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Sample records for skin flap survival

  1. Effects of calcitriol on random skin flap survival in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kai-liang; Zhang, Yi-hui; Lin, Ding-sheng; Tao, Xian-yao; Xu, Hua-zi

    2016-01-01

    Calcitriol, a metabolite of vitamin D, is often used in osteoporosis clinics. However, the material has other bioactivities; for example, it accelerates angiogenesis, has anti-inflammatory properties, and inhibits oxidative stress. We investigated the effects of calcitriol in a random skin flap rat model. "McFarlane flap" models were established in 84 male Sprague Dawley rats, divided into two groups. One group received intraperitoneal injections of calcitriol (2 μg/kg/day) whereas control rats received intraperitoneal injections of saline. The percentage flap survival area and tissue water content were measured 7 days later, which showed that calcitriol improved flap survival area and reduced tissue edema. It also increased the mean vessel density and upregulated levels of VEGF mRNA/protein, both of which promote flap angiogenesis. Moreover, it decreased leukocyte and macrophage infiltration, reduced the inflammatory proteins IL1β and IL6, increased SOD activity, decreased MDA content, and upregulated the level of autophagy. Overall, our results suggest that calcitriol promotes skin flap survival by accelerating angiogenesis, having anti-inflammatory effects, reducing oxidative stress, and promoting autophagy. PMID:26732750

  2. Effects of calcitriol on random skin flap survival in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Kai-liang; Zhang, Yi-hui; Lin, Ding-sheng; Tao, Xian-yao; Xu, Hua-zi

    2016-01-01

    Calcitriol, a metabolite of vitamin D, is often used in osteoporosis clinics. However, the material has other bioactivities; for example, it accelerates angiogenesis, has anti-inflammatory properties, and inhibits oxidative stress. We investigated the effects of calcitriol in a random skin flap rat model. “McFarlane flap” models were established in 84 male Sprague Dawley rats, divided into two groups. One group received intraperitoneal injections of calcitriol (2 μg/kg/day) whereas control rats received intraperitoneal injections of saline. The percentage flap survival area and tissue water content were measured 7 days later, which showed that calcitriol improved flap survival area and reduced tissue edema. It also increased the mean vessel density and upregulated levels of VEGF mRNA/protein, both of which promote flap angiogenesis. Moreover, it decreased leukocyte and macrophage infiltration, reduced the inflammatory proteins IL1β and IL6, increased SOD activity, decreased MDA content, and upregulated the level of autophagy. Overall, our results suggest that calcitriol promotes skin flap survival by accelerating angiogenesis, having anti-inflammatory effects, reducing oxidative stress, and promoting autophagy. PMID:26732750

  3. Effect of intraoperative platelet-rich plasma and fibrin glue application on skin flap survival.

    PubMed

    Findikcioglu, Fulya; Findikcioglu, Kemal; Yavuzer, Reha; Lortlar, Nese; Atabay, Kenan

    2012-09-01

    The experiment was designed to compare the effect of intraoperative platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and fibrin glue application on skin flap survival. In this study, bilateral epigastric flaps were elevated in 24 rats. The right-side flaps were used as the control of the left-side flaps. Platelet-rich plasma, fibrin glue, and thrombin had been applied under the flap sites in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Five days later, all flap pedicles were ligated. Necrotic area measurements, microangiography, and histologic and immunohistochemical evaluations were performed to compare the groups. Platelet-rich plasma reduced necrotic area percentages as compared with other groups. Histologically and microangiographically increased number of arterioles were observed in PRP groups. Thrombin when used alone increased flap necrosis. Vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, and transforming growth factor β3 primary antibody staining showed increased neovascularization and reepithelialization in all PRP-applied flaps. This study demonstrated that PRP, when applied intraoperatively under the skin flap, may enhance flap survival. Thrombin used alone was found to be unsuitable in flap surgery.

  4. Effects of Traditional Chinese Medicine Shuxuetong Injection on Random Skin Flap Survival in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Leyi; Huang, Wenfang; Lin, Dingsheng

    2014-01-01

    Background. A Shuxuetong injection is traditionally used in Chinese medicine to treat “blood stasis and stagnation” (yu xue yu zhi). We investigated the effect of such injection on the survival of random skin flaps. Methods. McFarlane flaps were established in 60 rats divided into two groups. Postoperative celiac injections were given to both groups for 7 days. Shuxuetong was injected into the test group, and saline was injected into controls. On day 7, tissues were stained with H&E (hematoxylin-eosin) stain, immunohistochemically evaluated, and the expression levels of xanthine oxidase were determined. Result. The mean area of flap survival in the test group was significantly higher than in controls. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and superoxide dismutase, and microvessel development, were markedly increased in the test group, and the malondialdehyde level was reduced. Conclusion. Shuxuetong promotes random skin flap survival. PMID:24723830

  5. Fibrin-embedded administration of VEGF plasmid enhances skin flap survival.

    PubMed

    Michlits, Wolfgang; Mittermayr, Rainer; Schäfer, Romana; Redl, Heinz; Aharinejad, Seyedhossein

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to experimentally evaluate whether topical fibrin-mediated administration of a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A plasmid to the wound bed can protect skin flaps from necrosis. A plasmid expression vector containing the VEGF-A cDNA was constructed. The plasmid was then administered to the wound bed of rat abdominal skin flaps in a fibrin sealant. The percentage of viable, ischemic and necrotic tissue was assessed postoperatively as a baseline and after 3 and 7 days using digital surface area morphometry. Laser Doppler imaging of the flaps and VEGF-A Western blot analysis of flap tissue were performed to assess angiogenesis and VEGF-A tissue levels. Flaps treated with VEGF plasmids in the presence of uptake enhancing Lipofectamine transfection reagent increased flap survival 7 days postoperatively significantly associated with markedly elevated tissue perfusion and enhanced tissue VEGF-A protein expression. Our results indicate that topical fibrin-mediated administration of a VEGF-A plasmid may serve as an alternative to previous strategies in treating ischemic skin flaps. The suggested therapeutic approach is easily applicable and inexpensive in preparation. Thus, this protocol may also enhance wound healing in posttrauma skin lacerations or in skin grafts.

  6. The Effect of Enoxaparin and Clopidogrel on Survival of Random Skin Flap in Rat Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Fatemi, Mohammad Javad; S Forootan, Kamal; S Jalali, Seyed Ziaaddin; Mousavi, Seyed Jaber; Pedram, Mir Sepehr

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Necrosis of skin flaps is considered as an important complication in reconstructive surgery. We conducted an experimental study to investigate the efficacy of low-molecular weight heparin, clopidogrel and their combination to improve the flap survival. METHODS Forty male, adult Sprague-Dawlay rats were divided randomly into 4 groups. Standard rectangular, distally based dorsal random pattern skin flap was elevated. To prevent the graft effect, a sterile sheet was put under the flap. No pharmacological agent was administered for the control group. In group 2, single subcutaneous dose of enoxaparin (3.2 mg/kg) was immediately administrated after surgery. In group 3, clopidogrel (25 mg/kg) was given orally for 7 days. In group 4, both enoxaparin and clopidogrel were administrated. The rats were evaluated on post-operative day 7 for viable and necrotic portions of flaps. RESULTS The mean and SD of necrosis was 17.79+2.5 cm in the control group, 16.20±3.1 cm in low-molecular weight heparin, 15.25+3.8 cm in combined therapy group and 13.69+2.7 cm in clopidogrel group. Clopidogrel was the only pharmaceutical agent that produced a significant increase in the flap survival area. CONCLUSION Clopidogrel may be an effective pharmaceutical agent that significantly increases viability of random skin flaps in rats, but low-molecular weight heparin and their combination did not have any significant beneficial effects. PMID:25734046

  7. Effects of diammonium glycyrrhizinate on random skin flap survival in rats: An experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Qing-Bo; Gao, Xiang; Lin, Ding-Sheng; Chen, Yun; Cao, Bin; Zhou, Kai-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Partial necrosis of skin flaps continues to restrict the survival of local skin flaps following plastic and reconstructive surgeries. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of diammonium glycyrrhizinate (DG), a salt of glycyrrhetinic acid that has been widely used in the therapy of chronic hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus infection, on random skin flap survival in rats. McFarlane flaps were established in 60 male Sprague-Dawley rats randomly divided into three groups. Group I served as the control group and was injected with saline (10 mg/kg) once per day. Group II and group III were the experimental groups, and were injected with 10 mg/kg DG once and twice per day, respectively. On day 7, the survival area of the flap was measured. Tissue samples were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemically evaluated. Tissue edema, neutrophil density, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were evaluated. The mean survival areas of the flaps of group II were significantly larger when compared with those of group I (P<0.05), and the rats of group III exhibited significantly higher survival areas than group II (P<0.05). Histologic and immunohistochemical evaluation showed that microvessel development and the expression level of vascular endothelial growth factor were higher in the two experimental groups than in the control group. Furthermore, SOD activity was significantly increased (P<0.05), while the neutrophil density and MDA level were significantly reduced (P<0.05) in group II when compared with group I. Significant differences between group II and group III with regard to SOD activity and MDA level were also observed (P<0.05). Thus, DG may have a dose-dependent effect on promoting the survival of random skin flaps. PMID:27588181

  8. Effects of Bezafibrate on the Survival of Random Skin Flaps in Rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bin; Lin, Yuting; Lin, Dingsheng; Cao, Bin

    2016-06-01

    Background Bezafibrate is widely used in clinics for its comparable angiogenic effect. Our research is to investigate the effect of bezafibrate on random skin flap survival. Materials and Methods The "McFarlane flap" rat models were established in 30 male Sprague-Dawley rats which were divided into two groups. The treatment group was given bezafibrate (400 mg/kg/day; gavage administration), and the control group received the vehicle. The flap surviving area was measured after 7 days, and the tissue samples were taken for histological analysis and edema measurement. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was determined using immunohistochemical methods. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were examined with kits. Results Seven days after the operation, the surviving area in the treatment group was larger than in the control group (p < 0.01). The expression of VEGF was increased in the treatment group compared with that in the control group. And the activity of SOD was lower in the treatment group compared with those in the control group (p < 0.01). However, tissue edema, inflammatory cell infiltration, and MDA level were markedly lower in the treatment group than those in the control group (p < 0.01). Conclusion Bezafibrate improves the survival of random skin flaps effectively. PMID:26872027

  9. Beneficial Effects of Aminoguanidine on Skin Flap Survival in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ozturk, Ayse; Fırat, Cemal; Parlakpınar, Hakan; Bay-Karabulut, Aysun; Kirimlioglu, Hale; Gurlek, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Random flaps in DM patients have poor reliability for wound coverage, and flap loss remains a complex challenge. The protective effects of aminoguanidine (AG) administration on the survival of dorsal random flaps and oxidative stress were studied in diabetic rats. Two months after the onset of DM, dorsal McFarlane flaps were raised. Forty rats were divided into four groups: (1) control, (2) AG, (3) DM, and (4) DM + AG groups. Flap viability, determined with the planimetric method, and free-radical measurements were investigated. In addition, HbA1c and blood glucose levels, body weight measurements, and histopathological examinations were evaluated. The mean flap necrotic areas (%) in Groups I to IV were 50.9 ± 13.0, 32.9 ± 12.5, 65.2 ± 11.5, and 43.5 ± 14.7, respectively. The malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) levels were higher in the DM group than in the nondiabetic group, while the reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were reduced as a result of flap injury. In the diabetic and nondiabetic groups, AG administration significantly reduced the MDA and NO levels and significantly increased GSH content and SOD enzyme activity. We concluded that AG plays an important role in preventing random pattern flap necrosis. PMID:23304118

  10. Skin flaps and grafts - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Free flap - self-care; Skin autografting - self-care; Pressure ulcer skin flap self-care; Burns skin flap self- ... skin infection Surgery for skin cancer Venous ulcers , pressure ulcers , or diabetic ulcers that DO NOT heal After ...

  11. Effects of Acellular Amniotic Membrane Matrix and Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Improving Random Skin Flap Survival in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chehelcheraghi, Farzaneh; Eimani, Hossein; Homayoonsadraie, Seyed; Torkaman, Giti; Amini, Abdollah; Alavi Majd, Hamid; Shemshadi, Hashem

    2016-01-01

    Background The necrotic skin flap represents a great challenge in plastic and reconstructive surgery. In this study, we evaluated the effect of bioscaffolds, acellular amniotic membranes (AAMs), and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) on random skin flap (RSF) survival in rats by applying a cell-free extracellular matrix scaffold as a supportive component for the growth and proliferation of BM-MSCs on RSFs. AAM matrix scaffolds were created by incubating AMs in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid 0.05% at 37°C, and cell scrapers were used. Objectives The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of AAM as a scaffold in TE, and combined with transplanted BM-MSCs, on the survival of RSFs and on the biomechanical parameters of the incision-wound flap margins 7 days after flap elevation. Materials and Methods BM-MSCs and AAMs were transplanted into subcutaneous tissue in the flap area. On the 7th postoperative day, the surviving flap areas were measured using digital imaging software, and the flap tissue was collected for evaluation. Forty rats were randomly divided into four groups of 10 each: group 1 received an AAM injection; group 2 underwent BM-MSC transplantation; group 3 received both AAM injection + BM-MSC transplantation; and group 4 was the control group, receiving only saline. Results The survival area in the AAM/BM-MSC group was significantly higher than in the control group (18.49 ± 1.58 versus 7.51 ± 2.42, P < 0.05). The biomechanical assessment showed no significant differences between the experimental groups and the control group (P > 0.05), and there was no correlation with flap survival. Conclusions Our findings showed that the treatment of flaps with BM-MSC and AAM transplantations significantly promoted flap survival compared to a control group. The viability of the flap was improved by combining BM-MSCs with AAM matrix scaffolds.

  12. Effects of Acellular Amniotic Membrane Matrix and Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Improving Random Skin Flap Survival in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chehelcheraghi, Farzaneh; Eimani, Hossein; Homayoonsadraie, Seyed; Torkaman, Giti; Amini, Abdollah; Alavi Majd, Hamid; Shemshadi, Hashem

    2016-01-01

    Background The necrotic skin flap represents a great challenge in plastic and reconstructive surgery. In this study, we evaluated the effect of bioscaffolds, acellular amniotic membranes (AAMs), and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) on random skin flap (RSF) survival in rats by applying a cell-free extracellular matrix scaffold as a supportive component for the growth and proliferation of BM-MSCs on RSFs. AAM matrix scaffolds were created by incubating AMs in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid 0.05% at 37°C, and cell scrapers were used. Objectives The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of AAM as a scaffold in TE, and combined with transplanted BM-MSCs, on the survival of RSFs and on the biomechanical parameters of the incision-wound flap margins 7 days after flap elevation. Materials and Methods BM-MSCs and AAMs were transplanted into subcutaneous tissue in the flap area. On the 7th postoperative day, the surviving flap areas were measured using digital imaging software, and the flap tissue was collected for evaluation. Forty rats were randomly divided into four groups of 10 each: group 1 received an AAM injection; group 2 underwent BM-MSC transplantation; group 3 received both AAM injection + BM-MSC transplantation; and group 4 was the control group, receiving only saline. Results The survival area in the AAM/BM-MSC group was significantly higher than in the control group (18.49 ± 1.58 versus 7.51 ± 2.42, P < 0.05). The biomechanical assessment showed no significant differences between the experimental groups and the control group (P > 0.05), and there was no correlation with flap survival. Conclusions Our findings showed that the treatment of flaps with BM-MSC and AAM transplantations significantly promoted flap survival compared to a control group. The viability of the flap was improved by combining BM-MSCs with AAM matrix scaffolds. PMID:27621924

  13. Inhibitory effects of low-level laser therapy on skin-flap survival in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Baldan, Cristiano S; Masson, Igor FB; Esteves Júnior, Ivaldo; Baldan, Alessandra Maria S; Machado, Aline F P; Casaroto, Raquel A; Liebano, Richard E

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although several studies have demonstrated the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on skin flap viability, the role of higher doses has been poorly investigated. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the inhibitory effect of the LLLT (λ=670 nm) on the viability of random skin flaps in a rat model using an irradiation energy of 2.79 J at each point. METHODS: Sixteen Wistar rats were randomly assigned into two groups: sham laser irradiation (n=8); and active laser irradiation (n=8). Animals in the active laser irradiation group were irradiated with a 670 nm diode laser with an energy of 2.79 J/point, a power output 30 mW, a beam area of 0.028 cm2, an energy density of 100 J/cm2, an irradiance of 1.07 W/cm2 for 93 s/point. Irradiation was performed in 12 points in the cranial skin flap portion. The total energy irradiated on the tissue was 33.48 J. The necrotic area was evaluated on postoperative day 7. RESULTS: The sham laser irradiation group presented a mean (± SD) necrotic area of 47.96±3.81%, whereas the active laser irradiation group presented 62.24±7.28%. There was a significant difference in skin-flap necrosis areas between groups (P=0.0002). CONCLUSION: LLLT (λ=670 nm) increased the necrotic area of random skin flaps in rats when irradiated with an energy of 2.79 J (100 J/cm2). PMID:25821771

  14. Effects of hyperbaric oxygen and irradiation on experimental skin flaps in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Nemiroff, P.M.; Merwin, G.E.; Brant, T.; Cassisi, N.J.

    1985-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) and irradiation (RT) on experimental skin flaps in rats under varying conditions. Animals were assigned at random to 1 of 15 groups that represented all possible ordering effects of HBO, RT, and flap, as well as controls that included flap-only, RT-only, and HBO-only groups. Cranially based skin flaps measuring 3 x 9 cm were elevated on the dorsum. The surviving length was evaluated with fluorescein dye 7 days after the operation. Depending on the treatment condition, HBO was given either 48 hours or 24 hours before flap elevation, or within 4 hours or 48 hours after flap elevation. Rats receiving RT (WCo) were given a single dose of 1000 rads to the dorsum. Results showed that all groups receiving HBO within 4 hours after flap elevation had significantly greater flap survival length, with as much as a 22% greater length of surviving flap. HBO given 48 hours before flap elevation also significantly improved flap survival over controls. RT appeared to have no immediate significant effect on flap survival. However, rats receiving RT, regardless of other factors, gained significantly less weight than did controls. Findings clearly indicate that, to be effective, HBO needs to be given as soon after surgery as possible.

  15. Effects of vascular endothelial growth factor on survival of surgical flaps: a review of experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Fang, Taolin; Lineaweaver, William C; Chen, Michael B; Kisner, Carson; Zhang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Partial or complete necrosis of skin flaps remains a significant problem in plastic and reconstructive surgery. Growth factors have shown promise in improving flap survival through increased angiogenesis and blood supply to the flap. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the most widely investigated and successful one. But the mechanisms of the effects are still not very clear. In the course of a series of experiments, we indicated that tissue survival of surgical flaps could be improved by both preoperative (sustained phase effect) and intraoperative (acute phase effect) application of VEGF. We reviewed both experimental and clinical investigations on the use of VEGF with surgical flaps to summarize the evidence of both phases of VEGF activity in promotion of flaps survival in detail. With the combinations of acute and sustained phases of effects, VEGF protein and gene, VEGF morphologic actions, and VEGF histochemical modulations suggest a pattern of VEGF activity that can be superimposed on classic descriptive mechanisms of tissue survival of flaps.

  16. Functional sensory function recovery of random-pattern abdominal skin flap in the repair of fingertip skin defects

    PubMed Central

    YU, YA-DONG; ZHANG, YING-ZE; BI, WEI-DONG; WU, TAO

    2013-01-01

    The fingertip skin defect is a common hand injury often accompanied by tendon or bone exposure, and is normally treated with flaps. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional sensory recovery of random-pattern abdominal skin flap in the repair of fingertip cutaneous deficiency. A total of 23 patients, aged between 18 and 50 years (mean age, 31 years) with fingertip cutaneous deficiency (30 digits) were treated with random-pattern abdominal skin flaps. The post-debridement defect area measured from 0.7×1.2 to 2.5×3 cm. The flap pedicle was divided three weeks after surgery, which marked the onset of the second stage. A second surgery was performed on 2 patients after 3 months and on another set of 2 patients after 6 months to create a thinner flap. Tissue was dissected during surgery for a histological examination. All the flaps survived and the post-operative follow-up ranged from 2 weeks to 6 months. Patients were satisfied with the appearance of their fingers and the flaps. All flaps demonstrated satisfactory flexibility and texture and sensory recovery was achieved. Only 4 patients were subjected to a second surgery to make the flap thinner. The flaps for the 3-month tissue section had several low-density, free nerve endings, whereas those of the 6-month section had more intensive free nerve endings, nerve tracts, tactile cells and lamellar corpuscles. Random-pattern abdominal skin flap therefore repairs fingertip skin defects achieving sensory recovery. PMID:23403483

  17. A new agent for flap survival - Hippophae rhamnoides L. (sea buckthorn): An experimental study in rats.

    PubMed

    Emsen, Ilteris Murat

    2005-01-01

    Hippophae rhamnoides L. (sea buckthorn) is a member of the Elaeagnaceae family, and is a temperate bush native to Europe and Asia. The antioxidant activity of H rhamnoides L. has been shown in vitro cell culture and animal studies. Different fractions of H rhamnoides L. fruits inhibit 2,2-azobis-(2,4 dimethylvaleronitrile) and ascorbate iron-induced lipid peroxidations in vitro. H rhamnoides L., as well as vitamin E, decrease the malondialdehyde content in hyperlipidemic rabbit serum-cultured smooth muscle cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate, in a rat model, the potential effect of H rhamnoides L. on survival of random pattern skin flaps. For this purpose, 30 Wistar Albino rats were used, and a McFarlane-type caudally based skin flap was created on the dorsum of the rat (2.5 cm × 8 cm). Rats were divided into three groups: one control (group A) and two treatment groups (groups B and C). H rhamnoides L. was administered orally to the experimental groups: group B received a single 15 mg/kg dose per day and group C received 15 mg/kg twice per day. The areas and lengths of flap necrosis were measured in each group. The extent of necrotic flap areas were evaluated as length and area of total flap area, and differences were studied by Student's t tests. The areas and lengths of necrosis of skin flaps decreased depending on H rhamnoides L., but viability of the flaps treated with 15 mg/kg/day was not significantly different from the control group. The rats receiving H rhamnoides L. 15 mg/kg twice per day had the highest flap survival rate (P<0.001). In conclusion, H rhamnoides L. may have a dose-dependent effect to increase flap survival in random skin flaps. PMID:24227931

  18. [Ketanserin and random skin flaps. An experimental study in the rat].

    PubMed

    Achouche, J; Teisseire, B; Laccourreye, O; Hadjean, E

    1994-04-01

    This prospective randomised study in a rodent model was designed to analyse the value of a serotonin antagonist, ketanserin, on the survival of random skin flaps in Wistar rats. Our study demonstrates the statistical value of this molecule. The surface of skin necrosis was statistically lower in the group of rats treated with pre and post operative subcutaneous injection of ketanserin.

  19. A novel animal model for skin flap prelamination with biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xianyu; Luo, Xusong; Liu, Fei; Gu, Chuan; Wang, Xi; Yang, Qun; Qian, Yunliang; Yang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Several animal models of skin flap construction were reported using biomaterials in a way similar to prefabrication. However, there are few animal model using biomaterials similar to prelamination, another main way of clinical skin flap construction that has been proved to be reliable. Can biomaterials be added in skin flap prelamination to reduce the use of autogenous tissues? Beside individual clinical attempts, animal model is needed for randomized controlled trial to objectively evaluate the feasibility and further investigation. Combining human Acellular Dermal Matrix (hADM) and autologous skin graft, we prelaminated flaps based on inguinal fascia. One, two, three and four weeks later, hADM exhibited a sound revascularization and host cell infiltration. Prelaminated skin flaps were then raised and microsurgically transplanted back to groin region. Except for flaps after one week of prelamination, flaps from other subgroups successfully reconstructed defects. After six to sixteen weeks of transplantation, hADM was proved to being able to maintain its original structure, having a wealth of host tissue cells and achieving full revascularization.To our knowledge, this is the first animal model of prelaminating skin flap with biomaterials. Success of this animal model indicates that novel flap prelamination with biomaterials is feasible. PMID:27659066

  20. Sinking skin flap syndrome in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Kamiya-Matsuoka, Carlos; Shroff, Sheetal; Tatsui, Claudio E; Tremont-Lukats, Ivo W; Gilbert, Mark R

    2014-01-01

    Sinking skin flap syndrome (SSFS) is a rare neurological complication in patients with traumatic haemorrhage, stroke or cerebral oedema who undergo decompressive craniectomy to relieve increased intracranial pressure. Hallmark of SSFS is the sinking of the scalp to a plane lower than the edges of the skull defect in the setting of neurological deterioration. Our objective is to report that SSFS can present after small craniotomy without cerebral cortex compression and to share our diagnostic/therapeutic approach. A 62-year-old woman with a glioblastoma developed SSFS after a small craniectomy and tumour resection without cerebral cortex compression but a decrease in the surgical cavity volume. Brain MRI showed decreased size of the surgical cavity. Interestingly, the patient also developed posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). This case highlights an atypical presentation of SSFS and the possible association with PRES. It also illustrates how an early cranioplasty can successfully reverse SSFS. PMID:25398923

  1. Pretreatment with octreotide modulates iNOS gene expression, mimics surgical delay, and improves flap survival.

    PubMed

    Gözü, Aydin; Poda, Mehveş; Taşkin, Elif I; Turgut, Hürriyet; Erginel-Unaltuna, Nihan; Doğruman, Hüsniye; Ozsoy, Zafer

    2010-08-01

    We aimed to evaluate the role of a synthetic somatostatin analogue in delay procedure of experimental skin flaps. Thirty-six rats were randomly divided into 2 groups of 18 each to compare the possible local ischemic effect of octreotide with that of surgical delay in the dorsal random pattern skin flap model. The inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression was assessed in the flap territory at intervals of immediate, 24 and 48 hours after preconditioning. Histologic analysis was performed in rats at 48th hour and 3 additional rats were used for microangiography. A gradual increase of daily transcript levels was detected in both groups (P < 0.05). The differences of molecular and histologic findings between the groups were not distinctive. Pharmacologically preconditioned rat displayed relevant microvascular features. Forty rats were further grouped randomly into 4 groups of 10 each. In group 1 rats, flaps were raised and reinserted without any prior intervention. Group 2 rats underwent surgical delay procedure, whereas flap territories of the others received either saline solution or octreotide 1 week before the ultimate flap harvest. After another 7-day period, both delay procedures were found effective in improving flap viability (P < 0.01). Ischemia induced by octreotide favored to investigate its utility in delay phenomenon. Although it was not as effective as the surgical delay procedure, it may be a safe pharmacologic alternative to improve the flap survival.

  2. Dynamic Change of CD34 Level during the Survival Process of Narrow Pedicle Flap

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lijun; Zhao, Tianlan; Yu, Daojiang; Chen, Qi; Han, Wenya; Yu, Wenyuan; Sun, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the dynamic change of CD34 level during the survival process of narrow pedicle flaps. Methods Twenty-five white pigs were randomly and equally divided into 5 experimental groups. Five different type of narrow pedicle with different length-to-width ratio were employed, and each type of narrow pedicle was covered with 5 different size random flaps and which was classified into A, B, C, D and E for 5 groups. Group A was control group. Each type narrow pedicle with 5 different skin flaps were implanted onto the back of the pigs along the midline of back with a reverse direction. A 0.3 cm×0.3 cm full thickness skin flap in the middle of distal segment was collected and on 3rd, 5th, 7th and 14th days of post-operation. The expression of CD34 was measured by immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA). Results Histological examination showed that with the increasing of length-to-width ratio of the narrow pedicle skin flaps, the expression of CD34 increased in the skin flaps. Increased level of CD34 was found on 3rd day post-operation, and the peak expression was found on 7th day. Persistent high level of CD34 was found until 14th day. Conclusion Increased CD34 level in the distal skin flap, there is the association between CD34 level and ischemia injury. Moreover, CD34 expression plays an important role during the repair processes of pedicle flaps. PMID:26561392

  3. Hypopharynx and larynx defect repair after resection for pyriform fossa cancer with a platysma skin flap.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qian; Liang, Faya; Huang, Xiaoming; Han, Ping; Pan, Yong; Zheng, Yiqing

    2015-02-01

    We used a platysma skin flap to repair larynx and hypopharynx defects to improve postoperative laryngeal function in patients with pyriform fossa cancer. Larynx-sparing surgery and postoperative radiotherapy were used in 10 patients with pyriform fossa cancer. The surgical approaches of lymph node dissection of the neck, vertical partial laryngectomy, and pyriform fossa resection were adopted, and a platysma skin flap was used to repair the resulting defects. In this group, the overall 3-year survival rate was 75% according to the Kaplan-Meier analysis, and the local control rate was 90%. Additionally, all patients were able to speak fluently with mild-to-moderate hoarseness. The tracheal tube was removed in all cases. Laryngeal fistulas were observed in 1 patient during radiotherapy. In conclusion, a platysma skin flap can be used to rebuild the larynx and hypopharynx in larynx-sparing resection for pyriform fossa cancer. These patients can obtain good postoperative function in swallowing, breathing, and pronunciation.

  4. Evaluation of the Effect of Bosentan-Mediated Endothelin Receptor Blockade on Flap Survival in Rats: An Experimental Study.

    PubMed

    Görgülü, Tahsin; Guler, Ramazan; Olgun, Abdulkerim; Torun, Merve; Kargi, Eksal

    2016-08-01

    Local skin flaps are important tools for performing plastic surgery. Skin flaps are used for closure of defects after tumor excision or in tissue losses after trauma. However, problems associated with these flaps are commonly encountered, particularly in areas of marginal necrosis. Bosentan is a vasodilator that exerts its effect through endothelin receptor blockade, and has been shown to prevent ischemic tissue damage. However, no reports have addressed the effect of bosentan on skin flaps. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of bosentan, which may be applied clinically to promote survival of ischemic skin flaps. A modified McFarlane flap was elevated in the dorsum of 20 Albino Wistar rats with a width-to-length ratio of 3 to 10 cm, respectively, with the caudal base. Perioperatively, 0.9% of physiologic NaCl and injectable distilled water of identical volume were injected into rats in Group 1 (n = 10), and 5 mg/kg bosentan was injected intraperitoneally into rats in Group 2 (n = 10). All of the rats were followed up for 7 days postoperatively. The surviving parts of the flaps were measured at the end of day 7. Acute and chronic inflammation, amount of granulation tissue, fibroblast maturation, amount of collagen, and amounts of reepithelialization and neovascularization present in the ischemic zones of the distal parts of the flaps were evaluated histopathologically, and results were compared statistically. The mean flap survivals were 61.1% in Group 1 and 91.1% in Group 2; the percentage of the surviving flap area in Group 2 was higher than that in Group 1 (p < 0.005). In both groups, there was significantly less acute inflammation in the ischemic zones in Group 2 than in Group 1 (p < 0.005). No significant difference was found in the amounts of chronic inflammation and granulation tissue between the two groups (p > 0.005). Fibroblast maturation, amount of collagen, and amounts of reepithelialization and neovascularization

  5. Incisions for cochlear implant flaps and superficial skin temperature. Skin temperature/blood circulation in CI flaps.

    PubMed

    Pau, Hans Wilhelm; Sievert, Uwe; Graumüller, Sylke; Wild, Ernst

    2004-01-01

    Healing and integration of a cochlear implant is largely influenced by good blood circulation in the covering skin, which, on the other hand, is closely correlated to skin temperature. Measuring superficial flap temperatures by thermography is an easy way to get some clues about the corresponding blood supply. These data should allow some implications for the design of skin flaps in cochlear implant surgery. In 15 patients thermography was carried out prior to and after cochlear implantation, using the Agema 550 Thermovision system. It was evident, that the anatomic courses of the major superficial arteries were represented by areas of increased temperature. The pattern of temperature distribution may allow some conclusions concerning site and shape of surgical incisions. From our data we concluded, that most types of incisions do not interfere too much with the arterial blood supply. However, some types like the extended retroauricular C-incision may eventually cause problems. Our data suggest, that the straight or slightly curved vertical retroauricular incision causes the least impairment of blood circulation. After surgery, directly along the incisions (and later along the scars) temperature was diminished, indicating reduced blood circulation. In our series, the thickness of the implant did not impede blood circulation significantly. So far, we could not examine patients with local circulation disorders. Probably local scars, skin atrophies, angiopathies etc. may present typical patterns of temperature distribution, which require individual design of skin flaps. Thermography is an easy method which can give impressions of local blood circulation in skin flaps. If the courses of the major arteries and their branches are respected, blood circulation within the flap should not be problematic. Thermography is likely to help designing optimal flaps in cases with impeded blood circulation e.g. by pre-existing scar formations.

  6. A new skin flap method for total auricular reconstruction in microtia patients with a reconstructed ear canal: extended scalp and extended mastoid postauricular skin flaps.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Euna; Kim, Young Soo; Chung, Seum

    2014-06-01

    Before visiting a plastic surgeon, some microtia patients may undergo canaloplasty for hearing improvement. In such cases, scarred tissues and the reconstructed external auditory canal in the postauricular area may cause a significant limitation in using the posterior auricular skin flap for ear reconstruction. In this article, we present a new method for auricular reconstruction in microtia patients with previous canaloplasty. By dividing a postauricular skin flap into an upper scalp extended skin flap and a lower mastoid extended skin flap at the level of a reconstructed external auditory canal, the entire anterior surface of the auricular framework can be covered with the two extended postauricular skin flaps. The reconstructed ear shows good color match and texture, with the entire anterior surface of the reconstructed ear being resurfaced with the skin flaps. Clinical question/level of evidence; therapeutic level IV.

  7. AdVEGF-All6A+ Preconditioning of Murine Ischemic Skin Flaps Is Comparable to Surgical Delay

    PubMed Central

    Gersch, Robert P.; Fourman, Mitchell S.; Phillips, Brett T.; Nasser, Ahmed; McClain, Steve A.; Khan, Sami U.; Dagum, Alexander B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Surgical flap delay is commonly used in preconditioning reconstructive flaps to prevent necrosis. However, staged procedures are not ideal. Pharmacologic up-regulation of angiogenic and arteriogenic factors before flap elevation poses a nonsurgical approach to improve flap survival. Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into control (n = 16), surgical delay (Delay), AdNull, AdEgr-1, and AdVEGF (n ≥ 9/group) groups. Delay rats had a 9 cm × 3 cm cranial based pedicle skin flap incised 10 days prior to elevation. Adenoviral groups received 28 intradermal injections (109 pu/animal total) throughout the distal two thirds of the flap 1 week prior to elevation. At postoperative day (POD) 0 flaps were elevated and silicone sheeting was placed between flap and wound bed. Perfusion analysis in arbitrary perfusion units of the ischemic middle third of the flap using laser Doppler imaging was conducted preoperatively and on POD 0, 3, and 7. Clinical and histopathologic assessments of the skin flaps were performed on POD 7. Results: AdVEGF (50.8 ± 10.9 APU) and AdEgr-1 (39.3 ± 10.6 APU) perfusion levels were significantly higher than controls (16.5 ± 4.2 APU) on POD 7. Delay models were equivalent to controls (25.9 ± 6.8 APU). AdVEGF and Delay animals showed significantly more viable surface area on POD 7 (14.4 ± 1.3 cm2, P < 0.01 and 12.4 ± 1.2 cm2, P < 0.05, respectively) compared with Controls (8.7 ± 0.7 cm2). Conclusions: AdVEGF preconditioning resulted in flap survival comparable to surgical delay. Adenoviral preconditioning maintained perfusion levels postoperatively while surgical delay did not. PMID:26495207

  8. Acute effects of cigarette smoke exposure on experimental skin flaps

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, J.; Jenkins, R.A.; Kurihara, K.; Schultz, R.C.

    1985-04-01

    Random vascular patterned caudally based McFarlane-type skin flaps were elevated in groups of Fischer 344 rats. Groups of rats were then acutely exposed on an intermittent basis to smoke generated from well-characterized research filter cigarettes. Previously developed smoke inhalation exposure protocols were employed using a Maddox-ORNL inhalation exposure system. Rats that continued smoke exposure following surgery showed a significantly greater mean percent area of flap necrosis compared with sham-exposed groups or control groups not exposed. The possible pathogenesis of this observation as well as considerations and correlations with chronic human smokers are discussed. Increased risks of flap necrosis by smoking in the perioperative period are suggested by this study.

  9. Living related hemi-face skin transplant using radial forearm free flap for a xeroderma pigmentosa patient: early outcome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Xeroderma pigmentosa (XP) is a hereditary disease characterized by deficient repair of DNA damage that occurred on exposure of the skin to ultraviolet irradiation. The affected children have a propensity to develop multiple skin cancers mainly in the face and eventually die before the age of 20. Hypothesis Allograft replacement of facial skin by a healthy skin from normal person might decrease the incidence of skin cancer development, the number of surgical procedures, and eventually might improve the survival of these miserable patients. Methods As Cadaveric organs are unavailable in our country. After approval from the ethical committee, confirmed agreement of the donor and the patient's guardian, a radial forearm free flap was transplanted from an ABO compatible mother to her 5 year old daughter with XP. The mother had an older daughter died from the same disease at the age of 14. The flap replaced skin of the hemi face that developed precancerous lesions. The girl was kept on adjusted doses of immunosuppressive drugs. Results The flap survived, wounds healed uneventfully. The flap developed a reddish spot one and half month following transplant where baseline skin biopsy was taken. In the fifth months the girl presented with bad non salvageable rejection that ended up loosing the flap. On long term follow up, the girl started to develop skin lesion on the virgin half of the face. Our early cosmetic result replacing half of the facial skin was very promising. In addition the girl did not develop skin lesions in the operated site. Conclusion Our early cosmetic result was very promising. In addition to this, the girl did not develop skin lesions in the operated side of the face PMID:20626898

  10. Assessment of skin flap viability using visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and auto-fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Caigang; Chen, Shuo; Chui, Christopher Hoe-Kong; Liu, Quan

    2012-12-01

    The accurate assessment of skin flap viability is vitally important in reconstructive surgery. Early identification of vascular compromise increases the change of successful flap salvage. The ability to determine tissue viability intraoperatively is also extremely useful when the reconstructive surgeon must decide how to inset the flap and whether any tissue must be discarded. Visible diffuse reflectance and auto-fluorescence spectroscopy, which yield different sets of biochemical information, have not been used in the characterization of skin flap viability simultaneously to our best knowledge. We performed both diffuse reflectance and fluorescence measurements on a reverse MacFarlane rat dorsal skin flap model to identify the additional value of auto-fluorescence spectroscopy to the assessment of flap viability. Our result suggests that auto-fluorescence spectroscopy appears to be more sensitive to early biochemical changes in a failed flap than diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, which could be a valuable complement to diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for the assessment of flap viability.

  11. Tadalafil significantly reduces ischemia reperfusion injury in skin island flaps

    PubMed Central

    Kayiran, Oguz; Cuzdan, Suat S.; Uysal, Afsin; Kocer, Ugur

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Numerous pharmacological agents have been used to enhance the viability of flaps. Ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury is an unwanted, sometimes devastating complication in reconstructive microsurgery. Tadalafil, a specific inhibitor of phosphodiesterase type 5 is mainly used for erectile dysfunction, and acts on vascular smooth muscles, platelets and leukocytes. Herein, the protective and therapeutical effect of tadalafil in I/R injury in rat skin flap model is evaluated. Materials and Methods: Sixty epigastric island flaps were used to create I/R model in 60 Wistar rats (non-ischemic group, ischemic group, medication group). Biochemical markers including total nitrite, malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were analysed. Necrosis rates were calculated and histopathologic evaluation was carried out. Results: MDA, MPO and total nitrite values were found elevated in the ischemic group, however there was an evident drop in the medication group. Histological results revealed that early inflammatory findings (oedema, neutrophil infiltration, necrosis rate) were observed lower with tadalafil administration. Moreover, statistical significance (P < 0.05) was recorded. Conclusions: We conclude that tadalafil has beneficial effects on epigastric island flaps against I/R injury. PMID:23960309

  12. Treatment of postburn ear defect with expanded upper arm flap and consequent expansion without skin grafting.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jintian; Liu, Tun; Zhou, Xu; Zhang, Yong-Biao; Zhang, Qingguo

    2014-04-01

    Total ear reconstruction in the postburn auricle is one of the most challenging procedures for plastic surgeons. Adverse factors associated with these procedures include reduced or damaged blood supply, poor elasticity of scar tissue, increased risk of infection, and the possible destruction of skin, temporoparietal fascia, or retroauricular fascia. In cases where patients are severely burned, free flaps, such as radial forearm flaps, contralateral temporoparietal fascial flaps, or omental flaps, can be used as framework envelopes. In this work, we introduced a novel method of expanded upper arm flap transfer, followed by an expansion method of total ear reconstruction without skin grafting.

  13. Impact of different antithrombotics on the microcirculation and viability of perforator-based ischaemic skin flaps in a small animal model

    PubMed Central

    Fichter, Andreas M.; Ritschl, Lucas M.; Robitzky, Luisa K.; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Mitchell, David A.; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Mücke, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The effects of antithrombotic drugs on random and free flap survival have been investigated in the past, but the experimental and clinical results are not in agreement. A perforator-based critical ischaemia model was used to evaluate the effects of different perioperatively administered pharmaceutical agents on tissue ischaemia and to assess the potential additional haemorheological or vasodilative effects of antithrombotics on flap microcirculation. Combined laser Doppler flowmetry and remission spectroscopy revealed an increase in certain microcirculation parameters in most groups in comparison with saline controls, and these changes correlated with flap survival. Clopidogrel and hirudin significantly improved the amount of viable flap tissue in comparison with controls, while unfractioned heparin had a negative effect on flap survival. Low molecular weight heparin, aspirin, pentoxifylline, and hydroxyethyl starch had no impact on the amount of viable flap tissue. A higher complication rate was observed in all experimental groups, but only clopidogrel had a negative impact on the flap viability. Our results add to the body of evidence supporting the conclusion that perioperative antithrombotic treatment improves flap survival. Clopidogrel and hirudin are effective pharmacological agents that significantly increased the viability of perforator-based skin flaps in rats, but at a higher risk of postoperative bleeding. PMID:27767060

  14. The possibility for use of venous flaps in plastic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baytinger, V. F.; Kurochkina, O. S.; Selianinov, K. V.; Baytinger, A. V.; Dzyuman, A. N.

    2015-11-01

    The use of venous flaps is controversial. The mechanism of perfusion of venous flaps is still not fully understood. The research was conducted on 56 white rats. In our experimental work we studied two different models of venous flaps: pedicled venous flap (PVF) and pedicled arterialized venous flap (PAVF). Our results showed that postoperative congestion was present in all flaps. However 66.7% of all pedicled venous flaps and 100% of all pedicled arterialized venous flaps eventually survived. Histological examination revealed that postoperatively the blood flow in the skin of the pedicled arterialized venous flap became «re-reversed» again; there were no differences between mechanism of survival of venous flaps and other flaps. On the 7-14th day in the skin of all flaps were processes of neoangiogenesis and proliferation. Hence the best scenario for the clinical use of venous flaps unfolds when both revascularization and skin coverage are required.

  15. The possibility for use of venous flaps in plastic surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Baytinger, V. F. Kurochkina, O. S. Selianinov, K. V.; Baytinger, A. V.; Dzyuman, A. N.

    2015-11-17

    The use of venous flaps is controversial. The mechanism of perfusion of venous flaps is still not fully understood. The research was conducted on 56 white rats. In our experimental work we studied two different models of venous flaps: pedicled venous flap (PVF) and pedicled arterialized venous flap (PAVF). Our results showed that postoperative congestion was present in all flaps. However 66.7% of all pedicled venous flaps and 100% of all pedicled arterialized venous flaps eventually survived. Histological examination revealed that postoperatively the blood flow in the skin of the pedicled arterialized venous flap became «re-reversed» again; there were no differences between mechanism of survival of venous flaps and other flaps. On the 7-14th day in the skin of all flaps were processes of neoangiogenesis and proliferation. Hence the best scenario for the clinical use of venous flaps unfolds when both revascularization and skin coverage are required.

  16. Nasal-skin-fold transposition flap for upper lip reconstruction in a French bulldog.

    PubMed

    Benlloch-Gonzalez, Manuel; Lafarge, Stéphanie; Bouvy, Bernard; Poncet, Cyrill

    2013-10-01

    Upper-lip reconstruction after mast-cell tumor-resection in a French bulldog was achieved by using a transposition flap from the nasal-skin-fold and an oral mucosal flap. The new technique is an alternative for reconstruction of extensive upper-lip defects in brachycephalic dogs and achieves satisfactory functional and cosmetic results.

  17. Reconstruction of cubital fossa skin necrosis with radial collateral artery perforator-based propeller flap (RCAP).

    PubMed

    Chaput, B; Gandolfi, S; Ho Quoc, C; Chavoin, J-P; Garrido, I; Grolleau, J-L

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, perforator flaps have become an indispensable tool for the reconstruction process. Most recently, "propeller" perforator flaps allow each perforator vessels to become a flap donor site. Once the perforator of interest is identified by acoustic Doppler, the cutaneous or fascio-cutaneous island is designed and then customized according to the principle of "perforasome". So, the flap can be rotated such a propeller, up to 180°. Ideally the donor site is self-closing, otherwise it can be grafted at the same time. Through a skin necrosis secondary to a contrast medium extravasation of the cubital fossa in a 47-year-old man, we describe the use of propeller perforator flap based on a perforator of the radial collateral artery (RCAP). The perforator was identified preoperatively by acoustic Doppler then the flap was adapted bespoke to cover the loss of substance. Ultimately, the result was very satisfying. Well experienced for lower-extremity reconstruction, perforator-based propeller flap are still few reported for upper limb. It is likely that in the future, propeller flap supersede in many indication not only free flaps and locoregional flaps but also, leaving no room for uncertainties of the vascular network, the classic random flaps.

  18. Local Flaps of The Hand

    PubMed Central

    Rehim, Shady A.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis A local flap consists of skin and subcutaneous tissue that is harvested from a site nearby a given defect while maintaining its intrinsic blood supply. When a soft tissue defect of the hand is not amenable to primary closure or skin grafting, local skin flaps can be a used as a reliable source of soft tissue replacement that replaces like with like. Flaps are categorized based on their composition, method of transfer, flap design and blood supply, yet flap circulation is considered the most critical factor for the flap survival. This article reviews the classification of local skin flaps of the hand and offers a practical reconstructive approach for several soft tissue defects of the hand and digits. PMID:24731606

  19. New advances in the mesenchymal stem cells therapy against skin flaps necrosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fu-Gui; Tang, Xiu-Fa

    2014-09-26

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), multipotential cells that reside within the bone marrow, can be induced to differentiate into various cells, such as osteoblasts, adipocytes, chondrocytes, vascular endothelial progenitor cells, and other cell types. MSCs are being widely studied as potential cell therapy agents due to their angiogenic properties, which have been well established by in vitro and in vivo researches. Within this context, MSCs therapy appears to hold substantial promise, particularly in the treatment of conditions involving skin grafts, pedicle flaps, as well as free flaps described in literatures. The purpose of this review is to report the new advances and mechanisms underlying MSCs therapy against skin flaps necrosis.

  20. [Double skin paddle fibula free flap in orofacial reconstruction. Case report].

    PubMed

    Burgueño García, M; Cebrián Carretero, J L; del Castillo Pardo de Vera, J L; Martorell Martínez, V

    2005-01-01

    Mandibular reconstruction in cases of complex muco-cutaneous defects is a challenge for head and neck surgeons. Here, we report the case of a patient who showed an oro-facial defect including bone, skin and mucosa. We decided to use a double skin paddle fibula osteocutaneous free flap for the reconstruction. Identification and preservation of the septo and musculocutaneous perforators vessels to the skin is the clue step to ensure flap vitality. In this situation mucosal and cutaneous reconstruction is possible using a folded skin paddle. We also discuss the reconstructive options for this kind of defects.

  1. Enhancement of flap survival and changes in angiogenic gene expression after AAV2-mediated VEGF gene transfer to rat ischemic flaps.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao Tian; Avanessian, Bella; Ma, Qiangzhong; Durfee, Heather; Tang, Yu Qing; Liu, Paul Y

    2011-01-01

    Necrosis of surgically transferred flaps due to ischemia is a serious wound problem. We evaluated the improvement of flap survival and changes in angiogenic gene expression profiles after transfer of the VEGF gene by means of adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) vector to rat ischemic flaps. Thirty rats were divided into one experimental group, one AAV2-GFP group, and one saline group. AAV2-VEGF or AAV2-GFP were injected intradermally into the rat dorsum in the AAV2-VEGF or AAV2-GFP group. The saline group received saline injection. A 3 × 10 cm flap was raised in each rat two weeks post-injection. One week after surgery, flap viability was evaluated. Angiogenesis real-time PCR array was performed to analyze the expression of angiogenesis-associated genes. The AAV2-VEGF treatment significantly improved flap survival (p<0.05). Immunohistochemical staining showed increased VEGF expression in AAV2-VEGF treated flaps. The PCR array identified remarkable changes in 6 out of the 84 angiogenesis-associated genes in AAV2-VEGF treated flaps. Particularly, EGF, PDGF-A and VEGF-B genes were up-regulated in these flaps. In contrast, FGF2 gene expression was down-regulated. In conclusion, AAV2-VEGF improves flap survival and affects the expression of a series of endogenous growth factor genes, which likely play critical roles in the enhancement of ischemic flap survival. PMID:21649787

  2. Wound tension in rhytidectomy. Effects of skin-flap undermining and superficial musculoaponeurotic system suspension.

    PubMed

    Burgess, L P; Casler, J D; Kryzer, T C

    1993-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of skin-flap undermining and superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) suspension on wound-closing tension. Nine sides from five fresh-frozen cadavers were used, with closing tension measured at the two main anchor points, anteriorly (A) and posteriorly (P), with and without SMAS plication for minimal (MIN), intermediate (INT), and maximal (MAX) skin-flap undermining. Results indicated that closing tension was significantly decreased with SMAS plication, both A and P, for all three levels of skin undermining. The average decrease in closing tension with SMAS plication was: A-MIN 191 g, A-INT 95 g, A-MAX 83 g, P-MIN 235 g, P-INT 68 g, and P-MAX 70 g (P < .001 for all). Considering the effect of skin-flap undermining alone, closing tension decreased with wider skin-flap undermining, both with and without SMAS plication. The tension-reducing effect of SMAS plication was decreased with wider skin-flap undermining. Regression analysis determined a second-order exponential curve relating closing tension to skin excision.

  3. Hydrogen clearance: Assessment of technique for measurement of skin-flap blood flow in pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, J.G.; Kerrigan, C.L. )

    1991-10-01

    The hydrogen clearance technique has been used for many years by investigators to determine brain blood flow and has been partially validated in this setting using other methods of blood flow measurement. The method has been modified to allow blood flow measurements in skin, but the accuracy of H2 clearance for measuring skin blood flow has not been determined. Multiple blood flow measurements were performed using H2 clearance and radioactive microspheres on skin flaps and control skin in pigs. On 12 pigs, a total of 117 flap and 42 control skin measurements were available for analysis. There was no significant difference between the two techniques in measuring mean control skin blood flow. In skin flaps, H2 clearance was significantly correlated to microsphere-measured blood flow, but it consistently gave an overestimate. Sources of error may include injury to the tissues by insertion of electrodes, consumption of H2 by the electrodes, or diffusion of H2 from the relatively ischemic flap to its well-vascularized bed. Further studies are necessary to determine the cause of this error and to measure the technique's accuracy in skeletal muscle and other flaps.

  4. Improvement of blood flow, expression of nitric oxide, and vascular endothelial growth factor by low-energy shockwave therapy in random-pattern skin flap model.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaoyu; Zeng, Bingfang; Chai, Yimin; Luo, Congfeng; Li, Xiaolin

    2008-12-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) can improve flap survival, but its mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we aim to investigate whether ESWT can improve blood flow in ischemic skin flaps and the possible mechanism. Cranially based random-pattern flap (3 x 10 cm) model was established, and its ischemic portion was treated with or without ESWT at 0.09 mJ/mm2 with 750 impulses (1.5 Hz), immediately after operation. Survival area, blood flow, vessel distribution, microvessel density, and expression of nitric oxide and vascular endothelial growth factor were evaluated at 1, 3, and 10 days postoperatively. The results showed that blood perfusion, expression of nitric oxide and vascular endothelial growth factor, vasodilatation of pre-existing vessels at early postoperative stage, neovascularization at late stage, and flap survival were all significantly promoted in treatment group. In conclusion, ESWT can improve skin flap surviving rate through enhanced vasodilatation at early postoperative stage and neovascularization at late stage via modulation of angio-active factors expression.

  5. Complete DIEP flap survival following pedicle resection, 4 years after its transfer. Clinical evidence of autonomization

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Benedetto; Laporta, Rosaria; Sorotos, Michail; Atzeni, Matteo; Santanelli di Pompeo, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We report a case of complete DIEP flap survival, following venous congestion due to the excision of a local recurrence with main pedicle, 4 years after its transfer for breast reconstruction. PMID:27713917

  6. Microscopic and immunohistochemical analysis of the skin changes of free forearm flaps in intraoral reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Rubino, Corrado; Dessy, Luca A; Farace, Francesco; Ena, Pasquale; Mazzarello, Vittorio

    2002-10-01

    In the literature, few studies based on clinical and histological evaluation analyze skin structural changes after transplantation to the oral cavity. Ten patients affected by squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity who were reconstructed with a free forearm flap were included in the current study to analyze skin alterations. The authors performed a histological and ultrastructural evaluation of skin samples from the free forearm flap before transplantation and 18 months after intraoral reconstruction. They analyzed cytokeratin and involucrin distribution, which represent markers of maturation and differentiation of epithelia. The aim of this study was to demonstrate whether skin "mucosalization" occurs. They found that the skin undergoes some morphological changes induced by the intraoral environment. Cytokeratin and involucrin distribution is mostly unchanged. This aspect is in favor of skin structure preservation. Thus, they found that "mucosalization" of the skin is not evident after 18 months. PMID:12370640

  7. Histological changes in radial forearm skin flaps in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, A; Johnston, E; Badran, D H; Neilson, M; Soutar, D S; Robertson, A G; McDonald, S W

    2004-04-01

    We reported previously that skin flaps transplanted to the oral cavity in reconstructive surgery for oral cancer frequently acquired the gross appearance of buccal mucosa. The changes were shown to be reactive in nature. The "changed" flaps generally had a heavier infiltration of leukocytes in the dermis and appeared to have thicker epithelium. The present study quantifies these parameters, as well as the numbers of intraepithelial leukocytes. The flaps that had acquired the gross appearance of oral mucosa had significantly thicker epithelium, larger numbers of dermal leukocytes, and more intraepidermal inflammatory cells per unit length than flaps that retained the gross appearance of thin skin. No correlation was found between these changes and radiotherapy. PMID:15042571

  8. Effects of Intense Pulsed Light on Tissue Vascularity and Wound Healing: A Study with Mouse Island Skin Flap Model

    PubMed Central

    Cao Minh, Trinh; Xuan Hai, Do; Thi Ngoc, Pham

    2015-01-01

    Intense pulsed light (IPL) has been used extensively in aesthetic and cosmetic dermatology. To test whether IPL could change the tissue vascularity and improve wound healing, mice were separated into 4 groups. Mice in Group I were not treated with IPL, whereas, dorsal skins of mice in Groups II, III, and IV were treated with 35 J/cm2, 25 J/cm2, and 15 J/cm2 IPL, respectively. After 2 weeks, dorsal island skin flaps were raised, based on the left deep circumflex iliac vessels as pedicles; then, survival rate was assessed. Flaps in Group IV (treated with lowest dose of IPL) have a survival rate significantly higher than other groups. Counting blood vessels did not demonstrate any significant differences; however, vessel dilation was found in this group. The results show that IPL at the therapeutic doses which are usually applied to humans is harmful to mouse dorsal skin and did not enhance wound healing, whereas, IPL at much lower dose could improve wound healing. The possible mechanism is the dilation of tissue vasculature thanks to the electromagnetic character of IPL. Another mechanism could be the heat-shock protein production. PMID:25722887

  9. Effects of intense pulsed light on tissue vascularity and wound healing: a study with mouse island skin flap model.

    PubMed

    Cao Minh, Trinh; Xuan Hai, Do; Thi Ngoc, Pham

    2015-01-01

    Intense pulsed light (IPL) has been used extensively in aesthetic and cosmetic dermatology. To test whether IPL could change the tissue vascularity and improve wound healing, mice were separated into 4 groups. Mice in Group I were not treated with IPL, whereas, dorsal skins of mice in Groups II, III, and IV were treated with 35 J/cm(2), 25 J/cm(2), and 15 J/cm(2) IPL, respectively. After 2 weeks, dorsal island skin flaps were raised, based on the left deep circumflex iliac vessels as pedicles; then, survival rate was assessed. Flaps in Group IV (treated with lowest dose of IPL) have a survival rate significantly higher than other groups. Counting blood vessels did not demonstrate any significant differences; however, vessel dilation was found in this group. The results show that IPL at the therapeutic doses which are usually applied to humans is harmful to mouse dorsal skin and did not enhance wound healing, whereas, IPL at much lower dose could improve wound healing. The possible mechanism is the dilation of tissue vasculature thanks to the electromagnetic character of IPL. Another mechanism could be the heat-shock protein production.

  10. Salient Points in Reconstruction of Nasal Skin after Tumor Ablation with Local Flaps

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Ali; Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein Kalantar; Nejadsarvari, Nasrin; Ebrahimi, Azin; Rasouli, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Objective: A variety of nasal skin reconstruction methods are available to meet the esthetic patient's needs. In this article, we review some of modifications of these procedures and share our experience in reconstruction of different parts of the nasal skin following skin tumor ablation. Patients and Methods: From January 2010 to January 2014, 171 patients underwent nasal skin reconstruction after excising cancerous lesions of the involved nasal skin. The patient's history, pre- and post-operation photographs, and the surgery data were collected and assessed. Demographic data related to the type of cancer, defect size and location, type of reconstruction were collected. Results: A variety of local flaps were used based on location and defect features. Nearly all flaps healed primarily without postsurgical significant complications. Conclusion: According to the results and the outcomes of the operations, we concluded that a certain flaps are more effective than others in nasal skin reconstruction. Local flap reconstruction of the nose has good esthetic result with low complication rate. PMID:27761088

  11. Perfusion and Oxygenation of Random Advancement Skin Flaps Depend More on the Length and Thickness of the Flap Than on the Width to Length Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Memarzadeh, Khashayar; Sheikh, Rafi; Blohmé, Jonas; Torbrand, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to investigate the relationship between the dimensions (length, width, and thickness) of random advancement skin flaps and retained tissue perfusion and oxygenation. Methods: Flaps were raised on the flanks of pigs. The flaps were either 0.5 or 1.0 cm wide, thin (dissected halfway through the subcutaneous tissue) or thick (dissected down to the muscle fascia). Tissue perfusion was measured by laser Doppler velocimetry, and tissue oxygenation (pO2) was measured using a Licox system, every 0.5 cm along the flaps’ length. Tissue temperature was visualized by high-resolution infrared camera. Results: Perfusion and oxygenation decreased gradually from the base to the tip of the flap, reaching approximately 40% of presurgical values (2.0 cm) and approximately 20% (2.5 cm) from the base of the flap. There was virtually no blood flow, nor oxygen tension, 3.0 cm from the base of the flap. The width to length ratio of the flap did not determine blood flow or oxygenation, being approximately 30% in a 0.5 cm wide and 2 cm long flap, and 0% in a 1.0 cm wide and 4 cm long flap, both with a width to length ratio of 1:4. Blood flow and oxygenation were preserved to a greater extent in the thick flaps (∼40%) than in the thin flaps (∼20%), in a 0.5 cm wide and 2 cm long flap. Conclusions: The dissection of a random advancement flap results in hypoperfusion and oxygenation that cannot be predicted by the width to length ratio but depend on the length and thickness of the flap. PMID:26958105

  12. Paradoxical effects of heme arginate on survival of myocutaneous flaps

    PubMed Central

    Czopek, Alicja; Wigmore, Stephen J.; Kluth, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) contributes to partial flap and solid organ transplant failure. Heme-oxygenase 1 (HO-1) is an inducible, cytoprotective enzyme which protects against IRI in solid organ transplant models. Heme arginate (HA), a HO-1 inducer, is a promising, translatable, preconditioning agent. This study investigated the effects of preconditioning with HA on the clinical outcome of a myocutaneous IRI model. Forty male Lewis rats were randomized to intravenously receive 1) Control-NaCl, 2) HA, 3) HA and tin mesoporphyrin (SnMP), a HO-1 inhibitor; and 4) SnMP alone. Twenty-four hours later, an in situ transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap was performed under isoflurane anesthesia. Viability of flaps was measured clinically and by laser-Doppler perfusion scanning. In vitro work on human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKa) assessed the effects of HA, SnMP, and the iron chelator desferrioxamine on 1) cytotoxicity, 2) intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentration, and 3) ROS-mediated DNA damage. In contrast to our hypothesis, HA preconditioning produced over 30% more flap necrosis at 48 h compared with controls (P = 0.02). HA-containing treatments produced significantly worse flap perfusion at all postoperative time points. In vitro work showed that HA is cytotoxic to keratinocytes. This cytotoxicity was independent of HO-1 and was mediated by the generation of ROS by free heme. In contrast to solid organ data, pharmacological preconditioning with HA significantly worsened clinical outcome, thus indicating that this is not a viable approach in free flap research. PMID:24089372

  13. Necrosis of the Ventral Penile Skin Flap: A Complication of Hypospadias Surgery in Children

    PubMed Central

    Bakal, Ünal; Abeş, Musa; Sarac, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To review cases of hypospadias that were repaired with TIPU method and consequently resulted in the necrosis of ventral penile skin flaps. Methods. Eighty-three patients with hypospadias underwent TIPU procedure by two surgeons. Neourethra in all patients was covered with dartos flap prepared from the preputium or penile shaft. In cases where ventral skin could not be covered primarily, closure was ensured by using preputial Ombredanne or Byars' flaps to repair ventral defects. Results. The median age of patients was 4 years. Twenty-five (30.12%) patients that underwent hypospadias repair had urethral opening at the coronal level, 33 (39.75%) at the distal penis, 10 (12.04%) at the midpenis, and 15 (18.07%) at the proximal penis. The ventral skin defect could not be primarily covered in 10 patients with penile shaft hypospadias. Consequently, Byars' method was used in 8 of these patients to cover the defect and the Ombredanne method was used in the remaining 2. Ventral skin flap necrosis developed in 5 patients (4 Byars and 1 Ombredanne). It was medically treated in 4 patients. Urethral fistula developed in the other patient whose necrosis was deeper. The mean hospital stay was 7 days for patients without necrosis, and 14 for those with necrosis. Conclusion. We are of the opinion that dartos flaps used in the TIPU method in order to cover neourethra and decrease the incidence of fistula development lead to necrosis in the Ombredanne or Byars' flaps by causing low blood supply to the preputium and thus extend hospital stay. PMID:25922604

  14. Microcirculatory Evaluation of the Abdominal Skin in Breast Reconstruction with Deep Inferior Epigastric Artery Perforator Flap

    PubMed Central

    Tønseth, Kim Alexander; Pripp, Are Hugo; Tindholdt, Tyge Tind

    2016-01-01

    Background: No studies have assessed the perfusion of the undermined abdominal skin in breast reconstruction with deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap. A greater understanding of the procedure’s impact on the perfusion of the abdominal skin can be valuable in predicting areas susceptible to necrosis. Methods: Microcirculatory changes were monitored in the abdominal skin of 20 consecutive patients undergoing breast reconstruction with a deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap. Quantitative mapping was performed with laser Doppler perfusion imaging at 7 set intervals. Measurements were taken and recorded within 4 standardized zones covering the skin between the xiphoid process and the upper incisional boundary of the flap (zones 1–4; cranial to caudal). Results: Before commencing surgery, a significantly higher perfusion was registered in zones 3 and 4 when compared with zone 1. After undermining the abdominal skin, the perfusion in zones 1–3 increased significantly. After the abdominal closure, the perfusion dropped in all 4 zones and only the perfusion level in zone 1 remained significantly higher than preoperative mean. Postoperatively, the perfusion of each zone stabilized at a significantly higher level compared with preoperative values. No tissue necrosis was observed in any of the zones. Conclusions: Although perforators are divided during undermining of the abdominal skin, there seems to be a reactive hyperemia that exceeds the blood supply delivered by the perforators. Thus, due to microcirculatory mechanisms, the undermining of the abdomen during the procedure does not seem to present any great risk of tissue necrosis. PMID:27014545

  15. Sinking skin flap syndrome with delayed dysautonomic syndrome—An atypical presentation☆

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Flávio Ramalho; Zanini, Marco Antônio; Ducati, Luis Gustavo; Gabarra, Roberto Colichio

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Sinking skin flap syndrome or “syndrome of the trephined” is a rare complication after a large craniectomy, with a sunken skin above the bone defect with neurological symptoms such as severe headache, mental changes, focal deficits, or seizures. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report a case of 21 years old man with trefinated syndrome showing delayed dysautonomic changes. DISCUSSION Our patient had a large bone flap defect and a VP shunt that constitute risk factors to develop this syndrome. Also, there is reabsorption of bone tissue while it is placed in subcutaneous tissue. The principal symptoms of sinking skin flap syndrome are severe headache, mental changes, focal deficits, or seizures. Our patient presented with a delayed dysautonomic syndrome, with signs and symptoms very characteristics. Only few cases of this syndrome were related in literature and none were presented with dysautonomic syndrome. CONCLUSION We reported here a very uncommon case of sinking skill flap syndrome that causes a severe dysautonomic syndrome and worsening the patient condition. PMID:24083997

  16. SU-E-T-560: Commissioning An HDR Freiburg Flap Applicator for Skin Lesion Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Dou, K; Li, B; Lerma, F; Aroumougame, V; Sarfaraz, M; Laser, B; Jacobs, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Flexible Freiburg flap used with high dose rate afterloaders is easy to cut into any size for any body site and to dwell with a precise source position, conforms to curved skin surface and then to the planned target. However, unlike intracavity or interstitial situations, incomplete scatter environment due to flap applicators exposed to air might lead to dose difference between the delivered and planned. This research is focused on the dose deviation of incomplete scatter versus full scatter. Methods: A 12x12 cm of Freiburg flap applicator was used for the validation. A Nucletron Oncentra Brachy Ver. 4.3 treatment planning system (TPS) was used for treatment planning. However, no heterogeneity correction incorporated into the brachytherap TPS needs to be considered. A Philips Brilliance CT Big Bore was employed for CT scan. Radiation was delivered using a Nucletron HDR remote afterloader system. A 10cm bolus was used to cover the flap for obtaining a full scatter. An OSL, ion chamber, and Gafchromic EBT2 film were used for commissioning the flap applicator. Results: The applicator calibration at 5mm depth was performed using an OSL dosimeter. Applicator source dwelling positions with 1D and 2D array exposed to and recorded by Gafchromic EBT2 film showed an agreement within 1mm. 1D array of Freiburg flap exhibited 4.2% cooler in dose with incomplete scatter than full scatter. 2D array showed 7.1% lower in dose for incomplete scatter than full scatter. The deviation was found more than 10% beyond 8cm in depth. Conclusion: Significant dose deviation caused by the incomplete scatter environment was found to be 7.1% at 1cm depth. This deviation was increased with increasing depth. The inaccuracy resulted from the incomplete scatter can be fixed by either placing a bolus on the top of the flap or making the plan at least 7% hotter.

  17. Designing Flaps for Closure of Circular and Semicircular Skin Defects

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Removing skin lesions from the human body is a simple procedure, but closing the resulting defect may prove a difficult task. The surgeon quite often encounters a problem when the lesion is located in a confined anatomical area where the elasticity of the skin is limited or when the lesion is large. To obviate these difficulties, I present 4 new incisions for closure of circular and semicircular skin defects on difficult parts of the human body such as the scalp, face, axilla, back, and sacrococcygeal areas. This article describes a working model made of white bond paper that can be enlarged or reduced in size using a regular copying machine that can be prepared in advance of surgery to make sure that it adapts to a particular anatomical location. Also, it describes a geometrical analysis in order to determine the distortion of the minimal tension lines of the skin, skin wastage, and length of the suture lines. In summary, it is possible to use a variety of skin incisions, taking advantage of the minimal tension lines of the skin and also taking into consideration the anatomical characteristics of the region involved. PMID:27104106

  18. Designing Flaps for Closure of Circular and Semicircular Skin Defects.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Removing skin lesions from the human body is a simple procedure, but closing the resulting defect may prove a difficult task. The surgeon quite often encounters a problem when the lesion is located in a confined anatomical area where the elasticity of the skin is limited or when the lesion is large. To obviate these difficulties, I present 4 new incisions for closure of circular and semicircular skin defects on difficult parts of the human body such as the scalp, face, axilla, back, and sacrococcygeal areas. This article describes a working model made of white bond paper that can be enlarged or reduced in size using a regular copying machine that can be prepared in advance of surgery to make sure that it adapts to a particular anatomical location. Also, it describes a geometrical analysis in order to determine the distortion of the minimal tension lines of the skin, skin wastage, and length of the suture lines. In summary, it is possible to use a variety of skin incisions, taking advantage of the minimal tension lines of the skin and also taking into consideration the anatomical characteristics of the region involved. PMID:27104106

  19. [Temperature determination of the skin surface for the estimation of blood supply disorders in myocutaneous island flaps of rats].

