Science.gov

Sample records for sja muutuv ngu

  1. 32 CFR 516.17 - SJA or legal adviser procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... procedures. (a) Immediate notice to HQDA. When an SJA or legal adviser learns of litigation in which the... following: (1) Title or style of the proceeding. (2) Full names and addresses of the parties. (3)...

  2. 32 CFR 516.17 - SJA or legal adviser procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... procedures. (a) Immediate notice to HQDA. When an SJA or legal adviser learns of litigation in which the... following: (1) Title or style of the proceeding. (2) Full names and addresses of the parties. (3)...

  3. Chemotherapeutic activity of liposomal SJA-95: a new polyene macrolide antibiotic in experimental aspergillosis and cryptococcosis.

    PubMed

    Desai, Sandhya K; Naik, Suresh R

    2009-05-01

    The incidence of systemic fungal infections that has risen dramatically over the past three decades has propelled a continuous need for more potent antifungal drugs. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the chemotherapeutic activity of a new heptaene polyene macrolide antibiotic (SJA-95) and liposomal incorporated SJA-95 (lip. SJA-95) in a mouse model of aspergillosis and cryptococcosis respectively. Lip. SJA-95 was prepared in our laboratory by the proliposome method involving incorporation of the antifungal into the proliposome mixture and its subsequent conversion into a liposomal dispersion by a simple dilution step. Treatment with free SJA-95 and lip. SJA-95, both in aspergillosis and cryptococcosis, progressively prolonged the survival time and decreased the fungal loads in vital organs respectively. A higher LD(50) value of lip. SJA as compared to that of free SJA-95 was indicative of reduced toxicity of lip. SJA-95. Our findings suggest lip. SJA-95 treatment results in prolonged survival time, effective microbiological clearance and reduced toxicity that might help to establish its usefulness as a chemotherapeutic agent in systemic fungal infections with fewer adverse reactions.

  4. Preparation, relative toxicity, chemotherapeutic activity, and pharmacokinetics of liposomal SJA-95: a new polyene macrolide antibiotic.

    PubMed

    Desai, Sandhya K; Naik, Suresh R

    2008-01-01

    The research work was designed to compare the relative toxicity, chemotherapeutic activity, and pharmacokinetic parameters of liposomal incorporated SJA-95 with that of free SJA-95, with an objective to reduce toxicity and improve therapeutic activity in vivo. Liposomal-incorporated SJA-95 (Lip SJA-95), prepared using the proliposome method, was found to exhibit a higher LD(50) value in mice, and the relative toxicity was about 2.5 times lower than that of the free drug. Lip SJA-95 treatment in experimental mice model of Candidiasis showed increased survival and reduced fungal loads in various organs. The pharmacokinetic profile of the free and liposomal drug was evaluated by administration of free and Lip SJA-95 intravenously to healthy albino rabbits in a crossover fashion. Lip SJA-95 showed an initial fall in plasma levels and longer half-life. The improved microbial clearance following treatment with Lip SJA-95 could be attributed partly to an increased tissue uptake, which was reflected in a marked increase in volume of distribution (V(d)) and longer half-life (T(1/2)). The present results clearly indicated that Lip SJA-95 treatment led to prolonged survival time, effective microbiological clearance, and reduced toxicity in the mice model of Candidiasis.

  5. [Observation of repair of wounded rat skin by affinity histochemical method of SJA].

    PubMed

    Li, Z H; Jin, H L; Zhu, J Z

    1999-02-01

    Time expression of SJA tissue receptors surrounding wounded skin of 40 rats was studied by affinity histochemical method. The results were compared to that by EGFR immunohistochemical method and c-myc situ hydridization method. It was observed that SJA receptors began to decrease after the skin was injured and reached the lowest quantities in 15 minutes. After that, they began to increase and reached the highest quantities in 2 hours. It needs to be further studied whether there is the correlation between SJA receptors and EGFR has the function of repairing wounded skin. PMID:12536384

  6. Probable Mechanism(s) of Antifungal Activity of SJA-95, a Heptaene Polyene Antibiotic

    PubMed Central

    Desai, S. K.; Naik, S. R.

    2008-01-01

    A new strain, streptomyces sp. S. 24 was isolated from a soil sample collected from Japan. The strain produced heptaene polyene antibiotic, SJA-95, in submerged culture and found to elicit promising antifungal activity against yeasts, filamentous fungi and clinical isolates, both in vitro and in vivo. Experimental studies were carried out using biological methods to understand the probable mechanism(s) of antifungal activity of SJA-95. Our experimental findings suggest that SJA-95 binds more avidly to ergosterol, the sterol in fungal cell membranes, than to cholesterol found in mammalian cell membranes. Such preferential binding of SJA-95 to ergosterol might help to establish its usefulness as a chemotherapeutic agent with lesser adverse reactions. PMID:20046706

  7. Probable Mechanism(s) of Antifungal Activity of SJA-95, a Heptaene Polyene Antibiotic.

    PubMed

    Desai, S K; Naik, S R

    2008-01-01

    A new strain, streptomyces sp. S. 24 was isolated from a soil sample collected from Japan. The strain produced heptaene polyene antibiotic, SJA-95, in submerged culture and found to elicit promising antifungal activity against yeasts, filamentous fungi and clinical isolates, both in vitro and in vivo. Experimental studies were carried out using biological methods to understand the probable mechanism(s) of antifungal activity of SJA-95. Our experimental findings suggest that SJA-95 binds more avidly to ergosterol, the sterol in fungal cell membranes, than to cholesterol found in mammalian cell membranes. Such preferential binding of SJA-95 to ergosterol might help to establish its usefulness as a chemotherapeutic agent with lesser adverse reactions.

  8. Prevalence of Urogenital Mycoplasmas Among Men with NGU in Upper Silesia, Poland. Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Ekiel, Alicja; Aptekorz, Małgorzata; Kłuciński, Piotr; Smolec, Dominika; Wiechuła, Barbara; Jóźwiak, Jarosław; Martirosian, Gayane

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of urogenital mycoplasmas in men with NGU in Upper Silesia (Poland) was studied. Mycoplasmas were detected in 36.7% men (Ureaplasma parvum and Mycoplasma genitalium were found in 30% and 16.7% respectively). Urealyticum urealyticum was not detected. We suggest including M. genitalium in the diagnostic scheme for nongonococcal urethritis (NGU). PMID:27281999

  9. Analysis of the "-sja" Passive of Russian Verbs of Governing and Wanting as a Conceptual Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Min, Junghee

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation represents a study of the formation of "-sja" passives of Russian verbs of governing and wanting. I explore five imperfective verbs of governing: "zavedovat" "manage"; "komandovat" "command"; "pravit" "govern"; "rukovdit" "direct"; and "upravljat" "manage"; as well as four imperfective verbs of wanting: "iskat" "seek"; "trebovat"…

  10. Fermentation, isolation, purification and biological activity of SJA-95, a heptaene polyene macrolide antibiotic produced by the Streptomyces sp. strain S24.

    PubMed

    Naik, Suresh R; Desai, Sandhya K; Nanda, Rabindra K; Narayanan, Mangalam S

    2007-01-01

    A new strain, Streptomyces sp. S24 was isolated from a soil sample collected from Japan. Preliminary morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical studies on this strain were carried out. Under submerged culture conditions the strain produced heptaene polyene macrolide (SJA-95), which elicits promising antifungal activity in vitro against yeasts, filamentous fungi including clinical isolates and plant pathogens. Its antifungal activity is comparable to that of hamycin and amphotericin B. SJA-95 was found to be toxic when given by the parenteral route in mice and not absorbed by the oral route like other polyene heptaene macrolides. The physicochemical data, spectral studies and elemental analysis suggest that SJA-95 is a polyene macrolide antibiotic. However, the chemical structure needs to be elucidated by further spectroscopic studies viz. 13C NMR, FEB-MS, EL MS and other tests.

  11. Study of immunological aspects of aspergillosis in mice and effect of polyene macrolide antibiotic (SJA-95) and IFN-γ: a possible role of IFN-γ as an adjunct in antifungal therapy.

    PubMed

    Naik, Suresh R; Thakare, Vishnu N; Desai, Sandhya K; Rahalkar, Prabhakar R

    2011-12-30

    New polyene macrolide antibiotic SJA-95 in free as well as liposomal (lip.) forms, with and without interferon-γ (IFN-γ) was studied in mice model of aspergillosis using biological and biochemical parameters viz. colony forming units (CFU) in liver, spleen, kidney, lung and brain, and serum IgG, and interleukin-4 (IL-4). Treatment with free and lip SJA-95 along with IFN-γ prolonged the survival time, reduced CFU in vital organs, decreased serum IgG and IL-4 levels. SJA-95 lip form showed greater antifungal activity as compared to free form. The combined treatment of lip SJA-95 with IFN-γ showed further enhancement in antifungal activity of SJA-95 (lip). The present experimental findings demonstrated IFN-γ might act as a potent modulator in immune reaction during fungal infection and can be a useful adjunctive in antifungal therapy in the management of deep seated systemic mycoses.

  12. Retention of clinical trial participants in a study of nongonococcal urethritis (NGU), a sexually transmitted infection in men.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeannette Y; Lensing, Shelly Y; Schwebke, Jane R

    2012-07-01

    Nongonococcal urethritis (NGU), an inflammation of the urethra not caused by gonorrhea, is the most common urethritis syndrome seen in men in the United States. It is a sexually transmitted infection commonly caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, a pathogen which occurs more frequently in African-American men compared to white men. The purpose of this study was to investigate factors related to retention of study participants in a randomized, double-blinded clinical trial that evaluated four treatment regimens for the treatment of NGU. After the one-week treatment period, follow-up visits were scheduled during days 15-19 and days 35-45. Participants were phoned prior to scheduled appointments to encourage attendance, and contacted after missed appointments to reschedule their clinic visits. Of the 305 male study participants, 298 (98%) were African-American, 164 (54%) were 25 years of age or younger, and 80 (31%) had a post-secondary school education. The overall retention rate was 75%. Factors associated with study completion were educational level attained and clinical center. Participants with higher levels of education were more likely to complete the study. Clinical centers with the highest retention rates also provided the highest monetary incentives for participation. The retention rate for this study suggests that strategies are needed for improving the proportion of study participants that complete a clinical trial among young men with a sexually transmitted disease. These strategies may include increasing contacts with study participants to remind them of scheduled study visits using text messaging or social media and the use of financial incentives. PMID:22261236

  13. Replacing the CCSDS Telecommand Protocol with the Next Generation Uplink (NGU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazz, Greg J.; Greenberg, Ed; Burleigh, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    The current CCSDS Telecommand (TC) Recommendations 1-3 have essentially been in use since the early 1960s. The purpose of this paper is to propose a successor protocol to TC. The current CCSDS recommendations can only accommodate telecommand rates up to approximately 1 mbit/s. However today's spacecraft are storehouses for software including software for Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) which are rapidly replacing unique hardware systems. Changes to flight software occasionally require uplinks to deliver very large volumes of data. In the opposite direction, high rate downlink missions that use acknowledged CCSDS File Delivery Protocol (CFDP)4 will increase the uplink data rate requirements. It is calculated that a 5 mbits/s downlink could saturate a 4 kbits/s uplink with CFDP downlink responses: negative acknowledgements (NAKs), FINISHs, End-of-File (EOF), Acknowledgements (ACKs). Moreover, it is anticipated that uplink rates of 10 to 20 mbits/s will be required to support manned missions. The current TC recommendations cannot meet these new demands. Specifically, they are very tightly coupled to the Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) code in Ref. 2. This protocol requires that an uncorrectable BCH codeword delimit the TC frame and terminate the randomization process. This method greatly limits telecom performance since only the BCH code can support the protocol. More modern techniques such as the CCSDS Low Density Parity Check (LDPC)5 codes can provide a minimum performance gain of up to 6 times higher command data rates as long as sufficient power is available in the data. This paper will describe the proposed protocol format, trade-offs, and advantages offered, along with a discussion of how reliable communications takes place at higher nominal rates.

  14. Bilingual Dictionary of Mathematical Terms. English-Vietnamese = Tu-Dien Song Ngu Danh-Tu Toan. Anh-Viet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Bilingual Education.

    This bilingual dictionary was developed for use by Vietnamese junior high and high school students to assist them in their understanding of mathematical vocabulary and concepts in English. Terminology and definitions are provided in English, with Vietnamese translations directly below each entry. When possible, an illustration is included.…

  15. Going the extra mile: health care for marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Laura

    2010-05-01

    At last year's London Marathon, St John Ambulance (SJA) volunteers treated almost 6,200 casualties from among more than 35,000 runners. In this article, emergency nurse Hazel Mortimer, who regularly works as a volunteer emergency nurse with the SJA, describes her experiences at this year's event and her expectations of the 2012 Olympics.

  16. 32 CFR 842.13 - Staff Judge Advocates' responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... within the command, except for DOD designated single-service areas of responsibility. (b) GCM: (1) The GCM SJA, whether or not he or she exercises claims settlement authority, is responsible for the general supervision of claims activities within the subordinate units. (2) The GCM SJA...

  17. 32 CFR 842.13 - Staff Judge Advocates' responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... within the command, except for DOD designated single-service areas of responsibility. (b) GCM: (1) The GCM SJA, whether or not he or she exercises claims settlement authority, is responsible for the general supervision of claims activities within the subordinate units. (2) The GCM SJA...

  18. 32 CFR 842.13 - Staff Judge Advocates' responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... within the command, except for DOD designated single-service areas of responsibility. (b) GCM: (1) The GCM SJA, whether or not he or she exercises claims settlement authority, is responsible for the general supervision of claims activities within the subordinate units. (2) The GCM SJA...

  19. 32 CFR 842.13 - Staff Judge Advocates' responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... within the command, except for DOD designated single-service areas of responsibility. (b) GCM: (1) The GCM SJA, whether or not he or she exercises claims settlement authority, is responsible for the general supervision of claims activities within the subordinate units. (2) The GCM SJA...

  20. 32 CFR 842.13 - Staff Judge Advocates' responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... within the command, except for DOD designated single-service areas of responsibility. (b) GCM: (1) The GCM SJA, whether or not he or she exercises claims settlement authority, is responsible for the general supervision of claims activities within the subordinate units. (2) The GCM SJA...

  1. 32 CFR 516.52 - Expert witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... States Has An Interest § 516.52 Expert witnesses. Requests for present or former DA personnel as expert... SJA or legal adviser. In no event, may present or former DA personnel furnish expert or...

  2. Characteristics of Acute Nongonococcal Urethritis in Men Differ by Sexual Preference

    PubMed Central

    Fairley, Christopher K.; Weerakoon, Ajith; Read, Timothy H.; Fehler, Glenda; Chen, Marcus Y.

    2014-01-01

    Nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) is a common clinical syndrome, but no etiological agent is identified in a significant proportion of cases. Whether the spectrum of pathogens differs between heterosexual men (MSW) and men who have sex with men (MSM) is largely unstudied but of considerable clinical relevance. A retrospective review was done using the electronic medical record database of Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Australia. Cases were first presentations of symptomatic acute NGU with ≥5 polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL)/high-powered field (HPF) on urethral Gram stain between January 2006 and December 2011. First-stream urine was tested for Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium by PCR. Demographic, laboratory, and behavioral characteristics of cases were examined by univariate and multivariable analyses. Of 1,295 first presentations of acute NGU, 401 (32%; 95% confidence interval [CI] of 29 to 34%) had C. trachomatis and 134 (11%; 95% CI of 9 to 13%) had M. genitalium detected. MSM with acute NGU were less likely to have C. trachomatis (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.4; 95% CI of 0.3 to 0.6) or M. genitalium (AOR = 0.5; 95% CI of 0.3 to 0.8) and more likely to have idiopathic NGU (AOR = 2.4; 95% CI of 1.8 to 3.3), to report 100% condom use for anal/vaginal sex (AOR = 3.6; 95% CI of 2.7 to 5.0), or to have engaged in sexual activities other than anal/vaginal sex (AOR = 8.0; 95% CI of 3.6 to 17.8). Even when C. trachomatis or M. genitalium was detected, MSM were more likely than MSW to report consistent condom use (OR = 4.7; 95% CI of 2.6 to 8.3). MSM with acute NGU are less likely to have the established bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and more likely to report protected anal sex or sexual activity other than anal sex prior to symptom onset than MSW. These data suggest that the etiologic spectrum of pathogens differs between MSM and MSW in acute NGU and that relatively low-risk practices are capable of inducing acute NGU. PMID

  3. 32 CFR 516.51 - Response to subpoenas, orders, or requests for witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Witnesses Scope Litigation in Which the United States Has An Interest § 516.51 Response to subpoenas, orders... case and trial is imminent, the SJA or legal adviser should make informal arrangements to retain the witness in the command until trial. If this is not feasible, or if a satisfactory arrangement cannot...

  4. 32 CFR 516.51 - Response to subpoenas, orders, or requests for witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Witnesses Scope Litigation in Which the United States Has An Interest § 516.51 Response to subpoenas, orders... case and trial is imminent, the SJA or legal adviser should make informal arrangements to retain the witness in the command until trial. If this is not feasible, or if a satisfactory arrangement cannot...

  5. 32 CFR 516.51 - Response to subpoenas, orders, or requests for witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Witnesses Scope Litigation in Which the United States Has An Interest § 516.51 Response to subpoenas, orders... case and trial is imminent, the SJA or legal adviser should make informal arrangements to retain the witness in the command until trial. If this is not feasible, or if a satisfactory arrangement cannot...

  6. 32 CFR 842.118 - Assertable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... be asserted when the Air Force has furnished or will furnish medical care in military health care... party beneficiary under uninsured motorist coverage, medical pay insurance coverage, worker's... the base SJA or designee determines the collection will not exceed the cost to collect, the...

