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Sample records for situ molten metal

  1. From Oxygen Generation to Metals Production: In Situ Resource Utilization by Molten Oxide Electrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khetpal, Deepak; Ducret, Andrew C.; Sadoway, Donald R.

    2003-01-01

    For the exploration of other bodies in the solar system, electrochemical processing is arguably the most versatile technology for conversion of local resources into usable commodities: by electrolysis one can, in principle, produce (1) breathable oxygen, (2) silicon for the fabrication of solar cells, (3) various reactive metals for use as electrodes in advanced storage batteries, and (4) structural metals such as steel and aluminum. Even so, to date there has been no sustained effort to develop such processes, in part due to the inadequacy of the database. The objective here is to identify chemistries capable of sustaining molten oxide electrolysis in the cited applications and to examine the behavior of laboratory-scale cells designed to generate oxygen and to produce metal. The basic research includes the study of the underlying high-temperature physical chemistry of oxide melts representative of lunar regolith and of Martian soil. To move beyond empirical approaches to process development, the thermodynamic and transport properties of oxide melts are being studied to help set the limits of composition and temperature for the processing trials conducted in laboratory-scale electrolysis cells. The goal of this investigation is to deliver a working prototype cell that can use lunar regolith and Martian soil to produce breathable oxygen along with metal by-product. Additionally, the process can be generalized to permit adaptation to accommodate different feedstock chemistries, such as those that will be encountered on other bodies in the solar system. The expected results of this research include: (1) the identification of appropriate electrolyte chemistries; (2) the selection of candidate anode and cathode materials compatible with electrolytes named above; and (3) performance data from a laboratory-scale cell producing oxygen and metal. On the strength of these results it should be possible to assess the technical viability of molten oxide electrolysis for in

  2. Molten metal reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, Dennis N; Klingler, Kerry M; Turner, Terry D; Wilding, Bruce M

    2013-11-05

    A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

  3. Supported molten-metal catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Datta, Ravindra; Singh, Ajeet; Halasz, Istvan; Serban, Manuela

    2001-01-01

    An entirely new class of catalysts called supported molten-metal catalysts, SMMC, which can replace some of the existing precious metal catalysts used in the production of fuels, commodity chemicals, and fine chemicals, as well as in combating pollution. SMMC are based on supporting ultra-thin films or micro-droplets of the relatively low-melting (<600.degree. C.), inexpensive, and abundant metals and semimetals from groups 1, 12, 13, 14, 15 and 16, of the periodic table, or their alloys and intermetallic compounds, on porous refractory supports, much like supported microcrystallites of the traditional solid metal catalysts. It thus provides orders of magnitude higher surface area than is obtainable in conventional reactors containing molten metals in pool form and also avoids corrosion. These have so far been the chief stumbling blocks in the application of molten metal catalysts.

  4. Molten metal injector system and method

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, Thomas N.; Kinosz, Michael J.; Bigler, Nicolas; Arnaud, Guy

    2003-04-01

    Disclosed is a molten metal injector system including a holder furnace, a casting mold supported above the holder furnace, and a molten metal injector supported from a bottom side of the mold. The holder furnace contains a supply of molten metal having a metal oxide film surface. The bottom side of the mold faces the holder furnace. The mold defines a mold cavity for receiving the molten metal from the holder furnace. The injector projects into the holder furnace and is in fluid communication with the mold cavity. The injector includes a piston positioned within a piston cavity defined by a cylinder for pumping the molten metal upward from the holder furnace and injecting the molten metal into the mold cavity under pressure. The piston and cylinder are at least partially submerged in the molten metal when the holder furnace contains the molten metal. The cylinder further includes a molten metal intake for receiving the molten metal into the piston cavity. The molten metal intake is located below the metal oxide film surface of the molten metal when the holder furnace contains the molten metal. A method of injecting molten metal into a mold cavity of a casting mold is also disclosed.

  5. A novel molten-salt electrochemical cell for investigating the reduction of uranium dioxide to uranium metal by lithium using in situ synchrotron radiation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Leon D; Abdulaziz, Rema; Jervis, Rhodri; Bharath, Vidal; Mason, Thomas J; Atwood, Robert C; Reinhard, Christina; Connor, Leigh D; Inman, Douglas; Brett, Daniel J L; Shearing, Paul R

    2017-03-01

    A novel electrochemical cell has been designed and built to allow for in situ energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction measurements to be made during reduction of UO2 to U metal in LiCl-KCl at 500°C. The electrochemical cell contains a recessed well at the bottom of the cell into which the working electrode sits, reducing the beam path for the X-rays through the molten-salt and maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio from the sample. Lithium metal was electrodeposited onto the UO2 working electrode by exposing the working electrode to more negative potentials than the Li deposition potential of the LiCl-KCl eutectic electrolyte. The Li metal acts as a reducing agent for the chemical reduction of UO2 to U, which appears to proceed to completion. All phases were fitted using Le Bail refinement. The cell is expected to be widely applicable to many studies involving molten-salt systems.

  6. A novel molten-salt electrochemical cell for investigating the reduction of uranium dioxide to uranium metal by lithium using in situ synchrotron radiation

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Leon D.; Abdulaziz, Rema; Jervis, Rhodri; Bharath, Vidal; Mason, Thomas J.; Reinhard, Christina; Connor, Leigh D.; Inman, Douglas; Brett, Daniel J. L.; Shearing, Paul R.

    2017-01-01

    A novel electrochemical cell has been designed and built to allow for in situ energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction measurements to be made during reduction of UO2 to U metal in LiCl–KCl at 500°C. The electrochemical cell contains a recessed well at the bottom of the cell into which the working electrode sits, reducing the beam path for the X-rays through the molten-salt and maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio from the sample. Lithium metal was electrodeposited onto the UO2 working electrode by exposing the working electrode to more negative potentials than the Li deposition potential of the LiCl–KCl eutectic electrolyte. The Li metal acts as a reducing agent for the chemical reduction of UO2 to U, which appears to proceed to completion. All phases were fitted using Le Bail refinement. The cell is expected to be widely applicable to many studies involving molten-salt systems. PMID:28244437

  7. Metal Oxide Solubility and Molten Salt Corrosion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-29

    METAL OXIDE SOLUBILITY AND MOLTEN SALT CORROSION.(U) MAR 82 K H STERN UNCLASSI E DL R L-4772NL EL .2. MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATIONAL BURALU...METAL OXIDE SOLUBILITY AND MOLTEN SALT Interim report on a continuing CORROSION NRL problem. S. PERFORMING a4. REPORT NUMlER 7. AuTtwORr) S. CONTRACT OR...EQUILIBRIA AND OXIDE SOLUTION RELATIONS IN MOLTEN SALTS ............................................. 2 IV. METHODS FOR DETERMINING SOLUBILITIES

  8. Recirculating Molten Metal Supply System And Method

    DOEpatents

    Kinosz, Michael J.; Meyer, Thomas N.

    2003-07-01

    The melter furnace includes a heating chamber (16), a pump chamber (18), a degassing chamber (20), and a filter chamber (22). The pump chamber (18) is located adjacent the heating chamber (16) and houses a molten metal pump (30). The degassing chamber (20) is located adjacent and in fluid communication with the pump chamber (18), and houses a degassing mechanism (36). The filter chamber (22) is located adjacent and in fluid communication with the degassing chamber (20). The filter chamber (22) includes a molten metal filter (38). The melter furnace (12) is used to supply molten metal to an externally located holder furnace (14), which then recirculates molten metal back to the melter furnace (12).

  9. Method and apparatus for atomization and spraying of molten metals

    DOEpatents

    Hobson, D.O.; Alexeff, I.; Sikka, V.K.

    1988-07-19

    A method and device for dispersing molten metal into fine particulate spray, the method comprises applying an electric current through the molten metal and simultaneously applying a magnetic field to the molten metal in a plane perpendicular to the electric current, whereby the molten metal is caused to form into droplets at an angle perpendicular to both the electric current and the magnetic field. The device comprises a structure for providing a molten metal, appropriately arranged electrodes for applying an electric current through the molten metal, and a magnet for providing a magnetic field in a plane perpendicular to the electric current. 11 figs.

  10. Method and apparatus for atomization and spraying of molten metals

    DOEpatents

    Hobson, David O.; Alexeff, Igor; Sikka, Vinod K.

    1990-01-01

    A method and device for dispersing molten metal into fine particulate spray, the method comprises applying an electric current through the molten metal and simultaneously applying a magnetic field to the molten metal in a plane perpendicular to the electric current, whereby the molten metal is caused to form into droplets at an angle perpendicular to both the electric current and the magnetic field. The device comprises a structure for providing a molten metal, appropriately arranged electrodes for applying an electric current through the molten metal, and a magnet for providing a magnetic field in a plane perpendicular to the electric current.

  11. Molten metal analysis by laser produced plasmas. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yong W.

    1994-02-01

    A new method of molten metal analysis, based on time- and space-resolved spectroscopy of a laser-produced plasma (LPP) plume of a molten metal surface, has been implemented in the form of a prototype LPP sensor-probe, allowing in-situ analysis in less than 1 minute. The research at Lehigh University has been structured in 3 phases: laboratory verification of concept, comparison of LPP method with conventional analysis of solid specimens and field trials of prototype sensor-probe in small-scale metal shops, and design/production/installation of two sensor-probes in metal production shops. Accomplishments in the first 2 phases are reported. 6 tabs, 3 figs.

  12. A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, G.V.; Carlson, N.M., Donaldson, A.D.

    1990-12-12

    A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume and in particular molten titanium liquid pools, including the steps of (a) generating an ultrasonic wave at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, (b) shining a light on the surface of a molten metal liquid pool, (c) detecting a change in the frequency of light, (d) detecting an ultrasonic wave echo at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, and (e) computing the volume of the molten metal liquid. 3 figs.

  13. Studies of metals electroprocessing in molten salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadoway, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    Fluid flow patterns in molten salt electrolytes were observed in order to determine how mass transport affects the morphology of the metal deposit. Studies conducted on the same metal, both in aqueous electrolytes in which coherent solid electrodeposits are produced, as well as in transparent molten salt electrolytes are described. Process variables such as current density and composition of the electrolyte are adjusted to change the morphology of the electrodeposit and, thus, to permit the study of the nature of electrolyte flow in relation to the quality of the electrodeposit.

  14. Metals Electroprocessing in Molten Salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadoway, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    The present study seeks to explain the poor quality of solid electrodeposits in molten salts through a consideration of the effects of fluid flow of the electrolyte. Transparent cells allow observation of electrolyte circulation by a laser schlieren optical technique during the electrodeposition of solid zinc from the molten salt electrolyte, ZnCl2 - LiCl-KCl. Experimental variables are current, density, electrolyte composition, and cell geometry. Based on the results of earlier electrodeposition studies as well as reports in the literature, these parameters are identified as having the primary influence on cell performance and deposit quality. Experiments are conducted to measure the fluid flow patterns and the electrochemical cell characteristics, and to correlate this information with the morphology of the solid electrodeposit produced. Specifically, cell voltage, cell current, characteristic time for dendrite evolution, and dendrite growth directions are noted. Their relationship to electrolyte flow patterns and the morphology of the resulting electrodeposit are derived. Results to date indicate that laser schlieren imaging is capable of revealing fluid flow patterns in a molten salt electrolyte.

  15. Method for recovering hydrocarbons from molten metal halides

    DOEpatents

    Pell, Melvyn B.

    1979-01-01

    In a process for hydrocracking heavy carbonaceous materials by contacting such carbonaceous materials with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst to produce hydrocarbons having lower molecular weights and thereafter recovering the hydrocarbons so produced from the molten metal halide, an improvement comprising injecting into the spent molten metal halide, a liquid low-boiling hydrocarbon stream is disclosed.

  16. Process for recovering tritium from molten lithium metal

    DOEpatents

    Maroni, Victor A.

    1976-01-01

    Lithium tritide (LiT) is extracted from molten lithium metal that has been exposed to neutron irradiation for breeding tritium within a thermonuclear or fission reactor. The extraction is performed by intimately contacting the molten lithium metal with a molten lithium salt, for instance, lithium chloride - potassium chloride eutectic to distribute LiT between the salt and metal phases. The extracted tritium is recovered in gaseous form from the molten salt phase by a subsequent electrolytic or oxidation step.

  17. Metals processing control by counting molten metal droplets

    DOEpatents

    Schlienger, Eric; Robertson, Joanna M.; Melgaard, David; Shelmidine, Gregory J.; Van Den Avyle, James A.

    2000-01-01

    Apparatus and method for controlling metals processing (e.g., ESR) by melting a metal ingot and counting molten metal droplets during melting. An approximate amount of metal in each droplet is determined, and a melt rate is computed therefrom. Impedance of the melting circuit is monitored, such as by calculating by root mean square a voltage and current of the circuit and dividing the calculated current into the calculated voltage. Analysis of the impedance signal is performed to look for a trace characteristic of formation of a molten metal droplet, such as by examining skew rate, curvature, or a higher moment.

  18. Supported Molten Metal Membranes for Hydrogen Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, Ravindra; Ma, Yi Hua; Yen, Pei-Shan; Deveau, Nicholas; Fishtik, Ilie; Mardilovich, Ivan

    2013-09-30

    We describe here our results on the feasibility of a novel dense metal membrane for hydrogen separation: Supported Molten Metal Membrane, or SMMM.1 The goal in this work was to develop these new membranes based on supporting thin films of low-melting, non- precious group metals, e.g., tin (Sn), indium (In), gallium (Ga), or their alloys, to provide a flux and selectivity of hydrogen that rivals the conventional but substantially more expensive palladium (Pd) or Pd alloy membranes, which are susceptible to poisoning by the many species in the coal-derived syngas, and further possess inadequate stability and limited operating temperature range. The novelty of the technology presented numerous challenges during the course of this project, however, mainly in the selection of appropriate supports, and in the fabrication of a stable membrane. While the wetting instability of the SMMM remains an issue, we did develop an adequate understanding of the interaction between molten metal films with porous supports that we were able to find appropriate supports. Thus, our preliminary results indicate that the Ga/SiC SMMM at 550 ºC has a permeance that is an order of magnitude higher than that of Pd, and exceeds the 2015 DOE target. To make practical SMM membranes, however, further improving the stability of the molten metal membrane is the next goal. For this, it is important to better understand the change in molten metal surface tension and contact angle as a function of temperature and gas-phase composition. A thermodynamic theory was, thus, developed, that is not only able to explain this change in the liquid-gas surface tension, but also the change in the solid-liquid surface tension as well as the contact angle. This fundamental understanding has allowed us to determine design characteristics to maintain stability in the face of changing gas composition. These designs are being developed. For further progress, it is also important to understand the nature of solution and

  19. Molten metal holder furnace and casting system incorporating the molten metal holder furnace

    DOEpatents

    Kinosz, Michael J.; Meyer, Thomas N.

    2003-02-11

    A bottom heated holder furnace (12) for containing a supply of molten metal includes a storage vessel (30) having sidewalls (32) and a bottom wall (34) defining a molten metal receiving chamber (36). A furnace insulating layer (42) lines the molten metal receiving chamber (36). A thermally conductive heat exchanger block (54) is located at the bottom of the molten metal receiving chamber (36) for heating the supply of molten metal. The heat exchanger block (54) includes a bottom face (65), side faces (66), and a top face (67). The heat exchanger block (54) includes a plurality of electrical heaters (70) extending therein and projecting outward from at least one of the faces of the heat exchanger block (54), and further extending through the furnace insulating layer (42) and one of the sidewalls (32) of the storage vessel (30) for connection to a source of electrical power. A sealing layer (50) covers the bottom face (65) and side faces (66) of the heat exchanger block (54) such that the heat exchanger block (54) is substantially separated from contact with the furnace insulating layer (42).

  20. Applications of molten salts in reactive metals processing

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, B.; Olson, D.L.; Averill, W.A.

    1993-12-31

    Pyrochemical processes using molten salts provide a unique opportunity for the extraction and refining of many reactive and valuable metals either directly from the beneficiated ore or from other process effluent that contain reactive metal compounds. This research program is aimed at developing a process for the production and recovery of reactive and valuable metals, such as zinc, tin, lead, bismuth and silver, in a hybrid reactor combining electrolytic production of the calcium reductant and in-situ utilization of this reductant for pyrochemical reduction of the metal compounds, such as halide or oxides. The process is equally suitable for producing other low melting metals, such as cadmium and antimony. The cell is typically operated below 1000C temperature. Attempts have been made to produce silver, lead, bismuth, tin and cerium by calciothermic reduction in a molten salt media. In a separate effort, calcium has been produced by an electrolytic dissociation of lime in a calcium chloride medium. The most important characteristic of the hybrid technology is its ability to produce metals under ``zero-waste`` conditions.

  1. Electrochemical cell utilizing molten alkali metal electrode-reactant

    DOEpatents

    Virkar, Anil V.; Miller, Gerald R.

    1983-11-04

    An improved electrochemical cell comprising an additive-modified molten alkali metal electrode-reactant and/or electrolyte is disclosed. Various electrochemical cells employing a molten alkali metal, e.g., sodium, electrode in contact with a cationically conductive ceramic membrane experience a lower resistance and a lower temperature coefficient of resistance whenever small amounts of selenium are present at the interface of the electrolyte and the molten alkali metal. Further, cells having small amounts of selenium present at the electrolyte-molten metal interface exhibit less degradation of the electrolyte under long term cycling conditions.

  2. Pump for molten metal or other fluid

    DOEpatents

    Horton, James A.; Brown, Donald L.

    1994-01-01

    A pump having no moving parts which can be used to pump high temperature molten metal or other fluids in a vacuum or low pressure environment, and a method for pumping such fluids. The pump combines elements of a bubble pump with a trap which isolates the vacuum or low pressure region from the gas used to create the bubbles. When used in a vacuum the trap prevents the pumping gas from escaping into the isolated region and thereby reducing the quality of the vacuum. The pump includes a channel in which a pumping gas is forced under pressure into a cavity where bubbles are formed. The cavity is in contact with a reservoir which contains the molten metal or other fluid which is to be pumped. The bubbles rise up into a column (or pump tube) carrying the fluid with them. At the top of the column is located a deflector which causes the bubbles to burst and the drops of pumped fluid to fall into a trap. The fluid accumulates in the trap, eventually forcing its way to an outlet. A roughing pump can be used to withdraw the pumping gas from the top of the column and assist with maintaining the vacuum or low pressure environment.

  3. Pendant-Drop Surface-Tension Measurement On Molten Metal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Man, Kin Fung; Thiessen, David

    1996-01-01

    Method of measuring surface tension of molten metal based on pendant-drop method implemented in quasi-containerless manner and augmented with digital processing of image data. Electrons bombard lower end of sample rod in vacuum, generating hanging drop of molten metal. Surface tension of drop computed from its shape. Technique minimizes effects of contamination.

  4. Applications of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) in Molten Metal Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Shaymus W.; Craparo, Joseph; De Saro, Robert; Apelian, Diran

    2017-10-01

    In order for metals to meet the demand for critical applications in the automotive, aerospace, and defense industries, tight control over the composition and cleanliness of the metal must be achieved. The use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for applications in metal processing has generated significant interest for its ability to perform quick analyses in situ. The fundamentals of LIBS, current techniques for deployment on molten metal, demonstrated capabilities, and possible avenues for development are reviewed and discussed.

  5. Observations of impact-induced molten metal-silicate partitioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowan, Linda R.; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1994-01-01

    Observations of molten mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB)-molybdenum (Mo) interactions produced by shock experiments provide insight into impact and differentiation processes involving metal-silicate partitioning. Analysis of fragments recovered from experiments (achieving MORB liquid shock pressures from 0.8 to 6 GPa) revealed significant changes in the composition of the MORB and Mo due to reaction of the silicate and metal liquids on a short time scale (less than 13 s). The FeO concentration of the shocked liquid decreases systematically with increasing pressure. In fact, the most highly shocked liquid (6 GPa) contains only 0.1 wt% FeO compared to an initial concentration of 9 wt% in the MORB. We infer from the presence of micrometer-sized Fe-, Si- and Mo-rich metallic spheres in the shocked glass that the Fe and Si oxides in the MORB were reduced in an estimated oxygen fugacity of 10(exp -17) bar and subsequently alloyed with the Mo. The in-situ reduction of FeO in the shocked molten basalt implies that shock-induced reduction of impact melt should be considered a viable mechanism for the formation of metallic phases. Similar metallic phases may form during impact accretion of planets and in impacted material found on the lunar surface and near terrestrial impact craters. In particular, the minute, isolated Fe particles found in lunar soils may have formed by such a process. Furthermore, the metallic spheres within the shocked glass have a globular texture similar to the textures of metallic spheroids from lunar samples and the estimated, slow cooling rate of less than or equal to 140 C/s for our spheres is consistent with the interpretation that the lunar spheroids formed by slow cooling within a melted target.

  6. Pressurized tundish for controlling a continuous flow of molten metal

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, T.W.; Hamill, P.E. Jr.; Ozgu, M.R.; Padfield, R.C.; Rego, D.N.; Brita, G.P.

    1990-07-24

    A pressurized tundish for controlling a continuous flow of molten metal is characterized by having a pair of principal compartments, one being essentially unpressurized and receiving molten metal introduced thereto, and the other being adapted for maintaining a controlled gaseous pressure over the surface of the fluid metal therein, whereby, by controlling the pressure within the pressurized chamber, metal exiting from the tundish is made to flow continually and at a controlled rate. 1 fig.

  7. Pressurized tundish for controlling a continuous flow of molten metal

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Thomas W.; Hamill, Jr., Paul E.; Ozgu, Mustafa R.; Padfield, Ralph C.; Rego, Donovan N.; Brita, Guido P.

    1990-01-01

    A pressurized tundish for controlling a continous flow of molten metal characterized by having a pair of principal compartments, one being essentially unpressurized and receiving molten metal introduced thereto, and the other being adapted for maintaining a controlled gaseous pressure over the surface of the fluid metal therein, whereby, by controlling the pressure within the pressurized chamber, metal exiting from the tundish is made to flow continually and at a controlled rate.

  8. Casting Apparatus Including A Gas Driven Molten Metal Injector And Method

    DOEpatents

    Trudel, David R.; Meyer, Thomas N.; Kinosz, Michael J.; Arnaud, Guy; Bigler, Nicolas

    2003-06-17

    The filtering molten metal injector system includes a holder furnace, a casting mold supported above the holder furnace, and at least one molten metal injector supported from a bottom side of the casting mold. The holder furnace contains a supply of molten metal. The mold defines a mold cavity for receiving the molten metal from the holder furnace. The molten metal injector projects into the holder furnace. The molten metal injector includes a cylinder defining a piston cavity housing a reciprocating piston for pumping the molten metal upward from the holder furnace to the mold cavity. The cylinder and piston are at least partially submerged in the molten metal when the holder furnace contains the molten metal. The cylinder or the piston includes a molten metal intake for receiving the molten metal into the piston cavity when the holder furnace contains molten metal. A conduit connects the piston cavity to the mold cavity. A molten metal filter is located in the conduit for filtering the molten metal passing through the conduit during the reciprocating movement of the piston. The molten metal intake may be a valve connected to the cylinder, a gap formed between the piston and an open end of the cylinder, an aperture defined in the sidewall of the cylinder, or a ball check valve incorporated into the piston. A second molten metal filter preferably covers the molten metal intake to the injector.

  9. Castable cements to prevent corrosion of metals in molten salts

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Vidal, Judith C.; Morton, E.

    2016-04-22

    Castable cements on metals form a protective barrier that is able to prevent permeation of molten salts towards metallic surfaces. Silica-based castable cements are capable of protecting containment metallic alloys from the corrosive attack of molten chlorides at temperatures as high as 650 °C. Boron nitride (BN) blocking the pores in the cured cement prevents permeation of the molten chloride towards the metal surface. The cements tested are not chemically stable in molten carbonates, because the bonding components dissolved into molten carbonates salt. The corrosion rate is 7.72±0.32 mm/year for bare stainless steel 347 in molten eutectic NaCl – 65.58 wt% LiCl at 650 °C, which is the baseline used for determining how well the cement protects the metallic surfaces from corrosion. In particular the metal fully encapsulated with Aremco 645-N with pores filled with boron nitride immersed in molten eutectic NaCl – 65.58 wt% LiCl at 650 °C shows a corrosion rate of 9E-04 mm/year. Here, the present study gives initial corrosion rates. Long-term tests are required to determine if Aremco 645-N with BN coating on metal has long term chemical stability for blocking salt permeation through coating pores.

  10. Castable cements to prevent corrosion of metals in molten salts

    DOE PAGES

    Gomez-Vidal, Judith C.; Morton, E.

    2016-04-22

    Castable cements on metals form a protective barrier that is able to prevent permeation of molten salts towards metallic surfaces. Silica-based castable cements are capable of protecting containment metallic alloys from the corrosive attack of molten chlorides at temperatures as high as 650 °C. Boron nitride (BN) blocking the pores in the cured cement prevents permeation of the molten chloride towards the metal surface. The cements tested are not chemically stable in molten carbonates, because the bonding components dissolved into molten carbonates salt. The corrosion rate is 7.72±0.32 mm/year for bare stainless steel 347 in molten eutectic NaCl – 65.58more » wt% LiCl at 650 °C, which is the baseline used for determining how well the cement protects the metallic surfaces from corrosion. In particular the metal fully encapsulated with Aremco 645-N with pores filled with boron nitride immersed in molten eutectic NaCl – 65.58 wt% LiCl at 650 °C shows a corrosion rate of 9E-04 mm/year. Here, the present study gives initial corrosion rates. Long-term tests are required to determine if Aremco 645-N with BN coating on metal has long term chemical stability for blocking salt permeation through coating pores.« less

  11. Castable cements to prevent corrosion of metals in molten salts

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Vidal, J. C.; Morton, E.

    2016-08-01

    Castable cements on metals form a protective barrier that is able to prevent permeation of molten salts towards metallic surfaces. Silica-based castable cements are capable of protecting containment metallic alloys from the corrosive attack of molten chlorides at temperatures as high as 650 degrees C. Boron nitride (BN) blocking the pores in the cured cement prevents permeation of the molten chloride towards the metal surface. The cements tested are not chemically stable in molten carbonates, because the bonding components dissolved into molten carbonates salt. The corrosion rate is 7.72+/-0.32 mm/year for bare stainless steel 347 in molten eutectic NaCl - 65.58 wt% LiCl at 650 degrees C, which is the baseline used for determining how well the cement protects the metallic surfaces from corrosion. In particular the metal fully encapsulated with Aremco 645-N with pores filled with boron nitride immersed in molten eutectic NaCl - 65.58 wt% LiCl at 650 degrees C shows a corrosion rate of 9E-04 mm/year. The present study gives initial corrosion rates. Long-term tests are required to determine if Aremco 645-N with BN coating on metal has long term chemical stability for blocking salt permeation through coating pores.

  12. WORKER REMOVING SLAG FROM THE MOLTEN METAL BATH IN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WORKER REMOVING SLAG FROM THE MOLTEN METAL BATH IN THE ELECTRIC FURNACE AFTER ADDING A CHEMICAL COAGULANT TO FORCE IT TO THE SURFACE. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Melting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  13. Physicochemical processes on the solid metal-molten metal interface

    SciTech Connect

    Eremenko, V.N.; Dybkov, V.I.; Natanzon, Y.V.

    1985-05-01

    The authors present a method of dissolution by which bimetalspecimens of St3 and 45 steels, 12Kh18N1OT stainless steel with A995 aluminum, ADl and silumin were obtained. Tests showed high mechanical strength of the bimetals and good resistance under thermal shock conditions. The authors further conclude that the method of creation of permanent joints of metals by holding the solid, more refractory metal with a liquid low-melting one is most suitable for the production of cylindrical bimetal blanks since in this case it is easy to agitate the molten metal by rotation of the original blank of the solid metal in it. By simple machining from such a bimetal, it is possible to obtain tubes, butt joints or concentric two- and three-layer sleeves.

  14. Molten metal reactor and method of forming hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide using the molten alkaline metal reactor

    DOEpatents

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.

    2012-11-13

    A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

  15. 30 CFR 56.16013 - Working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Working with molten metal. 56.16013 Section 56.16013 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Materials...

  16. 30 CFR 57.16013 - Working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Working with molten metal. 57.16013 Section 57.16013 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  17. 30 CFR 56.16013 - Working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Working with molten metal. 56.16013 Section 56.16013 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Materials...

  18. 30 CFR 57.16013 - Working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Working with molten metal. 57.16013 Section 57.16013 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  19. 30 CFR 56.16013 - Working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Working with molten metal. 56.16013 Section 56.16013 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Materials...

  20. 30 CFR 56.16013 - Working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Working with molten metal. 56.16013 Section 56.16013 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Materials...

  1. 30 CFR 57.16013 - Working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Working with molten metal. 57.16013 Section 57.16013 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  2. 30 CFR 56.16013 - Working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Working with molten metal. 56.16013 Section 56.16013 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Materials...

  3. 30 CFR 57.16013 - Working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Working with molten metal. 57.16013 Section 57.16013 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  4. 30 CFR 57.16013 - Working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Working with molten metal. 57.16013 Section 57.16013 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  5. Supported Molten Metal Catalysis. A New Class of Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Ravindra Datta; Ajeet Singh; Manuela Serban; Istvan Halasz

    2006-06-02

    We describe a new class of heterogeneous catalysts called supported molten metal catalysis (SMMC), in which molten metal catalysts are dispersed as nanodroplets on the surface of porous supports, allowing much larger active surface area than is possible in conventional contacting techniques for catalytic metals that are molten under reaction conditions, thus greatly enhancing their activity and potential utility. Specific examples of different types of reactions are provided to demonstrate the broad applicability of the technique in designing active, selective, and stable new catalysts. It is shown that dispersing the molten metal on a support in the suggested manner can enhance the rate of a reaction by three to four orders of magnitude as a result of the concomitant increase in the active surface area. New reaction examples include {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported molten Te (melting point 450 C) and Ga (MP 30 C) catalysts for bifunctional methylcyclohexane dehydrogenation. These catalysts provide activity similar to conventional Pt-based catalysts for this with better resistance to coking. In addition, results are described for a controlled pore glass supported molten In (MP 157 C) catalyst for the selective catalytic reduction of NO with ethanol in the presence of water, demonstrating activities superior to conventional catalysts for this reaction. A discussion is also provided on the characterization of the active surface area and dispersion of these novel supported catalysts. It is clear based on the results described that the development of new active and selective supported molten metal catalysts for practical applications is entirely plausible.

  6. Advances in Molten Oxide Electrolysis for the Production of Oxygen and Metals from Lunar Regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadoway, Donald R.; Sirk, Aislinn; Sibille, Laurent; Melendez, Orlando; Lueck, Dale; Curreri, Peter; Dominquez, Jesus; Whitlow, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    As part of an In-Situ Resource Utilization infrastructure to sustain long term-human presence on the lunar surface, the production of oxygen and metals by electrolysis of lunar regolith has been the subject of major scrutiny. There is a reasonably large body of literature characterizing the candidate solvent electrolytes, including ionic liquids, molten salts, fluxed oxides, and pure molten regolith itself. In the light of this information and in consideration of available electrolytic technologies, the authors have determined that direct molten oxide electrolysis at temperatures of approx 1600 C is the most promising avenue for further development. Results from ongoing studies as well as those of previous workers will be presented. Topics include materials selection and testing, electrode stability, gas capture and analysis, and cell operation during feeding and tapping.

  7. Molten metal feed system controlled with a traveling magnetic field

    DOEpatents

    Praeg, Walter F.

    1991-01-01

    A continuous metal casting system in which the feed of molten metal is controlled by means of a linear induction motor capable of producing a magnetic traveling wave in a duct that connects a reservoir of molten metal to a caster. The linear induction motor produces a traveling magnetic wave in the duct in opposition to the pressure exerted by the head of molten metal in the reservoir so that p.sub.c =p.sub.g -p.sub.m where p.sub.c is the desired pressure in the caster, p.sub.g is the gravitational pressure in the duct exerted by the force of the head of molten metal in the reservoir, and p.sub.m is the electromagnetic pressure exerted by the force of the magnetic field traveling wave produced by the linear induction motor. The invention also includes feedback loops to the linear induction motor to control the casting pressure in response to measured characteristics of the metal being cast.

  8. Electrochemical devices utilizing molten alkali metal electrode-reactant

    DOEpatents

    Hitchcock, D.C.; Mailhe, C.C.; De Jonghe, L.C.

    1985-07-10

    Electrochemical cells are provided with a reactive metal to reduce the oxide of the alkali metal electrode-reactant. Cells employing a molten alkali metal electrode, e.g., sodium, in contact with a ceramic electrolyte, which is a conductor of the ions of the alkali metal forming the electrode, exhibit a lower resistance when a reactive metal, e.g., vanadium, is allowed to react with and reduce the alkali metal oxide. Such cells exhibit less degradation of the electrolyte and of the glass seals often used to joining the electrolyte to the other components of the cell under cycling conditions.

  9. Electrochemical devices utilizing molten alkali metal electrode-reactant

    DOEpatents

    Hitchcock, David C.; Mailhe, Catherine C.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    1986-01-01

    Electrochemical cells are provided with a reactive metal to reduce the oxide of the alkali metal electrode-reactant. Cells employing a molten alkali metal electrode, e.g., sodium, in contact with a ceramic electrolyte, which is a conductor of the ions of the alkali metal forming the electrode, exhibit a lower resistance when a reactive metal, e.g., vanadium, is allowed to react with and reduce the alkali metal oxide. Such cells exhibit less degradation of the electrolyte and of the glass seals often used to joining the electrolyte to the other components of the cell under cycling conditions.

  10. Molten metal containment vessel with rare earth oxysulfide protective coating thereon and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Krikorian, Oscar H.; Curtis, Paul G.

    1992-01-01

    An improved molten metal containment vessel is disclosed in which wetting of the vessel's inner wall surfaces by molten metal is inhibited by coating at least the inner surfaces of the containment vessel with one or more rare earth oxysulfide or rare earth sulfide compounds to inhibit wetting and or adherence by the molten metal to the surfaces of the containment vessel.

  11. Two techniques enable sampling of filtered and unfiltered molten metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burris, L., Jr.; Pierce, R. D.; Tobias, K. R.; Winsch, I. O.

    1967-01-01

    Filtered samples of molten metals are obtained by filtering through a plug of porous material fitted in the end of a sample tube, and unfiltered samples are obtained by using a capillary-tube extension rod with a perforated bucket. With these methods there are no sampling errors or loss of liquid.

  12. Experimental investigation of molten metal freezing on to a structure

    SciTech Connect

    Mizanur Rahman, M.; Hino, Tomohiko; Morita, Koji; Matsumoto, Tatsuya; Nakagawa, Kiyoshi; Fukuda, Kenji; Maschek, Werner

    2007-10-15

    During core disruptive accidents (CDAs) of Liquid Metal Reactors (LMRs), it is important to understand the freezing phenomena of molten metal, which may prevent fuel dispersal and subsequent shutdown. The present paper describes the freezing behavior of molten metal during interaction with a structure with a view to the safety of LMRs. In this study, Wood's metal (melting point 78.8 C) was used as a simulant melt, while stainless steel and copper were used as freezing structures. A series of simulation experiments was conducted to study the freezing behavior of Wood's metal during pouring on to the freezing structures immersed in a coolant. In the experiments, simulant melt was poured into a stainless steel tube and finally ejected into a coolant through a nozzle so as to observe the freezing behavior of the molten metal. The penetration length and width were measured in the air cooled experiments, whereas penetration length and the proportion of adhering frozen metal were measured in water coolant experiment. The melt flow and distribution were observed in both types of experiment using a high-speed video camera. Distinct freezing modes were observed in the water coolant experiments, whereas only one freezing mode with a longer melt penetration was found in air coolant experiments. The present result will be utilized to create a relevant database for the verification of reactor safety analysis codes. (author)

  13. Electromagnetic confinement for vertical casting or containing molten metal

    DOEpatents

    Lari, Robert J.; Praeg, Walter F.; Turner, Larry R.

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus and method adapted to confine a molten metal to a region by means of an alternating electromagnetic field. As adapted for use in the present invention, the alternating electromagnetic field given by B.sub.y =(2.mu..sub.o .rho.gy).sup.1/2 (where B.sub.y is the vertical component of the magnetic field generated by the magnet at the boundary of the region; y is the distance measured downward form the top of the region, .rho. is the metal density, g is the acceleration of gravity and .mu..sub.o is the permeability of free space) induces eddy currents in the molten metal which interact with the magnetic field to retain the molten metal with a vertical boudnary. As applied to an apparatus for the continuous casting of metal sheets or rods, metal in liquid form can be continuously introduced into the region defined by the magnetic field, solidified and conveyed away from the magnetic field in solid form in a continuous process.

  14. Casting Apparatus Including A Gas Driven Molten Metal Injector And Method

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, Thomas N.

    2004-06-01

    The casting apparatus (50) includes a holding vessel (10) for containing a supply of molten metal (12) and a casting mold (52) located above the holding vessel (10) and having a casting cavity (54). A molten metal injector (14) extends into the holding vessel (10) and is at least partially immersed in the molten metal (12) in the holding vessel (10). The molten metal injector (14) is in fluid communication with the casting cavity (54). The molten metal injector (14) has an injector body (16) defining an inlet opening (24) for receiving molten metal into the injector body (16). A gas pressurization source (38) is in fluid communication with the injector body (16) for cyclically pressurizing the injector body (16) and inducing molten metal to flow from the injector body (16) to the casting cavity (54). An inlet valve (42) is located in the inlet opening (24) in the injector body (16) for filling molten metal into the injector body (16). The inlet valve (42) is configured to prevent outflow of molten metal from the injector body (16) during pressurization and permit inflow of molten metal into the injector body (16) after pressurization. The inlet valve (42) has an inlet valve actuator (44) located above the surface of the supply of molten metal (12) and is operatively connected to the inlet valve (42) for operating the inlet valve (42) between open and closed positions.

  15. Time-resolved in situ powder X-ray diffraction reveals the mechanisms of molten salt synthesis.

    PubMed

    Moorhouse, Saul J; Wu, Yue; Buckley, Hannah C; O'Hare, Dermot

    2016-11-24

    We report the first use of high-energy monochromatic in situ X-ray powder diffraction to gain unprecedented insights into the chemical processes occurring during high temperature, lab-scale metal oxide syntheses. During the flux synthesis of the n = 4 Aurivillius phase, Bi5Ti3Fe0.5Cr0.5O15 at 950 °C in molten Na2SO4 we observe the progression of numerous metastable phases. Using sequential multiphase Rietveld refinement of the time-dependent in situ XRD data, we are able to obtain mechanistic understanding of this reaction under a range of conditions.

  16. MAG-GATE System for Molten metal Flow Control

    SciTech Connect

    Richard D. Nathenson, P.E.

    2004-05-15

    The need for improved active flow control has been recognized as part of the Steel Industry Technology Roadmap. Under TRP 9808 for the American Iron and Steel Institute and the Department of Energy, Concept Engineering Group Inc. has developed MAG-GATE{trademark}, an electromagnetic system for active molten metal flow control. Two hot steel tests were successfully conducted in 2003 at the Whemco Foundry Division, Midland, PA. Approximately 110,000 pounds of 0.2% carbon steel were poured through the device subject to electromagnetic flow control. Excellent agreement between predicted and actual flow control was found. A survey of the molten metal flow control practices at 100 continuous casters in North America was also conducted in 2003. This report summarizes the results of the development program to date. Preliminary designs are described for the next step of a beta test at an operating billet/bloom or slab caster.

  17. Molten Metal Explosions are Still Occurring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    recycling plant. Another recent 665 Light Metals 2009 Edited by: Geoff Bearne TMS (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society), 2009 catastrophic...occurred recently in a recycling plant casting small ingots over a water tank. An explosion occurred that extensively damaged the machine and...have been held in Europe as a joint activity with the European Aluminium Association (EAA) and the International Aluminium Institute (IAI). These

  18. In situ observation and analysis of ultrasonic capillary effect in molten aluminium.

    PubMed

    Tzanakis, I; Xu, W W; Eskin, D G; Lee, P D; Kotsovinos, N

    2015-11-01

    An in situ synchrotron radiographic study of a molten Al-10 wt% Cu alloy under the influence of an external ultrasonic field was carried out using the Diamond-Manchester Branchline pink X-ray imaging at the Diamond Light Source in UK. A bespoke test rig was used, consisting of an acoustic transducer with a titanium sonotrode coupled with a PID-controlled resistance furnace. An ultrasonic frequency of 30 kHz, with a peak to peak amplitude at 140 microns, was used, producing a pressure output of 16.9 MPa at the radiation surface of the 1-mm diameter sonotrode. This allowed quantification of not only the cavitation bubble formation and collapse, but there was also evidence of the previously hypothesised ultrasonic capillary effect (UCE), providing the first direct observations of this phenomenon in a molten metallic alloy. This was achieved by quantifying the re-filling of a pre-existing groove in the shape of a tube (which acted as a micro-capillary channel) formed by the oxide envelope of the liquid sample. Analytical solutions of the flow suggest that the filling process, which took place in very small timescales, was related to micro-jetting from the collapsing cavitation bubbles. In addition, a secondary mechanism of liquid penetration through the groove, which is related with the density distribution of the oxides inside the groove, and practically to the filtration of aluminium melt from oxides, was revealed. The observation of the almost instantaneous re-filling of a micro-capillary channel with the metallic melt supports the hypothesised sono-capillary effect in technologically important liquids other than water, like metallic alloys with substantially higher surface tension and density.

  19. URANIUM BISMUTHIDE DISPERSION IN MOLTEN METAL

    DOEpatents

    Teitel, R.J.

    1959-10-27

    The formation of intermetallic bismuth compounds of thorium or uranium dispersed in a liquid media containing bismuth and lead is described. A bismuthide of uranium dispersed in a liquid metal medium is formed by dissolving uranium in composition of lead and bismuth containing less than 80% lead and lowering the temperature of the composition to a temperature below the point at which the solubility of uranium is exceeded and above the melting point of the composition.

  20. Molten salt/metal extractions for recovery of transuranic elements

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, L.S.; Basco, J.K.; Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.

    1992-09-01

    The integral fast reactor (EFR) is an advanced reactor concept that incorporates metallic driver and blanket fuels, an inherently safe, liquid-sodium-cooled, pool-type, reactor design, and on-site pyrochemical reprocessing (including electrorefining) of spent fuels and wastes. This paper describes a pyrochemical method that is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory to recover transuranic elements from the EFR electrorefiner process salt. The method uses multistage extractions between molten chloride salts and cadmium metal at high temperatures. The chemical basis of the salt extraction method, the test equipment, and a test plan are discussed.

  1. Molten salt/metal extractions for recovery of transuranic elements

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, L.S.; Basco, J.K.; Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.

    1992-01-01

    The integral fast reactor (EFR) is an advanced reactor concept that incorporates metallic driver and blanket fuels, an inherently safe, liquid-sodium-cooled, pool-type, reactor design, and on-site pyrochemical reprocessing (including electrorefining) of spent fuels and wastes. This paper describes a pyrochemical method that is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory to recover transuranic elements from the EFR electrorefiner process salt. The method uses multistage extractions between molten chloride salts and cadmium metal at high temperatures. The chemical basis of the salt extraction method, the test equipment, and a test plan are discussed.

  2. Formation of molten metal films during metal-on-metal slip under extreme interfacial conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, Nai-Shang; Okada, Makoto; Prakash, Vikas

    2004-09-01

    The present paper describes results of plate-impact pressure-shear friction experiments conducted to study time-resolved growth of molten metal films during dry metal-on-metal slip under extreme interfacial conditions. By employing tribo-pairs comprising hard tool-steel against relatively low melt-point metals such as 7075-T6 aluminum alloys, interfacial friction stress ranging from 100 to 400 MPa and slip speeds of approximately 100 m/ s have been generated. These relatively high levels of friction stress combined with high slip-speeds generate conditions conducive for interfacial temperatures to approach the melting point of the lower melt point metal (Al alloy) comprising the tribo-pair. A Lagrangian finite element code is developed to understand the evolution of the thermo-mechanical fields and their relationship to the observed slip response. The code accounts for dynamic effects, heat conduction, contact with friction, and full thermo-mechanical coupling. At temperatures below the melting point the material is described as an isotropic thermally softening elastic-viscoplastic solid. For material elements with temperatures in excess of the melt point a purely Newtonian fluid constitutive model is employed. The results of the hybrid experimental-computational study provides new insights into the thermoelastic-plastic interactions during high speed metal-on-metal slip under extreme interfacial conditions. During the early part of frictional slip the coefficient of kinetic friction is observed to decrease with increasing slip velocity. During the later part transition in interfacial slip occurs from dry metal-on-metal sliding to the formation of molten Al films at the tribo-pair interface. Under these conditions the interfacial resistance approaches the shear strength of the molten aluminum alloy under normal pressures of approximately 1- 3 GPa and shear strain rates of ˜10 7 s-1. The results of the study indicate that under these extreme conditions molten

  3. Fragment structure from vapor explosions during the impact of molten metal droplets into a liquid pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouraytem, Nadia; Li, Er Qiang; Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur

    2015-11-01

    High-speed video imaging is used in order to look at the impact of a molten metal drop falling into a liquid pool. The interaction regimes are three: film boiling, nucleate boiling or vapor explosion. Following the vapor explosion, the metal fragments and different textures are observed. It was seen that, using a tin alloy, a porous structure results whereas using a distinctive eutectic metal, Field's metal, micro beads are formed. Different parameters such as the metal type, molten metal temperature, pool surface tension and pool boiling temperature have been altered in order to assess the role they play on the explosion dynamics and the molten metal's by product.

  4. Chronopotentiometry of refractory metals, actinides and oxyanions in molten salts: A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.

    1992-01-01

    The applications of chronopotentiometry to the study of electrochemical behavior of three technologically important areas of refractory metals, actinides, and oxyanions in molten salts are critically reviewed. Chronopotentiometry is a very versatile diagnostic tool to understand the reaction mechanism of the electrode processes for the electrochemical reduction/oxidation of these electroactive species in molten salt solutions. Well adherent, compact, and uniformly thick coatings of refractory metals may be electrodeposited from their solutions in molten salts.

  5. Molten metal electrodes in solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javadekar, Ashay Dileep

    Molten metal electrodes in solid oxide fuel cells are electrochemically characterized for their possible use in direct carbon oxidation and energy storage. The cells were operated in the battery mode at 973 K, without added fuel, in order to understand the oxidation characteristics of Sb alloys as anodes at electrolyte interfaces. The cells using 50-mol% In-Sb and Sn-Sb mixtures exhibited open-circuit voltages (OCV) of 1.0 and 0.93 V, values similar to those of cells with pure In and Sn anodes respectively, and insulating In2O3 and SnO2 layers formed at the electrolyte interface. The 50-mol% Sb-Bi cell had an OCV of 0.73 V initially, close to that with pure Sb anode. The OCV remained constant until all of the Sb had been oxidized, after which it dropped to 0.43 V, similar to the value for pure Bi. SEM analysis of the spent cell showed two distinct phases, with metallic Bi at the bottom and Sb2O3 at the top. The cell with 50-mol% Sb-Pb anode exhibited an OCV that changed continuously with conversion, from 0.73 V initially to 0.67 V following the addition of charge equivalent to oxidation of 120% the Sb. The total cell impedance remained low for this entire period. EDS measurements on the sectioned Sb-Pb cell suggested formation of a mixed oxide of Pb and Sb. An energy-storage concept using molten Sb as the fuel in a reversible solid-oxide electrochemical cell was tested using a button cell with a Sc-stabilized zirconia electrolyte at 973 K, by measuring the impedances under fuel-cell and electrolyzer conditions for a range of stirred Sb-Sb2O 3 compositions. The Sb-Sb2O3 electrode impedances were found to be on the order of 0.15 ohm.cm2 for both fuel-cell and electrolyzer conditions, for compositions up to 30% Sb and 70% Sb2O3. The OCVs were 0.75 V, independent of conversion. The use of molten neat Ag and alloyed Ag-Sb for direct-carbon anodes in SOFCs has been examined at 1273 K. For Ag, an OCV typical of that expected for carbon oxidation, 1.12 V, was observed when

  6. Simulations of rapid pressure-induced solidification in molten metals

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, M V; Streitz, F H

    2003-10-14

    The process of interest in this study is the solidification of a molten metal subjected to rapid pressurization. Most details about solidification occurring when the liquid-solid coexistence line is suddenly transversed along the pressure axis remain unknown. We present preliminary results from an ongoing study of this process for both simple models of metals (Cu) and more sophisticated material models (MGPT potentials for Ta). Atomistic (molecular dynamics) simulations are used to extract details such as the time and length scales that govern these processes. Starting with relatively simple potential models, we demonstrate how molecular dynamics can be used to study solidification. Local and global order parameters that aid in characterizing the phase have been identified, and the dependence of the solidification time on the phase space distance between the final (P,T) state and the coexistence line has been characterized.

  7. 30 CFR 56.15007 - Protective equipment or clothing for welding, cutting, or working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., cutting, or working with molten metal. 56.15007 Section 56.15007 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH..., cutting, or working with molten metal. Protective clothing or equipment and face shields, or goggles shall be worn when welding, cutting, or working with molten metal....

  8. 30 CFR 57.15007 - Protective equipment or clothing for welding, cutting, or working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., cutting, or working with molten metal. 57.15007 Section 57.15007 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... equipment or clothing for welding, cutting, or working with molten metal. Protective clothing or equipment and face shields or goggles shall be worn when welding, cutting, or working with molten metal....

  9. An analytical equation of state for molten alkali metals

    SciTech Connect

    Ghatee, M.H.; Boushehri, A.

    1995-11-01

    The paper brings the molten alkali metals into the scope of a new statistical mechanical equation of state that is known to satisfy normal fluids over the whole range. As for normal fluids, the latent heat of vaporization and density at freezing temperature are the only inputs (scaling factors). The corresponding-states correlation of normal fluids is used to calculate the second virial coefficient, B{sub 2}(T), of alkali metals, which is scarce experimentally and its calculation is complicated by dimer formation. Calculations of the other two temperature-dependent constants, {alpha}(T) and b (T), follow by scaling. The virial coefficients of alkali metals cannot be expected to obey a law of corresponding states for normal fluids. The fact that two potentials are involved may be the reason for this. Thus, alkali metals have the characteristics of interacting through singlet and triple potentials so that the treatment by a single potential here is fortuitous. The adjustable parameter of the equation of state, {Gamma}, compensates for the uncertainties in B{sub 2}(T). The procedure used to calculate the density of liquids Li through Cs from the freezing line up to several hundred degrees above the boiling temperatures. The results are within 5%.

  10. Method of removal of heavy metal from molten salt in IFR fuel pyroprocessing

    DOEpatents

    Gay, Eddie C.

    1995-01-01

    An electrochemical method of separating heavy metal values from a radioactive molten salt including Li halide at temperatures of about 500.degree. C. The method comprises positioning a solid Li--Cd alloy anode in the molten salt containing the heavy metal values, positioning a Cd-containing cathode or a solid cathode positioned above a catch crucible in the molten salt to recover the heavy metal values, establishing a voltage drop between the anode and the cathode to deposit material at the cathode to reduce the concentration of heavy metals in the salt, and controlling the deposition rate at the cathode by controlling the current between the anode and cathode.

  11. Method of removal of heavy metal from molten salt in IFR fuel pyroprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, E.C.

    1993-12-23

    An electrochemical method of separating heavy metal values from a radioactive molten salt including Li halide at temperatures of about 500{degree}C. The method comprises positioning a solid Li-Cd alloy anode in the molten salt containing the heavy metal values, positioning a Cd-containing cathode or a solid cathode positioned above a catch crucible in the molten salt to recover the heavy metal values, establishing a voltage drop between the anode and the cathode to deposit material at the cathode to reduce the concentration of heavy metals in the salt, and controlling the deposition rate at the cathode by controlling the current between the anode and cathode.

  12. Method for producing hydrocarbon fuels from heavy polynuclear hydrocarbons by use of molten metal halide catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Gorin, Everett

    1979-01-01

    In a process for hydrocracking heavy polynuclear carbonaceous feedstocks to produce lighter hydrocarbon fuels by contacting the heavy feedstocks with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst, thereafter separating at least a substantial portion of the carbonaceous material associated with the reaction mixture from the spent molten metal halide and thereafter regenerating the metal halide catalyst, an improvement comprising contacting the spent molten metal halide catalyst after removal of a major portion of the carbonaceous material therefrom with an additional quantity of hydrogen is disclosed.

  13. Direct Electrolysis of Molten Lunar Regolith for the Production of Oxygen and Metals on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sirk, Aislinn H. C.; Sadoway, Donald R.; Sibille, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    When considering the construction of a lunar base, the high cost ($ 100,000 a kilogram) of transporting materials to the surface of the moon is a significant barrier. Therefore in-situ resource utilization will be a key component of any lunar mission. Oxygen gas is a key resource, abundant on earth and absent on the moon. If oxygen could be produced on the moon, this provides a dual benefit. Not only does it no longer need to be transported to the surface for breathing purposes; it can also be used as a fuel oxidizer to support transportation of crew and other materials more cheaply between the surface of the moon, and lower earth orbit (approximately $20,000/kg). To this end a stable, robust (lightly manned) system is required to produce oxygen from lunar resources. Herein, we investigate the feasibility of producing oxygen, which makes up almost half of the weight of the moon by direct electrolysis of the molten lunar regolith thus achieving the generation of usable oxygen gas while producing primarily iron and silicon at the cathode from the tightly bound oxides. The silicate mixture (with compositions and mechanical properties corresponding to that of lunar regolith) is melted at temperatures near 1600 C. With an inert anode and suitable cathode, direct electrolysis (no supporting electrolyte) of the molten silicate is carried out, resulting in production of molten metallic products at the cathode and oxygen gas at the anode. The effect of anode material, sweep rate, and electrolyte composition on the electrochemical behavior was investigated and implications for scale-up are considered. The activity and stability of the candidate anode materials as well as the effect of the electrolyte composition were determined. Additionally, ex-situ capture and analysis of the anode gas to calculate the current efficiency under different voltages, currents and melt chemistries was carried out.

  14. Wetting and spreading behavior of molten brazing filler metallic alloys on metallic substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogi, Satoshi; Kajiura, Tetsurou; Hanada, Yukiakira; Miyazawa, Yasuyuki

    2014-08-01

    Wetting and spreading of molten brazing filler material are important factors that influence the brazing ability of a joint to be brazed. Several investigations into the wetting ability of a brazing filler alloy and its surface tension in molten state, in addition to effects of brazing time and temperature on the contact angle, have been carried out. In general, dissimilar-metals brazing technology and high-performance brazed joint are necessities for the manufacturing field in the near future. Therefore, to address this requirement, more such studies on wetting and spreading of filler material are required for a deeper understanding. Generally, surface roughness and surface conditions affect spreading of molten brazing filler material during brazing. Wetting by and interfacial reactions of the molten brazing filler material with the metallic substrate, especially, affect strongly the spreading of the filler material. In this study, the effects of surface roughness and surface conditions on the spreading of molten brazing filler metallic alloys were investigated. Ag-(40-x)Cu-xIn and Ag- (40-x)Cu-xSn (x=5, 10, 15, 20, 25) alloys were used as brazing filler materials. A mild-steel square plate (S45C (JIS); side: 30 mm; thickness: 3mm) was employed as the substrate. A few surfaces with varying roughness were prepared using emery paper. Brazing filler material and metallic base plate were first washed with acetone, and then a flux was applied to them. The filler, 50 mg, was placed on the center of the metallic base with the flux. A spreading test was performed under Ar gas using an electrically heated furnace, after which, the original spreading area, defined as the sessile drop area, and the apparent spreading area, produced by the capillary grooves, were both evaluated. It was observed that the spreading area decreased with increasing In and Sn content.

  15. Apparatus and Method for Increasing the Diameter of Metal Alloy Wires Within a Molten Metal Pool

    DOEpatents

    Hartman, Alan D.; Argetsinger, Edward R.; Hansen, Jeffrey S.; Paige, Jack I.; King, Paul E.; Turner, Paul C.

    2002-01-29

    In a dip forming process the core material to be coated is introduced directly into a source block of coating material eliminating the need for a bushing entrance component. The process containment vessel or crucible is heated so that only a portion of the coating material becomes molten, leaving a solid portion of material as the entrance port of, and seal around, the core material. The crucible can contain molten and solid metals and is especially useful when coating core material with reactive metals. The source block of coating material has been machined to include a close tolerance hole of a size and shape to closely fit the core material. The core material moves first through the solid portion of the source block of coating material where the close tolerance hole has been machined, then through a solid/molten interface, and finally through the molten phase where the diameter of the core material is increased. The crucible may or may not require water-cooling depending upon the type of material used in crucible construction. The system may operate under vacuum, partial vacuum, atmospheric pressure, or positive pressure depending upon the type of source material being used.

  16. Apparatus and method for increasing the diameter of metal alloy wires within a molten metal pool

    DOEpatents

    Hartman, Alan D.; Argetsinger, Edward R.; Hansen, Jeffrey S.; Paige, Jack I.; King, Paul E.; Turner, Paul C.

    2002-01-29

    In a dip forming process the core material to be coated is introduced directly into a source block of coating material eliminating the need for a bushing entrance component. The process containment vessel or crucible is heated so that only a portion of the coating material becomes molten, leaving a solid portion of material as the entrance port of, and seal around, the core material. The crucible can contain molten and solid metals and is especially useful when coating core material with reactive metals. The source block of coating material has been machined to include a close tolerance hole of a size and shape to closely fit the core material. The core material moves first through the solid portion of the source block of coating material where the close tolerance hole has been machined, then through a solid/molten interface, and finally through the molten phase where the diameter of the core material is increased. The crucible may or may not require water-cooling depending upon the type of material used in crucible construction. The system may operate under vacuum, partial vacuum, atmospheric pressure, or positive pressure depending upon the type of source material being used.

  17. Method for producing hydrocarbon fuels and fuel gas from heavy polynuclear hydrocarbons by the use of molten metal halide catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Gorin, Everett

    1979-01-01

    In a process for hydrocracking heavy polynuclear carbonaceous feedstocks to produce lighter hydrocarbon fuels by contacting the heavy feedstocks with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst in a hydrocracking zone, thereafter separating at least a major portion of the lighter hydrocarbon fuels from the spent molten metal halide and thereafter regenerating the spent molten metal halide by incinerating the spent molten metal halide by combustion of carbon and sulfur compounds in the spent molten metal halide in an incineration zone, the improvement comprising: (a) contacting the heavy feedstocks and hydrogen in the presence of the molten metal halide in the hydrocracking zone at reaction conditions effective to convert from about 60 to about 90 weight percent of the feedstock to lighter hydrocarbon fuels; (b) separating at least a major portion of the lighter hydrocarbon fuels from the spent molten metal halide; (c) contacting the spent molten metal halide with oxygen in a liquid phase gasification zone at a temperature and pressure sufficient to vaporize from about 25 to about 75 weight percent of the spent metal halide, the oxygen being introduced in an amount sufficient to remove from about 60 to about 90 weight percent of the carbon contained in the spent molten metal halide to produce a fuel gas and regenerated metal halide; and (d) incinerating the spent molten metal halide by combusting carbon and sulfur compounds contained therein.

  18. Rotating Molten Metallic Drops and Their Applications for Surface Tension Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhim, W. K.; Ishikawa, T.

    1998-01-01

    Shapes and stability of rotating molten metal drops carrying net surface electric charges are experimentally investigated, and the feasibility of measureing surface tension based on drop rotation is examined.

