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Sample records for skin picking disorder

  1. Trichotillomania (hair pulling disorder), skin picking disorder, and stereotypic movement disorder: toward DSM-V.

    PubMed

    Stein, Dan J; Grant, Jon E; Franklin, Martin E; Keuthen, Nancy; Lochner, Christine; Singer, Harvey S; Woods, Douglas W

    2010-06-01

    In DSM-IV-TR, trichotillomania (TTM) is classified as an impulse control disorder (not classified elsewhere), skin picking lacks its own diagnostic category (but might be diagnosed as an impulse control disorder not otherwise specified), and stereotypic movement disorder is classified as a disorder usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence. ICD-10 classifies TTM as a habit and impulse disorder, and includes stereotyped movement disorders in a section on other behavioral and emotional disorders with onset usually occurring in childhood and adolescence. This article provides a focused review of nosological issues relevant to DSM-V, given recent empirical findings. This review presents a number of options and preliminary recommendations to be considered for DSM-V: (1) Although TTM fits optimally into a category of body-focused repetitive behavioral disorders, in a nosology comprised of relatively few major categories it fits best within a category of motoric obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders, (2) available evidence does not support continuing to include (current) diagnostic criteria B and C for TTM in DSM-V, (3) the text for TTM should be updated to describe subtypes and forms of hair pulling, (4) there are persuasive reasons for referring to TTM as "hair pulling disorder (trichotillomania)," (5) diagnostic criteria for skin picking disorder should be included in DSM-V or in DSM-Vs Appendix of Criteria Sets Provided for Further Study, and (6) the diagnostic criteria for stereotypic movement disorder should be clarified and simplified, bringing them in line with those for hair pulling and skin picking disorder. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Antioxidant Therapies for Ulcerative Dermatitis: A Potential Model for Skin Picking Disorder

    PubMed Central

    George, Nneka M.; Whitaker, Julia; Vieira, Giovana; Geronimo, Jerome T.; Bellinger, Dwight A.; Fletcher, Craig A.; Garner, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    Skin Picking Disorder affects 4% of the general population, with serious quality of life impacts, and potentially life threatening complications. Standard psychoactive medications do not help most patients. Similarly, Mouse Ulcerative Dermatitis (skin lesions caused by excessive abnormal grooming behavior) is very common in widely used inbred strains of mice, and represents a serious animal welfare issue and cause of mortality. Treatment options for Ulcerative Dermatitis are largely palliative and ineffective. We have proposed mouse Ulcerative Dermatitis as a model for human Skin Picking Disorder based on similar epidemiology, behavior, and its comorbidity and mechanistic overlap with hair pulling (trichotillomania). We predicted that mouse Ulcerative Dermatitis would be treated by N-Acetylcysteine, as this compound is highly effective in treating both Skin Picking Disorder and Trichotillomania. Furthermore, we hypothesized that N-Acetylcysteine’s mode of action is as a precursor to the production of the endogenous antioxidant glutathione in the brain, and therefore intranasal glutathione would also treat Ulcerative Dermatitis. Accordingly, we show in a heterogenous prospective trial, the significant reduction in Ulcerative Dermatitis lesion severity in mice receiving either N-acetylcysteine (oral administration) or glutathione (intranasal). The majority of mice treated with N-acetylcysteine improved slowly throughout the course of the study. Roughly half of the mice treated with glutathione showed complete resolution of lesion within 2-4 weeks, while the remainder did not respond. These findings are the first to show that the use of N-acetylcysteine and Glutathione can be curative for mouse Ulcerative Dermatitis. These findings lend additional support for mouse Ulcerative Dermatitis as a model of Skin Picking Disorder and also support oxidative stress and glutathione synthesis as the mechanism of action for these compounds. As N-Acetylcysteine is poorly

  3. Antioxidant Therapies for Ulcerative Dermatitis: A Potential Model for Skin Picking Disorder.

    PubMed

    George, Nneka M; Whitaker, Julia; Vieira, Giovana; Geronimo, Jerome T; Bellinger, Dwight A; Fletcher, Craig A; Garner, Joseph P

    2015-01-01

    Skin Picking Disorder affects 4% of the general population, with serious quality of life impacts, and potentially life threatening complications. Standard psychoactive medications do not help most patients. Similarly, Mouse Ulcerative Dermatitis (skin lesions caused by excessive abnormal grooming behavior) is very common in widely used inbred strains of mice, and represents a serious animal welfare issue and cause of mortality. Treatment options for Ulcerative Dermatitis are largely palliative and ineffective. We have proposed mouse Ulcerative Dermatitis as a model for human Skin Picking Disorder based on similar epidemiology, behavior, and its comorbidity and mechanistic overlap with hair pulling (trichotillomania). We predicted that mouse Ulcerative Dermatitis would be treated by N-Acetylcysteine, as this compound is highly effective in treating both Skin Picking Disorder and Trichotillomania. Furthermore, we hypothesized that N-Acetylcysteine's mode of action is as a precursor to the production of the endogenous antioxidant glutathione in the brain, and therefore intranasal glutathione would also treat Ulcerative Dermatitis. Accordingly, we show in a heterogenous prospective trial, the significant reduction in Ulcerative Dermatitis lesion severity in mice receiving either N-acetylcysteine (oral administration) or glutathione (intranasal). The majority of mice treated with N-acetylcysteine improved slowly throughout the course of the study. Roughly half of the mice treated with glutathione showed complete resolution of lesion within 2-4 weeks, while the remainder did not respond. These findings are the first to show that the use of N-acetylcysteine and Glutathione can be curative for mouse Ulcerative Dermatitis. These findings lend additional support for mouse Ulcerative Dermatitis as a model of Skin Picking Disorder and also support oxidative stress and glutathione synthesis as the mechanism of action for these compounds. As N-Acetylcysteine is poorly tolerated

  4. Skin picking disorder with co-occurring body dysmorphic disorder.

    PubMed

    Grant, Jon E; Redden, Sarah A; Leppink, Eric W; Odlaug, Brian L

    2015-09-01

    There is clinical overlap between skin picking disorder (SPD) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), but little research has examined clinical and cognitive correlates of the two disorders when they co-occur. Of 55 participants with SPD recruited for a neurocognitive study and two pharmacological studies, 16 (29.1%) had co-occurring BDD. SPD participants with and without BDD were compared to each other and to 40 healthy volunteers on measures of symptom severity, social functioning, and cognitive assessments using the Stop-signal task (assessing response impulsivity) and the Intra-dimensional/Extra-dimensional Set Shift task (assessing cognitive flexibility). Individuals with SPD and BDD exhibited significantly worse picking, significantly worse overall psychosocial functioning, and significantly greater dysfunction on aspects of cognitive flexibility. These results indicate that when SPD co-occurs with BDD unique clinical and cognitive aspects of SPD may be more pronounced. Future work should explore possible subgroups in SPD and whether these predict different treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 'Wanting' and 'liking' skin picking: A validation of the Skin Picking Reward Scale.

    PubMed

    Snorrason, Ivar; Olafsson, Ragnar P; Houghton, David C; Woods, Douglas W; Lee, Han-Joo

    2015-12-01

    Excoriation (skin-picking) disorder (SPD) is often conceptualized as a behavioral addiction in which aberrant reward processing may play an important role. The current study sought to develop a self-report instrument--the Skin Picking Reward Scale (SPRS)--that measures how strongly skin picking is 'liked' (i.e., the degree of pleasurable feelings while receiving the reward) and 'wanted' (i.e., the degree of the motivation to seek the reward). We administered the SPRS to individuals who endorsed excessive skin picking in online surveys and examined the scale's factor structure (Studies 1 and 2). We then asked individuals with documented pathological skin picking to complete the SPRS and other relevant questionnaires on two occasions one week apart (Study 3). Exploratory (Study 1; n = 330) and confirmatory (Study 2; n = 144) factor analyses consistently supported a two-factor structure reflecting the 'liking' and 'wanting' constructs. Results from Study 3 (N = 36) indicated that the Wanting and the Liking scales had adequate internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Additionally, consistent with predictions, the Wanting scale, but not the Liking scale, was associated with picking urges the following week, greater cue-reactivity, and more picking-related routines/habits. These initial findings suggest that SPRS is a psychometrically sound measure of 'wanting' and 'liking' in pathological skin picking. The SPRS may facilitate research on reward processing anomalies in SPD and serve as a useful clinical instrument (e.g., to identify those at risk for cue-induced relapse).

  6. The relationship of psychological trauma with trichotillomania and skin picking.

    PubMed

    Özten, Eylem; Sayar, Gökben Hızlı; Eryılmaz, Gül; Kağan, Gaye; Işık, Sibel; Karamustafalıoğlu, Oğuz

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between psychological, biological and environmental factors are important in development of trichotillomania and skin picking. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship of traumatic life events, symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and dissociation in patients with diagnoses of trichotillomania and skin picking disorder. The study included patients who was diagnosed with trichotillomania (n=23) or skin picking disorder (n=44), and healthy controls (n=37). Beck Depression Inventory, Traumatic Stress Symptoms Scale and Dissociative Experiences Scale were administered. All groups checked a list of traumatic life events to determine the exposed traumatic events. There was no statistical significance between three groups in terms of Dissociative Experiences Scale scores (P=0.07). But Beck Depression Inventory and Traumatic Stress Symptoms Scale scores of trichotillomania and skin picking groups were significantly higher than the control group. Subjects with a diagnosis of trichotillomania and skin picking reported statistically significantly higher numbers of traumatic and negative events in childhood compared to healthy subjects. We can conclude that trauma may play a role in development of both trichotillomania and skin picking. Increased duration of trichotillomania or skin picking was correlated with decreased presence of post-traumatic stress symptoms. The reason for the negatively correlation of severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms and self-harming behavior may be speculated as developing trichotillomania or skin picking symptoms helps the patient to cope with intrusive thoughts related to trauma. Future longitudinal research must focus on whether trauma and post-traumatic stress or trichotillomania and skin picking precede the development of mental disorder.

  7. The assessment of skin picking in adolescence: psychometric properties of the Skin Picking Scale-Revised (German version).

    PubMed

    Gallinat, Christina; Keuthen, Nancy J; Stefini, Annette; Backenstrass, Matthias

    2017-02-01

    Skin picking disorder has received growing attention since the release of DSM-5, yet there are no evidence-based assessment instruments for adolescent samples. The present study examines the psychometric properties of the Skin Picking Scale-Revised (SPS-R, German version) in adolescents. A total of 76 adolescents (96% female) completed the SPS-R, the Clinical Psychological Diagnostic System (KPD-38), and a questionnaire assessing demographics and clinical characteristics online. The SPS-R had high internal consistency (α = 0.89) and significant small-to-medium correlations with reduced competence skills, psychological impairment, general life satisfaction, social support, and social problems on the KPD-38. Similar to prior findings for adults, an exploratory factor analysis suggested a two-factor model for the SPS-R in adolescents. Group comparisons failed to show significant differences on SPS-R scores between participants with and without dermatological conditions. The current results suggest that the SPS-R can be useful in adolescent samples as a reliable and valid instrument for the assessment of skin picking severity. Future research investigating scale validity and factor structure in a clinical sample of adolescent skin pickers is warranted.

  8. Excoriation (skin picking) disorder in Israeli University students: prevalence and associated mental health correlates.

    PubMed

    Leibovici, Vera; Murad, Sari; Cooper-Kazaz, Rena; Tetro, Tamar; Keuthen, Nancy J; Hadayer, Noa; Czarnowicki, Tali; Odlaug, Brian L

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the prevalence of excoriation (skin picking) disorder (SPD) and associated physical and mental health correlates in a sample of Israeli university students. Five thousand Israeli students were given questionnaires screening for SPD, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, body dysmorphic disorder and disruptive, impulse control and conduct disorders. A total of 2176 participants (43.6%) responded and were included in the analysis. Mean age was 25.1 ± 4.8 (range 17-60) years, and 64.3% were female. The proportion of students who were screened positive for SPD was 3.03%, with a nearly equal gender distribution (3.0% in females and 3.1% in males). There was a trend toward significantly higher rates of psychiatric problems such as generalized anxiety, compulsive sexual behavior and eating disorders in these students. Within the group of students screening positive for SPD, alcohol intake was higher in male students, while female students perceived themselves as less attractive. No association was found between depression and SPD. A high prevalence rate of skin picking was found within first-degree family members of the participants screening positive for SPD. Clinicians and public health officials within university settings should screen for SPD as it is common and associated with psychosocial dysfunction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Reducing Skin Picking via Competing Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Thompson, Ada; Reske, Cara L.; Gable, Lauren M.; Barton-Arwood, Sally

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the outcomes of a competing activities intervention to decrease skin picking exhibited by a 9-year-old student with comorbid diagnoses. Results of an ABCBAB design revealed that the use of student-selected manipulatives resulted in reduced skin picking. (Contains 1 figure.)

  10. The relationship between adolescents' academic stress, impulsivity, anxiety, and skin picking behavior.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Sun Kyung; Lee, Woo Kyeong

    2017-08-01

    Skin picking behavior involves an individual picking or biting their skin repeatedly. Although this behavior commonly occurs at a young age, little research has addressed its harmful effects among the Korean population. Therefore, we examined the characteristics of South Korean adolescents who reported skin picking behavior. South Korean students aged 12-16 years participated (N=410, females=52.2%). They completed questionnaires that addressed skin picking behavior, academic stress, impulsivity, and anxiety. The survey was conducted in Seoul and Gyeonggi-do from February-March 2016. Among participants, 66.8% reported that they had picked their skin and 15.4% did so currently. Skin picking was positively correlated with academic stress, impulsivity, and anxiety. Students who picked their skin more often displayed more anxiety, academic stress, and impulsivity. Future studies should address skin picking adolescents' characteristics, especially regarding anxiety and academic stress. Educational programs should be implemented to help adolescents decrease their anxiety and academic stress and prevent the worsening of skin picking behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Experimental functional analysis of severe skin-picking behavior in Prader-Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hall, Scott S; Hustyi, Kristin M; Chui, Clara; Hammond, Jennifer L

    2014-10-01

    Skin picking is an extremely distressing and treatment resistant behavior commonly shown by individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). However, with the exception of a limited number of published single-case and survey studies, little is known about the environmental determinants of skin picking in this population. In this study, functional analyses were conducted with thirteen individuals with PWS, aged 6-23 years, who engaged in severe skin-picking behavior. In addition to the conditions typically employed in a functional analysis (i.e., alone, attention, play, demand), we included an ignore condition to examine potential effects of stimulus control by the presence of an adult. Twelve participants engaged in skin picking during the functional analysis, with the highest levels occurring in the alone and ignore conditions for eight participants, suggesting that skin picking in these participants was maintained by automatic reinforcement. For the remaining four participants, an undifferentiated pattern of low-rate skin picking was observed across conditions. These data confirm previous studies indicating that skin picking in PWS may be maintained most often by automatically produced sensory consequences. There were no associations between demographic characteristics of the participants (e.g., sex, age, IQ or BMI) and levels of skin picking observed in the functional analysis. Additional investigations are needed to identify the nature of the sensory consequences produced during episodes of skin picking in PWS. Behavioral interventions designed to extinguish or compete with the potential sensory consequences arising from skin picking in PWS are also warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Skin picking disorder: prevalence, correlates, and associations with quality of life in a large sample.

    PubMed

    Machado, Myrela O; Köhler, Cristiano A; Stubbs, Brendon; Nunes-Neto, Paulo R; Koyanagi, Ai; Quevedo, João; Soares, Jair C; Hyphantis, Thomas N; Marazziti, Donatella; Maes, Michael; Stein, Dan J; Carvalho, André F

    2018-05-07

    Evidence suggests that skin picking disorder (SPD) could be a prevalent condition associated with comorbidity and psychosocial dysfunction. However, just a few studies have assessed the prevalence and correlates of SPD in samples from low- and middle-income countries. In addition, the impact of SPD on quality of life (QoL) dimension after multivariable adjustment to potential confounders remains unclear. Data were obtained from a Brazilian anonymous Web-based research platform. Participants provided sociodemographic data and completed the modified Skin Picking-Stanford questionnaire, the Hypomania Checklist (HCL-32), the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), Symptom Checklist-90-Revised inventory (SCL-90R), early trauma inventory self report-short form, and the World Health Organization quality of life abbreviated scale (WHOQOL-Bref). Associations were adjusted to potential confounders through multivariable models. For our survey, 7639 participants took part (71.3% females; age: 27.2±7.9 years). The prevalence of SPD was 3.4% (95% CI: 3.0-3.8%), with a female preponderance (P<0.001). In addition, SPD was associated with a positive screen for a major depressive episode, nicotine dependence, and alcohol dependence, as well as suicidal ideation. Physical and psychological QoL was significantly more impaired in participants with SPD compared to those without SPD, even after adjustment for comorbidity. In this large sample, SPD was a prevalent condition associated with co-occurring depression, nicotine, and alcohol dependence. In addition, SPD was independently associated with impaired physical and psychological QoL. Public health efforts toward the early recognition and treatment of SPD are warranted.

  13. A Preliminary Analysis of the Phenomenology of Skin-Picking in Prader-Willi Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Jessica R.; Storch, Eric A.; Woods, Douglas W.; Bodzin, Danielle; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2010-01-01

    To examine the nature and psychosocial correlates of skin-picking behavior in youth with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS). Parents of 67 youth (aged 5-19 years) with PWS were recruited to complete an internet-based survey that included measures of: skin-picking behaviors, the automatic and/or focused nature of skin-picking, severity of skin-picking…

  14. Skin Picking in Turkish Students: Prevalence, Characteristics, and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calikusu, Celal; Kucukgoncu, Suat; Tecer, Ozlem; Bestepe, Emrem

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence, characteristics, triggers, and consequences of skin picking (SP) in a sample of Turkish university students, with an emphasis on gender differences. A total of 245 students from two universities in Turkey were assessed by using the Skin Picking Inventory. In total, 87.8% of the students…

  15. Phenomenological characteristics, social problems, and the economic impact associated with chronic skin picking.

    PubMed

    Flessner, Christopher A; Woods, Douglas W

    2006-11-01

    In this study, the authors collected data on the demographic characteristics, phenomenology, and social and economic impact of skin picking. A total of 92 participants completed an anonymous, Internet-based survey through a link to the Trichotillomania Learning Center's home page. Results indicated that skin pickers experienced social, occupational, and academic impairment, a number of medical or mental health concerns, and financial burdens, which they attributed to skin picking. Results also revealed moderate, statistically significant relationships between skin picking severity and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and experiential avoidance. Subsequent mediational analyses demonstrated that the relationship between skin picking severity and symptoms of anxiety and depression was partially mediated by experiential avoidance. Implications, conclusions, and future areas of research are discussed.

  16. Abnormal brain activation in excoriation (skin-picking) disorder: evidence from an executive planning fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Odlaug, Brian L.; Hampshire, Adam; Chamberlain, Samuel R.; Grant, Jon E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Excoriation (skin-picking) disorder (SPD) is a relatively common psychiatric condition whose neurobiological basis is unknown. Aims To probe the function of fronto-striatal circuitry in SPD. Method Eighteen participants with SPD and 15 matched healthy controls undertook an executive planning task (Tower of London) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Activation during planning was compared between groups using region of interest and whole-brain permutation cluster approaches. Results The SPD group exhibited significant functional underactivation in a cluster encompassing bilateral dorsal striatum (maximal in right caudate), bilateral anterior cingulate and right medial frontal regions. These abnormalities were, for the most part, outside the dorsal planning network typically activated by executive planning tasks. Conclusions Abnormalities of neural regions involved in habit formation, action monitoring and inhibition appear involved in the pathophysiology of SPD. Implications exist for understanding the basis of excessive grooming and the relationship of SPD with putative obsessive–compulsive spectrum disorders. PMID:26159604

  17. The Skin Picking Impact Scale: Factor structure, validity and development of a short version.

    PubMed

    Snorrason, Ivar; Olafsson, Ragnar P; Flessner, Christopher A; Keuthen, Nancy J; Franklin, Martin E; Woods, Douglas W

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, we examined the psychometric properties of the Skin Picking Impact Scale (SPIS; Keuthen, Deckersbach, Wilhelm et al., 2001), a 10 item self-report questionnaire designed to assess the psychosocial impact of skin picking disorder (SPD). Participants were 650 individuals who met criteria for SPD in an online survey. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated a unitary factor structure with high internal consistency (α = 0.94). Consequently, we constructed an abbreviated 4-item version that retained good internal consistency (α = 0.87) and a robust factor structure. Both the short and the full versions demonstrated discriminant and convergent/concurrent validity. In conclusion, the findings indicate that both versions are psychometrically sound measures of SPD related psychosocial impact; however, some potential limitations of the full scale are discussed. © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  18. Habit Reversal as a Treatment for Chronic Skin Picking: A Pilot Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teng, Ellen J.; Woods, Douglas W.; Twohig, Michael P.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of habit reversal (HR) to a wait-list control as a treatment for chronic skin picking in adults. Twenty-five adults with a chronic skin-picking problem were randomly assigned to a wait-list control or HR group. At pretreatment, posttreatment, and a 3-month follow-up, self-reported skin…

  19. The relationship between emotion regulation strategies, personality traits and skin picking behaviours in a non-clinical sample of Polish adults.

    PubMed

    Prochwicz, Katarzyna; Kłosowska, Joanna; Kałużna-Wielobób, Alina

    2018-06-01

    Although skin-picking is a relatively common behaviour, data concerning factors which underlie skin-picking severity and functional impairment caused by picking are still limited. In the present study we examined whether some emotion regulation strategies (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression) and personality features influence skin-picking in a university sample; the moderating role of personality traits in the relationship between emotion regulation strategies and skin-picking was also considered. A total sample of 252 adults (mean age 24.03; SD = 5.66) completed the Skin-Picking Scale-Revised, Temperament and Character Inventory and Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. The linear regression analyses indicated that the use of cognitive reappraisal as emotion regulation strategy decrease skin-picking severity. Reduced novelty seeking and reduced self-directedness were identified as significant predictors of skin-picking severity, whereas decreased self-directedness and elevated cooperativeness predicted functional impairment caused by skin-picking. Further moderation analysis revealed that cognitive reappraisal decreases skin-picking severity only among individuals with low and moderate novelty seeking, however, not among those with high novelty seeking. These results indicate that emotion regulation strategies and specific personality traits are important factors associated with skin-picking behaviours in a university sample. Further research is needed to establish the link between emotion regulation strategies and personality traits in clinical sample. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Behavioral Treatment of Chronic Skin-Picking in Individuals with Developmental Disabilities: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Russell; Didden, Robert; Machalicek, Wendy; Rispoli, Mandy; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Mulloy, Austin; Regester, April; Pierce, Nigel; Kang, Soyeon

    2010-01-01

    Skin-picking is a type of self-injurious behavior involving the pulling, scratching, lancing, digging, or gouging of one's own body. It is associated with social impairment, and increased medical and mental health concerns. While there are several reports showing that skin-picking is common in individuals with developmental disabilities, knowledge…

  1. Excoriation (skin-picking) disorder in adults: a cross-cultural survey of Israeli Jewish and Arab samples.

    PubMed

    Leibovici, Vera; Koran, Lorrin M; Murad, Sari; Siam, Ihab; Odlaug, Brian L; Mandelkorn, Uri; Feldman-Weisz, Vera; Keuthen, Nancy J

    2015-04-01

    We sought to estimate the lifetime prevalence of Excoriation (Skin-Picking) Disorder (SPD) in the Israeli adult population as a whole and compare SPD prevalence in the Jewish and Arab communities. We also explored demographic, medical and psychological correlates of SPD diagnosis. Questionnaires and scales screening for SPD, and assessing the severity of perceived stress, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), alcohol use, illicit drug use, and medical disorders were completed in a sample of 2145 adults attending medical settings. The lifetime prevalence of SPD was 5.4% in the total sample; it did not differ between genders or within Jewish and Arab subsamples. Severity of depression (p<0.001), OCD (p<0.001) and perceived stress (p=<0.001) were greater in the SPD positive sample. Similarly, diagnoses of BDD (p=0.02) and generalized anxiety (p=0.03) were significantly more common in the SPD-positive respondents. Alcohol use and illicit substance use were significantly more common among SPD positive respondents in the total sample (both p's=0.01) and the Jewish subsample (p=0.03 and p=0.02, respectively). Hypothyroidism was more prevalent in the SPD-positive Jewish subsample (p=0.02). In the total sample, diabetes mellitus was more common in women than in men (p=0.04). Lifetime SPD appears to be relatively common in Israeli adults and associated with other mental disorders. Differences in the self-reported medical and psychiatric comorbidities between the Jewish and Arab subsamples suggest the possibility of cross-cultural variation in the correlates of this disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Pathological grooming: Evidence for a single factor behind trichotillomania, skin picking and nail biting

    PubMed Central

    Hende, Borbála; Urbán, Róbert; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2017-01-01

    Although trichotillomania (TTM), skin picking (SP), and nail biting (NB) have been receiving growing scientific attention, the question as to whether these disorders can be regarded as separate entities or they are different manifestations of the same underlying tendency is unclear. Data were collected online in a community survey, yielding a sample of 2705 participants (66% women, mean age: 29.1, SD: 8.6). Hierarchical factor analysis was used to identify a common latent factor and the multiple indicators and multiple causes (MIMIC) modelling was applied to test the predictive effect of borderline personality disorder symptoms, impulsivity, distress and self-esteem on pathological grooming. Pearson correlation coefficients between TTM, SP and NB were between 0.13 and 0.29 (p < 0.01). The model yielded an excellent fit to the data (CFI = 0.992, TLI = 0.991, χ2 = 696.65, p < 0.001, df = 222, RMSEA = 0.030, Cfit of RMSEA = 1.000), supporting the existence of a latent factor. The MIMIC model indicated an adequate fit (CFI = 0.993, TLI = 0.992, χ2 = 655.8, p < 0.001, df = 307, RMSEA = 0.25, CI: 0.022–0.028, pclose = 1.000). TTM, SP and NB each were loaded significantly on the latent factor, indicating the presence of a general grooming factor. Impulsivity, psychiatric distress and contingent self-esteem had significant predictive effects, whereas borderline personality disorder had a nonsignificant predictive effect on the latent factor. We found evidence that the category of pathological grooming is meaningful and encompasses three symptom manifestations: trichotillomania, skin picking and nail biting. This latent underlying factor is not better explained by indicators of psychopathology, which supports the notion that the urge to self-groom, rather than general psychiatric distress, impulsivity, self-esteem or borderline symptomatology, is what drives individual grooming behaviours. PMID:28902896

  3. Phenomenological Characteristics, Social Problems, and the Economic Impact Associated with Chronic Skin Picking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flessner, Christopher A.; Woods, Douglas W.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors collected data on the demographic characteristics, phenomenology, and social and economic impact of skin picking. A total of 92 participants completed an anonymous, Internet-based survey through a link to the Trichotillomania Learning Center's home page. Results indicated that skin pickers experienced social,…

  4. An analysis of the topography, severity, potential sources of reinforcement, and treatments utilized for skin picking in Prader-Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hustyi, Kristin M; Hammond, Jennifer L; Rezvani, Ava B; Hall, Scott S

    2013-09-01

    We examined the topography, severity, potential sources of reinforcement, and treatments utilized for skin-picking behavior shown by individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). The parents of 55 individuals with PWS, aged 6-25 years, were interviewed about their child's skin-picking behavior using the Self-Injury Trauma Scale (SIT; Iwata, Pace, Kissel, Nau, & Farber, 1990) and the Functional Analysis Screening Tool (FAST; Iwata, DeLeon, & Roscoe, 2013). Results showed that skin picking in PWS occurred on the extremities (i.e., arms, legs, hands, and feet) for 75% of cases and resulted in bodily injury for 83.7% cases. Skin picking posed a high risk to the individual concerned in 41.8% of cases. Automatic sensory stimulation was identified as a potential source of reinforcement in the majority of cases (52.7%) followed by access to social attention or preferred items (36.4%). Treatments utilized by parents were primarily behavioral strategies (56.3%) followed by basic first aid (54.5%). There were no differences in the topography, severity or potential source of reinforcement between those with the deletion (DEL) subtype and those with the uniparental disomy (UPD) subtype. Taken together, these data indicate that skin picking shown by individuals with PWS is a particularly severe and intractable behavioral issue that may be maintained by (as yet unknown) sensory consequences. Further studies to identify the determinants of skin picking in PWS are therefore needed. The implications for interventions are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Skin-Picking in Individuals with Prader-Willi Syndrome: Prevalence, Functional Assessment, and Its Comorbidity with Compulsive and Self-Injurious Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert; Curfs, Leopold M. G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) are at increased risk for mental health and behaviour problems, such as skin-picking and compulsive behaviours. Prevalence and functional assessment of skin-picking, and its association with compulsive behaviour and self-injury, were investigated in a large group of individuals with PWS (n =…

  6. Feather-picking psittacines: histopathology and species trends.

    PubMed

    Garner, M M; Clubb, S L; Mitchell, M A; Brown, L

    2008-05-01

    Histologic findings are described for 408 feather-picking or self-mutilating psittacines with the use of biopsies from clinically affected and unaffected skin. Inflammatory skin disease was diagnosed in 210 birds, and traumatic skin disease was diagnosed in 198 birds. Criteria used for the diagnosis of inflammatory skin disease included the presence of perivascular inflammation in the superficial or deep dermis of clinically affected and unaffected sites. The primary histologic criteria for the diagnosis of traumatic skin disease were superficial dermal scarring with or without inflammation in the affected sites and an absence of inflammation in the unaffected sites. The inflammatory cells associated with the lesions were typically lymphocytes and occasionally plasma cells, histiocytes, and granulocytes. A preponderance of inflammatory skin disease was seen in macaws (Ara spp.) and Amazon parrots (Amazona spp.). A preponderance of traumatic skin disease was seen in cockatoos (Cacatua spp.) and African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus). The prevalence of each was approximately equal in several other species, including conures (Aratinga and Pyrrhura spp.), eclectus parrots (Eclectus roratus), quaker parrots (Myiopsitta monachus), cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), parakeets (Cyanorhamphus and Psittacula spp.), and caiques (Pionites spp.). No geographic or gender-based trends were identified. These findings could be helpful for identifying and treating birds with feather-picking disorders.

  7. Continuous Access to Competing Stimulation as Intervention for Self-Injurious Skin Picking in a Child with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Mara V.; Luiselli, James K.; Baker, Lorianne

    2009-01-01

    Children with autism frequently display self-injurious behavior (SIB), but skin picking--a less severe topography of SIB--has not been the focus of much clinical research. The present study evaluated a home-based intervention that was implemented with a 9-year-old girl who had autism and picked her fingers with resulting tissue damage. The…

  8. Niemann-Pick disease

    MedlinePlus

    NPD; Sphingomyelinase deficiency; Lipid storage disorder - Niemann-Pick disease; Lysosomal storage disease - Niemann-Pick ... cannot properly break down cholesterol and other fats (lipids). This leads to too much cholesterol in the ...

  9. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or ...

  10. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders

    PubMed Central

    Shenefelt, Philip D; Shenefelt, Debrah A

    2014-01-01

    Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, “goose bumps”, redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. PMID:25120377

  11. Excessive Picking in Prader-Willi Syndrome: A Pilot Study of Phenomenological Aspects and Comorbid Symptoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigren, Margareta; Heimann, Mikael

    2001-01-01

    Interviews with parents of 37 individuals (ages 12-30) with Prader-Willi syndrome revealed two-thirds displayed skin picking with a frequency ranging from chronic to transient, episodic symptoms. Many individuals with skin picking also exhibited comorbid picking behaviors And individuals with excessive skin picking also had frequent tantrums and…

  12. Liver and Skin Histopathology in Adults with Acid Sphingomyelinase Deficiency (Niemann-Pick Disease Type B)

    PubMed Central

    Thurberg, Beth L.; Wasserstein, Melissa P.; Schiano, Thomas; O’Brien, Fanny; Richards, Susan; Cox, Gerald F.; McGovern, Margaret M.

    2012-01-01

    Acid sphingomyelinase deficiency (ASMD) is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by the pathologic accumulation of sphingomyelin in multiple cells types, and occurs most prominently within the liver, spleen and lungs, leading to significant clinical disease. Seventeen ASMD patients underwent a liver biopsy during baseline screening for a Phase 1 trial of recombinant human acid sphingomyelinase (rhASM) in adults with Niemann-Pick disease type B. Eleven of the 17 were enrolled in the trial and each received a single dose of rhASM and underwent a repeat liver biopsy on Day 14. Biopsies were evaluated for fibrosis, sphingomyelin accumulation and macrophage infiltration by light and electron microscopy. When present, fibrosis was periportal and pericellular, predominantly surrounding affected Kupffer cells. Two baseline biopsies exhibited frank cirrhosis. Sphingomyelin was localized to isolated Kupffer cells in mildly affected biopsies and was present in both Kupffer cells and hepatocytes in more severely affected cases. Morphometric quantification of sphingomyelin storage in liver biopsies ranged from 4–44% of the microscopic field. Skin biopsies were also performed at baseline and Day 14 in order to compare the sphingomyelin distribution in a peripheral tissue to that of liver. Sphingomyelin storage was present at lower levels in multiple cell types of the skin, including dermal fibroblasts, macrophages, vascular endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells and Schwann cells. This Phase 1 trial of rhASM in adults with ASMD provided a unique opportunity for a prospective assessment of hepatic and skin pathology in this rare disease and their potential usage as pharmacodynamic biomarkers. PMID:22613999

  13. [Youth Healthcare guideline 'Skin disorders'].

    PubMed

    Deurloo, Jacqueline A; van Gameren-Oosterom, Helma B M; Kamphuis, Mascha

    2012-01-01

    There is a high incidence of skin disorders; these are also frequently encountered within Youth Healthcare (YHC). Some skin disorders are caused by an underlying disease, syndrome or child abuse. Therefore, detection of these causes in an early stage is important. Skin disorders can have a huge psychosocial impact on both child and parents. This is one of the reasons why prevention, detection, diagnosis, treatment, referral, and uniform advice and guidance are of great importance. The YHC Guideline examines counselling and advice, criteria for referral to primary or secondary healthcare, and skincare in general. It also describes the disorders that should be actively detected. The Guideline also looks at specific aspects of dark skins and ethnic diversity, and the impact of skin disorders on general wellbeing. The accompanying web-based tool includes argumentation and opinions from experts on more than 75 skin disorders, including illustrations and decision trees, to aid the drawing up of a treatment plan.

  14. Bacterial recovery from breast skin of genetically feathered and featherless broiler carcasses immediately following scalding and picking.

    PubMed

    Buhr, R J; Berrang, M E; Cason, J A

    2003-10-01

    Genetically feathered and featherless sibling broilers selected for matched BW were killed, scalded, and defeathered to determine the consequences of feathers and empty feather follicles on the recovery of bacteria from carcass breast skin. In trial 1, the vents of all carcasses were plugged and sutured before scalding to prevent the expulsion of cloacal contents during picking. In trial 2, half of the carcasses had their vents plugged and sutured. Immediately after defeathering, breast skin was aseptically removed, and bacteria associated with it were enumerated. In trial 1, the levels of bacteria recovered did not differ between feathered and featherless carcasses: Campylobacter log10 1.4 cfu/mL of rinse, coliform log10 1.8, Escherichia coli log10 1.6, and total aerobic bacteria log10 3.1. In trial 2, the carcasses that had vents plugged and sutured had lower levels of all four types of bacteria (differences of Campylobacter log10 0.7 cfu/mL, coliform log10 1.8, E. coli log10 1.7, and total aerobic bacteria log10 0.5) than those carcasses with open vents. The lower levels of bacteria recovered from carcasses with the vents plugged and sutured during picking enabled detection of small but significant differences between feathered and featherless carcasses. The level of coliform and E. coli recovered was slightly higher by log10 0.7 cfu for feathered carcasses, but featherless carcasses had marginally higher levels of total aerobic bacteria by log10 0.4 cfu. Feathered and featherless carcasses with open vents during picking did not differ in the levels of recovery of coliform, E. coli, and total aerobic bacteria from breast skin.

  15. Acceptance-Enhanced Behavior Therapy (AEBT) for Trichotillomania and Chronic Skin Picking: Exploring the Effects of Component Sequencing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flessner, Christopher A.; Busch, Andrew M.; Heideman, Paul W.; Woods, Douglas W.

    2008-01-01

    This pilot study examined the utility of acceptance-enhanced behavior therapy (AEBT) for trichotillomania (TTM) and chronic skin picking (CSP) and the impact of altering treatment sequence on overall treatment efficacy. Participants referred to a TTM and CSP specialty clinic were assessed by an independent evaluator within separate, nonconcurrent,…

  16. Pick's disease: a modern approach.

    PubMed

    Dickson, D W

    1998-04-01

    Pick's disease is a rare dementing disorder that is sometimes familial. The cardinal features are circumscribed cortical atrophy most often affecting the frontal and temporal poles and argyrophilic, round intraneuronal inclusions (Pick bodies). Clinical manifestations reflect the distribution of cortical degeneration, and personality deterioration and memory deficits are often more severe than visuospatial and apraxic disorders that are common in Alzheimer's disease, but clinical overlap with other non-Alzheimer degenerative disorders is increasingly recognized. Neuronal loss and degeneration are usually maximal in the limbic system, including hippocampus, entorhinal cortex and amygdala. Numerous Pick bodies are often present in the dentate fascia of the hippocampus. Less specific features include leukoencephalopathy and ballooned cortical neurons (Pick cells). Glial reaction is often pronounced in affected cerebral gray and white matter. Tau-immunoreactive glial inclusions are a recently recognized finding in Pick's disease, and neuritic changes have also recently been described. Variable involvement of the deep gray matter and the brainstem is typical, with a predilection for the monoaminergic nuclei and nuclei of the pontine base. Neurochemical studies demonstrate deficits in intrinsic cortical neurotransmitter systems (e.g., somatostatin), but inconsistent loss of transmitters in systems projecting to the cortex (e.g., cholinergic neurons of the basal nucleus). Biochemical and immunocytochemical studies have demonstrated that abnormal tau proteins are the major structural components of Pick bodies. A specific tau protein immunoblotting pattern different from that seen in Alzheimer's disease and certain other disorders has been suggested in some studies. A specific molecular marker and a genetic locus for familial cases are not known.

  17. Trichotillomania, stereotypic movement disorder, and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Stein, Dan J; Garner, Joseph P; Keuthen, Nancy J; Franklin, Martin E; Walkup, John T; Woods, Douglas W

    2007-08-01

    Trichotillomania is currently classified as an impulse control disorder not otherwise classified, whereas body-focused behaviors other than hair-pulling may be diagnosed as stereotypic movement disorder. A number of disorders characterized by repetitive, body-focused behaviors (eg, skin-picking) are prevalent and disabling and may have phenomenological and psychobiological overlap. Such disorders deserve greater recognition in the official nosology, and there would seem to be clinical utility in classifying them in the same diagnostic category.

  18. Psychogenic skin excoriations: diagnostic criteria, semiological analysis and psychiatric profiles.

    PubMed

    Misery, Laurent; Chastaing, Myriam; Touboul, Sylviane; Callot, Valérie; Schollhammer, Martine; Young, Paul; Feton-Danou, Nathalie; Dutray, Sabine

    2012-07-01

    Psychogenic excoriations are also called neurotic excoriations, dermatillomania or skin picking syndrome. We proposed diagnostic criteria and then performed a study of the psychiatric profiles of outpatients with psychogenic excoriations and the circumstances around the creation of these excoriations. Although the results must be interpreted with caution because the study was performed with only 10 patients, interesting data is provided about the onset of psychogenic excoriations, the behaviour of picking, and comorbidity. Common or specific characteristics were identified according to type of case. The majority of patients associated first excoriations with personal problems. Four patients reported abuse in childhood or adolescence. This study confirms that skin picking is an impulsive reaction and does not belong to the obsessive-compulsive disorders: impulsivity is defined by ineffective or failing control resulting in uninhibited behaviour.

  19. Examining the Relationship between Heart Rate and Problem Behavior: A Case Study of Severe Skin Picking in Prader-Willi Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Scott S.; Hammond, Jennifer L.; Hustyi, Kristin M.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between heart rate and self-injurious behavior (SIB) shown by individuals with IDD (intellectual and developmental disabilities). In this single-case study, we simultaneously monitored heart rate and activity levels during a functional analysis of severe skin picking behavior exhibited by a young man with…

  20. Stereotyped movement disorder in ICD-11.

    PubMed

    Stein, Dan J; Woods, Douglas W

    2014-01-01

    According to current proposals for ICD-11, stereotyped movement disorder will be classified in the grouping of neurodevelopmental disorders, with a qualifier to indicate whether self-injury is present, similar to the classification of stereotypic movement disorder in DSM-5. At the same time, the WHO ICD-11 Working Group on the Classification of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders has proposed a grouping of body-focused repetitive behavior disorders within the obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (OCRD) cluster to include trichotillomania and skin-picking disorder. DSM-5 has taken a slightly different approach: trichotillomania and excoriation (skin picking) disorder are included in the OCRD grouping, while body-focused repetitive behavior disorder is listed under other specified forms of OCRD. DSM-5 also includes a separate category of nonsuicidal self-injury in the section on "conditions for further study." There are a number of unresolved nosological questions regarding the relationships among stereotyped movement disorder, body-focused repetitive behavior disorders, and nonsuicidal self-injury. In this article, we attempt to provide preliminary answers to some of these questions as they relate to the ICD-11 classification of mental and behavioral disorders.

  1. Genetic skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Moss, C

    2000-11-01

    Neonatologists do not require a detailed knowledge of all genetic skin disorders but need to recognize one if they see it. The unique accessibility of the skin makes it possible to observe the physical signs and deduce the child's immediate needs from first principles. The morphological classification given here will help the nondermatologist establish a clinical diagnosis. Tremendous advances over the last 10 years in understanding the molecular basis of skin disease make it possible, in many cases, to confirm the diagnosis and to counsel the family accurately. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  2. [The role of psychological factors and psychiatric disorders in skin diseases].

    PubMed

    Kieć-Swierczyńska, Marta; Dudek, Bohdan; Krecisz, Beata; Swierczyńska-Machura, Dominika; Dudek, Wojciech; Garnczarek, Adrianna; Turczyn, Katarzyna

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the relation between psychological factors and psychiatric disorders in patients with skin diseases is discussed. On the one hand psychological factors (stress, negative emotions) can influence the generation and aggravation of skin disorders (urticaria, atopic dermatitis, vitiligo), on the other hand psychological disorders can result in some skin diseases (psoriasis, atopic dermatitis). In the majority of cases the quality of life is poorly estimated by patients with skin problems. Psychodermatology is divided into three categories according to the relationship between skin diseases and mental disorders: 1) psychophysiologic disorders caused by skin diseases triggering different emotional states (stress), but not directly combined with mental disorders (psoriasis, eczema); 2) primary psychiatric disorders responsible for self-induced skin disorders (trichotillomania); and 3) secondary psychiatric disorders caused by disfiguring skin (ichthyosis, acne conglobata, vitiligo), which can lead to states of fear, depression or suicidal thoughts.

  3. Instrument-related Skin Disorders in Musicians.

    PubMed

    Patruno, Cataldo; Napolitano, Maddalena; La Bella, Serena; Ayala, Fabio; Balato, Nicola; Cantelli, Mariateresa; Balato, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Among artists, musicians may suffer from occupational skin problems; notwithstanding, these conditions have been rarely reviewed. The characteristics of individual performer and the type of instrument will determine the kind of disease. Moreover, the hours that the musician spent to advance artistic skill may influence the severity. The frequency and risk factors of instrument-related skin disorders in musicians from southern Italy were analyzed. An observational study was conducted in 628 musicians. A questionnaire including questions related to age, sex, instrument played, musical activity, previous or current skin disorders, and impact of skin symptoms on music making was submitted. Of 628 musicians, 199 (31.7%) reported suffering from at least 1 skin disease. Cutaneous diseases likely directly correlated with the use of the musical instrument were found in 129 (20.5%) of the 628 subjects. In particular, different patterns of irritant contact dermatitis were found. Skin conditions may be a significant problem in professional instrumentalists. They are mainly related to musical activity. Preventive measures should be established.

  4. Niemann-Pick type B in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Simões, Rita Gonçalves; Maia, Helena

    2015-02-05

    Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) is a rare group of autosomal recessive disorders associated with intracellular deposition of sphingomyelin. NPD type B is a milder form, generally later in onset, with a good prognosis for survival into adulthood and usually with no neurological abnormalities. The authors describe the case of a 52-year-old man who presented with unexplained pancytopenia and splenomegaly. He was admitted to emergency splenectomy due to pathological splenic rupture. The histological findings showed diffuse histiocytosis, suggesting lysosomal storage disease. The NPD was confirmed when residual activity of acid sphingomyelinase in peripheral blood leucocytes and cultured skin fibroblasts was detected. Besides lipid abnormalities, the patient also had lipid interstitial pneumonia. There is no treatment for NPD. Management is based on surveillance and supportive care. The patient has reached the sixth decade of life with no symptoms and, despite the pneumonia and splenectomy, he still has a fairly healthy life. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  5. Skin Prick Test in Patients with Chronic Allergic Skin Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bains, Pooja; Dogra, Alka

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic allergic skin disorders are the inflammatory and proliferative conditions in which both genetic and environmental factors play important roles. Chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) and atopic dermatitis (AD) are among the most common chronic allergic skin disorders. These can be provoked by various food and aeroallergens. Skin prick tests (SPTs) represent the cheapest and most effective method to diagnose type I hypersensitivity. Positive skin tests with a history suggestive of clinical sensitivity strongly incriminate the allergen as a contributor to the disease process. Aims and Objectives: To determine the incidence of positive SPT in patients with chronic allergic skin disorders and to identify the various allergens implicated in positive SPT. Methods: Fifty patients of chronic allergic disorders were recruited in this study. They were evaluated by SPT with both food and aeroallergens. Results: In our study, SPT positivity in patients of CIU was 63.41% and in AD was 77.78%. Out of the 41 patients of CIU, the most common allergen groups showing SPT positivity were dust and pollen, each comprising 26.83% patients. SPT reaction was positive with food items (21.6%), insects (17.07%), fungus (12.20%), and Dermatophagoides farinae, that is, house dust mite (HDM) (7.32%). The allergen which showed maximum positivity was grain dust wheat (19.51%). Among nine patients of AD, maximum SPT positivity was seen with Dermatophagoides farinae, pollen Amaranthus spinosus, grain dust wheat, and cotton mill dust; each comprising 22.22% of patients. Conclusion: Our study showed that a significant number of patients of CIU and AD showed sensitivity to dust, pollen, insects, Dermatophagoides farinae, and fungi on SPT. Thus, it is an important tool in the diagnosis of CIU and AD. PMID:25814704

  6. Picking among pen-reared quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nestler, R.B.; Coburn, D.R.; Titus, H.W.