  7. 32 CFR 516.23 - Litigation reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Litigation reports. 516.23 Section 516.23 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Reporting Legal Proceedings to HQDA § 516.23 Litigation reports. The SJA...

  8. 32 CFR 842.96 - Asserting the claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Property Damage Tort Claims in Favor of the United States (31 U.S.C. 3701, 3711-3719) § 842.96 Asserting the claim. The base SJA asserts the claim against the tort-feasor by mailing, certified... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Asserting the claim. 842.96 Section...

  9. 32 CFR 842.96 - Asserting the claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Property Damage Tort Claims in Favor of the United States (31 U.S.C. 3701, 3711-3719) § 842.96 Asserting the claim. The base SJA asserts the claim against the tort-feasor by mailing, certified... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Asserting the claim. 842.96 Section...

  10. 32 CFR 842.96 - Asserting the claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Property Damage Tort Claims in Favor of the United States (31 U.S.C. 3701, 3711-3719) § 842.96 Asserting the claim. The base SJA asserts the claim against the tort-feasor by mailing, certified... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Asserting the claim. 842.96 Section...

  11. 32 CFR 842.96 - Asserting the claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Property Damage Tort Claims in Favor of the United States (31 U.S.C. 3701, 3711-3719) § 842.96 Asserting the claim. The base SJA asserts the claim against the tort-feasor by mailing, certified... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Asserting the claim. 842.96 Section...

  12. 32 CFR 842.96 - Asserting the claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Property Damage Tort Claims in Favor of the United States (31 U.S.C. 3701, 3711-3719) § 842.96 Asserting the claim. The base SJA asserts the claim against the tort-feasor by mailing, certified... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Asserting the claim. 842.96 Section...

  13. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 513 - Glossary

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Department of the Army MHD: medical holding detachment SJA: staff judge advocate SSN: social security number UCMJ: Uniform Code of Military Justice USACFSC: U.S. Army Community and Family Support Center USAEREC... justice or other competent tribunal as a result of proceedings instituted therein. As defined, a...

  14. 32 CFR 516.21 - Litigation against government contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Litigation against government contractors. 516.21... government contractors. (a) General. A contract might require that the government reimburse a contractor (or... with the government requires reimbursement for adverse judgments or costs of the litigation, the SJA...

  15. 32 CFR 516.21 - Litigation against government contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Litigation against government contractors. 516.21... government contractors. (a) General. A contract might require that the government reimburse a contractor (or... with the government requires reimbursement for adverse judgments or costs of the litigation, the SJA...

  16. 32 CFR 516.21 - Litigation against government contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Litigation against government contractors. 516.21... government contractors. (a) General. A contract might require that the government reimburse a contractor (or... with the government requires reimbursement for adverse judgments or costs of the litigation, the SJA...

  17. 32 CFR 536.10 - Responsibilities and operations of claims processing offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...; independent expert opinions; long distance telephone calls; recording and photographic equipment; use of... offices. The MCJAs or medical claims attorneys at Army medical centers, other than Walter Reed Army Medical Center, may be designated by the SJA or head of the ACO for the installation on which the...

  18. 32 CFR 516.56 - Witnesses before foreign tribunals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Witnesses before foreign tribunals. 516.56..., Travel, and Expenses of Witnesses § 516.56 Witnesses before foreign tribunals. (a) Referral to the SJA. Requests or subpoenas from a foreign government or tribunal for present DA personnel stationed or...

  19. 32 CFR 536.131 - Limitations on assessments arising from UCMJ claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Judge Advocate responsible for advising the SPCMCA decides that the SPCMCA's final action under the... (GCMCA) for action. (2) A GCMCA, or designee, has authority to approve a pay assessment in an amount not...) (usually the GCMCA's Staff Judge Advocate (SJA)) decides that the GCMCA's final action under the...

  20. Optimal Control of Airfoil Flow Separation using Fluidic Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahrabi, Arireza F.

    This thesis deals with the control of flow separation around a symmetric airfoils with the aid of multiple synthetic jet actuators (SJAs). CFD simulation methods have been implemented to uncover the flow separation regimes and associated properties such as frequencies and momentum ratio. In the first part of the study, the SJA was studied thoroughly. Large Eddy Simulations (LES) were performed for one individual cavity; the time history of SJA of the outlet velocity profile and the net momentum imparted to the flow were analyzed. The studied SJA is asymmetrical and operates with the aid of a piezoelectric (PZT) ceramic circular plate actuator. A three-dimensional mesh for the computational domain of the SJA and the surrounding volume was developed and was used to evaluate the details of the airflow conditions inside the SJA as well as at the outlet. The vibration of the PZT ceramic actuator was used as a boundary condition in the computational model to drive the SJA. Particular attention was given to developing a predictive model of the SJA outlet velocity. Results showed that the SJA velocity output is correlated to the PZT ceramic plate vibration, especially for the first frequency mode. SJAs are a particular class of zero net mass flux (ZNMF) fluidic devices with net imparted momentum to the flow. The net momentum imparted to the flow in the separated region is such that positive enhancement during AFC operations is achieved. Flows around the NACA 0015 airfoil were simulated for a range of operating conditions. Attention was given to the active open and closed loop control solutions for an airfoil with SJA at different angles of attack and flap angles. A large number of simulations using RANS & LES models were performed to study the effects of the momentum ratio (Cμ) in the range of 0 to 11% and of the non-dimensional frequency, F+, in the range of 0 to 2 for the control of flow separation at a practical angle of attack and flap angle. The optimum value of C

  1. If Your Child Learns in Two Languages: A Parent's Guide for Improving Educational Opportunities for Children Acquiring English as a Second Language = Si su nino aprende en dos idiomes: Una guia para que las familias sepan como mejorar las oportunidades educativas de los ninos que adquieren el ingles como segunda lengua = Neu lon Ban Hoc Bang Hai Thu Tieng: Chi-nam cua phu-huynh de cai tien co hoi hoc van cua con em dang hoc Anh van nhu sinh ngu thu hai.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelasko, Nancy; Antunez, Beth

    This guide, in English, Spanish, and Vietnamese, aims to inform parents of students who have learned or are learning English as a Second Language about appropriate approaches for educating children so that they can work with schools to ensure a high quality education for their children. The emphasis is on explaining the laws, schools, and research…

  2. Comparative performance of traps in catching tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae) in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Malele, Imna I; Ouma, Johnson O; Nyingilili, Hamisi S; Kitwika, Winston A; Malulu, Deusdedit J; Magwisha, Henry B; Kweka, Eliningeya J

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the efficiency of different tsetse traps in 28 sites across Tanzania. The traps used were biconical, H, NGU, NZI, pyramidal, S3, mobile, and sticky panels. Stationary traps were deployed at a distance of 200 m apart and examined 72 h after deployment. The results showed that 117 (52.2%) out of the 224 traps deployed captured at least one Glossina species. A total of five Glossina species were captured, namely Glossina brevipalpis, Glossina pallidipes, Glossina swynnertoni, Glossina morsitans, and Glossina fuscipes martinii. Biconical traps caught tsetse flies in 27 sites, pyramidal in 26, sticky panel in 20, mobile in 19, S3 in 15, NGU in 7, H in 2 and NZI in 1. A total of 21 107 tsetse flies were trapped, with the most abundant species being G. swynnertoni (55.9%), followed by G. pallidipes (31.1%), G. fuscipes martinii (6.9%) and G. morsitans (6.0%). The least caught was G. brevipalpis (0.2%). The highest number of flies were caught by NGU traps (32.5%), followed by sticky panel (16%), mobile (15.4%), pyramidal (13.0%), biconical (11.3%) and S3 (10.2%). NZI traps managed to catch 0.9% of the total flies and H traps 0.7%. From this study, it can be concluded that the most efficient trap was NGU, followed by sticky panel and mobile, in that order. Therefore, for tsetse fly control programmes, NGU traps could be the better choice. Conversely, of the stationary traps, pyramidal and biconical traps captured tsetse flies in the majority of sites, covering all three ecosystems better than any other traps; therefore, they would be suitable for scouting for tsetse infestation in any given area, thus sparing the costs of making traps for each specific Glossina species.

  3. Design & Development of a High Mass Flow Piston Synthetic Jet Actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashraf, Hamad Muhammad; Murugan Illikkal, Karthika; D'souza, Francis; Alsayed Mahmood, Mohamed; Mahmud Mostafa, Suhail; Kim, Young Hwan

    2015-05-01

    The idea of having a device that is capable of working in a systematic process allowing control of the boundary layer by means of operated on high-frequency, small-scale, and low energy actuators has caught the interest of the aerodynamicist community. With an eye on the available data and potential flow control advantages, our research team set out to manufacture a compact SJA (Synthetic Jet Actuator) of its own, which would be capable of being installed inside an airfoil. It consists of components such as a single piston cylinder, with variable exit geometry along with the control system that has an electrical actuator which can be regulated in order for it to be capable of producing various operating frequencies. This paper consists of a study into the design of a single piston device SJA and will present all significant data both theoretical and computational regarding its design and performance.

  4. Solubility-insolubility interconversion of sophoragrin, a mannose/glucose-specific lectin in Sophora japonica (Japanese pagoda tree) bark, regulated by the sugar-specific interaction.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Haruko; Fukushima, Hisako; Hatanaka, Yasumaru; Ogawa, Haruko

    2004-09-15

    Sophoragrin, a mannose/glucose-specific lectin in Sophora japonica (Japanese pagoda tree) bark, was the first lectin found to show self-aggregation that is dependent on the sugar concentration accompanying the interconversion between solubility and insolubility [Ueno, Ogawa, Matsumoto and Seno (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 3146-3153]. The interconversion is regulated by the concentrations of Ca(2+) and specific sugars: mannose, glucose or sucrose. The specific glycotopes for sophoragrin were found in the sophoragrin subunit and an endogenous galactose-specific lectin, B-SJA-I (bark S. japonica agglutinin I), and the lectin subunit that binds to the glycotope was identified by photoaffinity glycan probes. Remarkably, the insoluble polymer of sophoragrin is dissociated by interaction with B-SJA-I into various soluble complexes. Based on these results, self-aggregation of sophoragrin was shown to be a unique homopolymerization due to the sugar-specific interaction. An immunostaining study indicated that sophoragrin localizes mainly in vacuoles of parenchymal cells coincidently with B-SJA-I. These results indicate that sophoragrin can sequester endogenous glycoprotein ligands via sugar-specific interactions, thus providing new insights into the occurrence and significance of the intravacuolar interaction shown by a legume lectin. PMID:15222880

  5. Lectin blot studies on proteins of Myxobolus cerebralis, the causative agent of whirling disease.

    PubMed

    Knaus, Martin; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2005-07-18

    It is known that Myxobolus cerebralis antigens, both surficial and secreted, are key modulators for, or targets of, host immune system compounds. We undertook SDS-PAGE glycoprotein characterisation of M. cerebralis developmental stages isolated from infected rainbow trout and Western blot analyses using selected biotin-labelled plant lectins (GSA-I, PHA-E, SJA, GSA-II) and anti-triactinomyxon polyclonal antibodies. Glycoproteins were isolated with lectin-affinity chromatography, and prominent bands were characterised by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation-mass spectrometry (MALDI/MS). We identified glycoproteins of M. cerebralis myxospores that contained carbohydrate motifs reactive with Phaseolus vulgaris erythroagglutinin (proteins 20 to 209 kDa, PHA-E), Sophora japonica agglutinin (proteins 7 to 70 kDa, SJA), Griffonia simplicifolia Agglutinin I (proteins 10 to 209 kDa, GSA-I) and G. simplicifolia Agglutinin II (proteins 5 to 40 kDa, GSA-II). Mcgp33, a glycoprotein isolated by lectin-affinity chromatography, was reactive with SJA (about 33 kDa). Antiserum produced against M. cerebralis triactinomyxons was found to have differences in the antigenicity of isolated glycoproteins from both M. cerebralis myxospores and actinospores. We also demonstrated modified antigen expression, especially involving the glycoprotein Mcgp33, in different developmental stages of M. cerebralis. PMID:16119891

  6. Evaluation of Johnson-Cook model constants for aluminum based particulate metal matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilfi, H.; Brar, N. S.

    1996-05-01

    High strain rate and high temperature response of three types of aluminum based particulate metal matrix ceramic composites is investigated by performing split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) experiments. The composites are: NGP-2014 (15% SiC), NGT-6061 (15% SiC), and NGU-6061 (15% Al2O3), in which all the reinforcement materials are percentage by volume. Johnson-Cook constitutive model constants are evaluated from the high strain rate/high temperature data and implemented in a two dimensional finite element computer code (EPIC-2D) to simulate the penetration of an ogive nose tungsten projectile (23 grams) at a velocity 1.17 km/sec into the base 6061-T6 aluminum alloy and the composite NGU-6061. The simulated penetrations in the composite and in 6061-T6 aluminum agree with in 2%, in both materials, with the measured values.

  7. Managing Geological Profiles in Databases for 3D Visualisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarna, A.; Grøtan, B. O.; Henderson, I. H. C.; Iversen, S.; Khloussy, E.; Nordahl, B.; Rindstad, B. I.

    2016-10-01

    Geology and all geological structures are three-dimensional in space. GIS and databases are common tools used by geologists to interpret and communicate geological data. The NGU (Geological Survey of Norway) is the national institution for the study of bedrock, mineral resources, surficial deposits and groundwater and marine geology. 3D geology is usually described by geological profiles, or vertical sections through a map, where you can look at the rock structure below the surface. The goal is to gradually expand the usability of existing and new geological profiles to make them more available in the retail applications as well as build easier entry and registration of profiles. The project target is to develop the methodology for acquisition of data, modification and use of data and its further presentation on the web by creating a user-interface directly linked to NGU's webpage. This will allow users to visualise profiles in a 3D model.

  8. 3-DIMENSIONAL Geological Mapping and Modeling Activities at the Geological Survey of Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarna, A.; Bang-Kittilsen, A.; Haase, C.; Henderson, I. H. C.; Høgaas, F.; Iversen, S.; Seither, A.

    2015-10-01

    Geology and all geological structures are three-dimensional in space. Geology can be easily shown as four-dimensional when time is considered. Therefore GIS, databases, and 3D visualization software are common tools used by geoscientists to view, analyse, create models, interpret and communicate geological data. The NGU (Geological Survey of Norway) is the national institution for the study of bedrock, mineral resources, surficial deposits and groundwater and marine geology. The interest in 3D mapping and modelling has been reflected by the increase of number of groups and researches dealing with 3D in geology within NGU. This paper highlights 3D geological modelling techniques and the usage of these tools in bedrock, geophysics, urban and groundwater studies at NGU, same as visualisation of 3D online. The examples show use of a wide range of data, methods, software and an increased focus on interpretation and communication of geology in 3D. The goal is to gradually expand the geospatial data infrastructure to include 3D data at the same level as 2D.

  9. Advanced Modified High Performance Synthetic Jet Actuator with Curved Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor); Su, Ji (Inventor); Jiang, Xiaoning (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The advanced modified high performance synthetic jet actuator with optimized curvature shape chamber (ASJA-M) is a synthetic jet actuator (SJA) with a lower volume reservoir or chamber. A curved chamber is used, instead of the conventional cylinder chamber, to reduce the dead volume of the jet chamber and increase the efficiency of the synthetic jet actuator. The shape of the curvature corresponds to the maximum displacement (deformation) profile of the electroactive diaphragm. The jet velocity and mass flow rate for the ASJA-M will be several times higher than conventional piezoelectric actuators.