  19. Molten Metal Treatment by Salt Fluxing with Low Environmental Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Yogeshwar Sahai

    2007-07-31

    Abstract: Chlorine gas is traditionally used for fluxing of aluminum melt for removal of alkali and alkaline earth elements. However this results in undesirable emissions of particulate matter and gases such as HCl and chlorine, which are often at unacceptable levels. Additionally, chlorine gas is highly toxic and its handling, storage, and use pose risks to employees and the local community. Holding of even minimal amounts of chlorine necessitates extensive training for all plant employees. Fugitive emissions from chlorine usage within the plant cause accelerated corrosion of plant equipment. The Secondary Aluminum Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) under the Clean Air Act, finalized in March 2000 has set very tough new limits on particulate matter (PM) and total hydrogen chloride emissions from aluminum melting and holding furnaces. These limits are 0.4 and 0.1 lbs per ton of aluminum for hydrogen chloride and particulate emissions, respectively. Assuming new technologies for meeting these limits can be found, additional requirements under the Clean Air Act (Prevention of Significant Deterioration and New Source Review) trigger Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for new sources with annual emissions (net emissions not expressed per ton of production) over specified amounts. BACT currently is lime coated bag-houses for control of particulate and HCl emissions. These controls are expensive, difficult to operate and maintain, and result in reduced American competitiveness in the global economy. Solid salt fluxing is emerging as a viable option for the replacement of chlorine gas fluxing, provided emissions can be consistently maintained below the required levels. This project was a cooperative effort between the Ohio State University and Alcoa to investigate and optimize the effects of solid chloride flux addition in molten metal for alkali impurity and non-metallic inclusion removal minimizing dust and toxic emissions and maximizing energy

  20. Apparatus for efficient sidewall containment of molten metal with horizontal alternating magnetic fields utilizing low reluctance rims

    DOEpatents

    Praeg, Walter F.

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for casting sheets of metal from molten metal. The apparatus includes a containment structure having an open side, a horizontal alternating magnetic field generating structure and rollers including low reluctance rim structures. The magnetic field and the rollers help contain the molten metal from leaking out of the containment structure.

  1. Apparatus for efficient sidewall containment of molten metal with horizontal alternating magnetic fields utilizing a ferromagnetic dam

    DOEpatents

    Praeg, Walter F.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus for casting sheets of metal from molten metal. The apparatus includes a containment structure having an open side, a horizontal alternating magnetic field generating structure and a ferromagnetic dam. The magnetic field and the ferromagnetic dam contain the molten metal from leaking out side portions of the open side of the containment structure.

  2. Apparatus for efficient sidewall containment of molten metal with horizontal alternating magnetic fields utilizing a ferromagnetic dam

    DOEpatents

    Praeg, W.F.

    1997-02-11

    An apparatus is disclosed for casting sheets of metal from molten metal. The apparatus includes a containment structure having an open side, a horizontal alternating magnetic field generating structure and a ferromagnetic dam. The magnetic field and the ferromagnetic dam contain the molten metal from leaking out side portions of the open side of the containment structure. 25 figs.

  3. Method of removal of heavy metal from molten salt in IFR fuel pyroprocessing

    DOEpatents

    Gay, E.C.

    1995-10-03

    An electrochemical method is described for separating heavy metal values from a radioactive molten salt including Li halide at temperatures of about 500 C. The method comprises positioning a solid Li--Cd alloy anode in the molten salt containing the heavy metal values, positioning a Cd-containing cathode or a solid cathode positioned above a catch crucible in the molten salt to recover the heavy metal values, establishing a voltage drop between the anode and the cathode to deposit material at the cathode to reduce the concentration of heavy metals in the salt, and controlling the deposition rate at the cathode by controlling the current between the anode and cathode. 3 figs.

  4. Method for determining molten metal pool level in twin-belt continuous casting machines

    DOEpatents

    Kaiser, Timothy D.; Daniel, Sabah S.; Dykes, Charles D.

    1989-03-21

    A method for determining level of molten metal in the input of a continuous metal casting machine having at least one endless, flexible, revolving casting belt with a surface which engages the molten metal to be cast and a reverse, cooled surface along which is directed high velocity liquid coolant includes the steps of predetermining the desired range of positions of the molten metal pool and positioning at least seven heat-sensing transducers in bearing contact with the moving reverse belt surface and spaced in upstream-downstream relationship relative to belt travel spanning the desired pool levels. A predetermined temperature threshold is set, somewhat above coolant temperature and the output signals of the transducer sensors are scanned regarding their output signals indicative of temperatures of the moving reverse belt surface. Position of the molten pool is determined using temperature interpolation between any successive pair of upstream-downstream spaced sensors, which follows confirmation that two succeeding downstream sensors are at temperature levels exceeding threshold temperature. The method accordingly provides high resolution for determining pool position, and verifies the determined position by utilizing full-strength signals from two succeeding downstream sensors. In addition, dual sensors are used at each position spanning the desired range of molten metal pool levels to provide redundancy, wherein only the higher temperature of each pair of sensors at a station is utilized.

  5. In situ purification, alloying and casting methodology for metallic plutonium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lashley, Jason C.; Blau, Michael S.; Staudhammer, Karl P.; Pereyra, Ramiro A.

    Plutonium metal that has been double ER (electrorefined/electrorefining) was further purified via zone refining, using a floating molten zone to minimize the introduction of impurities. The temperature of the molten zone was 750°C, and the atmosphere was 10 -5 Pa. A total of ten zone refining passes were made at a travel rate of 1.5 cm/h. There were 19 elements reduced to quantities below the minimum detectable limits (MDL) by zone refining, while P, K, and W were significantly reduced. The zone-refined metal was then used in an in situ distillation, alloying, and casting step to prepare tapered specimens for single-crystal growth experiments. Specifically, 241Am was distilled from Pu metal by levitating Pu metal with 1 wt% Ga in the melt in a Crystallox vertical electromagnetic levitation crucible at 10 -5 Pa. The Pu is alloyed with Ga to stabilize the δ phase (fcc symmetry) upon solidification. The Pu was chill-cast directly from the electromagnetic levitation field into 1- cm tapered specimens. A water-cooled ceramic mold was used, and the Pu metal was cooled at a rate of 100°C/min. A microstructure examination of the specimen showed 10 × 25 μm acicular grains with a density of 15.938 g/cm 3 (±0.002 g/cm 3).

  6. A Quasi-Containerless Pendant Drop Method for Surface Tension Measurements of Molten Metals and Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thiessen, David B.; Man, Kin F.

    1994-01-01

    A quasi-containerless pendant drop method for measuring the surface tension of molten metals and alloys is being developed. The technique involves melting the end of a high-purity metal rod by bombardment with an electron beam to form a pendant drop under ultra-high vacuum conditions to minimize surface contamination.

  7. An Assessment of Molten Metal Detachment Hazards During Electron Beam Welding in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fragomeni, James M.; Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The safety issue has been raised with regards to potential molten metal detachments from the weld pool and cold filler wire during electron beam welding in space. This investigation was undertaken to evaluate if molten metal could detach and come in contact with astronauts and burn through the fabric of the astronauts' Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) during electron beam welding in space. Molten metal detachments from either the weld/cut substrate or weld wire could present harm to a astronaut if the detachment was to burn through the fabric of the EMU. Theoretical models were developed to predict the possibility and size of the molten metal detachment hazards during the electron beam welding exercises at Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The primary molten metal detachment concerns were those cases of molten metal separation from the metal surface due to metal cutting, weld pool splashing, entrainment and release of molten metal due to filler wire snap-out from the weld puddle, and molten metal accumulation and release from the end of the weld wire. Some possible ways of obtaining molten metal drop detachments would include an impulse force, or bump, to the weld sample, cut surface, or filler wire. Theoretical models were developed for these detachment concerns from principles of impact and kinetic energies, surface tension, drop geometry, surface energies, and particle dynamics. The surface tension represents the force opposing the liquid metal drop from detaching whereas the weight of the liquid metal droplet represents a force that is tending to detach the molten metal drop. Theoretical calculations have indicated that only a small amount of energy is required to detach a liquid metal drop; however, much of the energy of an impact is absorbed in the sample or weld plate before it reaches the metal drop on the cut edge or surface. The tendency for detachment is directly proportional to the weld pool radius and metal density and inversely proportional to the surface

  8. An Assessment of Molten Metal Detachment Hazards During Electron Beam Welding in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fragomeni, James M.; Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The safety issue has been raised with regards to potential molten metal detachments from the weld pool and cold filler wire during electron beam welding in space. This investigation was undertaken to evaluate if molten metal could detach and come in contact with astronauts and burn through the fabric of the astronauts' Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) during electron beam welding in space. Molten metal detachments from either the weld/cut substrate or weld wire could present harm to a astronaut if the detachment was to burn through the fabric of the EMU. Theoretical models were developed to predict the possibility and size of the molten metal detachment hazards during the electron beam welding exercises at Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The primary molten metal detachment concerns were those cases of molten metal separation from the metal surface due to metal cutting, weld pool splashing, entrainment and release of molten metal due to filler wire snap-out from the weld puddle, and molten metal accumulation and release from the end of the weld wire. Some possible ways of obtaining molten metal drop detachments would include an impulse force, or bump, to the weld sample, cut surface, or filler wire. Theoretical models were developed for these detachment concerns from principles of impact and kinetic energies, surface tension, drop geometry, surface energies, and particle dynamics. The surface tension represents the force opposing the liquid metal drop from detaching whereas the weight of the liquid metal droplet represents a force that is tending to detach the molten metal drop. Theoretical calculations have indicated that only a small amount of energy is required to detach a liquid metal drop; however, much of the energy of an impact is absorbed in the sample or weld plate before it reaches the metal drop on the cut edge or surface. The tendency for detachment is directly proportional to the weld pool radius and metal density and inversely proportional to the surface

  9. Complex Behavior of Forces Influencing Molten Weld Metal Flow based on Static Force Balance Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achebo, Joseph I.

    This study is aimed at investigating the forces responsible for the detachment of molten metal droplets formed at an electrode tip, which imminently and eventually drop into the weld pool during the welding process. The Equations used by Kim and Eagar in 1993 were applied to this study. It was found that the different detaching forces which are the gravitational force, the electromagnetic force, and the drag force, were determined to be 7.154 x 10-6N, 0.05N and 1.736N respectively. Whereas, the primary retaining force, which is the surface tension force, was calculated to be 0.0195N. From the findings, since the combination of the detaching forces taken together is greater than the retaining force, detachment of the molten metal droplet must inevitably occur. The combined effect of these forces on the behaviour of molten metal during the droplet detachment process was adequately investigated in this study.

  10. Induction furnace testing of the durability of prototype crucibles in a molten metal environment

    SciTech Connect

    Jablonski, Paul D.

    2005-09-01

    Engineered ceramic crucibles are commonly used to contain molten metal. Besides high temperature stability, other desired crucible characteristics include thermal shock resistance, minimal reaction with the molten metal and resistance to attack from the base metal oxide formed during melting. When used in an induction furnace, they can be employed as a “semi-permanent” crucible incorporating a dry ram backup and a ceramic cap. This report covers several 250-lb single melt crucible tests in an air melt induction furnace. These tests consisted of melting a charge of 17-4PH stainless steel, holding the charge molten for two hours before pouring off the heat and then subsequently sectioning the crucible to review the extent of erosion, penetration and other physical characteristics. Selected temperature readings were made throughout each melt. Chemistry samples were also taken from each heat periodically throughout the hold. The manganese level was observed to affect the rate of chromium loss in a non-linear fashion.

  11. Heavy metal: Can molten metal technology turn toxic dross into gold? A study in alchemy, controversy, and green tech

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, S.

    1995-12-31

    In a Massachusetts industrial park, inside a renovated helicopter factory, stands a giant, Rube Goldbergesque machine of metal boxes and pipes. Technicians in blue uniforms, hard hats, and safety glasses attend this contraption, watching over the fire at its heart: a cauldron of molten metal, usually iron, heated to some 3,000 degrees Fahrenheit. Hazardous wastes are injected into this molten bath. There, according to its inventor, the metal acts as a catalyst for a chemical reaction that instantly reduces compound molecules to their elemental components. A considerable portion for the wastes thus digested are spit out again in the form of industrial-grade materials, ready for reuse or resale. This article describes both the processing of hazardous wastes by using molten metal to drive reactions that would recover useful materials from hazardous waste and the future possibilities for its use.

  12. In-Situ Real Time Measurements of Molten Glass Properties, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Robert De Saro; Joe Craparo

    2007-12-16

    Energy Research Company (ERCo) of Staten Island, NY has developed a sensor capable of measuring in situ and in real time, both the elemental composition and the temperature of molten glass. A prototype sensor has been designed, constructed and tested in ERCo's laboratory. The sensor was used to collect atomic emission spectra from molten fiberglass via Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). From these spectra, we were able to readily identify all elements of interest (B, Si, Ca, Fe, Mg, Na, Sr, Al). The high signal-to-background signals achieved suggest that data from the sensor can be used to determine elemental concentrations, either through calibration curves or using ERCo's calibrationless method. ERCo's technology fits in well with DOE's Glass Industry Technology Roadmap which emphasizes the need for accurate process and feedstock sensors. Listed first under technological barriers to increased production efficiency is the 'Inability to accurately measure and control the production process'. A large-scale glass melting furnace, developed by SenCer Inc. of Penn Yan, NY was installed in ERCo's laboratory to ensure that a large enough quantity of glass could be melted and held at temperature in the presence of the water-cooled laser sensor without solidifying the glass.

  13. 30 CFR 57.15007 - Protective equipment or clothing for welding, cutting, or working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protective equipment or clothing for welding... equipment or clothing for welding, cutting, or working with molten metal. Protective clothing or equipment and face shields or goggles shall be worn when welding, cutting, or working with molten metal....

  14. 30 CFR 57.15007 - Protective equipment or clothing for welding, cutting, or working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Protective equipment or clothing for welding... equipment or clothing for welding, cutting, or working with molten metal. Protective clothing or equipment and face shields or goggles shall be worn when welding, cutting, or working with molten metal....

  15. 30 CFR 57.15007 - Protective equipment or clothing for welding, cutting, or working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Protective equipment or clothing for welding... equipment or clothing for welding, cutting, or working with molten metal. Protective clothing or equipment and face shields or goggles shall be worn when welding, cutting, or working with molten metal....

  16. 30 CFR 57.15007 - Protective equipment or clothing for welding, cutting, or working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Protective equipment or clothing for welding... equipment or clothing for welding, cutting, or working with molten metal. Protective clothing or equipment and face shields or goggles shall be worn when welding, cutting, or working with molten metal....

  17. Morphology and Orientation Selection of Non-metallic Inclusions in Electrified Molten Metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Z. C.; Qin, R. S.

    2017-10-01

    The effect of electric current on morphology and orientation selection of non-metallic inclusions in molten metal has been investigated using theoretical modeling and numerical calculation. Two geometric factors, namely the circularity ( fc ) and alignment ratio ( fe ) were introduced to describe the inclusions shape and configuration. Electric current free energy was calculated and the values were used to determine the thermodynamic preference between different microstructures. Electric current promotes the development of inclusion along the current direction by either expatiating directional growth or enhancing directional agglomeration. Reconfiguration of the inclusions to reduce the system electric resistance drives the phenomena. The morphology and orientation selection follow the routine to reduce electric free energy. The numerical results are in agreement with our experimental observations.

  18. Oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts using multiple absorption-desorption cycles

    DOEpatents

    Cassano, Anthony A.

    1985-01-01

    A continuous chemical air separation is performed wherein oxygen is recovered with a molten alkali metal salt oxygen acceptor in a series of absorption zones which are connected to a plurality of desorption zones operated in separate parallel cycles with the absorption zones. A greater recovery of high pressure oxygen is achieved at reduced power requirements and capital costs.

  19. Crucible cast from beryllium oxide and refractory cement is impervious to flux and molten metal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jastrzebski, Z. D.

    1966-01-01

    Crucible from a mixture of a beryllium oxide aggregate and hydraulic refractory cement, and coated with an impervious refractory oxide will not deteriorate in the presence of fused salt- molten metal mixtures such as uranium- magnesium-zinc-halide salt systems. Vessels cast by this process are used in the flux reduction of oxides of thorium and uranium.

  20. Oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts using multiple absorption-desorption cycles

    DOEpatents

    Cassano, A.A.

    1985-07-02

    A continuous chemical air separation is performed wherein oxygen is recovered with a molten alkali metal salt oxygen acceptor in a series of absorption zones which are connected to a plurality of desorption zones operated in separate parallel cycles with the absorption zones. A greater recovery of high pressure oxygen is achieved at reduced power requirements and capital costs. 3 figs.

  1. Crust formation and its effect on heat transfer in the molten metal pool

    SciTech Connect

    Park, R.J.; Kim, S.B.; Kim, H.D.

    1997-12-01

    Experimental and analytical studies have been performed on crust formation and its effect on heat transfer in a molten metal pool. Two types of tests were performed to investigate the effect of coolant conditions. The experimental results on the relationship between the Nusselt number and the Rayleigh number in the molten metal pool were compared with other correlations. The temperature distribution and the heat transfer rate have been evaluated using the FLOW-3D computer program. The present study has shown that the influential parameter in the solidified crust formation process is the bottom surface temperature beneath the molten metal layer in all of the experimental cases due to the developed natural convection flow. An increase of the Rayleigh number leads to an increase of the Nusselt number in the lower molten metal pool. On the contrary, an increase of the Rayleigh number leads to a decrease of the Nusselt number in the upper coolant layer due to the effect of crust as a conducting thermal barrier. The present experimental results on the relationship between the Nusselt number and the Rayleigh number are more similar to Globe and Dropkin`s correlation than any others. The FLOW-3D results on the temperature profile and on the heat transfer are agreed with the experimental data. 10 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Laser-produced plasma measurement of thermal diffusivity of molten metals

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yong W.; Park, C.S.

    1995-12-01

    We have shown that a laser-produced plasma plume which is representative in composition of the condensed phase target can be reproducibly generated if the movement of the surface due to evaporation is kept in pace with the thermal diffusion front propagating into the bulk. The resulting mass loss is then strongly controlled by the thermal diffusivity of the target matter, and this relationship has been exploited to measure the thermal diffusivity of metallic alloys. We have developed a novel RF levitator-heater as a contamination-free molten metal source to be used as a target for LPP plume generation. In order to determine the mass loss due to LPP excitation, a new high sensitivity transducer has been constructed for measurement of the resulting impulse imparted on the specimen. The impulse transducer is built onto the specimen holder within the levitation-assisted molten metal source. The LPP method has been fully excercised for measurement of the thermal diffusivity of a molten specimen relative to the value for its room temperature solid. The results for SS304 and SS316 are presented together with a critique of the results. A numerical modeling of specimen heating in the molten metal source and the physical basis of the new hod are also presented.

  3. Behavior of several lanthanide and actinide elements in a molten salt/liquid metal extraction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oishi, Jun; Moriyama, Hirotake; Moritani, Kimikazu; Maeda, Seiichiro; Miyazaki, Masafumi; Asaoka, Yoshiyuki

    1988-06-01

    The extraction behavior of several lanthanide and actinide elements in the reductive-oxidative extraction process in a molten salt/liquid metal system is described. The equilibrium distributions of the elements are affected by metal composition as well as by salt composition. The effect of salt composition is due to the formation of complex compounds in the salt phase. The influence of metal composition is the result of intermetallic compounds in the metal phase. The extraction rates of the elements from the salt phase to the metal phase were also studied from the standpoint of mass transfer and chemical reaction at the interface between the two phases.

  4. Molten fluoride salts incorporation into pristine and ion-modified carbon allotropes and metallic foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacík, J.; Hnatowicz, V.; Ĉervená, J.; Mach, R.; Peka, I.

    1999-01-01

    Incorporation of molten fluoride salts into different carbon allotropes (glassy carbon, pyrolytic graphite etc.) and metallic foils (Ni, Ti, etc.), pristine and ion- treated substances, has been studied using non-destructive, depth sensitive nuclear analytical methods—Neutron Depth Profiling (NDP) and Rutherford Backscattering (RBS). Strong interaction between the molten LiF and LiF+KF+NaF salts and the tested materials was found. The results are of great interest for accelerator driven transmutation technology (ADTT) which is a promising way towards effective liquidation of nuclear wastes.

  5. INVESTIGATION OF THE THERMODYNAMICS GOVERNING METAL HYDRIDE SYNTHESIS IN THE MOLTEN STATE PROCESS.

    SciTech Connect

    Stowe, A; Polly Berseth, P; Ragaiy Zidan, R; Donald Anton, D

    2007-08-23

    Complex metal hydrides have been synthesized for hydrogen storage through a new synthetic technique utilizing high hydrogen overpressure at elevated temperatures (molten state processing). This synthesis technique holds the potential of fusing different complex hydrides at elevated temperatures and pressures to form new species with enhanced hydrogen storage properties. Formation of these compounds is driven by thermodynamic and kinetic considerations. We report on investigations of the thermodynamics. Novel synthetic complexes were formed, structurally characterized, and their hydrogen desorption properties investigated. The effectiveness of the molten state process is compared with mechanicosynthetic ball milling.

  6. Hydrodynamics of the molten metal in a vacuum arc cathode spot at near-threshold currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesyats, G. A.; Zubarev, N. M.

    2013-05-01

    The extrusion of the molten metal from a microcrater formed on a metal cathode during the operation of a vacuum arc is considered. The problem is thought to be similar to the classical hydrodynamic problem of a liquid drop impact on a solid surface. Based on this analogy, the conditions are analyzed under which the liquid will change its regular behavior (spreading over the cathode surface) into a singular behavior (formation of microjets and droplets). It is shown that the conditions realized in vacuum arc cathode spots at near-threshold currents are close to the threshold conditions for splashing of the molten metal. This points to a considerable contribution of hydrodynamic processes to the self-sustained operation of a vacuum arc and, in particular, gives grounds to relate the existence of a threshold arc current to the existence of a splashing threshold for liquid metal.

  7. Recovery of Rare Earth Metals in Used Magnets by Molten Magnesium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akahori, Tomohiko; Miyamoto, Yu; Saeki, Tomonori; Okamoto, Masahide; Okabe, Toru H.

    We report here Hitachi's approach to recycle rare earth (RE) metals in used magnets by using molten magnesium (Mg). The process consists of 3 steps; (1) extraction of RE metals from magnets into molten Mg, to form Mg-RE melt, (2) mechanical separation of magnets from the Mg-RE melt, (3) collection of RE metals by evaporation of Mg in the Mg-RE melt. In the step 1, extraction of RE metals proceeds rapidly and completes in about 3 h. The efficiency strongly depends on the temperature (T) and Mg/magnet ratio (r)). One of the optimal conditions is T=1273 (K) and η is 10, where the efficiencies for Nd and Dy extraction are almost 100 % and 60 %, respectively. Further increase of Dy extraction efficiency is possible by addition of Ca to suppress the oxidation of Dy.

  8. Magnetohydrodynamic stability in the electromagnetic levitation of horizontal molten-metal sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, John R.; Wiencek, Tom; Rote, Donald M.

    1989-06-01

    High-frequency electromagnetic (EM) fields are investigated for the levitation of thin horizontal sheets of liquid metal. A magnetic configuration is analyzed in which inductance stabilization provides global stability and magnetic flux compression provides local stability. Stability analysis indicates that frequencies greater than about 24 kHz are desirable to stably levitate 6 mm thick steel. For stability in systems without active feedback, a conducting screen is required below the metal, with a gap between the screen and the molten metal of no more than twice the metal thickness. Experiments in which 10 kHz EM fields were used to statically levitate sheets of molten tin indicate that dominant magnetohydrodynamic instabilities are of the Rayleigh-Taylor type and correspond to theory.

  9. Conjugate heat transfer analysis of an ultrasonic molten metal treatment system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Youli; Bian, Feilong; Wang, Yanli; Zhao, Qian

    2014-09-01

    In piezoceramic ultrasonic devices, the piezoceramic stacks may fail permanently or function improperly if their working temperatures overstep the Curie temperature of the piezoceramic material. While the end of the horn usually serves near the melting point of the molten metal and is enclosed in an airtight chamber, so that it is difficult to experimentally measure the temperature of the transducer and its variation with time, which bring heavy difficulty to the design of the ultrasonic molten metal treatment system. To find a way out, conjugate heat transfer analysis of an ultrasonic molten metal treatment system is performed with coupled fluid and heat transfer finite element method. In modeling of the system, the RNG model and the SIMPLE algorithm are adopted for turbulence and nonlinear coupling between the momentum equation and the energy equation. Forced air cooling as well as natural air cooling is analyzed to compare the difference of temperature evolution. Numerical results show that, after about 350 s of working time, temperatures in the surface of the ceramic stacks in forced air cooling drop about 7 K compared with that in natural cooling. At 240 s, The molten metal surface emits heat radiation with a maximum rate of about 19 036 W/m2, while the heat insulation disc absorbs heat radiation at a maximum rate of about 7922 W/m2, which indicates the effectiveness of heat insulation of the asbestos pad. Transient heat transfer film coefficient and its distribution, which are difficult to be measured experimentally are also obtained through numerical simulation. At 240 s, the heat transfer film coefficient in the surface of the transducer ranges from -17.86 to 20.17 W/(m2 · K). Compared with the trial and error method based on the test, the proposed research provides a more effective way in the design and analysis of the temperature control of the molten metal treatment system.

  10. In Situ Production of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles in a Binary Molten Salt for Concentrated Solar Power Plant Applications.

    PubMed

    Lasfargues, Mathieu; Stead, Graham; Amjad, Muhammad; Ding, Yulong; Wen, Dongsheng

    2017-05-19

    Seeding nanoparticles in molten salts has been shown recently as a promising way to improve their thermo-physical properties. The prospect of such technology is of interest to both academic and industrial sectors in order to enhance the specific heat capacity of molten salt. The latter is used in concentrated solar power plants as both heat transfer fluid and sensible storage. This work explores the feasibility of producing and dispersing nanoparticles with a novel one pot synthesis method. Using such a method, CuO nanoparticles were produced in situ via the decomposition of copper sulphate pentahydrate in a KNO₃-NaNO₃ binary salt. Analyses of the results suggested preferential disposition of atoms around produced nanoparticles in the molten salt. Thermal characterization of the produced nano-salt suspension indicated the dependence of the specific heat enhancement on particle morphology and distribution within the salts.

  11. In Situ Production of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles in a Binary Molten Salt for Concentrated Solar Power Plant Applications

    PubMed Central

    Lasfargues, Mathieu; Stead, Graham; Amjad, Muhammad; Ding, Yulong; Wen, Dongsheng

    2017-01-01

    Seeding nanoparticles in molten salts has been shown recently as a promising way to improve their thermo-physical properties. The prospect of such technology is of interest to both academic and industrial sectors in order to enhance the specific heat capacity of molten salt. The latter is used in concentrated solar power plants as both heat transfer fluid and sensible storage. This work explores the feasibility of producing and dispersing nanoparticles with a novel one pot synthesis method. Using such a method, CuO nanoparticles were produced in situ via the decomposition of copper sulphate pentahydrate in a KNO3-NaNO3 binary salt. Analyses of the results suggested preferential disposition of atoms around produced nanoparticles in the molten salt. Thermal characterization of the produced nano-salt suspension indicated the dependence of the specific heat enhancement on particle morphology and distribution within the salts. PMID:28772910

  12. Measurement of Solubility of Metallic Lithium Dissolved in Molten LiCl-Li2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burak, Adam J.; Simpson, Michael F.

    2016-10-01

    The solubility of lithium metal in molten LiCl-Li2O mixtures has been measured at various concentrations of Li2O ranging from 0 wt.% to 2.7 wt.% at a temperature of approximately 670-680°C. After contacting molten lithium with molten LiCl-Li2O for several hours to achieve equilibrium saturation, samples were taken by freezing the salt onto a room-temperature steel rod and dissolving in water for analysis. Both volume of hydrogen gas generated and volume of titrated HCl were measured to investigate two different approaches to calculating the lithium concentration. There appeared to be no effect of Li2O concentration on the Li solubility in the salt. But the results vary between different methods of deducing the amount of dissolved Li. The H2 collection method is recommended, but care must be taken to ensure all of the H2 has been included.

  13. Intelligent Sensors for Atomization Processing of Molten Metals and Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    chemical composition . Furthermore there is a need to check the measurements 10 obtained using the on-line sensors described above. One way is directly to...Kenneth R. "In Situ Particle Size Measurements Using a Two-Color Laser Scattering Technique". Applied Optics 25, 5 (March 1986), 653ff. 38. Yolken , H. Tomas

  14. Joule-Heated Molten Regolith Electrolysis Reactor Concepts for Oxygen and Metals Production on the Moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibille, Laurent; Dominguez, Jesus A.

    2012-01-01

    The technology of direct electrolysis of molten lunar regolith to produce oxygen and molten metal alloys has progressed greatly in the last few years. The development of long-lasting inert anodes and cathode designs as well as techniques for the removal of molten products from the reactor has been demonstrated. The containment of chemically aggressive oxide and metal melts is very difficult at the operating temperatures ca. 1600 C. Containing the molten oxides in a regolith shell can solve this technical issue and can be achieved by designing a Joule-heated (sometimes called 'self-heating') reactor in which the electrolytic currents generate enough Joule heat to create a molten bath. Solutions obtained by multiphysics modeling allow the identification of the critical dimensions of concept reactors.

  15. Metals recovering from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) using molten salts.

    PubMed

    Flandinet, L; Tedjar, F; Ghetta, V; Fouletier, J

    2012-04-30

    Recycling of waste electrical and electronic equipments (WEEE) has been taken into consideration in the literature due to the large quantity of concerned wastes and their hazardous contents. The situation is so critical that EU published European Directives imposing collection and recycling with a minimum of material recovery [1]. Moreover, WEEEs contain precious metals, making the recycling of these wastes economically interesting, but also some critical metals and their recycling leads to resource conservation. This paper reports on a new approach for recycling waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs). Molten salts and specifically molten KOH-NaOH eutectic is used to dissolve glasses, oxides and to destruct plastics present in wastes without oxidizing the most valuable metals. This method is efficient for recovering a copper-rich metallic fraction, which is, moreover, cleared of plastics and glasses. In addition, analyses of gaseous emission show that this method is environmentally friendly since most of the process gases, such as carbon monoxide and dioxide and halogens, are trapped in the highly basic molten salt. In other respects, under operation without oxygen, a large quantity of hydrogen is produced and might be used as fuel gas or as synthesis gas, leading to a favourable energy balance for this new process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Production of Oxygen from Lunar Regolith using Molten Oxide Electrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibille, Laurent; Sadoway, Donald R.; Sirk, Aislinn; Tripathy, Prabhat; Melendez, Orlando; Standish, Evan; Dominquez, Jesus A.; Stefanescu, Doru M.; Curreri, Peter A.; Poizeau, Sophie

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the possible use of molten oxide electrolysis to extract oxygen from the Lunar Regolith. The presentation asserts that molten regolith electrolysis has advanced to be a useful method for production of oxygen and metals in situ on the Moon. The work has demonstrated an 8 hour batch of electrolysis at 5 amps using Iridium inert anodes.

  17. Electromagnetic confinement and movement of thin sheets of molten metal

    DOEpatents

    Lari, Robert J.; Praeg, Walter F.; Turner, Larry R.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus capable of producing a combination of magnetic fields that can retain a metal in liquid form in a region having a smooth vertical boundary including a levitation magnet that produces low frequency magnetic field traveling waves to retain the metal and a stabilization magnet that produces a high frequency magnetic field to produce a smooth vertical boundary. As particularly adapted to the casting of solid metal sheets, a metal in liquid form can be continuously fed into one end of the confinement region produced by the levitation and stabilization magnets and removed in solid form from the other end of confinement region. An additional magnet may be included for support at the edges of the confinement region where eddy currents loop.

  18. The use of molten salts as physical models for the study of solidification in metals and semiconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koziol, Jurek K.; Sadoway, Donald R.

    1987-01-01

    It is presently noted that molten salts possess attributes rendering them attractive as physical models of cast metals in solidification studies. Molten alkali halides have an approximately correct Prandtl number for this modeling of metallic melts, and are transparent to visible light. Attention is given to solidification in the LiCl-KCl system, in order to determine whether such phenomena as solute rejection can be observed and characterized through the application of laser schlieren imaging.

  19. Simulation of Motion, Heating, and Breakup of Molten Metal Droplets in the Plasma Jet at Plasma-Arc Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharlamov, M. Yu.; Krivtsun, I. V.; Korzhyk, V. N.; Ryabovolyk, Y. V.; Demyanov, O. I.

    2015-04-01

    The mathematical model for the process of plasma-arc wire spraying is proposed, which describes behavior of molten metal droplets in the plasma jet, allowing for the processes of their deformation and gas-dynamic breakup. Numerical analysis of the processes of motion, heating, and breakup of molten metal droplets, detached from the sprayed wire at plasma-arc spraying of coatings, was performed. It is shown that during molten droplets movement in the plasma jet their multiple breakup takes place, leading to formation of sprayed particles with dimensions much smaller than dimensions of initial droplets, detached from the sprayed wire tip.

  20. Performance Testing of Molten Regolith Electrolysis with Transfer of Molten Material for the Production of Oxygen and Metals on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibille, Laurent; Sadoway, Donald; Tripathy, Prabhat; Standish, Evan; Sirk, Aislinn; Melendez, Orlando; Stefanescu, Doru

    2010-01-01

    Previously, we have demonstrated the production of oxygen by electrolysis of molten regolith simulants at temperatures near 1600 C. Using an inert anode and suitable cathode, direct electrolysis (no supporting electrolyte) of the molten silicate is carried out, resulting in the production of molten metallic products at the cathode and oxygen gas at the anode. Initial direct measurements of current efficiency have confirmed that the process offer potential advantages of high oxygen production rates in a smaller footprint facility landed on the moon, with a minimum of consumables brought from Earth. We now report the results of a scale-up effort toward the goal of achieving production rates equivalent to 1 metric ton O2/year, a benchmark established for the support of a lunar base. We previously reported on the electrochemical behavior of the molten electrolyte as dependent on anode material, sweep rate and electrolyte composition in batches of 20-200g and at currents of less than 0.5 A. In this paper, we present the results of experiments performed at currents up to 10 Amperes) and in larger volumes of regolith simulant (500 g - 1 kg) for longer durations of electrolysis. The technical development of critical design components is described, including: inert anodes capable of passing continuous currents of several Amperes, container materials selection, direct gas analysis capability to determine the gas components co-evolving with oxygen. To allow a continuous process, a system has been designed and tested to enable the withdrawal of cathodically-reduced molten metals and spent molten oxide electrolyte. The performance of the withdrawal system is presented and critiqued. The design of the electrolytic cell and the configuration of the furnace were supported by modeling the thermal environment of the system in an effort to realize a balance between external heating and internal joule heating. We will discuss the impact these simulations and experimental findings have

  1. Grain Boundary Penetration of Various Types of Ni Layer by Molten Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S.; Chang, C. Y.; Zhu, Z. X.; Lin, Y. F.; Kao, C. R.

    2017-07-01

    The grain boundary penetration of three types of Ni layer, Ni foil, electroplated Ni, and electroless Ni, by molten Pb and 95Pb5Sn (wt.%) is investigated. The average grain sizes of Ni foil and electroplated Ni are 10 μm and 1 μm, respectively, while the electroless Ni is amorphous. The purpose of using two molten metals is to study the effect of intermetallic formation on grain boundary penetration. Molten Pb was able to penetrate or disintegrate all three types of Ni, including amorphous Ni, which does not contain any grain boundaries. On the other hand, the addition of merely 5 wt.% Sn into molten Pb was able to slow the penetration down substantially for all three types of Ni layer, with the greatest suppression found in electroless Ni where a grain boundary penetration event did not take place. The mechanism for the Sn effect is due to the formation of a protective Ni3Sn4 intermetallic compound at the interface acting as a barrier against grain boundary penetration.

  2. Grain Boundary Penetration of Various Types of Ni Layer by Molten Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S.; Chang, C. Y.; Zhu, Z. X.; Lin, Y. F.; Kao, C. R.

    2017-02-01

    The grain boundary penetration of three types of Ni layer, Ni foil, electroplated Ni, and electroless Ni, by molten Pb and 95Pb5Sn (wt.%) is investigated. The average grain sizes of Ni foil and electroplated Ni are 10 μm and 1 μm, respectively, while the electroless Ni is amorphous. The purpose of using two molten metals is to study the effect of intermetallic formation on grain boundary penetration. Molten Pb was able to penetrate or disintegrate all three types of Ni, including amorphous Ni, which does not contain any grain boundaries. On the other hand, the addition of merely 5 wt.% Sn into molten Pb was able to slow the penetration down substantially for all three types of Ni layer, with the greatest suppression found in electroless Ni where a grain boundary penetration event did not take place. The mechanism for the Sn effect is due to the formation of a protective Ni3Sn4 intermetallic compound at the interface acting as a barrier against grain boundary penetration.

  3. Convection in molten pool created by a concentrated energy flux on a solid metal target

    SciTech Connect

    Dikshit, B.; Zende, G. R.; Bhatia, M. S.; Suri, B. M.

    2009-08-15

    During surface evaporation of metals by use of a concentrated energy flux such as electron beam or lasers, a liquid metal pool having a very high temperature gradient is formed around the hot zone created by the beam. Due to temperature dependence of surface tension, density, and depression of the evaporating surface caused by back pressure of the emitted vapor in this molten pool, a strong convective current sets in the molten pool. A proposition is made that this convection may pass through three different stages during increase in the electron beam power depending upon dominance of the various driving forces. To confirm this, convective heat transfer is quantified in terms of dimensionless Nusselt number and its evolution with power is studied in an experiment using aluminum, copper, and zirconium as targets. These experimentally determined values are also compared to the theoretical values predicted by earlier researchers to test the validity of their assumptions and to know about the type of flow in the melt pool. Thus, conclusion about the physical characteristics of flow in the molten pool of metals could be drawn by considering the roles of surface tension and curvature of the evaporating surface on the evolution of convective heat transfer.

  4. Method for hydrocracking a heavy polynuclear hydrocarbonaceous feedstock in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Gorin, Everett

    1981-01-01

    A method for hydrocracking a heavy polynuclear hydrocarbonaceous feedstock to produce lighter hydrocarbon fuels by contacting the feedstock with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst, the method comprising: mixing the feedstock with a heavy naphtha fraction which has an initial boiling point from about 100.degree. to about 160.degree. C. with a boiling point difference between the initial boiling point and the final boiling point of no more than about 50.degree. C. to produce a mixture; thereafter contacting the mixture with partially spent molten metal halide and hydrogen under temperature and pressure conditions so that the temperature is near the critical temperature of the heavy naphtha fraction; separating at least a portion of the heavy naphtha fraction and lighter hydrocarbon fuels from the partially spent molten metal halide, unreacted feedstock and reaction products; thereafter contacting the partially spent molten metal halide, unreacted feedstock and reaction products with hydrogen and fresh molten metal halide in a hydrocracking zone to produce additional lighter hydrocarbon fuels and separating at least a major portion of the lighter hydrocarbon fuels from the spent molten metal halide.

  5. Roles of Cationic and Elemental Calcium in the Electro-Reduction of Solid Metal Oxides in Molten Calcium Chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Guohong; Jiang, Kai; Ma, Meng; Wang, Dihua; Jin, Xianbo; Chen, George Z.

    2007-06-01

    Previous work, mainly from this research group, is re-visited on electrochemical reduction of solid metal oxides, in the form of compacted powder, in molten CaCl2, aiming at further understanding of the roles of cationic and elemental calcium. The discussion focuses on six aspects: 1.) debate on two mechanisms proposed in the literature, i. e. electro-metallothermic reduction and electro-reduction (or electro-deoxidation), for the electrolytic removal of oxygen from solid metals or metal oxides in molten CaCl2; 2.) novel metallic cavity working electrodes for electrochemical investigations of compacted metal oxide powders in high temperature molten salts assisted by a quartz sealed Ag/AgCl reference electrode (650 ºC- 950 ºC); 3.) influence of elemental calcium on the background current observed during electrolysis of solid metal oxides in molten CaCl2; 4.) electrochemical insertion/ inclusion of cationic calcium into solid metal oxides; 5.) typical features of cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry (potentiostatic electrolysis) of metal oxide powders in molten CaCl2; and 6.) some kinetic considerations on the electrolytic removal of oxygen.

  6. Development of Large-size Ultrasonic Sonotrodes for Cavitation Treatment of Molten Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komarov, Sergey; Ishiwata, Yasuo

    This work presents results of the development of large-size high-amplitude ceramic sonotrodes destined for use in cavitation treatment of molten metals. The sonotrodes were characterized for their vibration amplitude, erosion resistance and cavitation-producing ability in aluminum melts. The ability of the sonotrodes to refine the grain structure was examined by applying them to the DC casting of Al-Si hypereutectic alloys. The results showed that the sonotrodes have excellent performance characteristics, and they possess far superior erosion resistance and endurance than those made of such high-resistance refractory metals as Nb alloys.

  7. Integrated oil production and upgrading using molten alkali metal

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, John Howard

    2016-10-04

    A method that combines the oil retorting process (or other process needed to obtain/extract heavy oil or bitumen) with the process for upgrading these materials using sodium or other alkali metals. Specifically, the shale gas or other gases that are obtained from the retorting/extraction process may be introduced into the upgrading reactor and used to upgrade the oil feedstock. Also, the solid materials obtained from the reactor may be used as a fuel source, thereby providing the heat necessary for the retorting/extraction process. Other forms of integration are also disclosed.

  8. Actinides recovery from molten salt/liquid metal system by electrochemical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iizuka, Masatoshi; Koyama, Tadafumi; Kondo, Naruhito; Fujita, Reiko; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    1997-08-01

    Electrochemical methods were examined for the recovery of actinides from the electrorefiner which is used in pyrometallurgical reprocessing of spent metal fuel for fast reactors. Uranium was successfully collected at the solid steel cathode from both liquid cadmium and molten salt solvents. In electrotransport from liquid cadmium, the behavior of uranium and rare earths was as expected by a computer simulation code based on the diffusion layer model at the interface between the electrolyte and the electrodes. In electroreduction from the molten salt electrolyte, a considerable amount of uranium was reduced at the CdLi anode by direct chemical reduction with lithium, especially at a lower anodic current density. The decrease in collection efficiency of uranium due to the direct chemical reduction would be avoided by maintaining the anode potential higher than the deposition potential of uranium.

  9. Method and apparatus for removal of gaseous, liquid and particulate contaminants from molten metals

    DOEpatents

    Hobson, David O.; Alexeff, Igor; Sikka, Vinod K.

    1988-01-01

    Method and apparatus for removal of nonelectrically-conducting gaseous, liquid, and particulate contaminants from molten metal compositions by applying a force thereto. The force (commonly referred to as the Lorentz Force) exerted by simultaneous application of an electric field and a magnetic field on a molten conductor causes an increase, in the same direction as the force, in the apparent specific gravity thereof, but does not affect the nonconducting materials. This difference in apparent densities cause the nonconducting materials to "float" in the opposite direction from the Lorentz Force at a rapid rate. Means are further provided for removal of the contaminants and prevention of stirring due to rotational forces generated by the applied fields.

  10. The Equilibrium Between Titanium Ions and Titanium Metal in NaCl-KCl Equimolar Molten Salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiuyu; Song, Jianxun; Hu, Guojing; Zhu, Xiaobo; Hou, Jungang; Jiao, Shuqiang; Zhu, Hongmin

    2013-08-01

    The equilibrium between metallic titanium and titanium ions, 3Ti2+ ⇌ 2Ti3+ + Ti, in NaCl-KCl equimolar molten salt was reevaluated. At a fixed temperature and an initial concentration of titanium chloride, the equilibrium was achieved by adding an excess amount of sponge titanium in assistant with bubbling of argon into the molten salt. The significance of this work is that the accurate concentrations of titanium ions have been obtained based on a reliable approach for taking samples. Furthermore, the equilibrium constant {{K}}_{{C}} = (x_{{{{Ti}}^{{ 3 { + }}} }}^{{eql}} )3 /(x_{{{{Ti}}^{{ 2 { + }}} }}^{{eql}} )2 was calculated through the best-fitting method under the consideration of the TiOCl dissolution. Indeed, the final results have disclosed that the stable value of KC could be achieved based on all modifications.

  11. Method and apparatus for removal of gaseous, liquid and particulate contaminants from molten metals

    DOEpatents

    Hobson, D.O.; Alexeff, I.; Sikka, V.K.

    1987-08-10

    Method and apparatus for removal of nonelectrically-conducting gaseous, liquid, and particulate contaminants from molten metal compositions by applying a force thereto. The force (commonly referred to as the Lorentz Force) exerted by simultaneous application of an electric field and a magnetic field on a molten conductor causes an increase, in the same direction as the force, in the apparent specific gravity thereof, but does not affect the nonconducting materials. This difference in apparent densities cause the nonconducting materials to ''float'' in the opposite direction from the Lorentz Force at a rapid rate. Means are further provided for removal of the contaminants and prevention of stirring due to rotational forces generated by the applied fields. 6 figs.

  12. Multifunctional Metallic and Refractory Materials for Energy Efficient Handling of Molten Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Xingbo Liu; Ever Barbero; Bruce Kang; Bhaskaran Gopalakrishnan; James Headrick; Carl Irwin

    2009-02-06

    The goal of the project was to extend the lifetime of hardware submerged in molten metal by an order of magnitude and to improve energy efficiency of molten metal handling process. Assuming broad implementation of project results, energy savings in 2020 were projected to be 10 trillion BTU/year, with cost savings of approximately $100 million/year. The project team was comprised of materials research groups from West Virginia University and the Missouri University of Science and Technology formerly University of Missouri – Rolla, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, International Lead and Zinc Research Organization, Secat and Energy Industries of Ohio. Industry partners included six suppliers to the hot dip galvanizing industry, four end-user steel companies with hot-dip Galvanize and/or Galvalume lines, eight refractory suppliers, and seven refractory end-user companies. The results of the project included the development of: (1) New families of materials more resistant to degradation in hot-dip galvanizing bath conditions were developed; (2) Alloy 2020 weld overlay material and process were developed and applied to GI rolls; (3) New Alloys and dross-cleaning procedures were developed for Galvalume processes; (4) Two new refractory compositions, including new anti-wetting agents, were identified for use with liquid aluminum alloys; (5) A new thermal conductivity measurement technique was developed and validated at ORNL; (6) The Galvanizing Energy Profiler Decision Support System (GEPDSS)at WVU; Newly Developed CCW Laser Cladding Shows Better Resistance to Dross Buildup than 316L Stainless Steel; and (7) A novel method of measuring the corrosion behavior of bath hardware materials. Project in-line trials were conducted at Southwire Kentucky Rod and Cable Mill, Nucor-Crawfordsville, Nucor-Arkansas, Nucor-South Carolina, Wheeling Nisshin, California Steel, Energy Industries of Ohio, and Pennex Aluminum. Cost, energy, and environmental benefits resulting from the project

  13. Multiphysics Modeling for Dimensional Analysis of a Self-Heated Molten Regolith Electrolysis Reactor for Oxygen and Metals Production on the Moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominguez, Jesus; Sibille, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    The technology of direct electrolysis of molten lunar regolith to produce oxygen and molten metal alloys has progressed greatly in the last few years. The development of long-lasting inert anodes and cathode designs as well as techniques for the removal of molten products from the reactor has been demonstrated. The containment of chemically aggressive oxide and metal melts is very difficult at the operating temperatures ca. 1600 C. Containing the molten oxides in a regolith shell can solve this technical issue and can be achieved by designing a self-heating reactor in which the electrolytic currents generate enough Joule heat to create a molten bath.

  14. Synthesis of cerium rich intermetallics using molten metal eutectics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, Patricia Christine

    Metal eutectic fluxes are useful for exploratory synthesis of new intermetallic phases. In this work the use of cerium/transition metal eutectics such as: Ce/Co, Ce/Ni, and Ce/Fe have yielded many new synthetically and magnetically complex phases. Structural units that were previously observed in phases grown in La/Ni eutectic reactions have also been observed in new structures and analogs grown from cerium/transition metal eutectics. These structural units include a main group element coordinated by 9 rare-earth atoms (such as the Al Ce9 clusters seen in Ce31.0(2)Fe11.8(5)Al6.5(6) B13C4), trigonal planar FeC3 units (also seen in Ce31.0(2)Fe11.8(5)Al6.5(6)B 13C4), iron clusters capped by light elements (Fe4C 6 frustrated tetrahedral in Ce21Fe8M7C 14, and larger Fe clusters in Ce33Fe14B25 C34). Variants of these building blocks were observed in Ce10Co2B7C16 with square Co units and chains of B and C connected to them, Fe2C8 units observed in Ce7Fe2C9, and FeC4 observed in Ce4FeGa0.85Al0.15C4 and Ce4FeAlC4. Two new phases were grown from Ce/Fe eutectic, Ce33Fe 14B25C34 and Ce33Fe13B 18C34 which exhibits very similar structures, but significantly different magnetic behavior. Structurally these two phases are similar. Both crystallize in the Im-3m space group, but differ by the centering of the Fe clusters. Ce33Fe14B25C34 contains Fe clusters centered by B atoms and Al doped on the Fe2 site. In Ce33Fe13B18C34, the Fe cluster is a perfect cuboctahedron. Ce33Fe14B25 C34 exhibits mixed valent behavior of cerium at 75K and no magnetic moment on iron, where-as Ce33Fe13B18C 34 exhibits tetravalent cerium and its iron clusters undergo a ferromagnetic transition at 180K. Another borocarbide, Ce10Co2B7C 16 was synthesized from Ce/Co eutectic flux. This structure features squares of Co surrounded by chains of C and B and a sea of cerium atoms. Temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility measurements at 1 Tesla were fit to a modified Curie-Weiss law and a moment per Ce was

  15. [Flow of molten metal in denture base in horizontal centrifugal casting procedure. (Part 2) Flow, inflow volume and casting time of molten metal passing through several sprues into model denture plate mold (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Okamura, H

    1978-10-01

    Two types of spruing methods were used in the casting of the denture type model pattern (thickness, 0.43 mm). Flow of molten metal in the mold was filmed by the improved system of Part 1. When three sprues were attached to the pattern vertically, molten metal passed through each sprue gate flowed being affected by the direction of gravity and revolution of casting machine, and gathered at the lower part of the mold. Next molten metal filled the mold from the lower part to the upper part. In this spruing type, molten metal turned its direction of flow several times. At the middle stage of casting, the inflow volume per unit time (inflow rate), v (mm3/10-2)s)was evaluated as v = 12.36 + 5.16A-0.16 A2 (A: total cross-sectional areas of sprues). The inflow rate increased with increase of the area of the sprues, but it saturated. When the main sprue and the subsprues were attached at the posterior border, the molten metal filled the mold from the lower part to the upper part quietly. In this spruing type, the casting mold was set facing its sprue gates downwards. The inflow rate at the middle stage of casting was evaluated as v = 21.05 + 1.79 C (C: the cross-sectional area of the main sprue). The inflow rate increased linearly with increase of the area of the main sprue.

  16. Material development of molten metal bath hardware for continuous hot-dip processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElroy, Sherman A.

    Development of corrosion resistant materials to molten zinc attack for applications in galvanizing pots has long been desired, because better corrosion resistance could lead to a longer production campaign. The research objectives of this project were to develop new bulk materials and surface treatments/coatings for life improvement of molten metal bath hardware (bearings, sink roll, stabilizing rolls, corrector rolls, and also support roll arms and snout tip) in continuous hot-dip process used for coated steel strip. The ultimate goal of the project is to increase the molten Zn bath components life by an order of magnitude which results in large energy saving (estimated at 2 trillion BTU/year). Estimated cost saving would be approximately $46 million/year for the 57 lines operating in the United States of America. Extensive experimental studies were conducted on over 60 different samples of various materials (monolithic alloys with and without treatment, weld overlays, and ceramics) in molten Zn-0.16Al at 465°C. Test durations were 1h to over 9000h in the static condition, over 50h in the dynamic condition, and up to 24h in the wear condition. Data were recorded as weight change per unit area as a function of time and temperature. The reaction products were analyzed for phase composition and their distribution using SEM, EDS, XRD, and optical microscope. Corrosion rates for each selected alloys were calculated. The SS Type 316L results were used as a baseline. Comparisons between the corrosion behaviors of the stainless steel type 316L and the selected materials were made. Based on our static, dynamic, and wear immersion experimental data a mechanism for alloy corrosion in molten zinc was proposed. Alloys containing Fe, Cr, and Al as its major components results in the formation of (Fe, Cr, Al)XZnY intermetallic phases and oxides at the alloy/zinc interface when exposed to molten zinc in air. Most of the alloys studied in present investigation, corrosion

  17. An Assessment of Molten Metal Detachment Hazards for Electron Beam Welding in the Space Environment: Analysis and Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunes, A. C., Jr.; Russell, C.; Bhat, B.; Fragomeni, J. M.

    1998-01-01

    Conditions under which molten metal detachments might occur in a space welding environment are analyzed. A weld pool detachment parameter specifying conditions for pool detachment by impact is derived and corroborated by experimental evidence. Impact detachment for the pool is unlikely. Impact detachment for a drop of metal on the end of the weld wire may be possible under extreme conditions. Other potential causes of molten metal detachment considered, vaporization pressure forces and wire flickout from the pool, did not appear to present significant detachment threats.

  18. 30 CFR 56.15007 - Protective equipment or clothing for welding, cutting, or working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protective equipment or clothing for welding... METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personal Protection § 56.15007 Protective equipment or clothing for welding... be worn when welding, cutting, or working with molten metal....

  19. 30 CFR 56.15007 - Protective equipment or clothing for welding, cutting, or working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Protective equipment or clothing for welding... METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personal Protection § 56.15007 Protective equipment or clothing for welding... be worn when welding, cutting, or working with molten metal....

  20. 30 CFR 56.15007 - Protective equipment or clothing for welding, cutting, or working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Protective equipment or clothing for welding... METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personal Protection § 56.15007 Protective equipment or clothing for welding... be worn when welding, cutting, or working with molten metal....

  1. 30 CFR 56.15007 - Protective equipment or clothing for welding, cutting, or working with molten metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Protective equipment or clothing for welding... METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personal Protection § 56.15007 Protective equipment or clothing for welding... be worn when welding, cutting, or working with molten metal....

  2. Stability diagrams for fourfold coordination of polyvalent metal ions in molten mixtures of halide salts

    SciTech Connect

    Akdeniz, Z. Istanbul Univ. . Dept. of Physics); Tosi, M.P. . Dipt. di Fisica Teorica Argonne National Lab., IL )

    1988-11-01

    The stability of local fourfold coordination for divalent and trivalent metal ions in liquid mixtures of polyvalent metal halides and alkali halides is classified by means of structural coordinates obtained from properties of the elements. In parallel with earlier classifications of compound crystal structures and molecular shapes, the elemental properties are taken from first-principles calculations of valence electron orbitals in atoms, in the form of (i) the nodal radii of Andreoni, Baldereschi and Guizzetti or (ii) the pseudopotential radii or Zunger and Cohen. As a third alternative a classification based on Pettifor's phenomenological chemical scale of the elements is also considered. The alternative structural classification schemes that are developed from these elemental properties are generally successfully in distinguishing molten mixtures in which the available experimental evidence indicates long-lived fourfold coordination of polyvalent metal ions. In addition, Pettifor's chemical scale scheme is useful in sorting out finer details of local coordination in the liquid state. 3 figs., 71 refs.

  3. Experimental investigation on the thermodynamic properties of liquid Fe-light element alloys and the solidification of molten metallic cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Z.; Chantel, J.; Xu, M.; Han, J.; Yu, T.; Wang, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Light elements such as S, Si, C, O, P, H, etc., are import minor constituents in the Earth's outer core and the molten metallic cores of several other planetary bodies. The presence of light elements significantly modifies the thermodynamic properties of metallic cores including density, compressibility, thermal expansivity, and phase relations. Thus, knowledge on the high-pressure thermodynamic properties of Fe-alloying liquids is critical to the understanding of the composition, structure, and thermo-chemical evolution of planetary cores. In this study, we conducted a multi-technique experimental investigation on the thermodynamic properties of Fe-light element alloying liquids under the high-pressure conditions relevant to planetary cores. Sound velocities of Fe-S, Fe-Si, Fe-C, and Fe-P liquids were determined up to 7 GPa and 2073 K by combining the ultrasonic measurements in a multianvil device with synchrotron X-ray imaging and diffraction techniques. Our results show that the presence of S significantly decreases the velocity of liquid Fe, whereas S and C increase the velocity. Phosphorus has relatively small effect on the velocity. Using in-situ X-ray radiography techniques, we have determined the density of Fe-P liquids up to 7 GPa and 2173 K, which shows significantly higher thermal expansivity of liquid Fe alloys compared to solid alloys. Combined with our density data and data in the literature, our velocity data provide tight constraints on the equations of state for Fe-alloying liquids. The temperature dependence of sound velocities also provides constraints on the Grüneisen parameter, from which the adiabatic temperature gradient in molten cores can be calculated. In addition, we have developed a novel techniques based on ultrasonic sound waves propagation to place constraints on the liquidus and solidus/eutectic temperatures of Fe alloys at high pressures. Comparing adiabatic temperature gradients and the pressure dependences of liquidi for metallic

  4. Experimental investigation of interfacial heat transfer for molten metal solidification on a substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.X.; Matthys, E.F.

    1995-12-31

    Thermal contact at the melt/substrate interface is an important issue in many material processes such as mold casting, strip and slab casting, splat cooling, melt-spinning, spray deposition, etc. In all these processes, the molten metal is brought in contact with a colder substrate, and the heat is transferred from the melt into this substrate. Here, experiments have been conducted to quantify the interfacial heat transfer between molten copper and a cold metallic substrate, and in particular to investigate the heat transfer variation as the initial liquid/solid contact becomes a solid/solid contact after nucleation. A high heat transfer coefficient (ranging from 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 5} W/m{sup 2}K) during the earlier liquid cooling phase and a lower heat transfer coefficient (from 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 4} W/m{sup 2}K) during the subsequent solid splat cooling phase were estimated through matching of model calculations and measured temperature history of the sample. The dynamic variations in the interfacial heat transfer resulting from the solidification process were quantified for splat cooling and were found to be affected by the melt superheat, the substrate material, and the substrate surface finish.

  5. Effect of mold designs on molten metal behaviour in high-pressure die casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, M. D.; Rahman, M. R. A.; Khan, A. A.; Mohamad, M. R.; Suffian, M. S. Z. M.; Yunos, Y. S.; Wong, L. K.; Mohtar, M. Z.

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a research study conducted in a local automotive component manufacturer that produces aluminium alloy steering housing local and global markets. This study is to investigate the effect of design modification of mold in die casting as to improve the production rate. Design modification is carried out on the casting shot of the mold. Computer flow simulation was carried out to study the flow of molten metal in the mold with respect to the mold design modification. The design parameters of injection speed, die temperature and clamping force has been included in the study. The result of the simulation showed that modifications of casting shot give significant impact towards the molten flow behaviour in casting process. The capabilities and limitations of die casting process simulation to conduct defect analysis had been optimized. This research will enhance the efficiency of the mass production of the industry of die casting with the understanding of defect analysis, which lies on the modification of the mold design, a way early in its stages of production.

  6. Creep resistant, metal-coated LiFeO.sub.2 anodes for molten carbonated fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Khandkar, Ashok C.

    1994-01-01

    A porous, creep-resistant, metal-coated, LiFeO.sub.2 ceramic electrode for fuel cells is disclosed. The electrode is particularly useful for molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) although it may have utilities in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) as well.