    1945-01-01

    During five years (1939-43) of nutritional research on pen-reared bobwhite quail at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Bowie, Maryland, observations on picking among birds of all ages showed the following results: 1. Picking occurred on all grains tested: corn, wheat, oats, oat groats, barley, millet, buckwheat, kaffir, and mixtures of cereals. The lowest incidence was with buckwheat as the sole grain in a growing diet....2. Picking occurred on all levels of fiber from one to 11per cent in a growing diet....3. Picking occurred on various grinds of corn, barley, and oats, but was least when these cereals were ground in a hammer mill with 3/32 inch mesh screen....4. The incidence was as high on diets containing animal protein as on those containing no animal protein. ....5. After picking began, the addition of one or two per cent of salt to the diet for several days was effective, in many instances, in checking the disorder. Results at the Refuge and the answers to questionnaires from 222 private propagators of gamebirds showed that in two-thirds. of the cases, treatment with an increased quantity of salt successfully stopped the trouble. As a preventative, however, salt was of little value. Picking occurred on both low and high levels of salt.....6. Supplementing the regular diet with certain feed concentrates such as fishmeal, soybean oil meal, liver meal, or chopped greens offered in a separate feeder for a day or two, was as efficacious as the addition of salt.....7. More picking occurred among quail chicks on a 22 per cent level of protein than on higher levels.....8. There was less picking on diets relished by the birds than on those seemingly unpalatable.....9. There was no correlation. between the amount of floor space per chick and the incidence of picking.....10. Increasing the feeding and drinking space seemed to have a marked beneficial effect.....11. Some adult birds on wire floors resorted to self-picking of their feet after the toes were frost-bitten.

  7. Autoinflammatory Skin Disorders: The Inflammasomme in Focus

    PubMed Central

    Gurung, Prajwal; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi

    2016-01-01

    Autoinflammatory skin disorders are a group of heterogeneous diseases that include diseases such as cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) and familial Mediterranean fever (FMF). Therapeutic strategies targeting IL-1 cytokines have proved helpful in ameliorating some of these diseases. While inflammasomes are the major regulators of IL-1 cytokines, inflammasome-independent complexes can also process IL-1 cytokines. Herein, we focus on recent advances in our understanding of how IL-1 cytokines, stemming from inflammasome-dependent and -independent pathways are involved in the regulation of skin conditions. Importantly, we discuss several mouse models of skin inflammation generated to help elucidate the basic cellular and molecular effects and modulation of IL-1 in the skin. Such models offer perspectives on how these signaling pathways could be targeted to improve therapeutic approaches in the treatment of these rare and debilitating inflammatory skin disorders. PMID:27267764

  8. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Hypnotherapy and Skin Disorders.

    PubMed

    Shenefelt, Philip D

    2018-07-01

    Mindfulness-based cognitive hypnotherapy integrates mindfulness, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and hypnotherapy to improve physical, emotional, mental, and/or spiritual aspects of skin disorders. Meditation, including mindfulness meditation, and hypnosis both utilize trance phenomena to help produce focalization and specific improvements in skin disorders through psycho-neuro-endocrine-immunologic mechanisms. Hypnosis, cognitive hypnotherapy, focused meditation, and mindfulness meditation are discussed with respect to improving various skin disorders including acne, acne excoriée, alopecia areata, atopic dermatitis, congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma, dyshidrotic dermatitis, erythema nodosum, erythromelalgia, furuncles, glossodynia, herpes simplex, hyperhidrosis, ichthyosis vulgaris, lichen planus, neurodermatitis, nummular dermatitis, postherpetic neuralgia, prurigo nodularis, pruritus, psoriasis, rosacea, trichotillomania, urticaria, verruca vulgaris, and vitiligo. Their integration into mindfulness-based cognitive hypnotherapy is then discussed and illustrated with improvement in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.

  9. Complementation studies in Niemann-Pick disease type C indicate the existence of a second group.

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, S J; Ward, C P; Fensom, A H

    1994-01-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C is a clinically heterogeneous storage disorder with an unknown primary metabolic defect. We have undertaken somatic cell hybridisation experiments using skin fibroblast strains from 12 patients representing a wide clinical spectrum. Preliminary experiments using filipin staining of free cholesterol as a marker for complementation indicated the existence of one major group (group alpha) and one minor group (group beta) represented by one mutant strain. Subsequent experiments in which sphingomyelinase activity was measured as a marker for complementation using five mutant strains showing activity consistently < 40% control levels confirmed the existence of the second group. Images PMID:8071958

  10. [Pit-picking surgery for pilonidal disease].

    PubMed

    Iesalnieks, I; Deimel, S; Kienle, K; Schlitt, H J; Zülke, C

    2011-10-01

    The pit-picking method was first described by J. Bascom in 1980, however, this minimally invasive technique is used only by a minority of surgeons yet. Surgery was performed under local anesthesia. All primary pits in the midline were removed by excising a border of skin of <1 mm and a 1 cm long incision was made parallel to one side of the cleft to open the chronic abscess cavity. No specific postoperative wound care was given. Pit-picking surgery was carried out 157 times in a total of 153 patients (126 males) between June 2007 and November 2010. Follow-up information was available in 123 cases and 21 patients (17%) developed disease recurrence after a mean follow-up time of 7.1 months. By multivariate analysis, a body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m(2) (p=0.019) and duration of the disease of ≥6 months (p=0.017) were statistically significantly associated with disease recurrence after pit-picking surgery. The recurrence occurred more often in male than in female patients (20% versus 4.5%, p=0.12) Patients with pilonidal disease can be successfully treated by the pit-picking procedure in more than 80% of selected cases. Female patients and non-overweight male patients with short-term disease benefit most from this treatment method.

  11. The Grape Antioxidant Resveratrol for Skin Disorders: Promise, Prospects, and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Ndiaye, Mary; Philippe, Carol; Mukhtar, Hasan; Ahmad, Nihal

    2011-01-01

    Resveratrol, a phytoalexin antioxidant found in red grapes, has been shown to have both chemopreventive and therapeutic effects against many diseases and disorders, including those of the skin. Studies have shown protective effects of resveratrol against ultraviolet radiation mediated oxidative stress and cutaneous damages including skin cancer. Because many of the skin conditions stem from ultraviolet radiation and oxidative stress, this antioxidant appears to have promise and prospects against a wide range of cutaneous disorders including skin aging and skin cancers. However, there are a few roadblocks in the way of this promising agent regarding its translation from the bench to the bedside. This review discusses the promise and prospects of resveratrol in the management of skin disorders and the associated challenges. PMID:21215251

  12. Stereotypic movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Singer, Harvey S

    2011-01-01

    Stereotypic movements are repetitive, rhythmic, fixed, patterned in form, amplitude, and localization, but purposeless (e.g., hand shaking, waving, body rocking, head nodding). They are commonly seen in children; both in normal children (primary stereotypy) and in individuals with additional behavioral or neurological signs and symptoms (secondary stereotypy). They should be differentiated from compulsions (OCD), tics (tic disorders), trichotillomania, skin picking disorder, or the direct physiological effect of a substance. There is increasing evidence to support a neurobiological mechanism. Response to behavioral and pharmacological therapies is variable. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Clinical and genetic special features of Niemann-Pick disease, type C].

    PubMed

    Zakharova, E Iu; Mikhaĭlova, S V; Proshliakova, T Iu; Rudenskaia, G E

    2012-01-01

    Niemann-Pick disease, type C is a rare hereditary disorder of the group of lisosomal storage diseases, caused by mutations in the genes NPC1 or NPC2. Depending on the onset age, several clinical forms of this disease, which differs by manifestation age, main clinical signs and clinical course, are distinguished. Niemann-Pick disease type C can imitate other hereditary and acquired diseases, which complicates its early diagnostics. Clinical and genetic diversity of this disorder, considered on the clinical cases diagnosed at the FSI "RCMG" of RAMS, are discussed in this review.

  14. Granulomatous Lymphoproliferative Disorders: Granulomatous Slack Skin and Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Gangar, Pamela; Venkatarajan, Sangeetha

    2015-07-01

    Granulomatous cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL) and lymphomatoid granulomatosis are considered granulomatous lymphoproliferative disorders. The most common types of granulomatous CTCL are granulomatous mycosis fungoides and granulomatous slack skin. Lymphomatoid granulomatosis is a rare Epstein-Barr virus driven lymphoproliferative disorder. This article reviews the etiopathogenesis, clinical presentation, systemic associations, and management of both granulomatous slack skin syndrome and lymphomatoid granulomatosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Teaching Children with Niemann-Pick Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartin, Barbara C.; Murdick, Nikki L.; Cooley, Jennifer; Barnett, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Niemann-Pick Disease (NPD) is a group of rare inherited disorders that are both systemic and degenerative. Knowledge of the disease, its characteristics, and its progression are essential for the teacher and related service personnel to provide an appropriate educational experience for the student. For the teacher who has a student with NPC in…

  16. Morbidity and mortality in type B Niemann-Pick disease.

    PubMed

    McGovern, Margaret M; Lippa, Natalie; Bagiella, Emilia; Schuchman, Edward H; Desnick, Robert J; Wasserstein, Melissa P

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic evaluation of morbidity and mortality in type B Niemann-Pick disease. A total of 103 patients with Niemann-Pick disease (49 males, 54 females, age range: 1-72 years) participated in natural history studies through Mount Sinai's International Center for Types A and B Niemann-Pick Disease between 1992 and 2012. Serious morbidities included significant neurological, hepatic, and cardiac disease. Thirteen patients had some degree of neurological impairment. Nine patients had cirrhosis or liver failure requiring transplantation. Coronary artery and valvular heart disease were present in nine patients. Of note, only four patients were oxygen dependent, although progressive pulmonary disease is a well-described feature of Niemann-Pick disease. During the follow-up period, 18 deaths occurred. The median age of death was 15.5 years (range 1-72). Causes of death included pneumonia, liver failure, and hemorrhage. The majority of deaths (12 of 18) occurred in patients <21 years, yielding a mortality rate of 19% in the pediatric population. This study demonstrates that Niemann-Pick disease is a life-threatening disorder with significant morbidity and mortality, especially in the pediatric population. The information collected in this series highlights the need for safe, effective therapy for Niemann-Pick disease.

  17. Genetics of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Related Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Browne, Heidi A.; Gair, Shannon L.; Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Grice, Dorothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Twin and family studies support a significant genetic contribution to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and related disorders such as chronic tic disorders, trichotillomania, skin picking disorder, body dysmorphic disorder, and hoarding disorder. Recently, population-based studies and novel laboratory-based methods have confirmed substantial heritability in OCD. Genome-wide association studies and candidate gene association studies have provided information on specific genes that may be involved in the pathobiology of OCD and also of related disorders, particularly chronic tic disorders, though these genes each contribute only a small portion of the total genetic risk and a substantial portion of the specific genetic risk profile in OCD is still unknown. Nevertheless, there are some examples of genes for which perturbations produce OCD-like phenotypes in animal model systems, allowing a laboratory platform for investigating the pathobiology of --- and new treatments for --- OCD and related disorders. Future work promises to continue to clarify the specific genes involved in risk for OCD as well as their interaction with environmental variables. PMID:25150565

  18. [Adult onset Niemann-Pick type C disease and psychosis: literature review].

    PubMed

    Maubert, A; Hanon, C; Metton, J-P

    2013-10-01

    Niemann-Pick type C disease (NPC) is a rare hereditary disease, which psychiatrists do not face often in France. Indeed, only a couple of articles specifically describing the psychiatric-disorders in the adult form have been published. And for the most part, they were not written by psychiatrists. This comprehensive international literature review aims at providing knowledge on this disease to French psychiatrists. To achieve this literature review, we used the "PubMed" search engine, looking for the following keywords: Niemann-Pick type C AND (schizophrenia OR psychosis). Niemann-Pick type C disease (NPC) is a rare, neurovisceral, autosomal recessive disease, with an extremely heterogeneous clinical presentation. It is characterized by a wide range of symptoms that are not specific, such as neurological, systemic or psychiatric symptoms. The adult form of the disease concerns a small proportion (5 %) of the people affected and is usually expressed as a neurological form. A variety of progressive and disabling symptoms are encountered, mainly cerebellar signs (cerebellar ataxia, impaired gait, dysarthria), but also movement disorders, cataplexy, seizures and dysphagia. Patients face constant cognitive deterioration, which can result in severe dementia. Abnormal saccadic eye movement is often the first manifestation of the disease. Supranuclear gaze palsy is considered to be a specific sign and should be systematically searched for. In terms of systemic signs, the usual infantile hepatosplenomegaly is very fickle in the adult form; if present, it is usually asymptomatic. Non-specific psychiatric symptoms are often associated with NPC disease. For one third of cases, it can also express as an isolated psychiatric-disorder form, such as schizophrenia-like psychosis (paranoid delusions, auditory hallucinations, interpretative thoughts, and disorganization), depression, bipolar disorder, obsessive-compulsive behaviour and behavioural problems (sleep disorders

  19. [Efficacy of Topical Agents for Symptomatic Treatment of Rotigotine Patch-Induced Skin Disorders].

    PubMed

    Yasutaka, Yuki; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Shibaguchi, Hirotomo; Kiyomi, Fumiaki; Hara, Koyomi; Ogata, Kentaro; Tsuboi, Yoshio; Kamimura, Hidetoshi

    2017-09-01

    Since the effect of a percutaneous absorption-type dopamine agonist (DA) preparation, rotigotine patch, stably persists by once-a-day application, this dosage form is appropriate for Parkinson's disease patients showing levodopa induced wearing off phenomenon. On the other hand, skin disorders, mainly application site reaction, are characteristic problems associated with use of the patch. In this study, to clarify the influence of a topical agent used to prevent or treat rotigotine patch-induced skin disorder on continuation of the patch application, patients who started rotigotine patch application at our hospital were retrospectively surveyed. The one-year continuation rate of rotigotine patch application was 37.3% (53 of 142 cases). It was insufficient to prevent skin disorders, only by the pre-treatment of a moisturizing agent alone. Regarding the effective rate of topical agents used to treat skin disorders, that of very strong-class steroids was 89.5%, being significantly higher than those of weak steroids, moisturizing agents, and antihistamines. It was suggested that for countermeasures against rotigotine patch-induced skin disorders, treatment with very strong-class steroids for external use early after development of skin disorders is more effective than preventive treatment with topical agents regardless of the type. (Received March 30, 2017; Accepted May 16, 2017; Published September 1, 2017).

  20. Order-picking in deep cold--physiological responses of younger and older females. Part 2: body core temperature and skin surface temperature.

    PubMed

    Baldus, Sandra; Kluth, Karsten; Strasser, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    So far, it was unclear to what extent working in deep cold-storage depots has an influence on female order-pickers body core temperature and skin surface temperature considering different age groups. Physiological effects of order-picking in a chill room (+3°C) and cold store (-24°C) were examined on 30 female subjects (Ss), classified in two age groups (20- to 35- year-olds and 40- to 65-year-olds). The body core temperature was taken every 15 min at the tympanum and the skin surface temperature was recorded continuously at seven different positions. Working in the chill room induced a decrease of the body core temperature up to 0.5K in comparison to the value at the outset for both age groups which could be compensated by all Ss during the breaks. Working in the cold store caused a decline up to 1.1K for the younger Ss and 1.3K for the older Ss. A complete warming-up during the breaks was often not possible. Regarding the skin surface temperature, working in the chill room can be considered as unproblematic, whereas significantly lower temperatures at nose, fingers and toes, associated with substantial negative subjective sensations, were recorded while working in the cold store.

  1. The Potential of Plant Phenolics in Prevention and Therapy of Skin Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Działo, Magdalena; Mierziak, Justyna; Korzun, Urszula; Preisner, Marta; Szopa, Jan; Kulma, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds constitute a group of secondary metabolites which have important functions in plants. Besides the beneficial effects on the plant host, phenolic metabolites (polyphenols) exhibit a series of biological properties that influence the human in a health-promoting manner. Evidence suggests that people can benefit from plant phenolics obtained either by the diet or through skin application, because they can alleviate symptoms and inhibit the development of various skin disorders. Due to their natural origin and low toxicity, phenolic compounds are a promising tool in eliminating the causes and effects of skin aging, skin diseases, and skin damage, including wounds and burns. Polyphenols also act protectively and help prevent or attenuate the progression of certain skin disorders, both embarrassing minor problems (e.g., wrinkles, acne) or serious, potentially life-threatening diseases such as cancer. This paper reviews the latest reports on the potential therapy of skin disorders through treatment with phenolic compounds, considering mostly a single specific compound or a combination of compounds in a plant extract. PMID:26901191

  2. The Potential of Plant Phenolics in Prevention and Therapy of Skin Disorders.

    PubMed

    Działo, Magdalena; Mierziak, Justyna; Korzun, Urszula; Preisner, Marta; Szopa, Jan; Kulma, Anna

    2016-02-18

    Phenolic compounds constitute a group of secondary metabolites which have important functions in plants. Besides the beneficial effects on the plant host, phenolic metabolites (polyphenols) exhibit a series of biological properties that influence the human in a health-promoting manner. Evidence suggests that people can benefit from plant phenolics obtained either by the diet or through skin application, because they can alleviate symptoms and inhibit the development of various skin disorders. Due to their natural origin and low toxicity, phenolic compounds are a promising tool in eliminating the causes and effects of skin aging, skin diseases, and skin damage, including wounds and burns. Polyphenols also act protectively and help prevent or attenuate the progression of certain skin disorders, both embarrassing minor problems (e.g., wrinkles, acne) or serious, potentially life-threatening diseases such as cancer. This paper reviews the latest reports on the potential therapy of skin disorders through treatment with phenolic compounds, considering mostly a single specific compound or a combination of compounds in a plant extract.

  3. New insights into HIV-1-primary skin disorders

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Since the first reports of AIDS, skin involvement has become a burdensome stigma for seropositive patients and a challenging task for dermatologist and infectious disease specialists due to the severe and recalcitrant nature of the conditions. Dermatologic manifestations in AIDS patients act as markers of disease progression, a fact that enhances the importance of understanding their pathogenesis. Broadly, cutaneous disorders associated with HIV type-1 infection can be classified as primary and secondary. While the pathogenesis of secondary complications, such as opportunistic infections and skin tumours, is directly correlated with a decline in the CD4+ T cell count, the origin of the certain manifestations primarily associated with the retroviral infection itself still remains under investigation. The focus of this review is to highlight the immunological phenomena that occur in the skin of HIV-1-seropositive patients, which ultimately lead to skin disorders, such as seborrhoeic dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis and eosinophilic folliculitis. Furthermore, we compile the latest data on how shifts in the cytokines milieu, impairments of the innate immune compartment, reactions to xenobiotics and autoimmunity are causative agents in HIV-1-driven skin diseases. Additionally, we provide a thorough analysis of the small animal models currently used to study HIV-1-associated skin complications, centering on transgenic rodent models, which unfortunately, have not been able to fully unveil the role of HIV-1 genes in the pathogenesis of their primarily associated dermatological manifestations. PMID:21261982

  4. Picking or nibbling: frequency and associated clinical features in bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa, and binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Conceição, Eva M; Crosby, Ross; Mitchell, James E; Engel, Scott G; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Simonich, Heather K; Peterson, Caroline B; Crow, Scott J; Le Grange, Daniel

    2013-12-01

    Picking or ribbling (P&N) is a newly studied eating behavior characterized by eating in an unplanned and repetitious manner in between meals and snacks. This behavior seems to be related to poorer weight loss outcomes after bariatric surgery for weight loss in severely obese patients, but clarification is still required regarding its value in other clinical samples. The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of P&N across different eating disorder samples, as well as to examine its association with psychopathological eating disorder features. Our sample included treatment-seeking adult participants, recruited for five different clinical trials: 259 binge eating disorder (BED); 264 bulimia nervosa (BN), and 137 anorexia nervosa (AN). Participants were assessed using the Eating Disorders Examination interview before entering the clinical trials. P&N was reported by 44% of the BED; 57.6% of the BN; and 34.3% of the AN participants. No association was found between P&N and BMI, the presence of compensatory behaviors, binge eating, or any of the eating disorder examination subscales. This study suggests that P&N behavior is highly prevalent across eating disorder diagnoses, but it is not associated with psychopathology symptoms or other eating disordered behaviors. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Increased matriptase zymogen activation in inflammatory skin disorders

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cheng-Jueng; Wu, Bai-Yao; Tsao, Pai-In; Chen, Chi-Yung; Wu, Mei-Hsuan; Chan, Yee Lam E.; Lee, Herng-Sheng; Johnson, Michael D.; Eckert, Richard L.; Chen, Ya-Wen; Chou, Fengpai; Lin, Chen-Yong

    2011-01-01

    Matriptase, a type 2 transmembrane serine protease, and its inhibitor hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor (HAI)-1 are required for normal epidermal barrier function, and matriptase activity is tightly regulated during this process. We therefore hypothesized that this protease system might be deregulated in skin disease. To test this, we examined the level and activation state of matriptase in examples of 23 human skin disorders. We first examined matriptase and HAI-1 protein distribution in normal epidermis. Matriptase was detected at high levels at cell-cell junctions in the basal layer and spinous layers but was present at minimal levels in the granular layer. HAI-1 was distributed in a similar pattern, except that high-level expression was retained in the granular layer. This pattern of expression was retained in most skin disorders. We next examined the distribution of activated matriptase. Although activated matriptase is not detected in normal epidermis, a dramatic increase is seen in keratinocytes at the site of inflammation in 16 different skin diseases. To gain further evidence that activation is associated with inflammatory stimuli, we challenged HaCaT cells with acidic pH or H2O2 and observed matriptase activation. These findings suggest that inflammation-associated reactive oxygen species and tissue acidity may enhance matriptase activation in some skin diseases. PMID:21123732

  6. From belt picking to bin packing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balslev, Ivar; Eriksen, René D.

    2002-10-01

    We face the problem of computer-vision aided robot grasping of objects with more or less random positions. This field is of vital importance in the further progress in flexible automation of industrial processes, since conventional methods using fixtures and/or vibration bowls are expensive and inflexible. We study various types of disorder: A) visually isolated objects lying in distinct resting modes on a flat homogenous conveyer belt, B) partially occluded objects lying in distinct resting modes on a flat homogenous conveyer belt, C) visually separated objects, unrestricted object-camera pose, and fully surrounded by background, D) partially occluded objects, unrestricted relative orientation, but with a sizeable fraction of their contour detectable using foreground-background separation, E) partially occluded objects with unrestricted pose and no help from foreground-background separation. The cases A), B), and - to some extend - D) are encountered in belt picking, while case E) is true bin picking. Since physical storage of products and components in industry is based on deep containers with many layers of somewhat disordered objects, the belt-picking concept is only the first step for achieving flexible, unsupervised parts feeding. We have developed and tested a generic, fast, and easily trainable system for the cases A) and B). The system is unique because it handles the perspective effects exactly so there is no restriction concerning object dimensions relative to the distance to the camera. We report on a strategy to be used in treating case C) using the principles developed for the cases A-B). We discuss possible strategies to be employed when going all the way to cases of D) and E).

  7. Obsessive-compulsive skin disorders: a novel classification based on degree of insight.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Tian Hao; Nakamura, Mio; Farahnik, Benjamin; Abrouk, Michael; Reichenberg, Jason; Bhutani, Tina; Koo, John

    2017-06-01

    Individuals with obsessive-compulsive features frequently visit dermatologists for complaints of the skin, hair or nails, and often progress towards a chronic relapsing course due to the challenge associated with accurate diagnosis and management of their psychiatric symptoms. The current DSM-5 formally recognizes body dysmorphic disorder, trichotillomania, neurotic excoriation and body focused repetitive behavior disorder as psychodermatological disorders belonging to the category of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders. However there is evidence that other relevant skin diseases such as delusions of parasitosis, dermatitis artefacta, contamination dermatitis, AIDS phobia, trichotemnomania and even lichen simplex chronicus possess prominent obsessive-compulsive characteristics that do not necessarily fit the full diagnostic criteria of the DSM-5. Therefore, to increase dermatologists' awareness of this unique group of skin disorders with OCD features, we propose a novel classification system called Obsessive-Compulsive Insight Continuum. Under this new classification system, obsessive-compulsive skin manifestations are categorized along a continuum based on degree of insight, from minimal insight with delusional obsessions to good insight with minimal obsessions. Understanding the level of insight is thus an important first step for clinicians who routinely interact with these patients.

  8. Secondary sea-blue histiocytosis derived from Niemann-Pick disease.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Osamu; Abe, Masafumi

    2007-04-01

    Sea-blue histiocytosis is a rare disorder seen in patients with lipid metabolic or ceroid storage diseases. Sea-blue histiocytes are ceroid-laden macrophages detectable by May-Giemsa staining. We report a case of a 28-year-old woman diagnosed with Niemann-Pick disease at 2 or 3 years of age. To confirm this diagnosis, we examined her bone marrow, which revealed scattered foci containing aggregates of foamy macrophages. May-Giemsa staining identified blue-staining foamy macrophages, referred to as sea-blue histiocytes. In summary, we report the detection of sea-blue histiocytosis in an adult with Niemann-Pick disease.

  9. Clinical implications of aging skin: cutaneous disorders in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Farage, Miranda A; Miller, Kenneth W; Berardesca, Enzo; Maibach, Howard I

    2009-01-01

    Aging skin undergoes progressive degenerative change. Structural and physiologic changes that occur as a natural consequence of intrinsic aging combined with the effects of a lifetime of ongoing cumulative extrinsic damage and environment insult (e.g. overexposure to solar radiation) can produce a marked susceptibility to dermatologic disorders in the elderly. As skin ages, the vasculature progressively atrophies. The supporting dermis also deteriorates, with collagen and elastin fibers becoming sparse and increasingly disordered. These changes leave the elderly increasingly susceptible to both vascular disorders such as stasis dermatitis and skin injuries such as pressure ulcers and skin tears, with a steadily decreasing ability to effect skin repair. A parallel erosion of normal immune function produces higher levels of autoimmune skin disorders such as bullous pemphigoid, benign mucous membrane pemphigoid, paraneoplastic pemphigoid, and pemphigus vulgaris. Lichen sclerosus, an autoimmune disorder often occurring in the genital area in older women, is not common but is an important development because of the potential for substantial discomfort as well as serious complications. The prevalence of polypharmacy in this population increases the risk for autoimmune drug reactions, and diagnosis should be undertaken with an awareness that polypharmacy in this population creates a greatly increased susceptibility to drug eruptions that can mimic other cutaneous disorders. Immunologic senescence in the elderly also sets the stage for potential reactivation of the Varicella zoster virus, in which initial dermatologic involvement expands into the major sensory ganglia. Known as shingles, this disorder can be excruciatingly painful with the potential to cause blindness if the optic nerve becomes involved. Dermatoses such as xerosis, pruritus, and eczema are also widespread in the elderly, create substantial suffering in those afflicted, and often prove recalcitrant to

  10. Primary Biliary Cholangitis Associated with Skin Disorders: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Terziroli Beretta-Piccoli, Benedetta; Guillod, Caroline; Marsteller, Igor; Blum, Roland; Mazzucchelli, Luca; Mondino, Chiara; Invernizzi, Pietro; Gershwin, M Eric; Mainetti, Carlo

    2017-08-01

    Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a rare autoimmune cholestatic liver disease. It is often associated with extrahepatic autoimmune diseases. Skin disorders are sporadically reported in association with PBC. We report an unusual case of PBC associated with acquired reactive perforating dermatosis (ARPD) and present a review of the literature on skin disorders associated with PBC. Our patient presented to the dermatology department with generalized pruritus associated with nodular perforating skin lesions on the trunk, and cholestatic liver disease of unknown origin. After having established both diagnosis of ARPD and PBC, she was managed in an interdisciplinary manner, and both her skin and liver conditions improved gradually. Only one similar case is reported in the literature, in that case, the liver disease was not treated. By reviewing the literature, we found that lichen planus, vitiligo, and psoriasis are the most frequent skin disorders associated with PBC. However, there is only limited data about specific skin disorders associated with PBC. This case report of a patient with PBC associated with ARPD underlines the importance of interdisciplinary management of patients with rare liver diseases combined with rare skin disorders. The present review of the literature shows that probably, immune-mediated skin conditions are not more frequent in PBC patients than in the general population. However, the available data are scant; there is a need for high-quality data on skin conditions associated with PBC.

  11. Niemann-Pick Disease Type C Presenting as a Developmental Coordination Disorder with Bullying by Peers in a School-Age Child.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Ryo; Tanaka, Atsushi; Matsui, Toshiharu; Gunji, Tetsuki; Tohyama, Jun; Nairita, Aya; Nanba, Eiji; Ohno, Kousaku

    2015-01-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a rare progressive neurodegenerative disorder, often with onset after normal early childhood development. Juvenile onset NPC patients slowly develop cerebellar symptoms and cognitive impairment and often experience difficulties at school. However, these problems may be overlooked due to the unpublicized nature of NPC, given that it is a rare metabolic disorder. In this report, we present an 11-year-old male NPC patient, who suffered from clumsiness and difficulties in attention and academic and social skills. His symptoms were initially considered to be due to developmental coordination disorder (DCD) coexisting with bullying by peers. DCD is a type of neurodevelopmental disorder defined according to DSM-IV and is characterized by clumsiness that interferes with academic achievement and social integration not due to other general medical conditions. However, a detailed investigation of the patient suggested that the problems could be attributed to the onset of NPC. Clinicians should keep neurodegenerative disorders as differential diagnosis of children with multiple school problems.

  12. δ-Tocopherol Reduces Lipid Accumulation in Niemann-Pick Type C1 and Wolman Cholesterol Storage Disorders*

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Miao; Liu, Ke; Swaroop, Manju; Porter, Forbes D.; Sidhu, Rohini; Finkes, Sally; Ory, Daniel S.; Marugan, Juan J.; Xiao, Jingbo; Southall, Noel; Pavan, William J.; Davidson, Cristin; Walkley, Steven U.; Remaley, Alan T.; Baxa, Ulrich; Sun, Wei; McKew, John C.; Austin, Christopher P.; Zheng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) and Wolman disease are two members of a family of storage disorders caused by mutations of genes encoding lysosomal proteins. Deficiency in function of either the NPC1 or NPC2 protein in NPC disease or lysosomal acid lipase in Wolman disease results in defective cellular cholesterol trafficking. Lysosomal accumulation of cholesterol and enlarged lysosomes are shared phenotypic characteristics of both NPC and Wolman cells. Utilizing a phenotypic screen of an approved drug collection, we found that δ-tocopherol effectively reduced lysosomal cholesterol accumulation, decreased lysosomal volume, increased cholesterol efflux, and alleviated pathological phenotypes in both NPC1 and Wolman fibroblasts. Reduction of these abnormalities may be mediated by a δ-tocopherol-induced intracellular Ca2+ response and subsequent enhancement of lysosomal exocytosis. Consistent with a general mechanism for reduction of lysosomal lipid accumulation, we also found that δ-tocopherol reduces pathological phenotypes in patient fibroblasts from other lysosomal storage diseases, including NPC2, Batten (ceroid lipofuscinosis, neuronal 2, CLN2), Fabry, Farber, Niemann-Pick disease type A, Sanfilippo type B (mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIB, MPSIIIB), and Tay-Sachs. Our data suggest that regulated exocytosis may represent a potential therapeutic target for reduction of lysosomal storage in this class of diseases. PMID:23035117

  13. Assessing the impact of waste picking on musculoskeletal disorders among waste pickers in Mumbai, India: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shrikant; Chokhandre, Praveen

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) as well as the impact of the occupation of waste picking on complaints of MSDs among waste pickers. The study attempts to understand the risk factors for MSDs in various areas of the body. Design A cross-sectional household survey was conducted using a case-control design. The survey instrument for measuring musculoskeletal symptoms was adopted from a standardised Nordic questionnaire. The impact of the occupation of waste picking on MSDs was analysed using the propensity score matching (PSM) method. Participants The study population consisted of waste pickers (n=200) who had been working for at least a year and a control group (n=213) selected from among or living close to the same communities. Results The 12-month prevalence of MSDs was higher among waste pickers (79%) compared to controls (55%) particularly in the lower back (54–36%), knee (48–35%), upper back (40–21%) and shoulder (32–12%). Similar patterns were observed in the 12-month prevalence of MSDs which prevented normal activity inside and outside the home, particularly for the lower back (36–21%), shoulder (21–7%) and upper back (25–12%) for waste pickers and controls. Analysis of the impact of waste picking on complaints of MSDs suggests that the occupation of waste picking raises the risk of MSDs particularly in the shoulder, lower and upper back. Older age and longer duration of work are significant risk factors for MSDs. Conclusions The findings suggest a relatively higher prevalence of MSDs among waste pickers, particularly in the lower and upper back and shoulder, compared to controls. Preventive measures and treatment to minimise the burden of MSDs among waste pickers are strongly recommended. PMID:26408284

  14. [Presentation of Niemann-Pick type C disease with psychiatric disturbance in an adult].

    PubMed

    Tyvaert, L; Stojkovic, T; Cuisset, J-M; Vanier, M-T; Turpin, J-C; De Sèze, J; Vermersch, P

    2005-03-01

    Niemann-Pick Type C disease (NPC) is an autosomal recessive neurovisceral lysosomal lipid storage disorder. A 31-year-old right-handed woman had suffered from schizophrenia for 13 years. At 25 years of age, she developed a gait disorder with a static and kinetic cerebellar syndrome, dysarthria, vertical supranuclear gaze palsy and cognitive impairment. Brain MRI was normal. Abdominal ultrasonography was performed because of hypercholesterolemia and elevated transaminases and revealed hepatosplenomegaly, which in conjunction with other signs and symptoms, suggested the diagnosis of NPC. The diagnosis was confirmed by demonstration of lysosomal storage of unesterified cholesterol (filipin staining) and of a reduced rate of LDL-induced cholesterol esterification. Implication of the NPC1 gene was assessed by genetic complementation analysis. The phenotypic presentation of NPC is remarkably variable. The rarer adult-onset form has a slowly progressive course. Psychotic manifestations are often prominent and may precede neurologic symptoms. Exposure to neuroleptics delays the diagnosis of NPC. Psychotic manifestations associated with cerebellar syndrome, vertical supranuclear gaze palsy, and splenomegaly are very suggestive of NPC disease which can be reliably diagnosed on cultured skin fibroblasts by filipin staining.

  15. Skin disorders affecting human immunodeficiency virus-infected children living in an orphanage in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Doni, S N; Mitchell, A L; Bogale, Y; Walker, S L

    2012-01-01

    Skin disorders are common in children in Ethiopia, and it is estimated that 92,000 Ethiopian children are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV infection increases the prevalence of cutaneous disease, but the effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the pattern of skin disease affecting children in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is unclear. To assess the prevalence and nature of skin disorders in HIV-infected children living in a dedicated orphanage in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Two dermatologists performed a clinical examination, including the skin, hair, nails and oral cavity of all the residents of an orphanage in Addis Ababa. The examiners knew that all the children were infected with HIV, but did not know their treatment or immune status. Diagnoses were made clinically and recorded anonymously, and treatment recommendations were made. Details of the children's treatment and CD4 lymphocyte counts were obtained after the examination had been completed. In total, 84 children [53 male (63%); 31 female (37%); median age 10 years] were examined. Of the 84 children, 57 (68%) were on ART, with 51 (61%) of these on cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. The median CD4 percentage was 27.1%. There were 66 children (79%) with at least one skin disorder; 21 of these had two disorders and 6 had three disorders. The commonest diagnosis was tinea capitis, affecting 39% of children. The other common diagnoses were: molluscum contagiosum (MC) (21%), verruca vulgaris (13%), plane warts (8%) and seborrhoeic dermatitis (7%). There was no significant difference in the prevalence of skin disease between children receiving ART and those who were not. Children with MC had significantly lower recent CD4 counts than children who did not have skin disease. Skin disorders in this population were very common, and the disorders identified were those that commonly affect children without HIV in Ethiopia. However, MC and plane warts appeared to have a higher frequency than would be expected in

  16. Body-focused repetitive behavior disorders in ICD-11.

    PubMed

    Grant, Jon E; Stein, Dan J

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the question of how body-focused repetitive behavior disorders (e.g., trichotillomania and skin-picking disorder) should be characterized in ICD-11. The article reviews the historical nosology of the two disorders and the current approaches in DSM-5 and ICD-10. Although data are limited and mixed regarding the optimal relationship between body-focused repetitive behavior disorders and nosological categories, these conditions should be included within the obsessive-compulsive and related disorders category, as this is how most clinicians see these behaviors, and as this may optimize clinical utility. The descriptions of these disorders should largely mirror those in DSM-5, given the evidence from recent field surveys. The recommendations regarding ICD-11 and body-focused repetitive behavior disorders should promote the global identification and treatment of these conditions in primary care settings.

  17. Operative treatment of functional facial skin disorders

    PubMed Central

    Scheithauer, Marc Oliver; Rettinger, Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    The skin is the principal interface between the body and the surrounding world and thus serves as a protective barrier against trauma, temperature extremes and radiation. With receptors for pressure, movement, heat and cold, it also acts as sensory organ and through sweat secretion plays a role in thermoregulation and electrolyte metabolism. Not all of these functions are relevant to facial skin, however, cosmetic aspects are of vital importance. Disorders primarily affect the protective skin function in defect and scar areas. For operative correction, the following principles should be applied: Minimization of scar development by adherence to indicated incision lines in the face, preferred use of local skin flaps for defect coverage in order to obtain optimal results regarding texture, complexion and sensitivity of skin, as well as consideration of aesthetic units. Recent developments in this field are tissue culture, occlusive dressings, and the use of growth factors. Age-related skin changes with impairment of cosmetic function are characterized by the development of creases and looseness of skin. Rejuvenation has become an important segment of skin surgery. For surface treatment, especially of creases and acne scars, various types of laser treatment are employed. Deeper lines can be filled with filler materials. The integration of the superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) into face lift procedures has lead to more viable and natural results. Due to protruding tissue, blepharoplasty of the upper lid is often carried out in combination with forehead lift and eyebrow lift procedures. The optimized use of growth factors and synthetic materials, which serve as a matrix, are aimed at skin replacement which mimics the quality and functions of skin as closely as possible. On the whole, however, the reconstruction of defect through local tissue transfer is still considered as the treatment of choice. PMID:22073066

  18. Niemann-Pick Disease Type C Presenting as a Developmental Coordination Disorder with Bullying by Peers in a School-Age Child

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Ryo; Tanaka, Atsushi; Matsui, Toshiharu; Gunji, Tetsuki; Tohyama, Jun; Nairita, Aya; Nanba, Eiji; Ohno, Kousaku

    2015-01-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a rare progressive neurodegenerative disorder, often with onset after normal early childhood development. Juvenile onset NPC patients slowly develop cerebellar symptoms and cognitive impairment and often experience difficulties at school. However, these problems may be overlooked due to the unpublicized nature of NPC, given that it is a rare metabolic disorder. In this report, we present an 11-year-old male NPC patient, who suffered from clumsiness and difficulties in attention and academic and social skills. His symptoms were initially considered to be due to developmental coordination disorder (DCD) coexisting with bullying by peers. DCD is a type of neurodevelopmental disorder defined according to DSM-IV and is characterized by clumsiness that interferes with academic achievement and social integration not due to other general medical conditions. However, a detailed investigation of the patient suggested that the problems could be attributed to the onset of NPC. Clinicians should keep neurodegenerative disorders as differential diagnosis of children with multiple school problems. PMID:26788393

  19. Niemann-Pick disease type C

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Niemann-Pick C disease (NP-C) is a neurovisceral atypical lysosomal lipid storage disorder with an estimated minimal incidence of 1/120 000 live births. The broad clinical spectrum ranges from a neonatal rapidly fatal disorder to an adult-onset chronic neurodegenerative disease. The neurological involvement defines the disease severity in most patients but is typically preceded by systemic signs (cholestatic jaundice in the neonatal period or isolated spleno- or hepatosplenomegaly in infancy or childhood). The first neurological symptoms vary with age of onset: delay in developmental motor milestones (early infantile period), gait problems, falls, clumsiness, cataplexy, school problems (late infantile and juvenile period), and ataxia not unfrequently following initial psychiatric disturbances (adult form). The most characteristic sign is vertical supranuclear gaze palsy. The neurological disorder consists mainly of cerebellar ataxia, dysarthria, dysphagia, and progressive dementia. Cataplexy, seizures and dystonia are other common features. NP-C is transmitted in an autosomal recessive manner and is caused by mutations of either the NPC1 (95% of families) or the NPC2 genes. The exact functions of the NPC1 and NPC2 proteins are still unclear. NP-C is currently described as a cellular cholesterol trafficking defect but in the brain, the prominently stored lipids are gangliosides. Clinical examination should include comprehensive neurological and ophthalmological evaluations. The primary laboratory diagnosis requires living skin fibroblasts to demonstrate accumulation of unesterified cholesterol in perinuclear vesicles (lysosomes) after staining with filipin. Pronounced abnormalities are observed in about 80% of the cases, mild to moderate alterations in the remainder ("variant" biochemical phenotype). Genotyping of patients is useful to confirm the diagnosis in the latter patients and essential for future prenatal diagnosis. The differential diagnosis may include

  20. Cataplexy leading to the diagnosis of Niemann-Pick disease type C.

    PubMed

    Smit, Liesbeth S; Lammers, Gert Jan; Catsman-Berrevoets, Coriene E

    2006-07-01

    Cataplexy in childhood is a rare and often misdiagnosed symptom. It is described as a brief episode of bilateral loss of muscle tone with intact consciousness, triggered by a variety of strong emotions and in particular with unexpected laughter. This report presents a 9-year old male with progressive cerebellar and pyramidal symptoms and a cognitive decline since the age of 4. His recently developed "drop attacks" on laughter were recognized as cataplexy and led to the diagnosis of Niemann-Pick type C disease. With biochemical studies this diagnosis, a lysosomal storage disease, was confirmed. With cataplexy narcolepsy, Niemann-Pick type C disease, Norrie disease, Prader-Willi syndrome, and Coffin-Lowry syndrome are associated disorders. Recognition of cataplexy in children with concomitant neurologic symptoms may lead to an early and straight diagnosis of one of these disorders.

  1. Modern Electronic Devices: An Increasingly Common Cause of Skin Disorders in Consumers.

    PubMed

    Corazza, Monica; Minghetti, Sara; Bertoldi, Alberto Maria; Martina, Emanuela; Virgili, Annarosa; Borghi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    : The modern conveniences and enjoyment brought about by electronic devices bring with them some health concerns. In particular, personal electronic devices are responsible for rising cases of several skin disorders, including pressure, friction, contact dermatitis, and other physical dermatitis. The universal use of such devices, either for work or recreational purposes, will probably increase the occurrence of polymorphous skin manifestations over time. It is important for clinicians to consider electronics as potential sources of dermatological ailments, for proper patient management. We performed a literature review on skin disorders associated with the personal use of modern technology, including personal computers and laptops, personal computer accessories, mobile phones, tablets, video games, and consoles.

  2. Uptake and degradation of several pyrenesphingomyelins by skin fibroblasts from control subjects and patients with Niemann-Pick disease. Effect of the structure of the fluorescent fatty acyl residue.

    PubMed Central

    Levade, T; Gatt, S; Salvayre, R

    1991-01-01

    Three fluorescent analogues of sphingomyelin (SPM), each containing pyrene in the fatty acyl residue, were synthesized and employed for the study of their mode of uptake by, and degradation within, intact cultured human skin fibroblasts. These were prepared by condensing sphingosylphosphocholine and the following fatty acids: pyrenedodecanoic acid (P12), pyrenesulphonylaminoundecanoic acid (PSA11) and pyrenepropenoic acid (P3:1). The cell association and catabolism of these SPM analogues by normal, Niemann-Pick-disease-Type-A and low-density-lipoprotein (LDL)-receptor-negative familial hypercholesterolaemia fibroblasts were investigated and compared with the metabolism of [cholinemethyl-14C]sphingomyelin. The catabolism of the fluorescent derivatives was monitored by measuring the appearance of the corresponding fluorescent ceramides. Two modes of uptake and degradation patterns were observed. Thus P12-SPM and radiolabelled SPM were taken up by LDL-receptor-mediated endocytosis when incubated with serum-containing medium, this conclusion being supported by the very low uptake by familial-hypercholesterolaemia fibroblasts, which lack the apolipoprotein-B/E receptor. After uptake, these compounds were metabolically degraded solely by the lysosomal sphingomyelinase, as evidenced by the fact that more than 98% of the SPM remained undegraded in Niemann-Pick-disease cells. By contrast, PSA11- and P3:1-SPMs were taken up by a receptor-independent endocytic pathway, as indicated by the similar rates of uptake in control and familial-hypercholesterolaemia cells in the absence or presence of fetal-calf serum in the culture medium. The degradation of PSA11-SPM and P3:1-SPM was brought about, in the main, by the lysosomal sphingomyelinase, but also by a yet uncharacterized process. The latter catabolic pathway, active in Niemann-Pick-disease-Type-A fibroblasts, seems to differ from the neutral Mg2(+)-dependent sphingomyelinase whose activity was undetectable in homogenates of

  3. Use of opioid analgesics in skin disorders: Results from a nationally representative US sample.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Madhulika A; Gupta, Aditya K; Vujcic, Branka; Piccinin, Meghan

    2015-06-01

    Increasing and inappropriate use of opioid analgesics (OA) have been declared a public health concern in the United States. There are no epidemiologic studies of OA use in skin disorders. We examined OA use in a nationally representative sample of US patient visits with only physician-diagnosed skin disorders. Retrospective cross-sectional study of 56 751 patient visits from 1995 to 2010 (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification codes 680-709 denoting "Diseases of the Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue"; 172, 173, 216 and 232 denoting malignant and benign skin neoplasms). An estimated 3.1% ± 0.2% of skin disorders visits were associated with OA use; 52.7% ± 5.4% were Schedule III opioids; 11.4% ± 1.4% of OA visits involved skin neoplasms and 45.4% ± 2.3% cellulitis and abscess. OA use increased from 1995 to 2010 (adjusted OR = 1.82, 95% CI: 1.49-2.22), even after controlling for increase in the frequency of skin infections from 1995 to 2010. The most frequent use OA for cellulitis and abscess is entirely consistent with their Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved indications for pain management. The almost two-fold increase in OA use in skin disorders from 1995 to 2010 may suggest that OA are being considered for pain management earlier in therapy. Only a minority of patient visits with OA had primary dermatologic disease. OA are being used in dermatology primarily for FDA-approved indications.