    PubMed

    Herrberger, U; Tilgner, A; Schumann, D

    1989-01-01

    In rectus abdominis myocutaneous island flaps (3.0 x 1.5 cm) of rats (Uje:WIST) skin surface temperature was measured by an infrared pyrometer for monitoring flap viability following experimentally induced blood flow insufficiency. The insufficiency was caused by ligation of the pedicle vessels (epigastric superior artery and vein) on the 3rd, 4th, 5th and 7th d after flap replantation, and by occlusion of these vessels with microclips for 2 h. Only the temperature differences between the intact and the operated skin surface were used to estimate blood flow efficiency not, the absolute values. These differences were statistically insignificant between the intact right and left abdominal skin areas and between the intact skin and the vital flap surfaces. In these cases the maximal temperature differences were 0.52 degree C. Only during the early postoperative period (3-days ligation group) a correlation between blood flow insufficiency and flap viability is expressed by temperature differences (2.14 degrees C). Later on (7-days ligation group) a temperature difference of 1.87 degrees C was no evidence of disturbed wound healing. Thus in advanced stages in myocutaneous flaps differences of blood flow and neovascularization respectively cannot be estimated reliably by measurements of skin surface temperature. However, temperature differences greater than 2 degrees C signal impaired flap viability. PMID:2711783

  20. Survival of the fastest: Evolving wings for flapping flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramananarivo, Sophie; Mitchel, Thomas; Ristroph, Leif

    2014-11-01

    To optimize flapping flight with regard to wing shape, we use an evolutionary or genetic algorithm to improve the forward speed of 3d-printed wings or hydrofoils that heave up-and-down and self-propel within water. In this scheme, ``genes'' are mathematical parameters specifying wing shape, and ``breeding'' involves the merging and mutation of genes from two parent wings to form a child. A wing's swimming speed is its ``fitness'', which dictates the likelihood of breeding and thus passing on its genes to the next generation. We find that this iterative process leads to marked improvements in relatively few generations, and several distinct shape features are shared among the fastest wings. We also investigate the favorable flow structures produced by these elite swimmers and compare their shape and performance to biologically evolved wings, fins, tails, and flippers.

  1. Does phosphodiesterase inhibition lessen facial flap necrosis in tobacco cigarette users?

    PubMed

    Pfaff, Miles; Shah, Ajul; Steinbacher, Derek

    2014-02-01

    Tobacco cigarette smoking remains a serious risk factor for necrosis of local facial skin flaps. To date, no pharmacological therapies exist for cigarette smoke-induced impairment of skin flap tissue survival. Accumulating evidence suggest that phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitor therapy may counteract the negative effects of cigarette smoke on flap survival. Here, we evaluate skin flap survival in a series of consecutive tobacco cigarette users treated with the PDE-5 inhibitor, sildenafil, who underwent local flap facial reconstruction. We included 11 patients (5 females; median age: 64) with a significant smoking history. Seventeen facial flaps were performed for 14 defects. All patients received sildenafil in the postoperative setting. One complication of necrosis of the flap distal margin was encountered. Follow-up was available for all patients. Our results demonstrate that facial reconstruction in tobacco cigarette smokers can be performed with improved success and that sildenafil therapy may mitigate the deleterious effects of smoking on flap survival. PMID:24488644

  2. Long-term survival after chest-wall reconstruction with musculocutaneous flaps

    SciTech Connect

    Kroll, S.S.; Schusterman, M.A.; Larson, D.L.; Fender, A. )

    1990-10-01

    Reconstruction of chest-wall defects with musculocutaneous flaps permits resection of advanced chest-wall tumors and of tissues severely damaged by radiotherapy in patients who in a previous era were not surgically treatable. To determine the long-term outcome from this surgery, the records of 96 patients who had undergone chest-wall resection with musculocutaneous flap reconstruction were reviewed. Median survival for the entire group was 20.5 months, but a more accurate prediction of outcome could be obtained by dividing the patients into three groups. In group I, patients free of known malignancy and undergoing resection of radionecrotic tissues, median survival was 60.0 months. In group II, patients with resectable disease and free of tumor following surgery, median survival was 31.1 months. In group III, patients incompletely resected or known to have metastatic disease following surgery, median survival was only 12.5 months. Even in group III, however, some individuals achieved prolonged survival and lasting benefits from the surgery, so these data should not be used to exclude patients from undergoing necessary palliative procedures.

  3. A propeller flap based on the thoracoacromial artery for reconstruction of a skin defect in the cervical region: a case report.

    PubMed

    Okada, Mitsuhiro; Ikeda, Mikinori; Uemura, Takuya; Takada, Jun; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2013-05-01

    A propeller flap is useful for coverage of an adjacent skin defect without dissection back to source vessels and harvesting muscle tissues. The thoracoacromial artery is one of the vascular pedicles of the flaps for reconstruction in the cervical region. Use of a propeller flap based on the thoracoacromial artery has not previously been reported for reconstruction in the cervical region. We report a case in which a propeller flap based on the thoracoacromial artery was used for skin coverage after tumour resection in the cervical region together with an anatomical investigation. The propeller flap based on the thoracoacromial artery was harvested in the supine position, requiring no change in position after tumour resection. The skin defect was successfully reconstructed using the propeller flap based on the thoracoacromial artery with linear closure of the donor site. The propeller flap based on the thoracoacromial artery offers an alternative for reconstruction in the cervical region.

  4. [Scapular/parascapular double skin-paddle free flap for transfixing blast injuries of the hand. A case report].

    PubMed

    Colson, T; Pozetto, M; Gibert, N; Dautel, G

    2014-06-01

    Balistic transfixing hand traumas require a complex reconstruction management. Stabilization and reconstruction of the injuried tissues need a double skin-paddle coverage. We present an original case report of a double skin-paddle scapular/parascapular free flap used to cover a through and through gunshot injury of the right hand. A 14-years-old patient presents a severe and extensive wound with full-thickness palmar and dorsal skin defects, dislocation of the carpal bones, median nerve and flexor tendons losses. Distal vascularization is maintained by the deep palmar arch system supplied by the ulnar artery. The radial artery is severed at the level of the first dorsal interosseous space. The measured defect of the dorsal skin was 12×7cm and the palmar one was 6×3cm. After skeletal stabilization, tendinous and nerve preparation, the hand coverage was performed using a double skin-paddle scapular/parascapular free flap. The vascular anastomoses include an end-to-side arterial suture between the circumflex scapular and the radial arteries, and an end-to-end venous suture between the circumflex scapular and the dorsal radial veins. The scapular/parascapular double skin-paddle free flap is a safe and reliable technique to achieve a dorsal and palmar hand coverage in lack of local flaps alternatives. It can be used as a good option prior to bone graft, tendinous and nervous reconstruction.

  5. Is the sensitivity of skin-sparing mastectomy or nipple-sparing mastectomy superior to conventional mastectomy with innervated flap?

    PubMed

    Mori, Hiroki; Okazaki, Mutsumi

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate sensory recovery in 33 patients who underwent conventional mastectomy, skin-sparing mastectomy, or nipple-sparing mastectomy with immediate breast reconstruction using abdominal flaps. Reconstructions included a pedicled transverse (28 cases) or vertical (five cases) rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap. Sensory reconstruction was performed in 15 cases by neurorrhaphy using intercostal nerve. Patients were classified into six groups according to type of mastectomy and use of neurorrhaphy. Sensory recovery was estimated by touch, pain, and hot and cold sensation at the nipple, areola, and 4 points at a distance of 2 cm from the areolar circumference. For touch sensation, conventional mastectomy with innervated flap provided greater sensitivity than the other groups (P < 0.05). For pain sensation, conventional mastectomy with innervated flap provided greater sensitivity than the other groups (P< 0.05). In terms of short-term postoperative sensitivity, skin- and nipple-sparing mastectomies with abdominal flap appear inferior to conventional mastectomy with innervated abdominal flap.

  6. Morphological study of rat skin flaps treated with subcutaneous dimethyl sulfoxide combined with hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

    PubMed

    Almeida, K G; Oliveira, R J; Dourado, D M; Filho, E A; Fernandes, W S; Souza, A S; Araújo, F H S

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in tissue necrosis, genotoxicity, and cell apoptosis. Random skin flaps were made in 50 male Wistar rats, randomly divided into the following groups. Control group (CT), wherein a rectangular skin section (2 x 8 cm) was dissected from the dorsal muscle layer, preserving the cranial vessels, lifted, and refixed to the bed; distilled water (DW) group, in which DW was injected into the distal half of the skin flap; DMSO group, wherein 5% DMSO was injected; HBOT group, comprising animals treated only with HBOT; and HBOT + DMSO group, comprising animals treated with 100% oxygen at 2.5 atmospheres absolute for 1 h, 2 h after the experiment, daily for 10 consecutive days. A skinflap specimen investigated by microscopy. The percentage of necrosis was not significantly different between groups. The cell viability index was significantly different between groups (P < 0.001): 87.40% (CT), 86.20% (DW), 84.60% (DMSO), 86.60% (DMSO + HBO), and 91% (HBO) (P < 0.001), as was the cell apoptosis index of 12.60 (CT), 12.00 (DW), 15.40 (DMSO), 9.00 (HBO), and 12.00 (DMSO + HBO) (P < 0.001). The genotoxicity test revealed the percentage of cells with DNA damage to be 22.80 (CT), 22.60 (DW), 26.00 (DMSO), 8.80 (DMSO + HBO), and 7.20 (HBO) (P < 0.001). Although the necrotic area was not different between groups, there was a significant reduction in the cellular DNA damage and apoptosis index in the HBOT group. PMID:26782463

  7. Morphological study of rat skin flaps treated with subcutaneous dimethyl sulfoxide combined with hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

    PubMed

    Almeida, K G; Oliveira, R J; Dourado, D M; Filho, E A; Fernandes, W S; Souza, A S; Araújo, F H S

    2015-12-28

    This study investigated the effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in tissue necrosis, genotoxicity, and cell apoptosis. Random skin flaps were made in 50 male Wistar rats, randomly divided into the following groups. Control group (CT), wherein a rectangular skin section (2 x 8 cm) was dissected from the dorsal muscle layer, preserving the cranial vessels, lifted, and refixed to the bed; distilled water (DW) group, in which DW was injected into the distal half of the skin flap; DMSO group, wherein 5% DMSO was injected; HBOT group, comprising animals treated only with HBOT; and HBOT + DMSO group, comprising animals treated with 100% oxygen at 2.5 atmospheres absolute for 1 h, 2 h after the experiment, daily for 10 consecutive days. A skinflap specimen investigated by microscopy. The percentage of necrosis was not significantly different between groups. The cell viability index was significantly different between groups (P < 0.001): 87.40% (CT), 86.20% (DW), 84.60% (DMSO), 86.60% (DMSO + HBO), and 91% (HBO) (P < 0.001), as was the cell apoptosis index of 12.60 (CT), 12.00 (DW), 15.40 (DMSO), 9.00 (HBO), and 12.00 (DMSO + HBO) (P < 0.001). The genotoxicity test revealed the percentage of cells with DNA damage to be 22.80 (CT), 22.60 (DW), 26.00 (DMSO), 8.80 (DMSO + HBO), and 7.20 (HBO) (P < 0.001). Although the necrotic area was not different between groups, there was a significant reduction in the cellular DNA damage and apoptosis index in the HBOT group.

  8. Low-level laser irradiation, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and necrosis of random skin flaps in rats.

    PubMed

    Esteves Junior, Ivaldo; Masson, Igor B; Oshima, Celina T F; Paiotti, Ana Paula R; Liebano, Richard E; Plapler, Helio

    2012-05-01

    Skin flaps are still a matter of concern among surgeons, as failures can occur leading to flap necrosis. However, low-level laser irradiation has been reported as an effective tool to improve the viability of ischemic flaps, yet its mechanisms of action remain unclear. We investigated the effect of low-level laser irradiation on the viability of random skin flaps in rats and determined COX-2 expression in the flap pedicle. The study animals comprised 24 EPM-1 Wistar rats which were randomly allocated into three equal groups. A cranially based dorsal random skin flap measuring 10 × 4 cm was created in all the animals. In one group, laser irradiation was simulated (sham group), and in the other two groups the animals were irradiated at 12 points with 0.29 J at 20 mW (energy density 10.36 J/cm(2), irradiance 0.71 W/cm(2)), or with 7.3 J at 100 mW (energy density 260.7 J/cm(2), irradiance 3.57 W/cm(2)). These procedures were applied to the cranial half of the flap immediately after surgery and were repeated on days 2 and 5 after surgery. The percentage necrotic area was determined on day 7 after surgery by the paper template method. The immunohistochemical expression of COX-2 in the samples was given scores from 0 to 3. The necrotic area was smaller in group irradiated at 7.3 J compared to sham-treated group and to the group irradiated at 0.29 J (P < 0.05); there was no difference between the sham-treated group and group irradiated at 0.29 J. COX-2 expression was lower in the group irradiated at 7.3 J than in the sham-treated group and the group irradiated at 0.29 J (P < 0.001). Low-level laser therapy was effective in decreasing random skin flap necrosis in rats using a laser energy of 7.30 J per point. Laser irradiation also decreased the expression of COX-2 in the flap pedicle.

  9. Extended thoracodorsal artery perforator flap for breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Angrigiani, Claudio; Rancati, Alberto; Escudero, Ezequiel; Artero, Guillermo

    2015-12-01

    A total of 45 patients underwent partial or total autologous breast reconstruction after skin-sparing mastectomy, skin-reducing mastectomy, and quadrantectomy using a thoracodorsal artery perforator (TDAP) flap. The detailed surgical technique with its variations is explained in this report. The propeller, flip-over, conventional perforator, and muscle-sparing flaps have been described and evaluated. The flaps were partially or completely de-epithelialized. The conventional TDAP can be enlarged or "extended" as the traditional latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous (LD-MC) flap by incorporating the superior and inferior fat compartments. It can be referred to as the "extended TDAP flap". This technique augments the flap volume. In addition, this flap can serve as a scaffold for lipofilling to obtain autologous breast reconstruction in medium to large cases. There were two complete failures due to technical errors during flap elevation. Distal partial tissue suffering was observed in four flaps. These flaps were longer than usual; they reached the midline of the back. It is advisable to discard the distal medial quarter of the flap when it is designed up to the midline to avoid steatonecrosis or fibrosis. A retrospective analysis of the 39 flaps that survived completely revealed a satisfactory result in 82% of the cases. The main disadvantage of this procedure is the final scar. The TDAP flap is a reliable and safe method for partial or total breast autologous reconstruction. PMID:26645006

  10. Immunologically augmented skin flap as a novel dendritic cell vaccine against head and neck cancer in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Keita; Saegusa, Noriko; Omiya, Maho; Ashizawa, Tadashi; Miyata, Haruo; Komiyama, Masaru; Iizuka, Akira; Kume, Akiko; Sugino, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Ken; Kiyohara, Yoshio; Nakagawa, Masahiro; Akiyama, Yasuto

    2015-02-01

    Local recurrence is a major clinical issue following surgical resection in head and neck cancer, and the dissemination and lymph node metastasis of minimal residual disease is relatively difficult to treat due to the lack of suitable therapeutic approaches. In the present study, we developed and evaluated a novel immunotherapy using a skin flap transfer treated with sensitized dendritic cells (DC), termed the "immuno-flap," in a rat tumor model. After the local round area of skin was resected, SCC-158 cells (a rat head and neck cancer cell line) were inoculated into the muscle surface; lastly, the groin skin flap injected with mature DC was overlaid. Two weeks after the second DC injection, systemic immunological reactions and tumor size were measured. The DC-treated group showed a significant reduction in tumor size compared with the control. Although the induction of CTL activity in spleen cells was marginal, Th1 cytokines such as interleukin-2 and interferon-γ were elevated in the DC-treated group. These results suggest that a novel immunotherapy based on the immuno-flap method has the potential for clinical application to prevent the local recurrence of head and neck cancer patients.

  11. Davis flap: the glory still present

    PubMed Central

    El-Sabbagh, Ahmed Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Upper third defects of the ear are too large to be closed primarily without distorting the auricle. Full thickness defects can be reconstructed with local flaps. In this article, Davis flap was used to fill the upper third defects of the ear with some modifications. Patients and methods: Eight patients underwent reconstruction of full thickness auricular defects with Davis flaps from July 2012 to December 2014. The posterior surface of the flap and the raw area of conchal area were covered by full thickness graft taken from posterior surface of ear. Results: All flaps survived. No congestion was noted. The donor sites and skin grafts healed uneventfully. Conclusion: Davis flap is a simple and reproducible tool for reconstruction of upper third of ear. PMID:27274439

  12. Reconstruction with cutaneous flap after resection for breast cancer's skin metastases in a chemoresistant patient.

    PubMed

    Varricchio, Antonio; Di Libero, Lorenzo; Iannace, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    We reported a case of a breast cancer's skin metastases in a patient that had sustained 3 lines of chemotherapy. At first she received surgical treatment with Madden's mastectomy with dissection of axillary limphnodes and positioning of an expander. After that she underwent to chemo- and radiotherapy. The schedules we performed were: FEC, TC,Vinorelbine and Capecitabine. Only after the FEC there was a clinical remission just for 1 year. After that she underwent to surgery for the removal of a lozenge of skin on the right hemithorax, including also the subcutaneous tissue, a strip of muscular tissue, and a residue of the breast implant. The histology showed a multiple-nodules infiltration involving the dermis, the hypodermis, and the muscle. This pattern was valuated as a G3 breast cancer recurrence with ER 70%, PgR<5%, Ki67 50% Her2neu-. During the second line chemotherapy with TC she developed an high grade LCIS with lymphovascular infiltration on the left breast; on the right hemithorax there were cutaneous metastases with dermis' infiltration. Surgery with local excision was performed, and a cutaneous flap was realized. PMID:23685463

  13. [Therapeutic evaluation of the polylactic acid gel (PLA-G) used for preventing skin flap adhesion in modified radical mastectomy].

    PubMed

    Chen, Guojing; Liu, Tao

    2013-12-01

    The present preliminary study was to observe the feasibility of the use of polylactic acid gel (PLA-G) in modified radical mastectomy and the ability of the PLA-G in the prevention of flap adhesion after operation. Sixty-eight patients were diagnosed with breast cancer, and received modified radical mastectomy from Jan. 2004 to Dec. 2006. The patients were divided randomly into a treatment group and a control group (with 34 cases each). The PLA-G was used under the surface of the auxiliary operative wound in the treatment group, and nothing was used in the control group. The wound healing, the wound complication, the amount of drainage solution, the indwelling time of the drainage tube and the auxiliary skin adhesion were evaluated after operation in both groups. There were no statistical difference on wound healing between the first intension (29:27) and the second intention (5:7), and the wound dehiscence after taking the stitches out (0:0) between the two intensions, the hematoma (0:1) and the effusion of the wound (5:6), and the flap necrosis (1:2) between two groups. There were also no statistical difference on the amount of drainage solution per day (6 +/- 3) and indwelling time of the drainage tube (6 +/- 4) after operation between the two groups (P > 0.5). After the operation, the case load with no flap adhesion in the treatment group was significant higher compared with the control group (22:8). The case load with complete acquired skin flap adhesion in the treatment group was visibly lower than in the control group (3:19), which proved that there was a significant statistical difference between the two groups (P < 0.05). This study suggested that the using of PLA-G in the breast cancer modified radical mastectomy could prevent skin flap adhesion without any harmful effects in the wound healing. PMID:24645611

  14. Clinical Efficacy of a Modified Nagata Method That Retains the Fascia Pedicle of the Mastoid Skin Flap in Auricular Reconstruction of Chinese Microtia Patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wang-Shu; Yan, Dong-Mei; Chen, Jun-Yang; Zhang, Duo; Shao, Ying; Peng, Wei-Hai

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to search for an enhanced blood supply in the distal edge of the skin at the mastoid area in total auricular reconstruction. The authors modified the Nagata method by reserving a subcutaneous fascia pedicle (diameter, 3 to 5 mm) at the intersection of the point 11 to 13 mm from the residual ear tragus (or tragus projection) and 8 to 10 mm from the lowest point of the residual ear lobe. Compared with the traditional Nagata method group, the modified Nagata method group that retained the fascia pedicle of the mastoid skin flap had higher rates of excellent and good flaps (p < 0.05). Auricular reconstruction with the modified Nagata method, retaining the fascia pedicle of the mastoid skin flap, had a reduced incidence of skin flap necrosis.

  15. Clinical Efficacy of a Modified Nagata Method That Retains the Fascia Pedicle of the Mastoid Skin Flap in Auricular Reconstruction of Chinese Microtia Patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wang-Shu; Yan, Dong-Mei; Chen, Jun-Yang; Zhang, Duo; Shao, Ying; Peng, Wei-Hai

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to search for an enhanced blood supply in the distal edge of the skin at the mastoid area in total auricular reconstruction. The authors modified the Nagata method by reserving a subcutaneous fascia pedicle (diameter, 3 to 5 mm) at the intersection of the point 11 to 13 mm from the residual ear tragus (or tragus projection) and 8 to 10 mm from the lowest point of the residual ear lobe. Compared with the traditional Nagata method group, the modified Nagata method group that retained the fascia pedicle of the mastoid skin flap had higher rates of excellent and good flaps (p < 0.05). Auricular reconstruction with the modified Nagata method, retaining the fascia pedicle of the mastoid skin flap, had a reduced incidence of skin flap necrosis. PMID:26910682

  16. Experience-dependent changes in spatiotemporal properties of cutaneous inputs remodel somatosensory cortical maps following skin flap rotation.

    PubMed

    Rosselet, Céline; Zennou-Azogui, Yoh'i; Escoffier, Guy; Kirmaci, Fatma; Xerri, Christian

    2008-03-01

    Contiguous skin surfaces that tend to be synchronously stimulated are represented in neighbouring sectors of primary somatosensory maps. Moreover, neuronal receptive fields (RFs) are reshaped through ongoing competitive/cooperative interactions that segregate/desegregate inputs converging onto cortical neuronal targets. The present study was designed to evaluate the influence of spatio-temporal constraints on somatotopic map organization. A vascularized and innervated pedicle flap of the ventrum skin bearing nipples was rotated by 180 degrees . Electrophysiological maps of ventrum skin were elaborated in the same rats at 24 h after surgery and 2 weeks after parturition. Neurones with split RFs resulting from the surgical separation of formerly adjoining skin surfaces were more numerous in non-nursing than nursing rats. RFs that included newly adjacent skin surfaces on both sides of the scar line emerged in nursing rats, suggesting that the spatial contiguity of formerly separated skin surfaces induced a fusion of their cortical representations through nursing-induced stimulation. In addition, nursing-dependent inputs were found to reincorporate the rotated skin flap representation in an updated topographical organization of the cortical map. A skin territory including recipient and translocated skin areas was costimulated for 7 h, using a brushing device. Neural responses evoked by a piezoelectric-induced skin indentation before and after skin brushing confirmed the emergence of RFs crossing the scar line and contraction of non-brushed components of split RFs. Our findings provide further evidence that the spatiotemporal structure of sensory inputs changing rapidly or evolving in a natural context is critical for experience-dependent reorganization of cortical map topography. PMID:18312588

  17. [A Patient with Sinking Skin Flap Syndrome who Underwent Perfusion MRI before and after Cranioplasty].

    PubMed

    Kato, Akihito; Morishima, Hiroyuki; Nagashima, Goro

    2016-09-01

    Background:Sinking skin flap syndrome(SSFS)manifests as subjective symptoms, such as headache, dizziness, and undue fatigability, in addition to neurologic symptoms, such as hemiplegia, aphasia, and perceived failure, when the skin over a bone defect sinks in the weeks or months following a decompressive craniectomy. Indeed, these symptoms can improve after a cranioplasty. Case presentation:A 58-year-old woman presented with a disturbance of consciousness. She was found to have a subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a ruptured right middle cerebral artery aneurysm. She underwent a craniotomy with clipping of the affected artery and a decompressive craniectomy on the same day. Post-operatively, the disturbance of consciousness improved, but the left-sided paralysis persisted. She complained of intractable headaches, was disoriented, and a lack of spontaneity emerged as the skin over the bone defect sank. She underwent cranioplasty on the 43rd day after admission, and the symptoms resolved promptly after surgery. Rehabilitation was canceled at the onset of symptoms, but resumed after the symptoms improved. Based on perfusion MRI, the cerebral blood flow(CBF):cerebral blood volume(CBV)ratio of the affected side increased before and after surgery compared with the healthy side. A lumboperitoneal shunt was placed on the 52nd day after admission to manage the hydrocephalus. She was discharged from the hospital with higher brain dysfunction and a mild state of paralysis. Conclusion:The timing of cranioplasty in patients with SSFS has not yet been established, but surgery should be performed before symptoms appear because SSFS impairs rehabilitative efforts. PMID:27605477

  18. Low level laser therapy increases angiogenesis in a model of ischemic skin flap in rats mediated by VEGF, HIF-1α and MMP-2.

    PubMed

    Cury, Vivian; Moretti, Ana Iochabel Soares; Assis, Lívia; Bossini, Paulo; Crusca, Jaqueline de Souza; Neto, Carlos Benatti; Fangel, Renan; de Souza, Heraldo Possolo; Hamblin, Michael R; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antonio

    2013-08-01

    It is known that low level laser therapy is able to improve skin flap viability by increasing angiogenesis. However, the mechanism for new blood vessel formation is not completely understood. Here, we investigated the effects of 660 nm and 780 nm lasers at fluences of 30 and 40 J/cm(2) on three important mediators activated during angiogenesis. Sixty male Wistar rats were used and randomly divided into five groups with twelve animals each. Groups were distributed as follows: skin flap surgery non-irradiated group as a control; skin flap surgery irradiated with 660 nm laser at a fluence of 30 or 40 J/cm(2) and skin flap surgery irradiated with 780 nm laser at a fluence of 30 or 40 J/cm(2). The random skin flap was performed measuring 10×4 cm, with a plastic sheet interposed between the flap and the donor site. Laser irradiation was performed on 24 points covering the flap and surrounding skin immediately after the surgery and for 7 consecutive days thereafter. Tissues were collected, and the number of vessels, angiogenesis markers (vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF and hypoxia inducible factor, HIF-1α) and a tissue remodeling marker (matrix metalloproteinase, MMP-2) were analyzed. LLLT increased an angiogenesis, HIF-1α and VEGF expression and decrease MMP-2 activity. These phenomena were dependent on the fluences, and wavelengths used. In this study we showed that LLLT may improve the healing of skin flaps by enhancing the amount of new vessels formed in the tissue. Both 660 nm and 780 nm lasers were able to modulate VEGF secretion, MMP-2 activity and HIF-1α expression in a dose dependent manner.

  19. Double Back Cut in Post-mastectomy Breast Skin (Fish-Shaped Skin Paddle) in Delayed Pedicled TRAM Flap Breast Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Berezovsky, Alexander Bogdanov; Pagkalos, Vasileios A; Shoham, Yaron; Krieger, Yuval; Silberstein, Eldad

    2015-08-01

    Breast reconstruction has become standard of care for female patients with breast cancer. The transverse rectus abdominis musculo-cutaneous flap (TRAMf) is the most common method of immediate or delayed autologous breast reconstruction following mastectomy. We share our experience with modified, double back cut of post-mastectomy skin in delayed pedicled TRAMf breast reconstruction, resulting in fish-shaped skin paddle. This sort of back cut is a simple, reliable way to obtain a natural, esthetically pleasant breast mound with inconspicuous hidden scars.

  20. Skin self-examination and long-term melanoma survival.

    PubMed

    Paddock, Lisa E; Lu, Shou En; Bandera, Elisa V; Rhoads, George G; Fine, Judith; Paine, Susan; Barnhill, Raymond; Berwick, Marianne

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of skin self-examination (SSE) on melanoma mortality, we estimated the survival for individuals performing SSE compared with those who did not. Participants were from a previously carried out case-control study, who were newly diagnosed melanoma cases in 1987-1989. A 20-year survival analysis was carried out using death (event) and other causes of death (competing). Cumulative incidence functions were evaluated using Gray's test and proportional subdistribution hazards regression models were fitted to study the effect of SSE and other covariates on melanoma survival. Forty-five percent of patients died, with 48.4% melanoma deaths. Individuals who did not perform SSE experienced a continuous increase in the risk of melanoma death trending toward significance for nearly 20 years after diagnosis, whereas melanoma deaths in skin self-examiners plateaued before 10 years after diagnosis (P=0.32). Univariate analyses suggested a 25% lower risk of melanoma death for those who performed SSE [hazard ratio (HR)=0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.43-1.32, P=0.32]. After adjusting for competing risks, the multivariate risk estimate was above one (HR=1.12, 95% CI=0.61-2.06, P=0.71). Skin awareness (HR=0.46, 95% CI=0.28-0.75, P≤0.01) was associated independently with a decreased risk of melanoma death. Although we did not find a significant association between melanoma mortality and SSE when adjusting for competing mortality and other covariates, we extended previous findings that increased skin awareness and tumor thickness are strongly inversely related to survival. Research is needed to continue developing best practices for melanoma screening and to further explore the components of SSE and long-term melanoma survival. PMID:26990272

  1. The Vasodilator Effect of a Cream Containing 10% Menthol and 15% Methyl Salicylate on Random-Pattern Skin Flaps in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dölen, Utku Can; Sungur, Nezih; Koca, Gökhan; Ertunç, Onur; Bağcı Bosi, Ayşe Tülay; Koçer, Uğur

    2015-01-01

    Background It is still difficult to prevent partial or full-thickness flap necrosis. In this study, the effects of a cream containing menthol and methyl salicylate on the viability of randompattern skin flaps were studied. Methods Forty female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two equal groups. Caudally based dorsal random-pattern skin flaps were elevated, including the panniculus carnosus. In the study group, 1.5 mL of a cream containing menthol and methyl salicylate was applied to the skin of the flap, and saline solution (0.9%) was used in the control group. Upon completion of the experiment, flap necrosis was analyzed with imaging software and radionuclide scintigraphy. Histopathological measurements were made of the percentage of viable flaps, the number of vessels, and the width of the panniculus carnosus muscle. Results According to the photographic analysis, the mean viable flap surface area in the study group was larger than that in the control group (P=0.004). According to the scintigrams, no change in radioactivity uptake was seen in the study group (P>0.05). However, a significant decrease was observed in the control group (P=0.006). No statistically significant differences were observed between the groups in terms of the percentage of viable flaps, the number of vessels, or the width of the panniculus carnosus muscle (P>0.05). Conclusions Based on these results, it is certain that the cream did not reduce the viability of the flaps. Due to its vasodilatory effect, it can be used as a component of the dressing in reconstructive operations where skin perfusion is compromised. PMID:26618115

  2. Free flap transplantation combined with skin grafting and vacuum sealing drainage for repair of circumferential or sub-circumferential soft-tissue wounds of the lower leg

    PubMed Central

    Li, Run-guang; Ren, Gao-hong; Tan, Xiong-jin; Yu, Bin; Hu, Ji-jie

    2013-01-01

    Background This study is aimed at evaluating the operation techniques and clinical significance of free flap transplantation combined with skin grafting and vacuum sealing drainage (VSD) in repairing severe traumatic extensive circumferential or semi-circumferential soft-tissue defects of the lower leg. Material/Methods Thirty patients with severe lower leg injuries were treated by free flap transplantation combined with skin grafting and VSD from January 2008 to June 2011. The size of the wounds ranged from 23×8 cm to 44×28 cm and all affected more 70% of the low leg circumferential area. Wounds were complicated by exposure, necrosis, or infection of deep tissues. The wounds were first debrided and covered by VSD. When the condition of the wound had improved (5 to 7 days later), free flaps were harvested to reconstruct damaged tissue and skin grafts and VSD was used to cover granulation tissues around the transplanted flap. Results Granulation tissues developed and the area requiring flap cover decreased in all 30 patients after debridement and VSD. In 28 of 30 cases, the transplanted flaps grew well without complication. Peripheral necrosis was observed in only 2 cases, which required a second debridement and skin graft. Ten wound areas covered by grafts were left with scattered peripheral wounds, which healed with the help of 1 more skin graft or dressing change. Morphological appearance and functional recovery were satisfactory in all 30 cases. Conclusions Initial debridement and the temporary VSD cover followed after several days by free flap transplantation combined with skin grafting and VSD protection is a reliable treatment regimen for traumatic large circumferential or sub-circumferential soft tissue wounds of the lower leg with deep tissue exposure. PMID:23807087

  3. Distally based posterior interosseous flap: primary role in soft-tissue reconstruction of the hand.

    PubMed

    Agir, Hakan; Sen, Cenk; Alagöz, Sahin; Onyedi, Murat; Isil, Eda

    2007-09-01

    A series of 15 consecutive patients with various hand defects requiring flap coverage was reviewed in this study. The defects were all covered with the distally based posterior interosseous flap. Its main indications were in complex hand trauma, severe burn injury, or skin cancer ablation, either acute or postprimary. In 12 of the patients, flaps survived completely. In 3 patients, there was partial necrosis of the distal part of the flap, which did not require additional surgical procedure. Radial nerve palsy was noted in one of the cases, with a complete recovery after 3 months. Donor site was closed directly in up to 4-cm-wide flaps, while larger flaps required skin grafting. No major anatomic variation was observed. Distally based posterior interosseous flap is a reliable choice for various types and areas of hand defects, with very low donor-site morbidity, and should be more commonly considered in clinical practice.

  4. Pectoralis myocutaneous flap for salvage of necrotic wounds

    SciTech Connect

    Price, J.C.; Davis, R.K.; Koltai, P.J.

    1985-02-01

    The authors have utilized six pectoralis major myocutaneous flaps in attempts to salvage extensive necrotic wounds of the pharynx and neck. The flap was employed in the following situations: massive necrosis of the entire neck skin with both carotid artery systems exposed, radiation necrosis of the neck skin with exposure of carotid artery, dehiscence of gastric pull-up from pharynx with resultant carotid exposure, failed trapezius flap in a radionecrotic oral cavity, and two cases of pharyngocutaneous fistula with extensive soft tissue necrosis. These flaps achieved healing in all cases. One death occurred 3 weeks following complete cutaneous healing secondary to a ruptured carotid pseudoaneurysm. One flap underwent total skin loss but the entirety of the muscle survived and the fistula was successfully closed with the back of the muscle being subsequently skin grafted. One case of dehiscence of the flap from oral mucosa resulted in a minor exposure of mandible with limited osteoradionecrosis controlled by topical means. This flap has performed extremely well in these precarious and difficult situations that previously may not have been salvageable. It has also been effective in abbreviating the required hospitalization and wound care. The authors conclude that the pectoralis myocutaneous flap should be the primary choice for the management of extensive postsurgical wound necrosis.

  5. Computer-assisted teaching of skin flap surgery: validation of a mobile platform software for medical students.

    PubMed

    de Sena, David P; Fabricio, Daniela D; Lopes, Maria Helena I; da Silva, Vinicius D

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a multimedia software application for mobile platforms to assist in the teaching and learning process of design and construction of a skin flap. Traditional training in surgery is based on learning by doing. Initially, the use of cadavers and animal models appeared to be a valid alternative for training. However, many conflicts with these training models prompted progression to synthetic and virtual reality models. Fifty volunteer fifth- and sixth-year medical students completed a pretest and were randomly allocated into two groups of 25 students each. The control group was exposed for 5 minutes to a standard text-based print article, while the test group used multimedia software describing how to fashion a rhomboid flap. Each group then performed a cutaneous flap on a training bench model while being evaluated by three blinded BSPS (Brazilian Society of Plastic Surgery) board-certified surgeons using the OSATS (Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skill) protocol and answered a post-test. The text-based group was then tested again using the software. The computer-assisted learning (CAL) group had superior performance as confirmed by checklist scores (p<0.002), overall global assessment (p = 0.017) and post-test results (p<0.001). All participants ranked the multimedia method as the best study tool. CAL learners exhibited better subjective and objective performance when fashioning rhomboid flaps as compared to those taught with standard print material. These findings indicate that students preferred to learn using the multimedia method. PMID:23935818

  6. First web-space reconstruction by the anterolateral thigh flap.

    PubMed

    Adani, Roberto; Tarallo, Luigi; Marcoccio, Ignazio; Fregni, Umberto

    2006-04-01

    Four patients with severe contracture of the first web space were treated with an anterolateral thigh perforator flap. The flap size ranged from 10 to 13 cm in length and from 7 to 8 cm in width. The donor site was closed directly and thinning of the flap was performed in all cases. All flaps survived and there were no re-explorations. Web space opening was maintained over the follow-up period. There was an average postoperative increase of the angle of the first web space of 61 degrees. The thinned anterolateral thigh flap provides a pliable vascularized tissue for resurfacing the skin after release of severe contracture of the first web space and represents a reliable alternative to other flaps.

  7. [Covering losses of cutaneous substance of the leg and foot using skin flaps. Apropos of 76 cases].

    PubMed

    Oberlin, C; Alnot, J Y; Duparc, J

    1988-01-01

    Between 1983 and 1987, 76 flap grafts were performed in the leg and foot. In general, 3 types of flap were used: --51 ipsilateral flaps, the majority of which were musculo-cutaneous flaps from the medial head of gastrocnemius (17 cases). --17 cross-leg flaps from the opposite limb, the majority of which were medial fascio-cutaneous flaps (13 cases). --8 free flaps, making use of microsurgical techniques. The indications for cross-leg flaps and free flaps have become more limited in favour of local regional pedicle flaps. The lower part of the leg and amputation stumps in the foot are easily covered by distal leg pedicle flaps and amputation stumps of the upper third of the leg can be covered by a flap of fascia lata with a distal pedicle based on the superolateral branches of the peri-articular plexus of the knee.

  8. Perforator flaps in hand reconstruction: the effect of blood vessel twisting

    PubMed Central

    ARDELEAN, FILIP; MUNTEAN, MAXIMILIAN; DUMITRASCU, DINU; STRILCIUC, STEFAN; GEORGESCU, ALEXANDRU VALENTIN

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Perforator flaps increasingly find acceptance and use in hand reconstructive surgery. A propeller flap is an island flap that moves from one orientation to another by rotating around its vascular pedicle. It is now possible to design propeller flaps based on a single perforator, so-called “perforator-based propeller flaps,” but they are more prone to vascular impairment when twisted more than 90°. Methods We present a prospective study conducted in the Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Department of the Rehabilitation Hospital over 17 months. All perforator-based propeller flaps that were used for hand reconstruction were analyzed. The parameters studied included the size and location of the defect, the size and shape of the flap, the perforator (length and location) that was used, the degree of twisting of the perforator, the degree of perforator dissection, the management of the donor site, and flap survival area. Results In this study we investigated the circulatory impairment induced by twisting of the pedicle on a true perforator flap. All flaps survived completely with the exception of partial skin necrosis in few cases. Some of these cases required debridement and skin grafting. Conclusions Perforator-based propeller flaps provide a reliable option for covering small- to medium-size hand complex tissue defects. They have the advantages of using similar tissues in reconstruction, not damaging another area, they do not require main vessels sacrifice, and the donor site can be generally directly closed. PMID:26609268

  9. Tensor fasciae latae musculocutaneous flaps to reconstruct skin defects after radical inguinal lymphadenectomy.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, K S; Chandrashekhar, M; Kumar, M V; Srikant, K C

    1988-07-01

    Tensor fasciae latae flaps were used for primary reconstruction of large groin defects in 20 consecutive patients who had had radical block dissection of inguinal nodes as palliation for advanced nodal carcinoma. Excellent palliation was achieved, with lower than expected morbidity.

  10. Can angiogenesis induced by chronic electrical stimulation enhance latissimus dorsi muscle flap survival for application in cardiomyoplasty?

    PubMed

    Overgoor, Max L E; Carroll, Sean M; Papanicolau, George; Carroll, Camilla M A; Ustüner, Tuncay E T; Stremel, Richard W; Anderson, Gary L; Franken, Ralph J P M; Kon, Moshe; Barker, John H

    2003-01-01

    .1 percent); (3) completely transformed the normally mixed (oxidative and glycolytic) fiber type distribution into all oxidative fibers; and (4) reduced fiber size in the proximal and middle but not in the distal segments of the flap. Despite the significant increase in angiogenesis and blood perfusion, distal latissimus dorsi muscle flap necrosis did not decrease. This might be because of three reasons: first, the change in muscle metabolism from anaerobic to aerobic may have rendered the muscle fibers more susceptible to ischemia. Second, because of the larger diameter of the distal fibers in normal and stimulated latissimus dorsi muscle, the diffusion distance for oxygen to the center of the distal fibers is increased, making fiber survival more difficult. Third, even though angiogenesis was significantly increased in the flap, cutting all but the single vascular pedicle resulted in the newly formed capillaries not receiving enough blood to provide nourishment to the distal latissimus dorsi muscle. The authors' findings indicate that chronic electrical stimulation as tested in these experiments could not be used to prevent distal latissimus dorsi muscle flap ischemia and necrosis in cardiomyoplasty.

  11. Outcome of free digital artery perforator flap transfer for reconstruction of fingertip defects

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lei; Xu, Qingjia; Kou, Wei; Ning, Bin; Jia, Tanghong

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fingertip defect can be treated with many flaps such as random pattern abdominal flap, retrograde digital artery island flap, V-Y advancement flap, etc. However, swelling in the fingertip, dysfunction of sensation, flexion and extension contracture or injury in the hemi-artery of the finger usually occurs during the recovery phase. Recently, digital artery perforator flaps have been used for fingertip reconstructions. With the development of super microsurgery techniques, free flaps can be more effective for sensory recovery and durability of the fingertip. Materials and Methods: Six cases (six fingers) of fingertip defects were treated with free digital artery perforator flaps of appropriate size and shape from the proximal phalanx. During surgery, the superficial veins at the edge of flap were used as reflux vessels and the branches of the intrinsic nerve and dorsal digital nerve toward the flap were used as sensory nerves. The proximal segment of the digital artery (cutaneous branches) towards the flap was cut off to form the pedicled free flap. The fingertips were reconstructed with the free flap by anastomosing the cutaneous branches of digital artery in the flap with the distal branch or trunk of the digital artery, the flap nerve with the nerve stump and the veins of the flap with the digital artery accompanying veins or the superficial veins in the recipient site. Results: Six flaps survived with successful skin grafting. Patients were followed up for 6-9 months. The appearance and texture of the flaps was satisfactory. The feeling within the six fingers recovered to S4 level (BMRC scale) and the two point discrimination was 3-8 mm. Conclusion: Free digital artery perforator flap is suitable for repairing fingertip defect, with good texture, fine fingertip sensation and without sacrificing the branch of the digital artery or nerve. PMID:25404772

  12. Propeller Flap for Complex Distal Leg Reconstruction: A Versatile Alternative when Reverse Sural Artery Flap is Not Feasible.

    PubMed

    Ademola, Samuel A; Michael, Afieharo I; Oladeji, Femi J; Mbaya, Kefas M; Oyewole, O

    2015-01-01

    Reverse sural artery fasciocutaneous flap has become a workhorse for the reconstruction of distal leg soft tissue defects. When its use is not feasible, perforator-based propeller flap offers a better, easier, faster, and cheaper alternative to free flap. We present our experience with two men both aged 34 years who sustained Gustilo 3B injuries from gunshot. The donor area for reversed sural artery flap was involved in the injuries. They had early debridement, external fixation, and wound coverage with perforator-based propeller flaps. The donor sites were covered with skin graft. All flaps survived. There were minor wound edge ulcers due to the pressure of positioning that did not affect flap survival and the ulcers healed with conservative management. Perforator-based propeller flap is a versatile armamentarium for reconstruction of soft tissue defects of the distal leg in resource-constrained settings, especially when the donor area for a reverse flow sural flap artery is involved in the injury.

  13. Intercostal artery perforator propeller flap for reconstruction of trunk defects following sarcoma resection.

    PubMed

    Zang, Mengqing; Yu, Shengji; Xu, Libin; Zhao, Zhenguo; Zhu, Shan; Ding, Qiang; Liu, Yuanbo

    2015-06-01

    Trunk defects following soft tissue sarcoma resection are usually managed by myocutaneous flaps or free flaps. However, harvesting muscle will cause functional morbidities and some trunk regions lack reliable recipient vessels. The intercostal arteries give off multiple perforators, which distribute widely over the trunk and can supply various pedicle flaps. Our purpose is to use various intercostal artery perforator propeller flaps for trunk oncologic reconstruction. Between November 2013 and July 2014, nine intercostal artery perforator propeller flaps were performed in seven patients to reconstruct the defects following sarcoma resection in different regions of the trunk, including the back, lumbar, chest, and abdomen. Two perforators from intercostal arteries were identified for each flap using Doppler ultrasound probe adjacent to the defect. The perforator with visible pulsation was chosen as the pedicle vessel. An elliptical flap was raised and rotated in a propeller fashion to repair the defects. There were one dorsal intercostal artery perforator flap, four dorsolateral intercostal artery perforator flaps, three lateral intercostal artery perforator flaps, and one anterior intercostal artery perforator flap. The mean skin paddle dimension was 9.38 cm in width (range 6-14 cm) and 21.22 cm in length (range 13-28 cm). All intercostal artery perforator flaps survived completely, except for marginal necrosis in one flap harvested close to the previous flap donor site. The intercostal artery perforator propeller flap provides various and valuable options in our reconstructive armamentarium for trunk oncologic reconstruction. To our knowledge, this is the first case series of using intercostal artery perforator propeller flaps for trunk oncologic reconstruction and clinical application of dorsolateral intercostal artery perforator flaps.

  14. [The abdominal drop flap].

    PubMed

    Bodin, F; Liverneaux, P; Seigle-Murandi, F; Facca, S; Bruant-Rodier, C; Dissaux, C; Chaput, B

    2015-08-01

    The skin between the mastectomy scar and the future infra-mammary fold may be managed in different ways in delayed breast reconstruction using a DIEP (deep inferior epigastric perforator). Conserving this skin and positioning the flap skin paddle in the middle of the breast usually highlights skin color disparity because of two visible transition zones. Resection of the entire skin under the scar may be more aesthetic but limits direct closure possibility in case of flap failure. In order to benefit from both aesthetic result and safe surgical method, we propose the abdominal drop flap. The inferior thoracic skin flap is detached from the thoracic wall beyond the future infra-mammary fold, preserved and pushed under the breast.

  15. Development of in vitro isolated perfused porcine skin flaps for study of percutaneous absorption of xenobiotics. Annual report, 30 September 1985-29 September 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Riviere, J.E.; Carver, M.P.; Monteiro-Riviere, N.A.; Bowman, K.F.

    1986-11-01

    Interspecies comparisons of cutaneous anatomy and physiology suggest that the weanling pig is a suitable surrogate for human skin; however, very few investigations of percutaneous absorption phenomena have been conducted in pigs. This study examined the radiolabel excretion patterns after intravenous (IV) and topical administration of six /sup 14/C-labeled compounds in weanling Yorkshire sows. These data were required as a baseline to compare xenobiotic absorption in the isolated perfused procine skin flap (IPPSF) fully described in the first Annual Report (Riviere, J. E., Bowman, K. F., and Monteiro-Riviere, N. A., Development of In Vitro Isolated Perfused Porcine Skin Flaps for Study of Percutaneous Absorption of Xenobiotics, USAMRDC, DAMD17-84-C-4103, November 1, 1986).

  16. Deltopectoral Flap in the Era of Microsurgery

    PubMed Central

    Chan, R. C. L.; Chan, J. Y. W.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Our study aimed to review the role of deltopectoral (DP) flap as a reconstructive option for defects in the head and neck region in the microvascular era. Methods. All patients who received DP flap reconstruction surgery at the Department of Surgery, Queen Mary Hospital, between 1999 and 2011 were recruited. Demographic data, indications for surgery, defect for reconstruction, and surgical outcomes were analyzed. Results. Fifty-four patients were included. All but two patients were operated for reconstruction after tumour resection. The remaining two patients were operated for necrotizing fasciitis and osteoradionecrosis. The majority of DP flaps were used to cover neck skin defect (63.0%). Other reconstructed defects included posterior pharyngeal wall (22.2%), facial skin defect (11.1%), and tracheal wall (3.7%). All donor sites were covered with partial thickness skin graft. Two patients developed partial flap necrosis at the tip and were managed conservatively. The overall flap survival rate was 96.3%. Conclusions. Albeit the technical advancements in microvascular surgery, DP still possesses multiple advantages (technical simplicity, reliable axial blood supply, large size, thinness, and pliability) which allows it to remain as a useful, reliable, and versatile surgical option for head and neck reconstruction. PMID:25374953

  17. The radix nasi island flap: a versatile musculocutaneous flap for defects of the eyelids, nose, and malar region.

    PubMed

    Seyhan, Tamer

    2009-03-01

    A versatile musculocutan flap from the radix nasi region, the radix nasi island flap, is described. The flap has an axial blood supply derived from the dorsal nasal branch of the ophthalmic artery which is anastomosed to the terminal branch of the facial artery. The flap includes the skin, subcutaneous tissue, and procerus muscle. Ten patients, aged 50 to 86 years, have been reconstructed with this flap for defects in the nose (in 4 cases), midface (in 4 cases) and lower eyelids (in 2 cases). The mean flap size was 17 x 23 mm (range: 15 x 20 to 20 x 27 mm). All flaps fully survived. Additional complications and morbidity were not observed. The donor sites were closed a primarily closure in all cases. Follow-up ranged from 3 to 12 months (mean: 8.2 months). The radix nasi flap is a safe flap, has minimal donor site morbidity, and is especially suited for nasal and midface reconstruction in terms of attaining a suitable color and thickness. PMID:19305249

  18. Development of the isolated perfused porcine skin flap for in vitro studies of percutaneous absorption pharmacokinetics and cutaneous biotransformation

    SciTech Connect

    Carver, M.P.

    1988-01-01

    The isolated perfused porcine skin flap (IPPSF) has proven to be a valuable in vitro tool for studying the physiology and biochemistry of skin and for identifying biochemical and histological markers of direct cutaneous toxicity. The present experiments were undertaken for two purposes: (1) to develop a pharmacokinetic model, based on dermal penetration in the IPPSF, which is predictive of percutaneous absorption in vivo, and (2) to examine cutaneous biotransformation of the important agricultural poison parathion (P). Dosing solutions of {sup 14}C-radiolabelled compounds representing 3 chemical classes-organic acid/base (benzoic acid (B), caffeine (C)), organophosphate (OP) pesticides, and steroid hormones, were applied topically in ethanol at 40 {mu}m cm{sup {minus}2}, both in vivo and on the IPPSF. A 3-compartment pharmacokinetic model describing mass transfer from the surface (C{sub 1}), diffusion through epidermis and dermis (C{sub 2}), and transfer into the perfusate (C{sub 3}), was developed based on flux through the IPPSF from 0-8 hr. Model simulations were predictive of percutaneous absorption in vivo for the OP's and steroids. Modification of the basic 3-compartment model to account for fast and slow tissue-release processes (B) and for flux-dependent perfusage flow increases (C), provided excellent in vivo-in vitro correlation over all 7 compounds.

  19. Local Injection of Deferoxamine Improves Neovascularization in Ischemic Diabetic Random Flap by Increasing HIF-1α and VEGF Expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yun; Xiong, Zhuyou; Li, Guangzao; Cui, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the systemic administration of deferoxamine (DFO) is protective in experimental models of normal ischemic flap and diabetic wound, its effect on diabetic flap ischemia using a local injection remains unknown. Objective To explore the feasibility of local injection of DFO to improve the survival of ischemic random skin flaps in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Methods Ischemic random skin flaps were made in 125 mice. Animals were divided into the DFO-treated (n = 20), PBS-treated (n = 16) and untreated (n = 16) groups. Surviving area, vessel density, and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) were evaluated on the seventh day after local injection. Results The viability of DFO-treated flap was significantly enhanced, with increased regional blood perfusion and capillary density compared with those in the two control groups. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis demonstrated a marked increase in systemic Flk-1+/CD11b− endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in DFO-treated mice. Furthermore, the expression of VEGF and HIF-1α was increased not only in diabetic flap tissue, but also in dermal fibroblasts cultured under hyperglycemic and hypoxic conditions. Conclusions Local injection of DFO could exert preventive effects against skin flap necrosis in STZ-induced diabetic mice by elevating the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF, increased EPC mobilization, which all contributed to promote ischemic diabetic flap survival. PMID:24963878

  20. [Perforator flaps--the evolution of a reconstructive surgical technique].

    PubMed

    Klein, S; Hage, J J; de Weerd, L

    2005-10-22

    Trauma, oncological resections and pressure sores can cause major soft tissue defects. The evolution of cutaneous, myocutaneous, and fasciocutaneous flaps currently makes possible the restoration of contour and, in many cases, function. This evolution was closely related to the increased understanding of the vascular anatomy of the skin and subcutis and has led to the development of perforator flaps. A perforator flap is a large flap of skin that survives on a single vascular stalk that perforates the muscle, referred to in briefas a 'perforator'. This has its origin in a larger vascular stalk that runs beneath the muscle. The vascular stalk of such a perforator flap can be lengthened by dissecting the perforator from the muscle in continuity with the vessels running beneath the muscle. Moreover, the larger diameter of these vessels facilitates the creation of a vascular anastomosis in the receptor area. By the use of such perforator flaps, proper innervation and a good blood supply to the flap can be combined with less morbidity at the donor site. Important possibilities include the filling of a dorsal (decubitus) defect and breast reconstruction.

  1. Effects of Silk Sericin on Incision Wound Healing in a Dorsal Skin Flap Wound Healing Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Ersel, Murat; Uyanikgil, Yigit; Akarca, Funda Karbek; Ozcete, Enver; Altunci, Yusuf Ali; Karabey, Fatih; Cavusoglu, Turker; Meral, Ayfer; Yigitturk, Gurkan; Cetin, Emel Oyku

    2016-01-01

    Background The wound healing process is complex and still poorly understood. Sericin is a silk protein synthesized by silk worms (Bombyx mori). The objective of this study was to evaluate in vivo wound healing effects of a sericin-containing gel formulation in an incision wound model in rats. Material/Methods Twenty-eight Wistar-Albino rats were divided into 4 groups (n=7). No intervention or treatment was applied to the Intact control group. For other groups, a dorsal skin flap (9×3 cm) was drawn and pulled up with sharp dissection. The Sham operated group received no treatment. The Placebo group received placebo gel without sericin applied to the incision area once a day from day 0 to day 9. The Sericin Group 3 received 1% sericin gel applied to the incision area once a day from day 0 to day 9. Hematoxylin and eosin stain was applied for histological analysis and Mallory-Azan staining was applied for histoimmunochemical analysis of antibodies and iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase), and desmin was applied to paraffin sections of skin wound specimens. Parameters of oxidative stress were measured in the wound area. Results Epidermal thickness and vascularization were increased, and hair root degeneration, edema, cellular infiltration, collagen discoloration, and necrosis were decreased in Sericin group in comparison to the Placebo group and the Sham operated group. Malonyldialdehyde (MDA) levels were decreased, but superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were increased in the sericin group. Conclusions We found that sericin had significant positive effects on wound healing and antioxidant activity. Sericin-based formulations can improve healing of incision wounds. PMID:27032876

  2. Inferiorly based thigh flap for reconstruction of defects around the knee joint

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Md. Sohaib; Khan, Arshad Hafeez; Khurram, Mohammed Fahud; Ahmad, Imran

    2014-01-01

    Background: Soft-tissue defects around the knees are common in injured limbs and in the same injury the leg is often involved and the thigh is spared. Furthermore due to pliable and relatively lax skin, we have used inferiorly based thigh flap to reconstruct defects around knee joint. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of inferiorly based thigh flap to cover soft-tissue defects over the proximal one-third of the leg, patellar region, knee, and lower thigh. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted during the period between October 2011 and February 2013. Inferiorly based anteromedial thigh fasciocutaneous flap was performed on 12 patients and inferiorly based anterolateral thigh fasciocutaneous flap on four patients. The sites of the soft-tissue defects included patellar regions, infrapatellar region, upper one-third of leg, lower thigh, and over the knee joint. Results: Patients were evaluated post-operatively in terms of viability of flap, the matching of the flap with the recipient site, and donor site morbidity. All the flaps survived well except one which developed distal marginal flap loss, one in which wound dehiscence was noticed, and two in which mild venous congestion was observed. Venous congestion in two patients subsided on its own within 3 days. One patient with wound dehiscence achieved complete healing by secondary intention. Patient who developed distal flap loss required debridement and skin grafting. No appreciable donor site morbidity was encountered. Skin colour and texture of the flap matched well with the recipient site. Conclusions: The inferiorly based thigh flap is a reliable flap to cover the defect over proximal one-third of the leg, patellar region, knee, and lower thigh. PMID:25190918

  3. Multipaddled Anterolateral Thigh Chimeric Flap for Reconstruction of Complex Defects in Head and Neck

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ning; Liu, Wen; Su, Tong; Chen, Xinqun; Zheng, Lian; Jian, Xinchun

    2014-01-01

    The anterolateral thigh flap has been the workhouse flap for coverage of soft-tissue defects in head and neck for decades. However, the reconstruction of multiple and complex soft-tissue defects in head and neck with multipaddled anterolateral thigh chimeric flaps is still a challenge for reconstructive surgeries. Here, a clinical series of 12 cases is reported in which multipaddled anterolateral thigh chimeric flaps were used for complex soft-tissue defects with several separately anatomic locations in head and neck. Of the 12 cases, 7 patients presented with trismus were diagnosed as advanced buccal cancer with oral submucous fibrosis, 2 tongue cancer cases were found accompanied with multiple oral mucosa lesions or buccal cancer, and 3 were hypopharyngeal cancer with anterior neck skin invaded. All soft-tissue defects were reconstructed by multipaddled anterolateral thigh chimeric flaps, including 9 tripaddled anterolateral thigh flaps and 3 bipaddled flaps. The mean length of skin paddle was 19.2 (range: 14–23) cm and the mean width was 4.9 (range: 2.5–7) cm. All flaps survived and all donor sites were closed primarily. After a mean follow-up time of 9.1 months, there were no problems with the donor or recipient sites. This study supports that the multipaddled anterolateral thigh chimeric flap is a reliable and good alternative for complex and multiple soft-tissue defects of the head and neck. PMID:25180680

  4. Local full-thickness skin graft of the donor arm--a novel technique for the reduction of donor site morbidity in radial forearm free flap.

    PubMed

    Riecke, B; Assaf, A T; Heiland, M; Al-Dam, A; Gröbe, A; Blessmann, M; Wikner, J

    2015-08-01

    A novel technique to reduce donor site morbidity after radial forearm free flap (RFFF) harvest, using a local full-thickness skin graft (FTSG), is described. Thirty consecutive patients undergoing RFFF for head and neck reconstruction were enrolled in a prospective study. Donor site defect closure was performed with spindle-shaped FTSGs excised from the wavelike skin incision made for the vascular pedicle. Both the removal site of the FTSG on the volar forearm and the covered RFFF donor site healed uneventfully in 29 cases, with no impairment of function related to the skin graft. No skin graft failure and no exposure, tenting, or adherence of the flexor tendons occurred. All patients expressed satisfaction with postoperative pain, the functional outcome, and cosmetic appearance. Primary donor site defect closure could be achieved in all cases with the use of a local FTSG. This graft can be gained at the access incision for the vascular pedicle, avoids expansion of the incision for a local flap technique, and does not prolong wound healing, and thus reduces both donor site and graft site morbidity of the RFFF. This technique leads to an inconspicuous aesthetic result with no apparent relevant functional deficits and avoids the need for a second donor site.

  5. [1984-1994: Ten years of skin flaps. Development of transfer techniques. New methods of autoplasty described during this period].

    PubMed

    Martin, D

    1995-10-01

    Ten years of flaps represent a little and a lot. It is little compared to the 2600 years since the first flap in plastic surgery: the Susruta Indian flap, but it is a lot in view of the phenomenal acceleration of this speciality since the Second World War. In 1994 alone, more than two hundred references are listed under the heading "new flaps". As it is impossible to be exhaustive, the author has chosen to focus on two main aspects: a theoretical review of new transfer techniques, dealing successively with: the principles of reverse flow flaps, venous flaps, neurocutaneous flaps, so-called "extracorporeal" transfers, reverse flow YV technique; and practical aspects based on a review of eighteen autoplasties or donor sites selected for their surgical value, their reproductibility and their innovative nature. The author's objective is not to present a technical treatise, but rather to make the reader aware of several key points or even, in some cases, the very existence of these autoplasties. This paper is designed to be didactic, with extensive references, in order to act as a practical guide. It also demonstrates, as if there were any need, to what extent plastic surgery is able to create new solutions and the essential value of continuing research.

  6. Posterior interosseous artery flap, fasciosubcutaneous pedicle technique: a study of 25 cases.

    PubMed

    Puri, Vinita; Mahendru, Sanjay; Rana, Roshani

    2007-01-01

    This study was undertaken in an attempt to improve the versatility of the posterior interosseous artery flap (PIA flap) and to decrease flap complication rate. The PIA flap was used for resurfacing 25 cases of the hand and distal forearm over a 2-year period. Observations were made on the anatomy of the PIA flap and its distal reach. Doppler analysis was made a mandatory part of the preoperative planning. Flaps were also raised from the zone of injury if Doppler confirmed the presence of good perforators. No attempt was made to identify the anastomosis between the anterior interosseous artery (AIA) and the PIA prior to flap raising since its presence was ascertained preoperatively with a Doppler and flap raising could begin straightway, saving precious tourniquet time. The surgical technique was further modified to include a large amount of fascia and subcutaneous tissue with the flap. This could perhaps be the reason for survival of larger flaps, absence of venous congestion and the low complication rate seen in our series. These flaps were used to resurface defects involving the dorsum of the hand, palm, distal forearm, wrist and fingers (both dorsal and volar surfaces). The distal reach of the flap was improved by exteriorising the pedicle and bowstringing it across the wrist which was kept in extension. The flap could thus easily reach the distal interphalangeal joint. This exteriorised pedicle was covered with a split thickness skin graft and was divided 3 weeks later under local anaesthesia making it a two-stage procedure. Adipofascial and osteocutaneous PIA flaps were also used depending on the requirement. Out of 25 flaps, 23 were of the adipofascial variety and one each of the fascial and osteocutaneous type. The majority of the patients were between 21 and 30 years old. Trauma was the leading cause of tissue deficit in our series (19/25). Within the trauma group occupational mishap (entrapment of hand in roller machine, presser machine, etc.) was the

  7. Keyhole Flap Nipple Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Joseph I; Cash, Camille G; Iman, Al-Haj; Spiegel, Aldona J; Cronin, Ernest D

    2016-05-01

    Nipple-areola reconstruction is often one of the final but most challenging aspects of breast reconstruction. However, it is an integral and important component of breast reconstruction because it transforms the mound into a breast. We performed 133 nipple-areola reconstructions during a period of 4 years. Of these reconstructions, 76 of 133 nipple-areola complexes were reconstructed using the keyhole flap technique. The tissue used for the keyhole dermoadipose flap technique include transverse rectus abdominus myocutaneous flaps (60/76), latissimus dorsi flaps (15/76), or mastectomy skin flaps after tissue expanders (1/76). The average patient follow-up was 17 months. The design of the flap is based on a keyhole configuration. The base of the flap determines the width of the future nipple, whereas the length of the flap determines the projection. We try to match the projection of the contralateral nipple if present. The keyhole flap is simple to construct yet reliable. It provides good symmetry and projection and avoids the creation of new scars. The areola is then tattooed approximately 3 months after the nipple reconstruction. PMID:27579228

  8. Massive myoepithelial carcinoma originating from the submandibular gland that was successfully treated with surgical excision, using a part of the lengthened skin as a local flap.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Ayato; Yokoyama, Junkichi; Sato, Rumiko; Yoshizawa, Hidekazu; Tanaka, Rica; Natori, Yuhei; Ohba, Shinichi; Fukumura, Yuki; Arakawa, Atsushi; Mizuno, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    Myoepithelial carcinoma is rare and mostly originates from the major salivary glands. Sometimes, it is difficult to differentiate the benign from the malignant histologically, and its clinical behavior and histological features may vary. Here, we describe the case of a 55-year-old woman who presented with a massive myoepithelial carcinoma, which hung like a temple bell from her right side of the jaw, and she refused to go to the hospital for 3 years. Based on its size and location, we initially thought that, before surgical resection, neoadjuvant therapy would be necessary to reduce the tumor volume. However, after careful evaluation of the tumor characteristics (low-grade histology with outward expansion and little invasion of the adjacent tissues) and imaging findings, we decided that excision was possible. The tumor was encapsulated and had a clear border; it weighed 10.5 kg. By setting the incision line posterior to the equatorial plane and using the lengthened skin posterior to the tumor as a large local flap for the skin defect, we successfully reconstructed the skin defect without harvesting additional flap from other areas. No additional treatment was administered because a sufficient surgical margin was maintained, pathologically. She regained her daily life without recurrence or distant metastasis for 2 years. When treating a massive tumor, careful consideration of its characteristics and location is important, and in this case, we were able to use a simpler and less invasive treatment than we initially envisioned.

  9. Improvement of Nasojugal Groove and Wrinkles Following a Skin-Muscle Flap Elevation Through a Subciliary Approach to the Orbital Rim.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Choi, Jong Hwan; Kim, Joo Ho

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study is to see whether the nasojugal groove and wrinkles can be improved following a skin-muscle flap elevation through a subciliary approach to the orbital rim.Fifty-seven patients having fractures of the orbital floor, wall, or orbital rim were included. A subciliary incision was made 3 to 5 mm below the cilia. A skin-muscle flap was elevated and a 5-mm width of the periosteum of the anterior surface of the maxilla was exposed. Thereafter, the origin of the orbicularis oculi muscle was released from the underlying bony origin. An incision was made at the arcus marginalis. After reconstruction, the detached arcus marginalis was sutured to the periosteum of the infraorbital rim and the subciliary incision was closed. Preoperative and postoperative photographs were analyzed with the validated assessment scales for midface.In the 57 sides operated on, the postoperative, mean assessment score was significantly lower (0.56 ± 0.66) on the operated side than on the contralateral side (0.84 ± 1.00) (P = 0.002). In the 37 sides excluding the patients in whom the initial score was 0, and the postoperative, mean assessment score was significantly lower (0.84 ± 0.65) on the operated side than on the contralateral side (1.19 ± 1.05) (P = 0.010).The skin-muscle flap elevated through the subciliary approach to reach the orbital rim improved the nasojugal groove despite the fat removal or repositioning was not performed. The reason for this improvement the authors think is orbicularis oculi muscle had been separated from its origin. PMID:27100651

  10. Free fibula osteocutaneous flap with soleus muscle as a chimeric flap for reconstructing mandibular segmental defect after oral cancer ablation.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yur-Ren; Shih, Hsiang-Shun; Chen, Chien-Chang; Boca, Radovan; Hsu, Yao-Chung; Su, Chih-Ying; Jeng, Seng-Feng; Wei, Fu-Chan

    2010-06-01

    In some cases, the fibula osteocutaneous flap may not provide sufficient soft tissue for obliterating dead space after tumor ablation. This report describes a modified fibula osteocutaneous flap using a portion of soleus muscle to reduce postoperative complications. This study analyzed 20 patients who underwent ablative oral cancer surgery with mandibular segmental defect between September 2005 and June 2007. Of total, 17 cases were mandible complex defects and 3 were composite defects. Of total, 18 were men and 2 were women, respectively. Age range was 30 to 74 years, and mean age was 53 years. The procedure entailed harvest of chimeric fibula flap with skin paddle and bone segment composed of a sheet of soleus muscle (7 x 4 to 12 x 5 cm in size) originating from the perforator branch of the peroneal artery. The soleus muscle was used to obliterate the dead space of the mouth floor and cheek-neck area. All flaps survived except 1 failure due to venous insufficiency. The submandibular and chin area exhibited mild swelling at the submandibular area early postoperatively. Patients had achieved satisfactory contour without donor site morbidity at a mean 12-months of follow-up. Complications included 2 flaps requiring reoperation due to the flap pedicle compromised. One flap was successfully salvaged but the other failed. Two cases of orocutaneous fistula-induced infection recovered after conservative treatment. Donor site assessment revealed a satisfactory outcome without major donor site morbidity. This refinement in mandibular reconstructive surgery substantially reduces postoperative complications.

  11. Effect of adrenergic stimulation on cutaneous microcirculation immediately after surgical adventitiectomy in a rat skin flap model.

    PubMed

    Lecoq, Jean-Pierre H; Joris, Jean L; Nelissen, Xavier P; Lamy, Maurice L; Heymans, Olivier Y

    2008-01-01

    Chronic sympathetic denervation leads to the development of supersentivity to adrenergic agents. Free flap surgery results in the disruption of the autonomic nerve fibers running along the anastomosed vessels. We therefore investigated the early effect of surgical sympathectomy on the reactivity of cutaneous microcirculation challenged to adrenergic agents. Two epigastric flaps were elevated and exposed in 15 rats. On the right flap (Side A), a circular adventitiectomy of the feeder vessels was realized to provide surgical sympathectomy. On the left flap (Side N), vessels were kept intact. The following drugs were then given intravenously successively: phenylephrine (10 and 15 microg kg(-1)), norepinephrine (10 microg kg(-1)), prazocin (1 mg kg(-1)) followed by norepinephrine (10 microg kg(-1)). Cutaneous microcirculation was assessed using Laser-Doppler Flowmeters simultaneously on the two flaps after each drug administration. Mean arterial pressure was also measured. On side N, phenylephrine and norepinephrine resulted in a transient increase in cutaneous microcirculation followed by a more prolonged reduction. On side A, only the initial increase was observed, which was greater and longer as compared with side N, and paralleled the increase in mean arterial pressure. After prazocin pre-treatment, norepinephrine produced a transient increase in cutaneous microcirculation similar on both sides, and parallel to the changes in arterial pressure. No decrease in cutaneous microcirculation was observed. Immediately after surgical adventitiectomy, the vasoconstriction produced by alpha-adrenergic agents is prevented. No denervation-induced hypersentivity is observed. Surgical sympathectomy might protect cutaneous flaps from vasoconstriction induced by endogenous catecholamines release. PMID:18623150

  12. [Reconstruction of the thumb using a forearm osseofasciocutaneous reverse flap].