  7. Creep resistant, metal-coated LiFeO[sub 2] anodes for molten carbonated fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Khandkar, A.C.

    1994-08-23

    A porous, creep-resistant, metal-coated, LiFeO[sub 2] ceramic electrode for fuel cells is disclosed. The electrode is particularly useful for molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) although it may have utilities in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) as well. 11 figs.

  8. Cleaning IF molten steel with dispersed in-situ heterophases induced by the composite sphere explosive reaction in RH ladles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Fu-Ping; Li, Zhen; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Chen, Ben-Wen; Fei, Peng

    2011-04-01

    A novel fine inclusion removal technology was put forward with dispersed in-situ heterophases induced by the composite sphere explosive reaction. A composite sphere with this function was designed and prepared using a laboratory scale batch-type balling disc (at 12 r/min), and the composite sphere was fed at the end of the RH refining process. The results indicate that inclusions in the IF molten steel can be removed effectively by feeding composite spheres in RH ladle. Compared with conventional inclusion removal technology, using this novel technology, the amount of oxide inclusions can be decreased to a lower level and the inclusion size becomes finer, the total oxygen content in the as-cast slab can approach 5×10-6, and the cost per ton of steel produced can be reduced by 5-12 Yuan RMB.

  9. Metallotropic liquid crystals formed by surfactant templating of molten metal halides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, James D.; Keary, Cristin L.; Thornton, Todd A.; Novotnak, Mark P.; Knutson, Jeremey W.; Folmer, Jacob C. W.

    2006-04-01

    Liquid crystals consist of anisotropic molecular units, and most are organic molecules. Materials incorporating metals into anisotropic molecules, described as metallomesogens, have been prepared. Anisotropic structures such as one-dimensional chains and two-dimensional layers are frequently observed in solid-state inorganic materials, however, little is understood about structural organization in melts of such materials. Achieving liquid-crystalline behaviour in inorganic fluids should be possible if the anisotropic structure can be retained or designed into the molten phase. We demonstrated the ability to engineer zeolite-type structures into metal halide glasses and liquids. In this work we have engineered lamellar, cubic and hexagonal liquid-crystalline structure in metal-halide melts by controlling the volume fraction and nature of the inorganic block (up to 80 mol%) with respect to alkylammonium surfactants. The high metal content of these liquid-crystalline systems significantly advances the field of metallomesogens, which seeks to combine magnetic, electronic, optical, redox and catalytic properties common to inorganic materials with the fluid properties of liquid crystals.

  10. Molten salt extraction process for the recovery of valued transition metals from land-based and deep-sea minerals

    DOEpatents

    Maroni, V.A.; von Winbush, S.

    1987-05-01

    A process for extracting transition metals and particularly cobalt and manganese together with iron, copper and nickel from low grade ores (including ocean-floor nodules) by converting the metal oxides or other compositions to chlorides in a molten salt, and subsequently using a combination of selective distillation at temperatures below about 500/degree/C, electrolysis at a voltage not more negative that about /minus/1.5 volt versus Ag/AgCl, and precipitation to separate the desired manganese and cobalt salts from other metals and provide cobalt and manganese in metallic forms or compositions from which these metals may be more easily recovered.

  11. Molten salt extraction process for the recovery of valued transition metals from land-based and deep-sea minerals

    DOEpatents

    Maroni, Victor A.; von Winbush, Samuel

    1988-01-01

    A process for extracting transition metals and particularly cobalt and manganese together with iron, copper and nickel from low grade ores (including ocean-floor nodules) by converting the metal oxides or other compositions to chlorides in a molten salt, and subsequently using a combination of selective distillation at temperatures below about 500.degree. C., electrolysis at a voltage not more negative than about -1.5 volt versus Ag/AgCl, and precipitation to separate the desired manganese and cobalt salts from other metals and provide cobalt and manganese in metallic forms or compositions from which these metals may be more easily recovered.

  12. The shape of bubbles rising near the nozzle exit in molten metal baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iguchi, Manabu; Nakatani, Tadatoshi; Tokunaga, Hirohiko

    1997-06-01

    A previously developed multineedle electroresistivity probe was used to investigate the shape of bubbles generated at the exit of a central single-hole bottom nozzle in molten Wood’s metal and mercury baths. This probe is capable of detecting the vertical cross section of rising bubbles. The shape of bubbles just after the detachment from the nozzle exit was correlated as a function of a modified Reynolds number and a modified Weber number. Furthermore, the relations between the shape of bubbles and the radial distributions of bubble characteristics specified by gas holdup, bubble frequency, etc. were derived. As a result, it is possible to predict the shape of the bubbles by measuring the bubble characteristics with a conventional two-needle electroresistivity probe.

  13. Release from ISOLDE molten metal targets under pulsed proton beam conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lettry, J.; Catherall, R.; Cyvoct, G.; Evensen, A. H. M.; Lindroos, M.; Jonsson, O. C.; Kugler, E.; Schindl, K.; Ravn, H.; Wildner, E.; Drumm, P.; Obert, J.; Putaux, J. C.; Sauvage, J.

    1996-04-01

    By moving the ISOLDE mass separators from the 600 MeV Synchrocyclotron (SC) to the 1 GeV Proton-Synchrotron-Booster (PS) the instantaneous energy density of the proton beam went up by 3 orders of magnitude. The developments of the molten metal target units and the optimization of the PS proton beam to cope with the effects of the thermal shocks induced by the proton beam are described. The energy density of the PS proton beam was reduced by spatial defocusing and time staggered extraction of the four PS-accelerators. The release from lanthanum, lead and tin targets is discussed for different settings of the proton beam and compared to the release observed at ISOLDE-SC. The yields of Hg isotopes are presented.

  14. Time-dependent calculations of molten pool formation and thermal plasma with metal vapour in gas tungsten arc welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, M.; Yamamoto, K.; Tashiro, S.; Nakata, K.; Yamamoto, E.; Yamazaki, K.; Suzuki, K.; Murphy, A. B.; Lowke, J. J.

    2010-11-01

    A gas tungsten arc (GTA) was modelled taking into account the contamination of the plasma by metal vapour from the molten anode. The whole region of GTA atmosphere including the tungsten cathode, the arc plasma and the anode was treated using a unified numerical model. A viscosity approximation was used to express the diffusion coefficient in terms of viscosity of the shielding gas and metal vapour. The transient two-dimensional distributions of temperature, velocity of plasma flow and iron vapour concentration were predicted, together with the molten pool as a function of time for a 150 A arc current at atmospheric pressure, both for helium and argon gases. It was shown that the thermal plasma in the GTA was influenced by iron vapour from the molten pool surface and that the concentration of iron vapour in the plasma was dependent on the temperature of the molten pool. GTA on high sulfur stainless steel was calculated to discuss the differences between a low sulfur and a high sulfur stainless steel anode. Helium was selected as the shielding gas because a helium GTA produces more metal vapour than an argon GTA. In the GTA on a high sulfur stainless steel anode, iron vapour and current path were constricted. Radiative emission density in the GTA on high sulfur stainless steel was also concentrated in the centre area of the arc plasma together with the iron vapour although the temperature distributions were almost the same as that in the case of a low sulfur stainless steel anode.

  15. Rapid mass production of two-dimensional metal oxides and hydroxides via the molten salts method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhimi; Xiao, Xu; Jin, Huanyu; Li, Tianqi; Chen, Ming; Liang, Zhun; Guo, Zhengfeng; Li, Jia; Wan, Jun; Huang, Liang; Zhang, Yanrong; Feng, Guang; Zhou, Jun

    2017-05-01

    Because of their exotic electronic properties and abundant active sites, two-dimensional (2D) materials have potential in various fields. Pursuing a general synthesis methodology of 2D materials and advancing it from the laboratory to industry is of great importance. This type of method should be low cost, rapid and highly efficient. Here, we report the high-yield synthesis of 2D metal oxides and hydroxides via a molten salts method. We obtained a high-yield of 2D ion-intercalated metal oxides and hydroxides, such as cation-intercalated manganese oxides (Na0.55Mn2O4.1.5H2O and K0.27MnO2.0.54H2O), cation-intercalated tungsten oxides (Li2WO4 and Na2W4O13), and anion-intercalated metal hydroxides (Zn5(OH)8(NO3)2.2H2O and Cu2(OH)3NO3), with a large lateral size and nanometre thickness in a short time. Using 2D Na2W4O13 as an electrode, a high performance electrochemical supercapacitor is achieved. We anticipate that our method will enable new path to the high-yield synthesis of 2D materials for applications in energy-related fields and beyond.

  16. Thermal Interaction Between Molten Metal Jet and Sodium Pool: Effect of Principal Factors Governing Fragmentation of the Jet

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, Satoshi; Kinoshita, Izumi; Sugiyama, Ken-Ichiro; Ueda, Nobuyuki

    2005-02-15

    To clarify the effects of the principal factors that govern the thermal fragmentation of a molten metallic fuel jet in the course of fuel-coolant interaction, which is important in evaluating the sequence of core disruptive accidents (CDAs) for metallic fuel fast reactors, basic experiments were carried out using molten metallic fuel simulants (copper and silver) and a sodium pool.Fragmentation of a molten metal jet with a solid crust was caused by internal pressure produced by the boiling of sodium, which is locally entrapped inside the jet due to hydrodynamic motion between the jet and the coolant. The superheating and the latent heat of fusion of the jet are the principal factors governing this type of thermal fragmentation. On the other hand, the effect of the initial sodium temperature is regarded as negligible in the case of thermal conditions expected to result in CDAs for practical metallic fuel cores. Based on the fragmentation data for several kinds of jets (Cu, Ag, SUS, U, and U-5 wt% Zr alloy), an empirical correlation is proposed that is applicable to the calculation of a mass median diameter of fragments produced by the thermal fragmentation of the jet with a solid crust under low ambient Weber number conditions.

  17. [Flow of molten metal in denture base in horizontal centrifugal casting procedure. (Part 1) Flow, inflow volume and casting time of molten metal passing through single aprue into disk type mold (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Okamura, H

    1976-01-01

    A pyrex glass plate was fitted at the bottom of casting ring, and disk type wax pattern (thickness. 0.43 mm) was put on the plate. Five types of sprueing were applied. Pure tin was casted using holizontal centrifugal casting machine. Flow of molten metal was filmed by the motor drive camera with the method of stroboscope. The results were summarized as follows. 1) When the sprue was attached at the center of the disk type mold vertically, moten metal flowed like a concentric circle at the early stage of casting. It was affected gradually by the direction of gravity and revolution, and it filled the mold from the lower part to the upper part. 2) When the sprue gate was attached to the side edge of the mold, and the sprue gate was placed to the forward and backward direction against the revolution direction, molten metal filled from lower part to the upper part. 3) When the sprue gate was placed against upper edge, molten metal flow was affected by the direction of gravity and revolution. When the sprue gate was placed against lower edge, molten metal filled quietry from the lower part to the upper part. 4) Inflow volume per unit time (inflow rate) was small at the early stage of casting. Inflow rate increased and became constant at the next stage. At the latter stage it became small again. 5) Inflow rate increased with the increase of area of sprue. 6) The time which was necessary to fill the volume of 1 cm (about 80% of the mold volume) became short with the increase of area of sprue. It was also influenced by the type of sprueing.

  18. Capacitance of the double electrical layer on the copper-group metals in molten alkali metal halides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillova, E. V.; Stepanov, V. P.

    2016-08-01

    The electrochemical impedance is measured to study the capacitance of the double electrical layer of metallic Au, Ag, and Cu as a function of potential and temperature in nine molten salts, namely, the chlorides, bromides, and iodides of sodium, potassium, and cesium. The C- E curve of a gold electrode has an additional minimum in the anodic branch. This minimum for silver is less pronounced and is only observed at low ac signal frequencies in cesium halides. The additional minimum is not detected for copper in any salt under study. This phenomenon is explained on the assumption that the adsorption of halide anions on a positively charged electrode surface has a predominantly chemical rather than an electrostatic character. The specific adsorption in this case is accompanied by charge transfer through the interface and the formation of an adsorbent-adsorbate covalent bond.

  19. Utilization of Heavy Metal Molten Salts in the ARIES-RS Fusion Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Übeyli, Mustafa; Yapıcı, Hüseyin

    2008-09-01

    ARIES-RS is one of the major magnetic fusion energy reactor designs that uses a blanket having vanadium alloy structure cooled by lithium [1, 2]. It is a deuterium-tritium (DT) fusion driven reactor, having a fusion power of 2170 MW [1, 2]. This study presents the neutronic analysis of the ARIES-RS fusion reactor using heavy metal molten salts in which Li2BeF4 as the main constituent was mixed with increased mole fractions of heavy metal salt (ThF4 or UF4) starting by 2 mol.% up to 12 mol.%. Neutron transport calculations were carried out with the help of the SCALE 4.3 system by solving the Boltzmann transport equation with the XSDRNPM code in 238 neutron groups and a S 8- P 3 approximation. According to the numerical results, tritium self-sufficiency was attained for the coolants, Flibe with 2% UF4 or ThF4 and 4% UF4. In addition, higher energy multiplication values were found for the salt with UF4 compared to that with ThF4. Furthermore, significant amount of high quality nuclear fuel was produced to be used in external reactors.

  20. Meniscus behavior of metals and oxides in molten carbonate under oxidant and reducing atmospheres. 1: Contact angle and electrolyte displacement

    SciTech Connect

    Mugikura, Y.; Selman, J.R.

    1996-08-01

    The wetting of metals and oxides by molten carbonate is an important factor affecting the performance of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC). The distribution of the electrolyte among electrodes and matrix in the MCFC is dominated by the pore characteristics and wetting properties of these components. However, data on wetting, especially under load (current passage), are limited. In this study, the behavior of the meniscus at a metal is used to obtain information on wetting and electrochemical reactions. Meniscus height and current were measured under various atmospheres. The contact angle was calculated from the meniscus height. The electrolyte distribution in the MCFC was estimated using contact angles thus obtained in oxidant and reducing atmospheres. The results suggest that upon application of load the electrolyte moves from the anode to the cathode and that capillary effects can worsen the performance of a cell, especially if it is in an unbalanced state of electrolyte filling.

  1. In situ NMR spectroscopy: inulin biomass conversion in ZnCl₂ molten salt hydrate medium-SnCl₄ addition controls product distribution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yingxiong; Pedersen, Christian Marcus; Qiao, Yan; Deng, Tiansheng; Shi, Jing; Hou, Xianglin

    2015-01-22

    The dehydration of inulin biomass to the platform chemicals, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) and levulinic acid (LA), in ZnCl2 molten salt hydrate medium was investigated. The influence of the Lewis acid catalyst, SnCl4, on the product distribution was examined. An in situ(1)H NMR technique was employed to follow the reaction at the molecular level. The experimental results revealed that only 5-HMF was obtained from degradation of inulin biomass in ZnCl2 molten salt hydrate medium, while the LA was gradually becoming the main product when the reaction temperature was increased in the presence of the Lewis acid catalyst SnCl4. In situ NMR spectroscopy could monitor the reaction and give valuable insight. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Aerodynamic levitator for in situ x-ray structure measurements on high temperature and molten nuclear fuel materials

    DOE PAGES

    Weber, J. K. R.; Tamalonis, A.; Benmore, C. J.; ...

    2016-07-01

    We integrated an aerodynamic levitator with carbon dioxide laser beam heating with a hermetically sealed controlled atmosphere chamber and sample handling mechanism. The system enabled containment of radioactive samples and control of the process atmosphere chemistry. Furthermore, the chamber was typically operated at a pressure of approximately 0.9 bars to ensure containment of the materials being processed. Samples 2.5-3 mm in diameter were levitated in flowing gas to achieve containerless conditions. Levitated samples were heated to temperatures of up to 3500 °C with a partially focused carbon dioxide laser beam. Sample temperature was measured using an optical pyrometer. The samplemore » environment was integrated with a high energy (100 keV) x-ray synchrotron beamline to enable in situ structure measurements to be made on levitated samples as they were heated, melted, and supercooled. Our system was controlled from outside the x-ray beamline hutch by using a LabVIEW program. Measurements have been made on hot solid and molten uranium dioxide and binary uranium dioxide-zirconium dioxide compositions.« less

  3. Aerodynamic levitator for in situ x-ray structure measurements on high temperature and molten nuclear fuel materials

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, J. K. R.; Alderman, O. L. G.; Tamalonis, A.; Sendelbach, S.; Benmore, C. J.; Hebden, A.; Williamson, M. A.

    2016-07-15

    An aerodynamic levitator with carbon dioxide laser beam heating was integrated with a hermetically sealed controlled atmosphere chamber and sample handling mechanism. The system enabled containment of radioactive samples and control of the process atmosphere chemistry. The chamber was typically operated at a pressure of approximately 0.9 bars to ensure containment of the materials being processed. Samples 2.5-3 mm in diameter were levitated in flowing gas to achieve containerless conditions. Levitated samples were heated to temperatures of up to 3500 °C with a partially focused carbon dioxide laser beam. Sample temperature was measured using an optical pyrometer. The sample environment was integrated with a high energy (100 keV) x-ray synchrotron beamline to enable in situ structure measurements to be made on levitated samples as they were heated, melted, and supercooled. The system was controlled from outside the x-ray beamline hutch by using a LabVIEW program. Measurements have been made on hot solid and molten uranium dioxide and binary uranium dioxide-zirconium dioxide compositions.

  4. Aerodynamic levitator for in situ x-ray structure measurements on high temperature and molten nuclear fuel materials

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, J. K. R.; Tamalonis, A.; Benmore, C. J.; Alderman, O. L. G.; Sendelbach, S.; Hebden, A.; Williamson, M. A.

    2016-07-01

    We integrated an aerodynamic levitator with carbon dioxide laser beam heating with a hermetically sealed controlled atmosphere chamber and sample handling mechanism. The system enabled containment of radioactive samples and control of the process atmosphere chemistry. Furthermore, the chamber was typically operated at a pressure of approximately 0.9 bars to ensure containment of the materials being processed. Samples 2.5-3 mm in diameter were levitated in flowing gas to achieve containerless conditions. Levitated samples were heated to temperatures of up to 3500 °C with a partially focused carbon dioxide laser beam. Sample temperature was measured using an optical pyrometer. The sample environment was integrated with a high energy (100 keV) x-ray synchrotron beamline to enable in situ structure measurements to be made on levitated samples as they were heated, melted, and supercooled. Our system was controlled from outside the x-ray beamline hutch by using a LabVIEW program. Measurements have been made on hot solid and molten uranium dioxide and binary uranium dioxide-zirconium dioxide compositions.

  5. Aerodynamic levitator for in situ x-ray structure measurements on high temperature and molten nuclear fuel materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, J. K. R.; Tamalonis, A.; Benmore, C. J.; Alderman, O. L. G.; Sendelbach, S.; Hebden, A.; Williamson, M. A.

    2016-07-01

    An aerodynamic levitator with carbon dioxide laser beam heating was integrated with a hermetically sealed controlled atmosphere chamber and sample handling mechanism. The system enabled containment of radioactive samples and control of the process atmosphere chemistry. The chamber was typically operated at a pressure of approximately 0.9 bars to ensure containment of the materials being processed. Samples 2.5-3 mm in diameter were levitated in flowing gas to achieve containerless conditions. Levitated samples were heated to temperatures of up to 3500 °C with a partially focused carbon dioxide laser beam. Sample temperature was measured using an optical pyrometer. The sample environment was integrated with a high energy (100 keV) x-ray synchrotron beamline to enable in situ structure measurements to be made on levitated samples as they were heated, melted, and supercooled. The system was controlled from outside the x-ray beamline hutch by using a LabVIEW program. Measurements have been made on hot solid and molten uranium dioxide and binary uranium dioxide-zirconium dioxide compositions.

  6. Aerodynamic levitator for in situ x-ray structure measurements on high temperature and molten nuclear fuel materials

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, J. K. R.; Tamalonis, A.; Benmore, C. J.; Alderman, O. L. G.; Sendelbach, S.; Hebden, A.; Williamson, M. A.

    2016-07-01

    We integrated an aerodynamic levitator with carbon dioxide laser beam heating with a hermetically sealed controlled atmosphere chamber and sample handling mechanism. The system enabled containment of radioactive samples and control of the process atmosphere chemistry. Furthermore, the chamber was typically operated at a pressure of approximately 0.9 bars to ensure containment of the materials being processed. Samples 2.5-3 mm in diameter were levitated in flowing gas to achieve containerless conditions. Levitated samples were heated to temperatures of up to 3500 °C with a partially focused carbon dioxide laser beam. Sample temperature was measured using an optical pyrometer. The sample environment was integrated with a high energy (100 keV) x-ray synchrotron beamline to enable in situ structure measurements to be made on levitated samples as they were heated, melted, and supercooled. Our system was controlled from outside the x-ray beamline hutch by using a LabVIEW program. Measurements have been made on hot solid and molten uranium dioxide and binary uranium dioxide-zirconium dioxide compositions.

  7. Aerodynamic levitator for in situ x-ray structure measurements on high temperature and molten nuclear fuel materials.

    PubMed

    Weber, J K R; Tamalonis, A; Benmore, C J; Alderman, O L G; Sendelbach, S; Hebden, A; Williamson, M A

    2016-07-01

    An aerodynamic levitator with carbon dioxide laser beam heating was integrated with a hermetically sealed controlled atmosphere chamber and sample handling mechanism. The system enabled containment of radioactive samples and control of the process atmosphere chemistry. The chamber was typically operated at a pressure of approximately 0.9 bars to ensure containment of the materials being processed. Samples 2.5-3 mm in diameter were levitated in flowing gas to achieve containerless conditions. Levitated samples were heated to temperatures of up to 3500 °C with a partially focused carbon dioxide laser beam. Sample temperature was measured using an optical pyrometer. The sample environment was integrated with a high energy (100 keV) x-ray synchrotron beamline to enable in situ structure measurements to be made on levitated samples as they were heated, melted, and supercooled. The system was controlled from outside the x-ray beamline hutch by using a LabVIEW program. Measurements have been made on hot solid and molten uranium dioxide and binary uranium dioxide-zirconium dioxide compositions.

  8. Fundamental studies on ultrasonic cavitation-assisted molten metal processing of A356-nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoda

    The usage of lightweight high-performance components is expected to increase significantly as automotive, military and aerospace industries are required to improve the energy efficiency and the performance of their products. A356, which is much lighter than steel, is an attractive replacement material. Therefore, it is of great interest to enhance its properties. There is strong evidence that the microstructure and mechanical properties can be considerably improved if nanoparticles are used as reinforcement to form metal-matrix-nano-composite (MMNC). Several recent studies revealed that ultrasonic vibration is highly efficient in dispersing nanoparticles into the melt and producing MMNC. In this thesis, a detailed analysis of the microstructure and mechanical properties is provided for an A356 alloy enhanced with Al2O 3 and SiC nanoparticles via ultrasonic processing. Each type of the nanoparticles was inserted into the A356 molten metal and dispersed by ultrasonic cavitation and acoustic streaming technology (UST) to avoid agglomeration or coalescence. The results showed that microstructures were greatly refined and with the addition of nanoparticles, tensile strength, yield strength and elongation increased significantly. SEM and EDS analyses were also performed to analyze the dispersion of nanoparticles in the A356 matrix. Since the ultrasonic energy is concentrated in a small region under the ultrasonic probe, it is difficult to ensure proper cavitation and acoustic streaming for efficient dispersion of the nanoparticles (especially in larger UST systems) without to determine the suitable ultrasonic parameters via modeling and simulation. Accordingly, another goal of this thesis was to develop well-controlled UST experiments that can be used in the development and validation of a recently developed UST modeling and simulation tool.

  9. Joule-Heated Molten Regolith Electrolysis Reactor Concepts for Oxygen and Metals Production on the Moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibille, Laurent; Dominques, Jesus A.

    2012-01-01

    The maturation of Molten Regolith Electrolysis (MRE) as a viable technology for oxygen and metals production on explored planets relies on the realization of the self-heating mode for the reactor. Joule heat generated during regolith electrolysis creates thermal energy that should be able to maintain the molten phase (similar to electrolytic Hall-Heroult process for aluminum production). Self-heating via Joule heating offers many advantages: (1) The regolith itself is the crucible material, it protects the vessel walls (2) Simplifies the engineering of the reactor (3) Reduces power consumption (no external heating) (4) Extends the longevity of the reactor. Predictive modeling is a tool chosen to perform dimensional analysis of a self-heating reactor: (1) Multiphysics modeling (COMSOL) was selected for Joule heat generation and heat transfer (2) Objective is to identify critical dimensions for first reactor prototype.

  10. In situ Observation of Calcium Oxide Treatment of Inclusions in Molten Steel by Confocal Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khurana, Bharat; Spooner, Stephen; Rao, M. B. V.; Roy, Gour Gopal; Srirangam, Prakash

    2017-06-01

    Calcium treatment of aluminum killed steel was observed in situ using high-temperature confocal scanning laser microscope (HT-CSLM). This technique along with a novel experimental design enables continuous observation of clustering behavior of inclusions before and after the calcium treatment. Results show that the increase in average inclusion size in non-calcium-treated condition was much faster compared to calcium-treated condition. Results also show that the magnitude of attractive capillary force between inclusion particles in non-treated condition was about 10-15 N for larger particles (10 µm) and 10-16 N for smaller particles (5 µm) and acting length of force was about 30 µm. In the case of calcium-treated condition, the magnitude and acting length of force was reduced to 10-16 N and 10 µm, respectively, for particles of all sizes. This change in attractive capillary attractive force is due to change in inclusion morphology from solid alumina disks to liquid lens particles during calcium treatment.

  11. In situ Observation of Calcium Oxide Treatment of Inclusions in Molten Steel by Confocal Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khurana, Bharat; Spooner, Stephen; Rao, M. B. V.; Roy, Gour Gopal; Srirangam, Prakash

    2017-03-01

    Calcium treatment of aluminum killed steel was observed in situ using high-temperature confocal scanning laser microscope (HT-CSLM). This technique along with a novel experimental design enables continuous observation of clustering behavior of inclusions before and after the calcium treatment. Results show that the increase in average inclusion size in non-calcium-treated condition was much faster compared to calcium-treated condition. Results also show that the magnitude of attractive capillary force between inclusion particles in non-treated condition was about 10-15 N for larger particles (10 µm) and 10-16 N for smaller particles (5 µm) and acting length of force was about 30 µm. In the case of calcium-treated condition, the magnitude and acting length of force was reduced to 10-16 N and 10 µm, respectively, for particles of all sizes. This change in attractive capillary attractive force is due to change in inclusion morphology from solid alumina disks to liquid lens particles during calcium treatment.

  12. Recent Developments for In Situ Treatment of Metal Contaminated Soils

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report assists the remedy selection process by providing information on four in situ technologies for treating soil contaminated with metals. The four approaches are electrokinetic remediation, phytoremediation, soil flushing, and...

  13. An adiabatic linearized path integral approach for quantum time correlation functions: electronic transport in metal-molten salt solutions.

    PubMed

    Causo, Maria Serena; Ciccotti, Giovanni; Montemayor, Daniel; Bonella, Sara; Coker, David F

    2005-04-14

    We generalize the linearized path integral approach to evaluate quantum time correlation functions for systems best described by a set of nuclear and electronic degrees of freedom, restricting ourselves to the adiabatic approximation. If the operators in the correlation function are nondiagonal in the electronic states, then this adiabatic linearized path integral approximation for the thermal averaged quantum dynamics presents interesting and distinctive features, which we derive and explore in this paper. The capability of these approximations to accurately reproduce the behavior of physical systems is demonstrated by calculating the diffusion constant for an excess electron in a metal-molten salt solution.

  14. Application of Proton Conductors to Hydrogen Monitoring for Liquid Metal and Molten Salt Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Masatoshi; Muroga, Takeo; Katahira, Koji; Oshima, Tomoko

    The chemical control of impurity such as hydrogen and oxygen in coolants is one of the critical issues for the development of liquid metal cooled fast reactors and self-cooled liquid breeder blankets for fusion reactors. Especially, hydrogen (isotopes) level is the key parameter for corrosion and mechanical properties of the in-reactor components. For fission reactors, the monitor of hydrogen level in the melt is important for safety operation. The control of tritium is essential for the tritium breeding performance of the fusion reactors. Therefore, on-line hydrogen sensing is a key technology for these systems. In the present study, conceptual design for the on-line hydrogen sensor to be used in liquid sodium (Na), lead (Pb), lead-bismuth (Pb-Bi), lithium (Li), lead-lithium (Pb-17Li) and molten salt LiF-BeF2 (Flibe) was performed. The cell of hydrogen sensor is made of a solid electrolyte. The solid electrolyte proposed in this study is the CaZrO3-based ceramics, which is well-known as proton conducting ceramics. In this concept, the cell is immersed into the melt which is containing the hydrogen at the activity of PH1 of ambient atmosphere. Then, the cell is filled with Ar-H2 mixture gas at regulated hydrogen activity of PH2. The electromotive force (EMF) is obtained by the proton conduction in the electro chemical system expressed as Pt, Melt(PH1) | Proton conductor | PH2, Pt. The Nernst equation is used for the evaluation of the hydrogen activity from the obtained EMF. The evaluations of expected performance of the sensor in liquid Na, Pb, Pb-Bi, Pb-17Li, Li and Flibe were carried out by means of the measurement test in gas atmosphere at hydrogen activities equivalent to those for the melts in the reactor conditions. In the test, the hydrogen activity in the gas varied from 2.2x10-14 to 1. The sensor exhibited good response, stability and reproducibility.

  15. Mechanism of TiC formation in Al/TiC in situ metal-matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, M.G.; Premkumar, M.K.

    1993-12-01

    In recent years, metal-matrix composite (MMC) processing techniques have evolved, whereby the reinforcing particulates are formed in situ in a molten alloy, and the melt containing the dispersions is cast into an ingot for subsequent fabrication into wrought products. One such approach involves the formation of TiC particulates in aluminum alloy matrices via a gas-molten metal reaction. In this approach, a carbon-bearing gas is introduced into a molten Al-Ti alloy, allowing Ti in the melt to react with the carbon released from the injected gas to form TiC. The volume fraction and the size of TiC particles are important parameters which influence the mechanical properties of these composites. Although it is reasonably clear that the volume fraction of the TiC particles is basically determined by the initial content of the Ti content of the melt, given a continuous supply of carbon during processing, the mechanisms responsible for controlling the TiC particle size are unclear. This communication is intended to present some recent results which provide some insight into the formation mechanisms.

  16. Investigation of molten metal droplet deposition and solidification for 3D printing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chien-Hsun; Tsai, Ho-Lin; Wu, Yu-Che; Hwang, Weng-Sing

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the transient transport phenomenon during the pile up of molten lead-free solder via the inkjet printing method. With regard to the droplet impact velocity, the distance from nozzle to substrate can be controlled by using the pulse voltage and distance control apparatus. A high-speed digital camera was used to record the solder impact and examine the accuracy of the pile up. These impact conditions correspond to We  =  2.1-15.1 and Oh  =  5.4  ×  10-3-3.8  ×  10-3. The effects of impact velocity and relative distance between two types of molten droplets on the shape of the impact mode are examined. The results show that the optimal parameters of the distance from nozzle to substrate and the spreading factor in this experiment are 0.5 mm and 1.33. The diameter, volume and velocity of the inkjet solder droplet are around 37-65 μm, 25-144 picoliters, and 2.0-3.7 m s-1, respectively. The vertical and inclined column structures of molten lead-free solder can be fabricated using piezoelectric ink-jet printing systems. The end-shapes of the 3D micro structure have been found to be dependent upon the distance from nozzle to substrate and the impact velocity of the molten lead-free solder droplet.

  17. Presence of Li Clusters in Molten LiCl-Li

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merwin, Augustus; Phillips, William C.; Williamson, Mark A.; Willit, James L.; Motsegood, Perry N.; Chidambaram, Dev

    2016-05-01

    Molten mixtures of lithium chloride and metallic lithium are of significant interest in various metal oxide reduction processes. These solutions have been reported to exhibit seemingly anomalous physical characteristics that lack a comprehensive explanation. In the current work, the physical chemistry of molten solutions of lithium chloride and metallic lithium, with and without lithium oxide, was investigated using in situ Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra obtained from these solutions were in agreement with the previously reported spectrum of the lithium cluster, Li8. This observation is indicative of a nanofluid type colloidal suspension of Li8 in a molten salt matrix. It is suggested that the formation and suspension of lithium clusters in lithium chloride is the cause of various phenomena exhibited by these solutions that were previously unexplainable.

  18. Presence of Li Clusters in Molten LiCl-Li.

    PubMed

    Merwin, Augustus; Phillips, William C; Williamson, Mark A; Willit, James L; Motsegood, Perry N; Chidambaram, Dev

    2016-05-05

    Molten mixtures of lithium chloride and metallic lithium are of significant interest in various metal oxide reduction processes. These solutions have been reported to exhibit seemingly anomalous physical characteristics that lack a comprehensive explanation. In the current work, the physical chemistry of molten solutions of lithium chloride and metallic lithium, with and without lithium oxide, was investigated using in situ Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra obtained from these solutions were in agreement with the previously reported spectrum of the lithium cluster, Li8. This observation is indicative of a nanofluid type colloidal suspension of Li8 in a molten salt matrix. It is suggested that the formation and suspension of lithium clusters in lithium chloride is the cause of various phenomena exhibited by these solutions that were previously unexplainable.

  19. Presence of Li clusters in molten LiCl-Li

    DOE PAGES

    Merwin, Augustus; Phillips, William C.; Williamson, Mark A.; ...

    2016-05-05

    Molten mixtures of lithium chloride and metallic lithium are of significant interest in various metal oxide reduction processes. These solutions have been reported to exhibit seemingly anomalous physical characteristics that lack a comprehensive explanation. ln the current work, the physical chemistry of molten solutions of lithium chloride and metallic lithium, with and without lithium oxide, was investigated using in situ Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra obtained from these solutions were in agreement with the previously reported spectrum of the lithium cluster, Li8. Furthermore, this observation is indicative of a nanofluid type colloidal suspension of Li8, in a molten salt matrix.more » It is suggested that the formation and suspension of lithium clusters in lithium chloride is the cause of various phenomena exhibited by these solutions that were previously unexplainable.« less

  20. Presence of Li clusters in molten LiCl-Li

    SciTech Connect

    Merwin, Augustus; Phillips, William C.; Williamson, Mark A.; Willit, James L.; Motsegood, Perry N.; Chidambaram, Dev

    2016-05-05

    Molten mixtures of lithium chloride and metallic lithium are of significant interest in various metal oxide reduction processes. These solutions have been reported to exhibit seemingly anomalous physical characteristics that lack a comprehensive explanation. ln the current work, the physical chemistry of molten solutions of lithium chloride and metallic lithium, with and without lithium oxide, was investigated using in situ Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra obtained from these solutions were in agreement with the previously reported spectrum of the lithium cluster, Li8. Furthermore, this observation is indicative of a nanofluid type colloidal suspension of Li8, in a molten salt matrix. It is suggested that the formation and suspension of lithium clusters in lithium chloride is the cause of various phenomena exhibited by these solutions that were previously unexplainable.

  1. Presence of Li Clusters in Molten LiCl-Li

    PubMed Central

    Merwin, Augustus; Phillips, William C.; Williamson, Mark A.; Willit, James L.; Motsegood, Perry N.; Chidambaram, Dev

    2016-01-01

    Molten mixtures of lithium chloride and metallic lithium are of significant interest in various metal oxide reduction processes. These solutions have been reported to exhibit seemingly anomalous physical characteristics that lack a comprehensive explanation. In the current work, the physical chemistry of molten solutions of lithium chloride and metallic lithium, with and without lithium oxide, was investigated using in situ Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra obtained from these solutions were in agreement with the previously reported spectrum of the lithium cluster, Li8. This observation is indicative of a nanofluid type colloidal suspension of Li8 in a molten salt matrix. It is suggested that the formation and suspension of lithium clusters in lithium chloride is the cause of various phenomena exhibited by these solutions that were previously unexplainable. PMID:27145895

  2. Numerical Simulation of the Interaction Between Supersonic Oxygen Jets and Molten Slag-Metal Bath in Steelmaking BOF Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiang; Li, Mingming; Kuang, Shibo; Zou, Zongshu

    2015-02-01

    The impinging of multiple jets onto the molten bath in the BOF steelmaking process plays a crucial role in reactor performance but is not clearly understood. This paper presents a numerical study of the interaction between the multiple jets and slag-metal bath in a BOF by means of the three-phase volume of fluid model. The validity of the model is first examined by comparing the numerical results with experimental measurement of time-averaged cavity dimensions through a scaled-down water model. The calculated results are in reasonably good agreement with the experimental data. The mathematical model is then used to investigate the primary transport phenomena of the jets-bath interaction inside a 150-ton commercial BOF under steelmaking conditions. The numerical results show that the cavity profile and interface of slag/metal/gas remain unstable as a result of the propagation of surface waves, which, likely as a major factor, governs the generation of metal droplets and their initial spatiotemporal distribution. The total momentum transferred from the jets into the bath is consumed about a half to drive the movement of slag, rather than fully converted as the stirring power for the metal bath. Finally, the effects of operational conditions and fluid properties are quantified. It is shown that compared to viscosity and surface tension of the melts, operating pressure and lance height have a much more significant impact on the slag-metal interface behavior and cavity shape as well as the fluid dynamics in the molten bath.

  3. Controllable Generation of a Submillimeter Single Bubble in Molten Metal Using a Low-Pressure Macrosized Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalenko, Alexander; Sköld, Per; Kudinov, Pavel; Bechta, Sevostian; Grishchenko, Dmitry

    2017-04-01

    We develop a method for generation of a single gas bubble in a pool of molten metal. The method can be useful for applications and research studies where a controllable generation of a single submillimeter bubble in opaque hot liquid is required. The method resolves difficulties with bubble detachment from the orifice, wettability issues, capillary channel and orifice surfaces degradation due to contact with corrosive hot liquid, etc. The macrosized, 5- to 50-mm3 cavity is drilled in the solid part of the pool. Flushing the cavity with gas, vacuuming it to low pressure, as well as sealing and consequent remelting cause cavity implosion due to a few orders in magnitude pressure difference between the cavity and the molten pool. We experimentally demonstrate a controllable production of single bubbles ranging from a few milliliters down to submillimeter size. The uncertainties in size and bubble release timing are estimated and compared with experimental observations for bubbles ranging within 0.16 to 4 mm in equivalent-volume sphere diameter. Our results are obtained in heavy liquid metals such as Wood's and Lead-Bismuth eutectics at 353 K to 423 K (80 °C to 150 °C).

  4. Controllable Generation of a Submillimeter Single Bubble in Molten Metal Using a Low-Pressure Macrosized Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalenko, Alexander; Sköld, Per; Kudinov, Pavel; Bechta, Sevostian; Grishchenko, Dmitry

    2017-01-01

    We develop a method for generation of a single gas bubble in a pool of molten metal. The method can be useful for applications and research studies where a controllable generation of a single submillimeter bubble in opaque hot liquid is required. The method resolves difficulties with bubble detachment from the orifice, wettability issues, capillary channel and orifice surfaces degradation due to contact with corrosive hot liquid, etc. The macrosized, 5- to 50-mm3 cavity is drilled in the solid part of the pool. Flushing the cavity with gas, vacuuming it to low pressure, as well as sealing and consequent remelting cause cavity implosion due to a few orders in magnitude pressure difference between the cavity and the molten pool. We experimentally demonstrate a controllable production of single bubbles ranging from a few milliliters down to submillimeter size. The uncertainties in size and bubble release timing are estimated and compared with experimental observations for bubbles ranging within 0.16 to 4 mm in equivalent-volume sphere diameter. Our results are obtained in heavy liquid metals such as Wood's and Lead-Bismuth eutectics at 353 K to 423 K (80 °C to 150 °C).

  5. Partition of actinides and fission products between metal and molten salt phases: Theory, measurement, and application to IFR pyroprocess development

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.

    1993-10-01

    The chemical basis of Integral Fast Reactor fuel reprocessing (pyroprocessing) is partition of fuel, cladding, and fission product elements between molten LiCl-KCl and either a solid metal phase or a liquid cadmium phase. The partition reactions are described herein, and the thermodynamic basis for predicting distributions of actinides and fission products in the pyroprocess is discussed. The critical role of metal-phase activity coefficients, especially those of rare earth and the transuranic elements, is described. Measured separation factors, which are analogous to equilibrium constants but which involve concentrations rather than activities, are presented. The uses of thermodynamic calculations in process development are described, as are computer codes developed for calculating material flows and phase compositions in pyroprocessing.

  6. Corrosion-electrochemical behavior of zirconium in molten alkali metal carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitina, E. V.

    2016-08-01

    The corrosion and electrochemical characteristics of zirconium during its interaction with molten lithium, sodium, and potassium carbonates containing from 1 to 5 wt % additives to the salt phase are studied in a temperature range of 500-800°C using gravimetry, corrosion potential measurement, and anodic polarization. The substances decreasing the corrosion losses due to the strengthening and thickening of an oxide film (lithium, sodium, potassium hydroxides) are used as passivators. Sodium chloride, fluoride, and sulfate serve as corrosion stimulators (activators).

  7. Rotating Molten Metallic Drops and Related Phenomena: A New Approach to the Surface Tension Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhim, Won-Kyu; Ishikawa, Takehiko

    2000-01-01

    Molten aluminum and tin drops were levitated in a high vacuum by controlled electric fields, and they were systematically rotated by applying by a rotating magnetic field. When the evolution of the drop shape was measured as a function of rotation frequency, it agreed quantitatively well with the Brown and Scriven's theoretical prediction. The normalized rotation frequencies at the bifurcation point agreed with the predicted value 0.559, within 2%. An anomalous phenomenon which totally deviated from the prediction was observed in rotating molten tin drops when they were kept in a high rotation rate for several hours. No anomaly was observed in aluminum drops when they underwent similar condition. It was speculated that under the strong centrifugal force in the drop the tin isotopes must be separating. Since Al-27 is essentially the only naturally abundant isotope in the aluminum drops, the same anomaly is not expected. Based on the shape deformation of a rotating drop, an alternate approach to the surface tension measurement was verified. This new surface tension measurement technique was applied to a glassforming alloy, Zr(41.2)Ti(13.8)Cu(12.5)Ni(10.0)Be(22.5) in its highly viscous states. Also demonstrated in the paper was a use of a molten aluminum drop to verify the Busse's prediction of the influence of the drop rotation on the drop oscillation frequency.

  8. Molten Salt Electrochemical Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-31

    metal tetrafluoroborates were examined for similar behavior. Commercial samples of the lithium, sodium and potassium salts were used, while the...REPORT a PERID C £0 inal, 1 June 1980-31 March Molten Salt Electrochemical Systems 1983 6 PERFORMING OŘG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(a) I CONTRACT OR...dilfferent from Reporl) IS. KEY WORDS (Continue ora ow... side 55 n~cssay and Identify by block number ) Molten Salt , Phase Diagram, Electrolyte 30

  9. Thermal Analysis of Surrogate Simulated Molten Salts with Metal Chloride Impurities for Electrorefining Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Toni Y. Gutknecht; Guy L. Fredrickson; Vivek Utgikar

    2012-04-01

    This project is a fundamental study to measure thermal properties (liquidus, solidus, phase transformation, and enthalpy) of molten salt systems of interest to electrorefining operations, which are used in both the fuel cycle research & development mission and the spent fuel treatment mission of the Department of Energy. During electrorefining operations the electrolyte accumulates elements more active than uranium (transuranics, fission products and bond sodium). The accumulation needs to be closely monitored because the thermal properties of the electrolyte will change as the concentration of the impurities increases. During electrorefining (processing techniques used at the Idaho National Laboratory to separate uranium from spent nuclear fuel) it is important for the electrolyte to remain in a homogeneous liquid phase for operational safeguard and criticality reasons. The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely affected by the buildup of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided are: (i) build up of fissile elements in the salt approaching the criticality limits specified for the vessel (ii) freezing of the salts due to change in the liquidus temperature and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution) of elements. The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can potentially be monitored through the thermal characterization of the salts, which can be a function of impurity concentration. This work describes the experimental results of typical salts compositions, consisting of chlorides of strontium, samarium, praseodymium, lanthanum, barium, cerium, cesium, neodymium, sodium and gadolinium (as a surrogate for both uranium and plutonium), used in the processing of used nuclear fuels. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to analyze numerous salt samples providing results on the thermal properties. The property of most interest to pyroprocessing is the liquidus temperature. It was

  10. Phase relations in partially molten lower mantle material investigated in-situ by X-ray fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Nigro, G.; Andrault, D.; Petitgirard, S.; Garbarino, G.

    2009-12-01

    It is widely accepted that the early Earth was partially molten due to the high energy dissipated by terrestrial accretion and giant meteoritic impacts. After core formation, subsequent cooling of the magma ocean has led to fractional crystallization of the primitive mantle. Melting relations of silicates have been extensively investigated using the multi-anvil press, for pressures between 3 and 25 GPa [1, 2]. Using the quench technique, it has been shown that the pressure affects significantly the solidus and liquidus curves, and most probably the composition of the eutectic liquid. At higher pressures, the use of laser-heated diamond anvil cell (LH-DAC) technique is required with the intrinsic limitation of very small samples recovered, which gives rise to higher experimental uncertainties for the chemical analysis. We propose a new in-situ method, based on the use of geochemical tracers, to determine the melting relations at lower mantle conditions of pressure and temperature. First, we investigated partial melting up to more than 3000K, for pressures between 25 and up to more than 100 GPa, using LH-DAC coupled with angle dispersive X-ray diffraction at the ID27 beamline of the ESRF [3]. The starting material of chondritic composition resulted in an assemblage of (Mg,Fe)SiO3 perovskite, (Mg,Fe)O ferropericlase and CaSiO3 perovskite. Partial melting was evidenced from (i) disappearance on the 2D diffraction images of sets of diffraction rings representative of a given mineral, (ii) changes in diffraction intensities for the integrated patterns, and (iii) changes in the relation between sample-temperature and laser-power. For a given temperature condition, once partial melting has been evidenced, we kept constant temperature for several minutes in order to enable chemical segregation in the laser power; elements participating to the melt are expected to migrate preferentially and concentrate at the centre of the laser hot spot, while solid species should remain at

  11. NOVEL IN-SITU METAL AND MINERAL EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn O'Gorman; Hans von Michaelis; Gregory J. Olson

    2004-09-22

    This white paper summarizes the state of art of in-situ leaching of metals and minerals, and describes a new technology concept employing improved fragmentation of ores underground in order to prepare the ore for more efficient in-situ leaching, combined with technology to continuously improve solution flow patterns through the ore during the leaching process. The process parameters and economic benefits of combining the new concept with chemical and biological leaching are described. A summary is provided of the next steps required to demonstrate the technology with the goal of enabling more widespread use of in-situ leaching.

  12. Controlled temperature expansion in oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts

    DOEpatents

    Erickson, Donald C.

    1985-06-04

    A continuous process is set forth for the production of oxygen from an oxygen containing gas stream, such as air, by contacting a feed gas stream with a molten solution of an oxygen acceptor to oxidize the acceptor and cyclically regenerating the oxidized acceptor by releasing oxygen from the acceptor wherein the oxygen-depleted gas stream from the contact zone is treated sequentially to temperature reduction by heat exchange against the feed stream so as to condense out entrained oxygen acceptor for recycle to the process, combustion of the gas stream with fuel to elevate its temperature and expansion of the combusted high temperature gas stream in a turbine to recover power.

  13. A Non-Exploding Alkali Metal Drop on Water: From Blue Solvated Electrons to Bursting Molten Hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Mason, Philip E; Buttersack, Tillmann; Bauerecker, Sigurd; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2016-10-10

    Alkali metals in water are always at the brink of explosion. Herein, we show that this vigorous reaction can be kept in a non-exploding regime, revealing a fascinating richness of hitherto unexplored chemical processes. A combination of high-speed camera imaging and visible/near-infrared/infrared spectroscopy allowed us to catch and characterize the system at each stage of the reaction. After gently placing a drop of a sodium/potassium alloy on water under an inert atmosphere, the production of solvated electrons became so strong that their characteristic blue color could be observed with the naked eye. The exoergic reaction leading to the formation of hydrogen and hydroxide eventually heated the alkali metal drop such that it became glowing red, and part of the metal evaporated. As a result of the reaction, a perfectly transparent drop consisting of molten hydroxide was temporarily stabilized on water through the Leidenfrost effect, bursting spectacularly after it had cooled sufficiently. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Selective Reduction of Active Metal Chlorides from Molten LiCl-KCl using Lithium Drawdown

    SciTech Connect

    Michael F. Simpson; Daniel LaBrier; Michael Lineberry; Tae-Sic Yoo

    2012-10-01

    In support of optimizing electrorefining technology for treating spent nuclear fuel, lithium drawdown has been investigated for separating actinides from molten salt electrolyte. Drawdown reaction selectivity is a major issue that needs to be investigated, since the goal is to remove actinides while leaving the fission products in the salt. A series of lithium drawdown tests with surrogate fission product chlorides was run to obtain selectivity data with non-radioactive salts, develop a predictive model, and draw conclusions about the viability of using this process with actinide-loadd salt. Results of tests with CsCl, LaCl3, CeCl3, and NdCl3 are reported here. An equilibrium model has been formulated and fit to the experimental data. Excellent fits to the data were achieved. Based on analysis and results obtained to date, it is concluded that clean separation between minor actinides and lanthanides will be difficult to achieve using lithium drawdown.

  15. Controlled temperature expansion in oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts

    DOEpatents

    Erickson, D.C.

    1985-06-04

    A continuous process is set forth for the production of oxygen from an oxygen containing gas stream, such as air, by contacting a feed gas stream with a molten solution of an oxygen acceptor to oxidize the acceptor and cyclically regenerating the oxidized acceptor by releasing oxygen from the acceptor wherein the oxygen-depleted gas stream from the contact zone is treated sequentially to temperature reduction by heat exchange against the feed stream so as to condense out entrained oxygen acceptor for recycle to the process, combustion of the gas stream with fuel to elevate its temperature and expansion of the combusted high temperature gas stream in a turbine to recover power. 1 fig.

  16. Process Demonstration For Lunar In Situ Resource Utilization-Molten Oxide Electrolysis (MSFC Independent Research and Development Project No. 5-81)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curreri, P. A.; Ethridge, E. C.; Hudson, S. B.; Miller, T. Y.; Grugel, R. N.; Sen, S.; Sadoway, D. R.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this Focus Area Independent Research and Development project was to conduct, at Marshall Space Flight Center, an experimental demonstration of the processing of simulated lunar resources by the molten oxide electrolysis process to produce oxygen and metal. In essence, the vision was to develop two key technologies, the first to produce materials (oxygen, metals, and silicon) from lunar resources and the second to produce energy by photocell production on the Moon using these materials. Together, these two technologies have the potential to greatly reduce the costs and risks of NASA s human exploration program. Further, it is believed that these technologies are the key first step toward harvesting abundant materials and energy independent of Earth s resources.

  17. In situ synthesis of ultra-fine, porous, tin oxide-carbon nanocomposites via a molten salt method for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bin; Guo, Zai Ping; Du, Guodong; Nuli, Yanna; Hassan, Mohd Faiz; Jia, Dianzeng

    Ultra-fine, porous, tin oxide-carbon (SnO 2/C) nanocomposites are fabricated by a molten salt method at 300 °C, and malic acid is decomposed as the carbon source. In situ synthesis is favourable for the combination of carbon and SnO 2. The structure and morphology are confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis, specific surface-area measurements, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Examination of TEM images reveals that the SnO 2 nanoparticles are embedded in the carbon matrix, with sizes between 2 and 5 nm. The electrochemical measurements show that the nanocomposite delivers a high capacity with good capacity retention as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, due to the combination of the ultra-fine porous structure and the carbon component.

  18. Development of metal-coated ceramic anodes for molten carbonate fuel cells. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Khandkar, A.C.; Elangovan, S.; Marianowski, L.G.

    1990-03-01

    This report documents the developmental efforts on metal coating of various ceramic substrates (LiAlO{sub 2}, SrTiO{sub 3}, and LiFeO{sub 2}) and the critical issues associated with fabricating anodes using metal-coated LiAlO{sub 2} substrates. Electroless Ni and Cu coating technology was developed to achieve complete metal coverage on LiAlO{sub 2} powder substrates. Metal coated SrTiO{sub 3} powders were fabricated into anodes by a process identical to that reported in the GE literature. Microstructural examination revealed that the grains of the ceramic had fused together, with the metal having dewetted from the surface of the ceramic. Alternate substrates that might allow for better wetting of the metal on the ceramic such as LiFeO{sub 2} and Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3} were identified. Cu/Ni-coated (50:50 mol ratio, 50 w/o metal loading) LiFeO{sub 2} anodes were optimized to meet the MCFC anode specifications. Metal-coated gamma-LiAlO{sub 2} substrates were also developed. By using suitable chemical surface modification methods, the gamma-UAlO{sub 2} substrate surface may be modified to allow a stable metal coated anode to be fabricated. Creep testing of the metal coated ceramic anodes were conducted at IGT. It was determined that the predominant creep mechanism is due to particle rearrangement. The anode porosity, and mean pore size had significant effect on the creep of the anode. Lower porosity and pore size consistent with performance criteria are desired to reduce creep. Lower metal loading with uniformity of coverage will result in lower creep behavior of the anode. Of the two substrates evaluated, LiFeO{sub 2} in general exhibited lower creep which was attributed to superior metal adhesion.

  19. Near-Net-Shape Production of Hollow Titanium Alloy Components via Electrochemical Reduction of Metal Oxide Precursors in Molten Salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Di; Xiao, Wei; Chen, George Z.

    2013-04-01

    Metal oxide precursors (ca. 90 wt pct Ti, 6 wt pct Al, and 4 wt pct V) were prepared with a hollow structure in various shapes such as a sphere, miniature golf club head, and cup using a one-step solid slip-casting process. The precursors were then electro-deoxidized in molten calcium chloride [3.2 V, 1173 K (900 °C)] against a graphite anode. After 24 hours of electrolysis, the near-net-shape Ti-6Al-4V product maintained its original shape with controlled shrinkage. Oxygen contents in the Ti-6Al-4V components were typically below 2000 ppm. The maximum compressive stress and modulus of electrolytic products obtained in this work were approximately 243 MPa and 14 GPa, respectively, matching with the requirement for medical implants. Further research directions are discussed for mechanical improvement of the products via densification during or after electrolysis. This simple, fast, and energy-efficient near-net-shape manufacturing method could allow titanium alloy components with desired geometries to be prepared directly from a mixture of metal oxides, promising an innovative technology for the low-cost production of titanium alloy components.

  20. Rheological behavior of molten Al-SiC slurries and comparison of their behavior with metallic slurries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidary, D. Sohrabi Baba; Akhlagh, F.

    2013-07-01

    In this study a new precise rotational viscometer was developed and used to measure the viscosity of molten A356 alloy containing 5, 15, and 25vol.% of 90-106 μm SiC particles at 650 and 690 °C. Three types of typical curves viscosity (η) versus volume fraction of SiC particles, shear time (t), and shear rate (γ) were derived advantage from the results of viscosity measurements. It would present the viscosity got lowered by decreasing particle volume fraction and by increasing the amounts of shear time and shear rate. In the next step, the influence of the number of aggregates on apparent viscosity was studied by the special tests, developed in this research. Also the formation of aggregates in Al-SiC composite slurries was explained and compared with metallic slurries. It concluded that the origin of aggregation in Al-SiC slurries was long range electrical forces while in metallic slurries it was micro welds between particles. it would show the rheological behavior of Al-SiC slurries could be justified according to the nature and the numbers of their aggregates. At the end, the implications of findings in order to predict the gradient of particles in functionally graded Al-SiC composites, produced by casting, were discussed.

  1. Dispersion and thermal interactions of molten metal fuel settling on a horizontal steel plate through a sodium pool

    SciTech Connect

    Gabor, J.D.; Purviance, R.T.; Aeschlimann, R.W.; Spencer, B.W.

    1989-01-01

    Although the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) possesses inherent safety features, an assessment of the consequences of melting of the metal fuel is necessary for risk analysis. As part of this effort an experimental study was conducted to determine the depths of sodium at 600 C required for pour streams of various molten uranium alloys (U, U-5 wt % Zr, U-10 wt % Zr, and U-10 wt % Fe) to break up and solidify. The quenched particulate material, which was in the shape of filaments and sheets, formed coolable beds because of the high voidage ({approximately}0.9) and large particle size ({approximately}10 mm). In a test with a 0.15-m sodium depth, the fragments from a pure uranium pour stream did not completely solidify but formed an agglomerated mass which did not fuse to the base plate. However, the agglomerated fragments of U-10 wt % Fe eutectic fused to the stainless steel base plate. An analysis of the temperature response of a 25-mm thick base plate was made by volume averaging the properties of the sodium and metal particle phases and assuming two semi-infinite solids coming into contact. Good agreement was obtained with the data during the initial 5 to 10 s of the contact period. 16 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Vapor Explosion of Coolant Jet When Penetrating a Hot Molten Metal

    SciTech Connect

    Perets, Y.; Harari, R.; Sher, E.

    2005-06-15

    The vapor explosion phenomenon is investigated experimentally for a geometrical arrangement in which a cold liquid (water) jet is injected into a hot liquid surface (tin). Medium-scale experiments using 1 kg of molten tin were performed in an open geometry experiment system. In the first phase of the research, the influence of the injection mass flow rate on the likelihood of vapor explosion was investigated in order to map the various relevant regimes. In the second phase, the influence of some selected parameters on the interaction was studied to characterize the relevant parameters of the vapor explosion phenomenon.The range of the initial tin and water temperatures that leads to vapor explosion has been determined in order to define the thermal interaction zone. It is noticed that vapor explosion can occur at high water temperatures even near the saturation point. The delay time for the explosion to occur and the degree of the interaction violence were correlated with the initial tin and water temperatures. We also clarified the triggering point and noted a correlation between the quench temperature and the likelihood of the vapor explosion occurrence.

  3. Polymer thin films embedded with in situ grown metal nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, G V; Porel, S; Radhakrishnan, T P

    2009-09-01

    Metal nanoparticle-polymer composites are versatile materials which not only combine the unique characteristics of the components, but also manifest mutualistic effects between the two. Embedding inside polymer thin films facilitates immobilization and organization of the metal nanoparticles and tuning of their electronic and optical responses by the dielectric environment. The embedded metal nanoparticles in turn can impact upon the various material attributes of the polymer matrix. Some of the most convenient and attractive routes to the fabrication of metal nanoparticle-embedded polymer thin films involve in situ generation of the nanoparticles through reduction or decomposition of appropriate precursors inside the solid film. In this tutorial review we present an overview of the different methodologies developed using this general concept and describe the environment-friendly protocol we have optimized for the fabrication of noble metal nanostructures inside polymer thin films, using aqueous media for the synthesis and deploying the polymer itself as the reducing as well as stabilizing agent. A variety of techniques that have been exploited to characterize the precursor to product transformation inside the polymer film are discussed. The unique control provided by the in situ fabrication route on the size, shape and distribution of the nanostructures, and application of the polymer thin films with the in situ generated metal nanoparticles in areas such as nonlinear optics, surface enhanced Raman scattering, e-beam lithography, microwave absorption, non-volatile memory devices and random lasers, illustrate the versatility of these materials. A brief appraisal of the avenues for future developments in this area is presented.

  4. Electrolysis of a molten semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Huayi; Chung, Brice; Sadoway, Donald R.