  10. Development of high-power, compact synthetic jet actuators for flow separation control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilarranz Runge, Jose Luis

    This work presents the development of high-power, compact synthetic jet actuators (SJA) for flow separation control. The developed actuator is compact enough to fit in the interior of a NACA0015 profiled wing with a chord of 0.375 in. Test bench experiments showed that the multi-piston actuator array was capable of producing exit velocities of up to 90 m/s for an actuator frequency of 130 Hz. The actuator was placed in a NACA 0015 wing and tested in a wind tunnel. An experimental investigation into the effects of a synthetic jet actuator on the performance of the wing is described. Emphasis is placed on the capabilities of the actuator to control the separation of the flow over the wing at high angles of attack. The investigation included the use of force balance measurements, on-surface flow visualization with oil and tufts, off-surface flow visualizations with smoke, surface pressure distribution measurements and wake surveys. In addition to flow separation control data, results corresponding to hot wire measurements at the exit of the slot, are also presented and are used for the characterization of the flowfield generated by the synthetic jet actuators. Most of the tests were performed at a freestream velocity of 35 m/s, corresponding to a Reynolds number of 8.96 x 105. The angle of attack was varied from -2.0 to 29 degrees. For the tests presented here, at angles of attack lower than 10 degrees the actuator tends to increase the lift curve slope as the actuation frequency is increased. At higher angles of attack, the SJA extends the range of angle of attack for which the wing may be operated without stalling. The use of the actuator causes an 80% increase in the value of maximum lift coefficient, and the angle at which stall occurs is increased from 12 to 18 degrees (for the Reynolds number range of the test). The drag on the wing is decreased as a consequence of SJA actuation. This was verified with the force balance measurements and by analysis of the wake

  11. Comparative characterization of microRNAs in Schistosoma japonicum schistosomula from Wistar rats and BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Hongxiao; Peng, Jinbiao; Hong, Yang; Fu, Zhiqiang; Lu, Ke; Li, Hao; Zhu, Chuangang; Zhao, Qiuhua; Lin, Jiaojiao

    2015-07-01

    More than 40 kinds of mammals in China are known to be naturally infected with Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum) (Peng et al. Parasitol Res 106:967-76, 2010). Compared with permissive BALB/c mice, rats are less susceptible to S. japonicum infection and are considered to provide an unsuitable microenvironment for parasite growth and development. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), via the regulation of gene expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, may be responsible for developmental differences between schistosomula in these two rodent hosts. Solexa deep-sequencing technology was used to identify differentially expressed miRNAs from schistosomula isolated from Wistar rats and BALB/c mice 10 days post-infection. The deep-sequencing analysis revealed that nearly 40 % of raw reads (10.37 and 10.84 million reads in schistosomula isolated from Wistar rats and BALB/c mice, respectively) can be mapped to selected mirs in miRBase or in species-specific genomes. Further analysis revealed that several miRNAs were differentially expressed in schistosomula isolated from these two rodents; 18 were downregulated (by <2-fold) and 23 were up-regulated (>2-fold) (expression levels in rats compare with those in mice). Additionally, three novel miRNAs were primarily predicted and identified. Among the 41 differentially expressed miRNAs, 4 miRNAs had been identified with specific functions in schistosome development or host-parasite interaction, such as sexual maturation (sja-miR-1, sja-miR-7-5p), embryo development (sja-miR-36-3p) in schistosome, and pathogenesis of schistosomiasis (sja-bantam). Then, the target genes were mapped, filtered, and correlated with a set of genes that were differentially expressed genes in schistosomula isolated from mice and rats, which we identified in a S. japonicum oligonucleotide microarray analysis in a previous study. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis of the predicted target genes of 13 differentially expressed miRNAs revealed that they

  12. Evidence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in sexually acquired reactive arthritis.

    PubMed

    Keat, A C; Thomas, B J; Taylor-Robinson, D; Pegrum, G D; Maini, R N; Scott, J T

    1980-10-01

    Thirty male patients with sexually acquired reactive arthritis (SARA) have been studied at the time of their initial presentation and thereafter. Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from the urethral exudate of 9 (36.0%) of the 25 patients from whom urethral specimens were taken, and elevated titres of IgM antibody of C. trachomatis were detected in 11 (36.6%) of the 30 initial sera. Thirteen (43.3%) of the patients has a positive urethral culture and/or elevated titre of IgM antibody, and it is therefore suggested that 43.3% of these patients suffered an acute chlamydial infection at or near the time of the onset of their joint disease. The demonstration of 4-fold or greater rises and/or falls in IgM antibody titre (8 patients) and IgG antibody titre (6 patients) in a group of 15 men studied throughout the course of their disease strongly supports this conclusion. A positive urethral culture and/or raised titre of IgM serum antibody was also detected in 25 (50%) of 50 men with uncomplicated nongonococcal urethritis (NGU), suggesting that the prevalence of chlamydial infections in the 2 conditions is similar. Titres of IgG serum antibody to C. trachomatis were, however, significantly higher in patients with SARA than in those with NGU or other rheumatic diseases, and in healthy controls. The geometric mean titres (GMT) of IgG serum antibody in patients with SARA, NGU, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in healthy controls were 1:47.5, 1:8.6, 1:2.2, 1;2.2, 1:3.5, and 1:1.4, respectively. These findings suggest that an exaggerated antibody response to acute infection by C. trachomatis may be an important factor in the development of SARA in some but not all patients.

  13. Late Holocene history of the forest ecosystems from Gabon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngomanda, A.; Maley, J.

    2003-04-01

    In Gabon sediment cores were collected in three sites close to the equator (PALEOFORGA Program). First in the lake Maridor inside the coastal forest/savanna mosaic, second in the lake Nguène at the foot of the Monts de Cristal which is characterized by very rich and diverse rain forests, and third in the lake Kamalété inside of the forest/savanna mosaic of the Lopé Réserve, located in the central part of Gabon. Until now two cores were pollen analyzed : 38 samples in the core KAM-1 from Kamalété and 42 samples in NGUE-1 from Nguène. The base of core KAM-1 is dated at ca. 1400 C/14 years BP and ca. 5000 C/14 years BP for base of the core NGUE-1. For the time span between the present day and ca.1400 C/14 years BP the main results are similar in these two cores, showing a phase of forest extension. In Kamalété, between ca. 1400 and 500 C/14 years BP one observes a strong increase of the pionnier forest taxa, then until the present day time an increase of more mature forest taxa. In the lowest part of the Nguène core, between ca. 5000 and 4000 C/14 years BP one observes the end of an important phase of mature forest, characterized by large percentages of Caesalpiniaceae tree taxa and other primary taxa, and between ca. 4000 and 1400 C/14 years BP, two sucessive phase characterized by important extensions of pionnier tree taxa. During the 20 th century in south Cameroon, CentreAfrique, Gabon and Congo, the main result of the ECOFIT Program has shown a widespread phenomenon of forest transgression upon the savannas. Such result are apparently the continuation of the forest extension evidenced above in Kamalété and Nguène. (Presentation and attendance to the Congress by only Alfred NGOMANDA, student/ thésard)

  14. [Research progress in pathogenicity of Ureaplasma urealyticum].

    PubMed

    Huang, Jun; Zhang, Jun; Song, Tiejun; Xie, Xinyou

    2013-07-01

    Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) is closely related to human diseases including non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU), infertility, premature membranes and neonatal bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Researches on the pathogenicity of UU have become a hot topic in recent years, and suggest that many potential pathogenicity genes or putative pathogenicity islands are involved in its virulence. Moreover, the biovar and serum types of UU, the infection concentration and the state of the host immune system are also important to determine whether UU can cause human disease or not. In this article the recent progress of researches in the pathogenicity of UU is reviewed.

  15. Lectin histochemistry of Kudoa septempunctata genotype ST3-infected muscle of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jaeyoun; Park, Changnam; Jang, Yeounghwan; Ahn, Meejung; Shin, Taekyun

    2016-01-01

    The localization of carbohydrate terminals in Kudoa septempunctata ST3-infected muscle of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) was investigated using lectin histochemistry to determine the types of carbohydrate sugar residues expressed in Kudoa spores. Twenty-one lectins were examined, i.e., N-acetylglucosamine (s-WGA, WGA, DSL-II, DSL, LEL, STL), mannose (Con A, LCA, PSA), galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine (RCA12, BSL-I, VVA, DBA, SBA, SJA, Jacalin, PNA, ECL), complex type N-glycans (PHA-E and PHA-L), and fucose (UEA-I). Spores encased by a plasmodial membrane were labeled for the majority of these lectins, with the exception of LCA, PSA, PNA, and PHA-L. Four lectins (RCA 120, BSL-I, DBA, and SJA) belonging to the galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine group, only labeled spores, but not the plasmodial membrane. This is the first confirmation that various sugar residues are present in spores and plasmodial membranes of K. septempunctata ST3. PMID:27169676

  16. Lectin histochemistry of Kudoa septempunctata genotype ST3-infected muscle of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Kang, Jaeyoun; Park, Changnam; Jang, Yeounghwan; Ahn, Meejung; Shin, Taekyun

    2016-01-01

    The localization of carbohydrate terminals in Kudoa septempunctata ST3-infected muscle of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) was investigated using lectin histochemistry to determine the types of carbohydrate sugar residues expressed in Kudoa spores. Twenty-one lectins were examined, i.e., N-acetylglucosamine (s-WGA, WGA, DSL-II, DSL, LEL, STL), mannose (Con A, LCA, PSA), galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine (RCA12, BSL-I, VVA, DBA, SBA, SJA, Jacalin, PNA, ECL), complex type N-glycans (PHA-E and PHA-L), and fucose (UEA-I). Spores encased by a plasmodial membrane were labeled for the majority of these lectins, with the exception of LCA, PSA, PNA, and PHA-L. Four lectins (RCA 120, BSL-I, DBA, and SJA) belonging to the galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine group, only labeled spores, but not the plasmodial membrane. This is the first confirmation that various sugar residues are present in spores and plasmodial membranes of K. septempunctata ST3. PMID:27169676

  17. Way to improve the radiation hygenic monitoring on contaminated territories.

    PubMed

    Bilonyk, A B; Buzunov, V O; Vasylenko, V V; Pikta, V O

    2013-01-01

    Meta doslidzhennja. Zabezpechennja efektyvnogo radiacijno-gigijenichnogo kontrolju ta zahystu naselennja vid ionizujuchogo oprominennja na pizn'omu etapi avarii' na Chornobyl's'kij AES v umovah zdijsnenogo reformuvannja galuzi. Materialy i metody doslidzhennja. Na terytorii' Ukrai'ny radiacijno-gigijenichnyj monitoryng (RGM) zdijsnjujet'sja v ramkah derzhavnogo sanitarno-epidemiologichnogo nagljadu sylamy 158 radiologichnyh pidrozdiliv SES. Struktura cyh pidrozdiliv organizovana z urahuvannjam terytorial'nogo podilu, najavnosti ob'jektiv radiologichnogo kontrolju ta naslidkiv avarii' na ChAES. S'ogodni vona skladajet'sja z pidrozdiliv rajonnogo, mis'kogo, oblasnogo rivniv, Central'nyh SES AR Krym ta na transporti. U 2012-2013 rr. provedeno reorganizaciju ta reformuvannja Derzhsanepidsluzhby Ukrai'ny, shho ne zavzhdy pozytyvno vidbylosja na zdijsnenni RGM. Rezul'taty i vysnovky. Provedenyj analiz organizacii' radiacijno-gigijenichnogo nagljadu ta zahystu naselennja radioaktyvno zabrudnenyh terytorij, efektyvnosti jogo funkcionuvannja dozvolyv vyznachyty ta zaproponuvaty shljahy udoskonalennja dijuchoi' systemy RGM na radioaktyvno zabrudnenyh terytorijah Ukrai'ny vnaslidok avarii' na ChAES. Dlja pokrashhennja ta optymizacii' provedennja RGM na radioaktyvno zabrudnenyh terytorijah zhyttjevo neobhidne vidnovlennja dijal'nosti radiologichnyh pidrozdiliv (viddiliv, viddilen', grup abo laboratorij) u strukturi Derzhsanepidsluzhby, stvorennja, nalezhnym chynom uzgodzhenyh ta zatverdzhenyh, metodychnyh rekomendacij po zdijsnennju RGM na cyh terytorijah.

  18. Structures and contribution to the antigenicity of oligosaccharides of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) pollen allergen Cry j I: relationship between the structures and antigenic epitopes of plant N-linked complex-type glycans.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, H; Hijikata, A; Amano, M; Kojima, K; Fukushima, H; Ishizuka, I; Kurihara, Y; Matsumoto, I

    1996-08-01

    The oligosaccharide structures of Cry j I, a major allergenic glycoprotein of Cryptomeria japonica (Japanese cedar, sugi), were analysed by 400 MHz 1H-NMR and two-dimensional sugar mapping analyses. The four major fractions comprised a series of biantennary complex type N-linked oligosaccharides that share a fucose/xylose-containing core and glucosamine branches including a novel structure with a nongalactosylated fucosylglucosamine branch. Rabbit polyclonal anti-Cry j I IgG antibodies cross-reacted with three different plant glycoproteins having the same or shorter N-linked oligosaccharides as Cry j I. ELISA and ELISA inhibition studies with intact glycoproteins, glycopeptides and peptides indicated that both anti-Cry j I IgGs and anti-Sophora japonica bark lectin II (B-SJA-II) IgGs included oligosaccharide-specific antibodies with different specificities, and that the epitopic structures against anti-Cry j I IgGs include a branch containing alpha 1-6 linked fucose and a core containing fucose/xylose, while those against anti-B-SJA-II IgGs include nonreducing terminal mannose residues. The cross-reactivities of human allergic sera to miraculin and Clerodendron Trichotomum lectin (CTA) were low, and inhibition studies suggested that the oligosaccharides on Cry j I contribute little or only conformationally to the reactivity of specific IgE antibodies. PMID:8872112

  19. In silico affinity profiling of neuroactive polyphenols for post-traumatic calpain inactivation: a molecular docking and atomistic simulation sensitivity analysis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pradeep; Choonara, Yahya E; Pillay, Viness

    2015-01-01

    Calcium-activated nonlysosomal neutral proteases, calpains, are believed to be early mediators of neuronal damage associated with neuron death and axonal degeneration after traumatic neural injuries. In this study, a library of biologically active small molecular weight calpain inhibitors was used for model validation and inhibition site recognition. Subsequently, two natural neuroactive polyphenols, curcumin and quercetin, were tested for their sensitivity and activity towards calpain's proteolytic sequence and compared with the known calpain inhibitors via detailed molecular mechanics (MM), molecular dynamics (MD), and docking simulations. The MM and MD energy profiles (SJA6017 < AK275 < AK295 < PD151746 < quercetin < leupeptin < PD150606 < curcumin < ALLN < ALLM < MDL-28170 < calpeptin) and the docking analysis (AK275 < AK295 < PD151746 < ALLN < PD150606 < curcumin < leupeptin < quercetin < calpeptin < SJA6017 < MDL-28170 < ALLM) demonstrated that polyphenols conferred comparable calpain inhibition profiling. The modeling paradigm used in this study provides the first detailed account of corroboration of enzyme inhibition efficacy of calpain inhibitors and the respective calpain-calpain inhibitor molecular complexes' energetic landscape and in addition stimulates the polyphenol bioactive paradigm for post-SCI intervention with implications reaching to experimental in vitro, in cyto, and in vivo studies.

  20. Bovine trypanosomosis and its vectors in two districts of Bench Maji zone, South Western Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tadesse, Abebayehu; Tsegaye, Biniam

    2010-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out from November 2008 to February 2009 in Guraferda and Sheko districts of Bench Maji Zone, South Western Ethiopia. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis and the density of its vectors. An overall prevalence of trypanosome infection in the study area was 4.4%. Trypanosoma congolense (36.36%) was the dominant trypanosome species followed by Trypanosoma vivax (18.18%) and Trypanosoma brucei (9.09%). Mean packed cell volume value of parasitemic animals (21.8%) was significantly (P<0.05) lower than that of aparasitemic animals (27.7%). Biconical and NGU traps were deployed for 72 h, and the result indicated Glossina pallidipes followed by Glossina fuscipes as the only tsetse fly species caught in the study area along with other biting flies like Stomoxys and Tabanus. The apparent density of tsetse flies was 2.83 flies trap(-1) day(-1). NGU trap caught more of G. pallidipes while biconical trap caught more G. fuscipes, and the difference was significant (P<0.05). Although the current study indicated low prevalence of trypanosomosis in the study area, the impacts of trypanosomosis on cattle production and productivity should not be neglected. Therefore, attention should be given to control the disease and also the vector.

  1. Relative and seasonal incidences of the sexually transmitted diseases. A two-year statistical review.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, R A; Judson, F N

    1978-01-01

    In the United States statistics on sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), other than gonorrhoea and syphilis, are meagre. In this study the relative and seasonal incidences of most STDs in an American clinic where 34,938 patient visits were recorded over a two-year period (1975-76) are assessed. Gonorrhoea was the most common STD in male and female patients combined (18%), while nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) was most common in men (23%), and vaginitis (trichomonal 7.5%, yeast 7.1%, and non-specific 7.1%) was the most common in women. A significantly higher incidence of NGU occurred in Caucasian (63%) than in black (42%) men (P less than 0.005). No other STD was diagnosed in more than 5% of patients, and 31% had normal findings on clinical examination and investigation, and could be described as the 'worried well'. Two or more STDs co-existed in 4.2% of patients. In 1976 the incidence of genital herpes and scabies decreased in contrast to other STDs and total patient visits, which increased. A seasonal peak in late summer and early autumn was observed for most STDs. These observations indicate the importance of a comprehensive approach when attempting to compile accurate statistics on selected epidemiological aspects of sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:581655

  2. Western equatorial African forest-savanna mosaics: a legacy of late Holocene climatic change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngomanda, A.; Chepstow-Lusty, A.; Makaya, M.; Favier, C.; Schevin, P.; Maley, J.; Fontugne, M.; Oslisly, R.; Jolly, D.

    2009-02-01

    Past vegetation and climate changes reconstructed using two pollen records from Lakes Maridor and Nguène, Gabon, provide new insights into the environmental history of western equatorial African rainforests during the last 4500 cal yr BP. The Lake Maridor pollen record indicates that the coastal savannas of western equatorial Africa did not exist during the mid-Holocene and instead the region was covered by evergreen rainforests. In the Lake Nguène pollen record, a rapid decline of hygrophilous evergreen rainforest occurred around 4000 cal yr BP, synchronously with grassland expansion around Lake Maridor. The establishment of coastal savannas in Gabon suggests decreasing humidity at the onset of the late Holocene. The marked reduction in evergreen rainforest and subsequent savanna expansion was associated with the colonization of secondary forests dominated by the palm, Elaeis guineensis, in the coastal region and the shrub, Alchornea cordifolia, further inland. A return to wetter climatic conditions from about 1400 cal yr BP led to the renewed spread of evergreen rainforest inland, whereas a forest-savanna mosaic still persists in the coastal region. There is no evidence to suggest that the major environmental changes observed are driven by human impact.

  3. Lectin mapping reveals stage-specific display of surface carbohydrates in in vitro and haemolymph-derived cells of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    Wanchoo, Arun; Lewis, Michael W; Keyhani, Nemat O

    2009-09-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana and its insect host target represent a model system with which to examine host-pathogen interactions. Carbohydrate epitopes on the surfaces of fungal cells play diverse roles in processes that include adhesion, non-self recognition and immune invasion with respect to invertebrate hosts. B. bassiana produces a number of distinct cell types that include aerial conidia, submerged conidia, blastospores and haemolymph-derived cells termed in vivo blastospores or hyphal bodies. In order to characterize variations in the surface carbohydrate epitopes among these cells, a series of fluorescently labelled lectins, combined with confocal microscopy and flow cytometry to quantify the response, was used. Aerial conidia displayed the most diverse lectin binding characteristics, showing reactivity against concanavalin A (ConA), Galanthus nivalis (GNL), Griffonia simplicifolia (GSII), Helix pomatia (HPA), Griffonia simplicifolia isolectin (GSI), peanut agglutinin (PNA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEAI) and wheatgerm agglutinin (WGA), and weak reactivity against Ricinus communis I (RCA), Sambucus nigra (SNA), Limax flavus (LFA) and Sophora japonica (SJA) lectins. Lectin binding to submerged conidia was similar to that to aerial conidia, except that no reactivity against UEAI, HPA and SJA was noted, and WGA appeared to bind strongly at specific polar spots. In contrast, the majority of in vitro blastospores were not bound by ConA, GNL, GSII, GSI, SNA, UEAI, LFA or SJA, with PNA binding in large patches, and some polarity in WGA binding noted. Significant changes in lectin binding also occurred after aerial conidial germination and in cells grown on either lactose or trehalose. For germinated conidia, differential lectin binding was noted between the conidial base, the germ tube and the hyphal tip. Fungal cells isolated from the haemolymph of the infected insect hosts Manduca sexta and Heliothis virescens appeared to shed most

  4. Lectin histochemical studies on the olfactory epithelium and vomeronasal organ in the Japanese striped snake, Elaphe quadrivirgata.