    PubMed

    Jevtović, Dobrica; Dordević, Boban; Gacević, Milomir; Sijan, Goran

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the experiences of the thumb reconstruction with osteofasciocutaneous reverse flap (OFCR flap). In the period between 1987 and 2000 the OFCR flap was used in 15 patients. The youngest of them was 18 and the oldest was 38 years of age. The average age was 25.4. All the patients had posttraumatic amputations. Defects on proximal phalangae and a part of metacarpal bone occurred in two cases. In one case there was an amputation on the base level of proximal phalanx and the metacarpophalangeal (MPH) joint was preserved. In all cases of reconstruction the OFCR flap was used, which included antebrachial skin nervs that were anastomosed with digital nerv. The flap nutrition was carried out through the reverse circulation of a. radialis, and the venous drainage through the comitant vein of a. radialis. Superficial veins were not anastomosed. Secondary defects were covered with a free skin graft. All the flaps survived. The bone graft was healed in the period of eight weeks. The sensibility of this flap was regained in the period of three to six months after the surgery. The distance of two-point discrimination (TPD) was increased for 30% compared to the same region on the other hand after six months. The opposition of the reconstructed thumb to the other fingers was possible, as well as abduction, adduction and normal grasp. The method of reconstruction of the amputated thumb with the OFCR flap was better than other classical methods because it allowed the reconstruction of all the structures in one surgical operation. The sensibility that was regained represented good protection from injuries. There were no functional damages on the secondary defect. The esthetic result was not good due to the lack of a fingernail. PMID:12557617

  13. THE ROLE OF PASSENGER LEUKOCYTES IN THE ANOMALOUS SURVIVAL OF NEONATAL SKIN GRAFTS IN MICE

    PubMed Central

    Wachtel, Stephen S.; Silvers, Willys K.

    1972-01-01

    The anomalous survival of neonatal C3H skin grafts on CBA mice is correlated with the emigration of passenger leukocytes from the graft vasculature. Thus, newborn homografts whose leukocyte populations are eliminated by X-irradiation or by transient sojourn on an intermediate adult C3H host, do not display prolonged survival. Moreover, the continued presence of the newborn grafts is not requisite to the maintenance of the unresponsive state, an observation consonant with the demonstration that CBA mice bearing long-term neonatal C3H skin grafts are leukocyte chimeras. In contrast, neonatal male C57 skin grafts may persist on C57 females after heavy irradiation of the donor, or after passage on an intermediate adult male host. In addition, tolerance is broken by removal of long-persistant newborn grafts from hitherto unresponsive females, and chimerism is not detectable in female C57 mice tolerant of infant male isografts. Finally, leukocytes of neonatal C3H origin, inoculated subcutaneously into CBA males, may occasionally render these animals unresponsive to subsequent adult C3H skin homografts, whereas those taken from infant C57 males usually sensitize their adult female hosts. Thus, passenger leukocytes are implicated in the extended survival of C3H neonatal homografts on CBA recipients, but not in the persistence of H-Y-incompatible neonatal skin isografts on C57 females. PMID:4551219

  14. Open-book Splitting of a Distally Based Peroneus Brevis Muscle Flap to Cover Large Leg and Ankle Defects

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Large soft-tissue defects in the lower leg and ankle are a major problem for plastic surgeons. Many local flaps that are either proximally or distally based have been previously described to cover small defects. Larger defects may require a distant flap that is either pedicled or free. The peroneus brevis muscle flap is a well-known distally based safe flap that is used to cover a small defect. Methods: Ten distally based peroneus brevis muscle flaps were elevated in 10 patients (8 males and 2 females) with major lower third leg and ankle defects that were 6–12 cm in length and 6–10 cm in width, with open-book splitting of the proximal portion of the muscle to cover these large defects. Results: Flap survival was excellent, and partial skin graft loss in two cases healed with dressing. The average flap length was 10 cm, ranging between 6 and 12 cm. The average flap width was 8 cm, ranging between 6 and 10 cm. The donor site also healed uneventful. Conclusions: Open-book splitting of the distally based peroneus brevis muscle flap is ideally suited for moderate to large defects in the distal third of the lower leg and ankle. This modification of the distally based peroneus brevis muscle flap offers a convincing alternative for covering large defects of up to 12 × 10 cm in the distal leg and ankle region. PMID:26893997

  15. Ischemic tissue injury in the dorsal skinfold chamber of the mouse: a skin flap model to investigate acute persistent ischemia.

    PubMed

    Harder, Yves; Schmauss, Daniel; Wettstein, Reto; Egaña, José T; Weiss, Fabian; Weinzierl, Andrea; Schuldt, Anna; Machens, Hans-Günther; Menger, Michael D; Rezaeian, Farid

    2014-11-17

    Despite profound expertise and advanced surgical techniques, ischemia-induced complications ranging from wound breakdown to extensive tissue necrosis are still occurring, particularly in reconstructive flap surgery. Multiple experimental flap models have been developed to analyze underlying causes and mechanisms and to investigate treatment strategies to prevent ischemic complications. The limiting factor of most models is the lacking possibility to directly and repetitively visualize microvascular architecture and hemodynamics. The goal of the protocol was to present a well-established mouse model affiliating these before mentioned lacking elements. Harder et al. have developed a model of a musculocutaneous flap with a random perfusion pattern that undergoes acute persistent ischemia and results in ~50% necrosis after 10 days if kept untreated. With the aid of intravital epi-fluorescence microscopy, this chamber model allows repetitive visualization of morphology and hemodynamics in different regions of interest over time. Associated processes such as apoptosis, inflammation, microvascular leakage and angiogenesis can be investigated and correlated to immunohistochemical and molecular protein assays. To date, the model has proven feasibility and reproducibility in several published experimental studies investigating the effect of pre-, peri- and postconditioning of ischemically challenged tissue.

  16. The Deltopectoral Flap Revisited: The Internal Mammary Artery Perforator Flap.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Amir; Atiyeh, Bishara; Karami, Reem; Adelman, David M; Papazian, Nazareth J

    2016-03-01

    Pharyngo-esophageal and tracheostomal defects pose a challenge in head and neck reconstruction whenever microanastomosis is extremely difficult in hostile neck that is previously dissected and irradiated. The deltopectoral (DP) flap was initially described as a pedicled flap for such reconstruction with acceptable postoperative results. A major drawback is still that the DP flap is based on 3 perforator vessels leading to a decreased arc of rotation. The DP flap also left contour deformities in the donor site. The internal mammary artery perforator flap was described as a refinement of the deltopectoral flap. It is a pedicled fasciocutaneous flap based on a single perforator, with comparable and reliable blood supply compared with the DP flap, giving it the benefit of having a wide arc of rotation. It is both thin and pliable, with good skin color match and texture. The donor site can be closed primarily with no esthetic deformity and minimal morbidity. The procedure is relatively simple and does not require microvascular expertise. In this report, the authors describe a patient in whom bilateral internal mammary artery perforator flaps were used for subtotal pharyngo-esophageal reconstruction and neck resurfacing. The flaps healed uneventfully bilaterally with no postoperative complications. PMID:26854779

  17. Posterior Thigh Flap Pedicled on the Cutaneous Vessels Arising From the Popliteo-posterior Intermediate Artery: A Report of 5 Cases.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xi-Guang; Gong, Xu; Song, Liang-Song; Cui, Jian-Li; Yu, Xin; Liu, Bin; Lu, Lai-Jin

    2016-08-01

    Surgical repair of soft tissue defects of the knee and leg remains challenging. Using a case study approach, the anatomy of the popliteo-posterior intermediate cutaneous artery was examined, and a reverse island flap method was developed and implemented. After obtaining informed consent, 5 patients (1 woman, 4 men, age range 31 to 57 years) underwent the experimental use of a reverse island flap with a posterior thigh flap pedicled on the cutaneous vessels arising from the popliteo-posterior intermediate artery to repair soft-tissue defects of the knee and leg. The defects were caused by burned skin below the knee (n = 1), progressive skin necrosis in the knee after fracture surgery (n = 2), and skin infections associated with diabetes mellitus (n = 2). Skin defect sizes ranged from 15 cm x 5 cm to 30 cm x 12 cm. These large defects did not heal spontaneously; wound duration ranged from 1 week to 1 year, and all patients had refused defect repair with free flaps. Patients received posterior thigh flaps pedicled on the popliteo-posterior intermediate artery with areas ranging from 17 cm x 6 cm to 25 cm x 12 cm. All patients were treated with antibiotics and local dressings (iodoform and alcohol) changed daily post surgery, and blood supply was monitored by assessing the texture and color of the flap and venous regurgitation (ie, vein drainage disturbance). Four (4) of the five flaps survived completely. In 1 patient, partial survival of the flap, which had a good blood supply despite a venous circulation disorder, occurred: in this case, complete survival was achieved after treatment with a retrograde fascial flap and skin grafting. The appearance and texture of all flaps were satisfactory (ie, patients underwent only 1 operation, healing time was approximately 2 weeks, flap quality was close to normal skin, the donor site closed directly, and the shape and function of the knee and leg recovered well). No donor site abnormality was observed, and no postsurgical

  18. Benefit of HSP90α intervention on ischemia-reperfusion injury of venous blood-congested flaps

    PubMed Central

    HU, XIAO-YING; CHEN, ZHEN-YU; ZHANG, BIN; LENG, XIANG-FENG; FAN, XIAO-JIAN; LIU, TAO

    2016-01-01

    In order to decrease the incidence of flap necrosis after reconstructive surgeries, new approaches are required. In the present study, a model of venous congested flaps in rats was established to test the heat shock protein (HSP) 90α, ‘F-5’, protein as an intervention therapy to alleviate ischemia-reperfusion injury. A recombinant plasmid pET15b-F-5 carrying the HSP90α gene was constructed and the induced protein was purified from bacterial cell cultures. The rats in the study were divided into three different intervention groups: group A rats were treated with normal saline prior to flap establishment, group B rats were treated with HSP90α, ‘F-5’, protein prior to flap establishment, and group C rats were treated with the same ‘F-5’ protein after the surgical procedure. Additionally, the reperfusion time-points, ischemia for 6 or 8 h (5 rats each), were established in each group. After set periods of time, the flaps were observed for skin appearance, blood flow, survival rate and histological changes including neovascularization and re-epithelialization. The results showed that the flaps in the rats pre-treated with ‘F-5’ protein performed better than the flaps of rats in the other two groups: the blood flow was higher, flap survival rate was increased, inflammatory cell infiltration was decreased and angiogenesis increased, and new skin structure was better completed by the end of the experiment. The parameters examind were improved for all the groups when the ischemia time was 6 h instead of 8 h. In conclusion, HSP90α intervention prior to flap establishment was shown to be beneficial in the model of ischemia-reperfusion injury in venous-congested flaps. PMID:27347036

  19. The Degree of Skin Involvement Identifies Distinct Lung Disease Outcomes and Survival in Systemic Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Cottrell, Tricia R.; Wise, Robert A.; Wigley, Fredrick M.; Boin, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether pattern of skin involvement can predict clinical features, risk of restrictive lung disease, and survival in a large scleroderma (SSc) cohort. Methods Demographic and clinical data collected over 30 years from 2,205 SSc patients were retrospectively analyzed after subdividing subjects into four subtypes based on pattern of skin fibrosis: Type-0 (no skin involvement), Type-1 (limited to metacarpophalangeal joints), Type-2 (distal to elbows/knees) and Type-3 (proximal to elbows/knees). Clinical features associated with skin subsets were identified by regression analyses. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare time to restrictive lung disease (RLD) and survival across subtypes. Results The presence and severity of RLD were positively associated with skin subtype (p<0.001). RLD prevalence incrementally ranged from 51.9% in Type 0 to 76.7% in Type-3 (p<0.001). Type-2 SSc exhibited a distinct phenotype with intermediate risk for RLD relative to Type-1 (higher, p<0.001) and Type-3 (lower, p<0.001), and a unique autoantibody profile, with a prevalence of anti-centromere lower than Type-1 (28.9% vs. 44.1%, p=0.001) and of anti-topoisomerase I similar to Type-3 (p=0.38). These autoantibodies were also found to be significant negative (OR 0.33, p<0.001) and positive (OR 1.6, p=0.01) predictors of RLD risk respectively. Mortality was also intermediate in Type-2 patients relative to Type-3 (p=0.0003) and Type-1 (p=0.066). Conclusions These data suggest that the current classification subdividing SSc into the limited and diffuse cutaneous subtypes misclassifies an intermediate group of patients exhibiting unique autoantibody profile, disease course and clinical outcomes. PMID:23606705

  20. SIRT1 regulates MAPK pathways in vitiligo skin: insight into the molecular pathways of cell survival.

    PubMed

    Becatti, Matteo; Fiorillo, Claudia; Barygina, Victoria; Cecchi, Cristina; Lotti, Torello; Prignano, Francesca; Silvestro, Agrippino; Nassi, Paolo; Taddei, Niccolò

    2014-03-01

    Vitiligo is an acquired and progressive hypomelanotic disease that manifests as circumscribed depigmented patches on the skin. The aetiology of vitiligo remains unclear, but recent experimental data underline the interactions between melanocytes and other typical skin cells, particularly keratinocytes. Our previous results indicate that keratinocytes from perilesional skin show the features of damaged cells. Sirtuins (silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog) 1, well-known modulators of lifespan in many species, have a role in gene repression, metabolic control, apoptosis and cell survival, DNA repair, development, inflammation, neuroprotection and healthy ageing. In the literature there is no evidence for SIRT1 signalling in vitiligo and its possible involvement in disease progression. Here, biopsies were taken from the perilesional skin of 16 patients suffering from non-segmental vitiligo and SIRT1 signalling was investigated in these cells. For the first time, a new SIRT1/Akt, also known as Protein Kinase B (PKB)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling has been revealed in vitiligo. SIRT1 regulates MAPK pathway via Akt-apoptosis signal-regulating kinase-1 and down-regulates pro-apoptotic molecules, leading to decreased oxidative stress and apoptotic cell death in perilesional vitiligo keratinocytes. We therefore propose SIRT1 activation as a novel way of protecting perilesional vitiligo keratinocytes from damage.

  1. SIRT1 regulates MAPK pathways in vitiligo skin: insight into the molecular pathways of cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Becatti, Matteo; Fiorillo, Claudia; Barygina, Victoria; Cecchi, Cristina; Lotti, Torello; Prignano, Francesca; Silvestro, Agrippino; Nassi, Paolo; Taddei, Niccolò

    2014-01-01

    Vitiligo is an acquired and progressive hypomelanotic disease that manifests as circumscribed depigmented patches on the skin. The aetiology of vitiligo remains unclear, but recent experimental data underline the interactions between melanocytes and other typical skin cells, particularly keratinocytes. Our previous results indicate that keratinocytes from perilesional skin show the features of damaged cells. Sirtuins (silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog) 1, well-known modulators of lifespan in many species, have a role in gene repression, metabolic control, apoptosis and cell survival, DNA repair, development, inflammation, neuroprotection and healthy ageing. In the literature there is no evidence for SIRT1 signalling in vitiligo and its possible involvement in disease progression. Here, biopsies were taken from the perilesional skin of 16 patients suffering from non-segmental vitiligo and SIRT1 signalling was investigated in these cells. For the first time, a new SIRT1/Akt, also known as Protein Kinase B (PKB)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling has been revealed in vitiligo. SIRT1 regulates MAPK pathway via Akt-apoptosis signal-regulating kinase-1 and down-regulates pro-apoptotic molecules, leading to decreased oxidative stress and apoptotic cell death in perilesional vitiligo keratinocytes. We therefore propose SIRT1 activation as a novel way of protecting perilesional vitiligo keratinocytes from damage. PMID:24410795

  2. Effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on survival of axial pattern flaps in rats with ischaemia-reperfusion injuries.

    PubMed

    Bilen, Bilge Türk; Kilinç, Hidir; Alaybeyoglu, Nezih; Celik, Mehmet; Iraz, Mustafa; Sezgin, Nurzen; Gültek, Ahmet

    2006-01-01

    Oxygen-derived free radicals have been implicated in the pathogenesis of tissue injury after ischaemia-reperfusion. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an active ingredient of honeybee propolis, has been identified as having potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We evaluated the ability of CAPE applied intraperitoneally in reducing tissue injury after ischaemia-reperfusion. To investigate whether treatment with CAPE modifies the concentrations of the endogenous indices of oxidant stress, we examined its effects on a model of flap ischaemia-reperfusion injury in rats. CAPE (10 micromol/kg) was given through the peritoneum before reperfusion. CAPE given intraperitoneally had an inhibitory effect on tissue injury after ischaemia-reperfusion comparable to that of a control group. The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of CAPE may contribute to its suppression of tissue injury.

  3. The versatility of perforator-based propeller flap for reconstruction of distal leg and ankle defects.

    PubMed

    Karki, Durga; Narayan, R P

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Soft tissue coverage of distal leg and ankle region represents a challenge and such defect usually requires a free flap. However, this may lead to considerable donor site morbidity, is time consuming, and needs facility of microsurgery. With the introduction of perforator flap, management of small- and medium-size defects of distal leg and ankle region is convenient, less time consuming, and with minimal donor site morbidity. When local perforator flap is designed as propeller and rotated to 180 degree, donor site is closed primarily and increases reach of flap, thus increasing versatility. Material and Methods. From June 2008 to May 2011, 20 patients were treated with perforator-based propeller flap for distal leg and ankle defects. Flap was based on single perforator of posterior tibial and peroneal artery rotated to 180 degrees. Defect size was from 4 cm × 3.5 cm to 7 cm × 5 cm. Results. One patient developed partial flap necrosis, which was managed with skin grafting. Two patients developed venous congestion, which subsided spontaneously without complications. Small wound dehiscence was present in one patient. Donor site was closed primarily in all patients. Rest of the flaps survived well with good aesthetic results. Conclusion. The perforator-based propeller flap for distal leg and ankle defects is a good option. This flap design is safe and reliable in achieving goals of reconstruction. The technique is convenient, less time consuming, and with minimal donor site morbidity. It provides aesthetically good result.

  4. Prolonged bone marrow and skin allograft survival after pretransplant conditioning with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation. [Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kersey, J.H.; Kruger, J.; Song, C.; Kloster, B.

    1980-05-01

    Current studies were designed to provide long-term survival of allogeneic skin and bone marrow in mice preconditioned with various combinations of cyclophosphamide (CY) and/or total lymphoid irradiation (TLI). Long-term skin graft and bone marrow survival was obtained across the major histocompatibility barrier (BALB/c into C57BL/6) using pregrafting conditioning with either fractionated TLI or the combination of CY with a single dose of TLI. CY alone and a single dose of TLI alone were relatively ineffective as regrafting immunosuppressive combinations. Allogeneic bone marrow was required for long-term skin graft survival with either conditioning regimen. Allogeneic marrow transplantation resulted in somewhat more deaths than syngeneic transplantation with both CY + TLI and fractionated TLI.

  5. Complications of surgery for radiotherapy skin damage

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolph, R.

    1982-08-01

    Complications of modern surgery for radiotherapy skin damage reviewed in 28 patients who had 42 operations. Thin split-thickness skin grafts for ulcer treatment had a 100 percent complication rate, defined as the need for further surgery. Local flaps, whether delayed or not, also had a high rate of complications. Myocutaneous flaps for ulcers had a 43 percent complication rate, with viable flaps lifting off radiated wound beds. Only myocutaneous flaps for breast reconstruction and omental flaps with skin grafts and Marlex mesh had no complications. The deeper tissue penetration of modern radiotherapy techniques may make skin grafts and flaps less useful. In reconstruction of radiation ulcers, omental flaps and myocutaneous flaps are especially useful, particularly if the radiation damage can be fully excised. The pull of gravity appears detrimental to myocutaneous flap healing and, if possible, should be avoided by flap design.

  6. Skin toxins in coral-associated Gobiodon species (Teleostei: Gobiidae) affect predator preference and prey survival

    PubMed Central

    Gratzer, Barbara; Millesi, Eva; Walzl, Manfred; Herler, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    Predation risk is high for the many small coral reef fishes, requiring successful sheltering or other predator defence mechanisms. Coral-dwelling gobies of the genus Gobiodon live in close association with scleractinian corals of the genus Acropora. Earlier studies indicated that the low movement frequency of adult fishes and the development of skin toxins (crinotoxicity) are predation avoidance mechanisms. Although past experiments showed that predators refuse food prepared with goby skin mucus, direct predator–prey interactions have not been studied. The present study compares the toxicity levels of two crinotoxic coral gobies – Gobiodon histrio, representative of a conspicuously coloured species, and Gobiodon sp.3 with cryptic coloration – using a standard bioassay method. The results show that toxin levels of both species differ significantly shortly after mucus release but become similar over time. Predator preferences were tested experimentally in an aquarium in which the two gobies and a juvenile damselfish Chromis viridis were exposed to the small grouper Epinephelus fasciatus. Video-analysis revealed that although coral gobies are potential prey, E. fasciatus clearly preferred the non-toxic control fish (C. viridis) over Gobiodon. When targeting a goby, the predator did not prefer one species over the other. Contrary to our expectations that toxic gobies are generally avoided, gobies were often captured, but they were expelled quickly, repeatedly and alive. This unusual post-capture avoidance confirms that these gobies have a very good chance of surviving attacks in the field due to their skin toxins. Nonetheless, some gobies were consumed: the coral shelter may therefore also provide additional protection, with toxins protecting them mainly during movement between corals. In summary, chemical deterrence by crinotoxic fishes seems to be far more efficient in predation avoidance than in physical deterrence involving body squamation and/or strong fin

  7. Internal mammary artery perforator propeller flap for contralateral mastectomy defect: A case report.

    PubMed

    Dölen, Utku C; Sachanandani, Neil S; Tung, Thomas H

    2016-09-01

    The internal mammary artery perforator (IMAP) flap can be used as either loco-regional or free flap, and provides thin flexible coverage for defects of the chest wall and cervical regions. In this report, we present a bilateral mastectomy case in which the left mastectomy defect was closed with an IMAP propeller flap harvested from the right breast. Our patient with a history of left breast conservation therapy was diagnosed invasive ductal carcinoma in her left breast 14 years later. On physical examination, the patient's left breast displayed the stigmata of radiotherapy including dark discoloration and firmness to palpation, compared to contralateral pendulous breast. After bilateral mastectomy, an IMAP flap with a size of 26 cm × 11 cm was harvested from right chest and was transposed 180 degrees clockwise in a propeller fashion to the left mastectomy defect without any tension. The flap survived without any complication and the patient was free of recurrence or metastases during the follow-up of 18 months. The patient was satisfied with the outcome. IMAP propeller flap could be harvested safely to the anterior axillary fold in the subcutaneous fat plane. It may provide a large skin paddle especially in large breasted women. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery 36:507-510, 2016.

  8. Thermal damage assessment of blood vessels in a hamster skin flap model by fluorescence measurement of a liposome-dye system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordon, Serge R.; Desmettre, Thomas; Devoisselle, Jean-Marie; Soulie-Begu, Sylvie

    1997-06-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of thermal damage assessment of blood vessels by using laser-induced release of liposome-encapsulated dye. Experiments were performed in a hamster skin flap model. Laser irradiation was achieved with a 300micrometers fiber connected to a 805nm diode laser after potentiation using a specific indocyanine green (ICG) formulation. Liposomes- encapsulated carboxyfluorescein were prepared by the sonication procedure. Carboxyfluorescein was loaded at high concentration in order to quench its fluorescence. The measurements were performed after i.v. injection of DSPC liposomes and lasted 40 minutes. Fluorescence emission was measured with an ultra high sensitivity intensified camera. Three different shapes of fluorescent spots were identified depending on target and energy deposition in tissue: (i) intravascular fluorescence, (ii) transient low fluorescence circular spot and (iii) persistent high intense fluorescence spot. These images are correlated with histological data. The advantages of this liposome-dye system are (1) direct measurements can be obtained, (2) several repeated readings can be made from one injection, (3) continuous monitoring of the fluorescence can be made, (4) temperature-sensitive range can be adapted using different liposomes compositions, (5) circulation times of several hours can be achieved using DSPC liposomes (6) the tissue microcirculation and the vessel macrocirculation can be investigated simultaneously, therefore changes in response to a treatment regimen and/or ICG formulations can be detected. One main constraint exists: the fluorescent dye encapsulated into the liposomes has to be carefully chosen in order to avoid any direct absorption by the dye itself. In conclusion, one of the most significant applications of this experimental technique is the evaluation of various degrees of tissue thermal damage. It could be possible to consider the application of this technique in

  9. Prevention of unfavourable effects of cigarette smoke on flap viability using botulinum toxin in random pattern flaps: An experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Karayel, Hikmet; Kaya, Burak; Caydere, Muzaffer; Terzioğlu, Ahmet; Aslan, Gürcan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are numerous clinical and experimental studies reporting unfavourable effects of cigarette smoke on skin flaps. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether unfavourable effects of cigarette smoke on flap survival could be reduced by botulinum toxin type A. METHODS: Twenty-eight male Wistar albino rats (15 months of age, mean weight 210 g [range 180 g to 230 g]) were included. They were divided into four groups of seven animals each. The control group underwent the surgical procedure alone. Surgical procedure was performed after administration of botulinum toxin type A in the botulinum toxin (BTX) group, after exposure to cigarette smoke in the cigarette smoke (CS) group, and after BTX type A administration and exposure to CS in the CS+BTX (CS+BTX) group. Random pattern cutaneous flaps (3 cm × 9 cm) were elevated from the dorsum of all rats. Necrosis area was calculated in percentages (%) using Image J computer software. Tissue samples were examined histopathologically. RESULTS: The mean necrotic area in the control group (26%) and in the BTX group (21%) were similar (P=0.497), whereas administration of BTX type A significantly decreased flap necrosis area in the rats exposed to CS (the mean necrosis areas were 41.5% in the CS group, and 26% in the CS+BTX group; P<0.001). Histopathological examination findings corroborated the unfavourable effects of CS and preventive effects of BTX type A. CONCLUSION: Preoperative administration of BTX significantly enhanced flap viability in the rats exposed to CS. Further human studies are warranted to verify whether BTX type A could be used as an agent to reduce the risk of flap necrosis in patients who smoke. PMID:26361625

  10. Total Lip Reconstruction with Tendinofasciocutaneous Radial Forearm Flap

    PubMed Central

    Silberstein, Eldad; Krieger, Yuval; Shoham, Yaron; Arnon, Ofer; Sagi, Amiram; Bogdanov-Berezovsky, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Squamous cell carcinoma is a common tumour of lower lip. Small defects created by surgical resection may be readily reconstructed by linear closure or with local flaps. However, large tumours resection often results with microstomia and oral incompetence, drooling, and speech incomprehension. The goal of this study is to describe our experience with composite free radial forearm-palmaris longus tendon flap for total or near total lower lip reconstruction. Patients and Methods. This procedure was used in 5 patients with 80–100% lip defect resulting from Squamous cell carcinoma. Patients' age ranged from 46 to 82 years. They are three male patients and two female. In 3 cases chin skin was reconstructed as well and in one case a 5 cm segment of mandible was reconstructed using radius bone. In one case where palmaris longus was missing hemi-flexor carpi radialis tendon was used instead. All patients tolerated the procedure well. Results. All flaps totally survived. No patient suffered from drooling. All patients regained normal diet and normal speech. Cosmetic result was fair to good in all patients accept one. Conclusion. We conclude that tendino-fasciocutaneous radial forearm flap for total lower lip reconstruction is safe. Functional and aesthetic result approaches reconstructive goals. PMID:24672301

  11. The dog-ear flap as an alternative for breast reconstruction in patients who have already undergone a DIEAP flap.

    PubMed

    Colebunders, Britt; Depypere, Bernard; Van Landuyt, Koenraad

    2016-05-01

    Breast reconstruction in patients who have previously undergone deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap (DIEAP) reconstruction or abdominoplasty is often challenging. Depending on patients' body habitus, several second-choice flaps have been described such as the transverse upper gracilis (TUG) flap, profundus femoris artery perforator (PFAP) flap, superior gluteal artery perforator (SGAP) flap, and lumbar artery perforator (LAP) flap. Patients who have undergone a DIEAP flap reconstruction or abdominoplasty occasionally present with dog ears on both sides of the abdominal scar. The adipose tissue and skin of these dog ears are supplied by perforators of the deep circumflex iliac artery (DCIA). The DCIA flap was first described in 1979 by Taylor. We introduce this abdominal "dog-ear" flap for autologous breast reconstruction. PMID:26951847

  12. Reconstruction of the postauricular defects using retroauricular artery perforator-based island flaps: Anatomical study and clinical report.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan Zheng; Li, Ying Li; Yang, Chao; Fang, Shuo; Fan, Hao; Xing, Xin

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of the study were to introduce and investigate the reliability of a new flap for postauricular defects using the retroauricular artery perforator.Twenty auricles from 10 Asian human cadavers were dissected to examine the retroauricular perforator distribution and diameter. Fourteen patients with postauricular defects underwent reconstruction using the retroauricular artery perforator from 2013 to 2015. After locating the position of the perforator by ultrasound Doppler blood flow detection, a suitable flap was designed according to the defect's size, condition, and distance from the pedicle. The flap was meticulously elevated, rotated appropriately, and sutured to the defect. The donor site was then closed.Cadaver dissection showed that the posterior auricular artery produces at least 2 constant branches with an external diameter of 0.84 ± 0.25 mm at the origin. These branches proceed toward the mastoid process at the height of the auriculocephalic angle to nourish the skin and fascia. A total of 14 clinical cases were available for 3 to 12 months postoperative follow-up. All flaps survived completely, maintaining good skin color, perfect outer contour, and complete patient satisfaction with the aesthetic results after initial treatment.Retroauricular artery perforator-based island flaps appear to be ideal for 1-stage reconstruction of postauricular skin defects. PMID:27631246

  13. Rotational flaps in oncologic breast surgery. Anatomical and technical considerations.

    PubMed

    Acea Nebril, Benigno; Builes Ramírez, Sergio; García Novoa, Alejandra; Varela Lamas, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Local flaps are a group of surgical procedures that can solve the thoracic closure of large defects after breast cancer surgery with low morbidity. Its use in skin necrosis complications after conservative surgery or skin sparing mastectomies facilitates the initiation of adjuvant treatments and reduces delays in this patient group. This article describes the anatomical basis for the planning of thoracic and abdominal local flaps. Also, the application of these local flaps for closing large defects in the chest and selective flaps for skin coverage by necrosis in breast conserving surgery.

  14. Rotational flaps in oncologic breast surgery. Anatomical and technical considerations.

    PubMed

    Acea Nebril, Benigno; Builes Ramírez, Sergio; García Novoa, Alejandra; Varela Lamas, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Local flaps are a group of surgical procedures that can solve the thoracic closure of large defects after breast cancer surgery with low morbidity. Its use in skin necrosis complications after conservative surgery or skin sparing mastectomies facilitates the initiation of adjuvant treatments and reduces delays in this patient group. This article describes the anatomical basis for the planning of thoracic and abdominal local flaps. Also, the application of these local flaps for closing large defects in the chest and selective flaps for skin coverage by necrosis in breast conserving surgery. PMID:27140865

  15. Infrahyoid flap in oropharyngeal reconstruction following carcinoma resection: A study of 6 patients and literature review

    PubMed Central

    INFANTE-COSSIO, PEDRO; GONZALEZ-CARDERO, EDUARDO; LOPEZ-MARTOS, RICARDO; NUÑEZ-VERA, VICTORIA; OLMOS-JUAREZ, ERIKA; RUIZ-MOYA, ALEJANDRO; HARO-LUNA, JUAN-JOSE; TORRES-CARRRANZA, EUSEBIO

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to describe the techniques used and the results obtained with the infrahyoid flap for the reconstruction of medium-sized oropharyngeal defects following resection for advanced squamous cell cancer. During a period of 1 year, six patients with oropharyngeal defects were reconstructed using the infrahyoid flap. The tumor characteristics, location and size of the defect, resective and reconstructive techniques employed and the complications and outcomes of the speech and swallowing functions, as identified in the follow-up visits every 3 months, were evaluated. All flaps were performed simultaneously in association with tumoral excision and ipsilateral supraomohyoid neck dissection. The mean size of the skin paddle was 7.0×3.5 cm. The donor site was primarily sutured. The postoperative course was uneventful and all flaps were viable. One case of marginal skin paddle loss occurred without affecting the survival of the flap. Five patients received postoperative radiotherapy and one patient received concurrent postoperative chemotherapy. During the follow-up period (mean, 63 months), all patients showed excellent oral swallowing. Speech was excellent in five patients and in one patient speech was classified as good. The aesthetic results of the cervical donor site were good. Based on the present case report and the literature review, the infrahyoid flap is a simple and safe procedure for the reconstruction of the oropharynx, with a high success rate, minimal donor site morbidity and good aesthetic and functional results. The infrahyoid flap is a valid surgical option that may be considered in selected oncological patients undergoing reconstruction of medium-size oropharyngeal defects. PMID:27123141

  16. Preliminary survival studies on autologous cultured skin fibroblasts transplantation by injection.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuming; Wang, Jiaqi; Yan, Xiaoqing; Li, Dan; Xu, Jun

    2008-01-01

    In the correction of aesthetic impairments on the face, dermal, and superficial subcutaneous defects, adequately safe implant material is required. Cultured autologous skin fibroblasts, as a protein repair system, create a living injectable system that has been utilized effectively to treat rhytids, depressed scars, subcutaneous atrophy, acne irregularities, and laser wounds. To evaluate the new method, we have investigated the survival and collagen secretion of autologous transplanted fibroblasts. In this study, rabbit fibroblasts were cultured and expanded. Cells (8 x 10(7)/ml) were injected into the superficial and deep dermal junction of the dorsal ears. Two rabbits were injected independently with labeled [3H]TdR fibroblasts; similarly, eight rabbits were given unlabeled transplanted cells in the right ear and vehicle in the left. Each site was injected three times with the same amount of cells every 2 weeks. The grafts were evaluated for 5 months. After explantation, the samples were collected from the injected sites and stained with autoradiography, H&E, and sirius red, respectively. According to the histological observations, the [3H]TdR-labeled cells survived and large amounts of embryo fibroblasts were found in the experimental subgroup of the labeled cell group. The depth of dermis was significantly different between the experimental subgroup (701.3 +/- 31.5 microm) and the control subgroup (638.3 +/- 23.9 microm) of the unlabeled group (p < 0.01). There was also a significant difference of collagen III between the experimental subgroup (2.63 +/- 1.41 cm2) and the control subgroup (1.05 +/- 0.90 cm2) (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference of collagen I between the experimental subgroup (56.25 +/- 14.41 cm2) and the control subgroup (55.41 +/- 16.59 cm2) (p > 0.05). The results obtained demonstrate that the distinction of the depth of dermis should be interpreted by the increase of collagen III, instead of collagen I, which is produced by the

  17. Preputial flaps to correct buried penis.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chih-Chun; Chen, Yi-Hsin; Diau, Guan-Yeu; Loh, Ih-Wei; Chen, Ke-Chi

    2007-11-01

    The authors developed a preputial skin flap technique to correct the buried penis which was simple and practical. This simple procedure can be applied to most boys with buried penis. In the last 3 years, we have seen 12 boys with buried penis and have been treated by using preputial flaps. The mean age is about 5.1 (from 3 to 12). By making a longitudinal incision on the ventral side of penis, the tightness of the foreskin is released and leave a diamond-shaped skin defect. It allows the penile shaft to extend out. A circumferential incision is made about 5 mm proximal to the coronal sulcus. Pedicled preputial flaps are obtained leaving optimal penile skin on the dorsal side. The preputial skin flaps are rotated onto the ventral side and tailored to cover the defect. All patients are followed for at least 3 months. Edema and swelling on the flaps are common, but improves with time. None of our patients need a second operation. The preputial flaps technique is a simple technique which allows surgeons to deal with most cases of buried penis by tailoring the flaps providing good cosmetic and functional results.

  18. Comparison of the effects of troxerutin and heparinoid on flap necrosis.

    PubMed

    Celik, Alper; Ersoy, Omer F; Ozkan, Namik; Kayaoglu, Huseyin A; Ozugurlu, Fikret; Cakir, Ebru A; Lordlar, Nese; Omeroglu, Suna

    2010-05-01

    We aimed to assess the effects of local troxerutin and heparinoid (HEP) treatments in a model of flap necrosis. Three groups of Wistar albino rats, each comprising 10 animals were used. A cranially based 6x3-cm full-thickness random-pattern skin flap was raised and sutured to the same area in each model. The control group was treated daily with normal saline, the second with topical HEP and the third with topical troxerutin. The amount of flap necrosis was measured in all groups by the end of the seventh day. Flap tissues were excised for histological analysis and evaluation of the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels. Assessment of the blood levels of nitric oxide was also performed in each animal by cardiac puncture. The mean area of flap necrosis was 110.6mm(2) in the control, 39.44 mm(2) in the troxerutin and 47.11 mm(2) in the heparinoid-treated rats. The treatment arms exhibited significant reduction in areas of flap necrosis, compared with the control group (p<0.001), but it was similar among treatment groups (p=0.60). The rates of fibroblast proliferation were decreased in control group as compared to HEP and troxerutin arms (p<0.001). The mean level of collagen density, collagen organisation, granulation tissue and demarcation were similar in all rats. Measurement of VEGF expression did not show any significant difference between the groups (p=0.30). Nitric oxide levels were significantly higher in control rats, as compared to treatment groups (p<0.0001), but were similar in treatment arms (p=0.45). Our results suggest that troxerutin and HEP effectively reduce the flap necrosis and improve flap survival. The observed effects might be due to their anti-oedematogenic, radical-scavenging, antioxidant effects and supportive activities on capillary permeability and transudation.

  19. The infrahyoid flap: a comprehensive review of an often overlooked reconstructive method.

    PubMed

    Deganello, Alberto; Leemans, C René

    2014-08-01

    The infrahyoid flap is a myocutaneous pedicled flap mainly nourished by the superior thyroid vessels through the perforators of the infrahyoid muscles. This thin and pliable flap provides a skin island of about 7 by 4 cm from the central part of the anterior neck. The flap can be transferred on its pedicle of superior thyroid artery and vein to reconstruct medium sized head and neck defects created after cancer ablation. We have successfully used this flap in a series of 40 cases with no total flap loss and with 1 case of superficial skin necrosis. The aim of this review is to highlight the clinical usefulness of this pedicled flap even in the microvascular free flap era. A comprehensive review of the available literature reporting on the infrahyoid flap has been carried out using a web search. The history of the infrahyoid flap, the surgical technique with technical innovations, the clinical utility and limitations of this flap, are reported and discussed. Among the 7 larger series (cohort larger than 50 cases) a total of 956 flaps were performed, and the global success rate was 91.7%, with failures being mainly related to partial skin necrosis, as the rate of total (skin and muscle) flap necrosis was only 1%. This flap is reliable, easy to harvest during neck dissection, oncologically safe, it does carry a negligible donor site morbidity. This paper highlights how the infrahyoid flap can represent an excellent reconstructive solution in selected patients and head and neck sites. PMID:24856306

  20. Basic Perforator Flap Hemodynamic Mathematical Model

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Youlun; Ding, Maochao; Wang, Aiguo; Zhuang, Yuehong; Chang, Shi-Min; Mei, Jin; Hallock, Geoffrey G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: A mathematical model to help explain the hemodynamic characteristics of perforator flaps based on blood flow resistance systems within the flap will serve as a theoretical guide for the future study and clinical applications of these flaps. Methods: There are 3 major blood flow resistance network systems of a perforator flap. These were defined as the blood flow resistance of an anastomosis between artery and artery of adjacent perforasomes, between artery and vein within a perforasome, and then between vein and vein corresponding to the outflow of that perforasome. From this, a calculation could be made of the number of such blood flow resistance network systems that must be crossed for all perforasomes within a perforator flap to predict whether that arrangement would be viable. Results: The summation of blood flow resistance networks from each perforasome in a given perforator flap could predict which portions would likely survive. This mathematical model shows how this is directly dependent on the location of the vascular pedicle to the flap and whether supercharging or superdrainage maneuvers have been added. These configurations will give an estimate of the hemodynamic characteristics for the given flap design. Conclusions: This basic mathematical model can (1) conveniently determine the degree of difficulty for each perforasome within a perforator flap to survive; (2) semiquantitatively allow the calculation of basic hemodynamic parameters; and (3) allow the assessment of the pros and cons expected for each pattern of perforasomes encountered clinically based on predictable hemodynamic observations. PMID:27579238

  1. Arterialized Venous Bone Flaps: An Experimental Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Borumandi, Farzad; Higgins, James P.; Buerger, Heinz; Vasilyeva, Anna; Benlidayi, Memmet Emre; Sencar, Leman; Gaggl, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    In arterialized venous flaps (AVFs) the venous network is used to revascularize the flap. While the feasibility of AVFs in soft tissues has been reported there is no study on osseous AVFs. In this study we aim to assess the flap survival of osseous AVFs in a pig model. Medial femoral condyle flaps were elevated in 18 pigs. Three groups were created: AVF (n = 6), conventional arterial flap (cAF, n = 6) and bone graft (BG, n = 6). The AVFs were created by anastomosis of genicular artery with one vena comitans while leaving one efferent vein for drainage. After 6 months the specimens were harvested. The histology and histomorphometry of of the bone in cAF and AVF was significantly superior to bone grafts with a higher bone volume in AVFs (p = 0.01). This study demonstrates that osseous free flaps may be supported and survive using the technique of arterialization of the venous network. The concept of AVFs in osseous flaps may be feasible for revascularization of free flaps with an inadequate artery but well developed veins. Further experimental and clinical studies are needed to assess the feasibility of clinical use of arterialized venous bone flaps. PMID:27558705

  2. Captopril Increases Survival after Whole-Body Ionizing Irradiation but Decreases Survival when Combined with Skin-Burn Trauma in Mice.

    PubMed

    Islam, Aminul; Bolduc, David L; Zhai, Min; Kiang, Juliann G; Swift, Joshua M

    2015-09-01

    Past and recent radiation events have involved a high incidence of radiation combined injury where victims often succumb to serious infections as a consequence of bacterial translocation and subsequent sepsis. The risk of infection is exacerbated in radiation combined skin-burn injury (RCI), which increase vulnerability. Furthermore, no suitable countermeasures for radiation combined skin-burn injury have been established. In this study, we evaluated captopril as a potential countermeasure to radiation combined skin-burn injury. Captopril is an FDA-approved angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor that was previously reported to stimulate hematopoietic recovery after exposure to ionizing radiation. Female B6D2F1/J mice were whole-body bilateral (60)Co gamma-photon irradiated (dose rate of 0.4 Gy/min) with 9.5 Gy (LD70/30 for RCI), followed by nonlethal dorsal skin-burn injury under anesthesia (approximately 15% total-body surface-area burn). Mice were provided with acidified drinking water with or without dissolved captopril (0.55 g/l) for 30 days immediately after injury and were administered topical gentamicin (0.1% cream; day 1-10) and oral levofloxacin (90-100 mg/kg; day 3-16). Surviving mice were euthanized on day 30 after analyses of water consumption, body weight and survival. Our data demonstrate that, while treatment with captopril did mitigate mortality induced by radiation injury (RI) alone (55% captopril vs. 80% vehicle; n = 20, P < 0.05), it also resulted in decreased survival after radiation combined skin-burn injury (22% captopril vs. 41% vehicle; n = 22, P < 0.05). Moreover, captopril administration via drinking water produced an uneven dosage pattern among the different injury groups ranging from 74 ± 5.4 to 115 ± 2.2 mg/kg/day. Captopril treatment also did not counteract the negative alterations in hematology, splenocytes or bone marrow cellularity after either radiation injury or radiation combined skin-burn injury. These data suggest that

  3. The distally based forearm island flap in hand reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Jeng, S F; Wei, F C

    1998-08-01

    The distally based forearm island flap is vascularized by the perforators of the distal radial artery. The skin flap is along the axis of the radial artery, and the pivot point of its subcutaneous pedicle is about 2 to 4 cm above the radial styloid process. We have treated 12 patients with 12 flaps for soft-tissue defects of the hand. Of these recipient sites, seven were in dorsal hands, two were in thumbs, two were in forearms, and one was in the palmar area. The donor-tissue variants included eight skin flaps, two adipofascial flaps, and two sensate flaps. The sizes of the flaps ranged from 6 x 4 cm to 14 x 6 cm. The donor site wound could be closed primarily in five patients. Two sensate flaps, innervated by the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve, could provide sensation for thumb reconstruction. The advantage of this flap is its constant and reliable blood supply without sacrifice of the main radial artery. The elevation of the flap is simple and rapid. There is the potential that this flap can be used as an innervated flap, and there is no need of microsurgical technique.

  4. Monitoring flap for buried free tissue transfer: its importance and reliability.

    PubMed

    Cho, Byung Chae; Shin, Dong Pill; Byun, Jin Suk; Park, Jae Woo; Baik, Bong Soo

    2002-10-01

    To improve the success rate of microsurgical flap transfers into a buried area, it is important to monitor the circulation of the flap during the early stage. A monitoring flap includes such advantages as simplicity, reliability, noninvasiveness, and the ability to continuously monitor the vascular status of various buried flaps. This article describes experiences related to the importance and reliability of a monitoring flap. A total of 109 flaps in 99 patients were treated with buried free flaps, including a monitoring flap, between 1990 and 1999. Forty-nine patients received a tubed free radial forearm flap with a skin-monitoring flap, and six received a free jejunal flap with a jejunal segment monitoring flap for the reconstruction of the esophagus. Vascularized fibular grafts with a skin monitoring flap or peroneus longus muscle monitoring flap were used for reconstructing the mandible in six patients and for treating osteonecrosis of the femoral head in 48 flaps in 38 patients. Monitoring flap abnormalities were indicated in 14 flaps; therefore, immediate revisions were performed on the pedicle of the monitoring flap and microanastomosis site. Among these 14 flaps, nine showed true thrombosis and five showed false-positive thrombosis. Among the nine flaps that showed true thrombosis, five were salvaged and four were finally lost. The false-positive thrombosis in the five flaps was attributed to torsion or tension of the perforator of the monitoring flap in three flaps, an unclear determination in one flap because the monitoring flap size was too small, and damage to the perforator in the last flap. The total thrombosis rate was 8.3 percent (nine of 109), and the failure rate of the free tissue transfer was 3.7 percent (four of 109). The overall sensitivity of the monitoring flap was 100 percent, the predictive value of a positive test was 64 percent (nine of 14), and false-positive results occurred in 36 percent (five of 14). The salvage rate was 55.6 percent

  5. Inhibitory effect of oatmeal extract oligomer on vasoactive intestinal peptide-induced inflammation in surviving human skin.

    PubMed

    Boisnic, S; Branchet-Gumila, M C; Coutanceau, C

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiinflammatory effect of oatmeal extract oligomer on skin fragments stimulated by a neuromediator, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). Skin fragments (from plastic surgery) were maintained in survival conditions for 6 h. To induce inflammation, VIP was placed in contact with dermis by culture medium. Histological analysis was then performed on hematoxylin- and eosin-stained slides. Edema was evaluated with semiquantitative scores. Vasodilation was studied by quantifying the percentage of dilated vessels according to scores and by measuring their surface by morphometrical image analysis. TNF-alpha dosage was made on culture supernatants. Vasodilation was significantly increased after application of VIP. After treatment with oatmeal extract oligomer, the mean surface of dilated vessels and edema were significantly decreased compared with VIP-treated skin. Moreover, treatment with this extract decreased TNF-alpha.

  6. Facial artery flaps in facial oncoplastic reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Fabrizio, Tommaso

    2013-10-01

    The face is one of the common sites for cutaneous cancer localization. It is well known that the face is the localization of more than 50% of skin cancers. Nowadays, the principles of modern "oncoplasty" recommend the complete excision of the cancer and the reconstruction with respect to cosmetic features of the face in terms of good color, good softness, and good texture of the flaps, utilized in cancer repair. The oncological and cosmetic results of facial reconstruction are strictly linked and the modern plastic and reconstructive surgeon must respect both oncological and cosmetic aspects. For that reason the best solution in facial cancer repair is the utilization of locoregional flaps based on the tributary vessels of the facial artery. In consideration of the dimension of recipient area to repair, the retroangular flap (RAF) or the submental flap could be used. This article is voted to illustrate a very large and long-term casuistry dedicated to these flaps.

  7. Living skin substitutes: survival and function of fibroblasts seeded in a dermal substitute in experimental wounds.

    PubMed

    Lamme, E N; van Leeuwen, R T; Jonker, A; van Marle, J; Middelkoop, E

    1998-12-01

    The healing of full-thickness skin defects requires extensive synthesis and remodeling of dermal and epidermal components. Fibroblasts play an important role in this process and are being incorporated in the latest generation of artificial dermal substitutes. We studied the fate of fibroblasts seeded in our artificial elastin/collagen dermal substitute and the influence of the seeded fibroblasts on cell migration and dermal substitute degradation after transplantation to experimental full-thickness wounds in pigs. Wounds were treated with either dermal substitutes seeded with autologous fibroblasts or acellular substitutes. Seeded fibroblasts, labeled with a PKH-26 fluorescent cell marker, were detected in the wounds with fluorescence microscopy and quantitated with flow cytofluorometric analysis of single-cell suspensions of wound tissue. The cellular infiltrate was characterized for the presence of mesenchymal cells (vimentin), monocytes/macrophages, and vascular cells. Dermal substitute degradation was quantitated by image analysis of wound sections stained with Herovici's staining. In the wounds treated with the seeded dermal substitute, fluorescent PKH-26-labeled cells were detectable up to 6 d and were positive for vimentin but not for the macrophage antibody. After 5 d, flow cytofluorometry showed the presence of 3.1 (+/-0.9) x 10(6) (mean +/- SD, n = 7) PKH-26-positive cells in these wounds, whereas initially only 1 x 10(6) fluorescent fibroblasts had been seeded. In total, the percentage of mesenchymal cells minus the macrophages was similar after 5 d between wounds treated with the seeded and the acellular substitutes. In the wounds treated with the seeded substitute, however, 19.5% of the mesenchymal cells were of seeded origin. Furthermore, the rate of substitute degradation in the seeded wounds was significantly lower at 2-4 wk after wounding than in wounds treated with the acellular substitute. Vascular in-growth and the number of infiltrated

  8. Numerical analysis of the V-Y shaped advancement flap.

    PubMed

    Remache, D; Chambert, J; Pauchot, J; Jacquet, E

    2015-10-01

    The V-Y advancement flap is a usual technique for the closure of skin defects. A triangular flap is incised adjacent to a skin defect of rectangular shape. As the flap is advanced to close the initial defect, two smaller defects in the shape of a parallelogram are formed with respect to a reflection symmetry. The height of the defects depends on the apex angle of the flap and the closure efforts are related to the defects height. Andrades et al. 2005 have performed a geometrical analysis of the V-Y flap technique in order to reach a compromise between the flap size and the defects width. However, the geometrical approach does not consider the mechanical properties of the skin. The present analysis based on the finite element method is proposed as a complement to the geometrical one. This analysis aims to highlight the major role of the skin elasticity for a full analysis of the V-Y advancement flap. Furthermore, the study of this technique shows that closing at the flap apex seems mechanically the most interesting step. Thus different strategies of defect closure at the flap apex stemming from surgeon's know-how have been tested by numerical simulations. PMID:26342442

  9. Combined Use of Anterolateral Thigh and Gluteal Fold Flaps for Complex Groin Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Fujiki, Masahide; Miyamoto, Shimpei; Arikawa, Masaki; Sakuraba, Minoru

    2015-10-01

    We present a case of an epithelioid sarcoma of the right groin in which wide resection resulted in a complex groin defect involving the full thickness of the abdominal wall and the perineum. We reconstructed the defect using a combination of pedicled anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap and gluteal fold flap. The functional and aesthetic results were satisfactory. The ALT flap with a robust iliotibial tract is the flap of choice for abdominal wall reconstruction; however, the area covered by the skin island of the flap is restricted because the skin island is tethered to the iliotibial tract. In such cases, a gluteal fold flap is ideal for an ALT flap. Therefore, using a combination of a pedicled ALT flap and a gluteal fold flap could be a reliable option for the reconstruction of a complex groin defect. PMID:26579347

  10. The origin of the temporalis muscle flap.

    PubMed

    Speculand, B

    1992-12-01

    This paper explores the origin of the temporalis muscle flap which has been attributed to Golovine, a Moscow ophthalmic surgeon, who described a forehead skin transposition flap. Small temporalis muscle transpositions were used in surgery for TMJ ankylosis, but the use of the majority of the muscle for reconstruction of facial defects was first described by Sir Harold Gillies during the 1914-18 war.

  11. Pedicled Supraclavicular Artery Island Flap Versus Free Radial Forearm Flap for Tongue Reconstruction Following Hemiglossectomy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Senlin; Chen, Wei; Cao, Gang; Dong, Zhen

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the tongue function and donor-site morbidity of patients with malignant tumors who had undergone immediate flap reconstruction surgery. Twenty-seven patients who had undergone immediate reconstruction after hemiglossectomy were observed. Twelve patients were reconstructed using the pedicled supraclavicular artery island flap (PSAIF) and 15 patients using the free radial forearm flap (FRFF). Flap survival, speech and swallowing function, and donor-site morbidity at the 6-month follow-up were evaluated. All the flaps were successfully transferred. No obvious complications were found in either the transferred flaps or donor regions. Age, sex, defect extent, speech and swallowing function were comparable between the 2 groups. Donor-site complications were less frequent with PSAIF reconstruction than FRFF reconstruction. The PSAIF is reliable and well suited for hemiglossectomy defect. It has few significant complications, and allows preservation of oral function.

  12. Effects of chytrid and carbaryl exposure on survival, growth and skin peptide defenses in foothill yellow-legged frogs.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Carlos; Benard, Michael F; Shaffer, H Bradley; Parker, John M; O'Leary, Chadrick; Conlon, J Michael; Rollins-Smith, Louise A

    2007-03-01

    Environmental contaminants and disease may synergistically contribute to amphibian population declines. Sub-lethal levels of contaminants can suppress amphibian immune defenses and, thereby, may facilitate disease outbreaks. We conducted laboratory experiments on newly metamorphosed foothill yellow-legged frogs (Rana boylii) to determine whether sublethal exposure to the pesticide carbaryl would increase susceptibility to the pathogenic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis that is widely associated with amphibian declines. We examined the effect of carbaryl alone, chytrid alone, and interactions of the two on individual survival, growth, and antimicrobial skin defenses. We found no effect of chytrid, carbaryl, or their interaction on survival. However, chytrid infection reduced growth by approximately one-half. This is the first report of suppressed growth in post-metamorphic amphibians due to infection with chytrid. Rana boylii skin peptides strongly inhibited chytrid growth in vitro, which may explain why chytrid exposure did not result in significant mortality. Skin peptide defenses were significantly reduced after exposure to carbaryl suggesting that pesticides may inhibit this innate immune defense and increase susceptibility to disease.

  13. The Bmi-1 polycomb protein antagonizes the (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-dependent suppression of skin cancer cell survival.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Sivaprakasam; Adhikary, Gautam; Eckert, Richard L

    2010-03-01

    The polycomb group (PcG) proteins are epigenetic regulators of gene expression that enhance cell survival. This regulation is achieved via action of two multiprotein PcG complexes--PRC2 (EED) and PRC1 [B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 (Bmi-1)]. These complexes modulate gene expression by increasing histone methylation and reducing acetylation--leading to a closed chromatin conformation. Activity of these proteins is associated with increased cell proliferation and survival. We show increased expression of key PcG proteins in immortalized keratinocytes and skin cancer cell lines. We examine the role of two key PcG proteins, Bmi-1 and enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (Ezh2), and the impact of the active agent in green tea, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), on the function of these regulators. EGCG treatment of SCC-13 cells reduces Bmi-1 and Ezh2 level and this is associated with reduced cell survival. The reduction in survival is associated with a global reduction in histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation, a hallmark of PRC2 complex action. This change in PcG protein expression is associated with reduced expression of key proteins that enhance progression through the cell cycle [cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk)1, cdk2, cdk4, cyclin D1, cyclin E, cyclin A and cyclin B1] and increased expression of proteins that inhibit cell cycle progression (p21 and p27). Apoptosis is also enhanced, as evidenced by increased caspase 9, 8 and 3 cleavage and increased poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose) polymerase cleavage. EGCG treatment also increases Bax and suppresses Bcl-xL expression. Vector-mediated enhanced Bmi-1 expression reverses these EGCG-dependent changes. These findings suggest that green tea polyphenols reduce skin tumor cell survival by influencing PcG-mediated epigenetic regulatory mechanisms.

  14. Interruption of dendritic cell-mediated TIM-4 signaling induces regulatory T cells and promotes skin allograft survival.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Melissa Y; McGrath, Martina M; Nakayama, Masafumi; Shimizu, Tetsunosuke; Boenisch, Olaf; Magee, Ciara N; Abdoli, Rozita; Akiba, Hisaya; Ueno, Takuya; Turka, Laurence A; Najafian, Nader

    2013-10-15

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are the central architects of the immune response, inducing inflammatory or tolerogenic immunity, dependent on their activation status. As such, DCs are highly attractive therapeutic targets and may hold the potential to control detrimental immune responses. TIM-4, expressed on APCs, has complex functions in vivo, acting both as a costimulatory molecule and a phosphatidylserine receptor. The effect of TIM-4 costimulation on T cell activation remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that Ab blockade of DC-expressed TIM-4 leads to increased induction of induced regulatory T cells (iTregs) from naive CD4(+) T cells, both in vitro and in vivo. iTreg induction occurs through suppression of IL-4/STAT6/Gata3-induced Th2 differentiation. In addition, blockade of TIM-4 on previously activated DCs still leads to increased iTreg induction. iTregs induced under TIM-4 blockade have equivalent potency to control and, upon adoptive transfer, significantly prolong skin allograft survival in vivo. In RAG(-/-) recipients of skin allografts adoptively transferred with CD4(+) T cells, we show that TIM-4 blockade in vivo is associated with a 3-fold prolongation in allograft survival. Furthermore, in this mouse model of skin transplantation, increased induction of allospecific iTregs and a reduction in T effector responses were observed, with decreased Th1 and Th2 responses. This enhanced allograft survival and protolerogenic skewing of the alloresponse is critically dependent on conversion of naive CD4(+) to Tregs in vivo. Collectively, these studies identify blockade of DC-expressed TIM-4 as a novel strategy that holds the capacity to induce regulatory immunity in vivo.

  15. INTERRUPTION OF DENDRITIC CELL-MEDIATED TIM-4 SIGNALING INDUCES REGULATORY T CELLS AND PROMOTES SKIN ALLOGRAFT SURVIVAL

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Melissa Y.; McGrath, Martina M.; Nakayama, Masafumi; Shimizu, Tetsunosuke; Boenisch, Olaf; Magee, Ciara N.; Abdoli, Rozita; Akiba, Hisaya; Ueno, Takuya; Turka, Laurence A.; Najafian, Nader

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are the central architects of the immune response, inducing inflammatory or tolerogenic immunity, dependent upon their activation status. As such, DCs are highly attractive therapeutic targets and may hold the potential to control detrimental immune responses. TIM-4, expressed on antigen presenting cells, has complex functions in vivo, acting both as a costimulatory molecule and a phosphatidylserine (PS) receptor. The effect of TIM-4 costimulation on T cell activation remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that antibody blockade of DC-expressed TIM-4 leads to increased induction of iTregs from naïve CD4+ T cells, both in vitro and in vivo. iTreg induction occurs through suppression of IL-4/STAT6/Gata3 induced Th2 differentiation. In addition, blockade of TIM-4 on previously activated DCs still leads to increased iTreg induction. iTregs induced under TIM-4 blockade have equivalent potency to control and upon adoptive transfer, significantly prolong skin allograft survival in vivo. In RAG−/− recipients of skin allografts adoptively transferred with CD4+ T cells, we show that TIM-4 blockade in vivo is associated with a three-fold prolongation in allograft survival. Furthermore, in this mouse model of skin transplantation, increased induction of allospecific iTregs and a reduction in T effector responses were observed, with decreased Th1 and Th2 responses. This enhanced allograft survival and pro-tolerogenic skewing of the alloresponse is critically dependent upon conversion of naïve CD4+ to Tregs in vivo. Collectively, these studies identify blockade of DC-expressed TIM-4 as a novel strategy which holds the capacity to induce regulatory immunity in vivo. PMID:24038092

  16. Combined Subdermal Pocket Procedure and Abdominal Flap for Distal Finger Amputations in a Toddler

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Po-Lun; Scaglioni, Mario F.; Lin, Tsan-Shiun

    2015-01-01

    Summary: A girl (aged 1 year and 9 months) sustained traumatic amputation to her middle and ring fingers (zone 1C) by a cup-sealing machine. Full-thickness dorsal skin burn over amputated fingertips was also noted. Emergent finger replantation was performed. Following bone fixation, bilateral digital arteries and nerves were repaired. After complete debridement of the necrotic dorsal skin, the extensor tendon and joint were exposed. Moreover, all dorsal veins were destroyed. The pulps (middle and ring fingers) were de-epithelialized and inserted into the subdermal pocket over her left abdomen. The 2 raised skin flaps were transferred to reconstruct the dorsal skin defects. Division of the replanted finger from abdomen was performed at the 14th postoperative day. The fingers survived completely. Good functional and aesthetic outcomes were achieved. PMID:26090276

  17. Validation of a predictive model for survival and growth of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 on chicken skin for extrapolation to a previous history of frozen storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A predictive model for survival and growth of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 on chicken skin was evaluated for its ability to predict survival and growth of the same organism after frozen storage for 6 days at -20 C. Experimental methods used to collect data for model development were the same as tho...

  18. Clinical Experiences with the Scapular Fascial Free Flap

    PubMed Central

    Park, Il Ho; Chang, Yong Joon; Kim, Jae Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background The goal of reconstruction is to provide coverage of exposed vital structures with well-vascularized tissue for optimal restoration of form and function. Here, we present our clinical experience with the use of the scapular fascial free flap to correct facial asymmetry and to reconstruct soft tissue defects of the extremities. Methods We used a scapular fascial free flap in 12 cases for soft tissue coverage of the extremities or facial soft tissue augmentation. Results The flaps ranged in size from 3×12 to 13×23 cm. No cases of total loss of the flap occurred. Partial loss of the flap occurred in 1 patient, who was treated with a turnover flap using the adjacent scapular fascial flap and a skin graft. Partial loss of the skin graft occurred in 4 patients due to infection or hematoma beneath the graft, and these patients underwent another skin graft. Four cases of seroma at the donor site occurred, and these cases were treated with conservative management or capsulectomy and quilting sutures. Conclusions The scapular fascial free flap has many advantages, including a durable surface for restoration of form and contours, a large size with a constant pedicle, adequate surface for tendon gliding, and minimal donor-site scarring. We conclude that despite the occurrence of a small number of complications, the scapular fascial free flap should be considered to be a viable option for soft tissue coverage of the extremities and facial soft tissue augmentation. PMID:27689051

  19. Clinical Experiences with the Scapular Fascial Free Flap

    PubMed Central

    Park, Il Ho; Chang, Yong Joon; Kim, Jae Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background The goal of reconstruction is to provide coverage of exposed vital structures with well-vascularized tissue for optimal restoration of form and function. Here, we present our clinical experience with the use of the scapular fascial free flap to correct facial asymmetry and to reconstruct soft tissue defects of the extremities. Methods We used a scapular fascial free flap in 12 cases for soft tissue coverage of the extremities or facial soft tissue augmentation. Results The flaps ranged in size from 3×12 to 13×23 cm. No cases of total loss of the flap occurred. Partial loss of the flap occurred in 1 patient, who was treated with a turnover flap using the adjacent scapular fascial flap and a skin graft. Partial loss of the skin graft occurred in 4 patients due to infection or hematoma beneath the graft, and these patients underwent another skin graft. Four cases of seroma at the donor site occurred, and these cases were treated with conservative management or capsulectomy and quilting sutures. Conclusions The scapular fascial free flap has many advantages, including a durable surface for restoration of form and contours, a large size with a constant pedicle, adequate surface for tendon gliding, and minimal donor-site scarring. We conclude that despite the occurrence of a small number of complications, the scapular fascial free flap should be considered to be a viable option for soft tissue coverage of the extremities and facial soft tissue augmentation.

  20. Design and fabrication of an aeroelastic flap element for a Short TakeOff and Landing (STOL) aircraft model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belleman, G. W.; June, R. R.

    1973-01-01

    A flap element typifying a third element in the flap system of a short takeoff and landing aircraft was designed, fabricated, and instrumented. It was delivered to NASA for flight-simulated testing. The flap element was aluminum skin-stringer-rib construction with adhesive laminated skins. The tests conducted were as follows: (1) sonic check, (2) thermal expansion, (3) end fitting stiffness, (4) material properties, (5) maximum bending stress in the skin, and (6) effective skin width and stringer spacing.

  1. Venous arterialization for the treatment of large-area foot skin retrograde avulsion.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wan-an; Jiang, Jia-xi; Tian, Feng; Li, Xiao-chuan; Tian, Li-jie

    2013-08-01

    Between 2009 and 2011, three patients with large-area foot skin retrograde avulsion (more than 1% of the body surface area) underwent venous arterialization. Anastomosis of the artery in the wound surface with the vein in the skin flap and an appropriate number of venous end-to-end anastomoses were performed. The skin flaps survived in all 3 patients. Six months postoperatively, the flap elasticity and appearance were close to that of normal skin, and foot function was better without scar contracture. When venous arterialization is used to treat foot avulsion, the following points should be noted. Surgical indications include no fresh bleeding from the wound edge of the avulsed skin after debridement, more complete avulsed skin, and superficial veins that do not completely separate from the avulsed skin. Venous arterialization is not suitable to avulsion with fresh bleeding, avulsed skin in small fragments, and avulsion with a subcutaneous venous network embolism. During debridement, the subcutaneous venous network should be protected to avoid exposing the vein stems outside the fat layer. If the avulsion is less than 1% of the body surface area, arterial-venous anastomosis can provide adequate blood supply. Venous-venous anastomosis is performed as much as possible to enhance venous return and decrease microcirculatory pressure, which is conducive to the establishment of effective blood circulation.

  2. Skin Stem Cell Hypotheses and Long Term Clone Survival – Explored Using Agent-based Modelling

    PubMed Central

    Li, X.; Upadhyay, A. K.; Bullock, A. J.; Dicolandrea, T.; Xu, J.; Binder, R. L.; Robinson, M. K.; Finlay, D. R.; Mills, K. J.; Bascom, C. C.; Kelling, C. K.; Isfort, R. J.; Haycock, J. W.; MacNeil, S.; Smallwood, R. H.

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial renewal in skin is achieved by the constant turnover and differentiation of keratinocytes. Three popular hypotheses have been proposed to explain basal keratinocyte regeneration and epidermal homeostasis: 1) asymmetric division (stem-transit amplifying cell); 2) populational asymmetry (progenitor cell with stochastic fate); and 3) populational asymmetry with stem cells. In this study, we investigated lineage dynamics using these hypotheses with a 3D agent-based model of the epidermis. The model simulated the growth and maintenance of the epidermis over three years. The offspring of each proliferative cell was traced. While all lineages were preserved in asymmetric division, the vast majority were lost when assuming populational asymmetry. The third hypothesis provided the most reliable mechanism for self-renewal by preserving genetic heterogeneity in quiescent stem cells, and also inherent mechanisms for skin ageing and the accumulation of genetic mutation. PMID:23712735

  3. Thoraco dorsal artery perforator flap for trismus release in a young girl.

    PubMed

    Deneuve, Sophie; Qassemyar, Quentin; Blancal, Jean-Philippe; Couloignier, Vincent; Sainte-Rose, Christian; Janot, François; Kolb, Frederic

    2015-11-01

    Trismus is a frequent complication occurring after treatment of tumors of the pterygomaxillary fossa. Local flaps and full-thickness skin grafts fail to release it because they usually lead to scar contracture in previously irradiated tissues. We propose to release it with a thoracodorsal artery perforator flap, which is feasible in children like other perforator flaps. It is interesting because it is thinner than the anterolateral thigh flap and its scar may be less disgraceful and easier to hide.

  4. Posteromedial thigh (PMT) propeller flap for perineoscrotal reconstruction: A case report.

    PubMed

    Scaglioni, Mario F; Chen, Yen-Chou; Yang, Johnson Chia-Shen

    2015-10-01

    Fournier's gangrene can lead to extensive defects of the perineoscrotal area with exposure of the testes. Such defect poses challenging tasks for both functional and cosmetic reconstruction. Due to its proximity, medial thigh skin appeared to be the most versatile donor site for perineoscrotal reconstruction. In this report, we present a case of reconstruction of a large perineoscrotal defect because of Fournier's gangrene using a posteromedial thigh (PMT) perforator propeller flap. A 58 year-old male who suffered from Fournier's gangrene resulted in a scrotal defect of 10 × 12 cm(2) with a large dead space. A pedicled PMT propeller flap measuring 9 × 23 cm(2) with two perforators that originated from the profunda femoris artery (PFA) was harvested for scrotal defect reconstruction and dead space obliteration. The flap survived completely, with no recipient or donor site morbidity. The length of followup was 3 months and was uneventful. The pedicled PMT propeller flap may be considered as a valid option for perineoscrotal reconstruction.