    2016-08-01

    Metals cannot be extracted by electrolysis of transition-metal sulfides because as liquids they are semiconductors, which exhibit high levels of electronic conduction and metal dissolution. Herein by introduction of a distinct secondary electrolyte, we reveal a high-throughput electro-desulfurization process that directly converts semiconducting molten stibnite (Sb2S3) into pure (99.9%) liquid antimony and sulfur vapour. At the bottom of the cell liquid antimony pools beneath cathodically polarized molten stibnite. At the top of the cell sulfur issues from a carbon anode immersed in an immiscible secondary molten salt electrolyte disposed above molten stibnite, thereby blocking electronic shorting across the cell. As opposed to conventional extraction practices, direct sulfide electrolysis completely avoids generation of problematic fugitive emissions (CO2, CO and SO2), significantly reduces energy consumption, increases productivity in a single-step process (lower capital and operating costs) and is broadly applicable to a host of electronically conductive transition-metal chalcogenides.

  5. Determination of some heavy metal cations in molten snow by transient isotachophoresis/ capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Petr, Jan; Gerstmann, Silke; Frank, Hartmut

    2006-09-01

    Online combination of transient ITP and CZE is employed for the determination of Cd(II), Pb(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II). Acetic acid is used for creating the transient isotachophoretic state. alpha-Hydroxyisobutyric acid and 4-aminopyridine are used as BGEs for the separation and indirect UV detection. At optimum conditions, the method allows to determine the metals at levels of 40-120 microg/L, about 50 times more sensitive than conventional CZE. In combination with a 20-fold evaporative concentration, the method is suitable for environmental monitoring of the heavy metals in snow samples.

  6. Metallicity and kinematics of the bar in situ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babusiaux, C.; Katz, D.; Hill, V.; Royer, F.; Gómez, A.; Arenou, F.; Combes, F.; Di Matteo, P.; Gilmore, G.; Haywood, M.; Robin, A. C.; Rodriguez-Fernandez, N.; Sartoretti, P.; Schultheis, M.

    2014-03-01

    Context. Constraints on the Galactic bulge and bar structures and on their formation history from stellar kinematics and metallicities mainly come from relatively high-latitude fields (|b| > 4°) where a complex mix of stellar population is seen. Aims: We aim here to constrain the formation history of the Galactic bar by studying the radial velocity and metallicity distributions of stars in situ (|b| ≤ 1°). Methods: We observed red clump stars in four fields along the bar's major axis (l = 10°, -6°, 6° and b = 0° plus a field at l = 0°, b = 1°) with low-resolution spectroscopy from FLAMES/GIRAFFE at the VLT, observing around the Ca ii triplet. We developed robust methods for extracting radial velocity and metallicity estimates from these low signal-to-noise spectra. We derived distance probability distributions using Bayesian methods rigorously handling the extinction law. Results: We present radial velocities and metallicity distributions, as well as radial velocity trends with distance. We observe an increase in the radial velocity dispersion near the Galactic plane. We detect the streaming motion of the stars induced by the bar in fields at l = ±6°, the highest velocity components of this bar stream being metal-rich ([Fe/H] ~ 0.2 dex). Our data is consistent with a bar that is inclined at 26 ± 3° from the Sun-Galactic centre line. We observe a significant fraction of metal-poor stars, in particular in the field at l = 0°, b = 1°. We confirm the flattening of the metallicity gradient along the minor axis when getting closer to the plane, with a hint that it could actually be inverted. Conclusions: Our stellar kinematics corresponds to the expected behaviour of a bar issued from the secular evolution of the Galactic disc. The mix of several populations, seen further away from the plane, is also seen in the bar in situ since our metallicity distributions highlight a different spatial distribution between metal-poor and metal-rich stars, the more

  7. An Assessment of Molten Metal Detachment Hazards During Electron Beam Welding in the Space Shuttle Bay at LEO for the International Space Welding Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fragomeni, James M.

    1996-01-01

    In 1997, the United States [NASA] and the Paton Electric Welding Institute are scheduled to cooperate in a flight demonstration on the U.S. Space Shuttle to demonstrate the feasibility of welding in space for a possible repair option for the International Space Station Alpha. This endeavor, known as the International Space Welding Experiment (ISWE), will involve astronauts performing various welding exercises such as brazing, cutting, welding, and coating using an electron beam space welding system that was developed by the E.O. Paton Electric Welding Institute (PWI), Kiev Ukraine. This electron beam welding system known as the "Universal Weld System" consists of hand tools capable of brazing, cutting, autogeneous welding, and coating using an 8 kV (8000 volts) electron beam. The electron beam hand tools have also been developed by the Paton Welding Institute with greater capabilities than the original hand tool, including filler wire feeding, to be used with the Universal Weld System on the U.S. Space Shuttle Bay as part of ISWE. The hand tool(s) known as the Ukrainian Universal Hand [Electron Beam Welding] Tool (UHT) will be utilized for the ISWE Space Shuttle flight welding exercises to perform welding on various metal alloy samples. A total of 61 metal alloy samples, which include 304 stainless steel, Ti-6AI-4V, 2219 aluminum, and 5456 aluminum alloys, have been provided by NASA for the ISWE electron beam welding exercises using the UHT. These samples were chosen to replicate both the U.S. and Russian module materials. The ISWE requires extravehicular activity (EVA) of two astronauts to perform the space shuttle electron beam welding operations of the 61 alloy samples. This study was undertaken to determine if a hazard could exist with ISWE during the electron beam welding exercises in the Space Shuttle Bay using the Ukrainian Universal Weld System with the UHT. The safety issue has been raised with regard to molten metal detachments as a result of several

  8. Historical Uses of Meteoritic Metals as Precedent for Modern In-Situ Asteroid Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krispin, D.; Mardon, A. A.; Fawcett, B. G.

    2016-08-01

    The strain on earth's resources of metal and the metallic density of meteorites mean that in situ asteroid mining is advisable. This has precedent: Use of meteoritic metal dates back to ancient times.

  9. Multi-scale model of the dynamic fracture of molten and solid metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, A. E.; Mayer, P. N.; Krasnikov, V. S.; Voronin, D. S.

    2015-11-01

    A multi-scale model of the tensile fracture of metal melts is developed based on a combination of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and continuum description of kinetics and dynamics of voids; the model considerably extends the time and length scales of MD. Nucleation of voids due to thermal fluctuations is taken into account. Growth of a void in melts is well described by the Rayleigh-Plesset equation, while in the case of a solid metal we propose a dislocation-based model of the void growth. Based on the MD simulations, we investigate the nucleation rates in the uniform monocrystalline metals and metal melts, dynamics of pre-existing voids and compare them with the continuum model (equations of nucleation and growth). Using of the literature data on the surface tension and viscosity of melts allows us to get a correspondence between the continuum description and MD. With the use of the model, we calculated the strength of the uniform melts of Al, Cu, Ni, Pb, Fe and Ti within a wide range of strain rates (from 103-104 to 109-1011 s-1) and temperatures (from melting temperature to 70-80% of critical temperature). Calculations show that the tensile strength of homogeneous melts decreases slowly with the strain rate decrease. As a result, within the range of strain rates of 106-108 s-1, a homogeneous nucleation mode can be realized, in which the dynamic strength of a melt can be comparable to, or even higher than the strength of a solid metal.

  10. In Situ Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticle Embedded Hybrid Soft Nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Divya, Kizhmuri P; Miroshnikov, Mikhail; Dutta, Debjit; Vemula, Praveen Kumar; Ajayan, Pulickel M; John, George

    2016-09-20

    The allure of integrating the tunable properties of soft nanomaterials with the unique optical and electronic properties of metal nanoparticles has led to the development of organic-inorganic hybrid nanomaterials. A promising method for the synthesis of such organic-inorganic hybrid nanomaterials is afforded by the in situ generation of metal nanoparticles within a host organic template. Due to their tunable surface morphology and porosity, soft organic materials such as gels, liquid crystals, and polymers that are derived from various synthetic or natural compounds can act as templates for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles of different shapes and sizes. This method provides stabilization to the metal nanoparticles by the organic soft material and advantageously precludes the use of external reducing or capping agents in many instances. In this Account, we exemplify the green chemistry approach for synthesizing these materials, both in the choice of gelators as soft material frameworks and in the reduction mechanisms that generate the metal nanoparticles. Established herein is the core design principle centered on conceiving multifaceted amphiphilic soft materials that possess the ability to self-assemble and reduce metal ions into nanoparticles. Furthermore, these soft materials stabilize the in situ generated metal nanoparticles and retain their self-assembly ability to generate metal nanoparticle embedded homogeneous organic-inorganic hybrid materials. We discuss a remarkable example of vegetable-based drying oils as host templates for metal ions, resulting in the synthesis of novel hybrid nanomaterials. The synthesis of metal nanoparticles via polymers and self-assembled materials fabricated via cardanol (a bioorganic monomer derived from cashew nut shell liquid) are also explored in this Account. The organic-inorganic hybrid structures were characterized by several techniques such as UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and

  11. In situ remediation process using divalent metal cations

    DOEpatents

    Brady, Patrick V.; Khandaker, Nadim R.; Krumhansl, James L.; Teter, David M.

    2004-12-14

    An in situ process for treating ambient solid materials (e.g., soils, aquifer solids, sludges) by adding one or more divalent metal cations to the ambient solid material. The added divalent metal cations, such as Cu.sup.2+ or Zn.sup.2+, combine with metal oxide/hydroxides (e.g., ferric oxide/hydroxide or aluminum oxide/hydroxide) already present in the ambient solid material to form an effective sorbent material having a large number of positively-charged surface complexes that binds and immobilizes anionic contaminant species (e.g., arsenic or chromate). Divalent metal cations can be added, for example, by injecting an aqueous solution of CuSO.sub.4 into an aquifer contaminated with arsenic or chromate. Also, sludges can be stabilized against leaching of anionic contaminants through the addition of divalent metal cations. Also, an inexpensive sorbent material can be easily formed by mixing divalent metal cations with soil that has been removed from the ground.

  12. Radiation-thermometric study of isolated hot molten metal spheres by containerless and contactless measurement techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, G. W.; Jeon, S.; Park, C.; Kang, D. H.; Choi, B. I.; Park, S. N.

    2013-09-01

    An electrostatic levitation (ESL) device is developed to study the radiation-properties of liquid metals at high temperature. The technique provides good advantage, such as fast response of temperature change on a sample, clear features of recalescence and plateau during freezing, no contamination or no reaction with environment, easy control of supercooling deducing hypercooling limit, and relatively simple analysis of thermodynamic quantities because of only radiative cooling process under vacuum. In this study, we could obtain a hypercooling limit (i.e., maximum supercooling) of liquid Ti, 341 K using the ESL. An accurate ratio of the specific heat to total hemispherical emissivity of liquid Ti was obtained by Stefan-Boltzmann law. Then, the specific heat and total hemispherical emissivity of Ti liquid metal can be estimated with the hypercooling limit and known fusion enthalpy values of Ti, which has been rarely reported.

  13. Magnetic levitation and confinement of molten metals. Ph.D Thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, S.S.

    1993-12-31

    Electromagnetic forces generated within the bulk of a liquid metal, due to imposed alternating magnetic field, can alter the shape of the free surface of the liquid metal. Most of the research in this area has been focused on theoretical development of electromagnetic processes and there is a lack of well defined experimental results with which to verify the theoretical models. In this thesis, the interaction of electromagnetic field structure with liquid metals was studies both from theoretical and experimental viewpoints. Levitation and shaping experiments were successfully carried out with liquid sodium in mineral oil in a cone-shaped coil. Small droplets ranging from 1.2 to 2.1 gm of liquid sodium were levitated. The modeling of a levitated droplet in an electromagnetic field was carried out using the Free Movement method. This is a surface coupled model where the skin depth is assumed to be zero. There was a good match between the experimental and predicted results. The shaping experiments were also carried out using liquid sodium in a cylindrical coil. Liquid sodium was repelled from the wall of the container and the meniscus profile was measured. The experimental results were compared with the results predicted by the mathematical model. The comparison was good away from the inductor but the model did not predict the shape near the inductor due to fluid flow during shaping. The mathematical model is used to predict the meniscus shapes of liquid steel under an imposed electromagnetic field. This technique is used to investigate the effect of applied magnetic fields on the static meniscus shapes of a liquid steel column and on the equilibrium meniscus shape of liquid steel in the mold of a continuous caster when there is not relative movement between the model and the strand. The heating rate of liquid steel due to induced eddy currents within the bulk of the metal is also studied.

  14. Persistence of well-defined collective excitations in a molten transition metal.

    SciTech Connect

    Bermejo, F. J.; Saboungi, M. L.; Price, D. L.; Alvarez, M.; Roessli, B.; Cabrillo, C.; Ivanov, A.; Materials Science Division; Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas; Paul Scherrer Inst.; Inst. Laue Langevin

    2000-07-02

    Well-defined microscopic collective excitations are found in liquid Ni at 1763 K by means of inelastic neutron scattering. Such excitations are supported by the liquid despite an anharmonic character of its thermodynamic functions. Consideration of the detailed shape of the interionic pair potential provides a way to understand why atomic motions at microscopic scales behave in a way much closer to the alkali metals than to the liquefied rare gases.

  15. A Molten Salt Lithium-Oxygen Battery.

    PubMed

    Giordani, Vincent; Tozier, Dylan; Tan, Hongjin; Burke, Colin M; Gallant, Betar M; Uddin, Jasim; Greer, Julia R; McCloskey, Bryan D; Chase, Gregory V; Addison, Dan

    2016-03-02

    Despite the promise of extremely high theoretical capacity (2Li + O2 ↔ Li2O2, 1675 mAh per gram of oxygen), many challenges currently impede development of Li/O2 battery technology. Finding suitable electrode and electrolyte materials remains the most elusive challenge to date. A radical new approach is to replace volatile, unstable and air-intolerant organic electrolytes common to prior research in the field with alkali metal nitrate molten salt electrolytes and operate the battery above the liquidus temperature (>80 °C). Here we demonstrate an intermediate temperature Li/O2 battery using a lithium anode, a molten nitrate-based electrolyte (e.g., LiNO3-KNO3 eutectic) and a porous carbon O2 cathode with high energy efficiency (∼95%) and improved rate capability because the discharge product, lithium peroxide, is stable and moderately soluble in the molten salt electrolyte. The results, supported by essential state-of-the-art electrochemical and analytical techniques such as in situ pressure and gas analyses, scanning electron microscopy, rotating disk electrode voltammetry, demonstrate that Li2O2 electrochemically forms and decomposes upon cycling with discharge/charge overpotentials as low as 50 mV. We show that the cycle life of such batteries is limited only by carbon reactivity and by the uncontrolled precipitation of Li2O2, which eventually becomes electrically disconnected from the O2 electrode.

  16. Investigation of atypical molten pool dynamics in tungsten carbide-cobalt during laser deposition using in-situ thermal imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong Yuhong; Schoenung, Julie M.; Hofmeister, William H.; Smugeresky, John E.; Delplanque, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-16

    An atypical ''swirling'' phenomenon observed during the laser deposition of tungsten carbide-cobalt cermets by laser engineered net shaping (LENS) was studied using in-situ high-speed thermal imaging. To provide fundamental insight into this phenomenon, the thermal behavior of pure cobalt during LENS was also investigated for comparison. Several factors were considered as the possible source of the observed differences. Of those, phase difference, material emissivity, momentum transfer, and free surface disruption from the powder jets, and, to a lesser extent, Marangoni convection were identified as the relevant mechanisms.

  17. Investigation of atypical molten pool dynamics in tungsten carbide-cobalt during laser deposition using in-situ thermal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Yuhong; Hofmeister, William H.; Smugeresky, John E.; Delplanque, Jean-Pierre; Schoenung, Julie M.

    2012-01-01

    An atypical "swirling" phenomenon observed during the laser deposition of tungsten carbide-cobalt cermets by laser engineered net shaping (LENS®) was studied using in-situ high-speed thermal imaging. To provide fundamental insight into this phenomenon, the thermal behavior of pure cobalt during LENS was also investigated for comparison. Several factors were considered as the possible source of the observed differences. Of those, phase difference, material emissivity, momentum transfer, and free surface disruption from the powder jets, and, to a lesser extent, Marangoni convection were identified as the relevant mechanisms.

  18. Situ formation of apatite for sequestering radionuclides and heavy metals

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Robert C.

    2003-07-15

    Methods for in situ formation in soil of a permeable reactive barrier or zone comprising a phosphate precipitate, such as apatite or hydroxyapatite, which is capable of selectively trapping and removing radionuclides and heavy metal contaminants from the soil, while allowing water or other compounds to pass through. A preparation of a phosphate reagent and a chelated calcium reagent is mixed aboveground and injected into the soil. Subsequently, the chelated calcium reagent biodegrades and slowly releases free calcium. The free calcium reacts with the phosphate reagent to form a phosphate precipitate. Under the proper chemical conditions, apatite or hydroxyapatite can form. Radionuclide and heavy metal contaminants, including lead, strontium, lanthanides, and uranium are then selectively sequestered by sorbing them onto the phosphate precipitate. A reducing agent can be added for reduction and selective sequestration of technetium or selenium contaminants.

  19. Numerical Simulation of Ejected Molten Metal Nanoparticles Liquified by Laser Irradiation: Interplay of Geometry and Dewetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afkhami, S.; Kondic, L.

    2013-07-01

    Metallic nanoparticles, liquified by fast laser irradiation, go through a rapid change of shape attempting to minimize their surface energy. The resulting nanodrops may be ejected from the substrate when the mechanisms leading to dewetting are sufficiently strong, as in the experiments involving gold nanoparticles [Habenicht et al., Science 309, 2043 (2005)]. We use a direct continuum-level approach to accurately model the process of liquid nanodrop formation and the subsequent ejection from the substrate. Our computations show a significant role of inertial effects and an elaborate interplay of initial geometry and wetting properties: e.g., we can control the direction of ejection by prescribing appropriate initial shape and/or wetting properties. The basic insight regarding ejection itself can be reached by considering a simple effective model based on an energy balance. We validate our computations by comparing directly with the experiments specified above involving the length scales measured in hundreds of nanometers and with molecular dynamics simulations on much shorter scales measured in tens of atomic diameters, as by M. Fuentes-Cabrera et al. [Phys. Rev. E 83, 041603 (2011)]. The quantitative agreement, in addition to illustrating how to control particle ejection, shows utility of continuum-based simulation in describing dynamics on nanoscale quantitatively, even in a complex setting as considered here.

  20. In situ combustion with metallic additives SUPRI TR 87

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, R.J.

    1992-07-01

    In-situ combustion is the most energy efficient of the thermal oil recovery methods. In this process, a portion of a reservoir`s oil is burned in-situ as fuel to drive the recovery process. In light oil reservoirs, too little fuel may be deposited, making sustained combustion difficult. In heavy oil reservoirs, too much fuel may be deposited leading to high air injection requirements and unfavorable economics. This study has been designed to attack these problems. Water soluble metallic additives are investigated as agents to modify fuel deposition and combustion performance. This report describes seven combustion tube runs using two cradle oils and two metallic additives. The oils are 12{degrees} and 34{degrees} API, both from Cymric (California). The metallic additives tested are ionic nitrate (Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}9H{sub 2}O) and zinc nitrate (Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}6H{sub 2}O). Iron and tin additives improved the combustion efficiency in all cases. Fluctuations in the produced gas compositions were observed in all control runs, but nearly disappeared with the iron and tin additives. The combustion front velocities were also increased by iron and tin. Changes were also observed in the apparent hydrogen to carbon (H/C) ratio of the fuel, heat of combustion, air requirements, and amount of fuel deposited. Iron and tin caused increases in fuel concentration while causing a decrease in air requirement. The increase in fuel concentration varied between the oils, however, tin and iron were consistently more effective than zinc. A particularly interesting result occurred with the Cymric light oil. In the control runs, a sustained combustion front was not achieved, while in the iron additive runs, stable, sustained combustion was achieved. Iron and tin salts are suitable additives to increase fuel deposition when that is needed. Additives suitable for use as a fuel reducing agent have not yet been found. 26 refs., 23 figs, 6 tabs.

  1. In situ combustion with metallic additives SUPRI TR 87

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, R.J.

    1992-07-01

    In-situ combustion is the most energy efficient of the thermal oil recovery methods. In this process, a portion of a reservoir's oil is burned in-situ as fuel to drive the recovery process. In light oil reservoirs, too little fuel may be deposited, making sustained combustion difficult. In heavy oil reservoirs, too much fuel may be deposited leading to high air injection requirements and unfavorable economics. This study has been designed to attack these problems. Water soluble metallic additives are investigated as agents to modify fuel deposition and combustion performance. This report describes seven combustion tube runs using two cradle oils and two metallic additives. The oils are 12{degrees} and 34{degrees} API, both from Cymric (California). The metallic additives tested are ionic nitrate (Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}9H{sub 2}O) and zinc nitrate (Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}6H{sub 2}O). Iron and tin additives improved the combustion efficiency in all cases. Fluctuations in the produced gas compositions were observed in all control runs, but nearly disappeared with the iron and tin additives. The combustion front velocities were also increased by iron and tin. Changes were also observed in the apparent hydrogen to carbon (H/C) ratio of the fuel, heat of combustion, air requirements, and amount of fuel deposited. Iron and tin caused increases in fuel concentration while causing a decrease in air requirement. The increase in fuel concentration varied between the oils, however, tin and iron were consistently more effective than zinc. A particularly interesting result occurred with the Cymric light oil. In the control runs, a sustained combustion front was not achieved, while in the iron additive runs, stable, sustained combustion was achieved. Iron and tin salts are suitable additives to increase fuel deposition when that is needed. Additives suitable for use as a fuel reducing agent have not yet been found. 26 refs., 23 figs, 6 tabs.

  2. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: IN SITU VITRIFICATION TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In situ vitrification (ISV) uses electrical power to heat and melt soil, sludge, mine tailings, buried wastes, and sediments contaminated with organic, inorganic, and metal-bearing hazardous wastes. The molten material cools to form a hard, monolithic, chemically inert, stable...

  3. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: IN SITU VITRIFICATION TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In situ vitrification (ISV) uses electrical power to heat and melt soil, sludge, mine tailings, buried wastes, and sediments contaminated with organic, inorganic, and metal-bearing hazardous wastes. The molten material cools to form a hard, monolithic, chemically inert, stable...

  4. Evaluating the Long-Term Stability of Metals Precipitated In-Situ

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because metals (including metals and metalloids) cannot be destroyed, unlike organic contaminants, in-situ approaches for their removal from groundwater necessarily involves fixation/immobilization in the solid aquifer matrix. Consequently, the success of precipitation based in...

  5. Evaluating the Long-Term Stability of Metals Precipitated In-Situ

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because metals (including metals and metalloids) cannot be destroyed, unlike organic contaminants, in-situ approaches for their removal from groundwater necessarily involves fixation/immobilization in the solid aquifer matrix. Consequently, the success of precipitation based in...

  6. Self-pumping impurity by in-situ metal deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, J.N.; Mattas, R.F.

    1983-07-01

    A system for in-situ removal of helium trapping in freshly deposited metal surface layers of a limiter or divertor has been studied. The system would trap helium on a limiter front surface, or a divertor plate, at low plasma edge temperatures, or in a limiter slot region, at high edge temperatures. Fresh material, introduced to the plasma and/or scrape-off zone, would be added at a rate of about five times the alpha production rate. The material would be reprocessed periodically, e.g. once a year. Possible materials are nickel, vanadium, niobium, and tantalum. Advantages of a self-pumping system are the absence of vacuum ducts and pumps, and the minimization of tritium processing and inventory.

  7. Multiphysics Modeling for Dimensional Analysis of a Self-Heated Molten Regolith Electrolysis Reactor for Oxygen and Metals Production on the Moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominguez, Jesus A.; Sibille, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    The technology of direct electrolysis of molten lunar regolith to produce oxygen and molten metal alloys has progressed greatly in the last few years. The development of long-lasting inert anodes and cathode designs as well as techniques for the removal of molten products from the reactor has been demonstrated. The containment of chemically aggressive oxide and metal melts is very difficult at the operating temperatures ca 1600 C. Containing the molten oxides in a regolith shell can solve this technical issue and can be achieved by designing a self-heating reactor in which the electrolytic currents generate enough Joule heat to create a molten bath. In a first phase, a thermal analysis model was built to study the formation of a melt of lunar basaltic regolith irradiated by a focused solar beam This mode of heating was selected because it relies on radiative heat transfer, which is the dominant mode of transfer of energy in melts at 1600 C. Knowing and setting the Gaussian-type heat flux from the concentrated solar beam and the phase and temperature dependent thermal properties, the model predicts the dimensions and temperature profile of the melt. A validation of the model is presented in this paper through the experimental formation of a spherical cap melt realized by others. The Orbitec/PSI experimental setup uses an 3.6-cm diameter concentrated solar beam to create a hemispheric melt in a bed of lunar regolith simulant contained in a large pot. Upon cooling, the dimensions of the vitrified melt are measured to validate the thermal model. In a second phase, the model is augmented by multiphysics components to compute the passage of electrical currents between electrodes inserted in the molten regolith. The current through the melt generates Joule heating due to the high resistivity of the medium and this energy is transferred into the melt by conduction, convection and primarily by radiation. The model faces challenges in two major areas, the change of phase as

  8. Potential for EMU Fabric Damage by Electron Beam and Molten Metal During Space Welding for the International Space Welding Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fragomeni, James M.

    1998-01-01

    As a consequence of preparations concerning the International Space Welding Experiment (ISWE), studies were performed to better understand the effect of molten metal contact and electron beam impingement with various fabrics for space suit applications. The question arose as to what would occur if the electron beam from the Ukrainian Universal Hand Tool (UHT) designed for welding in space were to impinge upon a piece of Nextel AF-62 ceramic cloth designed to withstand temperatures up to 1427 C. The expectation was that the electron beam would lay down a static charge pattern with no damage to the ceramic fabric. The electron beam is capable of spraying the fabric with enough negative charge to repel further electrons from the fabric before significant heating occurs. The static charge pattern would deflect any further charge accumulation except for a small initial amount of leakage to the grounded surface of the welder. However, when studies were made of the effect of the electron beam on the insulating ceramic fabric it was surprisingly found that the electron beam did indeed burn through the ceramic fabric. It was also found that the shorter electron beam standoff distances had longer burnthrough times than did some greater electron beam standoff distances. A possible explanation for the longer burnthrough times for the small electron beam standoff distance would be outgassing of the fabric which caused the electron beam hand-tool to cycle on and off to provide some protection for the cathodes. The electron beam hand tool was observed to cycle off at the short standoff distance of two inches likely due to vapors being outgassed. During the electron beam welding process there is an electron leakage, or current leakage, flow from the fabric. A static charge pattern is initially laid down by the electron beam current flow. The static charge makes up the current leakage flow which initially slightly heats up the fabric. The initially laid down surface charge leaks a

  9. Feet sunk in molten aluminium: The burn and its prevention.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Peña, David; Arnáiz-García, María Elena; Valero-Gasalla, Javier Luis; Arnáiz-García, Ana María; Campillo-Campaña, Ramón; Alonso-Peña, Javier; González-Santos, Jose María; Fernández-Díaz, Alaska Leonor; Arnáiz, Javier

    2015-08-01

    Nowadays, despite improvements in safety rules and inspections in the metal industry, foundry workers are not free from burn accidents. Injuries caused by molten metals include burns secondary to molten iron, aluminium, zinc, copper, brass, bronze, manganese, lead and steel. Molten aluminium is one of the most common causative agents of burns (60%); however, only a few publications exist concerning injuries from molten aluminium. The main mechanisms of lesion from molten aluminium include direct contact of the molten metal with the skin or through safety apparel, or when the metal splash burns through the pants and rolls downward along the leg. Herein, we report three cases of deep dermal burns after 'soaking' the foot in liquid aluminium and its evolutive features. This paper aims to show our experience in the management of burns due to molten aluminium. We describe the current management principles and the key features of injury prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  10. Compatibility of molten salts with advanced solar dynamic receiver materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, D. A.; Perry, W. D.

    1989-01-01

    Metal-coated graphite fibers are being considered as a thermal conductivity enhancement filler material for molten salts in solar dynamic thermal energy storage systems. The successful metal coating chosen for this application must exhibit acceptable wettability and must be compatible with the molten salt environment. Contact angle values between molten lithium fluoride and several metal, metal fluoride, and metal oxide substrates have been determined at 892 C using a modification of the Wilhelmy plate technique. Reproducible contact angles with repeated exposure to the molten LiF indicated compatibility.

  11. Probing Magnetism in 2D Molecular Networks after in Situ Metalation by Transition Metal Atoms.

    PubMed

    Schouteden, K; Ivanova, Ts; Li, Z; Iancu, V; Janssens, E; Van Haesendonck, C

    2015-03-19

    Metalated molecules are the ideal building blocks for the bottom-up fabrication of, e.g., two-dimensional arrays of magnetic particles for spintronics applications. Compared to chemical synthesis, metalation after network formation by an atom beam can yield a higher degree of control and flexibility and allows for mixing of different types of magnetic atoms. We report on successful metalation of tetrapyridyl-porphyrins (TPyP) by Co and Cr atoms, as demonstrated by scanning tunneling microscopy experiments. For the metalation, large periodic networks formed by the TPyP molecules on a Ag(111) substrate are exposed in situ to an atom beam. Voltage-induced dehydrogenation experiments support the conclusion that the porphyrin macrocycle of the TPyP molecule incorporates one transition metal atom. The newly synthesized Co-TPyP and Cr-TPyP complexes exhibit striking differences in their electronic behavior, leading to a magnetic character for Cr-TPyP only as evidenced by Kondo resonance measurements.

  12. Microfluidic Patterning of Metal Structures for Flexible Conductors by In Situ Polymer-Assisted Electroless Deposition.

    PubMed

    Liang, Suqing; Li, Yaoyao; Zhou, Tingjiao; Yang, Jinbin; Zhou, Xiaohu; Zhu, Taipeng; Huang, Junqiao; Zhu, Julie; Zhu, Deyong; Liu, Yizhen; He, Chuanxin; Zhang, Junmin; Zhou, Xuechang

    2017-02-01

    A low-cost, solution-processed, versatile, microfluidic approach is developed for patterning structures of highly conductive metals (e.g., copper, silver, and nickel) on chemically modified flexible polyethylene terephthalate thin films by in situ polymer-assisted electroless metal deposition. This method has significantly lowered the consumption of catalyst as well as the metal plating solution.

  13. In situ characterization of metal matrix composites processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munger, Gareth Torrey

    1999-11-01

    The high temperatures and pressures used for the processing of fiber reinforced metal matrix composites (MMC's) can result in the bending and fracture of fibers, and the development of residual stresses in both the fibers and surrounding metal matrix. These phenomena adversely affect the properties of MMC's. Methods for their nondestructive measurement are therefore needed both to better understand the process induced damage mechanisms and to ensure that composites are not placed into service with unacceptable fiber damage and/or residual stresses. A fiber optic luminescence approach based upon the frequency shift of the R lines emission of doped sapphire fibers was used to determine the residual stresses in both Ti/Al2O3 and Ti/SiC composites. To investigate the significance of the creep relaxation effects, residual stresses were measured for sapphire fibers embedded in Ti-6Al-4V plates that had been cooled at different rates. The compressive stresses in the fiber are consistent with the coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) of sapphire being less than Ti-6Al-4V. A multiple concentric cylinder model was used to predict the residual stress state. The model results confirmed that the creep relaxation was induced responsible for the lower stress in the slowly cooled samples and suggest that cooling rate is important to control during processing. To test the notion of the use of a sapphire fiber as a 'witness to' the stress state in an MMC, a sapphire fiber was inserted into a Ti-6Al-4V coated SIGMA (SiC) fiber bundle prior to its consolidation. A generalized method of cells (GMC) model was used to develop a relationship between the stress state within the sapphire witness fiber and that of the surrounding Ti-6Al-4V matrix and the SIGMA fibers. Fiber fracture during the hot isostatic processing (HIP) consolidation of titanium matrix composite was measured using an in-situ acoustic emission approach. For process cycles in which pressure was applied prior to

  14. Catalysis by molten metals and molten alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Ogino, Y.

    1981-01-01

    Various reactors and techniques for activity measurement are described. Possible applications of the catalysis include the dehydrogenation of alcohols, amines, hydrocarbons, and coal liquefaction. Chemical reaction kinetics and electronic aspects of the reactions are discussed. 69 references, 28 figures, 7 tables.

  15. Materials discovery by crystal growth: Lanthanide metal containing oxides of the platinum group metals (Ru, Os, Ir, Rh, Pd, Pt) from molten alkali metal hydroxides

    SciTech Connect

    Mugavero, Samuel J.; Gemmill, William R.; Roof, Irina P.; Loye, Hans-Conrad zur

    2009-07-15

    This review addresses the process of materials discovery via crystal growth, specifically of lanthanide metal containing oxides of the platinum group metals (Ru, Os, Ir, Rh, Pd, Pt). It provides a detailed overview of the use of hydroxide fluxes for crystal growth. The melt chemistry of hydroxide fluxes, specifically, the extensive acid base chemistry, the metal cation solubility, and the ability of hydroxide melts to oxidize metals are described. Furthermore, a general methodology for the successful crystal growth of oxides is provided, including a discussion of experimental considerations, suitable reaction vessels, reaction profiles and temperature ranges. Finally, a compilation of complex platinum group metal oxides recently synthesized using hydroxide melts, focusing on their crystal growth and crystal structures, is included. - Graphical abstract: A review that addresses the process of materials discovery via crystal growth using hydroxide fluxes. It provides a detailed overview of the use of hydroxide fluxes for crystal growth and describes the melt chemistry of hydroxide fluxes, specifically, the extensive acid base chemistry, the metal cation solubility, and the ability of hydroxide melts to oxidize metals. In addition, a compilation of complex platinum group metal oxides recently synthesized using hydroxide melts is included.

  16. Electrolysis of a molten semiconductor

    DOE PAGES

    Yin, Huayi; Chung, Brice; Sadoway, Donald R.

    2016-08-24

    Metals cannot be extracted by electrolysis of transition-metal sulfides because as liquids they are semiconductors, which exhibit high levels of electronic conduction and metal dissolution. Herein by introduction of a distinct secondary electrolyte, we reveal a high-throughput electro-desulfurization process that directly converts semiconducting molten stibnite (Sb2S3) into pure (99.9%) liquid antimony and sulfur vapour. At the bottom of the cell liquid antimony pools beneath cathodically polarized molten stibnite. At the top of the cell sulfur issues from a carbon anode immersed in an immiscible secondary molten salt electrolyte disposed above molten stibnite, thereby blocking electronic shorting across the cell. Inmore » conclusion, as opposed to conventional extraction practices, direct sulfide electrolysis completely avoids generation of problematic fugitive emissions (CO2, CO and SO2), significantly reduces energy consumption, increases productivity in a single-step process (lower capital and operating costs) and is broadly applicable to a host of electronically conductive transition-metal chalcogenides.« less

  17. Electrolysis of a molten semiconductor

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Huayi; Chung, Brice; Sadoway, Donald R.

    2016-01-01

    Metals cannot be extracted by electrolysis of transition-metal sulfides because as liquids they are semiconductors, which exhibit high levels of electronic conduction and metal dissolution. Herein by introduction of a distinct secondary electrolyte, we reveal a high-throughput electro-desulfurization process that directly converts semiconducting molten stibnite (Sb2S3) into pure (99.9%) liquid antimony and sulfur vapour. At the bottom of the cell liquid antimony pools beneath cathodically polarized molten stibnite. At the top of the cell sulfur issues from a carbon anode immersed in an immiscible secondary molten salt electrolyte disposed above molten stibnite, thereby blocking electronic shorting across the cell. As opposed to conventional extraction practices, direct sulfide electrolysis completely avoids generation of problematic fugitive emissions (CO2, CO and SO2), significantly reduces energy consumption, increases productivity in a single-step process (lower capital and operating costs) and is broadly applicable to a host of electronically conductive transition-metal chalcogenides. PMID:27553525

  18. Electrolysis of a molten semiconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Huayi; Chung, Brice; Sadoway, Donald R.

    2016-08-24

    Metals cannot be extracted by electrolysis of transition-metal sulfides because as liquids they are semiconductors, which exhibit high levels of electronic conduction and metal dissolution. Herein by introduction of a distinct secondary electrolyte, we reveal a high-throughput electro-desulfurization process that directly converts semiconducting molten stibnite (Sb2S3) into pure (99.9%) liquid antimony and sulfur vapour. At the bottom of the cell liquid antimony pools beneath cathodically polarized molten stibnite. At the top of the cell sulfur issues from a carbon anode immersed in an immiscible secondary molten salt electrolyte disposed above molten stibnite, thereby blocking electronic shorting across the cell. In conclusion, as opposed to conventional extraction practices, direct sulfide electrolysis completely avoids generation of problematic fugitive emissions (CO2, CO and SO2), significantly reduces energy consumption, increases productivity in a single-step process (lower capital and operating costs) and is broadly applicable to a host of electronically conductive transition-metal chalcogenides.

  19. Separation of rare earths from transition metals by liquid-liquid extraction from a molten salt hydrate to an ionic liquid phase.

    PubMed

    Rout, Alok; Binnemans, Koen

    2014-02-28

    The solvent extraction of trivalent rare-earth ions and their separation from divalent transition metal ions using molten salt hydrates as the feed phase and an undiluted fluorine-free ionic liquid as the extracting phase were investigated in detail. The extractant was tricaprylmethylammonium nitrate, [A336][NO3], and the hydrated melt was calcium nitrate tetrahydrate, Ca(NO3)2·4H2O. The extraction behavior of rare-earth ions was studied for solutions of individual elements, as well as for mixtures of rare earths in the hydrated melt. The influence of different extraction parameters was investigated: the initial metal loading in the feed phase, percentage of water in the feed solution, equilibration time, and the type of hydrated melt. The extraction of rare earths from Ca(NO3)2·4H2O was compared with extraction from CaCl2·4H2O by [A336][Cl] (Aliquat 336). The nitrate system was found to be the better one. The extraction and separation of rare earths from the transition metals nickel, cobalt and zinc were also investigated. Remarkably high separation factors of rare-earth ions over transition metal ions were observed for extraction from Ca(NO3)2·4H2O by the [A336][NO3] extracting phase. Furthermore, rare-earth ions could be separated efficiently from transition metal ions, even in melts with very high concentrations of transition metal ions. Rare-earth oxides could be directly dissolved in the Ca(NO3)2·4H2O phase in the presence of small amounts of Al(NO3)3·9H2O or concentrated nitric acid. The efficiency of extraction after dissolving the rare-earth oxides in the hydrated nitrate melt was identical to extraction from solutions with rare-earth nitrates dissolved in the molten phase. The stripping of the rare-earth ions from the loaded ionic liquid phase and the reuse of the recycled ionic liquid were also investigated in detail.

  20. Electrolytic reduction runs of 0.6 kg scale-simulated oxide fuel in a Li2O-LiCl molten salt using metal anode shrouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Eun-Young; Lee, Jeong; Heo, Dong Hyun; Lee, Sang Kwon; Jeon, Min Ku; Hong, Sun Seok; Kim, Sung-Wook; Kang, Hyun Woo; Jeon, Sang-Chae; Hur, Jin-Mok

    2017-06-01

    Ten electrolytic reduction or oxide reduction (OR) runs of a 0.6 kg scale-simulated oxide fuel in a Li2O-LiCl molten salt at 650 °C were conducted using metal anode shrouds. During this procedure, an anode shroud surrounds a platinum anode and discharges hot oxygen gas from the salt to outside of the OR apparatus, thereby preventing corrosion of the apparatus. In this study, a number of anode shrouds made of various metals were tested. Each metallic anode shroud consisted of a lower porous shroud for the salt phase and an upper nonporous shroud for the gas phase. A stainless steel (STS) wire mesh with five-ply layer was a material commonly used for the lower porous shroud for the OR runs. The metals tested for the upper nonporous shroud in the different OR runs are STS, nickel, and platinum- or silver-lined nickel. The lower porous shroud showed no significant damage during two consecutive OR runs, but exhibited signs of damage from three or more runs due to thermal stress. The upper nonporous shrouds made up of either platinum- or silver-lined nickel showed excellent corrosion resistance to hot oxygen gas while STS or nickel without any platinum or silver lining exhibited poor corrosion resistance.

  1. Refractory-Slag-Metal-Inclusion Multiphase Reactions Modeling Using Computational Thermodynamics: Kinetic Model for Prediction of Inclusion Evolution in Molten Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jae Hong; Chung, Yongsug; Park, Joo Hyun

    2017-02-01

    The refractory-slag-metal-inclusion multiphase reaction model was developed by integrating the refractory-slag, slag-metal, and metal-inclusion elementary reactions in order to predict the evolution of inclusions during the secondary refining processes. The mass transfer coefficient in the metal and slag phase, and the mass transfer coefficient of MgO in the slag were employed in the present multiphase reactions modeling. The "Effective Equilibrium Reaction Zone (EERZ) Model" was basically employed. In this model, the reaction zone volume per unit step for metal and slag phase, which is dependent on the `effective reaction zone depth' in each phase, should be defined. Thus, we evaluated the effective reaction zone depth from the mass transfer coefficient in metal and slag phase at 1873 K (1600 °C) for the desulfurization reaction which was measured in the present study. Because the dissolution rate of MgO from the refractory to slag phase is one of the key factors affecting the slag composition, the mass transfer coefficient of MgO in the ladle slag was also experimentally determined. The calculated results for the variation of the composition of slag and molten steel as a function of reaction time were in good agreement with the experimental results. The MgAl2O4 spinel inclusion was observed at the early to middle stage of the reaction, whereas the liquid oxide inclusion was mainly observed at the final stage of the refining reaction. The content of CaO sharply increased, and the SiO2 content increased mildly with the increasing reaction time, while the content of Al2O3 in the inclusion drastically decreased. Even though there is slight difference between the calculated and measured results, the refractory-slag-metal multiphase reaction model constructed in the present study exhibited a good predictability of the inclusion evolution during ladle refining process.

  2. Electrokinetic In Situ Treatment of Metal-Contaminated Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Jacqueline; Clausen, Christian A., III; Geiger, Cherie; Reinhart, Debra

    2004-01-01

    An electrokinetic technique has been developed as a means of in situ remediation of soils, sludges, and sediments that are contaminated with heavy metals. Examples of common metal contaminants that can be removed by this technique include cadmium, chromium, zinc, lead, mercury, and radionuclides. Some organic contaminants can also be removed by this technique. In the electrokinetic technique, a low-intensity direct current is applied between electrodes that have been implanted in the ground on each side of a contaminated soil mass. The electric current causes electro-osmosis and migration of ions, thereby moving aqueous-phase subsurface contaminants from one electrode to the other. The half reaction at the anode yields H+, thereby generating an acid front that travels from the anode toward the cathode. As this acid front passes through a given location, the local increase in acidity increases the solubility of cations that were previously adsorbed on soil particles. Ions are transported towards one electrode or the other which one depending on their respective electric charges. Upon arrival at the electrodes, the ionic contaminants can be allowed to become deposited on the electrodes or can be extracted to a recovery system. Surfactants and other reagents can be introduced at the electrodes to enhance rates of removal of contaminants. Placements of electrodes and concentrations and rates of pumping of reagents can be adjusted to maximize efficiency. The basic concept of electrokinetic treatment of soil is not new. What is new here are some of the details of application and the utilization of this technique as an alternative to other techniques (e.g., flushing or bioremediation) that are not suitable for treating soils of low hydraulic conductivity. Another novel aspect is the use of this technique as a less expensive alternative to excavation: The cost advantage over excavation is especially large in settings in which contaminated soil lies near and/or under

  3. Ceramics for Molten Materials Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Standish, Evan; Stefanescu, Doru M.; Curreri, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    The paper reviews the main issues associated with molten materials transfer and handling on the lunar surface during the operation of a hig h temperature electrowinning cell used to produce oxygen, with molten iron and silicon as byproducts. A combination of existing technolog ies and purposely designed technologies show promise for lunar exploi tation. An important limitation that requires extensive investigation is the performance of refractory currently used for the purpose of m olten metal containment and transfer in the lunar environment associa ted with electrolytic cells. The principles of a laboratory scale uni t at a scale equivalent to the production of 1 metric ton of oxygen p er year are introduced. This implies a mass of molten materials to be transferred consistent with the equivalent of 1kg regolithlhr proces sed.

  4. Optimization of a Molten Salt Electrolytic Bath Geometry for Rare Earth Metal Recovery using a Finite Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Numata, Hiroo; Akatsuka, Hiroshi; Matsuura, Haruaki

    2013-02-01

    For a recycling procedure for rare earths from spent hydrogen absorbing alloys by rare earths electrodeposition in a molten salt, the electrolytic bath and the cathode accessories have been optimized by evaluating the appropriate secondary current distribution using finite element method (FEM) computer simulation. The desirable cathode dish as an accessory was designed to prevent drops of less adherent electrodeposits, which improved the current density distribution compared with an a priori determined one. In the bath optimization, a reciprocal proportionality of the difference between the maximum and minimum current densities vs. the ratio of volume to surface area (or electrolyte volume) was found. It was found by FEM that if a resistive floating mass is assumed on the electrolyte surface, the observed necking in the electrodeposit near the electrolyte surface can be analyzed.

  5. In situ production of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in molten salt phase for thermal energy storage and heat-transfer fluid applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasfargues, Mathieu; Bell, Andrew; Ding, Yulong

    2016-06-01

    In this study, TiO2 nanoparticles (average particle size 16 nm) were successfully produced in molten salt phase and were showed to significantly enhance the specific heat capacity of a binary eutectic mixture of sodium and potassium nitrate (60/40) by 5.4 % at 390 °C and 7.5 % at 445 °C for 3.0 wt% of precursors used. The objective of this research was to develop a cost-effective alternate method of production which is potentially scalable, as current techniques utilized are not economically viable for large quantities. Enhancing the specific heat capacity of molten salt would promote more competitive pricing for electricity production by concentrating solar power plant. Here, a simple precursor (TiOSO4) was added to a binary eutectic mixture of potassium and sodium nitrate, heated to 450 °C, and cooled to witness the production of nanoparticles.

  6. Molten salt bath circulation design for an electrolytic cell

    DOEpatents

    Dawless, Robert K.; LaCamera, Alfred F.; Troup, R. Lee; Ray, Siba P.; Hosler, Robert B.

    1999-01-01

    An electrolytic cell for reduction of a metal oxide to a metal and oxygen has an inert anode and an upwardly angled roof covering the inert mode. The angled roof diverts oxygen bubbles into an upcomer channel, thereby agitating a molten salt bath in the upcomer channel and improving dissolution of a metal oxide in the molten salt bath. The molten salt bath has a lower velocity adjacent the inert anode in order to minimize corrosion by substances in the bath. A particularly preferred cell produces aluminum by electrolysis of alumina in a molten salt bath containing aluminum fluoride and sodium fluoride.

  7. Molten salt bath circulation design for an electrolytic cell

    DOEpatents

    Dawless, R.K.; LaCamera, A.F.; Troup, R.L.; Ray, S.P.; Hosler, R.B.

    1999-08-17

    An electrolytic cell for reduction of a metal oxide to a metal and oxygen has an inert anode and an upwardly angled roof covering the inert mode. The angled roof diverts oxygen bubbles into an upcomer channel, thereby agitating a molten salt bath in the upcomer channel and improving dissolution of a metal oxide in the molten salt bath. The molten salt bath has a lower velocity adjacent the inert anode in order to minimize corrosion by substances in the bath. A particularly preferred cell produces aluminum by electrolysis of alumina in a molten salt bath containing aluminum fluoride and sodium fluoride. 4 figs.

  8. Ancient Uses of Meteoritic Metals as Precedent for Modern In-Situ Asteroid Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardon, Austin A.; Fawcett, Brett; Krispin, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    Given the strain on earth's supply of metal and the meteoritic content of meteorites, a prudent course would be to pursue in-situ asteroid mining of meteors for metal. There is a precedent for this going back to ancient Egypt; humans have always used the meteoritic content of meteorites to fashion everything from weapons to cosmetics.

  9. Molten salt electrolyte separator

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1996-01-01

    A molten salt electrolyte/separator for battery and related electrochemical systems including a molten electrolyte composition and an electrically insulating solid salt dispersed therein, to provide improved performance at higher current densities and alternate designs through ease of fabrication.

  10. Corrosion testing of zirconia, beryllia and magnesia ceramics in molten alkali metal carbonates at 900 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Valery; Bendikov, Tatyana; Feldman, Yishay; Gartsman, Konstantin; Wachtel, Ellen; Lubomirsky, Igor

    2016-01-01

    An electrochemical cell containing molten Li2CO3-Li2O at 900 °C has been proposed for the conversion of the greenhouse gas CO2 to CO for chemical energy storage. In the current work, we have examined the corrosion resistance of zirconia, beryllia and magnesia ceramics at 900 °C in the Li2CO3-Li2O and Li-Na-K carbonate eutectic mixtures to identify suitable electrically insulating materials. Conclusions regarding material stability were based on elemental analysis of the melt, primarily via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, a particularly sensitive technique. It was found that magnesia is completely stable for at least 33 h in a Li2CO3-Li2O melt, while a combined lithium titanate/lithium zirconate layer forms on the zirconia ceramic as detected by XRD. Under the same melt conditions, beryllia shows considerable leaching into solution. In a Li-Na-K carbonate eutectic mixture containing 10.2 mol% oxide at 900 °C under standard atmospheric conditions, magnesia showed no signs of degradation. Stabilization of the zirconia content of the eutectic mixture at 0.01-0.02 at% after 2 h is explained by the formation of a lithium zirconate coating on the ceramic. On the basis of these results, we conclude that only magnesia can be satisfactorily used as an insulating material in electrolysis cells containing Li2CO3-Li2O melts.

  11. Elucidation of transport mechanism and enhanced alkali ion transference numbers in mixed alkali metal-organic ionic molten salts.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fangfang; Forsyth, Maria

    2016-07-28

    Mixed salts of Ionic Liquids (ILs) and alkali metal salts, developed as electrolytes for lithium and sodium batteries, have shown a remarkable ability to facilitate high rate capability for lithium and sodium electrochemical cycling. It has been suggested that this may be due to a high alkali metal ion transference number at concentrations approaching 50 mol% Li(+) or Na(+), relative to lower concentrations. Computational investigations for two IL systems illustrate the formation of extended alkali-anion aggregates as the alkali metal ion concentration increases. This tends to favor the diffusion of alkali metal ions compared with other ionic species in electrolyte solutions; behavior that has recently been reported for Li(+) in a phosphonium ionic liquid, thus an increasing alkali transference number. The mechanism of alkali metal ion diffusion via this extended coordination environment present at high concentrations is explained and compared to the dynamics at lower concentrations. Heterogeneous alkali metal ion dynamics are also evident and, somewhat counter-intuitively, it appears that the faster ions are those that are generally found clustered with the anions. Furthermore these fast alkali metal ions appear to correlate with fastest ionic liquid solvent ions.

  12. Chemistry and technology of Molten Salt Reactors - history and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlíř, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Molten Salt Reactors represent one of promising future nuclear reactor concept included also in the Generation IV reactors family. This reactor type is distinguished by an extraordinarily close connection between the reactor physics and chemical technology, which is given by the specific features of the chemical form of fuel, representing by molten fluoride salt and circulating through the reactor core and also by the requirements of continuous 'on-line' reprocessing of the spent fuel. The history of Molten Salt Reactors reaches the period of fifties and sixties, when the first experimental Molten Salt Reactors were constructed and tested in ORNL (US). Several molten salt techniques dedicated to fresh molten salt fuel processing and spent fuel reprocessing were studied and developed in those days. Today, after nearly thirty years of discontinuance, a renewed interest in the Molten Salt Reactor technology is observed. Current experimental R&D activities in the area of Molten Salt Reactor technology are realized by a relatively small number of research institutions mainly in the EU, Russia and USA. The main effort is directed primarily to the development of separation processes suitable for the molten salt fuel processing and reprocessing technology. The techniques under development are molten salt/liquid metal extraction processes, electrochemical separation processes from the molten salt media, fused salt volatilization techniques and gas extraction from the molten salt medium.

  13. Metal-filled carbon nanotube based optical nanoantennas: bubbling, reshaping, and in situ characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Zheng; Tao, Xinyong; Cui, Xudong; Fan, Xudong; Zhang, Xiaobin; Dong, Lixin

    2012-08-01

    Controlled fabrication of metal nanospheres on nanotube tips for optical antennas is investigated experimentally. Resembling soap bubble blowing using a straw, the fabrication process is based on nanofluidic mass delivery at the attogram scale using metal-filled carbon nanotubes (m@CNTs). Two methods have been investigated including electron-beam-induced bubbling (EBIB) and electromigration-based bubbling (EMBB). EBIB involves the bombardment of an m@CNT with a high energy electron beam of a transmission electron microscope (TEM), with which the encapsulated metal is melted and flowed out from the nanotube, generating a metallic particle on a nanotube tip. In the case where the encapsulated materials inside the CNT have a higher melting point than what the beam energy can reach, EMBB is an optional process to apply. Experiments show that, under a low bias (2.0-2.5 V), nanoparticles can be formed on the nanotube tips. The final shape and crystallinity of the nanoparticles are determined by the cooling rate. Instant cooling occurs with a relatively large heat sink and causes the instant shaping of the solid deposit, which is typically similar to the shape of the molten state. With a smaller heat sink as a probe, it is possible to keep the deposit in a molten state. Instant cooling by separating the deposit from the probe can result in a perfect sphere. Surface and volume plasmons characterized with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) prove that resonance occurs between a pair of as-fabricated spheres on the tip structures. Such spheres on pillars can serve as nano-optical antennas and will enable devices such as scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM) probes, scanning anodes for field emitters, and single molecule detectors, which can find applications in bio-sensing, molecular detection, and high-resolution optical microscopy.

  14. Metal-filled carbon nanotube based optical nanoantennas: bubbling, reshaping, and in situ characterization.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zheng; Tao, Xinyong; Cui, Xudong; Fan, Xudong; Zhang, Xiaobin; Dong, Lixin

    2012-09-21

    Controlled fabrication of metal nanospheres on nanotube tips for optical antennas is investigated experimentally. Resembling soap bubble blowing using a straw, the fabrication process is based on nanofluidic mass delivery at the attogram scale using metal-filled carbon nanotubes (m@CNTs). Two methods have been investigated including electron-beam-induced bubbling (EBIB) and electromigration-based bubbling (EMBB). EBIB involves the bombardment of an m@CNT with a high energy electron beam of a transmission electron microscope (TEM), with which the encapsulated metal is melted and flowed out from the nanotube, generating a metallic particle on a nanotube tip. In the case where the encapsulated materials inside the CNT have a higher melting point than what the beam energy can reach, EMBB is an optional process to apply. Experiments show that, under a low bias (2.0-2.5 V), nanoparticles can be formed on the nanotube tips. The final shape and crystallinity of the nanoparticles are determined by the cooling rate. Instant cooling occurs with a relatively large heat sink and causes the instant shaping of the solid deposit, which is typically similar to the shape of the molten state. With a smaller heat sink as a probe, it is possible to keep the deposit in a molten state. Instant cooling by separating the deposit from the probe can result in a perfect sphere. Surface and volume plasmons characterized with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) prove that resonance occurs between a pair of as-fabricated spheres on the tip structures. Such spheres on pillars can serve as nano-optical antennas and will enable devices such as scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM) probes, scanning anodes for field emitters, and single molecule detectors, which can find applications in bio-sensing, molecular detection, and high-resolution optical microscopy.

  15. In situ production of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in molten salt phase for thermal energy storage and heat-transfer fluid applications.

    PubMed

    Lasfargues, Mathieu; Bell, Andrew; Ding, Yulong

    In this study, TiO2 nanoparticles (average particle size 16 nm) were successfully produced in molten salt phase and were showed to significantly enhance the specific heat capacity of a binary eutectic mixture of sodium and potassium nitrate (60/40) by 5.4 % at 390 °C and 7.5 % at 445 °C for 3.0 wt% of precursors used. The objective of this research was to develop a cost-effective alternate method of production which is potentially scalable, as current techniques utilized are not economically viable for large quantities. Enhancing the specific heat capacity of molten salt would promote more competitive pricing for electricity production by concentrating solar power plant. Here, a simple precursor (TiOSO4) was added to a binary eutectic mixture of potassium and sodium nitrate, heated to 450 °C, and cooled to witness the production of nanoparticles.

  16. Controlled in-situ dissolution of an alkali metal

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jeffrey Donald; Dooley, Kirk John; Tolman, David Donald

    2012-09-11

    A method for the controllable dissolution of one or more alkali metals from a vessel containing a one or more alkali metals and/or one or more partially passivated alkali metals. The vessel preferably comprising a sodium, NaK or other alkali metal-cooled nuclear reactor that has been used. The alkali metal, preferably sodium, potassium or a combination thereof, in the vessel is exposed to a treatment liquid, preferably an acidic liquid, more preferably citric acid. Preferably, the treatment liquid is maintained in continuous motion relative to any surface of unreacted alkali metal with which the treatment liquid is in contact. The treatment liquid is preferably pumped into the vessel containing the one or more alkali metals and the resulting fluid is extracted and optionally further processed. Preferably, the resulting off-gases are processed by an off-gas treatment system and the resulting liquids are processed by a liquid disposal system. In one preferred embodiment, an inert gas is pumped into the vessel along with the treatment liquid.

  17. In situ nanomechanical testing of twinned metals in a transmission electron microscope

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Nan; Wang, Jiangwei; Mao, Scott; ...

    2016-04-01

    This paper focuses on in situ transmission electron microscope (TEM) characterization to explore twins in face-centered-cubic and body-centered-cubic monolithic metals, and their impact on the overall mechanical performance. Taking advantage of simultaneous nanomechanical deformation and nanoscale imaging using versatile in situ TEM tools, direct correlation of these unique microscopic defects with macroscopic mechanical performance becomes possible. This article summarizes recent evidence to support the mechanisms related to strengthening and plasticity in metals, including nanotwinned Cu, Ni, Al, Au, and others in bulk, thin film, and nanowire forms.

  18. In situ nanomechanical testing of twinned metals in a transmission electron microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Nan; Wang, Jiangwei; Mao, Scott; Wang, Haiyan

    2016-04-01

    This paper focuses on in situ transmission electron microscope (TEM) characterization to explore twins in face-centered-cubic and body-centered-cubic monolithic metals, and their impact on the overall mechanical performance. Taking advantage of simultaneous nanomechanical deformation and nanoscale imaging using versatile in situ TEM tools, direct correlation of these unique microscopic defects with macroscopic mechanical performance becomes possible. This article summarizes recent evidence to support the mechanisms related to strengthening and plasticity in metals, including nanotwinned Cu, Ni, Al, Au, and others in bulk, thin film, and nanowire forms.

  19. High Temperature In Situ Compression of Thermoplastically Formed Nano-scale Metallic Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mridha, Sanghita; Arora, Harpreet Singh; Lefebvre, Joseph; Bhowmick, Sanjit; Mukherjee, Sundeep

    2017-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of nano-scale metallic glasses was investigated by in situ compression tests in a scanning electron microscope. Platinum-based metallic glass nano-pillars were fabricated by thermoplastic forming. The nano-pillars and corresponding bulk substrate were tested in compression over the range of room temperature to glass transition. Stress-strain curves of the nano-pillars were obtained along with in situ observation of their deformation behavior. The bulk substrate as well as nano-pillars showed an increase in elastic modulus with temperature which is explained by diffusive rearrangement of atomic-scale viscoelastic units.

  20. In-situ generation of oxygen-releasing metal peroxides

    DOEpatents

    Looney, Brian B.; Denham, Miles E.