    PubMed

    Kondoh, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Yoshio; Nakamuta, Nobuaki; Taniguchi, Kazumi; Taniguchi, Kazuyuki

    2010-10-01

    The olfactory epithelium and the vomeronasal organ of the Japanese striped snake were examined by lectin histochemistry. Of the 21 lectins used in the study, all lectins except succinylated-wheat germ agglutinin (s-WGA) showed similar binding patterns in the vomeronasal receptor cells and the olfactory receptor cells with varying intensities. The binding patterns of s-WGA varied among individuals in the vomeronasal and olfactory receptor cells, respectively. Four lectins, Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin-II (BSL-II), Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), Sophora japonica agglutinin (SJA), and Erythrina cristagalli lectin (ECL) stained secretory granules and the organelles in the olfactory supporting cells and did not stain them in the vomeronasal supporting cells. These results suggest that the glycoconjugate moieties are similar in the vomeronasal and olfactory receptor cells of the Japanese striped snake. PMID:20597100

  5. The Role of Calcium Activated Protease Calpain in Experimental Retinal Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Azuma, M.; Shearer, T.R.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present the recent evidence linking the family of ubiquitous proteases called calpains (EC 3.4.22.17) to neuropathologies of the retina. The hypothesis being tested in such studies is that over-activation of calpains by elevated intracellular calcium contributes to retinal cell death produced by conditions such as elevated intraocular pressure and hypoxia. Recent x-ray diffraction studies have provided insight into the molecular events causing calpain activation. Further, x-ray diffraction data has provided details on how side chains on calpain inhibitors affect docking into the active site of calpain 1. This opens the possibility of testing calpain-specific inhibitors, such as SJA6017 and SNJ1945, for human safety and as a site-directed form of treatment for retinal pathologies. PMID:18348880

  6. Advanced high performance horizontal piezoelectric hybrid synthetic jet actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor); Jiang, Xiaoning (Inventor); Su, Ji (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention comprises a high performance, horizontal, zero-net mass-flux, synthetic jet actuator for active control of viscous, separated flow on subsonic and supersonic vehicles. The present invention is a horizontal piezoelectric hybrid zero-net mass-flux actuator, in which all the walls of the chamber are electrically controlled synergistically to reduce or enlarge the volume of the synthetic jet actuator chamber in three dimensions simultaneously and to reduce or enlarge the diameter of orifice of the synthetic jet actuator simultaneously with the reduction or enlargement of the volume of the chamber. The present invention is capable of installation in the wing surface as well as embedding in the wetted surfaces of a supersonic inlet. The jet velocity and mass flow rate for the SJA-H will be several times higher than conventional piezoelectric actuators.

  7. Glycosylation of stress glycoprotein GP62 in cells exposed to heat-shock and subculturing.

    PubMed

    Dumić, J; Lauc, G; Flögel, M

    1999-11-01

    GP62 is a member of the stress glycoprotein family that was proposed to have a chaperone-like function in the heat-shock response. Using lectin blotting we have studied glycosylation of GP62 and determined that in addition to heat-shock, even simple subculturing of cells is a sufficient stimulus to provoke induction of GP62. Interestingly, both kinetics of induction and glycosylation of GP62 induced by subculturing were different than when GP62 was induced by heat-shock. While GP62 induced by heat-shock was recognized by SNA, DSA and PHA-E lectins, and not by BSA I, Con A, RCA I, SJA, UEA I, VVA, and WGA lectins, GP62 induced by subculturing was also recognized by RCA I and WGA lectins.

  8. [Two new species of Myxidium (Myxosporea: Myxidiidae) parasites of fresh water fish in Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Fomena, A; Lekeufack, Folefack G B; Bouix, G

    2010-03-01

    The study of Myxosporidia infecting Clarias pachynema Boulenger, 1903 (Clariidae), Ctenopoma petherici Günther, 1864 (Anabantidae) and Parachanna obscura (Günther, 1861) (Channidae) from the basin of Nkam in Cameroon, revealed the presence of two new species of Myxosporidia of the genus Myxidium Bütschli, 1882, all found in the gall bladder of their hosts. These new species were: Myxidium nkamensis n. sp., found in Clarias pachynema and M. sangei n. sp. found in the gall bladder wall of Parachanna obscura. Two other species, Myxidium petrocephali Fomena and Bouix, 1986 and M. distichodi Kostoïngué, Faye and Toguebaye, 1998 were found in new hosts. The list of Myxidium species parasitizing African fresh water fishes is given.

  9. How Much Did Maine's Molocket and Metallak Know about Rapid Climate Change? Did They Utilize Psychological Strategies and Cover Stories to Conceal Their Impact Communities, Observational Sites and Data Collection?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Tiffany R.; Mc Leod, Roger D.; Mc Leod, David M.

    2003-10-01

    The Pequakets Molocket (adherent of God La[ngued]oc Christ Cathar Spirit-signal) and Metallak operated in NH and the western border area of ME, during the early 1800s. Molocket requested shelter in South Paris, ME during a powerful thunderstorm. Denied access, she cursed that area. Our interests have led us to recognize that there may be psychological reasons that deception is good strategic procedure for concealing valuable activities associated with impact power groups striving to protect their operating turf. Many sites associated with tradition-respecting Native Americans are quite electromagnetically responsive to climate change. Metallak (mathematician-applied astronomer God Spirit-signal) is purported to have driven off his son over purloined furs; that elder son then operated among the MiKmaw/Micmacs of ME and the Canadian Maritimes. They are purported to make the weather. Information protection and surreptitious data collection may indicate an impact groups concealed interests.

  10. Blow-up in p-Laplacian heat equations with nonlinear boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Juntang; Shen, Xuhui

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate the blow-up of solutions to the following p-Laplacian heat equations with nonlinear boundary conditions: {l@{quad}l}(h(u))_t =nabla\\cdot(|nabla u|pnabla u)+k(t)f(u) &{in } Ω×(0,t^{*}), |nabla u|ppartial u/partial n=g(u) &on partialΩ×(0,t^{*}), u(x,0)=u0(x) ≥ 0 & {in } overline{Ω},. where {p ≥ 0} and {Ω} is a bounded convex domain in {RN}, {N ≥ 2} with smooth boundary {partialΩ}. By constructing suitable auxiliary functions and using a first-order differential inequality technique, we establish the conditions on the nonlinearities and data to ensure that the solution u( x, t) blows up at some finite time. Moreover, the upper and lower bounds for the blow-up time, when blow-up does occur, are obtained.

  11. Gu's function scale of ion hydration force and charge size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Hong-Kan

    1997-06-01

    “Water Vapor Chemistry” as a new science was discovered and established from trace analysis in Gu's laboratory(Gu, 1991; Gu et al., 1991). Gu's Function shows that the trace metal ion concentration in water vapor has positive correlation to “specific electron affinity constant” last ionization potential I z/ion valence Z and negative correlation to ion volume V and coordination number N(Gu, 1994). Gu's Function C=f[(Iz/Z)/VN] of the bond parameter in water vapor chemistry corresponds to the potential energy function Z'e 2/r in the Schrodinger Equation of quantum chemistry. In, different ions with the same 2+ charge, the ion concentration of water—water vapor transfer may be much different. This shows that the 2+ charge of different ions has different attractive force (hydration force). This different attractive force of the charge can be scaled with the relative energy or charge size from Gu's Function.

  12. Multiplex Assay for Simultaneous Detection of Mycoplasma genitalium and Macrolide Resistance Using PlexZyme and PlexPrime Technology

    PubMed Central

    Tabrizi, Sepehr N.; Tan, Lit Y.; Walker, Samantha; Twin, Jimmy; Poljak, Marin; Bradshaw, Catriona S.; Fairley, Christopher K.; Bissessor, Melanie; Mokany, Elisa; Todd, Alison V.; Garland, Suzanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is a cause of non-gonoccocal urethritis (NGU) in men and cervicitis and pelvic inflammatory disease in women. Recent international data also indicated that the first line treatment, 1 gram stat azithromycin therapy, for M. genitalium is becoming less effective, with the corresponding emergence of macrolide resistant strains. Increasing failure rates of azithromycin for M. genitalium has significant implications for the presumptive treatment of NGU and international clinical treatment guidelines. Assays able to predict macrolide resistance along with detection of M. genitalium will be useful to enable appropriate selection of antimicrobials to which the organism is susceptible and facilitate high levels of rapid cure. One such assay recently developed is the MG 23S assay, which employs novel PlexZyme™ and PlexPrime™ technology. It is a multiplex assay for detection of M. genitalium and 5 mutations associated with macrolide resistance. The assay was evaluated in 400 samples from 254 (186 males and 68 females) consecutively infected participants, undergoing tests of cure. Using the MG 23S assay, 83% (331/440) of samples were positive, with 56% of positives carrying a macrolide resistance mutation. Comparison of the MG 23S assay to a reference qPCR method for M. genitalium detection and high resolution melt analysis (HRMA) and sequencing for detection of macrolide resistance mutations, resulted in a sensitivity and specificity for M. genitalium detection and for macrolide resistance of 99.1/98.5% and 97.4/100%, respectively. The MG 23S assay provides a considerable advantage in clinical settings through combined diagnosis and detection of macrolide resistance. PMID:27271704

  13. Biology and trapping of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in pineapple residues (Ananas comosus) in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Solórzano, José-Arturo; Gilles, Jeremie; Bravo, Oscar; Vargas, Cristina; Gomez-Bonilla, Yannery; Bingham, Georgina V; Taylor, David B

    2015-01-01

    Pineapple production in Costa Rica increased nearly 300-fold during the last 30 yr, and >40,000 hectares of land are currently dedicated to this crop. At the end of the pineapple cropping cycle, plants are chopped and residues incorporated into the soil in preparation for replanting. Associated with increased pineapple production has been a large increase in stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), populations. Stable flies are attracted to, and oviposit in, the decomposing, chopped pineapple residues. In conjunction with chemical control of developing larvae, adult trapping is an important control strategy. In this study, four blue-black fabric traps, Nzi, Vavoua, Model H, and Ngu, were compared with a white sticky trap currently used for stable fly control in Costa Rica. Overall, the white sticky trap caught the highest number of stable flies, followed by the Nzi, Vavoua, Model H, and Ngu. Collections on the white sticky trap increased 16 d after residues were chopped; coinciding with the expected emergence of flies developing in the pineapple residues. During this same time period, collections in the blue-black fabric traps decreased. Sex ratio decreased from >7:1 (females:males) 3-7 d after chopping to 1:1 at 24-28 d. White sticky, Nzi and Vavoua traps collected similar numbers of colonizing flies 3-7 d after residues were chopped. However, white sticky traps collected more flies once emergence from the pineapple residues began. Although white sticky traps collected more flies than fabric traps, they remain labor intensive and environmentally unsound because of their disposable and nonbiodegradable nature. PMID:26454479

  14. Biology and Trapping of Stable Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) Developing in Pineapple Residues (Ananas comosus) in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Solórzano, José-Arturo; Gilles, Jeremie; Bravo, Oscar; Vargas, Cristina; Gomez-Bonilla, Yannery; Bingham, Georgina V.; Taylor, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Pineapple production in Costa Rica increased nearly 300-fold during the last 30 yr, and >40,000 hectares of land are currently dedicated to this crop. At the end of the pineapple cropping cycle, plants are chopped and residues incorporated into the soil in preparation for replanting. Associated with increased pineapple production has been a large increase in stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), populations. Stable flies are attracted to, and oviposit in, the decomposing, chopped pineapple residues. In conjunction with chemical control of developing larvae, adult trapping is an important control strategy. In this study, four blue-black fabric traps, Nzi, Vavoua, Model H, and Ngu, were compared with a white sticky trap currently used for stable fly control in Costa Rica. Overall, the white sticky trap caught the highest number of stable flies, followed by the Nzi, Vavoua, Model H, and Ngu. Collections on the white sticky trap increased 16 d after residues were chopped; coinciding with the expected emergence of flies developing in the pineapple residues. During this same time period, collections in the blue-black fabric traps decreased. Sex ratio decreased from >7:1 (females:males) 3–7 d after chopping to 1:1 at 24–28 d. White sticky, Nzi and Vavoua traps collected similar numbers of colonizing flies 3–7 d after residues were chopped. However, white sticky traps collected more flies once emergence from the pineapple residues began. Although white sticky traps collected more flies than fabric traps, they remain labor intensive and environmentally unsound because of their disposable and nonbiodegradable nature. PMID:26454479

  15. Biology and trapping of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in pineapple residues (Ananas comosus) in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Solórzano, José-Arturo; Gilles, Jeremie; Bravo, Oscar; Vargas, Cristina; Gomez-Bonilla, Yannery; Bingham, Georgina V; Taylor, David B

    2015-01-01

    Pineapple production in Costa Rica increased nearly 300-fold during the last 30 yr, and >40,000 hectares of land are currently dedicated to this crop. At the end of the pineapple cropping cycle, plants are chopped and residues incorporated into the soil in preparation for replanting. Associated with increased pineapple production has been a large increase in stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), populations. Stable flies are attracted to, and oviposit in, the decomposing, chopped pineapple residues. In conjunction with chemical control of developing larvae, adult trapping is an important control strategy. In this study, four blue-black fabric traps, Nzi, Vavoua, Model H, and Ngu, were compared with a white sticky trap currently used for stable fly control in Costa Rica. Overall, the white sticky trap caught the highest number of stable flies, followed by the Nzi, Vavoua, Model H, and Ngu. Collections on the white sticky trap increased 16 d after residues were chopped; coinciding with the expected emergence of flies developing in the pineapple residues. During this same time period, collections in the blue-black fabric traps decreased. Sex ratio decreased from >7:1 (females:males) 3-7 d after chopping to 1:1 at 24-28 d. White sticky, Nzi and Vavoua traps collected similar numbers of colonizing flies 3-7 d after residues were chopped. However, white sticky traps collected more flies once emergence from the pineapple residues began. Although white sticky traps collected more flies than fabric traps, they remain labor intensive and environmentally unsound because of their disposable and nonbiodegradable nature.

  16. Multiplex Assay for Simultaneous Detection of Mycoplasma genitalium and Macrolide Resistance Using PlexZyme and PlexPrime Technology.

    PubMed

    Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Tan, Lit Y; Walker, Samantha; Twin, Jimmy; Poljak, Marin; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Fairley, Christopher K; Bissessor, Melanie; Mokany, Elisa; Todd, Alison V; Garland, Suzanne M

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is a cause of non-gonoccocal urethritis (NGU) in men and cervicitis and pelvic inflammatory disease in women. Recent international data also indicated that the first line treatment, 1 gram stat azithromycin therapy, for M. genitalium is becoming less effective, with the corresponding emergence of macrolide resistant strains. Increasing failure rates of azithromycin for M. genitalium has significant implications for the presumptive treatment of NGU and international clinical treatment guidelines. Assays able to predict macrolide resistance along with detection of M. genitalium will be useful to enable appropriate selection of antimicrobials to which the organism is susceptible and facilitate high levels of rapid cure. One such assay recently developed is the MG 23S assay, which employs novel PlexZyme™ and PlexPrime™ technology. It is a multiplex assay for detection of M. genitalium and 5 mutations associated with macrolide resistance. The assay was evaluated in 400 samples from 254 (186 males and 68 females) consecutively infected participants, undergoing tests of cure. Using the MG 23S assay, 83% (331/440) of samples were positive, with 56% of positives carrying a macrolide resistance mutation. Comparison of the MG 23S assay to a reference qPCR method for M. genitalium detection and high resolution melt analysis (HRMA) and sequencing for detection of macrolide resistance mutations, resulted in a sensitivity and specificity for M. genitalium detection and for macrolide resistance of 99.1/98.5% and 97.4/100%, respectively. The MG 23S assay provides a considerable advantage in clinical settings through combined diagnosis and detection of macrolide resistance. PMID:27271704

  17. Implementation of numerical simulations for rockfall hazard mapping in the Norddal municipality, Norway.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yugsi Molina, Freddy Xavier; Oppikofer, Thierry; Otterå, Solveig; Hermanns, Reginald; Taurisano, Andrea; Wasrud, Jaran; Are Jensen, Odd; Rødseth Kvakland, Marte

    2013-04-01

    The Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) in cooperation with the Geological Survey of Norway (NGU) are implementing a nationwide program to systematically produce hazard maps for rockfalls, debris flows and snow avalanches in steep terrains. Activities during this program mapping are being carried out by both institutions, and for some areas, outsourced to the private sector. The results presented in this contribution focus on the rockfall component only, and are part of the hazard mapping activities carried out by NGU. Results from all parties involved will further lead in future, in combination with the components on debris flows and snow avalanches, to the preparation of guidelines for landslide hazard mapping. Those will be presented and recommended for the use of private consultants that work on municipality level. The first goal of the project is the preparation of hazard maps for critical areas where a large number of people are exposed to the threat of such type of mass movements. Results from a pilot area in Sylte (Norddal municipality) were presented in the EGU general assembly in 2012. The main objective of this contribution is to present the first finished rockfall hazard maps generated by NGU during the execution of the program. The results presented in this contribution were obtained for the Norddal municipality (Møre og Romsdal county). The area was selected based on the hazard mapping plan of Norway published in 2011, where Norddal is considered a priority area. The area is located in a valley over-steepened by glacial erosion that is characterized by high cliffs of medium to coarse-grained quartz-dioritic to granitic gneisses of Proterozoic age. Multiple scree deposits product of older and recent rockfall activity can be seen along the bottom at both valley flanks. Sylte, the main locality in the Norddal municipality, is located at the valley outlet to the fjord. Several other smaller localities are found along the valley. A

  18. Comparative Gut Microbiomes of Four Species Representing the Higher and the Lower Termites.

    PubMed

    Su, LiJuan; Yang, LeLe; Huang, Shi; Su, XiaoQuan; Li, Yan; Wang, FengQin; Wang, EnTao; Kang, Ning; Xu, Jian; Song, AnDong

    2016-01-01

    Aiming at learning the association between the gut microbiota and termites with different diet habits and phylogenetic positions, the gut bacteria of three populations for each of the two higher termites (wood-feeding Mironasutitermes shangchengensis and fungus-feeding Odontotermes formosanus) and two wood-feeding lower termites (Tsaitermes ampliceps and Reticulitermes flaviceps) were analyzed by high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing of 16S V1-V3 amplicons. As results, 132 bacterial genera and some unidentified operational taxonomic units within 29 phyla in the gut bacteria were detected, with Spirochaetes (11-55%), Firmicutes (7-18%), Bacteroidetes (7-31%), and Proteobacteria (8-14%) as the main phyla, and Treponema, TG5, Dysgonomonas, Tannerella, za29, Lactococcus, Pseudomonas, and SJA-88 as the common genera in all the four termites. The diversity of gut bacterial communities in the higher termite guts was significantly greater than that in the lower termites; while the gut microbiota in M. shangchengensis (wood-feeding higher termite) was more similar to those of the wood-feeding lower termites rather than that of O. formosanus (fungus-feeding higher termite), and phylum Spirochaetes and nitrogen-fixing bacteria were super-dominant in the wood-feeding termites, despite of their phylogenetic relations. This study reported for the first time the gut bacterial communities for the termites of M. shangchengensis and T. ampliceps and the comparative analyses showed that the gut microbial communities varied according to the phylogeny and the diet habits of termites.