  5. Versatility of V-Y Flap in Gluteal Area

    PubMed Central

    El-Sabbagh, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lesions in perineal area are common. The usual treatment is coverage by skin graft and flaps which may be local, pedicled or free types. In this paper V-Y flaps were used to cover the defects. METHODS V-Y flaps were used in the gluteal area in 15 patients. Lesions were due to different causes. RESULTS Of 15 patients, 11 were males and 4 were females. Their ages ranged from 3 weeks to 52 years old. Two cases were due to myelomeningocele, necrotizing fasciitis (2 cases) and the rest were due to bed sores (11 cases). The flaps were located over the trochanter (3 cases), ischial (6 cases) and sacral (6 cases). Good healing and durable coverage were obtained in all cases except one case. CONCLUSION V-Y flap as a working horse flap is recommended in the gluteal area. PMID:27579271

  6. Inhibition of Pim2-prolonged skin allograft survival through the apoptosis regulation pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongtao; Zhang, Chao; Liang, Ting; Song, Jing; Hao, Jing; Hou, Guihua

    2012-11-01

    Recently, apoptosis has been considered to be an important regulator for allograft survival. The serine/threonine kinase Pim2 has been implicated in many apoptotic pathways. In a previous study, we found that pim2 was highly expressed in CD4(+) T cells in an allograft model. Here, we further investigated the effects of Pim2 on allograft survival and the underlying mechanisms associated with apoptosis. The results showed that pim2 was overexpressed in grafts and spleens, particularly in spleen CD4(+) T cells when acute allorejection occurred, and correlated positively with the extent of rejection. In T cells from the spleens of naive BALB/c mice treated with 5 µM 4a (a specific inhibitor of Pim2) for 24 h, the apoptosis rate increased and the phosphorylation of BAD was decreased. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of CD4(+) T cells treated with 4a in vitro to allografted severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice effectively prolonged allograft survival from 19.5±1.7 days to 31±2.3 days. Moreover, the results demonstrated that the CD4(+)CD25(-) effector T-cell subset was the predominate expresser of the pim2 gene as compared with the CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T (Treg) cell subset. Alloantigen-induced CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells displayed less Foxp3 expression and a low suppression of apoptosis compared with effector CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells treated with 4a. Collectively, these data revealed that Pim2 facilitated allograft rejection primarily by modulating the apoptosis of effector T cells and the function of Treg cells. These data suggested that Pim2 may be an important target for in vivo anti-rejection therapies and for the ex vivo expansion of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells. PMID:23085945

  7. Soft-tissue coverage of complex dorsal hand and finger defects using the turnover adipofascial flap.

    PubMed

    Deal, D Nicole; Barnwell, Jonathan; Li, Zhongyu

    2011-02-01

    Complex hand wounds with exposed tendon or bone often require free tissue transfer. We report results in 13 patients with complex dorsal hand or digital wounds who underwent soft-tissue reconstruction using a turnover adipofascial flap and skin grafting over a 35-month period. The mean patient age was 44 years. Mechanism of injury included the following: three gunshot, four degloving, one table saw, three chain saw, one thumb avulsion, and one crush. Flap sizes varied from 2 × 4 to 10 × 18 cm, involving the dorsum of the hand in four patients, thumb in two patients, index finger in one patient, long finger in three patients, long and ring fingers in one patient, and web space in two patients. Skin graft survival was 100% in 12 patients. One patient died of sepsis from unrelated medical conditions. All fractures were healed at follow-up, and there were no donor site complications. The adipofascial flap is a good alternative to free tissue transfer for the coverage of complex dorsal hand and finger soft-tissue defects and is associated with technical ease, good cosmetic results, and minimal donor site morbidity.

  8. The racquet conjunctival flap.

    PubMed

    Cies, W A; Odeh-Nasrala, N

    1976-01-01

    In situations requiring a conjunctival flap to cover a corneal defect, the racquet flap technique is a simple relatively noninvasive method. Less conjunctiva is sacrificed and yet the flap is fully maintained by the one pedicle. The bulbar conjunctiva is maintained in an essentially normal state.

  9. Clinical reliability of radial forearm free flap in repair of buccal defects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The ideal method for buccal defects should provide good outcome of both function and appearance; our goal is to highlight the reliability of radial forearm flap in buccal reconstruction. Methods A retrospective study was conducted. From 2005 to 2012, 20 radial forearm flaps were used to repair the defects. We analyzed the superiority and reliability of the flap; in addition, we reviewed some related literature and made a comparison between radial forearm flap and platysma flap. Results All radial forearm flaps totally survived, but two flaps suffered venous obstruction, hematoma, respectively. Radial forearm flap preserved the original interincisal distance well. In our follow-up, all patients had sufficient mouth-opening width (mean: 4.3 cm). Conclusion Radial forearm flap is a reliable method for buccal defect reconstruction. PMID:23363472

  10. Skin and Neourethral Necrosis in Staged Hypospadias Repair

    PubMed Central

    Mahdavi, Alireza; Sarafi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Complications in hypospadias surgery are not uncommon however penile skin or flap necrosis is rarely reported. Ischemia of the flap or graft is a major complication in two stage repair of hypospadias. A 2-year old boy with proximal penile hypospadias, operated earlier for chordee correction and urethral plate formation with a preputial flap, presented for stage 2 repair. Ten days after surgery patient developed skin and neourethral necrosis. Early debridement was done followed by coverage with scrotal flaps. PMID:27398320

  11. Incidence of flap procedures in the management of burn patients.

    PubMed

    Lineaweaver, William C; Craft-Coffman, Beretta; Oswald, Tanya M

    2015-03-01

    Increased survival of burn patients presents opportunities for reconstructive strategies to improve outcomes in management of acute and secondary burn injuries. To assess one such strategy, namely flap reconstruction, we reviewed cases performed during the first 4.5 years of the JMS Burn and Reconstruction Center. We found that flap procedures accounted for 0.8% of acute cases (23 of 2723 procedures) and 33% of secondary cases (260 of 790 procedures). This initial finding shows that in this practice flap procedures are applied to a small number of acute problems while flap procedures comprise 33% of secondary procedures. Reconstructive flap surgery plays a measurable role in burn treatment at this center. Further study of outcomes and timing could lead to better understanding of optimal strategies for flap reconstruction in burns.

  12. Changes in quantitative norepinephrine levels in delayed pig flank flaps.

    PubMed

    Cutting, C; Bumsted, R; Bardach, J; Mooney, M; Johnson, S

    1982-04-01

    A quantitative norepinephrine assay was used to follow tissue norepinephrine concentrations serially in bipedicle delayed pig flank flaps. In contrast to a previous study by Palmer, norepinephrine concentration decreased significantly after 24 hr, but then gradually returned to normal at 10 days. This suggests that the pig flank flap maintains much of its adrenergic innervation following bipedicle delay. It appears unlikely that adrenergic denervation explains the delay phenomenon in this model. The combined results of this study and others suggest that the degree of adrenergic denervation of a flap is determined by the anatomic layout of the flap with respect to the underlying cutaneous adrenergic neural anatomy. This experiment suggests that the effectiveness of adrenergic blocking agents in improving flap survival is dependent on the degree of adrenergic denervation of the flap.

  13. The innervated anterolateral thigh flap: anatomical study and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Ribuffo, Diego; Cigna, Emanuele; Gargano, Francesco; Spalvieri, Cristina; Scuderi, Nicolò

    2005-02-01

    During the past 20 years, the neural anatomy of many flaps has been investigated, although no extensive studies have been reported yet on the anterolateral thigh flap. The goal of this study was to describe the sensory territories of the nerves supplying the anterolateral thigh flap with dissections on fresh cadavers and with local anesthetic injections in living subjects. The sensate anterolateral thigh flap is typically described as innervated by the lateral cutaneous femoral nerve. Two other well-known nerves, the superior perforator nerve and the median perforator nerve, which enter the flap at its medial border, might have a role in anterolateral thigh flap innervation. Twenty-nine anterolateral thigh flaps were elevated in 15 cadavers, and the lateral cutaneous femoral nerve, the superior perforator nerve, and median perforator nerve were dissected. In the injection study, the lateral cutaneous femoral nerve, superior perforator nerve, and median perforator nerve in 16 thighs of eight subjects were sequentially blocked. The resulting sensory deficit from each injection was mapped on the skin and superimposed on the marked anterolateral thigh flap territory. The study shows that the sensate anterolateral thigh flap is basically innervated by all three nerves. The lateral cutaneous femoral nerve was present in 29 of 29 thighs, whereas the superior perforator nerve was present in 25 of 29 and the median perforator nerve in 24 of 29 thighs. Furthermore, in the proximal half of the flap, the lateral cutaneous femoral nerve lies deep, whereas the superior perforator nerve and median perforator nerve lie more superficially. Whereas the lateral cutaneous femoral nerve innervates the entire flap, the superior perforator nerve innervates 25 percent of the flap and the median perforator nerve innervates 60 percent of the flap. Clinically, a small anterolateral thigh flap (7 x 5 cm) can be raised sparing the lateral cutaneous femoral nerve and using only the selective

  14. Perforator-based chimaeric thoracodorsal flap for foot reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Rausky, Jonathan; Binder, Jean-Philippe; Mazouz-Dorval, Sarra; Hamou, Cynthia; Revol, Marc

    2013-12-01

    The reconstruction of severe defects of the ankle and foot is a challenge. The ideal solution should combine a thin skin flap on the dorsum to allow shoe fitting and a muscle flap with a split-thickness skin graft on the weight-bearing area. Perforator-based thoracodorsal chimaeric flaps allow us to achieve these two goals with minimal donor-site morbidity. We present a reconstruction of an extended circumferential defect of the ankle with an exposed heel using a chimaeric thoracodorsal perforator flap with a serratus muscle flap. The skin flap was transferred on the dorsal foot, whereas the serratus anterior muscle was transferred on the exposed heel. Postoperative recovery was uneventful and the patient began full weight bearing after 3 months. Twelve months after reconstruction, natural shape and walking function were successfully achieved.

  15. Forehead flap in maxillofacial surgery: Our experiences

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Syed S.; Ghassemi, Alireza; Rehman, Sajjad A.; Ansari, Md. Kaleem

    2015-01-01

    The forehead flap is a commonly used technique to reconstruct the deep and large nasal defects. It can be conveniently performed under local or general anesthesia and provides a very good color and texture matching to the nasal skin, which makes it a suitable graft harvesting site for nasal reconstruction. It has only single disadvantage disadvantagethat it is a two-stage procedure and “finishing” surgeries are needed occasionally for best surgical and cosmetic outcome. In this paper, we describe three different applications of forehead flaps. PMID:26668457

  16. Reconstruction of the chin using an expanded deltopectoral flap following multiple recurrences of oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Chenicheri; Hackenson, David; Balakrishnan, Anila; Elliott, David; Careaga, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    An important alternative to free tissue transfer in patients requiring correction of soft tissue chin defects are local and regional flaps, such as the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap and deltopectoral flap. With predictable vascular supply, potential for large size, and good aesthetic match for facial and cervical skin, the deltopectoral flap can offer the reconstructive surgeon additional options in patients who lack vessels suitable for free tissue transfer. The use of an expanded deltopectoral flap for a staged reconstruction of the chin in a patient with cancer recurrences, concomitant resections, radiation and multiple reconstructions is reported.

  17. Reconstruction of the chin using an expanded deltopectoral flap following multiple recurrences of oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Chenicheri; Hackenson, David; Balakrishnan, Anila; Elliott, David; Careaga, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    An important alternative to free tissue transfer in patients requiring correction of soft tissue chin defects are local and regional flaps, such as the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap and deltopectoral flap. With predictable vascular supply, potential for large size, and good aesthetic match for facial and cervical skin, the deltopectoral flap can offer the reconstructive surgeon additional options in patients who lack vessels suitable for free tissue transfer. The use of an expanded deltopectoral flap for a staged reconstruction of the chin in a patient with cancer recurrences, concomitant resections, radiation and multiple reconstructions is reported. PMID:23997595

  18. Free deep inferior epigastric perforator flap used for management of post-pneumonectomy space empyema.

    PubMed

    Manley, Kate; Gelvez, Sandra; Meldon, Charlotte J; Levai, Irisz; Malata, Charles M; Coonar, Aman S

    2013-04-01

    Various solutions exist for management of post-pneumonectomy space empyema. We describe the use of a free deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap to fill the space and close a pleural window. Previously, flaps involving abdominal muscle or omentum have been used for this purpose. Abdominal surgery to harvest such flaps can impair ventilatory mechanics. The DIEP flap--harvested from the abdomen, and composed primarily of skin and muscle avoids this problem, thus is a desirable technique in patients with impaired lung function. We believe this is the first report of the DIEP flap to close a postpneumonectomy empyema space.

  19. [Pedicled versus free TRAM flap for breast reconstruction].

    PubMed

    Galla, T J; Lukas, B; Feller, A M

    1999-03-01

    In breast reconstruction, the free TRAM-flap offers many advantages over the pedicled TRAM-flap. Due to its superior perfusion, the free flap rarely develops necrosis. Shaping of the flap is easier due to the lack of the thick muscle pedicle. Because the rectus muscle is spared, there is minimal donor site morbidity. However, the necessary microvascular anastomoses reduced the acceptance of the free TRAM-flap. During a 13-months period, 51 breast reconstructions were performed in 41 patients, 31 unilateral and ten bilateral. 45 flaps served for delayed reconstruction and six flaps for immediate reconstruction. The operations were performed by two teams working simultaneously. The average operating time was 3.9 hours for unilateral and 6.9 hours for bilateral delayed reconstruction. For immediate reconstruction, 6.2 and 6.3 hours were required for uni- and bilateral procedures, respectively. In 38 flaps, the thoracodorsal vessels served as recipient vessels; 13 flaps were anastomosed to the internal mammary artery and vein. Postoperative complications were observed in 13 patients. Three vessel anastomoses had to be revised. In one flap, a partial necrosis occurred; in two flaps hematoma evacuation was necessary. Two patients suffered from fat necroses at the abdomen and one umbilicus was lost. Skin irritations and seromas at the abdomen occurred in five patients. Pulmonary embolism was diagnosed in one patient three weeks postoperatively. Abdominal hernias or bulging in the epigastric area were not observed up to 15 months after reconstruction. These results reveal a low complication rate for breast reconstruction with the free TRAM-flap. The advantages of this technique as compared to the pedicled technique are discussed.

  20. High-fat diet exacerbates inflammation and cell survival signals in the skin of ultraviolet B-irradiated C57BL/6 mice

    SciTech Connect

    Meeran, Syed M.; Singh, Tripti; Nagy, Tim R.; Katiyar, Santosh K.

    2009-12-15

    Inflammation induced by chronic exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation has been implicated in various skin diseases. We formulated the hypothesis that a high-fat diet may influence the UV-induced inflammatory responses in the skin. C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet or control diet and exposed to UVB radiation (120 mJ/cm{sup 2}) three times/week for 10 weeks. The mice were then sacrificed and skin and plasma samples collected for analysis of biomarkers of inflammatory responses using immunohistochemistry, western blotting, ELISA and real-time PCR. We found that the levels of inflammatory biomarkers were increased in the UVB-exposed skin of the mice fed the high-fat diet than the UVB-exposed skin of the mice fed the control diet. The levels of inflammatory biomarkers of early responses to UVB exposure (e.g., myeloperoxidase, cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin-E{sub 2}), proinflammatory cytokines (i.e., tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen and cell survival signals (phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and p-Akt-Ser{sup 473}) were higher in high-fat-diet-fed mouse skin than control-diet-fed mouse skin. The plasma levels of insulin growth factor-1 were greater in the UVB-irradiated mice fed the high-fat diet than the UVB-irradiated mice fed the control diet, whereas the levels of plasma adiponectin were significantly lower. This pronounced exacerbation of the UVB-induced inflammatory responses in the skin of mice fed a high-fat diet suggests that high-fat diet may increase susceptibility to inflammation-associated skin diseases, including the risk of skin cancer.

  1. Versatility of Pedicled Tensor Fascia Lata Flap: A Useful and Reliable Technique for Reconstruction of Different Anatomical Districts

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Md. Sohaib; Khurram, Mohd Fahud; Khan, Arshad Hafeez

    2014-01-01

    Aims and Objectives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the versatility of pedicled tensor fascia lata flap for reconstruction of various anatomical regions. Materials and Methods. In this retrospective study a total of 34 patients with defects over various anatomical regions were included. The defects were located over the trochanter (n = 12), groin (n = 8), perineum (n = 6), lower anterior abdomen (n = 6), gluteal region (n = 1), and ischial region (n = 1). The etiology of defects included trauma (n = 12), infection (n = 8), pressure sores (n = 8), and malignancy (n = 6). Reconstruction was performed using pedicled tensor fascia lata flaps. Patients were evaluated in terms of viability of the flap and donor site morbidity. The technical details of the operative procedure have also been outlined. Results. All the flaps survived well except 5 patients in which minor complications were noted and 1 who experienced complete flap loss. Of those with minor complications, 1 patient developed distal marginal necrosis and 1 developed infection which subsided within three days by dressings and antibiotics and in 2 patients partial loss of the skin graft occurred at the donor site out of which 1 required regrafting and another one healed completely with dressing and antibiotics. All the patients were followed up for an average period of 6 months, ranging from 1 to 12 months. Donor site morbidity was minimal. Conclusion. It was concluded that the pedicled tensor fascia lata flap is a versatile, reliable, easy, and less time consuming procedure for the coverage of defects around trochanter, groin, lower anterior abdomen, perineum, and ischial region. PMID:25485149

  2. Island medial plantar artery perforator flap for reconstruction of plantar defects.

    PubMed

    Koshima, Isao; Narushima, Mitsunaga; Mihara, Mokoto; Nakai, Ikuo; Akazawa, Satoshi; Fukuda, Norio; Watanabe, Yorikatsu; Nakagawa, Masahiro

    2007-11-01

    Three cases in which island medial plantar artery perforator flaps were successfully transferred for coverage of the plantar defects are described. This perforator flap is different from the medial plantar flap based on the medial plantar artery. The flap has no fascial component and is nourished only with the perforator of the medial plantar vessel. Therefore, transection of the medial plantar artery is usually unnecessary. This flap can cover defects on the forefoot and heel without transaction of the medial plantar system. The advantages of this flap are no need for deep or long dissection for the medial plantar vessel, no exposure of the plantar sensory nerve, a short time for flap elevation, minimal donor-site morbidity, relatively large flap survival, and no damage of both the posterior tibial and medial plantar neurovascular systems. PMID:17992152

  3. Treatment of Ischial Pressure Sores with Both Profunda Femoris Artery Perforator Flaps and Muscle Flaps

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chae Min; Yun, In Sik; Lee, Dong Won; Lew, Dae Hyun; Rah, Dong Kyun

    2014-01-01

    Background Reconstruction of ischial pressure sore defects is challenging due to extensive bursas and high recurrence rates. In this study, we simultaneously applied a muscle flap that covered the exposed ischium and large bursa with sufficient muscular volume and a profunda femoris artery perforator fasciocutaneous flap for the management of ischial pressure sores. Methods We retrospectively analyzed data from 14 patients (16 ischial sores) whose ischial defects had been reconstructed using both a profunda femoris artery perforator flap and a muscle flap between January 2006 and February 2014. We compared patient characteristics, operative procedure, and clinical course. Results All flaps survived the entire follow-up period. Seven patients (50%) had a history of surgery at the site of the ischial pressure sore. The mean age of the patients included was 52.8 years (range, 18-85 years). The mean follow-up period was 27.9 months (range, 3-57 months). In two patients, a biceps femoris muscle flap was used, while a gracilis muscle flap was used in the remaining patients. In four cases (25%), wound dehiscence occurred, but healed without further complication after resuturing. Additionally, congestion occurred in one case (6%), but resolved with conservative treatment. Among 16 cases, there was only one (6%) recurrence at 34 months. Conclusions The combination of a profunda femoris artery perforator fasciocutaneous flap and muscle flap for the treatment of ischial pressure sores provided pliability, adequate bulkiness and few long-term complications. Therefore, this may be used as an alternative treatment method for ischial pressure sores. PMID:25075362

  4. [Fasciocutaneous forearm flaps in the management of the catastrophic hand].

    PubMed

    Herrera-Tenorio, J G; Gómez-Cansino, E

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a series of cases with severe hand injury that required antebrachial flaps as part of treatment, and their functional results. The clinical records of patients with a diagnosis of traumatic hand injury and major skin cover losses, reconstructed with a reverse-flow forearm flap, were reviewed. The following variables were studied: type of flap, sex, age, mechanism of injury, receiver site, size, adjacent injuries and their treatment, vascular integrity test prior to flap placement, operative time, follow-up and complications. A total of 25 patients were included, with 25 reverse-flow fasciocutaneous forearm flaps; in 15 of them the blood supply was based on the radial artery and in 10 in the posterior interosseous artery. The Allen test was used in 13 cases of radial flaps (RF) to check the integrity of the superficial palmar arch; Doppler ultrasound was used in the remaining two cases. Sixteen cases (64%) underwent bone and tendon reconstruction, four cases (16%) isolated tenorrhaphy of one or several tendons, two cases (8%) isolated osteosynthesis, one case due to electrical burn underwent Littler opponensplasty with a radial flap in the anterior aspect of the wrist (4%), and in two cases (8%) an isolated flap was used. In one 67 year-old patient (4%) there was congestion and total loss of the posterior interosseous flap. The recommended indications for this type of flap are: coverage of the distal forearm, hand dorsum and fingers, first interdigital space, palmar region of the wrist and hand. Only two cases required coverage of the palmar region of the wrist and hand, and they were both treated with radial flaps, probably for reasons of anatomical convenience. PMID:26016286

  5. Flow Over Swept Flaps and Flap Tips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradshaw, Peter; Buice, Carl U.

    1995-01-01

    Preliminary measurements have been made of the flow over the tip of an unswept wing flap. To achieve an acceptable Reynolds number based on flap chord, the flap chord was chosen equal to the chord of the main airfoil (c = 19 in. approx. 0.48 m). The model was mounted in a 30 in. x 30 in. wind tunnel running at up to 100 ft/sec. (30 m/s): severe wind-tunnel interference was accepted, and any computations would be done using the tunnel walls as the boundaries of the computational domain. Maximum Reynolds number based on flap chord and tunnel speed was about 1.O x lO(exp 6). The grant ended before a full set of measurements could be made, but the work done so far yields a useful picture of the flow. The vortex originates at about mid-chord on the flap and rises rapidly above the chord line. It has a concentrated core, with total pressure lower than the ambient static pressure, and there is no evidence of large-scale wandering. A simple method of model construction, giving light weight and excellent surface finish, was developed.

  6. Facial flap complications.

    PubMed

    Zoumalan, Richard A; Murakami, Craig S

    2012-06-01

    Knowledge of fundamental concepts can help decrease the chance of complications in plastic surgery. Local flap reconstruction for facial defects has many pitfalls. This article describes common complications in local flap reconstruction of the face and describes strategies that prevent problems.

  7. Improved technique for evaluating oral free flaps by pinprick testing assisted by indocyanine green near-infrared fluorescence angiography.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Tetsuji; Masumoto, Kazuma; Uchiyama, Yoshiyuki; Watanabe, Yoshiko; Azuma, Ryuichi; Morimoto, Yuji; Katou, Fuminori

    2014-10-01

    In head and neck surgery, free-flap reconstruction using a microvascular anastomosis is an indispensable option after tumor ablation. Because the success of free-flap reconstruction is enhanced by rapid identification and salvage of failing flaps, postoperative monitoring of free flaps is essential. We describe a new technique using indocyanine green (ICG) near-infrared angiography and pinprick testing to monitor intraoral free flaps. A solution of ICG (Diagnogreen, 5 ml) was intravenously injected, and scanning was performed with a near-infrared video camera system. Thirty seconds after ICG injection, a pinprick test was performed by placing a 24-gage needle through the dermis to the subcutaneous fat of the flap. Pinprick testing during ICG fluorescence imaging was performed in 30 patients. Flap perfusion was confirmed in all patients, and all flaps survived postoperatively. ICG fluorescence imaging demonstrated that flap perfusion was maintained.

  8. Vaginal reconstruction using perineal-thigh flaps with subcutaneous pedicle.

    PubMed

    Chen, Z; Chen, C; Chen, M; Zhang, J; Wu, N; Wang, J

    1991-03-01

    A technique of vaginal reconstruction using bilateral, perineal-thigh flaps with subcutaneous pedicle is described. In this procedure, the flaps were raised bilaterally and introduced into an artificial space between the urinary bladder and rectum. The blood supply for the flaps flows from the perineal artery through anastomotic branches to the external pudendal artery. The authors used the technique on four patients, and all the flaps survived entirely. There was no complication. According to a more than two-year follow-up survey, the reconstructed vaginas are expansible and contract little. No stent is needed. There is good sensitivity in the wall of the artificial vagina because sensory nerves run through the flaps.

  9. Pectoralis major myocutaneous flap in head and neck reconstruction: An experience in 100 consecutive cases

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Mayank; Parshad, Sanjeev; Karwasra, Rajender Kumar; Singh, Virender

    2015-01-01

    Background: The pectoralis major myocutaneous (PMMC) flap has been used as a versatile and reliable flap since its first description by Ariyan in 1979. In India head and neck cancer patients usually present in the advanced stage making PMMC flap a viable option for reconstruction. Although free flap using microvascular technique is the standard of care, its use is limited by the availability of expertise and resources in developing world. The aim of this study is to identify the outcomes associated with PMMC flap reconstruction. Patients and Methods: After ethical approval we retrospectively analyzed 100 PMMC flap at a tertiary care hospital from 2006 to 2013. A total of 137 PMMC flap reconstructions were performed out of which follow-up data of 100 cases were available in our record. Results: A total of 100 patients were reviewed of these 86% were of oral cavity and oropharyngeal lesions, 8% were of hypopharyngeal, 3% were of laryngeal malignancies and 3 cases were of salivary gland tumor. Most tumors (83%) were advanced (T3 or T4 lesion). 95 PMMC flap reconstruction were done as a primary procedure, and 5 were salvage procedure. PMMC flap was used to cover mucosal defect in 84 patients, skin defects in 10 patient and both in 6 patients. Overall flap related complications were 40% with a major complication in 10% and minor complications in 30%. No total flap loss occurred in any patient, major flap occurred in 6% and minor flap loss in 12%. In minor flap loss patients, necrotic changes were mostly limited to skin. Orocutaneous and pharyngocutaneous fistula developed in 12 patients. 10% patients required re-surgery after developing various flap related complications Pleural empyema developed in 3 patients. Other minor complications such as neck skin dehiscence and intra-oral flap dehiscence developed in 26 patients. Conclusion: PMMC flap is a versatile flap with an excellent reach to face oral cavity and neck region. With limited expertise and resources, it is

  10. Dynamic properties of blood flow and leukocyte mobilization in infected flaps

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, L.J.; Price, D.C.; Mathes, S.J.; Hohn, D. )

    1990-11-01

    Two aspects of the inflammatory response to infection--blood flow alteration and leukocyte mobilization--are investigated in the canine model. The elevation of paired musculocutaneous (MC) and random pattern (RP) flaps allowed comparison of healing flaps with significant differences in blood flow (lower in random pattern flaps) and resistance to infection (greater in musculocutaneous flaps). Blood flow changes as determined by radioactive xenon washout were compared in normal skin and distal flap skin both after elevation and following bacterial inoculation. Simultaneous use of In-111 labeled leukocytes allowed determination of leukocyte mobilization and subsequent localization in response to flap infection. Blood flow significantly improved in the musculocutaneous flap in response to infection. Although total leukocyte mobilization in the random pattern flap was greater, the leukocytes in the musculocutaneous flap were localized around the site of bacterial inoculation within the dermis. Differences in the dynamic blood flow and leukocyte mobilization may, in part, explain the greater reliability of musculocutaneous flaps when transposed in the presence of infection.

  11. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity exacerbates ultraviolet B radiation-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression and cell survival signals in ultraviolet B-irradiated mouse skin

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Som D.; Katiyar, Santosh K.

    2010-05-01

    Obesity has been implicated in several inflammatory diseases and in different types of cancer. Chronic inflammation induced by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation has been implicated in various skin diseases, including melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. As the relationship between obesity and susceptibility to UV radiation-caused inflammation is not clearly understood, we assessed the role of obesity on UVB-induced inflammation, and mediators of this inflammatory response, using the genetically obese (leptin-deficient) mouse model. Leptin-deficient obese (ob/ob) mice and wild-type counterparts (C57/BL6 mice) were exposed to UVB radiation (120 mJ/cm{sup 2}) on alternate days for 1 month. The mice were then euthanized and skin samples collected for analysis of biomarkers of inflammatory responses using immunohistochemistry, western blotting, ELISA and real-time PCR. Here, we report that the levels of inflammatory responses were higher in the UVB-exposed skin of the ob/ob obese mice than those in the UVB-exposed skin of the wild-type non-obese mice. The levels of UVB-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression, prostaglandin-E{sub 2} production, proinflammatory cytokines (i.e., tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen and cell survival signals (phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and p-Akt-Ser{sup 473}) were higher in the skin of the ob/ob obese mice than the those in skin of their wild-type non-obese counterparts. Compared with the wild-type non-obese mice, the leptin-deficient obese mice also exhibited greater activation of NF-kappaB/p65 and fewer apoptotic cells in the UVB-irradiated skin. Our study suggests for the first time that obesity in mice is associated with greater susceptibility to UVB-induced inflammatory responses and, therefore, obesity may increase susceptibility to UVB-induced inflammation-associated skin diseases, including the risk of skin cancer.

  12. Free anterolateral thigh flap harvesting from paralytic limbs in post-polio syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Changchien, Chih-Hsuan; Chen, Wei-Chen; Su, Yu-Min

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We report two cases of poliomyelitis in which an anterolateral thigh myocutaneous free flap was harvested from the paralytic limb for oral reconstruction. We observed a decrease in the pedicle diameter of the anterolateral thigh flap, but the blood supply to the skin paddle was adequate. PMID:27583272

  13. The Modified 3-square Flap Method for Reconstruction of Toe Syndactyly.

    PubMed

    Iida, Naoshige; Watanabe, Ayako

    2016-07-01

    Bandoh reported the 3-square-flap method as a procedure for interdigital space reconstruction in patients with minor syndactyly. We recently modified this flap design so that it could be used in the treatment of toe syndactyly involving fusion of the areas distal to the proximal interphalangeal joint. With our method, the reconstructed interdigital space consists of 4 oblong flaps (A through D). Flaps A and D are designed on the dorsal side, flap B is designed on the frontal plane of the interdigital space, and flap C is designed on the plantar side. Flaps A, B, and C are raised immediately below the dermis in a manner that allowed slight fat tissue to adhere to each flap. Flap D is freed to a degree minimally needed for dislocation, while leaving a thick subcutaneous pedicle. Flaps A, B, and C are each folded in 90 degrees; flap D is dislocated to the proximal plane of the reconstructed digit, followed by skin suturing. In this process, suturing is avoided between flaps A and C, between flaps A and D, and between flaps B and D. During the period of 2011 to 2015, we treated 8 patients of toe syndactyly involving fusion distal to the proximal interphalangeal joint. Cases of congenital syndactyly received surgery between the ages of 8 and 11 months. Using this technique, flap ischemia/necrosis was not observed. During the postoperative follow-up period, the interdigital space retained sufficient depth without developing any scar contracture. No case required additional surgery. PMID:27536472

  14. The Modified 3-square Flap Method for Reconstruction of Toe Syndactyly

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Ayako

    2016-01-01

    Bandoh reported the 3-square-flap method as a procedure for interdigital space reconstruction in patients with minor syndactyly. We recently modified this flap design so that it could be used in the treatment of toe syndactyly involving fusion of the areas distal to the proximal interphalangeal joint. With our method, the reconstructed interdigital space consists of 4 oblong flaps (A through D). Flaps A and D are designed on the dorsal side, flap B is designed on the frontal plane of the interdigital space, and flap C is designed on the plantar side. Flaps A, B, and C are raised immediately below the dermis in a manner that allowed slight fat tissue to adhere to each flap. Flap D is freed to a degree minimally needed for dislocation, while leaving a thick subcutaneous pedicle. Flaps A, B, and C are each folded in 90 degrees; flap D is dislocated to the proximal plane of the reconstructed digit, followed by skin suturing. In this process, suturing is avoided between flaps A and C, between flaps A and D, and between flaps B and D. During the period of 2011 to 2015, we treated 8 patients of toe syndactyly involving fusion distal to the proximal interphalangeal joint. Cases of congenital syndactyly received surgery between the ages of 8 and 11 months. Using this technique, flap ischemia/necrosis was not observed. During the postoperative follow-up period, the interdigital space retained sufficient depth without developing any scar contracture. No case required additional surgery. PMID:27536472

  15. [Cover flaps for loss of substance on the heel. Apropos of 8 cases].

    PubMed

    Mulfinger, C; Bardot, J; Legre, R; Aubert, J P; Magalon, G; Bureau, H

    1993-10-01

    The anatomical and function characteristics of the heel region explain the large number of methods used and the differences of opinion particularly in relation to the repair of weightbearing zones. Our study is based on 28 patients in whom we performed: ten regional flaps, six cross-leg flaps, sixteen microsurgical flaps. The temporal fascia free flap provides good results on the posterior surface with minimal sequelae at the donor site. The medial plantar flap appears to be the most suitable flap for weight-bearing zones. Cross-lep flaps allow satisfactory repair of the weightbearing zone, but the scarred appearance of the donor site is inaesthetic and immobilisation is uncomfortable. The problem of large defects is still not resolved and no really satisfactory method is available among the various distant, skin, myocutaneous, pure muscle or cross-leg flaps. The solution may reside in a combination of two flaps allowing better adaptation to the morphology of the heel. The importance of heel sensation, particularly in the weight-bearing zone, led to the concept of the use of sensitive or resensitised flaps. After a review of the literature and our results, we did not find any correlation between the sensitivity obtained and the success of the reconstruction. It therefore seems useless to perform microscopic nerve sutures in order to resensitise distant heel flaps. The patient's cooperation is essential in every case to compensate for the decreased sensitivity by means of increased visual surveillance and the wearing of suitable shoes.

  16. Total arm flap.

    PubMed

    Becker, D W

    1987-11-01

    The development of an unusual and rarely indicated total arm flap is described in the context of widely indicated and automatically used principles passed down by the recognized father of plastic surgery, Sir Harold G. Gillies.

  17. Flapping of Insectile Wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yangyang; Kanso, Eva

    2015-11-01

    Insects use flight muscles attached at the base of the wings to produce impressive wing flapping frequencies. Yet the effects of muscle stiffness on the performance of insect wings remain unclear. Here, we construct an insectile wing model, consisting of two rigid wings connected at their base by an elastic torsional spring and submerged in an oscillatory flow. The wing system is free to rotate and flap. We first explore the extent to which the flyer can withstand roll perturbations, then study its flapping behavior and performance as a function of spring stiffness. We find an optimal range of spring stiffness that results in large flapping amplitudes, high force generation and good storage of elastic energy. We conclude by conjecturing that insects may select and adjust the muscle spring stiffness to achieve desired movement. These findings may have significant implications on the design principles of wings in micro air-vehicles.

  18. Increasing options in autologous microsurgical breast reconstruction: four free flaps for ‘stacked’ bilateral breast reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Nakul Gamanlal; Ramakrishnan, Venkat V.

    2016-01-01

    For autologous breast reconstruction, there are cases where one free flap cannot provide the volume of tissue required, and the concept of ‘stacked’ bilateral deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEP) flaps was developed, in which hemi-abdominal flaps are raised on each deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA), and both flaps transferred to the chest. In cases of bilateral breast reconstruction, stacked flaps may be required to achieve volume replacement, however options are not described. We demonstrate the use of stacked free flaps for bilateral breast reconstruction, using one DIEP flap stacked with one transverse upper gracilis (TUG) flap for each side. A 49-year-old woman, with BRCA1 mutation, presented for risk reduction mastectomies. Flap design was planned to achieve maximal projection and primary nipple reconstruction. This was able to be achieved by using the DIEP flap de-epithelialised and completely buried, with the flap orientated with the pedicle on its superficial surface, and the TUG flap lying superficially with its skin paddle used for nipple reconstruction and able to be monitored clinically. There were no flap or donor related complications and good aesthetic outcomes were achieved. This technique offers a further option in microsurgical breast reconstruction for patients in whom there is a paucity of abdominal tissue for reconstruction. PMID:27047791

  19. Low levels of glutathione are sufficient for survival of keratinocytes after UV irradiation and for healing of mouse skin wounds.

    PubMed

    Telorack, Michèle; Abplanalp, Jeannette; Werner, Sabine

    2016-08-01

    Reduced levels of the cellular antioxidant glutathione are associated with premature skin aging, cancer and impaired wound healing, but the in vivo functions of glutathione in the skin remain largely unknown. Therefore, we analyzed mice lacking the modifier subunit of the glutamate cysteine ligase (Gclm), the enzyme that catalyzes the rate-limiting step of glutathione biosynthesis. Glutathione levels in the skin of these mice were reduced by 70 %. However, neither skin development and homeostasis, nor UVA- or UVB-induced apoptosis in the epidermis were affected. Histomorphometric analysis of excisional wounds did not reveal wound healing abnormalities in young Gclm-deficient mice, while the area of hyperproliferative epithelium as well as keratinocyte proliferation were affected in aged mice. These findings suggest that low levels of glutathione are sufficient for wound repair in young mice, but become rate-limiting upon aging.

  20. Complement component 3 deficiency prolongs MHC-II disparate skin allograft survival by increasing the CD4(+) CD25(+) regulatory T cells population.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Quan-You; Liang, Shen-Ju; Li, Gui-Qing; Lv, Yan-Bo; Li, You; Tang, Ming; Zhang, Kun; Xu, Gui-Lian; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports suggest that complement system contributes to allograft rejection. However, its underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Herein, we investigate the role of complement component 3 (C3) in a single MHC-II molecule mismatched murine model of allograft rejection using C3 deficient mice (C3(-/-)) as skin graft donors or recipients. Compared with C3(+/+) B6 allografts, C3(-/-) B6 grafts dramatically prolonged survival in MHC-II molecule mismatched H-2(bm12) B6 recipients, indicating that C3 plays a critical role in allograft rejection. Compared with C3(+/+) allografts, both Th17 cell infiltration and Th1/Th17 associated cytokine mRNA levels were clearly reduced in C3(-/-) allografts. Moreover, C3(-/-) allografts caused attenuated Th1/Th17 responses, but increased CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cell expression markedly in local intragraft and H-2(bm12) recipients. Depletion of Treg cells by anti-CD25 monoclonal antibody (mAb) negated the survival advantages conferred by C3 deficiency. Our results indicate for the first time that C3 deficiency can prolong MHC-II molecule mismatched skin allograft survival, which is further confirmed to be associated with increased CD4(+) CD25(+) Treg cell population expansion and attenuated Th1/Th17 response. PMID:27641978

  1. Complement component 3 deficiency prolongs MHC-II disparate skin allograft survival by increasing the CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells population

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Quan-you; Liang, Shen-ju; Li, Gui-qing; Lv, Yan-bo; Li, You; Tang, Ming; Zhang, Kun; Xu, Gui-lian; Zhang, Ke-qin

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports suggest that complement system contributes to allograft rejection. However, its underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Herein, we investigate the role of complement component 3 (C3) in a single MHC-II molecule mismatched murine model of allograft rejection using C3 deficient mice (C3−/−) as skin graft donors or recipients. Compared with C3+/+ B6 allografts, C3−/− B6 grafts dramatically prolonged survival in MHC-II molecule mismatched H-2bm12 B6 recipients, indicating that C3 plays a critical role in allograft rejection. Compared with C3+/+ allografts, both Th17 cell infiltration and Th1/Th17 associated cytokine mRNA levels were clearly reduced in C3−/− allografts. Moreover, C3−/− allografts caused attenuated Th1/Th17 responses, but increased CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cell expression markedly in local intragraft and H-2bm12 recipients. Depletion of Treg cells by anti-CD25 monoclonal antibody (mAb) negated the survival advantages conferred by C3 deficiency. Our results indicate for the first time that C3 deficiency can prolong MHC-II molecule mismatched skin allograft survival, which is further confirmed to be associated with increased CD4+ CD25+ Treg cell population expansion and attenuated Th1/Th17 response. PMID:27641978

  2. Control of Flap Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenblatt, David

    2005-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation was carried out on a semi-span wing model to assess the feasibility of controlling vortices emanating from outboard flaps and tip-flaps by actively varying the degree of boundary layer separation. Separation was varied by means of perturbations produced from segmented zero-efflux oscillatory blowing slots, while estimates of span loadings and vortex sheet strengths were obtained by integrating wing surface pressures. These estimates were used as input to inviscid rollup relations as a means of predicting changes to the vortex characteristics resulting from the perturbations. Surveys of flow in the wake of the outboard and tip-flaps were made using a seven-hole probe, from which the vortex characteristics were directly deduced. Varying the degree of separation had a marked effect on vortex location, strength, tangential velocity, axial velocity and size for both outboard and tip-flaps. Qualitative changes in vortex characteristics were well predicted by the inviscid rollup relations, while the failure to account for viscosity was presumed to be the main reason for observed discrepancies. Introducing perturbations near the outboard flap-edges or on the tip-flap exerted significant control over vortices while producing negligible lift excursions.

  3. Noninvasive Free Flap Monitoring Using Eulerian Video Magnification

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan Fang; Vuong, Christopher; Walker, Paul Charles; Peterson, Nathaniel Ray; Inman, Jared Christian; Filho, Pedro Alcantara Andrade; Lee, Steve Choon-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Eulerian Video Magnification (EVM) can enhance subtle changes in videos to reveal what was once invisible to the naked eye. In this proof of concept study, we investigated using EVM as a novel form of free flap monitoring. Free flaps with skin paddles were filmed in the operating room with manipulation of their pedicles. In a representative 77-year-old female who received a latissimus dorsi-serratus-rib composite free flap, EVM was able to detect blockage of arterial or venous supply instantaneously, providing a visible representation through degree of color change in videos. EVM has the potential to serve as a powerful free flap monitoring tool with the benefit of being noninvasive, sensitive, easy-to-use, and nearly cost-free. PMID:27092284

  4. Double perforators-based superior gluteal artery propeller flap for reconstruction of lumbar defects.

    PubMed

    Onyekwelu, Obi; Kosutic, Damir

    2016-01-01

    Wide local excision of skin cancer in the lumbar area is a challenge to reconstruct. We report on the successful use of a two perforators-based superior gluteal artery perforator propeller flap, for the reconstruction of a lumbar defect.

  5. Creative Use of Contralateral Combined Myocutaneous Free Flap for Empyema Cavity.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hannah B; Mohan, Anita T; Coonar, Aman S; Malata, Charles M

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of chronic postpneumonectomy empyema is a reconstructive problem that is always complicated by previous thoracic surgical procedures. Free flaps may be used because they effectively obliterate remaining pleural cavity dead space. Combined muscle free flaps with common vascular pedicles are viable alternatives when single muscle flaps do not possess adequate bulk. This case describes a contralateral combined latissimus dorsi-serratus anterior myocutaneous free flap with anastomoses to thoracodorsal vessels used for correction of chronic empyema. We also describe successful correction of a posterolateral chest wall defect using the adjacent axillary system as a recipient vessel. An accompanying skin paddle also enabled reliable cutaneous coverage of the external defect. PMID:26694302

  6. Anterolateral thigh adipofascial flap for the restoration of facial contour deformities.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiaolei; Teng, Li; Xu, Jiajie; Lu, Jianjian; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Bo; Zhao, Zhenmin

    2010-07-01

    From January 2000 to May 2008, 50 patients with facial contour deformities underwent soft tissue augmentation with 51 anterolateral thigh (ALT) adipofascial flaps. Fifty flaps survived with no complications; partial fat necrosis occurred in one flap. Mean follow-up was 16 months. Flaps ranged from 10 x 6 cm to 20 x 12 cm. Perforators were found in 50 flaps, 43 musculocutaneous perforators (84.3%) and 7 septocutaneous perforators (13.7%), with a mean of 2.5 perforators per flap. In one flap (2.0%), no perforator was found. In this case, we used an anteromedial thigh adipofascial flap using the medial branch of the descending branch of lateral circumflex femoral artery as the vascular pedicle. Relatively symmetric facial contour was achieved in 20 cases. In 30 cases, adjunctive procedures including flap debulking, fat injection, and resuspension were necessary, and 23 patients achieved satisfactory outcomes. We conclude that the ALT adipofascial flap can be successfully elevated and transplanted for the correction of soft tissue facial defects. This flap can provide tissue to fill large defects, and posses the qualities of pliability, an excellent blood supply, ease of suspension and fixation, and minimal morbidity at the donor site. PMID:20049917

  7. An ideal and versatile material for soft-tissue coverage: experiences with most modifications of the anterolateral thigh flap.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Omer; Coşkunfirat, O Koray; Ozgentaş, H Ege

    2004-07-01

    Free anterolateral thigh flaps are a popular flap used for the reconstruction of various soft-tissue defects. From April, 2002 to June, 2003, 32 free anterolateral thigh flaps were used to reconstruct soft-tissue defects. Twenty-three of these flaps were used for lower extremity reconstruction, and nine were used for head and neck reconstruction. There were 24 male and eight female patients, with ages between nine and 82 years. The size of the flaps ranged from 11 to 32 cm in length and 6 to 18 cm in width. Five flaps required reoperation for vascular compromise in four patients and for twisting of the pedicle in another patient. While four of these were salvaged, one flap was lost due to recipient vessel problems. Musculocutaneous perforators were found in 23 cases, and septocutaneous perforators were found in nine cases. In four cases, thinning of the flap was performed. The flap was used as a flow-through type for lower extremity reconstruction in three patients. In two patients, the flap was used as a neurosensory type for foot reconstruction. Eighteen cases underwent split-thickness skin grafting of the donor site and, in the remaining cases, the donor sites were closed primarily. In three patients, the donor areas required a partial skin regrafting procedure. No infections or hematomas were observed. Despite some variations in its vascular anatomy, the anterolateral thigh flap offers the following advantages: 1) it has a long and large-caliber vascular pedicle; 2) it has a wide, reliable skin paddle; 3) it may be harvested as a neurosensory flap; 4) it can be harvested whether its pedicle is septocutaneous or musculocutaneous; 5) it can be designed as a flow-through flap; 6) it can be elevated as a thin or musculocutaneous flap; and 7) the procedure can be performed by two teams working simultaneously, and no positional changes are required.

  8. Blowing Flap Experiment: PIV Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Stead, Daniel J.; Bremmer, David M.

    2004-01-01

    PIV measurements of the flow in the region of a flap side edge are presented for several flap configurations. The test model is a NACA 63(sub 2)-215 Hicks Mod-B main element airfoil with a half-span Fowler flap. Air is blown from small slots located along the flap side edge on either the top, bottom or side surfaces. The test set up is described and flow measurements for a baseline and three blowing flap configurations are presented. The effects that the flap tip jets have on the structure of the flap side edge flow are discussed for each of the flap configurations tested. The results indicate that blowing air from a slot located along the top surface of the flap greatly weakened the top vortex system and pushed it further off the top surface. Blowing from the bottom flap surface kept the strong side vortex further outboard while blowing from the side surface only strengthened the flap vortex system. It is concluded that blowing from the top or bottom surfaces of the flap may lead to a reduction of flap side edge noise.

  9. [Harvesting technique of chimeric multiple paddles fibular flap for wide oromandibular defects].

    PubMed

    Foy, J-P; Qassemyar, Q; Assouly, N; Temam, S; Kolb, F

    2016-08-01

    Carcinological head and neck reconstruction still remains a challenge due to the volume and varied tissues needed. Large and wide oromandibular defects require, not just the bone but also soft tissues for the pelvilingual reconstruction and therefore, a second free flap may become necessary in addition to a fibular flap. The option of an unique chimeric flap based on the fibular artery and its branches is less known whereas it offers the advantage of a unique flap with bone, muscle and multiple skin paddles, independent of each other. The aim of this technical note is to present step by step the surgical procedure of this chimeric flap and share this method that avoids a second free flap.

  10. Arsenic transformation predisposes human skin keratinocytes to UV-induced DNA damage yet enhances their survival apparently by diminishing oxidant response

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Yang; Kojima, Chikara; Chignell, Colin; Mason, Ronald; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2011-09-15

    Inorganic arsenic and UV, both human skin carcinogens, may act together as skin co-carcinogens. We find human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) are malignantly transformed by low-level arsenite (100 nM, 30 weeks; termed As-TM cells) and with transformation concurrently undergo full adaptation to arsenic toxicity involving reduced apoptosis and oxidative stress response to high arsenite concentrations. Oxidative DNA damage (ODD) is a possible mechanism in arsenic carcinogenesis and a hallmark of UV-induced skin cancer. In the current work, inorganic arsenite exposure (100 nM) did not induce ODD during the 30 weeks required for malignant transformation. Although acute UV-treatment (UVA, 25 J/cm{sup 2}) increased ODD in passage-matched control cells, once transformed by arsenic to As-TM cells, acute UV actually further increased ODD (> 50%). Despite enhanced ODD, As-TM cells were resistant to UV-induced apoptosis. The response of apoptotic factors and oxidative stress genes was strongly mitigated in As-TM cells after UV exposure including increased Bcl2/Bax ratio and reduced Caspase-3, Nrf2, and Keap1 expression. Several Nrf2-related genes (HO-1, GCLs, SOD) showed diminished responses in As-TM cells after UV exposure consistent with reduced oxidant stress response. UV-exposed As-TM cells showed increased expression of cyclin D1 (proliferation gene) and decreased p16 (tumor suppressor). UV exposure enhanced the malignant phenotype of As-TM cells. Thus, the co-carcinogenicity between UV and arsenic in skin cancer might involve adaptation to chronic arsenic exposure generally mitigating the oxidative stress response, allowing apoptotic by-pass after UV and enhanced cell survival even in the face of increased UV-induced oxidative stress and increased ODD. - Highlights: > Arsenic transformation adapted to UV-induced apoptosis. > Arsenic transformation diminished oxidant response. > Arsenic transformation enhanced UV-induced DNA damage.

  11. Double-pedicle abdominal perforator free flaps for unilateral breast reconstruction: new horizons in microsurgical tissue transfer to the breast.

    PubMed

    Hamdi, Moustapha; Khuthaila, Dana K; Van Landuyt, Koenraad; Roche, Nathalie; Monstrey, Stan

    2007-01-01

    The DIEAP (deep inferior epigastric artery perforator) flap is a suitable option for breast reconstruction resulting in excellent aesthetic outcome, and minimal donor site morbidity. Contraindications for use of the DIEAP flap may include previous abdominal liposuction and/or surgery, or lack of abdominal tissue. The purpose of this paper is to describe options of using abdominal perforator flaps, based on double-pedicle techniques, despite these contraindications. A retrospective evaluation was carried out on a series of 16 patients who required abdominal double-pedicle free perforator flaps for unilateral breast reconstruction since June 2002. The indications were multiple abdominal scars, previous abdominal liposuction and thin patients in five, three and eight cases, respectively. Preoperative mapping of the vascular network was done using Duplex and/or multi-detector CT scan imaging. Clinical evaluation of medical charts was done regarding patients' characteristics, surgical techniques, ischaemia/total operative time and complications. A clinical evaluation was done on all patients with average follow up of 15 months. Fat necrosis was investigated clinically and by mammogram examination. Different microsurgical techniques were performed to provide enough blood supply to the requested flaps: Perforator (P) to contralateral Deep Inferior Epigastric (DIE) anastomosis (P/DIEAP), in two patients; bilateral DIE vessels (DIEAP/DIEAP) in seven patients; and DIE with SIE (superficial inferior epigastric) vessels in seven patients (DIEAP/SIEA). One pedicle was always anastomosed to the internal mammary vessels. The second pedicle was anastomosed end-to-end to a side branch of the DIE or end-to-side with the DIE pedicle in 13 cases. The thoracodorsal vessels were used as recipient vessels for the second pedicle in three cases. Average operative time was 6h 30min (range 5h 30min-8h). All 16 flaps survived and fat necrosis occurred in one case. The harvesting of perforator

  12. Bilateral Pedicled Superficial Inferior Epigastric Artery Flap in the Treatment of Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Don; Saber, Sepideh; Patel, Ketan; Carey, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Summary: The authors present a new technique in surgically treating hidradenitis suppurativa (HS), a debilitating skin condition. In HS, surgical treatment is often the best option because of the high recurrence rates despite extensive medical treatment. A commonly successful surgical method is using skin flaps after excision of the affected area. A superficial inferior epigastric artery flap is demonstrated here as a new alternative approach to treating a case of extensive HS of the groin. By using the pedicled superficial inferior epigastric artery flap for groin reconstruction, inguinal HS can be widely excised and reconstructed with minimal donor-site morbidity and a good aesthetic outcome. PMID:27622101

  13. Bilateral Pedicled Superficial Inferior Epigastric Artery Flap in the Treatment of Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Don; Saber, Sepideh; Patel, Ketan; Carey, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Summary: The authors present a new technique in surgically treating hidradenitis suppurativa (HS), a debilitating skin condition. In HS, surgical treatment is often the best option because of the high recurrence rates despite extensive medical treatment. A commonly successful surgical method is using skin flaps after excision of the affected area. A superficial inferior epigastric artery flap is demonstrated here as a new alternative approach to treating a case of extensive HS of the groin. By using the pedicled superficial inferior epigastric artery flap for groin reconstruction, inguinal HS can be widely excised and reconstructed with minimal donor-site morbidity and a good aesthetic outcome.

  14. Effect of steam and lactic acid treatments on the survival of Salmonella Enteritidis and Campylobacter jejuni inoculated on chicken skin.

    PubMed

    Chaine, Aline; Arnaud, Elodie; Kondjoyan, Alain; Collignan, Antoine; Sarter, Samira

    2013-04-01

    Campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis are the most frequently reported zoonotic infectious diseases. The present work evaluated the effectiveness of steam treatment at 100 °C for 8s, a 5% lactic acid treatment for 1 min and their combination for inactivating Salmonella Enteritidis and Campylobacter jejuni inoculated on chicken skin. The impact of each treatment on the total aerobic mesophilic bacteria and the effect of rinsing after contact with lactic acid were also evaluated. Residual bacteria were counted immediately after treatment or after seven days of storage at 4 °C. Results demonstrated the immediate efficiency of the steam and the combined treatments with reductions of approximately 6 and 5 log cfu/cm2 respectively for S. Enteritidis and C. jejuni. They also showed significant reductions (equal to or >3.2 log cfu/cm2) in the total aerobic mesophilic plate count. Lactic acid had a persistent effect on pathogen growth during storage which was significantly higher when the skin was not rinsed, reaching reductions of 3.8 log cfu/cm2 for both S. Enteritidis and C. jejuni. Only the combined treatments significantly reduced the recovery of the total aerobic mesophilic bacteria during storage. The significant reductions in both pathogens and total aerobic mesophilic bacteria on treated chicken skins are possible ways to improve the safety and shelf life of the product although high levels of indigenous non-pathogenic bacteria may be beneficial due to their protective effect against potential re-contamination of chicken skin.

  15. Flap Endonuclease 1

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Lata; Bambara, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    First discovered as a structure-specific endonuclease that evolved to cut at the base of single-stranded flaps, flap endonuclease (FEN1) is now recognized as a central component of cellular DNA metabolism. Substrate specificity allows FEN1 to process intermediates of Okazaki fragment maturation, long-patch base excision repair, telomere maintenance, and stalled replication fork rescue. For Okazaki fragments, the RNA primer is displaced into a 5′ flap and then cleaved off. FEN1 binds to the flap base and then threads the 5′ end of the flap through its helical arch and active site to create a configuration for cleavage. The threading requirement prevents this active nuclease from cutting the single-stranded template between Okazaki fragments. FEN1 efficiency and specificity are critical to the maintenance of genome fidelity. Overall, recent advances in our knowledge of FEN1 suggest that it was an ancient protein that has been fine-tuned over eons to coordinate many essential DNA transactions. PMID:23451868

  16. Flap prefabrication and prelamination with tissue-engineered cartilage.

    PubMed

    Staudenmaier, Rainer; Hoang, T Nguyen; Kleinsasser, Norbert; Schurr, Christian; Frölich, Kathrin; Wenzel, Magdalene M; Aigner, Joachim

    2004-10-01

    In reconstructive surgery, the integration of tissue-engineered cartilage in a prefabricated free flap may make it possible to generate flaps combining a variety of tissue components, to meet the special requirements of particular defects. One aim of the present study was to investigate prefabrication of a microvascular free flap by implanting a vessel loop under a skin flap in a rabbit model. A second aim was to report on the authors' preliminary experiences in prelaminating prefabricated flaps with autologous tissue-engineered cartilage, in terms of matrix development, inflammatory reaction, and host-tissue interaction. The flap was prefabricated by implanting a vessel loop under a random-pattern abdominal skin flap. The tissue-engineered cartilage constructs were made by isolating chondrocytes from auricular biopsies. Following a period of amplification, the cells were seeded onto a non-woven scaffold made of a hyaluronic-acid derivative and cultivated for 2 weeks. One cell-biomaterial construct was placed beneath the prefabicated flap, and two additional constructs were placed subcutaneously and intramuscularly. In addition, a biomaterial sample without cells was placed subcutaneously to provide a control. All implanted specimens were left in position for 6 or 12 weeks. Neovascularization in the prefabricated flap and biomaterial construct was analyzed by angiography. After explantation, the specimens were examined by histologic and immunohistochemical methods. The prefabricated flaps showed a well-developed network of blood vessels between the implanted vessel loop and the original random-pattern blood supply. The tissue-engineered constructs remained stable in size and showed signs of tissue similar to hyaline cartilage, as evidenced by the expression of cartilage-specific collagen type II and proteoglycans. No inflammatory reactions were observed. The physiologic environment of the autologous rabbit model provided favorable conditions for matrix deposition

  17. A standardized model for predicting flap failure using indocyanine green dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Terence M.; Moore, Lindsay S.; Warram, Jason M.; Greene, Benjamin J.; Nakhmani, Arie; Korb, Melissa L.; Rosenthal, Eben L.

    2016-03-01

    Techniques that provide a non-invasive method for evaluation of intraoperative skin flap perfusion are currently available but underutilized. We hypothesize that intraoperative vascular imaging can be used to reliably assess skin flap perfusion and elucidate areas of future necrosis by means of a standardized critical perfusion threshold. Five animal groups (negative controls, n=4; positive controls, n=5; chemotherapy group, n=5; radiation group, n=5; chemoradiation group, n=5) underwent pre-flap treatments two weeks prior to undergoing random pattern dorsal fasciocutaneous flaps with a length to width ratio of 2:1 (3 x 1.5 cm). Flap perfusion was assessed via laser-assisted indocyanine green dye angiography and compared to standard clinical assessment for predictive accuracy of flap necrosis. For estimating flap-failure, clinical prediction achieved a sensitivity of 79.3% and a specificity of 90.5%. When average flap perfusion was more than three standard deviations below the average flap perfusion for the negative control group at the time of the flap procedure (144.3+/-17.05 absolute perfusion units), laser-assisted indocyanine green dye angiography achieved a sensitivity of 81.1% and a specificity of 97.3%. When absolute perfusion units were seven standard deviations below the average flap perfusion for the negative control group, specificity of necrosis prediction was 100%. Quantitative absolute perfusion units can improve specificity for intraoperative prediction of viable tissue. Using this strategy, a positive predictive threshold of flap failure can be standardized for clinical use.

  18. Chimeric Superficial Circumflex Iliac Perforator Flap Including External Oblique Fascia: A Refinement of Conventional Harvesting

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez Garrido, Manuel; Vega Garcia, Carmen; Pons Playa, Gemma; Masiá Ayala, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    Summary: The superficial circumflex iliac perforator (SCIP) flap is one of the most suitable flaps to cover distal extremity defects due to its lack of bulkiness and donor site concealment. However, it is less popular than other perforator flaps due to its anatomical variations, short pedicle length, and small caliber vessels. We describe a novel design for the SCIP flap, consisting of a chimeric flap with a piece of the external oblique muscle fascia. The purpose of this design is to cover and protect the vascular anastomosis in distal lower limb defects where recipient vessels are superficial and skin coverage is poor. In addition, lengthening the pedicle with this design makes the flap more versatile. The addition of a cuff of fascia in harvesting of the SCIP flap lengthens the pedicle, allowing easier insetting of the skin paddle and providing complete protection and coverage of the vessels. This procedure allows greater versatility in inset of the skin paddle and is particularly suitable in cases where recipient vessels are superficial or when skin coverage is poor. PMID:27482505

  19. A Rapid, Simple, Effective, and Inexpensive Reconstructed Nipple Flap Guard

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Khurrum

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Nipple reconstruction is a commonly performed component of breast reconstruction. A nipple reconstructed using local skin flaps requires protection from trauma. Here we describe a novel, effective, simple, rapid, inexpensive, and convenient method to protect a reconstructed nipple in the early postoperative period. PMID:26579352

  20. Bilobed flap in sole surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Conejo-Mir, J.; Bueno Montes, J.; Moreno Gimenez, J.C.; Camacho-Martinez, F.

    1985-09-01

    The bilobed flap is a simple reconstructive technique principally used to correct substantial defects in the facial region. The authors present their experience with this local flap in the difficult plantar area, with excellent short-term functional results. They describe the special characteristics of the bilobed flap in this zone, and comment on its indications and possible complications.

  1. Hemato - Immunological and biochemical parameters, skin antibacterial activity, and survival in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following the diet supplemented with Mentha piperita against Yersinia ruckeri.

    PubMed

    Adel, Milad; Pourgholam, Reza; Zorriehzahra, Jalil; Ghiasi, Maryam

    2016-08-01

    This study was aimed to assess the potential effects of Mentha piperita on the hemato - immunological and biochemical parameters, skin antibacterial activity and protection against Yersinia ruckeri infection in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Fish were divided into 4 groups before being fed diets supplemented with 0, 1, 2 and 3% of Mentha piperita (MP) plant extract for 8 weeks. Dose-dependent increases immune (both in skin mucus and blood serum) and hematological parameters (number of red and white cells, hematocrit and hemoglobin contents), as well as in respiratory burst activity, total protein, albumin, and neutrophil levels in fish fed supplemented diets compared to the control fish. Furthermore, dietary MP plant extract supplements have no significant effect on blood biochemical parameters and enzymatic activities of liver determined in serum of rainbow trout. After 8 weeks the cessation of feeding with MP plant extract, survival rates of 54.4%, 63.6% and 75.2% were recorded in groups which received 1, 2 and 3% of MP plant extract of feed, respectively, compared to 34.6% survivals in the control. This study underlying several positive effects of dietary administration of MP plant extract to farmed fish.

  2. Hemato - Immunological and biochemical parameters, skin antibacterial activity, and survival in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following the diet supplemented with Mentha piperita against Yersinia ruckeri.

    PubMed

    Adel, Milad; Pourgholam, Reza; Zorriehzahra, Jalil; Ghiasi, Maryam

    2016-08-01

    This study was aimed to assess the potential effects of Mentha piperita on the hemato - immunological and biochemical parameters, skin antibacterial activity and protection against Yersinia ruckeri infection in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Fish were divided into 4 groups before being fed diets supplemented with 0, 1, 2 and 3% of Mentha piperita (MP) plant extract for 8 weeks. Dose-dependent increases immune (both in skin mucus and blood serum) and hematological parameters (number of red and white cells, hematocrit and hemoglobin contents), as well as in respiratory burst activity, total protein, albumin, and neutrophil levels in fish fed supplemented diets compared to the control fish. Furthermore, dietary MP plant extract supplements have no significant effect on blood biochemical parameters and enzymatic activities of liver determined in serum of rainbow trout. After 8 weeks the cessation of feeding with MP plant extract, survival rates of 54.4%, 63.6% and 75.2% were recorded in groups which received 1, 2 and 3% of MP plant extract of feed, respectively, compared to 34.6% survivals in the control. This study underlying several positive effects of dietary administration of MP plant extract to farmed fish. PMID:27245867

  3. Systematic Review and Operative Technique of Recalcitrant Pressure Ulcers Using a Fillet Flap Technique

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Venkat K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this article is to describe the indications, operative technique, outcomes, and systematic review of the literature on the reconstruction of patients with end-stage pressure ulcers using a fillet flap technique. In this technique, the femur, tibia, and fibula are removed from the thigh and leg, and the soft tissue is used as a pedicled, or free, myocutaneous flap for reconstruction. Long-term outcomes, salient surgical technique of flap elevation, and design are detailed for patients who had a fillet of leg flap for reconstruction of extensive pressure ulcers. Methods: The indications, surgical technique, and postoperative outcomes of 5 patients who had pedicled fillet flaps are reviewed including patient age, sex, underlying comorbidities, duration of paraplegia, operative technique, and complications. A systematic review of the literature was performed searching PubMed, Cochrane Database, and Medline with the following MeSH terms: pressure ulcer, pressure sore, decubitus ulcer, fillet flap, and fillet flap. Inclusion criteria were use of a fillet technique, article data on the number of reconstructions before fillet flap, complications, and English language. Results: Most of our patients were male 75% (n = 3) with an average age of 47.5 years, had been paralyzed for an average of 16 years, and had few medical comorbidities. Two patients (3 flaps) required hip disarticulation, 1 patient had a bilateral fillet flaps, and 3 patients had resection of tibia/fibula. After following patients for an average of 1.4 years (4 mo to 2 yr), complications were limited to 1 patient who had partial-thickness flap loss at the distal skin flap that healed by secondary intention and 1 patient who had ulcer recurrence because of noncompliance. Four articles met inclusion criteria for systematic review and 3 were excluded. Conclusions: The fillet of leg flap remains a useful and reliable method of reconstructing end-stage pressure ulcers. PMID:27622082

  4. Systematic Review and Operative Technique of Recalcitrant Pressure Ulcers Using a Fillet Flap Technique

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Venkat K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this article is to describe the indications, operative technique, outcomes, and systematic review of the literature on the reconstruction of patients with end-stage pressure ulcers using a fillet flap technique. In this technique, the femur, tibia, and fibula are removed from the thigh and leg, and the soft tissue is used as a pedicled, or free, myocutaneous flap for reconstruction. Long-term outcomes, salient surgical technique of flap elevation, and design are detailed for patients who had a fillet of leg flap for reconstruction of extensive pressure ulcers. Methods: The indications, surgical technique, and postoperative outcomes of 5 patients who had pedicled fillet flaps are reviewed including patient age, sex, underlying comorbidities, duration of paraplegia, operative technique, and complications. A systematic review of the literature was performed searching PubMed, Cochrane Database, and Medline with the following MeSH terms: pressure ulcer, pressure sore, decubitus ulcer, fillet flap, and fillet flap. Inclusion criteria were use of a fillet technique, article data on the number of reconstructions before fillet flap, complications, and English language. Results: Most of our patients were male 75% (n = 3) with an average age of 47.5 years, had been paralyzed for an average of 16 years, and had few medical comorbidities. Two patients (3 flaps) required hip disarticulation, 1 patient had a bilateral fillet flaps, and 3 patients had resection of tibia/fibula. After following patients for an average of 1.4 years (4 mo to 2 yr), complications were limited to 1 patient who had partial-thickness flap loss at the distal skin flap that healed by secondary intention and 1 patient who had ulcer recurrence because of noncompliance. Four articles met inclusion criteria for systematic review and 3 were excluded. Conclusions: The fillet of leg flap remains a useful and reliable method of reconstructing end-stage pressure ulcers.

  5. A triceps musculocutaneous flap for chest-wall defects

    SciTech Connect

    Hartrampf, C.R. Jr.; Elliott, L.F.; Feldman, S. )

    1990-09-01

    A posterior upper arm flap based on the profunda brachii vessels has been described to cover soft-tissue defects in the upper anterolateral chest. In our series, the posterior upper arm skin is elevated with the long head of the triceps muscle to cover seven chest-wall defects resulting from indolent postradiation open wounds following partial TRAM flap failure (n = 2), soft-tissue deficiencies following partial TRAM flap loss (n = 3), and primarily as an ancillary flap in TRAM flap breast reconstruction (n = 2). This flap also may be used to supply well-vascularized tissue in the regions of the shoulder, axilla, and posterolateral back. A prerequisite for this operation is redundant tissue of the upper arm often present in middle-aged women and in patients with lymphedema following mastectomy. In our series of seven patients, all donor sites were closed primarily, and there was no subjective functional deficit following transfer of the long head of the triceps muscle.

  6. [The dorsoradial flap: a new flap for hand reconstruction. Anatomical study and clinical applications].