    2007-01-09

    A method for remediation of contaminants in soil and groundwater is disclosed. The method generates oxygen releasing solids in groundwater or soil by injecting an aqueous energetic oxidant solution containing free radicals, oxidative conditions can be created within or ahead of a contaminant plume. Some contaminants may be remediated directly by reaction with the free radicals. Additionally and more importantly, the free radicals create an oxidative condition whereby native or injected materials, especially metals, are converted to peroxides. These peroxides provide a long-term oxygen reservoir, releasing oxygen relatively slowly over time. The oxygen can enhance microbial metabolism to remediate contaminants, can react with contaminant metals either to form immobile precipitants or to mobilize other metals to permit remediation through leaching techniques. Various injection strategies for injecting the energetic oxidant solution are also disclosed.

  1. SOLAR METALLICITY DERIVED FROM IN SITU SOLAR WIND COMPOSITION

    SciTech Connect

    Von Steiger, R.; Zurbuchen, T. H. E-mail: thomasz@umich.edu

    2016-01-01

    We use recently released solar wind compositional data to determine the metallicity of the Sun—the fraction per unit mass that is composed of elements heavier than He. We focus on a present-day solar sample available to us, which is the least fractionated solar wind from coronal holes near the poles of the Sun. Using these data, we derive a metallicity of Z = 0.0196 ± 0.0014, which is significantly larger than recent published values based on photospheric spectroscopy, but consistent with results from helioseismology.

  2. Local structure of molten 3d metals under extreme conditions by means of X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morard, G.; Boccato, S.; Torchio, R.; Kantor, I.; Mathon, O.; Trapananti, A.; D'Angelo, P.; Anzellini, S.; Irifune, T.; Pascarelli, S.

    2016-12-01

    The study of local structure of liquid 3d metals such as iron, nickel and their alloys has both geophysical and fundamental interest. These metals are in fact major alloying constituents of the outer core of Earth in the liquid phase at pressures and temperatures we try to reach in our experiments. This session will be dedicated to the study of the melting curve of pure nickel by means of X-ray absorption spectroscopy. A validation of our melting criteria consisting in the visualization by scanning electron microscopy of the quenched samples cut with a focused ion beam will be presented as well as the comparison with the results obtained by other complementary techniques such as diffraction. We would also like to show a preliminary analysis of the nearest neighbor distance in liquid nickel as a function of pressure by means of Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure, whose short order sensitivity is ideal for the purpose.

  3. Effect of the electrolyte composition on the corrosion of 12Kh17 steel in molten alkali metal carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitina, E. V.

    2017-02-01

    The corrosion of 12Kh17 steel in the melts of alkali metal carbonates containing additions of various chemical types is studied using anodic potentiostatic polarization. The morphology of the 12Kh17 steel surface is analyzed by electron-probe microanalysis. The introduction of corrosion passivators and activators affects the mechanism of local corrosion damages. The corrosion of the steel proceeds according to an electrochemical mechanism. Carbonate anions serve as oxidizers of the steel along with oxygen dissolved in the melt. Treatment of a corrosive medium can be used to protect metallic constructions against corrosion in high-temperature salt electrolytes. Combined introduction of corrosion activators and passivators in a salt phase makes it possible to form protective layers with a high corrosion resistance.

  4. In Situ Immobilization of Heavy Metals in Apatite Mineral Formulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-09-01

    Metals into Apatites Milestone Five Report September, 1995 119 PTI Environmental Services. 1994. "Bioavailability of Lead." Rai, D., Felmy , A.R. and Moore...crystalline CdCO 3 . Journal of Solution Chemistry, v. 20, p. 1169- 1187. Rai, D., Felmy , A.R. and Szelmeczka, R.W. 1991a. Hydrolysis constants and

  5. Low temperature oxidation using support molten salt catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Weimer, Alan W.; Czerpak, Peter J.; Hilbert, Patrick M.

    2003-05-20

    Molten salt reactions are performed by supporting the molten salt on a particulate support and forming a fluidized bed of the supported salt particles. The method is particularly suitable for combusting hydrocarbon fuels at reduced temperatures, so that the formation NO.sub.x species is reduced. When certain preferred salts are used, such as alkali metal carbonates, sulfur and halide species can be captured by the molten salt, thereby reducing SO.sub.x and HCl emissions.

  6. Links between bacterial communities in marine sediments and trace metal geochemistry as measured by in situ DET/DGT approaches.

    PubMed

    Gillan, David C; Baeyens, Willy; Bechara, Rafeh; Billon, Gabriel; Denis, Kevin; Grosjean, Philippe; Leermakers, Martine; Lesven, Ludovic; Pede, Annelies; Sabbe, Koen; Gao, Yue

    2012-02-01

    Our current view about the relationship between metals and bacteria in marine sediments might be biased because most studies only use ex situ approaches to quantify metals. The aim of the present research was to compare ex situ and in situ methods of metal measurement (DET and DGT--diffusive equilibration or diffusive gradients in thin-films) and relate the results with two commonly used microbiological variables (bacterial biomass and bacterial diversity as revealed by DGGE). No previous studies have used such in situ approaches in microbial ecology. For biomass and most of the investigated trace metals (Ag, Cd, Sn, Cr, Ni, Cu, Pb, and Al) no significant correlations were found. The exceptions were Fe, Mn, Co, and As which behave like micronutrients. For bacterial diversity, no relevant relationships were found. We conclude that in situ methods are more adapted tools for microbial ecologists but that ex situ approaches are still necessary. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. IS REMOVAL THE ONLY OPTION: IN SITU REMEDIATION OF METAL CONTAMINATED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The In-place Inactivation and Natural Ecological Restoration Technologies (IINERT) Soil-Metals Action Team was established in 11/95 as one of several Action Teams under the USEPA Remediation Technologies Development Forum (RTDF). Its primary goal was to examine in situ remediatio...

  8. In Situ Immobilization of Heavy-Metal Contaminated Soil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    formed . After some period of time, it is necessary to regenerate the greensand with potassium permanganate. 6. Other Additives a. Hydrated Lime ...and other additives consisting of hydrated lime , silylated silica gel, insoluble starch xanthate, Metal Sorb-7 and ferrous sulfate; for a total of 21...5 Molecular Sieves Valfor Z84-326 Valfor 200 Greensand Raw Greensand Mn Greensand Other Addititives Hydrated Lime Silylated Silica Gel Insoluble

  9. Functional Characterization of Shape Memory CuZnAl Open-Cell Foams by Molten Metal Infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaboldi, S.; Bassani, P.; Passaretti, F.; Redaelli, A.; Tuissi, A.

    2011-07-01

    In the recent years, the research for novel materials with tailored mechanical properties, as well as functional properties, has encouraged the study of porous and cellular materials. Our previous work proposed and reported about the possibility to manufacture open-cell metal foams of CuZnAl shape memory alloy by liquid infiltration in a leachable bed of silica-gel particles. This innovative methodology is based on cheap commercial consumables and a simple technology, focusing on intermediate-density low-cost foams with interesting cost/benefits ratio. Microstructural analyses on foamed specimens showed uniform microstructure of ligaments and a very regular and well reproducible open-cell morphology. Moreover, calorimetric analysis detected a thermo-elastic martensitic transformation in the foamed material. In this study, a CuZnAl shape memory alloy was considered and tested to clarify possible effects of the foaming process on the functional properties of the material. Morphological, calorimetric, and thermo-mechanical analyses were carried out. The results show that it is possible to produce metal foams of CuZnAl shape memory alloy with different functional properties and able to recover mono-axial compressive strains up to 3%.

  10. In situ Raman cell for high pressure and temperature studies of metal and complex hydrides.

    PubMed

    Domènech-Ferrer, Roger; Ziegs, Frank; Klod, Sabrina; Lindemann, Inge; Voigtländer, Ralf; Dunsch, Lothar; Gutfleisch, Oliver

    2011-04-15

    A novel cell for in situ Raman studies at hydrogen pressures up to 200 bar and at temperatures as high as 400 °C is presented. This device permits in situ monitoring of the formation and decomposition of chemical structures under high pressure via Raman scattering. The performance of the cell under extreme conditions is stable as the design of this device compensates much of the thermal expansion during heating which avoids defocusing of the laser beam. Several complex and metal hydrides were analyzed to demonstrate the advantageous use of this in situ cell. Temperature calibration was performed by monitoring the structural phase transformation and melting point of LiBH(4). The feasibility of the cell in hydrogen atmosphere was confirmed by in situ studies of the decomposition of NaAlH(4) with added TiCl(3) at different hydrogen pressures and the decomposition and rehydrogenation of MgH(2) and LiNH(2).

  11. Modification of Inclusions in Molten Steel by Mg-Ca Transfer from Top Slag: Experimental Confirmation of the `Refractory-Slag-Metal-Inclusion (ReSMI)' Multiphase Reaction Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jae Hong; Park, Joo Hyun

    2017-08-01

    High-temperature experiments and Refractory-Slag-Metal-Inclusion (ReSMI) multiphase reaction simulations were carried out to determine the effect of the ladle slag composition on the formation behavior of non-metallic inclusions in molten steel. Immediately after the slag-metal reaction, magnesium migrated to the molten steel and a MgAl2O4 spinel inclusion was formed due to a reaction between magnesium and alumina inclusions. However, the spinel inclusion changed entirely into a liquid oxide inclusion via the transfer of calcium from slag to metal in the final stage of the reaction. Calcium transfer from slag to metal was more enhanced for lower SiO2 content in the slag. Consequently, the spinel inclusion was modified to form a liquid CaO-Al2O3-MgO-SiO2 inclusion, which is harmless under steelmaking conditions. The modification reaction was more efficient as the SiO2 content in the slag decreases.

  12. Role of molten salt flux in melting of used beverage container (UBC) scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, J.; Sahai, Y.

    1995-12-31

    Recycling of aluminum scrap, such as Used Beverage Container (UBC) scrap is steadily increasing. In secondary remelting of such scrap, it is a common practice to use protective molten salt cover. An appropriate salt protects metal from oxidation, promotes coalescence of the suspended metal droplets, and separates clean metal from the oxide contamination. The molten salt also reacts with metal. This causes metal loss and change of resulting metal composition. In this paper, role of molten salt fluxes in melting of UBC scrap is discussed, and selection criteria for molten salt are provided.

  13. Functional Application of Noble Metal Nanoparticles In Situ Synthesized on Ramie Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Bin; Yao, Ya; Li, Jingliang; Qin, Si; Zhu, Haijin; Kaur, Jasjeet; Chen, Wu; Sun, Lu; Wang, Xungai

    2015-09-01

    Different functions were imparted to ramie fibers through treatment with noble metal nanoparticles including silver and gold nanoparticles. The in situ synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles was achieved by heating in the presence of ramie fibers in the corresponding solutions of precursors. The unique optical property of synthesized noble metal nanoparticles, i.e., localized surface plasmon resonance, endowed ramie fibers with bright colors. Color strength (K/S) of fibers increased with heating temperature. Silver nanoparticles were obtained in alkaline solution, while acidic condition was conducive to gold nanoparticles. The optical properties of treated ramie fibers were investigated using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to observe the morphologies of silver and gold nanoparticles in situ synthesized on fibers. The ramie fibers treated with noble metal nanoparticles showed remarkable catalytic activity for reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) by sodium borohydride. Moreover, the silver nanoparticle treatment showed significant antibacterial property on ramie fibers.

  14. In-situ Generated Tribomaterial in Metal/Metal Contacts: current understanding and future implications for implants.

    PubMed

    Espallargas, N; Fischer, A; Muñoz, A Igual; Mischler, S; Wimmer, M A

    2017-06-01

    Artificial hip joints operate in aqueous biofluids that are highly reactive towards metallic surfaces. The reactivity at the metal interface is enhanced by mechanical interaction due to friction, which can change the near-surface structure of the metal and surface chemistry. There are now several reports in the literature about the in-situ generation of reaction films and tribo-metallurgical transformations on metal-on-metal hip joints. This paper summarizes current knowledge and provides a mechanistic interpretation of the surface chemical and metallurgical phenomena. Basic concepts of corrosion and wear are illustrated and used to interpret available literature on in-vitro and in-vivo studies of metal-on-metal hip joints. Based on this review, three forms of tribomaterial, characterized by different combinations of oxide films and organic layers, can be determined. It is shown that the generation of these tribofilms can be related to specific electrochemical and mechanical phenomena in the metal interface. It is suggested that the generation of this surface reaction layer constitutes a way to minimize (mechanical) wear of MoM hip implants.

  15. Inherent predominance of high chiral angle metallic carbon nanotubes in continuous fibers grown from a molten catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alemán, B.; Bernal, M. Mar; Mas, B.; Pérez, Emilio M.; Reguero, V.; Xu, G.; Cui, Y.; Vilatela, Juan J.

    2016-02-01

    We present evidence that high temperature CVD growth of SWNTs under conditions of continuous spinning of macroscopic fibers leads to an inherent predominance of high chiral angle CNTs, peaking at the armchair end. Raman, UV-vis-NIR absorption, and photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements show the prevalence of metallic SWNTs. The complete chiral angle distribution is obtained by electron diffraction of over 390 CNTs. It is biased towards high chiral angles and peaks at the armchair end (30°), in good agreement with the established atomistic models for SWNT growth from a liquid catalyst. Based on the Fe-C-S constituent binary and ternary phase diagrams, thermodynamic calculations of phase compositions from fast cooling and experimental evidence of a post-synthesis catalyst, the proposed thermodynamic path of the catalyst is to form a solid FCC Fe core and a liquid Fe-S shell. S in the outer liquid shell first stabilizes the edge of the nascent CNT, but once a graphitic wall forms it is rejected due to the high interfacial energy of the Fe-C-S alloy.We present evidence that high temperature CVD growth of SWNTs under conditions of continuous spinning of macroscopic fibers leads to an inherent predominance of high chiral angle CNTs, peaking at the armchair end. Raman, UV-vis-NIR absorption, and photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements show the prevalence of metallic SWNTs. The complete chiral angle distribution is obtained by electron diffraction of over 390 CNTs. It is biased towards high chiral angles and peaks at the armchair end (30°), in good agreement with the established atomistic models for SWNT growth from a liquid catalyst. Based on the Fe-C-S constituent binary and ternary phase diagrams, thermodynamic calculations of phase compositions from fast cooling and experimental evidence of a post-synthesis catalyst, the proposed thermodynamic path of the catalyst is to form a solid FCC Fe core and a liquid Fe-S shell. S in the outer liquid shell first

  16. Molten salt electrolyte separator

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.

    1996-07-09

    The patent describes a molten salt electrolyte/separator for battery and related electrochemical systems including a molten electrolyte composition and an electrically insulating solid salt dispersed therein, to provide improved performance at higher current densities and alternate designs through ease of fabrication. 5 figs.

  17. Electrodeposition of molten silicon

    DOEpatents

    De Mattei, Robert C.; Elwell, Dennis; Feigelson, Robert S.

    1981-01-01

    Silicon dioxide is dissolved in a molten electrolytic bath, preferably comprising barium oxide and barium fluoride. A direct current is passed between an anode and a cathode in the bath to reduce the dissolved silicon dioxide to non-alloyed silicon in molten form, which is removed from the bath.

  18. Revealing anelasticity and structural rearrangements in nanoscale metallic glass films using in situ TEM diffraction

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Rohit; Ebner, Christian; Izadi, Ehsan; Rentenberger, Christian; Rajagopalan, Jagannathan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We used a novel diffraction-based method to extract the local, atomic-level elastic strain in nanoscale amorphous TiAl films during in situ transmission electron microscopy deformation, while simultaneously measuring the macroscopic strain. The complementary strain measurements revealed significant anelastic deformation, which was independently confirmed by strain rate experiments. Furthermore, the distribution of first nearest-neighbor distances became narrower during loading and permanent changes were observed in the atomic structure upon unloading, even in the absence of macroscopic plasticity. The results demonstrate the capability of in situ electron diffraction to probe structural rearrangements and decouple elastic and anelastic deformation in metallic glasses. PMID:28382229

  19. In Situ, High-Resolution Profiles of Labile Metals in Sediments of Lake Taihu

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dan; Gong, Mengdan; Li, Yangyang; Xu, Lv; Wang, Yan; Jing, Rui; Ding, Shiming; Zhang, Chaosheng

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing labile metal distribution and biogeochemical behavior in sediments is crucial for understanding their contamination characteristics in lakes, for which in situ, high-resolution data is scare. The diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) technique was used in-situ at five sites across Lake Taihu in the Yangtze River delta in China to characterize the distribution and mobility of eight labile metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni, Cu, Pb, Co and Cd) in sediments at a 3 mm spatial resolution. The results showed a great spatial heterogeneity in the distributions of redox-sensitive labile Fe, Mn and Co in sediments, while other metals had much less marked structure, except for downward decreases of labile Pb, Ni, Zn and Cu in the surface sediment layers. Similar distributions were found between labile Mn and Co and among labile Ni, Cu and Zn, reflecting a close link between their geochemical behaviors. The relative mobility, defined as the ratio of metals accumulated by DGT to the total contents in a volume of sediments with a thickness of 10 mm close to the surface of DGT probe, was the greatest for Mn and Cd, followed by Zn, Ni, Cu and Co, while Pb and Fe had the lowest mobility; this order generally agreed with that defined by the modified BCR approach. Further analyses showed that the downward increases of pH values in surface sediment layer may decrease the lability of Pb, Ni, Zn and Cu as detected by DGT, while the remobilization of redox-insensitive metals in deep sediment layer may relate to Mn cycling through sulphide coprecipitation, reflected by several corresponding minima between these metals and Mn. These in situ data provided the possibility for a deep insight into the mechanisms involved in the remobilization of metals in freshwater sediments. PMID:27608033

  20. An in situ oxidation route to fabricate graphene nanoplate-metal oxide composites

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Sheng; Zhu Junwu; Wang Xin

    2011-06-15

    We report our studies on an improved soft chemical route to directly fabricate graphene nanoplate-metal oxide (Ag{sub 2}O, Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}, Cu{sub 2}O and ZnO) composites from the in situ oxidation of graphene nanoplates. By virtue of H{sup +} from hydrolysis of the metal nitrate aqueous solution and NO{sub 3}{sup -}, only a small amount of functional groups were introduced, acting as anchor sites and consequently forming the graphene nanoplate-metal oxide composites. The main advantages of this approach are that it does not require cumbersome oxidation of graphite in advance and no need to reduce the composites due to the lower oxidation degree. The microstructures of as-obtained metal oxides on graphene nanoplates can be dramatically controlled by changing the reaction parameters, opening up the possibility for processing the optical and electrochemical properties of the graphene-based nanocomposites. - graphical abstract: An improved soft chemical route to directly fabricate graphene nanoplate-metal oxide composites is reported from the in situ oxidation of graphene nanoplates. Highlights: > An improved soft chemical route to directly fabricate graphene nanoplate-metal oxide composites. > The microstructures can be controlled by changing the reaction parameters. > It does not require oxidation of graphite in advance and no need to reduce the composites due to the lower oxidation degree.

  1. Polymer-metal nanocomposite thin films: In situ fabrication and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishnan, T. P.

    2012-06-01

    Polymer - metal nanocomposites are versatile materials which combine the unique characteristics of the components as well as manifest mutualistic effects. In situ generation of the nanoparticles inside a solid polymer film is a convenient and attractive route to the fabrication of metal nanoparticle - embedded polymer thin films. This presentation will provide an overview of the methodology involved in a simple protocol that we have developed for the fabrication of noble metal nanostructures inside polymer thin films, using aqueous medium for the synthesis and deploying the polymer itself as the reducing as well as stabilizing agent. The in situ growth of metal nanoparticles inside polymer films provides a unique opportunity to generate novel nanomaterials as well as to monitor the growth process in real time. A variety of techniques that have been exploited to characterize the precursor to product transformation inside the polymer film will be reviewed. The control provided by the in situ fabrication route on the size, shape and distribution of the nanostructures, and application of the nanocomposite thin films in a wide range of areas including nonlinear optics, catalysis, sensing and biology, illustrate the versatility of these materials.

  2. Molten-Metal Droplet Deposition on a Moving Substrate in Microgravity: Aiding the Development of Novel Technologies for Microelectronic Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Megaridis, C. M.; Bayer, I. S.; Poulikakos, D.; Nayagam, V.

    2002-01-01

    Driven by advancements in microelectronics manufacturing, this research investigates the oblique (non-axisymmetric) impact of liquid-metal droplets on flat substrates. The problem of interest is relevant to the development of the novel technology of on-demand dispension (printing) of microscopic solder deposits for the surface mounting of microelectronic devices. The technology, known as solder jetting, features on-demand deposition of miniature solder droplets (30 to 120 microns in diameter) in very fine, very accurate patterns using techniques analogous to those developed for the ink-jet printing industry. Despite its promise, severe limitations exist currently with regards to the throughput rates of the technology; some of these limitations are largely due to the lack of the capability for reliable prediction of solder bump positioning and shapes, especially under ballistic deposition conditions where the droplet impact phenomena are inherently three-dimensional. The study consists of a theoretical and an experimental component. The theoretical work uses a finite element formulation to simulate numerically the non-axisymmetric (3-D) fluid mechanics and heat transfer phenomena of a liquid solder droplet impacting at an angle alpha on a flat substrate. The work focuses on the pre-solidification regime. The modeling of the most challenging fluid mechanics part of the process has been completed successfully. It is based upon the full laminar Navier-Stokes equations employing a Lagrangian frame of reference. Due to the large droplet deformation, the surface (skin) as well as the volumetric mesh have to be regenerated during the calculations in order to maintain the high accuracy of the numerical scheme. The pressure and velocity fields are then interpolated on the newly created mesh. The numerical predictions are being tested against experiments, for cases where wetting phenomena are not important. For the impact parameters used in the example shown (We = 2.38, Fr

  3. Molten-Metal Droplet Deposition on a Moving Substrate in Microgravity: Aiding the Development of Novel Technologies for Microelectronic Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Megaridis, C. M.; Bayer, I. S.; Poulikakos, D.; Nayagam, V.

    2002-01-01

    Driven by advancements in microelectronics manufacturing, this research investigates the oblique (non-axisymmetric) impact of liquid-metal droplets on flat substrates. The problem of interest is relevant to the development of the novel technology of on-demand dispension (printing) of microscopic solder deposits for the surface mounting of microelectronic devices. The technology, known as solder jetting, features on-demand deposition of miniature solder droplets (30 to 120 microns in diameter) in very fine, very accurate patterns using techniques analogous to those developed for the ink-jet printing industry. Despite its promise, severe limitations exist currently with regards to the throughput rates of the technology; some of these limitations are largely due to the lack of the capability for reliable prediction of solder bump positioning and shapes, especially under ballistic deposition conditions where the droplet impact phenomena are inherently three-dimensional. The study consists of a theoretical and an experimental component. The theoretical work uses a finite element formulation to simulate numerically the non-axisymmetric (3-D) fluid mechanics and heat transfer phenomena of a liquid solder droplet impacting at an angle alpha on a flat substrate. The work focuses on the pre-solidification regime. The modeling of the most challenging fluid mechanics part of the process has been completed successfully. It is based upon the full laminar Navier-Stokes equations employing a Lagrangian frame of reference. Due to the large droplet deformation, the surface (skin) as well as the volumetric mesh have to be regenerated during the calculations in order to maintain the high accuracy of the numerical scheme. The pressure and velocity fields are then interpolated on the newly created mesh. The numerical predictions are being tested against experiments, for cases where wetting phenomena are not important. For the impact parameters used in the example shown (We = 2.38, Fr

  4. In-Situ Decontamination of Metal-Polluted Soils by Metal-Accumulator Plants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    heavy metals . This contaminated soil was used to compare the extraction efficiencies of several plant species known as " hyperaccumulators ". A range of...5. Glasshouse Experiment Not all the hyperaccumulator genotypes are capable of accumulating heavy metals to the same great extent. 4 In order to...OF METAL -POLLUTED SOILS BY METAL -ACCUMULATOR PLANTS By F. Lodico and S.P. McGrath Rothamsted Experimental Station Harpenden, Herts., AL5 2JQ, U.K. 4

  5. Coated Metal Articles and Method of Making

    DOEpatents

    Boller, Ernest R.; Eubank, Lowell D.

    2004-07-06

    The method of protectively coating metallic uranium which comprises dipping the metallic uranium in a molten alloy comprising about 20-75% of copper and about 80-25% of tin, dipping the coated uranium promptly into molten tin, withdrawing it from the molten tin and removing excess molten metal, thereupon dipping it into a molten metal bath comprising aluminum until it is coated with this metal, then promptly withdrawing it from the bath.

  6. Coated metal articles and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Boller, Ernest R.; Eubank, Lowell D.

    2004-07-06

    The method of protectively coating metallic uranium which comprises dipping the metallic uranium in a molten alloy comprising about 20-75% of copper and about 80-25% of tin, dipping the coated uranium promptly into molten tin, withdrawing it from the molten tin and removing excess molten metal, thereupon dipping it into a molten metal bath comprising aluminum until it is coated with this metal, then promptly withdrawing it from the bath.

  7. Degassing of molten alloys with the assistance of ultrasonic vibration

    DOEpatents

    Han, Qingyou; Xu, Hanbing; Meek, Thomas T.

    2010-03-23

    An apparatus and method are disclosed in which ultrasonic vibration is used to assist the degassing of molten metals or metal alloys thereby reducing gas content in the molten metals or alloys. High-intensity ultrasonic vibration is applied to a radiator that creates cavitation bubbles, induces acoustic streaming in the melt, and breaks up purge gas (e.g., argon or nitrogen) which is intentionally introduced in a small amount into the melt in order to collect the cavitation bubbles and to make the cavitation bubbles survive in the melt. The molten metal or alloy in one version of the invention is an aluminum alloy. The ultrasonic vibrations create cavitation bubbles and break up the large purge gas bubbles into small bubbles and disperse the bubbles in the molten metal or alloy more uniformly, resulting in a fast and clean degassing.

  8. Field Deployment for In-situ Metal and Radionuclide Stabilization by Microbial Metabolites

    SciTech Connect

    Turick, C. E.; Knox, A. S.; Dixon, K. L.; Roseberry, R. J.; Kritzas, Y. G

    2005-09-26

    A novel biotechnology is reported here that was demonstrated at SRS that facilitates metal and actinide immobilization by incorporating the physiology and ecology of indigenous bacteria. This technology is based on our previous work with pyomelanin-producing bacteria isolated from SRS soils. Through tyrosine supplementation, overproduction of pyomelanin was achieved, which lead ultimately to metal and actinide immobilization, both in-vitro and in-situ. Pyomelanin is a recalcitrant microbial pigment and a humic type compound in the class of melanin pigments. Pyomelanin has electron shuttling and metal chelation capabilities and thus accelerates the bacterial reduction and/or immobilization of metals. Pyomelanin is produced outside the cell and either diffuses away or attaches to the cell surface. In either case, the reduced pyomelanin is capable of transferring electrons to metals as well as chelating metals. Because of its recalcitrance and redox cycling properties, pyomelanin molecules can be used over and over again for metal transformation. When produced in excess, pyomelanin produced by one bacterial species can be used by other species for metal reduction, thereby extending the utility of pyomelanin and further accelerating metal immobilization rates. Soils contaminated with Ni and U were the focus of this study in order to develop in-situ, metal bioimmobilization technologies. We have demonstrated pyomelanin production in soil from the Tims Branch area of SRS as a result of tyrosine amendments. These results were documented in laboratory soil column studies and field deployment studies. The amended soils demonstrated increased redox behavior and sequestration capacity of U and transition metals following pyomelanin production. Treatments incorporating tyrosine and lactate demonstrated the highest levels of pyomelanin production. In order to determine the potential use of this technology at other areas of SRS, pyomelanin producing bacteria were also quantified

  9. Molten Materials Transfer and Handling on the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanescu, Doru M.; Curreri, Peter A.; Sen, Subhayu

    2008-01-01

    Electrolytic reduction processes as a means to provide pure elements for lunar resource utilization have many advantages. Such processes have. the potential of removing all the oxygen from the lunar soil for use in life support and for propellant. Electrochemical reduction also provides a direct path for the. production of pure metals and silicon which can be utilized for in situ manufacturing and power production. Some of the challenges encountered in the electrolytic reduction processes include the feeding of the electrolytic cell (the transfer of electrolyte containing lunar soil), the withdrawal of reactants and refined products such as the liquidironsiliconalloy with a number of impurities, and the spent regolith slag, produced in the hot electrolytic cell for the reduction of lunar regolith. The paper will discuss some of the possible solutions to the challenges of handling molten materials on the lunar surface, as well as the path toward the construction and testing of a proof-of-concept facility.

  10. Molten Materials Transfer and Handling on the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanescu, Doru M.; Curreri, Peter A.; Sen, Subhayu

    2008-01-01

    Electrolytic reduction processes as a means to provide pure elements for lunar resource utilization have many advantages. Such processes have. the potential of removing all the oxygen from the lunar soil for use in life support and for propellant. Electrochemical reduction also provides a direct path for the. production of pure metals and silicon which can be utilized for in situ manufacturing and power production. Some of the challenges encountered in the electrolytic reduction processes include the feeding of the electrolytic cell (the transfer of electrolyte containing lunar soil), the withdrawal of reactants and refined products such as the liquidironsiliconalloy with a number of impurities, and the spent regolith slag, produced in the hot electrolytic cell for the reduction of lunar regolith. The paper will discuss some of the possible solutions to the challenges of handling molten materials on the lunar surface, as well as the path toward the construction and testing of a proof-of-concept facility.

  11. Evolution of In-Situ Generated Reinforcement Precipitates in Metal Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, S.; Kar, S. K.; Catalina, A. V.; Stefanescu, D. M.; Dhindaw, B. K.

    2004-01-01

    Due to certain inherent advantages, in-situ production of Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) have received considerable attention in the recent past. ln-situ techniques typically involve a chemical reaction that results in precipitation of a ceramic reinforcement phase. The size and spatial distribution of these precipitates ultimately determine the mechanical properties of these MMCs. In this paper we will investigate the validity of using classical growth laws and analytical expressions to describe the interaction between a precipitate and a solid-liquid interface (SLI) to predict the size and spatial evolution of the in-situ generated precipitates. Measurements made on size and distribution of Tic precipitates in a Ni&I matrix will be presented to test the validity of such an approach.

  12. Evolution of In-Situ Generated Reinforcement Precipitates in Metal Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, S.; Kar, S. K.; Catalina, A. V.; Stefanescu, D. M.; Dhindaw, B. K.

    2004-01-01

    Due to certain inherent advantages, in-situ production of Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) have received considerable attention in the recent past. ln-situ techniques typically involve a chemical reaction that results in precipitation of a ceramic reinforcement phase. The size and spatial distribution of these precipitates ultimately determine the mechanical properties of these MMCs. In this paper we will investigate the validity of using classical growth laws and analytical expressions to describe the interaction between a precipitate and a solid-liquid interface (SLI) to predict the size and spatial evolution of the in-situ generated precipitates. Measurements made on size and distribution of Tic precipitates in a Ni&I matrix will be presented to test the validity of such an approach.

  13. In situ synthesis and immobilization of metallic nanoparticles on a calixarene monolayer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ruitao; Srinivasan, M P

    2013-10-22

    A covalently immobilized calix[7]hydroquinone monolayer was used as the host matrix to synthesize metallic NPs using an in situ redox process. The characteristics of different metallic ions that affect the synthesis process were studied. Metallic ions with less charges, lower oxidation state in the reaction, and higher standard redox potential provided better yield. Bimetallic NPs with a core-shell structure were synthesized by a sequential deposition of different metals on the same monolayer. The process was applied to form a layer of immobilized NPs on flat and curved surfaces. The ability to synthesize and immobilize well-controlled NPs on different surfaces has promising applications in decoration of irregular surfaces of miniaturized, three-dimensional objects.

  14. EXAFS investigations of metal organic molecules with the goal of studying homogeneously catalytic systems in situ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertel, T. S.; Hörner, W.; Hückmann, S.; Kolb, U.; Abraham, I.; Bertagnolli, H.

    1995-02-01

    The investigations of Grignard compounds are very instructive for understanding the principles of getting structural information on highly complex and simultaneously metal activated systems by means of EXAFS spectroscopy. The structural investigations of a model system for Friedel-Crafts alkylation and some metal complexes (metal = Zr, Mo, W, Re), which activate carbonyl groups selectively with respect to the subsequent ring cleavage of axially prosterogenic biaryl lactones, are reported. As an actual field of metal organic research temperature dependent in situ EXAFS studies of the CH-activation of substituted olefins are presented. It was possible to observe the course of the rearrangement reaction of an iridium olefin complex to the corresponding hydrido (vinyl) iridium complex.

  15. Corrosion of nickel metal by hydrothermal sodium tungstate solution observed by in-situ infrared spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, M.M.; Fulton, J.L.

    2000-05-01

    Corrosion of nickel metal in a high-temperature aqueous tungstate solution was described. The corrosion altered the solution's pH, which affected the equilibrium of the solution chemistry. These secondary effects of the corrosion process were observed with in-situ infrared (IR) spectroscopy, demonstrating that important information on corrosion phenomena at the solid-fluid interface may be obtained from in-situ spectroscopic studies of the fluid phase. Subsequent scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of the corroded nickel metal and solid corrosion products support conclusions drawn from solution chemistry measurements. The presented findings are of interest to researchers and engineers that use pure nickel or nickel-bearing alloys as a material for high-temperature, high-pressure applications in aqueous solutions.

  16. Semiconductor/metal nanocomposites formed by in situ reduction method in multilayer thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Song Yanli; Wang Enbo Tian Chungui; Mao Baodong; Wang Chunlei

    2009-01-08

    A layer-by-layer adsorption and in situ reduction method was adopted for synthesizing semiconductor/metal nanocomposites in multilayer ultra-thin films. Alternate adsorption of ZnO nanoparticles modified with poly(ethyleneimine), hydrogentetrachloroaurate and poly(styrenesulfonate) sodium results in the formation of ZnO/AuCl{sub 4}{sup -}-loaded multilayer films. In situ reduction of the incorporated metal ions by heating yields ZnO/Au nanocomposites in the films. UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to characterize the components of the composite films. UV-vis spectra indicate regular growth of the films. The electrochemistry behavior of the multilayer films was studied in detail on indium tin oxide electrode. The combined results suggest that the layer-by-layer adsorption and subsequent reduction method used here provides an effective way to synthesize ZnO/Au nanocomposites in the polymer matrix.

  17. Performance of an in situ passive sampling system for metals in stormwater.

    PubMed

    Björklund Blom, Lena; Morrison, Gregory M; Kingston, Jenny; Mills, Graham A; Greenwood, Richard; Pettersson, Thomas J R; Rauch, Sebastien

    2002-04-01

    A passive sampler has been developed and is demonstrated in situ for urban runoff. The passive sampler is compared to conventional composite (time-dependent and flow-weighted) bottle sampling during and between storm events. The sampling was carried out at established stormwater stations; before and after a stormwater detention pond. In situ deployment of the passive sampler provides the metal concentrations, corresponding to the electrochemically available fraction of total metal, for time-dependent samples collected in parallel. The sampler provides improved accuracy compared to bottle sampling because contamination during sample transport and handling is minimised. Laboratory handling is reduced by direct analysis of the accumulated metals on the receiving membrane by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Passive sampling also solves the problem of metal speciation change during transport to the laboratory, which is a potential problem for bottle samples. The low cost and convenience of the passive sampler and subsequent analysis should allow significantly more extensive spatial and temporal monitoring of metals in the aquatic environment than has previously been possible.

  18. Process defects and in situ monitoring methods in metal powder bed fusion: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasso, Marco; Colosimo, Bianca Maria

    2017-04-01

    Despite continuous technological enhancements of metal Additive Manufacturing (AM) systems, the lack of process repeatability and stability still represents a barrier for the industrial breakthrough. The most relevant metal AM applications currently involve industrial sectors (e.g. aerospace and bio-medical) where defects avoidance is fundamental. Because of this, there is the need to develop novel in situ monitoring tools able to keep under control the stability of the process on a layer-by-layer basis, and to detect the onset of defects as soon as possible. On the one hand, AM systems must be equipped with in situ sensing devices able to measure relevant quantities during the process, a.k.a. process signatures. On the other hand, in-process data analytics and statistical monitoring techniques are required to detect and localize the defects in an automated way. This paper reviews the literature and the commercial tools for in situ monitoring of powder bed fusion (PBF) processes. It explores the different categories of defects and their main causes, the most relevant process signatures and the in situ sensing approaches proposed so far. Particular attention is devoted to the development of automated defect detection rules and the study of process control strategies, which represent two critical fields for the development of future smart PBF systems.

  19. In-situ fabrication of polymer/metal nanocomposite films using a mid-infrared laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Takashi

    2017-09-01

    We demonstrate a very rapid in-situ fabrication of polymer/metal nanocomposite films. Using a CO2 laser at 10.6 μm, Ag-PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) nanocomposite films are successfully fabricated on a glass substrate within 10 seconds, which is the most rapid method among any known fabrication methods. The fabricated films are characterized using the optical absorption, atomic force microscopy, and x-ray diffraction measurements.

  20. Controlled Encapsulation of Functional Organic Molecules within Metal-Organic Frameworks: In Situ Crystalline Structure Transformation.

    PubMed

    Guan, Jinju; Hu, Yu; Wang, Yu; Li, Hongfeng; Xu, Zhiling; Zhang, Tao; Wu, Peng; Zhang, Suoying; Xiao, Gengwu; Ji, Wenlan; Li, Linjie; Zhang, Meixuan; Fan, Yun; Li, Lin; Zheng, Bing; Zhang, Weina; Huang, Wei; Huo, Fengwei

    2017-01-23

    Functional organic molecules/metal-organic frameworks composites can be obtained by in situ crystalline structure transformation from ZIF-L to ZIF-8-L under double solvent conditions. Interestingly, the as-prepared molecules/ZIF-8-L composites with the leaf-like morphology exhibit good fluorescence properties and size selectivity in fluorescent quenchers due to the molecular sieving effect of the well-defined microporous ZIF-8-L.

  1. Beryllium Interactions in Molten Salts

    SciTech Connect

    G. S. Smolik; M. F. Simpson; P. J. Pinhero; M. Hara; Y. Hatano; R. A. Anderl; J. P. Sharpe; T. Terai; S. Tanaka; D. A. Petti; D.-K. Sze

    2006-01-01

    Molten flibe (2LiF·BeF2) is a candidate as a cooling and tritium breeding media for future fusion power plants. Neutron interactions with the salt will produce tritium and release excess free fluorine ions. Beryllium metal has been demonstrated as an effective redox control agent to prevent free fluorine, or HF species, from reacting with structural metal components. The extent and rate of beryllium solubility in a pot design experiments to suppress continuously supplied hydrogen fluoride gas has been measured and modeled[ ]. This paper presents evidence of beryllium loss from specimens, a dependence of the loss upon bi-metal coupling, i.e., galvanic effect, and the partitioning of the beryllium to the salt and container materials. Various posttest investigative methods, viz., scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to explore this behavior.

  2. Al/Cl2 molten salt battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giner, J.

    1972-01-01

    Molten salt battery has been developed with theoretical energy density of 5.2 j/kg (650 W-h/lb). Battery, which operates at 150 C, can be used in primary mode or as rechargeable battery. Battery has aluminum anode and chlorine cathode. Electrolyte is mixture of AlCl3, NaCl, and some alkali metal halide such as KCl.

  3. Light-Induced In Situ Transformation of Metal Clusters to Metal Nanocrystals for Photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Fang-Xing; Zeng, Zhiping; Hsu, Shao-Hui; Hung, Sung-Fu; Chen, Hao Ming; Liu, Bin

    2015-12-30

    In situ transformation of glutathione-capped gold (Aux) clusters to gold (Au) nanocrystals under simulated solar light irradiation was achieved and utilized as a facile synthetic approach to rationally fabricate Aux/Au/TiO2 ternary and Au/TiO2 binary heterostructures. Synergistic interaction of Aux clusters and Au nanocrystals contributes to enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalysis.

  4. Time-Resolved In Situ X-ray Diffraction Reveals Metal-Dependent Metal-Organic Framework Formation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yue; Henke, Sebastian; Kieslich, Gregor; Schwedler, Inke; Yang, Miaosen; Fraser, Duncan A X; O'Hare, Dermot

    2016-11-02

    Versatility in metal substitution is one of the key aspects of metal-organic framework (MOF) chemistry, allowing properties to be tuned in a rational way. As a result, it important to understand why MOF syntheses involving different metals arrive at or fail to produce the same topological outcome. Frequently, conditions are tuned by trial-and-error to make MOFs with different metal species. We ask: is it possible to adjust synthetic conditions in a systematic way in order to design routes to desired phases? We have used in situ X-ray powder diffraction to study the solvothermal formation of isostructural M2 (bdc)2 dabco (M=Zn, Co, Ni) pillared-paddlewheel MOFs in real time. The metal ion strongly influences both kinetics and intermediates observed, leading in some cases to multiphase reaction profiles of unprecedented complexity. The standard models used for MOF crystallization break down in these cases; we show that a simple kinetic model describes the data and provides important chemical insights on phase selection.

  5. Cathodes for molten-salt batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Argade, Shyam D.

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs of the discussion on cathodes for molten-salt batteries are presented. For the cathode reactions in molten-salt cells, chlorine-based and sulfur-based cathodes reactants have relatively high exchange current densities. Sulfur-based cathodes, metal sulfides, and disulfides have been extensively investigated. Primary thermal batteries of the Li-alloy/FeS2 variety have been available for a number of years. Chlorine based rechargable cathodes were investigated for the pulse power application. A brief introduction is followed by the experimental aspects of research, and the results obtained. Performance projections to the battery system level are discussed and the presentation is summarized with conclusions.

  6. Method for the regeneration of spent molten zinc chloride

    DOEpatents

    Zielke, Clyde W.; Rosenhoover, William A.

    1981-01-01

    In a process for regenerating spent molten zinc chloride which has been used in the hydrocracking of coal or ash-containing polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbonaceous materials derived therefrom and which contains zinc chloride, zinc oxide, zinc oxide complexes and ash-containing carbonaceous residue, by incinerating the spent molten zinc chloride to vaporize the zinc chloride for subsequent condensation to produce a purified molten zinc chloride: an improvement comprising the use of clay in the incineration zone to suppress the vaporization of metals other than zinc. Optionally water is used in conjunction with the clay to further suppress the vaporization of metals other than zinc.

  7. Method and apparatus for spraying molten materials

    DOEpatents

    Glovan, R.J.; Tierney, J.C.; McLean, L.L.; Johnson, L.L.; Nelson, G.L.; Lee, Y.M.

    1996-06-25

    A metal spray apparatus is provided with a supersonic nozzle. Molten metal is injected into a gas stream flowing through the nozzle under pressure. By varying the pressure of the injected metal, the droplet can be made in various selected sizes with each selected size having a high degree of size uniformity. A unique one piece graphite heater provides easily controlled uniformity of temperature in the nozzle and an attached tundish which holds the pressurized molten metal. A unique U-shaped gas heater provides extremely hot inlet gas temperatures to the nozzle. A particularly useful application of the spray apparatus is coating of threads of a fastener with a shape memory alloy. This permits a fastener to be easily inserted and removed but provides for a secure locking of the fastener in high temperature environments. 12 figs.

  8. In situ observation of axial irradiation growth in liquid-metal reactor metal fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Cramer, E.R.; Pitner, A.L.

    1989-01-01

    Effects of the rapid early-in-life expansion of metal fuel were measured in an irradiation experiment in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). This important performance/design information was obtainable through the unique combination of a dimensionally stable FFTF oxide core and the calibrated proximity instrumentation associated with the test. These results delineate the time dependence of metal-fuel swelling and provide quantitative estimates of the magnitude of axial fuel swelling in full-length metal-fuel assemblies. Final posttest examination results will define actual fuel column growth levels.

  9. In situ study of the initiation of hydrogen bubbles at the aluminium metal/oxide interface.

    PubMed

    Xie, De-Gang; Wang, Zhang-Jie; Sun, Jun; Li, Ju; Ma, Evan; Shan, Zhi-Wei

    2015-09-01

    The presence of excess hydrogen at the interface between a metal substrate and a protective oxide can cause blistering and spallation of the scale. However, it remains unclear how nanoscale bubbles manage to reach the critical size in the first place. Here, we perform in situ environmental transmission electron microscopy experiments of the aluminium metal/oxide interface under hydrogen exposure. It is found that once the interface is weakened by hydrogen segregation, surface diffusion of Al atoms initiates the formation of faceted cavities on the metal side, driven by Wulff reconstruction. The morphology and growth rate of these cavities are highly sensitive to the crystallographic orientation of the aluminium substrate. Once the cavities grow to a critical size, the internal gas pressure can become great enough to blister the oxide layer. Our findings have implications for understanding hydrogen damage of interfaces.

  10. In situ study of the initiation of hydrogen bubbles at the aluminium metal/oxide interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, De-Gang; Wang, Zhang-Jie; Sun, Jun; Li, Ju; Ma, Evan; Shan, Zhi-Wei

    2015-09-01

    The presence of excess hydrogen at the interface between a metal substrate and a protective oxide can cause blistering and spallation of the scale. However, it remains unclear how nanoscale bubbles manage to reach the critical size in the first place. Here, we perform in situ environmental transmission electron microscopy experiments of the aluminium metal/oxide interface under hydrogen exposure. It is found that once the interface is weakened by hydrogen segregation, surface diffusion of Al atoms initiates the formation of faceted cavities on the metal side, driven by Wulff reconstruction. The morphology and growth rate of these cavities are highly sensitive to the crystallographic orientation of the aluminium substrate. Once the cavities grow to a critical size, the internal gas pressure can become great enough to blister the oxide layer. Our findings have implications for understanding hydrogen damage of interfaces.

  11. In situ Resource Utilization for Processing of Metal Alloys on Lunar and Mars Bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanescu, D. M.; Grugel, R. N.; Curreri, P. A.

    1998-01-01

    Current plans for practical missions leading to a sustained human presence on our Moon and Mars rely on utilizing their in situ resources. Initially, resource availability must be assessed followed by the development of economically acceptable and technically feasible extractive processes. In regard to metals processing and fabrication, the lower gravity level on the Moon (0.125 g) and Mars (0.369 g) will dramatically change the presently accepted hierarchy of materials in terms of specific properties, a factor which must be understood and exploited. Furthermore, significant changes are expected in the behavior of liquid metals during processing. In metal casting, for example, mold filling and associated solidification processes have to be reevaluated. Finally, microstructural development and therefore material properties, presently being documented through ongoing research in microgravity science and applications, needs to be understood and scaled to the reduced gravity environments. These and other issues are addressed in this paper.

  12. In Situ Nanoindentation Studies on Detwinning and Work Hardening in Nanotwinned Monolithic Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Li, N.; Bufford, D.; Lee, J. H.; Wang, J.; Wang, H.; Zhang, X.

    2015-07-14

    Certain nanotwinned (nt) metals have rare combinations of high mechanical strength and ductility. Here, we review recent in situ nanoindentation studies (using transmission electron microscopes) on the deformation mechanisms of nt face-centered cubic metals including Cu, Ni, and Al with a wide range of stacking fault energy (SFE). Moreover, in nt Cu with low-to-intermediate SFE, detwinning (accompanied by rapid twin boundary migration) occurs at ultralow stress. In Ni with relatively high SFE, coherent {111} twin boundaries lead to substantial work hardening. Twinned Al has abundant {112} incoherent twin boundaries, which induce significant work-hardening capability and plasticity in Al. Finally, twin boundaries in Al also migrate but at very high stresses. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulations reveal the influence of SFE on deformation mechanisms in twinned metals.

  13. In Situ Nanoindentation Studies on Detwinning and Work Hardening in Nanotwinned Monolithic Metals

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Y.; Li, N.; Bufford, D.; ...

    2015-07-14

    Certain nanotwinned (nt) metals have rare combinations of high mechanical strength and ductility. Here, we review recent in situ nanoindentation studies (using transmission electron microscopes) on the deformation mechanisms of nt face-centered cubic metals including Cu, Ni, and Al with a wide range of stacking fault energy (SFE). Moreover, in nt Cu with low-to-intermediate SFE, detwinning (accompanied by rapid twin boundary migration) occurs at ultralow stress. In Ni with relatively high SFE, coherent {111} twin boundaries lead to substantial work hardening. Twinned Al has abundant {112} incoherent twin boundaries, which induce significant work-hardening capability and plasticity in Al. Finally, twinmore » boundaries in Al also migrate but at very high stresses. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulations reveal the influence of SFE on deformation mechanisms in twinned metals.« less

  14. Induced metal redistribution and bioavailability enhancement in contaminated river sediment during in situ biogeochemical remediation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tongzhou; Zhang, Zhen; Mao, Yanqing; Yan, Dickson Y S

    2016-04-01

    In situ sediment remediation using Ca(NO3)2 or CaO2 for odor mitigation and acid volatile sulfide (AVS) and organic pollutant (such as TPH and PAHs) removal was reported in many studies and fieldwork. Yet, the associated effects on metal mobilization and potential distortion in bioavailability were not well documented. In this study, contaminated river sediment was treated by Ca(NO3)2 and CaO2 in bench studies. Through the investigation of AVS removal, organic matter removal, the changes in sediment oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), microbial activity, and other indigenous parameters, the effects on metal bioavailability, bioaccessibility, and fraction redistribution in sediment were evaluated. The major mechanisms for sediment treated by Ca(NO3)2 and CaO2 are biostimulation with indigenous denitrifying bacteria and chemical oxidation, respectively. After applying Ca(NO3)2 and CaO2, the decreases of metal concentrations in the treated sediment were insignificant within a 35-day incubation period. However, the [SEMtot-AVS]/f OC increased near to the effective boundary of toxicity (100 μmol g(-1) organic carbon (OC)), indicating that both bioavailability and bioaccessibility of metals (Cu, Zn, and Ni) to benthic organisms are enhanced after remediation. Metals were found redistributed from relatively stable fractions (oxidizable and residual fractions) to weakly bound fractions (exchangeable and reducible fractions), and the results are in line with the enhanced metal bioavailability. Compared with Ca(NO3)2, CaO2 led to higher enhancement in metal bioavailability and bioaccessibility, and more significant metal redistribution, probably due to its stronger chemical reactive capacity to AVS and sediment organic matter. The reactions in CaO2-treated sediment would probably shift from physicochemical to biochemical heterotrophic oxidation for sediment organic matter degradation. Therefore, further investigation on the long-term metal redistribution and associated

  15. Gaia Reveals a Metal-rich, in situ Component of the Local Stellar Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaca, Ana; Conroy, Charlie; Wetzel, Andrew; Hopkins, Philip F.; Kereš, Dušan

    2017-08-01

    We use the first Gaia data release, combined with the RAVE and APOGEE spectroscopic surveys, to investigate the origin of halo stars within ≲ 3 kpc from the Sun. We identify halo stars kinematically as moving at a relative speed of at least 220 km s-1 with respect to the local standard of rest. These stars are generally less metal-rich than the disk, but surprisingly, half of our halo sample is comprised of stars with [{Fe}/{{H}}]> -1. The orbital directions of these metal-rich halo stars are preferentially aligned with the disk rotation, in sharp contrast with the intrinsically isotropic orbital distribution of the metal-poor halo stars. We find similar properties in the Latte cosmological zoom-in simulation of a Milky Way-like galaxy from the FIRE project. In Latte, metal-rich halo stars formed primarily inside of the solar circle, whereas lower-metallicity halo stars preferentially formed at larger distances (extending beyond the virial radius). This suggests that metal-rich halo stars in the solar neighborhood actually formed in situ within the Galactic disk, rather than having been accreted from satellite systems. These stars, currently on halo-like orbits, therefore have likely undergone substantial radial migration/heating.

  16. Method for preparing metal powder, device for preparing metal powder, method for processing spent nuclear fuel

    DOEpatents

    Park, Jong-Hee [Clarendon Hills, IL

    2011-11-29

    A method for producing metal powder is provided the comprising supplying a molten bath containing a reducing agent, contacting a metal oxide with the molten bath for a time and at a temperature sufficient to reduce the metal in the metal oxide to elemental metal and produce free oxygen; and isolating the elemental metal from the molten bath.

  17. Anode composite for molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Iacovangelo, Charles D.; Zarnoch, Kenneth P.

    1983-01-01

    An anode composite useful for a molten carbonate fuel cell comprised of a porous sintered metallic anode component having a porous bubble pressure barrier integrally sintered to one face thereof, said barrier being comprised of metal coated ceramic particles sintered together and to said anode by means of said metal coating, said metal coating enveloping said ceramic particle and being selected from the group consisting of nickel, copper and alloys thereof, the median pore size of the barrier being significantly smaller than that of the anode.

  18. Metal matrix composite micromechanics: In-situ behavior influence on composite properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, P. L. N.; Hopkins, D. A.; Chamis, C. C.

    1989-01-01

    Recent efforts in computational mechanics methods for simulating the nonlinear behavior of metal matrix composites have culminated in the implementation of the Metal Matrix Composite Analyzer (METCAN) computer code. In METCAN material nonlinearity is treated at the constituent (fiber, matrix, and interphase) level where the current material model describes a time-temperature-stress dependency of the constituent properties in a material behavior space. The composite properties are synthesized from the constituent instantaneous properties by virtue of composite micromechanics and macromechanics models. The behavior of metal matrix composites depends on fabrication process variables, in situ fiber and matrix properties, bonding between the fiber and matrix, and/or the properties of an interphase between the fiber and matrix. Specifically, the influence of in situ matrix strength and the interphase degradation on the unidirectional composite stress-strain behavior is examined. These types of studies provide insight into micromechanical behavior that may be helpful in resolving discrepancies between experimentally observed composite behavior and predicted response.

  19. CHROTRAN: a mathematical and computational model for in situ heavy metal remediation in heterogeneous aquifers

    DOE PAGES

    Hansen, Scott; Pandey, Sachin; Karra, Satish; ...

    2017-04-25

    Groundwater contamination by heavy metals is a critical environmental problem for which in situ remediation is frequently the only viable treatment option. For such interventions, a three-dimensional reactive transport model of relevant biogeochemical processes is invaluable. To this end, we developed a model, CHROTRAN, for in situ treatment, which includes full dynamics for five species: a heavy metal to be remediated, an electron donor, biomass, a nontoxic conservative bio-inhibitor, and a biocide. Direct abiotic reduction by donor-metal interaction as well as donor-driven biomass growth and bio-reduction are modeled, along with crucial processes such as donor sorption, bio-fouling and biomass death.more » Our software implementation handles heterogeneous flow fields, arbitrarily many chemical species and amendment injection points, and features full coupling between flow and reactive transport. We describe installation and usage and present two example simulations demonstrating its unique capabilities. One simulation suggests an unorthodox approach to remediation of Cr(VI) contamination.« less

  20. In situ metalation of free base phthalocyanine covalently bonded to silicon surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Lupo, Fabio; Tudisco, Cristina; Bertani, Federico; Dalcanale, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Summary Free 4-undecenoxyphthalocyanine molecules were covalently bonded to Si(100) and porous silicon through thermic hydrosilylation of the terminal double bonds of the undecenyl chains. The success of the anchoring strategy on both surfaces was demonstrated by the combination of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with control experiments performed adopting the commercially available 2,3,9,10,16,17,23,24-octakis(octyloxy)-29H,31H-phthalocyanine, which is not suited for silicon anchoring. Moreover, the study of the shape of the XPS N 1s band gave relevant information on the interactions occurring between the anchored molecules and the substrates. The spectra suggest that the phthalocyanine ring interacts significantly with the flat Si surface, whilst ring–surface interactions are less relevant on porous Si. The surface-bonded molecules were then metalated in situ with Co by using wet chemistry. The efficiency of the metalation process was evaluated by XPS measurements and, in particular, on porous silicon, the complexation of cobalt was confirmed by the disappearance in the FTIR spectra of the band at 3290 cm−1 due to –NH stretches. Finally, XPS results revealed that the different surface–phthalocyanine interactions observed for flat and porous substrates affect the efficiency of the in situ metalation process. PMID:25551050

  1. New in-situ procedures for measuring trace metals in pore waters

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H.; Davison, W.; Grime, G.W.

    1995-12-31

    The most mobile and biological and chemically active fractions of trace metals in sediments are the dissolved components present in pore waters. Measuring metals in pore waters is complicated by the requirement for anoxic handling procedures. Due to the dynamic nature of sediment, steep concentration gradients extending over as little as 1 mm may develop at the sediment-water interface. New procedures for measuring metals in pore waters using polyacrylamide gels as in-situ probes are described. The gel can be used to establish a diffusive equilibration in a thin-film (DET). Because the film is typically less than 1 mm thick, equilibration is achieved within five minutes and insertion of the gel assembly causes minimal disturbance of sediment. An alternative procedure is to use a diffusive gradient in a thin-film (DGT), whereby a monolayer of chelating resin is incorporated at one side of the gel. Such a technique provides a kinetic measurement of labile species in solution. If the supply of metal from solid phase sediment to pore waters is fast enough, DGT provides a quantitative estimate of labile metal concentration. Alternatively, it measures directly the rate of supply of metal from solid phase to pore waters. As both DET and DGT are simple procedures capable of submillimeter spatial resolution, they provide previously unobtainable information on trace metal concentrations and fluxes. Furthermore, DGT has the potential to be used as a long-term monitor, providing mean concentrations of metals in sediment pore waters over periods of days, weeks, or even months.

  2. Novel in situ mechanical testers to enable integrated metal surface micro-machines.

    SciTech Connect

    Follstaedt, David Martin; de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Kotula, Paul Gabriel; Hearne, Sean Joseph; Foiles, Stephen Martin; Buchheit, Thomas Edward; Dyck, Christopher William

    2005-10-01

    The ability to integrate metal and semiconductor micro-systems to perform highly complex functions, such as RF-MEMS, will depend on developing freestanding metal structures that offer improved conductivity, reflectivity, and mechanical properties. Three issues have prevented the proliferation of these systems: (1) warpage of active components due to through-thickness stress gradients, (2) limited component lifetimes due to fatigue, and (3) low yield strength. To address these issues, we focus on developing and implementing techniques to enable the direct study of the stress and microstructural evolution during electrodeposition and mechanical loading. The study of stress during electrodeposition of metal thin films is being accomplished by integrating a multi-beam optical stress sensor into an electrodeposition chamber. By coupling the in-situ stress information with ex-situ microstructural analysis, a scientific understanding of the sources of stress during electrodeposition will be obtained. These results are providing a foundation upon which to develop a stress-gradient-free thin film directly applicable to the production of freestanding metal structures. The issues of fatigue and yield strength are being addressed by developing novel surface micromachined tensile and bend testers, by interferometry, and by TEM analysis. The MEMS tensile tester has a ''Bosch'' etched hole to allow for direct viewing of the microstructure in a TEM before, during, and after loading. This approach allows for the quantitative measurements of stress-strain relations while imaging dislocation motion, and determination of fracture nucleation in samples with well-known fatigue/strain histories. This technique facilitates the determination of the limits for classical deformation mechanisms and helps to formulate a new understanding of the mechanical response as the grain sizes are refined to a nanometer scale. Together, these studies will result in a science-based infrastructure to

  3. Uncovering the Role of Metal Catalysis in Tetrazole Formation by an In Situ Cycloaddition Reaction: An Experimental Approach.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Di-Chang; Wen, Ya-Qiong; Deng, Ji-Hua; Luo, Xu-Zhong; Gong, Yun-Nan; Lu, Tong-Bu

    2015-09-28

    Using an experimental approach, the role of metal catalysis has been investigated in the in situ cycloaddition reaction of nitrile with azide to form tetrazoles. It has been shown that metal catalysis serves to activate the cyano group in the nitrile reagent by a coordinative interaction.