  19. Alteration of liver glycopatterns during cirrhosis and tumor progression induced by HBV.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yannan; Zhong, Yaogang; Ma, Tianran; Wu, Fei; Wu, Haoxiang; Yu, Hanjie; Huang, Chen; Li, Zheng

    2016-04-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is closely correlated with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-induced liver cirrhosis. Structural changes in the glycans of serum and tissue proteins are reliable indicators of liver damage. However, little is known about the alteration of liver glycopatterns during cirrhosis and tumor progression induced by HBV infection. This study compared the differential expression of liver glycopatterns in 7 sets of normal pericarcinomatous tissues (PCTs), cirrhotic, and tumor tissues from patients with liver cirrhosis and HCC induced by HBV using lectin microarrays. Fluorescence-based lectin histochemistry and lectin blotting were further utilized to validate and assess the expression and distribution of certain glycans in 9 sets of corresponding liver tissue sections. Eight lectins (e.g., Jacalin and AAL) revealed significant difference in cirrhotic tissues versus PCTs. Eleven lectins (e.g., EEL and SJA) showed significant alteration during cirrhotic and tumor progression. The expression of Galα1-3(Fucα1-2)Gal (EEL) and fucosyltransferase 1 was mainly increasing in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes during PCTs-cirrhotic-tumor tissues progression, while the expression of T antigen (ACA and PNA) was decreased sharply in cytoplasm of tumor hepatocytes. Understanding the precision alteration of liver glycopatterns related to the development of hepatitis, cirrhosis, and tumor induced by HBV infection may help elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the progression of chronic liver diseases and develop new antineoplastic therapeutic strategies. PMID:26833199

  20. Comparative Gut Microbiomes of Four Species Representing the Higher and the Lower Termites.

    PubMed

    Su, LiJuan; Yang, LeLe; Huang, Shi; Su, XiaoQuan; Li, Yan; Wang, FengQin; Wang, EnTao; Kang, Ning; Xu, Jian; Song, AnDong

    2016-01-01

    Aiming at learning the association between the gut microbiota and termites with different diet habits and phylogenetic positions, the gut bacteria of three populations for each of the two higher termites (wood-feeding Mironasutitermes shangchengensis and fungus-feeding Odontotermes formosanus) and two wood-feeding lower termites (Tsaitermes ampliceps and Reticulitermes flaviceps) were analyzed by high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing of 16S V1-V3 amplicons. As results, 132 bacterial genera and some unidentified operational taxonomic units within 29 phyla in the gut bacteria were detected, with Spirochaetes (11-55%), Firmicutes (7-18%), Bacteroidetes (7-31%), and Proteobacteria (8-14%) as the main phyla, and Treponema, TG5, Dysgonomonas, Tannerella, za29, Lactococcus, Pseudomonas, and SJA-88 as the common genera in all the four termites. The diversity of gut bacterial communities in the higher termite guts was significantly greater than that in the lower termites; while the gut microbiota in M. shangchengensis (wood-feeding higher termite) was more similar to those of the wood-feeding lower termites rather than that of O. formosanus (fungus-feeding higher termite), and phylum Spirochaetes and nitrogen-fixing bacteria were super-dominant in the wood-feeding termites, despite of their phylogenetic relations. This study reported for the first time the gut bacterial communities for the termites of M. shangchengensis and T. ampliceps and the comparative analyses showed that the gut microbial communities varied according to the phylogeny and the diet habits of termites. PMID:27638955

  1. Inhibition of Pasteurella multocida Adhesion to Rabbit Respiratory Epithelium Using Lectins

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo, Magda Patricia; Martinez, Nhora María; Patiño, María del Pilar; Iregui, Carlos Arturo

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the ability of a panel of lectins to inhibit the ability of Pasteurella multocida to adhere to and affect the rabbit respiratory epithelium. Nasal septa from rabbit fetuses were cultured with various lectins before the addition of P. multocida. The percentage of bacteria adhering to the epithelium was evaluated semiquantitatively by indirect immunoperoxidase (IIP) staining. The goblet cells (GCs) were counted in semithin sections stained with toluidine blue and served as the main morphological criterion to evaluate the inhibitory effect of the lectins. The lectins PNA, WGA, RCA120, and DBA significantly inhibited the adhesion of P. multocida to the ciliated epithelium (P < 0.05) and prevented the pathogen-induced increase in the number of GCs (P < 0.05) compared with those of positive control tissues. In addition, VVA, SJA, UEA I, DSL, SBA, and ECL significantly inhibited the increase in GCs compared with that of the control tissues. The results suggest that less aggressive therapeutic strategies, such as treatment with lectins, may represent alternative approaches to control bacterial respiratory infections. PMID:25810949

  2. Deep sequencing-based identification of pathogen-specific microRNAs in the plasma of rabbits infected with Schistosoma japonicum.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Guofeng; Luo, Rong; Hu, Chao; Cao, Jie; Jin, Youxin

    2013-12-01

    Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have received considerable attention as a novel class of biomarkers for the diagnosis of cancer and as signalling molecules in mediating intercellular communication. Schistosomes, the causative agents of schistosomiasis, live in the blood vessels of a mammalian host in the adult stage. In the present study, we characterized schistosome-specific small RNA populations in the plasma of rabbits infected with Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum) using a deep sequencing method and then identified five schistosome-specific miRNAs, including four known miRNAs (Bantam, miR-3479, miR-10 and miR-3096), and one novel miRNA (miR-0001, miRBase ID: sja-miR-8185). Four of the five schistosome-specific miRNAs were also detected by real-time RT-PCR in the plasma of S. japonicum-infected mice. In addition, our study indicated that schistosome Argonaute 2/3 may be an excretory-secretory (ES) protein. In summary, our findings are expected to provide useful information for further development of novel biomarkers for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis and also for deeper understanding of the mechanism of host-parasite interaction.

  3. Liposomes as potential carrier system for targeted delivery of polyene antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Naik, Suresh R; Desai, Sandhya K; Shah, Priyank D; Wala, Santosh M

    2013-09-01

    The development of new therapeutic modalities involves the use of drug carrier, such as liposomes, which can modify pharmacokinetic and bio-distribution of drug profile. Polyene antibiotics incorporation into liposomes improves its availability at the site, bio-distribution and therapeutic index mainly through the engulfment of liposomes by circulating monocytes/macrophages and transportation to the site of infection. Polyene antibiotics (AmB, SJA-95, HA-1-92) and other antibiotics (streptomycin, tobramycin, quinolones, anti-tubercular and anti-cancer drugs), liposomal preparations are described with possible advantages from therapeutic efficacy and toxicity point of view. The polyene macrolide antibiotics liposomal preparations proved to be more effective in the treatment of systemic mycosis. The AmB-cyclodextrin derivatives inclusion complex is a major breakthrough in liposomal preparation which can be converted into aqueous phase of liposome. Liposomal drug incorporated preparation has been one of the important areas of research for developing the existing polyene antibiotics into useful chemotherapeutic agents in clinical medicine. In recent past other antibiotics have also been incorporated into liposomes using wide variety of materials, phosphatidylethanolamine derivatives (pegylated liposomes, enzyme sensitive conjugates, fluidosomes of anti-cancer drugs and poly lactic/glycolic acid microspheres for anti-tuberculosis drugs). In addition, attempts were also made to extend the receptor mediated drug targeting and to review some relevant patents.

  4. Populations of domesticated cattle and buffalo in the Western Forest Complex of Thailand and their possible impacts on the wildlife community.

    PubMed

    Chaiyarat, Rattanawat; Srikosamatara, Sompod

    2009-03-01

    The Western Forest Complex (WEFCOM) of Thailand is comprised of many protected areas and has one of the highest wildlife populations in the country. Populations of wildlife in the WEFCOM have decreased dramatically over recent years. Rapid economic development has resulted in the conversion of forest into agricultural and pastoral land, which has directly and indirectly impacted the wildlife community. This research aimed to evaluate populations of domesticated cattle (Bos indicus) and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in the WEFCOM and their possible impacts on the wildlife community. Domesticated cattle and buffalo keepers from 1561 (or 3.3%) of houses in and near WEFCOM were interviewed. The average number of animals per household was 15.6 cattle and 8.5 buffalo. Most villagers released domesticated cattle and buffalo to forage in the protected areas. This tended to have a high impact on the wildlife community in Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary and Tungyai Naresuan Wildlife Sanctuary. The least impacted areas were Luam Khlong Ngu National Park, Thong Pha Phum National Park and Chaleam Ratanakosin National Park. With a high risk to the wildlife community, law enforcement should be used in combination with a certain level of co-management with local communities.

  5. Susceptibility of mixed infection of Ureaplasma Urealyticum and Mycoplasma Hominis to seven antimicrobial agents and comparison with that of Ureaplasma Urealyticum infection.

    PubMed

    Huang, Changzheng; Liu, Zhixiang; Lin, Nengxing; Tu, Yating; Li, Jiawen; Zhang, Demei

    2003-01-01

    In order to investigate the susceptibility of mixed infection of Ureaplasma Urealyticum (UU) and Mycoplasma Hominis (MH) to 7 kinds of antimicrobial agents and comparison with that of UU infection in NGU patients, the in vitro susceptibility was determined by using microdilution method. The positive results were analyzed. The results showed that the sequence of susceptibility to 7 kinds of antimicrobial agents for both UU infection group and UU-MH mixed infection group was almost the same from the highest susceptibility to the lowest accordingly: Josamycin, Doxycycline, Minocycline, Sparfloxacin, Roxithromycin, Ofloxacin and Azithromycin. The total drug resistance rate for UU-MH mixed infection group (97.67%) was significantly higher than that for UU infection group (44.67%, P < 0.01). The highest drug resistance rate in UU group and UU-MH mixed infection group was 31.33% (Ofloxacin) and 90.48% (Azithromycin) respectively. UU-MH mixed infection showed an increased drug resistance and changes of drug resistance spectrum.

  6. Western equatorial African forest-savanna mosaics: a legacy of late Holocene climatic change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngomanda, A.; Chepstow-Lusty, A.; Makaya, M.; Favier, C.; Schevin, P.; Maley, J.; Fontugne, M.; Oslisly, R.; Jolly, D.

    2009-10-01

    Past vegetation and climate changes reconstructed using two pollen records from Lakes Maridor and Nguène, located in the coastal savannas and inland rainforest of Gabon, respectively, provide new insights into the environmental history of western equatorial African rainforests during the last 4500 cal yr BP. These pollen records indicate that the coastal savannas of western equatorial Africa did not exist during the mid-Holocene and instead the region was covered by evergreen rainforests. From ca. 4000 cal yr BP a progressive decline of inland evergreen rainforest, accompanied by the expansion of semi-deciduous rainforest, occurred synchronously with grassland colonisation in the coastal region of Gabon. The contraction of moist evergreen rainforest and the establishment of coastal savannas in Gabon suggest decreasing humidity from ca. 4000 cal yr BP. The marked reduction in evergreen rainforest and subsequent savanna expansion was followed from 2700 cal yr BP by the colonization of secondary forests dominated by the palm, Elaeis guineensis, and the shrub, Alchornea cordifolia (Euphorbiaceae). A return to wetter climatic conditions from about 1400 cal yr BP led to the renewed spread of evergreen rainforest inland, whereas a forest-savanna mosaic still persists in the coastal region. There is no evidence to suggest that the major environmental changes observed were driven by human impact.

  7. Discovery of extracellular multiple form of Chlamydia trachomatis in the tissue culture.

    PubMed

    Li, Z H; Ju, L W; Li, L J

    1994-09-01

    A strain of Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from a patient with nongonococcal urethritis (NGU). Alternate passages between chick embryo and McCoy cell culture were examined. From the Giemsa stained coverslips taken from the cell culture 96 hours after inoculation, we found, to our surprise, that elementary bodies (EBs) distributed over a large area, and several intact cells embedded in them. These pure EB particles are round, fairly uniform in size and often appeared in pair. According to their morphology, distribution, arrangement and relationship with host cells, they are not the remains after cell lysis or directly released from host cells. We considered that they consisted of EBs which continued to divide by binary fission after their release. The name "Extracellular Multiply Form" was designated and their formation mechanism was proposed. This discovery gives a great challenge to primary theory, i.e. Chlamydias are obligate intracellular prokaryotic parasites. If we can further reveal the law of their formation, it will be of great significance both theoretically and practically. PMID:7805456

  8. Enzyme immunoassay in the diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infections in diverse patient groups.

    PubMed

    Bakir, T M; Hossain, A; De-Silva, S; Siddiqui, A; Sengupta, B S; el-Sheikh, M M; Bakir, A F

    1989-01-01

    An enzyme immunoassay (EIA) in parallel with cell culture was used to investigate the extent of infections due to Chlamydia trachomatis. EIA reactive confirmed in cell culture was taken as positive. C. trachomatis was found in 6 (26.0%) of 23 men with symptomatic non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU), ten (17.2%) of 58 symptom-free males and in three of 4 with postgonococcal urethritis. Among 106 asymptomatic pregnant women studied the incidence of C. trachomatis was 8.5% while a higher incidence (16.7%) was found in those with symptoms. C. trachomatis positivity in asymptomatic and symptomatic post-natal screening were 11.4% and 7.7%. Of 43 symptomatic non-pregnant females investigated, 7 (16.3%) were found to be positive for C. trachomatis. Of 3 women with PID, 2 (66.7%) harboured C. trachomatis in their cervix while in another 29 infertile women, C. trachomatis was positive in 3 (8.1%). Contraceptives appeared to have an effect on the chlamydial positivity. Comparative testing of EIA with the standard cell culture method in this study indicate EIA as a suitable alternative for the definitive diagnosis of chlamydial infection in high prevalence settings and with caution in low prevalence settings. PMID:2671155

  9. Monitoring of microbial community structure and succession in the biohydrogen production reactor by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE).

    PubMed

    Xing, Defeng; Ren, Nanqi; Gong, Manli; Li, Jianzheng; Li, Qiubo

    2005-04-01

    To study the structure of microbial communities in the biological hydrogen production reactor and determine the ecological function of hydrogen producing bacteria, anaerobic sludge was obtained from the continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) in different periods of time, and the diversity and dynamics of microbial communities were investigated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The results of DGGE demonstrated that an obvious shift of microbial population happened from the beginning of star-up to the 28th day, and the ethanol type fermentation was established. After 28 days the structure of microbial community became stable, and the climax community was formed. Comparative analysis of 16S rDNA sequences from reamplifying and sequencing the prominent bands indicated that the dominant population belonged to low G+C Gram-positive bacteria (Clostridium sp. and Ethanologenbacterium sp.), beta-proteobacteria (Acidovorax sp.), gamma-proteobacteria (Kluyvera sp.), Bacteroides (uncultured bacterium SJA-168), and Spirochaetes (uncultured eubacterium E1-K13), respectively. The hydrogen production rate increased obviously with the increase of Ethanologenbacterium sp., Clostridium sp. and uncultured Spirochaetes after 21 days, meanwhile the succession of ethanol type fermentation was formed. Throughout the succession the microbial diversity increased however it decreased after 21 days. Some types of Clostridium sp. Acidovorax sp., Kluyvera sp., and Bacteroides were dominant populations during all periods of time. These special populations were essential for the construction of climax community. Hydrogen production efficiency was dependent on both hydrogen producing bacteria and other populations. It implied that the co-metabolism of microbial community played a great role of biohydrogen production in the reactors.