  4. Instrumented Pick Detects Coal/Rock Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, T.; Erkes, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    Instrumented pick installed on cutting drum of coal shearer for longwall mining measures cutting force with strain-gage-bridge load cell. Force signal transmitted to remote recorder. Transmitter located in base of pick assembly. Antenna located in shadow of rotating pick. Changes in characteristics of force signals from pick used to determine whether pick is cutting coal or rock.

  5. Race/skin color and mental health disorders in Brazil: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Smolen, Jenny Rose; Araújo, Edna Maria de

    2017-12-01

    Mental health disorders contribute a significant burden to society. This systematic literature review aims to summarize the current state of the literature on race/skin color and mental health disorders in Brazil. PubMed and Lilacs were searched using descriptors for mental health disorders (depression, anxiety, Common Mental Disorders, psychiatric morbidity, etc.) and race to find studies conducted in Brazil. Studies of non-population groups, that did not analyze race/skin color, or for which the mental disorder was not the object of study were excluded. After evaluation of quality, 14 articles were selected for inclusion. There was an overall higher prevalence of mental health disorders in non-Whites. Of the six multivariate analyses that found statistically significant results, five indicated a greater prevalence or odds of mental health disorder in non-Whites compared to Whites (measure of association between 1.18-1.85). This review identified the trend in the literature regarding the association between race and mental health disorders. However, important difficulties complicate the comparability of the studies, principally in function of the differences in the mental health disorders studied, the method of categorizing race/skin color, and the screening tools used in the studies analyzed.

  6. Fibrosing connective tissue disorders of the skin: molecular similarities and distinctions.

    PubMed

    Canady, Johanna; Karrer, Sigrid; Fleck, Martin; Bosserhoff, Anja K

    2013-06-01

    A variety of fibrosing connective tissue disorders of the skin have been described. They all share a characteristic activation of fibroblasts resulting in excessive production and deposition of extracellular matrix whereas their etiologies, incidence rates and clinical appearances differ dramatically in part. As effective treatment options are still not on hand, the understanding of cutaneous fibrogenesis needs to be improved. This review focuses on the molecular differences and similarities of the major fibrosing skin disorders namely systemic sclerosis, localized scleroderma, keloid and hypertrophic scars, Eosinophilic fasciitis, Lichen sclerosus and graft-versus-host-disease. Abnormalities in ECM turnover and the impact of matrix-metalloproteases were closely examined. It could be concluded, that besides increased collagen synthesis, modified ECM degradation is an as important factor in cutaneous fibrogenesis. The influence of immune components such as HLA haplotypes and the production of auto-antibodies is crucial for some of the diseases, but not decisive for skin fibrosis in general. A great number of cytokines was reported to be differentially regulated in the respective disorders among whom the components of the gp130/STAT3 signaling pathway seem to be of pivotal importance. Furthermore, the role of miRNAs in the pathogenesis of fibrosing connective tissue diseases of the skin was analyzed according to the current state of knowledge. In summary, this review gives an explicit overview of the various molecular mechanisms leading to fibrosis in the skin and the underlying connective tissue and reveals the most promising targets for future therapeutic approaches. Copyright © 2013 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Skin disorders among travellers returning from tropical and non-tropical countries consulting a travel medicine clinic.

    PubMed

    Herbinger, K-H; Siess, C; Nothdurft, H D; von Sonnenburg, F; Löscher, T

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate the causes and risks for imported skin disorders among travellers. Data of 34,162 travellers returning from tropical and non-tropical countries and presenting at the outpatient travel medicine clinic of the University of Munich, Germany, between 1999 and 2009 were analyzed for this study. Of these, 12.2% were diagnosed with skin disorders. Main destinations visited were Asia (40%), Africa (27%) and Latin America (21%). Tourism in the form of adventure travel/backpacking (47%) and package holidays (23%) was the most common purpose of travel. The leading causes of skin disorders were arthropodal (23%), bacterial (22%), helminthic (11%), protozoan (6%), viral (6%), allergic (5%) and fungal (4%). The 10 most frequently diagnosed specific skin diseases associated with specific destinations were insect bites (17%, Southern Europe), cutaneous larva migrans (8%, Asia and Latin America), cutaneous leishmaniasis (2.4%, Mediterranean Region/Middle East), dengue fever (1.5%, Asia), rickettsioses (1.3%, Southern Africa), myiasis (0.8%, Central America), filarioses (0.7%, Africa), tick bites (0.6%, Central/Eastern Europe), schistosomiasis (0.6%, Africa) and tungiasis (0.6%, Africa). Travellers in sub-Saharan Africa had the highest relative risk of acquiring skin disorders. As more than 20% of all skin disorders among returned travellers were caused by arthropods and about 50% by infectious pathogens, pre-travel consultations should include specific prophylaxis and consider the most important risk factor for the travel destination. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Psychiatric disorders in a cohort of individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shriki-Tal, L; Avrahamy, H; Pollak, Y; Gross-Tsur, V; Genstil, L; Hirsch, H J; Benarroch, F

    2017-07-01

    Psychiatric manifestations in Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) are common and often are the most debilitating problem in these individuals. We present an epidemiological nation-wide survey of psychiatric diagnoses in the PWS population, based on full-range psychiatric interviews. We studied the distribution of psychiatric diagnoses (as opposed to a symptom-based approach) in the Israel national cohort of adolescents and adults with PWS. There was a total of 53 (32 males) ages 12 years and older. All individuals and their caretakers were interviewed using standardized psychiatric questionnaires. Demographic and clinical variables, Clinical Global Impression (CGI) score, IQ, severity of hyperphagia and quality of life (QOL) were also assessed and correlations with NPD (number of psychiatric diagnoses) calculated. An overwhelming majority (89%) of the study participants had at least one psychiatric diagnosis. The most common were disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) (68%), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) (45%) and skin picking (35%). Individuals with DBD were at increased risk for OCD and skin picking. Psychotic disorders were found in 11%. NPD had a significant negative influence on QOL. There was no correlation between NPD and BMI, IQ, hyperphagia severity, hormonal profile or genetic subtypes. Psychiatric diagnoses are very frequent in PWS and strongly influence QOL. Furthermore, characterizing the profile of psychiatric comorbidity in PWS is crucial for planning effective interventions. Precise behavioral phenotyping in PWS in combination with a well-defined genetic etiology may aid biological research linking biological correlates to behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Expression of allograft inflammatory factor-1 in inflammatory skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Orsmark, Christina; Skoog, Tiina; Jeskanen, Leila; Kere, Juha; Saarialho-Kere, Ulpu

    2007-01-01

    Allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) is an evolutionarily conserved, inflammatory protein produced by activated macrophages during chronic transplant rejection and in inflammatory brain lesions. Since T-cell-mediated inflammation is common to various dermatoses and nothing is known about AIF-1 in skin, we studied its protein expression at the tissue level and regulation in monocytic cell lines by various agents. Using immunohistochemistry, we found that AIF-1 is expressed at low levels in normal skin, but is highly upregulated in various inflammatory skin disorders, such as psoriasis, lichen planus, graft-versus-host disease and mycosis fungoides. The main cell types expressing AIF-1 in affected skin are macrophages and Langerhans' cells. We also show by real-time PCR that AIF-1 mRNA levels in monocytic THP-1 and U937 cell lines are significantly upregulated by retinoic acid as well as a number of cytokines. We conclude that AIF-1 may mediate survival and pro-inflammatory properties of macrophages in skin diseases.

  10. [Psychiatric disorders in adult form of Niemann-Pick disease type C].

    PubMed

    Maubert, A; Hanon, C; Sedel, F

    2016-06-01

    Niemann-Pick type C disease (NPC) is a rare genetic disease with an extremely heterogeneous clinical presentation. The adult form of this disease is usually expressed with neurological symptoms; however, non-specific psychiatric disorders are often associated. This article presents a retrospective study on a cohort of NPC patients diagnosed in France with the objectives of researching the presence of psychiatric disorders and qualifying these disorders. After carrying out a research within hospital records, a questionnaire was sent to patients or their relatives and their doctors. The cohort was made up of 22 patients. Fifty-two questionnaires were sent to 47 different doctors. We received 67% of answers from the doctors, with 42% of positive answers. The answer rate of the families was 27%. Among the 22 patients, we found the presence of psychiatric disorders in 86% of cases. Seventy-three percent of the patients presented behavior disorders. Among them, 27% exhibited psychomotor excitation or agitation, 23% aggressiveness, 18% intolerance to frustration, 27% sleep disorders and 23% apathy, listlessness and/or clinophilia. Fifty-five percent of patients presented psychotic symptoms, with 45% with delusions and 36% with hallucinations. Seventy-seven percent of patients presented with mood disorders: 36% suffered from depression and 27% from emotional lability or mood swings. Of the 22 patients, a diagnosis of psychiatric disease was made in 50% of cases. The main diagnoses were schizophrenia (27%) and depression (23%). The other diagnoses identified were acute delirium, dysthymia, infantile psychosis, intellectual disharmonic disability and personality disorder. The average age of emergence of the troubles was 17.1 years old for neurological symptoms and 20.9 years old for psychiatric symptoms. The median age was 18 years old for neurological symptoms and 20 years old for psychiatric ones. In 45% of cases, psychiatric occurred after neurological symptoms

  11. Adapter for mounting a microphone flush with the external surface of the skin of a pressurized aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohn, R. B. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A mounting device for securing a microphone pick up head flush with respect to the external surfaces of the skin of an aircraft for detecting shock waves passing thereover is described. The mount includes a sleeve mounted internally of the aircraft for capturing and supporting an electronics package having the microphone pick up head attached thereto in a manner such that the head is flush with the external surface of the aircraft skin and a pressure seal is established between the internal and external surfaces of the aircraft skin.

  12. Multivariate Statistics Applied to Seismic Phase Picking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco, A. A.; Zeiler, C. P.; Anderson, D.; Pingitore, N. E.

    2008-12-01

    The initial effort of the Seismogram Picking Error from Analyst Review (SPEAR) project has been to establish a common set of seismograms to be picked by the seismological community. Currently we have 13 analysts from 4 institutions that have provided picks on the set of 26 seismograms. In comparing the picks thus far, we have identified consistent biases between picks from different institutions; effects of the experience of analysts; and the impact of signal-to-noise on picks. The institutional bias in picks brings up the important concern that picks will not be the same between different catalogs. This difference means less precision and accuracy when combing picks from multiple institutions. We also note that depending on the experience level of the analyst making picks for a catalog the error could fluctuate dramatically. However, the experience level is based off of number of years in picking seismograms and this may not be an appropriate criterion for determining an analyst's precision. The common data set of seismograms provides a means to test an analyst's level of precision and biases. The analyst is also limited by the quality of the signal and we show that the signal-to-noise ratio and pick error are correlated to the location, size and distance of the event. This makes the standard estimate of picking error based on SNR more complex because additional constraints are needed to accurately constrain the measurement error. We propose to extend the current measurement of error by adding the additional constraints of institutional bias and event characteristics to the standard SNR measurement. We use multivariate statistics to model the data and provide constraints to accurately assess earthquake location and measurement errors.

  13. Neural correlates of self-injurious behavior in Prader-Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Klabunde, Megan; Saggar, Manish; Hustyi, Kristin M; Hammond, Jennifer L; Reiss, Allan L; Hall, Scott S

    2015-10-01

    Individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), a genetic disorder caused by mutations to the q11-13 region on chromosome 15, commonly show severe skin-picking behaviors that can cause open wounds and sores on the body. To our knowledge, however, no studies have examined the potential neural mechanisms underlying these behaviors. Seventeen individuals with PWS, aged 6-25 years, who showed severe skin-picking behaviors, were recruited and scanned on a 3T scanner. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while episodes of skin picking were recorded on an MRI-safe video camera. Three participants displayed skin picking continuously throughout the scan, three participants did not display skin picking, and the data for one participant evidenced significant B0 inhomogeneity that could not be corrected. The data for the remaining 10 participants (six male, four female) who displayed a sufficient number of picking and nonpicking episodes were subjected to fMRI analysis. Results showed that regions involved in interoceptive, motor, attention, and somatosensory processing were activated during episodes of skin-picking behavior compared with nonpicking episodes. Scores obtained on the Self-Injury Trauma scale were significantly negatively correlated with mean activation within the right insula and left precentral gyrus. These data indicate that itch and pain processes appear to underlie skin-picking behaviors in PWS, suggesting that interoceptive disturbance may contribute to the severity and maintenance of abnormal skin-picking behaviors in PWS. Implications for treatments are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Clinical applications of CO2 laser resurfacing in the treatment of various pathologic skin disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giler, Shamai

    1997-12-01

    CO2 laser skin resurfacing devices are widely used in cosmetic surgery for the treatment of facial rhytides, acne scars and aging skin. This technique is also useful in the treatment of various benign and premalignant or multiple pathological skin conditions and disorders originating in the epidermal, dermal and skin appendages, vascular lesions, epidermal nevi, infected wounds and ulcers, and keloids. Various surgical techniques have been developed in our clinic using laser resurfacing in the treatment of more than 2,000 patients with various skin pathologic disorders. We describe our experience with the various techniques used. The precise depth control and ablation properties combined with the hemostatic and sterilizing effects of the CO2 laser beam, reduction of the possibility of bleeding, infection and damage to healthy tissues, make the CO2 laser resurfacing techniques the treatment of choice for cosmetic surgery and treatment of benign, premalignant and multiple pathologic skin conditions.

  15. Mechanobiological dysregulation of the epidermis and dermis in skin disorders and in degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Rei; Hsu, Chao-Kai

    2013-01-01

    During growth and development, the skin expands to cover the growing skeleton and soft tissues by constantly responding to the intrinsic forces of underlying skeletal growth as well as to the extrinsic mechanical forces from body movements and external supports. Mechanical forces can be perceived by two types of skin receptors: (1) cellular mechanoreceptors/mechanosensors, such as the cytoskeleton, cell adhesion molecules and mechanosensitive (MS) ion channels, and (2) sensory nerve fibres that produce the somatic sensation of mechanical force. Skin disorders in which there is an abnormality of collagen [e.g. Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (EDS)] or elastic (e.g. cutis laxa) fibres or a malfunction of cutaneous nerve fibres (e.g. neurofibroma, leprosy and diabetes mellitus) are also characterized to some extent by deficiencies in mechanobiological processes. Recent studies have shown that mechanotransduction is crucial for skin development, especially hemidesmosome maturation, which implies that the pathogenesis of skin disorders such as bullous pemphigoid is related to skin mechanobiology. Similarly, autoimmune diseases, including scleroderma and mixed connective tissue disease, and pathological scarring in the form of keloids and hypertrophic scars would seem to be clearly associated with the mechanobiological dysfunction of the skin. Finally, skin ageing can also be considered as a degenerative process associated with mechanobiological dysfunction. Clinically, a therapeutic strategy involving mechanoreceptors or MS nociceptor inhibition or acceleration together with a reduction or augmentation in the relevant mechanical forces is likely to be successful. The development of novel approaches such as these will allow the treatment of a broad range of cutaneous diseases. PMID:23672502

  16. Elderly adults and skin disorders: common problems for nondermatologists.

    PubMed

    Na, Chang R; Wang, Steven; Kirsner, Robert S; Federman, Daniel G

    2012-11-01

    Diseases of elderly adults are becoming increasingly important as life expectancy gradually rises worldwide. To promote healthy aging, it is important to understand the skin changes associated with aging. This review focuses on the special considerations for some of the more common dermatological disorders in elderly adults and examines presentation, contributing factors, and association with systemic diseases.

  17. Modeling picking on pharmaceutical tablets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swaminathan, Shrikant

    Tablets are the most popular solid dosage form in the pharmaceutical industry because they are cheap to manufacture, chemically and mechanically stable and easy to transport and fairly easy to control dosage. Pharmaceutical tableting operations have been around for decades however the process is still not well understood. One of the common problems faced during the production of pharmaceutical tablets by powder compaction is sticking of powder to the punch face, This is known as 'sticking'. A more specialized case of sticking is picking when the powder is pulled away form the compact in the vicinity of debossed features. In the pharmaceutical industry, picking is solved by trial and error which is an expensive, labor intensive and time consuming affair. The objective of this work was to develop, validate, and implement a modeling framework for predicting picking in powder compacts. The model was developed in Abaqus a commercially available finite element package. The resulting model was used to investigate the influence of debossed feature geometry viz. the stroke angle and degree of pre-pick, and, influence of lubricant on picking. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  18. Pick disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Frontotemporal dementia; FTD; Arnold Pick disease; 3R tauopathy Images Central nervous system and peripheral nervous system References Bang J, Spina S, Miller BL. Frontotemporal dementia. Lancet . 2015;386( ...

  19. Skin disorders in overweight and obese patients and their relationship with insulin.

    PubMed

    Plascencia Gómez, A; Vega Memije, M E; Torres Tamayo, M; Rodríguez Carreón, A A

    2014-03-01

    The prevalence of obesity has increased worldwide in recent years. Some authors have described skin conditions associated with obesity, but there is little evidence on the association between insulin levels and such disorders. To describe the skin disorders present in overweight and obese patients and analyze their association with insulin levels. The study included nondiabetic male and female patients over 6 years of age who were seen at our hospital between January and April 2011. All the patients were evaluated by a dermatologist, who performed a physical examination, including anthropometry, and reviewed their medical history and medication record; fasting blood glucose and insulin were also measured. The patients were grouped according to degree of overweight or obesity and the data were compared using analysis of variance or the χ(2) test depending on the type of variable. The independence of the associations was assessed using regression analysis. In total, 109 patients (95 adults and 13 children, 83.5% female) were studied. The mean (SD) age was 38 (14) years and the mean body mass index was 39.6±8 kg/m(2). The skin conditions observed were acanthosis nigricans (AN) (in 97% of patients), skin tags (77%), keratosis pilaris (42%), and plantar hyperkeratosis (38%). Statistically significant associations were found between degree of obesity and AN (P=.003), skin tags (P=.001), and plantar hyperkeratosis. Number of skin tags, AN neck severity score, and AN distribution were significantly and independently associated with insulin levels. AN and skin tags should be considered clinical markers of hyperinsulinemia in nondiabetic, obese patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  20. The Developmental Trajectory of Self-Injurious Behaviours in Individuals with Prader Willi Syndrome, Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability.

    PubMed

    Rice, Lauren J; Gray, Kylie M; Howlin, Patricia; Taffe, John; Tonge, Bruce J; Einfeld, Stewart L

    2016-02-06

    In the present study we examined the nature and developmental trajectory of self-injurious behaviour in Prader Willi syndrome (PWS) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The development of interventions is greatly aided by understanding gene to behaviour pathways, and this requires an accurate description of the behaviour phenotype, that is, which types and natural history of self-injurious behaviour are more common in PWS and ASD and which are shared with other forms of developmental disability. Self-injury displayed by individuals with PWS and individuals with ASD was compared with that reported in a group of individuals with intellectual disability due to mixed aetiology (ID group). Three self-injurious behaviours (head banging, skin-picking and hitting and/or biting self) were measured on five occasions over 18 years using the Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC) a well-validated caregiver report measure. Rates of skin picking were higher in individuals with PWS and hitting and/or biting self was higher in individuals with ASD compared to the ID group. Rates of head banging were similar across the three groups. Over time, skin-picking and head banging increased with age for individuals with ASD and hitting and/or biting self increased for the PWS group. In the PWS and mixed ID groups head banging decreased with age. These findings suggest that the typology and developmental trajectories of self-injurious behaviours differ between those with PWS and ASD.

  1. The Developmental Trajectory of Self-Injurious Behaviours in Individuals with Prader Willi Syndrome, Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Lauren J.; Gray, Kylie M.; Howlin, Patricia; Taffe, John; Tonge, Bruce J.; Einfeld, Stewart L.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we examined the nature and developmental trajectory of self-injurious behaviour in Prader Willi syndrome (PWS) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The development of interventions is greatly aided by understanding gene to behaviour pathways, and this requires an accurate description of the behaviour phenotype, that is, which types and natural history of self-injurious behaviour are more common in PWS and ASD and which are shared with other forms of developmental disability. Self-injury displayed by individuals with PWS and individuals with ASD was compared with that reported in a group of individuals with intellectual disability due to mixed aetiology (ID group). Three self-injurious behaviours (head banging, skin-picking and hitting and/or biting self) were measured on five occasions over 18 years using the Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC) a well-validated caregiver report measure. Rates of skin picking were higher in individuals with PWS and hitting and/or biting self was higher in individuals with ASD compared to the ID group. Rates of head banging were similar across the three groups. Over time, skin-picking and head banging increased with age for individuals with ASD and hitting and/or biting self increased for the PWS group. In the PWS and mixed ID groups head banging decreased with age. These findings suggest that the typology and developmental trajectories of self-injurious behaviours differ between those with PWS and ASD. PMID:28933389

  2. High Prevalence of Personality Disorders in Skin-restricted Lupus Patients.

    PubMed

    Jalenques, Isabelle; Rondepierre, Fabien; Massoubre, Catherine; Bonnefond, Sophie; Schwan, Raymond; Labeille, Bruno; Perrot, Jean-Luc; Collange, Marianne; Mulliez, Aurelien; D'Incan, Michel

    2017-08-31

    Psychiatric and personality disorders have been extensively documented in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, the prevalence of personality disorders in skin-restricted lupus (SRL) patients remains unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of personality disorders in SRL outpatients and to examine the associated factors. We evaluated 60 SRL outpatients and 118 controls matched for sex, age and education level. On the basis of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire 4+, 38% of patients vs 20% of controls fulfilled the criteria for at least one personality disorder (OR 2.2 [95% CI 1.01-4.6], p = 0.048). Only one patient with a personality disorder had specialised mental health care. Late lupus onset and more frequent past treatments by thalidomide were associated factors. This study evidences a high prevalence of personality disorders in SRL patients and shows that most SRL patients with personality disorder do not receive specialised mental health care.

  3. PEG-lipid micelles enable cholesterol efflux in Niemann-Pick Type C1 disease-based lysosomal storage disorder

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Anna; Patel, Siddharth; Ward, Carl; Lorenz, Anna; Ortiz, Mauren; DuRoss, Allison; Wieghardt, Fabian; Esch, Amanda; Otten, Elsje G.; Heiser, Laura M.; Korolchuk, Viktor I.; Sun, Conroy; Sarkar, Sovan; Sahay, Gaurav

    2016-01-01

    2-Hydroxy-propyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD), a cholesterol scavenger, is currently undergoing Phase 2b/3 clinical trial for treatment of Niemann Pick Type C-1 (NPC1), a fatal neurodegenerative disorder that stems from abnormal cholesterol accumulation in the endo/lysosomes. Unfortunately, the extremely high doses of HPβCD required to prevent progressive neurodegeneration exacerbates ototoxicity, pulmonary toxicity and autophagy-based cellular defects. We present unexpected evidence that a poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG)-lipid conjugate enables cholesterol clearance from endo/lysosomes of Npc1 mutant (Npc1−/−) cells. Herein, we show that distearyl-phosphatidylethanolamine-PEG (DSPE-PEG), which forms 12-nm micelles above the critical micelle concentration, accumulates heavily inside cholesterol-rich late endosomes in Npc1−/− cells. This potentially results in cholesterol solubilization and leakage from lysosomes. High-throughput screening revealed that DSPE-PEG, in combination with HPβCD, acts synergistically to efflux cholesterol without significantly aggravating autophagy defects. These well-known excipients can be used as admixtures to treat NPC1 disorder. Increasing PEG chain lengths from 350 Da-30 kDa in DSPE-PEG micelles, or increasing DSPE-PEG content in an array of liposomes packaged with HPβCD, improved cholesterol egress, while Pluronic block copolymers capable of micelle formation showed slight effects at high concentrations. We postulate that PEG-lipid based nanocarriers can serve as bioactive drug delivery systems for effective treatment of lysosomal storage disorders. PMID:27572704

  4. PEG-lipid micelles enable cholesterol efflux in Niemann-Pick Type C1 disease-based lysosomal storage disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Anna; Patel, Siddharth; Ward, Carl; Lorenz, Anna; Ortiz, Mauren; Duross, Allison; Wieghardt, Fabian; Esch, Amanda; Otten, Elsje G.; Heiser, Laura M.; Korolchuk, Viktor I.; Sun, Conroy; Sarkar, Sovan; Sahay, Gaurav

    2016-08-01

    2-Hydroxy-propyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD), a cholesterol scavenger, is currently undergoing Phase 2b/3 clinical trial for treatment of Niemann Pick Type C-1 (NPC1), a fatal neurodegenerative disorder that stems from abnormal cholesterol accumulation in the endo/lysosomes. Unfortunately, the extremely high doses of HPβCD required to prevent progressive neurodegeneration exacerbates ototoxicity, pulmonary toxicity and autophagy-based cellular defects. We present unexpected evidence that a poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG)-lipid conjugate enables cholesterol clearance from endo/lysosomes of Npc1 mutant (Npc1-/-) cells. Herein, we show that distearyl-phosphatidylethanolamine-PEG (DSPE-PEG), which forms 12-nm micelles above the critical micelle concentration, accumulates heavily inside cholesterol-rich late endosomes in Npc1-/- cells. This potentially results in cholesterol solubilization and leakage from lysosomes. High-throughput screening revealed that DSPE-PEG, in combination with HPβCD, acts synergistically to efflux cholesterol without significantly aggravating autophagy defects. These well-known excipients can be used as admixtures to treat NPC1 disorder. Increasing PEG chain lengths from 350 Da-30 kDa in DSPE-PEG micelles, or increasing DSPE-PEG content in an array of liposomes packaged with HPβCD, improved cholesterol egress, while Pluronic block copolymers capable of micelle formation showed slight effects at high concentrations. We postulate that PEG-lipid based nanocarriers can serve as bioactive drug delivery systems for effective treatment of lysosomal storage disorders.

  5. N-Acetylcysteine in the Treatment of Excoriation Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Grant, Jon E; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Redden, Sarah A; Leppink, Eric W; Odlaug, Brian L; Kim, Suck Won

    2016-05-01

    Excoriation (skin-picking) disorder (SPD) is a disabling, underrecognized condition in which individuals repeatedly pick at their skin, leading to noticeable tissue damage. To date, there has been no clearly effective pharmacologic or psychological treatment for SPD. To determine whether N-acetylcysteine, an amino acid that appears to restore extracellular glutamate concentration in the nucleus accumbens, will be more effective than placebo in reducing compulsive picking behavior. A randomized, double-blind trial was conducted at ambulatory care centers at the University of Minnesota (September 12, 2011, to June 15, 2012) and the University of Chicago (December 17, 2012, to June 26, 2015) and included 66 adults with SPD. Data analysis was performed from July 16 to September 9, 2015. N-acetylcysteine (dosing range, 1200-3000 mg/d) or placebo was administered for 12 weeks. Participants were assessed using measures of skin-picking severity, including the modified Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (NE-YBOCS); total scores range from 0 to 40, with higher scores reflective of greater symptom severity. Another measure of skin-picking severity was the Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale; total scores range from 1 (normal) to 7 (among the most extremely ill patients), and improvement ratings range from 7 (very much worse) to 1 (very much improved). Selected cognitive tasks included the Intra-dimensional/Extra-dimensional Shift Task to examine cognitive flexibility, with the key outcome measures being the number of errors, and Stop-Signal Reaction Time task, which evaluates motor inhibition. Outcomes were examined using a linear mixed-effects model. Of the 66 participants (31 randomized to placebo and 35 to N-acetylcysteine) included in the analysis, 59 (89%) were women; mean (SD) age was 34.8 (11.0) years. Compared with placebo, N-acetylcysteine treatment was associated with significant improvements in the NE-YBOCS. At baseline, NE-YBOCS scores were 18.9 and 17

  6. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the dermatology patient.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Madhulika A; Jarosz, Patricia; Gupta, Aditya K

    Dermatologic symptoms can be associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in several situations: (1) as features of some core PTSD symptoms, such as intrusion symptoms manifesting as cutaneous sensory flashbacks, as autonomic arousal manifesting as night sweats and idiopathic urticaria, and as dissociation manifesting as numbness and dermatitis artefacta; (2) the cutaneous psychosomatic effects of emotional and physical neglect and sexual abuse (eg, infantile eczema, cutaneous self-injury, and body-focused repetitive behaviors such as trichotillomania and skin picking disorder) and eating disorders, which can have dermatologic effects; (3) the direct effect of physical or sexual abuse or catastrophic life events (eg, earthquakes) on the skin; and (4) as a result of significant alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and sympatho-adrenal medullary axes, which can affect neuroendocrine and immune functions, and can lead to exacerbations of stress-reactive inflammatory dermatoses such as psoriasis, chronic urticaria, and atopic dermatitis. Elevated levels of inflammatory biomarkers and impaired epidermal barrier function have been reported in situations involving sustained psychologic stress and sleep deprivation. Some PTSD patients show hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hyporesponsiveness and higher circulating T lymphocytes, which can exacerbate immune-mediated dermatologic disorders. PTSD should be considered an underlying factor in the chronic, recurrent, or treatment-resistant stress-reactive dermatoses and in patients with self-induced dermatoses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of sensitized pick coal interface detector system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burchill, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    One approach for detection of the coal interface is measurement of the pick cutting hoads and shock through the use of pick strain gage load cells and accelerometers. The cutting drum of a long wall mining machine contains a number of cutting picks. In order to measure pick loads and shocks, one pick was instrumented and telementry used to transmit the signals from the drum to an instrument-type tape recorder. A data system using FM telemetry was designed to transfer cutting bit load and shock information from the drum of a longwall shearer coal mining machine to a chassis mounted data recorder.

  8. Lysosome and endoplasmic reticulum quality control pathways in Niemann-Pick type C disease

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Mark L.; Krus, Kelsey L.; Lieberman, Andrew P.

    2017-01-01

    Lysosomal storage diseases result from inherited deficiencies of lysosomal hydrolytic activities or lipid transport. Collectively, these disorders are a common cause of morbidity in the pediatric population and are often associated with severe neurodegeneration. Among this group of diseases is Niemann-Pick type C, an autosomal recessive disorder of lipid trafficking that causes cognitive impairment, ataxia and death, most often in childhood. Here, we review the current knowledge of disease pathogenesis, with particular focus on insights gleaned from genetics and the study of model systems. Critical advances in understanding mechanisms that regulate intracellular cholesterol trafficking have emerged from this work and are highlighted. We review effects of disease-causing mutations on quality control pathways involving the lysosome and endoplasmic reticulum, and discuss how they function to clear the most common mutant protein found in Niemann-Pick type C patients, NPC1-I1061T. Finally, we summarize insights into the mechanisms that degrade misfolded transmembrane proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum and how manipulating these quality control pathways may lead to the identification of novel targets for disease-modifying therapies. PMID:27026653

  9. A survey of herbal weeds for treating skin disorders from Southern Thailand: Songkhla and Krabi Province.

    PubMed

    Neamsuvan, Oratai; Bunmee, Pattaraporn

    2016-12-04

    Skin diseases are common health problems which affecting to all ages. In Thailand, the number of patients diagnosed with skin diseases is increasing every year. Nowadays, The Ministry of Public Health is supporting and promoting herbs for treating various disorders, including disorders of the skin to reduce the problem of antibiotic resistance and adverse drug reactions. This study aimed to: (1) enumerate the herbal weeds for treating skin disorders; (2) study local knowledge of weed utilization for treating skin disorders according to the folk healers in Songkhla and Krabi province; and (3) study quantitative data by Informant consensus factor (ICF), Use value (UV) and Fidelity level (FL) value. Field surveys and Semi-structured interviews about the local names, parts of plants used, preparation and use method, as well as local properties were done. The data were further analyzed by descriptive statistics, interpretation and quantitative indexes (ICF, UV as well as FL). The results discovered 44 herbal species of weeds belonging to 41 genera in 25 families. The most used plant families were Amaranthaceae (6 species). Most plants were used to treat abscess (18 species; 40.91%). The highest UV was recorded for Commelina benghalensis (0.65). The highest ICF values were found in vitiligo, ringworm, tinea versicolor and burns (1.00 each). The highest FL values were recorded for Cleome gynandra, Cleome viscosa, Sphenoclea zeylanica, Acmella oleracea, Leersia hexandra, Cyperus involucratus, Phyllanthus urinaria and Iresine herbstii (100.00 each). A review of the literatures revealed that 34 plant species had already been tested for their pharmacological activities. The biological activities associated with treatment of skin diseases can be divided into four categories: antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, wound healing and antioxidant activity. The information indicates that herbal weedy utilization is still importance to the treatment of traditional healers through

  10. Opiate sensitivity test in patients with stereotypic movement disorder and trichotillomania.

    PubMed

    Frecska, Ede; Arato, Mihaly

    2002-06-01

    Preliminary data about the therapeutic effect of opiate receptor manipulation in self-injurious behavior (SIB) suggest that endogenous opioid mechanisms may have a pathophysiological role in that condition and their involvement may be dependent on the severity of the SIB. The aim of this study was to use fentanyl-induced prolactin response as an opiate receptor sensitivity test in patients with stereotypic movement disorder (SMD) manifesting SIB (skin picking). Healthy volunteers and trichotillomanic patients were enrolled as comparison subjects. Individuals with trichotillomania (TTM) manifest repetitive, less serious self-mutilation (hair pulling) and are classified under different DSM-IV category than SMD. Therefore, they were considered as patient controls. Ten healthy subjects received 0.05 mg/70 kg and another 10 were given 0.1 mg/70 kg dose of fentanyl intravenously in the AM hours. Five of them had placebo trials. A dose of 0.05 mg/70 kg fentanyl was administered to patients with SMD (n = 10) and TTM (n = 12). Serial blood sampling was performed for prolactin measurements. Fentanyl elevated plasma prolactin in a dose-dependent manner. Patients with skin picking, but not with hair pulling, showed significantly increased responses. This finding supports the involvement of endogenous opioids in the pathomechanism of serious SIB.

  11. A flexible skin patch for continuous physiological monitoring of mental disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Won Ick; Lee, Bong Kuk; Ryu, Jin Hwa; Baek, In-Bok; Yu, Han Young; Kim, Seunghwan

    2017-10-01

    In this study, we have newly developed a flexible adhesive skin patch of electrocardiogram (ECG) device for continuous physiological monitoring of mental disorders. In addition, this flexible patch did not cause any damage to the skin even after 24 hours attachment. We have also suggested the possibility of novel interconnection for copper film on polyimide and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layers of the flexible patch. Self-align and soldering of IC chips such as resistor between metal pads on flexible skin patch have also successfully fabricated for 5 min at 180 °C in vacuum oven. Low temperature interconnection technology based on a Sn42/Bi58 solder was also developed for flexible ECG devices. As a result, we can monitor the mental health status through a comprehensive analysis of biological signals from flexible ECG devices.

  12. Macrolides in Chronic Inflammatory Skin Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Alzolibani, Abdullateef A.; Zedan, Khaled

    2012-01-01

    Long-term therapy with the macrolide antibiotic erythromycin was shown to alter the clinical course of diffuse panbronchiolitis in the late 1980s. Since that time, macrolides have been found to have a large number of anti-inflammatory properties in addition to being antimicrobials. These observations provided the rationale for many studies performed to assess the usefulness of macrolides in other inflammatory diseases including skin and hair disorders, such as rosacea, psoriasis, pityriasis rosea, alopecia areata, bullous pemphigoid, and pityriasis lichenoides. This paper summarizes a collection of clinical studies and case reports dealing with the potential benefits of macrolides antibiotics in the treatment of selected dermatoses which have primarily been classified as noninfectious and demonstrating their potential for being disease-modifying agents. PMID:22685371

  13. Post-ictal psychosis in adolescent Niemann-Pick disease type C.

    PubMed

    Walterfang, Mark; Kornberg, Andrew; Adams, Sophia; Fietz, Michael; Velakoulis, Dennis

    2010-12-01

    We describe the presentation of an adolescent with juvenile-onset Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) who presented with post-ictal psychosis in the context of a developing seizure disorder. After demonstrating mild gait disturbance beginning at the age of 4 years, he was diagnosed with NPC at age 12 on the basis of 95% of cultured fibroblasts staining positive for filipin and a reduced fibroblast cholesterol esterification rate. He then developed a seizure disorder at age 15, where clusters of seizures produced typical psychotic symptoms, including hallucinations and delusions. His seizure disorder responded to valproate, which resulted in a settling of his psychotic symptoms. Whilst post-ictal psychosis is rarely reported prior to the age of 16, NPC in adolescents and adults is particularly psychotogenic and may increase the risk for post-ictal psychosis in the pediatric population.

  14. Prader-Willi syndrome and autism spectrum disorders: an evolving story.

    PubMed

    Dykens, Elisabeth M; Lee, Evon; Roof, Elizabeth

    2011-09-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is well-known for its genetic and phenotypic complexities. Caused by a lack of paternally derived imprinted material on chromosome 15q11-q13, individuals with PWS have mild to moderate intellectual disabilities, repetitive and compulsive behaviors, skin picking, tantrums, irritability, hyperphagia, and increased risks of obesity. Many individuals also have co-occurring autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), psychosis, and mood disorders. Although the PWS 15q11-q13 region confers risks for autism, relatively few studies have assessed autism symptoms in PWS or directly compared social, behavioral, and cognitive functioning across groups with autism or PWS. This article identifies areas of phenotypic overlap and difference between PWS and ASD in core autism symptoms and in such comorbidities as psychiatric disorders, and dysregulated sleep and eating. Though future studies are needed, PWS provides a promising alternative lens into specific symptoms and comorbidities of autism.

  15. Skin and brain: itch and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Caccavale, Stefano; Bove, Domenico; Bove, Rocco M; LA Montagna, Maddalena

    2016-10-01

    Skin diseases (atopic eczema, psoriasis, idiopathic urticaria), systemic diseases (chronic hepatic or renal failure, morbus Hodgkin, diabetes mellitus) and psychiatric disorders (obsessive compulsive disorders, depression, delusions of parasitosis) can occur with itching. The aim of this review is to clarify the link between pruritus and psychiatric morbidity and emphasize the importance of a psychiatric consultation for patients with a chronic itching, without a skin disease. In the last years, there is a growing awareness regarding psychogenic itch, although these types of itch are significantly less studied in comparison to other types of pruritus. Psychogenic pruritus is usually a diagnosis of exclusion. There are not controlled studies about treatment of psychogenic itch, but the same drugs prescribed for neuropathic pain, depression, and anxiety are used. There is a strong association between pruritus and psyche; so, it is important that the dermatologist evaluates psychosomatic dimension. According to the analysis of scientific literature and our clinical experience, pruritus seems to be a rather common phenomenon in patients suffering from depression. Future works should explain the basis of psychopathology of chronic itching thanks to studies of selected groups of patients with a particular type of chronic itching, highlighting the clinical features to establish appropriate and individual targeted care, based on the several types of pruritus. Some questions still unanswered could be clarified in this way. It is really important to decrease the symptoms "itching", because the quality of life of the patient will be improved, but the goal is to identify the underlying mechanisms of itch and establish a targeted therapy, depending on the biological changes and the underlying disease.

  16. Incidence of malignant skin tumors in 14,140 patients after grenz-ray treatment for benign skin disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Lindeloef, B.E.; Eklund, G.

    1986-12-01

    During the years 1949 to 1975, 14,237 patients received therapeutic doses of grenz rays for the treatment of benign skin disorders such as chronic eczema, psoriasis, and warts. The records of 14,140 of these patients (99.3%) formed the basis for an epidemiologic study of the incidence of skin malignancies in this population. Information about the patients, diagnoses, doses, and sites of treatment was obtained from separate records. The follow-up time was 15 years on the average. We searched the Swedish Cancer Registry, Stockholm, for records reporting the incidence of malignant skin tumors in the study population (incidences of basal cellmore » carcinoma are not registered). The expected number of malignancies was calculated on the basis of age- and sex-standardized incidence data from the Swedish Cancer Registry. In 58 patients, a malignant skin tumor was diagnosed more than five years after grenz-ray therapy had first been administered. Nineteen patients had malignant melanomas, and 39 patients had other malignant skin tumors. The expected number of melanomas was 17.8, and that of other malignant skin tumors was 26.9. None of the patients with melanomas, and only eight of the patients with other malignant skin tumors, had received grenz-ray therapy at the site of the tumor. Six of these eight patients had also been exposed to other known carcinogens. Four hundred eighty-one patients had received an accumulated high dose of grenz rays (greater than or equal to 10 000 rad (greater than or equal to 100 Gy)) on one and the same area. No malignancies were found on those areas. Although we cannot exclude grenz-ray therapy as a risk factor in the development of nonmelanoma skin malignancies, this risk, if any, is small, if recommendations for therapy are followed.« less

  17. Potential role of anticonvulsants in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hee Ryung; Woo, Young Sup; Bahk, Won-Myong

    2014-10-01

    We reviewed the extant literature to evaluate the current evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of anticonvulsants in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders. Relevant literature was accessed using the Cochrane database, embase and PubMed on 29 October 2013. Prospective studies examining the efficacy of anticonvulsants in obsessive-compulsive and related disorders were included. Case reports, case series, and retrospective studies were excluded. A total of 10 studies were included in this review. The studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder, except for two negative studies, showed favorable efficacy results of anticonvulsants. In one study on body dysmorphic disorder, levetiracetam showed favorable efficacy. In two lamotrigine studies for pathologic skin-picking, the efficacy findings were inconsistent. In one trichotillomania study, topiramate had reduced hair-pulling symptoms. Despite limited evidence, our review suggests that anticonvulsants have a potential role in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  18. ADHD symptoms and insistence on sameness in Prader-Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wigren, M; Hansen, S

    2005-06-01

    Apart from a pervasive eating disorder, the Prader-Willi (PWS) syndrome is characterized by a distinct behavioural profile comprising maladaptive behaviours, obsessive-compulsive traits and skin picking, all included in the PWS behavioural phenotype. In this study, we present a further delineation of this characteristic behavioural profile by screening for indices of executive dysfunctions related to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), immature compulsive-like adherence to sameness and skin picking, and how these features aggregate into symptom constellations in children and adolescents with PWS. Parents of 58 individuals with PWS (aged 5-18 years) participated by completing Childhood Routines Inventory (CRI) and Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS-48). Results showed that indices of ADHD and excessive insistence on sameness were common, comorbid and of early onset. They were both associated with conduct problems. Skin picking, appearing as a single and comorbid symptom, was less associated with childlike compulsions and ADHD-related problems. Findings are discussed in terms of further research in executive dysfunctions in PWS.

  19. [The monodigital recognition test (MRT)--a sensitivity-specific variant of Moberg's pick-up test].

    PubMed

    Clemens, R

    1979-01-01

    The Test for Mono-digital Recognition (MRT) is a procedure specifically designed for the measurement of gnostic performance. The new test was derived from MOBERG's Pick-up Test with the aim of eliminating its shortcomings. Additional injuries do not restrict the applicability of the MRT and the test is not confined to the skin area supplied by the median nerve. The MRT expresses the degree of gnostic disturbances by means of a point system. For testing a patient only two to four minutes are needed.

  20. Assessing Quality of Life in Older Adult Patients with Skin Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Farage, Miranda A.; Miller, Kenneth W.; Sherman, Susan N.; Tsevat, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Significance for Public Health The global population is aging. In the industrial world, adults over 65 outnumber children and comprise almost 20% of the population in some countries. Older adults experience a number of skin diseases and disorders that substantially affect their quality of life. Opportunity exists for developing and validating health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measures specifically for dermatological conditions most pertinent to older patients. Older adults experience a number of skin diseases and disorders that substantially affect quality of life. In the last two decades, a number of instruments have been developed for use among general dermatology patients to assess the effects of treatment and disease progression, perceptions of well-being, and the value that patients place on their dermatologic state of health. This chapter reviews some health-related quality of life (HRQoL) (HRQoL) measures developed and validated specifically for dermatological conditions. However, opportunity exists for developing and validating HRQoL measures specifically for dermatological conditions most pertinent to older patients. PMID:22980159

  1. Skin disorders among school children in rural Tanzania and an assessment of therapeutic needs.

    PubMed

    Ferié, J; Dinkela, A; Mbata, M; Idindili, B; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P; Hatz, C

    2006-10-01

    Eight hundred and twenty primary school children were examined to assess the spectrum and prevalence of skin diseases in rural Tanzania. In all, 55% of the children had one or several skin disorders, but only 33% of all diagnoses in a cluster of 14% of the children required treatment. Tinea versicolor was found in 26.2%, pyoderma and dermatophytoses in less than 10%, while few children had scabies or eczematous lesions.

  2. Development of sensitized pick coal interface detector system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burchill, R. F.