    PubMed

    Bakhach, J; Sentucq-Rigal, J; Mouton, P; Boileau, R; Panconi, B; Guimberteau, J-C

    2006-02-01

    The authors report a new cutaneous flap harvested from the dorsal and distal quarter of the forearm: the dorsoradial flap. The vascularisation type of the cutaneous paddle belongs this flap to the anterograde and axial family flaps. The anatomical study carried out on thirty six fresh cadaver upper arms showed a constant and a consistent cutaneous collateral branch of the radial artery which arises at the apex of the first intermetacarpal space. Two anatomical types were recorded according to the origin of the dorsoradial artery: type I (84% of cases), the vessel arises directly from the radial artery; type II (16% of cases), it arises from a common trunk with the first dorsal intermetacarpal artery. Those anatomical findings does not influence the flap operative technique, the flap design and the location of the pedicle pivot point. The dorsoradial artery emerges vertically from the apex of the first intermetacarpal space, crosses the angle between the extensor pollicis longus tendon laterally and the extensor carpi radialis longus tendon medially and turns proximally towards the distal radio-ulnar joint. Over the dorsal aspect of the wrist, the dorsoradial artery enters the subcutaneous tissue, runs parallel to the extensor pollicis longus tendon at three millimeters in a medial position, passes over the medial collateral branch of the superficial radial nerve and irrigates all the distal and dorsal quarter of the forearm. The artery is consistently accompanied by two comitantes veins, which assume the venous drainage of the cutaneous territory. The flap paddle is designed over the distal dorsal forearm quarter, between the dorsal crease of the wrist distally, the ulnar crest medially and the radial crest laterally. All this skin territory can be harvested and supplied by the dorsoradial pedicle, but we always should deal with the needs of the defects reconstruction and the morbidity of the donor site. The vascular pedicle is outlined between the distal radio

  7. The superior gluteal artery perforator flap for reconstruction of sacral sores

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Weijian; Jiang, Bo; Zhao, Jiaju; Wang, Peiji

    2016-01-01

    This report describes our experiences using the superior gluteal artery perforator (SGAP) flaps for reconstruction of 2 sacral sore cases. A 47-year-old female patient and a 38-year-old man with sacral sores were treated in our unit. The size of the defects were approximately 5×6 cm2 and 8×9 cm2, the defects were repaired by SGAP flaps. The size of designed was SGAP flaps varied from 7×20 to 9×16 cm2. All flaps survived and healed primary, the texture, functions, and appearance of flaps were satisfactory, and also without region dysfunction of donor and recipient sites. The SGAP flap, which has reliable blood supply, preserves the gluteus maximus muscle and could be transferred simply and safely, is an ideal and reusable method to reconstruct sacral sores with low rate of postoperative recurrence and satisfactory appearance. PMID:27652367

  8. The superior gluteal artery perforator flap for reconstruction of sacral sores.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weijian; Jiang, Bo; Zhao, Jiaju; Wang, Peiji

    2016-10-01

    This report describes our experiences using the superior gluteal artery perforator (SGAP) flaps for reconstruction of 2 sacral sore cases. A 47-year-old female patient and a  38-year-old man with sacral sores were treated in our unit. The size of the defects were approximately 5×6 cm2  and 8×9 cm2, the  defects were repaired by SGAP flaps. The size of designed was  SGAP flaps varied from  7×20 to 9×16 cm2. All flaps survived and healed primary, the texture, functions, and appearance of flaps were satisfactory, and also without region dysfunction of donor and recipient sites. The SGAP flap, which has reliable blood supply,  preserves the gluteus maximus muscle and could be transferred simply and safely, is an ideal and reusable method to reconstruct sacral sores with low rate of postoperative recurrence and satisfactory appearance. PMID:27652367

  9. Does chemotherapy improve survival in high-risk stage I and II Merkel cell carcinoma of the skin?

    SciTech Connect

    Poulsen, Michael G. . E-mail: michael_poulsen@health.qld.gov.au; Rischin, Danny; Porter, Ian; Walpole, Euan; Harvey, Jennifer; Hamilton, Chris; Keller, Jacqui; Tripcony, Lee

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The effectiveness of synchronous carboplatin, etoposide, and radiation therapy in improving survival was evaluated by comparison of a matched set of historic control subjects with patients treated in a prospective Phase II study that used synchronous chemotherapy and radiation and adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients and Methods: Patients were included in the analysis if they had disease localized to the primary site and nodes, and they were required to have at least one of the following high-risk features: recurrence after initial therapy, involved nodes, primary size greater than 1 cm, or gross residual disease after surgery. All patients who received chemotherapy were treated in a standardized fashion as part of a Phase II study (Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group TROG 96:07) from 1997 to 2001. Radiation was delivered to the primary site and nodes to a dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions over 5 weeks, and synchronous carboplatin (AUC 4.5) and etoposide, 80 mg/m{sup 2} i.v. on Days 1 to 3, were given in Weeks 1, 4, 7, and 10. The historic group represents a single institution's experience from 1988 to 1996 and was treated with surgery and radiation alone, and patients were included if they fulfilled the eligibility criteria of TROG 96:07. Patients with occult cutaneous disease were not included for the purpose of this analysis. Because of imbalances in the prognostic variables between the two treatment groups, comparisons were made by application of Cox's proportional hazard modeling. Overall survival, disease-specific survival, locoregional control, and distant control were used as endpoints for the study. Results: Of the 102 patients who had high-risk Stage I and II disease, 40 were treated with chemotherapy (TROG 96:07) and 62 were treated without chemotherapy (historic control subjects). When Cox's proportional hazards modeling was applied, the only significant factors for overall survival were recurrent disease, age, and the presence of residual disease

  10. Noise Reduction of Aircraft Flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Florence V. (Inventor); Brooks, Thomas F. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A reduction in noise radiating from a side of a deployed aircraft flap is achieved by locating a slot adjacent the side of the flap, and then forcing air out through the slot with a suitable mechanism. One, two or even three or more slots are possible, where the slot is located at one;or more locations selected from a group of locations comprising a top surface of the flap, a bottom surface of the flap, an intersection of the top and side surface of the flap, an intersection of the bottom and side surfaces of the flap, and a side surface of the flap. In at least one embodiment the slot is substantially rectangular. A device for adjusting a rate of the air forced out through the slot can also be provided.

  11. Combined vascular reconstruction and free flap transfer in diabetic arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Vermassen, F E; van Landuyt, K

    2000-01-01

    Gangrenous lesions of the foot or lower leg due to severe diabetic arterial disease resulting in extensive soft tissue defects with exposed bones or tendons often result, even after successful revascularisation, in staged or primary amputation. We present our experience with 45 such patients treated with combined arterial reconstruction and free tissue transfer for limb-salvage. All presented with peripheral vascular disease of diabetic origin, and extensive gangrenous lesions that could not be treated by simple wound closure or skin-grafting without major amputation. A total of 53 arterial reconstructions and 47 free-flap transfers were performed. In the majority of patients, the distal anastomosis was on a pedal or tibial vessel. These bypass grafts or a native revascularized artery served as the inflow tract for the free flap which was anastomosed using microsurgical techniques. Venous anastomoses were preferentially performed on the deep venous system. Donor muscles were Musculus rectus abdominis (n=37), Musculus latissimus dorsi (n=5), Musculus serratus anterior (n=3), and a perforator flap (n=2) tailored to the size of the defect and covered with a split thickness graft (STG). The operation was set up as a combined procedure in 39/45 patients, two teams working simultaneously, limiting the mean operative time to 6 h. Early reinterventions had to be performed in 14 patients resulting in five flap losses of which two could be treated with a new free flap transfer and three were amputated. Three other patients died in the postoperative period, leaving us with a total of 39/45 patients leaving the hospital with a full-length limb. Independent ambulation was achieved in 32 of these 39 patients. During late follow-up (mean 26 months) eight bypasses occluded resulting in two amputations and two new vascular reconstructions. Combined survival and limb-salvage rate was 84% after 1 year, 77% after 2 years and 65% after 3 years. The advantages of this combined technique

  12. A case report of total breast reconstruction using an inframammary adipofascial flap with an implant

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Tomoko; Yamakawa, Tomomi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Prosthetic-based breast reconstruction can be used in combination with autologous flaps such as a latissimus dorsi (LD) flap or a thoracodorsal artery perforator (TDAP) flap to achieve symmetry. However, the LD and TDAP flaps require a different skin incision from that which is used for the mastectomy. As a new autologous flap for use in combination with prosthetic-based breast reconstruction after nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM), we used an inframammary adipofascial flap. Presentation of case The patient was a 27-year-old female with moderate ptotic breasts, who had ductal carcinoma in situ in the lower outer quadrant of her left breast. After NSM through the inframammary fold (IMF) incision, the subcutaneous fat of the intended inframammary area was undermined, and the tongue shaped adipofascial flap was pulled up in the intended area. After inserting a tissue expander under the major pectoral muscle, this adipofascial flap was reflected back to the inferior portion of the breast area. After modeling the breast mound with this flap, the inframammary skin incision was sutured. Eleven months later, the patient underwent surgery to replace the expander with a permanent implant. Eight months after the replacement with an implant, the cosmetic result is good. Discussion This procedure can be performed through the same skin incision on the IMF as NSM. Total breast reconstruction using the inframammary adipofascial flap with an implant can be an alternative approach to achieving symmetry in some patients. Conclusion This method is useful for breast reconstruction after NSM for young patients with moderate-ptotic breasts. PMID:27107500

  13. New Possible Surgical Approaches for the Submammary Adipofascial Flap Based on Its Arterial Supply

    PubMed Central

    Al Karmouty, Ahmed F.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Submammary adipofascial flap (SMAF) is a valuable option for replacement of the inferior portion of the breast. It is particularly useful for reconstruction of partial mastectomy defects. It is also used to cover breast implants. Most surgeons base this flap cranially on the submammary skin crease, reflecting it back onto the breast. The blood vessels supplying this flap are not well defined, and the harvest of the flap may be compromised due to its uncertain vascularity. The aim of the work was to identify perforator vessels supplying SMAF and define their origin, site, diameter, and length. Materials and Methods. The flap was designed and dissected on both sides in 10 female cadavers. SMAF outline was 10 cm in length and 7 cm in width. The flap was raised carefully from below upwards to identify the perforator vessels supplying it from all directions. These vessels were counted and the following measurements were taken using Vernier caliper: diameter, total length, length inside the flap, and distance below the submammary skin crease. Conclusions. The perforators at the lateral part of the flap took origin from the lateral thoracic, thoracodorsal, and intercostal vessels. They were significantly larger, longer, and of multiple origins than those on the medial part of the flap and this suggests that laterally based flaps will have better blood supply, better viability, and more promising prognosis. Both approaches, medially based and laterally based SMAF, carry a better prognosis and lesser chance for future fat necrosis than the classical cranially based flap. PMID:27777799

  14. Hand Allograft Saved by an Ultrathin Groin Flap

    PubMed Central

    Château, Joseph; Gazarian, Aram; Boucher, Fabien; Badet, Lionel; Braye, Fabienne; Saint-Cyr, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Summary: We report a case of a young double-hand allotransplant patient who presented with a full-thickness skin necrosis of the dorsum of the left hand after vascular compromise of the allotransplantation. Considering the lack of viable dorsal tissue overlying the extensor tendons and the need for early hand rehabilitation, an ultrathin pedicled groin flap was used for the coverage. This procedure resulted in salvaging the allotransplantation, and the patient was able to successfully return to work after his surgery. To our knowledge, this is the only case of an upper extremity allotransplant salvaged by a pedicled flap. PMID:27757334

  15. [Newly designed skin temperature monitoring system for microvascular anastomosis--an experimental and clinical study (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Okutsu, I

    1982-05-01

    Blood circulation must be carefully evaluated following the microvascular anastomosis, such replantation of the digits and hands, free toe-to-hand transfer, and free flaps. From May 173, we have performed replantation of forty-five digits, seven wrists or forearm in thirty-four patients and one leg in one patient. The overall survival rate was 92.5%, including near total amputation. Also, from May 1974, we have performed eleven free flaps or free musculocutaneous flaps in ten patients. Seven out of eleven free flaps survived without any problems. The clinical inspections such as skin color and capillary refill are of subjective nature, and not always reliable. Therefore, from 1974, we have been measuring the skin temperature in the revascularized parts by means of a thermister. We usually use an electric blanket to warm the proximal part of the operated limb to maintain the peripheral circulation. Under normal ward environment, we analyzed the patterns of temperature fluctuations, and compared them against the revascularized parts and control sites. On our animal experiments, with the rats' hind limbs, a drastic temperature drop by about 2.0 degrees C was observed in 30 min, compared against the control group, when either artery or vein or both were obstructed. In the cases of the replantations, the skin temperature of control digits ranged from 30.4 to 37.1 degrees C. It usually remained above 32.0 degrees, fluctuating within 3 degrees. Also the skin temperatures of the successfully replanted parts and free flaps usually indicated the level above 32.0 degrees C, which corresponds to more than 80% of the axillary temperature in replanted cases and 90% in free flaps. In one failure case of replantation, the skin temperature fluctuated fom 27.2 to 32.1 degrees. On the fifth post operative day, the temperature suddenly dropped by 5 degrees in two hours. Arteriography was performed, and the arterial obstruction was confirmed. For the four flap operations, the skin

  16. Orandi flap for penile urethral stricture: Polishing the gold standard

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Apul; Kumar, Manoj; Singh, Manmeet

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We describe the combined use of the Orandi flap and the scrotal skin advancement flap to reduce complications for pendulous urethral stricture in men >40 years old. Methods: Over the last 40 months, 10 men underwent urethroplasty for pendulous stricture by the modified Orandi urethroplasty. In this, additionally, a midline hairless scrotal skin flap of the size of the ventral skin defect on the pendulous portion was raised based on the dartos fascia. This flap was mobilized so that it reached the pendulous portion without tension and covered the penile defect. The catheter was removed after 4 weeks. Patients were followed every 3 months using uroflowmetry and the American Urological Association (AUA) symptom score. Results: The mean age was 55.5. Of the 10 patients, the etiology was post-catheterization in 5 and idiopathic in the remaining 5. Three men also had stricture extending into the bulbous urethra (repaired using buccal graft). The mean additional time needed for the flap coverage was 36.2 minutes (range: 30–45). The median follow-up was 12 months (range: 3–40). The mean postoperative symptom score was 5.2 and the mean flow rate was 20.1 mL/sec. In 2 men, the meatus got retracted to the distal penile part (probably due to downward traction by scrotal skin). No patient complained of disfigurement. Two men reported recurrence (1 each in bulbous and penile urethra). The limitations are small number of patients and the observational nature of this study. Conclusions: The intermediate-term results show that the modified Orandi urethroplasty is an acceptable treatment option with acceptable cosmetic results. PMID:26085873

  17. The effects of temperature, relative humidity and host factors on the attachment and survival of Boophilus decoloratus and Boophilus geigyi larvae to skin slices.

    PubMed

    Amoo, A; Dipeolu, O O

    1985-01-01

    Attachment and survival of Boophilus decoloratus and B. geigyi larvae were examined using skin slices from cattle, sheep and goats. Results indicate that B. decoloratus has a wider range of temperature (24-40 degrees C) at which more than 50% of larvae would attach to bovine skin, while B. geigyi has a narrower range (24-30 degrees C). The larvae of both species had two peaks of attachment--the 4th and 20th hour, the value for the second peak being greater than the first. The influence of humidity on larval attachment was only apparent where the temperature was high, and in such cases more than 70% of B. decoloratus larvae attached, while less than 20% of B. geigyi larvae attached by the 20th hour. Less than 50% of larval attachment was recorded on both sheep and goats. The results are related to the geographical distribution of both species in Nigeria, and to the problems of tick water balance, stimuli for tick attachment and host specificity.

  18. Aesthetic Total Reconstruction of Lower Eyelid Using Scapha Cartilage Graft on a Vascularized Propeller Flap

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Hidekata; Masumoto, Kazuyuki; Kikuchi, Mamoru; Satake, Yoshiyasu; Yanai, Tetsu; Harada, Yoshimi; Ishihara, Yasuhiro; Yasuta, Masato

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to review the results of a cohort of patients based on our experience with a new technique for total lower eyelid reconstruction after a large defect caused by malignant tumor and trauma. A scapha cartilage graft with small skin on a vascularized propeller flap was used for 16 cases requiring lower eyelid reconstruction. Methods: Patients were identified from a database, and a retrospective case note review was conducted. The scapha cartilage graft was sutured to the margin of the defect of the palpebral conjunctiva and tarsus. The propeller flap, rotated by a perforator-based lateral orbital flap or a subcutaneous-based nasolabial flap, was vascularized on the scapha cartilage graft as anterior lining of the lower eyelid. The follow-up, including results of slit-lamp examination, lasted for varying periods, but often it was for 12 months. Results: The scapha cartilage graft with small skin on a vascularized propeller flap was viable in all cases. Slit-lamp examination detected no irritation or injury of the conjunctiva and cornea, and visual acuity was maintained in all cases. A deformity in the donor helix by this technique was also improved by getting a smaller skin harvested from the scapha. Conclusion: Use of the scapha cartilage graft with small skin on a vascularized propeller flap allows for a good fit to the orbit, short operative time under local anesthesia, good graft viability, and a good esthetic result with minimal donor site morbidity. PMID:27200258

  19. The flap by flap dissection in terminal ballistic applied to less lethal weapons.

    PubMed

    de Freminville, Humbert; Rongieras, Fréderic; Prat, Nicolas; Voiglio, Eric J

    2011-06-01

    Medical examiners often have to solve questions such as firing distance and bullet trajectory for lethal weapons. Knowledge in the field of terminal ballistics has increased during the last 30 years and layer by layer dissection reveals superficial wounds that can be linked with the permanent cavity. At the end of the 1990s, terminal ballistics also focused on less lethal weapons and their wounds. Here, 2 different less lethal weapons with single bullets were tested on nonembalmed and undressed cadavers (N = 26) at different ranges and speeds. We have developed a technique for dissection which we call flap by flap dissection that reveals the advantage of the bullet-skin-bone entity, the absence of wounds linking its components and range of less lethal weapons.

  20. Three-step orbitofacial reconstruction after extended total maxillectomy using free RAM flap and expanded cervicofacial flap with cartilage grafts.

    PubMed

    Kajikawa, Akiyoshi; Ueda, Kazuki; Katsuragi, Yoko; Hirose, Taro; Asai, Emiko

    2010-10-01

    Facial defect after an extended total maxillectomy is one of the most difficult deformities to reconstruct aesthetically, because the defect is not only large but also three-dimensional. Although free-flap reconstruction is useful, the patchwork-like scar, bad colour match and poor texture match are major problems. The contracture and displacement of the reconstructed eyelids and eye socket are also serious matters. To resolve these problems, we have performed a three-step reconstruction using a free rectus abdominis myocutaneous (RAM) flap and an expanded cervicofacial flap with cartilage grafts. In the first step, a free RAM flap was transplanted to the defect after extended total maxillectomy. In the second step, tissue expanders were placed under the skin of the cheek and neck a year after the RAM flap transplantation. After expansion of the cheek and neck skin, the third step was performed. The inferior part of the external skin island of the RAM flap was raised and sutured to the superior margin of the skin island to create a pouch for the eye socket. Costal cartilage was grafted to reconstruct the orbital floor and malar prominence, and auricular cartilage was grafted to reconstruct the tarsal plates. Finally, the expanded cervicofacial flap was rotated to cover this construct. Two weeks after reconstruction, the neo-eyelids were divided to form the lid fissure. We performed the three-step reconstruction on six cases after extended total maxillectomy. In all cases, a deep and stable eye socket was reconstructed. The reconstructed eyelids and cheek were natural in appearance with good colour and texture match without conspicuous scars. To obtain symmetry and natural appearance in the orbitomaxillary reconstruction, there are five points that should be formed; the eye socket, the groundwork of the eye socket, the orbital floor and malar prominence, the tarsal plates and the surface of the eyelids and cheek. We do not reconstruct the palate to set prosthetic

  1. Flexible Flapping Foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marais, Catherine; Godoy-Diana, Ramiro; Wesfreid, José. Eduardo

    2010-11-01

    Hydrodynamic tunnel experiments with flexible flapping foils of 4:1 span-to-chord aspect ratio are used in the present work to study the effect of foil compliance in the dynamical features of a propulsive wake. The average thrust force produced by the foil is estimated from 2D PIV measurements and the regime transitions in the wake are characterized according to a flapping frequency-amplitude phase diagram as in Godoy-Diana et al. (Phys. Rev. E 77, 016308, 2008). We show that the thrust production regime occurs on a broader region of the parameter space for flexible foils, with propulsive forces up to 3 times greater than for the rigid case. We examine in detail the vortex generation at the trailing edge of the foils, and propose a mechanism to explain how foil deformation leads to an optimization of propulsion.

  2. Engineered Vascularized Muscle Flap.

    PubMed

    Egozi, Dana; Shandalov, Yulia; Freiman, Alina; Rosenfeld, Dekel; Ben-Shimol, David; Levenberg, Shulamit

    2016-01-01

    One of the main factors limiting the thickness of a tissue construct and its consequential viability and applicability in vivo, is the control of oxygen supply to the cell microenvironment, as passive diffusion is limited to a very thin layer. Although various materials have been described to restore the integrity of full-thickness defects of the abdominal wall, no material has yet proved to be optimal, due to low graft vascularization, tissue rejection, infection, or inadequate mechanical properties. This protocol describes a means of engineering a fully vascularized flap, with a thickness relevant for muscle tissue reconstruction. Cell-embedded poly L-lactic acid/poly lactic-co-glycolic acid constructs are implanted around the mouse femoral artery and vein and maintained in vivo for a period of one or two weeks. The vascularized graft is then transferred as a flap towards a full thickness defect made in the abdomen. This technique replaces the need for autologous tissue sacrifications and may enable the use of in vitro engineered vascularized flaps in many surgical applications. PMID:26779840

  3. Algorithmic approach to lower abdominal, perineal, and groin reconstruction using anterolateral thigh flaps.

    PubMed

    Zelken, Jonathan A; AlDeek, Nidal F; Hsu, Chung-Chen; Chang, Nai-Jen; Lin, Chih-Hung; Lin, Cheng-Hung

    2016-02-01

    Lower abdominal, perineal, and groin (LAPG) reconstruction may be performed in a single stage. Anterolateral thigh (ALT) flaps are preferred here and taken as fasciocutaneous (ALT-FC), myocutaneous (ALT-MC), or vastus lateralis myocutaneous (VL-MC) flaps. We aim to present the results of reconstruction from a series of patients and guide flap selection with an algorithmic approach to LAPG reconstruction that optimizes outcomes and minimizes morbidity. Lower abdomen, groin, perineum, vulva, vagina, scrotum, and bladder wounds reconstructed in 22 patients using ALT flaps between 2000 and 2013 were retrospectively studied. Five ALT-FC, eight ALT-MC, and nine VL-MC flaps were performed. All flaps survived. Venous congestion occurred in three VL-MC flaps from mechanical cause. Wound infection occurred in six cases. Urinary leak occurred in three cases of bladder reconstruction. One patient died from congestive heart failure. The ALT flap is time tested and dependably addresses most LAPG defects; flap variations are suited for niche defects. We propose a novel algorithm to guide reconstructive decision-making.

  4. Dorsal Intercostal Artery Perforator Propeller Flaps: A Reliable Option in Reconstruction of Large Meningomyelocele Defects.

    PubMed

    Basterzi, Yavuz; Tenekeci, Goktekin

    2016-04-01

    Several options have been reported for the reconstruction of myelomeningocele defects. In this article, we present our experience on soft tissue reconstruction of myelomeningocele defects by using island propeller dorsal intercostal artery perforator (DIAP) flaps. Between January 2008 and February 2014, all newborns with large myelomeningocele defects (13 newborns) were reconstructed with island propeller DIAP flaps. All flaps survived completely. In 8 patients out of 13, venous insufficiency was observed which then resolved spontaneously. Flap donor sites were closed primarily. Myelomeningocele defects with a diameter larger than 5 cm require reconstruction with flaps. To mobilize a well-vascularized tissue over the defect without tension in which the suture lines will not overlap over the midline where the dura is repaired and over the meninges is one of the goals of reconstruction for such defects. Perforator propeller flaps enable us to reach those goals. Use of perforator flaps provides 2 important advantages, namely, more predictability and also more freedom in mobilizing flaps toward the defect. This study proves the reliability of DIAP propeller flaps in the reconstruction of myelomeningocele defects.

  5. The Versatile Modiolus Perforator Flap

    PubMed Central

    Gunnarsson, Gudjon Leifur; Thomsen, Jorn Bo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Perforator flaps are well established, and their usefulness as freestyle island flaps is recognized. The whereabouts of vascular perforators and classification of perforator flaps in the face are a debated subject, despite several anatomical studies showing similar consistency. In our experience using freestyle facial perforator flaps, we have located areas where perforators are consistently found. This study is focused on a particular perforator lateral to the angle of the mouth; the modiolus and the versatile modiolus perforator flap. Methods: A cohort case series of 14 modiolus perforator flap reconstructions in 14 patients and a color Doppler ultrasonography localization of the modiolus perforator in 10 volunteers. Results: All 14 flaps were successfully used to reconstruct the defects involved, and the location of the perforator was at the level of the modiolus as predicted. The color Doppler ultrasonography study detected a sizeable perforator at the level of the modiolus lateral to the angle of the mouth within a radius of 1 cm. This confirms the anatomical findings of previous authors and indicates that the modiolus perforator is a consistent anatomical finding, and flaps based on it can be recommended for several indications from the reconstruction of defects in the perioral area, cheek and nose. Conclusions: The modiolus is a well-described anatomical area containing a sizeable perforator that is consistently present and readily visualized using color Doppler ultrasonography. We have used the modiolus perforator flap successfully for several indications, and it is our first choice for perioral reconstruction. PMID:27257591

  6. Flag flapping in a channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alben, Silas; Shoele, Kourosh; Mittal, Rajat; Jha, Sourabh; Glezer, Ari

    2015-11-01

    We study the flapping of a flag in an inviscid channel flow. We focus especially on how quantities vary with channel spacing. As the channel walls move inwards towards the flag, heavier flags become more unstable, while light flags' stability is less affected. We use a vortex sheet model to compute large-amplitude flapping, and find that the flag undergoes a series of jumps to higher flapping modes as the channel walls are moved towards the flag. Meanwhile, the drag on the flag and the energy lost to the wake first rise as the walls become closer, then drop sharply as the flag moves to a higher flapping mode.

  7. [Intraoperative verification of a perforator flap vascularization by indocyanine green angiography].

    PubMed

    Royer, E; Rausky, J; Binder, J-P; May, P; Virzi, D; Revol, M

    2014-02-01

    After Koshima and Soeda first described perforator flaps in 1988, Wei has improved the technique by describing the "free style perforator flap". These flaps have the advantage of being performed on all skin perforators and in reducing donor site morbidity. The disadvantage, however is that the size of their angiosome is not defined and the evaluation of their relay on the experience of the surgeon. An evaluation of the size of an angiosome by conducting intraoperative angiography is proposed. Intraoperative angiography is performed after injection of indocyanine green. Stimulation of the indocyanine green by infrared causes the emission of fluorescent radiation. This fluorescence is then detected by a specific camera that displays real-time visualization of the skin's perfusion. We present the case of a 39-year-old patient who had an open tibial pilon fracture, for which we performed a pedicled propeller flap based on a posterior tibial perforator. Angiography was used to determine accurately the optimal skin perfusion of the propeller flap, which was based on a perforator from the posterior tibial artery. Angiography identified several levels of skin perfusion with a high fluorescence, intermediate and absent. The non-vascularized part of the skin paddle was resected. Given the unreliability of this technique, hypoperfused area was retained. Debridment of this area, however was necessary at day 5 postoperative with repositionning of the flap. Indocyanine green angiography may be a useful decision-making tool for intraoperative surgeon. It allows to adjust the size of the propeller flap's skin paddle to it angiosome. However, this evaluation method needs to be improved with the introduction of a quantitative threshold.

  8. Maxillary reconstruction using a bipedicled osteocutaneous scapula flap.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, I; Yamashita, Y; Khanal, A; Kodama, M; Takahashi, T; Tominaga, K

    2009-12-01

    When managing extensive maxillary defects it is difficult to provide a stable biomechanical frame for prostheses, and obturators are difficult to use. This study reviews cases involving angular branch artery pedicled scapular bone flaps (SBF) combined with or without latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap (LDMF). Between 2004 and 2007, four wide maxillary defects were repaired using the angular vascularized branch of the scapular bone. Tumor resection with immediate reconstruction using combined LDMF and angular artery pedicled SBF was used in 3 cases and angular artery pedicled SBF alone in 1 case. Follow up was 6 months to 2 years. Satisfactory results were obtained for facial contour, appearance, speech, deglutition and breathing. No donor site complications or restricted shoulder movements were detected. The only complication was a minor infection of one flap. This procedure is useful, functionally and aesthetically, for reconstruction of wide extensive maxillary defects as bone supplied by the angular branch has a wider arc of rotation in relation to skin flaps and has a longer pedicle length from the axillary artery, long enough to reach the maxilla. This procedure also benefits from the flexibility of the soft tissue pedicle, such as the latissimus dorsi, serratus anterior and fasciocutaneous flaps.

  9. Distally Based Iliotibial Band Flap: Anatomic Study with Surgical Considerations.

    PubMed

    Wong, Victor W; Higgins, James P

    2016-09-01

    Background Reconstruction of high-risk fascia, tendon, or ligament defects may benefit from vascularized tissue. The iliotibial band (ITB), a thick fibrous tract of connective tissue, serves as a potential donor site for free tissue transfer but its blood supply has not been thoroughly investigated. The aim of this anatomical study was to investigate the vascular supply to the distal ITB and its role as a free fascial flap. Methods We dissected 16 fresh-frozen cadaveric legs and injected latex into the superolateral geniculate artery (SLGA). A distal ITB fascial flap was designed and measurements were taken for flap dimensions, pedicle length and size, and SLGA perfusion territory. Results The SLGA perfused 11.5 ± 2.3 cm of distal ITB (proximal to the lateral femoral epicondyle) and provided 6.4 ± 0.7cm of pedicle length to the ITB flap. Conclusions Chimeric options to include bone (from the lateral femoral condyle), cartilage (from the lateral femoral trochlea), muscle (from vastus lateralis or biceps femoris), and skin are possible. Surgical harvest techniques are proposed, including preservation of ITB insertions to minimize lateral knee instability. Clinical validation is needed to determine the role of the distal ITB free fascial flap in reconstructive microsurgery.

  10. Distally Based Iliotibial Band Flap: Anatomic Study with Surgical Considerations.

    PubMed

    Wong, Victor W; Higgins, James P

    2016-09-01

    Background Reconstruction of high-risk fascia, tendon, or ligament defects may benefit from vascularized tissue. The iliotibial band (ITB), a thick fibrous tract of connective tissue, serves as a potential donor site for free tissue transfer but its blood supply has not been thoroughly investigated. The aim of this anatomical study was to investigate the vascular supply to the distal ITB and its role as a free fascial flap. Methods We dissected 16 fresh-frozen cadaveric legs and injected latex into the superolateral geniculate artery (SLGA). A distal ITB fascial flap was designed and measurements were taken for flap dimensions, pedicle length and size, and SLGA perfusion territory. Results The SLGA perfused 11.5 ± 2.3 cm of distal ITB (proximal to the lateral femoral epicondyle) and provided 6.4 ± 0.7cm of pedicle length to the ITB flap. Conclusions Chimeric options to include bone (from the lateral femoral condyle), cartilage (from the lateral femoral trochlea), muscle (from vastus lateralis or biceps femoris), and skin are possible. Surgical harvest techniques are proposed, including preservation of ITB insertions to minimize lateral knee instability. Clinical validation is needed to determine the role of the distal ITB free fascial flap in reconstructive microsurgery. PMID:27135145

  11. General regression neural network and Monte Carlo simulation model for survival and growth of Salmonella on raw chicken skin as a function of serotype, temperature and time for use in risk assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A general regression neural network and Monte Carlo simulation model for predicting survival and growth of Salmonella on raw chicken skin as a function of serotype (Typhimurium, Kentucky, Hadar), temperature (5 to 50C) and time (0 to 8 h) was developed. Poultry isolates of Salmonella with natural r...

  12. Skin Injuries Reduce Survival and Modulate Corticosterone, C-Reactive Protein, Complement Component 3, IgM, and Prostaglandin E2 after Whole-Body Reactor-Produced Mixed Field (n + γ-Photons) Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Kiang, Juliann G.; Ledney, G. David

    2013-01-01

    Skin injuries such as wounds or burns following whole-body γ-irradiation (radiation combined injury (RCI)) increase mortality more than whole-body γ-irradiation alone. Wound-induced decreases in survival after irradiation are triggered by sustained activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase pathways, persistent alteration of cytokine homeostasis, and increased susceptibility to systemic bacterial infection. Among these factors, radiation-induced increases in interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations in serum were amplified by skin wound trauma. Herein, the IL-6-induced stress proteins including C-reactive protein (CRP), complement 3 (C3), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were evaluated after skin injuries given following a mixed radiation environment that might be found after a nuclear incident. In this report, mice received 3 Gy of reactor-produced mixed field (n + γ-photons) radiations at 0.38 Gy/min followed by nonlethal skin wounding or burning. Both wounds and burns reduced survival and increased CRP, C3, and PGE2 in serum after radiation. Decreased IgM production along with an early rise in corticosterone followed by a subsequent decrease was noted for each RCI situation. These results suggest that RCI-induced alterations of corticosterone, CRP, C3, IgM, and PGE2 cause homeostatic imbalance and may contribute to reduced survival. Agents inhibiting these responses may prove to be therapeutic for RCI and improve related survival. PMID:24175013

  13. Reconstruction of elbow region defects using radial collateral artery perforator (RCAP)-based propeller flaps.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Masahiro; Ono, Shimpei; Ishii, Nobuaki; Hyakusoku, Hiko

    2012-10-01

    Perforator-based propeller flaps permit flap rotation up to 180°. This ability to transfer skin from one longitudinal axis to another has led to the increasing use of perforator-based propeller flaps in extremity reconstruction, especially lower-extremity reconstruction. However, the application of perforator-based propeller flaps to upper-extremity reconstruction is still limited. This article reports two cases of successful reconstruction of elbow region defects with radial collateral artery perforator (RCAP)-based propeller flaps. The elbow region has a variety of perforators available for perforator-based propeller flap reconstruction. Among them, the RCAP seems to be one of the most reliable options. This is because there are less anatomical variations of perforators' location on the lateral upper arm than on the medial upper arm. By using an RCAP perforator as a flap pedicle, the small-to-medium sized defects (<6 cm in diameter) around elbow regions can be closed primarily without skin grafts.

  14. Flap raising on pulsatile perfused cadaveric tissue: a novel method for surgical teaching and exercise.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Fichter, Andreas; Braun, Christian; Bauer, Florian; Humbs, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Exercising flap raising procedures on cadavers is considered a prerequisite to prepare for clinical practise. To improve teaching and create conditions as realistic as possible, a perfusion device was developed providing pulsatile flow through the vessels of different donor sites. A plastic bag filled with red stained tab water was placed into a pump, which was driven by an electric motor. The bag was set under rhythmic compression with variable frequency and pressure. The pedicles of the radial forearm, anterolateral thigh, rectus abdominis, fibular and iliac crest flap were cannulated at the origin from their source arteries. Flap raising was performed under pulsatile perfusion in 15 fresh bodies and subsequently in 6 Thiel-embalmed cadavers during a flap raising course. We regularly observed staining of the skin and skin bleeding in fresh bodies and less reliable in embalmed cadavers. All flap pedicles showed pulsatile movements, and the radial pulse became palpable. Most perforators of the anterolateral thigh and osteocutaneous fibular flap could be identified by their pulse. Bleeding from bony tissue and venous return was seldom observed. We conclude that pulsatile perfusion of cadaveric tissue creates more realistic conditions for flap raising and improves teaching for beginners and advanced surgeons.

  15. Sebaceous Gland Carcinoma of the Lower Eyelid Reconstructed with a Composite Flap: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Durairaj, Alagar Raja; Kothandaraman, Kanmani; Rajamanohar, Vimal Chander; Prabakaran, Aarthi

    2016-01-01

    Sebaceous gland carcinomas are skin adnexal tumours occurring in the periocular region of elderly females. It is an uncommon malignancy usually involving the upper eyelid and has an indolent course. Mainstay of treatment is surgical excision. Here we present a case of a sebaceous gland carcinoma of the lower eyelid for which wide local excision was done and the lower eyelid reconstructed using a composite flap of nasal chondromucosal graft with a nasolabial flap. PMID:27504351

  16. Reduction of Flap Side Edge Noise - the Blowing Flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Brooks, THomas F.

    2005-01-01

    A technique to reduce the noise radiating from a wing-flap side edge is being developed. As an airplane wing with an extended flap is exposed to a subsonic airflow, air is blown outward through thin rectangular chord-wise slots at various locations along the side edges and side surface of the flap to weaken and push away the vortices that originate in that region of the flap and are responsible for important noise emissions. Air is blown through the slots at up to twice the local flow velocity. The blowing is done using one or multiple slots, where a slot is located along the top, bottom or side surface of the flap along the side edge, or also along the intersection of the bottom (or top) and side surfaces.

  17. Dermal flap advancement combined with conservative sphincterotomy in the treatment of chronic anal fissure.

    PubMed

    Theodoropoulos, George E; Spiropoulos, Vasileios; Bramis, Konstantinos; Plastiras, Aris; Zografos, George

    2015-02-01

    Lateral internal sphincterotomy (LIS) is considered the surgical treatment of choice for chronic anal fissure (CAF). Flap techniques for fissure coverage have the advantage of primary wound healing, potentially providing better functional results and faster pain relief. The standard surgical strategy for CAF consisting of conventional LIS (CLIS) up to the dentate line was modified by "tailoring" the LIS to the apex of the CAF, but never greater than 1 cm, and by advancing a dermal flap for coverage of the CAF (LIS + flap) after fissurectomy. Thirty consecutive patients who underwent "LIS + flap" were compared with 32 patients who had been previously treated by CLIS. A modified, trapezoid-like Y-V flap from perianal skin was advanced into the CAF base. Pain at the first postoperative day, pain at defecation during the first week, postoperative use of analgesics, and time for patients' pain relief were significantly less at the "LIS + flap" group (P < 0.01). Objective healing was achieved faster (P < 0.01) and soiling episodes were less (P < 0.05) after "LIS + flap." The addition of a dermal flap after "conservative" LIS resulted in better healing and significantly less postoperative discomfort than the isolated application of CLIS.

  18. Turn over split fascial flap - a refinement for resurfacing shin defect

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Visweswar; Agrawal, Neeraj K; Chaudhuri, Gaurab R; Barooah, Partha S; SK, Tripathi; Birendra, Rana; Bhattacharya, Siddhartha; Deka, Dhruva J

    2012-01-01

    Moderate size defects of the shin of tibia are frequently encountered following trauma and infection. They may be associated with or without a fracture. Such defects require resurfacing by a flap. Many different types of flaps have been described but most of them proved to be more bulky than desired. Although these procedures cover the defects successfully the results they produce are not aesthetically appropriate. The flap looks bulkier because the native subcutaneous tissue is thin over the shin and distal leg. Hence a search for a vascularized tissue of minimal bulk for suitable resurfacing was initiated. A turnover fascial flap fulfilled the requirement. Such a flap can be made thinner by splitting its distal part into two layers while maintaining a common vascular fascial pedicle with both the layers of the fascia. This allowed a larger surface area to be covered. Such refinement is based on the following parameters (a) fresh cadaveric dissection, (b) demonstration of live microcirculation individually in the superficial and deep layers of the deep fascia and (c) intraoperative flourescein study of the split fascial flap. The technique has been used in 5 cases over the upper and middle third of the shin of tibia. The split fascial flap was turned over and inset in the defect and covered with a split skin graft. The donor site was primarily closed. The functional and aesthetic results were highly satisfactory. The follow up of 18 months proved the durability and usefulness of the flap. PMID:23071906

  19. Computational Study of Porous Treatment for Altering Flap Side-Edge Flowfield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhari, Meelan; Khorrami, Mehdi R.

    2003-01-01

    Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes calculations are used to investigate porous side-edge treatment as a passive means for flap noise reduction. Steady-state simulations are used to infer effects of the treatment on acoustically relevant features of the mean flow near the flap side edge. Application of the porous treatment over a miniscule fraction of the wetted flap area (scaling with the flap thickness) results in significantly weaker side-edge vortex structures via modification of the vortex initiation and roll-up processes. At high flap deflections, the region of axial flow reversal associated with the breakdown of the side-edge vortex is also eliminated, indicating an absence of vortex bursting in the presence of the treatment. Potential ramifications of the mean-flow modifications for flap-noise reduction are examined in the light of lessons learned from recent studies on flap noise. Computations confirm that any noise reduction benefit via the porous treatment would be achieved without compromising the aerodynamic effectiveness of the flap. Results of the parameter study contribute additional insight into the measured data from the 7x10 wind tunnel at NASA Ames and provide preliminary guidance for specifying optimal treatment characteristics in terms of treatment location, spatial extent, and flow resistance of the porous skin.

  20. Nasolabial pedicled compared with island flaps for intraoral reconstruction of oncological defects: complications, recovery of sensitivity, and assessment of quality of life.

    PubMed

    Maria, Lazaridou; Konstantinos, Vaxtsevanos; Ioannis, Dimitrakopoulos; Nikolaos, Lazaridis; Konstantinos, Antoniades

    2016-09-01

    Our aim was to compare pedicled and island nasolabial flaps used for reconstruction of oral defects in terms of postoperative complications, recovery of sensitivity, and quality of life. We organised a retrospective cohort study of 49 patients who had had intraoral reconstruction with nasolabial pedicled (n-=13) and island (n=36) flaps. Twenty- two patients filled in a validated quality-of-life (QoL) questionnaire and we did sensitivity tests (sharp discrimination with the aid of a Semmes-Weinstein™ aesthesiometer). Descriptive and bivariate statistics were computed and probabilities of 0.05 were accepted as significant. There were 11 flap-related complications (22%), and the flap was totally necrotic in three patients (6%), all of whom had island flaps. There was a significant association between flap-related complications and the use of reconstruction plate p=0.001, 95% CI 2.36 to 11.37) and advanced stage (T3 and T4 p=0.01, 95% CI 1.45 to 5.26). Skin sensitivity recovered in both island and pedicled flaps. Patients treated with island flaps had significantly more problems with prosthetic rehabilitation than those treated with pedicled flaps. The relatively low morbidity and adequate functional and aesthetic results make the pedicled nasolabial flap a viable technique. De-epithelialisation of the pedicle in island flaps permits coverage of defects with unilateral flaps in a one-stage reconstruction. However, the pedicle may be excessively stretched, leading to ischaemic complications. PMID:27182010

  1. Comparison of Long-Term Outcomes of Postmastectomy Radiotherapy between Breast Cancer Patients with and without Immediate Flap Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hsin-Hua; Hou, Ming-Feng; Wei, Shu-Yi; Lin, Sin-Daw; Luo, Kuei-Hau; Huang, Ming-Yii; Ou-Yang, Fu; Huang, Chih-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare the long-term clinical outcomes of postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) between breast cancer patients with and without immediate transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap reconstruction. Methods The study included 492 patients with stage II or III breast cancer who underwent modified radical mastectomy (MRM) and chemotherapy followed by PMRT between 1997 and 2011. Cox regression model and Kaplan-Meier curves were calculated, and the log-rank test was used to evaluate the differences between overall and disease-free survival rates in the 2 groups. Results Among 492 patients, 213 patients had immediate TRAM flap reconstruction. The mean follow-up was 7.2 years (range, 11–191 months). The 5-year and 10-year disease free survival rates were 81% and 76% for the TRAM flap group and 78% and 73% for the non-flap group. The 5-year and 10-year overall survival rates were 89% and 73% for the TRAM flap group and 83% and 74% for the non-flap group. Conclusions There exists no statistically significant difference in the rates of local recurrence, distant metastasis, disease-free and overall survival when comparing immediate TRAM flap reconstruction with no reconstruction. Our results suggest that immediate TRAM flap reconstruction does not compromise long term clinical outcomes in breast cancer patients requiring PMRT. PMID:26863006

  2. Reconstruction of low hairline microtia of Treacher Collins syndrome with a hinged mastoid fascial flap.

    PubMed

    Maeda, T; Oyama, A; Funayama, E; Yamamoto, Y

    2016-06-01

    Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is a rare genetic disorder leading to congenital craniofacial malformations. Although this syndrome presents with various symptoms, corrective surgery for bilateral microtia with low hairline is one of the most challenging operations given the complex contours of the external ear. In this technical note, a novel, simple procedure for dealing with the low hairline by using a hinged mastoid fascial flap simultaneously with costal cartilage grafting is described. Several techniques for the reconstruction of low hairline microtia have been reported previously, such as skin graft, skin flap, and tissue expander, but the high number of repeat operations and residual scars remain problematic. As a simultaneous procedure with framework grafting, the use of a temporoparietal flap with skin grafting is popular; however, its drawbacks include the operative scar, decreased hair growth, and hair thinning. Patients with TCS show anatomical variations of the superficial temporal vessels supplying the temporoparietal flap. In contrast, due to the high vascularity of the mastoid fascia, the mastoid fascial flap can be elevated safely and easily as an anteriorly, posteriorly, superiorly, or inferiorly based flap. PMID:26744099

  3. Multiflap closure of scalp defects: Revisiting the orticochea flap for scalp reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Badhey, Arvind; Kadakia, Sameep; Abraham, Manoj T; Rasamny, J K; Moscatello, Augustine

    2016-01-01

    Reconstruction of the scalp following oncologic resection is a challenging undertaking owing to the variable elasticity of the soft tissue overlying the calvarium and the limited amount of tissue available for recruitment. Defect size, location, and skin characteristics heavily influence the reconstructive options available to the surgeon. Reconstruction options for scalp defects range from simple direct closure, to skin grafting, to adjacent tissue transfer with local flaps, and ultimately to free tissue transfer. Dermal regeneration templates have also gained popularity in the recent past. Often times a primary closure with multiple local flaps can be a prime choice in these scenarios. One such modality of multi-flap closure, the Orticochea flap, is an excellent option for scalp reconstruction as it decreases operative time, may provide hair-bearing skin, and potentially avoids the risks of general anesthesia in debilitated patients. We present an interesting case of a patient with a large scalp defect following melanoma excision that was successfully reconstructed with an Orticochea flap. A review of scalp reconstruction and uses of the Orticochea flap will follow the case presentation. PMID:27311343

  4. Reconstruction of low hairline microtia of Treacher Collins syndrome with a hinged mastoid fascial flap.

    PubMed

    Maeda, T; Oyama, A; Funayama, E; Yamamoto, Y

    2016-06-01

    Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is a rare genetic disorder leading to congenital craniofacial malformations. Although this syndrome presents with various symptoms, corrective surgery for bilateral microtia with low hairline is one of the most challenging operations given the complex contours of the external ear. In this technical note, a novel, simple procedure for dealing with the low hairline by using a hinged mastoid fascial flap simultaneously with costal cartilage grafting is described. Several techniques for the reconstruction of low hairline microtia have been reported previously, such as skin graft, skin flap, and tissue expander, but the high number of repeat operations and residual scars remain problematic. As a simultaneous procedure with framework grafting, the use of a temporoparietal flap with skin grafting is popular; however, its drawbacks include the operative scar, decreased hair growth, and hair thinning. Patients with TCS show anatomical variations of the superficial temporal vessels supplying the temporoparietal flap. In contrast, due to the high vascularity of the mastoid fascia, the mastoid fascial flap can be elevated safely and easily as an anteriorly, posteriorly, superiorly, or inferiorly based flap.

  5. Flap-Edge Blowing Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaeta, R. J.; Englar, R. J.; Ahuja, K. K.

    2003-01-01

    This Appendix documents the salient results from an effort to mitigate the so-called flap-edge noise generated at the split between a flap edge that is deployed and the undeployed flap. Utilizing a Coanda surface installed at the flap edge, steady blowing was used in an attempt to diminish the vortex strength resulting from the uneven lift distribution. The strength of this lifting vortex was augmented by steady blowing over the deployed flap. The test article for this study was the same 2D airfoil used in the steady blowing program reported earlier (also used in pulsed blowing tests, see Appendix G), however its trailing edge geometry was modified. An exact duplicate of the airfoil shape was made out of fiberglass with no flap, and in the clean configuration. It was attached to the existing airfoil to make an airfoil that has half of its flap deployed and half un-deployed. Figure 1 shows a schematic of the planform showing the two areas where steady blowing was introduced. The flap-edge blowing or the auxiliary blowing was in the direction normal to the freestream velocity vector. Slot heights for the blowing chambers were on the order of 0.0 14 inches.

  6. Seromuscular Colonic Flap for Intrapelvic Soft-Tissue Coverage: A Reconstructive Option for Plastic Surgeons When Traditionally Used Flaps Are Not Available

    PubMed Central

    Aho, Johnathon; Winocour, Sebastian; Hammoudeh, Ziyad S.; Nelson, Heidi; Rose, Peter; Tran, Nho V.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Reconstruction of intrapelvic defects can be a challenging problem in patients with limited regional muscle flap options and previously resected omentum. In such situations, alternative methods of mobilizing vascularized tissue may be required. Methods. A case of a patient that underwent pelvic extirpation for recurrent rectal cancer who had limited donor sites for flap reconstruction is presented. The mucosa was removed from a blind loop of colon, and a pedicled seromuscular flap based on the colonic mesentery was placed into the pelvis for vascularized soft-tissue coverage and elimination of dead space. Results. The postoperative course was only complicated by a small subcutaneous fluid collection beneath the sacrectomy skin incision, which was drained with radiological assistance. The patient recovered without any major postoperative complications. Conclusion. Seromuscular colonic flap is a useful option for soft-tissue coverage after pelvic extirpation and should be considered by plastic surgeons when other reconstruction options are not available. PMID:26688771

  7. Seromuscular Colonic Flap for Intrapelvic Soft-Tissue Coverage: A Reconstructive Option for Plastic Surgeons When Traditionally Used Flaps Are Not Available.

    PubMed

    Aho, Johnathon; Winocour, Sebastian; Hammoudeh, Ziyad S; Nelson, Heidi; Rose, Peter; Tran, Nho V

    2015-01-01

    Background. Reconstruction of intrapelvic defects can be a challenging problem in patients with limited regional muscle flap options and previously resected omentum. In such situations, alternative methods of mobilizing vascularized tissue may be required. Methods. A case of a patient that underwent pelvic extirpation for recurrent rectal cancer who had limited donor sites for flap reconstruction is presented. The mucosa was removed from a blind loop of colon, and a pedicled seromuscular flap based on the colonic mesentery was placed into the pelvis for vascularized soft-tissue coverage and elimination of dead space. Results. The postoperative course was only complicated by a small subcutaneous fluid collection beneath the sacrectomy skin incision, which was drained with radiological assistance. The patient recovered without any major postoperative complications. Conclusion. Seromuscular colonic flap is a useful option for soft-tissue coverage after pelvic extirpation and should be considered by plastic surgeons when other reconstruction options are not available. PMID:26688771

  8. 14 CFR 23.701 - Flap interconnection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flap interconnection. 23.701 Section 23.701... Systems § 23.701 Flap interconnection. (a) The main wing flaps and related movable surfaces as a system must— (1) Be synchronized by a mechanical interconnection between the movable flap surfaces that...

  9. A novel endoscopic-assisted harvesting of pedicled freestyle fasciocutaneous flaps.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jen-Wu; Lin, Yi-Ying; Wu, Nai-Yuan; Yen, David Hung-Tsang

    2015-02-01

    The endoscopy-assisted technique has been demonstrated in harvesting muscle flaps; however, for pedicled freestyle fasciocutaneous flaps, few studies have applied this technique. We present a surgical procedure utilizing endoscopic-assisted method to identify the perforators of pedicled freestyle fasciocutaneous flaps for the reconstruction of soft tissue defects. From August to December 2012, 9 consecutive patients underwent endoscopic-assisted harvesting of fasciocutaneous flaps for the reconstruction of soft tissue defects. All of the defects were caused by trauma with tendon or bone exposure. Postoperatively, all patients were requested to return for outpatient follow-up visits for at least 3 months. The age of the 9 patients (8 men and 1 woman) ranged from 20 to 79 years (median 59 years). The defects ranged in size from 2 × 2 to 6 × 8 cm2. Two patients received anterolateral thigh transmuscular perforator flaps, 5 patients received fibular septocutaneous perforator flaps, and 2 patients received medial gastrocnemius transmuscular perforator flaps. The median incision length was 10 cm, and the median operative time was 120 minutes. None of the patients had intraoperative complications, and intraoperative bleeding was minimal (<50 mL). At the end of the 3-month follow-up period, none of the patients had any complications on either recipient or donor site, including total or partial necrosis of the flaps, flap dehiscence, hematomas, seromas, wound infections, or any conditions that indicated additional unplanned operative procedures. All of the patients had surviving flaps. Our results demonstrated that the endoscopic-assisted method could be a valuable and reliable alternative in harvesting pedicled freestyle fasciocutaneous flaps. PMID:25715266

  10. The Scarless Latissimus Dorsi Flap Provides Effective Lower Pole Prosthetic Coverage in Breast Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Miteff, Kirstin G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The evolution of surgical breast cancer treatment has led to the oncologically safe preservation of greater amounts of native skin, yet we are still often using flaps with large skin paddles, thereby resulting in significant donor-site scars. This explains the increasing appeal of acellular dermal matrix reconstructions. Acellular dermal matrices can, however, have significant problems, particularly if there is any vascular compromise of the mastectomy skin flaps. We have developed a method of raising the latissimus dorsi flap through the anterior mastectomy incisions without requiring special instruments or repositioning. This can provide autologous vascularized cover of the prosthesis. Methods: A clear surgical description of the scarless latissimus dorsi flap harvest is provided, and our results of a retrospective cohort review of 20 consecutive patients with 27 traditional latissimus dorsi breast reconstructions were compared with those of 20 consecutive patients with 30 scarless latissimus dorsi breast reconstructions. Results: Operative time, length of stay, and complication rates were reduced in the scarless group. Patients Breast-Q scores were equivalent in each group. The aesthetic assessment was good/excellent in 77% of both groups; however, subscale assessment was better in the scarless group. This was statistically significant (P = 0.0). Conclusions: Breast reconstruction using the scarless latissimus dorsi flap is time effective, requires no patient repositioning, and uses standard breast instrumentation. It is safe and versatile while reducing the risk of exposed prosthesis if native skin necrosis occurs. It is a vascularized alternative to acellular dermal matrices. PMID:25289340

  11. Versatility of the pinwheel flap to reconstruct circular defects in the temporal and scalp region.

    PubMed

    Simsek, Tekin; Eroglu, Lutfi

    2013-04-01

    The pinwheel flap technique involves raising four small rotation flaps, which are 90° apart from each other and converge into a defect in their centre. It is suitable for resurfacing defects of the scalp, which offers limited skin mobility. It may also be used for certain circular skin defects on the hairless temporal region. This study first re-formularised the original description of this flap technique via a laboratory study. Thanks to a new smaller flap design, closure was achieved with a lesser scar. Afterwards, the technique was used on the 14 patients who had circular skin defects of the temple and scalp. Defect diameters and resultant scar lengths were recorded. When the new design was used, scarring required for defect closure was less than half of that required for the original design. Thus, it was easier to avoid distortion to the anatomical subunits such as eyebrows and hairline. It is believed that this technique is quite appropriate for closing circular defects of scalp up to 50 mm, and temporal defects up to 40 mm. Also, Z-plasties can be added to the design when needed to increase flap rotation and decrease skin distortion.

  12. Musculocutaneous flaps in head and neck reconstruction.

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, A. G.

    1989-01-01

    The introduction of musculocutaneous flaps to head and neck reconstructive surgery is described. The flaps available are listed, and the most important ones described and illustrated. Both the latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major flaps are felt to have a role in head and neck reconstruction, though they have largely been superseded by microvascular free flaps such as the radial forearm flap. Images fig. 1 fig. 2 fig. 3 fig. 4 fig. 5 fig. 6 fig. 7 fig. 8 PMID:2686511

  13. Radiated noise from an externally blown flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, N. N.; Yu, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    The far field noise from subsonic jet impingement on a wing-flap with a 45 deg bend was experimentally investigated. The test parameters are jet Mach number and flap length. For long flaps, the primary source mechanisms are found to be turbulent mixing and flow impingement. For short flaps, the interaction of turbulent flow with the flap trailing edge appears to strongly influence the radiated noise.

  14. Scalp Rotation Flap for Reconstruction of Complex Soft Tissue Defects.

    PubMed

    Costa, Dary J; Walen, Scott; Varvares, Mark; Walker, Ronald

    2016-02-01

    Importance Scalp reconstructions may be required after tumor resection or trauma. The inherent anatomy of the scalp presents challenges and may limit reconstructive options. Objective To describe and investigate the scalp rotation flap as a reconstructive technique for complex soft tissue defects. Design Retrospective case series with a mean follow-up of 13 months. Setting Tertiary academic center. Participants A total of 22 patients with large scalp soft tissue defects undergoing scalp rotation flap reconstruction. Interventions The flap is designed adjacent to the defect and elevated in the subgaleal plane. The flap is rotated into the defect, and a split-thickness skin graft is placed over the donor site periosteum. Main Outcomes and Measure Data points collected included defect size, operative time, hospital stay, and patient satisfaction with cosmetic outcome. Results Mean patient age was 71 years. Mean American Society of Anesthesiologist classification was 2.8. Mean defect size was 41 cm(2) (range: 7.8-120 cm(2)), and 19 of 22 defects resulted from a neoplasm resection. Mean operative time was 181 minutes, and mean hospital stay was 2.4 days. There were no intraoperative complications. Three patients with previous radiation therapy had distal flap necrosis. Twenty-one patients (95%) reported an acceptable cosmetic result. Conclusions and Relevance The scalp rotation flap is an efficient and reliable option for reconstructing complex soft tissue defects. This can be particularly important in patients with significant medical comorbidities who cannot tolerate a lengthy operative procedure. PMID:26949586

  15. Scalp Rotation Flap for Reconstruction of Complex Soft Tissue Defects.

    PubMed

    Costa, Dary J; Walen, Scott; Varvares, Mark; Walker, Ronald

    2016-02-01

    Importance Scalp reconstructions may be required after tumor resection or trauma. The inherent anatomy of the scalp presents challenges and may limit reconstructive options. Objective To describe and investigate the scalp rotation flap as a reconstructive technique for complex soft tissue defects. Design Retrospective case series with a mean follow-up of 13 months. Setting Tertiary academic center. Participants A total of 22 patients with large scalp soft tissue defects undergoing scalp rotation flap reconstruction. Interventions The flap is designed adjacent to the defect and elevated in the subgaleal plane. The flap is rotated into the defect, and a split-thickness skin graft is placed over the donor site periosteum. Main Outcomes and Measure Data points collected included defect size, operative time, hospital stay, and patient satisfaction with cosmetic outcome. Results Mean patient age was 71 years. Mean American Society of Anesthesiologist classification was 2.8. Mean defect size was 41 cm(2) (range: 7.8-120 cm(2)), and 19 of 22 defects resulted from a neoplasm resection. Mean operative time was 181 minutes, and mean hospital stay was 2.4 days. There were no intraoperative complications. Three patients with previous radiation therapy had distal flap necrosis. Twenty-one patients (95%) reported an acceptable cosmetic result. Conclusions and Relevance The scalp rotation flap is an efficient and reliable option for reconstructing complex soft tissue defects. This can be particularly important in patients with significant medical comorbidities who cannot tolerate a lengthy operative procedure.

  16. A novel way to treat skin tears.

    PubMed

    Moradian, Scott; Klapper, Andrew M

    2016-04-01

    Skin tears are one of the most commonly treated wounds in the elderly population. In their most basic form, they are essentially traumatic random pattern flaps. We postulate that the injured blood flow to these skin flaps should be ignored and the tissue should be treated as a skin graft. A case report is presented of an 86-year-old female with an 8 × 3·5 cm skin tear to her right upper extremity after a hip fracture. In addition to conventional wound closure strips re-approximating the tissues, a disposable negative pressure wound therapy device was placed to act as bolster. Upon its removal on day 5, the opposed skin tear tissue was found to be 100% viable. We therefore propose that this update may be an improvement over classical skin tear treatments and should be followed up with a case series.

  17. Postoperative Controversies in the Management of Free Flap Surgery in the Head and Neck.

    PubMed

    Cannady, Steven B; Hatten, Kyle; Wax, Mark K

    2016-08-01

    Free tissue transfer is the gold standard for reconstructing head and neck defects. Free flap success approaches 95% in centers with experience, affording unparalleled ability to restore form and function in cancer, trauma, or other major composite tissue loss. It is critical to manage the perioperative variables that predict success; several areas of controversy have not yet reached consensus. This review focuses on postoperative anticoagulation, fluid management, and flap monitoring methods. These areas of controversy potentially influence flap survival. We review published practices considered within the standard of care, why controversy remains, and future directions to reach standardization. PMID:27400844

  18. Postoperative Controversies in the Management of Free Flap Surgery in the Head and Neck.

    PubMed

    Cannady, Steven B; Hatten, Kyle; Wax, Mark K

    2016-08-01

    Free tissue transfer is the gold standard for reconstructing head and neck defects. Free flap success approaches 95% in centers with experience, affording unparalleled ability to restore form and function in cancer, trauma, or other major composite tissue loss. It is critical to manage the perioperative variables that predict success; several areas of controversy have not yet reached consensus. This review focuses on postoperative anticoagulation, fluid management, and flap monitoring methods. These areas of controversy potentially influence flap survival. We review published practices considered within the standard of care, why controversy remains, and future directions to reach standardization.

  19. Flap Edge Noise Reduction Fins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R. (Inventor); Choudhan, Meelan M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A flap of the type that is movably connected to an aircraft wing to provide control of an aircraft in flight includes opposite ends, wherein at least a first opposite end includes a plurality of substantially rigid, laterally extending protrusions that are spaced apart to form a plurality of fluidly interconnected passageways. The passageways have openings adjacent to upper and lower sides of the flap, and the passageways include a plurality of bends such that high pressure fluid flows from a high pressure region to a low pressure region to provide a boundary condition that inhibits noise resulting from airflow around the end of the flap.

  20. A biodegradable polyurethane dermal matrix in reconstruction of free flap donor sites: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wagstaff, Marcus J D; Schmitt, Bradley J; Coghlan, Patrick; Finkemeyer, James P; Caplash, Yugesh; Greenwood, John E

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a biodegradable temporizing matrix (BTM) capable of supporting secondary split-skin graft-take in animal studies. We report its first long-term implantation and use as a dermal scaffold in humans. This preliminary study assesses its ability to integrate, its ease of delamination, its ability to sustain split-skin graft in complex wounds, the degree of wound contraction, and ultimately the quality of the scar at 1 year postimplantation. Ten patients were recruited, each requiring elective free flap reconstruction. Free flap donor sites created were anterolateral thigh flaps, fibular osseocutaneous flaps, or radial/ulnar forearm (RF/UF) flaps. The BTM was implanted when the flap was detached from its donor site. Dressing changes were performed twice weekly. The time elapsed between implantation and delamination depended on the type of flap and thus the wound bed left. Once integrated, the BTMs were delaminated in theatre, and the surface of the "neodermis" was refreshed by dermabrasion, prior to application of a split-skin graft. The BTM integration occurred in all patients (100% in 6 patients, with 90%, 84%, 76%, and 60% integration in the remainder). Integrated BTM sustained successful graft-take in all patients. Complete take was marred in 2 patients, over areas of BTM that had not integrated and graft application was performed too early. The BTM can be applied into wounds in humans and can integrate, persist in the presence of infection, and sustain split-skin overgrafting, despite the trial group presenting with significant comorbidities. PMID:25987938

  1. [Experimental investigation of neovascularisation in large prefabricated flaps after arteriovenous pedicle implantation].

    PubMed

    Nguyen, The H; Klöppel, M; Staudenmaier, R; Biemer, E

    2004-08-01

    The principle of prefabricated flaps is based on the transformation of a formerly random-pattern vascularized flap, through implantation of a vascular pedicle, into a newly neovascularized axial flap, which can be transferred after a period of neovascularisation from the prepared donor site to the recipient site by using microvascular techniques. In 30 Chinchilla Bastard rabbits weighing from 3700 to 4200 g, a skeletonized arteriovenous pedicle with distal ligation harvested from the femoral and saphena magna artery and vein was implanted beneath an 8 x 15 cm abdominal skin flap to investigate the neovascularisation process in the flap over the course of time. In order to prevent neovascularisation occurring from the underlying vascular bed into the flap, a silicon sheet measuring 8 x 15 cm x 0.25 mm was placed and fixed on the abdominal wall. Flap vitality and neovascularisation process in prefabricated flaps were evaluated by macroscopic observation, blood analysis, selective microangiography, histology and scintigraphy at the various time intervals of 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 days. The study results showed that newly formed vessels sprouting from the implanted pedicle were seen four days after pedicle implantation. With the retention time of pedicle in the flaps, they continued to grow, became meander and more dense. Respective connections between newly formed vessels and the originally available vasculature of the abdominal flap were markedly observed in the 12- and 16-day groups. Twenty days after prefabrication, the abdominal flap was completely perfused by the blood flow supplied from the newly implanted arteriovenous pedicle through newly formed vessels arising from the implanted pedicle and their rich vascular communications. The neovascularisation in the prefabricated flap consisted of the implanted pedicle, newly formed vessels, the originally available vasculature and their vascular connections. In comparison to the control group (the quantification was

  2. Flap monitoring using infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Alex; Wright, Leigh P.; Elmandjra, Mohamed; Mao, Jian-min

    2006-02-01

    We report results of clinical trials on flap monitoring in 65 plastic surgeries. Hemoglobin oxygen saturation of flap tissue (StO II) was monitored non-invasively by using ODISsey TM tissue oximeter, an infrared spectroscopic device. StO II measurements were conducted both intra-operatively and post-operatively. From the intra-operative measurements, we observed that StO II values dropped when the main blood vessels supplying the flap were clamped in surgery, and that StO II jumped after anastomosis to a value close to its pre-operative value. From post-operative monitoring measurements for the 65 flap cases, each lasted two days or so, we found that the StO II values approach to a level close to the baseline if the surgery was successful, and that the StO II value dropped to a value below 30% if there is a perfusion compromise, such as vascular thrombosis.

  3. Full scale upper surface blown flap noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidelberg, L. J.; Homyak, L.; Jones, W. L.

    1975-01-01

    A highly noise suppressed TF 34 engine was used to investigate the noise of several powered lift configurations involving upper surface blown (USB) flaps. The configuration variables were nozzle type (i.e. slot and circular with deflector), flap chord length, and flap angle. The results of velocity surveys at both the nozzle exit and the flap trailing edge are also presented and used for correlation of the noise data. Configurations using a long flap design were 4 db quieter than a short flap typical of current trends in USB flap design. The lower noise for the long flap is attributed primarily to the greater velocity decay of the jet at the flap trailing edge. The full-scale data revealed substantially more quadrupole noise in the region near the deflected jet than observed in previous sub-scale tests.

  4. [Oromandibular reconstruction with free peroneal flap and osseointegrated implants].

    PubMed

    Navarro Cuéllar, C; Cuesta Gil, M; Plasencia Delgado, J; Guerra Martínez, B; Acero Sanz, J; López de Atalaya, F J; Ochandiano Caicoya, S; Navarro Vila, C

    2003-01-01

    Free fibula flaps have proved to be one of the most versatile for oromandibular reconstruction due to the available length of bone and the possibility of incorporating a long skin paddle to cover intraoral soft tissues. The use of a osseointegrated dental implants is an important technique for the oral rehabilitation of these patients. Osseointegrated implants provide the most rigid prosthetic stabilization available to withstand masticatory forces. These implants can be placed immediately or in second time procedure. In our case, implantation in the fibula free flap is done after 6-9 months because of the large amount of osteosynthesis material required for the fixation of the flap. Four or six months later, when osseointegration has taken place, the implants are loaded with a dental rehabilitation. We analize 10 cases of mandibular reconstruction with fibula free flap and their aesthetic and functional rehabilitation with osseointegrated implants with a 2 year follow up. Forty-six dental implants were placed developing all of them but one a correct osseointegration. All these patients recovered masticatory function and underwent a considerable improvement in labial competence, salivary continence, speech articulation and facial harmony.