  4. In Situ Neutron Depth Profiling of Lithium Metal-Garnet Interfaces for Solid State Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chengwei; Gong, Yunhui; Dai, Jiaqi; Zhang, Lei; Xie, Hua; Pastel, Glenn; Liu, Boyang; Wachsman, Eric; Wang, Howard; Hu, Liangbing

    2017-09-27

    The garnet-based solid state electrolyte (SSE) is considered a promising candidate to realize all solid state lithium (Li) metal batteries. However, critical issues require additional investigation before practical applications become possible, among which high interfacial impedance and low interfacial stability remain the most challenging. In this work, neutron depth profiling (NDP), a nondestructive and uniquely Li-sensitive technique, has been used to reveal the interfacial behavior of garnet SSE in contact with metallic Li through in situ monitoring of Li plating-stripping processes. The NDP measurement demonstrates predictive capabilities for diagnosing short-circuits in solid state batteries. Two types of cells, symmetric Li/garnet/Li (LGL) cells and asymmetric Li/garnet/carbon-nanotubes (LGC), are fabricated to emulate the behavior of Li metal and Li-free Li metal anodes, respectively. The data imply the limitation of Li-free Li metal anode in forming reliable interfacial contacts, and strategies of excessive Li and better interfacial engineering need to be investigated.

  5. In Situ Testing of Metal Micro-Textured Thermal Interface Materials in Telecommunications Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempers, R.; Kerslake, S.

    2014-07-01

    A metal micro-textured thermal interface material (MMT-TIM) has been developed to address the shortcomings of conventional TIMs for Remote Radio Heat (RRH) applications. The performance of the MMT-TIM was characterized in-situ by monitoring the temperatures of the dominant heat generating devices in an RRH Power Amplifier for a fixed input power. Measurements show that the use of the MMT-TIM results in significantly lower devices temperatures than achieved with the conventionally used graphite pads with a maximum temperature drop of 14.9 °C observed. The effect of power cycling on the long term performance trends is also examined.

  6. A dynamic inert metal anode.

    SciTech Connect

    Hryn, J. N.

    1998-11-09

    A new concept for a stable anode for aluminum electrowinning is described. The anode consists of a cup-shaped metal alloy container filled with a molten salt that contains dissolved aluminum. The metal alloy can be any of a number of alloys, but it must contain aluminum as a secondary alloying metal. A possible alloy composition is copper with 5 to 15 weight percent aluminum. In the presence of oxygen, aluminum on the metal anode's exterior surface forms a continuous alumina film that is thick enough to protect the anode from chemical attack by cryolite during electrolysis and thin enough to maintain electrical conductivity. However, the alumina film is soluble in cryolite, so it must be regenerated in situ. Film regeneration is achieved by the transport of aluminum metal from the anode's molten salt interior through the metal wall to the anode's exterior surface, where the transported aluminum oxidizes to alumina in the presence of evolving oxygen to maintain the protective alumina film. Periodic addition of aluminum metal to the anode's interior keeps the aluminum activity in the molten salt at the desired level. This concept for an inert anode is viable as long as the amount of aluminum produced at the cathode greatly exceeds the amount of aluminum required to maintain the anode's protective film.

  7. Microstructural development in Al/MgAl2O4 in situ metal matrix composite using value-added silica sources

    PubMed Central

    Madathil Sreekumar, Vadakke; Marimuthu Pillai, Raman; Chandrasekhara Pai, Bellampettu; Chakraborty, Madhusudhan

    2008-01-01

    Al/MgAl2O4 in situ metal matrix composites have been synthesized using value-added silica sources (microsilica and rice husk ash) containing ∼97% SiO2 in Al-5 wt.% Mg alloy. The thermodynamics and kinetics of MgAl2O4 formation are discussed in detail. The MgO and MgAl2O4 phases were found to dominate in microsilica (MS) and rice husk ash (RHA) value-added composites, respectively, during the initial stage of holding the composites at 750 °C. A transition phase between MgO and MgAl2O4 was detected by the scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM–EDS) analysis of the particles extracted from the composite using 25% NaOH solution. This confirms that MgO is gradually transformed to MgAl2O4 by the reaction 3SiO2(s)+2MgO(s)+4Al(l)→2MgAl2O4(s)+3Si(l). The stoichiometry of MgAl2O4, n, computed by a new methodology is between 0.79 and 1.18. The reaction between the silica sources and the molten metal stopped after 55% of the silica source was consumed. A gradual increase in mean MgAl2O4 crystallite size, D, from 24 to 36 nm was observed in the samples held for 10 h. PMID:27877941

  8. Microstructural development in Al/MgAl2O4in situ metal matrix composite using value-added silica sources.

    PubMed

    Madathil Sreekumar, Vadakke; Marimuthu Pillai, Raman; Chandrasekhara Pai, Bellampettu; Chakraborty, Madhusudhan

    2008-01-01

    Al/MgAl2O4in situ metal matrix composites have been synthesized using value-added silica sources (microsilica and rice husk ash) containing ∼97% SiO2 in Al-5 wt.% Mg alloy. The thermodynamics and kinetics of MgAl2O4 formation are discussed in detail. The MgO and MgAl2O4 phases were found to dominate in microsilica (MS) and rice husk ash (RHA) value-added composites, respectively, during the initial stage of holding the composites at 750 °C. A transition phase between MgO and MgAl2O4 was detected by the scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) analysis of the particles extracted from the composite using 25% NaOH solution. This confirms that MgO is gradually transformed to MgAl2O4 by the reaction 3SiO2(s)+2MgO(s)+4Al(l)→2MgAl2O4(s)+3Si(l). The stoichiometry of MgAl2O4, n, computed by a new methodology is between 0.79 and 1.18. The reaction between the silica sources and the molten metal stopped after 55% of the silica source was consumed. A gradual increase in mean MgAl2O4 crystallite size, D, from 24 to 36 nm was observed in the samples held for 10 h.

  9. In-Situ Decontamination of Metal-Polluted Soils by Metal-Accumulator Plants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    technology. In: Agricultural and Environmental Biotechnology: Biodiagnosis, Biocontrols, Bioprocesses . Abstracts of the International Conference, 15-17...uftgirqdwL In ?et kunma. wpor4m. kletnsehelige expernImnt int* plentme(~ a wordt *eti hWg met* Ab - hiS van aware metslan . b- .4 I Ith van aware metalen...industrialI where metals occur naturally in Unknown to those experi- degree. land where lead lined buildings land a truly green one. ... while busy bacteria

  10. In situ observation of deformation processes in nanocrystalline face-centered cubic metals.

    PubMed

    Kobler, Aaron; Brandl, Christian; Hahn, Horst; Kübel, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The atomistic mechanisms active during plastic deformation of nanocrystalline metals are still a subject of controversy. The recently developed approach of combining automated crystal orientation mapping (ACOM) and in situ straining inside a transmission electron microscope was applied to study the deformation of nanocrystalline Pd x Au1- x thin films. This combination enables direct imaging of simultaneously occurring plastic deformation processes in one experiment, such as grain boundary motion, twin activity and grain rotation. Large-angle grain rotations with ≈39° and ≈60° occur and can be related to twin formation, twin migration and twin-twin interaction as a result of partial dislocation activity. Furthermore, plastic deformation in nanocrystalline thin films was found to be partially reversible upon rupture of the film. In conclusion, conventional deformation mechanisms are still active in nanocrystalline metals but with different weighting as compared with conventional materials with coarser grains.

  11. In situ observation of deformation processes in nanocrystalline face-centered cubic metals

    PubMed Central

    Kobler, Aaron; Brandl, Christian; Hahn, Horst

    2016-01-01

    Summary The atomistic mechanisms active during plastic deformation of nanocrystalline metals are still a subject of controversy. The recently developed approach of combining automated crystal orientation mapping (ACOM) and in situ straining inside a transmission electron microscope was applied to study the deformation of nanocrystalline PdxAu1− x thin films. This combination enables direct imaging of simultaneously occurring plastic deformation processes in one experiment, such as grain boundary motion, twin activity and grain rotation. Large-angle grain rotations with ≈39° and ≈60° occur and can be related to twin formation, twin migration and twin–twin interaction as a result of partial dislocation activity. Furthermore, plastic deformation in nanocrystalline thin films was found to be partially reversible upon rupture of the film. In conclusion, conventional deformation mechanisms are still active in nanocrystalline metals but with different weighting as compared with conventional materials with coarser grains. PMID:27335747

  12. Novel waste printed circuit board recycling process with molten salt.

    PubMed

    Riedewald, Frank; Sousa-Gallagher, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the method was to prove the concept of a novel waste PCBs recycling process which uses inert, stable molten salts as the direct heat transfer fluid and, simultaneously, uses this molten salt to separate the metal products in either liquid (solder, zinc, tin, lead, etc.) or solid (copper, gold, steel, palladium, etc.) form at the operating temperatures of 450-470 °C. The PCB recovery reactor is essentially a U-shaped reactor with the molten salt providing a continuous fluid, allowing molten salt access from different depths for metal recovery. A laboratory scale batch reactor was constructed using 316L as suitable construction material. For safety reasons, the inert, stable LiCl-KCl molten salts were used as direct heat transfer fluid. Recovered materials were washed with hot water to remove residual salt before metal recovery assessment. The impact of this work was to show metal separation using molten salts in one single unit, by using this novel reactor methodology. •The reactor is a U-shaped reactor filled with a continuous liquid with a sloped bottom representing a novel reactor concept.•This method uses large PCB pieces instead of shredded PCBs as the reactor volume is 2.2 L.•The treated PCBs can be removed via leg B while the process is on-going.

  13. Novel waste printed circuit board recycling process with molten salt

    PubMed Central

    Riedewald, Frank; Sousa-Gallagher, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the method was to prove the concept of a novel waste PCBs recycling process which uses inert, stable molten salts as the direct heat transfer fluid and, simultaneously, uses this molten salt to separate the metal products in either liquid (solder, zinc, tin, lead, etc.) or solid (copper, gold, steel, palladium, etc.) form at the operating temperatures of 450–470 °C. The PCB recovery reactor is essentially a U-shaped reactor with the molten salt providing a continuous fluid, allowing molten salt access from different depths for metal recovery. A laboratory scale batch reactor was constructed using 316L as suitable construction material. For safety reasons, the inert, stable LiCl–KCl molten salts were used as direct heat transfer fluid. Recovered materials were washed with hot water to remove residual salt before metal recovery assessment. The impact of this work was to show metal separation using molten salts in one single unit, by using this novel reactor methodology. • The reactor is a U-shaped reactor filled with a continuous liquid with a sloped bottom representing a novel reactor concept. • This method uses large PCB pieces instead of shredded PCBs as the reactor volume is 2.2 L. • The treated PCBs can be removed via leg B while the process is on-going. PMID:26150977

  14. WIPP/SRL in-situ tests: MIIT program--The effects of metal package components

    SciTech Connect

    Covington, J.A.; Wicks, G.G.; Molecke, M.A.

    1991-12-31

    The Materials Interface Interactions Tests or MIIT is the largest in-situ testing program in progress, involving burial of many simulated nuclear waste systems and accompanying package components. In MIIT, waste glass samples were fabricated into the shape of `pineapple slices`, polished on one side. Proposed package components were also made into a similar configuration and the various glasses, metals, and geologic samples were than stacked onto heater elements within Teflon assemblies. This produced interactions of interest by creating glass/glass, glass/salt, and glass/metal interfaces. Since the outer diameter of the metal was smaller than the outer diameter of the glass, a lip was created which was also produced a glass/liquid interface, which was also studied. Overall, a total of 50 stacks or assemblies of pineapple slices were created in seven different stacking arrangements. Each individual assembly was then installed in an instrumented borehole at WIPP. Brine was then added to most of boreholes and the assemblies heated and maintained at 90{degrees}C. This was achieved by energizing the central heating and rod that traversed through the middle opening of each of the pineapple slices in each assembly. Due to the design of these units, glass, metal and geologic samples could be removed at time intervals of 6 mos., 1 year, 2 years, and 5 years. Currently, all but the 5 year samples have been removed from test and are being evaluated in laboratories of MIIT participants.

  15. WIPP/SRL in-situ tests: MIIT program--The effects of metal package components

    SciTech Connect

    Covington, J.A. ); Wicks, G.G. ); Molecke, M.A. )

    1991-01-01

    The Materials Interface Interactions Tests or MIIT is the largest in-situ testing program in progress, involving burial of many simulated nuclear waste systems and accompanying package components. In MIIT, waste glass samples were fabricated into the shape of pineapple slices', polished on one side. Proposed package components were also made into a similar configuration and the various glasses, metals, and geologic samples were than stacked onto heater elements within Teflon assemblies. This produced interactions of interest by creating glass/glass, glass/salt, and glass/metal interfaces. Since the outer diameter of the metal was smaller than the outer diameter of the glass, a lip was created which was also produced a glass/liquid interface, which was also studied. Overall, a total of 50 stacks or assemblies of pineapple slices were created in seven different stacking arrangements. Each individual assembly was then installed in an instrumented borehole at WIPP. Brine was then added to most of boreholes and the assemblies heated and maintained at 90{degrees}C. This was achieved by energizing the central heating and rod that traversed through the middle opening of each of the pineapple slices in each assembly. Due to the design of these units, glass, metal and geologic samples could be removed at time intervals of 6 mos., 1 year, 2 years, and 5 years. Currently, all but the 5 year samples have been removed from test and are being evaluated in laboratories of MIIT participants.

  16. Hydrazine reduction of transition metal oxides - In situ characterization using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littrell, D. M.; Tatarchuk, B. J.

    1986-01-01

    The transition metal oxides (TMOs) V2O5, FeO3, Co3O4, NiO, CuO, and ZnO were exposed to hydrazine at various pressures. The metallic surfaces were surveyed by in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to determine the irrelative rate of reduction by hydrazine. The most easily reducible oxide, CuO, could be reduced to the metallic state at room temperature and 10 to the -6th torr. The reaction is first order with respect to CuO, with an activation energy of about 35 kJ/mol. Two types of adsorption were seen to occur at 295 K: (1) a reversible component in which the measured N:Cu ratio increased to 0.60 at hydrazine pressures up to 0.5 torr, and (2) an irreversible component, with a N:Cu ratio of 0.28, which could not be removed by extended vacuum pumping. The results of this study are useful for the identification of TMO's that can be used as solid neatallizers of hydrazine spills, and for the preparation of metal surfaces for electroplating and evaporative thin-film coating.

  17. Interfacial Stability of Li Metal-Solid Electrolyte Elucidated via in Situ Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ma, Cheng; Cheng, Yongqiang; Yin, Kuibo; Luo, Jian; Sharafi, Asma; Sakamoto, Jeff; Li, Juchuan; More, Karren L; Dudney, Nancy J; Chi, Miaofang

    2016-11-09

    Despite their different chemistries, novel energy-storage systems, e.g., Li-air, Li-S, all-solid-state Li batteries, etc., face one critical challenge of forming a conductive and stable interface between Li metal and a solid electrolyte. An accurate understanding of the formation mechanism and the exact structure and chemistry of the rarely existing benign interfaces, such as the Li-cubic-Li7-3xAlxLa3Zr2O12 (c-LLZO) interface, is crucial for enabling the use of Li metal anodes. Due to spatial confinement and structural and chemical complications, current investigations are largely limited to theoretical calculations. Here, through an in situ formation of Li-c-LLZO interfaces inside an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope, we successfully reveal the interfacial chemical and structural progression. Upon contact with Li metal, the LLZO surface is reduced, which is accompanied by the simultaneous implantation of Li(+), resulting in a tetragonal-like LLZO interphase that stabilizes at an extremely small thickness of around five unit cells. This interphase effectively prevented further interfacial reactions without compromising the ionic conductivity. Although the cubic-to-tetragonal transition is typically undesired during LLZO synthesis, the similar structural change was found to be the likely key to the observed benign interface. These insights provide a new perspective for designing Li-solid electrolyte interfaces that can enable the use of Li metal anodes in next-generation batteries.

  18. Effect of tungsten metal particle sizes on the solubility of molten alloy melt: Experimental observation of Gibbs-Thomson effect in nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. H.; Das, J.; Sordelet, D. J.; Eckert, J.; Hurd, A. J.

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the effect of tungsten particle sizes on the thermal stability and reactivity of uniformly dispersed W particles in molten Hf-based alloy melt at elevated temperature (1673 K). The solubility of particles less than 100 nm in radius is significantly enhanced. In case of fine W particles with 20 nm diameter, their solubility increases remarkably around 700% compared to that of coarse micrometer-scale particles. The mechanisms and kinetics of this dynamic growth of particle are discussed as well as techniques developed to obtain frozen microstructure of particle-reinforced composites by rapid solidification.

  19. Apparatus and method for stripping tritium from molten salt

    DOEpatents

    Holcomb, David E.; Wilson, Dane F.

    2017-02-07

    A method of stripping tritium from flowing stream of molten salt includes providing a tritium-separating membrane structure having a porous support, a nanoporous structural metal-ion diffusion barrier layer, and a gas-tight, nonporous palladium-bearing separative layer, directing the flowing stream of molten salt into contact with the palladium-bearing layer so that tritium contained within the molten salt is transported through the tritium-separating membrane structure, and contacting a sweep gas with the porous support for collecting the tritium.

  20. Chemical Reactions of Simulated Producer Gas with Molten Tin-Bismuth Alloy

    Treesearch

    Keith J. Bourne

    2012-01-01

    A pyrolysis and gasification system utilizing molten metal as an energy carrier has been proposed and the initial stages of its design have been completed. However, there are several fundamental questions that need to be answered before the design of this system can be completed. These questions include: How will the molten metal interact with the products of biomass...

  1. Direct in Situ Conversion of Metals into Metal-Organic Frameworks: A Strategy for the Rapid Growth of MOF Films on Metal Substrates.

    PubMed

    Ji, Hoon; Hwang, Sunhyun; Kim, Keonmok; Kim, CheolGi; Jeong, Nak Cheon

    2016-11-30

    The fabrication of metal-organic framework (MOF) films on conducting substrates has demonstrated great potential in applications such as electronic conduction and sensing. For these applications, direct contact of the film to the conducting substrate without a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) is a desired step that must be achieved prior to the use of MOF films. In this report, we propose an in situ strategy for the rapid one-step conversion of Cu metal into HKUST-1 films on conducting Cu substrates. The Cu substrate acts both as a conducting substrate and a source of Cu(2+) ions during the synthesis of HKUST-1. This synthesis is possible because of the simultaneous reaction of an oxidizing agent and a deprotonating agent, in which the former agent dissolves the metal substrate to form Cu(2+) ions while the latter agent deprotonates the ligand. Using this strategy, the HKUST-1 film could not only be rapidly synthesized within 5 min but also be directly attached to the Cu substrate. Based on microscopic studies, we propose a plausible mechanism for the growth reaction. Furthermore, we show the versatility of this in situ conversion methodology, applying it to ZIF-8, which comprises Zn(2+) ions and imidazole-based ligands. Using an I2-filled HKUST-1 film, we further demonstrate that the direct contact of the MOF film to the conducting substrate makes the material more suitable for use as a sensor or electronic conductor.

  2. Is there widespread metal contamination from in-situ bitumen extraction at Cold Lake, Alberta heavy oil field?

    PubMed

    Skierszkan, Elliott K; Irvine, Graham; Doyle, James R; Kimpe, Linda E; Blais, Jules M

    2013-03-01

    The extraction of oil sands by in-situ methods in Alberta has expanded dramatically in the past two decades and will soon overtake surface mining as the dominant bitumen production process in the province. While concerns regarding regional metal emissions from oil sand mining and bitumen upgrading have arisen, there is a lack of information on emissions from the in-situ industry alone. Here we show using lake sediment records and regionally-distributed soil samples that in the absence of bitumen upgrading and surface mining, there has been no significant metal (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, V) enrichment from the Cold Lake in-situ oil field. Sediment records demonstrate post-industrial Cd, Hg and Pb enrichment beginning in the early Twentieth Century, which has leveled off or declined since the onset of commercial in-situ bitumen production at Cold Lake in 1985.

  3. Nanoceramic -Metal Matrix Composites by In-Situ Pyrolysis of Organic Precursors in a Liquid Melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudarshan; Surappa, M. K.; Ahn, Dongjoon; Raj, Rishi

    2008-12-01

    We show the feasibility of introducing a dispersion of a refractory ceramic phase into metals by stirring a powder of an organic polymer into a magnesium melt and having it convert into a ceramic within the melt by in-situ pyrolysis of the polymer. The pyrolysis is a highly reactive process, accompanied by the evolution of hydrogen, which disperses the ceramic phase into nanoscale constituents. In the present experiments, a polysilazane-based precursor, which is known to yield an amorphous ceramic constituted from silicon, carbon, and nitrogen, was used. Five weight percent of the precursor (which has a nominal ceramic yield of 75 to 85 wt pct) produced a twofold increase in the room-temperature yield strength and reduced the steady-state strain rate at 450 °C by one to two orders of magnitude, relative to pure magnesium. This polymer-based in-situ process (PIP) for processing metal-matrix composites (MMCs) is likely to have great generality, because many different kinds of organic precursors, for producing oxide, carbides, nitrides, and borides, are commercially available. Also, the process would permit the addition of large volume fractions of the ceramic, enabling the nanostructural design, and production of MMCs with a wide range of mechanical properties, meant especially for high-temperature applications. An important and noteworthy feature of the present process, which distinguishes it from other methods, is that all the constituents of the ceramic phase are built into the organic molecules of the precursor ( e.g., polysilazanes contain silicon, carbon, and nitrogen); therefore, a reaction between the polymer and the host metal is not required to produce the dispersion of the refractory phase.

  4. Molecular Analysis of Rates of Metal Reduction andMetabolic State of Geobacter Species During in situ Uranium Bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Lovley, Derek R.

    2005-06-01

    This report summarizes progress from June 2004 through April 2005. Research focused on monitoring the in situ rates of metabolism and the metabolic state of Geobacteraceae during in situ bioremediation of uranium at the field study site in Rifle, Colorado. As detailed below, it was demonstrated for the first time that it is possible to quantify in situ levels of transcripts for key metabolic genes and from this information infer not only rates of electron transfer to metals, but also nutrient limitations which might be limiting this process.

  5. In situ insights to Se (S) partitioning between silicate and metallic melts at extreme conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borchert, M.; Petitgirard, S.; Appel, K.; Watenphul, A.; Morgenroth, W.

    2012-12-01

    The Earth's core mainly consists of a metallic Fe-Ni mixture. However, seismic observations show that the density is about 5-10% lower than expected for an Fe-Ni alloy under similar pressure and temperature conditions (e.g., [1,2]). This discovery initiated numerous studies to identify and quantify light elements in the Earth0s core. Among others, sulphur has been suggested to be a promisingly candidate to alloy with the metallic core because of its depletion in the crust and the mantle relative to other volatile elements by several orders of magnitude (e.g., [3-5]). In the last decades, several experimental studies have aimed to quantify the sulphur content in the Earth's core and to determine its influence on the physical properties (e.g., [6]). However, experimental data on sulphur partitioning between silicate and metallic liquids at pressures and temperatures relevant for core-mantle boundary conditions are missing. This lack is due to pressure and temperature limitations of conventional experimental approaches (up to 25 GPa and 2200 K). New developments, like laser-heated diamond-anvil cells (LDAC), allow studies at core-mantle boundary conditions, but in-situ chemical analysis of sulphur in LDACs is impossible due to the high absorption of S fluorescence in the diamonds. Instead of sulphur, selenium can be used to model sulphur partitioning between silicate and metallic melts at elevated PT conditions. This is based on the fact that sulphur and selenium can be considered as geochemical twins ([7,8]). The main advantage of this approach is the much higher excitation energy of selenium compared to sulphur, which enables in-situ XRF analysis in LDACs. Here, we present preliminary data on Se partitioning between silicate and metallic melt at extreme conditions. The experiments have been performed in double-sided laser-heated LDACs at the high pressure beamlines P02.2 (DESY, Germany) and ID27 (ESRF, France) as described in [9]. Micro-XRF mappings are used to

  6. In-Situ Cleaning of Metal Cathodes using a Hydrogen Ion Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Dowell, D.H.; King, F.K.; Kirby, R.E.; Schmerge, J.F.; /SLAC

    2006-03-29

    Metal photocathodes are commonly used in high-field RF guns because they are robust, straightforward to implement and tolerate relatively poor vacuum compared to semi-conductor cathodes. However these cathodes have low quantum efficiency (QE) even at UV wavelengths, and still require some form of cleaning after installation in the gun. A commonly used process for improving the QE is laser cleaning. In this technique the UV drive laser is focused to a small diameter close to the metal's damage threshold and then moved across the surface to remove contaminants. This method does improve the QE, but can produce non-uniform emission and potentially damage the cathode. Ideally an alternative process which produces an atomically clean, but unaltered surface is needed. In this paper we explore using a hydrogen ion (H-ion) beam to clean a copper cathode. We describe QE measurements over the wavelength range of interest as a function of integrated exposure to an H-ion beam. We also describe the data analysis to obtain the work function and derive a formula of the QE for metal cathodes. Our measured work function for the cleaned sample is in good agreement with published values, and the theoretical QE as a function of photon wavelength is in excellent agreement with the cleaned copper experimental results. Finally, we propose an in-situ installation of an H-ion gun compatible with existing s-band RF guns.

  7. Castable Cement Can Prevent Molten-Salt Corrosion in CSP

    SciTech Connect

    2016-09-01

    NREL's study demonstrated that castable cements on metals are a protective barrier that can prevent permeation of molten salts toward metallic surfaces. The silica-based castable cement Aremco 645-N, when sprayed with boron nitride, can protect containment metallic alloys from attack by molten chlorides at high temperatures (650 degrees C) in short-term tests. Improved thermal energy storage technology could increase the performance of CSP and reduce costs, helping to reach the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's SunShot Initiative to make solar cost-competitive with other non-renewable sources of electricity by 2020.

  8. Azimuthal swirl in liquid metal electrodes and batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashour, Rakan; Kelley, Douglas

    2016-11-01

    Liquid metal batteries consist of two molten metals with different electronegativity separated by molten salt. In these batteries, critical performance related factors such as the limiting current density are governed by fluid mixing in the positive electrode. In this work we present experimental results of a swirling flow in a layer of molten lead-bismuth alloy driven by electrical current. Using in-situ ultrasound velocimetery, we show that poloidal circulation appears at low current density, whereas azimuthal swirl becomes dominant at higher current density. The presence of thermal gradients produces buoyant forces, which are found to compete with those produced by current injection. Taking the ratio of the characteristic electromagnetic to buoyant flow velocity, we are able to predict the current density at which the flow becomes electromagnetically driven. Scaling arguments are also used to show that swirl is generated through self-interaction between the electrical current in the electrode with its own magnetic field.

  9. ION EXCHANGE IN FUSED SALTS. IV. DISTRIBUTION OF SELECTED TRANSITION ELEMENTS IN THE CHABAZITE-MOLTEN NANO3 SYSTEM,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    MINERALS, ION EXCHANGE, ION EXCHANGE, FUEL CELLS, LANTHANUM, DECOMPOSITION, EUROPIUM, IONS, EQUILIBRIUM(PHYSIOLOGY), NITRATES, COBALT, DISTRIBUTION, CERIUM, SILICATES, TRANSITION METALS, MOLTEN SALT NUCLEAR REACTORS.

  10. In situ fabrication of inorganic nanowire arrays grown from and aligned on metal substrates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weixin; Yang, Shihe

    2009-10-20

    The full potential of nanotechnology can be unleashed only when one is able not only to synthesize a rich variety of nanoscale building blocks but also assemble them into various patterns at the supramolecular and supracluster levels. In particular, the application of nanoparticle and nanowire materials often requires their assembly in the form of thin films, preferably on conductive surfaces for electrical addressing, control, and detection. Although a dazzling array of nanostructures has been fabricated by bottom-up approaches, one of the contemporary challenges is to assemble these nanostructures so that they introduce and realize functionalities. An alluring avenue is to simultaneously accomplish both the nanostructure synthesis and assembly on a useful substrate in a parallel fashion, affording the advantages of simplicity, low cost, and high throughput. In this Account, we review our recent work on growing inorganic nanowires (for example, metal sulfides, metal oxides, and so forth) directly from and on metal substrates in arrays without using templates and catalysts. This method of engineering nanowire arrays on metal substrates integrates the nanowire synthesis and assembly into a parallel process, both in time and in space, by exploiting in situ chemistry on the metal substrates. Both gas-phase and solution-phase approaches have been developed to synthesize the aligned nanowires; here, full advantage is taken of interfacial kinetics of restricted diffusion and surface-specific reactions, often accompanied by new interfacial growth mechanisms. The setting of nanowire arrays on metal substrates has allowed exploration of their application potentials in areas such as field electron emission and chemical sensing. The approaches described here are general, and we predict that they will be extended to more inorganic materials, such as metal halides. Moreover, as more control is achieved with synthetic methods, inorganic nanowire arrays should provide unusual

  11. EVALUATION OF NATURAL AND IN-SITU REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR A COAL-RELATED METALS PLUME

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, Jeffrey A.; Bayer, Cassandra L.; Socha, Ronald P.; Sochor,Cynthia S.; Fliermans, Carl B.; McKinsey, Pamela C.; Millings, Margaret R.; Phifer, Mark A.; Powell, Kimberly R.; Serkiz, Steven M.; Sappington, Frank C.; Turick, Charles E.

    2003-02-27

    Metals contamination exceeding drinking water standards (MCLs) is associated with acidic leachate generated from a coal pile runoff basin at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina. The metals plume extends over 100 acres with its' distal boundary about onehalf mile from the Savannah River. Based on the large plume extent and high dissolved iron and aluminum concentrations, conventional treatment technologies are likely to be ineffective and cost prohibitive. In-situ bioremediation using existing groundwater microbes is being evaluated as a promising alternative technology for effective treatment, along with consideration of natural attenuation of the lower concentration portions of the plume to meet remedial goals. Treatment of the high concentration portion of the groundwater plume by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is being evaluated through laboratory microcosm testing and a field-scale demonstration. Organic substrates are added to promote SRB growth. These bacteria use dissolved sulfate as an electron acceptor and ultimately precipitate dissolved metals as metal sulfides. Laboratory microcosm testing indicate SRB are present in groundwater despite low pH conditions, and that their growth can be stimulated by soybean oil and sodium lactate. The field demonstration consists of substrate injection into a 30-foot deep by 240-foot long permeable trench. Microbial activity is demonstrated by an increase in pH from 3 to 6 within the trench. Downgradient monitoring will be used to evaluate the effectiveness of SRB in reducing metal concentrations. Natural attenuation (NA) is being evaluated for the low concentration portion of the plume. A decrease in metal mobility can occur through a variety of abiotically and/or biotically mediated mechanisms. Quantification of these mechanisms is necessary to more accurately predict contaminant attenuation using groundwater transport models that have historically relied on simplified conservative assumptions

  12. Techniques for assessing the performance of in situ bioreduction and immobilization of metals and radionuclides in contaminated subsurface environments

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, P.M.; Watson, D.B.; Blake, D.A.; Beard, L.P.; Brooks, S.C.; Carley, J.M.; Criddle, C.S.; Doll, W.E.; Fields, M.W.; Fendorf, S.E.; Geesey, G.G.; Ginder-Vogel, M.; Hubbard, S.S.; Istok, J.D.; Kelly, S.; Kemner, K.M.; Peacock, A.D.; Spalding, B.P.; White, D.C.; Wolf, A.; Wu, W.; Zhou, J.

    2004-11-14

    Department of Energy (DOE) facilities within the weapons complex face a daunting challenge of remediating huge below inventories of legacy radioactive and toxic metal waste. More often than not, the scope of the problem is massive, particularly in the high recharge, humid regions east of the Mississippi river, where the off-site migration of contaminants continues to plague soil water, groundwater, and surface water sources. As of 2002, contaminated sites are closing rapidly and many remediation strategies have chosen to leave contaminants in-place. In situ barriers, surface caps, and bioremediation are often the remedial strategies of chose. By choosing to leave contaminants in-place, we must accept the fact that the contaminants will continue to interact with subsurface and surface media. Contaminant interactions with the geosphere are complex and investigating long term changes and interactive processes is imperative to verifying risks. We must be able to understand the consequences of our action or inaction. The focus of this manuscript is to describe recent technical developments for assessing the performance of in situ bioremediation and immobilization of subsurface metals and radionuclides. Research within DOE's NABIR and EMSP programs has been investigating the possibility of using subsurface microorganisms to convert redox sensitive toxic metals and radionuclides (e.g. Cr, U, Tc, Co) into a less soluble, less mobile forms. Much of the research is motivated by the likelihood that subsurface metal-reducing bacteria can be stimulated to effectively alter the redox state of metals and radionuclides so that they are immobilized in situ for long time periods. The approach is difficult, however, since subsurface media and waste constituents are complex with competing electron acceptors and hydrogeological conditions making biostimulation a challenge. Performance assessment of in situ biostimulation strategies is also difficult and typically requires detailed

  13. Techniques for Assessing the Performance of In Situ Bioreduction and Immobilization of Metals and Radionuclides in Contaminated Subsurface Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, D. B.; Jardine, P. M.

    2005-05-01

    Department of Energy (DOE) facilities within the weapons complex face a daunting challenge of remediating huge below inventories of legacy radioactive and toxic metal waste. More often than not, the scope of the problem is massive, particularly in the high recharge, humid regions east of the Mississippi river, where the off-site migration of contaminants continues to plague soil water, groundwater, and surface water sources. As of 2002, contaminated sites are closing rapidly and many remediation strategies have chosen to leave contaminants in-place. In situ barriers, surface caps, and bioremediation are often the remedial strategies of chose. By choosing to leave contaminants in-place, we must accept the fact that the contaminants will continue to interact with subsurface and surface media. Contaminant interactions with the geosphere are complex and investigating long term changes and interactive processes is imperative to verifying risks. We must be able to understand the consequences of our action or inaction. The focus of this presentation is to describe recent technical developments for assessing the performance of in situ bioremediation and immobilization of subsurface metals and radionuclides. Research within DOE's NABIR and EMSP programs has been investigating the possibility of using subsurface microorganisms to convert redox sensitive toxic metals and radionuclides (e.g. Cr, U, Tc, Co) into a less soluble, less mobile forms. Much of the research is motivated by the likelihood that subsurface metal-reducing bacteria can be stimulated to effectively alter the redox state of metals and radionuclides so that they are immobilized in situ for long time periods. The approach is difficult, however, since subsurface media and waste constituents are complex with competing electron acceptors and hydrogeological conditions making biostimulation a challenge. Performance assessment of in situ biostimulation strategies is also difficult and typically requires detailed

  14. Liquid surface skimmer apparatus for molten lithium and method

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, Samuel C.; Pollard, Roy E.; Thompson, William F.; Stark, Marshall W.; Currin, Jr., Robert T.

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to an apparatus for separating two fluids having different specific gravities. The invention also relates to a method for using the separating apparatus of the present invention. This invention particularly relates to the skimming of molten lithium metal from the surface of a fused salt electrolyte in the electrolytic production of lithium metal from a mixed fused salt.

  15. Self-pumping impurity control by in-situ metal deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, J.N.; Mattas, R.F.

    1983-05-01

    A system for in-situ removal of helium by trapping in freshly deposited metal surface layers of a limiter or divertor has been studied. The system would trap helium on a limiter front surface, or a divertor plate, at low plasma edge temperatures, or in a limiter slot region, at high edge temperatures. Fresh material, introduced to the plasma and/or scrape-off zone, would be added at a rate of about five times the alpha production rate. The material would be reprocessed periodically, e.g., once year. Possible materials are nickel, vanadium, niobium, and tantalum. Advantages of a self-pumping system are the absence of vacuum ducts and pumps, and the minimization of tritium processing and inventory.

  16. Dynamic Deformation Behaviors of an In Situ Ti-Based Metallic Glass Matrix Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Z. M.; Wang, Z. H.; Wu, R. F.; Zhang, T. W.; Yang, H. J.; Qiao, J. W.

    2016-11-01

    Quasi-static and dynamic deformation behaviors, fracture characteristics, and microstructural evolution of an in situ dendrite-reinforced metallic glass matrix composite: Ti50Zr20V10Cu5Be15 within a wide range of strain rates are investigated. Compared with the quasi-static compression, the yielding stress increases, but the macroscopic plasticity significantly decreases upon dynamic compression. The effects of the strain rate on strain hardening upon quasi-static loading and flow stress upon dynamic loading are evaluated, respectively. The Zerilli-Armstrong (Z-A) model based on dendrite-dominated mechanism is employed to further uncover the dependence of the yielding stress on the strain rate.

  17. "Metallic burn paper" used for in situ characterization of laser beam properties.

    PubMed

    Bass, Isaac L; Negres, Raluca A; Stanion, Ken; Guss, Gabe; Bude, Jeff

    2016-04-20

    In situ ablation of thin metal films on fused silica substrates by picosecond class lasers was investigated as a method of characterizing the beam at the sample plane. The technique involved plotting the areas enclosed by constant fluence contours identified in optical microscope images of the ablation sites versus the logs of the pulse energies. Inconel films on commercially available neutral density filters as well as magnetron sputtered gold films were used. It was also shown that this technique could be used to calibrate real-time beam profile diagnostics against the beam at the sample plane. The contours were shown to correspond to the boundary where part or all of the film was ablated.

  18. In situ sputter cleaning of thin film metal substrates for UHV-TEM corrosion studies.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinemann, K.; Poppa, H.

    1973-01-01

    A prerequisite for conducting valid corrosion experiments by in situ electron microscopy techniques is not only the achievement of UHV background pressure conditions at the site of the specimen but also the ability to clean the surface of the thin metal substrate specimen before initiation of the corrosive interaction. A miniaturized simple ion gun has been constructed for this purpose. The gun is small enough to be incorporated into an UHV electron microscope specimen chamber with hot stage in such a way as to permit bombardment of the substrate specimen while observing it by transmission electron microscopy TEM. It is shown that the ion beam generated is confined well enough to cause a sputtering removal of substrate material at a rate of approximately 5-10 A/min and to prevent the sputter deposition of contaminating material from the specimen holder.

  19. In situ measurement of the reinforcement modulus in a metal matrix composite by acoustic microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Canumalla, S.; Gordon, G.A.; Pangborn, R.N.

    1995-12-31

    The mechanical properties of metal-matrix composites have been observed to be a strong function of the content of non-fiber inclusions. Shot particles, with the nominal composition of the reinforcement, have been found to crack prematurely, thus representing prefer-red failure initiation sites under mechanical and thermal fatigue of discontinuous, alumina-silicate fiber reinforced aluminum matrix composites. To better understand the differences between the responses of the shot and fibers to loading, the Young`s modulus of the shot is measured and compared to that of the fibers. Scanning acoustic microscopy is used to nondestructively measure the modulus of the shot in situ, and the fiber modulus is obtained from the previously measured composite response. The shot, with a modulus of 131.5 GPa, has a Young`s modulus that is approximately 40% lower than that of the fibers. The influence of this on the composite response will be discussed.

  20. In situ study of defect migration kinetics and self-healing of twin boundaries in heavy ion irradiated nanotwinned metals.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Yu, K Y; Chen, Y; Song, M; Wang, H; Kirk, M A; Li, M; Zhang, X

    2015-05-13

    High energy particles introduce severe radiation damage in metallic materials, such as Ag. Here we report on the study on twin boundary (TB) affected zone in irradiated nanotwinned Ag wherein time accumulative defect density and defect diffusivity are substantially different from those in twin interior. In situ studies also reveal surprising resilience and self-healing of TBs in response to radiation. This study provides further support for the design of radiation-tolerant nanotwinned metallic materials.

  1. A Tensile Deformation Model for In-situ Dendrite/Metallic Glass Matrix Composites

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, J. W.; Zhang, T.; Yang, F. Q.; Liaw, P. K.; Pauly, S.; Xu, B. S.

    2013-01-01

    In-situ dendrite/metallic glass matrix composites (MGMCs) with a composition of Ti46Zr20V12Cu5Be17 exhibit ultimate tensile strength of 1510 MPa and fracture strain of about 7.6%. A tensile deformation model is established, based on the five-stage classification: (1) elastic-elastic, (2) elastic-plastic, (3) plastic-plastic (yield platform), (4) plastic-plastic (work hardening), and (5) plastic-plastic (softening) stages, analogous to the tensile behavior of common carbon steels. The constitutive relations strongly elucidate the tensile deformation mechanism. In parallel, the simulation results by a finite-element method (FEM) are in good agreement with the experimental findings and theoretical calculations. The present study gives a mathematical model to clarify the work-hardening behavior of dendrites and softening of the amorphous matrix. Furthermore, the model can be employed to simulate the tensile behavior of in-situ dendrite/MGMCs. PMID:24085187

  2. In-situ deposition of Pd nanoparticles on tubular halloysite template for initiation of metallization.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yubin; Zhang, Lide; Zheng, Jiyong

    2005-04-01

    Halloysite template has a tubular microstructure; its wall has a multi-layer aluminosilicate structure. A new catalytic method is adopted here, through the in-situ reduction of Pd ions on the surface of tubular halloysite by methanol to initiate electroless plating; the detailed deposition features of Pd nanoparticles are investigated for the first time. The results indicate that an in-situ reduction and deposition of Pd occurs at room temperature, in which the halloysite template plays an important role. Impurities in halloysite (such as ferric oxide) influence the formation and distribution of the Pd nanoparticles. The Pd nanoparticles are of a non-spherical shape in most cases, which would be caused by the irregular appearance of halloysite. No intercalation of the nanoparticles occurs between the aluminosilicate layers in the halloysite. The diameter of Pd nanoparticles increases with time; the average diameter ranges from 1 nm to 4 nm. Pd nanoparticles on a halloysite template can catalyze electroless deposition of Ni to prepare a novel nano-sized cermet at low cost. This practicable catalytic method could also be used on other clay substrates for the initiation of metallization.

  3. High-throughput ultrasonic synthesis and in situ crystallisation investigation of metal phosphonocarboxylates.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Lars-Hendrik; Stock, Norbert

    2014-01-14

    High-throughput reactions of aqueous solutions of 4-(phosphonomethyl)benzoic acid (H3PMBC) with metal salts were carried out using, for the first time, ultrasonication as well as the previously described conventional heating. On screening the influence of 12 divalent metal ions, two new compounds ([Ca(H2O)2(H2PMBC)2] and [Ni(H2O)4(H2PMBC)2]) were discovered. Their formation fields were established by systematically studying the systems Ni(2+) or Ca(2+)/H3PMBC/KOH. Both compounds crystallise in the space group P1[combining macron] ([Ca(H2O)2(H2PMBC)2]: a = 4.6806(9) Å, b = 6.1340(12) Å, c = 17.932(4) Å, α = 83.84(3)°, β = 89.03(3)°, γ = 85.65(3)°; [Ni(H2O)4(H2PMBC)2]: a = 4.7713(10) Å, b = 6.8621(14) Å, c = 16.598(3) Å, α = 83.42(3)°, β = 89.71(3)°, γ = 83.50(3)°) and contain MO6-octahedra linked to form chains by hydrogen bonded (H2PMBC(-))2-dimers formed between the carboxylate groups. The formation of [Ni(H2O)4(H2PMBC)2] was studied by in situ EDXRD and in situ IR spectroscopy. The increased formation rate of [Ni(H2O)4(H2PMBC)2] under ultrasonic irradiation as compared to conventional heating could be unequivocally attributed to the faster dissolution of the ligand H3PMBC.

  4. Sulfur tolerant molten carbonate fuel cell anode and process

    DOEpatents

    Remick, Robert J.

    1990-01-01

    Molten carbonate fuel cell anodes incorporating a sulfur tolerant carbon monoxide to hydrogen water-gas-shift catalyst provide in situ conversion of carbon monoxide to hydrogen for improved fuel cell operation using fuel gas mixtures of over about 10 volume percent carbon monoxide and up to about 10 ppm hydrogen sulfide.

  5. Molten core retention assembly

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1976-06-22

    Molten fuel produced in a core overheating accident is caught by a molten core retention assembly consisting of a horizontal baffle plate having a plurality of openings therein, heat exchange tubes having flow holes near the top thereof mounted in the openings, and a cylindrical, imperforate baffle attached to the plate and surrounding the tubes. The baffle assembly is supported from the core support plate of the reactor by a plurality of hanger rods which are welded to radial beams passing under the baffle plate and intermittently welded thereto. Preferably the upper end of the cylindrical baffle terminates in an outwardly facing lip to which are welded a plurality of bearings having slots therein adapted to accept the hanger rods.

  6. Oxidation of hydrogen halides to elemental halogens with catalytic molten salt mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Rohrmann, Charles A.

    1978-01-01

    A process for oxidizing hydrogen halides by means of a catalytically active molten salt is disclosed. The subject hydrogen halide is contacted with a molten salt containing an oxygen compound of vanadium and alkali metal sulfates and pyrosulfates to produce an effluent gas stream rich in the elemental halogen. The reduced vanadium which remains after this contacting is regenerated to the active higher valence state by contacting the spent molten salt with a stream of oxygen-bearing gas.

  7. Lifetime of Sodium Beta-Alumina Membranes in Molten Sodium Hydroxide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    Report 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) 1 April 2007 – 01 April 2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Lifetime of Sodium Beta-alumina Membranes in Molten Sodium ...ABSTRACT Summary: Sodium metal can be made by electrolysis of molten sodium hydroxide in sodium beta-alumina membrane electrolysis cells...However, there are some uncertainties about the lifetime of the sodium beta-alumina membranes in contact with molten sodium hydroxide. The main objective

  8. The first metal-organic framework containing an unprecedented in situ-generated C-substituted hexamethylenetetramine ligand.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhao-Peng; Huo, Li-Hua; Xu, Hui; Zhao, Hui; Ng, Seik Weng; Gao, Shan

    2011-02-14

    The first metal-organic framework containing an unprecedented in situ-generated C-substituted hexamethylenetetramine ligand has been successfully prepared by the reaction of silver nitrate, 4-formylbenzoic acid and hexamethylenetetramine under traditional solution conditions, which holds the unusual (3,4)-connected topological network.

  9. Reprocessing of LiH in Molten Chlorides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masset, Patrick J.; Gabriel, Armand; Poignet, Jean-Claude

    2008-06-01

    LiH was used as inactive material to stimulate the reprocessing of lithium tritiate in molten chlorides. The electrochemical properties (diffusion coefficients, apparent standard potentials) were measured by means of transient electrochemical techniques (cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry). At 425 ºC the diffusion coefficient and the apparent standard potential were 2.5 · 10-5 cm2 s-1 and -1.8 V vs. Ag/AgCl, respectively. For the process design the LiH solubility was measured by means of DTA to optimize the LiH concentration in the molten phase. In addition electrolysis tests were carried out at 460 ºC with current densities up to 1 A cm-2 over 24 h. These results show that LiH may be reprocessed in molten chlorides consisting in the production of hydrogen gas at the anode and molten metallic lithium at the cathode.

  10. Advanced high-temperature molten-salt storage research

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, R J; Coyle, R T

    1983-08-01

    We are researching advanced high-temperature molten-salt thermal storage for use in direct absorption receiver and thermal storage (DARTS) solar thermal systems. A molten salt at 900/sup 0/C or higher is both the receiver heat transfer medium and the storage medium; a unique insulated platform (raft) separates the hot and cold medium in the thermocline thermal storage. We have measured raft performance experimentally, and it performs equally or better than a natural thermocline. Containment materials for the molten salts ae being experimentally screened. NaOH has a very high corrosion rate on ceramics and metals. Both carbonates and chlorides can be contained at 900/sup 0/C with relatively little corrosion. Based on the measured corrosion rates, the economic potential of molten-salt thermal storage was analyzed. Both the chlorides and carbonates have potential (i.e., cost less than value) at the capacity of storage expected for commercial-scale solar thermal systems.

  11. Electron Beam Induced Artifacts During in situ TEM Deformation of Nanostructured Metals

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Rohit; Rentenberger, Christian; Rajagopalan, Jagannathan

    2015-01-01

    A critical assumption underlying in situ transmission electron microscopy studies is that the electron beam (e-beam) exposure does not fundamentally alter the intrinsic deformation behavior of the materials being probed. Here, we show that e-beam exposure causes increased dislocation activation and marked stress relaxation in aluminum and gold films spanning a range of thicknesses (80–400 nanometers) and grain sizes (50–220 nanometers). Furthermore, the e-beam induces anomalous sample necking, which unusually depends more on the e-beam diameter than intensity. Notably, the stress relaxation in both aluminum and gold occurs at beam energies well below their damage thresholds. More remarkably, the stress relaxation and/or sample necking is significantly more pronounced at lower accelerating voltages (120 kV versus 200 kV) in both the metals. These observations in aluminum and gold, two metals with highly dissimilar atomic weights and properties, indicate that e-beam exposure can cause anomalous behavior in a broad spectrum of nanostructured materials, and simultaneously suggest a strategy to minimize such artifacts. PMID:26552934

  12. In Situ Production of Hard Metal Matrix Composite Coating on Engineered Surfaces Using Laser Cladding Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raza, Mohammad Shahid; Hussain, Manowar; Kumar, Vikash; Das, Alok Kumar

    2016-11-01

    The growing need for high wear-resistant surface with enhanced physical properties has led to extensive researches in the field of surface engineering. Laser cladding emerged to be a promising method to achieve these objectives in a cost-effective way. The present paper studies the viability of cladding of tungsten disulfide (WS2) powder by using 400 W continuous-wave fiber laser. WS2 was used as a coating material, which was decomposed at higher temperature and underwent several chemical reactions. By this process, in situ formation of metal matrix composites and hard face coating on the substrate surface were attained. The characterization of laser cladded surface was done to study its morphological, microstructural, mechanical and tribological properties. It was observed that cladding of WS2 powder on 304 SS resulted in the formation of Cr-W-C-Fe metal matrix composite having improved mechanical and tribological properties. The value of microhardness of the coated surface was found to increase three to four times in comparison with the parent material surface. Wear test results indicated a decrease in wear by 1/9th (maximum) as compared to the parent 304 SS surface. The volume fractions of tungsten particles on the cladded surface were also investigated through EDS analysis.

  13. Electron Beam Induced Artifacts During in situ TEM Deformation of Nanostructured Metals.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Rohit; Rentenberger, Christian; Rajagopalan, Jagannathan

    2015-11-10

    A critical assumption underlying in situ transmission electron microscopy studies is that the electron beam (e-beam) exposure does not fundamentally alter the intrinsic deformation behavior of the materials being probed. Here, we show that e-beam exposure causes increased dislocation activation and marked stress relaxation in aluminum and gold films spanning a range of thicknesses (80-400 nanometers) and grain sizes (50-220 nanometers). Furthermore, the e-beam induces anomalous sample necking, which unusually depends more on the e-beam diameter than intensity. Notably, the stress relaxation in both aluminum and gold occurs at beam energies well below their damage thresholds. More remarkably, the stress relaxation and/or sample necking is significantly more pronounced at lower accelerating voltages (120 kV versus 200 kV) in both the metals. These observations in aluminum and gold, two metals with highly dissimilar atomic weights and properties, indicate that e-beam exposure can cause anomalous behavior in a broad spectrum of nanostructured materials, and simultaneously suggest a strategy to minimize such artifacts.

  14. In Situ Production of Hard Metal Matrix Composite Coating on Engineered Surfaces Using Laser Cladding Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raza, Mohammad Shahid; Hussain, Manowar; Kumar, Vikash; Das, Alok Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The growing need for high wear-resistant surface with enhanced physical properties has led to extensive researches in the field of surface engineering. Laser cladding emerged to be a promising method to achieve these objectives in a cost-effective way. The present paper studies the viability of cladding of tungsten disulfide (WS2) powder by using 400 W continuous-wave fiber laser. WS2 was used as a coating material, which was decomposed at higher temperature and underwent several chemical reactions. By this process, in situ formation of metal matrix composites and hard face coating on the substrate surface were attained. The characterization of laser cladded surface was done to study its morphological, microstructural, mechanical and tribological properties. It was observed that cladding of WS2 powder on 304 SS resulted in the formation of Cr-W-C-Fe metal matrix composite having improved mechanical and tribological properties. The value of microhardness of the coated surface was found to increase three to four times in comparison with the parent material surface. Wear test results indicated a decrease in wear by 1/9th (maximum) as compared to the parent 304 SS surface. The volume fractions of tungsten particles on the cladded surface were also investigated through EDS analysis.

  15. Reoxidation of uranium metal immersed in a Li2O-LiCl molten salt after electrolytic reduction of uranium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Eun-Young; Jeon, Min Ku; Lee, Jeong; Kim, Sung-Wook; Lee, Sang Kwon; Lee, Sung-Jai; Heo, Dong Hyun; Kang, Hyun Woo; Jeon, Sang-Chae; Hur, Jin-Mok

    2017-03-01

    We present our findings that uranium (U) metal prepared by using the electrolytic reduction process for U oxide (UO2) in a Li2O-LiCl salt can be reoxidized into UO2 through the reaction between the U metal and Li2O in LiCl. Two salt types were used for immersion of the U metal: one was the salt used for electrolytic reduction, and the other was applied to the unused LiCl salts with various concentrations of Li2O and Li metal. Our results revealed that the degree of reoxidation increases with the increasing Li2O concentration in LiCl and that the presence of the Li metal in LiCl suppresses the reoxidation of the U metal.

  16. In situ gas phase measurements during metal alkylamide atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Maslar, J E; Kimes, W A; Sperling, B A

    2011-09-01

    Metal alkylamide compounds, such as tetrakis(ethylmethylamido) hafnium (TEMAH), represent a technologically important class of metalorganic precursors for the deposition of metal oxides and metal nitrides via atomic layer deposition (ALD) or chemical vapor deposition. The development of in situ diagnostics for processes involving these compounds could be beneficial in, e.g., developing deposition recipes and validating equipment-scale simulations. This report describes the performance of the combination of two techniques for the simultaneous, rapid measurement of the three major gas phase species during hafnium oxide thermal ALD using TEMAH and water: TEMAH, water, and methylethyl amine (MEA), the only major reaction by-product. For measurement of TEMAH and MEA, direct absorption methods based on a broadband infrared source with different mid-IR bandpass filters and utilizing amplitude modulation and synchronous detection were developed. For the measurement of water, wavelength modulation spectroscopy utilizing a near-IR distributed feedback diode laser was used. Despite the relatively simple reactor geometry employed here (a flow tube), differences were easily observed in the time-dependent species distributions in 300 mL/min of a helium carrier gas and in 1000 mL/min of a nitrogen carrier gas. The degree of TEMAH entrainment was lower in 300 mL/min of helium compared to that in 1000 mL/min of nitrogen. The capability to obtain detailed time-dependent species concentrations during ALD could potentially allow for the selection of carrier gas composition and flow rates that would minimize parasitic wall reactions. However, when nitrogen was employed at the higher flow rates, various flow effects were observed that, if detrimental to a deposition process, would effectively limit the upper range of useful flow rates.

  17. Molten fluoride fuel salt chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Toth, L.M.; Del Cul, G.D.; Dai, S.; Metcalf, D.H.

    1994-09-01

    The chemistry of molten fluorides is traced from their development as fuels in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment with important factors in their selection being discussed. Key chemical characteristics such as solubility, redox behavior, and chemical activity are explained as they relate to the behavior of molten fluoride fuel systems. Fission product behavior is described along with processing experience. Development requirements for fitting the current state of the chemistry to modern nuclear fuel system are described. It is concluded that while much is known about molten fluoride behavior, processing and recycle of the fuel components is a necessary factor if future systems are to be established.

  18. Metallization in the molten and solid state and phase diagrams of the GeSe2 and GeS2 under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazhkin, V. V.; Bychkov, E.; Kondrin, M. V.

    2014-12-01

    We found that under high pressure, the GeSe2 and GeS2 melts pass into the metallic state. In the vicinity of the melting curves, their metallization begins at 3.5 and 7 GPa, respectively. The position of the semiconductor-metal transition line on the phase diagram for GeSe2 liquid is established. The GeS2-II and GeSe2-III high-pressure crystalline modifications are semiconductors, whereas the GeSe2-III modification at pressures exceeding 3.5-4 GPa is a metal (σ ≈ 103 Ω-1 cm-1). The ( P, T) phase diagrams for these compounds are constructed in the pressure range up to 10 GPa. Metallization during the GeSe2-II-GeSe2-III transition is evidently responsible for the small jump of entropy and the corresponding almost vertical slope of the transition line.

  19. The Gellyfish: An In-Situ Equilibrium-Based Sampler for Determining Multiple Free Metal Ion Concentrations in Marine Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Zhao; Lewis, Christopher G.; Burgess, Robert M.; Shine, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Free metal ions are usually the most bioavailable and toxic metal species to aquatic organisms, but they are difficult to measure due to their extremely low concentrations in the marine environment. Many of the current methods for determining free metal ions are complicated, time-consuming, and can only measure one metal at a time. We developed a new version of the ‘Gellyfish’, an in-situ equilibrium-based sampler, with significantly reduced equilibration time and the capability of measuring multiple free metal ions simultaneously. By calibrating the Gellyfish to account for its uptake of cationic metal complexes and validating them in multi-metal competition experiments, we were able to determine free metal ion concentrations previously collected over ten months at five locations in Boston Harbor for Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, and Cd. This work generated one of the largest free metal ion datasets and demonstrated the applicability of the Gellyfish as an easy-to-use and inexpensive tool for monitoring free ion concentrations of metal mixtures in marine ecosystems. PMID:25598362

  20. Detection and removal of molten salts from molten aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    K. Butcher; D. Smith; C. L. Lin; L. Aubrey

    1999-08-02

    Molten salts are one source of inclusions and defects in aluminum ingots and cast shapes. A selective adsorption media was used to remove these inclusions and a device for detection of molten salts was tested. This set of experiments is described and the results are presented and analyzed.

  1. 13. VIEW OF THE MOLTEN SALT EXTRACTION LINE. THE MOLTEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF THE MOLTEN SALT EXTRACTION LINE. THE MOLTEN SALT EXTRACTION PROCESS WAS USED TO PURIFY PLUTONIUM BY REMOVING AMERICIUM, A DECAY BY-PRODUCT OF PLUTONIUM. (1/98) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Fabrication, Central section of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  2. Metal atomization spray nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Huxford, Theodore J.

    1993-01-01

    A spray nozzle for a magnetohydrodynamic atomization apparatus has a feed passage for molten metal and a pair of spray electrodes mounted in the feed passage. The electrodes, diverging surfaces which define a nozzle throat and diverge at an acute angle from the throat. Current passes through molten metal when fed through the throat which creates the Lorentz force necessary to provide atomization of the molten metal.

  3. Metal atomization spray nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Huxford, T.J.

    1993-11-16

    A spray nozzle for a magnetohydrodynamic atomization apparatus has a feed passage for molten metal and a pair of spray electrodes mounted in the feed passage. The electrodes, diverging surfaces which define a nozzle throat and diverge at an acute angle from the throat. Current passes through molten metal when fed through the throat which creates the Lorentz force necessary to provide atomization of the molten metal. 6 figures.

  4. In situ study of e-beam Al and Hf metal deposition on native oxide InP (100)

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, H.; KC, Santosh; Azcatl, A.; Cabrera, W.; Qin, X.; Brennan, B.; Cho, K.; Wallace, R. M.; Zhernokletov, D.

