strategy employed. The effect measures were larger for residents who lived in communities near military bases with groundwater contamination. For all analyses the wide confidence intervals reflect uncertainty in the magnitude of these effects. To adequately address the question of whether the immune system is affected by low-level exposures to hazardous substances, we recommend that more functional immunotoxicity tests be conducted in human populations where individual exposure information is available or when it can be reasonably estimated from environmental exposure measurements.

  12. Risk Assessment Considerations for Veterinary Medicines in Aquatic Ecosystems

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter provides a critical evaluation of prospective and retrospective risk assessment approaches for veterinary medicines in aquatic ecosystems and provides recommendations for possible alternative approaches for hazard characterization.

  13. Aquatic Nuisance Species Locator

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Data in this map has been collected by the United States Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species program located in Gainesville, Florida (http://nas.er.usgs.gov/default.aspx). This dataset may have some inaccuracies and is only current to June 15, 2012. The species identified in this dataset are not inclusive of all aquatic nuisance species, but rather a subset identified to be at risk for transport by recreational activities such as boating and angling. Additionally, the locations where organisims have been identified are also not inclusive and should be treated as a guide. Organisms are limited to the following: American bullfrog, Asian clam, Asian shore crab, Asian tunicate, Australian spotted jellyfish, Chinese mitten crab, New Zealand mudsnail, Colonial sea squirt, Alewife, Bighead carp, Black carp, Flathead catfish, Grass carp, Green crab, Lionfish, Northern snakehead, Quagga mussel, Round Goby, Ruffe, Rusty crayfish, Sea lamprey, Silver carp, Spiny water flea, Veined rapa whelk, Zebra mussel

  14. Scaling macroscopic aquatic locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazzola, Mattia; Argentina, Médéric; Mahadevan, L.

    2014-10-01

    Inertial aquatic swimmers that use undulatory gaits range in length L from a few millimetres to 30 metres, across a wide array of biological taxa. Using elementary hydrodynamic arguments, we uncover a unifying mechanistic principle characterizing their locomotion by deriving a scaling relation that links swimming speed U to body kinematics (tail beat amplitude A and frequency ω) and fluid properties (kinematic viscosity ν). This principle can be simply couched as the power law Re ~ Swα, where Re = UL/ν >> 1 and Sw = ωAL/ν, with α = 4/3 for laminar flows, and α = 1 for turbulent flows. Existing data from over 1,000 measurements on fish, amphibians, larvae, reptiles, mammals and birds, as well as direct numerical simulations are consistent with our scaling. We interpret our results as the consequence of the convergence of aquatic gaits to the performance limits imposed by hydrodynamics.

  15. Scaling macroscopic aquatic locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazzola, Mattia; Argentina, Mederic; Mahadevan, Lakshminarayanan

    2014-11-01

    Inertial aquatic swimmers that use undulatory gaits range in length L from a few millimeters to 30 meters, across a wide array of biological taxa. Using elementary hydrodynamic arguments, we uncover a unifying mechanistic principle characterizing their locomotion by deriving a scaling relation that links swimming speed U to body kinematics (tail beat amplitude A and frequency ω) and fluid properties (kinematic viscosity ν). This principle can be simply couched as the power law Re ~ Swα , where Re = UL / ν >> 1 and Sw = ωAL / ν , with α = 4 / 3 for laminar flows, and α = 1 for turbulent flows. Existing data from over 1000 measurements on fish, amphibians, larvae, reptiles, mammals and birds, as well as direct numerical simulations are consistent with our scaling. We interpret our results as the consequence of the convergence of aquatic gaits to the performance limits imposed by hydrodynamics.