  5. Free temporal fascia flap to cover soft tissue defects of the foot: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Martin; Dragu, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Severe soft tissue defects as a result of lye contamination remain a huge challenge in the interdisciplinary approach of trauma surgeons and plastic surgeons. Free tissue transfer is a suitable surgical option for successful reconstruction of form and function of defects in the distal parts of the lower extremities. We report the successful two-stage reconstruction of a full thickness lye contamination at the dorsum of the foot with a free temporoparietal fascia flap covered with a split-thickness skin graft from the thigh. The described method is a suitable operative alternative to anterolateral thigh flaps or other thin fascia flaps regarding flap harvest and donor site morbidity and should be considered in the portfolio of the plastic surgeon. PMID:26504730

  6. Postoperative Quantitative Assessment of Reconstructive Tissue Status in Cutaneous Flap Model using Spatial Frequency Domain Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yafi, Amr; Vetter, Thomas S; Scholz, Thomas; Patel, Sarin; Saager, Rolf B; Cuccia, David J; Evans, Gregory R; Durkin, Anthony J

    2010-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to investigate the capabilities of a novel optical wide-field imaging technology known as Spatial Frequency Domain Imaging (SFDI) to quantitatively assess reconstructive tissue status. Methods Twenty two cutaneous pedicle flaps were created on eleven rats based on the inferior epigastric vessels. After baseline measurement, all flaps underwent vascular ischemia, induced by clamping the supporting vessels for two hours (either arterio-venous or selective venous occlusions) normal saline was injected to the control flap, and hypertonic hyperoncotic saline solution to the experimental flap. Flaps were monitored for two hours after reperfusion. The SFDI system was used for quantitative assessment of flap status over the duration of the experiment. Results All flaps demonstrated a significant decline in oxy-hemoglobin and tissue oxygen saturation in response to occlusion. Total hemoglobin and deoxy-hemoglobin were markedly increased in the selective venous occlusion group. After reperfusion and the solutions were administered, oxy-hemoglobin and tissue oxygen saturation in those flaps that survived gradually returned to the baseline levels. However, flaps for which oxy-hemoglobin and tissue oxygen saturation didn’t show any signs of recovery appeared to be compromised and eventually became necrotic within 24–48 hours in both occlusion groups. Conclusion SFDI technology provides a quantitative, objective method to assess tissue status. This study demonstrates the potential of this optical technology to assess tissue perfusion in a very precise and quantitative way, enabling wide-field visualization of physiological parameters. The results of this study suggest that SFDI may provide a means for prospectively identifying dysfunctional flaps well in advance of failure. PMID:21200206

  7. Effects of Venous Superdrainage and Arterial Supercharging on Dorsal Perforator Flap in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jun; Xi, Shanshan; Ding, Maochao; Li, Hong; Xu, Wei; Tang, Maolin; Chen, Shixin

    2016-01-01

    Objective To comparatively assess the effects of venous superdrainage and arterial supercharging on dorsal perforator flap survival. Materials and Methods Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats (450–550g) were randomly divided into three groups (n = 20), including control group (Control) and experimental groups A (venous superdrainage, Exp. A) and B (arterial supercharging, Exp. B). At postoperative day 7, survival areas of the flaps were evaluated and all animals underwent angiography. Laser Doppler was used to evaluate flap perfusion from 0h to 7days after surgery. Histology with hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to count microvessels. Tissue of “Choke vessels”was excised for quantification of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by western blot assay at 6h and 7days after surgery. Results In the Exp. A group, almost all flaps survived (98.2±1.6%); in the Exp. B and control group, survival areas accounted for 78.8±8.5% and 60.3±7.8%, respectively (P <0.001). In addition, Exp. A animals showed improved anastomosis of choke vessels 2 compared with the Exp. B and Control groups. Furthermore, flap blood flow and partial pressure of oxygen in the Exp. A group were significantly higher compared with values obtained for the Exp. B and Control groups, from 6 hours to 7 days after surgery. More microvessels were found in the Exp. A group (11.65±1.33) than in Exp. B (9.25±0.34) and control (7.25±0.91) animals on POD 7. The relative expression level of HIF-1α and VEGF were significant at 6h and 7days after surgery. Conclusions Venous superdrainage in rat dorsal perforator flap is more effective than arterial supercharging in promoting flap survival, and could effectively alter hemodynamics in the microcirculation and stimulate blood vessel formation. PMID:27513520

  8. The Role of Muscle Flaps for Salvage of Failed Perforator Free Flaps

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the most heroic efforts, sometimes free flaps fail. Perforator free flaps are not invincible and can suffer the same fate. The real challenge is how to decide what is the next best choice for achieving the desired outcome. Methods: Over the past decade, 298 free perforator flaps were used in our institution. Total failure occurred in 16 patients, and partial failure requiring a second free flap occurred in an additional 6 patients for a true success rate of 93%. All failures had some form of secondary vascularized tissue transfer, which included the use of muscle flaps in 9 (41%) different patients. Results: Initial flap salvage after a failed perforator free flap was attempted with 12 perforator and 5 muscle free flaps as well as 1 perforator and 2 muscle local flaps. These were not all successful, with loss of 3 muscle free flaps and 3 perforator flaps. Tertiary free flap coverage was successful in 3 cases using 2 muscle flaps and 1 perforator free flap. Local fasciocutaneous flaps or primary wound closure was used in the remaining individuals. Conclusions: Microsurgical tissue transfers can be the most rewarding and at the same time the most challenging reconstructive endeavor. Persistence in achieving the desired outcome can require multiple steps. Perforator flaps are an important asset to obtain this goal. However, muscle flaps can still be a useful alternative, and the message is that they should not be overlooked as sometimes a viable option. PMID:26893989

  9. Tissue expansion techniques to minimize morbidity of the anterolateral thigh perforator flap donor site.

    PubMed

    Hallock, Geoffrey G

    2013-11-01

    Selection of any free flap donor site must not only meet the requirements of the recipient site but also minimize untoward sequela at the donor site itself. Although the anterolateral thigh (ALT) perforator flap is an ideal soft tissue donor site, a major drawback can be its nonesthetic appearance if a skin graft was needed. This detriment can be ameliorated by using traditional tissue expansion techniques. In a retrospective review over the past decade, 14 patients had ALT free flap donor site tissue expansion. These were subcategorized as pretransfer, concurrent, or posttransfer tissue expansion. In this group, mean ALT flap width was 12.2 ± 4.2 cm, which precluded direct donor site closure. Rectangular expanders were generally recommended. Multiple expanders are suggested for larger defects. The duration of expansion averaged 291.4 ± 163.9 days. The mean instilled volume ratio exceeded 2.43 ± 0.9 times the maximum vendor recommendation. Small skin graft residua were still left in four patients. Tissue expansion proved to be an important modality to consider for minimizing the stigmata of the skin grafted ALT free flap donor site. However, this process is time consuming and requires an additional surgical procedure. As such, this option must be reserved for the most motivated and compliant patients.

  10. Blood flow dynamics and sensitivity in breasts after reconstruction with DIEP-flap.

    PubMed

    Klasson, Stina; Svensson, Karin; Wollmer, Per; Velander, Patrik; Svensson, Henry

    2014-12-01

    A method of breast reconstruction is based on the Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator (DIEP) technique. Skin and fat are transplanted from the abdomen to the chest; blood vessels are reconnected through microsurgery. Nerves are, however, left unconnected. This study aims to evaluate the blood flow and reinnervation of blood vessels and skin in breasts reconstructed by DIEP flaps without neural repair. In all, DIEP flaps of 10 patients were tested at an average of 16.3 months postoperatively. Blood flow was assessed by PeriScan PIM II System, both before and after indirect heating. Tactile perception threshold was assessed by Semmes-Weinstein monofilament and thermal sensibility by SENSELab MSA Thermotest. The patients' contralateral breasts were used as controls. The blood flow of the flaps was statistically significantly lower than in the control breasts, both before and after indirect heating. The change in blood flow after indirect heating did, however, not significantly differ when comparing the breasts. All flaps regained deep pressure sensibility in all four quadrants. Five patients regained even better sensibility in one of their quadrants. Seven patients regained perception of cold stimuli, five perceived warmth. This study has shown that skin blood flow regulation is present in DIEP flaps 1 year after reconstruction. Blood flow dynamics are very similar to those in the normal breast. There is also a recovery of tactile and thermal sensibility, but this study has not shown any clear parallels between recovery blood flow, tactile sensibility and thermal sensibility.

  11. Blood flow dynamics and sensitivity in breasts after reconstruction with DIEP-flap.

    PubMed

    Klasson, Stina; Svensson, Karin; Wollmer, Per; Velander, Patrik; Svensson, Henry

    2014-12-01

    A method of breast reconstruction is based on the Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator (DIEP) technique. Skin and fat are transplanted from the abdomen to the chest; blood vessels are reconnected through microsurgery. Nerves are, however, left unconnected. This study aims to evaluate the blood flow and reinnervation of blood vessels and skin in breasts reconstructed by DIEP flaps without neural repair. In all, DIEP flaps of 10 patients were tested at an average of 16.3 months postoperatively. Blood flow was assessed by PeriScan PIM II System, both before and after indirect heating. Tactile perception threshold was assessed by Semmes-Weinstein monofilament and thermal sensibility by SENSELab MSA Thermotest. The patients' contralateral breasts were used as controls. The blood flow of the flaps was statistically significantly lower than in the control breasts, both before and after indirect heating. The change in blood flow after indirect heating did, however, not significantly differ when comparing the breasts. All flaps regained deep pressure sensibility in all four quadrants. Five patients regained even better sensibility in one of their quadrants. Seven patients regained perception of cold stimuli, five perceived warmth. This study has shown that skin blood flow regulation is present in DIEP flaps 1 year after reconstruction. Blood flow dynamics are very similar to those in the normal breast. There is also a recovery of tactile and thermal sensibility, but this study has not shown any clear parallels between recovery blood flow, tactile sensibility and thermal sensibility. PMID:24693867

  12. Skin Dictionary

    MedlinePlus

    ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ...

  13. PIV Measurements on a Blowing Flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Stead, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    PIV measurements of the flow in the region of a flap side edge are presented for several blowing flap configurations. The test model is a NACA 63(sub 2)-215 Hicks Mod-B main-element airfoil with a half-span Fowler flap. Air is blown from small slots located along the flap side edge on either the top, bottom or side surfaces. The test set up is described and flow measurements for a baseline and three blowing flap configurations are presented. The effects that the flap tip jets have on the structure of the flap side edge flow are discussed for each of the flap configurations tested. The results indicate that blowing air from a slot located along the top surface of the flap greatly weakened the top vortex system and pushed it further off the top surface. Blowing from the bottom flap surface kept the strong side vortex further outboard while blowing from the side surface only strengthened the vortex system or accelerated the merging of the side vortex to the flap top surface. It is concluded that blowing from the top or bottom surfaces of the flap may lead to a reduction of flap side edge noise.

  14. Tongue reconstruction with minimal donor site morbidity using a deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) free flap in a 6-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Yano, Tomoyuki; Okazaki, Mutsumi; Kawaguchi, Runa; Suesada, Nobuko; Tanaka, Kentaro; Kishimoto, Seiji

    2013-09-01

    Tongue reconstruction was performed using a deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) free flap in a 6-year-old girl with undifferentiated sarcoma of the tongue. After hemi-glossectomy with upper neck dissection, a 3-lobed DIEP free flap was used for the reconstruction. Donor site was closed primarily with suturing umbilicus in proper position. No flap loss, leakage, or infection occurred. Postoperatively, the patient was able to consume a normal diet without difficulty or aspiration and displayed good speech function. No donor site morbidity, e.g., herniation or bulging, was observed, and the patient was able to perform their normal daily activities. DIEP flaps provide a pliable skin paddle, an adequate amount of adipose tissue, and reduced donor site morbidity, even in children. We did not have any difficulty harvesting the DIEP flap or with the microvascular anastomosis. We consider DIEP free flaps to be the ideal option for pediatric tongue reconstruction.

  15. Experimental studies of flow separation and stalling on two-dimensional airfoils at low speeds. Phase 2: Studies with Fowler flap extended

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seetharam, H. C.; Wentz, W. H., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Results were given on experimental studies of flow separation and stalling on a two-dimensional GA(W)-1 17 percent thick airfoil with an extended Fowler flap. Experimental velocity profiles obtained from a five tube probe survey with optimum flap gap and overlap setting (flap at 40 deg) are shown at various stations above, below, and behind the airfoil/flap combination for various angles of attack. The typical zones of steady flow, intermittent turbulence, and large scale turbulence were obtained from a hot wire anemometer survey and are depicted graphically for an angle of attack of 12.5 deg. Local skin friction distributions were obtained and are given for various angles of attack. Computer plots of the boundary layer profiles are shown for the case of the flap at 40 deg. Static pressure contours are also given. A GA(W)-2 section model was fabricated with 30 percent Fowler flaps and with pressure tabs.

  16. Simplified Designing and Insetting of the Free Flap in Reconstructing Oral and/or Oropharyngeal Defect.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jiyoung; Yim, Ji Hong; Kim, Eun Key

    2015-09-01

    Reconstructing oral and/or oropharyngeal defect after tumor ablation requires anatomic restoration of the complex structures to maximize functional outcomes. This study introduces a simple and adjustable way of designing and insetting of a free flap in such reconstruction. Patients who received free flap reconstruction of oral and/or oropharyngeal defect with 33% to 66% of the native tongue left intact after resection of the tumor were enrolled and reviewed. Flap was designed as an oval shape according to the maximum width and length of the defect, and sutured from the most posterior part. Natural imbrication of the flap formed by anterior pulling of the tongue was marked and de-epithelized to create a three-dimensional shape. A total of 30 patients met the inclusion criteria of this study and the median follow-up was 32 months. All flaps survived after 1 case of venous reanastomosis. The average hospital stay was 23.7 days. All patients were decannulated. Twenty (66.7%) patients could eat a normal or soft diet, and 19 (63.3%) patients had normal or intelligible speech. Simplified designing of the flap with adjustable tailoring allowed for easy and effective way of free flap oral and/or oropharyngeal reconstruction. De-epithelization (or trimming) of the naturally imbricated area during the procedure of insetting created a bilobed shape in effect to conform to the three-dimensional defect.

  17. Experimental Study of Wake / Flap Interaction Noise and the Reduction of Flap Side Edge Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Stead, Daniel J.; Plassman, Gerald E.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the interaction of a wake with a half-span flap on radiated noise are examined. The incident wake is generated by bars of various widths and lengths or by a simplified landing gear model. Single microphone and phased array measurements are used to isolate the effects of the wake interaction on the noise radiating from the flap side edge and flap cove regions. The effects on noise of the wake generator's geometry and relative placement with respect to the flap are assessed. Placement of the wake generators upstream of the flap side edge is shown to lead to the reduction of flap side edge noise by introducing a velocity deficit and likely altering the instabilities in the flap side edge vortex system. Significant reduction in flap side edge noise is achieved with a bar positioned directly upstream of the flap side edge. The noise reduction benefit is seen to improve with increased bar width, length and proximity to the flap edge. Positioning of the landing gear model upstream of the flap side edge also leads to decreased flap side edge noise. In addition, flap cove noise levels are significantly lower than when the landing gear is positioned upstream of the flap mid-span. The impact of the local flow velocity on the noise radiating directly from the landing gear is discussed. The effects of the landing gear side-braces on flap side edge, flap cove and landing gear noise are shown.

  18. Acellular Dermal Matrix Combined with Autologous Skin Grafts for Closure of Chronic Wounds after Reconstruction of Skull Defects with Titanium Mesh.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xu; Lin, Cai; Wang, Xinling; Lin, Xiangwei; He, Sunyue; Liu, Yunfeng; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Ruijin; Zhu, Xinguo

    2016-07-01

    Objective The closure of chronic wounds after skull defect reconstruction with titanium mesh is one of the most challenging problems for plastic and reconstructive surgeons. Current approaches are disappointing. Methods In 10 patients, we explored the role of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) in combination with autologous skin grafts (ASGs) for closure of chronic wounds after skull reconstruction with titanium. Results ADM and ASG survived in all patients. Grade A healing (healing well without defect) was achieved. The average operating time was 30 to 45 minutes, and the average blood loss 30 to 50 mL. After 3 months, the wound was still closed in all patients. Conclusion The combination of ADM plus ASG obtained a high wound closure rate. ADM plus ASG allows avoiding other procedures such as rotational flaps and free flaps that require more operating time, special equipment, and adequate training. PMID:27088591

  19. A Double-Lobe Flap Design Combined Nasolabial Advancement and Infraorbital Rotation for Reconstruction of Infraorbital Defect.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiao-Ke; Sun, Yan-Fang; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Wen-Feng; Xiong, Xue-Peng

    2016-06-01

    Various adjacent flaps have been designed to close infraorbital defect, and each of them is trying to get an aesthetic outcome and meanwhile circumvent eyelid retraction, ectropion, and functional disability. Here, the authors report an adjacent double-lobe flap, which took advantage of nasolabial advancement and infraorbital rotation of the 2 lobes, combinatorially closed a pentagon infraorbital defect by removal of 2 small skin paddles as donor sites, and finally yielded an acceptable aesthetic and functional outcome. This flap may be a new option for closure of polygon infraorbital defects. PMID:27213736

  20. Freestyle Perforator-Based Fasciocutaneous Flap Reconstruction in Nicolau Syndrome-Related Tissue Necrosis.

    PubMed

    Kocman, Emre A; Yaşar, Fatih N; Kose, Aydan A; Cil, Yakup; Karabagli, Yakup; Çetin, Cengiz

    2015-12-01

    The actual pathology of the Nicolau syndrome (NS) is still unknown. It is thought to involve direct vascular damage and vasospasm. Many NS cases were reported in the literature but a treatment protocol is still not established. However, after demarcation of the necrotic tissue, surgical intervention is mandatory. Five NS cases with extensive tissue necrosis on the upper lateral gluteal region were analyzed retrospectively. Operative technique was described in details for freestyle perforator-based fasciocutaneous flaps from the gluteal region to reconstruct defects of NS-related tissue necrosis. Freestyle perforator-based fasciocutaneous flaps were used for defect closure in all patients. All flaps survived totally. No complications occurred during the follow-up period. Although rare, NS is a serious complication of inadvertent intramuscular injections. Prevention is the best treatment. However, in case of large-tissue necrosis, freestyle perforator-based fasciocutaneous flaps harvested from the gluteal region is a satisfactory option for reconstruction. PMID:27011533

  1. Shape-based 3D vascular tree extraction for perforator flaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Quan; Gao, Jean

    2005-04-01

    Perforator flaps have been increasingly used in the past few years for trauma and reconstructive surgical cases. With the thinned perforated flaps, greater survivability and decrease in donor site morbidity have been reported. Knowledge of the 3D vascular tree will provide insight information about the dissection region, vascular territory, and fascia levels. This paper presents a scheme of shape-based 3D vascular tree reconstruction of perforator flaps for plastic surgery planning, which overcomes the deficiencies of current existing shape-based interpolation methods by applying rotation and 3D repairing. The scheme has the ability to restore the broken parts of the perforator vascular tree by using a probability-based adaptive connection point search (PACPS) algorithm with minimum human intervention. The experimental results evaluated by both synthetic and 39 harvested cadaver perforator flaps show the promise and potential of proposed scheme for plastic surgery planning.

  2. [Large abdominal wall reconstruction by free flap after recurrence of a dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans].

    PubMed

    Le Fourn, B; Lejeune, F; Sartre, J Y; Loirat, Y; Pannier, M

    1996-12-01

    Based on a case of recurrence of a dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans of the abdominal wall, the authors discuss the need for initial wide resection of this type of skin tumour and the possibilities of repair of extensive full thickness defects of the abdominal wall by means of a latissimus dorsi myocutaneous free flap.

  3. New model of flap-gliding flight.

    PubMed

    Sachs, Gottfried

    2015-07-21

    A new modelling approach is presented for describing flap-gliding flight in birds and the associated mechanical energy cost of travelling. The new approach is based on the difference in the drag characteristics between flapping and non-flapping due to the drag increase caused by flapping. Thus, the possibility of a gliding flight phase, as it exists in flap-gliding flight, yields a performance advantage resulting from the decrease in the drag when compared with continuous flapping flight. Introducing an appropriate non-dimensionalization for the mathematical relations describing flap-gliding flight, results and findings of generally valid nature are derived. It is shown that there is an energy saving of flap-gliding flight in the entire speed range compared to continuous flapping flight. The energy saving reaches the highest level in the lower speed region. The travelling speed of flap-gliding flight is composed of the weighted average of the differing speeds in the flapping and gliding phases. Furthermore, the maximum range performance achievable with flap-gliding flight and the associated optimal travelling speed are determined.

  4. Efficient flapping flight of pterosaurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strang, Karl Axel

    In the late eighteenth century, humans discovered the first pterosaur fossil remains and have been fascinated by their existence ever since. Pterosaurs exploited their membrane wings in a sophisticated manner for flight control and propulsion, and were likely the most efficient and effective flyers ever to inhabit our planet. The flapping gait is a complex combination of motions that sustains and propels an animal in the air. Because pterosaurs were so large with wingspans up to eleven meters, if they could have sustained flapping flight, they would have had to achieve high propulsive efficiencies. Identifying the wing motions that contribute the most to propulsive efficiency is key to understanding pterosaur flight, and therefore to shedding light on flapping flight in general and the design of efficient ornithopters. This study is based on published results for a very well-preserved specimen of Coloborhynchus robustus, for which the joints are well-known and thoroughly described in the literature. Simplifying assumptions are made to estimate the characteristics that can not be inferred directly from the fossil remains. For a given animal, maximizing efficiency is equivalent to minimizing power at a given thrust and speed. We therefore aim at finding the flapping gait, that is the joint motions, that minimize the required flapping power. The power is computed from the aerodynamic forces created during a given wing motion. We develop an unsteady three-dimensional code based on the vortex-lattice method, which correlates well with published results for unsteady motions of rectangular wings. In the aerodynamic model, the rigid pterosaur wing is defined by the position of the bones. In the aeroelastic model, we add the flexibility of the bones and of the wing membrane. The nonlinear structural behavior of the membrane is reduced to a linear modal decomposition, assuming small deflections about the reference wing geometry. The reference wing geometry is computed for

  5. Schooling of flapping wings: Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoud, Hassan; Becker, Alexander; Ristroph, Leif; Shelley, Michael

    2014-11-01

    We examine the locomotion of an infinite array of wings that heave vertically with a prescribed sinusoidal motion and are free to translate in the horizontal direction. To do this, we simulate the motion of a freely translating flapping airfoil in a domain with periodic horizontal boundary conditions. These simulations indicate that the wings can ``take advantage'' of their collectively generated wake flows. In agreement with our experiments in a rotational geometry, we find ranges of flapping frequency over which there are multiple stable states of locomotion, with one of these swimming states having both higher speeds and efficiencies than an isolated flapping and locomoting wing. A simple mathematical model, which emphasizes the importance of history dependence in vortical flows, explains this multi-stability. These results may be important to understanding the role of hydrodynamic interactions in fish schooling and bird flocking.

  6. The Superior Rectal Artery as a Recipient Vessel for Free Flap Transfer After Partial Sacrectomy in Patients With Chordoma.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Shimpei; Arikawa, Masaki; Fujiki, Masahide; Kawai, Akira; Kobayashi, Eisuke; Sakuraba, Minoru

    2016-03-01

    Free flaps have rarely been used to reconstruct lumbosacral defects, primarily because of the lack of suitable recipient vessels in this region. We propose the novel use of the superior rectal artery as a recipient vessel for free flap transfer after partial or total sacrectomy. We transferred free flow-through latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flaps, with the superior rectal vessels as recipient vessels, to reconstruct defects after partial sacrectomy in 2 patients with sacral chordoma. The flaps survived completely, and the wounds healed uneventfully in both patients. The superior rectal artery is easier to dissect and anastomose than are gluteal vessels and is less affected by patients' postoperative postural change than are extraperitoneal vessels. We believe that the superior rectal artery is a versatile recipient vessel for free flap transfer to reconstruct sacrectomy defects.

  7. Local Vascularized Flaps for Augmentation of Reinke’s Space

    PubMed Central

    Dailey, Seth H.; Gunderson, McLean; Chan, Roger; Torrealba, Jose; Kimura, Miwako; Welham, Nathan V.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis The purpose of this study is to describe and test a novel surgical strategy for augmentation of Reinke’s space using vascularized flaps: a thyroid ala perichondrium flap (TAP) and a composite thyroid ala perichondrium flap (CTAP) from the anterior larynx. We hypothesized that these specially designed vascularized flaps would remain viable once inset into the lamina propria, and that they would not disrupt rheologic, biomechanical, and histologic properties of the native vocal fold. Study Design Experimental. In vivo canine model. Methods The length and volume of test flaps harvested in six adult human cadaveric larynges were analyzed to determine suitability for use in augmentation in the lamina propria. Also, 12 beagles randomly underwent unilateral placement of either TAP or CTAP, which were designed in accordance with the human adult cadaveric experiments. Flap perfusion was measured before and after harvest with laser Doppler. After 1 month, the beagles were humanely sacrificed and their larynges subjected to aerodynamic and acoustic evaluation using an excised larynx apparatus. The vocal fold lamina propria of four larynges—two TAP and two CTAP—underwent rheologic evaluation using a simple-shear rheometer. The remaining eight larynges underwent quantitative histologic and immunohistochemical evaluation. The survival and complication (swallowing, airway, local wound) rates of all dogs were noted. Results Initial studies with adult human cadaveric larynges established that TAP and CTAP possessed length and volume greater than native lamina propria. In the canine experiments, the perfusion change in the flaps was similar between flap groups. The damping ratio (ζ), dynamic viscosity (η′), elastic shear modulus (G′), and viscous shear modulus (G″) of treated and untreated native vocal folds were not statistically different. The glottic function measures of vocal efficiency, laryngeal resistance, jitter, shimmer, and harmonics

  8. Sagging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ...

  9. Sensate anterolateral thigh perforator flap for ischiatic sores reconstruction in meningomyelocele patients.

    PubMed

    Santanelli Di Pompeo, Fabio; Longo, Benedetto; Pagnoni, Marco; Laporta, Rosaria

    2015-05-01

    Recidivating pressure sores are a frequent complication in meningomyelocele patients because of their limitation in motility and their scarce ability to monitor the pressure applied on insensate areas while seated. We report the utilization of the sensate pedicled anterolateral thigh perforator flap for reconstruction of ischiatic sores in meningomyelocele patients. Between May 2011 and September 2013, five patients underwent transfer of a sensate pedicled anterolateral thigh flap, by an intermuscular passageway through the upper thigh, to reach the ischial defect. Flap was properly harvested from the thigh after assessment of the lateral cutaneous femoral nerve sensitive area with the Pressure-Specified Sensory Device. In all cases the flap reached the ischial defect harmlessly, healing was uneventful with no immediate nor late complications. Each patient showed persistence of sensitivity at the reconstructed area and no recurrent ischiatic sore was observed at mean follow-up of 26.4 months. The sensate pedicled anterolateral thigh flap is a valuable solution for coverage of recurrent ischial sores in meningomyelocele patients, in which pressure consciousness is fundamental. The intermuscular passageway allows to reduce the distance between flap's vascular pedicle origin and the ischial defect, hence to use the more reliable skin from the middle third of the anterolateral thigh.

  10. Profunda Femoris Artery Perforator Propeller Flap: A Valid Method to Cover Complicated Ischiatic Pressure Sores.

    PubMed

    Scalise, Alessandro; Tartaglione, Caterina; Bolletta, Elisa; Pierangeli, Marina; Di Benedetto, Giovanni

    2015-08-01

    We report the case of a 50-year-old paraplegic man with a complicated grade III/IV ischiatic pressure sore treated with a propeller flap based on the first perforator of the profunda femoris artery. Our aim was to surgically reconstruct an ischiatic pressure sore in a patient with ankylosis using a fasciocutaneous perforator propeller flap obtained from the posterior region of the thigh. Our decision to perform a profunda femoris artery perforator propeller flap reconstruction was mainly due to the anatomical contiguity of the flap with the site of the lesion and the good quality of the skin harvested from the posterior region of the thigh. The use of the perforator fasciocutaneous flap represents a muscle-sparing technique, providing a better long-term result in surgical reconstruction. The choice of the 180-degree propeller flap was due to its ability to provide a good repair of the pressure ulcer and to pass over the ischiatic prominence in the patient in the forced decubitus position. The operatory course did not present any kind of complication. Using this reconstructive treatment, we have obtained complete coverage of the ischiatic pressure sore.

  11. In-flight surface-flow measurements on a subsonic transport high-lift flap system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yip, Long P.; Vijgen, Paul M. H. W.; Hardin, Jay D.

    1992-01-01

    As part of a multiphased program for subsonic transport high-lift flight research, flight tests were conducted on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (B737-100 aircraft) at the NASA Langley Research Center, to obtain detailed flow characteristics of the high-lift flap system for correlation with computational and wind-tunnel investigations. Pressure distributions, skin friction, and flow-visualization measurements were made on a triple-slotted flap system for a range of flap deflections, chord Reynolds numbers (10 to 21 million), and Mach numbers (0.16 to 0.36). Experimental test results are given for representative flap settings indicating flow separation on the fore-flap element for the largest flap deflection. Comparisons of the in-flight flow measurements were made with predictions from available viscous multielement computational methods modified with simple-sweep theory. Computational results overpredicted the experimentally measured pressures, particularly in the case involving separation of the fore lap, indicating the need for better modeling of confluent boundary layers and three-dimensional sweep effects.

  12. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin Health and Skin Diseases Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... acne to wrinkles Did you know that your skin is the largest organ of your body? It ...

  13. [Clinical application of retrograde island flap from back of the hand].

    PubMed

    Lu, L J

    1991-10-01

    With the blood vessels filled with dye, 12 fresh specimens of adult human hand were dissected. At web spaces, anastomoses between artereiae palmariae dorsales and arteriae digitalis palmares communes or their branches were always present. The anastomotic branch was 0.4-0.8 mm thick and 11-14 mm long, and was accompanied by 2 veins, lying superficially in the subcutaneous space. With the anastomotic branch as an axis and the arteriae palmares dorsales as pedicle, a retrograde island flap back of the hand was designed and employed to cover skin defect of finger in 11 patients. One of the flaps was transposed together with an extensor tendon. The defect was covered by suturing together the skin edges on both sides and healed nicely. The 11 transpositioned flaps varying from 3.5 x 2.2 cm2 in size were taken successfully. Follow-up examination for 2-10 months after operation revealed fine texture of and good sensation over the flaps, and good function of the transplanted extensor tendon. We conclude that this kind of flap is physiologically sound and easy to be made for the repair of palmar defect and in finger defect.

  14. The versatile temporoparietal fascial flap: adaptability to a variety of composite defects.

    PubMed

    Rose, E H; Norris, M S

    1990-02-01

    The unique properties of the temporoparietal fascial flap (TPFF) offer adaptability in reconstruction of a variety of composite defects. The broad, thin sheet of vascularized tissue may be transferred alone or as a carrier of subjacent bone or overlying skin and scalp. As a pedicled flap, it is ideal for defects of the orbital, malar, mandibular, and mastoid regions. As a free-tissue transfer, the large vessels and lack of bulk find broad utility in reconstruction of the extremities. This flap is our choice for reconstruction of the dorsal hand and non-weight-bearing surfaces of the foot. A viscous gliding surface decreases friction for tendon excursion. The thin contour is aesthetically superior to thicker flaps, allowing unmodified footwear or gloves. The pliable fascia convolutes into surface defects (e.g., bone craters) or drapes over skeletal frameworks (e.g., ear cartilage). The rich capillary network offers nutrition to saucerized bone, cartilage or tendon grafts, and overlying skin grafts. The geometry of the skull lends to fabrication of membranous bone for complex facial puzzles. The donor site is well disguised by hair growth. Twelve cases performed over a 2-year period demonstrate the versatility of this flap. These include complex foot reconstruction, ear and scalp avulsion, shotgun wound of the cheek and orbit, posttraumatic jaw recontouring, chronic osteomyelitis of the hand and foot, and acute resurfacing of dorsal hand with tendon reconstruction. PMID:1967843

  15. Reconstruction of concomitant lip and cheek through-and-through defects with combined free flap and an advancement flap from the remaining lip.

    PubMed

    Jeng, Seng-Feng; Kuo, Yur-Ren; Wei, Fu-Chan; Su, Chih-Ying; Chien, Chih-Yen

    2004-02-01

    Massive facial defects involving the oral sphincter are challenging to the reconstructive surgeon. This study presents the authors' approach to simultaneous reconstruction of complex defects with an advancement flap from the remaining lip and free flaps. From January of 1997 to December of 2001, 22 patients were studied following ablative oral cancer surgery. Their ages ranged from 32 to 66 years. Nineteen patients had buccal cancer, two patients had tongue cancer, and one patient had lip cancer. In all cases, the disease was advanced squamous cell carcinoma. Nine patients underwent composite resection of tumor with segmental mandibulectomy, and seven patients underwent marginal mandibulectomy. Cheek defects ranged from 15 x 12 cm to 4 x 3 cm, and intraoral defects ranged from 14 x 8 cm to 5 x 4 cm in size. One third of the lower lip was excised in nine patients, both the upper and lower lips were excised in 10 patients, and only commissure defects were excised in three patients. An advancement flap from the remaining upper lip was used for reconstruction of the oral commissure and oral sphincter. Then, the composite through-and-through defect of the cheek was reconstructed with radial forearm flaps in 13 patients, fibula osteocutaneous flaps in five patients, double flaps in three patients, and an anterolateral thigh flap in one patient. The free flap survival rate was 96 percent, and only one flap failed. With regard to complications, there were two patients with cheek hematoma, six patients with orocutaneous fistula or neck infection, and one patient with osteomyelitis of the mandible. All but one patient had adequate oral competence. All patients had an adequate oral stoma and could eat a regular or soft diet; two patients could eat only a liquid diet. For moderate lip defects, immediate reconstruction of complex defects took place using an advancement flap from the remaining lip to obtain a normal and functional oral sphincter; the free flap can be used to

  16. Sternocleidomastoid Muscle Flap after Parotidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Nofal, Ahmad Abdel-Fattah; Mohamed, Morsi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Most patients after either superficial or total parotidectomy develop facial deformity and Frey syndrome, which leads to a significant degree of patient dissatisfaction. Objective Assess the functional outcome and esthetic results of the superiorly based sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) flap after superficial or total parotidectomy. Methods A prospective cohort study for 11 patients subjected to parotidectomy using a partial-thickness superiorly based SCM flap. The functional outcome (Frey syndrome, facial nerve involvement, and ear lobule sensation) and the esthetic results were evaluated subjectively and objectively. Results Facial nerve palsy occurred in 5 cases (45%), and all of them recovered completely within 6 months. The Minor starch iodine test was positive in 3 patients (27%), although only 1 (9%) subjectively complained of gustatory sweating. The designed visual analog score completed by the patients themselves ranged from 0 to 3 with a mean of 1.55 ± 0.93; the scores from the blinded evaluators ranged from 1 to 3 with a mean 1.64 ± 0.67. Conclusion The partial-thickness superiorly based SCM flap offers a reasonable cosmetic option for reconstruction following either superficial or total parotidectomy by improving the facial deformity. The flap also lowers the incidence of Frey syndrome objectively and subjectively with no reported hazard of the spinal accessory nerve. PMID:26491478

  17. Cracking the perfusion code?: Laser-assisted Indocyanine Green angiography and combined laser Doppler spectrophotometry for intraoperative evaluation of tissue perfusion in autologous breast reconstruction with DIEP or ms-TRAM flaps.

    PubMed

    Ludolph, Ingo; Arkudas, Andreas; Schmitz, Marweh; Boos, Anja M; Taeger, Christian D; Rother, Ulrich; Horch, Raymund E; Beier, Justus P

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to assess the correlation of flap perfusion analysis based on laser-assisted Indocyanine Green (ICG) angiography with combined laser Doppler spectrophotometry in autologous breast reconstruction using free DIEP/ms-TRAM flaps. Between February 2014 and July 2015, 35 free DIEP/ms-TRAM flaps were included in this study. Besides the clinical evaluation of flaps, intraoperative perfusion dynamics were assessed by means of laser-assisted ICG angiography and post-capillary oxygen saturation and relative haemoglobin content (rHb) using combined laser Doppler spectrophotometry. Correlation of the aforementioned parameters was analysed, as well as the impact on flap design and postoperative complications. Flap survival rate was 100%. There were no partial flap losses. In three cases, flap design was based on the angiography, contrary to clinical evaluation and spectrophotometry. The final decision on the inclusion of flap areas was based on the angiographic perfusion pattern. Angiography and spectrophotometry showed a correlation in most of the cases regarding tissue perfusion, post-capillary oxygen saturation and relative haemoglobin content. Laser-assisted ICG angiography is a useful tool for intraoperative evaluation of flap perfusion in autologous breast reconstruction with DIEP/ms-TRAM flaps, especially in decision making in cases where flap perfusion is not clearly assessable by clinical signs and exact determination of well-perfused flap margins is difficult to obtain. It provides an objective real-time analysis of flap perfusion, with high sensitivity for the detection of poorly perfused flap areas. Concerning the topographical mapping of well-perfused flap areas, laser-assisted angiography is superior to combined laser Doppler spectrophotometry.

  18. The Use of Flaps and Grafts in the Treatment of Urethral Stricture Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wisenbaugh, Eric S.; Gelman, Joel

    2015-01-01

    The use of various grafts and flaps plays a critical role in the successful surgical management of urethral stricture disease. A thorough comprehension of relevant anatomy and principles of tissue transfer techniques are essential to understanding the appropriate use of grafts or flaps to optimize outcomes. We briefly review these principles and discuss which technique may be best suited for a given anterior urethral stricture, depending on the location and length of the stricture, the presence or absence of an intact corpus spongiosum, and the availability of adequate and healthy penile skin. PMID:26664357

  19. [Lower limb salvage with a free fillet fibula flap harvested from the contralateral amputated leg].

    PubMed

    Bouyer, M; Corcella, D; Forli, A; Mesquida, V; Semere, A; Moutet, F

    2015-06-01

    We report a unusual case of "fillet flap" to reconstruct the lower limb with the amputated contralateral leg. This kind of procedure was first described by Foucher et al. in 1980 for traumatic hand surgery as the "bank finger". A 34-year-old man suffered a microlight accident with bilateral open legs fractures. A large skin defect of the left leg exposed the ankle, the calcaneus and a non-vascularized part of the tibial nerve (10 cm). The patient came to the OR for surgical debridement and had massive bone resection of the left calcaneus. The right leg showed limited skin defect at the lower part, exposing the medial side of the ankle and a tibial bone defect, measuring 10 cm. Salvage the left leg was impossible due to complex nerve, bones and skin associated injuries, so this leg was sacrificed and used as a donor limb, to harvest a free fibula flap for contralateral tibial reconstruction. At 18 months of follow-up, the patient was very satisfied, the clinical result was very good on both lower limbs and X-rays showed excellent integration of the free fibula flap. The patient had normal dailies occupations, can run and have bicycle sport practice with a functional left leg fit prosthesis. This case showed an original application of the "fillet flap concept" to resolve complex and rare traumatic situations interesting the both lower limbs. In our opinion, this strategy must be a part of the plastic surgeon skills in uncommon situations. PMID:25069828

  20. [Pedicled supraclavicular osteocutan island flap for tracheostoma closure].

    PubMed

    Agócs, László; Lévay, Bernadett; Boér, András; Elek, Jenő

    2012-12-01

    Authors present a case of a 52-year-old female patient, who underwent an emergency tracheostomy due to life threatening dyspnoea caused by an external compression of a large goiter. Total thyreoidectomy needed to be carried out later, too. Since the atypical tracheostomy did not close spontaneously a reconstruction was planned. A part of the anterior wall of the trachea needed to be replaced, which was done by an osteocutaneous flap on raised on the supraclavicular artery. An island on the artery was harvested with a thin bone chip taken from the coracoid process of the clavicle, which was rotated into the defect then. The bone chip was sutured to the trachea wall and the donor site was closed primarily. Having reviewed the literature the authors propose the application of this flap in a wide range of cases. The advantages of this flap are the satisfactory functional and cosmetic results, as well as the fact that the donor site does not need skin grafting.

  1. Endoscopic ICG perfusion imaging for flap transplants: technical development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepp, Herbert; Schachenmayr, Hilmar; Ehrhardt, André; Göbel, Werner; Zhorzel, Sven; Betz, Christian Stephan

    2010-02-01

    Objective: Following tumour surgery in the head and neck region, skin flap transplants are usually required to cover the resection area. The purpose of the development was to provide a simple and reliable means to assess whether the transplanted flap is sufficiently perfused. Methods: Fluorescence of intravenously injected Indocyanine green (ICG) was detected with a slightly modified 3-chip CCD camera. Appropriately coated optical filters allow for excitation of ICG with NIR light and detection of NIR ICGfluorescence with the blue channel of the camera. In addition, low intensities of white light can be transmitted to allow for simultaneous display of a remission image in the green and red channels of the camera. Further processing was performed with a LabVIEW program. Results: A satisfactory white light image (red, green and blue display (RGB)) could be calculated from the remission images recorded with the green and red channels of the camera via a look-up table. The look-up table was programmed to provide an optimized blue intensity value for each combination of red and green values. This was generated using a reference image. Implementation of image tracking and intensity measurements in regions of interest (ROIs) in the images is useful to reliably monitor perfusion kinetics of flap and adjacent normal tissue.

  2. Pediatric Arm Reconstruction after Shot-gun Injury Using Peroneal Free-flap and Pedicled Latissimus Dorsi Muscle Flap: Late Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Olvera-Caballero, Carlos; Ortiz-Dominguez, Abel

    2016-08-01

    A 15-year-old patient harmed himself upon firing a shotgun that he was carrying when he slipped and fell, causing a destructive wound in the right arm with a medial entry hole and a posterolateral exit hole. The biceps, coracobrachialis, triceps, deltoids, skin cover, and humerus were injured; however, the blood vessels and major nerves of the area were surprisingly not affected. The residual skin muscle defect after debridements was 16 × 5 cm medially and posteriorly, and the bone loss was 7 cm. The wound was reconstructed during a single surgery with a free fibula flap and a pedicled flap of latissimus dorsi. Ten years after surgery, the patient presents neither functional deficit of the injured limb (shoulder, arm, forearm, and hand) nor sequelae in the donor areas; he performs his daily activities without any limitations. This case confirms that the use of free bone flaps and pedicled muscle flaps in pediatric patients can provide excellent long-term results. PMID:27622112

  3. Pediatric Arm Reconstruction after Shot-gun Injury Using Peroneal Free-flap and Pedicled Latissimus Dorsi Muscle Flap: Late Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Dominguez, Abel

    2016-01-01

    Summary: A 15-year-old patient harmed himself upon firing a shotgun that he was carrying when he slipped and fell, causing a destructive wound in the right arm with a medial entry hole and a posterolateral exit hole. The biceps, coracobrachialis, triceps, deltoids, skin cover, and humerus were injured; however, the blood vessels and major nerves of the area were surprisingly not affected. The residual skin muscle defect after debridements was 16 × 5 cm medially and posteriorly, and the bone loss was 7 cm. The wound was reconstructed during a single surgery with a free fibula flap and a pedicled flap of latissimus dorsi. Ten years after surgery, the patient presents neither functional deficit of the injured limb (shoulder, arm, forearm, and hand) nor sequelae in the donor areas; he performs his daily activities without any limitations. This case confirms that the use of free bone flaps and pedicled muscle flaps in pediatric patients can provide excellent long-term results.

  4. Pediatric Arm Reconstruction after Shot-gun Injury Using Peroneal Free-flap and Pedicled Latissimus Dorsi Muscle Flap: Late Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Dominguez, Abel

    2016-01-01

    Summary: A 15-year-old patient harmed himself upon firing a shotgun that he was carrying when he slipped and fell, causing a destructive wound in the right arm with a medial entry hole and a posterolateral exit hole. The biceps, coracobrachialis, triceps, deltoids, skin cover, and humerus were injured; however, the blood vessels and major nerves of the area were surprisingly not affected. The residual skin muscle defect after debridements was 16 × 5 cm medially and posteriorly, and the bone loss was 7 cm. The wound was reconstructed during a single surgery with a free fibula flap and a pedicled flap of latissimus dorsi. Ten years after surgery, the patient presents neither functional deficit of the injured limb (shoulder, arm, forearm, and hand) nor sequelae in the donor areas; he performs his daily activities without any limitations. This case confirms that the use of free bone flaps and pedicled muscle flaps in pediatric patients can provide excellent long-term results. PMID:27622112

  5. Vascularized Free Lymph Node Flap Transfer in Advanced Lymphedema Patient after Axillary Lymph Node Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Kyung Hoon; Park, Myong Chul; Lim, Seong Yoon; Jung, Yong Sik

    2016-01-01

    Lymphedema is a condition characterized by tissue swelling caused by localized fluid retention. Advanced lymphedema is characterized by irreversible skin fibrosis (stage IIIb) and nonpitting edema, with leather-like skin, skin crypts, and ulcers with or without involvement of the toes (stage IVa and IVb, respectively). Recently, surgical treatment of advanced lymphedema has been a challenging reconstructive modality. Microvascular techniques such as lymphaticovenous anastomosis and vascularized lymph node flap transfer are effective for early stage lymphedema. In this study, we performed a two-stage operation in an advanced lymphedema patient. First, a debulking procedure was performed using liposuction. A vascularized free lymph node flap transfer was then conducted 10 weeks after the first operation. In this case, good results were obtained, with reduced circumferences in various parts of the upper extremity noted immediately postoperation. PMID:27064862

  6. Modified Facial Artery Musculomucosal Flap for Reconstruction of Posterior Skull Base Defects

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Liyue; Lavigne, Philippe; Lavigne, François; Ayad, Tareck

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The superiorly pedicled facial artery musculomucosal (FAMM) flap has been successfully used for reconstruction of head and neck defects since 1992. Common sites of defects include the oral cavity and oropharynx. This article presents a clinical case in which we have successfully used a newly developed modification of the FAMM flap for bulky nasopharyngeal and skull base reconstruction. Results Our patient is a 71-year-old man who presented with a large parapharyngeal and clival chordoma. After tumor removal through combined endoscopic and cervical approach, the internal carotid artery (ICA) in the nasopharyngeal portion was left exposed. A modified superiorly based FAMM flap measuring up to 10 cm in length and 2.5 cm in width was successfully harvested and used to completely cover the defect and the ICA. The flap survived local radiation therapy at the long-term follow-up. Conclusion We have developed a new modification of the FAMM flap, using the fascia of the masseter muscle. This is the first reported case in the literature using a modified FAMM flap for the reconstruction of nasopharyngeal and skull base defect. PMID:27330928

  7. Delayed skin grafting.

    PubMed

    Ceilley, R I; Bumsted, R M; Panje, W R

    1983-04-01

    The use of skin grafts on granulating wounds is an established practice. Delaying the application of a full- or split-thickness skin graft may be an advantageous alternative method of surgical reconstruction in selected cases. Partial healing by secondary intention is useful for filling in deeper defects and usually produces a wound that is much smaller and of more normal contour than the original defect. Contraction of the graft bed is markedly influenced by location, tissue laxity, surface tension lines, motion, and wound geometry. Proper wound care, correct surgical preparation of the defect, and timing of the graft procedure are all important considerations in maximizing the overall result. Through-and-through defects and wounds produced over areas with little underlying support (eyelids and lip) often need flap reconstruction or immediate grafting to prevent undesirable functional and cosmetic results. By combining delayed healing and conventional reconstructive techniques, major tissue loss can often be restored while minimizing patient morbidity.

  8. Release of severe post-burn contracture of the first web space using the reverse posterior interosseous flap: Our experience with 12 cases.

    PubMed

    Kai, Shi; Zhao, Jingchun; Jin, Zhenghua; Wu, Weiwei; Yang, Ming; Wang, Yan; Xie, Chunhui; Yu, Jiaao

    2013-09-01

    We retrospectively assessed outcomes after treating severe contractures of the first web space from burns with the reverse posterior interosseous flaps (RPIF). Twelve consecutive patients (ages 18-58 years) with burns from 10% to 70% (mean, 30.1%) total body surface area and severe contractures of the first web space of the hand (initial thumb to index angles from 10° to 35° [mean, 23°]) underwent contracture release using the RPIF. Seventeen RPIFs were used, with sizes from 9cm×6cm to 14cm×10cm (mean area, 83.6cm(2)). The patients were followed for 5-26 months. All flaps survived completely, rapidly adapted to the recipient beds, and achieved good color and texture harmony. No early complications occurred. Fifteen donor sites were closed with skin grafts. Two donor sites were closed by direct suture. No paralysis of the posterior interosseous nerve was observed in these cases. At last follow-up the mean thumb to index angle was 78°, increasing the web length 260%. All patients regained fundamental hand functions. The RPIF is reliable and safe for releasing severe contractures of the first web space of the hand after burn, with distinct advantages over currently used alternative methods. PMID:23523223

  9. Release of severe post-burn contracture of the first web space using the reverse posterior interosseous flap: Our experience with 12 cases.

    PubMed

    Kai, Shi; Zhao, Jingchun; Jin, Zhenghua; Wu, Weiwei; Yang, Ming; Wang, Yan; Xie, Chunhui; Yu, Jiaao

    2013-09-01

    We retrospectively assessed outcomes after treating severe contractures of the first web space from burns with the reverse posterior interosseous flaps (RPIF). Twelve consecutive patients (ages 18-58 years) with burns from 10% to 70% (mean, 30.1%) total body surface area and severe contractures of the first web space of the hand (initial thumb to index angles from 10° to 35° [mean, 23°]) underwent contracture release using the RPIF. Seventeen RPIFs were used, with sizes from 9cm×6cm to 14cm×10cm (mean area, 83.6cm(2)). The patients were followed for 5-26 months. All flaps survived completely, rapidly adapted to the recipient beds, and achieved good color and texture harmony. No early complications occurred. Fifteen donor sites were closed with skin grafts. Two donor sites were closed by direct suture. No paralysis of the posterior interosseous nerve was observed in these cases. At last follow-up the mean thumb to index angle was 78°, increasing the web length 260%. All patients regained fundamental hand functions. The RPIF is reliable and safe for releasing severe contractures of the first web space of the hand after burn, with distinct advantages over currently used alternative methods.

  10. Comprehensive Evaluation of Risk Factors and Management of Impending Flap Loss in 2138 Breast Free Flaps.

    PubMed

    Chang, Edward I; Chang, Eric I; Soto-Miranda, Miguel A; Zhang, Hong; Nosrati, Naveed; Crosby, Melissa A; Reece, Gregory P; Robb, Geoffrey L; Chang, David W

    2016-01-01

    Loss of a breast free flap is a relatively rare but catastrophic occurrence. Our study aims to identify risk factors for flap loss and to assess whether different salvage techniques affect flap salvage. We performed a retrospective review of all breast free flaps performed at a single institution from 2000 to 2010. Overall, 2138 flaps were performed in 1608 patients (unilateral, 1120 and bilateral, 488) with 44 flap losses (2.1%). Age, body mass index, smoking, radiation, chemotherapy, and surgeon experience did not affect flap loss. Abdominal flaps based on a single perforator were at significantly higher risk for flap loss compared with flaps based on multiple perforators (P = 0.0007). Subgroup analysis of the subset of 166 compromised free flaps (flaps requiring a return to the operating room, an intraoperative anastomotic revision, or loss/partial loss of a free flap) demonstrated deep inferior epigastric perforator, and other flaps (superficial inferior epigastric artery and superior gluteal artery perforator) were significantly associated with flap loss [odds ratio (OR) 5.20; P = 0.03 and OR 6.91; P = 0.0004, respectively] compared with transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous and muscle-sparing transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flaps. Although an intraoperative complication was not associated with a flap loss, the need for a reoperation was strongly predictive (P < 0.0001). Flap salvage was the highest within the first 24 hours (83.7%) and significantly less between days 1 and 3 (38.6%; P < 0.0001) and beyond 4 days (29.4%; P < 0.0001). Longer ischemia time was significantly associated with flap loss (P = 0.04). Salvage techniques (aspirin, heparinzation, thrombectomy, and thrombolytic) had no impact on flap salvage rates. Heparinization and thrombolytics were associated with higher loss rates (OR 3.40; P = 0.003 and OR 10.36; P < 0.0001, respectively). Free flap loss following breast reconstruction is multifactorial with higher losses in superficial

  11. Modeling the survival of Salmonella on slice cooked ham as a function of apple skin polyphenols, acetic acid, oregano essential oil and carvacrol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Response surface methodology was applied to investigate the combined effect of apple skin polyphenols (ASP), acetic acid (AA), oregano essential oil (O) and carvacrol (C) on the inactivation of Salmonella on sliced cooked ham. A full factorial experimental design was employed with control variables ...

  12. Modified skin bridge technique for ilio-inguinal lymph node dissection: A forgotten technique revisited

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Mukur Dipi; Garg, Pankaj K; Jakhetiya, Ashish; Kumar, Sunil; Pandey, Durgatosh

    2016-01-01

    Ilio-inguinal lymph node dissection (IILD) is a commonly performed surgical procedure for a number of malignant conditions involving mainly the male and female genitalia, and the skin; however the postoperative morbidity of IILD, due to high frequency of flap necrosis, wound infection and seroma formation, has always been a major concern for the surgeons. The aim of the study is to highlight a modified skin bridge technique of IILD using two parallel curvilinear incisions to minimize postoperative skin flap necrosis. This technique was successfully employed in 38 IILD during May 2012 to November 2013. None of the patient had flap necrosis. Two patients developed seroma while another two patients had superficial surgical site infection; they were managed conservatively. Modified skin bridge technique for IILD is an effective method to minimize flap necrosis without compromising the oncological safety.

  13. Modified skin bridge technique for ilio-inguinal lymph node dissection: A forgotten technique revisited

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Mukur Dipi; Garg, Pankaj K; Jakhetiya, Ashish; Kumar, Sunil; Pandey, Durgatosh

    2016-01-01

    Ilio-inguinal lymph node dissection (IILD) is a commonly performed surgical procedure for a number of malignant conditions involving mainly the male and female genitalia, and the skin; however the postoperative morbidity of IILD, due to high frequency of flap necrosis, wound infection and seroma formation, has always been a major concern for the surgeons. The aim of the study is to highlight a modified skin bridge technique of IILD using two parallel curvilinear incisions to minimize postoperative skin flap necrosis. This technique was successfully employed in 38 IILD during May 2012 to November 2013. None of the patient had flap necrosis. Two patients developed seroma while another two patients had superficial surgical site infection; they were managed conservatively. Modified skin bridge technique for IILD is an effective method to minimize flap necrosis without compromising the oncological safety. PMID:27679781

  14. Modified skin bridge technique for ilio-inguinal lymph node dissection: A forgotten technique revisited.

    PubMed

    Ray, Mukur Dipi; Garg, Pankaj K; Jakhetiya, Ashish; Kumar, Sunil; Pandey, Durgatosh

    2016-09-26

    Ilio-inguinal lymph node dissection (IILD) is a commonly performed surgical procedure for a number of malignant conditions involving mainly the male and female genitalia, and the skin; however the postoperative morbidity of IILD, due to high frequency of flap necrosis, wound infection and seroma formation, has always been a major concern for the surgeons. The aim of the study is to highlight a modified skin bridge technique of IILD using two parallel curvilinear incisions to minimize postoperative skin flap necrosis. This technique was successfully employed in 38 IILD during May 2012 to November 2013. None of the patient had flap necrosis. Two patients developed seroma while another two patients had superficial surgical site infection; they were managed conservatively. Modified skin bridge technique for IILD is an effective method to minimize flap necrosis without compromising the oncological safety. PMID:27679781

  15. [INTERRELATION BETWEEN THE PREOPERATIVE MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PERIPHERAL BLOOD AND THE QUALITY OF ENGRAFTMENT OF VASCULARIZED ADIPO-FASCIO-CUTANEOUS FLAPS IN RATS].

    PubMed

    Shchudlo, N A; Shchudlo, M M; Sbrodova, L I

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the interrelation between the preoperative blood counts and the quality of vascularized adipo-fascio-cutaneous flap survival. In 10 adult male Wistar rats, a flap with the area of 18 cm2 was formed on the basis of superficial inferior epigastric artery; after a 90 min ischemic period it was replanted. 12 days after operation the quality of flap survival was assessed with computer-assisted planimetry. It was found that the combination of preoperative leukocyte, thrombocyte, neutrophil and eosinophil counts as well as reactive lymphocyte counts close to the maximal reference values increased the probability of epidermolysis. PMID:27487668

  16. [INTERRELATION BETWEEN THE PREOPERATIVE MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PERIPHERAL BLOOD AND THE QUALITY OF ENGRAFTMENT OF VASCULARIZED ADIPO-FASCIO-CUTANEOUS FLAPS IN RATS].

    PubMed

    Shchudlo, N A; Shchudlo, M M; Sbrodova, L I

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the interrelation between the preoperative blood counts and the quality of vascularized adipo-fascio-cutaneous flap survival. In 10 adult male Wistar rats, a flap with the area of 18 cm2 was formed on the basis of superficial inferior epigastric artery; after a 90 min ischemic period it was replanted. 12 days after operation the quality of flap survival was assessed with computer-assisted planimetry. It was found that the combination of preoperative leukocyte, thrombocyte, neutrophil and eosinophil counts as well as reactive lymphocyte counts close to the maximal reference values increased the probability of epidermolysis.

  17. The vascularized periosteum flap as novel tissue engineering model for repair of cartilage defects

    PubMed Central

    Harhaus, Leila; Huang, Jung-Ju; Kao, Shu-Wei; Wu, Yen-Lin; Mackert, Gina Alicia; Höner, Bernd; Cheng, Ming-Huei; Kneser, Ulrich; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2015-01-01

    Periosteum is a promising tissue engineering scaffold in research of cartilage repair; so far however, periosteum transfers have not been realized successfully because of insufficient nourishment of the graft. In a translational approach we, for the first time, designed a vascularized periosteum flap as ‘independent’ biomaterial with its own blood supply to address this problem and to reconstruct circumscript cartilage defects. In six 3-month-old New Zealand rabbits, a critical size cartilage defect of the medial femur condyle was created and covered by a vascularized periosteum flap pedicled on the saphenous vessels. After 28 days, formation of newly built cartilage was assessed macroscopically, histologically and qualitatively via biomechanical compression testing, as well as on molecular biological level via immunohistochemistry. All wounds healed completely, all joints were stable and had full range of motion. All flaps survived and were perfused through their pulsating pedicles. They showed a stable attachment to the bone, although partially incomplete adherence. Hyaline cartilage with typical columnar cell distribution and positive Collagen II staining was formed in the transferred flaps. Biomechanical testing revealed a significantly higher maximum load than the positive control, but a low elasticity. This study proved that vascularization of the periosteum flap is the essential step for flap survival and enables the flap to transform into cartilage. Reconstruction of circumscript cartilage defects seems to be possible. Although these are the first results out of a pilot project, this technique, we believe, can have a wide range of potential applications and high relevance in the clinical field. PMID:25754287

  18. Double pedicled perforator flap to close flank defects: an alternative for closure of a large lumbar defect after basalioma excision--a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Arco, Gunther; Horch, Raymund E; Arkudas, Andreas; Dragu, Adrian; Bach, Alexander D; Kneser, Ulrich

    2009-10-01

    Large defects following resection of skin cancers are sometimes a challenge for the reconstructive surgeon. Although skin grafts are considered as the first choice for reconstruction of large skin defects at the trunk region, pedicled or free flaps provide sometimes a superior functional and aesthetic outcome. Perforator flaps represent a valuable option for these patients. The progress in understanding the perforator vessel system of the body facilitated the development of a plethora of novel pedicled flaps which could be transferred over long distances with minimal donor site morbidity. We present a patient suffering from a large exulcerated basalioma at the lumbar region. The skin defect after excision was reconstructed using a novel concept based on 2 independent pedicled perforator flaps, a lumbar artery perforator, and a lateral intercostal artery perforator.

  19. Composite tissue flap at perforating branches of saphenous artery: a new design for repairing composite tissue defects in anterior knee

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Guangfeng; Nie, Kaiyu; Jin, Wenhu; Wei, Zairong; Qi, Jianping; Wang, Dali

    2015-01-01

    So far it has been difficult to repair and reconstruct the composite tissue defects in knee. Saphenous artery flap has been widely used to repair complex wounds, but the design and clinical application of composite tissue flap at perforating branches of saphenous artery were not reported. In this research, we design a new composite tissue flap by carrying fascial flap in the medial gastrocnemius muscle with perforators flap in saphenous artery to repair and reconstruct the composite tissue defects in knee. By anatomic observation and analysis, we find that there exists blood-supply in netty form among saphenous arteries, medial artery below the knee, intermuscular branch in high-order position of posterior tibial artery and perforating branch in medial artery of calf. We chose saphenous artery as blood-supplying artery; utilized the netty blood-supplying mode in middle-up and medial part of shank; cut the composite tissue flap at perforating branches of saphenous artery with fascial flap carried in the medial gastrocnemius muscle; reconstructed the ligamentum patellae using medial head of gastrocnemius muscle and Achilles’s tendon; and covered the wounds at front side of knee with flap. Composite tissues were survived completely, free from infection at wounds and exosmosis of joint fluid. Motion function of knee-joint proved satisfactory, and ambulatory function was recovered. There was no complication in donor site. Composite tissue flap at perforating branches of saphenous artery with fascial flap carried in the medial gastrocnemius muscle is one of the most ideal solutions for repairing the composite tissue defects at front side of knee joint. PMID:26885090

  20. Benefits of using omental pedicle flap over muscle flap for closure of open window thoracotomy

    PubMed Central

    Chikaishi, Yasuhiro; Kuwata, Taiji; Takenaka, Masaru; Oka, Soichi; Hirai, Ayako; Imanishi, Naoko; Kuroda, Koji; Tanaka, Fumihiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Open window thoracotomy (OWT) as well as its closure are challenging. Transposition of omental pedicle and muscle flaps is often performed for OWT closure; however, the better technique among the two is unknown. The purpose of this series was to evaluate the outcomes of using both omental pedicle and muscle flaps for the aforementioned closure. Methods This was an observational retrospective cohort study on 27 consecutive patients who underwent OWT closure at a single institution between January 2005 and December 2014. The operation was performed using either omental pedicle or muscle flap with thoracoplasty. We compared both techniques in terms of the patient background [sex, age, body mass index (BMI) and C-reactive protein (CRP) before OWT and serum albumin levels before OWT closure], presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection, rate of bronchopleural fistula (BPF), duration of OWT, recurrence of local infection, morbidity, duration of indwelling drainage after operation, success, mortality and postoperative hospital stay. Results There were 9 (33.3%) omental pedicle flap procedures and 18 (66.7%) muscle flap procedures. The rate of local recurrence after closure of OWT was significantly higher with muscle flap than with omental pedicle flap (0% vs. 50.0%, P=0.012). The median duration of postoperative hospital stay was significantly shorter with omental pedicle flap than that with muscle flap (16.0 vs. 41.5 days, P=0.037). Mortality was observed in 2 patients (11.2%) in the muscle flap group and no patient in the omental pedicle flap group. Success rate was similar between the two groups (100% for omental pedicle flap vs. 83.3% for muscle flap). Conclusions Omental pedicle flap was superior to muscle flap in terms of reducing local recurrence and shortening postoperative hospital stay. However, mortality, morbidity and success rates were not affected by the choice of flap. PMID:27499959

  1. Freestyle Local Perforator Flaps for Facial Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Yong; Kim, Ji Min; Kwon, Ho; Jung, Sung-No; Shim, Hyung Sup; Kim, Sang Wha

    2015-01-01

    For the successful reconstruction of facial defects, various perforator flaps have been used in single-stage surgery, where tissues are moved to adjacent defect sites. Our group successfully performed perforator flap surgery on 17 patients with small to moderate facial defects that affected the functional and aesthetic features of their faces. Of four complicated cases, three developed venous congestion, which resolved in the subacute postoperative period, and one patient with partial necrosis underwent minor revision. We reviewed the literature on freestyle perforator flaps for facial defect reconstruction and focused on English articles published in the last five years. With the advance of knowledge regarding the vascular anatomy of pedicled perforator flaps in the face, we found that some perforator flaps can improve functional and aesthetic reconstruction for the facial defects. We suggest that freestyle facial perforator flaps can serve as alternative, safe, and versatile treatment modalities for covering small to moderate facial defects. PMID:26236734

  2. Repositioning free laser in situ keratomileusis flaps.

    PubMed

    Todani, Amit; Al-Arfaj, Khalid; Melki, Samir A

    2010-02-01

    We describe a protocol for adequate repositioning of free laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) corneal flaps created by a Moria M2 microkeratome even in the absence of fiduciary marks. In an enucleated porcine globe, a free flap was created by initially placing a longitudinal incision at the proposed hinge site followed by activating the forward pass of the automated microkeratome. A protocol was devised based on placement of a positioning dot on the free flap before the flap is retrieved from the microkeratome head. Preplaced surgical landmarks were used as a guide to determine the correct alignment of the free flap. Adequate orientation of the free flap to the stromal bed was achieved in 9 porcine eyes using the positioning dot method. The technique is applicable to the Moria M2 microkeratome only and must be validated for other types of keratomes.

  3. Excitation, response, and fatigue life estimation methods for the structural design of externally blown flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, E. E.; Chandiramani, K. L.; Barger, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    Means for predicting the fluctuating pressures acting on externally blown flap surfaces are developed on the basis of generalizations derived from non-dimensionalized empirical data. Approaches for estimation of the fatigue lives of skin-stringer and honeycomb-core sandwich flap structures are derived from vibration response analyses and panel fatigue data. Approximate expressions for fluctuating pressures, structural response, and fatigue life are combined to reveal the important parametric dependences. The two-dimensional equations of motion of multi-element flap systems are derived in general form, so that they can be specialized readily for any particular system. An introduction is presented of an approach to characterizing the excitation pressures and structural responses which makes use of space-time spectral concepts and promises to provide useful insights, as well as experimental and analytical savings.

  4. Studies of the Scottish oil shale industry. Volume 2. Shale workers pneumoconiosis and skin conditions: epidemiological surveys of surviving ex-shale workers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Louw, S.J.; Cowie, H.; Seaton, A.

    1985-03-01

    The world's largest and richest reserves of oil shale occur in the United States. It has not proved possible to obtain reliable data on the health risks to the work force that such a development might entail. While the risks of accidents, explosions, and local pollution may reasonably be estimated by analogy with similar industries, potential specific hazards of shale oil production itself, such as pneumoconiosis and lung and skin cancer, can only be assessed by study of an established shale industry. The volume describes the use of the Provident Fund form in identifying ex-shale workers and subsequent studies aimed at determining the prevalence and respiratory effects of pneumoconiosis and the prevalence of skin disease amongst them.

  5. [Repair of skin and soft tissue defects around the knee joints].

    PubMed

    Tan, Qian; Xu, Peng

    2015-10-01

    Skin and soft tissue defects around the knee joints are often accompanied by popliteal artery injury, patellar ligament injury, patellar fracture, and other deep tissue damage or exposure, making them challenging to repair. The principle is to repair the wound, reconstruct anatomical structure of the knee joint, and recover the knee joint function. At present the reconstruction with skin flap or myocutaneous flap is our priority. Local flap or myocutaneous flap can be used for repairing minor defects around the knee joints. Repairing with perforator flap, fascia flap, and free flap are main alternatives for covering larger and complex defects around the knee joints. During the treatment, a joint effort is mandatory, not only to repair the wound, but also to reconstruct vasculature, fix fracture, repair ligament, and finally recover the knee joint function. Therefore, the importance of multidisciplinary cooperation must be emphasized. Moreover, along with the development of new technologies, new methods, and new materials, perforator flap plays an important role in repairing skin and soft tissue defects around the knee joints.

  6. [Use of pedicled cutaneous groin flaps in distal reconstruction of the upper extremity].

    PubMed

    Molski, M; Potocki, K; Stańczyk, J; Komorowska, A; Murawski, M

    2000-01-01

    In the years 1981-1997 at the Department of Plastic Surgery Medical Centre for Postsgraduate Education in Warsaw 116 patients were treated surgically using groin flaps and 97 patients using a pedicled cutaneous groin flap. This paper reports the results of the later technique. Reconstructions were performed in 10 female patients aged 18-58 (mean age 37.5 years) and 87 male patients aged 15-67 (mean age 33.8 years). The tissue defects or acquired deformations were caused by: crush injuries (26 cases), scalping injuries (23 cases), rugged injuries (18 cases), avulsion trauma (15 cases), explosion injuries (8 cases) and electric burns (7 cases). Flap size depended upon extent of the tissue defect and the from flaps were 7-26 cm long and 4-12 cm wide. Flap area ranged from 35 to 260 square centimetres. Emergency procedures were performed in 59 patients (61%). Secondary reconstructions were carried out in 38 cases (39%). Operative technique was based on the rules described by McGregor and Jackson. The donor site was sutured primarily tubulizing its basis--as in tube flap. The flap pedicle was cut off during a one stage procedure in 41 patients 21-30 days (mean 23 days) after surgery or during a two-stage procedure in 56 cases. The two-stage procedure consisted of an incision of part of the pedicle after 15-45 days post-op (mean 21 days) followed by a complete dissection after a few days (mean 4 days). In 44 cases the flap required modelling i.e. excision of excessives kin and/or thinning of subcutaneous tissue. The flap healed in 96 patients (99%). Complications at different stages of the treatment were observed in 40 patients (41%). In 3 cases wound ischemia was observed because of too tight suturing. Removal of skin sutures lead to normalization of blood supply. In 7 patients cyanotic skin of the distal part with no significant consequences was observed. In 27 patients (28%) necrosis of the marginal tissues surrounding the operation wound after cutting of the pedicle

  7. Studies of the Scottish oil shale industry. Final report. Volume 2. Shale workers' pneumoconiosis and skin conditions: epidemiological surveys of surviving ex-shale workers

    SciTech Connect

    Louw, S.J.; Cowie, H.; Seaton, A.

    1985-03-01

    This report (in 3 volumes) describes the now defunct Scottish oil shale industry and its effects on the health of its workers. This volume investigates the prevalence of skin disease and pneumoconiosis in Scottish ex-oil shale workers. A cross sectional epidemiological survey has been carried base on a population enrolled in the 1950 Scottish Oils Ltd Provident Fund. Investigation of the Fund indicated that it would have included almost all industrial workers employed in the oil shale industry between 1950 and its closure in 1962. It is concluded that workers in the Scottish shale oil industry in its latter years were not at excess risk of skin disease, perhaps because of steps taken within the industry to reduce the known hazards of dermatitis and skin cancer. However, pneumoconiosis was a definite hazard of miners and retort workers and its presence was associated with an impairment of lung function suggestive of fibrosis and possibly emphysema as well. It is suggested that prevention of this hazard might sensibly be based on the strategy used in the coalmining industry and, in the absence of further information on dust and fume exposures of shale workers, standards as applied in coalmining should be appropriate. Radiological surveillance of dust-exposed workers, whether in mines or at retorts or tips, is recommended. 39 refs., 10 figs., 48 tabs.

  8. Optimal propulsive flapping in Stokes flows.

    PubMed

    Was, Loïc; Lauga, Eric

    2014-03-01

    Swimming fish and flying insects use the flapping of fins and wings to generate thrust. In contrast, microscopic organisms typically deform their appendages in a wavelike fashion. Since a flapping motion with two degrees of freedom is able, in theory, to produce net forces from a time-periodic actuation at all Reynolds numbers, we compute in this paper the optimal flapping kinematics of a rigid spheroid in a Stokes flow. The hydrodynamics for the force generation and energetics of the flapping motion is solved exactly. We then compute analytically the gradient of a flapping efficiency in the space of all flapping gaits and employ it to derive numerically the optimal flapping kinematics as a function of the shape of the flapper and the amplitude of the motion. The kinematics of optimal flapping are observed to depend weakly on the flapper shape and are very similar to the figure-eight motion observed in the motion of insect wings. Our results suggest that flapping could be a exploited experimentally as a propulsion mechanism valid across the whole range of Reynolds numbers.