    1982-01-01

    One approach for detection of the coal interface is measurement of pick cutting loads and shock through the use of pick strain gage load cells and accelerometers. The cutting drum of a long wall mining machine contains a number of cutting picks. In order to measure pick loads and shocks, one pick was instrumented and telemetry used to transmit the signals from the drum to an instrument-type tape recorder. A data system using FM telemetry was designed to transfer cutting bit load and shock information from the drum of a longwall shearer coal mining machine to a chassis mounted data recorder. The design of components in the test data system were finalized, the required instruments were assembled, the instrument system was evaluated in an above-ground simulation test, and an underground test series to obtain tape recorded sensor data was conducted.

  3. Pick_sw: a program for interactive picking of S-wave data, version 2.00

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellefsen, Karl J.

    2002-01-01

    Program pick_sw is used to interactively pick travel times from S-wave data. It is assumed that the data are collected using 2 shots of opposite polarity at each shot location. The traces must be in either the SEG-2 format or the SU format. The program is written in the IDL and C programming languages, and the program is executed under the Windows operating system. (The program may also execute under other operating systems like UNIX if the C language functions are re-compiled).

  4. Body focused repetitive behavior disorders: Significance of family history.

    PubMed

    Redden, Sarah A; Leppink, Eric W; Grant, Jon E

    2016-04-01

    The significance of family history in body-focused repetitive behavior disorders (BFRBs) (i.e. trichotillomania and skin picking) has received scant research attention. We sought to understand the clinical and cognitive impact of having a first-degree relative with a BFRB or a substance use disorder (SUD). 265 participants with BFRBs undertook clinical and neurocognitive evaluations. Those with a first-degree relative with a BFRB or an SUD were compared to those without on a number of clinical and cognitive measures. 77 (29.1%) participants had a first-degree family member with a BFRB and 59 (22.2%) had a first-degree family member with an SUD. In terms of clinical severity, the amount of time spent picking or pulling per day in the past week was higher among those with a first-degree relative with an SUD. There were a higher rate of ADHD and higher HAM-D scores among those with a positive family history of an SUD. There were no significant cognitive differences based on family history. These results indicate that among those with BFRBs, having a first-degree family member with an SUD may be associated with a unique clinical and cognitive presentation. Whether family history also is associated with differential response to treatments awaits further research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Thick- and thin-skinned organisations and enactment in borderline and narcissistic disorders.

    PubMed

    Bateman, A W

    1998-02-01

    In this paper the author argues that enactment is any mutual action within the patient/analyst relationship that arises in the context of difficulties in countertransference work. Such enactment is common during the treatment of borderline and narcissistic disorders. In order to delineate different forms of enactment, which in his view may be either to the detriment or to the benefit of the analytic process, the author describes a patient who was identified primarily with a sadistic mother and who threatened the analyst with a knife during treatment. Three levels of enactment involving countertransference responses are described of which two, namely a collusive countertransference and a defensive countertransference, were detrimental to the analytic process. The third level of enactment was beneficial but only because the intervention by the analyst was independent of the analytic process and yet in response to it. The author uses Rosenfeld's distinction between thin-skinned and thick-skinned narcissists to illustrate how enactment is most likely when a patient moves between thick-skinned and thin-skinned narcissistic positions. Nevertheless the move between thin and thick-skinned positions presents an opportunity for effective interpretation, allowing progress in treatment.

  6. A Nonparametric Approach to Automated S-Wave Picking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawles, C.; Thurber, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    Although a number of very effective P-wave automatic pickers have been developed over the years, automatic picking of S waves has remained more challenging. Most automatic pickers take a parametric approach, whereby some characteristic function (CF), e.g. polarization or kurtosis, is determined from the data and the pick is estimated from the CF. We have adopted a nonparametric approach, estimating the pick directly from the waveforms. For a particular waveform to be auto-picked, the method uses a combination of similarity to a set of seismograms with known S-wave arrivals and dissimilarity to a set of seismograms that do not contain S-wave arrivals. Significant effort has been made towards dealing with the problem of S-to-P conversions. We have evaluated the effectiveness of our method by testing it on multiple sets of microearthquake seismograms with well-determined S-wave arrivals for several areas around the world, including fault zones and volcanic regions. In general, we find that the results from our auto-picker are consistent with reviewed analyst picks 90% of the time at the 0.2 s level and 80% of the time at the 0.1 s level, or better. For most of the large datasets we have analyzed, our auto-picker also makes far more S-wave picks than were made previously by analysts. We are using these enlarged sets of high-quality S-wave picks to refine tomographic inversions for these areas, resulting in substantial improvement in the quality of the S-wave images. We will show examples from New Zealand, Hawaii, and California.

  7. PICK1 uncoupling from mGluR7a causes absence-like seizures

    PubMed Central

    Bertaso, Federica; Zhang, Chuansheng; Scheschonka, Astrid; de Bock, Frédéric; Fontanaud, Pierre; Marin, Philippe; Huganir, Richard L; Betz, Heinrich; Bockaert, Joël; Fagni, Laurent; Lerner-Natoli, Mireille

    2009-01-01

    Absence epilepsy is a neurological disorder that causes a recurrent loss of consciousness and generalized spike-and-wave discharges on an electroencephalogram (EEG). The role of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) and associated scaffolding proteins in absence epilepsy has been unclear to date. We investigated a possible role for these proteins in absence epilepsy, focusing on the mGluR7a receptor and its PDZ-interacting protein, protein interacting with C kinase 1 (PICK1), in rats and mice. Injection of a cell-permeant dominant-negative peptide or targeted mutation of the mGluR7a C terminus, both of which disrupt the interaction between the receptor and PDZ proteins, caused behavioral symptoms and EEG discharges that are characteristic of absence epilepsy. Inactivation of the Pick1 gene also facilitated pharmacological induction of the absence epilepsy phenotype. The cortex and thalamus, which are known to participate in absence epilepsy, were involved, but the hippocampus was not. Our results indicate that disruption of the mGluR7a-PICK1 complex is sufficient to induce absence epilepsy—like seizures in rats and mice, thus providing, to the best of our knowledge, the first animal model of metabotropic glutamate receptor—PDZ protein interaction in absence epilepsy. PMID:18641645

  8. 7 CFR 51.1236 - U.S. Fancy Hand Picked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false U.S. Fancy Hand Picked. 51.1236 Section 51.1236.... Fancy Hand Picked. U.S. Fancy Hand Picked shall consist of cleaned Virginia type peanuts in the shell... not average more than 225 count per pound. (a) In order to allow for variations incident to proper...

  9. 7 CFR 51.1235 - U.S. Jumbo Hand Picked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false U.S. Jumbo Hand Picked. 51.1235 Section 51.1235.... Jumbo Hand Picked. U.S. Jumbo Hand Picked shall consist of cleaned Virginia type peanuts in the shell... not average more than 176 count per pound. (a) In order to allow for variations incident to proper...

  10. N-acetylcysteine in the treatment of psychiatric disorders: current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Minarini, Alessandro; Ferrari, Silvia; Galletti, Martina; Giambalvo, Nina; Perrone, Daniela; Rioli, Giulia; Galeazzi, Gian Maria

    2017-03-01

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is widely known for its role as a mucolytic and as an antidote to paracetamol overdose. There is increasing interest in the use of NAC in the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. The rationale for the administration of NAC in psychiatric conditions is based on its role as a precursor to the antioxidant glutathione, and its action as a modulating agent of glutamatergic, dopaminergic, neurotropic and inflammatory pathways. Areas covered: This study reviews the available data regarding the use of NAC in different psychiatric disorders including substance use disorders, autism, obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder. Promising results were found in trials testing the use of NAC, mainly as an add-on treatment, in cannabis use disorder in young people, depression in bipolar disorder, negative symptoms in schizophrenia, and excoriation (skin-picking) disorder. Despite initial optimism, recent findings regarding NAC efficacy in autism have been disappointing. Expert opinion: These preliminary positive results require further confirmation in larger samples and with longer follow-ups. Given its high tolerability and wide availability, NAC represents an important target to investigate in the field of new adjunctive treatments for psychiatric conditions.

  11. PICK1 interacts with ABP/GRIP to regulate AMPA receptor trafficking.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wei; Ziff, Edward B

    2005-08-04

    PICK1 and ABP/GRIP bind to the AMPA receptor (AMPAR) GluR2 subunit C terminus. Transfer of the receptor from ABP/GRIP to PICK1, facilitated by GluR2 S880 phosphorylation, may initiate receptor trafficking. Here we report protein interactions that regulate these steps. The PICK1 BAR domain interacts intermolecularly with the ABP/GRIP linker II region and intramolecularly with the PICK1 PDZ domain. Binding of PKCalpha or GluR2 to the PICK1 PDZ domain disrupts the intramolecular interaction and facilitates the PICK1 BAR domain association with ABP/GRIP. Interference with the PICK1-ABP/GRIP interaction impairs S880 phosphorylation of GluR2 by PKC and decreases the constitutive surface expression of GluR2, the NMDA-induced endocytosis of GluR2, and recycling of internalized GluR2. We suggest that the PICK1 interaction with ABP/GRIP is a critical step in controlling GluR2 trafficking.

  12. Coal/rock interface detection by sensitized pick, part A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, P. T. K.; Erkes, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    In order to increase the operating margins of the detector for safe, reliable operation under difficult in-mine conditions the transmitted signal strength was increased to provide additional signal margin for in-mine conditions and the transmitter section was redesigned to reduce frequency pulling of the transmitter frequency with variations in antenna load. The linearity of the pick load SCO signal with true pick load was increased, and hysteresis effects were minimized. The sensitized pick hardware was ruggedized for rough inmine use. The sensitized pick and telemetry system provided excellent, high quality signals proportional to cutting load under all conditions experienced during testing.

  13. Normative values and the effects of age, gender, and handedness on the Moberg Pick-Up Test.

    PubMed

    Amirjani, Nasim; Ashworth, Nigel L; Gordon, Tessa; Edwards, David C; Chan, K Ming

    2007-06-01

    The Moberg Pick-Up Test is a standardized test for assessing hand dexterity. Although reduction of sensation in the hand occurs with aging, the effect of age on a subject's performance of the Moberg Pick-Up Test has not been examined. The primary goal of this study was to examine the impact of aging and, secondarily, the impact of gender and handedness, on performance of the Moberg Pick-Up Test in 116 healthy subjects. The average time to complete each of the four subsets of the test was analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. The results show that hand dexterity of the subjects was significantly affected by age, with young subjects being the fastest and elderly subjects the slowest. Women accomplished the test faster than men, and task performance with the dominant hand was faster than with the non-dominant hand. Use of normative values established based on age and gender is a valuable objective tool to gauge hand function in patients with different neurologic disorders.

  14. Voice Relative Fundamental Frequency via Neck-Skin Acceleration in Individuals with Voice Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lien, Yu-An S.; Calabrese, Carolyn R.; Michener, Carolyn M.; Murray, Elizabeth Heller; Van Stan, Jarrad H.; Mehta, Daryush D.; Hillman, Robert E.; Noordzij, J. Pieter; Stepp, Cara E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the use of neck-skin acceleration for relative fundamental frequency (RFF) analysis. Method: Forty individuals with voice disorders associated with vocal hyperfunction and 20 age- and sex-matched control participants were recorded with a subglottal neck-surface accelerometer and a microphone while producing speech…

  15. Depression in university students: associations with impulse control disorders.

    PubMed

    Leppink, Eric W; Lust, Katherine; Grant, Jon E

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the implications of depression in a sample of university students, particularly relating to impulse control disorders. While previous studies have shown high rates of depression among university students, no study to date has assessed whether levels of depression show associations with the incidence of impulse control disorders in this population. In all, 6000 students participated in the College Student Computer Use Survey. A total of 1717 students completed the scales of interest for this analysis. Participants were assigned to groups based on depression scores: severe (N = 75), mild/moderate (N = 647) and none (N = 995). The three groups were assessed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) or chi-square test. A multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to elucidate associations between depression and impulse control disorder diagnoses. Groups differed across demographic, health and academic variables. The severe depression group reported higher rates of skin-picking disorder, compulsive sexual behaviour and compulsive buying. Results suggest a significant association between depression and impulse control disorders. One possibility is that a facet of impulsivity contributes to both problems, which could be important information for clinicians. Future studies will need to clarify the exact nature of the relationship between depression and impulse control disorders.

  16. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and trichotillomania: a phenomenological comparison

    PubMed Central

    Lochner, Christine; Seedat, Soraya; du Toit, Pieter L; Nel, Daniel G; Niehaus, Dana JH; Sandler, Robin; Stein, Dan J

    2005-01-01

    Background Similarities between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and trichotillomania (TTM) have been widely recognized. Nevertheless, there is evidence of important differences between these two disorders. Some authors have conceptualized the disorders as lying on an OCD spectrum of conditions. Methods Two hundred and seventy eight OCD patients (n = 278: 148 male; 130 female) and 54 TTM patients (n = 54; 5 male; 49 female) of all ages were interviewed. Female patients were compared on select demographic and clinical variables, including comorbid axis I and II disorders, and temperament/character profiles. Results OCD patients reported significantly more lifetime disability, but fewer TTM patients reported response to treatment. OCD patients reported higher comorbidity, more harm avoidance and less novelty seeking, more maladaptive beliefs, and more sexual abuse. OCD and TTM symptoms were equally likely to worsen during menstruation, but OCD onset or worsening was more likely associated with pregnancy/puerperium. Conclusions These findings support previous work demonstrating significant differences between OCD and TTM. The classification of TTM as an impulse control disorder is also problematic, and TTM may have more in common with conditions characterized by stereotypical self-injurious symptoms, such as skin-picking. Differences between OCD and TTM may reflect differences in underlying psychobiology, and may necessitate contrasting treatment approaches. PMID:15649315

  17. MT2013-31: Allo HCT for Metabolic Disorders and Severe Osteopetrosis

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-01-19

    Mucopolysaccharidosis Disorders; Hurler Syndrome; Hunter Syndrome; Maroteaux Lamy Syndrome; Sly Syndrome; Alpha-Mannosidosis; Fucosidosis; Aspartylglucosaminuria; Glycoprotein Metabolic Disorders; Sphingolipidoses; Recessive Leukodystrophies; Globoid Cell Leukodystrophy; Metachromatic Leukodystrophy; Niemann-Pick B; Niemann-Pick C Subtype 2; Sphingomyelin Deficiency; Peroxisomal Disorders; Adrenoleukodystrophy With Cerebral Involvement; Zellweger Syndrome; Neonatal Adrenoleukodystrophy; Infantile Refsum Disease; Acyl-CoA Oxidase Deficiency; D-Bifunctional Enzyme Deficiency; Multifunctional Enzyme Deficiency; Alpha-methylacyl-CoA Racmase Deficiency; Mitochondrial Neurogastrointestingal Encephalopathy; Severe Osteopetrosis; Hereditary Leukoencephalopathy With Axonal Spheroids (HDLS; CSF1R Mutation); Inherited Metabolic Disorders

  18. Electronically transmitted prescriptions not picked up at pharmacies in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ax, Fredrik; Ekedahl, Anders

    2010-03-01

    Electronically transmitted prescriptions (ETPs) became common after 1995 in Sweden; however, it is accompanied by a substantial increase in the number of prescriptions not picked up at pharmacies. To investigate the "no pick-up" rates of ETPs at pharmacies across type of drug and patient age and gender and the reasons patients' report for no pick-up. A cross-sectional study examining no pick-up of ETPs transmitted during 3 months in 2002, and a mail survey of patients to determine the reasons for failure to pick-up in the county of Sörmland, Sweden, with a population of 261,000, and 21 pharmacies. Chi-square tests were used for calculations of frequency differences among groups. The overall no pick-up rate of ETPs was 2.5%; men had consistently higher rates than women. The highest rates were seen for adolescents and young adults. Rates were higher than average for antibiotics. About 60% of the answers indicated that prescriptions not picked up were duplicate prescriptions or not needed. "Unintentional nonadherence" was reported by one-fifth of patients. No pick-up rate in general was low (2.5%), but there were differences across patient age and gender, the rates being higher among adolescents and young adults. Duplicate prescriptions may explain a significant share of the abandoned prescriptions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Picking Parts Out of a Bin,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    AD-A39257 PICKING PARS OUOF A BN(U)MASSACHUSETTS INS OF 1/ TECH CAMBRIDOE ARTIFCIAL INTELLGENCE LAB HIORNET AL OCT 830 AIM-465N00014-7C-0389 UNCLA$T...0505 S. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK Artificial Intelligence Laboratory AREA A WORK UNIT NUMBERS 545...types of objects. I Massachusetts Institute of Technology Artificial Intelligence Laboratory A.I. Memo No. 746 October, 1983 Picking Parts out of a Bin

  20. Skin Conductance Responses and Neural Activations During Fear Conditioning and Extinction Recall Across Anxiety Disorders.

    PubMed

    Marin, Marie-France; Zsido, Rachel G; Song, Huijin; Lasko, Natasha B; Killgore, William D S; Rauch, Scott L; Simon, Naomi M; Milad, Mohammed R

    2017-06-01

    The fear conditioning and extinction neurocircuitry has been extensively studied in healthy and clinical populations, with a particular focus on posttraumatic stress disorder. Despite significant overlap of symptoms between posttraumatic stress disorder and anxiety disorders, the latter has received less attention. Given that dysregulated fear levels characterize anxiety disorders, examining the neural correlates of fear and extinction learning may shed light on the pathogenesis of underlying anxiety disorders. To investigate the psychophysiological and neural correlates of fear conditioning and extinction recall in anxiety disorders and to document how these features differ as a function of multiple diagnoses or anxiety severity. This investigation was a cross-sectional, case-control, functional magnetic resonance imaging study at an academic medical center. Participants were healthy controls and individuals with at least 1 of the following anxiety disorders: generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, specific phobia, and panic disorder. The study dates were between March 2013 and May 2015. Two-day fear conditioning and extinction paradigm. Skin conductance responses, blood oxygenation level-dependent responses, trait anxiety scores from the State Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait Form, and functional connectivity. This study included 21 healthy controls (10 women) and 61 individuals with anxiety disorders (36 women). P values reported for the neuroimaging results are all familywise error corrected. Skin conductance responses during extinction recall did not differ between individuals with anxiety disorders and healthy controls (ηp2 = 0.001, P = .79), where ηp2 is partial eta squared. The anxiety group had lower activation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) during extinction recall (ηp2 = 0.178, P = .02). A similar hypoactive pattern was found during early conditioning (ηp2 = 0.106, P = .009). The vmPFC hypoactivation

  1. Acral peeling skin syndrome: a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder.

    PubMed

    Pavlovic, Sasha; Krunic, Aleksandar L; Bulj, Tanja K; Medenica, Maria M; Fong, Kenneth; Arita, Ken; McGrath, John A

    2012-01-01

    Acral peeling skin syndrome (APSS) is a rare, autosomal, recessive genodermatosis characterized by painless spontaneous exfoliation of the skin of the hands and feet at a subcorneal or intracorneal level. It usually presents at birth or appears later in childhood or early adulthood. Some cases result from mutations in the TGM5 gene that encodes transglutaminase 5, which has an important role in cross-linking cornified cell envelope proteins. We report a new APSS pedigree from Jordan that contains at least 10 affected family members, although sequencing of the TGM5 gene failed to disclose any pathogenic mutation(s). On the basis of probable consanguinity, we performed homozygosity mapping and identified areas of homozygosity on chromosomes 1, 6, 10, 13, and 16, although none of the intervals contained genes of clear relevance to cornification. APSS is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder, and this Jordanian pedigree underscores the likelihood of still further heterogeneity. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Bayesian peak picking for NMR spectra.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yichen; Gao, Xin; Liang, Faming

    2014-02-01

    Protein structure determination is a very important topic in structural genomics, which helps people to understand varieties of biological functions such as protein-protein interactions, protein-DNA interactions and so on. Nowadays, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has often been used to determine the three-dimensional structures of protein in vivo. This study aims to automate the peak picking step, the most important and tricky step in NMR structure determination. We propose to model the NMR spectrum by a mixture of bivariate Gaussian densities and use the stochastic approximation Monte Carlo algorithm as the computational tool to solve the problem. Under the Bayesian framework, the peak picking problem is casted as a variable selection problem. The proposed method can automatically distinguish true peaks from false ones without preprocessing the data. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first effort in the literature that tackles the peak picking problem for NMR spectrum data using Bayesian method. Copyright © 2013. Production and hosting by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Bayesian Peak Picking for NMR Spectra

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yichen; Gao, Xin; Liang, Faming

    2013-01-01

    Protein structure determination is a very important topic in structural genomics, which helps people to understand varieties of biological functions such as protein-protein interactions, protein–DNA interactions and so on. Nowadays, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has often been used to determine the three-dimensional structures of protein in vivo. This study aims to automate the peak picking step, the most important and tricky step in NMR structure determination. We propose to model the NMR spectrum by a mixture of bivariate Gaussian densities and use the stochastic approximation Monte Carlo algorithm as the computational tool to solve the problem. Under the Bayesian framework, the peak picking problem is casted as a variable selection problem. The proposed method can automatically distinguish true peaks from false ones without preprocessing the data. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first effort in the literature that tackles the peak picking problem for NMR spectrum data using Bayesian method. PMID:24184964

  4. The spectrum of skin biopsies and excisions in a pediatric skin center.

    PubMed

    Theiler, Martin; Neuhaus, Kathrin; Kerl, Katrin; Weibel, Lisa

    2017-12-01

    Little is known about the spectrum of pediatric skin disorders requiring biopsy/excision, their indication, impact on further management, and the accuracy of clinical diagnosis. We aimed to address these questions in the patient population seen at our Swiss University referral center for Pediatric Dermatology and Plastic Surgery. All skin biopsies/excisions performed in patients aged ≤ 16 years over a period of 2 years were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 506 samples were included. The majority of biopsies/excisions (n = 413, 82%) was performed for tumors, cysts, and hamartomas and 18% for other skin conditions. Malignant tumors were found in 12 samples (2%) from four patients. In 121 (24%) patients, the histopathology had an important impact on patient management. In 80 (16%) cases, the pathology did not match with the clinical diagnosis. In 382 (75%) cases, excision was the treatment of choice. Of these, the indication for surgery was based on patient's request in 181 (47%) cases. Surgical interventions for pediatric skin disorders are performed for diagnostic and therapeutic reasons. In this cohort, histopathology was essential for treatment in one quarter of cases. Skin tumors, cysts, and hamartomas often require excision during childhood, with families' request and esthetic considerations playing an important role. What is Known: • The spectrum of pediatric skin conditions has been studied in outpatient, inpatient, and emergency settings. • In contrast, no data exist on the spectrum of pediatric skin disorders undergoing biopsy/excision specifically. What is New: • We analyze biopsies/excisions in children, focusing on diagnosis, indication, and impact on patient management. • Surgical interventions for skin disorders in children are often performed for tumors and hamartomas with esthetic considerations playing a relevant role. If used for diagnostic purposes, they are often performed to confirm or rule out severe skin disease.

  5. Automatic microseismic event picking via unsupervised machine learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yangkang

    2018-01-01

    Effective and efficient arrival picking plays an important role in microseismic and earthquake data processing and imaging. Widely used short-term-average long-term-average ratio (STA/LTA) based arrival picking algorithms suffer from the sensitivity to moderate-to-strong random ambient noise. To make the state-of-the-art arrival picking approaches effective, microseismic data need to be first pre-processed, for example, removing sufficient amount of noise, and second analysed by arrival pickers. To conquer the noise issue in arrival picking for weak microseismic or earthquake event, I leverage the machine learning techniques to help recognizing seismic waveforms in microseismic or earthquake data. Because of the dependency of supervised machine learning algorithm on large volume of well-designed training data, I utilize an unsupervised machine learning algorithm to help cluster the time samples into two groups, that is, waveform points and non-waveform points. The fuzzy clustering algorithm has been demonstrated to be effective for such purpose. A group of synthetic, real microseismic and earthquake data sets with different levels of complexity show that the proposed method is much more robust than the state-of-the-art STA/LTA method in picking microseismic events, even in the case of moderately strong background noise.

  6. In vitro skin models and tissue engineering protocols for skin graft applications.

    PubMed

    Naves, Lucas B; Dhand, Chetna; Almeida, Luis; Rajamani, Lakshminarayanan; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2016-11-30

    In this review, we present a brief introduction of the skin structure, a concise compilation of skin-related disorders, and a thorough discussion of different in vitro skin models, artificial skin substitutes, skin grafts, and dermal tissue engineering protocols. The advantages of the development of in vitro skin disorder models, such as UV radiation and the prototype model, melanoma model, wound healing model, psoriasis model, and full-thickness model are also discussed. Different types of skin grafts including allografts, autografts, allogeneic, and xenogeneic are described in detail with their associated applications. We also discuss different tissue engineering protocols for the design of various types of skin substitutes and their commercial outcomes. Brief highlights are given of the new generation three-dimensional printed scaffolds for tissue regeneration applications. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  7. Skin Complications of IBD

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Resources > Skin Complications of IBD Go Back Skin Complications of IBD Email Print + Share After arthritis, ... about 5% of people with inflammatory bowel disease. SKIN DISORDERS COMMONLY SEEN IN IBD ERHTHEMA NODOSUM The ...

  8. Clinical optical coherence tomography combined with multiphoton tomography for evaluation of several skin disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Karsten; Speicher, Marco; Bückle, Rainer; Reckfort, Julia; McKenzie, Gordon; Welzel, Julia; Koehler, Martin J.; Elsner, Peter; Kaatz, Martin

    2010-02-01

    The first clinical trial of optical coherence tomography (OCT) combined with multiphoton tomography (MPT) and dermoscopy is reported. State-of-the-art (i) OCT systems for dermatology (e.g. multibeam swept source OCT), (ii) the femtosecond laser multiphoton tomograph DermaInspectTM, and (iii) digital dermoscopes were applied to 47 patients with a diversity of skin diseases and disorders such as skin cancer, psoriasis, hemangioma, connective tissue diseases, pigmented lesions, and autoimmune bullous skin diseases. Dermoscopy, also called 'epiluminescent microscopy', provides two-dimensional color images of the skin surface. OCT imaging is based on the detection of optical reflections within the tissue measured interferometrically whereas nonlinear excitation of endogenous fluorophores and the second harmonic generation are the bases of MPT images. OCT cross sectional "wide field" image provides a typical field of view of 5 x 2 mm2 and offers fast information on the depth and the volume of the investigated lesion. In comparison, multiphoton tomography presents 0.36 x 0.36 mm2 horizontal or diagonal sections of the region of interest within seconds with submicron resolution and down to a tissue depth of 200 μm. The combination of OCT and MPT provides a synergistic optical imaging modality for early detection of skin cancer and other skin diseases.

  9. Novel Molecular Therapies for Heritable Skin Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Uitto, Jouni; Christiano, Angela M.; Irwin McLean, W. H.; McGrath, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Tremendous progress has been made in the past two decades in molecular genetics of heritable skin diseases, and pathogenic mutations have been identified in as many as 500 distinct human genes. This progress has resulted in improved diagnosis with prognostic implications, refined genetic counseling, and has formed the basis for prenatal and presymptomatic testing as well as preimplantation genetic diagnosis. However, there has been relatively little progress in developing effective and specific treatments for these often devastating diseases. Very recently, however, a number of novel molecular strategies, including gene therapy, cell-based approaches, and protein replacement therapy have been explored for treatment of these conditions. This overview will focus on the prototypic heritable blistering disorders, epidermolysis bullosa and related keratinopathies, in which significant progress has been recently made towards treatment, and illustrate how some of the translational research therapies have already entered the clinical arena. PMID:22158553

  10. Skin Conductance Responses and Neural Activations During Fear Conditioning and Extinction Recall Across Anxiety Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Marin, Marie-France; Zsido, Rachel G.; Song, Huijin; Lasko, Natasha B.; Killgore, William D. S.; Rauch, Scott L.; Simon, Naomi M.

    2017-01-01

    Importance The fear conditioning and extinction neurocircuitry has been extensively studied in healthy and clinical populations, with a particular focus on posttraumatic stress disorder. Despite significant overlap of symptoms between posttraumatic stress disorder and anxiety disorders, the latter has received less attention. Given that dysregulated fear levels characterize anxiety disorders, examining the neural correlates of fear and extinction learning may shed light on the pathogenesis of underlying anxiety disorders. Objectives To investigate the psychophysiological and neural correlates of fear conditioning and extinction recall in anxiety disorders and to document how these features differ as a function of multiple diagnoses or anxiety severity. Design, Setting, and Participants This investigation was a cross-sectional, case-control, functional magnetic resonance imaging study at an academic medical center. Participants were healthy controls and individuals with at least 1 of the following anxiety disorders: generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, specific phobia, and panic disorder. The study dates were between March 2013 and May 2015. Exposures Two-day fear conditioning and extinction paradigm. Main Outcomes and Measures Skin conductance responses, blood oxygenation level–dependent responses, trait anxiety scores from the State Trait Anxiety Inventory–Trait Form, and functional connectivity. Results This study included 21 healthy controls (10 women) and 61 individuals with anxiety disorders (36 women). P values reported for the neuroimaging results are all familywise error corrected. Skin conductance responses during extinction recall did not differ between individuals with anxiety disorders and healthy controls (ηp2 = 0.001, P = .79), where ηp2 is partial eta squared. The anxiety group had lower activation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) during extinction recall (ηp2 = 0.178, P = .02). A similar

  11. Profile of skin biopsies and patterns of skin cancer in a tertiary care center of Western Nepal.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajay; Shrestha, Prashanna Raj; Pun, Jenny; Thapa, Pratichya; Manandhar, Merina; Sathian, Brijesh

    2015-01-01

    Skin biopsy is the method to assist clinicians to make definite dermatological diagnosis which further helps in holistic management. Skin cancers are relatively rare clinical diagnosis in developing countries like Nepal, but the prevalence is on rise. To investigate the profile of skin biopsies and frequencies and pattern of skin cancers in a tertiary care centre of Western Nepal. The materials consisted of 434 biopsies (1.37%) out of 31,450 OPD visits performed in the Department of Dermatology, Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal, during the period of Dec 2011-Nov 2014. Data were collected and analyzed using SPSS-16 with reference to incidence, age, sex, race and clinical and histopathological features. The commonest disorders observed in biopsies were papulosquamous lesions, skin tuberculosis of different types, benign skin tumors, leprosy, collagen and fungal diseases. Viral diseases were rarely seen, probably due to straight forward clinical diagnosis. Dermatological malignancies accounted for 55/434 (12.67%) of biopsies. Skin disorders in general were commoner in females 280/434 (64%), including malignancies 32/55(58.2%). Mean age of patients with skin cancer was 54.5 years. Facilities for proper laboratory investigation of dermatological disorders will improve the quality of life. The most prevalent lesion in skin biopsies was papulosquamous disorders followed by skin tuberculosis of different types. Dermatological malignancy constituted 55/434 (12.67%) cases. The prevalence of skin malignancy is on rise in Nepalese society probably due to increase in life expectancy and better diagnostic services.

  12. Automatic P-S phase picking procedure based on Kurtosis: Vanuatu region case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baillard, C.; Crawford, W. C.; Ballu, V.; Hibert, C.

    2012-12-01

    Automatic P and S phase picking is indispensable for large seismological data sets. Robust algorithms, based on short term and long term average ratio comparison (Allen, 1982), are commonly used for event detection, but further improvements can be made in phase identification and picking. We present a picking scheme using consecutively Kurtosis-derived Characteristic Functions (CF) and Eigenvalue decompositions on 3-component seismic data to independently pick P and S arrivals. When computed over a sliding window of the signal, a sudden increase in the CF reveals a transition from a gaussian to a non-gaussian distribution, characterizing the phase onset (Saragiotis, 2002). One advantage of the method is that it requires much fewer adjustable parameters than competing methods. We modified the Kurtosis CF to improve pick precision, by computing the CF over several frequency bandwidths, window sizes and smoothing parameters. Once phases were picked, we determined the onset type (P or S) using polarization parameters (rectilinearity, azimuth and dip) calculated using Eigenvalue decompositions of the covariance matrix (Cichowicz, 1993). Finally, we removed bad picks using a clustering procedure and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The pick quality index was also assigned based on the SNR value. Amplitude calculation is integrated into the procedure to enable automatic magnitude calculation. We applied this procedure to data from a network of 30 wideband seismometers (including 10 oceanic bottom seismometers) in Vanuatu that ran for 10 months from May 2008 to February 2009. We manually picked the first 172 events of June, whose local magnitudes range from 0.7 to 3.7. We made a total of 1601 picks, 1094 P and 507 S. We then applied our automatic picking to the same dataset. 70% of the manually picked onsets were picked automatically. For P-picks, the difference between manual and automatic picks is 0.01 ± 0.08 s overall; for the best quality picks (quality index 0: 64

  13. New agents and approaches to treatment in Niemann-Pick type C disease.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Poyato, María S; Pineda, Mercé

    2011-06-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in either one of the two genes, NPC1 or NPC2, which encode proteins involved in the regulation of normal transport and/or processing of free cholesterol. Several types of lipids including free cholesterol (unesterified), sphingosine, sphingomyelin, phospholipids and glycosphingolipids (glucosylceramide and gangliosides GM2 and GM3) are accumulated in lysosomes and late endosomes of cells, with pronounced concentrations in the liver and the spleen. The key laboratory diagnostic test for NP-C is filliping staining of cultured skin fibroblasts from the patient, to demonstrate free cholesterol accumulation in lysosomes secondary to impaired intracellular cholesterol transport. The symptomatology and rate of disease progression are strongly influenced by age at disease onset and different clinical forms have been described on this basis: Perinatal, Early-infantile (EI), late-infantile (LI), juvenile and adult forms. Clinical symptoms include progressive neurological deterioration and visceral organomegaly. Nowadays there is no fully effective treatment, only supportive measures for relief of specific manifestations of the disease. The intervention to slow disease progression is the most promising therapy. A number of experimental disease - specific therapies, based on the molecular pathology of NP-C, have been tested in cell culture and animal models including neurosteroids, cholesterol - binding agents, curcumin and Miglustat. This paper summarizes the recent developments that have been investigated for the treatment in patients and animal models with NPC. Current therapeutic approaches have been classified based on the targeting of cellular function, the anti - apoptotic cellular mechanisms and the stem cells therapy.

  14. Fostering collaborative research for rare genetic disease: the example of niemann-pick type C disease.

    PubMed

    Walkley, Steven U; Davidson, Cristin D; Jacoby, Jonathan; Marella, Philip D; Ottinger, Elizabeth A; Austin, Christopher P; Porter, Forbes D; Vite, Charles H; Ory, Daniel S

    2016-12-01

    Rare disease represents one of the most significant issues facing the medical community and health care providers worldwide, yet the majority of these disorders never emerge from their obscurity, drawing little attention from the medical community or the pharmaceutical industry. The challenge therefore is how best to mobilize rare disease stakeholders to enhance basic, translational and clinical research to advance understanding of pathogenesis and accelerate therapy development. Here we describe a rare, fatal brain disorder known as Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) and an innovative research collaborative known as Support of Accelerated Research for NPC (SOAR-NPC) which illustrates one pathway through which knowledge of a rare disease and its possible treatments are being successfully advanced. Use of the "SOAR" mechanism, we believe, offers a blueprint for similar advancement for many other rare disorders.

  15. 38 CFR 4.130 - Schedule of ratings-mental disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Alzheimer's type 9326Dementia due to other neurologic or general medical conditions (endocrine disorders, metabolic disorders, Pick's disease, brain tumors, etc.) or that are substance-induced (drugs, alcohol...

  16. Skin problems after a tsunami.

    PubMed

    Lee, S H; Choi, C P; Eun, H C; Kwon, O S

    2006-08-01

    On December 26, 2004, the biggest earthquake for 40 years, measuring 9.0 on the Richter scale, triggered a tsunami that pounded the coastal areas of South Asia and East Africa. The effects of the tsunami on skin conditions have not been evaluated. To determine the influence of the tsunami on skin conditions by evaluating the skin problems of patients presenting at hospitals after the tsunami. Between 5 and 25 January 2005, two dermatologists evaluated patients who complained of skin problems at an outpatient clinic and emergency room of a general hospital in Banda Aceh, Aceh Province, Indonesia. The total number of patients that presented during the study period was 235 (131 males and 104 females), and they had a total of 265 skin problems. In terms of age distribution, most subjects were in their fourth decade (23.0%), followed by the third (22.6%) and fifth decade (16.6%). The most prevalent skin problems were infections-infestations (32.5%), followed by eczemas (29.8%) and traumatic skin disorders (29.4%). In males, traumatic skin disorders were most common. The great majority of infection-infestation cases involved superficial fungal infections. Contact dermatitis accounted for three-quarters of eczema cases, and mainly involved the arms (40.0%) and legs (27.1%). The majority of traumatic skin disorders were lacerations, punctures and penetrations, and the feet (44.7%) and hands (18.8%) were most frequently affected. Unhygienic conditions, exposure to a hazardous environment and contact with various objects during and after the tsunami probably increased the prevalence of infections-infestations, traumatic skin disorders and contact dermatitis. To prevent these problems and associated secondary bacterial infections, health-related education and early medical management are required.

  17. 21 CFR 872.6650 - Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene. 872.6650... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6650 Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene. (a) Identification. A massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene is a rigid, pointed device intended...

  18. Medicinal plants used for the treatment of various skin disorders by a rural community in northern Maputaland, South Africa.

    PubMed

    De Wet, Helene; Nciki, Sibongile; van Vuuren, Sandy F

    2013-07-19

    Skin diseases have been of major concern recently due to their association with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immunity Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS). The study area (northern Maputaland) has the highest HIV infection rate in South Africa, which made them more prone to a wide range of skin conditions. Fungal infections due to the hot climate and overcrowding households are common in this area, as well as burn accidents due to the use of wood as the major fuel for cooking. It is known that the lay people in this area depend on medicinal plants for their primary health care. However no survey has been done in northern Maputaland to document the medicinal plants used to treat various skin disorder. Interviews were undertaken at 80 homesteads, using structured questionnaires. The focus was on plants used for dermatological conditions and information regarding vernacular plant names, plant parts used, preparation (independently and in various combinations) and application was collected. A total of 87 lay people, both male (22%) and female (78%) were interviewed on their knowledge of medicinal plants used to treat disorders of the skin. Forty-seven plant species from 35 families were recorded in the present survey for the treatment of 11 different skin disorders including abscesses, acne, burns, boils, incisions, ringworm, rashes, shingles, sores, wounds and warts. When searching the most frequently used scientific databases (ScienceDirect, Scopus and Pubmed), nine plant species (Acacia burkei, Brachylaena discolor, Ozoroa engleri, Parinari capensis, subsp. capensis, Portulacaria afra, Sida pseudocordifolia, Solanum rigescens, Strychnos madagascariensis and Drimia delagoensis) were found to be recorded for the first time globally as a treatment for skin disorders. Fourteen plant combinations were used. Surprisingly, the application of enema's was frequently mentioned. The preference of traditional medicine over allopathic medicine by most of the

  19. Medicinal plants used for the treatment of various skin disorders by a rural community in northern Maputaland, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Skin diseases have been of major concern recently due to their association with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immunity Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS). The study area (northern Maputaland) has the highest HIV infection rate in South Africa, which made them more prone to a wide range of skin conditions. Fungal infections due to the hot climate and overcrowding households are common in this area, as well as burn accidents due to the use of wood as the major fuel for cooking. It is known that the lay people in this area depend on medicinal plants for their primary health care. However no survey has been done in northern Maputaland to document the medicinal plants used to treat various skin disorder. Methods Interviews were undertaken at 80 homesteads, using structured questionnaires. The focus was on plants used for dermatological conditions and information regarding vernacular plant names, plant parts used, preparation (independently and in various combinations) and application was collected. Results A total of 87 lay people, both male (22%) and female (78%) were interviewed on their knowledge of medicinal plants used to treat disorders of the skin. Forty-seven plant species from 35 families were recorded in the present survey for the treatment of 11 different skin disorders including abscesses, acne, burns, boils, incisions, ringworm, rashes, shingles, sores, wounds and warts. When searching the most frequently used scientific databases (ScienceDirect, Scopus and Pubmed), nine plant species (Acacia burkei, Brachylaena discolor, Ozoroa engleri, Parinari capensis, subsp. capensis, Portulacaria afra, Sida pseudocordifolia, Solanum rigescens, Strychnos madagascariensis and Drimia delagoensis) were found to be recorded for the first time globally as a treatment for skin disorders. Fourteen plant combinations were used. Surprisingly, the application of enema’s was frequently mentioned. Conclusions The preference of traditional medicine over

  20. Nail tic disorders: Manifestations, pathogenesis and management.

    PubMed

    Singal, Archana; Daulatabad, Deepashree

    2017-01-01

    Nail tic disorders are classic examples of overlap between the domains of dermatology and psychiatry. They are examples of body-focused repetitive behaviors in which there is an irresistible urge or impulse to perform a certain behavior. The behavior is reinforced as it results in some degree of relief and pleasure. Nail tic disorders are common, yet poorly studied and understood. The literature on nail tic disorders is relatively scarce. Common nail tics include nail biting or onychophagia, onychotillomania and the habit tic deformity. Some uncommon and rare nail tic disorders are onychoteiromania, onychotemnomania, onychodaknomania and bidet nails. Onychophagia is chronic nail biting behavior which usually starts during childhood. It is often regarded as a tension reducing measure. Onychotillomania is recurrent picking and manicuring of the fingernails and/or toenails. In severe cases, it may lead to onychoatrophy due to irreversible scarring of the nail matrix. Very often, they occur in psychologically normal children but may sometimes be associated with anxiety. In severe cases, onychotillomania may be an expression of obsessive-compulsive disorders. Management of nail tic disorders is challenging. Frequent applications of distasteful topical preparations on the nail and periungual skin can discourage patients from biting and chewing their fingernails. Habit-tic deformity can be helped by bandaging the digit daily with permeable adhesive tape. Fluoxetine in high doses can be helpful in interrupting these compulsive disorders in adults. For a complete diagnosis and accurate management, it is imperative to assess the patient's mental health and simultaneously treat the underlying psychiatric comorbidity, if any.

  1. Newborn Skin: Common Skin Problems.

    PubMed

    Kutlubay, Zekayi; Tanakol, Ali; Engýn, Burhan; Onel, Cristina; Sýmsek, Ersin; Serdaroglu, Server; Tuzun, Yalçýn; Yilmaz, Erkan; Eren, Bülent

    2017-01-01

    The newborn skin can be separated from adult's skin in several ways. In dermatologic examination it can be easily observed that it is thinner, less hairy and has less sweat and sebaceous gland secretions. These differentiations present especially in preterm newborns. Their skin is exposed to mechanical trauma, bacteria and weather, heat alterations. At birth, newborn skin is protected by the coverage of vernix caseosa, which has lubricating and antibacterial features and its pH ranges from 6.7 to 7.4. Beneath the vernix caseosa the skin has a pH of 5.5-6.0. In newborn dermatologic examination it is very important to distinguish transient benign dermatoses and severe diseases, make early diagnosis and treat congenital skin disorders. Although the benign cases are common in this life period, clinical presentations can be much more exaggerated, dramatic and cause a great deal of anxiety to parents. Therefore, as a doctor, knowing the dermatological, pathological and non-pathological common skin rashes guides the family in the right direction, offers advice to reduce uncertainty and time for the treatment of severe conditions and builds a confidential doctor-patient relationship. In this review, our aim is to provide a general overview to common skin rashes in newborn period.

  2. Antimicrobial activities of some selected traditional Ethiopian medicinal plants used in the treatment of skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Tadeg, Hailu; Mohammed, Endris; Asres, Kaleab; Gebre-Mariam, Tsige

    2005-08-22

    Hydroalcoholic extracts of eight species of medicinal plants, namely, Acokanthera schimperi (Apocynaceae), Calpurnia aurea (Leguminosae), Kalanchoe petitiana (Crassulaceae), Lippia adoensis (Verbenaceae), Malva parviflora (Malvaceae), Olinia rochetiana (Oliniaceae), Phytolacca dodecandra (Phytolaccaceae) and Verbascum sinaiticum (Scrophulariaceae), traditionally used in the treatment of various skin disorders were screened for antimicrobial activity against different strains of bacteria and fungi which are known to cause different types of skin infections. The tests were carried out using agar well diffusion method at three concentration levels (100, 50 and 25mg/ml) of the crude extracts. The MICs of the crude extracts of Lippia adoensis and Olinia rochetiana were determined by agar dilution method. Furthermore, the powdered leaves of Lippia adoensis and Olinia rochetiana were fractionated into different solvents of wide ranging polarity and the resulting fractions were screened for antimicrobial activity against the same organisms. Of all the plants tested, Lippia adoensis and Olinia rochetiana were found to be the most active species against bacterial and fungal strains, respectively. In addition, almost all species of plants were found to have activity on at least one microbial strain. The antimicrobial activity profile also showed that Staphylococcus aureus and Trichophyton mentagrophytes were the most susceptible bacterial and fungal strains, respectively. The results indicate the potential of these herbal drugs in treating microbial infections of the skin, thus, justifying their claimed uses in the treatment of various skin disorders, the majority of which are of infectious origin.