  10. Substrate-Driven Convergence of the Microbial Community in Lignocellulose-Amended Enrichments of Gut Microflora from the Canadian Beaver (Castor canadensis) and North American Moose (Alces americanus)

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Mabel T.; Wang, Weijun; Lacourt, Michael; Couturier, Marie; Edwards, Elizabeth A.; Master, Emma R.

    2016-01-01

    Strategic enrichment of microcosms derived from wood foragers can facilitate the discovery of key microbes that produce enzymes for the bioconversion of plant fiber (i.e., lignocellulose) into valuable chemicals and energy. In this study, lignocellulose-degrading microorganisms from the digestive systems of Canadian beaver (Castor canadensis) and North American moose (Alces americanus) were enriched under methanogenic conditions for over 3 years using various wood-derived substrates, including (i) cellulose (C), (ii) cellulose + lignosulphonate (CL), (iii) cellulose + tannic acid (CT), and (iv) poplar hydrolysate (PH). Substantial improvement in the conversion of amended organic substrates into biogas was observed in both beaver dropping and moose rumen enrichment cultures over the enrichment phases (up to 0.36–0.68 ml biogas/mg COD added), except for enrichments amended with tannic acid where conversion was approximately 0.15 ml biogas/mg COD added. Multiplex-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed systematic shifts in the population of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Chlorobi, Spirochaetes, Chloroflexi, and Elusimicrobia in response to the enrichment. These shifts were predominantly substrate driven, not inoculum driven, as revealed by both UPGMA clustering pattern and OTU distribution. Additionally, the relative abundance of multiple OTUs from poorly defined taxonomic lineages increased from less than 1% to 25–50% in microcosms amended with lignocellulosic substrates, including OTUs from classes SJA-28, Endomicrobia, orders Bacteroidales, OPB54, and family Lachnospiraceae. This study provides the first direct comparison of shifts in microbial communities that occurred in different environmental samples in response to multiple relevant lignocellulosic carbon sources, and demonstrates the potential of enrichment to increase the abundance of key lignocellulolytic microorganisms and encoded activities. PMID:27446004

  11. Substrate-Driven Convergence of the Microbial Community in Lignocellulose-Amended Enrichments of Gut Microflora from the Canadian Beaver (Castor canadensis) and North American Moose (Alces americanus).

    PubMed

    Wong, Mabel T; Wang, Weijun; Lacourt, Michael; Couturier, Marie; Edwards, Elizabeth A; Master, Emma R

    2016-01-01

    Strategic enrichment of microcosms derived from wood foragers can facilitate the discovery of key microbes that produce enzymes for the bioconversion of plant fiber (i.e., lignocellulose) into valuable chemicals and energy. In this study, lignocellulose-degrading microorganisms from the digestive systems of Canadian beaver (Castor canadensis) and North American moose (Alces americanus) were enriched under methanogenic conditions for over 3 years using various wood-derived substrates, including (i) cellulose (C), (ii) cellulose + lignosulphonate (CL), (iii) cellulose + tannic acid (CT), and (iv) poplar hydrolysate (PH). Substantial improvement in the conversion of amended organic substrates into biogas was observed in both beaver dropping and moose rumen enrichment cultures over the enrichment phases (up to 0.36-0.68 ml biogas/mg COD added), except for enrichments amended with tannic acid where conversion was approximately 0.15 ml biogas/mg COD added. Multiplex-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed systematic shifts in the population of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Chlorobi, Spirochaetes, Chloroflexi, and Elusimicrobia in response to the enrichment. These shifts were predominantly substrate driven, not inoculum driven, as revealed by both UPGMA clustering pattern and OTU distribution. Additionally, the relative abundance of multiple OTUs from poorly defined taxonomic lineages increased from less than 1% to 25-50% in microcosms amended with lignocellulosic substrates, including OTUs from classes SJA-28, Endomicrobia, orders Bacteroidales, OPB54, and family Lachnospiraceae. This study provides the first direct comparison of shifts in microbial communities that occurred in different environmental samples in response to multiple relevant lignocellulosic carbon sources, and demonstrates the potential of enrichment to increase the abundance of key lignocellulolytic microorganisms and encoded activities. PMID:27446004

  12. Comparative Gut Microbiomes of Four Species Representing the Higher and the Lower Termites

    PubMed Central

    Su, LiJuan; Yang, LeLe; Huang, Shi; Su, XiaoQuan; Li, Yan; Wang, FengQin; Wang, EnTao; Kang, Ning; Xu, Jian; Song, AnDong

    2016-01-01

    Aiming at learning the association between the gut microbiota and termites with different diet habits and phylogenetic positions, the gut bacteria of three populations for each of the two higher termites (wood-feeding Mironasutitermes shangchengensis and fungus-feeding Odontotermes formosanus) and two wood-feeding lower termites (Tsaitermes ampliceps and Reticulitermes flaviceps) were analyzed by high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing of 16S V1–V3 amplicons. As results, 132 bacterial genera and some unidentified operational taxonomic units within 29 phyla in the gut bacteria were detected, with Spirochaetes (11–55%), Firmicutes (7–18%), Bacteroidetes (7–31%), and Proteobacteria (8–14%) as the main phyla, and Treponema, TG5, Dysgonomonas, Tannerella, za29, Lactococcus, Pseudomonas, and SJA-88 as the common genera in all the four termites. The diversity of gut bacterial communities in the higher termite guts was significantly greater than that in the lower termites; while the gut microbiota in M. shangchengensis (wood-feeding higher termite) was more similar to those of the wood-feeding lower termites rather than that of O. formosanus (fungus-feeding higher termite), and phylum Spirochaetes and nitrogen-fixing bacteria were super-dominant in the wood-feeding termites, despite of their phylogenetic relations. This study reported for the first time the gut bacterial communities for the termites of M. shangchengensis and T. ampliceps and the comparative analyses showed that the gut microbial communities varied according to the phylogeny and the diet habits of termites. PMID:27638955

  13. Lectin histochemical studies on the vomeronasal organ of the sheep.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Dalia; Nakamuta, Nobuaki; Taniguchi, Kazumi; Taniguchi, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    The vomeronasal organ of sheep was examined using lectin histochemistry in order to compare the types and amounts of the glycoconjugates among various components of the vomeronasal sensory and non-sensory epithelia. In the vomeronasal sensory epithelium, Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA) stained particular cells, located at the same level as the vomeronasal receptor cells, while the distribution, shape and number of the stained cells did not correspond to those of the vomeronasal receptor cells. Datura stramonium lectin (DSL), Concanavalin A (Con A), Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin-E (PHA-E) and Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin-L (PHA-L) labeled the basal cells of both vomeronasal sensory and non-sensory epithelia. While, Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), Succinylated-wheat germ agglutinin (s-WGA), Lycopersicon esculentum lectin (LEL), Solanum tuberosum lectin (STL) and Ricinus communis agglutinin-I (RCA-120) labeled the basal cells of the sensory epithelium, and Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin-I (BSL-I) stained the basal cells of the non-sensory epithelium, respectively. Seventeen lectins labeled the free border of both vomeronasal sensory and non-sensory epithelia, while Sophora japonica agglutinin (SJA), Jacalin and Pisum sativum agglutinin (PSA) labeled neither free border of the sensory nor that of non-sensory epithelia. The expression pattern of glycoconjugate was similar, but not identical, in the free border between the sensory and non-sensory epithelia. These results indicate that there are dissimilar features in the type and amount of glycoconjugates between the vomeronasal sensory and non-sensory epithelia, and at the same time, among the various cell types either in the vomeronasal sensory or non-sensory epithelium. PMID:23595118

  14. Substrate-Driven Convergence of the Microbial Community in Lignocellulose-Amended Enrichments of Gut Microflora from the Canadian Beaver (Castor canadensis) and North American Moose (Alces americanus).

    PubMed

    Wong, Mabel T; Wang, Weijun; Lacourt, Michael; Couturier, Marie; Edwards, Elizabeth A; Master, Emma R

    2016-01-01

    Strategic enrichment of microcosms derived from wood foragers can facilitate the discovery of key microbes that produce enzymes for the bioconversion of plant fiber (i.e., lignocellulose) into valuable chemicals and energy. In this study, lignocellulose-degrading microorganisms from the digestive systems of Canadian beaver (Castor canadensis) and North American moose (Alces americanus) were enriched under methanogenic conditions for over 3 years using various wood-derived substrates, including (i) cellulose (C), (ii) cellulose + lignosulphonate (CL), (iii) cellulose + tannic acid (CT), and (iv) poplar hydrolysate (PH). Substantial improvement in the conversion of amended organic substrates into biogas was observed in both beaver dropping and moose rumen enrichment cultures over the enrichment phases (up to 0.36-0.68 ml biogas/mg COD added), except for enrichments amended with tannic acid where conversion was approximately 0.15 ml biogas/mg COD added. Multiplex-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed systematic shifts in the population of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Chlorobi, Spirochaetes, Chloroflexi, and Elusimicrobia in response to the enrichment. These shifts were predominantly substrate driven, not inoculum driven, as revealed by both UPGMA clustering pattern and OTU distribution. Additionally, the relative abundance of multiple OTUs from poorly defined taxonomic lineages increased from less than 1% to 25-50% in microcosms amended with lignocellulosic substrates, including OTUs from classes SJA-28, Endomicrobia, orders Bacteroidales, OPB54, and family Lachnospiraceae. This study provides the first direct comparison of shifts in microbial communities that occurred in different environmental samples in response to multiple relevant lignocellulosic carbon sources, and demonstrates the potential of enrichment to increase the abundance of key lignocellulolytic microorganisms and encoded activities.

  15. Binding of the blood group-reactive lectins to human adult kidney specimens.

    PubMed

    Laitinen, L; Juusela, H; Virtanen, I

    1990-01-01

    The binding of a panel of blood group-reactive lectins to frozen sections of human kidney was studied with a special emphasis on reactivity with endothelia and basement membranes. The blood group A-reactive lectins, all specific for alpha-D-N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), Helix aspersa (HAA), Helix pomatia (HPA), and Griffonia simplicifolia I-A4 (GSA-I-A4) agglutinins bound to the endothelium in specimens with blood groups A and AB. In other samples, these lectins reacted predominantly with tubular basement membranes, as well as with certain tubules. Both Dolichos biflorus (DBA) and Vicia villosa agglutinins (VVA), reported to react with blood group A1 substance, failed to reveal endothelia in most specimens, but bound differently to tubules in all blood groups. The blood group B-reactive lectins, specific for alpha-D-galactose (alpha-Gal) or GalNAc, respectively, GSA-I-B4 and Sophora japonica agglutinin (SJA), bound to the endothelia in specimens from blood group B or AB and in other specimens bound only to certain tubules. Among the blood group O-reactive lectins, specific for alpha-L-fucose (Fuc), Ulex europaeus I agglutinin (UEA-I) conjugates, but not other lectins with a similar nominal specificity, bound strongly to endothelia in specimens with blood group O. The UEA-I conjugates bound distinctly more faintly to endothelia in specimens of other blood groups. The present results indicate that lectins, binding to defined blood group determinants, react with endothelia in specimens of the respective blood group status. Furthermore, they suggest that basement membranes and some tubules in the human kidney show a distinct heterogeneity in their expression of saccharide residues, related to their blood group status.

  16. Changes in glycoconjugate expression during early chick embryo development: a lectin-binding study.

    PubMed

    Griffith, C M; Sanders, E J

    1991-10-01

    A selection of lectins was used to investigate developmentally regulated changes in the distribution of cell surface oligosaccharides during the gastrulation and neurulation stages of early chick embryo development. Lectins from three specificity classes were used: glucose/mannose specificity (concanavalin A [Con A], Lens culinaris agglutinin [LCA], Pisum sativum agglutinin [PSA]); N-acetylglucosamine specificity (Lycopersicon esculentum agglutinin [LEA], wheat germ agglutinin [WGA], succinylated WGA [sWGA]); N-acetylgalactosamine/galactose specificity (Dolichos biflorus agglutinin [DBA], soybean agglutinin [SBA], Sophora japonica agglutinin [SJA], Bandeiraea (Griffonia) simplicifolia lectin I [BSL I], peanut agglutinin [PNA], Artocarpus integrifolia lectin [Jacalin], Ricinus communis agglutinin-1 [RCA-1], Erythrina cristagalli lectin [ECL]). At gastrulation stages, patterns of lectin binding could be distinguished in the epiblast, mesoderm, and endoderm cell layers. The primitive streak failed to bind any of the lectins, but LEA and WGA bound to the epiblast in regions lateral to the streak, indicating the loss of some glucosamine residues medially in preparation for the ingression movements of gastrulation. Several lectins showed marked binding to the mesoderm cells after their passage through the primitive streak; these were LCA, PSA, WGA, sWGA, BSL, and most particularly PNA. Therefore, the epithelial-mesenchymal transformation from epiblast to mesoderm at the primitive streak is accompanied by cell surface oligosaccharide changes in the epiblast and mesoderm that involve all classes of lectins including the PNA-binding sequence Gal beta 1-3GalNAc. Ultrastructurally, PNA was shown to bind extracellularly to matrix fibrils. Jacalin, having the same sugar specificity as PNA, but binding to serine/threonine linked chains rather than asparagine linked chains showed no binding to the mesoderm.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Impact of tsetse and trypanosomiasis control on cattle herd composition and calf growth and mortality at Arbaminch District (Southern Rift Valley, Ethiopia).

    PubMed

    Gechere, Geja; Terefe, Getachew; Belihu, Kelay

    2012-10-01

    The effect of tsetse/trypanosomiasis control on cattle herd composition and growth and mortality of calves in tsetse controlled (by Southern Tsetse Eradication Project (STEP)) and uncontrolled blocks in southern Ethiopia was assessed. Structured questionnaire was used to interview 182 households to estimate cattle herd composition and calf mortality. Calves were bled to examine the presence of trypanosomes by the buffy coat technique. Forty NGU traps were deployed and fly catches determined. A case-control study was performed on 40 calves for 6 months to estimate calve growth parameters. Accordingly, the mean cattle herd size was lower in tsetse-controlled block than in the uncontrolled block, whereas the relative number of calves in a herd tend to be higher in the tsetse-controlled block (P = 0.06). While there was no report of cattle mortality in tsetse-controlled block, 16.48 % of the respondents have lost calves in tsetse-uncontrolled block in 1 year time. The prevalence of trypanosome positive calves was 2.95 % for uncontrolled block but no positive case in tsetse-controlled block. The apparent densities of flies/trap/day in tsetse-uncontrolled block were 30-fold higher than in tsetse-controlled block (P < 0.01). The case-control study revealed that the mean body weight gain of calves in tsetse-controlled block (40.23 ± 0.7 kg) was significantly higher than that of the uncontrolled block (34.74 ± 0.68 kg). The above findings strongly suggest that the intervention by the STEP project has significantly reduced tsetse population and trypanosomiasis consequently contributing to improved calf growth and survival.

  18. European Plate Observing System - the Arctic dimension and the Nordic collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atakan, K.; Heikkinen, P.; Juhlin, C.; Thybo, H.; Vogfjord, K.

    2012-04-01

    strong motion networks monitor seismic activity and hazard in the North Atlantic. Vigorous volcanic activity along the plate boundary in Iceland and associated hazards are monitored by the Icelandic, seismic, geodetic, meteorological and hydrological networks. Recent eruptions, like the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruptions have demonstrated the far-reaching hazard to aviation caused by volcanic eruptions in Iceland. The high-sensitivity seismic and geodetic networks of Sweden monitor isostatic rebound of Fennoscandia. In this context, the varied Nordic monitoring networks provide a significant contribution to the main objectives of EPOS. There are already existing links with the other ESFRI initiatives where strong Nordic participation is established, such as SIOS and EMSO. As such EPOS provides the necessary platform to collaborate and develop an important Nordic dimension in the European Research Area. There is a long tradition of collaboration at the governmental level between the Nordic countries, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland and Iceland. Within the fields of research and education, the Nordic Ministries have a dedicated program, where research networks are being promoted. Recently a Nordic collaborative network in seismology, "NordQuake" (coordinated by Denmark) was established within this program. This collaboration which is now formalized and supported by the Nordic Ministries is based on a cooperation which was initiated more than 40 years ago, where annual Nordic Seminars in seismology (previously on detection seismology) was the central element. EPOS Nordic collaboration, building upon a long lasting history, has a significant potential for synergy effects in the region and therefore represents an important dimension within EPOS. Nordic EPOS Team: Lars Ottemöller (UiB), Mathilde B. Sørensen (UiB), Louise W. Bjerrum (UiB), Conrad Lindholm (Norsar), Halfdan Kjerulf (SK), Amir Kaynia (NGI), Valerie Maupin (UiO), Tor Langeland (CMR), Joerg Ebbing (NGU), John

  19. Characterization of glycans in the developmental stages of Myxobolus cerebralis (Myxozoa), the causative agent of whirling disease.