  9. Refining the intrinsic chimera flap: a review.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Jayant P; Agarwal, Shailesh; Adler, Neta; Gottlieb, Lawrence J

    2009-10-01

    Reconstruction of complex tissue deficiencies in which each missing component is in a different spatial relationship to each other can be particularly challenging, especially in patients with limited recipient vessels. The chimera flap design is uniquely suited to reconstruct these deformities. Chimera flaps have been previously defined in many ways with 2 main categories: prefabricated or intrinsic. Herein we attempt to clarify the definition of a true intrinsic chimeric flap and provide examples of how these constructs provide a method for reconstruction of complex defects. The versatility of the intrinsic chimera flap and its procurement from 7 different vascular systems is described. A clarification of the definition of a true intrinsic chimera flap is described. In addition, construction of flaps from the lateral femoral circumflex, deep circumflex iliac, inferior gluteal, peroneal, subscapular, thoracodorsal, and radial arterial systems is described to showcase the versatility of these chimera flaps. A true intrinsic chimera flap must consist of more than a single tissue type. Each of the tissue components receives its blood flow from separate vascular branches or perforators that are connected to a single vascular source. These vascular branches must be of appropriate length to allow for insetting with 3-dimensional spatial freedom. There are a multitude of sites from which true intrinsic chimera flaps may be harvested.

  10. Optimal propulsive flapping in Stokes flows.

    PubMed

    Was, Loïc; Lauga, Eric

    2014-03-01

    Swimming fish and flying insects use the flapping of fins and wings to generate thrust. In contrast, microscopic organisms typically deform their appendages in a wavelike fashion. Since a flapping motion with two degrees of freedom is able, in theory, to produce net forces from a time-periodic actuation at all Reynolds numbers, we compute in this paper the optimal flapping kinematics of a rigid spheroid in a Stokes flow. The hydrodynamics for the force generation and energetics of the flapping motion is solved exactly. We then compute analytically the gradient of a flapping efficiency in the space of all flapping gaits and employ it to derive numerically the optimal flapping kinematics as a function of the shape of the flapper and the amplitude of the motion. The kinematics of optimal flapping are observed to depend weakly on the flapper shape and are very similar to the figure-eight motion observed in the motion of insect wings. Our results suggest that flapping could be a exploited experimentally as a propulsion mechanism valid across the whole range of Reynolds numbers. PMID:24343130

  11. Pressure Available for Cooling with Cowling Flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stickle, George W; Naiman, Irven; Crigler, John L

    1941-01-01

    Report presents the results of a full-scale investigation conducted in the NACA 20-foot tunnel to determine the pressure difference available for cooling with cowling flaps. The flaps were applied to an exit slot of smooth contour at 0 degree flap angle. Flap angles of 0 degree, 15 degrees, and 30 degrees were tested. Two propellers were used; propeller c which has conventional round blade shanks and propeller f which has airfoil sections extending closer to the hub. The pressure available for cooling is shown to be a direct function of the thrust disk-loading coefficient of the propeller.

  12. [Moderate sequelae secondary to noma: value of the nasogenal flap].

    PubMed

    Trendel, D; Martin, J P; Martins-Carvalho, C

    2009-02-01

    Noma is a gangrenous disease leading to destruction of soft and hard tissue of the face. It mainly affects young poor children with poor oral care. Without treatment noma is fatal in 70 to 90% of cases. In survivors, esthetic and functional sequelae are severe. Emergency intravenous antibiotherapy improves survival but restoration of the face requires reconstructive surgery. Different surgical techniques with various degrees of complexity and reliability have been proposed. The purpose of this article is to describe the nasogenal flap technique. This simple, single-stage technique is well suited to conditions in Africa.

  13. Outcomes following V-Y advancement flap reconstruction of large upper lip defects

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Garrett R.; Weber, Stephen; Baker, Shan R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To characterize revision surgery following V-Y subcutaneous tissue pedicle advancement flap repair of large upper lip skin defects. Methods Retrospective review of upper lip skin defects ≥3.0 cm2 that were reconstructed with a V-Y subcutaneous tissue pedicle advancement flap at an academic tertiary care center. Depth and area of the defect, as well as involvement of the vermilion and nasal ala, were recorded as independent variables. Revision techniques were analyzed to identify patterns. Results Thirty patients were identified with upper lip skin defects ranging from 3.0 to 14.0 cm2 (mean 7.0 cm2, median 6.25 cm2). The defect involved the nasal ala in four cases and the vermilion in three cases. At least one revision surgery was performed in 14/30 (47%) patients. Alar or vermilion involvement was a significant factor in revision by chi-square analysis (p=0.026). Larger defect size did not predict a need for revision, even among cases where the defect did not involve the ala or vermilion (p=0.68). Conclusion Reconstruction of large upper lip skin defects with a V-Y subcutaneous tissue pedicle advancement flap is associated with a 47% revision rate, and when the defect involves the ala or vermilion, the revision rate is increased. Defect size alone cannot be used to predict the need for revision surgery. Revision techniques are demonstrated. PMID:22801764

  14. POSTERIOR INTERBONE ARTERY FLAP FOR COVERING SERIOUS FOREARM, WRIST AND HAND INJURIES

    PubMed Central

    de Lima, Sérgio José; Domingos da Costa, Ricardo Pereira; de Oliveira, Emanoel; Prudente, Fabrício Guimarães; Mendonça, Marcelo Paris; Soares de Camargo, Christiano

    2015-01-01

    To assess the results achieved with posterior interbone artery flap covering serious injuries of the distal third of the forearm, wrist and hand, evaluating the degree of effectiveness of this procedure. Methods: 35 patients with serious injuries of the distal third of upper limbs were studied. We assessed the kind of trauma, injury site, flap size, skin coverage need, clinical outcome and complications. Results: The most frequent mechanism of trauma was motorcycle accident. The most commonly affected regions were: dorsal hand, wrist volar regions and the first commissure. In all patients, the flap size was enough to cover key tissues exposed by the injury. The donor area did not show complications, being primarily closed in 23 cases. The outcomes were good for 31 cases. In 22 patients, no complication was found, and the flap was completely lost in four. Conclusion: Posterior interbone artery flap provides good outcomes in covering serious injuries of the distal third of upper limbs, leading to a stable and reliable coverage, not compromising key irrigating arteries of the hand, enabling the performance of reconstruction procedures. Therefore, this is a useful alternative in such cases. PMID:26998451

  15. The posterior interosseous artery flap: clinical results with special emphasis on donor site morbidity.

    PubMed

    Neuwirth, Maximilian; Hubmer, Martin; Koch, Horst

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluated the clinical results, and especially the donor site morbidity of the posterior interosseous artery flap. A retrospective study included 40 patients with defects covered with posterior interosseous flaps. Twenty-one patients were available for a follow-up examination to assess donor site morbidity by evaluating the dimensions and quality of the donor site scar and the forearm contour as well as complaints and subjective satisfaction with the aesthetic result. The flaps and related donor sites healed uneventfully in 29 cases (72.5%); healing was delayed in 11 cases (27.5%), with total flap loss in two cases. Further surgery was required in six cases. The quality of the donor site scar rated with the Vancouver Scar Scale averaged 2.4 points. Eleven patients (55%) reported impaired sensibility around the donor site and four patients (20%) had physical complaints. Subjective and objective donor site evaluation revealed significantly lower donor site morbidity for directly closed as opposed to skin grafted donor sites, although subjectively, there was a high level of satisfaction in both groups. Our data indicated that the posterior interosseous flap is a valuable option for the management of soft-tissue defects on the dorsum of the hand, due to its anatomical reliability and soft and pliable tissue, its low donor site morbidity and high patient acceptance.

  16. Acute Deep Hand Burns Covered by a Pocket Flap-Graft

    PubMed Central

    Pradier, Jean-Philippe; Oberlin, Christophe; Bey, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated the long-term outcome of the “pocket flap-graft” technique, used to cover acute deep burns of the dorsum of the hand, and analyzed surgical alternatives. Methods: This was a 6-year, retrospective study of 8 patients with extensive burns and 1 patient with a single burn (11 hands in all) treated by defatted abdominal wall pockets. We studied the medical records of the patients, and conducted a follow-up examination. Results: All hands had fourth-degree thermal burns caused by flames, with exposure of tendons, bones, and joints, and poor functional prognosis. One third of patients had multiple injuries. Burns affected an average of 36% of the hand surface, and mean coverage was 92.8 cm2. One patient died. The 8 others were seen at 30-month follow-up: the skin quality of the flap was found to be good in 55% of the cases, the score on the Vancouver Scar Scale was 2.4, the Kapandji score was 4.5, and total active motion was 37% of that of a normal hand. Hand function was limited in only 2 cases, 8 patients were able to drive, and 3 patients had gone back to work. Conclusion: The pocket flap-graft allows preservation of hand function following severe burns, when local or free flaps are impossible to perform. Debulking of the flap at the time of elevation limits the need for secondary procedures. PMID:17268577

  17. Modified Bilateral Neurovascular Cheek Flap: Functional Reconstruction of Extensive Lower Lip Defects

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background: Reconstruction of extensive lower lip defects is challenging, and functional outcomes are difficult to achieve. Methods: A modified bilateral neurovascular cheek (MBNC) flap has been described. The data of patients with cancer of the lower lip treated with wide excision and reconstructed with the MBNC flap in the Plastic Surgery Unit, Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen University, from 1966 to 2012 were reviewed. Results: Of the total of 143 patients included, 90.91% were women, and their age ranged from 32 to 100 years. All defects involved 70% or greater of the lower lip, which included oral commissure, buccal mucosa, or cheek skin and upper lip. All 20 patients who were followed up demonstrated good outcomes of intercommissural distance, interlabial distance, sulcus depth, and 2-point discrimination compared with normal lip parameters according to age group and satisfaction with treatment. Conclusions: Reconstruction of extensive lower lip defects with the MBNC flap provided good oral competence and functional outcomes. The flap provided adequate lip height and width, with proper position of oral commissure and vermilion reconstruction. The awareness about neurovascular anatomy of the lip and cheek and gentle dissection preserve the lip function. The flap overcomes the drawbacks of Karapandzic technique, which is microstomia, and of Bernard technique, which is a tight adynamic lower lip. It can be used in defects of more than two-thirds of the lip, extending to the cheek, commissural reconstruction, and secondary reconstruction. PMID:27579245

  18. Breast reconstruction with single-pedicle TRAM flap in breast cancer patients with low midline abdominal scar

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jun-Dong; Huang, Wen-He; Qiu, Si-Qi; He, Li-Fang; Guo, Cui-Ping; Zhang, Yong-Qu; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Guo-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Breast reconstruction with transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap is challenging in patients with low midline abdominal scar. In this study, we aimed to investigate the clinical feasibility of immediate breast reconstruction using single-pedicle TRAM (SP-TRAM) flaps in patients with low midline abdominal scar. There were 4 strict selection criteria: 1) presence at least 3 perforators on the pedicle side; 2) perforators with regional average flow velocity of >20 cm/s; 3) upper edge of the abdominal scar at least 4 cm from the umbilicus; and 4) scar age >1 year. Eight breast cancer patients with low midline abdominal scar (scar group) and 20 without (control group) underwent immediate breast reconstruction with SP-TRAM flaps consisting of zone I and III and zone II tissues. Flap complications, donor-site complications, and cosmetic results were compared between the two groups. All flaps survived and both groups presented similar flap and donor site complications, including fat necrosis, seroma, hematoma, infection, delayed wound healing, and abdominal hernia, and patients in both groups had similar aesthetic results (p > 0.05). Thus, the study demonstrated that breast reconstruction using SP-TRAM flap was a safe approach in carefully selected patients with low midline abdominal scar. PMID:27406872

  19. The superior lateral genicular artery flap for soft-tissue reconstruction around the knee: clinical experience and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Wiedner, Maria; Koch, Horst; Scharnagl, Erwin

    2011-04-01

    Soft-tissue reconstruction in the knee area needs thin, pliable, and tough skin. The availability of local soft tissue, which would meet the requirements best, is limited. This study is a retrospective analysis of our clinical experience with the superior lateral genicular artery (SLGA) flap for soft-tissue reconstruction around the knee, and a review of the relevant literature. Between 2000 and 2002, 6 SLGA flaps were elevated for reconstruction of defects around the knee in our institution. Indications for the SLGA flap were chronic ulcers after bursectomy of the prepatellar bursa, a pressure ulcer over the patella, and a defect after resection of a malignant fibrous histiocytoma on the anterolateral aspect of the distal thigh. There was no flap loss in any of our 6 patients. Three patients had partial tissue loss at the distal tip of the flap. Two of the 3 resulting wounds were effectively covered with split skin graft, the third one eventually healed with wound care. Primary donor site closure was possible in all cases. There were no late complications, either in the flap area or in the donor site region. We conclude that the SLGA flap is a good option for defect coverage around the knee, because of its fast and easy harvest and the very good aesthetic results. PMID:21200309

  20. Reconstruction of Chopart's Amputation Stump Using Artificial Dermis Combined with Free Anterolateral Thigh Flap.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Mari; Matsumine, Hajime; Takeuchi, Masaki

    2015-11-01

    A 63-year-old man dropped a metal chunk onto his left foot during his work and suffered a crush injury of the left forefoot. He underwent Chopart's amputation followed by stump coverage with sole skin at the orthopedic department on the same day. He was referred to our department for reconstruction because of poor vascularization and subsequent necrosis of tissue at the stump. After the necrotic tissue was debrided, exposure of the talus bone was noted. An artificial dermis was then applied to the stump wound, followed by local negative pressure wound therapy. After 3 weeks, the generation of a strong dermis-like tissue was observed at the site of artificial dermis grafting. We then performed flow-through free anterolateral thigh flap grafting to reconstruct the stump wound. This procedure involved suturing of the peroneal muscle group and tibialis anterior muscle, which were cut off during Chopart's amputation, and suturing the soft tissue surrounding the calcaneus firmly to the fascia lata of the anterolateral thigh flap, followed by suturing of the flap to the skin defect of the left foot. There were neither postoperative complications, such as skin ulcer and equinus/varus deformity, nor need for secondary repair of the grafted flap, so the patient was able to smoothly enter a rehabilitation program including gait training. The current reconstruction technique for the tissue defect following Chopart's amputation, consisting of artificial dermis grafting, negative pressure wound therapy, and flow-through free anterolateral thigh flap grafting, enabled safe and smooth gait rehabilitation with a forefoot prosthesis. PMID:26893983

  1. [The super extended sub-mental flap or combo sub-mental flap].

    PubMed

    Martin, D

    2014-08-01

    The author presents a technical variation of the sub-mental flap including in a conventional pedicled flap both sub-mental axes and their anastomoses on the midline. The assessment of the first flaps raised according to this method confirms the improvement of the distal blood supply. It allows the possibility to harvest "super extended" flaps reaching the contralateral auricular lobula. This variation can be considered as an axial flap which only the tip, located beyond the mandibular angle, is at random. The evolution of the sub-mental flap from its original description to this variation called "combo sub-mental flap" is then presented. Its reliability and the technical simplification it provides will have to be assessed in the future. PMID:24840945

  2. Host defense peptides in skin secretions of Odorrana tiannanensis: Proof for other survival strategy of the frog than merely anti-microbial.

    PubMed

    He, Weiyu; Feng, Feifei; Huang, Yong; Guo, Huanhuan; Zhang, Songyan; Li, Zheng; Liu, Jingze; Wang, Yipeng; Yu, Haining

    2012-03-01

    Genus Odorrana, among all amphibians studied, is generally reported to have the most abundant and diversified anti-microbial peptides even from a single individual frog. In our previous work, 46 cDNA sequences encoding precursors of 22 different anti-microbial peptides (AMPs) were characterized from the skin of frog, Odorrana tiannanensis. In this work, we reported the purification of three AMPs from skin secretions of O. tiannanensis. Their amino acid sequences matched well with the sequences deduced from cDNAs and they were designated as Odorranain-C7HSa, Brevinin-1-OT2 and Odorranain-G-OT, respectively. Furthermore, we selected to analyze the four most structurally diversified sequences among the 22 AMPs that are significantly different from all reported AMPs. By structural characterization, three of them were designated as pleurain-E-OT, odorranain-G-OT, odorranain-A-OT, belonging to AMP families already identified. The forth one with a unique 14-mer sequence of AILTTLANWARKFLa and C-terminal amidation represents the prototypes of a new class of amphibian AMP, and thereby named tiannanensin. Such broad diversity in sequences and structures are consistent with other species in Genus Odorrana. Multi-functions of the synthesized four special AMPs were screened, including anti-microbial, antioxidant, cytotoxic and hemolytic activities. The results suggest that these AMPs may employ sophisticated mechanisms of action in host defense in addition to anti-microbial, although their precise contribution to host defense still seems unclear. PMID:21963433

  3. First dorsal metacarpal artery adiposofascial flap for venous conduit and soft tissue cover in an avulsed thumb: case report.

    PubMed

    Dodakundi, Chaitanya; Hattori, Yasunori; Doi, Kazuteru

    2012-06-01

    Skin loss, need for vein grafts, and secondary surgeries are often encountered in avulsion injuries of the thumb. We report a case of successful salvage of an avulsion type of near total amputation of the thumb following a conveyor belt injury in which the first dorsal metacarpal artery adiposofascial flap was used for combined soft tissue cover and venous conduit. PMID:22517573

  4. Simple and easy reconstruction of nail matrix lesion using lateral finger flap after excision of digital mucous cyst.

    PubMed

    Okochi, Masayuki; Saito, Masami; Ueda, Kazuki

    2016-01-01

    We treated nine patients with skin defect produced by digital mucous cyst (DMC) excision on the finger and toe using lateral finger flap (LFF). The postoperative scars were esthetically acceptable and no recurrence of mucous cysts was observed. Our LFF is a simple method to repair minor distal dorsal finger defects. PMID:27583263

  5. 14 CFR 25.457 - Wing flaps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wing flaps. 25.457 Section 25.457 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.457 Wing flaps....

  6. 14 CFR 25.457 - Wing flaps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wing flaps. 25.457 Section 25.457 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.457 Wing flaps....

  7. 14 CFR 25.457 - Wing flaps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wing flaps. 25.457 Section 25.457 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.457 Wing flaps....

  8. 14 CFR 25.457 - Wing flaps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wing flaps. 25.457 Section 25.457 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.457 Wing flaps....

  9. 14 CFR 25.457 - Wing flaps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wing flaps. 25.457 Section 25.457 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.457 Wing flaps....

  10. Piezoelectrically actuated insect scale flapping wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Sujoy; Ganguli, Ranjan

    2010-04-01

    An energy method is used in order to derive the non-linear equations of motion of a smart flapping wing. Flapping wing is actuated from the root by a PZT unimorph in the piezofan configuration. Dynamic characteristics of the wing, having the same size as dragonfly Aeshna Multicolor, are analyzed using numerical simulations. It is shown that flapping angle variations of the smart flapping wing are similar to the actual dragonfly wing for a specific feasible voltage. An unsteady aerodynamic model based on modified strip theory is used to obtain the aerodynamic forces. It is found that the smart wing generates sufficient lift to support its own weight and carry a small payload. It is therefore a potential candidate for flapping wing of micro air vehicles.

  11. Scrubbing noise of externally blown flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, M. R.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to examine the aeroacoustic mechanism that produces externally blown flap (EBF) scrubbing noise, i.e. a surface-radiated noise which is generally strongest normal to UTW deflected flaps. Scrubbing noise was not radiated from portions of the surface adjacent to strong, locally coherent turbulent eddies. Instead, scrubbing noise seemed to come from weak loading fluctuations that were coherent along the scrubbed span. These loading fluctuations probably were induced by the convected large-scale vortex structure of the attached exhaust jet. Deflecting a UTW flap would reduce the distance between the vortex trajectory and the flap surface, increasing the resulting dipole noise and rotating its directivity. In contrast, deflecting a USB flap would increase this distance, so that observable scrubbing noise would be radiated only from the undeflected forward portion of the wing.

  12. Jejunal free flap for reconstruction of pharyngeal defects in patients with head and neck cancer-the Birmingham experience.

    PubMed

    Walker, Rachel J; Parmar, Satyesh; Praveen, Prav; Martin, Tim; Pracy, Paul; Jennings, Chris; Simms, Malcolm

    2014-02-01

    We retrospectively audited operative complications, success of flaps, and speech and swallowing outcomes in patients with head and neck cancer who had reconstruction with jejunal free tissue transfer to the pharynx. A total of 104 patients had jejunal free flaps between 1987 and 2009 at University Hospital, Birmingham. Management was by a multidisciplinary team, and the same vascular surgeon did all the anastomoses. We investigated the relations between patients, operative factors, and postoperative complications, and noted the ischaemic time of the flaps and coexisting conditions of the patients. Outcomes measured included initial and final survival rates of flaps, donor and recipient site complications, and speech and swallowing outcomes on discharge and up to 2 years postoperatively. Of the 104 patients, 14 (13%) had initial flap complications but overall flap survival was 97%. A total of 11 (11%) patients developed a fistula at a mean of 15 days postoperatively and 11 (11%) had minor donor site complications. A total of 95 (91%) were able to resume oral diet on discharge. Of the 44 who were followed up on discharge, 32 (73%) were able to maintain oral intake at 2 years and 31 (70%) could use their voice in everyday situations. The jejunal free flap enables the tumour to be removed, and reconstruction and restoration of function to be done in a single operation using tissue that is versatile. The operation is associated with low morbidity at the donor and recipient sites, and results in good speech and swallowing outcomes. The flap can also be used to reconstruct pharyngolaryngeal defects.

  13. Jejunal free flap for reconstruction of pharyngeal defects in patients with head and neck cancer-the Birmingham experience.

    PubMed

    Walker, Rachel J; Parmar, Satyesh; Praveen, Prav; Martin, Tim; Pracy, Paul; Jennings, Chris; Simms, Malcolm

    2014-02-01

    We retrospectively audited operative complications, success of flaps, and speech and swallowing outcomes in patients with head and neck cancer who had reconstruction with jejunal free tissue transfer to the pharynx. A total of 104 patients had jejunal free flaps between 1987 and 2009 at University Hospital, Birmingham. Management was by a multidisciplinary team, and the same vascular surgeon did all the anastomoses. We investigated the relations between patients, operative factors, and postoperative complications, and noted the ischaemic time of the flaps and coexisting conditions of the patients. Outcomes measured included initial and final survival rates of flaps, donor and recipient site complications, and speech and swallowing outcomes on discharge and up to 2 years postoperatively. Of the 104 patients, 14 (13%) had initial flap complications but overall flap survival was 97%. A total of 11 (11%) patients developed a fistula at a mean of 15 days postoperatively and 11 (11%) had minor donor site complications. A total of 95 (91%) were able to resume oral diet on discharge. Of the 44 who were followed up on discharge, 32 (73%) were able to maintain oral intake at 2 years and 31 (70%) could use their voice in everyday situations. The jejunal free flap enables the tumour to be removed, and reconstruction and restoration of function to be done in a single operation using tissue that is versatile. The operation is associated with low morbidity at the donor and recipient sites, and results in good speech and swallowing outcomes. The flap can also be used to reconstruct pharyngolaryngeal defects. PMID:24315201

  14. Lung tissue flap repairs esophagus defection with an inner chitosan tube stent

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gang; Shi, Wen-Jun

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To repair the partial esophagus defect with a chitosan stent, a new esophageal prosthesis made of pulmonary tissue with vascular pedicle. METHODS: Fifteen Japanese big ear white rabbits were divided into experimental group (n = 10) and control group (n = 5). Esophagus defect in rabbits of experimental group was repaired using lung tissue flap with a chitosan tube stent, gross and histological appearance was observed at week 2, 4 and 8 after operation, and barium sulphate X-ray screen was performed at week 10 after operation. Esophagus defect of rabbits in control group was repaired using lung tissue flap with no chitosan tube stent, gross and histological appearance was observed at week 2, 4 and 8 after operation, and barium sulphate X-ray screen was performed at week 10 after operation. RESULTS: In the experimental group, 6 rabbits survived for over two weeks, the lung tissue flap healed esophageal defection, and squamous metaplasia occurred on the surface of lung tissue flap. At week 10 after operation, barium sulphate examination found that barium was fluent through the esophagus with no stricture or back stream, the creeping was good. In the control group, 4 rabbits survived for two weeks, the lung tissue flap healed esophageal defection with fibrous tissue hyperplasia, barium sulphate examination found that barium was fluent through the esophagus with a slight stricture or back stream, and the creeping was not good at week 10 after operation. CONCLUSION: Esophagus defect can be repaired using lung tissue flap with an inner chitosan tube stent. PMID:19322927

  15. Heinrich von Pfalzpaint, Pioneer of Arm Flap Nasal Reconstruction in 1460, More Than a Century Before Tagliacozzi.

    PubMed

    Greig, Aina; Gohritz, Andreas; Geishauser, Max; Mühlbauer, Wolfgang

    2015-06-01

    Heinrich von Pfalzpaint (circa 1415-1465) was a Bavarian military surgeon of the Teutonic Order who treated more than 4000 casualties during the siege of Marienberg Fortress (1454-1457). In 1460, he reported "How to create a new nose if it has been chopped off and the dogs have eaten it" in his treatise on wound care Bündt-Ertznei. He used opium-soaked sponges for anesthesia, described the surgical extraction of bullets and cleft lip repair. Pfalzpaint would have been the first author to describe nasal reconstruction in Europe if his treatise had not been lost. Only 5 copies of his manuscript existed. One was rediscovered and printed in 1868. Pfalzpaint's technique for nasal reconstruction was performed in 2 stages using an undelayed skin flap from the upper arm, which was sutured to the nasal defect and the arm was bandaged to the head. After 8 to 10 days, he divided the pedicle; inset the flap; and fashioned the nasal dorsum, alae, and columella. Tagliacozzi described arm flap nasal reconstruction more than a century later in 1597. He used delayed skin flaps, with at least 6 operative stages over 4 months. Pfalzpaint was ahead of his time regarding his knowledge of wounds, insistence on surgical cleanliness, and his technically easier arm flap rhinoplasty, compared with Tagliacozzi. Pfalzpaint, who is rarely referenced in the literature, should be remembered as a great pioneer of reconstructive surgery in Europe. PMID:26080150

  16. Total ‘rib’-preservation technique of internal mammary vessel exposure for free flap breast reconstruction: A 5-year prospective cohort study and instructional video

    PubMed Central

    Rosich-Medina, Anais; Bouloumpasis, Serafeim; Di Candia, Michele; Malata, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The total ‘rib’-preservation method of dissecting out the internal mammary vessels (IMV) during microvascular breast reconstruction aims to reduce free flap morbidity at the recipient site. We review our five-year experience with this technique. Patients & methods An analysis of a prospectively collected free flap data cohort was undertaken to determine the indications, operative details and reconstructive outcomes in all breast reconstruction patients undergoing IMV exposure using the total ‘rib’-preservation method by a single surgeon. Results 178 consecutive breast free flaps (156 unilateral, 11 bilateral) were performed from 1st June 2008 to 31st May 2013 in 167 patients with a median age of 50 years (range 28–71). There were 154 DIEP flaps, 14 SIEA flaps, 7 muscle-sparing free TRAMs, 2 IGAP flaps and one free latissimus dorsi flap. 75% of the reconstructions (133/178) were immediate, 25% (45/178) were delayed. The mean inter-costal space distance was 20.9 mm (range 9–29). The mean time taken to expose and prepare the recipient IMV's was 54 min (range 17–131). The mean flap ischaemia time was 95 min (range 38–190). Free flap survival was 100%, although 2.2% (4 flaps) required a return to theatre for exploration and flap salvage. No patients complained of localised chest pain or tenderness at the recipient site and no chest wall contour deformity has been observed. Discussion & conclusion The total ‘rib’-preservation technique of IMV exposure is a safe, reliable and versatile method for microvascular breast reconstruction and should be considered as a valid alternative to the ‘rib’-sacrificing techniques. PMID:26468373

  17. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... are specialized skin cells that produce pigment called melanin. The melanin pigment produced by melanocytes gives skin its color. ... absorbing and scattering the energy. People with more melanin have darker skin and better protection from UV ...

  18. Skin Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    Your skin is your body's largest organ. It covers and protects your body. Your skin Holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration Keeps harmful ... it Anything that irritates, clogs, or inflames your skin can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, burning, ...

  19. Hydrodynamic schooling of flapping swimmers

    DOE PAGES

    Becker, Alexander D.; Masoud, Hassan; Newbolt, Joel W.; Shelley, Michael; Ristroph, Leif

    2015-10-06

    Fish schools and bird flocks are fascinating examples of collective behaviours in which many individuals generate and interact with complex flows. Motivated by animal groups on the move, here we explore how the locomotion of many bodies emerges from their flow-mediated interactions. Through experiments and simulations of arrays of flapping wings that propel within a collective wake, we discover distinct modes characterized by the group swimming speed and the spatial phase shift between trajectories of neighbouring wings. For identical flapping motions, slow and fast modes coexist and correspond to constructive and destructive wing–wake interactions. Simulations show that swimming in amore » group can enhance speed and save power, and we capture the key phenomena in a mathematical model based on memory or the storage and recollection of information in the flow field. Lastly, these results also show that fluid dynamic interactions alone are sufficient to generate coherent collective locomotion, and thus might suggest new ways to characterize the role of flows in animal groups.« less

  20. Hydrodynamic schooling of flapping swimmers

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, Alexander D.; Masoud, Hassan; Newbolt, Joel W.; Shelley, Michael; Ristroph, Leif

    2015-10-06

    Fish schools and bird flocks are fascinating examples of collective behaviours in which many individuals generate and interact with complex flows. Motivated by animal groups on the move, here we explore how the locomotion of many bodies emerges from their flow-mediated interactions. Through experiments and simulations of arrays of flapping wings that propel within a collective wake, we discover distinct modes characterized by the group swimming speed and the spatial phase shift between trajectories of neighbouring wings. For identical flapping motions, slow and fast modes coexist and correspond to constructive and destructive wing–wake interactions. Simulations show that swimming in a group can enhance speed and save power, and we capture the key phenomena in a mathematical model based on memory or the storage and recollection of information in the flow field. Lastly, these results also show that fluid dynamic interactions alone are sufficient to generate coherent collective locomotion, and thus might suggest new ways to characterize the role of flows in animal groups.

  1. Hydrodynamic schooling of flapping swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Alexander D.; Masoud, Hassan; Newbolt, Joel W.; Shelley, Michael; Ristroph, Leif

    2015-01-01

    Fish schools and bird flocks are fascinating examples of collective behaviours in which many individuals generate and interact with complex flows. Motivated by animal groups on the move, here we explore how the locomotion of many bodies emerges from their flow-mediated interactions. Through experiments and simulations of arrays of flapping wings that propel within a collective wake, we discover distinct modes characterized by the group swimming speed and the spatial phase shift between trajectories of neighbouring wings. For identical flapping motions, slow and fast modes coexist and correspond to constructive and destructive wing–wake interactions. Simulations show that swimming in a group can enhance speed and save power, and we capture the key phenomena in a mathematical model based on memory or the storage and recollection of information in the flow field. These results also show that fluid dynamic interactions alone are sufficient to generate coherent collective locomotion, and thus might suggest new ways to characterize the role of flows in animal groups. PMID:26439509

  2. Hydrodynamic schooling of flapping swimmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Alexander D.; Masoud, Hassan; Newbolt, Joel W.; Shelley, Michael; Ristroph, Leif

    2015-10-01

    Fish schools and bird flocks are fascinating examples of collective behaviours in which many individuals generate and interact with complex flows. Motivated by animal groups on the move, here we explore how the locomotion of many bodies emerges from their flow-mediated interactions. Through experiments and simulations of arrays of flapping wings that propel within a collective wake, we discover distinct modes characterized by the group swimming speed and the spatial phase shift between trajectories of neighbouring wings. For identical flapping motions, slow and fast modes coexist and correspond to constructive and destructive wing-wake interactions. Simulations show that swimming in a group can enhance speed and save power, and we capture the key phenomena in a mathematical model based on memory or the storage and recollection of information in the flow field. These results also show that fluid dynamic interactions alone are sufficient to generate coherent collective locomotion, and thus might suggest new ways to characterize the role of flows in animal groups.

  3. Antioxidant support in composite musculo-adipose-fasciocutaneous flap applications: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Mehmet; Kapi, Emin; Kulahci, Yalcin; Gedik, Ercan; Ozekinci, Selver; Isik, Fatma Birgul; Celik, Yusuf; Selcuk, Caferi Tayyar; Kuvat, Samet Vasfi

    2014-02-01

    Free radicals are chemicals that play roles in the etio-pathogenesis of ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Various antioxidants have been used in an attempt to mitigate the damage induced by these chemicals. In the present study, the antioxidative effects of grape seed extract (proanthocyanidin), tomato extract (lycopene), and vitamin C (ascorbic acid) on a composite re-established-flow inferior epigastric artery based rectus abdominis muscle-skin flap model on which experimental ischaemia was induced were investigated. The rats have been administered antioxidants for 2 weeks prior to the surgery and for 2 more weeks thereafter. Macroscopic, histopathological, and biochemical analyses were carried out at the decision of the experiment. It was found that flap skin island necrosis was significantly reduced in the proanthocyanidin, lycopene, vitamin C groups (p < 0.001). Statistical analyses showed significant decreases in inflammation, oedema, congestion, and granulation tissue in the proanthocyanidin and lycopene groups compared to the vitamin C and control groups (p < 0.001). When the viability rates of fat and muscle tissues were examined, significant improvements were found in the proanthocyanidin and lycopene groups in comparison to the other groups (p < 0.001). Serum antioxidant capacity measurements revealed significant differences in the lycopene group compared to all other groups (p < 0.001). It is concluded that lycopene and proanthocyanidin are protective antioxidants in rat composite muscle-skin flap ischaemia-reperfusion models. PMID:23731129

  4. Aerodynamic characteristics of a wing with Fowler flaps including flap loads, downwash, and calculated effect on take-off

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platt, Robert C

    1936-01-01

    This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests of a wing in combination with each of three sizes of Fowler flap. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the aerodynamic characteristics as affected by flap chord and position, the air loads on the flaps, and the effect of flaps on the downwash.

  5. Donor-site morbidity after fibula free flap transfer: a comparison of subjective evaluation using a visual analogue scale and point evaluation system.

    PubMed

    Vittayakittipong, P

    2013-08-01

    The aims of this study were: (1) to compare the visual analogue scale (VAS) with the point evaluation system (PES) in the subjective evaluation of donor-site morbidity after fibula free flap transfer; (2) to compare the functional outcomes of fibula free flap surgery between patients with a normal body mass index (BMI) and patients with a high BMI, and between skin paddle and non-skin paddle harvesting; and (3) to determine the correlation between functional outcomes and related factors. This study included 15 patients who underwent a vascularized fibula free flap transfer for oral and maxillofacial reconstruction. Demographic data, preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative data were collected. Subjective self-evaluation of functional outcomes was done using a VAS followed by a PES. Comparison of the VAS and PES scores was assessed with Pearson's correlation coefficient. The statistical significance was set at P<0.05. The VAS score was significantly correlated with the PES score (r=0.63, P=0.01). The tourniquet times for the skin paddle group were longer than for the non-skin paddle group (P=0.02), while the satisfaction score of the non-skin paddle group was higher than that of the skin paddle group (P=0.03). The VAS is a potential option for the subjective evaluation of donor-site morbidity after fibula free flap transfer.

  6. Flap reconstruction for soft-tissue defects with exposed hardware following deep infection after internal fixation of ankle fractures.

    PubMed

    Ovaska, Mikko T; Madanat, Rami; Tukiainen, Erkki; Pulliainen, Lea; Sintonen, Harri; Mäkinen, Tatu J

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the outcome for patients treated with flap reconstruction following deep ankle fracture infection with exposed hardware. Out of 3041 consecutive ankle fracture operations in 3030 patients from 2006 to 2011, we identified 56 patients requiring flap reconstruction following deep infection. Thirty-two of these patients could be examined at a follow-up visit. Olerud-Molander Ankle (OMA) score, 15D score, Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), and clinical examination were used to assess the outcome. A total of 58 flap reconstructions were performed in 56 patients with a mean age of 57 years (range 25–93 years) and mean follow-up time of 52 months. The most commonly used reconstruction was a distally based peroneus brevis muscle flap with a split-thickness skin graft. A microvascular free flap was required in only one patient. 22 (39%) patients required subsequent surgical interventions because of a flap-related complication. With flap reconstruction, hardware could eventually be salvaged in 53% of patients with a non-consolidated fracture. The mean OMA score was fair or poor in 53% of the patients, and only 56% had recovered their pre-injury level of function. Half of the patients had shoe wear limitations. The 15D score showed a significantly poorer health-related quality of life compared to an age-standardised sample of the general population. The mean pain NRS was 2.1 (range 0–6), and the mean satisfaction NRS was 6.6 (range 0–10). Our study showed that successful treatment of a soft-tissue defect with exposed hardware following ankle fracture infections can be achieved with local flaps. Despite eventual reconstructive success, complications are common. Patients perceive a poorer health-related quality of life, have shoe wear limitations, and only half of them achieve their pre-injury level of function. PMID:25458066

  7. TRAM flap breast reconstruction after radiation treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, J K; Bostwick, J; Bried, J T; Mackay, G; Landry, J; Benton, J

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients with and without radiation treatment before their breast reconstruction were compared to study the relationship of radiation to flap-related complications. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The transverse rectus abdominis muscle (TRAM) flap for breast reconstruction involves a a vascular pedicle and recipient bed, both included in the radiated field of patients undergoing adjunctive therapy. Detailed reviews of flap-related complications in this subgroup of patients have been limited. METHODS: One hundred eight patients with radiation treatment who subsequently underwent a TRAM flap breast reconstruction were compared with 572 patients with no radiation treatment before similar reconstruction. Flap-related complications, radiation dosage, time, fields, relationships between risk factors, and complications were studied. RESULTS: Overall complication rates were comparable between the two groups. Only fat necrosis (> 10% of total reconstruction) was found to be statistically significant (17.6% vs. 10.1%, p = 0.03228). No difference was found for fat necrosis in unipedicled vs. bipedicled flaps controlled for radiation (17.7% vs. 17.4%). Obesity and radiation therapy were associated with fat necrosis and major infection in a logistic regression. Significant abdominal scarring was also associated with major infection (p = 0.0044). CONCLUSIONS: In this, the largest reported series, radiation therapy was associated with increased fat necrosis and major infection. The use of the TRAM flap was not found to be prohibitive in radiated patients and should still be the first choice in this subgroup of patients. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:7794079

  8. Critical Mach Numbers of Thin Airfoil Sections with Plain Flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pardee, Otway O'm.; Heaslet, Max A.

    1946-01-01

    Critical Mach number as function of lift coefficient is determined for certain moderately thick NACA low-drag airfoils. Results, given graphically, included calculations on same airfoil sections with plain flaps for small flap deflections. Curves indicate optimum critical conditions for airfoils with flaps in such form that they can be compared with corresponding results for zero flap deflections. Plain flaps increase life-coefficient range for which critical Mach number is in region of high values characteristic of low-drag airfoils.

  9. Reconstruction after Anterior Chest Wall Keloid Resection Using Internal Mammary Artery Perforator Propeller Flaps

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Rei; Ono, Shimpei; Akaishi, Satoshi; Dohi, Teruyuki; Iimura, Takeshi; Nakao, Junichi

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is difficult to completely resect huge anterior chest wall keloids and then close the wound directly. We report here our retrospective analysis of our case series of patients with such keloids who underwent reconstruction with internal mammary artery perforator (IMAP) pedicled propeller flaps and then received postoperative high-dose-rate superficial brachytherapy. Methods: All consecutive patients with large/severe keloids on the anterior chest wall who underwent keloid resection followed by reconstruction with IMAP-pedicled propeller flaps and then high-dose-rate superficial brachytherapy in our academic hospital were identified. All cases were followed for >18 months. Donor site position, perforator pedicle, flap size, angle of flap rotation, complications, and recurrence were documented. Results: There were nine men and one woman. The average age was 37.9 years. The average follow-up duration was 28.7 months. The largest flap was 16 × 4 cm. The dominant perforators of the internal mammary artery were located in the sixth (n = 2), seventh (n = 5), eighth (n = 1), and ninth (n = 2) intercostal spaces. Twelve months after surgery, patients reported marked relief from keloid-associated pain and itching, except in two patients who underwent partial keloid resection; their remaining keloids were still troublesome but after conservative therapies, including steroid ointments/plasters, the keloids gradually ameliorated. Eighteen months after surgery, there was no keloid recurrence or new development of keloids on the donor site. Conclusions: IMAP-pedicled propeller flaps transfer skin tension from the anterior chest wall to the abdomen. Our series suggests that this approach combined with radiation therapy can control keloid recurrence. PMID:27757357

  10. On the generation of side-edge flap noise. [part span trailing edge flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, M. S.

    1981-01-01

    A theory is proposed for estimating the noise generated at the side edges of part span trailing edge flaps in terms of pressure fluctuations measured just in-board of the side edge of the upper surface of the flap. Asymptotic formulae are developed in the opposite extremes of Lorentz contracted acoustic wavelength large/small compared with the chord of the flap. Interpolation between these limiting results enables the field shape and its dependence on subsonic forward flight speed to be predicted over the whole frequency range. It is shown that the mean width of the side edge gap between the flap and the undeflected portion of the airfoil has a significant influence on the intensity of the radiated sound. It is estimated that the noise generated at a single side edge of a full scale part span flap can exceed that produced along the whole of the trailing edge of the flap by 3 dB or more.

  11. A review of propeller flaps for distal lower extremity soft tissue reconstruction: Is flap loss too high?

    PubMed

    Nelson, Jonas A; Fischer, John P; Brazio, Philip S; Kovach, Stephen J; Rosson, Gedge D; Rad, Ariel N

    2013-10-01

    Soft tissue coverage in the distal lower extremity remains a significant challenge. While free flaps are often utilized for larger defects, local perforator-based propeller flaps may be ideal for smaller wounds requiring coverage. Propeller flaps can provide excellent form and function for both traumatic and atraumatic defects with minimal donor site morbidity but can have concerning rates of flap loss. We reviewed the literature, identifying 21 studies presenting 310 propeller flaps for distal lower extremity reconstruction. Total flap necrosis was noted in 5.5% of flaps, with partial necrosis in 11.6%. While these flaps do enable transfer of local, healthy tissue to the defect site without the need for a microsurgical anastomosis, this rate of flap loss is concerning and appropriate patient selection is crucial. This review provides a brief history and overview of the clinical application and research into distal lower extremity perforator propeller flaps to place this technique into a clinical context.

  12. The plane problem of the flapping wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birnbaum, Walter

    1954-01-01

    In connection with an earlier report on the lifting vortex sheet which forms the basis of the following investigations this will show how the methods developed there are also suitable for dealing with the air forces for a wing with a circulation variable with time. The theory of a propulsive wing flapping up and down periodically in the manner of a bird's wing is developed. This study shows how the lift and its moment result as a function of the flapping motion, what thrust is attainable, and how high is the degree of efficiency of this flapping propulsion unit if the air friction is disregarded.

  13. Flap-augmented shrouds for aerogenerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seginer, A.

    1976-01-01

    Axisymmetrical shrouds for windmills are augmented by ring-shaped 'flaps' and their performance is studied experimentally. The concept of the shroud as an annular 'wing' is justified, leading to the conclusion that high-lift techniques should be used in shroud design, and that high-lift devices, such as flaps, would increase the power output of the windmill. It is shown experimentally that the ideal power output of a flap-augmented shrouded turbine can be more than 4 times the power of unshrouded turbines of the same diameter.

  14. Dynamic response of a piezoelectric flapping wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Alok; Khandwekar, Gaurang; Venkatesh, S.; Mahapatra, D. R.; Dutta, S.

    2015-03-01

    Piezo-composite membranes have advantages over motorized flapping where frequencies are high and certain coupling between bending and twisting is useful to generate lift and forward flight. We draw examples of fruit fly and bumble bee. Wings with Piezo ceramic PZT coating are realized. The passive mechanical response of the wing is characterized experimentally and validated using finite element simulation. Piezoelectric actuation with uniform electrode coating is characterized and optimal frequencies for flapping are identified. The experimental data are used in an empirical model and advanced ratio for a flapping insect like condition for various angular orientations is estimated.

  15. miR-125b can enhance skin tumor initiation and promote malignant progression by repressing differentiation and prolonging cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liang; Ge, Yejing

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we identified miR-125b as a key regulator of the undifferentiated state of hair follicle stem cells. Here, we show that in both mice and humans, miR-125b is abundantly expressed, particularly at early stages of malignant progression to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), the second most prevalent cancer worldwide. Moreover, when elevated in normal murine epidermis, miR-125b promotes tumor initiation and contributes to malignant progression. We further show that miR-125b can confer “oncomiR addiction” in early stage malignant progenitors by delaying their differentiation and favoring an SCC cancer stem cell (CSC)-like transcriptional program. To understand how, we systematically identified and validated miR125b targets that are specifically associated with tumors that are dependent on miR-125b. Through molecular and genetic analysis of these targets, we uncovered new insights underlying miR-125b’s oncogenic function. Specifically, we show that, on the one hand, mir-125b directly represses stress-responsive MAP kinase genes and associated signaling. On the other hand, it indirectly prolongs activated (phosphorylated) EGFR signaling by repressing Vps4b (vacuolar protein-sorting 4 homolog B), encoding a protein implicated in negatively regulating the endosomal sorting complexes that are necessary for the recycling of active EGFR. Together, these findings illuminate miR-125b as an important microRNA regulator that is shared between normal skin progenitors and their early malignant counterparts. PMID:25403182

  16. Local flap therapy for the treatment of pressure sore wounds.

    PubMed

    Wettstein, Reto; Tremp, Mathias; Baumberger, Michael; Schaefer, Dirk J; Kalbermatten, Daniel F

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the effectiveness of an interdisciplinary cooperation between conservative and surgical disciplines for the treatment of pressure sores (PS). From January 2004 to December 2005, a single-centre study was performed with paraplegic and tetraplegic patients presenting with PS grades III-V. Outcome measures were defect size, grade, method of reconstruction, complication and recurrence rate as well as average length of hospitalisation. A total of 119 patients aged 22-84 years with totally 170 PS were included. The most common PS were located in the ischial region (47%), followed by the sacral (18%), trochanteric (11%), foot (9%) and the malleolar (8%) regions. Defect sizes ranged between 4 and 255 cm(2) . Grade IV was the most common PS (68%), followed by grade III (30%) and grade V (2%) PS. For wound closure, fasciocutaneous flaps were used most frequently (71%), followed by skin grafts (10%) and myocutaneous flaps (7%). Postoperative follow-up ranged between 6 and 38 months. The overall complication and recurrence rate was 26% and 11%, respectively. If no complication occurred, the average duration of hospitalisation stay after the first debridement was 98 ± 62 days. In conclusion, our treatment concept is reliable, effective and results in a low recurrence rate. The complication rate, even though favourable when compared with the literature, still needs to be improved.

  17. Propeller Flap Reconstruction in Post Oncological Thigh Defect: "The Move in Flap".

    PubMed

    Nambi, G I; Salunke, Abhijeet Ashok

    2015-06-01

    Reconstruction of soft tissue defects of the limb after tumor resection is challenging question for oncosurgeons. The management differs from reconstruction of post traumatic defects due to the complexity of the primary surgery and subsequent radiation. The conventional propeller flap is based on a perforator which is located close to the defect; but in present case the perforator was located far away from the defect. So we describe it as "Move in flap" as the flap rotated a large volume of soft tissue lying between the defect and the perforator. We present a case of post oncological thigh defect with reconstruction using a propeller flap based on distal anteromedial perforator.

  18. Quadruple-component superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator (SCIP) flap: A chimeric SCIP flap for complex ankle reconstruction of an exposed artificial joint after total ankle arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Takumi; Saito, Takafumi; Ishiura, Ryohei; Iida, Takuya

    2016-09-01

    Total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) is becoming popular in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-associated ankle joint degeneration. However, ankle wound complications can occur after TAA, which sometimes requires challenging reconstruction due to anatomical complexity of the ankle. Superficial circumflex iliac artery (SCIA) perforator (SCIP) flap has been reported to be useful for various reconstructions, but no case has been reported regarding a chimeric SCIP flap for complex ankle reconstruction. We report a case of complex ankle defect successfully reconstructed with a free quadruple-component chimeric SCIP flap. A 73-year-old female patient with RA underwent TAA, and suffered from an extensive ankle soft tissue defect (13 × 5 cm) with exposure of the implanted artificial joint and the extensor tendons. A chimeric SCIP flap was raised based on the deep branch and the superficial branch of the SCIA, which included chimeric portions of the sartorius muscle, the deep fascia, the inguinal lymph node (ILN), and the skin/fat. The flap was transferred to the recipient ankle. The sartorius muscle was used to cover the artificial joint, the deep fascia to reconstruct the extensor retinaculum, the ILN to prevent postoperative lymphedema, and the adiposal tissue to put around the extensor tendons for prevention of postoperative adhesion. Postoperatively, the patient could walk by herself without persistent leg edema or bowstringing of the extensor tendons, and was satisfied with the concealable donor scar. Although further studies are required to confirm efficacy, multicomponent chimeric SCIP has a potential to be a useful option for complex defects of the ankle. PMID:27423250

  19. Quadruple-component superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator (SCIP) flap: A chimeric SCIP flap for complex ankle reconstruction of an exposed artificial joint after total ankle arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Takumi; Saito, Takafumi; Ishiura, Ryohei; Iida, Takuya

    2016-09-01

    Total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) is becoming popular in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-associated ankle joint degeneration. However, ankle wound complications can occur after TAA, which sometimes requires challenging reconstruction due to anatomical complexity of the ankle. Superficial circumflex iliac artery (SCIA) perforator (SCIP) flap has been reported to be useful for various reconstructions, but no case has been reported regarding a chimeric SCIP flap for complex ankle reconstruction. We report a case of complex ankle defect successfully reconstructed with a free quadruple-component chimeric SCIP flap. A 73-year-old female patient with RA underwent TAA, and suffered from an extensive ankle soft tissue defect (13 × 5 cm) with exposure of the implanted artificial joint and the extensor tendons. A chimeric SCIP flap was raised based on the deep branch and the superficial branch of the SCIA, which included chimeric portions of the sartorius muscle, the deep fascia, the inguinal lymph node (ILN), and the skin/fat. The flap was transferred to the recipient ankle. The sartorius muscle was used to cover the artificial joint, the deep fascia to reconstruct the extensor retinaculum, the ILN to prevent postoperative lymphedema, and the adiposal tissue to put around the extensor tendons for prevention of postoperative adhesion. Postoperatively, the patient could walk by herself without persistent leg edema or bowstringing of the extensor tendons, and was satisfied with the concealable donor scar. Although further studies are required to confirm efficacy, multicomponent chimeric SCIP has a potential to be a useful option for complex defects of the ankle.

  20. Foot and ankle reconstruction: an experience on the use of 14 different flaps in 226 cases.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yue-Liang; Wang, Yi; He, Xiao-Qing; Zhu, Min; Li, Fu-Bin; Xu, Yong-Qing

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this report was to present our experience on the use of different flaps for soft tissue reconstruction of the foot and ankle. From 2007 to 2012, the soft tissue defects of traumatic injuries of the foot and ankle were reconstructed using 14 different flaps in 226 cases (162 male and 64 female). There were 62 pedicled flaps and 164 free flaps used in reconstruction. The pedicled flaps included sural flap, saphenous flap, dorsal pedal neurocutaneous flap, pedicled peroneal artery perforator flap, pedicled tibial artery perforator flap, and medial plantar flap. The free flaps were latissimus musculocutaneous flap, anterolateral thigh musculocutaneous flap, groin flap, lateral arm flap, anterolateral thigh perforator flap, peroneal artery perforator flap, thoracdorsal artery perforator flap, medial arm perforator flap. The sensory nerve coaptation was not performed for all of flaps. One hundred and ninety-four cases were combined with open fractures. One hundred and sixty-two cases had tendon. Among 164 free flaps, 8 flaps were completely lost, in which the defects were managed by the secondary procedures. Among the 57 flaps for plantar foot coverage (25 pedicled flaps and 32 free flaps), ulcers were developed in 5 pedicled flaps and 6 free flaps after weight bearing, and infection was found in 14 flaps. The donor site complications were seen in 3 cases with the free anterolateral thigh perforator flap transfer. All of limbs were preserved and the patients regained walking and daily activities. All of patients except for one regained protective sensation from 3 to 12 months postoperatively. Our experience showed that the sural flap and saphenous flap could be good options for the coverage of the defects at malleolus, dorsal hindfoot and midfoot. Plantar foot, forefoot and large size defects could be reconstructed with free anterolateral thigh perforator flap. For the infected wounds with dead spce, the free latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap remained to

  1. Route Flap Damping Made Usable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelsser, Cristel; Maennel, Olaf; Mohapatra, Pradosh; Bush, Randy; Patel, Keyur

    The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), the de facto inter-domain routing protocol of the Internet, is known to be noisy. The protocol has two main mechanisms to ameliorate this, MinRouteAdvertisementInterval (MRAI), and Route Flap Damping (RFD). MRAI deals with very short bursts on the order of a few to 30 seconds. RFD deals with longer bursts, minutes to hours. Unfortunately, RFD was found to severely penalize sites for being well-connected because topological richness amplifies the number of update messages exchanged. So most operators have disabled it. Through measurement, this paper explores the avenue of absolutely minimal change to code, and shows that a few RFD algorithmic constants and limits can be trivially modified, with the result being damping a non-trivial amount of long term churn without penalizing well-behaved prefixes' normal convergence process.

  2. Skin Biomes.

    PubMed

    Fyhrquist, N; Salava, A; Auvinen, P; Lauerma, A

    2016-05-01

    The cutaneous microbiome has been investigated broadly in recent years and some traditional perspectives are beginning to change. A diverse microbiome exists on human skin and has a potential to influence pathogenic microbes and modulate the course of skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis. In addition to the known dysfunctions in barrier function of the skin and immunologic disturbances, evidence is rising that frequent skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis, might be connected to a dysbiosis of the microbial community and changes in the skin microbiome. As a future perspective, examining the skin microbiome could be seen as a potential new diagnostic and therapeutic target in inflammatory skin disorders.

  3. Mucocele formation under pedicled nasoseptal flap.

    PubMed

    Vaezeafshar, Reza; Hwang, Peter H; Harsh, Griffith; Turner, Justin H

    2012-01-01

    The pedicled nasoseptal flap has become an indispensible tool for the reconstruction of skull base defects. This flap is easily harvested, provides a large surface area of vascularized tissue, and has few reported complications. We describe the case of a 60-year-old man who underwent endoscopic, endonasal transsphenoidal surgery with septal flap reconstruction who developed a sphenoid sinus mucocele postoperatively. We also have reviewed the literature for similar findings and discuss this complication in the setting of pituitary surgery and endoscopic skull base repair. Although likely a rare occurrence, mucocele formation after septal flap reconstruction should be recognized and monitored with postoperative nasal endoscopy and radiologic imaging. Reoperation or mucocele drainage may be necessary if symptomatic or in cases of rapid enlargement.

  4. Postirradiation flap infection about the oral cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Cabbabe, E.B.; Herbold, D.R.; Sunwoo, Y.C.; Baroudi, I.F.

    1983-06-01

    Postirradiation alteration of oral flora is well documented in the literature. Infection as a complication leading to partial or complete loss of a flap used to reconstruct a defect in the oral cavity is a worrisome outcome. We describe how a flap that was judged clinically to be viable became overwhelmingly infected with the Klebsiella oxytoca, an oral cavity pathogen encountered in this patient following irradiation. Local and systemic changes led to detachment of the flap. This complication may be explained, in view of the absence of venous congestion or arterial ischemia both clinically and pathologically, by the proven contamination of the flap by the Klebsiella pathogen. Local factors resulted in lower resistance and subsequent overwhelming infection. Discussion of the case, review of pertinent literature, and proposed solutions are presented.

  5. A dynamical system for interacting flapping swimmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oza, Anand; Ramananarivo, Sophie; Ristroph, Leif; Shelley, Michael

    2015-11-01

    We present the results of a theoretical investigation into the dynamics of interacting flapping swimmers. Our study is motivated by the recent experiments of Becker et al., who studied a one-dimensional array of self-propelled flapping wings that swim within each other's wakes in a water tank. They discovered that the system adopts certain ``schooling modes'' characterized by specific spatial phase relationships between swimmers. To rationalize these phenomena, we develop a discrete dynamical system in which the swimmers are modeled as heaving airfoils that shed point vortices during each flapping cycle. We then apply our model to recent experiments in the Applied Math Lab, in which two tandem flapping airfoils are free to choose both their speed and relative positions. We expect that our model may be used to understand how schooling behavior is influenced by hydrodynamics in more general contexts. Thanks to the NSF for its support.

  6. Synergistic Interactions with a High Intraoperative Expander Fill Volume Increase the Risk for Mastectomy Flap Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Khavanin, Nima; Jordan, Sumanas; Lovecchio, Francis; Fine, Neil A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Prosthetic-based breast reconstruction is performed with increasing frequency in the United States. Major mastectomy skin flap necrosis is a significant complication with outcomes ranging from poor aesthetic appearance to reconstructive failure. The present study aimed to explore the interactions between intraoperative fill and other risk factors on the incidence of flap necrosis in patients undergoing mastectomy with immediate expander/implant-based reconstruction. Methods A retrospective review of 966 consecutive patients (1,409 breasts) who underwent skin or nipple sparing mastectomy with immediate tissue expander reconstruction at a single institution was conducted. Age, body mass index, hypertension, smoking status, premastectomy and postmastectomy radiation, acellular dermal matrix use, and application of the tumescent mastectomy technique were analyzed as potential predictors of flap necrosis both independently and as synergistic variables with high intraoperative fill. The following three measures of interaction were calculated: relative excess risk due to interaction, attributable proportion of risk due to interaction, and synergy index (SI). Results Intraoperative tissue expander fill volume was high (≥66.7% of the maximum volume) in 40.9% (576 of 1,409 breasts) of cases. The unadjusted flap necrosis rate was greater in the high intraoperative fill cohort than in the low fill cohort (10.4% vs. 7.1%, p=0.027). Multivariate logistic regression did not identify high intraoperative fill volume as an independent risk factor for flap necrosis (odds ratio 1.442, 95% confidence interval 0.973-2.137, p=0.068). However, four risk factors were identified that interacted significantly with intraoperative fill volume, namely tumescence, age, hypertension, and obesity. The SI, or the departure from additive risks, was largest for tumescence (SI, 25.3), followed by hypertension (SI, 2.39), obesity (SI, 2.28), and age older than 50 years (SI, 1.17). Conclusion

  7. Neither high-dose nor low-dose brachytherapy increases flap morbidity in salvage treatment of recurrent head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Peter W.; Kutler, David I.; Parashar, Bhupesh; Otterburn, David M.; Cohen, Marc A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose While brachytherapy is often used concurrently with flap reconstruction following surgical ablation for head and neck cancer, it remains unclear whether it increases morbidity in the particularly high risk subset of patients undergoing salvage treatment for recurrent head and neck cancer (RH&NC). Material and methods A retrospective chart review was undertaken that evaluated patients with RH&NC who underwent flap coverage after surgical re-resection and concomitant brachytherapy. The primary endpoint was flap viability, and the secondary endpoints were flap and recipient site complications. Results In the 23 subjects included in series, flap viability and skin graft take was 100%. Overall recipient site complication rate was 34.8%, high-dose radiation (HDR) group 50%, and low-dose radiation (LDR) group 29.4%. There was no statistically significant difference between these groups. Conclusions In patients who undergo flap reconstruction and immediate postoperative radiotherapy following salvage procedures for RH&NC, flap coverage of defects in combination with brachytherapy remains a safe and effective means of providing stable soft tissue coverage.

  8. Neither high-dose nor low-dose brachytherapy increases flap morbidity in salvage treatment of recurrent head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Peter W.; Kutler, David I.; Parashar, Bhupesh; Otterburn, David M.; Cohen, Marc A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose While brachytherapy is often used concurrently with flap reconstruction following surgical ablation for head and neck cancer, it remains unclear whether it increases morbidity in the particularly high risk subset of patients undergoing salvage treatment for recurrent head and neck cancer (RH&NC). Material and methods A retrospective chart review was undertaken that evaluated patients with RH&NC who underwent flap coverage after surgical re-resection and concomitant brachytherapy. The primary endpoint was flap viability, and the secondary endpoints were flap and recipient site complications. Results In the 23 subjects included in series, flap viability and skin graft take was 100%. Overall recipient site complication rate was 34.8%, high-dose radiation (HDR) group 50%, and low-dose radiation (LDR) group 29.4%. There was no statistically significant difference between these groups. Conclusions In patients who undergo flap reconstruction and immediate postoperative radiotherapy following salvage procedures for RH&NC, flap coverage of defects in combination with brachytherapy remains a safe and effective means of providing stable soft tissue coverage. PMID:27648084

  9. Sutureless skin closure of amputation stumps in patients with peripheral arterial disease

    PubMed Central

    Hollands, M J; Jones, S M

    1982-01-01

    A sutureless technique of skin closure for the amputation stumps of patients with peripheral vascular disease is described. It offers less trauma to skin flaps, limits access to the wound by exogenous sources of bacterial contamination, and is very acceptable to the patient. PMID:7137833

  10. Interpreting laser Doppler recordings from free flaps.

    PubMed

    Svensson, H; Holmberg, J; Svedman, P

    1993-01-01

    Although the transfer of free flaps is nowadays accomplished with an increasing degree of safety, thrombosis of the microvascular anastomoses is still a problem. In order to avoid delay in re-operating, various methods for objective blood flow monitoring have been tried, among them Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF). When one reviews the literature, it is apparent that opinions differ about whether or not LDF is a reliable technique for this purpose. To focus on the need to interpret continuous recordings, this paper reports our findings in six latissimus dorsi free flaps chosen from our series of LDF monitoring procedures. One uneventful flap, no. 1, had an immediate postoperative LDF value of 4.5 perfusion units (PU). LDF values improved during the recovery period and the graphic recording showed fluctuations due to normal physiological variations of the blood flow in the flap. Another uneventful flap, no. 4, showed the same pattern, though at an appreciably lower level, 2 PU, on average. Flap no. 2 had an acceptably high value of 3.5 PU despite suffering a venous thrombosis. However, the LDF recording showed no fluctuations and the value declined gradually. Another flap, no. 3, showed fluctuations and blood flow was normal although the value decreased to 2.5 PU. In flap no. 5, any value between 2 and 3.5 PU could be obtained merely by adjusting the position of the probe in the holder. In no. 6, the LDF value suddenly dropped, accompanied by a decrease in the total amount of backscattered light, indicating venous obstruction which was confirmed at re-operation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Extending the extended V-Y flap.

    PubMed

    Prowse, Phoebe; Morton, Jonathan

    2012-06-01

    This case report demonstrates a modification of the so-called 'Extended V-Y Flap' used to simultaneously reconstruct a defect involving the upper lip, floor of nose and alar rim following tumour excision. We hope that this case serves as a reminder of the versatility of the V-Y flap in the nasolabial region, and its considerable capacity for augmentation. PMID:22018837

  12. Aerodynamic effects of flexibility in flapping wings.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liang; Huang, Qingfeng; Deng, Xinyan; Sane, Sanjay P

    2010-03-01

    Recent work on the aerodynamics of flapping flight reveals fundamental differences in the mechanisms of aerodynamic force generation between fixed and flapping wings. When fixed wings translate at high angles of attack, they periodically generate and shed leading and trailing edge vortices as reflected in their fluctuating aerodynamic force traces and associated flow visualization. In contrast, wings flapping at high angles of attack generate stable leading edge vorticity, which persists throughout the duration of the stroke and enhances mean aerodynamic forces. Here, we show that aerodynamic forces can be controlled by altering the trailing edge flexibility of a flapping wing. We used a dynamically scaled mechanical model of flapping flight (Re approximately 2000) to measure the aerodynamic forces on flapping wings of variable flexural stiffness (EI). For low to medium angles of attack, as flexibility of the wing increases, its ability to generate aerodynamic forces decreases monotonically but its lift-to-drag ratios remain approximately constant. The instantaneous force traces reveal no major differences in the underlying modes of force generation for flexible and rigid wings, but the magnitude of force, the angle of net force vector and centre of pressure all vary systematically with wing flexibility. Even a rudimentary framework of wing veins is sufficient to restore the ability of flexible wings to generate forces at near-rigid values. Thus, the magnitude of force generation can be controlled by modulating the trailing edge flexibility and thereby controlling the magnitude of the leading edge vorticity. To characterize this, we have generated a detailed database of aerodynamic forces as a function of several variables including material properties, kinematics, aerodynamic forces and centre of pressure, which can also be used to help validate computational models of aeroelastic flapping wings. These experiments will also be useful for wing design for small

  13. Aerodynamic effects of flexibility in flapping wings

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Liang; Huang, Qingfeng; Deng, Xinyan; Sane, Sanjay P.

    2010-01-01

    Recent work on the aerodynamics of flapping flight reveals fundamental differences in the mechanisms of aerodynamic force generation between fixed and flapping wings. When fixed wings translate at high angles of attack, they periodically generate and shed leading and trailing edge vortices as reflected in their fluctuating aerodynamic force traces and associated flow visualization. In contrast, wings flapping at high angles of attack generate stable leading edge vorticity, which persists throughout the duration of the stroke and enhances mean aerodynamic forces. Here, we show that aerodynamic forces can be controlled by altering the trailing edge flexibility of a flapping wing. We used a dynamically scaled mechanical model of flapping flight (Re ≈ 2000) to measure the aerodynamic forces on flapping wings of variable flexural stiffness (EI). For low to medium angles of attack, as flexibility of the wing increases, its ability to generate aerodynamic forces decreases monotonically but its lift-to-drag ratios remain approximately constant. The instantaneous force traces reveal no major differences in the underlying modes of force generation for flexible and rigid wings, but the magnitude of force, the angle of net force vector and centre of pressure all vary systematically with wing flexibility. Even a rudimentary framework of wing veins is sufficient to restore the ability of flexible wings to generate forces at near-rigid values. Thus, the magnitude of force generation can be controlled by modulating the trailing edge flexibility and thereby controlling the magnitude of the leading edge vorticity. To characterize this, we have generated a detailed database of aerodynamic forces as a function of several variables including material properties, kinematics, aerodynamic forces and centre of pressure, which can also be used to help validate computational models of aeroelastic flapping wings. These experiments will also be useful for wing design for small robotic

  14. Application of microvascular free osteocutaneous flaps in the management of post-radiation recurrent oral cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, I.B.; Manktelow, R.T.; Zuker, R.M.; Boyd, B.

    1985-10-01

    Fifty-nine patients underwent free flap osteocutaneous reconstruction that consisted of flaps of the dorsum of the foot in 26 patients and iliac crest flaps in 33 with a success rate of 92 percent and a mortality rate of 1.6 percent. These flaps, which require the expertise of microvascular surgeons, are time-consuming and complicate operating room and time management, but they represent a remarkable advance in reconstruction that can facilitate cosmetic and functional recovery of the patient. In particular, they promote healing in radiation-recurrent oral cancer and represent a definitive form of management for established radionecrosis of the mandible. The large volume of tissue available with iliac crest osteocutaneous grafts permits the management of patients with extensive cancer involving the skin, mucosa, and bone, but cancer control may still be disappointing and there is a need for improved adjuvant chemotherapy protocols. This technique appears to be a dependable, repeatable, and significant advance in management of the patient with head and neck cancer.

  15. The medial sural artery perforator flap and its application in electrical injury to the hand.

    PubMed

    Jeevaratnam, J A; Nikkhah, D; Nugent, N F; Blackburn, A V

    2014-11-01

    We describe the use of a free medial sural artery perforator flap to reconstruct a complex composite defect to the dorsum of the right index finger following a low voltage electrical injury. The resulting defect was a 3.5 × 5 cm full thickness wound, with segmental tendon loss and loss of underlying periosteum. Due to both size and local vascular injury related to the mechanism, free tissue transfer was felt to be the most reliable option to resurface the composite defect in a single stage. The medial sural artery perforator flap, for reasons outlined below, was felt to be the best option: 1. Thin profile. 2. Vascularised fascia can be taken as a tongue, adjacent to the skin paddle: a gliding surface to prevent the tendon graft sticking to exposed bone. 3. Long pedicle: micro-anastomosis away from zone of injury. 4. Little donor site morbidity: can be closed directly (if <6 cm wide) and does not require sacrifice of any major blood vessel. 5. Can be harvested with nerve and tendon from the same wound. 6. Can include as little or as much tissue required and compared to other fasciocutaneous flaps matches the texture and thickness of the hand most closely. We describe the reconstruction of the composite defect on day 42 post-injury, following one prior debridement. This case highlights the versatility and suitability of the medial sural artery flap in the reconstruction of complex hand burns with resulting composite defects.

  16. Repair of Fingertip Defect Using an Anterograde Pedicle Flap Based on the Dorsal Perforator

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Peng; Chen, Weiwei; Mei, Jin; Ding, Maochao; Yu, Yaling; Xi, Shanshan; Zhou, Renpeng

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purposes of this article are to introduce and assess the results of a long-term follow-up of using anterograde pedicle flap based on the dorsal branches of proper digital neurovascular bundles from the dorsum of the middle phalanx for the fingertip defect. Methods: Between February 2011 and December 2012, 31 patients underwent reconstruction of fingertip defects using a homodigital flap based on the dorsal perforator in the middle phalanx. The defect size ranged from 1.3 cm × 1.5 cm to 2.4 cm × 3.0 cm. During surgery, the flap was designed on the dorsal middle phalangeal region. The pedicle was a neurovascular bundle consisting of an artery, vein, and sensory nerve; the rotation of pedicle was <90 degrees. Results: The clinical results were satisfactory after 3 to 9 months of follow-up. The flaps were considered cosmetically acceptable by both patients and doctors. The sensory recovery was excellent, 2-point discrimination was 4.96 ± 1.47 mm, and the recovery of range of motion of the interphalangeal joints was very good. Conclusions: The anterograde island flap based on the dorsal branches of proper digital neurovascular bundles is an ideal aesthetic reconstruction method for fingertip defect. A 90-degree rotated island pedicle flap was very versatile, easy to design, and had good survival. This technique is simple with less damage to the donor site, without sacrificing the branch of the digital artery and nerve. The reliable source of blood supply and satisfactory recovery of sensation can be achieved without affecting the interphalangeal joint activity. PMID:27482478

  17. Investigation of Energy Harvesting Using Flapping Foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mivehchi, Amin; Persichetti, Amanda; Dunham, Brandon; Dahl, Jason M.