  16. Evaluation of different approaches for identifying optimal sites to predict mean hillslope soil moisture content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Kaihua; Zhou, Zhiwen; Lai, Xiaoming; Zhu, Qing; Feng, Huihui

    2017-04-01

    The identification of representative soil moisture sampling sites is important for the validation of remotely sensed mean soil moisture in a certain area and ground-based soil moisture measurements in catchment or hillslope hydrological studies. Numerous approaches have been developed to identify optimal sites for predicting mean soil moisture. Each method has certain advantages and disadvantages, but they have rarely been evaluated and compared. In our study, surface (0-20 cm) soil moisture data from January 2013 to March 2016 (a total of 43 sampling days) were collected at 77 sampling sites on a mixed land-use (tea and bamboo) hillslope in the hilly area of Taihu Lake Basin, China. A total of 10 methods (temporal stability (TS) analyses based on 2 indices, K-means clustering based on 6 kinds of inputs and 2 random sampling strategies) were evaluated for determining optimal sampling sites for mean soil moisture estimation. They were TS analyses based on the smallest index of temporal stability (ITS, a combination of the mean relative difference and standard deviation of relative difference (SDRD)) and based on the smallest SDRD, K-means clustering based on soil properties and terrain indices (EFs), repeated soil moisture measurements (Theta), EFs plus one-time soil moisture data (EFsTheta), and the principal components derived from EFs (EFs-PCA), Theta (Theta-PCA), and EFsTheta (EFsTheta-PCA), and global and stratified random sampling strategies. Results showed that the TS based on the smallest ITS was better (RMSE = 0.023 m3 m-3) than that based on the smallest SDRD (RMSE = 0.034 m3 m-3). The K-means clustering based on EFsTheta (-PCA) was better (RMSE <0.020 m3 m-3) than these based on EFs (-PCA) and Theta (-PCA). The sampling design stratified by the land use was more efficient than the global random method. Forty and 60 sampling sites are needed for stratified sampling and global sampling respectively to make their performances comparable to the best K

  17. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project Evaluation of Siting a HTGR Co-generation Plant on an Operating Commercial Nuclear Power Plant Site

    SciTech Connect

    L.E. Demick

    2011-10-01

    This paper summarizes an evaluation by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project of siting a High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) plant on an existing nuclear plant site that is located in an area of significant industrial activity. This is a co-generation application in which the HTGR Plant will be supplying steam and electricity to one or more of the nearby industrial plants.

  18. Ecological evaluation of proposed reference sites in the New York Bight, Great South Bay, and Ambrose Light, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, W.W.; Barrows, E.S.; Word, J.Q.

    1996-10-01

    The current reference site used in evaluations of dredged material proposed for open water disposal in the New York Bight is the Mud Dump Reference Site. The sediment at this reference site is predominantly sand. The US Army Corps of Engineers New York District is considering designation of a new reference site that (1) includes a fine-grained component, believed to be necessary for adequate amphipod survival in laboratory tests, (2) better reflects the physical characteristics of the fine-grained sediment dredged from the New York/New Jersey Harbor and (3) is further removed from the Mud Dump Site than the current Mud Dump Reference Site. The Battelle Marine Science Laboratory was requested to characterize sediment collected from seven candidate reference sites during two study phases. This report presents the results of physical, chemical, and toxicological characterizations of sediment from these sites in comparisons with those of the original Mud Dump Reference Site.

  19. Infiltration experiment for closure cap evaluation at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Roddy, N.S.; Cook, J.R.

    1990-12-31

    This document discusses several large waste disposal facilities at the Savannah River Site which are being closed. These facilities include two seepage basins and the low-level waste disposal facility. The key element of the closures is the construction of a cap system to limit the infiltration of water which might reach the disposed waste. Cap designs have been modeled using the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) computer code. This code was developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers for the Environmental Protection Agency to model the effects of various cap and liner designs on the water balance at landfills. A field experiment has been set up which will allow the results of the HELP Code to be verified at the Savannah River Site (SRS) by measuring the actual water balance created by closure cap configurations which will be used in waste site closures at SRS. Two of the caps will be similar to those used for the planned closure activities. Each one has a specific closure arrangement. Once operational, the experiment will be evaluated for a five-year period.

  20. Infiltration experiment for closure cap evaluation at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Roddy, N.S.; Cook, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    This document discusses several large waste disposal facilities at the Savannah River Site which are being closed. These facilities include two seepage basins and the low-level waste disposal facility. The key element of the closures is the construction of a cap system to limit the infiltration of water which might reach the disposed waste. Cap designs have been modeled using the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) computer code. This code was developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers for the Environmental Protection Agency to model the effects of various cap and liner designs on the water balance at landfills. A field experiment has been set up which will allow the results of the HELP Code to be verified at the Savannah River Site (SRS) by measuring the actual water balance created by closure cap configurations which will be used in waste site closures at SRS. Two of the caps will be similar to those used for the planned closure activities. Each one has a specific closure arrangement. Once operational, the experiment will be evaluated for a five-year period.