    2013-11-28

    The interfacial chemistry of thin Al (∼3 nm) and Hf (∼2 nm) metal films deposited by electron beam (e-beam) evaporation on native oxide InP (100) samples at room temperature and after annealing has been studied by in situ angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low energy ion scattering spectroscopy. The In-oxides are completely scavenged forming In-In/In-(Al/Hf) bonding after Al and Hf metal deposition. The P-oxide concentration is significantly decreased, and the P-oxide chemical states have been changed to more P-rich oxides upon metal deposition. Indium diffusion through these metals before and after annealing at 250 °C has also been characterized. First principles calculation shows that In has lower surface formation energy compared with Al and Hf metals, which is consistent with the observed indium diffusion behavior.

  5. Lithium metal protection enabled by in-situ olefin polymerization for high-performance secondary lithium sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Yongling; Zhang, Zhen; Fei, Huifang; Xu, Xiaoyan; Xiong, Shenglin; Feng, Jinkui; Ci, Lijie

    2017-09-01

    Lithium metal is considered to be the optimal choice of next-generation anode materials due to its ultrahigh theoretical capacity and the lowest redox potential. However, the growth of dendritic and mossy lithium for rechargeable Li metal batteries lead to the possible short circuiting and subsequently serious safety issues during charge/discharge cycles. For the further practical applications of Li anode, here we report a facile method for fabricating robust interfacial layer via in-situ olefin polymerization. The resulting polymer layer effectively suppresses the formation of Li dendrites and enables the long-term operation of Li metal batteries. Using Li-S cells as a test system, we also demonstrate an improved capacity retention with the protection of tetramethylethylene-polymer. Our results indicate that this method could be a promising strategy to tackle the intrinsic problems of lithium metal anodes and promote the development of Li metal batteries.

  6. Interpretation of in situ speciation measurements of inorganic and organically complexed trace metals in freshwater by DGT.

    PubMed

    Warnken, Kent W; Davison, William; Zhang, Hao

    2008-09-15

    The dynamic speciation technique, diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT), has been used in freshwater to determine simultaneously, from a single set of in situ measurements, (1) the equilibrium distribution of metal ions between simple inorganic complexes and larger organic complexes and (2) information on the rates of dissociation of these complexes. DGT devices with different diffusion layer thicknesses (0.3, 0.54, 1.34, and 2.14 mm) were used to estimate the in situ dissociation kinetics. Information on the species distribution was obtained by using two types of gel, which allow relatively free (polyacrylamide, APA) and more retarded (restricted, RES) diffusion of the metal complexes. The full theoretical basis of the technique is developed and applied to in situ measurements of Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Cd, and Pb in a pristine river (Wyre, U.K.), with high DOC(15mg L(-1)), assuming that organic complexes are dominated by fulvic acid. These first DGT measurements that do not rely on assumptions about complex lability or the distribution of species, are compared to total dissolved measurements, previously reported speciation calculations and measurements using alternative speciation techniques. Examination of calculation consistency suggests that the effective mean diffusion coefficients of metal complexes with organic matter under in situ conditions may be larger than those measured in the laboratory using extracted fulvic acid.

  7. Coalesced nanomorphology, in situ, and ex situ applications of self assembled Gallium droplets grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohani, J.; Bag, R. K.; Padmavati, M. V. G.; Sapra, S.; Tyagi, R.

    2017-08-01

    Self assembled Gallium droplets are used as catalyst for epitaxial growth of III-V semiconductor nanowires. Understanding the effect of droplets' nanostructure on in situ catalysed growth of nanowires is essential. Evolution of MOCVD grown Ga droplets' self-assembled structure under different growth conditions, therefore, has been studied. The droplet nanomorphology has been explained on the basis of Ostwald-ripening based coalescence growth model. Two major morphologies of Ga droplets have been observed, namely, Valved and Spherical. Where a partial coalescence leads to the formation of valved nanostructures, complete coalescence of droplets give rise to spherical nanomorphology. Droplet morphology has been observed to have significant effect on in situ catalysed growth of GaAs nanowires by MOCVD. Twin and singular nanowires have been grown using valved and spherical Ga droplets, respectively, as catalyst. In addition, Gallium droplets having spherical nanomorphology with average diameter of around 80 nm and surface density of about 4 × 109/cm2 have been subjected to ex situ chemical oxidation to examine their chemical and morphological stability. The scanning electron microscopy of the oxidized sample has confirmed the retention of spherical morphology. The detailed theoretical depth analysis of the photoemission spectrum of the oxidized droplets has revealed the formation of interesting Ga-Ga2O3 core-shell nanostructure within a spherical droplet with a shell thickness of more than 3 nm.

  8. Molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Smith, James L.

    1987-01-01

    A molten electrolyte fuel cell with an array of stacked cells and cell enclosures isolating each cell except for access to gas manifolds for the supply of fuel or oxidant gas or the removal of waste gas, the cell enclosures collectively providing an enclosure for the array and effectively avoiding the problems of electrolyte migration and the previous need for compression of stack components, the fuel cell further including an inner housing about and in cooperation with the array enclosure to provide a manifold system with isolated chambers for the supply and removal of gases. An external insulated housing about the inner housing provides thermal isolation to the cell components.

  9. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, I.D.; Poris, J.; Huggins, R.A.

    1980-07-18

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400 to 500/sup 0/C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell which may be operated at temperatures between about 100 to 170/sup 0/C. The cell is comprised of an electrolyte, which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode.

  10. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, Ian D.; Poris, Jaime; Huggins, Robert A.

    1983-01-01

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  11. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, Ian D.; Poris, Jaime; Huggins, Robert A.

    1982-02-09

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  12. Molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.; Smith, J.L.

    1986-07-08

    A molten electrolyte fuel cell is disclosed with an array of stacked cells and cell enclosures isolating each cell except for access to gas manifolds for the supply of fuel or oxidant gas or the removal of waste gas. The cell enclosures collectively provide an enclosure for the array and effectively avoid the problems of electrolyte migration and the previous need for compression of stack components. The fuel cell further includes an inner housing about and in cooperation with the array enclosure to provide a manifold system with isolated chambers for the supply and removal of gases. An external insulated housing about the inner housing provides thermal isolation to the cell components.

  13. In situ spectroscopic investigation of hyperthermophilic metal-respiring archaea at high-temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ménez, B.; Bureau, H.; Gouget, B.; Avoscan, L.; Simionovici, A.; Somogyi, A.

    2003-04-01

    The main issue of this study is developing methodologies that can improve abilities to characterize life in extreme habitats. In particular, it aims at evaluating the possibility of monitoring microorganisms mediated reactions involving metals by using non destructive X-ray microprobe combined with high pressure and temperature micro-reactors. The first step was dedicated to the study of metal-respiring organisms that achieve growth with oxyanions of arsenate and selenate as their electron acceptors for the oxidation of organic substrates or H2, forming elemental selenium or arsenite, respectively, as the reduction products. We focused on a strictly anaerobic hyperthermophilic archaea, Pyrobaculum arsenaticum, recently isolated and well adapted to high levels of arsenate and selenate (Huber et al., 2000, System. Appl. Microbiol., 23, 305). We report here the first in situ X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopic characterization of the oxidation state of selenium following microbial respiration at high temperature. A Basset-modified Hydrothermal Diamond Anvil Cell (HDAC) acts as anaerobic micro-reactor to reproduce extreme temperature and pressure conditions for life and allows, together with the direct visual observation of the organisms, the microbeam characterization of the changes of metal concentration and speciation induced by microbial activity. The measurements were performed at the ESRF on undulator beamline ID22. P. arsenaticum together with its culture medium, doped with selenate (50 μM), were loaded under N_2 atmosphere in the HDAC. High-resolution X-ray fluorescence and selenium K-edge XANES spectra were collected alternatively and continuously at high temperature (up to 95^oC), allowing for the time-resolved monitoring of the chemical evolution of the culture medium. Data processing is still in progress. In the long-term, our aim is, on one hand, to shed light on the tolerance in terms of temperature, pressure and metal

  14. Diagnosis of sources of current inefficiency in industrial molten salt electrolysis cells by Raman spectroscopy: A topical report on chlorides: Topical report, June 1982-June 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Sadoway, D. R.

    1987-06-01

    Molten salt electrolysis, a very energy-intensive process, is used in the extraction of light metals. Aluminum production by the Hall process and magnesium production in the Dow and I.G. Farbenindustrie cells constitute the major commercial applications of metal electrowinning from molten-salt media at present. The energy input into the electrolysis cell is in the form of direct current, and the energy efficiencies in the magnesium or aluminum processes are only in the 30 to 40% range. Major energy reductions are achieved by reducing the cell voltage or by increasing the current efficiency. Goal of the research is to identify the sources of the current losses occurring in molten salt electrolysis. This research worked on the systems of I.G. Farben magnesium chloride and Alcoa smelting aluminum chloride processes. Raman spectra were measured and analyzed for each component or their mixtures of the electrolyte for magnesium and aluminum reduction in chloride melts. Raman measurements were also conducted on the melts of industrial composition for aluminum and magnesium electrolysis. In laboratory-scale cells which imitated industrial practice, Raman spectra were measured in situ during electrolysis in attempts to identify the streamers, coloration of electrolyte, and any subvalent species. They were known to occur only during electrolysis, and they have been reported to be possible current losses. Cyclic voltammetry was conducted to obtain information about the generation of subvalent species which were not detected by Raman measurement. These were thought to be kinetic entities present only during electrolysis. Results of Raman spectroscopy and electrochemistry of magnesium and aluminum reduction from molten chloride bath are presented. The results would be useful to establish the basis for the study of electrolysis of aluminum from molten fluoride media. 119 refs., 66 figs.

  15. A method to investigate the electron scattering characteristics of ultrathin metallic films by in situ electrical resistance measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Trindade, I. G.; Sousa, J. B.; Fermento, R.; Leitao, D.

    2009-07-15

    In this article, a method to measure the electrical resistivity/conductivity of metallic thin films during layer growth on specific underlayers is described. The in situ monitoring of an underlayer electrical resistance, its change upon the incoming of new material atoms/molecules, and the growth of a new layer are presented. The method is easy to implement and allows obtaining in situ experimental curves of electrical resistivity dependence upon film thickness with a subatomic resolution, providing insight in film growth microstructure characteristics, specular/diffuse electron scattering surfaces, and optimum film thicknesses.

  16. Cathode for molten salt batteries

    DOEpatents

    Mamantov, Gleb; Marassi, Roberto

    1977-01-01

    A molten salt electrochemical system for battery applications comprises tetravalent sulfur as the active cathode material with a molten chloroaluminate solvent comprising a mixture of AlCl.sub.3 and MCl having a molar ratio of AlCl.sub.3 /MCl from greater than 50.0/50.0 to 80/20.

  17. Removing Dross From Molten Solder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, Winston S.

    1990-01-01

    Automatic device helps to assure good solder connections. Machine wipes dross away from area on surface of molten solder in pot. Sweeps across surface of molten solder somewhat in manner of windshield wiper. Each cycle of operation triggered by pulse from external robot. Equipment used wherever precise, automated soldering must be done to military specifications.

  18. Shock Wave Response of Iron-based In Situ Metallic Glass Matrix Composites

    PubMed Central

    Khanolkar, Gauri R.; Rauls, Michael B.; Kelly, James P.; Graeve, Olivia A.; Hodge, Andrea M.; Eliasson, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    The response of amorphous steels to shock wave compression has been explored for the first time. Further, the effect of partial devitrification on the shock response of bulk metallic glasses is examined by conducting experiments on two iron-based in situ metallic glass matrix composites, containing varying amounts of crystalline precipitates, both with initial composition Fe49.7Cr17.7Mn1.9Mo7.4W1.6B15.2C3.8Si2.4. The samples, designated SAM2X5-600 and SAM2X5-630, are X-ray amorphous and partially crystalline, respectively, due to differences in sintering parameters during sample preparation. Shock response is determined by making velocity measurements using interferometry techniques at the rear free surface of the samples, which have been subjected to impact from a high-velocity projectile launched from a powder gun. Experiments have yielded results indicating a Hugoniot Elastic Limit (HEL) to be 8.58 ± 0.53 GPa for SAM2X5-600 and 11.76 ± 1.26 GPa for SAM2X5-630. The latter HEL result is higher than elastic limits for any BMG reported in the literature thus far. SAM2X5-600 catastrophically loses post-yield strength whereas SAM2X5-630, while showing some strain-softening, retains strength beyond the HEL. The presence of crystallinity within the amorphous matrix is thus seen to significantly aid in strengthening the material as well as preserving material strength beyond yielding. PMID:26932846

  19. An improved tensile deformation model for in-situ dendrite/metallic glass matrix composites

    PubMed Central

    Sun, X. H.; Qiao, J. W.; Jiao, Z. M.; Wang, Z. H.; Yang, H. J.; Xu, B. S.

    2015-01-01

    With regard to previous tensile deformation models simulating the tensile behavior of in-situ dendrite-reinforced metallic glass matrix composites (MGMCs) [Qiao et al., Acta Mater. 59 (2011) 4126; Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2816], some parameters, such as yielding strength of the dendrites and glass matrix, and the strain-hardening exponent of the dendrites, are estimated based on literatures. Here, Ti48Zr18V12Cu5Be17 MGMCs are investigated in order to improve the tensile deformation model and reveal the tensile deformation mechanisms. The tensile behavior of dendrites is obtained experimentally combining nano-indentation measurements and finite-element-method analysis for the first time, and those of the glass matrix and composites are obtained by tension. Besides, the tensile behavior of the MGMCs is divided into four stages: (1) elastic-elastic, (2) elastic-plastic, (3) plastic-plastic (work-hardening), and (4) plastic-plastic (softening). The respective constitutive relationships at different deformation stages are quantified. The calculated results coincide well with the experimental results. Thus, the improved model can be applied to clarify and predict the tensile behavior of the MGMCs. PMID:26354724

  20. In Situ Electrochemical Oxidation Tuning of Transition Metal Disulfides to Oxides for Enhanced Water Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The development of catalysts with earth-abundant elements for efficient oxygen evolution reactions is of paramount significance for clean and sustainable energy storage and conversion devices. Our group demonstrated recently that the electrochemical tuning of catalysts via lithium insertion and extraction has emerged as a powerful approach to improve catalytic activity. Here we report a novel in situ electrochemical oxidation tuning approach to develop a series of binary, ternary, and quaternary transition metal (e.g., Co, Ni, Fe) oxides from their corresponding sulfides as highly active catalysts for much enhanced water oxidation. The electrochemically tuned cobalt–nickel–iron oxides grown directly on the three-dimensional carbon fiber electrodes exhibit a low overpotential of 232 mV at current density of 10 mA cm–2, small Tafel slope of 37.6 mV dec–1, and exceptional long-term stability of electrolysis for over 100 h in 1 M KOH alkaline medium, superior to most non-noble oxygen evolution catalysts reported so far. The materials evolution associated with the electrochemical oxidation tuning is systematically investigated by various characterizations, manifesting that the improved activities are attributed to the significant grain size reduction and increase of surface area and electroactive sites. This work provides a promising strategy to develop electrocatalysts for large-scale water-splitting systems and many other applications. PMID:27162978

  1. In situ detection of lithium metal plating on graphite in experimental cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlmann, C.; Illig, J.; Ender, M.; Schuster, R.; Ivers-Tiffée, E.

    2015-04-01

    Lithium plating is a common problem for charging in high-rate and low-temperature Li-ion battery applications. The current "standard anode" material graphite is especially susceptible to the formation of lithium metal on its surface instead of intercalation. In order to improve the understanding of this phenomenon, this investigation was conducted using pulse-relaxation experiments, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical in-situ microscopy. For that purpose, current pulses up to 10 C were applied on graphite half-cells to induce plating on the anode's surface. The resulting characteristics (e.g., cell voltage and changes in surface morphology) were analyzed during pulses and subsequent relaxation. Several characteristic attributes could be detected whenever lithium plating occurred: i) a prominent kink of the voltage transient during charging, ii) a distinctive plateau in the subsequent relaxation of the cell voltage, iii) a gray deposit covering the anode surface which under high magnification shows iv) a net-like structure covering the carbon particles. These attributes may provide useful detection tools for Li plating. The observed characteristics for Li plating were explained regarding the involved microscopic processes. This model was used to understand dissolution of plated lithium on the particle surface after the charging pulse and could thus be confirmed by SEM investigations.

  2. An improved tensile deformation model for in-situ dendrite/metallic glass matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, X. H.; Qiao, J. W.; Jiao, Z. M.; Wang, Z. H.; Yang, H. J.; Xu, B. S.

    2015-09-01

    With regard to previous tensile deformation models simulating the tensile behavior of in-situ dendrite-reinforced metallic glass matrix composites (MGMCs) [Qiao et al., Acta Mater. 59 (2011) 4126; Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2816], some parameters, such as yielding strength of the dendrites and glass matrix, and the strain-hardening exponent of the dendrites, are estimated based on literatures. Here, Ti48Zr18V12Cu5Be17 MGMCs are investigated in order to improve the tensile deformation model and reveal the tensile deformation mechanisms. The tensile behavior of dendrites is obtained experimentally combining nano-indentation measurements and finite-element-method analysis for the first time, and those of the glass matrix and composites are obtained by tension. Besides, the tensile behavior of the MGMCs is divided into four stages: (1) elastic-elastic, (2) elastic-plastic, (3) plastic-plastic (work-hardening), and (4) plastic-plastic (softening). The respective constitutive relationships at different deformation stages are quantified. The calculated results coincide well with the experimental results. Thus, the improved model can be applied to clarify and predict the tensile behavior of the MGMCs.

  3. TEM in situ deformation study of the interaction of lattice dislocations with grain boundaries in metals

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, T.C.; Robertson, I.M.; Birnbaum, H.K. )

    1990-01-01

    The passage of dislocations across grain boundaries in metals has been studied by using the in situ TEM deformation technique. A detailed analysis of the interaction of glissile matrix dislocations with grain-boundary dislocations has been performed. The results show that the dislocations piled-up at the grain boundary can: (1) be transferred directly through the grain boundary into the adjoining grain; (2) be absorbed and transformed into extrinsic grain-boundary dislocations; (3) be accommodated in the grain boundary, followed by the emission from the grain boundary of a matrix dislocation; and (4) be ejected back into their original grain. To predict which slip system is favorable for slip transfer, three criteria have been considered, namely: (1) the angle between the lines of intersection of the incoming and outgoing slip lanes with the grain boundary, this should be as small as possible; (2) the resolved shear stress acting on the possible slip systems in the adjoining grain, this should be large and (3) the magnitude of the Burgers vector of the extrinsic dislocations left at the grain boundary following emission of dislocations, this should be a minimum. The Burgers vector of the generated dislocation is dictated primarily by condition (3).

  4. In Situ Electrochemical Oxidation Tuning of Transition Metal Disulfides to Oxides for Enhanced Water Oxidation

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Wei; Wang, Haotian; Li, Yuzhang; ...

    2015-07-15

    The development of catalysts with earth-abundant elements for efficient oxygen evolution reactions is of paramount significance for clean and sustainable energy storage and conversion devices. Our group demonstrated recently that the electrochemical tuning of catalysts via lithium insertion and extraction has emerged as a powerful approach to improve catalytic activity. Here we report a novel in situ electrochemical oxidation tuning approach to develop a series of binary, ternary, and quaternary transition metal (e.g., Co, Ni, Fe) oxides from their corresponding sulfides as highly active catalysts for much enhanced water oxidation. The electrochemically tuned cobalt–nickel–iron oxides grown directly on the three-dimensionalmore » carbon fiber electrodes exhibit a low overpotential of 232 mV at current density of 10 mA cm–2, small Tafel slope of 37.6 mV dec–1, and exceptional long-term stability of electrolysis for over 100 h in 1 M KOH alkaline medium, superior to most non-noble oxygen evolution catalysts reported so far. The materials evolution associated with the electrochemical oxidation tuning is systematically investigated by various characterizations, manifesting that the improved activities are attributed to the significant grain size reduction and increase of surface area and electroactive sites. This work provides a promising strategy to develop electrocatalysts for large-scale water-splitting systems and many other applications.« less

  5. Macronutrient and trace-metal geochemistry of an in situ iron-induced Southern Ocean bloom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frew, Russell; Bowie, Andrew; Croot, Peter; Pickmere, Stuart

    We have investigated the effect of iron supply and increased phytoplankton growth on the cycling of the macronutrients phosphate, nitrate and silicic acid as well as the micronutrients copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd). Nutrient levels were measured in situ in an iron-induced phytoplankton bloom at 61°S 140°E in the Southern Ocean Iron Release experiment (SOIREE). Nutrient ratios upon arrival at the study site indicate that much of the seasonal phytoplankton productivity was by iron-limited diatoms growing at low mean light levels. The addition of iron (Fe) induced a bloom that led to a draw-down in the macronutrients in ratios consistent with the growth of diatoms under iron-replete conditions. None of the bioutilised trace metals Cu, Ni, Zn or Cd showed any indication of co-limitation, with Fe, of phytoplankton growth. Zn concentrations did not decrease by algal uptake as expected. Cd was partitioned to the particulate phase indicating consumption by the algae. Cd was preferentially utilised with respect to P with a αCd/P=5.8. Interpretation of the Cd/Ca data from the sedimentary record using this higher induced αCd/P value would imply even higher Southern Ocean surface water P during the last glacial maximum.

  6. An improved tensile deformation model for in-situ dendrite/metallic glass matrix composites.

    PubMed

    Sun, X H; Qiao, J W; Jiao, Z M; Wang, Z H; Yang, H J; Xu, B S

    2015-09-10

    With regard to previous tensile deformation models simulating the tensile behavior of in-situ dendrite-reinforced metallic glass matrix composites (MGMCs) [Qiao et al., Acta Mater. 59 (2011) 4126; Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2816], some parameters, such as yielding strength of the dendrites and glass matrix, and the strain-hardening exponent of the dendrites, are estimated based on literatures. Here, Ti48Zr18V12Cu5Be17 MGMCs are investigated in order to improve the tensile deformation model and reveal the tensile deformation mechanisms. The tensile behavior of dendrites is obtained experimentally combining nano-indentation measurements and finite-element-method analysis for the first time, and those of the glass matrix and composites are obtained by tension. Besides, the tensile behavior of the MGMCs is divided into four stages: (1) elastic-elastic, (2) elastic-plastic, (3) plastic-plastic (work-hardening), and (4) plastic-plastic (softening). The respective constitutive relationships at different deformation stages are quantified. The calculated results coincide well with the experimental results. Thus, the improved model can be applied to clarify and predict the tensile behavior of the MGMCs.

  7. Thermodynamics of gas-metal-slag equilibria for applications in in situ and ex situ vitrification melts

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.L.; Reimann, G.A.

    1993-05-01

    An equilibrium thermodynamic model for melting mixed waste was evaluated using the STEPSOL computer code. STEPSOL uses free energy minimization techniques to predict equilibrium composition from input species and user selected species in the output. The model assumes equilibrium between gas, slag, and metallic phases. Input for the model was developed using compositional data from Pit 9 of the Subsurface Disposal Area at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Thermodynamic data were primarily from compilations published by the US Government. The results of model evaluation indicate that the amount of plutonium chloride or plutonium oxyhydroxide that would be evaporated into the vapor phase would be minor. Relatively more uranium chloride and uranium oxyhydroxide would be vaporized. However, a hazards analysis was not part of the present task. Minor amounts of plutonium and uranium would be reduced to the metallic state, but these amounts should alloy with the iron-chromium-nickel metallic phase. The vast majority of the plutonium and uranium are in the slag phase as oxides. Results of the calculations show that silica and silicates dominate the products and that the system is very reducing. The major gases are carbon monoxide and hydrogen, with lesser amounts of carbon dioxide and water. High vapor pressure metals are considered but were not analyzed using STEPSOL. STEPSOL does not make predictions of distribution of species between phases.

  8. Electrochemically Smart Bimetallic Materials Featuring Group 11 Metals: In-situ Conductive Network Generation and Its Impact on Cell Capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Takeuchi, Esther

    2016-11-30

    Our results for this program “Electrochemically smart bimetallic materials featuring Group 11 metals: in-situ conductive matrix generation and its impact on battery capacity, power and reversibility” have been highly successful: 1) we demonstrated material structures which generated in-situ conductive networks through electrochemical activation with increases in conductivity up to 10,000 fold, 2) we pioneered in situ analytical methodology to map the cathodes at several stages of discharge through the use of Energy Dispersive X-ray Diffraction (EDXRD) to elucidate the kinetic dependence of the conductive network formation, and 3) we successfully designed synthetic methodology for direct control of material properties including crystallite size and surface area which showed significant impact on electrochemical behavior.

  9. In situ-generated metal oxide catalyst during CO oxidation reaction transformed from redox-active metal-organic framework-supported palladium nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The preparation of redox-active metal-organic framework (ra-MOF)-supported Pd nanoparticles (NPs) via the redox couple-driven method is reported, which can yield unprotected metallic NPs at room temperature within 10 min without the use of reducing agents. The Pd@ra-MOF has been exploited as a precursor of an active catalyst for CO oxidation. Under the CO oxidation reaction condition, Pd@ra-MOF is transformed into a PdOx-NiOy/C nanocomposite to generate catalytically active species in situ, and the resultant nanocatalyst shows sustainable activity through synergistic stabilization. PMID:22898143

  10. Advanced heat exchanger development for molten salts

    DOE PAGES

    Sabharwall, Piyush; Clark, Denis; Glazoff, Michael; ...

    2014-12-01

    This study addresses present work concerned with advanced heat exchanger development for molten salt in nuclear and non nuclear thermal systems. The molten salt systems discussed herein use alloys, such as Hastelloy N and 242, which show corrosion resistance to molten salt at nominal operating temperatures up to 700°C. These alloys were diffusion welded, and the corresponding information is presented. Test specimens were prepared for exposing diffusion welds to molten salt environments. Hastelloy N and 242 were found to be weldable by diffusion welding, with ultimate tensile strengths about 90% of base metal values. Both diffusion welds and sheet materialmore » in Hastelloy N were corrosion tested in?58 mol% KF and 42 mol% ZrF4 at 650, 700, and 850°C for 200, 500, and 1,000 hours. Corrosion rates found were similar between welded and nonwelded materials, typically <10 mils per year. For materials of construction, nickel and alloys with dense nickel coatings are effectively inert to corrosion in fluorides, but not so in chlorides. Hence, additional testing of selected alloys for resistance to intergranular corrosion is needed, as is a determination of corrosion rate as a function of contaminant type and alloy composition with respect to chromium and carbon to better define the optimal chromium and carbon composition, independent of galvanic or differential solubility effects. Also presented is the division of the nuclear reactor and high temperature components per ASME standards, along with design requirements for a subcritical Rankine power cycle heat exchanger that has to overcome pressure difference of about 17 MPa.« less

  11. Advanced heat exchanger development for molten salts

    SciTech Connect

    Sabharwall, Piyush; Clark, Denis; Glazoff, Michael; Zheng, Guiqiu; Sridharan, Kumar; Anderson, Mark

    2014-12-01

    This study addresses present work concerned with advanced heat exchanger development for molten salt in nuclear and non nuclear thermal systems. The molten salt systems discussed herein use alloys, such as Hastelloy N and 242, which show corrosion resistance to molten salt at nominal operating temperatures up to 700°C. These alloys were diffusion welded, and the corresponding information is presented. Test specimens were prepared for exposing diffusion welds to molten salt environments. Hastelloy N and 242 were found to be weldable by diffusion welding, with ultimate tensile strengths about 90% of base metal values. Both diffusion welds and sheet material in Hastelloy N were corrosion tested in?58 mol% KF and 42 mol% ZrF4 at 650, 700, and 850°C for 200, 500, and 1,000 hours. Corrosion rates found were similar between welded and nonwelded materials, typically <10 mils per year. For materials of construction, nickel and alloys with dense nickel coatings are effectively inert to corrosion in fluorides, but not so in chlorides. Hence, additional testing of selected alloys for resistance to intergranular corrosion is needed, as is a determination of corrosion rate as a function of contaminant type and alloy composition with respect to chromium and carbon to better define the optimal chromium and carbon composition, independent of galvanic or differential solubility effects. Also presented is the division of the nuclear reactor and high temperature components per ASME standards, along with design requirements for a subcritical Rankine power cycle heat exchanger that has to overcome pressure difference of about 17 MPa.

  12. I-NERI ANNUAL TECHNICAL PROGRESS REPORT: 2006-002-K, Separation of Fission Products from Molten LiCl-KCl Salt Used for Electrorefining of Metal Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    S. Frank

    2009-09-01

    An attractive alternative to the once-through disposal of electrorefiner salt is to selectively remove the active fission products from the salt and recycle the salt back to the electrorefiner (ER). This would allow salt reuse for some number of cycles before ultimate disposal of the salt in a ceramic waste form. Reuse of ER salt would, thus, greatly reduce the volume of ceramic waste produced during the pyroprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. This final portion of the joint I-NERI research project is to demonstrate the separation of fission products from molten ER salt by two methods previously selected during phase two (FY-08) of this project. The two methods selected were salt/zeolite contacting and rare-earth fission product precipitation by oxygen bubbling. The ER salt used in these tests came from the Mark-IV electrorefiner used to anodically dissolved driver fuel from the EBR-II reactor on the INL site. The tests were performed using the Hot Fuel Dissolution Apparatus (HFDA) located in the main cell of the Hot Fuels Examination Facility (HFEF) at the Materials and Fuels complex on the INL site. Results from these tests were evaluated during a joint meeting of KAERI and INL investigators to provide recommendations as to the future direction of fission product removal from electrorefiner salt that accumulate during spent fuel treatment. Additionally, work continued on kinetic measurements of surrogate quaternary salt systems to provide fundamental kinetics on the ion exchange system and to expand the equilibrium model system developed during the first two phases of this project. The specific objectives of the FY09 I-NERI research activities at the INL include the following: • Perform demonstration tests of the selected KAERI precipitation and INL salt/zeolite contacting processes for fission product removal using radioactive, fission product loaded ER salt • Continue kinetic studies of the quaternary Cs/Sr-LiCl-KCl system to determine the rate of ion

  13. Trace Metals in Groundwater & the Vadose Zone Calcite: In Situ Containment & Stabilization of Strontium-90 & Other Divalent Metals & Radionuclides at Arid West DOE

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Robert W.

    2004-12-01

    Radionuclide and metal contaminants such as strontium-90 are present beneath U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) lands in both the groundwater (e.g., 100-N area at Hanford, WA) and vadose zone (e.g., Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory). In situ containment and stabilization of these contaminants is a cost-effective treatment strategy. However, implementing in situ containment and stabilization approaches requires definition of the mechanisms that control contaminant sequestration. We are investigating the in situ immobilization of radionuclides or contaminant metals (e.g., strontium-90) by their facilitated co-precipitation with calcium carbonate in groundwater and vadose zone systems. Our facilitated approach, shown schematically in Figure 1, relies upon the hydrolysis of introduced urea to cause the acceleration of calcium carbonate precipitation (and trace metal co-precipitation) by increasing pH and alkalinity. Subsurface urea hydrolysis is catalyzed by the urease enzyme, which may be either introduced with the urea or produced in situ by ubiquitous subsurface urea hydrolyzing microorganisms. Because the precipitation process tends to be irreversible and many western aquifers are saturated with respect to calcite, the co-precipitated metals and radionuclides will be effectively removed from the aqueous phase over the long-term. Another advantage of the ureolysis approach is that the ammonium ions produced by the reaction can exchange with radionuclides sorbed to subsurface minerals, thereby enhancing the availability of the radionuclides for re-capture in a more stable solid phase (co-precipitation rather than adsorption).

  14. Trace Metals in Groundwater & Vadose Zone Calcite: In Situ Containment & Stabilization of 90Strontium & Other Divalent Metals & Radionuclides at Arid West DOE Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Robert W.; Fujita, Yoshiko; Ferris, F. Grant; Cosgrove, Donna M.; Colwell, Rick S.

    2004-06-01

    Radionuclide and metal contaminants such as 90Sr are present beneath U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) lands in both the groundwater (e.g., 100-N area at Hanford, WA) and vadose zone (e.g., Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory). In situ containment and stabilization of these contaminants is a cost-effective treatment strategy. However, implementing in situ containment and stabilization approaches requires definition of the mechanisms that control contaminant sequestration. We are investigating the in situ immobilization of radionuclides or contaminant metals (e.g., 90Sr) by their facilitated co-precipitation with calcium carbonate in groundwater and vadose zone systems. Our facilitated approach, shown schematically in Figure 1, relies upon the hydrolysis of introduced urea to cause the acceleration of calcium carbonate precipitation (and trace metal co-precipitation) by increasing pH and alkalinity. Subsurface urea hydrolysis is catalyzed by the urease enzyme, which may be either introduced with the urea or produced in situ by ubiquitous subsurface urea hydrolyzing microorganisms. Because the precipitation process tends to be irreversible and many western aquifers are saturated with respect to calcite, the co-precipitated metals and radionuclides will be effectively removed from the aqueous phase over the long-term. Another advantage of the ureolysis approach is that the ammonium ions produced by the reaction can exchange with radionuclides sorbed to subsurface minerals, thereby enhancing the availability of the radionuclides for re-capture in a more stable solid phase (co-precipitation rather than adsorption).

  15. Trace Metals in Groundwater & Vadose Zone Calcite: In Situ Containment & Stabilization of Stronthium-90 & Other Divalent Metals & Radionuclides at Arid West DOE

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Robert W.

    2005-06-01

    Radionuclide and metal contaminants such as strontium-90 are present beneath U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) lands in both the groundwater (e.g., 100-N area at Hanford, WA) and vadose zone (e.g., Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center [INTEC] at the Idaho National Laboratory [INL]). In situ containment and stabilization of these contaminants is a cost-effective treatment strategy. However, implementing in situ containment and stabilization approaches requires definition of the mechanisms that control contaminant sequestration. We are investigating the in situ immobilization of radionuclides or contaminant metals (e.g., strontium-90) by their facilitated co-precipitation with calcium carbonate (primarily calcite) in groundwater and vadose zone systems. Our facilitated approach relies upon the hydrolysis of introduced urea to cause the acceleration of calcium carbonate precipitation (and trace metal co-precipitation) by (a) increasing pH and alkalinity and (b) liberating cations from the aquifer matrix by cation exchange reactions. Subsurface urea hydrolysis is catalyzed by the urease enzyme, which is produced in situ by native urea hydrolyzing microorganisms. Because the precipitation process tends to be irreversible and many western aquifers are saturated with respect to calcite, the co-precipitated metals and radionuclides will be effectively removed from the aqueous phase over the long term. We are currently conducting field based activities at both the INL Vadose Zone Research Park (VZRP), an uncontaminated surrogate site for the strontium-90 contaminated vadose zone at INTEC and at the strontium-90 contaminated aquifer of 100-N area of the Hanford site.

  16. Microstructural Control via Copious Nucleation Manipulated by In Situ Formed Nucleants: Large-Sized and Ductile Metallic Glass Composites.

    PubMed

    Song, Wenli; Wu, Yuan; Wang, Hui; Liu, Xiongjun; Chen, Houwen; Guo, Zhenxi; Lu, Zhaoping

    2016-10-01

    A novel strategy to control the precipitation behavior of the austenitic phase, and to obtain large-sized, transformation-induced, plasticity-reinforced bulk metallic glass matrix composites, with good tensile properties, is proposed. By inducing heterogeneous nucleation of the transformable reinforcement via potent nucleants formed in situ, the characteristics of the austenitic phase are well manipulated. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Multifunctional Supramolecular Hybrid Materials Constructed from Hierarchical Self-Ordering of In Situ Generated Metal-Organic Framework (MOF) Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Abhijeet K; Han, Intaek; Tan, Jin-Chong

    2015-06-25

    A synergistic approach is described to engineer supramolecular hybrid materials based on metal-organic frameworks, encompassing HKUST-1 nanoparticles formed in situ, coexisting with an electrically conducting gel fiber network. Following findings were made: (a) multistimuli-responsive structural transformation via reversible sol-gel switching, and (b) radical conversion of a soft hybrid gel into a mechanically malleable, viscoelastic matter. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Bridging the gap between ionic liquids and molten salts: group 1 metal salts of the bistriflamide anion in the gas phase.

    PubMed

    Leal, João P; da Piedade, Manuel E Minas; Canongia Lopes, José N; Tomaszowska, Alina A; Esperança, José M S S; Rebelo, Luís Paulo N; Seddon, Kenneth R

    2009-03-19

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry experiments showed that liquid Group 1 metal salts of the bistriflamide anion undergoing reduced-pressure distillation exhibit a remarkable behavior that is in transition between that of the vapor-liquid equilibrium characteristics of aprotic ionic liquids and that of the Group 1 metal halides: the unperturbed vapors resemble those of aprotic ionic liquids, in the sense that they are essentially composed of discrete ion pairs. However, the formation of large aggregates through a succession of ion-molecule reactions is closer to what might be expected for Group 1 metal halides. Similar experiments were also carried out with bis{(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl}amine to investigate the effect of H(+), which despite being the smallest Group 1 cation, is generally regarded as a nonmetal species. In this case, instead of the complex ion-molecule reaction pattern found for the vapors of Group 1 metal salts, an equilibrium similar to those observed for aprotic ionic liquids was observed.

  19. In situ fabrication of a microfluidic device for immobilised metal affinity sensing.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Abhishek G; Darton, Nicholas J; Yunus, Kamran; Fisher, Adrian C; Slater, Nigel K H

    2012-05-15

    In this work a novel microfluidic device was constructed in situ containing the smallest microscopic co-polymeric immobilised metal affinity (IMA) adsorbent yet documented. This device has for the first time allowed the microlitre scale chromatographic assay of histidine-tagged proteins in a biological sample. To enable this approach, rather than using a high capacity commercial packed bed column which requires large sample volumes and would be susceptible to occlusion by cell debris, a microgram capacity co-polymeric chromatographic substrate suitable for analytical applications was fabricated within a microfluidic channel. This porous co-polymeric IMA micro-chromatographic element, only 27μl in volume, was assessed for the analytical capture of two different histidine-tagged recombinant fusion proteins. The micro-chromatographic adsorber was fabricated in situ by photo-polymerising an iminodiacetic acid (IDA) functionalised polymer matrix around a template of fused 100μm diameter NH(4)Cl particles entirely within the microfluidic channel and then etching away the salt with water to form a network of interconnected voids. The surface of the micro-chromatographic adsorber was chemically functionalised with a chelating agent and loaded with Cu(2+) ions. FTIR and NMR analysis verified the presence of the chelating agent on the adsorbent surface and its Cu(2+) ion binding capacity was determined to be 2.4μmol Cu(2+) (ml of adsorbent)(-1). Micro-scale equilibrium adsorption studies using the two different histidine-tagged proteins, LacI-His(6)-GFP and α-Synuclein-His(8)-YFP, were carried out and the protein binding capacity of the adsorbent was determined to be 0.370 and 0.802mg(g of adsorbent)(-1), respectively. The dynamic binding capacity was determined at four different flow rates and found to be comparable to the equilibrium binding capacity at low flow rates. The sensing platform was also used to adsorb LacI-His(6)-GFP protein from crude cell lysate. During

  20. Electrically conductive containment vessel for molten aluminum

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Scott, Donald G.

    1985-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a containment vessel which is particularly useful in melting aluminum. The vessel of the present invention is a multilayered vessel characterized by being electrically conductive, essentially nonwettable by and nonreactive with molten aluminum. The vessel is formed by coating a tantalum substrate of a suitable configuration with a mixture of yttria and particulate metal borides. The yttria in the coating inhibits the wetting of the coating while the boride particulate material provides the electrical conductivity through the vessel. The vessel of the present invention is particularly suitable for use in melting aluminum by ion bombardment.

  1. Electrically conductive containment vessel for molten aluminum

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, C.E.; Scott, D.G.

    1984-06-25

    The present invention is directed to a containment vessel which is particularly useful in melting aluminum. The vessel of the present invention is a multilayered vessel characterized by being electrically conductive, essentially nonwettable by and nonreactive with molten aluminum. The vessel is formed by coating a tantalum substrate of a suitable configuration with a mixture of yttria and particulate metal 10 borides. The yttria in the coating inhibits the wetting of the coating while the boride particulate material provides the electrical conductivity through the vessel. The vessel of the present invention is particularly suitable for use in melting aluminum by ion bombardment.

  2. Next-Generation Electrochemical Energy Materials for Intermediate Temperature Molten Oxide Fuel Cells and Ion Transport Molten Oxide Membranes.

    PubMed

    Belousov, Valery V

    2017-02-21

    oxygen ion transport in potential MOM materials and MOFC electrolytes. In addition, we consider the rapid oxygen transport in a molten oxide scale formed on a metal surface during catastrophic oxidation and show that the same transport could be used beneficially in MOMs and MOFCs. A polymer model explaining the oxygen transport in molten oxides is also considered. Understanding the oxygen transport mechanisms in oxide melts is important for the development of new generation energy materials, which will contribute to more efficient operation of electrochemical devices at intermediate temperatures. Here we highlight the progress made in developing this understanding. We also show the latest advances made in search of alternative molten oxide materials having high mixed ion electronic and ionic conductivities for use in MOMs and MOFCs, respectively. Prospects for further research are presented.

  3. Quantitative In Situ TEM Studies of Small-Scale Plasticity in Irradiated and Unirradiated Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisholm, Claire

    mechanical data, as the two defect conditions exhibit similar yield strengths, ultimate tensile strengths, and number and size of load-drops. This similarity implies that, even if materials contain dissimilar individual defects, the collective defect behavior can result in similar mechanical properties. Thus, the origin of mechanical properties can be ambiguous and caution should be taken when extrapolating to different size scales. Furthermore, such similarities highlight the importance of in-situ observation during deformation. These experiments provide a key test of theory, by providing a local test of behavior, which is much more stringent than testing behaviors averaged over many regions. Advanced electron microscopy imaging techniques and quantitative in-situ TEM tensile tests are performed with Au thin-film as a model FCC structural material. These investigations highlight the various hurdles experimental studies must overcome in order to probe defect behavior at a fundamental level. Two novelly-applied strain mapping techniques are performed to directly measure the matrix strain around helium bubbles in He1+ implanted Au thin-film. Dark-field inline holography (DFIH) is applied here for the first time to a metal, and nano-beam electron diffraction (NBED) transient strain mapping is shown to be experimentally feasible using the high frame rate Gatan K2 camera. The K2 camera reduces scan times from ˜18 minutes to 82 seconds for a 128x256 pixel scan at 400 fps. Both methods measure a peak strain around 10 nm bubbles of 0.7%, correlating to an internal pressure of 580 MPa, or a vacancy to helium ion ratio of 1V:2.4He. Previous studies have relied on determining the appropriate equation of state to relate measured or approximated helium density to internal bubble pressure and thus strain. Direct measurement of the surrounding matrix strain through DFIH and NBED methods effectively bypasses this step, allowing for easier defect interaction modeling as the bubble can be

  4. Application of Mythen detector: In-situ XRD study on the thermal expansion behavior of metal indium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Rong; Chen, ZhongJun; Cai, Quan; Fu, JianLong; Gong, Yu; Wu, ZhongHua

    2016-07-01

    A Mythen detector has been equipped at the beamline 4B9A of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF), which is expected to enable BSRF to perform time-resolved measurement of X-ray diffraction (XRD) full-profiles. In this paper, the thermal expansion behavior of metal indium has been studied by using the in-situ XRD technique with the Mythen detector. The indium was heated from 303 to 433 K with a heating rate of 2 K/min. The in-situ XRD full-profiles were collected with a rate of one profile per 10 seconds. Rietveld refinement was used to extract the structural parameters. The results demonstrate that these collected quasi-real-time XRD profiles can be well used for structural analysis. The metal indium was found to have a nonlinear thermal expansion behavior from room temperature to the melting point (429.65 K). The a-axis of the tetragonal unit cell expands with a biquadratic dependency on temperature, while the c-axis contracts with a cubic dependency on temperature. By the time-resolved XRD measurements, it was observed that the [200] preferred orientation can maintain to about 403.15 K. While (110) is the last and detectable crystal plane just before melting of the polycrystalline indium foil. This study is not only beneficial to the application of metal indium, but also exhibits the capacity of in-situ time-resolved XRD measurements at the X-ray diffraction station of BSRF.

  5. Production of oxygen from lunar soil by molten salt electrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Rudolf

    1989-01-01

    A simple approach to utilizing lunar resources proposes to dissolve lunar soil, without or with little beneficiation, in a suitable molten salt and to electrolyze the oxides to oxygen and a metal byproduct. The envisioned process and the required technological advances are discussed. Promising electrolysis conditions have been identified in a recent experimental program to manufacture silicon and aluminum from anorthite.

  6. 13. VIEW OF THE MOLTEN SALT BATHS USED TO UNIFORMLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF THE MOLTEN SALT BATHS USED TO UNIFORMLY AND QUICKLY HEAT METALS PRIOR TO WORKING (ROLLING). (9/16/85) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  7. Electrochemical cell having an alkali-metal-nitrate electrode

    DOEpatents

    Roche, M.F.; Preto, S.K.

    1982-06-04

    A power-producing secondary electrochemical cell includes a molten alkali metal as the negative-electrode material and a molten-nitrate salt as the positive-electrode material. The molten material in the respective electrodes are separated by a solid barrier of alkali-metal-ion conducting material. A typical cell includes active materials of molten sodium separated from molten sodium nitrate and other nitrates in mixture by a layer of sodium ..beta..'' alumina.

  8. Process for removing technetium from iron and other metals

    DOEpatents

    Leitnaker, J.M.; Trowbridge, L.D.

    1999-03-23

    A process for removing technetium from iron and other metals comprises the steps of converting the molten, alloyed technetium to a sulfide dissolved in manganese sulfide, and removing the sulfide from the molten metal as a slag. 4 figs.

  9. Process for removing technetium from iron and other metals

    DOEpatents

    Leitnaker, James M.; Trowbridge, Lee D.

    1999-01-01

    A process for removing technetium from iron and other metals comprises the steps of converting the molten, alloyed technetium to a sulfide dissolved in manganese sulfide, and removing the sulfide from the molten metal as a slag.

  10. Method for converting UF5 to UF4 in a molten fluoride salt

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Melvin R.; Bamberger, Carlos E.; Kelmers, A. Donald

    1977-01-01

    The reduction of UF.sub.5 to UF.sub.4 in a molten fluoride salt by sparging with hydrogen is catalyzed by metallic platinum. The reaction is also catalyzed by platinum alloyed with gold reaction equipment.

  11. Effects of Cations on Corrosion of Inconel 625 in Molten Chloride Salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ming; Ma, Hongfang; Wang, Mingjing; Wang, Zhihua; Sharif, Adel

    2016-04-01

    Hot corrosion of Inconel 625 in sodium chloride, potassium chloride, magnesium chloride, calcium chloride and their mixtures with different compositions is conducted at 900°C to investigate the effects of cations in chloride salts on corrosion behavior of the alloy. XRD, SEM/EDS were used to analyze the compositions, phases, and morphologies of the corrosion products. The results showed that Inconel 625 suffers more severe corrosion in alkaline earth metal chloride molten salts than alkaline metal chloride molten salts. For corrosion in mixture salts, the corrosion rate increased with increasing alkaline earth metal chloride salt content in the mixture. Cations in the chloride molten salts mainly affect the thermal and chemical properties of the salts such as vapor pressure and hydroscopicities, which can affect the basicity of the molten salt. Corrosion of Inconel 625 in alkaline earth metal chloride salts is accelerated with increasing basicity.

  12. Syntheses and crystal structures of three new borates templated by transition-metal complexes in situ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guo-Ming; Sun, Yan-Qiong; Yang, Guo-Yu

    2006-05-01

    Three new cobalt borate compounds, [Co(DIEN) 2][B 5O 6(OH) 4] 2 (DIEN=diethylenetriamine) ( 1), [B 5O 7(OH) 3Co(TREN)] (TREN= tris(2-aminoethyl)amine) ( 2), and [Co 2(TETA) 3][B 5O 6(OH) 4] 4 (TETA=triethylenetetramine) ( 3) have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, IR, elemental analysis and thermogravimetry. The structures exhibit interesting 3D supramolecular hydrogen-bonded architectures, involving the similar borate polyanion [B 5O 6+n(OH) 4-n] ( n+1)- ( n=0 for 1 and 3, and n=1 for 2) and the templating transition metal complexes which are generated in situ under mild solvothermal conditions. Crystal data: 1, monoclinic, space group C2/ m (No. 12), a=15.2372(3) Å, b=11.5987(2) Å, c=8.4163(3) Å, β=93.601(4)°, V=1484.49(7) Å3, Z=2; 2, monoclinic, P2 1/ c (No. 14), a=8.9881(3) Å, b=20.7648(5) Å, c=9.3681(2) Å, β=99.926(4)°, V=1722.25(8) Å3, Z=4; 3, triclinic, space group P-1 (No. 2), a=12.3717(4) Å, b=12.9653(8) Å, c=19.0925(3) Å, α=77.009(5)°, β=80.095(2)°, γ=82.334(3)°, V=2925.3(2) Å3, Z=2.

  13. A view of treatment process of melted nuclear fuel on a severe accident plant using a molten salt system

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, R.; Takahashi, Y.; Nakamura, H.; Mizuguchi, K.; Oomori, T.

    2013-07-01

    At severe accident such as Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident, the nuclear fuels in the reactor would melt and form debris which contains stable UO2-ZrO2 mixture corium and parts of vessel such as zircaloy and iron component. The requirements for solution of issues are below; -) the reasonable treatment process of the debris should be simple and in-situ in Fukushima Daiichi power plant, -) the desirable treatment process is to take out UO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} or metallic U and TRU metal, and dispose other fission products as high level radioactive waste; and -) the candidate of treatment process should generate the smallest secondary waste. Pyro-process has advantages to treat the debris because of the high solubility of the debris and its total process feasibility. Toshiba proposes a new pyro-process in molten salts using electrolysing Zr before debris fuel being treated.

  14. Combined in situ effects of metals and nutrients on marine biofilms: Shifts in the diatom assemblage structure and biological traits.

    PubMed

    Belando, M D; Marín, A; Aboal, M; García-Fernández, A J; Marín-Guirao, L

    2017-01-01

    The effects of multiple stressors on marine diatom assemblages are still poorly understood. The interactive effects of metals and nutrients were assessed in two coastal biofilms grown at a reference site and a historically contaminated site. The biofilms were exposed in situ to pulse exposures of metals (Zn and Pb) and nutrients (N and P) individually and in combination to mimic patterns of discharge in the study area. The reference community's structure (composition and abundance of taxa) was modified after metals and/or nutrients exposure, but each stressor acted in different way. Irrespective of the stressors or scenario, the abundance of the dominant species Opephora krumbeinii declined, and it is proposed as sensitive species. Nutrient supply favoured the proliferation of certain species with high nutrient tolerances (Fragilaria famelica, Tabularia ktenoeides), whereas metals promoted the colonisation of metal-tolerant species, e.g., Berkeleya fennica, Opephora marina. Simultaneous exposure induced an amplification of levels of accumulated metals, chlorophyll a and EPS contents and triggered the succession of species towards tolerant species with specific growth. Metals seemed to act as a selective factor of metal-tolerant species, and nutrients favoured the proliferation of those species forming zig-zag colonies (Neosynedra provincialis), mucous tubes (Berkeleya spp.) and motile diatoms (Navicula salinicola, Nitzschia incognita), resulting in biofilms with a more complex architecture. The diatom communities from the historically contaminated site were more resistant to pulse exposure, but metals or nutrients loads induced overproduction of mucilage. We propose that growth forms may complement taxonomic approaches and provide a quick and easy way to detect community changes related to metal and nutrient pollution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Trace Metals in Groundwater & Vadose Zone Calcite: In Situ Containment & Stabilization of Stronthium-90 & Other Divalent Metals & Radionuclides at Arid West DOE

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Robert W

    2003-06-01

    Radionuclide and metal contaminants such as strontium-90 are present beneath U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) lands in both the groundwater (e.g., 100-N area at Hanford, WA) and vadose zone (e.g., Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory). In situ containment and stabilization of these contaminants is a cost-effective treatment strategy. However, implementing in situ containment and stabilization approaches requires definition of the mechanisms that control contaminant sequestration. We are investigating the in situ immobilization of radionuclides or contaminant metals (e.g., strontium-90) by their facilitated co-precipitation with calcium carbonate in groundwater and vadose zone systems. Our facilitated approach, shown schematically in Figure 1, relies upon the hydrolysis of introduced urea to cause the acceleration of calcium carbonate precipitation (and trace metal co-precipitation) by increasing pH and alkalinity. Subsurface urea hydrolysis is catalyzed by the urease enzyme, which may be either introduced with the urea or produced in situ by ubiquitous subsurface urea hydrolyzing microorganisms. Because the precipitation process tends to be irreversible and many western aquifers are saturated with respect to calcite, the co-precipitated metals and radionuclides will be effectively removed from the aqueous phase over the long-term. Another advantage of the ureolysis approach is that the ammonium ions produced by the reaction can exchange with radionuclides sorbed to subsurface minerals, thereby enhancing the availability of the radionuclides for recapture in a more stable solid phase (co-precipitation rather than adsorption). Our specific research objectives include: * Elucidation of the mechanisms and rates for the release of sorbed trace metals and their subsequent sequestration by co-precipitation in calcite induced by urea hydrolysis. * Evaluation at the field scale of the influence of

  16. On-site in-situ determination of heavy metals in groundwater using an electrochemically-based sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Herdan, J.; Feeney, R.; Kounaves, S.P.

    1997-12-31

    An electrochemically-based probe has been developed for rapid in-situ or on-site detection of heavy metals in contaminated groundwater. The transducer consists of a microlithographically fabricated iridium ultramicroelectrode array (UMEA) which is used in conjunction with the high speed electrochemical preconcentration technique of square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV). The UMEA is connected to an integrated potentiostat which is controlled by a laptop computer. The entire probe, measuring only two inches in diameter, can be inserted downhole to measure such metal ions as Cu, Cd, Ph, and Zn, at the parts-per-billion level. The utility of this probe for rapid on site screening of metals was shown by conducting a proof-of-concept field demonstration at a metals-contaminated site at Hanscom Air Force Base in Massachusetts. Sampling was performed both, directly in-situ, and on-site by bringing the sample to the surface. Acidified samples where also taken back to the laboratory where they were measured both electrochemically using a mercury film glassy carbon electrode with SWASV, and by ICP Spectroscopy using EPA method 200.7. Excellent correlation was obtained between all of the measurement techniques, and the data for total and ionic forms was also in good agreement.

  17. Porous electrolyte retainer for molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Raj N.; Dusek, Joseph T.

    1983-06-21

    A porous tile for retaining molten electrolyte within a fuel cell is prepared by sintering particles of lithium aluminate into a stable structure. The tile is assembled between two porous metal plates which serve as electrodes with fuels gases such as H.sub.2 and CO opposite to oxidant gases such as O.sub.2 and CO.sub.2. The tile is prepared with a porosity of 55-65% and a pore size distribution selected to permit release of sufficient molten electrolyte to wet but not to flood the adjacent electrodes.

  18. Porous electrolyte retainer for molten carbonate fuel cell. [lithium aluminate

    DOEpatents

    Singh, R.N.; Dusek, J.T.

    1979-12-27

    A porous tile for retaining molten electrolyte within a fuel cell is prepared by sintering particles of lithium aluminate into a stable structure. The tile is assembled between two porous metal plates which serve as electrodes with fuels gases such as H/sub 2/ and CO opposite to oxidant gases such as O/sub 2/ and CO/sub 2/. The tile is prepared with a porosity of 55 to 65% and a pore size distribution selected to permit release of sufficient molten electrolyte to wet but not to flood the adjacent electrodes.

  19. Ionic liquids: the link to high-temperature molten salts?

    PubMed

    El Abedin, Sherif Zein; Endres, Frank

    2007-11-01

    Due to their wide thermal windows, ionic liquids can be regarded as the missing link between aqueous/organic solutions and high-temperature molten salts. They can be employed efficiently for the coating of other metals with thin layers of tantalum, aluminum, and presumably many others at reasonable temperatures by electrochemical means. The development of ionic liquids, especially air and water stable ones, has opened the door for the electrodeposition of reactive elements such as, for example, Al, Ta, and Si, which in the past were only accessible using high-temperature molten salts or, in part, organic solvents.

  20. Alkali metal nitrate purification

    DOEpatents

    Fiorucci, Louis C.; Morgan, Michael J.

    1986-02-04

    A process is disclosed for removing contaminants from impure alkali metal nitrates containing them. The process comprises heating the impure alkali metal nitrates in solution form or molten form at a temperature and for a time sufficient to effect precipitation of solid impurities and separating the solid impurities from the resulting purified alkali metal nitrates. The resulting purified alkali metal nitrates in solution form may be heated to evaporate water therefrom to produce purified molten alkali metal nitrates suitable for use as a heat transfer medium. If desired, the purified molten form may be granulated and cooled to form discrete solid particles of purified alkali metal nitrates.

  1. Approach combining on-line metal exchange and tangential-flow ultrafiltration for in-situ characterization of metal species in humic hydrocolloids.

    PubMed

    Goveia, Danielle; Lobo, Fabiana Aparecida; Burba, Peter; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes; Dias Filho, Newton Luiz; Rosa, André Henrique

    2010-05-01

    This paper deals with the development and optimization of an analytical procedure using ultrafiltration and a flow-injection system, and its application in in-situ experiments to characterize the lability and availability of metal species in humic-rich hydrocolloids. The on-line system consists of a tangential flow ultrafiltration device equipped with a 3-kDa filtration membrane. The concentration of free ions in the filtrate was determined by atomic-absorption spectrometry, assuming that metals not complexed by aquatic humic substances (AHS) were separated from the complexed species (M-AHS) retained by the membrane. For optimization, exchange experiments using Cu(II) solutions and AHS solutions doped with the metal ions Ni(II), Mn(II), Fe(III), Cd(II), and Zn(II) were carried out to characterize the stability of the metal-AHS complexes. The new procedure was then applied in-situ at a tributary of the Ribeira do Iguape river (Iguape, São Paulo State, Brazil) and evaluated using the ions Fe(III) and Mn(II), which are considered to be essential constituents of aquatic systems. From the exchange between metal-natural organic matter (M-NOM) and the Cu(II) ions it was concluded that Cu(II) concentrations >485 microg L(-1) were necessary to obtain maximum exchange of the complexes Mn-NOM and Fe-NOM, corresponding to 100% Mn and 8% Fe. Moreover, the new analytical procedure is simple and opens up new perspectives for understanding the complexation, transport, stability, and lability of metal species in humic-rich aquatic environments.

  2. An Automated Electronic Tongue for In-Situ Quick Monitoring of Trace Heavy Metals in Water Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Wei; Li, Yi; Gao, Xiaoming; Guo, Hongsun; Zhao, Huixin; Wang, Ping

    2009-05-01

    An automated electronic tongue instrumentation has been developed for in-situ concentration determination of trace heavy metals in water environment. The electronic tongue contains two main parts. The sensor part consists of a silicon-based Hg-coated Au microelectrodes array (MEA) for the detection of Zn(II), Cd(II), Pb(II) and Cu(II) and a multiple light-addressable potentiometric sensor (MLAPS) for the detection of Fe(III) and Cr(VI). The control part employs pumps, valves and tubes to enable the pick-up and pretreatment of aqueous sample. The electronic tongue realized detection of the six metals mentioned above at part-per-billion (ppb) level without manual operation. This instrumentation will have wide application in quick monitoring and prediction the heavy metal pollution in lakes and oceans.

  3. Polyimide/metal composite films via in situ decomposition of inorganic additives - Soluble polyimide versus polyimide precursor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rancourt, J. D.; Porta, G. M.; Moyer, E. S.; Madeleine, D. G.; Taylor, L. T.