  3. Skin Barrier Disruption - A Requirement for Allergen Sensitization?

    PubMed Central

    De Benedetto, Anna; Kubo, Akiharu; Beck, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    For at least half a century, noninvasive techniques have been available to quantify skin barrier function, and these have shown that a number of human skin conditions and disorders are associated with defects in skin permeability. In the last decade, several genes responsible for skin barrier defects observed in both monogenetic and complex, polygenic disorders have been elucidated and functionally characterized. This has led to an explosion of work in the last six years that has identified pathways connecting epidermal barrier disruption and antigen uptake as well as the quality and/or magnitude of the antigen-specific adaptive immune response. This review will introduce the notion that diseases arise from the dynamic crosstalk that occurs between the skin barrier and immune system using atopic dermatitis or eczema as the disease prototype. Nevertheless, the concepts put forth are highly relevant to a number of antigen-driven disorders for which skin barrier is at least transiently compromised such as psoriasis, allergic contact dermatitis and blistering disorders. PMID:22217737

  4. The effect of a cryotherapy gel wrap on the microcirculation of skin affected by chronic venous disorders.

    PubMed

    Kelechi, Teresa J; Mueller, Martina; Zapka, Jane G; King, Dana E

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to investigate a cryotherapy (cooling) gel wrap applied to lower leg skin affected by chronic venous disorders to determine whether therapeutic cooling improves skin microcirculation. Chronic venous disorders are under-recognized vascular health problems that result in severe skin damage and ulcerations of the lower legs. Impaired skin microcirculation contributes to venous leg ulcer development, thus new prevention therapies should address the microcirculation to prevent venous leg ulcers. Sixty participants (n = 30 per group) were randomized to receive one of two daily 30-minute interventions for four weeks. The treatment group applied the cryotherapy gel wrap around the affected lower leg skin, or compression and elevated the legs on a special pillow each evening at bedtime. The standard care group wore compression and elevated the legs only. Laboratory pre- and post-measures included microcirculation measures of skin temperature with a thermistor, blood flow with a laser Doppler flowmeter, and venous refill time with a photoplethysmograph. Data were collected between 2008 2009 and analysed using descriptive statistics, paired t-tests or Wilcoxon signed ranks tests, logistic regression analyses, and mixed model analyses. Fifty-seven participants (treatment = 28; standard care = 29) completed the study. The mean age was 62 years, 70% female, 50% African American. In the final adjusted model, there was a statistically significant decrease in blood flow between the two groups (-6.2[-11.8; -0.6], P = 0.03). No statistically significant differences were noted in temperature or venous refill time. Study findings suggest that cryotherapy improves blood flow by slowing movement within the microcirculation and thus might potentially provide a therapeutic benefit to prevent leg ulcers. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. PICKY: a novel SVD-based NMR spectra peak picking method

    PubMed Central

    Alipanahi, Babak; Gao, Xin; Karakoc, Emre; Donaldson, Logan; Li, Ming

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: Picking peaks from experimental NMR spectra is a key unsolved problem for automated NMR protein structure determination. Such a process is a prerequisite for resonance assignment, nuclear overhauser enhancement (NOE) distance restraint assignment, and structure calculation tasks. Manual or semi-automatic peak picking, which is currently the prominent way used in NMR labs, is tedious, time consuming and costly. Results: We introduce new ideas, including noise-level estimation, component forming and sub-division, singular value decomposition (SVD)-based peak picking and peak pruning and refinement. PICKY is developed as an automated peak picking method. Different from the previous research on peak picking, we provide a systematic study of the proposed method. PICKY is tested on 32 real 2D and 3D spectra of eight target proteins, and achieves an average of 88% recall and 74% precision. PICKY is efficient. It takes PICKY on average 15.7 s to process an NMR spectrum. More important than these numbers, PICKY actually works in practice. We feed peak lists generated by PICKY to IPASS for resonance assignment, feed IPASS assignment to SPARTA for fragments generation, and feed SPARTA fragments to FALCON for structure calculation. This results in high-resolution structures of several proteins, for example, TM1112, at 1.25 Å. Availability: PICKY is available upon request. The peak lists of PICKY can be easily loaded by SPARKY to enable a better interactive strategy for rapid peak picking. Contact: mli@uwaterloo.ca PMID:19477998

  6. PICKY: a novel SVD-based NMR spectra peak picking method.

    PubMed

    Alipanahi, Babak; Gao, Xin; Karakoc, Emre; Donaldson, Logan; Li, Ming

    2009-06-15

    Picking peaks from experimental NMR spectra is a key unsolved problem for automated NMR protein structure determination. Such a process is a prerequisite for resonance assignment, nuclear overhauser enhancement (NOE) distance restraint assignment, and structure calculation tasks. Manual or semi-automatic peak picking, which is currently the prominent way used in NMR labs, is tedious, time consuming and costly. We introduce new ideas, including noise-level estimation, component forming and sub-division, singular value decomposition (SVD)-based peak picking and peak pruning and refinement. PICKY is developed as an automated peak picking method. Different from the previous research on peak picking, we provide a systematic study of the proposed method. PICKY is tested on 32 real 2D and 3D spectra of eight target proteins, and achieves an average of 88% recall and 74% precision. PICKY is efficient. It takes PICKY on average 15.7 s to process an NMR spectrum. More important than these numbers, PICKY actually works in practice. We feed peak lists generated by PICKY to IPASS for resonance assignment, feed IPASS assignment to SPARTA for fragments generation, and feed SPARTA fragments to FALCON for structure calculation. This results in high-resolution structures of several proteins, for example, TM1112, at 1.25 A. PICKY is available upon request. The peak lists of PICKY can be easily loaded by SPARKY to enable a better interactive strategy for rapid peak picking.

  7. Appearance-related bullying and skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Magin, Parker

    2013-01-01

    Bullying encompasses verbal aggression, physical aggression, and social exclusion. It involves "harm-doing" that is carried out repeatedly, over time, and within a relationship, involving a power imbalance between the bully and the bullied. Being bullied may have considerable adverse sequelae, including psychologic or psychiatric harm. Much bullying is appearance-related, and it would be surprising if some individuals with skin disease were not bullied given the high visibility of skin diseases. The limited evidence available does suggest that individuals with skin disease, particularly those with acne, psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis, are often bullied, which can adversely affect them psychologically. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Stem cells and niemann pick disease.

    PubMed

    Andolina, Marino

    2014-05-01

    Niemann Pick A disease causes a progressive accumulation of sphyngomyelin in several organs and the survival of the patients is usually limited to three years. We describe the outcome of a patient suffering from Niemann Pick A disease, who first underwent an haploidentical bone marrow transplantation, and then intrathecal and I.V injections of mesenchymal cells. While the outcome of bone marrow transplantation was a complete failure, one month after the treatment with the mesenchymal cells the patient improved from the psychomotor and the parenchymal storage perspective. When hypersplenism was solved platelets rose quickly from 20,000 to 120,000/microliter. Therefore cellular therapy should be considered as a possible choice of treatment of NPA disease.

  9. Skin diseases in rural Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Paek, So Yeon; Koriakos, Angie; Saxton-Daniels, Stephanie; Pandya, Amit G

    2012-07-01

    There are no known reports of the frequency of skin diseases endemic to rural Yucatan, Mexico. The aim of this study was to report the prevalence of dermatologic conditions in rural villages in that region. We conducted a retrospective descriptive study of all cases of skin disease diagnosed by a team of American board-certified dermatologists during consultations in January 2009, August 2009, and June 2010, in the state of Yucatan, Mexico. Traveling clinics were held in eight different rural locations. Age, sex, and diagnosis, according to history and physical examination, were recorded for each patient. A total of 1071 cases of skin disease were seen in 858 patients. The frequency of parasitic, viral, and fungal infections was 34.5%. Dermatitis and eczema (24.6%) were the next most prevalent conditions, followed by disorders of skin appendages (12.2%), photosensitivity disorders (5.4%), papulosquamous disorders (3.2%), urticaria and erythema (1.5%), bacterial infections of the skin and subcutaneous tissue (1.2%), and neoplastic disorders (2.1%). The most frequently seen single diagnoses were viral warts (12.2%), scabies (8.7%), acne (7.4%), dermatophytosis (6.8%), contact dermatitis (3.5%), and nummular eczema (3.5%). Infectious diseases, acne, and eczemas are the most common skin disorders seen in dermatology clinics in rural Yucatan, Mexico. Our findings may be useful in the development of public health initiatives targeting rural communities in this region. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  10. An updated review of mechanotransduction in skin disorders: transcriptional regulators, ion channels, and microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Yifan; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Chuandong; Herrler, Tanja; Li, Qingfeng

    2015-06-01

    The skin is constantly exposed and responds to a wide range of biomechanical cues. The mechanobiology of skin has already been known and applied by clinicians long before the fundamental molecular mechanisms of mechanotransduction are elucidated. Despite increasing knowledge on the mediators of biomechanical signaling such as mitogen-associated protein kinases, Rho GTPases or FAK-ERK pathways, the key elements of mechano-responses transcription factors, and mechano-sensors remain unclear. Recently, canonical biochemical components of Hippo and Wnt signaling pathway YAP and β-catenin were found to exhibit undefined mechanical sensitivity. Mechanical forces were identified to be the dominant regulators of YAP/TAZ activity in a multicellular context. Furthermore, different voltage or ligand sensitive ion channels in the cell membrane exhibited their mechanical sensitivity as mechano-sensors. Additionally, a large number of microRNAs have been confirmed to regulate cellular behavior and contribute to various skin disorders under mechanical stimuli. Mechanosensitive (MS) microRNAs could not only be activated by distinct mechanical force pattern, but also responsively target MS sensors such as e-cadherin and cytoskeleton constituent RhoA. Thus, a comprehensive understanding of this regulatory network of cutaneous mechanotransduction will facilitate the development of novel approaches to wound healing, hypertrophic scar formation, skin regeneration, and the progression or initiation of skin diseases.

  11. The spectrum of skin diseases in a rural setting in Cameroon (sub-Saharan Africa).

    PubMed

    Bissek, Anne-Cécile Zoung-Kanyi; Tabah, Earnest Njih; Kouotou, Emmanuel; Sini, Victor; Yepnjio, Faustin N; Nditanchou, Rogers; Nchufor, Roland N; Defo, Defo; Dema, Fidèle; Fonsah, Julius Y; Njamnshi, Alfred K; Muna, Walinjom F T

    2012-06-21

    Skin disorders are generally considered to be more prevalent in the rural areas of Cameroon. This study was carried out to verify this assumption by describing the spectrum of skin disorders in a rural setting of Cameroon. We carried out a community-based clinical skin examination of 400 consenting subjects from 4 villages of Cameroon: Nyamanga (27%), Yebekolo (24%), Mbangassina (23%) and Bilomo (26%). The overall prevalence of skin diseases in our sample was 62% {95% CI: 57.2%, 66.8%} (248/400). The commonest skin disorders were: fungal infections (25.4%), parasitic infestations (21.4%), atrophic skin disorders (11.7%), hypertrophic skin disorders (9.7%), disorders of skin appendages {acne} (8.9%), benign neoplasm (6.5%), bacterial skin infections (5.2%), pigmentation disorders (4.8%), and dermatitis/eczema (4.0%). Skin infections and infestations constituted 52.82% of all skin disorders. The overall prevalence of infectious and parasitic infestation was 32.75% {95%CI: 28.17%, 37.59%} (131/400) as against 29.25% {95%CI: 24.83%, 33.98%} (117/400) for non-infectious disorders.Among people with skin infections/parasitic infestations, those with fungal infections and onchocercal skin lesions were the most prevalent, accounting for 48.1% (63/131) and 35.1% (46/131); and an overall prevalence of 15.75% {95%CI: 12.3%, 19.7%} (63/400) and 11.5% {95%CI: 8.5%, 15.0%} (46/400) respectively.There was secondary bacterial infection in 12.1% {95%CI: 8.31%, 16.82%} (30/248) of subjects with skin diseases. Hypertrophic and atrophic disorders of the skin were mainly keloids (9.68%), scarification marks (6.05%) and burn scars (5.65%). Skin diseases like dermatitis and eczema (4.03%), malignant tumours and pigmentation disorders were rare in our sample.The proportion of subjects diagnosed with skin disorders after examination (62.8%) was significantly higher than the proportion of 40.8% that declared having skin diseases (p < 0.0001). The prevalence of skin diseases in the rural

  12. Stem Cells and Niemann Pick Disease

    PubMed Central

    Andolina, Marino

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Niemann Pick A disease causes a progressive accumulation of sphyngomyelin in several organs and the survival of the patients is usually limited to three years. We describe the outcome of a patient suffering from Niemann Pick A disease, who first underwent an haploidentical bone marrow transplantation, and then intrathecal and I.V injections of mesenchymal cells. Methods and Results: While the outcome of bone marrow transplantation was a complete failure, one month after the treatment with the mesenchymal cells the patient improved from the psychomotor and the parenchymal storage perspective. When hypersplenism was solved platelets rose quickly from 20,000 to 120,000/microliter. Conclusions: Therefore cellular therapy should be considered as a possible choice of treatment of NPA disease. PMID:24921025

  13. Epstein-Barr virus-associated T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder affecting skin and lung in an elderly patient.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Tomomi; Tatsuno, Kazuki; Shimauchi, Takatoshi; Okada, Satoko; Ito, Taisuke; Ono, Takaaki; Ohshima, Koichi; Tokura, Yoshiki

    2014-09-01

    A 70-year-old man presented with papular skin lesions and was diagnosed with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder (T-LPD). The patient showed infiltration of a large number of EBV-encoded RNA-positive T cells in the skin and lung, presence of EBV load in the peripheral blood, and expansion of clonal EBV-infected γδ T cells and CD8(+) T cells in the blood and skin, as assessed by EBV-terminal repeat Southern blot, T-cell receptor polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometric analyses. In the Japanese or East Asian fatal cases of EBV-associated T/natural killer (NK)-LPD, there are two peaks in age at death, approximately 20 years and 60 years. The former age group is associated with chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV), and the latter group typically suffers from extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma. Our case is characterized not only by the unique skin and lung manifestations but also the late onset age of the disease, indicating that the skin manifestation of CAEBV can be seen even in elderly patients. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  14. Measuring Misinformation in Repeat Trial Pick 1 of 2 Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Pamela W.; Buchanan, Bruce

    1992-01-01

    An extension is described to a product-testing model to account for misinformation among subjects that would lead them to perform incorrectly on "pick one of two" tests. The model is applied to a data set of 367 subjects picking 1 of 2 colas. Misinformation does exist. (SLD)

  15. Pick-up and impact of flexible bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, H.; Hanna, J. A.

    2017-09-01

    Picking up, laying down, colliding, rolling, and peeling are partial-contact interactions involving moving discontinuities. We examine the balances of momentum and energy across a moving discontinuity in a string, with allowance for injection or dissipation by singular supplies. We split the energy dissipation according to its invariance properties, discuss analogies with systems of particles and connections with the literature on shocks and phase transition fronts in various bodies, and derive a compatibility relation between supplies of momentum and translation-invariant energy. For a moving contact discontinuity between a string and a smooth rigid plane in the presence of gravity, we find a surprising asymmetry between the processes of picking up and laying down, such that steady-state kinks in geometry and associated jumps in tension are not admissible during pick-up. This prediction is consistent with experimental observations. We briefly discuss related problems including the falling folded chain, peeling of an adhesive tape, and the "chain fountain". Our approach is applicable to the study of impact and locomotion, and to systems such as moored floating structures and some musical instruments that feature vibrating string and cable elements interacting with a surface.

  16. Picking the Right Horse? Dominant Maneuver in the Twenty-First Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-05

    SUBTITLE Picking the Right Horse ? Dominant Maneuver in the Twenty-First Century 6.AUTH0RIS) Major Steven D. Russell, U.S. Army 7. PERFORMING...Z39-18 298-102 PICKING THE RIGHT HORSE ? DOMINANT MANEUVER IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command...unlimited. wc«’*u»»»«aBI PICKING THE RIGHT HORSE ? DOMINANT MANEUVER IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army

  17. Automated Interval velocity picking for Atlantic Multi-Channel Seismic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vishwajit

    2016-04-01

    This paper described the challenge in developing and testing a fully automated routine for measuring interval velocities from multi-channel seismic data. Various approaches are employed for generating an interactive algorithm picking interval velocity for continuous 1000-5000 normal moveout (NMO) corrected gather and replacing the interpreter's effort for manual picking the coherent reflections. The detailed steps and pitfalls for picking the interval velocities from seismic reflection time measurements are describe in these approaches. Key ingredients these approaches utilized for velocity analysis stage are semblance grid and starting model of interval velocity. Basin-Hopping optimization is employed for convergence of the misfit function toward local minima. SLiding-Overlapping Window (SLOW) algorithm are designed to mitigate the non-linearity and ill- possessedness of root-mean-square velocity. Synthetic data case studies addresses the performance of the velocity picker generating models perfectly fitting the semblance peaks. A similar linear relationship between average depth and reflection time for synthetic model and estimated models proposed picked interval velocities as the starting model for the full waveform inversion to project more accurate velocity structure of the subsurface. The challenges can be categorized as (1) building accurate starting model for projecting more accurate velocity structure of the subsurface, (2) improving the computational cost of algorithm by pre-calculating semblance grid to make auto picking more feasible.

  18. Pick's Theorem: What a Lemon!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Alan R.

    2004-01-01

    Pick's theorem can be used in various ways just like a lemon. This theorem generally finds its way in the syllabus approximately at the middle school level and in fact at times students have even calculated the area of a state considering its outline with the help of the above theorem.

  19. PAL-XFEL cavity beam position monitor pick-up design and beam test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sojeong; Park, Young Jung; Kim, Changbum; Kim, Seung Hwan; Shin, Dong Cheol; Han, Jang-Hui; Ko, In Soo

    2016-08-01

    As an X-ray Free Electron Laser, PAL-XFEL is about to start beam commissioning. X-band cavity beam position monitor (BPM) is used in the PAL-XFEL undulator beam line. Prototypes of cavity BPM pick-up were designed and fabricated to test the RF characteristics. Also, the beam test of a cavity BPM pick-up was done in the Injector Test Facility (ITF). In the beam test, the raw signal properties of the cavity BPM pick-up were measured at a 200 pC bunch charge. According to the RF test and beam test results, the prototype cavity BPM pick-up design was confirmed to meet the requirements of the PAL-XFEL cavity BPM system.

  20. Efficacy of the “pick and roll” offense in top level European basketball teams

    PubMed Central

    Marmarinos, Christos; Kostopoulos, Nikolaos; Apostolidis, Alexandros

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Team offense in basketball games consists of a set of offensive actions carried out with the cooperation of two or more players. Of these actions, the most commonly used in the last decade is the on-ball screen called the “pick and roll.” The aim of this study was to analyze all of the pick and rolls conducted in the Euroleague championship from all of the 24 participating teams and to investigate the possible relationships between success in the pick and roll and overall success of the teams. For this purpose, 12,376 pick and rolls from 502 matches were analyzed and classified in categories according to the end result of the offensive possession. The results showed that the most effective type of pick and roll offense was when a shot was attempted after 2 passes from the pick and roll occurrence, followed by the screener’s shot when he rolled to the basket. Additionally, linear regression analysis confirmed that pick and roll effectiveness could predict the final classification of the teams. Conclusively, coaches of the high level European clubs should focus on training the players to the most efficient phases of the pick and roll offense, so that the chances of winning the championship to be maximized. PMID:28149375

  1. Skin manifestations of growth hormone-induced diseases.

    PubMed

    Kanaka-Gantenbein, Christina; Kogia, Christina; Abdel-Naser, Mohamed Badawy; Chrousos, George P

    2016-09-01

    The human skin is a well-organized organ bearing different types of cells in a well-structured interference to each other including epidermal and follicular keratinocytes, sebocytes, melanocytes, dermal papilla cells and fibroblasts, endothelial cells, sweat gland cells as well as nerves. Several hormones act on different cell types of the skin, while it is also considered an endocrine organ secreting hormones that act at several sites of the organism. GH receptors are found in almost all cell types forming the skin, while IGF-1 receptors' expression is restricted to the epidermal keratinocytes. Both Growth Hormone (GH) excess, as in the case of Acromegaly in adults, or Gigantism in growing children, and GH deficiency states lead to skin manifestations. In case of GH excess the main dermatological findings are skin thickening, coarsening of facial features, acrochordons, puffy hands and feet, oily skin and hyperhidrosis, while GH deficiency, on the contrary, is characterized by thin, dry skin and disorder of normal sweating. Moreover, special disorders associated with GH excess may have specific characteristics, as is the case of café-au-lait spots in Neurofibromatosis, or big café-au-lait skin hyperpigmented regions with irregular margins, as is the case in McCune-Albright syndrome. Meticulous examination of the skin may therefore contribute to the final diagnosis in cases of GH-induced disorders.

  2. Fast first arrival picking algorithm for noisy microseismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dowan; Byun, Joongmoo; Lee, Minho; Choi, Jihoon; Kim, Myungsun

    2017-01-01

    Most microseismic events occur during hydraulic fracturing. Thus microseismic monitoring, by recording seismic waves from microseismic events, is one of the best methods for locating the positions of hydraulic fractures. However, since microseismic events have very low energy, the data often have a low signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ratio) and it is not easy to pick the first arrival time. In this study, we suggest a new fast picking method optimised for noisy data using cross-correlation and stacking. In this method, a reference trace is selected and the time differences between the first arrivals of the reference trace and those of the other traces are computed by cross-correlation. Then, all traces are aligned with the reference trace by time shifting, and the aligned traces are summed together to produce a stacked reference trace that has a considerably improved S/N ratio. After the first arrival time of the stacked reference trace is picked, the first arrival time of each trace is calculated automatically using the time differences obtained in the cross-correlation process. In experiments with noisy synthetic data and field data, this method produces more reliable results than the traditional method, which picks the first arrival time of each noisy trace separately. In addition, the computation time is dramatically reduced.

  3. Skills and offensive tactics used in pick-up basketball games.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianyu; Liu, Wenhao; Moffit, Jeffrey

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe skills and offensive tactics frequently used in pick-up basketball games. 65 participants were recruited from public basketball courts. An observational instrument was developed to analyze the performances of pick-up games. Participants' performances were videotaped and coded. Results indicated that the passing skills most frequently observed in the games were chest pass, overhead pass, and bounce pass. For dribbling, crossover dribble and change-of-pace dribble were frequently observed. Jump shot, set shot, and layup were also frequently used. The offensive tactics frequently used included drive, cut, and set screen. The study may be beneficial for helping young people prepare to play pick-up basketball games.

  4. Pick a Number ... Any Number?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Jacob V., Jr.; Price, Barbara A.

    2005-01-01

    A recent classroom revelation caused us to reconsider the adequacy of the instructions offered in our textbooks for one of our most elementary quantitative methods. Specifically, we found that many students were mystified concerning how to pick an initial objective function value when plotting an isoprofit line in order to graphically solve a…

  5. Implicit Recognition of Familiar and Unfamiliar Faces in Schizophrenia: A Study of the Skin Conductance Response in Familiarity Disorders.

    PubMed

    Ameller, Aurely; Picard, Aline; D'Hondt, Fabien; Vaiva, Guillaume; Thomas, Pierre; Pins, Delphine

    2017-01-01

    Familiarity is a subjective sensation that contributes to person recognition. This process is described as an emotion-based memory-trace of previous meetings and could be disrupted in schizophrenia. Consequently, familiarity disorders could be involved in the impaired social interactions observed in patients with schizophrenia. Previous studies have primarily focused on famous people recognition. Our aim was to identify underlying features, such as emotional disturbances, that may contribute to familiarity disorders in schizophrenia. We hypothesize that patients with familiarity disorders will exhibit a lack of familiarity that could be detected by a flattened skin conductance response (SCR). The SCR was recorded to test the hypothesis that emotional reactivity disturbances occur in patients with schizophrenia during the categorization of specific familiar, famous and unknown faces as male or female. Forty-eight subjects were divided into the following 3 matched groups with 16 subjects per group: control subjects, schizophrenic people with familiarity disorder, and schizophrenic people without familiarity disorders. Emotional arousal is reflected by the skin conductance measures. The control subjects and the patients without familiarity disorders experienced a differential emotional response to the specific familiar faces compared with that to the unknown faces. Nevertheless, overall, the schizophrenic patients without familiarity disorders showed a weaker response across conditions compared with the control subjects. In contrast, the patients with familiarity disorders did not show any significant differences in their emotional response to the faces, regardless of the condition. Only patients with familiarity disorders fail to exhibit a difference in emotional response between familiar and non-familiar faces. These patients likely emotionally process familiar faces similarly to unknown faces. Hence, the lower feelings of familiarity in schizophrenia may be a

  6. Recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of niemann-pick disease type C in children: a guide to early diagnosis for the general pediatrician.

    PubMed

    Alobaidy, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Niemann-Pick disease (NP-C) is a lysosomal storage disease in which impaired intracellular lipid transport leads to accumulation of cholesterol and glycosphingolipids in various neurovisceral tissues. It is an autosomal recessive disorder, caused by mutations in the NPC1 or NPC2 genes. The clinical spectrum is grouped by the age of onset and onset of neurological manifestation: pre/perinatal; early infantile; late infantile; and juvenile periods. The NP-C Suspicion Index (SI) screening tool was developed to identify suspected patients with this disease. It is especially good at recognizing the disease in patients older than four years of age. Biochemical tests involving genetic markers and Filipin staining of skin fibroblast are being employed to assist diagnosis. Therapy is mostly supportive and since 2009, the first specific therapy approved for use was Miglustat (Zavesca) aimed at stabilizing the rate of progression of neurological manifestation. The prognosis correlates with age at onset of neurological signs; patients with early onset form progress faster. The NP-C disease has heterogeneous neurovisceral manifestations. A SI is a screening tool that helps in diagnostic process. Filipin staining test is a specific biomarker diagnostic test. Miglustat is the first disease-specific therapy.

  7. Enhancing seismic P phase arrival picking based on wavelet denoising and kurtosis picker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Xueyi; Li, Xibing; Weng, Lei

    2018-01-01

    P phase arrival picking of weak signals is still challenging in seismology. A wavelet denoising is proposed to enhance seismic P phase arrival picking, and the kurtosis picker is applied on the wavelet-denoised signal to identify P phase arrival. It has been called the WD-K picker. The WD-K picker, which is different from those traditional wavelet-based pickers on the basis of a single wavelet component or certain main wavelet components, takes full advantage of the reconstruction of main detail wavelet components and the approximate wavelet component. The proposed WD-K picker considers more wavelet components and presents a better P phase arrival feature. The WD-K picker has been evaluated on 500 micro-seismic signals recorded in the Chinese Yongshaba mine. The comparison between the WD-K pickings and manual pickings shows the good picking accuracy of the WD-K picker. Furthermore, the WD-K picking performance has been compared with the main detail wavelet component combining-based kurtosis (WDC-K) picker, the single wavelet component-based kurtosis (SW-K) picker, and certain main wavelet component-based maximum kurtosis (MMW-K) picker. The comparison has demonstrated that the WD-K picker has better picking accuracy than the other three-wavelet and kurtosis-based pickers, thus showing the enhanced ability of wavelet denoising.

  8. Analysis of photodynamic therapy applied to skin disorders by a topical photosensitizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanjul-Vélez, F.; Romanov, O. G.; López-Escobar, M.; Rodriguez-Colmenares, M. A.; Ortega-Quijano, N.; Arce-Diego, J. L.

    2008-11-01

    Optical treatment of pathological tissues comprises techniques like Low Intensity Laser Treatment (LILT) or Photodynamic Therapy (PDT). PDT consists on the inoculation of a photosensitizer in the tissue, which tends to be accumulated in cancerous cells, and on the posterior optical radiation of the area. The photosensitizer, that can be topical or systemic, is excited and cell necrosis is provoked. The collateral harmful effects of other destructive techniques, like radiotherapy or chemotherapy, are avoided with PDT. PDT can also be used as a complementary technique of conventional excisional surgical operations. The application of PDT to skin disorders is straightforward due to the fact that it is an external and accessible tissue. In this work, we analyze the application of PDT to several skin pathologies and the results obtained, by means of mainly the usage of MetvixR as a topical photosensitizer and with an optical source in the range of 635 nm. The analysis includes a predictive model of the PDT process, based on an optical propagation equation and a photosensitizer degradation approach that provides an estimation of tissue destruction.

  9. Topical use of dexpanthenol in skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Ebner, Fritz; Heller, Andreas; Rippke, Frank; Tausch, Irene

    2002-01-01

    Pantothenic acid is essential to normal epithelial function. It is a component of coenzyme A, which serves as a cofactor for a variety of enzyme-catalyzed reactions that are important in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fatty acids, proteins, gluconeogenesis, sterols, steroid hormones, and porphyrins. The topical use of dexpanthenol, the stable alcoholic analog of pantothenic acid, is based on good skin penetration and high local concentrations of dexpanthenol when administered in an adequate vehicle, such as water-in-oil emulsions. Topical dexpanthenol acts like a moisturizer, improving stratum corneum hydration, reducing transepidermal water loss and maintaining skin softness and elasticity. Activation of fibroblast proliferation, which is of relevance in wound healing, has been observed both in vitro and in vivo with dexpanthenol. Accelerated re-epithelization in wound healing, monitored by means of the transepidermal water loss as an indicator of the intact epidermal barrier function, has also been seen. Dexpanthenol has been shown to have an anti-inflammatory effect on experimental ultraviolet-induced erythema. Beneficial effects of dexpanthenol have been observed in patients who have undergone skin transplantation or scar treatment, or therapy for burn injuries and different dermatoses. The stimulation of epithelization, granulation and mitigation of itching were the most prominent effects of formulations containing dexpanthenol. In double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trials, dexpanthenol was evaluated for its efficacy in improving wound healing. Epidermal wounds treated with dexpanthenol emulsion showed a reduction in erythema, and more elastic and solid tissue regeneration. Monitoring of transepidermal water loss showed a significant acceleration of epidermal regeneration as a result of dexpanthenol therapy, as compared with the vehicle. In an irritation model, pretreatment with dexpanthenol cream resulted in significantly less damage to the stratum

  10. Membrane Localization is Critical for Activation of the PICK1 BAR Domain

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Kenneth L.; Eriksen, Jacob; Milan-Lobo, Laura; Han, Daniel S.; Niv, Masha Y.; Ammendrup-Johnsen, Ina; Henriksen, Ulla; Bhatia, Vikram K.; Stamou, Dimitrios; Sitte, Harald H.; McMahon, Harvey T.; Weinstein, Harel; Gether, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    The PSD-95/Discs-large/ZO-1 homology (PDZ) domain protein, protein interacting with C kinase 1 (PICK1) contains a C-terminal Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain mediating recognition of curved membranes; however, the molecular mechanisms controlling the activity of this domain are poorly understood. In agreement with negative regulation of the BAR domain by the N-terminal PDZ domain, PICK1 distributed evenly in the cytoplasm, whereas truncation of the PDZ domain caused BAR domain-dependent redistribution to clusters colocalizing with markers of recycling endosomal compartments. A similar clustering was observed both upon truncation of a short putative α-helical segment in the linker between the PDZ and the BAR domains and upon coexpression of PICK1 with a transmembrane PDZ ligand, including the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor GluR2 subunit, the GluR2 C-terminus transferred to the single transmembrane protein Tac or the dopamine transporter C-terminus transferred to Tac. In contrast, transfer of the GluR2 C-terminus to cyan fluorescent protein, a cytosolic protein, did not elicit BAR domain-dependent clustering. Instead, localizing PICK1 to the membrane by introducing an N-terminal myristoylation site produced BAR domain-dependent, but ligand-independent, PICK1 clustering. The data support that in the absence of PDZ ligand, the PICK1 BAR domain is inhibited through a PDZ domain-dependent and linker-dependent mechanism. Moreover, they suggest that unmasking of the BAR domain’s membrane-binding capacity is not a consequence of ligand binding to the PDZ domain per se but results from, and coincides with, recruitment of PICK1 to a membrane compartment. PMID:18466293

  11. Musculoskeletal disorders and skin disease among workers in a Japanese CD manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Smith, Derek Richard; Takeda, Yasuhisa; Mizutani, Takashi; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2002-12-01

    We investigated the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) and skin disease within a Japanese compact disk (CD) manufacturing plant. For this study, a stratified cross-section of workers completed self-reported questionnaires distributed over a 6-month time period. Low back pain (LBP) was the most commonly reported category (affecting 20.1%), followed by MSD of the shoulder (15.4%), neck (10.1%) and head (5.4%). Dermatitis was the most frequent skin disease (affecting 8.1%), followed by eczema (3.4%), acne (3.4%) and xerosis (2.7%). The odds of suffering neck MSD was 10.8 times higher among staff who sat in a chair all day (95% CI 1.8-112.8, P < 0.05). Standing all day was also a risk factor for this condition (OR 8.2, 95% CI 1.2-81.7, P < 0.05). Female gender increased the risk of shoulder MSD 4.3 fold (95% CI 1.4-13.7, P < 0.05), as did alcohol consumption (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.1-11.9, P < 0.05). The odds of suffering any skin disease were significantly enhanced by working longer than 12 months in one's current job (OR 10.7, 95% CI 1.5-7.3, P < 0.05) and having a history of atopic disease (OR 7.2, 95% CI 2.6-21.4, P < 0.001). Overall, the staff within our study reported generally lower levels of MSD and skin disease than in previous investigations of other workplaces.

  12. Photodynamic Therapy and Skin Appendage Disorders: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Megna, Matteo; Fabbrocini, Gabriella; Marasca, Claudio; Monfrecola, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a noninvasive treatment that utilizes light treatment along with application of a photosensitizing agent. In dermatology, PDT is commonly used and approved for the treatment of oncological conditions such as actinic keratosis, Bowen disease and superficial basal cell carcinoma. In the last 2 decades however, PDT has also been used for the treatment of several nonneoplastic dermatological diseases. The present review summarizes published data on PDT application in skin appendage disorders. Our literature review shows that: (a) PDT may be a suitable treatment for acne, folliculitis decalvans, hidradenitis suppurativa, nail diseases, and sebaceous hyperplasia; (b) there is a lack of agreement on PDT features (type, concentrations and incubation period of used substances, number and frequency of PDT sessions, optimal parameters of light sources, and patient characteristics [e.g., failure to previous treatments, disease severity, body surface area involved, etc.] which should guide PDT use in these diseases); (c) further research is needed to establish international guidelines helping dermatologists to choose PDT for the right patient at the right time. PMID:28232927

  13. Cyclic peptides as potential therapeutic agents for skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Namjoshi, Sarika; Benson, Heather A E

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing understanding of the role of peptides in normal skin function and skin disease. With this knowledge, there is significant interest in the application of peptides as therapeutics in skin disease or as cosmeceuticals to enhance skin appearance. In particular, antimicrobial peptides and those involved in inflammatory processes provide options for the development of new therapeutic directions in chronic skin conditions such as psoriasis and dermatitis. To exploit their potential, it is essential that these peptides are delivered to their site of action in active form and in sufficient quantity to provide the desired effect. Many polymers permeate the skin poorly and are vulnerable to enzymatic degradation. Synthesis of cyclic peptide derivatives can substantially alter the physicochemical characteristics of the peptide with the potential to improve its skin permeation. In addition, cyclization can stabilize the peptide structure and thereby increase its stability. This review describes the role of cyclic peptides in the skin, examples of current cyclic peptide therapeutic products, and the potential for cyclic peptides as dermatological therapeutics and cosmeceuticals.

  14. Skin diseases in geriatric patients: our experience from a public skin outpatient clinic in Siena.

    PubMed

    Rubegni, P; Poggiali, S; Nami, N; Rubegni, M; Fimiani, M

    2012-12-01

    With the progressive aging of the Italian population, geriatric health care has become a major issue for health authorities. However, little data is available regarding geriatric skin diseases. In order to provide rapid access to specialist help, in 2003 we created a dermatology clinic dedicated only to geriatric patients age 65 and older. To determine the characteristic pattern and the prevalence of various skin disorders among the geriatric patients seen at the clinic, we performed a retrospective and descriptive study of all skin diseases in patients seen in our office from January 2003 to December 2009. We evaluated: age, proportion and gender for all skin disease categories. A total of 2100 geriatric patients were examined. The male to female ratio was 1.4 to 1. The most common disorder was pruritus "sine materia" (18.9%) followed by benign tumors (13.5%); 9.1% of our patients presented with actinic keratoses and 13.2% with malignant tumors. As reported by others, the quality of life in patients with skin cancer was better than patients with rashes as skin cancer patients tended to wait longer before seeking specialist care. To improve the assessment of skin diseases, we often worked closely with The prevalence of skin diseases in our patients emphasized the importance of educating the elderly about sun protection, the early detection of skin cancer, the use of emollients and proper skin care in general.

  15. How 'ground-picked' olive fruits affect virgin olive oil ethanol content, ethyl esters and quality.

    PubMed

    Beltran, Gabriel; Sánchez, Raquel; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Aguilera, Maria P; Bejaoui, Mohamed A; Jimenez, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Olives dropped on the ground naturally sometimes are not separated from those fresh and healthy collected from the tree for harvest and processing. In this work we compared the quality, ethanol content and bioactive components of virgin olive oils from ground-picked olives, tree-picked fruits and their mixture. Ground-picked olives produced 'Lampante' virgin olive oils; these are of a lower quality category, because of important alterations in chemical and sensory characteristics. Ethyl esters showed the highest values, although under the regulated limit. The mixture of ground and tree-picked olives gave oils classified as 'virgin' because of sensory defects, although the quality parameters did not exceed the limits for the 'extra' category. Ethanol content showed a significant increase in the oils from ground- picked olives and their mixture with respect to those from tree-picked fruits. Furthermore, bioactive compounds showed a significant decrease as fruit quality was poorer. Ground-picked olives must be harvested and processed separately since they produce low-quality virgin olive oils with sensory defects and lower concentrations of bioactive compounds. The higher acidity and ethanol concentration observed in oils from ground-picked fruits or their mixture may help ethyl ester synthesis during storage. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. The class characteristic mark of the H&M Mul-T-Lock picking tool in toolmarks examination.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Nikolai; Finkelstein, Nir; Novoselsky, Yehuda; Tsach, Tsadok

    2014-07-01

    Mul-T-Lock is a high security lock cylinder distinguished by the use of a telescoping "pin-in-pin"-tumbler design. Picking the Mul-T-Lock cylinder with a traditional picking tool is highly complicated because it can get stuck between the inner and outer pins. The H&M Mul-T-Lock picking tool was designed to overcome this problem and facilitate the picking of the "pin-in-pin" cylinder. The purpose of this research is to determine whether H&M Mul-T-Lock picking tool leaves class characteristic mark and whether it can be distinguished from traditional picking tools marks and from regular key marks. It also describes and determines the class characteristic mark left on telescopic pins, its origin, recurrence, and its benefit to the toolmarks examiner. When receiving a Mul-T-Lock from a crime scene, a toolmarks examiner can quickly determine whether or not it was picked by an H&M Mul-T-Lock picking tool by noticing the class characteristic mark which this typical tool leaves. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Skin blotting: a noninvasive technique for evaluating physiological skin status.

    PubMed

    Minematsu, Takeo; Horii, Motoko; Oe, Makoto; Sugama, Junko; Mugita, Yuko; Huang, Lijuan; Nakagami, Gojiro; Sanada, Hiromi

    2014-06-01

    The skin performs important structural and physiological functions, and skin assessment represents an important step in identifying skin problems. Although noninvasive techniques for assessing skin status exist, no such techniques for monitoring its physiological status are available. This study aimed to develop a novel skin-assessment technique known as skin blotting, based on the leakage of secreted proteins from inside the skin following overhydration in mice. The applicability of this technique was further investigated in a clinical setting. Skin blotting involves 2 steps: collecting proteins by attaching a damp nitrocellulose membrane to the surface of the skin, and immunostaining the collected proteins. The authors implanted fluorescein-conjugated dextran (F-DEX)-containing agarose gels into mice and detected the tissue distribution of F-DEX under different blotting conditions. They also analyzed the correlations between inflammatory cytokine secretion and leakage following ultraviolet irradiation in mice and in relation to body mass index in humans. The F-DEX in mice was distributed in the deeper and shallower layers of skin and leaked through the transfollicular and transepidermal routes, respectively. Ultraviolet irradiation induced tumor necrosis factor secretion in the epidermis in mice, which was detected by skin blotting, whereas follicular tumor necrosis factor was associated with body mass index in obese human subjects. These results support the applicability of skin blotting for skin assessment. Skin blotting represents a noninvasive technique for assessing skin physiology and has potential as a predictive and diagnostic tool for skin disorders.

  18. High prevalence of psychiatric disorders in patients with skin-restricted lupus: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Jalenques, I; Rondepierre, F; Massoubre, C; Haffen, E; Grand, J P; Labeille, B; Perrot, J L; Aubin, F; Skowron, F; Mulliez, A; D'Incan, M

    2016-05-01

    Psychiatric disorders have been extensively documented in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in patients with skin-restricted lupus (SRL) remains unknown, although SRL is more common than SLE. To assess current and lifetime prevalence of Axis I psychiatric disorders among outpatients with SRL and to examine the factors associated with psychiatric disorders among such patients. A multicentre case-control study involving outpatients with SRL and controls matched for sex, age and education level. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview was used for psychiatric evaluation. We evaluated 75 patients and 150 controls. Of these, 49% of patients vs. 13% of controls fulfilled the criteria for at least one current psychiatric disorder (P < 0·001). The following disorders were significantly more frequent among patients than controls: current and lifetime major depressive disorder (9% vs. 0%, P < 0·001 and 44% vs. 26%, P = 0·01), generalized anxiety disorder (23% vs. 3%, P < 0·001 and 35% vs. 19%, P = 0·03), panic disorder (7% vs. 0%, P = 0·004 and 21% vs. 3%, P < 0·001), current suicide risk (24% vs. 7%, P = 0·003), alcohol dependence (7% vs. 0%, P = 0·004) and lifetime agoraphobia (20% vs. 9%, P = 0·01). Lupus duration and lupus past treatment by thalidomide were significantly higher among patients with current psychiatric disorders. This study demonstrates a high prevalence of several psychiatric disorders (anxiety, depression, suicide risk, alcohol dependence) in patients with SRL. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  19. Perceived Relevance of Educative Information on Public (Skin) Health: Results of a Representative, Population-Based Telephone Survey.

    PubMed

    Haluza, Daniela; Schwab, Markus; Simic, Stana; Cervinka, Renate; Moshammer, Hanns

    2015-11-09

    Individual skin health attitudes are influenced by various factors, including public education campaigns, mass media, family, and friends. Evidence-based, educative information materials assist communication and decision-making in doctor-patient interactions. The present study aims at assessing the prevailing use of skin health information material and sources and their impact on skin health knowledge, motives to tan, and sun protection. We conducted a questionnaire survey among a representative sample of Austrian residents. Print media and television were perceived as the two most relevant sources for skin health information, whereas the source physician was ranked third. Picking the information source physician increased participants' skin health knowledge (p = 0.025) and sun-protective behavior (p < 0.001). The study results highlight the demand for targeted health messages to attain lifestyle changes towards photo-protective habits. Providing resources that encourage pro-active counseling in every-day doctor-patient communication could increase skin health knowledge and sun-protective behavior, and thus, curb the rise in skin cancer incidence rates.

  20. Tumors of the skin and soft tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    The majority of the body surface is covered by the skin. Many internal disorders are reflected in the condition of the skin. One of the major functions of the skin is protection of the other organ systems from a variety of environmental insults. In this role, the skin itself is exposed to factors that can ultimately cause chronic diseases and cancer. Since it is relatively easy to recognize skin abnormalities, most skin cancers are brought to professional attention sooner than other types of cancer. However, due to the close resemblance between many skin neoplasms and noncancerous dermatologic disorders, these neoplasmsmore » may be mistreated for months or even years. In veterinary oncology, as in human medicine, most cancers can be effectively treated or cured following an accurate diagnosis. Once diagnosed, skin neoplasms should be aggressively treated. If causal factors are known, exposure to these factors should be limited through removal of the agent (for chemical carcinogens) or limiting exposure to the agent (for other carcinogens such as sunlight). 10 tabs. (MHB)« less

  1. 21 CFR 872.6650 - Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene. 872.6650 Section 872.6650 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... hygiene. (a) Identification. A massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene is a rigid, pointed device intended...