  1. Environmentally-acceptable fossil energy site evaluation and selection: methodology and user's guide. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Northrop, G.M.

    1980-02-01

    This report is designed to facilitate assessments of environmental and socioeconomic impacts of fossil energy conversion facilities which might be implemented at potential sites. The discussion of methodology and the User's Guide contained herein are presented in a format that assumes the reader is not an energy technologist. Indeed, this methodology is meant for application by almost anyone with an interest in a potential fossil energy development - planners, citizen groups, government officials, and members of industry. It may also be of instructional value. The methodology is called: Site Evaluation for Energy Conversion Systems (SELECS) and is organized in three levels of increasing sophistication. Only the least complicated version - the Level 1 SELECS - is presented in this document. As stated above, it has been expressly designed to enable just about anyone to participate in evaluating the potential impacts of a proposed energy conversion facility. To accomplish this objective, the Level 1 calculations have been restricted to ones which can be performed by hand in about one working day. Data collection and report preparation may bring the total effort required for a first or one-time application to two to three weeks. If repeated applications are made in the same general region, the assembling of data for a different site or energy conversion technology will probably take much less time.

  2. Comparative evaluation of the fate of disinfection byproducts at eight aquifer storage and recovery sites.

    PubMed

    Pavelic, Paul; Dillon, Peter J; Nicholson, Brenton C

    2006-01-15

    Despite the growth in aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) as a technique for the provision of potable water supplies, quantitative data on the fate of disinfection byproducts that may be present in the injected water remain rare. This study evaluates the data from eight ASR sites in Australia and the United States that cover a wide range of source water compositions, hydrogeological environments, and operating conditions. Rates of attenuation and formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) in groundwater were determined using analytical techniques that took dilution effects into account. Half-lives varied by more than 2 orders of magnitude (e.g., <1 to >120 days for total THMs) and were both compound- and site- specific. Chloroform was most persistent, and more highly brominated compounds tended to be less persistent, as has generally been found. For any particular THM compound, much of the variability could be explained by contrasts in geochemical conditions within the aquifer since microbial degradation is the primary mechanism for THM attenuation. As such, bounds on the half-life were defined according to the redox state of the groundwater. In situ formation of some THMs in the aquifer after injection was directly observed at a number of sites, and was predicted to have taken place at all sites. The variance in formation estimates was large between the different methods used. Formation may be more common than previously thought because of the low frequency of groundwater sampling after injection and concomitant attenuation and mixing.

  3. Microplastic in Aquatic Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Ivleva, Natalia P; Wiesheu, Alexandra C; Niessner, Reinhard

    2017-02-06

    The contamination of marine and freshwater ecosystems with plastic, and especially with microplastic (MP), is a global ecological problem of increasing scientific concern. This has stimulated a great deal of research on the occurrence of MP, interaction of MP with chemical pollutants, the uptake of MP by aquatic organisms, and the resulting (negative) impact of MP. Herein, we review the major issues of MP in aquatic environments, with the principal aims 1) to characterize the methods applied for MP analysis (including sampling, processing, identification and quantification), indicate the most reliable techniques, and discuss the required further improvements; 2) to estimate the abundance of MP in marine/freshwater ecosystems and clarify the problems that hamper the comparability of such results; and 3) to summarize the existing literature on the uptake of MP by living organisms. Finally, we identify knowledge gaps, suggest possible strategies to assess environmental risks arising from MP, and discuss prospects to minimize MP abundance in aquatic ecosystems.

  4. The Vinylguaiacol/Indole or VGI ("Veggie") Ratio: A Novel Molecular Parameter to Evaluate the Relative Contributions of Terrestrial and Aquatic Organic Matter to Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruge, M. A.; Olsen, K. K.; Slusarczyk, J.; Gomez, E.