    PubMed

    Kaltner, H; Stippl, M; Knaus, M; El-Matbouli, M

    2007-11-01

    agglutinin (SNA) (specific for alpha2,6-sialylated glycans) and Maackia amurensis agglutinin (MAAI) (specific for alpha2,3-sialylated glycans). Arachis hypogaea (peanut) agglutinin (PNA), Erythrina cristagalli agglutinin (ECA), GSA I, Sophora japonica agglutinin (SJA), Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA) and GSA II detected reactive sites solely confined to the developmental stages of M. cerebralis and were not reactive in the fish host. These parasite-specific glycans may play a role in the adhesion process of the parasite to fish epidermis prior to infection, but may provide protection to the host by activating the complement system, or stimulating an adaptive immune response as putative antigens. PMID:17958607

  20. Characterization of glycoconjugate expression during development of Meckel's cartilage in the rat.

    PubMed

    Zschäbitz, A; Weiser, H; Stofft, E; Krahn, V; Gabius, H J; Khaw, A; Biesalski, H K

    1995-01-01

    The staining patterns of 24 biotinylated lectins were analyzed in serial sections of the mandible of 13- to 21-day-old rat embryos by means of the avidin-biotin-peroxidase method. A ubiquitous distribution of binding sites was demonstrated after incubation with Con A (Canavalia ensiformis), DSL (Datura stramonium; except bone matrix), and WGA (Triticum vulgare). ECL (Erythrina cristagalli), GSL I (Griffonia simplicifolia), SJA (Saphora japonica), VVL (Vicia villosa), DBA (Dolichus biflorus), UEA I (Ulex europeus), and LTA (Lotus tetragonobolus) were constantly negative. In early stages of development, GSL II (Griffonia simplicifolia II) was a selective marker of prechondral blastema. In contrast, PNA (Arachis hypogaea) did not stain condensing mesenchyme. During chondrogenesis of Meckels's cartilage a general decrease of lectin binding was observed. Mature cartilage matrix was constantly negative. Chondrocytes were marked by the lectins PSA (Pisum sativum), WGA, PHA-E, and PHA-L (Phaseolus vulgaris E and L). A strong GSL II binding was restricted to the mesial-superior region of the perichondrium. In later stages, several lectins revealed significant differences between preskeletal ("central") areas and the remaining ("peripheral") mesenchyme. A clear binding reaction was noted in central regions by applying LEA (Lycopersicon esculentum) and STL (Solanum tuberosum), while the peripheral tissue was only faintly stained. Developing bone was specifically marked by succinylated WGA (sWGA). The lectins LCA (Lens culinaris) and RCA (Ricinus communis) bound to fibers and extracellular matrix of the connective tissue. Jacalin (Artocarpus integrifolia) and SBA (Glycine max) binding sites were found in macrophages. Affinity of VAA (Viscum album) increased parallel with maturation of endothelial cells. Specific lectin-binding patterns revealed no correlation with the distribution of glycosaminoglycans. The results demonstrate a general reduction of oligosaccharide structures

  1. Holocene, subrecent and contemporary source-to-sink fluxes in a valley-fjord system, Erdalen and Bødalen site project (SedyMONT - Norway)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beylich, Achim A.

    2010-05-01

    The focus of this ESF-NFR funded Norwegian Individual Project (IP5, 2008-2013) within the European Science Foundation (ESF) SedyMONT (EUROCORES TOPO-EUROPE) Programme (http://www.esf.org/topoeurope) is on Holocene, subrecent and contemporary sedimentary fluxes and budgets in the Erdalen and Bødalen catchments in Nordfjord, western Norway (http://www.ngu.no/sedymont). The innovative approach of this research project is the integrated quantitative study of longer-term (Holocene), subrecent and contemporary source-to-sink fluxes and process rates using a novel combination of advanced methods and techniques. With respect to the main aims and objectives of ESF SedyMONT, the following main aims of the Erdalen and Bødalen site project can be stressed: - Analyse how the inheritance of the landscape due to the influence of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) has affected process rates over time (paraglacial system), - Document changes in process rates over different timescales by combining quantitative knowledge on Holocene process rates with newly generated data on subrecent and contemporary process rates. Monitoring of surface processes in Erdalen and Bødalen, in combination with repeated analyses of surface water chemistry, atmospheric solute inputs and granulometric analyses of suspended sediments provide high-resolution data to analyse and quantify present-day sedimentary and solute fluxes as well as sediment sources, denudation rates, and meteorological and topographic / landscape morphometric controls of denudative processes. In addition to standard methods for monitoring bedload transport, innovative techniques like impact sensors, PIT tags and biofilm analysis are applied to analyse channel stability / mobility and to estimate bedload transport rates in both valleys. The volume and composition of lake sediments are studied using echo-sounder, georadar and different coring techniques. Investigations on volumes and architecture of storage elements (talus cones, valley

  2. Biting flies and Trypanosoma vivax infection in three highland districts bordering lake Tana, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Sinshaw, A; Abebe, G; Desquesnes, M; Yoni, W

    2006-11-30

    An epidemiological study was conducted to determine the prevalence of trypanosomosis in cattle, small ruminants and Equidae, and to identify biting flies; potential mechanical vectors of trypanosomes in the three districts of Bahir Dar Zuria, Dembia and Fogera, bordering lake Tana, Ethiopia. About 1509 cattle, 798 small ruminants and 749 Equidae were bled for the prevalence study using the buffy-coat method and the measurement of the hematocrit value. Sixty-six NGU and 20 monoconical traps were deployed for the fly survey. The results indicated the presence of trypanosomes in 6.1% (92/1509) of the cattle with a maximum during the late rainy season (9.6%) than the early dry season (3.6%) at Fogera district. Prevalence at the district level varied from 4% to 9.6%. Only one sheep (1/122) and one goat (1/676) were found positive for T. vivax-like trypanosomes and none of the Equidae was positive. All the trypanosomes encountered in cattle belong to the single species of T. vivax. The PCV was negatively associated with detection of T. vivax (21.6% in infected versus 25.4% in non-infected cattle). A total of 55,398 biting flies were caught of which 49,353 (89.08%) belong to Stomoxys, 4715 (8.51%) to horse flies and 1330 (2.4%) to Chrysops species. There was no tsetse fly. Species identification has indicated the presence of Atylotus agrestis, Chrysops streptobalia, Stomoxys calcitrans, S. nigra, S. pulla, S. pallida, S. sitiens, S. taeniata, S. uruma, Haematopota lasiops and Hippobosca variegata. The overall apparent density was 214.7flies/trap/day. Seasonal comparison showed higher fly catches in the late rainy season than the early dry season. This study indicated that T. vivax infections culminate in cattle at the same time as mechanical vectors such as Stomoxys sp. and Atylotus agrestis. Therefore, attention towards T. vivax infection in cattle is essential to control the impact of the disease on productivity. A further study on biting flies is recommended. PMID

  3. Geo-Seas - building a unified e-infrastructure for marine geoscientific data management in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaves, H.; Schaap, D.

    2012-04-01

    collaborative links with other European projects including EMODNET, Eurofleets. Genesi-DEC and iMarine as well as extending to the wider marine geoscientific and oceanographic community including projects in the USA such as the Rolling Deck Repository (R2R) initiative and also organisations in both the USA and Australia. On behalf of the Geo-Seas consortium partners: NERC-BGS (United Kingdom), NERC-BODC (United Kingdom), NERC-NOCS (United Kingdom), MARIS (Netherlands), IFREMER (France), BRGM (France), TNO (Netherlands), BSH (Germany), IGME (Spain), LNEG (Portugal), GSI (Ireland), BGR (Germany), OGS (Italy), GEUS (Denmark), NGU (Norway), PGI (Poland), EGK (Estonia), NRC-IGG (Lithuania), IO-BAS (Bulgaria), NOA (Greece), CIRIA (United Kingdom), MUMM (Belgium), UB (Spain), UCC (Ireland), EU-Consult (Netherlands), CNRS (France), SHOM (France), CEFAS (United Kingdom), and LU (Latvia).

  4. P-Cable: New High-Resolution 3D Seismic Acquisition Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planke, Sverre; Berndt, Christian; Mienert, Jürgen; Bünz, Stefan; Eriksen, Frode N.; Eriksen, Ola K.

    2010-05-01

    ø, VBPR, P-Cable 3D Seismic AS (P3S), and IFM-GEOMAR. Presently, a Norwegian national infrastructure consortium (Univ. of Tromsø, P3S, Univ. of Bergen, NGU) assembles a mobile P-Cable2 high-resolution 3D seismic system for fully operational use of the technology for scientific purposes.

  5. Robust control methods for nonlinear systems with uncertain dynamics and unknown control direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ton, Chau T.

    consideration is required in control design for systems that also include unknown bounded disturbances. To cope with these challenges, a robust continuous controller is developed using an ISMC technique, which achieves asymptotic trajectory tracking for systems with unknown bounded disturbances, while simultaneously compensating for parametric uncertainty in the input gain matrix. The ISMC design is rigorously proven to achieve asymptotic trajectory tracking for a quadrotor system and a synthetic jet actuator (SJA)-based aircraft system. In the ISMC designs, it is assumed that the signs in the uncertain input-multiplicative gain matrix (i.e., the actuator control directions) are known. A much more challenging scenario is encountered in designing controllers for classes of systems, where the uncertainty in the input gain matrix is extreme enough to result in an a priori-unknown control direction. Such a scenario can result when dealing with highly inaccurate dynamic models, unmodeled parameter variations, actuator anomalies, unknown external or internal disturbances, and/or other adversarial operating conditions. To address this challenge, a SMCbased self-recongurable control algorithm is presented, which automatically adjusts for unknown control direction via periodic switching between sliding manifolds that ultimately forces the state to a converging manifold. Rigorous mathematical analyses are presented to prove the theoretical results, and simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the three proposed control algorithms.

  6. Ethical questions in landslide management and risk reduction in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taurisano, A.; Lyche, E.; Thakur, V.; Wiig, T.; Øvrelid, K.; Devoli, G.

    2012-04-01

    The loss of lives caused by landslides in Norway is smaller than in other countries due to the low population density in exposed areas. However, annual economic losses from damage to properties and infrastructures are vast. Yet nationally coordinated efforts to manage and reduce landslide and snow avalanche risk are a recent challenge, having started only in the last decade. Since 2009, this has been a task of the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) under the Ministry of Petroleum and Energy. Ongoing work includes collection of landslide data, production of susceptibility and hazard maps, planning of mitigation measures along with monitoring and early warning systems, assistance to areal planning, providing expertise in emergencies and disseminating information to the public. These activities are realized in collaboration with the Norwegian Geological Survey (NGU), the Meteorological Institute, the Road and Railway authorities, universities and private consultant companies. As the total need for risk mitigating initiatives is by far larger than the annual budget, priority assessment is crucial. This brings about a number of ethical questions. 1. Susceptibility maps have been produced for the whole country and provide a first indication of areas with potential landslide or snow avalanche hazard, i.e. areas where special attention and expert assessments are needed before development. Areas where no potential hazard is shown can in practice be developed without further studies, which call for relatively conservative susceptibility maps. However, conservative maps are problematic as they too often increase both cost and duration of building projects beyond the reasonable. 2. Areas where hazard maps or risk mitigation initiatives will be funded are chosen by means of cost-benefits analyses which are often uncertain. How to estimate the benefits if the real probability for damage can only be judged on a very subjective level but not really calculated

  7. Isotopic composition (oxygen and hydrogen) of groundwater in Norway - a review of current knowledge and future perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kracht, O.

    2012-04-01

    A review of current knowledge and available data covering the stable isotope composition of groundwater in Norway is presented. Furthermore, the future challenge of obtaining systematic background datasets and of integrating isotopes into the mainstream of hydrogeological observation programmes is discussed. I will summarize our experiences gained from different preliminary studies and will try to identify relationships to existing datasets, historical registrations, and networks on precipitation data. The study of transient effects in hydrological cycles is highly topical as these are supposed to provide means for investigating the effects of climate change and increasing human activities. From a hydrogeological point of view, is critical to establish suitable tools for the large scale observation of changes in groundwater recharge and depletion, their likely controls, and the expected nature of responses to changing climate, urbanization and other human activities. In this context, stable isotopes (δ18O and δ2H of water) can provide an expedient instrument to investigate the general hydrological setting, connections, and pathways of various scale aquifer systems. However, we are up to now missing an expedient background dataset on hydrogeological and hydrological stable isotopes observations for mainland Norway. Against this background, during years 2010 and 2011 the Geological Survey of Norway (NGU) organized two nation-wide sampling campaigns on the stable isotope composition of modern groundwater. These pilot studies aimed to obtain a first overview about the data ranges and natural variations to be expected. We used stations from the existing Norwegian Groundwater Monitoring Network (Landsomfattende Grunnvannsnett, LGN) to collect samples of groundwater at 55 different locations throughout Norway. As a main characteristic of these two datasets, all δ18O and δ2H values of the "LGN series" were well correlated and plotted close to the global meteoric water

  8. Holocene to contemporary source-to-sink fluxes in a valley-fjord system in western Norway: Erdalen and Bødalen site project (SedyMONT - IP Norway)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beylich, A. A.; Laute, K.; Liermann, S.

    2012-04-01

    The focus of this Norwegian Research Council (NFR) funded Norwegian Individual Project (IP) (http://www.ngu.no/sedymont) within the European Science Foundation (ESF) SedyMONT (http://www.sedymont.eu) (EUROCORES TOPO-EUROPE) Programme (http://www.esf.org/topoeurope) is on Holocene, subrecent and contemporary sedimentary fluxes and budgets in the Erdalen and Bødalen valley systems in Nordfjord, western Norway. The innovative approach of this international research project is the integrated quantitative study of longer-term (Holocene), subrecent and contemporary source-to-sink fluxes and geomorphic process rates in selected representative valley-fjord systems using a novel combination of advanced methods and techniques. With respect to the main aims and objectives of ESF SedyMONT, the following main aims of the Erdalen and Bødalen site project can be stressed: - Analyse how the inheritance of the landscape due to the influence of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) has affected process rates over time (paraglacial system), - Document changes in process rates over different timescales by combining quantitative knowledge on Holocene process rates with newly generated data on subrecent and contemporary process rates. High-resolution monitoring of denudative surface processes in Erdalen and Bødalen, in combination with repeated analyses of surface water chemistry, atmospheric solute inputs and granulometric as well as shape analyses of suspended sediments provide high-resolution data to analyse and quantify present-day sedimentary and solute fluxes as well as sediment sources, denudation rates, and meteorological and topographical / landscape morphometric controls of denudative processes. In addition to standard methods for monitoring bedload transport, innovative techniques like horizontally installed impact sensors and biofilm analysis are applied in combination with advanced flume experiments (for calibration of field data) to analyse channel stability / mobility and to

  9. Glacial isostatic adjustment and Holocene to contemporary source-to-sink fluxes in valley-fjord systems in western Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beylich, Achim A.; Laute, Katja; Liermann, Susan

    2013-04-01

    The focus of this Norwegian Research Council (NFR) funded Norwegian Individual Project (http://www.ngu.no/sedymont) within the European Science Foundation (ESF) SedyMONT (as part of EUROCORES TOPO-EUROPE) Programme (http://www.esf.org/topoeurope) is on Holocene, subrecent and contemporary sedimentary fluxes and budgets in selected valley-fjord systems (Erdalen and Bødalen) in Nordfjord, western Norway. The following main aims can be pointed out: - Analyse in which way glacial isostatic adjustment and surface denudational processes have been interacting over the Holocene - Analyse how the inheritance of the landscape due to the influence of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) has affected surface process rates over time - Document changes in surface process rates over different timescales by combining knowledge on Holocene surface process rates with data on subrecent and contemporary surface process rates High-resolution monitoring of denudational surface processes in the Erdalen and Bødalen drainage basin systems, in combination with repeated analyses of surface water chemistry, atmospheric solute inputs and granulometric as well as shape analyses of suspended sediments provide high-resolution data to analyse and quantify present-day sedimentary and solute fluxes as well as sediment sources, denudation rates, and meteorological and topographical / landscape morphometric controls of denudational surface processes. In addition to standard methods for monitoring bedload transport, innovative techniques like impact sensors and biofilm analysis are applied in combination with advanced flume experiments (for calibration of field data) to analyse channel stability / mobility and to estimate bedload transport rates in both drainage basin systems. Lakes are functioning as significant sediment traps within both drainage basins and the volume and composition of lake sediments are studied using echo-sounder, georadar and different coring techniques. Investigations on volumes and

  10. Web-GIS approach for integrated analysis of heterogeneous georeferenced data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okladnikov, Igor; Gordov, Evgeny; Titov, Alexander; Shulgina, Tamara

    2014-05-01

    atmospheric composition and climate (MACC) Collaborated Project, NOAA-CIRES Twentieth Century Global Reanalysis Version II, NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), meteorological observational data for the territory of the former USSR for the 20th century, results of modeling by global and regional climatological models, and others are available for processing by the system. The Web-GIS information-computational system for heterogeneous geophysical data analysis provides specialists involved into multidisciplinary research projects with reliable and practical instruments for integrated research of climate and ecosystems changes on global and regional scales. With its help even an unskilled in programming user is able to process and visualize multidimensional observational and model data through unified web-interface using a common graphical web-browser. This work is partially supported by SB RAS project VIII.80.2.1, RFBR grant #13-05-12034, grant #14-05-00502, and integrated project SB RAS #131. References 1. Gordov E.P., Lykosov V.N., Krupchatnikov V.N., Okladnikov I.G., Titov A.G., Shulgina T.M. Computational and information technologies for monitoring and modeling of climate changes and their consequences. - Novosibirsk: Nauka, Siberian branch, 2013. - 195 p. (in Russian) 2. Felice Frankel, Rosalind Reid. Big data: Distilling meaning from data // Nature. Vol. 455. N. 7209. P. 30. 3. T.M. Shulgina, E.P. Gordov, I.G. Okladnikov, A.G., Titov, E.Yu. Genina, N.P. Gorbatenko, I.V. Kuzhevskaya, A.S. Akhmetshina. Software complex for a regional climate change analysis. // Vestnik NGU. Series: Information technologies. 2013. Vol. 11. Issue 1. P. 124-131 (in Russian). 4. I.G. Okladnikov, A.G. Titov, T.M. Shulgina, E.P. Gordov, V.Yu. Bogomolov, Yu.V. Martynova, S.P. Suschenko, A.V. Skvortsov. Software for analysis and visualization of climate change monitoring and forecasting data // Numerical methods and programming, 2013. Vol. 14. P. 123-131 (in Russian).