  2. Compulsivity in obsessive-compulsive disorder and addictions.

    PubMed

    Figee, Martijn; Pattij, Tommy; Willuhn, Ingo; Luigjes, Judy; van den Brink, Wim; Goudriaan, Anneke; Potenza, Marc N; Robbins, Trevor W; Denys, Damiaan

    2016-05-01

    Compulsive behaviors are driven by repetitive urges and typically involve the experience of limited voluntary control over these urges, a diminished ability to delay or inhibit these behaviors, and a tendency to perform repetitive acts in a habitual or stereotyped manner. Compulsivity is not only a central characteristic of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but is also crucial to addiction. Based on this analogy, OCD has been proposed to be part of the concept of behavioral addiction along with other non-drug-related disorders that share compulsivity, such as pathological gambling, skin-picking, trichotillomania and compulsive eating. In this review, we investigate the neurobiological overlap between compulsivity in substance-use disorders, OCD and behavioral addictions as a validation for the construct of compulsivity that could be adopted in the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC). The reviewed data suggest that compulsivity in OCD and addictions is related to impaired reward and punishment processing with attenuated dopamine release in the ventral striatum, negative reinforcement in limbic systems, cognitive and behavioral inflexibility with diminished serotonergic prefrontal control, and habitual responding with imbalances between ventral and dorsal frontostriatal recruitment. Frontostriatal abnormalities of compulsivity are promising targets for neuromodulation and other interventions for OCD and addictions. We conclude that compulsivity encompasses many of the RDoC constructs in a trans-diagnostic fashion with a common brain circuit dysfunction that can help identifying appropriate prevention and treatment targets. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Skin Hyperpigmentation in Indian Population: Insights and Best Practice

    PubMed Central

    Nouveau, Stephanie; Agrawal, Divya; Kohli, Malavika; Bernerd, Francoise; Misra, Namita; Nayak, Chitra Shivanand

    2016-01-01

    Skin pigmentation is one of the most strikingly variable phenotypes in humans, therefore making cutaneous pigmentation disorders frequent symptoms manifesting in a multitude of forms. The most common among them include lentigines, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, dark eye circles, and melasma. Variability of skin tones throughout the world is well-documented, some skin tones being reported as more susceptible to pigmentation disorders than others, especially in Asia and India. Furthermore, exposure to ultraviolet radiation is known to trigger or exacerbate pigmentation disorders. Preventive strategies for photoprotection and treatment modalities including topical and other medical approaches have been adopted by dermatologists to mitigate these disorders. This review article outlines the current knowledge on pigmentation disorders including pathophysiology, molecular profiling, and therapeutic options with a special focus on the Indian population. PMID:27688436

  4. Automated peak picking and peak integration in macromolecular NMR spectra using AUTOPSY.

    PubMed

    Koradi, R; Billeter, M; Engeli, M; Güntert, P; Wüthrich, K

    1998-12-01

    A new approach for automated peak picking of multidimensional protein NMR spectra with strong overlap is introduced, which makes use of the program AUTOPSY (automated peak picking for NMR spectroscopy). The main elements of this program are a novel function for local noise level calculation, the use of symmetry considerations, and the use of lineshapes extracted from well-separated peaks for resolving groups of strongly overlapping peaks. The algorithm generates peak lists with precise chemical shift and integral intensities, and a reliability measure for the recognition of each peak. The results of automated peak picking of NOESY spectra with AUTOPSY were tested in combination with the combined automated NOESY cross peak assignment and structure calculation routine NOAH implemented in the program DYANA. The quality of the resulting structures was found to be comparable with those from corresponding data obtained with manual peak picking. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  5. ADHD Symptoms and Insistence on Sameness in Prader-Willi Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigren, M.; Hansen, S.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Apart from a pervasive eating disorder, the Prader-Willi (PWS) syndrome is characterized by a distinct behavioural profile comprising maladaptive behaviours, obsessive-compulsive traits and skin picking, all included in the PWS behavioural phenotype. In this study, we present a further delineation of this characteristic behavioural…

  6. In Vivo Assessment of Neurodegeneration in Type C Niemann-Pick Disease by IDEAL-IQ.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ruo-Mi; Li, Qing-Ling; Luo, Zhong-Xing; Tang, Wen; Jiao, Ju; Wang, Jin; Kang, Zhuang; Chen, Shao-Qiong; Zhang, Yong

    2018-01-01

    To noninvasively assess the neurodegenerative changes in the brain of patients with Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease by measuring the lesion tissue with the iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least square estimation-iron quantification (IDEAL-IQ). Routine brain MRI, IDEAL-IQ and 1 H-proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS, served as control) were performed on 12 patients with type C Niemann-Pick disease (4 males and 8 females; age range, 15-61 years; mean age, 36 years) and 20 healthy subjects (10 males and 10 females; age range, 20-65 years; mean age, 38 years). The regions with lesion and the normal appearing regions (NARs) of patients were measured and analyzed based on the fat/water signal intensity on IDEAL-IQ and the lipid peak on 1 H-MRS. Niemann-Pick type C patients showed a higher fat/water signal intensity ratio with IDEAL-IQ on T2 hyperintensity lesions and NARs (3.7-4.9%, p < 0.05 and 1.8-3.0%, p < 0.05, respectively), as compared to healthy controls (HCs) (1.2-2.3%). After treatment, the fat/water signal intensity ratio decreased (2.2-3.4%), but remained higher than in the HCs ( p < 0.05). The results of the 1 H-MRS measurements showed increased lipid peaks in the same lesion regions, and the micro-lipid storage disorder of NARs in NPC patients was detectable by IDEAL-IQ instead of 1 H-MRS. The findings of this study suggested that IDEAL-IQ may be useful as a noninvasive and objective method in the evaluation of patients with NPC; additionally, IDEAL-IQ can be used to quantitatively measure the brain parenchymal adipose content and monitor patient follow-up after treatment of NPC.

  7. Hyperelastic skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... is most often seen in people who have Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. People with this disorder have very elastic skin. ... any member of your family been diagnosed with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome? What other symptoms are present? Genetic counseling may ...

  8. Detection and Evaluation of Skin Disorders by One of Photogrammetric Image Analysis Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güçin, M.; Patias, P.; Altan, M. O.

    2012-08-01

    Abnormalities on skin may vary from simple acne to painful wounds which affect a person's life quality. Detection of these kinds of disorders in early stages, followed by the evaluation of abnormalities is of high importance. At this stage, photogrammetry offers a non-contact solution to this concern by providing geometric highly accurate data. Photogrammetry, which has been used for firstly topographic purposes, in virtue of terrestrial photogrammetry became useful technique in non-topographic applications also (Wolf et al., 2000). Moreover the extension of usage of photogrammetry, in parallel with the development in technology, analogue photographs are replaced with digital images and besides digital image processing techniques, it provides modification of digital images by using filters, registration processes etc. Besides, photogrammetry (using same coordinate system by registration of images) can serve as a tool for the comparison of temporal imaging data. The aim of this study is to examine several digital image processing techniques, in particular the digital filters, which might be useful to determine skin disorders. In our study we examine affordable to purchase, user friendly software which needs neither expertise nor pre-training. Since it is a pre-work for subsequent and deeper studies, Adobe Photoshop 7.0 is used as a present software. In addition to that Adobe Photoshop released a DesAcc plug-ins with CS3 version and provides full compatibility with DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) and PACS (Picture Archiving and Communications System) that enables doctors to store all medical data together with relevant images and share if necessary.

  9. Behavioral and psychiatric disorders in Prader-Willi syndrome: a population study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hiraiwa, Rika; Maegaki, Yoshihiro; Oka, Akira; Ohno, Kousaku

    2007-10-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetically determined neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by mental retardation and distinct physical, behavioral, and psychiatric features. Based on parents' questionnaires, we examined the prevalence of behavioral and psychiatric disorders of 165 persons with PWS aged 2-31 years in Japan. The data were analyzed comparing four different age groups with PWS: group 1, 2-5 years (n=34); group 2, 6-11 years (n=57); group 3, 12-17 years (n=45); and group 4, 18-31 years (n=29). Further, we compared the results of our PWS group 4 with those of 42 age-, gender-, and intelligence level-matched intellectual disability (ID) individuals without PWS. Our results showed that repetitive speech and stubbornness were prominent from early childhood and other behavioral problems such as hyperphagia, stealing food, temper tantrums, lying, and emotional lability tended to be more frequent with age among persons with PWS. Moreover, young adults with PWS have significantly higher rates of behavioral and psychiatric disorders than IDs without PWS, such as stubbornness, hyperphagia, temper tantrums, self-injurious behavior (skin picking), hypersomnia, inactivity, and delusion. Degree of obesity was not necessarily related to behavioral and psychiatric features associated with PWS. Our findings revealed that persons with PWS are more vulnerable to behavioral and psychiatric disorders particularly in young adulthood compared to those with ID from other etiologies in Japan.

  10. Symptom dimensions, clinical course and comorbidity in men and women with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Torresan, Ricardo C; Ramos-Cerqueira, Ana Teresa A; Shavitt, Roseli G; do Rosário, Maria Conceição; de Mathis, Maria Alice; Miguel, Euripedes C; Torres, Albina R

    2013-09-30

    The study aimed to compare male and female patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) across symptom dimensions, clinical course and comorbidity. A cross-sectional study was undertaken with 858 adult OCD patients (DSM-IV) from the Brazilian Research Consortium on Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders. Patients were evaluated using structured interviews, including the Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (DY-BOCS) and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders (SCID-I). The sample was composed of 504 women (58.7%) and 354 men (41.3%) with a mean age of 35.4 years-old (range: 18-77). Men were younger, more frequently single and presented more tics, social phobia and alcohol use disorders. Among men, symptom interference occurred earlier and symptoms of the sexual/religious dimension were more common and more severe. Conversely, women were more likely to present symptoms of the aggressive, contamination/cleaning and hoarding dimension and comorbidity with specific phobias, anorexia nervosa, bulimia, trichotillomania, skin picking and "compulsive" buying. In the logistic regression, female gender remained independently associated with the aggressive and contamination/cleaning dimensions. In both genders the aggressive dimension remained associated with comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder, the sexual/religious dimension with major depression and the hoarding dimension with tic disorders. Gender seems to be relevant in the determination of OCD clinical presentation and course and should be considered an important aspect when defining more homogeneous OCD subgroups. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. An Introduction to SPEAR (Seismogram Picking Error from Analyst Review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeiler, C. P.; Velasco, A. A.; Anderson, D.; Pingitore, N. E.

    2008-12-01

    A grassroots initiative began in February of 2008 at the University of Texas at El Paso to understand how seismologists measure earthquakes. The Seismogram Picking Error from Analyst Review (SPEAR) project is designed to be a forum where seismologists can propose, discuss and experimentally test theories on proper procedures to identify and measure seismic phases. We outline the history of seismogram analysis and explore areas of seismogram analysis that still need to be defined. The main concern for SPEAR, at this time, is the impact of picking errors produced by merging earthquake catalogs. Our initial effort has been to establish a common data set for seismologists to pick. The preliminary studies from this data set have shown that significant bias between authors of catalogs may exist. We provide techniques to ensure that these biases can be identified and correctly managed to provide accurate mergers of earthquake measurements. The overall goal of SPEAR is to provide a repository of information to aid seismologists in comparing and sharing measurements. We want to document in the repository and explore all aspects of the picking process, from the basics of learning how to read a seismogram to complex transformations and enhancements of signals. Your participation in SPEAR will aid the seismological community to close the knowledge gaps that exist in seismogram analysis.

  12. Arrival-time picking method based on approximate negentropy for microseismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yue; Ni, Zhuo; Tian, Yanan

    2018-05-01

    Accurate and dependable picking of the first arrival time for microseismic data is an important part in microseismic monitoring, which directly affects analysis results of post-processing. This paper presents a new method based on approximate negentropy (AN) theory for microseismic arrival time picking in condition of much lower signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). According to the differences in information characteristics between microseismic data and random noise, an appropriate approximation of negentropy function is selected to minimize the effect of SNR. At the same time, a weighted function of the differences between maximum and minimum value of AN spectrum curve is designed to obtain a proper threshold function. In this way, the region of signal and noise is distinguished to pick the first arrival time accurately. To demonstrate the effectiveness of AN method, we make many experiments on a series of synthetic data with different SNR from -1 dB to -12 dB and compare it with previously published Akaike information criterion (AIC) and short/long time average ratio (STA/LTA) methods. Experimental results indicate that these three methods can achieve well picking effect when SNR is from -1 dB to -8 dB. However, when SNR is as low as -8 dB to -12 dB, the proposed AN method yields more accurate and stable picking result than AIC and STA/LTA methods. Furthermore, the application results of real three-component microseismic data also show that the new method is superior to the other two methods in accuracy and stability.

  13. [Skin changes in diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Meurer, M; Stumvoll, M; Szeimies, R-M

    2004-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most frequent metabolic disorder. Just under 5 million people suffer from this disease in Germany. Four types of diabetes mellitus are distinguished: type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, other specific diabetes forms, and gestational diabetes. Many characteristics of diabetes mellitus including skin changes are already manifest in the "prediabetic" stage when glucose tolerance is limited so that every elevation of blood sugar levels must be considered pathological. Changes in skin due to diabetes mellitus can be categorized into four disease groups: skin infections, skin diseases found overly frequently in association with diabetes mellitus, skin alterations due to diabetic complications, and reactions to antidiabetic treatment.

  14. Herbert L. Pick Jr. (1930-2012).

    PubMed

    Rieser, John J; Lockman, Jeffrey J

    2013-01-01

    Presents an obituary for Herbert L. Pick Jr. For 49 years at the University of Minnesota's Institute of Child Development, new students were often greeted by an unassuming guy who rode to work on his bike, helped them carry boxes of books to their offices, and turned out to be a famous professor. Herbert L. Pick Jr. was a fabulous mentor, teacher, and developmental scientist. His work on perception and perceptual development spanned basic and applied science, laboratory and real-world settings. He was honored with the Division 7 (Developmental Psychology) Mentor Award from the American Psychological Association in 1998. He was honored again in 2002, jointly with his wife Anne D. Pick, with a volume of the Minnesota Symposium on Child Psychology based on a central theme of their work and titled "Action as an Organizer of Learning and Development." Two weeks before his death he was honored yet again with a Festschrift titled "Realism to Relevance: An Ecological Approach to Perception, Action and Cognition." Former students and academic admirers gave talks focused on the scientific themes Herb championed, namely, effects of experience on learning and development, organism-environment fit, environmental structure, and societal applications of research about basic psychological processes. He gave the final talk, and after thanking everyone in his typically humble way, he discussed his new research on visual-locomotor coordination. Herb died on June 18, 2012. He is greatly missed by Anne, his wife of 50 years; his sister Barbara; his daughters (and their husbands) Cindy (Jon), Karen (John), and Gretchen (Michael); and his grandchildren Alex, Ted, Katy, Joe, Eva, Sam, Rowan, and Culley. He is also missed by his many students, colleagues, friends, and admirers.

  15. Associations between Language Development and Skin Conductance Responses to Faces and Eye Gaze in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stagg, Steven D.; Davis, Robert; Heaton, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Attention to social stimuli is associated with language development, and arousal is associated with the increased viewing of stimuli. We investigated whether skin conductance responses (SCRs) are associated with language development in autism spectrum disorder (ASD): a population that shows abnormalities in both attention to others and language…

  16. Interaction between the glutamate transporter GLT1b and the synaptic PDZ domain protein PICK1

    PubMed Central

    Bassan, Merav; Liu, Hongguang; Madsen, Kenneth L.; Armsen, Wencke; Zhou, Jiayi; DeSilva, Tara; Chen, Weizhi; Paradise, Allison; Brasch, Michael A.; Staudinger, Jeff; Gether, Ulrik; Irwin, Nina; Rosenberg, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is implemented by the interaction of glutamate receptors with PDZ domain proteins. Glutamate transporters provide the only known mechanism of clearance of glutamate from excitatory synapses, and GLT1 is the major glutamate transporter. We show here that GLT1 interacts with the PDZ domain protein PICK1, which plays a critical role in regulating the expression of glutamate receptors at excitatory synapses. A yeast two-hybrid screen of a neuronal library using the carboxyl tail of GLT1b yielded clones expressing PICK1. The GLT1b C-terminal peptide bound to PICK1 with high affinity (Ki = 6.5 ± 0.4 μm) in an in vitro fluorescence polarization assay. We also tested peptides based on other variants of GLT1 and other glutamate transporters. GLT1b co-immunoprecipitated with PICK1 from rat brain lysates and COS7 cell lysates derived from cells transfected with plasmids expressing PICK1 and GLT1b. In addition, expression of GLT1b in COS7 cells changed the distribution of PICK1, bringing it to the surface. GLT1b and PICK1 co-localized with each other and with synaptic markers in hippocampal neurons in culture. Phorbol ester, an activator of protein kinase C (PKC), a known PICK1 interactor, had no effect on glutamate transport in rat forebrain neurons in culture. However, we found that exposure of neurons to a myristolated decoy peptide with sequence identical to the C-terminal sequence of GLT1b designed to block the PICK1–GLT1b interaction rendered glutamate transport into neurons responsive to phorbol ester. These results suggest that the PICK1–GLT1b interaction regulates the modulation of GLT1 function by PKC. PMID:18184314

  17. [The effect of drugs used in treatment of skin disorders on visual system].

    PubMed

    Szostakiewicz-Grabek, Beata; Juszkiewicz-Borowiec, Maria; Krasowska, Dorota

    2016-04-01

    Drugs with side effects affecting vision are often used in the treatment of skin disorders. The study evaluated principal groups of medicines which may negatively influence vision and the eye itself. Antimalaric drugs may cause a number of disorders of vision and a diagnosed retinophaty is an absolute contraindication. Retinoids often cause a dry eye condition, which results in intolerance to wearing contact lenses. They can also be a cause of poor nightly vision. Psoralens, used in photochemotherapy, can penetrate to the frontal part of the eye, inducing clouding of the lens and cataract. Glucocorticosteroids, often used in skin conditions, increase intraocular pressure, which may result in development of glaucoma. Methotrexate may also cause complications, such as eyelid edema, conjunctival hyperemia, increased lacrimation and photophobia. A prolonged use of tetracyclines may induce side effect in eye organs. Swelling of the optic nerve head with subsequent decreased vision, and even accumulate of metabolites of tetracycline within the conjunctival were observed. In the study a distinction was made between the medications which may lead to a temporary visual impairment and the medication with a side effect lasting beyond the treatment. It was pointed out that some of the side effects could be avoided or minimised by not combining retinoids and tetracyclines or with the use of protective eyewear during photochemotherapy. An examination by ophthalmologist is a crucial step prior to the treatment with chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine or psoralens. Regular eye exams are necessary when using, especially in a protracted fashion, most of the discussed drugs. Finally, the cooperation between dermatologist and ophthalmologist is fundamental for ensuring patient's safety. © 2016 MEDPRESS.

  18. Perceived Relevance of Educative Information on Public (Skin) Health: Results of a Representative, Population-Based Telephone Survey

    PubMed Central

    Haluza, Daniela; Schwab, Markus; Simic, Stana; Cervinka, Renate; Moshammer, Hanns

    2015-01-01

    Individual skin health attitudes are influenced by various factors, including public education campaigns, mass media, family, and friends. Evidence-based, educative information materials assist communication and decision-making in doctor-patient interactions. The present study aims at assessing the prevailing use of skin health information material and sources and their impact on skin health knowledge, motives to tan, and sun protection. We conducted a questionnaire survey among a representative sample of Austrian residents. Print media and television were perceived as the two most relevant sources for skin health information, whereas the source physician was ranked third. Picking the information source physician increased participants’ skin health knowledge (p = 0.025) and sun-protective behavior (p < 0.001). The study results highlight the demand for targeted health messages to attain lifestyle changes towards photo-protective habits. Providing resources that encourage pro-active counseling in every-day doctor-patient communication could increase skin health knowledge and sun-protective behavior, and thus, curb the rise in skin cancer incidence rates. PMID:26569274

  19. Advanced therapies of skin injuries.

    PubMed

    Maver, Tina; Maver, Uroš; Kleinschek, Karin Stana; Raščan, Irena Mlinarič; Smrke, Dragica Maja

    2015-12-01

    The loss of tissue is still one of the most challenging problems in healthcare. Efficient laboratory expansion of skin tissue to reproduce the skins barrier function can make the difference between life and death for patients with extensive full-thickness burns, chronic wounds, or genetic disorders such as bullous conditions. This engineering has been initiated based on the acute need in the 1980s and today, tissue-engineered skin is the reality. The human skin equivalents are available not only as models for permeation and toxicity screening, but are frequently applied in vivo as clinical skin substitutes. This review aims to introduce the most important recent development in the extensive field of tissue engineering and to describe already approved, commercially available skin substitutes in clinical use.

  20. Facial reconstruction for radiation-induced skin cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Panje, W.R.; Dobleman, T.J.

    1990-04-01

    Radiation-induced skin cancers can be difficult to diagnose and treat. Typically, a patient who has received orthovoltage radiotherapy for disorders such as acne, eczema, tinea capitis, skin tuberculosis, and skin cancer can expect that aggressive skin cancers and chronic radiodermatitis may develop subsequently. Cryptic facial cancers can lead to metastases and death. Prophylactic widefield excision of previously irradiated facial skin that has been subject to multiple recurrent skin cancers is suggested as a method of deterring future cutaneous malignancy and metastases. The use of tissue expanders and full-thickness skin grafts offers an expedient and successful method of subsequent reconstruction.

  1. [Normal and abnormal skin color].

    PubMed

    Ortonne, J-P

    2012-11-01

    The varieties of normal skin color in humans range from people of "no color" (pale white) to "people of color" (light brown, dark brown, and black). Skin color is a blend resulting from the skin chromophores red (oxyhaemoglobin), blue (deoxygenated haemoglobin), yellow-orange (carotene, an exogenous pigment), and brown (melanin). Melanin, however, is the major component of skin color ; it is the presence or absence of melanin in the melanosomes in melanocytes and melanin in keratinocytes that is responsible for epidermal pigmentation, and the presence of melanin in macrophages or melanocytes in the dermis that is responsible for dermal pigmentation. Two groups of pigmentary disorders are commonly distinguished: the disorders of the quantitative and qualitative distribution of normal pigment and the abnormal presence of exogenous or endogenous pigments in the skin. The first group includes hyperpigmentations, which clinically manifest by darkening of the skin color, and leukodermia, which is characterized by lightening of the skin. Hypermelanosis corresponds to an overload of melanin or an abnormal distribution of melanin in the skin. Depending on the color, melanodermia (brown/black) and ceruloderma (blue/grey) are distinguished. Melanodermia correspond to epidermal hypermelanocytosis (an increased number of melanocytes) or epidermal hypermelanosis (an increase in the quantity of melanin in the epidermis with no modification of the number of melanocytes). Ceruloderma correspond to dermal hypermelanocytosis (abnormal presence in the dermis of cells synthesizing melanins) ; leakage in the dermis of epidermal melanin also exists, a form of dermal hypermelanosis called pigmentary incontinence. Finally, dyschromia can be related to the abnormal presence in the skin of a pigment of exogenous or endogenous origin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Therapeutic siRNAs for dominant genetic skin disorders including pachyonychia congenita.

    PubMed

    Leachman, Sancy A; Hickerson, Robyn P; Hull, Peter R; Smith, Frances J D; Milstone, Leonard M; Lane, E Birgitte; Bale, Sherri J; Roop, Dennis R; McLean, W H Irwin; Kaspar, Roger L

    2008-09-01

    The field of science and medicine has experienced a flood of data and technology associated with the human genome project. Over 10,000 human diseases have been genetically defined, but little progress has been made with respect to the clinical application of this knowledge. A notable exception to this exists for pachyonychia congenita (PC), a rare, dominant-negative keratin disorder. The establishment of a non-profit organization, PC Project, has led to an unprecedented coalescence of patients, scientists, and physicians with a unified vision of developing novel therapeutics for PC. Utilizing the technological by-products of the human genome project, such as RNA interference (RNAi) and quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), physicians and scientists have collaborated to create a candidate siRNA therapeutic that selectively inhibits a mutant allele of KRT6A, the most commonly affected PC keratin. In vitro investigation of this siRNA demonstrates potent inhibition of the mutant allele and reversal of the cellular aggregation phenotype. In parallel, an allele-specific quantitative real-time RT-PCR assay has been developed and validated on patient callus samples in preparation for clinical trials. If clinical efficacy is ultimately demonstrated, this "first-in-skin" siRNA may herald a paradigm shift in the treatment of dominant-negative genetic disorders.

  3. Computer vision-based automated peak picking applied to protein NMR spectra.

    PubMed

    Klukowski, Piotr; Walczak, Michal J; Gonczarek, Adam; Boudet, Julien; Wider, Gerhard

    2015-09-15

    A detailed analysis of multidimensional NMR spectra of macromolecules requires the identification of individual resonances (peaks). This task can be tedious and time-consuming and often requires support by experienced users. Automated peak picking algorithms were introduced more than 25 years ago, but there are still major deficiencies/flaws that often prevent complete and error free peak picking of biological macromolecule spectra. The major challenges of automated peak picking algorithms is both the distinction of artifacts from real peaks particularly from those with irregular shapes and also picking peaks in spectral regions with overlapping resonances which are very hard to resolve by existing computer algorithms. In both of these cases a visual inspection approach could be more effective than a 'blind' algorithm. We present a novel approach using computer vision (CV) methodology which could be better adapted to the problem of peak recognition. After suitable 'training' we successfully applied the CV algorithm to spectra of medium-sized soluble proteins up to molecular weights of 26 kDa and to a 130 kDa complex of a tetrameric membrane protein in detergent micelles. Our CV approach outperforms commonly used programs. With suitable training datasets the application of the presented method can be extended to automated peak picking in multidimensional spectra of nucleic acids or carbohydrates and adapted to solid-state NMR spectra. CV-Peak Picker is available upon request from the authors. gsw@mol.biol.ethz.ch; michal.walczak@mol.biol.ethz.ch; adam.gonczarek@pwr.edu.pl Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Evaluation of peak-picking algorithms for protein mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Chris; Cramer, Rainer; Schuchhardt, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Peak picking is an early key step in MS data analysis. We compare three commonly used approaches to peak picking and discuss their merits by means of statistical analysis. Methods investigated encompass signal-to-noise ratio, continuous wavelet transform, and a correlation-based approach using a Gaussian template. Functionality of the three methods is illustrated and discussed in a practical context using a mass spectral data set created with MALDI-TOF technology. Sensitivity and specificity are investigated using a manually defined reference set of peaks. As an additional criterion, the robustness of the three methods is assessed by a perturbation analysis and illustrated using ROC curves.

  5. Surgical planing of the skin; complications and reevaluation of indications.

    PubMed

    MARMELZAT, W L

    1956-03-01

    One hundred plastic planing operations on the skin by means of a motor-driven wire brush were reviewed. Complications noted were pruritic erythematous eczematous dermatitis on a possible autosensitization basis, hyperpigmentation and milia. These occurred in a small proportion of cases and in no case were they permanent sequelae. Flat postacne scarring is more easily improved than steep "ice-pick" type scars. The planing procedure is contraindicated in the management of certain tumors of the skin, portwine nevi, decorative tattoos, and generalized dermadromes. The psychiatric and emotional impact of the patient's scarring on his personality is often a great one and the operator must bear in mind that plastic planing is no panacea for a severely neurotic patient. Therefore it is important that patients be carefully selected and that improvement rather than complete cure be stressed.

  6. Skin diseases in patients with primary psychiatric conditions: a hospital based study.

    PubMed

    Moftah, Nayera H; Kamel, Abeer M; Attia, Hussein M; El-Baz, Mona Z; Abd El-Moty, Hala M

    2013-09-01

    Although the relationship between skin diseases in patients with primary psychiatric conditions is important for patient management, studies on this issue are limited. To detect the frequency and type of cutaneous disorders among patients with primary psychiatric conditions. This analytic cross-sectional study was conducted on a total of 400 subjects - 200 patients with primary psychiatric disorders and 200 age and sex matched individuals free from primary psychiatric disorders. Patients included in the study were diagnosed according to The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DMS IV) Criteria. A specially designed questionnaire including socio-demographic data, medical history, family history and dermatological examination was applied. The data were statistically analyzed. There was a significant statistical increase in the prevalence of skin diseases in general and infectious skin diseases in particular in psychiatric patients compared with non-psychiatric patients (71.5% versus 22%, P<0.001) and (48% versus 11%, P<0.001), respectively. Parasitic infestations (42.7%) were the most common infectious skin diseases in psychiatric patients (P<0.001). Infectious skin diseases in psychiatric patients were seen most in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (83.6%) and least in obsessive compulsive disorders (30%)(P<0.001). Psychogenic skin disorders were found in 8.4% of psychiatric patients with skin diseases; delusional parasitosis was the most common (50%). Health education of psychiatric patients and/or of their caregiver and periodic monthly inspection of psychiatric patients are highly indicated for the prevention and control of infectious skin diseases in primary psychiatric patients. Copyright © 2013 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Non-contact procedure to measure heart and lung activities in preterm pediatric patients with skin disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchionni, P.; Scalise, L.; Antognoli, L.; Nobile, S.; Carnielli, V. P.

    2018-04-01

    Preterm patients can have an higher risk of fatalities and can be subjected to long-term disability. With many organs still in the phase of development, the earlier the delivery, the higher the risk and they are therefore hospitalized in specialized neonatal intensive care units) where heart rate and lungs activity are continuously assessed. These are mostly monitored by set of electrodes placed in contact with skin (two in thorax area and one in abdominal area). This paper address the problem of preterm cardiac and respiratory monitoring in a patient with severe skin disorders who can not monitored with standard electrodes because of his dry, thickened, scaly skin. As a solution, we propose a fully non-contact measurement method, based on laser Doppler vibrometry, able to continuously record the movements of wall-chest and extract from this signal, the heart rate and the respiratory activity of the patient. The results show a good agreement between the standard contact measurement methods and the proposed one (no statistical difference between data) with a data uncertainty of 2.9% for the heart rate data and of 9.5% for the respiration rate (k=2), in line with the classical measurement methods.

  8. Ataxia, dystonia and myoclonus in adult patients with Niemann-Pick type C.

    PubMed

    Koens, L H; Kuiper, A; Coenen, M A; Elting, J W J; de Vries, J J; Engelen, M; Koelman, J H T M; van Spronsen, F J; Spikman, J M; de Koning, T J; Tijssen, M A J

    2016-09-01

    Niemann-Pick type C (NP-C) is a rare autosomal recessive progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the NP-C 1 or 2 gene. Besides visceral symptoms, presentation in adolescent and adult onset variants is often with neurological symptoms. The most frequently reported presenting symptoms of NP-C in adulthood are psychiatric symptoms (38 %), cognitive decline (23 %) and ataxia (20 %). Myoclonus can be present, but its value in early diagnosis and the evolving clinical phenotype in NP-C is unclear. In this paper we present eight Dutch cases of NP-C of whom five with myoclonus. Eight patients with genetically confirmed NP-C were recruited from two Dutch University Medical Centers. A structured interview and neuropsychological tests (for working and verbal memory, attention and emotion recognition) were performed. Movement disorders were assessed using a standardized video protocol. Quality of life was evaluated by questionnaires (Rand-36, SIP-68, HAQ). In four of the five patients with myoclonic jerks simultaneous EEG with EMG was performed. A movement disorder was the initial neurological symptom in six patients: three with myoclonus and three with ataxia. Two others presented with psychosis. Four experienced cognitive deficits early in the course of the disease. Patients showed cognitive deficits in all investigated domains. Five patients showed myoclonic jerks, including negative myoclonus. In all registered patients EEG-EMG coherence analysis and/or back-averaging proved a cortical origin of myoclonus. Patients with more severe movement disorders experienced significantly more physical disabilities. Presenting neurological symptoms of NP-C include movement disorders, psychosis and cognitive deficits. At current neurological examination movement disorders were seen in all patients. The incidence of myoclonus in our cohort was considerably higher (63 %) than in previous publications and it was the presenting symptom in 38 %. A cortical origin

  9. Picking Deep Filter Responses for Fine-Grained Image Recognition (Open Access Author’s Manuscript)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-16

    stages. Our method explores a unified framework based on two steps of deep filter response picking. The first picking step is to find distinctive... filters which respond to specific patterns significantly and consistently, and learn a set of part detectors via iteratively alternating between new...positive sample mining and part model retraining. The second picking step is to pool deep filter responses via spatially weighted combination of Fisher

  10. The impact of pediatric skin disease on self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Vivar, K L; Kruse, L

    2018-03-01

    Pediatric skin disorders can affect children's self-esteem, relationships with caregivers and peers, and performance in school and activities. This review describes common pediatric congenital and acquired dermatologic disorders and the impact that these disorders can have on children's self-esteem. A review of current, English-language literature was conducted with use of the PubMed database. Search terms included atopic dermatitis, acne, infantile hemangiomas, port wine stains, congenital melanocytic nevi, hidradenitis suppurativa, and self-esteem. During infancy and toddlerhood, skin disorders such as infantile hemangiomas primarily affect the attachment between child and caregiver. School-aged children with port wine stains and atopic dermatitis report increased bullying, teasing, and social isolation. Acne and hidradenitis typically affect older children and teens and these conditions are associated with increased risks of depression and suicidal ideation. Effective management of these conditions has been shown to increase patients' self-esteem. Pediatric dermatologic disorders impact self-esteem throughout childhood. In addition to the surgical and medical management of these disorders, clinicians can also take an active role in the assessment and improvement of the psychosocial impact of these skin disorders.

  11. PDZ binding to the BAR domain of PICK1 is elucidated by coarse-grained molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    He, Yi; Liwo, Adam; Weinstein, Harel; Scheraga, Harold A

    2011-01-07

    A key regulator of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor traffic, PICK1 is known to interact with over 40 other proteins, including receptors, transporters and ionic channels, and to be active mostly as a homodimer. The current lack of a complete PICK1 structure determined at atomic resolution hinders the elucidation of its functional mechanisms. Here, we identify interactions between the component PDZ and BAR domains of PICK1 by calculating possible binding sites for the PDZ domain of PICK1 (PICK1-PDZ) to the homology-modeled, crescent-shaped dimer of the PICK1-BAR domain using multiplexed replica-exchange molecular dynamics (MREMD) and canonical molecular dynamics simulations with the coarse-grained UNRES force field. The MREMD results show that the preferred binding site for the single PDZ domain is the concave cavity of the BAR dimer. A second possible binding site is near the N-terminus of the BAR domain that is linked directly to the PDZ domain. Subsequent short canonical molecular dynamics simulations used to determine how the PICK1-PDZ domain moves to the preferred binding site on the BAR domain of PICK1 revealed that initial hydrophobic interactions drive the progress of the simulated binding. Thus, the concave face of the BAR dimer accommodates the PDZ domain first by weak hydrophobic interactions and then the PDZ domain slides to the center of the concave face, where more favorable hydrophobic interactions take over. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 75 FR 1408 - Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin Program, Eastern and Western Division Proposed Project Use Power Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... of Proposed Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin Program, Eastern and Western Divisions, Project Use Power Rate...) for Project Use Power for the Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin Program (P-SMBP), Eastern and Western... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin Program, Eastern and...

  13. 75 FR 22423 - Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin Program, Eastern and Western Division Proposed Project Use Power Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ...: Reopening of comment period for review of the Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin Program, Eastern and Western... reopening the comment period for the Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin Program, Eastern and Western Division... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin Program, Eastern and...

  14. Regulatory T cells in skin.

    PubMed

    Ali, Niwa; Rosenblum, Michael D

    2017-11-01

    Foxp3 + CD4 + regulatory T (Treg) cells are a subset of immune cells that function to regulate tissue inflammation. Skin is one of the largest organs and is home to a large proportion of the body's Treg cells. However, relative to other tissues (such as the spleen and gastrointestinal tract) the function of Treg cells in skin is less well defined. Here, we review our understanding of how Treg cells migrate to skin and the cellular and molecular pathways required for their maintenance in this tissue. In addition, we outline what is known about the specialized functions of Treg cells in skin. Namely, the orchestration of stem cell-mediated hair follicle regeneration, augmentation of wound healing, and promoting adaptive immune tolerance to skin commensal microbes. A comprehensive understanding of the biology of skin Treg cells may lead to novel therapeutic approaches that preferentially target these cells to treat cutaneous autoimmunity, skin cancers and disorders of skin regeneration. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Hypochondriasis Circumscripta: A Neglected Concept with Important Implications in Psychodermatology.

    PubMed

    Smulevich, Anatoly B; Lvov, Andrey N; Romanov, Dmitry V

    2016-08-23

    The article is devoted to a psychodermatological disorder with self-destructive behavior - hypochondriasis circumscripta. Presented data are based on a clinical analysis of 22 consecutive cases (15 female; mean age - 56.1 ± 12.6 years) observed in the dermatologic department of First Moscow State Medical University and managed in a multidisciplinary approach by dermatologists and a consultation-liaison psychiatrist. Psychopathology, clinical presentations, historical aspects and treatment options are discussed. The self-inflicted skin lesions result from a severe repetitive autodestruction of focal skin loci primarily affected with heterogeneous sensations associated with a hypochondrical over-valued idea. Hypochondriasis сircumscripta is a serious diagnostic and treatment challenge and should be distinguished from dermatitis artefacta, skin picking disorder and delusional infestation.

  16. Mental disorders are not brain disorders.

    PubMed

    Banner, Natalie F

    2013-06-01

    As advances in neuroscience and genetics reveal complex associations between brain structures, functions and symptoms of mental disorders, there have been calls for psychiatric classifications to be reconfigured, to conceptualize mental disorders as disorders of the brain. In this paper, I argue that this view is mistaken, and that the level at which we identify mental disorders is, and should be, the person, not the brain. This is not to deny physicalism or argue that the mental realm is somehow distinct from the physical, but rather to suggest the things that are going 'wrong' in mental disorder are picked out at the person-level: they are characterized by breaches in epistemic, rational, evaluative, emotional, social and moral norms. However, as our scientific understanding of the brain becomes advanced, what makes an identified neurobiological difference in brain structure or functioning indicative of pathology is its association with these behaviours at the person-level. Instead of collapsing psychiatry into biomedicine, biomedicine may benefit from drawing closer to the expertise of psychiatry, as it is able to accommodate social, psychological and biological explanations while focusing on the person, within their environment. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Pediatric prescription pick-up rates after ED visits.

    PubMed

    Kajioka, Eric H; Itoman, Erick M; Li, M Lily; Taira, Deborah A; Li, Gaylyn G; Yamamoto, Loren G

    2005-07-01

    To determine the compliance rate in filling outpatient medication prescriptions written upon discharge from the emergency department (ED). Emergency department records of children during a 3-month period were examined along with pharmacy claim data obtained in cooperation with the largest insurance carrier in the community (private and Medicaid). Pharmacy claim data were used to validate the prescription pick-up date. Overall, 65% of high-urgency prescriptions were filled. The prescription pick-up rate in the 0-to 3-year age group (75%) was significantly higher than in the rest of the cohort (55%) ( P < .001). Children with private insurance were more likely to fill their prescriptions (68%) compared to children with Medicaid insurance (57%) ( P = .03). This study demonstrates that filling a prescription after discharge from an ED represents a substantial barrier to medication compliance.

  18. A Semiautomated Multilayer Picking Algorithm for Ice-sheet Radar Echograms Applied to Ground-Based Near-Surface Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onana, Vincent De Paul; Koenig, Lora Suzanne; Ruth, Julia; Studinger, Michael; Harbeck, Jeremy P.

    2014-01-01

    Snow accumulation over an ice sheet is the sole mass input, making it a primary measurement for understanding the past, present, and future mass balance. Near-surface frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) radars image isochronous firn layers recording accumulation histories. The Semiautomated Multilayer Picking Algorithm (SAMPA) was designed and developed to trace annual accumulation layers in polar firn from both airborne and ground-based radars. The SAMPA algorithm is based on the Radon transform (RT) computed by blocks and angular orientations over a radar echogram. For each echogram's block, the RT maps firn segmented-layer features into peaks, which are picked using amplitude and width threshold parameters of peaks. A backward RT is then computed for each corresponding block, mapping the peaks back into picked segmented-layers. The segmented layers are then connected and smoothed to achieve a final layer pick across the echogram. Once input parameters are trained, SAMPA operates autonomously and can process hundreds of kilometers of radar data picking more than 40 layers. SAMPA final pick results and layer numbering still require a cursory manual adjustment to correct noncontinuous picks, which are likely not annual, and to correct for inconsistency in layer numbering. Despite the manual effort to train and check SAMPA results, it is an efficient tool for picking multiple accumulation layers in polar firn, reducing time over manual digitizing efforts. The trackability of good detected layers is greater than 90%.

  19. The effect of a cryotherapy gel wrap on the microcirculation of skin affected by Chronic Venous Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Martina; Zapka, Jane G.; King, Dana E.

    2011-01-01

    Aim This randomized clinical trial was conducted 2008 – 2009 to investigate a cryotherapy (cooling) gel wrap applied to lower leg skin affected by chronic venous disorders to determine whether therapeutic cooling improves skin microcirculation. Impaired skin microcirculation contributes to venous leg ulcer development, thus new prevention therapies should address the microcirculation to prevent venous leg ulcers. Data Sources Sixty participants (n = 30 per group) were randomized to receive one of two daily 30-minute interventions for four weeks. The treatment group applied the cryotherapy gel wrap around the affected lower leg skin, or compression and elevated the legs on a special pillow each evening at bedtime. The standard care group wore compression and elevated the legs only. Laboratory pre- and post-measures included microcirculation measures of skin temperature with a thermistor, blood flow with a laser Doppler flowmeter, and venous refill time with a photoplethysmograph. Review methods Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, paired t-tests or Wilcoxon signed ranks tests, logistic regression analyses, and mixed model analyses. Results Fifty-seven participants (treatment = 28; standard care = 29) completed the study. The mean age was 62 years, 70% female, 50% African American. In the final adjusted model, there was a statistically significant decrease in blood flow between the two groups (−6.2[−11.8; −0.6], P = 0.03). No statistically significant differences were noted in temperature or venous refill time. Conclusion Study findings suggest that cryotherapy improves blood flow by slowing movement within the microcirculation and thus might potentially provide a therapeutic benefit to prevent leg ulcers. PMID:21592186

  20. Progress and opportunities for tissue-engineered skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacNeil, Sheila

    2007-02-01

    Tissue-engineered skin is now a reality. For patients with extensive full-thickness burns, laboratory expansion of skin cells to achieve barrier function can make the difference between life and death, and it was this acute need that drove the initiation of tissue engineering in the 1980s. A much larger group of patients have ulcers resistant to conventional healing, and treatments using cultured skin cells have been devised to restart the wound-healing process. In the laboratory, the use of tissue-engineered skin provides insight into the behaviour of skin cells in healthy skin and in diseases such as vitiligo, melanoma, psoriasis and blistering disorders.

  1. Oral nanotherapeutics: Redox nanoparticles attenuate ultraviolet B radiation-induced skin inflammatory disorders in Kud:Hr- hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Feliciano, Chitho P; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2017-10-01

    The active participation of an anti-inflammatory drug in the biological pathways of inflammation is crucial for the achievement of beneficial and therapeutic effects. This study demonstrated the development of redox nanoparticles that can circulate in the blood at significantly high levels, thus increasing their efficacy as an oral treatment against the deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in an in vivo inflammatory skin model. To confirm the blood bioavailability of the nanoparticles, mice were injected with the nanoparticles solution (RNP N ) via oral gavage. Using electron spin resonance and radioactive labeling techniques, the blood circulation of the redox polymer that forms the nanoparticles was confirmed 24 h after oral administration. This contrasted with its low molecular weight counterpart (NH 2 -TEMPO), which peaked 15 min post injection and was found to be cleared rapidly within minutes after the peak. We then tested its efficacy in the inflammatory skin model. Kud:Hr-hairless mice were irradiated with UVB (302 nm) to induce skin damage and inflammation. Throughout the entire period of UVB irradiation, RNP N was administered to mice by free drinking. NH 2 -TEMPO was used as the control. The results showed that oral supplementation of RNP N significantly improved the therapeutic effects of the core nitroxide radical compared with its low molecular weight counterpart. Furthermore, RNP N significantly reduced UVB-induced skin aging, epidermal thickening, edema, erythema, skin lesions, and various pathological skin inflammatory disorders in vivo. From the obtained data, we concluded that the use of long-circulating redox nanoparticles (RNP N ) provided an effective treatment against the damaging effects of excessive ROS in the body. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A pseudo-outbreak of skin disease in British troops.

    PubMed Central

    Croft, A; Smith, H; Creamer, I

    1996-01-01

    When a newspaper report claimed that a serious outbreak of skin disease had occurred in British Army troops stationed at the Bocac Dam, in western Bosnia, all troops at the Bocac Dam location (n = 96), followed by a matched control group of troops (n = 91) at a nearby location, were examined by two investigators. 14% of the study population and 21% of the control group were found to have skin disorders. Most were complaints that are commonly encountered in general medical practice. There was a striking absence of skin infestations. The historical consultation rate for skin disorders had not increased. It was concluded that an outbreak of skin disease had not occurred in British troops guarding the dam. This epidemiological study shows that, even under conditions of modern field hygiene, up to one in five soldiers will have skin disease. Skin infestations, however, have become progressively less common during military campaigns this century, probably because of better personal hygiene, good preventive medicine practices and better access to effective health care. PMID:8976888

  3. Streptococcal infections of skin and PANDAS.

    PubMed

    Carelli, Rosanna; Pallanti, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Group A streptococcal infections are associated with a variety of infections and a subset of obsessive-compulsive disorder and/or tic disorders. Screening of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and tics in patient with streptococcal infection of skin must be effective in identifying subjects who met published criteria for pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS). © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. NMRNet: A deep learning approach to automated peak picking of protein NMR spectra.

    PubMed

    Klukowski, Piotr; Augoff, Michal; Zieba, Maciej; Drwal, Maciej; Gonczarek, Adam; Walczak, Michal J

    2018-03-14

    Automated selection of signals in protein NMR spectra, known as peak picking, has been studied for over 20 years, nevertheless existing peak picking methods are still largely deficient. Accurate and precise automated peak picking would accelerate the structure calculation, and analysis of dynamics and interactions of macromolecules. Recent advancement in handling big data, together with an outburst of machine learning techniques, offer an opportunity to tackle the peak picking problem substantially faster than manual picking and on par with human accuracy. In particular, deep learning has proven to systematically achieve human-level performance in various recognition tasks, and thus emerges as an ideal tool to address automated identification of NMR signals. We have applied a convolutional neural network for visual analysis of multidimensional NMR spectra. A comprehensive test on 31 manually-annotated spectra has demonstrated top-tier average precision (AP) of 0.9596, 0.9058 and 0.8271 for backbone, side-chain and NOESY spectra, respectively. Furthermore, a combination of extracted peak lists with automated assignment routine, FLYA, outperformed other methods, including the manual one, and led to correct resonance assignment at the levels of 90.40%, 89.90% and 90.20% for three benchmark proteins. The proposed model is a part of a Dumpling software (platform for protein NMR data analysis), and is available at https://dumpling.bio/. michaljerzywalczak@gmail.compiotr.klukowski@pwr.edu.pl. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  5. Types A and B Niemann-Pick Disease.

    PubMed

    Schuchman, Edward H; Wasserstein, Melissa P

    2016-06-01

    Two distinct metabolic abnormalities are included under the eponym Niemann-Pick disease (NPD). The first is due to the deficient activity of the enzyme acid sphingomyelinase (ASM). Patients with ASM deficiency are classified as having types A and B Niemann-Pick disease (NPD). Type A NPD patients exhibit hepatosplenomegaly, frequent pulmonary infections, and profound central nervous system involvement in infancy. They rarely survive beyond two years of age. Type B patients also have hepatosplenomegaly and progressive alterations of their lungs, but there are usually no central nervous system signs. The age of onset and rate of disease progression varies greatly among type B patients, and they frequently live into adulthood. Recently, patients with phenotypes intermediate between types A and B NPD also have been identified. These individuals represent the expected continuum caused by inheriting different mutations in the ASM gene (SMPD1). Patients in the second category are designated as having type C NPD. Impaired intracellular trafficking of cholesterol causes type C NPD, and two distinct gene defects have been found. In this chapter only types A and B NPD will be discussed.