    2010-12-01

    The organic matter (OM) fraction of estuarine sediments is often distinctive and thus diagnostically useful in determinations of sedimentary provenance. Among the most fundamental distinctions to be made is that between terrestrial and aquatic OM. To supplement the parameters commonly used for this purpose (e.g., C/N and stable isotope ratios), we proposed the Vinylguaiacol/Indole or VGI ("Veggie") ratio, defined as [vinylguaiacol / (indole + vinylguaiacol)] using data produced by analytical pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of dried, homogenized sediment samples. The ratio employs the peak areas of these two compounds on the mass chromatograms of their molecular ions (m/z 150 and 117). Major pyrolysis products of terrestrial plant lignin include a variety of methoxyphenols, notably 4-vinylguaiacol. In contrast, aquatic algae and bacteria characteristically produce distinctive organonitrogen compounds upon pyrolysis, particularly indole, derived from the amino acid tryptophan. The end member VGI ratio value of 1.00 is obtained for reference land plant matter, including the marsh plants Phragmites and Spartina, as well as maple and pine wood. The end member value of 0.00 is obtained for cultured microbes, including Escherichia coli and the cyanobacterium Anacystis. Vinylguaiacol and indole are commonly detected in Recent sediment pyrolyzates. We hypothesized that their relative quantities therein should be proportional to the relative contributions of land plant and microbial OM, respectively. Samples taken from Spartina peat marshes at the mouths of major rivers (Housatonic and Connecticut) entering Long Island Sound, wetlands behind the barrier island at Cape May (NJ), and a Phragmites-dominated tidal marsh along the Hackensack River (NJ) have high (> 0.8) VGI ratio values. Sediments collected within the Newark Bay (NJ) estuary from the lower Passaic and Hackensack Rivers and the Arthur Kill show mixed terrestrial and aquatic OM signatures (VGI from 0

  5. Sediment quality assessment and Toxicity Identification Evaluation studies in Lavaca Bay, Texas -- An estuarine Superfund site

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, R.S.; Biedenbach, J.; Hooten, R.; May, L.; Teas, T.

    1995-12-31

    A sediment quality assessment survey was conducted in the Lavaca Bay system which has been designated a Superfund site because of elevated concentrations of mercury and other contaminants (e.g., PAHs) in the sediments. Twenty-four stations were sampled in the initial survey. Sediment pore water was extracted pneumatically and the toxicity of the pore water determined using the sea urchin fertilization and embryological development assays. Based on the results of the toxicity tests, aliquots of the toxic sediments were analyzed for metals, PAHs, and pesticides. Based on these results, several of the most toxic sites were resampled and a preliminary Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) was performed with the pore water using the sea urchin fertilization test. Preliminary results indicated that the toxic components were removed by adsorption on a C-18 column but were not affected by EDTA additions and, therefore, the primary toxicants are hydrophobic in nature.

  6. Oak Ridge Reservation site evaluation report for the Advanced Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Sigmon, B.; Heitzman, A.C. Jr.; Morrissey, J.

    1990-03-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is a research reactor that is the US Department of Energy (DOE) plans to build for initial service late in this century. The primary purpose of the ANS is to provide a useable neutron flux for scattering experiments 5 to 10 times as a high as that generated by any existing research reactor, secondary purposes include production of a variety of transuranic and other isotopes and irradiation of materials. The ANS is proposed to be located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and operated by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This report documents the evaluation of alternative sites on the ORR and the selection of a site for the ANS.