    1988-01-01

    Polyimide-metal oxide (Co3O4 or CuO) composite films have been prepared via in situ thermal decomposition of cobalt (II) chloride or bis(trifluoroacetylacetonato)copper(II). A soluble polyimide (XU-218) and its corresponding prepolymer (polyamide acid) were individually employed as the reaction matrix. The resulting composites exhibited a greater metal oxide concentration at the air interface with polyamide acid as the reaction matrix. The water of imidization that is released during the concurrent polyamide acid cure and additive decomposition is believed to promote metal migration and oxide formation. In contrast, XU-218 doped with either HAuCl4.3H2O or AgNO3 yields surface gold or silver when thermolyzed (300 C).

  4. Alginate Hydrogel: A Shapeable and Versatile Platform for in Situ Preparation of Metal-Organic Framework-Polymer Composites.

    PubMed

    Zhu, He; Zhang, Qi; Zhu, Shiping

    2016-07-13

    This work reports a novel in situ growth approach for incorporating metal-organic framework (MOF) materials into an alginate substrate, which overcomes the challenges of processing MOF particles into specially shaped structures for real industrial applications. The MOF-alginate composites are prepared through the post-treatment of a metal ion cross-linked alginate hydrogel with a MOF ligand solution. MOF particles are well distributed and embedded in and on the surface of the composites. The macroscopic shape of the composite can be designed by controlling the shape of the corresponding hydrogel; thus MOF-alginate beads, fibers, and membranes are obtained. In addition, four different MOF-alginate composites, including HKUST-1-, ZIF-8-, MIL-100(Fe)-, and ZIF-67-alginate, were successfully prepared using different metal ion cross-linked alginate hydrogels. The mechanism of formation is revealed, and the composite is demonstrated to be an effective absorbent for water purification.

  5. Batteries using molten salt electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Guidotti, Ronald A.

    2003-04-08

    An electrolyte system suitable for a molten salt electrolyte battery is described where the electrolyte system is a molten nitrate compound, an organic compound containing dissolved lithium salts, or a 1-ethyl-3-methlyimidazolium salt with a melting temperature between approximately room temperature and approximately 250.degree. C. With a compatible anode and cathode, the electrolyte system is utilized in a battery as a power source suitable for oil/gas borehole applications and in heat sensors.

  6. Molten carbonate fuel cell reduction of nickel deposits

    DOEpatents

    Smith, James L.; Zwick, Stanley A.

    1987-01-01

    A molten carbonate fuel cell with anode and cathode electrodes and an eleolyte formed with two tile sections, one of the tile sections being adjacent the anode and limiting leakage of fuel gas into the electrolyte with the second tile section being adjacent the cathode and having pores sized to permit the presence of oxygen gas in the electrolyte thereby limiting the formation of metal deposits caused by the reduction of metal compositions migrating into the electrolyte from the cathode.

  7. Thermocapillary-induced breakup of molten cladding films

    SciTech Connect

    Henkel, P.R.

    1987-06-01

    The fragmentation of molten cladding films into rivulets and single waves is investigated. This problem is especially relevant to liquid-metal fast breeder reactor safety analysis because of its impact on the flow regime of the clad metal. Among other effects, various instabilities may contribute to film breakup. In the axial direction, the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability can arise. As the Sandia transient axial relocation experiments frequently exhibit, an azimuthal fragmentation process also occurs. Consequently, another instability due to thermocapillarity is proposed.

  8. Closed cell metal foam method

    DOEpatents

    Patten, James W.

    1978-01-01

    Foamed metals and metal alloys which have a closed cellular structure are prepared by heating a metal body containing entrapped inert gas uniformly distributed throughout to a temperature above the melting point of the metal and maintaining the body at this temperature a period of time sufficient to permit the entrapped gas to expand, forming individual cells within the molten metal, thus expanding and foaming the molten metal. After cell formation has reached the desired amount, the foamed molten metal body is cooled to below the melting temperature of the metal. The void area or density of the foamed metal is controlled by predetermining the amount of inert gas entrapped in the metal body and by the period of time the metal body is maintained in the molten state. This method is useful for preparing foamed metals and metal alloys from any metal or other material of which a body containing entrapped inert gas can be prepared.

  9. Effects of metal contamination in situ on osmoregulation and oxygen consumption in the mudflat fiddler crab Uca rapax (Ocypodidae, Brachyura).

    PubMed

    Capparelli, Mariana V; Abessa, Denis M; McNamara, John C

    2016-01-01

    The contamination of estuaries by metals can impose additional stresses on estuarine species, which may exhibit a limited capability to adjust their regulatory processes and maintain physiological homeostasis. The mudflat fiddler crab Uca rapax is a typical estuarine crab, abundant in both pristine and contaminated areas along the Atlantic coast of Brazil. This study evaluates osmotic and ionic regulatory ability and gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in different salinities (<0.5, 25 and 60‰ S) and oxygen consumption rates at different temperatures (15, 25 and 35°C) in U. rapax collected from localities along the coast of São Paulo State showing different histories of metal contamination (most contaminated Ilha Diana, Santos>Rio Itapanhaú, Bertioga>Picinguaba, Ubatuba [pristine reference site]). Our findings show that the contamination of U. rapax by metals in situ leads to bioaccumulation and induces biochemical and physiological changes compared to crabs from the pristine locality. U. rapax from the contaminated sites exhibit stronger hyper- and hypo-osmotic regulatory abilities and show greater gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities than crabs from the pristine site, revealing that the underlying biochemical machinery can maintain systemic physiological processes functioning well. However, oxygen consumption, particularly at elevated temperatures, decreases in crabs showing high bioaccumulation titers but increases in crabs with low/moderate bioaccumulation levels. These data show that U. rapax chronically contaminated in situ exhibits compensatory biochemical and physiological adjustments, and reveal the importance of studies on organisms exposed to metals in situ, particularly estuarine invertebrates subject to frequent changes in natural environmental parameters like salinity and temperature. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. [Bio-oil production from biomass pyrolysis in molten salt].

    PubMed

    Ji, Dengxiang; Cai, Tengyue; Ai, Ning; Yu, Fengwen; Jiang, Hongtao; Ji, Jianbing

    2011-03-01

    In order to investigate the effects of pyrolysis conditions on bio-oil production from biomass in molten salt, experiments of biomass pyrolysis were carried out in a self-designed reactor in which the molten salt ZnCl2-KCl (with mole ratio 7/6) was selected as heat carrier, catalyst and dispersion agent. The effects of metal salt added into ZnCl2-KCl and biomass material on biomass pyrolysis were discussed, and the main compositions of bio-oil were determined by GC-MS. Metal salt added into molten salt could affect pyrolysis production yields remarkably. Lanthanon salt could enhance bio-oil yield and decrease water content in bio-oil, when mole fraction of 5.0% LaCl3 was added, bio-oil yield could reach up to 32.0%, and water content of bio-oil could reduce to 61.5%. The bio-oil and char yields were higher when rice straw was pyrolysed, while gas yield was higher when rice husk was used. Metal salts showed great selectivity on compositions of bio-oil. LiCl and FeCl2 promoted biomass to pyrolyse into smaller molecular weight compounds. CrCl3, CaCl2 and LaCl3 could restrain second pyrolysis of bio-oil. The research provided a scientific reference for production of bio-oil from biomass pyrolysis in molten salt.

  11. Does Mercury have a molten core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricker, P. E.; Reynolds, R. T.; Summers, A. L.; Cassen, P. M.

    1976-01-01

    The question of whether or not Mercury could contain a molten metallic core is investigated by studying the possible thermal evolution of a metallic core in that planet. The calculations involve the solution of the equation of heat conduction for a spherically symmetric body with internal heat sources, modifications to take account of the latent heat of fusion as well as the redistribution of radioactive heat sources as a consequence of melting, the terrestrial Fe/U ratio, and a Th/U ratio of 3.7. The temperature profile predicted by the calculations for a period of 4.6 billion years indicates that the inner 1400 km of the core would now be solid while the outer 500 km would be molten. It is emphasized that this result is a direct consequence of a discontinuity in melting temperatures at the core-mantle boundary and that although a dynamo is possible, it would have to be driven mechanically rather than by thermal convection.

  12. Volmer-Weber growth stages of polycrystalline metal films probed by in situ and real-time optical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abadias, G.; Simonot, L.; Colin, J. J.; Michel, A.; Camelio, S.; Babonneau, D.

    2015-11-01

    The Volmer-Weber growth of high-mobility metal films is associated with the development of a complex compressive-tensile-compressive stress behavior as the film deposition proceeds through nucleation of islands, coalescence, and formation of a continuous layer. The tensile force maximum has been attributed to the end of the islands coalescence stage, based on ex situ morphological observations. However, microstructural rearrangements are likely to occur in such films during post-deposition, somewhat biasing interpretations solely based on ex situ analysis. Here, by combining two simultaneous in situ and real-time optical sensing techniques, based on surface differential reflectance spectroscopy (SDRS) and change in wafer curvature probed by multibeam optical stress sensor (MOSS), we provide direct evidence that film continuity does coincide with tensile stress maximum during sputter deposition of a series of metal (Ag, Au, and Pd) films on amorphous SiOx. Stress relaxation after growth interruption was testified from MOSS, whose magnitude scaled with adatom mobility, while no change in SDRS signal could be revealed, ruling out possible changes of the surface roughness at the micron scale.

  13. Application of lithium in molten-salt reduction processes.

    SciTech Connect

    Gourishankar, K. V.

    1998-11-11

    Metallothermic reductions have been extensively studied in the field of extractive metallurgy. At Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), we have developed a molten-salt based reduction process using lithium. This process was originally developed to reduce actinide oxides present in spent nuclear fuel. Preliminary thermodynamic considerations indicate that this process has the potential to be adapted for the extraction of other metals. The reduction is carried out at 650 C in a molten-salt (LiCl) medium. Lithium oxide (Li{sub 2}O), produced during the reduction of the actinide oxides, dissolves in the molten salt. At the end of the reduction step, the lithium is regenerated from the salt by an electrowinning process. The lithium and the salt from the electrowinning are then reused for reduction of the next batch of oxide fuel. The process cycle has been successfully demonstrated on an engineering scale in a specially designed pyroprocessing facility. This paper discusses the applicability of lithium in molten-salt reduction processes with specific reference to our process. Results are presented from our work on actinide oxides to highlight the role of lithium and its effect on process variables in these molten-salt based reduction processes.

  14. METAL SURFACE TREATMENT

    DOEpatents

    Eubank, L.D.

    1958-08-12

    Improved flux baths are described for use in conjunction with hot dipped coatings for uranium. The flux bath consists of molten alkali metal, or alkaline earth metal halides. One preferred embodiment comprises a bath containing molten KCl, NaCl, and LiCl in proportions approximating the triple eutectic.

  15. The removal of iron from molten aluminium

    SciTech Connect

    Donk, H.M. van der; Nijhof, G.H.; Castelijns, C.A.M.

    1995-12-31

    In this work an overview is given about the techniques available for the removal of metallic impurities from molten aluminium. The overview is focused on the removal of iron. Also, some experimental results are given about the creation of iron-rich intermetallic compounds in an aluminium system, which are subsequently removed by gravity segregation and filtration techniques. This work is part of an ongoing research project of three major European aluminium companies who are co-operating on the subject of recycling of aluminium packaging materials recovered from household waste by means of Eddy-Current techniques. Using this technique the pick-up of some contaminating metals, particularly iron, is almost unavoidable.

  16. In situ reduction of antibacterial silver ions to metallic silver nanoparticles on bioactive glasses functionalized with polyphenols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraris, S.; Miola, M.; Cochis, A.; Azzimonti, B.; Rimondini, L.; Prenesti, E.; Vernè, E.

    2017-02-01

    The realization of surfaces with antibacterial properties due to silver nanoparticles loaded through a green approach is a promising research challenge of the biomaterial field. In this research work, two bioactive glasses have been doubly surface functionalized with polyphenols (gallic acid or natural polyphenols extracted from red grape skins and green tea leaves) and silver nanoparticles deposited by in situ reduction from a silver nitrate aqueous solution. The presence of biomolecules - showing reducing ability to directly obtain in situ metallic silver - and silver nanoparticles was investigated by means of UV-vis spectroscopy, X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). The antibacterial activity of the modified surfaces was tested against a multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacterial strain.

  17. In situ X-ray spectromicroscopy investigation of the material stability of SOFC metal interconnects in operating electrochemical cells.

    PubMed

    Bozzini, Benedetto; Tondo, Elisabetta; Prasciolu, Mauro; Amati, Matteo; Abyaneh, Majid Kazemian; Gregoratti, Luca; Kiskinova, Maya

    2011-08-22

    The present in situ study of electrochemically induced processes occurring in Cr/Ni bilayers in contact with a YSZ electrolyte aims at a molecular-level understanding of the fundamental aspects related to the durability of metallic interconnects in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The results demonstrate the potential of scanning photoelectron microspectroscopy and imaging to follow in situ the evolution of the chemical states and lateral distributions of the constituent elements (Ni, Cr, Zr, and Y) as a function of applied cathodic potential in a cell working at 650 °C in 10(-6) mbar O(2) ambient conditions. The most interesting findings are the temperature-induced and potential-dependent diffusion of Ni and Cr, and the oxidation-reduction processes resulting in specific morphology-composition changes in the Ni, Cr, and YSZ areas.

  18. In situ X-ray diffraction monitoring of a mechanochemical reaction reveals a unique topology metal-organic framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsenis, Athanassios D.; Puškarić, Andreas; Štrukil, Vjekoslav; Mottillo, Cristina; Julien, Patrick A.; Užarević, Krunoslav; Pham, Minh-Hao; Do, Trong-On; Kimber, Simon A. J.; Lazić, Predrag; Magdysyuk, Oxana; Dinnebier, Robert E.; Halasz, Ivan; Friščić, Tomislav

    2015-03-01

    Chemical and physical transformations by milling are attracting enormous interest for their ability to access new materials and clean reactivity, and are central to a number of core industries, from mineral processing to pharmaceutical manufacturing. While continuous mechanical stress during milling is thought to create an environment supporting nonconventional reactivity and exotic intermediates, such speculations have remained without proof. Here we use in situ, real-time powder X-ray diffraction monitoring to discover and capture a metastable, novel-topology intermediate of a mechanochemical transformation. Monitoring the mechanochemical synthesis of an archetypal metal-organic framework ZIF-8 by in situ powder X-ray diffraction reveals unexpected amorphization, and on further milling recrystallization into a non-porous material via a metastable intermediate based on a previously unreported topology, herein named katsenite (kat). The discovery of this phase and topology provides direct evidence that milling transformations can involve short-lived, structurally unusual phases not yet accessed by conventional chemistry.

  19. In-situ deformation studies of an aluminum metal-matrix composite in a scanning electron microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manoharan, M.; Lewandowski, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    Tensile specimens made of a metal-matrix composite (cast and extruded aluminum alloy-based matrix reinforced with Al2O3 particulate) were tested in situ in a scanning electron microscope equipped with a deformation stage, to directly monitor the crack propagation phenomenon. The in situ SEM observations revealed the presence of microcracks both ahead of and near the crack-tip region. The microcracks were primarily associated with cracks in the alumina particles. The results suggest that a region of intense deformation exists ahead of the crack and corresponds to the region of microcracking. As the crack progresses, a region of plastically deformed material and associated microcracks remains in the wake of the crack.

  20. In-situ deformation studies of an aluminum metal-matrix composite in a scanning electron microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manoharan, M.; Lewandowski, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    Tensile specimens made of a metal-matrix composite (cast and extruded aluminum alloy-based matrix reinforced with Al2O3 particulate) were tested in situ in a scanning electron microscope equipped with a deformation stage, to directly monitor the crack propagation phenomenon. The in situ SEM observations revealed the presence of microcracks both ahead of and near the crack-tip region. The microcracks were primarily associated with cracks in the alumina particles. The results suggest that a region of intense deformation exists ahead of the crack and corresponds to the region of microcracking. As the crack progresses, a region of plastically deformed material and associated microcracks remains in the wake of the crack.

  1. In-Situ Formed Hierarchical Metal-Organic Flexible Cathode for High-Energy Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Fang, Chun; Zeng, Rui; Liu, Yaojun; Zhang, Wang; Wang, Yanjie; Liu, Qingju; Huang, Yunhui

    2017-09-10

    Metal-organic compounds are a family of electrode materials with structural diversity and excellent thermal stability for rechargeable batteries. Here, we fabricate a hierarchical nanocomposite with metal-organic cuprous tetracyanoquino- dimethane (CuTCNQ) in three-dimensional (3D) conductive carbon nanofibers (CNFs) network by in-situ growth, and evaluate it as flexible cathode for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). CuTCNQ in such flexible composite electrode is able to exhibit a superhigh capacity of 252 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C and highly reversible stability for 1200 cycles within the voltage range of 2.5 - 4.1 V (vs. Na+/Na). A high specific energy of 762 Wh kg-1 is obtained with high average potential of 3.2 V (vs. Na+/Na). The in-situ formed electroactive metal-organic composites with tailored nanoarchitecture provide a promising alternative choice for high-performance cathode materials in sodium-ion batteries with high energy. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Optimization and comprehensive characterization of metal hydride based hydrogen storage systems using in-situ Neutron Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Börries, S.; Metz, O.; Pranzas, P. K.; Bellosta von Colbe, J. M.; Bücherl, T.; Dornheim, M.; Klassen, T.; Schreyer, A.

    2016-10-01

    For the storage of hydrogen, complex metal hydrides are considered as highly promising with respect to capacity, reversibility and safety. The optimization of corresponding storage tanks demands a precise and time-resolved investigation of the hydrogen distribution in scaled-up metal hydride beds. In this study it is shown that in situ fission Neutron Radiography provides unique insights into the spatial distribution of hydrogen even for scaled-up compacts and therewith enables a direct study of hydrogen storage tanks. A technique is introduced for the precise quantification of both time-resolved data and a priori material distribution, allowing inter alia for an optimization of compacts manufacturing process. For the first time, several macroscopic fields are combined which elucidates the great potential of Neutron Imaging for investigations of metal hydrides by going further than solely 'imaging' the system: A combination of in-situ Neutron Radiography, IR-Thermography and thermodynamic quantities can reveal the interdependency of different driving forces for a scaled-up sodium alanate pellet by means of a multi-correlation analysis. A decisive and time-resolved, complex influence of material packing density is derived. The results of this study enable a variety of new investigation possibilities that provide essential information on the optimization of future hydrogen storage tanks.

  3. Design of nanocoatings by in situ phosphatizing reagent catalyzed polysilsesquioxane for corrosion inhibition and adhesion promotion on metal alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Kimberly B.

    When a metal reacts with oxygen and water, a redox reaction happens, which will cause corrosion. Current surface pretreatment for inhibiting corrosion on metal alloys is a phosphate conversion bath. The phosphate conversion bath will generate a phosphate-chromate layer to adhere strongly to a metal substrate. However, it is toxic and unfriendly to the environment. Our group proposed an innovative coating that contains a phosphate component (ISPR-In-situ Phosphatizing Reagent) within a protective coating. The ISPR coating will form a bound phosphate layer on the metal surface acting as the corrosion barrier and enhancing adhesion into the metal surface; moreover, it is low in cost and non-toxic. Within this dissertation, there are four projects that investigate design of ISPR nanocoatings for the use of corrosion inhibition and adhesion promotion. Surface modification and adjusting concentrations of materials with the different formulations are explored. The first project focuses on the adhesion enhancement of a coating created by modifying the surface of an aluminum panel. Secondly, the next project will discuss and present the use of three rare earth element formulations as a replacement for phosphate conversion coatings on magnesium alloy, AZ61. The third project is the design of a nanocoating by using heat dissipating materials to fill in small vacant spaces in the ISPR network coating on various metal alloys. The last project, studies the strategic selection of incorporating metal components into ISPR network by the reduction potential values on several different alloys. Many methods of analysis are used; SEM, TEM, ASTM B117, ASTM D1308, ASTM D3359, EIS, and thickness probe. It was found that the addition of ISPR in the nanocoatings dramatically improves the vitality of metal alloys and these results will be presented during this dissertation.

  4. Experimental Demonstration of the Molten Oxide Electrolysis Method for Oxygen and Iron Production from Simulated Lunar Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curreri, P. A.; Ethridge, E.; Hudson, S.; Sen, S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a Marshall Space Flight Center funded effort to conduct an experimental demonstration of the processing of simulated lunar resources by the molten oxide electrolysis (MOE) process to produce oxygen and metal from lunar resources to support human exploration of space. Oxygen extracted from lunar materials can be used for life support and propellant, and silicon and metallic elements produced can be used for in situ fabrication of thin-film solar cells for power production. The Moon is rich in mineral resources, but it is almost devoid of chemical reducing agents, therefore, molten oxide electrolysis, MOE, is chosen for extraction, since the electron is the most practical reducing agent. MOE was also chosen for following reasons. First, electrolytic processing offers uncommon versatility in its insensitivity to feedstock composition. Secondly, oxide melts boast the twin key attributes of highest solubilizing capacity for regolith and lowest volatility of any candidate electrolytes. The former is critical in ensuring high productivity since cell current is limited by reactant solubility, while the latter simplifies cell design by obviating the need for a gas-tight reactor to contain evaporation losses as would be the case with a gas or liquid phase fluoride reagent operating at such high temperatures. In the experiments reported here, melts containing iron oxide were electrolyzed in a low temperature supporting oxide electrolyte (developed by D. Sadoway, MIT).

  5. In situ spectroscopic detection of SMSI effect in a Ni/CeO2 system: hydrogen-induced burial and dig out of metallic nickel.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Alfonso; Holgado, Juan P; Gonzalez-delaCruz, Victor M; Habas, Susan E; Herranz, Tirma; Salmeron, Miquel

    2010-02-21

    In situ APPES technique demonstrates that the strong metal support interaction effect (SMSI) in the Ni-ceria system is associated with the decoration and burial of metallic particles by the partially reduced support, a phenomenon reversible by evacuation at high temperature of the previously absorbed hydrogen.

  6. In situ spectroscopic detection of SMSI effect in a Ni/CeO2 system: hydrogen-induced burial and dig out of metallic nickel

    SciTech Connect

    Caballero, Alfonso; Holgado, Juan P.; Gonzalez-delaCruz, Victor M.; Habas, Susan e.; Herranz, Tirma; Salmeron, Miquel

    2010-06-29

    In situ APPES technique demonstrates that the strong metal support interaction effect (SMSI) in the Ni-ceria system is associated with the decoration and burial of metallic particles by the partially reduced support, a phenomenon reversible by evacuation at high temperature of the previously absorbed hydrogen.

  7. In-Situ Electrokinetic Remediation of Metal Contaminated Soils Technology Status Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-07-01

    demonstration of electrokinetic remediation at Naval Air Weapons Station (NAWS) Point Mugu. Dr. R. Mark Bricka, David Gent , and Chris Fetter of the...Profile 23 5 I. Introduction Electrokinetic remediation is an in-situ process in which an electrical field is created in a soil matrix by...technology at its current stage of development. 6 II. Technology Description Electrokinetic remediation is an in-situ process in which an

  8. IN SITU Photoelectron Spectroscopy Investigation of Interface Coupling Between Metals and MoO3 Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fei; Hu, Fang; Zhang, Xue-Ao; Xu, Hui

    Metal nanoparticles or nanoclusters have been widely used to functionalize semiconductor metal oxide nanostructures-based gas sensors or photodetectors to significantly enhance the device performance. It is crucial to reach a thorough understanding of the interfacial coupling between the metal nanoclusters and the metal oxide nanostructures. Here, in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) have been used to investigate the interfacial interactions between metals (Au and Co) and molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) films. In spite of the high work function (˜6.8eV) of the thermally evaporated MoO3 films, only weak interaction is observed at the Au/MoO3 interface. Au clusters or films can remain their neutral and nonchemically reacted state on MoO3 film. In contrast, the interfacial chemical reaction between Co and MoO3 is significantly strong. A band-bending in MoO3 and two interface states have been observed at the Co/MoO3 interface.

  9. Marine lake as in situ laboratory for studies of organic matter influence on speciation and distribution of trace metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlakar, Marina; Fiket, Željka; Geček, Sunčana; Cukrov, Neven; Cuculić, Vlado

    2015-07-01

    Karst marine lakes are unique marine systems, also recognized as in situ "laboratories" in which geochemical processes on a different scale compared to the open sea, can be observed. In this study, organic matter cycle and its impact on distribution of trace metals in the marine lake Mir, located on Dugi Otok Island, in the central part of the eastern Adriatic Sea, was investigated for the first time. Studied marine lake is small, isolated, shallow basin, with limited communication with the open sea. Intense spatial and seasonal variations of organic matter, dissolved and particulate (DOC, POC), and dissolved trace metals concentrations in the water column of the Lake are governed predominantly by natural processes. Enhanced oxygen consumption in the Lake during summer season, high DOC and POC concentrations and low redox potential result in occasional occurrence of anoxic conditions in the bottom layers with appearance of sulfur species. Speciation modeling showed that dissolved trace metals Cu, Pb and Zn, are mostly bound to organic matter, while Cd, Co and Ni are present predominantly as free ions and inorganic complexes. Trace metals removal from the water column and their retention in the sediment was found to depend on the nature of the relationship between specific metal and organic or inorganic phases, sulfides, Fe-oxyhydroxydes or biogenic calcite. The above is reflected in the composition of the sediments, which are, in addition to influence of karstic background and bathymetry of the basin, significantly affected by accumulation of detritus at the bottom of the Lake.

  10. Electrolytic purification of metals

    DOEpatents

    Bowman, Kenneth A.

    1980-01-01

    A method of electrolytically separating metal from impurities comprises providing the metal and impurities in a molten state in a container having a porous membrane therein, the membrane having a thickness in the range of about 0.01 to 0.1 inch, being capable of containing the molten metal in the container, and being permeable by a molten electrolyte. The metal is electrolytically transferred through the membrane to a cathode in the presence of the electrolyte for purposes of separating or removing impurities from the metal.

  11. In-situ study of crystallization kinetics in ternary bulk metallic glass alloys with different glass forming abilities

    SciTech Connect

    Lan, Si; Wei, Xiaoya; Wu, Xuelian; Wang, Xun-Li; Zhou, Jie; Lu, Zhaoping; Feygenson, Mikhail; Neuefeind, Jörg

    2014-11-17

    In-situ transmission electron microcopy and time-resolved neutron diffraction were used to study crystallization kinetics of two ternary bulk metallic glasses during isothermal annealing in the supercooled liquid region. It is found that the crystallization of Zr{sub 56}Cu{sub 36}Al{sub 8}, an average glass former, follows continuous nucleation and growth, while that of Zr{sub 46}Cu{sub 46}Al{sub 8}, a better glass former, is characterized by site-saturated nucleation, followed by slow growth. Possible mechanisms for the observed differences and the relationship to the glass forming ability are discussed.

  12. In-situ TEM observation of dynamic interaction between dislocation and cavity in BCC metals in tensile deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tougou, Kouichi; Shikata, Akihito; Kawase, Uchu; Onitsuka, Takashi; Fukumoto, Ken-ichi

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the effect of irradiation hardening of structural materials due to cavity formation in BCC metals for nuclear applications, an in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation in tensile test was performed for the helium ion-irradiated specimens of pure molybdenum and pure iron. The obstacle barrier strength, α was calculated from the bow-out dislocation based on line tension model, and the obstacle barrier strengths of cavity in pure molybdenum and pure iron were about 0.5-0.7. The fractions of cross-slip generation of dislocation of screw type due to interaction with the cavities were about 16-18 % for pure molybdenum.

  13. In-situ study of crystallization kinetics in ternary bulk metallic glass alloys with different glass forming abilities

    DOE PAGES

    Lan, Si; Wei, Xiaoya; Zhou, Jie; ...

    2014-11-18

    In-situ transmission electron microcopy and time-resolved neutron diffraction were used to study crystallization kinetics of two ternary bulk metallic glasses during isothermal annealing in the supercooled liquid region. It is found that the crystallization of Zr56Cu36Al8, an average glass former, follows continuous nucleation and growth, while that of Zr46Cu46Al8, a better glass former, is characterized by site-saturated nucleation, followed by slow growth. Possible mechanisms for the observed differences and the relationship to the glass forming ability are discussed.

  14. In Situ NDA Conformation Measurements Performed at Auxiliary Charcoal Bed and Other Main Charcoal Beds After Uranium Removal from Molten Salt Reactor Experiment ACB at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Haghighi, M. H.; Kring, C. T.; McGehee, J. T.; Jugan, M. R.; Chapman, J.; Meyer, K. E.

    2002-02-26

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) site is located in Tennessee, on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The MSRE was run by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to demonstrate the desirable features of the molten-salt concept in a practical reactor that could be operated safely and reliably. It introduced the idea of a homogeneous reactor using fuel salt media and graphite moderation for power and breeder reactors. The MSRE reactor and associated components are located in cells beneath the floor in the high-bay area of Building 7503. The reactor was operated from June 1965 to December 1969. When the reactor was shut down, fuel salt was drained from the reactor circuit to two drain tanks. A ''clean'' salt was then circulated through the reactor as a decontamination measure and drained to a third drain tank. When operations ceased, the fuel and flush salts were allowed to cool and solidify in the drain tanks. At shutdown, the MSRE facility complex was placed in a surveillance and maintenance program. Beginning in 1987, it was discovered that gaseous uranium (U-233/U-232) hexafluoride (UF6) had moved throughout the MSRE process systems. The UF6 had been generated when radiolysis in the fluorine salts caused the individual constituents to dissociate to their component atoms, including free fluorine. Some of the free fluorine combined with uranium fluorides (UF4) in the salt to produce UF6. UF6 is gaseous at slightly above ambient temperatures; thus, periodic heating of the fuel salts (which was intended to remedy the radiolysis problems) and simple diffusion had allowed the UF6 to move out of the salt and into the process systems of MSRE. One of the systems that UF6 migrated into due to this process was the offgas system which is vented to the MSRE main charcoal beds and MSRE auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB). Recently, the majority of the uranium laden-charcoal material residing within the ACB was safely and successfully removed using

  15. In Situ Atom Scale Visualization of Domain Wall Dynamics in VO2 Insulator-Metal Phase Transition

    PubMed Central

    He, Xinfeng; Xu, Tao; Xu, Xiaofeng; Zeng, Yijie; Xu, Jing; Sun, Litao; Wang, Chunrui; Xing, Huaizhong; Wu, Binhe; Lu, Aijiang; Liu, Dingquan; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Chu, Junhao

    2014-01-01

    A domain wall, as a device, can bring about a revolution in developing manipulation of semiconductor heterostructures devices at the atom scale. However, it is a challenge for these new devices to control domain wall motion through insulator-metal transition of correlated-electron materials. To fully understand and harness this motion, it requires visualization of domain wall dynamics in real space. Here, domain wall dynamics in VO2 insulator-metal phase transition was observed directly by in situ TEM at atom scale. Experimental results depict atom scale evolution of domain morphologies and domain wall exact positions in (202) and (040) planes referring to rutile structure at 50°C. In addition, microscopic mechanism of domain wall dynamics and accurate lattice basis vector relationship of two domains were investigated with the assistance of X-ray diffraction, ab initio calculations and image simulations. This work offers a route to atom scale tunable heterostructure device application. PMID:25292447

  16. Coordination-driven in situ self-assembly strategy for the preparation of metal-organic framework hybrid membranes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rong; Ji, Shulan; Wang, Naixin; Wang, Lin; Zhang, Guojun; Li, Jian-Rong

    2014-09-08

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have emerged as porous solids of a superior type for the fabrication of membranes. However, it is still challenging to prepare a uniformly dispersed robust MOF hybrid membrane. Herein, we propose a simple and powerful strategy, namely, coordination-driven in situ self-assembly, for the fabrication of MOF hybrid membranes. On the basis of the coordination interactions between metal ions and ligands and/or the functional groups of the organic polymer, this method was confirmed to be feasible for the production of a stable membrane with greatly improved MOF-particle dispersion in and compatibility with the polymer, thus providing outstanding separation ability. As an experimental proof of concept, a high-quality ZIF-8/PSS membrane was fabricated that showed excellent performance in the nanofiltration and separation of dyes from water.

  17. Scattering influences in quantitative fission neutron radiography for the in situ analysis of hydrogen distribution in metal hydrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Börries, S.; Metz, O.; Pranzas, P. K.; Bücherl, T.; Söllradl, S.; Dornheim, M.; Klassen, T.; Schreyer, A.

    2015-10-01

    In situ neutron radiography allows for the time-resolved study of hydrogen distribution in metal hydrides. However, for a precise quantitative investigation of a time-dependent hydrogen content within a host material, an exact knowledge of the corresponding attenuation coefficient is necessary. Additionally, the effect of scattering has to be considered as it is known to violate Beer's law, which is used to determine the amount of hydrogen from a measured intensity distribution. Within this study, we used a metal hydride inside two different hydrogen storage tanks as host systems, consisting of steel and aluminum. The neutron beam attenuation by hydrogen was investigated in these two different setups during the hydrogen absorption process. A linear correlation to the amount of absorbed hydrogen was found, allowing for a readily quantitative investigation. Further, an analysis of scattering contributions on the measured intensity distributions was performed and is described in detail.

  18. Structural change in molten basalt at deep mantle conditions.

    PubMed

    Sanloup, Chrystèle; Drewitt, James W E; Konôpková, Zuzana; Dalladay-Simpson, Philip; Morton, Donna M; Rai, Nachiketa; van Westrenen, Wim; Morgenroth, Wolfgang

    2013-11-07

    Silicate liquids play a key part at all stages of deep Earth evolution, ranging from core and crust formation billions of years ago to present-day volcanic activity. Quantitative models of these processes require knowledge of the structural changes and compression mechanisms that take place in liquid silicates at the high pressures and temperatures in the Earth's interior. However, obtaining such knowledge has long been impeded by the challenging nature of the experiments. In recent years, structural and density information for silica glass was obtained at record pressures of up to 100 GPa (ref. 1), a major step towards obtaining data on the molten state. Here we report the structure of molten basalt up to 60 GPa by means of in situ X-ray diffraction. The coordination of silicon increases from four under ambient conditions to six at 35 GPa, similar to what has been reported in silica glass. The compressibility of the melt after the completion of the coordination change is lower than at lower pressure, implying that only a high-order equation of state can accurately describe the density evolution of silicate melts over the pressure range of the whole mantle. The transition pressure coincides with a marked change in the pressure-evolution of nickel partitioning between molten iron and molten silicates, indicating that melt compressibility controls siderophile-element partitioning.

  19. In Situ TEM Nanoindentation Studies on Stress-Induced Phase Transformations in Metallic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Wang, H.; Zhang, X.

    2016-01-01

    Although abundant phase transformations are in general thermally driven processes, there are many examples wherein stresses can induce phase transformations. Numerous in situ techniques, such as in situ x-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction, have been applied to reveal phase transformations. Recently, an in situ nanoindentation technique coupled with transmission electron microscopy demonstrated the capability to directly correlating stresses with phase transformations and microstructural evolutions at a submicron length scale. Here we briefly review in situ studies on stress-induced diffusional and diffusionless phase transformations in amorphous CuZrAl alloy and NiFeGa shape memory alloy. In the amorphous CuZrAl, in situ nanoindentation studies show that the nucleation of nanocrystals (a diffusional process) occurs at ultra-low stresses manifested by a prominent stress drop. In the NiFeGa shape memory alloy, two distinctive types of martensitic (diffusionless) phase transformations accompanied by stress plateaus are observed, including a reversible gradual phase transformation at low stress levels, and an irreversible abrupt phase transition at higher stress levels.

  20. In Situ TEM Nanoindentation Studies on Stress-Induced Phase Transformations in Metallic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Wang, H.; Zhang, X.

    2015-11-30

    Though abundant phase transformations are in general thermally driven processes, there are many examples wherein stresses can induce phase transformations. We applied numerous in situ techniques, such as in situ x-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction in order to reveal phase transformations. Recently, an in situ nanoindentation technique coupled with transmission electron microscopy demonstrated the capability to directly correlating stresses with phase transformations and microstructural evolutions at a submicron length scale. We briefly review in situ studies on stress-induced diffusional and diffusionless phase transformations in amorphous CuZrAl alloy and NiFeGa shape memory alloy. Moreover, in the amorphous CuZrAl, in situ nanoindentation studies show that the nucleation of nanocrystals (a diffusional process) occurs at ultra-low stresses manifested by a prominent stress drop. In the NiFeGa shape memory alloy, two distinctive types of martensitic (diffusionless) phase transformations accompanied by stress plateaus are observed, including a reversible gradual phase transformation at low stress levels, and an irreversible abrupt phase transition at higher stress levels.

  1. In Situ TEM Nanoindentation Studies on Stress-Induced Phase Transformations in Metallic Materials

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Y.; Wang, H.; Zhang, X.

    2015-11-30

    Though abundant phase transformations are in general thermally driven processes, there are many examples wherein stresses can induce phase transformations. We applied numerous in situ techniques, such as in situ x-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction in order to reveal phase transformations. Recently, an in situ nanoindentation technique coupled with transmission electron microscopy demonstrated the capability to directly correlating stresses with phase transformations and microstructural evolutions at a submicron length scale. We briefly review in situ studies on stress-induced diffusional and diffusionless phase transformations in amorphous CuZrAl alloy and NiFeGa shape memory alloy. Moreover, in the amorphous CuZrAl, in situ nanoindentationmore » studies show that the nucleation of nanocrystals (a diffusional process) occurs at ultra-low stresses manifested by a prominent stress drop. In the NiFeGa shape memory alloy, two distinctive types of martensitic (diffusionless) phase transformations accompanied by stress plateaus are observed, including a reversible gradual phase transformation at low stress levels, and an irreversible abrupt phase transition at higher stress levels.« less

  2. In-situ Study of Dynamic Phenomena at Metal Nanosolder Interfaces Using Aberration Corrected Scanning Transmission Electron Microcopy.

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ping

    2014-10-01

    Controlling metallic nanoparticle (NP) interactions plays a vital role in the development of new joining techniques (nanosolder) that bond at lower processing temperatures but remain viable at higher temperatures. The pr imary objective of this project is t o develop a fundamental understanding of the actual reaction processes, associated atomic mechanisms, and the resulting microstructure that occur during thermally - driven bond formation concerning metal - metal nano - scale (%3C50nm) interfaces. In this LDRD pr oject, we have studied metallic NPs interaction at the elevated temperatures by combining in - situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM ) using an aberration - corrected scanning transmission electron microscope (AC - STEM) and atomic - scale modeling such as m olecular dynamic (MD) simulations. Various metallic NPs such as Ag, Cu and Au are synthesized by chemical routines. Numerous in - situ e xperiments were carried out with focus of the research on study of Ag - Cu system. For the first time, using in - situ STEM he ating experiments , we directly observed t he formation of a 3 - dimensional (3 - D) epitaxial Cu - Ag core - shell nanoparticle during the thermal interaction of Cu and Ag NPs at elevated temperatures (150 - 300 o C). The reaction takes place at temperatures as low as 150 o C and was only observed when care was taken to circumvent the effects of electron beam irradiation during STEM imaging. Atomic - scale modeling verified that the Cu - Ag core - shell structure is energetically favored, and indicated that this phenomenon is a nano - scale effect related to the large surface - to - volume ratio of the NPs. The observation potentially can be used for developing new nanosolder technology that uses Ag shell as the "glue" that stic ks the particles of Cu together. The LDRD has led to several journal publications and numerous conference presentations, and a TA. In addition, we have developed new TEM characterization techniques and phase

  3. Characterization of the bone-metal implant interface by Digital Volume Correlation of in-situ loading using neutron tomography.

    PubMed

    Le Cann, Sophie; Tudisco, Erika; Perdikouri, Christina; Belfrage, Ola; Kaestner, Anders; Hall, Stephen; Tägil, Magnus; Isaksson, Hanna

    2017-07-01

    Metallic implants are commonly used as surgical treatments for many orthopedic conditions. The long-term stability of implants relies on an adequate integration with the surrounding bone. Unsuccessful integration could lead to implant loosening. By combining mechanical loading with high-resolution 3D imaging methods, followed by image analysis such as Digital Volume Correlation (DVC), we aim at evaluating ex vivo the mechanical resistance of newly formed bone at the interface. X-rays tomography is commonly used to image bone but induces artefacts close to metallic components. Utilizing a different interaction with matter, neutron tomography is a promising alternative but has not yet been used in studies of bone mechanics. This work demonstrates that neutron tomography during in situ loading is a feasible tool to characterize the mechanical response of bone-implant interfaces, especially when combined with DVC. Experiments were performed where metal screws were implanted in rat tibiae during 4 weeks. The screws were pulled-out while the samples were sequentially imaged in situ with neutron tomography. The images were analyzed to quantify bone ingrowth around the implants. DVC was used to track the internal displacements and calculate the strain fields in the bone during loading. The neutron images were free of metal-related artefacts, which enabled accurate quantification of bone ingrowth on the screw (ranging from 60% to 71%). DVC allowed successful identification of the deformation and cracks that occurred during mechanical loading and led to final failure of the bone-implant interface. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. In situ electrochemical investigations of the kinetic and thermodynamic properties of nickel-metal hydride traction batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiao Guang; Liaw, Bor Yann

    Although large ampere hour nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) traction batteries are in the stage of being commercialized for electric and hybrid vehicle applications, little is known about their performance characteristics. By using a standard Hg/HgO reference electrode in a commercial Ni-MH battery, we were able to conduct in situ measurements to determine both kinetic and thermodynamic properties of the system, including the characteristics of individual electrodes. Using the galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT), we simultaneously and effectively determined the open-circuit voltage of the battery, the equilibrium electrode potentials, and the diffusion coefficient of proton and hydrogen in the nickel and metal hydride electrode, respectively, as a function of the states of charge (SOC). Using the current-step excitation technique, we found that the internal resistance of the battery primarily comes from the metal hydride electrode, which is greater by one order of magnitude than that of the Ni electrode. The cyclic linear micro-polarization experiments, on the other hand, showed that the charge-transfer resistance of the electrochemical reaction at the metal hydride electrode is about twice larger than that of the Ni counterpart above 20% SOC. In comparison, the internal resistance is an order of magnitude smaller than those of the electrochemical charge-transfer reactions. The micro-polarization technique also allowed us to calculate the exchange current densities of the respective electrode electrochemical reactions and the associated specific exchange current densities. These in situ, simple but detailed, characterizations of the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of the Ni-MH system provided valuable information for better understanding of the battery performance.

  5. Method and apparatus for performing in-situ vacuum-assisted metal to glass sealing

    DOEpatents

    Kramer, D.P.; Massey, R.T.

    1985-07-18

    A method and apparatus for assembling and fusing glass to metal in a glass-metal electrical component is disclosed. The component includes a metallic shell formed with upper and lower cylindrical recesses connected together by longitudinal passages, a pair of metal rings and plural metal pins assembled to define electrical feed-throughs. The component parts are assembled on a fixture having a sleeve-like projection and a central mounting projection establishing concentric nesting surfaces to which the metal rings are slip-fitted in concentric alignment with each other spaced from sidewalls of the lower recess. The pins are in electrical contact with the metal rings. A glass pre-form is seated within the upper recess. The assembled structure is heated to a temperature sufficient to melt the glass pre-form which flows under gravity through the passages into the lower recess to provide an insulative seal between the metal parts. The gravity flow of glass is assisted by applying vacuum to the lower recess, ensuring that all spaces between the metal parts are filled with sealing glass without formation of bubbles.

  6. Method and apparatus for performing in-situ vacuum-assisted metal to glass sealing

    DOEpatents

    Kramer, Daniel P.; Massey, Richard T.

    1986-01-01

    A method and apparatus for assembling and fusing glass to metal in a glass-metal electrical component is disclosed. The component includes a metallic shell formed with upper and lower cylindrical recesses connected together by longitudinal passages, a pair of metal rings and plural metal pins assembled to define electrical feed-throughs. The component parts are assembled on a fixture having a sleeve-like projection and a central mounting projection establishing concentric nesting surfaces to which the metal rings are slip-fitted in concentric alignment with each other spaced from sidewalls of the lower recess. The pins are in electrical contact with the metal rings. A glass pre-form is seated within the upper recess. The assembled structure is heated to a temperature sufficient to melt the glass pre-form which flows under gravity through the passages into the lower recess to provide an insulative seal between the metal parts. The gravity flow of glass is assisted by applying vacuum to the lower recess, ensuring that all spaces between the metal parts are filled with sealing glass without formation of bubbles.

  7. Stable colloids in molten inorganic salts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Dasbiswas, Kinjal; Ludwig, Nicholas B; Han, Gang; Lee, Byeongdu; Vaikuntanathan, Suri; Talapin, Dmitri V

    2017-02-15

    A colloidal solution is a homogeneous dispersion of particles or droplets of one phase (solute) in a second, typically liquid, phase (solvent). Colloids are ubiquitous in biological, chemical and technological processes, homogenizing highly dissimilar constituents. To stabilize a colloidal system against coalescence and aggregation, the surface of each solute particle is engineered to impose repulsive forces strong enough to overpower van der Waals attraction and keep the particles separated from each other. Electrostatic stabilization of charged solutes works well in solvents with high dielectric constants, such as water (dielectric constant of 80). In contrast, colloidal stabilization in solvents with low polarity, such as hexane (dielectric constant of about 2), can be achieved by decorating the surface of each particle of the solute with molecules (surfactants) containing flexible, brush-like chains. Here we report a class of colloidal systems in which solute particles (including metals, semiconductors and magnetic materials) form stable colloids in various molten inorganic salts. The stability of such colloids cannot be explained by traditional electrostatic and steric mechanisms. Screening of many solute-solvent combinations shows that colloidal stability can be traced to the strength of chemical bonding at the solute-solvent interface. Theoretical analysis and molecular dynamics modelling suggest that a layer of surface-bound solvent ions produces long-ranged charge-density oscillations in the molten salt around solute particles, preventing their aggregation. Colloids composed of inorganic particles in inorganic melts offer opportunities for introducing colloidal techniques to solid-state science and engineering applications.

  8. Stable colloids in molten inorganic salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Dasbiswas, Kinjal; Ludwig, Nicholas B.; Han, Gang; Lee, Byeongdu; Vaikuntanathan, Suri; Talapin, Dmitri V.

    2017-02-01

    A colloidal solution is a homogeneous dispersion of particles or droplets of one phase (solute) in a second, typically liquid, phase (solvent). Colloids are ubiquitous in biological, chemical and technological processes, homogenizing highly dissimilar constituents. To stabilize a colloidal system against coalescence and aggregation, the surface of each solute particle is engineered to impose repulsive forces strong enough to overpower van der Waals attraction and keep the particles separated from each other. Electrostatic stabilization of charged solutes works well in solvents with high dielectric constants, such as water (dielectric constant of 80). In contrast, colloidal stabilization in solvents with low polarity, such as hexane (dielectric constant of about 2), can be achieved by decorating the surface of each particle of the solute with molecules (surfactants) containing flexible, brush-like chains. Here we report a class of colloidal systems in which solute particles (including metals, semiconductors and magnetic materials) form stable colloids in various molten inorganic salts. The stability of such colloids cannot be explained by traditional electrostatic and steric mechanisms. Screening of many solute-solvent combinations shows that colloidal stability can be traced to the strength of chemical bonding at the solute-solvent interface. Theoretical analysis and molecular dynamics modelling suggest that a layer of surface-bound solvent ions produces long-ranged charge-density oscillations in the molten salt around solute particles, preventing their aggregation. Colloids composed of inorganic particles in inorganic melts offer opportunities for introducing colloidal techniques to solid-state science and engineering applications.

  9. In situ SEM thermal fatigue of Al/graphite metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zong, G. S.; Rabenberg, L.; Marcus, H. L.

    1990-01-01

    Several thermal fatigue-induced failure mechanisms are deduced for unidirectional graphite-reinforced 6061 Al-alloy MMCs subjected to in situ thermal cycling. These thermal cycling conditions are representative of MMC service cycles in aerospace environments, where thermal fatigue is primarily associated with changes in the stress states near the interfaces due to coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch between fiber and matrix. This in situ SEM thermal-cycling study clarified such factors affecting MMCs' thermal fatigue as local fiber content and distribution, void volume, fiber stiffness, thermal excursion magnitude, and number of thermal cycles. MMC microfailure modes in thermal fatigue have been deduced.

  10. In situ generation of Ni nanoparticles from metal-organic framework precursors and their use for biomass hydrodeoxygenation.

    PubMed

    Čelič, Tadeja Birsa; Grilc, Miha; Likozar, Blaž; Tušar, Nataša Novak

    2015-05-22

    So far, in situ-generated Ni nanoparticles have been reported to be efficient catalysts for tar cracking during wood liquefaction by pyrolysis. Herein, their performance in further bio-oil conversion steps is evaluated. Nanoparticles were generated for the first time from a Ni-containing metal-organic framework, MIL-77, during the hydrotreatment of glycerol-solvolyzed lignocellulosic (LC) biomass. Reactions were conducted at 300 °C and the H2 pressure was 8 MPa in a slurry reactor. The catalytic activity and selectivity of the deoxygenation and hydrocracking reactions for real biomass-derived feedstock using in situ-generated nanoparticles was compared with Ni nanoparticles dispersed on a silica-alumina support (commercial Ni/SiO2 -Al2 O3 catalyst). The mass activity of the in situ-generated nanoparticles for hydrogenolysis was more than ten times higher in comparison to their commercial analogues, and their potential for the use in LC biorefinery is discussed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Molten carbonate fuel cell improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blurton, K. F.; Marianowski, L. G.

    It is noted that a molten carbonate fuel cell integrated with a coal gasification power plant is one of the most promising coal-using technologies because of its high efficiency, acceptable cost, and environmental acceptability. For the molten carbonate system to achieve these goals, however, continued development is required which must take into account the operating conditions of the application. The progress made in improving cell performance and life is surveyed, evaluating the effect of contaminants on cell performance and the design of multicell stacks and identifying alternative electrolyte compositions. Also discussed is the status of research on other major areas.

  12. Dual intercalating molten electrolyte batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Carlin, R.T.; Long, H.C. De; Fuller, J.; Lauderdale, W.J.; Naughton, T.; Trulove, P.C.; Bahn, C.S.

    1995-12-31

    Dual Intercalating Molten Electrolyte (DIME) electrodes and cells have been examined using a number of low-melting and room-temperature molten salts. A cell with a chloroaluminate melt achieved a cycling efficiency of 85% with a discharge voltage of 2.92 V. Coke-elastomer composite electrodes underwent cation reductive intercalation without experiencing the exfoliation and degradation seen for graphite rods. Theoretical studies for an imidazolium-graphite intercalate predicted the graphite layer spacing expands between 5.18 and 8.01 {angstrom} upon insertion of the imidazolium molecule into the graphite lattice.

  13. Fabrication of hybrids based on graphene and metal nanoparticles by in situ and self-assembled methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Fu-An; Fan, Jin-Tu; Song, Fei; Zhang, Li-Ming; Lai-Wa Chan, Helen

    2011-03-01

    In this work, we developed two novel strategies to attach metal nanoparticles (Au and Ag) to the surface of graphene nanosheets, in which graphene oxide was first modified by the linking molecule (3-mercaptopropyl)triethoxysilane and then subjected to different treatments including in situ and self-assembled techniques. The synthesis processes and the resulting hybrids were investigated by ultraviolet-visible measurements, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was found that both approaches could effectively immobilize metal nanoparticles onto a graphene surface, and that better distribution and size control of metal nanoparticles were obtained by the self-assembled method. Moreover, we prepared poly(vinylidene fluoride)/graphene-Ag nanocomposites by a solution blending method. The AC conductivity of the resulting nanocomposites could be increased significantly when the loading amount of graphene-Ag was only 2 wt%. We expect that such graphene-metal nanoparticle hybrids may be potentially useful in composite reinforcement, sensors, and electronic devices.

  14. In situ gamma spectrometry measurements and Monte Carlo computations for the detection of radioactive sources in scrap metal.

    PubMed

    Clouvas, A; Xanthos, S; Takoudis, G; Potiriadis, C; Silva, J

    2005-02-01

    A very limited number of field experiments have been performed to assess the relative radiation detection sensitivities of commercially available equipment used to detect radioactive sources in recycled metal scrap. Such experiments require the cooperation and commitment of considerable resources on the part of vendors of the radiation detection systems and the cooperation of a steel mill or scrap processing facility. The results will unavoidably be specific to the equipment tested at the time, the characteristics of the scrap metal involved in the tests, and to the specific configurations of the scrap containers. Given these limitations, the use of computer simulation for this purpose would be a desirable alternative. With this in mind, this study sought to determine whether Monte Carlo simulation of photon flux energy distributions resulting from a radiation source in metal scrap would be realistic. In the present work, experimental and simulated photon flux energy distributions in the outer part of a truck due to the presence of embedded radioactive sources in the scrap metal load are compared. The experimental photon fluxes are deduced by in situ gamma spectrometry measurements with portable Ge detector and the calculated ones by Monte Carlo simulations with the MCNP code. The good agreement between simulated and measured photon flux energy distributions indicate that the results obtained by the Monte Carlo simulations are realistic.

  15. In situ hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy of barrier-height control at metal/PMN-PT interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kröger, E.; Petraru, A.; Quer, A.; Soni, R.; Kalläne, M.; Pertsev, N. A.; Kohlstedt, H.; Rossnagel, K.

    2016-06-01

    Metal-ferroelectric interfaces form the basis of novel electronic devices. A key effect determining the device functionality is the bias-dependent change of the electronic energy-level alignment at the interface. Here, hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) is used to determine the energy-level alignment at two metal-ferroelectric interfaces—Au versus SrRuO3 on the relaxor ferroelectric Pb (Mg1 /3Nb2 /3 )0.72Ti0.28O3 (PMN-PT)—directly in situ as a function of electrical bias. The bias-dependent average shifts of the PMN-PT core levels are found to have two dominant contributions on the 0.1 -1-eV energy scale: one depending on the metal electrode and the remanent electric polarization and the other correlated with electric-field-induced strain. Element-specific deviations from the average shifts are smaller than 0.1 eV and appear to be related to predicted dynamical charge variations in PMN-PT. In addition, the efficiency of ferroelectric polarization switching is shown to be reduced near the coercive field under x-ray irradiation. The results establish HAXPES as a tool for the in operando investigation of metal-ferroelectric interfaces and suggest electric-field-induced modifications of the polarization distribution as a novel way to control the barrier height at such interfaces.

  16. Solid-state synthesis of embedded single-crystal metal oxide and phosphate nanoparticles and in situ crystallization.

    PubMed

    Díaz, C; Valenzuela, M L; Bravo, D; Dickinson, C; O'Dwyer, C

    2011-10-01

    A new solid state organometallic route to embedded nanoparticle-containing inorganic materials is shown, through pyrolysis of metal-containing derivatives of cyclotriphosphazenes. Pyrolysis in air and at 800 °C of new molecular precursors gives individual single-crystal nanoparticles of SiP(2)O(7), TiO(2), P(4)O(7,) WP(2)O(7) and SiO(2), depending on the precursor used. High resolution transmission electron microscopy investigations reveal, in most cases, perfect single crystals of metal oxides and the first nanostructures of negative thermal expansion metal phosphates with diameters in the range 2-6 nm for all products. While all nanoparticles are new by this method, WP(2)O(7) and SiP(2)O(7) nanoparticles are reported for the first time. In situ recrystallization formation of nanocrystals of SiP(2)O(7) was also observed due to electron beam induced reactions during measurements of the nanoparticulate pyrolytic products SiO(2) and P(4)O(7). The possible mechanism for the formation of the nanoparticles at much lower temperatures than their bulk counterparts in both cases is discussed. Degrees of stabilization from the formation of P(4)O(7) affects the nanocrystalline products: nanoparticles are observed for WP(2)O(7), with coalescing crystallization occurring for the amorphous host in which SiP(2)O(7) crystals form as a solid within a solid. The approach allows the simple formation of multimetallic, monometallic, metal-oxide and metal phosphate nanocrystals embedded in an amorphous dielectric. The method and can be extended to nearly any metal capable of successful coordination as an organometallic to allow embedded nanoparticle layers and features to be deposited or written on surfaces for application as high mobility pyrophosphate lithium-ion cathode materials, catalysis and nanocrystal embedded dielectric layers.

  17. An in situ study of resin-assisted solvothermal metal-organic framework synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Moorhouse, Saul J.; Wu, Yue; O’Hare, Dermot

    2016-04-15

    A newly developed in situ monochromatic high-energy X-ray diffraction setup was used to investigate the synthesis of MOFs using cation-impregnated polymer resin beads as a ion source. The Co–NDC–DMF (NDC=2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylate; DMF=dimethylformamide) system was investigated, a system which is known to produce at least three distinct frameworks. It was found that the resin-assisted synthesis results in the preferential formation of a topology previously impossible to synthesise in bulk, while the comparable nitrate-salt synthesis appeared to form an alternative phases. It was also found that the resin-assisted synthesis is highly diffusion-controlled. - Graphical abstract: In situ monochromatic high-energy X-ray diffraction study of a MOF synthesis. - Highlights: • Resin-assisted solvothermal MOF synthesis was studied using in situ diffraction. • Full kinetics of reaction can be obtained from in situ data. • Kinetics show that this resin-assisted synthesis is diffusion controlled. • Resin-assisted synthesis enables the production of an alternative bulk phase.

  18. Processing of In-Situ Al-AlN Metal Matrix Composites via Direct Nitridation Method

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    The role of Mg in the present in-situ nitridation process could be different from that in the DIMOX process [13,17]. Further study is clearly...however, that the addition of Si suppresses the formation of A1N during the DIMOX process [10]. It is, therefore, important to examine the effect of Si

  19. Magneto-hydrodynamic detection of vortex shedding for molten salt flow sensing.

    SciTech Connect

    Kruizenga, Alan Michael; Crocker, Robert W.

    2012-09-01

    High temperature flow sensors must be developed for use with molten salts systems at temperatures in excess of 600ÀC. A novel magneto-hydrodynamic sensing approach was investigated. A prototype sensor was developed and tested in an aqueous sodium chloride solution as a surrogate for molten salt. Despite that the electrical conductivity was a factor of three less than molten salts, it was found that the electrical conductivity of an electrolyte was too low to adequately resolve the signal amidst surrounding noise. This sensor concept is expected to work well with any liquid metal application, as the generated magnetic field scales proportionately with electrical conductivity.

  20. In situ biosynthesis of ultrafine metal nanoparticles within a metal-organic framework for efficient heterogeneous catalysis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lei; Shi, Jiafu; Wu, Hong; Zhang, Shaohua; Liu, Hua; Zou, Hongjian; Wu, Yizhou; Zhao, Jingjing; Jiang, Zhongyi

    2017-09-08

    The synthesis of ultrafine, uniform, well-dispersed functional nanoparticles (NPs) under mild conditions in a controlled manner remains a great challenge. In biological systems, a well-defined biomineralization process is exploited, in which the control over NPs' size, shape and distribution is temporally and spatially regulated by a variety of biomolecules in a confined space. Inspired by this, we embedded proteins into metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and explored a novel approach to synthesize metallic NPs by taking the synergy of protein-induced biomineralization process and space-confined effect of MOFs. The generation and growth of ultrafine metal NPs (Ag or Au) was induced by the entrapped lysozyme molecules and confined by the ZIF-8 pores. Due to the narrow size distribution and homogeneous spatial distribution of metal NPs, the as-synthesized NPs exhibit remarkably elevated catalytic activity. These findings demonstrate that MOFs can be loaded with specific proteins to selectively deposit inorganic NPs via biomimetic mineralization and these novel kinds of nanohybrid materials may find applications in catalysis, sensing and optics.