  6. Psychological interventions in the management of common skin conditions

    PubMed Central

    Shenefelt, Philip D

    2010-01-01

    The nervous system and the skin develop next to each other in the embryo and remain intimately interconnected and interactive throughout life. The nervous system can influence skin conditions through psychoneuroimmunoendocrine mechanisms and through behaviors. Understanding the pathophysiology aids in selection of treatment plans for correcting the negative effects of the psyche on specific skin conditions. Medication options include standard psychotropic medications and alternative herbs and supplements. Other options include biofeedback, cognitive-behavioral methods, hypnosis, meditation, progressive relaxation, the placebo effect, and suggestion. When simple measures fail, combining medications with other therapeutic options may produce better results. Skin conditions that have strong psychophysiologic aspects may respond well to techniques such as biofeedback, cognitive-behavioral methods, hypnosis, meditation, or progressive relaxation that help to counteract stress. Treatment of primary psychiatric disorders that negatively influence skin conditions often results in improvement of those skin conditions. Abnormal conditions of the skin, hair, and nails can also influence the psyche negatively. Treatment of secondary psychiatric disorders such as anxiety or depression that are triggered or exacerbated by the appearance of these skin conditions or the associated discomfort may also be required. PMID:22110329

  7. Peak picking NMR spectral data using non-negative matrix factorization.

    PubMed

    Tikole, Suhas; Jaravine, Victor; Rogov, Vladimir; Dötsch, Volker; Güntert, Peter

    2014-02-11

    Simple peak-picking algorithms, such as those based on lineshape fitting, perform well when peaks are completely resolved in multidimensional NMR spectra, but often produce wrong intensities and frequencies for overlapping peak clusters. For example, NOESY-type spectra have considerable overlaps leading to significant peak-picking intensity errors, which can result in erroneous structural restraints. Precise frequencies are critical for unambiguous resonance assignments. To alleviate this problem, a more sophisticated peaks decomposition algorithm, based on non-negative matrix factorization (NMF), was developed. We produce peak shapes from Fourier-transformed NMR spectra. Apart from its main goal of deriving components from spectra and producing peak lists automatically, the NMF approach can also be applied if the positions of some peaks are known a priori, e.g. from consistently referenced spectral dimensions of other experiments. Application of the NMF algorithm to a three-dimensional peak list of the 23 kDa bi-domain section of the RcsD protein (RcsD-ABL-HPt, residues 688-890) as well as to synthetic HSQC data shows that peaks can be picked accurately also in spectral regions with strong overlap.

  8. Peak picking NMR spectral data using non-negative matrix factorization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Simple peak-picking algorithms, such as those based on lineshape fitting, perform well when peaks are completely resolved in multidimensional NMR spectra, but often produce wrong intensities and frequencies for overlapping peak clusters. For example, NOESY-type spectra have considerable overlaps leading to significant peak-picking intensity errors, which can result in erroneous structural restraints. Precise frequencies are critical for unambiguous resonance assignments. Results To alleviate this problem, a more sophisticated peaks decomposition algorithm, based on non-negative matrix factorization (NMF), was developed. We produce peak shapes from Fourier-transformed NMR spectra. Apart from its main goal of deriving components from spectra and producing peak lists automatically, the NMF approach can also be applied if the positions of some peaks are known a priori, e.g. from consistently referenced spectral dimensions of other experiments. Conclusions Application of the NMF algorithm to a three-dimensional peak list of the 23 kDa bi-domain section of the RcsD protein (RcsD-ABL-HPt, residues 688-890) as well as to synthetic HSQC data shows that peaks can be picked accurately also in spectral regions with strong overlap. PMID:24511909

  9. Choroidal and skin metastases from colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Ha, Joo Young; Oh, Edward Hynseung; Jung, Moon Ki; Park, Song Ee; Kim, Ji Tak; Hwang, In Gyu

    2016-11-21

    Choroidal and skin metastasis of colon cancer is rare. In women, the frequency of cutaneous metastasis from colon cancer as the primary lesion in is 9% and skin metastasis occurs in 0.81% of all colorectal cancers. We report a patient with colonic adenocarcinoma who presented with visual disorder in her right eye and scalp pain as her initial symptoms. Contrast-enhance orbital magnetic resonance imaging with fat suppression revealed an infrabulbar mass, and skin biopsy of the posterior parietal scalp confirmed adenocarcinoma. These symptoms were diagnosed as being caused by choroidal and skin metastases of colonic adenocarcinoma. We started palliative chemotherapy with oral capecitabine (1000 mg/m 2 , twice a day, on days 1-14) every 3 wk, which was effective at shrinking the brain masses and improving the visual disorder. This is the first report that capecitabine is effective at reducing a choroidal and cutaneous metastatic lesion from right-sided colorectal cancer.

  10. Evidence and Considerations in the Application of Chemical Peels in Skin Disorders and Aesthetic Resurfacing

    PubMed Central

    Berson, Diane S.; Cohen, Joel L.; Roberts, Wendy E.; Starker, Isaac; Wang, Beatrice

    2010-01-01

    Chemical peeling is a popular, relatively inexpensive, and generally safe method for treatment of some skin disorders and to refresh and rejuvenate skin. This article focuses on chemical peels and their use in routine clinical practice. Chemical peels are classified by the depth of action into superficial, medium, and deep peels. The depth of the peel is correlated with clinical changes, with the greatest change achieved by deep peels. However, the depth is also associated with longer healing times and the potential for complications. A wide variety of peels are available, utilizing various topical agents and concentrations, including a recent salicylic acid derivative, β-lipohydroxy acid, which has properties that may expand the clinical use of peels. Superficial peels, penetrating only the epidermis, can be used to enhance treatment for a variety of conditions, including acne, melasma, dyschromias, photodamage, and actinic keratoses. Medium-depth peels, penetrating to the papillary dermis, may be used for dyschromia, multiple solar keratoses, superficial scars, and pigmentary disorders. Deep peels, affecting reticular dermis, may be used for severe photoaging, deep wrinkles, or scars. Peels can be combined with other in-office facial resurfacing techniques to optimize outcomes and enhance patient satisfaction and allow clinicians to tailor the treatment to individual patient needs. Successful outcomes are based on a careful patient selection as well as appropriate use of specific peeling agents. Used properly, the chemical peel has the potential to fill an important therapeutic need in the dermatologist's and plastic surgeon's armamentarium. PMID:20725555

  11. [Sensitive skin: a complex syndrome].

    PubMed

    Escalas-Taberner, J; González-Guerra, E; Guerra-Tapia, A

    2011-10-01

    Epidemiologic studies indicate that ever larger numbers of people report having sensitive skin, for which a European prevalence of 50% is estimated. Sensitive skin is characterized by hyperreactivity, with manifestations varying in relation to many factors. The pathogenesis of this disorder is poorly understood, although studies point to a biophysical mechanism. Objective diagnosis of sensitive skin is difficult, as information comes mainly from the patient's report of symptoms in the absence of effective, strongly predictive tests because of great interindividual variability in skin sensitivity. Substances that trigger a reaction in hypersensitive skin also vary greatly. The impact of this syndrome on quality of life is considerable and patients often present psychiatric symptoms; therefore, dermatologists should explore this possibility when taking a patient's history. Patient cooperation and physician persistence are both essential for treating sensitive skin. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. y AEDV. All rights reserved.

  12. Body dysmorphic disorder and cosmetic dermatology: more than skin deep

    PubMed Central

    Castle, David J; Phillips, Katharine A; Dufresne, Raymond G

    2006-01-01

    Summary Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is relatively common in cosmetic practise, yet it remains under-recognized. BDD patients are unnaturally concerned with minimal or non-existent flaws, most commonly in the skin (e.g. facial acne or scarring) and hair (e.g. hair loss). Many patients develop social avoidance and suffer occupational or academic impairment. More severely ill patients may become housebound or even attempt suicide. Despite the minimal or non-existent nature of the perceived appearance flaws, patients with BDD may request dermatological treatments such as isotretinoin or dermabrasion. Although treatment outcome has received little investigation, it appears that most patients are dissatisfied with dermatological treatment and, even if the outcome is objectively acceptable, they do not worry any the less about their appearance afterwards. In contrast, a majority of patients respond to serotonin reuptake inhibitors or cognitive behavioural therapy. Treatment of these patients is best given by an experienced health professional. This may be a mental health professional or a dermatologist with an interest in psychological medicine. PMID:17147563

  13. "Micro-robots" pick up a glass bead

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2011-01-01

    "Micro-robots", which are really collections of particles animated by magnetic fields, pick up a glass bead and move it around the screen. Each movement is precisely controlled. The "asters" were designed by Alexey Snezkho and Igor Aronson at Argonne National Laboratory. Video courtesy Nature Materials. Read the full story at http://go.usa.gov/KAT

  14. Parkin-mediated Monoubiquitination of the PDZ Protein PICK1 Regulates the Activity of Acid-sensing Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Joch, Monica; Ase, Ariel R.; Chen, Carol X.-Q.; MacDonald, Penny A.; Kontogiannea, Maria; Corera, Amadou T.; Brice, Alexis

    2007-01-01

    Mutations in the parkin gene result in an autosomal recessive juvenile-onset form of Parkinson's disease. As an E3 ubiquitin-ligase, parkin promotes the attachment of ubiquitin onto specific substrate proteins. Defects in the ubiquitination of parkin substrates are therefore believed to lead to neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease. Here, we identify the PSD-95/Discs-large/Zona Occludens-1 (PDZ) protein PICK1 as a novel parkin substrate. We find that parkin binds PICK1 via a PDZ-mediated interaction, which predominantly promotes PICK1 monoubiquitination rather than polyubiquitination. Consistent with monoubiquitination and recent work implicating parkin in proteasome-independent pathways, parkin does not promote PICK1 degradation. However, parkin regulates the effects of PICK1 on one of its other PDZ partners, the acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC). Overexpression of wild-type, but not PDZ binding– or E3 ubiquitin-ligase–defective parkin abolishes the previously described, protein kinase C-induced, PICK1-dependent potentiation of ASIC2a currents in non-neuronal cells. Conversely, the loss of parkin in hippocampal neurons from parkin knockout mice unmasks prominent potentiation of native ASIC currents, which is normally suppressed by endogenous parkin in wild-type neurons. Given that ASIC channels contribute to excitotoxicity, our work provides a mechanism explaining how defects in parkin-mediated PICK1 monoubiquitination could enhance ASIC activity and thereby promote neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease. PMID:17553932

  15. Relationship between skin diseases and extracutaneous complications of diabetes mellitus: clinical analysis of 750 patients.

    PubMed

    Demirseren, Duriye Deniz; Emre, Selma; Akoglu, Gulsen; Arpacı, Dilek; Arman, Aysegul; Metin, Ahmet; Cakır, Bekir

    2014-02-01

    The relationship between skin diseases and extracutaneous complications in diabetes mellitus (DM) is unclear. We aimed to investigate the relationship between skin disorders and diabetic neuropathy, nephropathy, and retinopathy in patients with DM. A total of 750 patients with DM were prospectively enrolled. Demographic and clinical features, skin disorders, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, and presence of nephropathy, neuropathy, and retinopathy were noted. Of the patients, 38.0% had neuropathy, 23.3% had nephropathy, and 22.9% had retinopathy. Any skin disorder was present in 79.2% (n = 594) of patients. The most common skin manifestations were cutaneous infections (47.5%), xerosis (26.4%), and inflammatory skin diseases (20.7%). The frequency of cutaneous infections, fungal infections, diabetic foot, rubeosis faciei, and pigmented purpuric dermatitis was higher in patients with nephropathy than in those without nephropathy. Cutaneous infections, diabetic foot, rubeosis faciei, and diabetic dermopathy were more common in patients with neuropathy. Fungal infections, diabetic foot, rubeosis faciei, diabetic dermopathy, and pigmented purpuric dermatitis were more frequent in patients with retinopathy. Patients with HbA1c ≥8 mmol/mL had more skin disorders than those with HbA1c <8 mmol/mL (P < 0.05 for all). Skin disorders may be clues to the presence of associated microvascular complications of DM.

  16. Fungi on the Skin: Dermatophytes and Malassezia

    PubMed Central

    White, Theodore C.; Findley, Keisha; Dawson, Thomas L.; Scheynius, Annika; Boekhout, Teun; Cuomo, Christina A.; Xu, Jun; Saunders, Charles W.

    2014-01-01

    Several human skin diseases and disorders are associated with two groups of fungi, the dermatophytes and Malassezia. Although these skin-related problems are not generally life threatening, they are among the most common diseases and disorders of mankind. These fungi are phylogenetically divergent, with the dermatophytes within the Ascomycota and Malassezia within Basidiomycota. Genome analysis indicates that the adaptations to the skin environment are different in these two groups of fungi. Malassezia are dependent on host lipids and secrete lipases and phospholipases that likely release host fatty acids. The dermatophytes encode multiple enzymes with potential roles in modulating host interactions: polyketide synthases, nonribosomal peptide synthetases, LysM, proteases, kinases, and pseudokinases. These two fungal groups have maximized their interactions with the host using two very different mechanisms. PMID:25085959

  17. Anthocyanin yield and skin softening during maceration, as affected by vineyard row orientation and grape ripeness of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz.

    PubMed

    Giacosa, Simone; Marengo, Fabio; Guidoni, Silvia; Rolle, Luca; Hunter, Jacobus J

    2015-05-01

    Anthocyanin and mechanical properties were evaluated on Shiraz grapes, picked from both sides of North-South and East-West vineyard row orientations at two harvest dates. Wines were made from each combination. The evaluation and evolution of crushed skin mechanical properties during maceration-fermentation, as also affected by grape ripeness, are shown for the first time. No significant differences in anthocyanin content were found in the grapes between the two vineyard row orientations. However, a significant decrease in anthocyanins and berry skin break force (also referred as skin hardness or strength) was found between the two harvest dates. During maceration, a reduction in the crushed berry skin break force of more than 15% occurred. The intact berries and macerated skins showed similarity in skin break energy values. The anthocyanin profile of the grapes and of the wines prominently displayed malvidin forms, changed mainly by the ripeness level of the grapes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Protein Interacting with C Kinase 1 (PICK1) Reduces Reinsertion Rates of Interaction Partners Sorted to Rab11-dependent Slow Recycling Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Kenneth L.; Thorsen, Thor S.; Rahbek-Clemmensen, Troels; Eriksen, Jacob; Gether, Ulrik

    2012-01-01

    The scaffolding protein PICK1 (protein interacting with C kinase 1) contains an N-terminal PSD-95/Discs large/ZO-1 (PDZ) domain and a central lipid-binding Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain. PICK1 is thought to regulate trafficking of its PDZ binding partners but different and even opposing functions have been suggested. Here, we apply ELISA-based assays and confocal microscopy in HEK293 cells with inducible PICK1 expression to assess in an isolated system the ability of PICK1 to regulate trafficking of natural and engineered PDZ binding partners. The dopamine transporter (DAT), which primarily sorts to degradation upon internalization, did not form perinuclear clusters with PICK1, and PICK1 did not affect DAT internalization/recycling. However, transfer of the PICK1-binding DAT C terminus to the β2-adrenergic receptor, which sorts to recycling upon internalization, led to formation of PICK1 co-clusters in Rab11-positive compartments. Furthermore, PICK1 inhibited Rab11-mediated recycling of the receptor in a BAR and PDZ domain-dependent manner. In contrast, transfer of the DAT C terminus to the δ-opioid receptor, which sorts to degradation, did not result in PICK1 co-clusters or any change in internalization/recycling. Further support for a role of PICK1 determined by its PDZ cargo was obtained for the PICK1 interaction partner prolactin-releasing peptide receptor (GPR10). GPR10 co-localized with Rab11 and clustered with PICK1 upon constitutive internalization but co-localized with the late endosomal marker Rab7 and did not cluster with PICK1 upon agonist-induced internalization. Our data suggest a selective role of PICK1 in clustering and reducing the recycling rates of PDZ domain binding partners sorted to the Rab11-dependent recycling pathway. PMID:22303009

  19. Niemann–Pick type C disease – the tip of the iceberg? A review of neuropsychiatric presentation, diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Evans, William R. H.; Hendriksz, Chris J.

    2017-01-01

    Niemann–Pick type C (NP-C) disease is a rare neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder. It is highly heterogeneous, and there is limited awareness of a substantial subgroup that has an attenuated adolescent/adult-onset disease. In these patients psychiatric features, often a psychosis, may dominate the initial impression, although often there is an associated ataxia and cognitive impairment. Typically, patients experience a substantial diagnostic delay. In this review we highlight the importance of early recognition and discuss the pathophysiology, neuropsychiatric presentation and recent changes in the investigation and work-up of these patients, and treatment options. PMID:28400970

  20. A New First Break Picking for Three-Component VSP Data Using Gesture Sensor and Polarization Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huailiang; Tuo, Xianguo; Shen, Tong; Wang, Ruili; Courtois, Jérémie; Yan, Minhao

    2017-01-01

    A new first break picking for three-component (3C) vertical seismic profiling (VSP) data is proposed to improve the estimation accuracy of first arrivals, which adopts gesture detection calibration and polarization analysis based on the eigenvalue of the covariance matrix. This study aims at addressing the problem that calibration is required for VSP data using the azimuth and dip angle of geophones, due to the direction of geophones being random when applied in a borehole, which will further lead to the first break picking possibly being unreliable. Initially, a gesture-measuring module is integrated in the seismometer to rapidly obtain high-precision gesture data (including azimuth and dip angle information). Using re-rotating and re-projecting using earlier gesture data, the seismic dataset of each component will be calibrated to the direction that is consistent with the vibrator shot orientation. It will promote the reliability of the original data when making each component waveform calibrated to the same virtual reference component, and the corresponding first break will also be properly adjusted. After achieving 3C data calibration, an automatic first break picking algorithm based on the autoregressive-Akaike information criterion (AR-AIC) is adopted to evaluate the first break. Furthermore, in order to enhance the accuracy of the first break picking, the polarization attributes of 3C VSP recordings is applied to constrain the scanning segment of AR-AIC picker, which uses the maximum eigenvalue calculation of the covariance matrix. The contrast results between pre-calibration and post-calibration using field data show that it can further improve the quality of the 3C VSP waveform, which is favorable to subsequent picking. Compared to the obtained short-term average to long-term average (STA/LTA) and the AR-AIC algorithm, the proposed method, combined with polarization analysis, can significantly reduce the picking error. Applications of actual field

  1. Information Retrieval Performance of Probabilistically Generated, Problem-Specific Computerized Provider Order Entry Pick-Lists: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Rothschild, Adam S.; Lehmann, Harold P.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to preliminarily determine the feasibility of probabilistically generating problem-specific computerized provider order entry (CPOE) pick-lists from a database of explicitly linked orders and problems from actual clinical cases. Design: In a pilot retrospective validation, physicians reviewed internal medicine cases consisting of the admission history and physical examination and orders placed using CPOE during the first 24 hours after admission. They created coded problem lists and linked orders from individual cases to the problem for which they were most indicated. Problem-specific order pick-lists were generated by including a given order in a pick-list if the probability of linkage of order and problem (PLOP) equaled or exceeded a specified threshold. PLOP for a given linked order-problem pair was computed as its prevalence among the other cases in the experiment with the given problem. The orders that the reviewer linked to a given problem instance served as the reference standard to evaluate its system-generated pick-list. Measurements: Recall, precision, and length of the pick-lists. Results: Average recall reached a maximum of .67 with a precision of .17 and pick-list length of 31.22 at a PLOP threshold of 0. Average precision reached a maximum of .73 with a recall of .09 and pick-list length of .42 at a PLOP threshold of .9. Recall varied inversely with precision in classic information retrieval behavior. Conclusion: We preliminarily conclude that it is feasible to generate problem-specific CPOE pick-lists probabilistically from a database of explicitly linked orders and problems. Further research is necessary to determine the usefulness of this approach in real-world settings. PMID:15684134

  2. A Bayesian pick-the-winner design in a randomized phase II clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dung-Tsa; Huang, Po-Yu; Lin, Hui-Yi; Chiappori, Alberto A; Gabrilovich, Dmitry I; Haura, Eric B; Antonia, Scott J; Gray, Jhanelle E

    2017-10-24

    Many phase II clinical trials evaluate unique experimental drugs/combinations through multi-arm design to expedite the screening process (early termination of ineffective drugs) and to identify the most effective drug (pick the winner) to warrant a phase III trial. Various statistical approaches have been developed for the pick-the-winner design but have been criticized for lack of objective comparison among the drug agents. We developed a Bayesian pick-the-winner design by integrating a Bayesian posterior probability with Simon two-stage design in a randomized two-arm clinical trial. The Bayesian posterior probability, as the rule to pick the winner, is defined as probability of the response rate in one arm higher than in the other arm. The posterior probability aims to determine the winner when both arms pass the second stage of the Simon two-stage design. When both arms are competitive (i.e., both passing the second stage), the Bayesian posterior probability performs better to correctly identify the winner compared with the Fisher exact test in the simulation study. In comparison to a standard two-arm randomized design, the Bayesian pick-the-winner design has a higher power to determine a clear winner. In application to two studies, the approach is able to perform statistical comparison of two treatment arms and provides a winner probability (Bayesian posterior probability) to statistically justify the winning arm. We developed an integrated design that utilizes Bayesian posterior probability, Simon two-stage design, and randomization into a unique setting. It gives objective comparisons between the arms to determine the winner.

  3. Geriatric dermatoses: a clinical review of skin diseases in an aging population.

    PubMed

    Jafferany, Mohammad; Huynh, Trung V; Silverman, Melissa A; Zaidi, Zohra

    2012-05-01

    Geriatric dermatoses are a challenging job for the physician in terms of diagnosis, management, and followup. Since skin of the elderly population is going through a lot of changes from both an intrinsic and extrinsic point of view, it is imperative for the physician to have a better understanding of the pathophysiology of geriatric skin disorders and their specific management, which differs slightly from an adult population. This review focuses on a brief introduction to the pathophysiological aspects of skin disorders in elderly, the description of some common geriatric skin disorders and their management and the new emerging role of psychodermatological aspects of geriatric dermatoses is also discussed. At the end, ten multiple choice questions are also added to further enhance the knowledge base of the readers. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  4. Structure of human Niemann–Pick C1 protein

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaochun; Wang, Jiawei; Coutavas, Elias; Shi, Hang; Hao, Qi; Blobel, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Niemann–Pick C1 protein (NPC1) is a late-endosomal membrane protein involved in trafficking of LDL-derived cholesterol, Niemann–Pick disease type C, and Ebola virus infection. NPC1 contains 13 transmembrane segments (TMs), five of which are thought to represent a “sterol-sensing domain” (SSD). Although present also in other key regulatory proteins of cholesterol biosynthesis, uptake, and signaling, the structure and mechanism of action of the SSD are unknown. Here we report a crystal structure of a large fragment of human NPC1 at 3.6 Å resolution, which reveals internal twofold pseudosymmetry along TM 2–13 and two structurally homologous domains that protrude 60 Å into the endosomal lumen. Strikingly, NPC1's SSD forms a cavity that is accessible from both the luminal bilayer leaflet and the endosomal lumen; computational modeling suggests that this cavity is large enough to accommodate one cholesterol molecule. We propose a model for NPC1 function in cholesterol sensing and transport. PMID:27307437

  5. An Improved P-Phase Arrival Picking Method S/L-K-A with an Application to the Yongshaba Mine in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Xueyi; Li, Xibing; Morales-Esteban, A.; Dong, Longjun

    2018-02-01

    Automatic microseismic P-phase arrival picking is paramount for microseismic event identification, event location and source mechanism analysis. The commonly used STA/LTA picker, PAI-K picker, AIC picker and three proposed pickers have been applied to determine the P-phase arrivals of 580 microseismic signals (the sampling frequency is 6000 Hz). These have been obtained from the Institute of Mine Seismology (IMS) acquisition system of the Yongshaba mine in China. Then, the six above-mentioned pickers have been compared in their picking accuracy, typical waveforms, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) adaptabilities and quantitative evaluation. The results have shown that: (1) the triggered STA/LTA picker has a good picking stability but a low picking accuracy. While the PAI-K and the AIC pickers have a higher picking accuracy but a poorer picking stability compared with the triggered STA/LTA picker. Moreover, the AIC picker usually has a better picking result than the PAI-K picker; (2) the S/L-K-A picker significantly improves the STA/LTA, the PAI-K and the S/L + PAI-K pickers. Moreover, it obviously improves the AIC and the S/L + AIC pickers' large picking error (> 30 ms) signals; (3) the picking error ratios of the S/L-K-A picker within 10, 20 and 30 ms achieve 92.76, 95.86 and 97.41%, respectively. The S/L-K-A picker enhances the picking adaptability to different waveforms and SNRs. In conclusion, the S/L-K-A picker provides a new method for automatic microseismic P-phase arrival picking with a high accuracy and a good stability.

  6. The Anti-Resonance Criterion in Selecting Pick Systems for Fully Operational Cutting Machinery Used in Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheluszka, Piotr

    2017-12-01

    This article discusses the issue of selecting a pick system for cutting mining machinery, concerning the reduction of vibrations in the cutting system, particularly in a load-carrying structure at work. Numerical analysis was performed on a telescopic roadheader boom equipped with transverse heads. A frequency range of the boom's free vibrations with a set structure and dynamic properties were determined based on a dynamic model. The main components excited by boom vibrations, generated through the process of cutting rock, were identified. This was closely associated with the stereometry of the cutting heads. The impact on the pick system (the number of picks and their arrangement along the side of the cutting head) was determined by the intensity of the external boom load elements, especially in resonance zones. In terms of the anti-resonance criterion, an advantageous system of cutting head picks was determined as a result of the analysis undertaken. The correct selection of the pick system was ascertained based on a computer simulation of the dynamic loads and vibrations of a roadheader telescopic boom.

  7. [Assessment of the prevalence and perception of skin problems in patients with permanent stoma].

    PubMed

    Piccinellil, Margherita; Brazzale, Roberta; Saracco, Carla

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of peristomal skin in ostomy patients ranges from 25 to 35%. In a recent paper it was reported that patients may not be aware of the skin problem. To describe the prevalence and characteristics of skin disorders in ostomy patients and to assess their perception of the skin problem. Consecutive patients attending the stoma care clinic of Varese Hospital and with a permanent stoma (>1 year) were asked if they had any skin problem subsequently visited by the stoma care nurse. The skin problems were classified with two different scales (Mosè le tavole and SACS). Of 48 patients, 35 (73%) declared no skin problems but overall 27 patients had a skin disorder (11/13 of those aware of having a problem and 16/35 of those not aware). Patients that self cared for their stoma did not report any problem although 27/31 had some skin disorder. No patient reported to have a skin erosion although 13 were detected by the stoma care nurse. Although "expert" patients may not be aware of their skin problems. Attention should be paid not only to patients with recent stomas but also to those with permanent stoma, that may need further educational support.

  8. Fungi on the skin: dermatophytes and Malassezia.

    PubMed

    White, Theodore C; Findley, Keisha; Dawson, Thomas L; Scheynius, Annika; Boekhout, Teun; Cuomo, Christina A; Xu, Jun; Saunders, Charles W

    2014-08-01

    Several human skin diseases and disorders are associated with two groups of fungi, the dermatophytes and Malassezia. Although these skin-related problems are not generally life threatening, they are among the most common diseases and disorders of mankind. These fungi are phylogenetically divergent, with the dermatophytes within the Ascomycota and Malassezia within Basidiomycota. Genome analysis indicates that the adaptations to the skin environment are different in these two groups of fungi. Malassezia are dependent on host lipids and secrete lipases and phospholipases that likely release host fatty acids. The dermatophytes encode multiple enzymes with potential roles in modulating host interactions: polyketide synthases, nonribosomal peptide synthetases, LysM, proteases, kinases, and pseudokinases. These two fungal groups have maximized their interactions with the host using two very different mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  9. The incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer and post-transplant lympho-proliferative disorders in the Scottish cardiac transplant population and the provision of specialist dermatological follow-up.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Iain; Kirk, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Background Immunosuppression helps prevent acute rejection post-cardiac transplant but has been linked to malignancy development. This may be due to a reduction in T-lymphocyte function, a direct oncogenic effect or the increased impact of environmental carcinogens. There has been shown to be significant increases in non-melanoma skin cancers and post-transplant lympho-proliferative disorders, particularly in those treated with OKT3. Aim To investigate the survival and incidence of malignancy in the Scottish cardiac transplant population and whether rates of non-melanoma skin cancers justify the provision of specialist dermatological follow-up. Methods and results Retrospective case note analysis of patients transplanted (363) or followed up (2) in Scotland from 1992 to 2016. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis generated a survival curve. Patients had a 1-year survival of 82% and a median survival of 10.9 years. There were 60 (95% CI 47.5, 75.2) NMSCs and 8 (3.7, 12.4) post-transplant lympho-proliferative disorders diagnosed in the cohort (3110 person years follow-up). Fisher's exact test was employed to analyse the association between induction therapy (via OKT3 or rabbit antithymocyte globulin) and post-transplant lympho-proliferative disorder development. Patients treated with OKT3 had a 6.7 times greater risk ( P = 0.014) and a shorter experience of patients treated with rabbit antithymocyte globulin has so far shown no significantly altered risk ( P = 1.00) of developing a post-transplant lympho-proliferative disorder. Conclusion Incidences of non-melanoma skin cancers and post-transplant lympho-proliferative disorders were increased in the Scottish cardiac transplant population and there was a significant association between post-transplant lympho-proliferative disorder development and OKT3 therapy but not rabbit antithymocyte globulin therapy. These findings in Scottish patients reflect what is published in wider literature and support the provision of a

  10. Taboo search algorithm for item assignment in synchronized zone automated order picking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yingying; Wu, Yaohua

    2014-07-01

    The idle time which is part of the order fulfillment time is decided by the number of items in the zone; therefore the item assignment method affects the picking efficiency. Whereas previous studies only focus on the balance of number of kinds of items between different zones but not the number of items and the idle time in each zone. In this paper, an idle factor is proposed to measure the idle time exactly. The idle factor is proven to obey the same vary trend with the idle time, so the object of this problem can be simplified from minimizing idle time to minimizing idle factor. Based on this, the model of item assignment problem in synchronized zone automated order picking system is built. The model is a form of relaxation of parallel machine scheduling problem which had been proven to be NP-complete. To solve the model, a taboo search algorithm is proposed. The main idea of the algorithm is minimizing the greatest idle factor of zones with the 2-exchange algorithm. Finally, the simulation which applies the data collected from a tobacco distribution center is conducted to evaluate the performance of the algorithm. The result verifies the model and shows the algorithm can do a steady work to reduce idle time and the idle time can be reduced by 45.63% on average. This research proposed an approach to measure the idle time in synchronized zone automated order picking system. The approach can improve the picking efficiency significantly and can be seen as theoretical basis when optimizing the synchronized automated order picking systems.

  11. A Review of Body Dysmorphic Disorder and Its Presentation in Different Clinical Settings

    PubMed Central

    Mufaddel, Amir; Osman, Ossama T.; Almugaddam, Fadwa

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a relatively common psychiatric disorder characterized by preoccupations with perceived defects in physical appearance. This review aimed to explore epidemiology, clinical features, comorbidities, and treatment options for BDD in different clinical settings. Data Source and Study Selection: A search of the literature from 1970 to 2011 was performed using the MEDLINE search engine. English-language articles, with no restriction regarding the type of articles, were identified using the search terms body dysmorphic disorder, body dysmorphic disorder clinical settings, body dysmorphic disorder treatment, and body dysmorphic disorder & psychodermatology. Results: BDD occurs in 0.7% to 2.4% of community samples and 13% of psychiatric inpatients. Etiology is multifactorial, with recent findings indicating deficits in visual information processing. There is considerable overlap between BDD and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in symptom etiology and response to treatment, which has led to suggestions that BDD can be classified with anxiety disorders and OCD. A recent finding indicated genetic overlap between BDD and OCD. Over 60% of patients with BDD had a lifetime anxiety disorder, and 38% had social phobia, which tends to predate the onset of BDD. Studies reported a high level of comorbidity with depression and social phobia occurring in > 70% of patients with BDD. Individuals with BDD present frequently to dermatologists (about 9%–14% of dermatologic patients have BDD). BDD co-occurs with pathological skin picking in 26%–45% of cases. BDD currently has 2 variants: delusional and nondelusional, and both variants respond similarly to serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs), which may have effect on obsessive thoughts and rituals. Cognitive-behavioral therapy has the best established treatment results. Conclusions: A considerable overlap exists between BDD and other psychiatric disorders such as OCD, anxiety, and delusional

  12. Experimental Investigation of the Influence of Confining Stress on Hard Rock Fragmentation Using a Conical Pick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xibing; Wang, Shaofeng; Wang, Shanyong

    2018-01-01

    High geostress is a prominent condition in deep excavations and affects the cuttability of deep hard rock. This study aims to determine the influence of confining stress on hard rock fragmentation as applied by a conical pick. Using a true triaxial test apparatus, static and coupled static and dynamic loadings from pick forces were applied to end faces of cubic rock specimens to break them under biaxial, uniaxial and stress-free confining stress conditions. The cuttability indices (peak pick force, insertion depth and disturbance duration), failure patterns and fragment sizes were measured and compared to estimate the effects of confining stress. The results show that the rock cuttabilities decreased in order from rock breakages under stress-free conditions to uniaxial confining stress and then to biaxial confining stress. Under biaxial confining stress, only flake-shaped fragments were stripped from the rock surfaces under the requirements of large pick forces or disturbance durations. As the level of uniaxial confining stress increased, the peak pick force and the insertion depth initially increased and then decreased, and the failure patterns varied from splitting to partial splitting and then to rock bursts with decreasing average fragment sizes. Rock bursts will occur under elastic compression via ultra-high uniaxial confining stresses. There are two critical uniaxial confining stress levels, namely stress values at which peak pick forces begin to decrease and improve rock cuttability, and those at which rock bursts initially occur and cutting safety decreases. In particular, hard rock is easiest to split safely and efficiently under stress-free conditions. Moreover, coupled static preloading and dynamic disturbance can increase the efficiency of rock fragmentation with increasing preloading levels and disturbance amplitudes. The concluding remarks confirm hard rock cuttability using conical pick, which can improve the applicability of mechanical excavation in

  13. Pick-N-Pull Auto Dismantlers, Kansas City, LLC Inc.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against Pick-N-Pull Auto Dismantlers, Kansas City, LLC, a subsidiary of Schnitzer Steel Industries, Inc., for alleged violations at its facilities at 8012 East Truman Rd., Kansas C

  14. Loss of corneodesmosin leads to severe skin barrier defect, pruritus, and atopy: unraveling the peeling skin disease.

    PubMed

    Oji, Vinzenz; Eckl, Katja-Martina; Aufenvenne, Karin; Nätebus, Marc; Tarinski, Tatjana; Ackermann, Katharina; Seller, Natalia; Metze, Dieter; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Fölster-Holst, Regina; Schäfer-Korting, Monika; Hausser, Ingrid; Traupe, Heiko; Hennies, Hans Christian

    2010-08-13

    Generalized peeling skin disease is an autosomal-recessive ichthyosiform erythroderma characterized by lifelong patchy peeling of the skin. After genome-wide linkage analysis, we have identified a homozygous nonsense mutation in CDSN in a large consanguineous family with generalized peeling skin, pruritus, and food allergies, which leads to a complete loss of corneodesmosin. In contrast to hypotrichosis simplex, which can be associated with specific dominant CDSN mutations, peeling skin disease is characterized by a complete loss of CDSN expression. The skin phenotype is consistent with a recent murine Cdsn knockout model. Using three-dimensional human skin models, we demonstrate that lack of corneodesmosin causes an epidermal barrier defect supposed to account for the predisposition to atopic diseases, and we confirm the role of corneodesmosin as a decisive epidermal adhesion molecule. Therefore, peeling skin disease will represent a new model disorder for atopic diseases, similarly to Netherton syndrome and ichthyosis vulgaris in the recent past.

  15. Loss of Corneodesmosin Leads to Severe Skin Barrier Defect, Pruritus, and Atopy: Unraveling the Peeling Skin Disease

    PubMed Central

    Oji, Vinzenz; Eckl, Katja-Martina; Aufenvenne, Karin; Nätebus, Marc; Tarinski, Tatjana; Ackermann, Katharina; Seller, Natalia; Metze, Dieter; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Fölster-Holst, Regina; Schäfer-Korting, Monika; Hausser, Ingrid; Traupe, Heiko; Hennies, Hans Christian

    2010-01-01

    Generalized peeling skin disease is an autosomal-recessive ichthyosiform erythroderma characterized by lifelong patchy peeling of the skin. After genome-wide linkage analysis, we have identified a homozygous nonsense mutation in CDSN in a large consanguineous family with generalized peeling skin, pruritus, and food allergies, which leads to a complete loss of corneodesmosin. In contrast to hypotrichosis simplex, which can be associated with specific dominant CDSN mutations, peeling skin disease is characterized by a complete loss of CDSN expression. The skin phenotype is consistent with a recent murine Cdsn knockout model. Using three-dimensional human skin models, we demonstrate that lack of corneodesmosin causes an epidermal barrier defect supposed to account for the predisposition to atopic diseases, and we confirm the role of corneodesmosin as a decisive epidermal adhesion molecule. Therefore, peeling skin disease will represent a new model disorder for atopic diseases, similarly to Netherton syndrome and ichthyosis vulgaris in the recent past. PMID:20691404

  16. Scleroderma-like Disorders.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Amit

    2018-04-20

    Scleroderma is a term used to describe diseases that involve hardening and tightening of the skin and the underlying subcutaneous connective tissue. It could be localized to skin and subcutaneous tissue, or may involve the internal organs too in systemic sclerosis. There are disorders that can cause hardening and tightening of skin and mimic scleroderma but are rarely associated with Raynaud phenomenon, sclerodactyly, and autoantibodies in the serum, features specific to scleroderma/systemic sclerosis. These are termed as "scleroderma variants" or "scleroderma like disorders". This review discusses the various "scleroderma variants" e.g. scleromyxedema, scleredema, nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, and eosinophilic fasciitis. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Common skin problems in children.

    PubMed

    Sethuraman, Gomathy; Bhari, Neetu

    2014-04-01

    Childhood dermatological problems contribute about one-third of all consultations in the setting of both pediatrics and dermatology outpatient services. Skin disorders in children may cause anxiety to parents. General Practitioners should be familiar with the common prevalent skin problems as immediate pediatric dermatology consultation may not be possible. Infections, infestations and dermatitis are the most prevalent diseases among Indian children. The scope of this review is to briefly highlight these common and other important dermatological problems in children.

  18. Accurate simulations of helium pick-up experiments using a rejection-free Monte Carlo method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutra, Matthew; Hinde, Robert

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we present Monte Carlo simulations of helium droplet pick-up experiments with the intention of developing a robust and accurate theoretical approach for interpreting experimental helium droplet calorimetry data. Our approach is capable of capturing the evaporative behavior of helium droplets following dopant acquisition, allowing for a more realistic description of the pick-up process. Furthermore, we circumvent the traditional assumption of bulk helium behavior by utilizing density functional calculations of the size-dependent helium droplet chemical potential. The results of this new Monte Carlo technique are compared to commonly used Poisson pick-up statistics for simulations that reflect a broad range of experimental parameters. We conclude by offering an assessment of both of these theoretical approaches in the context of our observed results.

  19. Peristomal skin disorders in patients with intestinal and urinary ostomies: influence of adhesive forces of various hydrocolloid wafer skin barriers.

    PubMed

    Omura, Yuko; Yamabe, Motoko; Anazawa, Sadao

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the adhesiveness of hydrocolloid wafers and its relationship to physical damage of the underlying skin. Observational study. All subjects received ostomy care at the Tokyo Ostomy Center and outpatient departments of 4 hospitals in Tokyo, Japan. One hundred ninety-four of 917 patients receiving care over a 23-year span agreed to participate in the research. Subjects met 2 inclusion criteria: (1) ostomy management was performed using a combination of skin barriers and an adhesive ostomy pouch; and (2) the patient's medical file and color photographs were available, allowing analysis of the peristomal skin over time. Photographs were taken with an Olympus (OM2) camera equipped with an Olympus macro lens and a ring flash. We analyzed the impact of the adhesive force of various hydrocolloid wafers on the underlying skin. Photographs were digitized and systematically examined the peristomal skin exposed to regular use of skin barriers. The observation period varied among individual patients, ranging from 1 week to 30 years after surgery. The incidence of dermatologic changes (active, inactive, and area cutanea changes) was lower in patients who used skin barriers with adhesive force of not more than 2 Newtons(N) than among those using higher forces (>2 N). Specifically, there was a significant difference in change of the area cutanea. The incidence of papules and erosion was unrelated to the adhesive force of skin barriers. These results suggest that the peristomal skin is irritated by repeated peeling, resulting in physical damage to the horny layer of the skin. The presence of papules and erosion was not associated with the adhesive force of skin barriers. This finding suggests that these changes are associated with an inflammatory process, possibly caused by chemical substances within the skin barrier.

  20. The relationship among neurocognitive performances and biopsychosocial characteristics of elite National Football League draft picks: an exploratory investigation.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Gary S; Haase, Richard F; Kuhn, Andrew

    2013-02-01

    Sports neuropsychology has emerged as a specialty area within the field of clinical neuropsychology. The role of the sports neuropsychologist, rooted in baseline and post-concussion testing, has evolved to include other clinical domains, including the clinical assessment of potential draft picks. There is no published information on the neurocognitive characteristics of these draft picks. We sought to determine whether elite NFL draft picks differed from NFL roster athletes on neurocognitive (ImPACT) and biopsychosocial characteristics, and given that no published data exists for this population, adopted null hypotheses. Null hypotheses were rejected for two of the four ImPACT scores, as elite draft picks scored higher on measures of visual motor speed and reaction time than roster NFL athletes. Subtle but distinct neurocognitive differences are noted when comparing elite NFL draft picks with norms from a cumulative roster of a single NFL team.

  1. Skin of colour: Characteristics and disease.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Zohra

    2017-02-01

    Skin colour varies from pale white to very dark. Fitzpatrick's skin phototypes are based on the person's skin colour and its response to sun exposure in terms of burning and tanning of the skin. Fitzpatrick's type 1V-V1 is known as the skin of colour and type 1-111 is the fair or white skin. The colour of the skin and texture of the hair are the most apparent phenotype to differentiate the different races; this correlates closely with the geography and ultraviolet radiation of the sun. There are notable differences in skin disease incidence, presentation, and treatment based on skin type. Differences in skin anatomy and physiology between the fair skin and the skin of colour may explain disparities in skin disorders and provide insight into appropriate differences in the management of cutaneous disease. Differences in culture and habits may produce skin lesions unknown to the local physicians. Temperature, humidity and rainfall are closely interwoven with the fauna and flora of the area. Hot and humid climate favours bacterial and fungal infections. Today in this multicultural society due to globalization, a physician has to see patients from all over the globe. There is a need for the physicians to know the diseases of people from different racial and ethnic backgrounds for early diagnosis and treatment.

  2. DeepPicker: A deep learning approach for fully automated particle picking in cryo-EM.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Gong, Huichao; Liu, Gaochao; Li, Meijing; Yan, Chuangye; Xia, Tian; Li, Xueming; Zeng, Jianyang

    2016-09-01

    Particle picking is a time-consuming step in single-particle analysis and often requires significant interventions from users, which has become a bottleneck for future automated electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM). Here we report a deep learning framework, called DeepPicker, to address this problem and fill the current gaps toward a fully automated cryo-EM pipeline. DeepPicker employs a novel cross-molecule training strategy to capture common features of particles from previously-analyzed micrographs, and thus does not require any human intervention during particle picking. Tests on the recently-published cryo-EM data of three complexes have demonstrated that our deep learning based scheme can successfully accomplish the human-level particle picking process and identify a sufficient number of particles that are comparable to those picked manually by human experts. These results indicate that DeepPicker can provide a practically useful tool to significantly reduce the time and manual effort spent in single-particle analysis and thus greatly facilitate high-resolution cryo-EM structure determination. DeepPicker is released as an open-source program, which can be downloaded from https://github.com/nejyeah/DeepPicker-python. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Fluorescence and reflectance properties of hemoglobin-pigmented skin disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troyanova, P.; Borisova, E.; Avramov, L.

    2007-06-01

    There has been growing interest in clinical application of laser-induced autofluorescence (LIAF) and reflectance spectroscopy (RS) to differentiate disease from normal surrounding tissue, including skin pathologies. Pigmented cutaneous lesions diagnosis plays important role in clinical practice, as malignant melanoma, which is characterized with greatest mortality from all skin cancer types, must be carefully discriminated form other colorized pathologies. The goals of this work were investigation of cutaneous hemoglobin-pigmented lesions (heamangioma, angiokeratoma, and fibroma) by the methods of LIAFS and RS. Spectra from healthy skin areas near to the lesion were detected to be used posteriori in analysis. Fluorescence and reflectance of cutaneous hemoglobin-pigmented lesions are used to develop criterion for differentiation from other pigmented pathologies. Origins of the spectral features obtained are discussed and determination of lesion types is achieved using selected spectral features. The spectral results, obtained were used to develop multispectral diagnostic algorithms based on the most prominent spectral features from the fluorescence and reflectance spectra of the lesions investigated. In comparison between normal skin and different cutaneous lesion types and between lesion types themselves sensitivities and specificities higher than 90 % were achieved. These results show a perspective possibility to differentiate hemoglobin-pigmented lesions from other pigmented pathologies using non-invasive and real time discrimination procedure.