  7. Early Pleistocene aquatic resource use in the Turkana Basin.

    PubMed

    Archer, Will; Braun, David R; Harris, Jack W K; McCoy, Jack T; Richmond, Brian G

    2014-12-01

    Evidence for the acquisition of nutritionally dense food resources by early Pleistocene hominins has implications for both hominin biology and behavior. Aquatic fauna may have comprised a source of highly nutritious resources to hominins in the Turkana Basin at ∼1.95 Ma. Here we employ multiple datasets to examine the issue of aquatic resource use in the early Pleistocene. This study focuses on four components of aquatic faunal assemblages (1) taxonomic diversity, (2) skeletal element proportion, (3) bone fragmentation and (4) bone surface modification. These components are used to identify associations between early Pleistocene aquatic remains and hominin behavior at the site of FwJj20 in the Koobi Fora Fm. (Kenya). We focus on two dominant aquatic species: catfish and turtles. Further we suggest that data on aquatic resource availability as well as ethnographic examples of aquatic resource use complement our observations on the archaeological remains from FwJj20. Aquatic food items provided hominins with a valuable nutritional alternative to an exclusively terrestrial resource base. We argue that specific advantages afforded by an aquatic alternative to terrestrial resources include (1) a probable reduction in required investment of energy relative to economic return in the form of nutritionally dense food items, (2) a decrease in the technological costs of resource acquisition, and (3) a reduced level of inter-specific competition associated with carcass access and an associated reduction of predation risk relative to terrestrial sources of food. The combined evidence from FwJj20 suggests that aquatic resources may have played a substantial role in early Pleistocene diets and these resources may have been overlooked in previous interpretations of hominin behavior.

  8. Evaluation of Acquisition Strategies for Image-Based Construction Site Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuttas, S.; Braun, A.; Borrmann, A.; Stilla, U.

    2016-06-01

    Construction site monitoring is an essential task for keeping track of the ongoing construction work and providing up-to-date information for a Building Information Model (BIM). The BIM contains the as-planned states (geometry, schedule, costs, ...) of a construction project. For updating, the as-built state has to be acquired repeatedly and compared to the as-planned state. In the approach presented here, a 3D representation of the as-built state is calculated from photogrammetric images using multi-view stereo reconstruction. On construction sites one has to cope with several difficulties like security aspects, limited accessibility, occlusions or construction activity. Different acquisition strategies and techniques, namely (i) terrestrial acquisition with a hand-held camera, (ii) aerial acquisition using a Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and (iii) acquisition using a fixed stereo camera pair at the boom of the crane, are tested on three test sites. They are assessed considering the special needs for the monitoring tasks and limitations on construction sites. The three scenarios are evaluated based on the ability of automation, the required effort for acquisition, the necessary equipment and its maintaining, disturbance of the construction works, and on the accuracy and completeness of the resulting point clouds. Based on the experiences during the test cases the following conclusions can be drawn: Terrestrial acquisition has the lowest requirements on the device setup but lacks on automation and coverage. The crane camera shows the lowest flexibility but the highest grade of automation. The UAV approach can provide the best coverage by combining nadir and oblique views, but can be limited by obstacles and security aspects. The accuracy of the point clouds is evaluated based on plane fitting of selected building parts. The RMS errors of the fitted parts range from 1 to a few cm for the UAV and the hand-held scenario. First results show that the crane camera

  9. Prospective biomechanical evaluation of donor site morbidity after radial forearm free flap.

    PubMed

    Riecke, Björn; Kohlmeier, Carsten; Assaf, Alexandre T; Wikner, Johannes; Drabik, Anna; Catalá-Lehnen, Philip; Heiland, Max; Rendenbach, Carsten

    2016-02-01

    Although the radial forearm free flap (RFF) is a commonly-used microvascular flap for orofacial reconstruction, we are aware of few prospective biomechanical studies of the donor site. We have therefore evaluated the donor site morbidity biomechanically of 30 consecutive RFF for orofacial reconstruction preoperatively and three months postoperatively. This included the Mayo wrist score, the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score, grip strength, followed by tip pinch, key pinch, palmar pinch, and range of movement of the wrist. Primary defects were all closed with local full-thickness skin grafts from the donor site forearm, thereby circumventing the need for a second defect. Postoperative functional results showed that there was a reduction in hand strength measured by (grip strength: -24.1%, in tip pinch: -23.3%, in key pinch: -16.5, and in palmar pinch: -19.3%); and wrist movement measured by extension (active=14.3% / passive= -11.5%) and flexion = -14.8% / -8.9%), and radial (-9.8% / -9.8%) and ulnar (-11.0% / -9.3%) abduction. The Mayo wrist score was reduced by 9.4 points (-12.9%) and the DASH score increased by 16.1 points (+35.5%) compared with the same forearm preoperatively. The local skin graft resulted in a robust wound cover with a good functional result. Our results show that the reduction in hand strength and wrist movement after harvest of a RFF is objectively evaluable, and did not reflect the subjectively noticed extent and restrictions in activities of daily living. Use of a local skin graft avoids a second donor site and the disadvantages of a split-thickness skin graft.