    2013-11-01

    When harvesting kinetic energy using a flapping foil, the separation of coherent structures in the wake is crucial for determining forces on the body. Applications for utilizing energy harvesting with a flapping foil include powering of local, low power equipment and recharging AUV batteries that use flapping foils for propulsion and maneuvering. In each of these cases, it is critical to accurately predict the physical behavior and location of vortices in relation to the motion of the body in order to maximize energy output. A two-dimensional open source boundary data immersion method (LilyPad) is used for simulating the flapping motion of a foil for energy harvesting in a current. Forced motion of the flapping body indicates theoretical efficiencies for energy harvesting near 43 percent under specific flapping conditions. A simple control scheme based on pressure sensing on the surface of the foil is developed to control pitch of the foil while energy harvesting occurs in the heave direction. The control scheme is tested through real time numerical simulation. Comparisons are made with physical laboratory experiments, demonstrating high efficiencies in energy harvesting.

  18. Successful Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator Flap Harvest despite Preoperative Therapeutic Subcutaneous Heparin Administration into the Abdominal Pannus

    PubMed Central

    Miyagi, Kana; Forouhi, Parto

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal free flaps for microsurgical breast reconstruction are most commonly harvested based on the deep inferior epigastric vessels that supply skin and fat via perforators through the rectus muscle and sheath. Intact perforator anatomy and connections are vital for subsequent optimal flap perfusion and avoidance of necrosis, be it partial or total. The intraflap vessels are delicate and easily damaged and it is generally advised that patients should avoid heparin injection into the abdominal pannus preoperatively as this may compromise the vascular perforators through direct needle laceration, pressure from bruising, haematoma formation, or perforator thrombosis secondary to external compression. We report three cases of successful deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap harvest despite patients injecting therapeutic doses of low molecular weight heparin into their abdomens for thrombosed central venous lines (portacaths™) used for administering primary chemotherapy in breast cancer. PMID:27651974

  19. Successful Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator Flap Harvest despite Preoperative Therapeutic Subcutaneous Heparin Administration into the Abdominal Pannus

    PubMed Central

    Miyagi, Kana; Forouhi, Parto

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal free flaps for microsurgical breast reconstruction are most commonly harvested based on the deep inferior epigastric vessels that supply skin and fat via perforators through the rectus muscle and sheath. Intact perforator anatomy and connections are vital for subsequent optimal flap perfusion and avoidance of necrosis, be it partial or total. The intraflap vessels are delicate and easily damaged and it is generally advised that patients should avoid heparin injection into the abdominal pannus preoperatively as this may compromise the vascular perforators through direct needle laceration, pressure from bruising, haematoma formation, or perforator thrombosis secondary to external compression. We report three cases of successful deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap harvest despite patients injecting therapeutic doses of low molecular weight heparin into their abdomens for thrombosed central venous lines (portacaths™) used for administering primary chemotherapy in breast cancer.

  20. Successful Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator Flap Harvest despite Preoperative Therapeutic Subcutaneous Heparin Administration into the Abdominal Pannus.

    PubMed

    Duncumb, Joseph W; Miyagi, Kana; Forouhi, Parto; Malata, Charles M

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal free flaps for microsurgical breast reconstruction are most commonly harvested based on the deep inferior epigastric vessels that supply skin and fat via perforators through the rectus muscle and sheath. Intact perforator anatomy and connections are vital for subsequent optimal flap perfusion and avoidance of necrosis, be it partial or total. The intraflap vessels are delicate and easily damaged and it is generally advised that patients should avoid heparin injection into the abdominal pannus preoperatively as this may compromise the vascular perforators through direct needle laceration, pressure from bruising, haematoma formation, or perforator thrombosis secondary to external compression. We report three cases of successful deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap harvest despite patients injecting therapeutic doses of low molecular weight heparin into their abdomens for thrombosed central venous lines (portacaths™) used for administering primary chemotherapy in breast cancer. PMID:27651974

  1. Polyamines and nonmelanoma skin cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmour, Susan K.

    2007-11-01

    Elevated levels of polyamines have long been associated with skin tumorigenesis. Tightly regulated metabolism of polyamines is critical for cell survival and normal skin homeostasis, and these controls are dysregulated in skin tumorigenesis. A key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is upregulated in skin tumors compared to normal skin. Use of transgenic mouse models has demonstrated that polyamines play an essential role in the early promotional phase of skin tumorigenesis. The formation of skin tumors in these transgenic mice is dependent upon polyamine biosynthesis, especially putrescine, since treatment with inhibitors of ODC activity blocks the formation of skin tumors and causes the rapid regression of existing tumors. Although the mechanism by which polyamines promote skin tumorigenesis are not well understood, elevated levels of polyamines have been shown to stimulate epidermal proliferation, alter keratinocyte differentiation status, increase neovascularization, and increase synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins in a manner similar to that seen in wound healing. It is becoming increasingly apparent that elevated polyamine levels activate not only epidermal cells but also underlying stromal cells in the skin to promote the development and progression of skin tumors. The inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis has potential to be an effective chemoprevention strategy for nonmelanoma skin cancer.

  2. Comparing semilunar coronally positioned flap to standard coronally positioned flap using periodontal clinical parameters.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Carlos Augusto; da Silva, Wilson Aparecido Dias; Tonet, Karine; Secundes, Mayron Barros; Nassar, Patricia Oehlmeyer

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of 2 surgical root coverage techniques--semilunar coronally positioned flap and coronally advanced flap--using the clinical parameters of periodontal tissues from patients with Miller Class I gingival recession. Twenty patients (20-50 years of age) were selected. Basic periodontal treatment was performed, and plaque index, gingival index, probing depth, clinical attachment level, and height of the attached gingiva were determined. Each patient was placed into 1 of 2 groups: Group 1 patients underwent the semilunar coronally positioned flap technique, and Group 2 patients underwent the coronally advanced flap technique. Patients were assessed for 180 days. Both groups showed significant reduction of plaque and gingival indices and an improvement in clinical attachment levels and probing depth. However, results showed the standard coronally positioned flap technique was deemed more effective due to significant clinical attachment level gains. PMID:24598495

  3. Lateral Genicular Artery Flap for Reconstruction of a Large Knee Defect, Following Oncological Resection - Case Report.

    PubMed

    Zbuchea, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the case of a 53 years old patient, with ulcerated and infected dermatofibrosarcoma, extended on the anterolateral side of the left knee. The postexcisional defect, exposing patella, was covered through a regional cutaneous flap of the distal third of the thigh, upper lateral genicular artery-based, measuring 20/10 cm, together with expanded free skin split grafts, applied in proximal third of the leg and distal third of the left thigh. Surgical stages and favorable postoperative evolution are exposed. Selection of a particular surgical procedure, depending on the extent and location of the postexcisional defect, as well as therapeutic alternatives according to the literature data, are also discussed. In conclusion, the lateral genicular artery flap represents a useful surgical procedure for covering anterolateral extended defects of the knee, by bringing pliable, supple and flexible cutaneous tissue, similar to original skin, without bulk or irregularities. Moreover, this flap dissection and transposition to the defect does not involve making microsurgical vascular anastomosis. PMID:27604676

  4. Indications for the scapular flap in reconstructions of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Brown, James; Bekiroglu, Fazilet; Shaw, Richard

    2010-07-01

    Composite free flaps that are available for reconstructions of the head and neck include those from the fibula, iliac crest, radial forearm, and scapula, but only that from the scapula precludes two-team operating, and consequently adds a further 2-3h to the operating time. Here we clarify the indications for the subscapular system of composite flaps, and discuss their unique properties in terms of reliability of the bony segment, their resistance to atherosclerosis, and the diversity of the skin and muscular components that are available. We have had favourable results in composite resections of the anterior mandible that required substantial resections of the anterior tongue. In extensive oropharyngeal resections that require a segmental resection of the mandible, the skin island is reliable and provides sufficient bulk to reduce the risk of dehiscence and maintain a narrowed oropharynx to improve speech and swallowing. In reconstructions of the midface a combination of the latissimus dorsi and the scapula that is based on the angular branch of the thoracodorsal vessel (thoracodorsal angular flap) allows for a long pedicle, and adequate muscle and bone for high and low maxillectomy defects. We present a consecutive series of 46 patients who document the use of this option in routine head and neck practice. PMID:19913337

  5. Oromandibular reconstruction using a keel-shaped modification of the radial forearm osteocutaneous flap.

    PubMed

    Weinzweig, N; Jones, N F; Shestak, K C; Moon, H K; Davies, B W

    1994-10-01

    The keel-shaped modification for harvest of the radial forearm osteocutaneous flap has been used to reconstruct 19 oromandibular defects in 18 patients. Fourteen men and 4 women ranging in age from 22 to 72 years have undergone composite mandibular reconstruction, with follow-up ranging from 3 to 36 months. Sixteen patients (17 reconstructions) had resection of advanced malignancies, and 2 patients sustained shotgun wounds. Twelve symphyseal and 7 lateral or posterior defects were reconstructed with donor radius bone ranging in length from 5 to 13.5 cm. Double osteotomies were performed in 7 patients. Two skin paddles were used in 4 patients to provide simultaneous intraoral lining and external skin coverage. The radial forearm osteocutaneous flap is still an excellent choice for oromandibular reconstruction. Anterior and lateral composite mandibular defects were satisfactorily reconstructed both aesthetically and functionally using the keel-shaped modification of the radial forearm flap. Donor-site problems were uncommon and minor, and long-term forearm function was minimally affected. Radius fracture occurred in only 1 patient. PMID:7810951

  6. Aerodynamic flight performance in flap-gliding birds and bats.

    PubMed

    Muijres, Florian T; Henningsson, Per; Stuiver, Melanie; Hedenström, Anders

    2012-08-01

    Many birds use a flight mode called undulating or flap-gliding flight, where they alternate between flapping and gliding phases, while only a few bats make use of such a flight mode. Among birds, flap-gliding is commonly used by medium to large species, where it is regarded to have a lower energetic cost than continuously flapping flight. Here, we introduce a novel model for estimating the energetic flight economy of flap-gliding animals, by determining the lift-to-drag ratio for flap-gliding based on empirical lift-to-drag ratio estimates for continuous flapping flight and for continuous gliding flight, respectively. We apply the model to flight performance data of the common swift (Apus apus) and of the lesser long-nosed bat (Leptonycteris yerbabuenae). The common swift is a typical flap-glider while-to the best of our knowledge-the lesser long-nosed bat does not use flap-gliding. The results show that, according to the model, the flap-gliding common swift saves up to 15% energy compared to a continuous flapping swift, and that this is primarily due to the exceptionally high lift-to-drag ratio in gliding flight relative to that in flapping flight for common swifts. The lesser long-nosed bat, on the other hand, seems not to be able to reduce energetic costs by flap-gliding. The difference in relative costs of flap-gliding flight between the common swift and the lesser long-nosed bat can be explained by differences in morphology, flight style and wake dynamics. The model presented here proves to be a valuable tool for estimating energetic flight economy in flap-gliding animals. The results show that flap-gliding flight that is naturally used by common swifts is indeed the most economic one of the two flight modes, while this is not the case for the non-flap-gliding lesser long-nosed bat.

  7. Tissue expansion using osmotically active hydrogel systems for direct closure of the donor defect of the radial forearm flap.

    PubMed

    Bergé, S J; Wiese, K G; von Lindern, J J; Niederhagen, B; Appel, T; Reich, R H

    2001-07-01

    Although widely used, the radial forearm flap has been criticized for the poor quality of its donor site. Attempts to avoid donor-site problems have concentrated on the elaboration of the split-thickness and full-thickness skin graft methods of reconstruction. Skin grafts frequently fail over the flexor carpi radialis tendon, leading to chronic skin breakdown or, at best, tendon adhesion. Tissue expansion appears to be a good alternative that allows the use of local tissues to ultimately improve the forearm donor-site appearance. To avoid the disadvantages of traditional silicone balloon expanders (such as pressure peaks, infection, the valve at a distance from the expander, postoperative fillings), an osmotically active system was used. In an 18-month prospective study, 10 osmotically active hydrogel tissue expanders were placed on the forearms of 10 patients. The radial forearm flap was performed for intraoral reconstruction after surgical resection of oral cavity malignancies. The study showed that, in nine out of 10 patients, the expanded skin achieved was sufficient to cover the donor site after raising the forearm flap. Additionally, the expansion-related swelling pressure was well tolerated by the patients, the cosmetic results were very satisfactory, and the incidence of complications was very low. By using osmotically active hydrogel tissue expanders, there is no postoperative filling and no risk of complications arising from defective balloon expanders, filling valves, or missing ports.

  8. Skin Complications

    MedlinePlus

    ... drugs that can help clear up this condition. Day-to-Day Skin Care See our tips for daily skin ... Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to Know Your ...

  9. Skin Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out of ... person has smoked. Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and ...

  10. Skin tears.

    PubMed

    Baranoski, S

    2001-08-01

    Skin tears are a serious, painful problem for older patients. Find out how your staff can recognize patients at risk, what they can do to prevent skin tears, and how to manage them effectively if they occur.

  11. Skin Pigment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professional Version Pigment Disorders Overview of Skin Pigment Albinism Vitiligo Hyperpigmentation Melasma Melanin is the brown pigment ... dark-skinned people produce the most. People with albinism have little or no melanin and thus their ...

  12. [Vascularised osteocutaneous scapular flap in the reconstruction of mandibular defects after war wounding].

    PubMed

    Stosić, S; Jović, N; Stosić-Opinca, T; Kozomara, R; Panajotović, Lj

    2005-01-01

    Vascularized osteocutaneous scapular flaps belong into the most convenient ones in reconstruction of mandibular defects followed by massive loss of adjacent skin and mucous membrane due to its vascular supply, bulkiness, suitability and mobility of cutaneous component of the flap. In seven wounded patients such defects of the mandible and adjacent soft tissues after war wounding have been reconstructed at the Clinic for Maxillofacial Surgery of the Military Medical Academy - Belgrade during the six years period with vascularized osteocutaneous scapular grafts. Here we present localization and structure of the defect, features of harvested compound graft, the procedure of reestablishment of mandibular continuity, immediate and late complications during the consolidation period, as well as the analysis of the success rate.

  13. Functional resurfacing of the palm: flap selection based on defect analysis.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, T O; Rieger, U M; Schwabegger, A H; Pierer, G

    2012-02-01

    Extensive defect coverage of the palm and anatomical reconstruction of its unique functional capacity remains difficult. In manual laborers, reconstruction of sensation, range of motion, grip strength but also mechanical stability is required. Sensate musculo-/fasciocutaneous flaps bear disadvantages of tissue mobility with shifting/bulkiness under stress. Thin muscle and fascial flaps show adherence but preclude sensory nerve coaptation. The purpose of this review is to present our algorithm for reliable selection of the most appropriate procedure based on defect analysis. Defect analysis focusing on units of tactile gnosis provides information to weigh needs for sensation or soft tissue stability. We distinguish radial unit (r)-thenar, ulnar unit (u)-hypothenar and unit (c)-central plus distal palm. Individual parameters need similar consideration to choose adequate treatment. Unit (r) and unit (u) are regions of secondary touch demanding protective sensation. Restoration of sensation using neurovascular, fasciocutaneous flaps is recommended. In unit (c), tactile gnosis is of less, mechanical resistance of greater value. Reconstruction of soft tissue resistance is suggested first in this unit. In laborers, free fascial- or muscle flaps with plantar instep skin grafts may achieve near to anatomical reconstruction with minimal sensation. Combined defects involving unit (c) require correlation with individual parameters for optimal flap selection. Defect coverage of the palm should not consist of merely providing sensate vascularized tissue. The most appropriate procedure should be derived from careful defect analysis to achieve near to anatomical reconstruction. In laborers, defect related demands need close correlation with sensation and mechanical stability to be expected. PMID:22121075

  14. Flow field of flexible flapping wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallstrom, Erik

    The agility and maneuverability of natural fliers would be desirable to incorporate into engineered micro air vehicles (MAVs). However, there is still much for engineers to learn about flapping flight in order to understand how such vehicles can be built for efficient flying. The goal of this study is to develop a methodology for capturing high quality flow field data around flexible flapping wings in a hover environment and to interpret it to gain a better understanding of how aerodynamic forces are generated. The flow field data was captured using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and required that measurements be taken around a repeatable flapping motion to obtain phase-averaged data that could be studied throughout the flapping cycle. Therefore, the study includes the development of flapping devices with a simple repeatable single degree of freedom flapping motion. The acquired flow field data has been examined qualitatively and quantitatively to investigate the mechanisms behind force production in hovering flight and to relate it to observations in previous research. Specifically, the flow fields have been investigated around a rigid wing and several carbon fiber reinforced flexible membrane wings. Throughout the whole study the wings were actuated with either a sinusoidal or a semi-linear flapping motion. The semi-linear flapping motion holds the commanded angular velocity nearly constant through half of each half-stroke while the sinusoidal motion is always either accelerating or decelerating. The flow fields were investigated by examining vorticity and vortex structures, using the Q criterion as the definition for the latter, in two and three dimensions. The measurements were combined with wing deflection measurements to demonstrate some of the key links in how the fluid-structure interactions generated aerodynamic forces. The flow fields were also used to calculate the forces generated by the flapping wings using momentum balance methods which yielded

  15. 14 CFR 25.1511 - Flap extended speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flap extended speed. 25.1511 Section 25... Limitations § 25.1511 Flap extended speed. The established flap extended speed V FE must be established so that it does not exceed the design flap speed V F chosen under §§ 25.335(e) and 25.345, for...

  16. 14 CFR 25.1511 - Flap extended speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flap extended speed. 25.1511 Section 25... Limitations § 25.1511 Flap extended speed. The established flap extended speed V FE must be established so that it does not exceed the design flap speed V F chosen under §§ 25.335(e) and 25.345, for...

  17. 14 CFR 25.1511 - Flap extended speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flap extended speed. 25.1511 Section 25... Limitations § 25.1511 Flap extended speed. The established flap extended speed V FE must be established so that it does not exceed the design flap speed V F chosen under §§ 25.335(e) and 25.345, for...

  18. 14 CFR 25.1511 - Flap extended speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flap extended speed. 25.1511 Section 25... Limitations § 25.1511 Flap extended speed. The established flap extended speed V FE must be established so that it does not exceed the design flap speed V F chosen under §§ 25.335(e) and 25.345, for...

  19. 14 CFR 25.1511 - Flap extended speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flap extended speed. 25.1511 Section 25... Limitations § 25.1511 Flap extended speed. The established flap extended speed V FE must be established so that it does not exceed the design flap speed V F chosen under §§ 25.335(e) and 25.345, for...

  20. Calculation of the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of wing-flap configurations with externally blown flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendenhall, M. R.; Spangler, S. B.; Nielsen, J. N.; Goodwin, F. K.

    1976-01-01

    A theoretical investigation was carried out to extend and improve an existing method for predicting the longitudinal characteristics of wing flap configurations with externally blown flaps (EBF). Two potential flow models were incorporated into the prediction method: a wing and flap lifting-surface model and a turbofan engine wake model. The wing-flap model uses a vortex-lattice approach to represent the wing and flaps. The jet wake model consists of a series of closely spaced vortex rings normal to a centerline which may have vertical and lateral curvature to conform to the local flow field beneath the wing and flaps. Comparisons of measured and predicted pressure distributions, span load distributions on each lifting surface, and total lift and pitching moment coefficients on swept and unswept EBF configurations are included. A wide range of thrust coefficients and flap deflection angles is considered at angles of attack up to the onset of stall. Results indicate that overall lift and pitching-moment coefficients are predicted reasonably well over the entire range. The predicted detailed load distributions are qualitatively correct and show the peaked loads at the jet impingement points, but the widths and heights of the load peaks are not consistently predicted.

  1. Use of the rectus abdominis muscle and fascia flap in reconstruction of epispadias/exstrophy.

    PubMed

    Horton, C E; Sadove, R C; Jordan, G H; Sagher, U

    1988-07-01

    Inferiorly based rectus abdominis muscle flaps and fascial flaps have been used to construct a firm abdominal wall without hernias and to provide coverage of the bladder, bladder neck, and proximal urethra in the secondary reconstruction of patients with epispadias/exstrophy complex. They have also been used to produce an elevation of the mons area, which is lacking in the typical exstrophy patient. Rectus fascial flaps have been the mainstay of abdominal closure when wide diastasis of the rectal muscles is present and when the lower abdomen lacks fascial support. We are pleased with the results of utilizing either the rectus muscle or rectus fascia in this complex condition. We have been using fascial flaps for over 10 years in our epispadias/exstrophy closures and abdominal wall strengthening procedures. We have been using bone grafts and the rectus muscle for the construction of a mons for the past 5 years. Although the rectus muscle procedure to cover the bladder and the bladder neck has been in use for only 2 years, we have seen patients with incontinence restored to a continent state; these patients have not been plagued with fistula problems when a neourethra has to be constructed to elongate the phallus. Previous attempts at urethral repair in this area have been successful in the main, but an occasional fistula at the junction between the penile skin and the abdominopubic skin has resulted. Since using the rectus muscle to cover the bladder and bladder neck area, we have not had this problem. Patients with epispadias/exstrophy remain such difficult problems that every advance in technique should be used to improve results.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3391008

  2. Reconstruction of eyelids with Washio flap in anophthalmia.

    PubMed

    Tvrdek, M; Kozák, J

    2014-01-01

    The authors present a case report of a patient with anophthalmia in whom retroauriculo-temporal flap (Washio flap) was used for reconstruction of eyelids. This flap, which is mostly used for reconstructions of nasal defects, was not used in this way according to available literature.

  3. Flap Thickness in Eyes with Ectasia after LASIK

    PubMed Central

    Randleman, J. Bradley; Hebson, Carolyn B.; Larson, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To measure central flap thickness in eyes with ectasia after LASIK and to compare these values with estimated anticipated flap thickness based on average published values for each device used for flap creation. Setting Emory Vision at Emory University, Atlanta GA, USA Methods Confocal microscopic analysis using the Confoscan 3 (Nidek technologies) to measure central flap thickness in eyes with ectasia after LASIK, and evaluation of pre-LASIK records, including basic patient demographics, preoperative corneal topographies, estimated anticipated flap thickness based on published average thickness values, and residual stromal bed thickness (RSB) calculations using both measured and estimated flap thicknesses. Results Fifty eyes from 29 patients were evaluated. Average measured flap thickness was (138 ± 26 μ, range 90 to 220 μ). There were no significant differences between measured and estimated flap thicknesses (138 vs. 135 μ, p = 0.5) or RSB (329 vs. 332 μ, p = 0.7), nor were there any differences in flap thickness between eyes with normal or abnormal corneal topographies. Only one eye had a measured flap resulting in unintended RSB < 250 microns; this occurred in an eye with abnormal topography. Conclusions Measured central flap thickness was not thicker than estimated for the vast majority of eyes developing ectasia after LASIK. Thus, excessively thick flaps do not appear to be a major contributing factor to the pathogenesis of ectasia after LASIK. PMID:22424807

  4. Sural Versus Perforator Flaps for Distal Medial Leg Wounds.

    PubMed

    Schannen, Andrew P; Truchan, Lisa; Goshima, Kaoru; Bentley, Roger; DeSilva, Gregory L

    2015-12-01

    Soft tissue coverage of distal medial ankle wounds is a challenging problem in orthopedic surgery because of the limited local tissues and prominent instrumentation. Traditionally, these wounds required free tissue transfer to achieve suitable coverage and subsequent bony union. To better respect the reconstructive ladder and to avoid the inherent difficulty of free flap coverage, rotational flaps have been used to cover these wounds. Both sural fasciocutaneous flaps and rotational fasciocutaneous perforator (propeller) flaps have been described for distal medial soft tissue coverage. The authors performed a retrospective chart review of patients who underwent distal medial leg coverage with the use of either sural flaps or rotational fasciocutaneous perforator flaps. The authors identified 14 patients by Current Procedural Terminology code who met the study criteria. The average age and degree of medical comorbidities were comparable in the 2 groups. The authors reviewed their medical records to evaluate fracture healing, flap size, complications, and return to normal shoe wear. All 7 sural flaps healed without incident, with underlying fracture healing. Of the 7 perforator flaps, 6 healed without incident, with underlying fracture healing. One perforator-based flap was complicated by superficial tip necrosis and went on to heal with local wound care. All patients returned to normal shoe wear. Both sural artery rotational flaps and posterior tibial artery-based rotational flaps are viable options for coverage of the distal medial leg. Coverage can be achieved reliably without microsurgery, anticoagulation, or monitoring in the intensive care unit. PMID:26652325

  5. 14 CFR 23.1511 - Flap extended speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flap extended speed. 23.1511 Section 23.1511 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Information § 23.1511 Flap extended speed. (a) The flap extended speed V FE must be established so that it...

  6. 14 CFR 23.1511 - Flap extended speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flap extended speed. 23.1511 Section 23.1511 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Information § 23.1511 Flap extended speed. (a) The flap extended speed V FE must be established so that it...

  7. 14 CFR 23.1511 - Flap extended speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flap extended speed. 23.1511 Section 23.1511 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Information § 23.1511 Flap extended speed. (a) The flap extended speed V FE must be established so that it...

  8. 14 CFR 23.1511 - Flap extended speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flap extended speed. 23.1511 Section 23.1511 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Information § 23.1511 Flap extended speed. (a) The flap extended speed V FE must be established so that it...

  9. 14 CFR 23.1511 - Flap extended speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flap extended speed. 23.1511 Section 23.1511 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Information § 23.1511 Flap extended speed. (a) The flap extended speed V FE must be established so that it...

  10. Posttraumatic eyebrow reconstruction with hair-bearing temporoparietal fascia flap.

    PubMed

    Denadai, Rafael; Raposo-Amaral, Cassio Eduardo; Marques, Frederico Figueiredo; Raposo-Amaral, Cesar Augusto

    2015-01-01

    The temporoparietal fascia flap has been extensively used in craniofacial reconstructions. However, its use for eyebrow reconstruction has been sporadically reported. We describe a successfully repaired hair-bearing temporoparietal fascia flap after traumatic avulsion of eyebrow. Temporoparietal fascia flap is a versatile tool and should be considered as a therapeutic option by all plastic surgeons.

  11. 14 CFR 23.699 - Wing flap position indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wing flap position indicator. 23.699 Section 23.699 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Construction Control Systems § 23.699 Wing flap position indicator. There must be a wing flap...

  12. 14 CFR 23.699 - Wing flap position indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wing flap position indicator. 23.699 Section 23.699 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Construction Control Systems § 23.699 Wing flap position indicator. There must be a wing flap...

  13. 14 CFR 23.699 - Wing flap position indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wing flap position indicator. 23.699 Section 23.699 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Construction Control Systems § 23.699 Wing flap position indicator. There must be a wing flap...

  14. 14 CFR 23.699 - Wing flap position indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wing flap position indicator. 23.699 Section 23.699 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Construction Control Systems § 23.699 Wing flap position indicator. There must be a wing flap...

  15. 14 CFR 23.699 - Wing flap position indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wing flap position indicator. 23.699 Section 23.699 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Construction Control Systems § 23.699 Wing flap position indicator. There must be a wing flap...

  16. Sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Misery, L; Loser, K; Ständer, S

    2016-02-01

    Sensitive skin is a clinical condition defined by the self-reported facial presence of different sensory perceptions, including tightness, stinging, burning, tingling, pain and pruritus. Sensitive skin may occur in individuals with normal skin, with skin barrier disturbance, or as a part of the symptoms associated with facial dermatoses such as rosacea, atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Although experimental studies are still pending, the symptoms of sensitive skin suggest the involvement of cutaneous nerve fibres and neuronal, as well as epidermal, thermochannels. Many individuals with sensitive skin report worsening symptoms due to environmental factors. It is thought that this might be attributed to the thermochannel TRPV1, as it typically responds to exogenous, endogenous, physical and chemical stimuli. Barrier disruptions and immune mechanisms may also be involved. This review summarizes current knowledge on the epidemiology, potential mechanisms, clinics and therapy of sensitive skin. PMID:26805416

  17. Combined free toe and free deep inferior epigastric perforator flap for reconstruction of the thumb and thumb web space.

    PubMed

    Li, X J; Tong, J; Wang, Y

    2000-08-01

    To repair a complexly injured hand with composite loss of the thumb and the thumb web space in one stage, the combined transfer of a free second toe and a free deep inferior epigastric perforator flap was designed. It was used to simultaneously reconstruct the thumb and thumb web space of the injured hand in five cases. All flaps survived and there were no complications at any donor site after the reconstructions. In follow-up averaging 35.6 months, the final functional and cosmetic outcomes of the reconstructed thumbs and thumb web spaces were satisfactory. Results demonstrated that the combined transfer of a free second toe and a free deep inferior epigastric perforator flap is a valid method for simultaneous reconstruction of the thumb and the thumb web space of the injured hand.

  18. Numerical linearized MHD model of flapping oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korovinskiy, D. B.; Ivanov, I. B.; Semenov, V. S.; Erkaev, N. V.; Kiehas, S. A.

    2016-06-01

    Kink-like magnetotail flapping oscillations in a Harris-like current sheet with earthward growing normal magnetic field component Bz are studied by means of time-dependent 2D linearized MHD numerical simulations. The dispersion relation and two-dimensional eigenfunctions are obtained. The results are compared with analytical estimates of the double-gradient model, which are found to be reliable for configurations with small Bz up to values ˜ 0.05 of the lobe magnetic field. Coupled with previous results, present simulations confirm that the earthward/tailward growth direction of the Bz component acts as a switch between stable/unstable regimes of the flapping mode, while the mode dispersion curve is the same in both cases. It is confirmed that flapping oscillations may be triggered by a simple Gaussian initial perturbation of the Vz velocity.

  19. 50 CFR Figure 16 to Part 223 - Escape Opening and Flap Dimensions for the Double Cover Flap TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Escape Opening and Flap Dimensions for the Double Cover Flap TED 16 Figure 16 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE... AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 16 Figure 16 to Part 223—Escape Opening and Flap Dimensions...

  20. 50 CFR Figure 16 to Part 223 - Escape Opening and Flap Dimensions for the Double Cover Flap TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Escape Opening and Flap Dimensions for the Double Cover Flap TED 16 Figure 16 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE... AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 16 Figure 16 to Part 223—Escape Opening and Flap Dimensions...

  1. 50 CFR Figure 16 to Part 223 - Escape Opening and Flap Dimensions for the Double Cover Flap TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Escape Opening and Flap Dimensions for the Double Cover Flap TED 16 Figure 16 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES... for the Double Cover Flap TED ER02JN04.003...

  2. 50 CFR Figure 16 to Part 223 - Escape Opening and Flap Dimensions for the Double Cover Flap TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Escape Opening and Flap Dimensions for the Double Cover Flap TED 16 Figure 16 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES... for the Double Cover Flap TED ER02JN04.003...

  3. Airplane wing leading edge variable camber flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    The invention and design of an aerodynamic high lift device which provided a solution to an aircraft performance problem are described. The performance problem of converting a high speed cruise airfoil into a low speed aerodynamic shape that would provide landing and take-off characteristics superior to those available with contemporary high lift devices are addressed. The need for an improved wing leading edge device that would complement the high lift performance of a triple slotted trailing edge flap is examined. The mechanical and structural aspects of the variable camber flap are discussed and the aerodynamic performance aspects only as they relate to the invention and design of the device are presented.

  4. Flap Edge Aeroacoustic Measurements and Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Thomas F.; Humphreys, William M., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    An aeroacoustic model test has been conducted to investigate the mechanisms of sound generation on high-lift wing configurations. This paper presents an analysis of flap side-edge noise, which is often the most dominant source. A model of a main element wing section with a half-span flap was tested at low speeds of up to a Mach number of 0.17, corresponding to a wing chord Reynolds number of approximately 1.7 million. Results are presented for flat (or blunt), flanged, and round flap-edge geometries, with and without boundary-layer tripping, deployed at both moderate and high flap angles. The acoustic database is obtained from a Small Aperture Directional Array (SADA) of microphones, which was constructed to electronically steer to different regions of the model and to obtain farfield noise spectra and directivity from these regions. The basic flap-edge aerodynamics is established by static surface pressure data, as well as by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations and simplified edge flow analyses. Distributions of unsteady pressure sensors over the flap allow the noise source regions to be defined and quantified via cross-spectral diagnostics using the SADA output. It is found that shear layer instability and related pressure scatter is the primary noise mechanism. For the flat edge flap, two noise prediction methods based on unsteady-surface-pressure measurements are evaluated and compared to measured noise. One is a new causality spectral approach developed here. The other is a new application of an edge-noise scatter prediction method. The good comparisons for both approaches suggest that much of the physics is captured by the prediction models. Areas of disagreement appear to reveal when the assumed edge noise mechanism does not fully define, the noise production. For the different edge conditions, extensive spectra and directivity are presented. Significantly, for each edge configuration, the spectra for different flow speeds, flap angles, and

  5. A Novel and Alternative Treatment Method for Diabetic Heel Ulceration Exposing the Calcaneus Which Is Not Suitable for Flap Surgery: Vacuum Assisted Sandwich Dermal Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Bingol, Ugur A.; Cinar, Can; Arslan, Hakan; Altındas, Muzaffer

    2015-01-01

    Background. Currently, free flaps and pedicled flaps are the first treatment choices for large heel ulcer reconstruction. However, flap reconstruction of heel ulcerations cannot be performed in all diabetics especially with concurrent severe peripheral vascular disease because of higher flap failure rate. In recent years, the use of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) has emerged as an alternative treatment option for extremity ulcers. Methods. We present 13 diabetic patients with a large heel ulceration exposing the calcaneus, who were not eligible for flap surgery due to the presence of only one patent artery of trifurcation. These cases were treated with the vacuum assisted sandwich dermal matrix (VASDEM) method. Results. None of the patients required amputation. Skin grafting was successful in ten patients. Although partial losses were observed in three patients, they were healed spontaneously without surgical interventions. During the follow-up period none of the patients developed ulceration on the treatment area. All patients maintained their preoperative ambulatory ability. Conclusion. VASDEM is a novel method offering opportunity for treatment before proceeding to amputation in diabetic heel ulceration exposing the calcaneus which is not suitable for flap surgery. It also has the potential to close wounds of all sizes independent of the vessel status and wound size in selected diabetic patients. PMID:26516626

  6. Natural Hirudin Increases Rat Flap Viability by Anti-Inflammation via PARs/p38/NF-κB Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Liu; Pan, Xinyuan; Yin, Guoqian

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of natural hirudin on rat random skin flap viability and to determine the mechanism. Forty-eight rats were randomly divided into 2 groups. After the dorsal skin flap operation (3 cm × 10 cm in size), subcutaneous injections of 6 ATU hirudin were administered to group H (n = 24) every 12 h, while group C (n = 24) received an equal volume of 0.9% normal saline. Six rats from each group were euthanized 1, 2, 4, and 7 days after the operation. A full skin sample was collected from these rats to measure the p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK), phospho-p38- (Pp38-) MAPK, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65, phosphor-NF-κB (pNF-κB) p65, tumour necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, interleukin- (IL-) 6, and intercellular adhesion molecule- (ICAM-) 1 levels via western blot (WB) assays. The results showed that flap viability was significantly higher in the hirudin-treated group, which showed a reduced inflammatory response compared with the control group. The Pp38/p38, pNF-κB p65/NF-κB p65, TNF-α, IL-6, and ICAM-1 levels in the hirudin-treated group were lower than those in the control group. The results demonstrated that hirudin could improve random skin flap viability and suggested that this effect maybe occurs by blocking the thrombin/proteinase-activated receptors (PARs)/p38/NF-κB signalling pathway, thus decreasing the inflammatory response. PMID:26770977

  7. Indications, Outcomes, and Complications of Pedicled Propeller Perforator Flaps for Upper Body Defects: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lazzeri, Davide; Huemer, Georg M.; Nicoli, Fabio; Larcher, Lorenz; Dashti, Talal; Grassetti, Luca; Li, Qingfeng; Spinelli, Giuseppe; Agostini, Tommaso

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this investigation was to systematically review the current literature to provide the best data for indications, outcomes, survival, and complication rates of pedicled propeller perforator flaps for upper body defects. Methods A comprehensive literature review for articles published from January 1991 to December 2011 was performed using the PubMed, Medline, and Cochrane Databases. Articles without available full-text, single case reports or papers with excessive missing data were excluded. Papers reporting pedicle-perforator (propeller) flaps used for lower extremity reconstruction were excluded from meta-analysis. Results From the initial 1,736 studies our search yielded, 343 studies qualified for the second stage of selection. Of 117 full-text reports screened, 41 studies, met the definitive inclusion and exclusion criteria. Of the selected 41 articles, 26 were case series, original papers or retrospective reviews and were included, whereas 15 were case report papers and therefore were excluded. Two hundred ninety-five propeller flaps were reported to have been used in a total of 283 patients. Indications include repair of trauma-induced injuries, post-trauma revision surgery, cancer resection, chronic infection, pressure sores, and chronic ulcers with a major complication rate (3.3%) comparable to that of free flaps. No specific exclusion criteria for the procedure were presented in the studies reviewed. Conclusions Pedicled propeller flaps are a versatile and safe reconstructive option that are easy and quick to raise and that provide unlimited clinical solutions because of the theoretical possibility of harvesting them based on any perforator chosen among those classified in the body. PMID:23362479

  8. The Venous Lymph Node Flap: Concepts, Experimental Evidence, and Potential Clinical Implications.

    PubMed

    Visconti, Giuseppe; Constantinescu, Thomas; Chen, Pei Yu; Salgarello, Marzia; Franceschini, Gianluca; Masetti, Riccardo; Chen, Hung-Chi

    2016-10-01

    Background Traditionally, lymph node flaps (LNF) have been designed as arteriovenous flaps, with little attention given to the functional anatomy of lymphatic system included in the flap. Based on the anatomical and physiological features of lymphatic system, we believe that a new concept of LNF, the venous LNF, should be investigated. In this article, we report the concepts and findings of venous LNF, and help gauge its potential clinical application in the treatment of lymphedema. Methods Eight healthy Wistar rats underwent cervical LNF harvesting along the right external jugular vein, right inguinal node clearance, and venous LNF transfer in a flow-through fashion along the femoral vein. At 45 postoperative days, the restoration of lymphatic continuity with surrounding tissue was verified with intradermal injection of 0.1% of methylene blue. The flaps were then excised and sent for histologic evaluation. Results All rats survived uneventfully in the postoperative period and no postoperative complications were experienced. The venous anastomosis was proven to be patent clinically. In all rats we found reestablishment of lymphatic continuity with surrounding tissues. Histologically, the nodes showed the following main histoarchitectural changes: drastic reduction of the stromal compartment and preservation of the lymphatic/sinus and vascular compartments. Conclusions The novel venous LNF flap is able to restore lymphatic continuity with surrounding tissue. As healing occurs, the lymph nodes undergo major histoarchitectural changes. The venous LNF has unique theoretical advantages over arteriovenous LNFs. Further investigations would be beneficial to understand its potential in the surgical treatment of lymphedema. PMID:27326800

  9. [Aseptic bone flap osteonecrosis following cranioplasty after decompressive cranietomy].

    PubMed

    Smoll, Nicolas R; Stienen, Martin N; Schaller, Karl; Gautschi, Oliver P

    2013-06-19

    This case report discusses a case of aseptic osteonecrosis in a cranioplasty bone flap after decompressive craniectomy, which is a known, but rare complication after autologous cranioplasty. We suggest that the pathophysiology of cranial bone flap necrosis may have a similar pathophysiology to free flap necrosis/failure. The key suggested problem causing the osteonecrosis is vessel thrombosis within the smaller vessels of the bone flap due to the prothrombotic effects of the factors released during drilling of the bone flap. Suspicious local findings like wound dehiscence or fluid leakage should lead to a head computed tomography in order to discuss a prophylactic artificial second cranioplasty if necessary. PMID:23773942

  10. The skin tumor: a reconstructive challenge.

    PubMed

    Rosenfield, L K

    1993-10-01

    The type of reconstruction performed following skin tumor surgery is directly related to the type, extent, and site of the skin tumor. The skin tumors with which the plastic surgeon is most often confronted are the basal and squamous cell cancers and melanoma. It is well documented that the incidence of these tumors are increasing at an alarming rate. This is believed to be primarily due to excessive sun exposure and the thinning of the protective ozone layer. Under these circumstances, the plastic surgeon today must be well equipped to not only treat these tumors, as well as other rarer diseases, but also to reconstruct the sometimes challenging resulting defects. The guiding reconstructive principle is as Ralph Millard admonished: Replace lost tissue with like tissue. A skin graft at the tip of the nose can be very distracting due to its patch-like, depressed appearance. In contrast, a full-thickness skin flap would allow the reconstructive "material" to blend in with its surroundings for a more impressive result. The plastic surgeon has several items in his armamentarium to assist in the execution of this principle. Some of the techniques are based on age-old ideas, while others represent very recent, almost revolutionary advances. These advances include: 1. The introduction of the tissue expander: This concept has allowed the plastic surgeon to reconstruct defects that would would have normally required disfiguring skin grafts or free tissue transfers. 2. The elucidation of the vascular supply to the skin and underlying muscles and fascia: This knowledge has endowed the plastic surgeon with a tremendous pallet of reliable flaps to reconstruct a particular defect.

  11. Switch Flap for Upper Eyelid Reconstruction—How Soon Should the Flap Be Divided?

    PubMed Central

    Yanai, Tetsu; Yasuta, Masato; Kawano, Hiroshige; Ishihara, Yasuhiro; Kikuchi, Mamoru

    2016-01-01

    Background: The results of a cohort of patients treated at one institution for upper eyelid reconstruction with the switch flap method after a defect due to excision of malignant tumor were reviewed. Methods: A retrospective data file review of all patients who had undergone total upper eyelid reconstruction with the switch flap method was conducted at the Saga University Hospital between April 2000 and October 2014. The follow-up lasted for varying periods during which the preoperative and postoperative photographs were compared as well. Results: A total of 10 patients with upper eyelid tumors, that is, 7 sebaceous carcinoma, 2 squamous cell carcinoma, and 1 basal cell carcinoma, underwent reconstructive surgery. With the switch flap technique, the defects resulting from tumor excision were completely covered in all cases. The mean of defect widths after tumor excision (A) was 18.8 mm (range, 15–25 mm), the mean of widths of switch flaps (B) was 13.3 mm (range, 8–22 mm), and the mean of B/A ratios was 0.69 (range, 0.5–0.88). When the switch flap was divided at 7 to 14 days, there was no flap loss, trichiasis, or corneal ulcer. Conclusion: Our protocol managed to make flaps with a B/A ratio of 0.5–0.7, and the flaps were divided at 7 to 14 days after surgery, the timing of which was much earlier than in the conventional method, lessening the possibility of complications. PMID:27200257

  12. Tunnelled tensor fascia lata flap for complex abdominal wall reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Frederick; Buonocore, Samuel; Narayan, Deepak

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the treatment of two patients with recurrent, infected abdominal wall defects using bilateral delayed and tunnelled pedicled tensor fascia lata (TFL) myofascial flaps. TFL flaps were elevated and delayed for 4 weeks in both cases. In the second case, Parietex Composite mesh was positioned underneath the TFL flap and allowed to incorporate. After a delay of 4 weeks, the flaps were harvested and tunnelled subcutaneously to repair the abdominal wall defect. Both patients have stable repairs but had donor site seromas requiring drainage. Cadaver dissection was also performed to identify structures related to TFL flap harvest. We identified a variant of lateral femoral cutaneous nerve that traversed the TFL flap, necessitating meticulous dissection during surgery. In summary, we describe a new technique of incorporating mesh into the TFL prior to flap harvest for reconstruction of complex abdominal wall. PMID:22707661

  13. Total Composite Flap Facelift and the Deep-Plane Transition Zone: A Critical Consideration in SMAS-Release Midface Lifting

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent anatomic studies suggest the superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) layer attenuates in the midface. This led the author to switch from a bilamellar high SMAS dissection to a “total composite flap” technique, preserving skin and SMAS/platysma as one layer in a critical “deep-plane transition zone” (DTZ) lateral to the zygomaticus major muscle. This allows traction on the SMAS to translate to the malar fat pad via a “cantilever bridge” effect, which is lost when skin is undermined in the DTZ. Objectives This paper attempts to answer the question of whether the composite flap or bilamellar technique better lifts the midface, comparing groups where the DTZ was undermined: (1) only at a sub-SMAS level; or (2) at both subcutaneous and sub-SMAS levels. Methods Thirty-five patients underwent bilamellar facelifts with skin and SMAS separated in the DTZ. Midfacial elevation was measured using size-matched preoperative and 18-month (average) postoperative photographs for the 70 hemi-midfaces. The same analysis was done for 35 patients undergoing total composite flap facelift, maintaining skin and SMAS as one layer in the DTZ. The two groups were compared. Results In the bilamellar group, the mean percentage of midfacial elevation at 18 months postoperative was 5.5% (range, 0.0%-17.8%). In the composite flap group, the percentage was 11.7% (range, 0.1%-32.3%). The difference was statistically significant. Conclusions Maintaining skin-SMAS attachments in the DTZ improves midface elevation during SMAS facelifting, exploiting a “cantilever bridge” effect of the skin transferring traction on the SMAS to the malar fat pad. Level of Evidence: 4 Therapeutic PMID:26931306

  14. Review of Skull Base Reconstruction Using Locoregional Flaps and Free Flaps in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Kentarou; Kishimoto, Seiji; Iida, Hideo; Okazaki, Mutsumi

    2011-01-01

    Tumors of the skull base are rare in children, and reconstruction in such patients has rarely been reported. We reviewed 16 cases of skull base reconstruction in patients under 18 years. The study group consisted of 10 boys and 6 girls, whose ages ranged from 2 to 17 years. Of the 16 cases, eight tumors were benign and eight were malignant. Defects were anterior in six cases, lateral in eight cases, and anterolateral in two cases. Reconstruction was performed with locoregional flaps in 11 cases and with free flaps in 5 cases. No significant difference was found between locoregional flaps and free flaps in total operative time, intraoperative blood loss, or postoperative hospital stay. However, in some cases, total operative time, reconstruction time, and blood loss increased to a degree unacceptable for pediatrics. Minor complications occurred in three patients and a major complication occurred in one case. Of four patients, three patients with postoperative complications had undergone chemoradiotherapy. Because of the physical weakness of pediatric patients, complicated reconstructive procedure should be avoided. We believe locoregional flaps will become the first choice for reconstruction. However, if patients have large, complex defects and have received radiotherapy, appropriate free flaps should be used to avoid postoperative complications. PMID:22547961

  15. Flapping wing aerodynamics: from insects to vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Chin, Diana D; Lentink, David

    2016-04-01

    More than a million insects and approximately 11,000 vertebrates utilize flapping wings to fly. However, flapping flight has only been studied in a few of these species, so many challenges remain in understanding this form of locomotion. Five key aerodynamic mechanisms have been identified for insect flight. Among these is the leading edge vortex, which is a convergent solution to avoid stall for insects, bats and birds. The roles of the other mechanisms - added mass, clap and fling, rotational circulation and wing-wake interactions - have not yet been thoroughly studied in the context of vertebrate flight. Further challenges to understanding bat and bird flight are posed by the complex, dynamic wing morphologies of these species and the more turbulent airflow generated by their wings compared with that observed during insect flight. Nevertheless, three dimensionless numbers that combine key flow, morphological and kinematic parameters - the Reynolds number, Rossby number and advance ratio - govern flapping wing aerodynamics for both insects and vertebrates. These numbers can thus be used to organize an integrative framework for studying and comparing animal flapping flight. Here, we provide a roadmap for developing such a framework, highlighting the aerodynamic mechanisms that remain to be quantified and compared across species. Ultimately, incorporating complex flight maneuvers, environmental effects and developmental stages into this framework will also be essential to advancing our understanding of the biomechanics, movement ecology and evolution of animal flight. PMID:27030773

  16. Flapping wing aerodynamics: from insects to vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Chin, Diana D; Lentink, David

    2016-04-01

    More than a million insects and approximately 11,000 vertebrates utilize flapping wings to fly. However, flapping flight has only been studied in a few of these species, so many challenges remain in understanding this form of locomotion. Five key aerodynamic mechanisms have been identified for insect flight. Among these is the leading edge vortex, which is a convergent solution to avoid stall for insects, bats and birds. The roles of the other mechanisms - added mass, clap and fling, rotational circulation and wing-wake interactions - have not yet been thoroughly studied in the context of vertebrate flight. Further challenges to understanding bat and bird flight are posed by the complex, dynamic wing morphologies of these species and the more turbulent airflow generated by their wings compared with that observed during insect flight. Nevertheless, three dimensionless numbers that combine key flow, morphological and kinematic parameters - the Reynolds number, Rossby number and advance ratio - govern flapping wing aerodynamics for both insects and vertebrates. These numbers can thus be used to organize an integrative framework for studying and comparing animal flapping flight. Here, we provide a roadmap for developing such a framework, highlighting the aerodynamic mechanisms that remain to be quantified and compared across species. Ultimately, incorporating complex flight maneuvers, environmental effects and developmental stages into this framework will also be essential to advancing our understanding of the biomechanics, movement ecology and evolution of animal flight.

  17. 14 CFR 23.701 - Flap interconnection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control... airplanes, it must be designed to account for the unsummetrical loads resulting from flight with the engines... independent of the flap drive system; or by an approved equivalent means; or (2) Be designed so that...

  18. 14 CFR 23.701 - Flap interconnection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control... airplanes, it must be designed to account for the unsummetrical loads resulting from flight with the engines... independent of the flap drive system; or by an approved equivalent means; or (2) Be designed so that...

  19. 14 CFR 23.701 - Flap interconnection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control... airplanes, it must be designed to account for the unsummetrical loads resulting from flight with the engines... independent of the flap drive system; or by an approved equivalent means; or (2) Be designed so that...

  20. 14 CFR 23.701 - Flap interconnection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control... airplanes, it must be designed to account for the unsummetrical loads resulting from flight with the engines... independent of the flap drive system; or by an approved equivalent means; or (2) Be designed so that...

  1. Enhanced Correlation of SMART Active Flap Rotor Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kottapalli, Sesi

    2011-01-01

    This is a follow-on study to a 2010 correlation effort. Measured data from the SMART rotor test in the NASA Ames 40- by 80- Foot Wind Tunnel are compared with CAMRAD II calculations. As background, during the wind tunnel test, unexpectedly high inboard loads were encountered, and it was hypothesized at that time that due to changes in the flexbeams over the years, the flexbeam properties used in the analysis needed updating. Boeing Mesa, recently updated these properties. This correlation study uses the updated flexbeam properties. Compared to earlier studies, the following two enhancements are implemented: i) the inboard loads (pitchcase and flexbeam loads) correlation is included for the first time (reliable prediction of the inboard loads is a prerequisite for any future anticipated flight-testing); ii) the number of blade modes is increased to better capture the flap dynamics and the pitchcase-flexbeam dynamics. Also, aerodynamically, both the rolled-up wake model and the more complex, multiple trailer wake model are used, with the latter slightly improving the blade chordwise moment correlation. This sensitivity to the wake model indicates that CFD is needed. Three high-speed experimental cases, one uncontrolled free flap case and two commanded flap cases, are considered. The two commanded flap cases include a 2o flap deflection at 5P case and a 0o flap deflection case. For the free flap case, selected modifications to the HH-06 section flap airfoil pitching moment table are implemented. For the commanded 2o flap case, the experimental flap variation is approximately matched by increasing the analytical flap hinge stiffness. This increased flap hinge stiffness is retained for the commanded 0o flap case also, which is treated as a free flap case, but with larger flap hinge stiffness. The change in the mid-span and outboard loads correlation due to the updating of the flexbeam properties is not significant. Increasing the number of blade modes results in an

  2. A Miniature Controllable Flapping Wing Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arabagi, Veaceslav Gheorghe

    The agility and miniature size of nature's flapping wing fliers has long baffled researchers, inspiring biological studies, aerodynamic simulations, and attempts to engineer their robotic replicas. Flapping wing flight is characterized by complex reciprocating wing kinematics, transient aerodynamic effects, and very small body lengths. These characteristics render robotic flapping wing aerial vehicles ideal for surveillance and defense applications, search and rescue missions, and environment monitoring, where their ability to hover and high maneuverability is immensely beneficial. One of the many difficulties in creating flapping wing based miniature robotic aerial vehicles lies in generating a proper wing trajectory that would result in sufficient lift forces for hovering and maneuvering. Since design of a flapping wing system is a balance between overall weight and the number of actuated inputs, we take the approach of having minimal controlled inputs, allowing passive behavior wherever possible. Hence, we propose a completely passive wing pitch reversal design that relies on wing inertial dynamics, an elastic energy storage mechanism, and low Reynolds number aerodynamic effects. Theoretical models, compiling previous research on piezoelectric actuators, four-bar transmissions, and aerodynamics effects, are developed and used as basis for a complete numerical simulation. Limitations of the model are discussed in comparison to experimental results obtained from a working prototype of the proposed passive pitch reversal flapping wing mechanism. Given that the mechanism is under-actuated, methods to control lift force generation by actively varying system parameters are proposed, discussed, and tested experimentally. A dual wing aerial platform is developed based on the passive pitch reversal wing concept. Design considerations are presented, favoring controllability and structural rigidity of the final platform. Finite element analysis and experimental

  3. Skin findings in newborns

    MedlinePlus

    Newborn skin characteristics; Infant skin characteristics; Neonatal care - skin ... the first few weeks of the baby's life. Newborn skin will vary, depending on the length of the pregnancy. Premature infants have thin, transparent skin. The skin of a ...

  4. Perforator arteries of the medial upper arm: anatomical basis of a new flap donor site.

    PubMed

    Perignon, D; Havet, E; Sinna, R

    2013-01-01

    The development of perforator flaps' concept based on knowledge on vascular anatomy of the skin represents a major improvement in reconstructive surgery. Succeeding description about vascular territories and anatomical basics of the main donor sites, the study of hidden donor sites, such as medial upper arm, constitutes a new step and an additional refinement. 20 upper limbs of 10 fresh adult cadavers were studied with colored latex injections. The origin and distribution of the perforator arteries of the superior ulnar collateral artery and the brachial artery were investigated. We have noted constant perforator arteries and described the limits of vascular territories of the medial upper arm.

  5. Oily skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... keep your skin clean using warm water and soap, or a soapless cleanser. Clean your face with astringent pads if frequent face washing causes irritation. Use only water-based or oil-free cosmetics if you have oily skin. Your ...

  6. [Forearm osteomusculocutaneous free filet flap for arm reconstruction after amputation as an alternative to shoulder disarticulation].

    PubMed

    Gachie, E; Alet, J-M; Nguyen, P; Della Volpe, C; Casanova, D

    2015-04-01

    We report the case of a 55-year-old woman suffering from a type I neurofibromatosis (also known as Von Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis) who was diagnosed with a high-grade schwannosarcoma of the median nerve, between the upper third and the medium third of the arm, upon contact with the humerus, invading the humeral vessels. The oncologic treatment of this tumour consisted in the amputation of the arm through the surgical neck of the humerus. In order to create a laterothoracic claw, to bring a partial function of the upper limb back, we decided to realize a free fillet forearm flap. This composite flap was composed of the radius and the ulna, all the forearm muscles and the skin of the anterior side of the forearm. A humeroradial plate osteosynthesis was done and the flap was then harvested with the radial pedicle, and anastomosed to the axillar artery. This procedure gave our patient a functional stump, giving back the arm functionality, especially the claw movement. PMID:25001415

  7. Subclavicular Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap for Optimal Reconstruction of Large Orbitozygomatic Defects: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Pingarron, Lorena; Ruiz, Julian; Rey, Juan; Maniegas, Lourdes; Roson, Silvia; Martinez, Dolores

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of microvascular free flaps, the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMF) has been relegated to background for most reconstructive surgeons. The objective of this article is to show the advantages of cervicofacial defects reconstruction with PMMF using the subclavicular plane route in a challenging clinical case. An 83-year-old man presented with cutaneous temporomalar lesion with orbital spread. Tumor resection was performed, including 12 × 11 cm skin and subcutaneous tissue, overlying zygomatic and malar bone, and orbital exenteration. Radical parotidectomy and functional neck dissection were performed. PMMF was chosen as reconstructive option routing the pedicle to the subclavicular plane. The length of the pedicle was 31 cm. The subclavicular route for PMMF increases the flap's length and arc of rotation compared with the conventional supraclavicular one. This procedure decreases the bulk of the PMMF pedicle which makes it functionally and cosmetically favorable. By using this modification, we may widen the “safe” reconstructive possibilities. PMID:25136415

  8. Foot ischemia after a free fibula flap harvest: immediate salvage with an interpositional sapheneous vein graft.

    PubMed

    Saydam, Funda Akoz; Basaran, Karaca; Ceran, Fatih; Mert, Bulent

    2014-09-01

    The most dreaded major donor-site complication of free fibula flap is a foot ischemia, which is fortunately rare. Various authors have discussed the efficacy of the use of preoperative imaging methods including color Doppler, magnetic resonance angiography, and conventional angiography. A 25-year-old man presented with a 10-cm mandibular defect after a facial gunshot injury. Lower extremity color Doppler revealed triphasic peroneal, tibialis anterior, and posterior artery flows. A fibula osteocutaneous flap was harvested, and the mandible was reconstructed. However, the suture sites at the donor site began to demonstrate signs of necrosis, abscess formation, and widespread cellulitis beginning from postoperative day 9. Angiogram of the lower extremity on the 13th day demonstrated no flow in the right posterior tibial artery distal to the popliteal artery, whereas the anterior tibial artery had weak flow with collateral filling distally. An emergency bypass with a saphenous vein graft between the popliteal artery and the distal posterior tibial artery was performed. Repeated debridements, local wound care, and vacuum-assisted closure were applied. A skin graft was placed eventually. The extremity healed without severe functional disability. In conclusion, although the arterial anatomy is completely normal in preoperative evaluation, vascular complications may still ocur at the donor fibula free flap site. In addition, emergency cardiovascular bypass surgery, as we experienced, may be necessary for limb perfusion. PMID:25119400

  9. Three-dimensional contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography for anterolateral thigh flap outlining: A retrospective case series of 68 patients

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Chunjing; Lin, Ping; Fu, Xiaoyan; Shu, Jiner; Li, Huimin; Hu, Xiaogang; He, Jianrong; Ding, Mingxing

    2016-01-01

    Flap transfer is increasingly used for repairing limb defects secondary to trauma or tumor, and appropriate preoperative planning plays a critical role. The present study aimed to examine the use of three-dimensional (3D) contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) in evaluating the blood supply distribution and perforating branch pattern of anterolateral thigh (ALT) flaps. Bilateral donor lower limbs were scanned in 68 patients (136 limbs) using a Siemens Avanto 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging scanner with a 3D fast low-angle shot sequence, following the thin-slab maximum intensity projection (TS-MIP) technique. The lateral femoral circumflex artery (LFCA) was visualized in all patients: 101 limbs (101/136, 74.3%) were type I; 20 limbs (20/136, 14.7%) were type II; 3 limbs (3/136, 2.2%) were type III; and 12 limbs (12/136, 8.8%) were type IV. Tertiary branches were identified in 94 limbs (94/136, 69.1%). Donor flaps were outlined according to MRA TS-MIP findings in 4 patients. All flaps survived uneventfully following the transfer. In donor flap outlining, 3D CE-MRA with the TS-MIP technique allowed an accurate, direct visualization of the branching pattern and distribution profile of the LFCA supplying the ALT flap. PMID:27446322

  10. Reconstruction of pressure sores with perforator-based propeller flaps.

    PubMed

    Jakubietz, Rafael G; Jakubietz, Danni F; Zahn, Robert; Schmidt, Karsten; Meffert, Rainer H; Jakubietz, Michael G

    2011-03-01

    Perforator flaps have been successfully used for reconstruction of pressure sores. Although V-Y advancement flaps approximate debrided wound edges, perforator-based propeller flaps allow rotation of healthy tissue into the defect. Perforator-based propeller flaps were planned in 13 patients. Seven pressure sores were over the sacrum, five over the ischial tuberosity, and one on the tip of the scapula. Three patients were paraplegic, six were bedridden, and five were ambulatory. In three patients, no perforators were found. In 10 patients, propeller flaps were transferred. In two patients, total flap necrosis occurred, which was reconstructed with local advancement flaps. In two cases, a wound dehiscence occurred and had to be revised. One hematoma required evacuation. No further complications were noted. No recurrence at the flap site occurred. Local perforator flaps allow closure of pressure sores without harvesting muscle. The propeller version has the added benefit of transferring tissue from a distant site, avoiding reapproximation of original wound edges. Twisting of the pedicle may cause torsion and venous obstruction. This can be avoided by dissecting a pedicle of at least 3 cm. Propeller flaps are a safe option for soft tissue reconstruction of pressure sores.

  11. Reconstruction of a Large Anterior Ear Defect after Mohs Micrographic Surgery with a Cartilage Graft and Postauricular Revolving Door Flap.

    PubMed

    Nemir, Stephanie; Hunter-Ellul, Lindsey; Codrea, Vlad; Wagner, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A novel postauricular revolving door island flap and cartilage graft combination was employed to correct a large defect on the anterior ear of an 84-year-old man who underwent Mohs micrographic surgery for an antihelical squamous cell carcinoma. The defect measured 4.6 × 2.4 cm and spanned the antihelix, scapha, a small portion of the helix, and a large segment of underlying cartilage, with loss of structural integrity and anterior folding of the ear. The repair involved harvesting 1.5 cm(2) of exposed cartilage from the scaphoid fossa and then sculpting and suturing it to the remnant of the antihelical cartilage in order to recreate the antihelical crura. The skin of the posterior auricle was then incised just below the helical rim and folded anteriorly to cover the cartilage graft. The flap remained attached by a central subcutaneous pedicle, and an island designed using the full-thickness defect as a stencil template was pulled through the cartilage window anteriorly to resurface the anterior ear. This case demonstrates the use of the revolving door flap for coverage of large central ear defects with loss of cartilaginous support and illustrates how cartilage grafts may be used in combination with the flap to improve ear contour after resection. PMID:26425374

  12. Pedicled sensate composite calcaneal flap to achieve full weight-bearing surface in midshaft leg amputations: case report.

    PubMed

    Livani, Bruno; de Castro, Gabriel F; Filho, Jose R Tonelli; Belangero, William D; Ramos, Tamara M; Mongon, Mauricio

    2011-01-01

    Of the possible levels of amputation, transtibial amputations result in functionally excellent outcomes. However, in contrast to hind foot amputations, such as Syme and especially Boyd amputation, acute or late complications related to the amputated stump are frequent with the various described techniques. The aim of this study was to describe a hind foot (including the calcaneum and fat pad) pedicled sensate flap with a surface that allowed full terminal weight-bearing in transtibial amputations in adults. One male patient, 66 years old with schizophrenia and chronic distal tibial osteomyelitis, underwent a leg amputation with sensate composite calcaneal flap construction. The stump was painless and able to bear total terminal weight at 12 weeks. Calcaneum tibial fusion was observed at 12-week postoperative follow-up. A below-knee prosthesis was adapted in 12 weeks, and at the 1-year follow-up, the patient was completely satisfied with the functional performance of his stump. The flap described provides proprioceptive feedback with the best bone and skin to support weight bearing. Another advantage is the possibility to use the same prosthesis commonly used in Boyd or Syme amputation due a longer arm leverage, which also allows full terminal weight-bearing. In the current study, a transtibial amputation covered with a pedicled sensate plantar flap preserving the calcaneum was proposed. In theory, the anatomic structures spared in this technique provide a strong full weight-bearing terminal surface of the stump that will last a lifetime. PMID:20945284

  13. Reconstruction of a Large Anterior Ear Defect after Mohs Micrographic Surgery with a Cartilage Graft and Postauricular Revolving Door Flap

    PubMed Central

    Nemir, Stephanie; Hunter-Ellul, Lindsey; Codrea, Vlad; Wagner, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A novel postauricular revolving door island flap and cartilage graft combination was employed to correct a large defect on the anterior ear of an 84-year-old man who underwent Mohs micrographic surgery for an antihelical squamous cell carcinoma. The defect measured 4.6 × 2.4 cm and spanned the antihelix, scapha, a small portion of the helix, and a large segment of underlying cartilage, with loss of structural integrity and anterior folding of the ear. The repair involved harvesting 1.5 cm2 of exposed cartilage from the scaphoid fossa and then sculpting and suturing it to the remnant of the antihelical cartilage in order to recreate the antihelical crura. The skin of the posterior auricle was then incised just below the helical rim and folded anteriorly to cover the cartilage graft. The flap remained attached by a central subcutaneous pedicle, and an island designed using the full-thickness defect as a stencil template was pulled through the cartilage window anteriorly to resurface the anterior ear. This case demonstrates the use of the revolving door flap for coverage of large central ear defects with loss of cartilaginous support and illustrates how cartilage grafts may be used in combination with the flap to improve ear contour after resection. PMID:26425374

  14. Aerodynamic flight performance in flap-gliding birds and bats.

    PubMed

    Muijres, Florian T; Henningsson, Per; Stuiver, Melanie; Hedenström, Anders

    2012-08-01

    Many birds use a flight mode called undulating or flap-gliding flight, where they alternate between flapping and gliding phases, while only a few bats make use of such a flight mode. Among birds, flap-gliding is commonly used by medium to large species, where it is regarded to have a lower energetic cost than continuously flapping flight. Here, we introduce a novel model for estimating the energetic flight economy of flap-gliding animals, by determining the lift-to-drag ratio for flap-gliding based on empirical lift-to-drag ratio estimates for continuous flapping flight and for continuous gliding flight, respectively. We apply the model to flight performance data of the common swift (Apus apus) and of the lesser long-nosed bat (Leptonycteris yerbabuenae). The common swift is a typical flap-glider while-to the best of our knowledge-the lesser long-nosed bat does not use flap-gliding. The results show that, according to the model, the flap-gliding common swift saves up to 15% energy compared to a continuous flapping swift, and that this is primarily due to the exceptionally high lift-to-drag ratio in gliding flight relative to that in flapping flight for common swifts. The lesser long-nosed bat, on the other hand, seems not to be able to reduce energetic costs by flap-gliding. The difference in relative costs of flap-gliding flight between the common swift and the lesser long-nosed bat can be explained by differences in morphology, flight style and wake dynamics. The model presented here proves to be a valuable tool for estimating energetic flight economy in flap-gliding animals. The results show that flap-gliding flight that is naturally used by common swifts is indeed the most economic one of the two flight modes, while this is not the case for the non-flap-gliding lesser long-nosed bat. PMID:22726811

  15. [Surgical technique and advantages of the free temporal fascia flap for covering loss of substance of the dorsum of the foot and around the ankle: report of 12 cases].

    PubMed

    Duteille, F; Sartre, J Y; Perrot, P; Gouin, F; Pannier, M

    2008-10-01

    The authors report a series of twelve patients with loss of substance of the dorsum of the foot or around the ankle who underwent coverage with a free temporal fascia flap. There were no failure of flaps and no vascular complication at the microanastomosis. There were three complications: partial burn of the flap with a lamp, failure of the split thickness skin graft and an area of scar alopecia at the donor site. With one year of follow up, there were no problems of cicatrisation and no patients had difficulty to the use of normal footwear. The different advantages of this flap led us to recommend it for the covering of wound in this area.

  16. Power performance optimization and loads alleviation with active flaps using individual flap control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettas, Vasilis; Barlas, Thanasis; Gertz, Drew; Madsen, Helge A.

    2016-09-01

    The present article investigates the potential of Active Trailing Edge Flaps (ATEF) in terms of increase in annual energy production (AEP) as well as reduction of fatigue loads. The basis for this study is the DTU 10 MW Reference Wind Turbine (RWT) simulated using the aeroelastic code HAWC2. In an industrial-oriented manner the baseline rotor is upscaled by 5% and the ATEFs are implemented in the outer 30% of the blades. The flap system is kept simple and robust with a single flap section and control with wind speed, rotor azimuth, root bending moments and angle of attack in flap's mid-section being the sensor inputs. The AEP is increased due to the upscaling but also further due to the flap system while the fatigue loads in components of interest (blade, tower, nacelle and main bearing) are reduced close to the level of the original turbine. The aim of this study is to demonstrate a simple and applicable method that can be a technology enabler for rotor upscaling and lowering cost of energy.

  17. Skin graft

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused a large amount of skin loss Burns Cosmetic reasons or reconstructive surgeries where there has been ... Smoking increases your chance of problems such as slow healing. Ask your doctor or nurse for help ...

  18. Your Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Butterflies? Read This Chloe & Nurb Meet The Brain (Movie) Quiz: Do You Need a Flu Shot? Got ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Movie: Skin Acne Myths Blisters, Calluses, and Corns Fungal ...

  19. Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... nearby What to Do Teach kids not to pop, pick at, or scratch pimples, pus-filled infections, ... Your Skin Abscess Impetigo Ringworm Cellulitis Should I Pop My Pimple? Tips for Taking Care of Your ...

  20. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... States. The two most common types are basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer. They usually form on the head, face, ... If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. Treatments ...