  11. Geometry of relict surfaces in Northern Norway: Implications for the extensional evolution of the NE Atlantic margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schermer, Elizabeth; Redfield, Tim

    2013-04-01

    The distribution and geometry of relict surfaces adjacent to the northern Norwegian passive margin can help constrain the post-rift evolution of the onshore region. A swath map of relict surfaces, covering the coast of Senja Island and extending SE to the drainage divide, was constructed from DEMs, aerial photos and an NGU digital map database of Quaternary features. The map and histograms of elevation distribution depict three distinctly stepped, coast-parallel belts of preserved relict surfaces. The belts increase in mean elevation from coast to the southeast and, to a certain degree, correlate with the bedrock geology. Overall, the relict surfaces dip to the NW. Locally SE dipping surfaces in the coastal and central belts may be controlled by post-surface reactivation of normal faults. The coastal belt coincides with a fault-bounded horst of Precambrian rock. Although deeply incised by Alpine glaciers and fjords, relict surfaces are preserved on ridge tops and local broad peaks at 700-800 m. A central belt of much lower relief and with surfaces averaging 900-1100 m high coincides with Caledonian nappe rocks and exhibits few preserved surfaces. An inner belt of extensive and well preserved surfaces averaging 1300-1400m high coincides with peaks and the gently rolling upland of the Scandinavian mountain crest. Here, NW-trending paleoridges and paleovalleys are evident in contours of the highest surfaces. NW-SE topographic profiles (perpendicular to the COB) show distinct steps in the maximum height of the relict surfaces, interpreted to coincide with mapped normal faults whose vertical offsets (throw) may be up to 600-700 m. The geometry of relict surfaces is consistent with multiple rock column uplift events. Published apatite fission track (AFT) apparent ages are ~200 Ma (range ~170-220 Ma), indicating the onshore bedrock was within ~2-3 km of the surface since Early Jurassic time. No distinct AFT age offsets can be resolved within the data, limiting net throw

  12. Numerical investigation of the triggering mechanisms of the Piz Dora sackung system (Val Mustair, Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riva, Federico; Agliardi, Federico; Crosta, Giovanni B.; Zanchi, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    combinations of rock mass properties and persistent brittle structural patterns related to folding or regional stress fields. We analysed the processes leading to DSGSD onset and evolution by testing combinations of: a) rock mass constitutive models; b) in situ stress fields; c) hydro-mechanical coupling; d) dynamic loadings. DEM results, validated using field evidence and discussed against the results of continuum-based Finite-Element models (Agliardi et al., 2014; Barbarano et al., 2015), suggest that DSGSD failure mechanisms are constrained by fold-related brittle structures, and stress and hydrologic conditioning of deglaciation were key triggers modulated by active tectonic processes. References: - Agliardi F., Barbarano M., Crosta G.B., Riva F. & Zanchi A. (2014). Inherited and active tectonic controls on the Piz Dora sackung system (Val Mustair). In 3rd Slope Tectonic Conference proceedings, NGU Report 2014.030. - Barbarano M., Agliardi F., Crosta G. B., & Zanchi A. (2015). Inherited and Active Tectonic Controls on the Piz Dora DSGSD (Val Müstair, Switzerland). In Engineering Geology for Society and Territory-Volume 2 (pp. 605-608). Springer International Publishing.

  13. Silurian and Devonian in Vietnam—Stratigraphy and facies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thanh, Tống Duy; Phương, Tạ Hoàng; Janvier, Philippe; Hùng, Nguyễn Hữu; Cúc, Nguyễn Thị Thu; Dương, Nguyễn Thùy

    2013-09-01

    Silurian and Devonian deposits in Viet Nam are present in several zones and regions, including Quang Ninh, East Bac Bo, and West Bac Bo Zones of the Bac Bo Region, the Dien Bien-Nghe An and Binh Tri Thien Zones of the Viet-Lao Region, and the South Trung Bo, and Western Nam Bo Zones of the South Viet Nam Region (Fig. 1). The main lithological features and faunal composition of the Silurian and Devonian Units in all these zones are briefly described. The Silurian consists of deep-water deposits of the upper parts of the Co To and Tan Mai Formations in the Quang Ninh Zone, the upper parts of the Phu Ngu Formation in the East Bac Bo Zone and the upper parts of the Long Dai and Song Ca Formations in the Viet-Lao Region. Shallow water facies Silurian units containing benthic faunas are more widely distributed, including the upper part of the Sinh Vinh and Bo Hieng Formations in the West Bac Bo Zone, the Kien An Formation in the Quang Ninh Zone, and, in the Viet-Lao Region, the Dai Giang Formation and the upper part of the Tay Trang Formation. No Lower and Middle Devonian deposits indicate deep water facies, but they are characterized by different shallow water facies. Continental to near shore, deltaic facies characterize the Lower Devonian Song Cau Group in the East Bac Bo Zone, the Van Canh Formation in the Quang Ninh Zone, and the A Choc Formation in the Binh Tri Thien Zone. Similar facies also occur in the Givetian Do Son Formation of the Quang Ninh Zone, and the Tan Lap Formation in the East Bac Bo Zone, and consist of coarse terrigenous deposits—cross-bedded conglomerates, sandstone, etc. Most Devonian units are characterized by shallow marine shelf facies. Carbonate and terrigenous-carbonate facies dominate, and terrigenous facies occur in the Lower and Middle Devonian sections in some areas only. The deep-water-like facies is characteriztic for some Upper Devonian formations in the Bac Bo (Bang Ca and Toc Tat Formations) and Viet-Lao Regions (Thien Nhan and

  14. Igneous and Ore-Forming Processes at the Roots of Giant - Ultra-Mafic Pluming System: the Seiland Igneous Comples, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, R. B.; Iljina, M.; Schanke, M.

    2012-12-01

    SIP covers an area of 5500 km2 in N. Norway. 50 % of the volume comprises mafic layered or homogenous plg+px+Fe-Ti±ol gabbros. 25 % of the area comprises ultramafic intrusions, mostly peridotite and subsidiary pyroxenite and hornblendite. 25 % comprises calc-alkaline and alkaline plutons, respectively. Ultramafic plutons intersect gabbros and calc-alkaline plutons. Recent zircon U/Pb geochronology imply that SIP formed at 560-570 Ma, with mafic- and ultramafic rocks being emplaced in <4 Ma (Roberts et al., Geol. Mag, 2007). Geothermobarometry of contact metamorphic mineral assemblages, implies minimum depth of 20-30 kilometres. Accordingly, the Seiland province arguably provides a unique cross section through the deep-seated parts of a huge magmatic plumbing system. Sulphide Cu-Ni-(PGE) deposits are intimately associated with the ultramafic rock suite. One deposit from Stjernøy comprises sulphide dissiminations at the floor of a peridotitic pluton, another deposit occur at the floor of the Reinfjord ultramafic layered complex in the far West of SIP and the third deposit comprises vertical sulphide dykes in the interior of a hornblendite on the Øksfjord peninsula. Currently, only the Reinfjord deposit is studied in detail. The Reinfjord intrusions is layered and develops from olivine clinopyroxenites in the Lower Zone to wherlite in the Middle Zone to wehrlites and dunite in the Upper Zone. Earlier studies suggest parental melts with pyroxenitic compositions whereas the dunites and wherlites formed by fractional crystallization (Bennet et al., Bull. NGU, 405, 1-41). During our fieldwork we observed spectacular examples of cumulus structures, not previously reported, and including modally layered and modally graded dunite/wherlite, cross-bedding, slumping and mush-diapirs. Finally we saw an example of magma-replenishment where an olivine pyroxenitic magma was emplaced in to and mixed with the contemporary olivine/wherlite mushes!. The country rock gabbros were

  15. Hyperextension in the pre-Caledonian margin of Baltica: new observations and U-Pb ages from the Samnanger Complex, Major Bergen Arc, western Norway.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakob, Johannes; Alsaif, Manar; Andersen, Torgeir; Corfu, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    -term weakening of the crust and zones of exhumed mantle may therefore be prone to localized compressive deformation during later stages of a Wilson Cycle. The Ordovician magmatic rocks within the SC might therefore be produced by incipient subduction, which was contemporaneous with the formation of supra-subduction ophiolite and island arc complexes in the oceanic terranes (e.g. Slagstad et al., 2014). Andersen, T.B. et al., 2012. Evidence for hyperextension along the pre-Caledonian margin of Baltica. Journal of the Geological Society, 169, pp.601-612. Færseth, R.B. et al., 1977. Geology of the lower paleozoic rocks in the Samnanger-Osterøy Area, Major Bergen Arc, Western Norway. Offprint NGU, 334, pp.19-58. Slagstad, T. et al., 2015. Tectonomagmatic evolution of the Early Ordovician suprasubduction-zone ophiolites of the Trondheim Region, Mid-Norwegian Caledonides. In: F. Corfu, D. Gasser, & D. M. Chew, eds. New Perspectives on the Caledonides of Scandinavia and Related Areas. Geological Society, London, Speacial Publications 390, pp. 541-561.

  16. Geo-Seas - a pan-European infrastructure for the management of marine geological and geophysical data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaves, Helen; Graham, Colin

    2010-05-01

    countries. This makes the direct use of primary data in an integrated way very difficult and also hampers use of the data sets in a harmonised way to produce multidisciplinary data products and services. To ensure interoperability with other marine environmental data types Geo-Seas ISO19115 metadata, OGC and GeoSciML standards will be used as the basis for the metadata profiles for the geological and geophysical data. This will be largely achieved by modifying the SeaDataNet metadata standard profile (Common Data Index or CDI), which is itself based upon the ISO19115 standard, to accommodate the requirements of the Geo-Seas project. The overall objective of Geo-Seas project is to build and deploy a unified marine geoscientific data infrastructure within Europe which will in effect provide a data grid for the sharing of marine geological and geophysical data. This will result in a major improvement in the locating, accessing and delivery of federated marine geological and geophysical data and data products from national geological surveys and research institutes across Europe. There is an emphasis on interoperability both with other disciplines as well as with other key framework projects including the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODNet) and One Geology - Europe. In addition, a key objective of the Geo-Seas project is to underpin European directives such as INSPIRE as well as recent framework programmes on both the global and European scale, for example Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES), all of which are intended to encourage the exchange of data and information. Geo-Seas consortium partners: NERC-BGS (United Kingdom), NERC-BODC (United Kingdom), NERC-NOCS (United Kingdom), MARIS (Netherlands), IFREMER (France), BRGM (France), TNO (Netherlands), BSH (Germany), IGME (Spain), INETI (Portugal), IGME (Greece), GSI (Ireland), BGR (Germany), OGS (Italy), GEUS (Denmark), NGU (Norway), PGI

  17. Variations in Pb concentrations and Pb-isotope ratios in soils collected along an east-west transect across the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David; Woodruff, Laurel; Reimann, Clemens; Flem, Belinda

    2014-05-01

    Soil A-horizon and C-horizon samples were collected along a 4000 km long transect cutting the USA from the west to the east coast. For purposes of site selection, the transect was divided into approximately 40-km segments. For each segment, a 1-km2 target area was selected at random. Soil A- and C-horizon samples were collected at a site within each target area that was most representative of the surrounding landscape. The samples were air-dried at ambient temperature, disaggregated, and sieved through a 2-mm stainless steel screen. The <2-mm material was crushed to <150 µm in a ceramic mill prior to chemical analysis. Lead was analyzed in all the A- and C-horizon samples by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry following a 4-acid digestion. The complete dataset can be found in Smith et al., 2005. Pb-isotope ratio measurements were carried out on 159 soil A-horizon and 137 soil C-horizon samples on an inductively coupled sector field plasma mass spectrometer (SF-ICP-MS; ELEMENT 1, Finnigan MAT) in the laboratory of the Geological Survey of Norway (NGU), following a 7 N HNO3 digestion. Lead concentrations along the transect show (1) generally higher values in the soil A-horizon than the C-horizon (median 21 vs. 16.5 mg/kg), (2) an increase in the median value of the soil A-horizon for the central to eastern U.S. (Missouri to Maryland) when compared to the western U.S. (California to Kansas) (median 26 vs. 20 mg/kg) and (3) a higher A/C ratio for the central to eastern US (1.35 vs. 1.14). Lead isotopes show a distinct trend across the U.S., with the highest 206Pb/207Pb ratios occurring in the centre (Missouri, median A-horizon: 1.245; C-horizon: 1.251) and the lowest at both coasts (e.g. California, median A-horizon: 1.195; C-horizon:1.216). The soil C-horizon samples show generally higher 206Pb/207Pb ratios than the A-horizon (median C-horizon: 1.224; A-horizon: 1.219). The 206Pb/207Pb isotope ratios in the soil A horizon show a correlation with the total

  18. Consequence assessment of large rock slope failures in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppikofer, Thierry; Hermanns, Reginald L.; Horton, Pascal; Sandøy, Gro; Roberts, Nicholas J.; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Böhme, Martina; Yugsi Molina, Freddy X.

    2014-05-01

    Steep glacially carved valleys and fjords in Norway are prone to many landslide types, including large rockslides, rockfalls, and debris flows. Large rockslides and their secondary effects (rockslide-triggered displacement waves, inundation behind landslide dams and outburst floods from failure of landslide dams) pose a significant hazard to the population living in the valleys and along the fjords shoreline. The Geological Survey of Norway performs systematic mapping of unstable rock slopes in Norway and has detected more than 230 unstable slopes with significant postglacial deformation. This large number necessitates prioritisation of follow-up activities, such as more detailed investigations, periodic displacement measurements, continuous monitoring and early-warning systems. Prioritisation is achieved through a hazard and risk classification system, which has been developed by a panel of international and Norwegian experts (www.ngu.no/en-gb/hm/Publications/Reports/2012/2012-029). The risk classification system combines a qualitative hazard assessment with a consequences assessment focusing on potential life losses. The hazard assessment is based on a series of nine geomorphological, engineering geological and structural criteria, as well as displacement rates, past events and other signs of activity. We present a method for consequence assessment comprising four main steps: 1. computation of the volume of the unstable rock slope; 2. run-out assessment based on the volume-dependent angle of reach (Fahrböschung) or detailed numerical run-out modelling; 3. assessment of possible displacement wave propagation and run-up based on empirical relations or modelling in 2D or 3D; and 4. estimation of the number of persons exposed to rock avalanches or displacement waves. Volume computation of an unstable rock slope is based on the sloping local base level technique, which uses a digital elevation model to create a second-order curved surface between the mapped extent of

  19. Geo-Seas - a pan-European infrastructure for the management of marine geological and geophysical data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaves, Helen; Graham, Colin

    2010-05-01

    countries. This makes the direct use of primary data in an integrated way very difficult and also hampers use of the data sets in a harmonised way to produce multidisciplinary data products and services. To ensure interoperability with other marine environmental data types Geo-Seas ISO19115 metadata, OGC and GeoSciML standards will be used as the basis for the metadata profiles for the geological and geophysical data. This will be largely achieved by modifying the SeaDataNet metadata standard profile (Common Data Index or CDI), which is itself based upon the ISO19115 standard, to accommodate the requirements of the Geo-Seas project. The overall objective of Geo-Seas project is to build and deploy a unified marine geoscientific data infrastructure within Europe which will in effect provide a data grid for the sharing of marine geological and geophysical data. This will result in a major improvement in the locating, accessing and delivery of federated marine geological and geophysical data and data products from national geological surveys and research institutes across Europe. There is an emphasis on interoperability both with other disciplines as well as with other key framework projects including the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODNet) and One Geology - Europe. In addition, a key objective of the Geo-Seas project is to underpin European directives such as INSPIRE as well as recent framework programmes on both the global and European scale, for example Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES), all of which are intended to encourage the exchange of data and information. Geo-Seas consortium partners: NERC-BGS (United Kingdom), NERC-BODC (United Kingdom), NERC-NOCS (United Kingdom), MARIS (Netherlands), IFREMER (France), BRGM (France), TNO (Netherlands), BSH (Germany), IGME (Spain), INETI (Portugal), IGME (Greece), GSI (Ireland), BGR (Germany), OGS (Italy), GEUS (Denmark), NGU (Norway), PGI

  20. Development of virtual research environment for regional climatic and ecological studies and continuous education support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordov, Evgeny; Lykosov, Vasily; Krupchatnikov, Vladimir; Bogomolov, Vasily; Gordova, Yulia; Martynova, Yulia; Okladnikov, Igor; Titov, Alexander; Shulgina, Tamara

    2014-05-01

    measurements data and support profound statistical analysis of storaged and modeled on demand data. In particular, one can run the integrated models, preprocess modeling results data, using dedicated modules for numerical processing perform analysys and visualize obtained results. New functionality recently has been added to the statistical analysis tools set aimed at detailed studies of climatic extremes occurring in Northern Asia. The VRE element is also supporting thematic educational courses for students and post-graduate students of the Tomsk State University. In particular, it allow students to perform on-line thematic laboratory work cycles on the basics of analysis of current and potential future regional climate change using Siberia territory as an example (Gordova et al, 2013). We plan to expand the integrated models set and add comprehensive surface and Arctic Ocean description. Developed VRE element "Climate" provides specialists involved into multidisciplinary research projects with reliable and practical instruments for integrated research of climate and ecosystems changes on global and regional scales. With its help even a user without programming skills can process and visualize multidimensional observational and model data through unified web-interface using a common graphical web-browser. This work is partially supported by SB RAS project VIII.80.2.1, RFBR grant 13-05-12034, grant 14-05-00502, and integrated project SB RAS 131. References 1. Gordov E.P., Lykosov V.N., Krupchatnikov V.N., Okladnikov I.G., Titov A.G., Shulgina T.M. Computationaland information technologies for monitoring and modeling of climate changes and their consequences. Novosibirsk: Nauka, Siberian branch, 2013. - 195 p. (in Russian) 2. T.M. Shulgina, E.P. Gordov, I.G. Okladnikov, A.G., Titov, E.Yu. Genina, N.P. Gorbatenko, I.V. Kuzhevskaya,A.S. Akhmetshina. Software complex for a regional climate change analysis. // Vestnik NGU. Series: Information technologies. 2013. Vol. 11. Issue 1. P