  10. Evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyl remediation at a superfund site using tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) as indicators.

    PubMed

    Spears, Brian L; Brown, Michael W; Hester, Cyrus M

    2008-12-01

    We studied tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) at the Sangamo National Priorities List (NPL) site and a reference area (Little Grassy) within Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge, Illinois, USA, to evaluate the bioavailability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at the NPL site following remediation. Tree swallow eggs and 12- to 17-d-old chicks were collected from April to June 2004 and 2005. Total egg PCB concentrations in eggs did not differ between years at Sangamo; mean concentrations at Sangamo in 2004 to 2005 (4,452 ng/g) were higher than those from Little Grassy in 2004 (351 ng/g; p = 0.002) and 2005 (705 ng/g; p = 0.007). A positive PCB dilution in chicks is equivalent to relatively large amounts of exposure and absorption. Total PCB daily dilution in chicks in 2004 and 2005 averaged 92.4 and -203 ng/g/d at Sangamo and -21.8 and -42.7 ng/g/d at Little Grassy. Dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQs) in eggs in 2004 and 2005 were 1,844 and 676 pg/g at Sangamo and 165 and 128 pg/g at Little Grassy. Mean TEQs in chicks in 2004 and 2005 were 117 and 23.8 pg/g body weight at Sangamo and 0.8 and 0.7 pg/g body weight at Little Grassy. Total PCB concentrations in eggs and chicks at Sangamo and Little Grassy appeared to be comparable to other PCB-contaminated and reference sites. Our data demonstrate that tree swallows using the Sangamo site continue to accumulate significant quantities of PCBs seven years after remedial actions. These findings prompted a reevaluation of remediation at the site and underscore the importance of postremediation monitoring of ecological receptors, particularly in cases involving persistent environmental contaminants.

  11. Quality evaluation of portal sites in health system, as a tool for education and learning

    PubMed Central

    Hejazi, Sayed Mehdi; Sarmadi, Sima

    2013-01-01

    Background: The main objective of creating a portal is to make information service available for users who need them for performance of duties and responsibilities regardless of the sources. This article is attempted to consider the parameters that can evaluate these sites since these criteria can be effective in designing and implementing such portals. On the other hand, portal sites in health systems of every country make it possible for leaders, policy makers, and directors to system education as a tool for new learning technologies. One of the main decisions each manager has to make is precise selection of appropriate portal sites. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive and qualitative study. The research sample was 53 computer professional working in the area of computer programming and design. In the first part of the study a questionnaire was send to the participants and in the second part of the study based on their response to the questionnaire the participant was interviewed and the main themes of the studies were formulated. The validity and the reliability of the questionnaire were confirmed. Results: The study results were summarized in 10 themes and 50 sub-categories. The main themes included were portal requirements, security, management, and efficiency, user friendliness, built-in applications, portal flexibility, interoperability, and support systems. Conclusion: Portal sites in any education systems make it possible for health system leaders and policy makers to manage their organization information system efficiently and effectively. One of the major decisions each manager has to make is precise selection of an appropriate portal sites design and development. The themes and sub-categories of this study could help health system managers and policy makers and information technology professionals to make appropriate decisions regarding portal design and development. PMID:24520554

  12. Removal site evaluation report on the Tower Shielding Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This removal site evaluation report for the Tower Shielding Facility (TSF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory was prepared to provide the Environmental Restoration Program with information necessary to evaluate whether hazardous and/or radiological contaminants in and around the Tower Shielding Facility pose a substantial risk to human health or the environment (i.e., a high probability of adverse effects) and if remedial site evaluations or removal actions are, therefore, required. The scope of the project included a review of historical evidence regarding operations and use of the facility; interviews with facility personnel concerning current and past operating practices; a site inspection; and identification of hazard areas requiring maintenance, removal, or remedial actions. Based an the findings of this removal site evaluation, adequate efforts are currently being made at the TSF to contain and control existing contamination and hazardous substances on site in order to protect human health and the environment No conditions requiring maintenance or removal actions to mitigate imminent or potential threats to human health and the environment were identified during this evaluation. Given the current conditions and status of the buildings associated with the TSF, this removal site evaluation is considered complete and terminated according to the requirements for removal site evaluation termination.

  13. Projecting labor demand and worker immigration at nuclear power plant construction sites: an evaluation of methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Herzog, H.W. Jr; Schlottmann, A.M.; Schriver, W.R.

    1981-12-01

    The study evaluates methodology employed for the projection of labor demand at, and worker migration to, nuclear power plant construction sites. In addition, suggestions are offered as to how this projection methodology might be improved. The study focuses on projection methodologies which forecast either construction worker migration or labor requirements of alternative types of construction activity. Suggested methodological improvements relate both to institutional factors within the nuclear power plant construction industry, and to a better use of craft-specific data on construction worker demand/supply. In addition, the timeliness and availability of the regional occupational data required to support, or implement these suggestions are examined.

  14. Cultural Resources Investigations: Terrace Survey and Site Evaluation, Table Rock Lake, Missouri and Arkansas,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    0191 558 CULTURAL RESOURCES INVESTIGATIONS: TERRACE SURVEY ND 11.3 SITE EVALUATION TAB (U) ARCHEOLOGICAL ASSESSMENTS INC NASHVILLE AR N J BENNETT ET...AL DEC 87 UNCLASSIFIED ARCHEOLOGICAL ASSESSNENTS-69 F/G 5/6 MLI~lEEEEEEEliE IIEIIEEEBI EEEElhEEllEEEl llllllllmIlm j I’.2 A 1 i111 111 1 . .O II-.!11...ROCK LAKE ELE2TE MISSOURI AND ARKANSAS S AI BY W.J. BENNETT, JR., JACK H. RAY AND ANNE FRANCES GETTYS ARCHEOLOGICAL ASSESSMENTS REPORT NO. 69 SUBMITTED

  15. Wind lidar evaluation at the Danish wind test site in Høvsøre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David A.; Harris, Michael; Coffey, Adrian S.; Mikkelsen, Torben; Jørgensen, Hans E.; Mann, Jakob; Danielian, Régis

    2006-01-01

    Initial assessments of a wind lidar have shown the technology to have significant potential for wind field measurements in the wind energy industry. A more extended evaluation is now reported using a scanning lidar next to a meteorological mast with calibrated anemometers at the Risø wind test site in Høvsøre on the windy northwest coast of Denmark. Results are presented of wind speed comparisons at heights up to 100 m above ground level showing excellent correlation between the lidar and the cup anemometers. Copyright

  16. Evaluation of Fish Passage Sites in the Walla Walla River Basin, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Chamness, Mickie A.

    2008-08-29

    In 2008, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated the Hofer Dam fish screen and provided technical assistance at two other fish passage sites as requested by the Bonneville Power Administration, the Walla Walla Watershed Council, or the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation. Evaluation of new sites such as Hofer Dam focuses on their design, construction, operation, and maintenance to determine if they effectively provide juvenile salmonids with safe passage through irrigation diversions. There were two requests for technical assistance in 2008. In the first, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation requested an evaluation of the Nursery Bridge fish screens associated with the fish ladder on the east side of the Walla Walla River. One set of brushes that clean the screens was broken for an extended period. Underwater videography and water velocity measurements were used to determine there were no potential adverse effects on juvenile salmonids when the west set of screens was clean enough to pass water normally. A second request, received from the National Marine Fisheries Service and the Walla Walla Watershed Council, asked for evaluation of water velocities through relatively new head gates above and adjacent to the Eastside Ditch fish screens on the Walla Walla River. Water moving through the head gates and not taken for irrigation is diverted to provide water for the Nursery Bridge fish ladder on the east side of the river. Elevations used in the design of the head gates were incorrect, causing excessive flow through the head gates that closely approached or exceeded the maximum swimming burst speed of juvenile salmonids. Hofer Dam was evaluated in June 2008. PNNL researchers found that conditions at Hofer Dam will not cause impingement or entrainment of juvenile salmonids but may provide habitat for predators and lack strong sweeping flows to encourage juvenile salmonid passage downstream. Further evaluation of

  17. Predatory aquatic beetles, suitable trace elements bioindicators.

    PubMed

    Burghelea, Carmen I; Zaharescu, Dragos G; Hooda, Peter S; Palanca-Soler, Antonio

    2011-05-01

    Predatory aquatic beetles are common colonizers of natural and managed aquatic environments. While as important components of the aquatic food webs they are prone to accumulate trace elements, they have been largely neglected from metal uptake studies. We aim to test the suitability of three dytiscid species, i.e.Hydroglyphus pusillus, Laccophilus minutus and Rhantus suturalis, as trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn) bioindicators. The work was carried out in a case area representing rice paddies and control sites (reservoirs) from an arid region known for its land degradation (Monegros, NE Spain). Categorical principal component analysis (CATPCA) was tested as a nonlinear approach to identify significant relationships between metals, species and habitat conditions so as to examine the ability of these species to reflect differences in metal uptake. Except Se and As, the average concentrations of all other elements in the beetles were higher in the rice fields than in the control habitats. The CATPCA determined that H. pusillus had high capacity to accumulate Fe, Ni and Mn regardless of the habitat type, and hence may not be capable of distinguishing habitat conditions with regards to these metals. On the other hand, L. minutus was found less sensitive for Se in non-managed habitats (i.e. reservoirs), while R. suturalis was good in accumulating Al, Mo and Pb in rice fields. The latter seems to be a promising bioindicator of metal enrichment in rice fields. We conclude that predatory aquatic beetles are good candidates for trace elements bioindication in impacted and non-impacted environments and can be used in environmental monitoring studies. CATPCA proved to be a reliable approach to unveil trends in metal accumulation in aquatic invertebrates according to their habitat status.

  18. Monitoring and Evaluation of Environmental Flow Prescriptions for Five Demonstration Sites of the Sustainable Rivers Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konrad, Christopher P.

    2010-01-01

    The Nature Conservancy has been working with U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) through the Sustainable Rivers Project (SRP) to modify operations of dams to achieve ecological objectives in addition to meeting the authorized purposes of the dams. Modifications to dam operations are specified in terms of environmental flow prescriptions that quantify the magnitude, duration, frequency, and seasonal timing of releases to achieve specific ecological outcomes. Outcomes of environmental flow prescriptions implemented from 2002 to 2008 have been monitored and evaluated at demonstration sites in five rivers: Green River, Kentucky; Savannah River, Georgia/South Carolina; Bill Williams River, Arizona; Big Cypress Creek, Texas; and Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon. Monitoring and evaluation have been accomplished through collaborative partnerships of federal and state agencies, universities, and nongovernmental organizations.

  19. The influence of social networking web sites on the evaluation of job candidates.

    PubMed

    Bohnert, Daniel; Ross, William H

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated how the content of social networking Web site (SNW) pages influenced others' evaluation of job candidates. Students (N = 148) evaluated the suitability of hypothetical candidates for an entry-level managerial job. A 2 x 4 design was employed: résumés were either marginally qualified or well qualified for the job. SNW printouts reflected (a) an emphasis on drinking alcohol, (b) a family orientation, or (c) a professional orientation; participants in a control group received no Web page information. In addition to a main effect for résumé quality, applicants with either a family-oriented or a professional-oriented SNW were seen as more suitable for the job and more conscientious than applicants with alcohol-oriented SNW pages. They were more likely to be interviewed. If hired, they were also likely to be offered significantly higher starting salaries. Results are discussed in terms of implications for both managers and applicants.

  20. SITE (Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation) demonstration of the Shirco infrared incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, H.O.; Rosenthal, S.

    1988-10-01

    A Shirco Infrared System used for a removal action at a PCB-containing oil-refining waste site in Brandon, Florida (a suburb of Tampa) was evaluated. The evaluation included a determination of toxics in the material being decontaminated as well as all the effluent streams such as ash, air emissions and waste water. These streams were analyzed for heavy metals, organics, dioxins, furans as well as NOx, and inorganic acids. Leaching tests were performed on the ash. The results indicated that the PCB was reduced from 5 to 100 ppm to less than 1 ppm in the ash, which was the purpose of the removal action. Although research had indicated that the lead compounds in the ash would become insoluble because they would be complexed with carbon, the ash could not be considered non-leachable based on the EP toxicity tests.