  4. Neurocutaneous Disorders.

    PubMed

    Rosser, Tena

    2018-02-01

    This article presents an up-to-date summary of the genetic etiology, diagnostic criteria, clinical features, and current management recommendations for the most common neurocutaneous disorders encountered in clinical adult and pediatric neurology practices. The phakomatoses are a phenotypically and genetically diverse group of multisystem disorders that primarily affect the skin and central nervous system. A greater understanding of the genetic and biological underpinnings of numerous neurocutaneous disorders has led to better clinical characterization, more refined diagnostic criteria, and improved treatments in neurofibromatosis type 1, Legius syndrome, neurofibromatosis type 2, Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines, tuberous sclerosis complex, Sturge-Weber syndrome, and incontinentia pigmenti. Neurologists require a basic knowledge of and familiarity with a wide variety of neurocutaneous disorders because of the frequent involvement of the central and peripheral nervous systems. A simple routine skin examination can often open a broad differential diagnosis and lead to improved patient care.

  5. Neurological Dysfunction in Early Maturity of a Model for Niemann-Pick C1 Carrier Status.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ya Hui; Walterfang, Mark; Churilov, Leonid; Bray, Lisa; Jacobson, Laura H; Barnham, Kevin J; Jones, Nigel C; O'Brien, Terence J; Velakoulis, Dennis; Bush, Ashley I

    2016-07-01

    Autosomal recessive inheritance of NPC1 with loss-of-function mutations underlies Niemann-Pick disease, type C1 (NP-C1), a lysosomal storage disorder with progressive neurodegeneration. It is uncertain from limited biochemical studies and patient case reports whether NPC1 haploinsufficiency can cause a partial NP-C1 phenotype in carriers. In the present study, we examined this possibility in heterozygotes of a natural loss-of-function mutant Npc1 mouse model. We found partial motor dysfunction and increased anxiety-like behavior in Npc1 (+/-) mice by 9 weeks of age. Relative to Npc1 (+/+) mice, Npc1 (+/-) mice failed to show neurodevelopmental improvements in motor coordination and balance on an accelerating Rotarod. In the open-field test, Npc1 (+/-) mice showed an intermediate phenotype in spontaneous locomotor activity compared with Npc1 (+/+) and Npc1 (-/-) mice, as well as decreased center tendency. Together with increased stride length under anxiogenic conditions on the DigiGait treadmill, these findings are consistent with heightened anxiety. Our findings indicate that pathogenic NPC1 allele carriers, who represent about 0.66 % of humans, could be vulnerable to motor and anxiety disorders.

  6. The Hunt for Natural Skin Whitening Agents

    PubMed Central

    Smit, Nico; Vicanova, Jana; Pavel, Stan

    2009-01-01

    Skin whitening products are commercially available for cosmetic purposes in order to obtain a lighter skin appearance. They are also utilized for clinical treatment of pigmentary disorders such as melasma or postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Whitening agents act at various levels of melanin production in the skin. Many of them are known as competitive inhibitors of tyrosinase, the key enzyme in melanogenesis. Others inhibit the maturation of this enzyme or the transport of pigment granules (melanosomes) from melanocytes to surrounding keratinocytes. In this review we present an overview of (natural) whitening products that may decrease skin pigmentation by their interference with the pigmentary processes. PMID:20054473

  7. Getting under the skin of epidermal morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Elaine; Raghavan, Srikala

    2002-03-01

    At the surface of the skin, the epidermis serves as the armour for the body. Scientists are now closer than ever to understanding how the epidermis accomplishes this extraordinary feat, and is able to survive and replenish itself under the harshest conditions that face any tissue. By combining genetic engineering with cell-biological studies and with human genome data analyses, skin biologists are discovering the mechanisms that underlie the development and differentiation of the epidermis and hair follicles of the skin. This explosion of knowledge paves the way for new discoveries into the genetic bases of human skin disorders and for developing new therapeutics.

  8. Niemann-Pick disease, Type C: evidence for the deficiency of an activating factor stimulating sphingomyelin and glucocerebroside degradation.

    PubMed

    Christomanou, H

    1980-10-01

    1) Qualitative lipid analyses by thin-layer chromatography of 4 Niemann-Pick type C spleens confirmed sphingomyelin accumulation together with increase in the amount of glucocerebroside. 2) In the presence of crude sodium taurocholate as detergent, sphingomyelin degradation rates of normal and Niemann-Pick type C-cultured fibroblasts were fairly close under standard conditions at pH 5.0. In the absence of sodium taurocholate, sphingomyelinase activity was optimal at pH 4.0. Sphingomyelinase activities of fibroblasts from two patients with Niemann-Pick disease type C measured without detergent, were about 30% of that of controls. 3) Extracts from Gaucher spleen heated to 90 degrees C and devoid of sphingomyelinase activity stimulated at the optimal pH of 4.0 sphingomyelin degradation by cultured normal fibroblasts (2--4-fold, Niemann-Pick type C fibroblasts (5--9-fold), whereas similarly treated extracts from Niemann-Pick type C spleen showed no stimulation of sphingomyelin catabolism. Heated extracts from normal human spleen exhibited a smaller stimulation than that shown by Gaucher spleen. This stimulating effect could not be observed in fibroblasts from patients suffering from Niemann-Pick type B (sphingomyelinase defect). 4) Heat-treated extracts of Gaucher spleen were fractionated by ion exchange chromatography, isoelectric focusing and gel filtration. The active fractions obtained by these procedures stimulated sphingomyelin as well as glucocerebroside degradation and were absent from the corresponding Niemann-Pick type C preparations. Enriched activator preparations of Gaucher spleen stimulated sphingomyelinase activity of Niemann-Pick type C fibroblasts 25--38-fold and that of normal cells 3-fold. 5) The activating factor had an isoelectric point of 4.0 and an apparent molecular weight, as estimated by gel filtration, of 25000. Treatment with pronase E abolished its activity.

  9. Types A and B Niemann-Pick disease.

    PubMed

    Schuchman, Edward H; Wasserstein, Melissa P

    2015-03-01

    Two distinct metabolic abnormalities are encompassed under the eponym Niemann-Pick disease (NPD). The first is due to the deficient activity of the enzyme acid sphingomyelinase (ASM). Patients with ASM deficiency are classified as having types A and B Niemann-Pick disease (NPD). Type A NPD patients exhibit hepatosplenomegaly in infancy and profound central nervous system involvement. They rarely survive beyond two years of age. Type B patients also have hepatosplenomegaly and pathologic alterations of their lungs, but there are usually no central nervous system signs. The age of onset and rate of disease progression varies greatly among type B patients, and they frequently live into adulthood. Recently, patients with phenotypes intermediate between types A and B NPD also have been identified. These individuals represent the expected continuum caused by inheriting different mutations in the ASM gene (SMPD1). Patients in the second NPD category are designated as having types C and D NPD. These patients may have mild hepatosplenomegaly, but the central nervous system is profoundly affected. Impaired intracellular trafficking of cholesterol causes types C and D NPD, and two distinct gene defects have been found. In this chapter only types A and B NPD will be discussed. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Skin temperature in the extremities of healthy and neurologically impaired children.

    PubMed

    Svedberg, Lena E; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Nordahl, Gunnar; Lundeberg, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Little emphasis has been accorded to peripheral skin temperature impairments in children with neurological disorders but attention has been paid to the significance of cold extremities (autonomic failure) for well-being and quality of life in adults stroke patients. Therefore, it seems important to investigate skin temperature in children with neurological disorder, especially when their communication is impaired. In the present study, we wanted to objectively verify any skin temperature differences between pre-school children with and without neurological disorders and also ascertain if any correlation existed between skin temperature and physical activity. Skin temperatures in 25 healthy children and 15 children with cerebral or spinal cord damages were assessed using infrared radiation. The temperatures were recorded on the palm and the dorsal surface of the hands and on the sole and dorsal surface of the feet three times at 15-minute intervals over 30min. A significant lower mean skin temperature in all measurement points was seen in non-walking children with cerebral damages compared to healthy controls. Also, the mean skin temperature was significantly lower in all foot measuring points in the children with cerebral damages that were unable to walk compared to those walking. In conclusion, as cold extremities may result in impaired well-being and hypothetically may be associated with other symptoms born by the child, further investigations of thermal dysfunction and autonomic function are of importance and treatment may be warranted.

  11. CONEDEP: COnvolutional Neural network based Earthquake DEtection and Phase Picking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y.; Huang, Y.; Yue, H.; Zhou, S.; An, S.; Yun, N.

    2017-12-01

    We developed an automatic local earthquake detection and phase picking algorithm based on Fully Convolutional Neural network (FCN). The FCN algorithm detects and segments certain features (phases) in 3 component seismograms to realize efficient picking. We use STA/LTA algorithm and template matching algorithm to construct the training set from seismograms recorded 1 month before and after the Wenchuan earthquake. Precise P and S phases are identified and labeled to construct the training set. Noise data are produced by combining back-ground noise and artificial synthetic noise to form the equivalent scale of noise set as the signal set. Training is performed on GPUs to achieve efficient convergence. Our algorithm has significantly improved performance in terms of the detection rate and precision in comparison with STA/LTA and template matching algorithms.

  12. Topical application of probiotics in skin: adhesion, antimicrobial and antibiofilm in vitro assays.

    PubMed

    Lopes, E G; Moreira, D A; Gullón, P; Gullón, B; Cardelle-Cobas, A; Tavaria, F K

    2017-02-01

    When skin dysbiosis occurs as a result of skin disorders, probiotics can act as modulators, restoring microbial balance. Several properties of selected probiotics were evaluated so that their topical application could be considered. Adhesion, antimicrobial, quorum sensing and antibiofilm assays were carried out with several probiotic strains and tested against selected skin pathogens. All tested strains displayed significant adhesion to keratin. All lactobacilli with the exception of Lactobacillus delbrueckii, showed antimicrobial activity against skin pathogens, mainly due to organic acid production. Most of them also prevented biofilm formation, but only Propioniferax innocua was able to break down mature biofilms. This study demonstrates that although all tested probiotics adhered to human keratin, they showed limited ability to prevent adhesion of some potential skin pathogens. Most of the tested probiotics successfully prevented biofilm formation, suggesting that they may be successfully used in the future as a complement to conventional therapies in the treatment of a range of skin disorders. The topically used probiotics may be a natural, targeted treatment approach to several skin disorders and a complement to conventional therapies which present many undesirable side effects. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Types A and B Niemann-Pick disease.

    PubMed

    Schuchman, Edward H; Desnick, Robert J

    The eponym Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) refers to a group of patients who present with varying degrees of lipid storage and foam cell infiltration in tissues, as well as overlapping clinical features including hepatosplenomegaly, pulmonary insufficiency and/or central nervous system (CNS) involvement. Due to the pioneering work of Roscoe Brady and co-workers, we now know that there are two distinct metabolic abnormalities that account for NPD. The first is due to the deficient activity of the enzyme acid sphingomyelinase (ASM; "types A & B" NPD), and the second is due to defective function in cholesterol transport ("type C" NPD). Herein only types A and B NPD will be discussed. Type A NPD patients exhibit hepatosplenomegaly in infancy and profound CNS involvement. They rarely survive beyond 2-3years of age. Type B patients also have hepatosplenomegaly and pathologic alterations of their lungs, but there are usually no CNS signs. The age of onset and rate of disease progression varies greatly among type B patients, and they frequently live into adulthood. Intermediate patients also have been reported with mild to moderate neurological findings. All patients with types A and B NPD have mutations in the gene encoding ASM (SMPD1), and thus the disease is more accurately referred to as ASM deficiency (ASMD). Herein we will review the clinical, pathological, biochemical, and genetic findings in types A and B NPD, and emphasize the seminal contributions of Dr. Brady to this disease. We will also discuss the current status of therapy for this disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Pick-Up Ion Instabilities at Planetary Magnetospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangeway, Robert J.; Sharber, James (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This effort involved the analysis of low frequency waves as observed by the Galileo spacecraft near the Galilean moon, Io. Io is a significant source of material, especially SO2, and various products of dissociation, and further these atoms and molecules are readily ionized. The initial velocity of the ions is essentially that of the neutral species, i.e., the Keplerian velocity. The plasma, on the other hand is co-rotating, and there is a differential flow of the order 57 km/s between the plasma and the neutral particles. Thus pick-up ion instabilities are Rely to occur within the Jovian magnetosphere. Indeed, magnetometer observations from the Galileo spacecraft clearly show ion cyclotron waves that have been identified with a large variety of plasma species, such as O+, S++ (which has the same gyro-frequency as O+), S+, and SO2+. Typically, however, the dominant frequency is near the SO2+ gyro-frequency. The research effort was originally planned to be a team effort between Robert J. Strangeway as the Principal Investigator, and Debbie Huddleston, who was an Assistant Research Geophysicist at UCLA. Unfortunately, Dr. Huddleston took a position within Industry. The effort was therefore descoped, and Dr. Strangeway instead pursued a collaboration with Dr. Xochitl Blanco-Cano, of the Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. This has proved to be a productive collaboration, with several papers and publications arising out of the effort. The magnetic field oscillations near lo generally fall into two types: ion cyclotron waves, with frequencies near an ion gyro-frequency, and lower frequency mirror-mode waves. The ion cyclotron waves are mainly transverse, and frequently propagate along the ambient magnetic field. The mirror-mode waves are compressional waves, and they have essentially zero frequency in the plasma rest frame. One of the purposes of our investigation is to understand what controls the types of wave modes that occur, since both

  15. An intelligent identification algorithm for the monoclonal picking instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Hua; Zhang, Rongfu; Yuan, Xujun; Wang, Qun

    2017-11-01

    The traditional colony selection is mainly operated by manual mode, which takes on low efficiency and strong subjectivity. Therefore, it is important to develop an automatic monoclonal-picking instrument. The critical stage of the automatic monoclonal-picking and intelligent optimal selection is intelligent identification algorithm. An auto-screening algorithm based on Support Vector Machine (SVM) is proposed in this paper, which uses the supervised learning method, which combined with the colony morphological characteristics to classify the colony accurately. Furthermore, through the basic morphological features of the colony, system can figure out a series of morphological parameters step by step. Through the establishment of maximal margin classifier, and based on the analysis of the growth trend of the colony, the selection of the monoclonal colony was carried out. The experimental results showed that the auto-screening algorithm could screen out the regular colony from the other, which meets the requirement of various parameters.

  16. Disorders of the Vulva

    MedlinePlus

    ... You may need additional treatment. What is contact dermatitis? Contact dermatitis is caused by irritation of the skin by ... Lichen simplex chronicus may be a result of contact dermatitis or other skin disorder that has been present ...

  17. Antioxidant capacity of 3D human skin EpiDerm model: effects of skin moisturizers.

    PubMed

    Grazul-Bilska, A T; Bilski, J J; Redmer, D A; Reynolds, L P; Abdullah, K M; Abdullah, A

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of skin moisturizers on total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of human skin using EpiDerm model. Three different skin moisturizers containing antioxidant ingredients (samples 1-3) or aloe vera extract were topically applied to EpiDerm units and incubated for 2 and 24 h to determine acute and longer-term effects of applied samples on TAC and glutathione peroxidase activity in medium and/or homogenized skin tissues. Total antioxidant capacity in medium and skin homogenates was enhanced (P < 0.0001) by gel containing antioxidant ingredients (sample 2) after 2 and 24 h of incubation. Total antioxidant capacity in medium was also enhanced (P < 0.001) by cream containing antioxidant ingredients (sample 3) after 24 h of incubation. Overall, TAC in medium was greater (P < 0.02) after 24 h than 2 h of incubation. Skin moisturizer cream with high antioxidant levels determined by using oxygen radical absorbance capacity testing (sample 1) and aloe vera extract did not affect TAC. Glutathione peroxidase activity was enhanced (P < 0.0001) in medium and skin homogenates by sample 2 but not by any other sample. These data demonstrate high potential of gel and cream (samples 2 and 3) containing antioxidant ingredients in enhancing antioxidant capacity of EpiDerm which will likely contribute to overall skin health. Results of this experiment will help to better understand mechanisms of effects of skin moisturizers containing antioxidant ingredients on skin function at the tissue level and to establish effective strategies for skin protection and clinical treatments of skin disorders and possibly healing wounds.

  18. Relationship between concussion history and neurocognitive test performance in National Football League draft picks.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Gary S; Kuhn, Andrew

    2014-04-01

    There are limited empirical data available regarding the relationship between concussion history and neurocognitive functioning in active National Football League (NFL) players in general and NFL draft picks in particular. Potential NFL draft picks undergo 2 neurocognitive tests at the National Invitational Camp (Scouting Combine) every year: the Wonderlic and, since 2011, the Immediate Post-concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT). After conclusion of the combine and before the draft, NFL teams invite potential draft picks to their headquarters for individual visits where further assessment may occur. To examine the relationship between concussion history and neurocognitive performance (ImPACT and Wonderlic) in a sample of elite NFL draft picks. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Over 7 years, 226 potential draft picks were invited to visit a specific NFL team's headquarters after the combine. The athletes were divided into 3 groups based on self-reported concussion history: no prior concussions, 1 prior concussion, and 2 or more prior concussions. Neurocognitive measures of interest included Wonderlic scores (provided by the NFL team) and ImPACT composite scores (administered either at the combine or during a visit to the team headquarters). The relationship between concussion history and neurocognitive scores was assessed, as were the relationships among the 2 neurocognitive tests. Concussion history had no relationship to neurocognitive performance on either the Wonderlic or ImPACT. Concussion history did not affect performance on either neurocognitive test, suggesting that for this cohort, a history of concussion may not have adverse effects on neurocognitive functioning as measured by these 2 tests. This study reveals no correlation between concussion history and neurocognitive test scores (ImPACT, Wonderlic) in soon-to-be active NFL athletes.

  19. Detection of singly ionized energetic lunar pick-up ions upstream of earth's bow shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilchenbach, M.; Hovestadt, D.; Klecker, B.; Moebius, E.

    1992-01-01

    Singly ionized suprathermal ions upstream of the earth's bow shock have been detected by using the time-of-flight spectrometer SULEICA on the AMPTE/IRM satellite. The data were collected between August and December 1985. The flux of the ions in the mass range between 23 and 37 amu is highly anisotropic towards the earth. The ions are observed with a period of about 29 days around new moon (+/- 3 days). The correlation of the energy of the ions with the solar wind speed and the interplanetary magnetic field orientation indicates the relation to the pick-up process. We conclude that the source of these pick-up ions is the moon. We argue that due to the impinging solar wind, atoms are sputtered off the lunar surface, ionized in the sputtering process or by ensuing photoionization and picked up by the solar wind.

  20. Study on store-space assignment based on logistic AGV in e-commerce goods to person picking pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lijuan; Zhu, Jie

    2017-10-01

    This paper studied on the store-space assignment based on logistic AGV in E-commerce goods to person picking pattern, and established the store-space assignment model based on the lowest picking cost, and design for store-space assignment algorithm after the cluster analysis based on similarity coefficient. And then through the example analysis, compared the picking cost between store-space assignment algorithm this paper design and according to item number and storage according to ABC classification allocation, and verified the effectiveness of the design of the store-space assignment algorithm.

  1. FROZEN RAW FOODS AS SKIN-TESTING MATERIALS—Further Studies of Use in Cases of Allergic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ancona, Giacomo R.; Schumacher, Irwin C.

    1954-01-01

    In further studies on the use of frozen raw food as skin-testing material in patients with allergic disorders, the results of previous work were confirmed in a greater number of subjects using a larger number of foods: Tests with frozen raw foods by the scratch method induce true positive reactions of a larger size and in greater frequency than the corresponding commercial extracts by either the scratch or the intracutaneous method. Storage in the frozen state for several years does not affect the antigenic potency of the materials. The frozen preparations have caused no harmful effects in the subjects, are free from irritant properties, and are not urticariogenic. PMID:13126823

  2. Connective Tissue Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome, and osteogenesis imperfecta Autoimmune disorders, such as lupus and scleroderma Cancers, like some types of soft tissue sarcoma Each disorder has its own symptoms and needs different treatment. NIH: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases

  3. Steroidogenesis in the skin: implications for local immune functions

    PubMed Central

    Slominski, Andrzej; Zbytek, Bazej; Nikolakis, Georgios; Manna, Pulak R.; Skobowiat, Cezary; Zmijewski, Michal; Li, Wei; Janjetovic, Zorica; Postlethwaite, Arnold; Zouboulis, Christos C.; Tuckey, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    The skin has developed a hierarchy of systems that encompasses the skin immune and local steroidogenic activities in order to protect the body against the external environment and biological factors and to maintain local homeostasis. Most recently it has been established that skin cells contain the entire biochemical apparatus necessary for production of glucocorticoids, androgens and estrogens either from precursors of systemic origin or, alternatively, through the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone and its subsequent transformation to biologically active steroids. Examples of these products are corticosterone, cortisol, testosterone, dihydrotesterone and estradiol. Their local production can be regulated by locally produced corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or cytokines. Furthermore the production of glucocorticoids is affected by ultraviolet B radiation. The level of production and nature of the final steroid products are dependent on the cell type or cutaneous compartment, e.g., epidermis, dermis, adnexal structures or adipose tissue. Locally produced glucocorticoids, androgens and estrogens affect functions of the epidermis and adnexal structures as well as local immune activity. Malfunction of these steroidogenic activities can lead to inflammatory disorders or autoimmune diseases. The cutaneous steroidogenic system can also have systemic effects, which are emphasized by significant skin contribution to circulating androgens and/or estrogens. Furthermore, local activity of CYP11A1 can produce novel 7 -steroids and secosteroids that are biologically active. Therefore, modulation of local steroidogenic activity may serve as a new therapeutic approach for treatment of inflammatory disorders, autoimmune processes or other skin disorders. In conclusion, the skin can be defined as an independent steroidogenic organ, whose activity can affect its functions and the development of local or systemic inflammatory or

  4. Pick- and waveform-based techniques for real-time detection of induced seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoli, Francesco; Scarabello, Luca; Böse, Maren; Weber, Bernd; Wiemer, Stefan; Clinton, John F.

    2018-05-01

    The monitoring of induced seismicity is a common operation in many industrial activities, such as conventional and non-conventional hydrocarbon production or mining and geothermal energy exploitation, to cite a few. During such operations, we generally collect very large and strongly noise-contaminated data sets that require robust and automated analysis procedures. Induced seismicity data sets are often characterized by sequences of multiple events with short interevent times or overlapping events; in these cases, pick-based location methods may struggle to correctly assign picks to phases and events, and errors can lead to missed detections and/or reduced location resolution and incorrect magnitudes, which can have significant consequences if real-time seismicity information are used for risk assessment frameworks. To overcome these issues, different waveform-based methods for the detection and location of microseismicity have been proposed. The main advantages of waveform-based methods is that they appear to perform better and can simultaneously detect and locate seismic events providing high-quality locations in a single step, while the main disadvantage is that they are computationally expensive. Although these methods have been applied to different induced seismicity data sets, an extensive comparison with sophisticated pick-based detection methods is still missing. In this work, we introduce our improved waveform-based detector and we compare its performance with two pick-based detectors implemented within the SeiscomP3 software suite. We test the performance of these three approaches with both synthetic and real data sets related to the induced seismicity sequence at the deep geothermal project in the vicinity of the city of St. Gallen, Switzerland.

  5. Optical coherence tomography for the structural changes detection in aging skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chih-Ming; Chang, Yu-Fen; Chiang, Hung-Chih; Chang, Chir-Weei

    2018-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique is an extremely powerful tool to detect numerous ophthalmological disorders, such as retinal disorder, and can be applied on other fields. Thus, many OCT systems are developed. For assessment of the skin textures, a cross-sectional (B-scan) spectra domain OCT system is better than an en-face one. However, this kind of commercial OCT system is not available. We designed a brand-new probe of commercial OCT system for evaluating skin texture without destroying the original instrument and it can be restored in 5 minutes. This modification of OCT system retains the advantages of commercial instrument, such as reliable, stable, and safe. Furthermore, the structural changes in aging skin are easily obtained by means of our probe, including larger pores, thinning of the dermis, collagen volume loss, vessel atrophy and flattening of dermal-epidermal junction. We can use this OCT technique in the field of cosmetic medicine such as detecting the skin textures and skin care product effect followup.

  6. Photodermatoses in skin of color.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Daniel; Gaulding, Jewell V; Beltran, Adriana F Motta; Lim, Henry W; Pritchett, Ellen N

    2018-06-10

    Photodermatoses represent a heterogeneous collection of disorders unified by the characteristic of being provoked through exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Generally, these conditions are classified into the following categories: immunologically mediated photodermatoses, chemical- and drug-induced photosensitivity, photoaggravated dermatoses, and photosensitivity associated with defective DNA repair mechanisms or chromosomal instabilities. The list of photodermatoses is extensive and each individual photodermatosis is understood to a different extent. Regardless, there exists a paucity of information with regards to the clinical presentation among those with skin of color. With ever-changing global demographics, recognition of photosensitive disorders in a diverse population is essential for accurate diagnoses and therapeutic guidance. The scope of this article seeks to review the epidemiology and clinical variability in presentation of such photodermatoses in patients with skin of color. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. 61. Picking Floor, Large Pile of Waste Rock and Wood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. Picking Floor, Large Pile of Waste Rock and Wood date unknown Historic Photograph, Photographer Unknown; Collection of William Everett, Jr. (Wilkes-Barre, PA), photocopy by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  8. Study of skin and mucous membrane disorders among workers engaged in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and chrome plating industry.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Vijay Kumar; Deswal, Balbir Singh; Singh, Bachu Narayan

    2015-01-01

    Inhalation of dusts and fumes arising during the manufacture of sodium dichromate from chrome ore, chromic acid mist emitted during electroplating, and skin contact with chromate produce hazards to workers. (1) To elucidate the prevalence of skin and mucous membrane disorders among the workers engaged in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and chrome plating industry. (2) To know the relationship of prevalence with the duration of exposure to chrome mist, dust, and fumes. A cross-sectional study was conducted among all the workers engaged in sodium dichromate manufacturing and chrome plating from several industries situated near the Delhi-Haryana border in the districts of Faridabad and Sonepat of Haryana, India from January 01, 2014 to December 31, 2014. All the workers available from the concerned industries for the study were interviewed and medically examined after obtaining their informed consent. A total of 130 workers comprising 66 workers from the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and 64 workers from the chrome plating industry were examined on a pretested schedule. Descriptive statistical methods (proportions, relative risk, and Chi-square test of significance with P value analyzed using Epi Info version 7). All the workers were found to be males and of the adult age group. Out of the total examined, 69.69% and 56.22% of the workers had disorders of the nasal mucous membrane in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and the chrome plating industry, respectively. 42.42% and 28.22% of the workers had perforation of the nasal septum in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and chrome plating industry, respectively. 6.06% and 3.12% workers had skin ulcers in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and chrome plating industry, respectively. Nasal irritation and rhinorrhea were the most commonly found symptoms in both the processes. 48.48% and 90.52% of the workers were using hand gloves in the sodium dichromate manufacturing

  9. Robust automatic P-phase picking: an on-line implementation in the analysis of broadband seismogram recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleeman, Reinoud; van Eck, Torild

    1999-06-01

    The onset of a seismic signal is determined through joint AR modeling of the noise and the seismic signal, and the application of the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) using the onset time as parameter. This so-called AR-AIC phase picker has been tested successfully and implemented on the Z-component of the broadband station HGN to provide automatic P-phase picks for a rapid warning system. The AR-AIC picker is shown to provide accurate and robust automatic picks on a large experimental database. Out of 1109 P-phase onsets with signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) above 1 from local, regional and teleseismic earthquakes, our implementation detects 71% and gives a mean difference with manual picks of 0.1 s. An optimal version of the well-established picker of Baer and Kradolfer [Baer, M., Kradolfer, U., An automatic phase picker for local and teleseismic events, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 77 (1987) 1437-1445] detects less than 41% and gives a mean difference with manual picks of 0.3 s using the same dataset.

  10. The PICK1 Ca2+ sensor modulates N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependent microRNA-mediated translational repression in neurons.

    PubMed

    Rajgor, Dipen; Fiuza, Maria; Parkinson, Gabrielle T; Hanley, Jonathan G

    2017-06-09

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of localized mRNA translation in neuronal dendrites. The presence of RNA-induced silencing complex proteins in these compartments and the dynamic miRNA expression changes that occur in response to neuronal stimulation highlight their importance in synaptic plasticity. Previously, we demonstrated a novel interaction between the major RNA-induced silencing complex component Argounaute-2 (Ago2) and the BAR (bin/amphiphysin/rvs) domain protein PICK1. PICK1 recruits Ago2 to recycling endosomes in dendrites, where it inhibits miRNA-mediated translational repression. Chemical induction of long-term depression via NMDA receptor activation causes the dissociation of Ago2 from PICK1 and a consequent increase in dendritic miRNA-mediated gene silencing. The mechanism that underlies the regulation of PICK1-Ago2 binding is unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that the PICK1-Ago2 interaction is directly sensitive to Ca 2+ ions so that high [Ca 2+ ] free reduces PICK1 binding to Ago2. Mutating a stretch of C-terminal Ca 2+ -binding residues in PICK1 results in a complete block of NMDA-induced PICK1-Ago2 disassociation in cortical neurons. Furthermore, the same mutant also blocks NMDA-stimulated miRNA-mediated gene silencing. This study defines a novel mechanism whereby elevated [Ca 2+ ] induced by NMDA receptor activation modulates Ago2 and miRNA activity via PICK1. Our work suggests a Ca 2+ -dependent process to regulate miRNA activity in neurons in response to the induction of long-term depression. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. The pattern of skin diseases in the Qassim region of Saudi Arabia: What the primary care physician should know.

    PubMed

    Al Shobaili, Hani A

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies to determine the burden of skin diseases are important for proper health care planning. The purpose of this study was to find the pattern of skin diseases in our patients attending university-affiliated dermatologic clinics in the Qassim region. We conducted a prospective study of all Saudi patients attending the Qassim University Medical College-affiliated dermatology clinics of the Ministry of Health for a period of 12 months from 1 March 2008 to 28 February 2009. The study included 3051 patients comprising 1786 (58.5%) males and 1265 (41.5%) females. Males outnumbered females (P<.05) (male-to-female ratio, 1.4:1). The mean age (standard error of the mean) of the patients was 25.3 (0.27) years. About 71% of the patients were between 5 and 34 years of age. The top five skin diseases were eczema/ dermatitis (19.5%), viral infections (16.6%), pilosebaceous disorders (14.4%), pigmentary lesions (11.2%) and hair disorders (7.6%). The major disorder in males was viral skin infections (20.0%), while eczema/dermatitis (20.7%) constituted the most prevalent skin disease in females. Seasonal variations were recorded in cases of pigmentary lesions, papulosquamous disorders and protozoal infections. Infectious skin diseases, eczema/dermatitis, pilosebaceous disorders, pigmentary lesions and hair disorders ranked as the top five skin diseases. Appropriate training programs for diagnosing and managing common skin diseases should be initiated for primary health care physicians and other general practitioners so as to decrease referrals to dermatology clinics.

  12. High-Resolution 3-T Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Shoulder in Nonsymptomatic Professional Baseball Pitcher Draft Picks.

    PubMed

    Del Grande, Filippo; Aro, Michael; Jalali Farahani, Sahar; Cosgarea, Andrew; Wilckens, John; Carrino, John A

    2016-01-01

    To retrospectively assess the qualitative and quantitative high-resolution 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in nonsymptomatic baseball pitcher draft picks. Institutional review board-approved and HIPAA compliant study. Three-Tesla MRI of the dominant shoulder of 19 asymptomatic baseball pitcher draft picks and detailed clinical examination was performed before contract signing. Two radiologists performed independently qualitative and quantitative evaluation of shoulder structures. Descriptive statistics were performed. Sixty-eight percent (13/19), 32% (6/19), and 21% (4/19) of the baseball pitcher draft picks showed tendinopathy, partial thickness tendon tear of the supraspinatus, and acromioclavicular joint osteoarthritis, respectively. Glenohumeral subluxation, glenoid remodeling, and Bennett lesion were present in 53% (10/19), 79% (15/19), and 21% (4/19) of the subjects, respectively. Interclass coefficient was 0.633 to 0.863 and κ was 0.27 to 1. In asymptomatic baseball pitcher draft picks, 3-T MRI frequently shows abnormalities involving rotator cuff tendons, the coracohumeral, inferior glenohumeral, labrum, and osseous structures.

  13. Epstein–Barr Virus-Positive T/NK-Cell Lymphoproliferative Disorders Manifested as Gastrointestinal Perforations and Skin Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Hai-Juan; Li, Ji; Song, Hong-Mei; Li, Zheng-Hong; Dong, Mei; Zhou, Xiao-Ge

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Systemic Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) of childhood is a highly aggressive EBV-positive T/natural killer (NK)-cell LPD, which emerges in the background of chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV) or shortly after primary acute EBV infection. The clinical presentations of CAEBV are varied; patients with atypical manifestations are easily misdiagnosed. We described a 14-year-old boy suffering from digestive disorders and intermittent fever for 1 year and 9 months, whose conditions worsened and skin lesions occurred 2 months before hospitalization. He was diagnosed as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and treated accordingly. His other clinical features, hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, and elevated inflammatory marks, were found in hospitalization. The boy suffered from repeatedly spontaneous intestinal perforations shortly after hospitalization and died of intestinal hemorrhea. The pathological results of intestine and skin both showed EBV-positive T/NK-cell LPD (lymphoma stage). There are rare studies reporting gastrointestinal perforations in EBV-positive T/NK-cell LPD, let alone repeatedly spontaneous perforations. Based on the clinical features and pathological results of this patient, the disease progressed from CAEBV (T-cell type) to systemic EBV-positive T-cell LPD of childhood (lymphoma). Not all the patients with CAEBV could have unusual patterns of anti-EBV antibodies. However, the presence of high EBV loads (EBV-encoded early small ribonucleic acid (RNA) (EBER) in affected tissues and/or EBV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in peripheral blood) is essential for diagnosing CAEBV. Maybe because of his less common clinical features for CAEBV and negative anti-EBV antibodies, the boy was not diagnosed correctly. We should have emphasized the test for EBER or EBV-DNA. Meanwhile, for the IBD patients whose manifestations were not typical, and whose conditions were not improved by

  14. Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin. Epidermolysis bullosa affects the skin, causing blisters. Marfan syndrome can affect the heart, blood vessels, lungs, eyes, ... Disorders of Connective Tissue, Questions and Answers about Marfan Syndrome, Questions and Answers about Marfan Syndrome, Easy-to- ...

  15. Skin diseases among elderly patients attending skin clinic at the Regional Dermatology Training Centre, Northern Tanzania: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Mponda, Kelvin; Masenga, John

    2016-02-22

    As global population of the elderly continues to rise, a critical need to provide it with health services, including dermatology, will be significant, especially in developing countries like Tanzania. To adequately meet their dermatologic needs, knowledge of local patterns of skin conditions is vital. This study was aimed to describe the spectrum of skin diseases among elderly patients attending skin clinic at the Regional Dermatology Training Centre (RDTC) in Northern Tanzania. A descriptive hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted between January 2013 and April 2013 at RDTC and included all patients aged 55 years and above who consented to be examined. Diagnoses were clinical, diagnostic tests being done only when necessary. Ethical clearance to conduct the study was granted. A total of 142 patients, age ranges 55-99 years, median age of 67.5 years were seen. Eczemas were the leading disease group (43.7%), with unclassified eczemas (33.9%) predominating. Papulosquamous disorders (15.4%) were second with psoriasis (50%) being the leading disease. Infections (11.3% with fungal infections the leading group representing 5.6% of all diseases), tumours (9.8%: Kaposi's sarcoma 4.2%), vascular disorders 9.1% (lymphedema 4.9%), autoimmune disorders 7.7% (connective tissue diseases 4.9%), vitiligo 4.2%, nutritional diseases 2.1% (pellagra 0.7%), urticaria 0.7% and drug reactions 0.7%. Eczemas are the most common group of disorders among elderly patients presenting at RDTC.

  16. Evidence-Based Assessment of Compulsive Skin Picking, Chronic Tic Disorders and Trichotillomania in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Joseph F.; Kugler, Brittany B.; Park, Jennifer M.; Horng, Betty; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    Body-focused repetitive behavior (BFRB) is an umbrella term for debilitating, repetitive behaviors that target one or more body regions. Despite regularly occurring in youth, there has been limited investigation of BFRBs in pediatric populations. One reason for this may be that there are few reliable and valid assessments available to evaluate the…

  17. Automatic seed picking for brachytherapy postimplant validation with 3D CT images.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guobin; Sun, Qiyuan; Jiang, Shan; Yang, Zhiyong; Ma, Xiaodong; Jiang, Haisong

    2017-11-01

    Postimplant validation is an indispensable part in the brachytherapy technique. It provides the necessary feedback to ensure the quality of operation. The ability to pick implanted seed relates directly to the accuracy of validation. To address it, an automatic approach is proposed for picking implanted brachytherapy seeds in 3D CT images. In order to pick seed configuration (location and orientation) efficiently, the approach starts with the segmentation of seed from CT images using a thresholding filter which based on gray-level histogram. Through the process of filtering and denoising, the touching seed and single seed are classified. The true novelty of this approach is found in the application of the canny edge detection and improved concave points matching algorithm to separate touching seeds. Through the computation of image moments, the seed configuration can be determined efficiently. Finally, two different experiments are designed to verify the performance of the proposed approach: (1) physical phantom with 60 model seeds, and (2) patient data with 16 cases. Through assessment of validated results by a medical physicist, the proposed method exhibited promising results. Experiment on phantom demonstrates that the error of seed location and orientation is within ([Formula: see text]) mm and ([Formula: see text])[Formula: see text], respectively. In addition, the most seed location and orientation error is controlled within 0.8 mm and 3.5[Formula: see text] in all cases, respectively. The average process time of seed picking is 8.7 s per 100 seeds. In this paper, an automatic, efficient and robust approach, performed on CT images, is proposed to determine the implanted seed location as well as orientation in a 3D workspace. Through the experiments with phantom and patient data, this approach also successfully exhibits good performance.

  18. A novel triple repeat mutant tau transgenic model that mimics aspects of pick's disease and fronto-temporal tauopathies.

    PubMed

    Rockenstein, Edward; Overk, Cassia R; Ubhi, Kiren; Mante, Michael; Patrick, Christina; Adame, Anthony; Bisquert, Alejandro; Trejo-Morales, Margarita; Spencer, Brian; Masliah, Eliezer

    2015-01-01

    Tauopathies are a group of disorders leading to cognitive and behavioral impairment in the aging population. While four-repeat (4R) Tau is more abundant in corticobasal degeneration, progressive supranuclear palsy, and Alzheimer's disease, three-repeat (3R) Tau is the most abundant splice, in Pick's disease. A number of transgenic models expressing wild-type and mutant forms of the 4R Tau have been developed. However, few models of three-repeat Tau are available. A transgenic mouse model expressing three-repeat Tau was developed bearing the mutations associated with familial forms of Pick's disease (L266V and G272V mutations). Two lines expressing high (Line 13) and low (Line 2) levels of the three-repeat mutant Tau were analyzed. By Western blot, using antibodies specific to three-repeat Tau, Line 13 expressed 5-times more Tau than Line 2. The Tau expressed by these mice was most abundant in the frontal-temporal cortex and limbic system and was phosphorylated at residues detected by the PHF-1, AT8, CP9 and CP13 antibodies. The higher-expressing mice displayed hyperactivity, memory deficits in the water maze and alterations in the round beam. The behavioral deficits started at 6-8 months of age and were associated with a progressive increase in the accumulation of 3R Tau. By immunocytochemistry, mice from Line 13 displayed extensive accumulation of 3R Tau in neuronal cells bodies in the pyramidal neurons of the neocortex, CA1-3 regions, and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Aggregates in the granular cells had a globus appearance and mimic Pick's-like inclusions. There were abundant dystrophic neurites, astrogliosis and synapto-dendritic damage in the neocortex and hippocampus of the higher expresser line. The hippocampal lesions were moderately argyrophilic and Thioflavin-S negative. By electron microscopy, discrete straight filament aggregates were detected in some neurons in the hippocampus. This model holds promise for better understanding the natural history

  19. [Complications of cosmetic skin bleaching in Africa].

    PubMed

    Morand, J J; Ly, F; Lightburn, E; Mahé, A

    2007-12-01

    Use of cosmetic products to bleach or lighten the skin is common among dark-skinned women in some sub-Saharan African countries. Long-term use of some pharmacologic compounds (e.g. hydroquinone, glucocorticoids and mercury) can cause adverse effects including dermatologic disorders such as dyschromia, exogenous ochronosis, acne and hypertrichosis, prominent striae, tinea corporis, pyoderma, erysipelas, scabies, and contact dermatitis and systemic complications such as hypertension, hypercorticism or surrenal deficiency, and mercurial nephropathy.

  20. Consensus clinical management guidelines for Niemann-Pick disease type C.

    PubMed

    Geberhiwot, Tarekegn; Moro, Alessandro; Dardis, Andrea; Ramaswami, Uma; Sirrs, Sandra; Marfa, Mercedes Pineda; Vanier, Marie T; Walterfang, Mark; Bolton, Shaun; Dawson, Charlotte; Héron, Bénédicte; Stampfer, Miriam; Imrie, Jackie; Hendriksz, Christian; Gissen, Paul; Crushell, Ellen; Coll, Maria J; Nadjar, Yann; Klünemann, Hans; Mengel, Eugen; Hrebicek, Martin; Jones, Simon A; Ory, Daniel; Bembi, Bruno; Patterson, Marc

    2018-04-06

    Niemann-Pick Type C (NPC) is a progressive and life limiting autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in either the NPC1 or NPC2 gene. Mutations in these genes are associated with abnormal endosomal-lysosomal trafficking, resulting in the accumulation of multiple tissue specific lipids in the lysosomes. The clinical spectrum of NPC disease ranges from a neonatal rapidly progressive fatal disorder to an adult-onset chronic neurodegenerative disease. The age of onset of the first (beyond 3 months of life) neurological symptom may predict the severity of the disease and determines life expectancy.NPC has an estimated incidence of ~ 1: 100,000 and the rarity of the disease translate into misdiagnosis, delayed diagnosis and barriers to good care. For these reasons, we have developed clinical guidelines that define standard of care for NPC patients, foster shared care arrangements between expert centres and family physicians, and empower patients. The information contained in these guidelines was obtained through a systematic review of the literature and the experiences of the authors in their care of patients with NPC. We adopted the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation (AGREE II) system as method of choice for the guideline development process. We made a series of conclusive statements and scored them according to level of evidence, strengths of recommendations and expert opinions. These guidelines can inform care providers, care funders, patients and their carers of best practice of care for patients with NPC. In addition, these guidelines have identified gaps in the knowledge that must be filled by future research. It is anticipated that the implementation of these guidelines will lead to a step change in the quality of care for patients with NPC irrespective of their geographical location.

  1. UV Radiation and the Skin

    PubMed Central

    D’Orazio, John; Jarrett, Stuart; Amaro-Ortiz, Alexandra; Scott, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    UV radiation (UV) is classified as a “complete carcinogen” because it is both a mutagen and a non-specific damaging agent and has properties of both a tumor initiator and a tumor promoter. In environmental abundance, UV is the most important modifiable risk factor for skin cancer and many other environmentally-influenced skin disorders. However, UV also benefits human health by mediating natural synthesis of vitamin D and endorphins in the skin, therefore UV has complex and mixed effects on human health. Nonetheless, excessive exposure to UV carries profound health risks, including atrophy, pigmentary changes, wrinkling and malignancy. UV is epidemiologically and molecularly linked to the three most common types of skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, which together affect more than a million Americans annually. Genetic factors also influence risk of UV-mediated skin disease. Polymorphisms of the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene, in particular, correlate with fairness of skin, UV sensitivity, and enhanced cancer risk. We are interested in developing UV-protective approaches based on a detailed understanding of molecular events that occur after UV exposure, focusing particularly on epidermal melanization and the role of the MC1R in genome maintenance. PMID:23749111

  2. UV radiation and the skin.

    PubMed

    D'Orazio, John; Jarrett, Stuart; Amaro-Ortiz, Alexandra; Scott, Timothy

    2013-06-07

    UV radiation (UV) is classified as a "complete carcinogen" because it is both a mutagen and a non-specific damaging agent and has properties of both a tumor initiator and a tumor promoter. In environmental abundance, UV is the most important modifiable risk factor for skin cancer and many other environmentally-influenced skin disorders. However, UV also benefits human health by mediating natural synthesis of vitamin D and endorphins in the skin, therefore UV has complex and mixed effects on human health. Nonetheless, excessive exposure to UV carries profound health risks, including atrophy, pigmentary changes, wrinkling and malignancy. UV is epidemiologically and molecularly linked to the three most common types of skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, which together affect more than a million Americans annually. Genetic factors also influence risk of UV-mediated skin disease. Polymorphisms of the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene, in particular, correlate with fairness of skin, UV sensitivity, and enhanced cancer risk. We are interested in developing UV-protective approaches based on a detailed understanding of molecular events that occur after UV exposure, focusing particularly on epidermal melanization and the role of the MC1R in genome maintenance.

  3. Visual Persistence and Information Pick-up in Learning Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazer, Suzanne R.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Two experiments tested possible explanations for previous research demonstrating lower span of apprehension for learning disabled students. In experiment 1, the length of visual persistence was less for LD subjects, while in experiment 2, the rate of information pick-up was slower for LD subjects. (CL)

  4. Development of a Bile Acid-Based Newborn Screen for Niemann-Pick C Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xuntian; Sidhu, Rohini; Mydock, Laurel; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Covey, Douglas F.; Scherrer, David E.; Earley, Brian; Gale, Sarah E.; Farhat, Nicole Y.; Porter, Forbes D.; Dietzen, Dennis J.; Orsini, Joseph J.; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Zhang, Xiaokui; Reunert, Janice; Marquardt, Thorsten; Runz, Heiko; Giugliani, Roberto; Schaffer, Jean E.; Ory, Daniel S.

    2017-01-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a fatal, neurodegenerative, cholesterol storage disorder. With new therapeutics in clinical trials, it is imperative to improve diagnostics and facilitate early intervention. We used metabolomic profiling to identify potential markers and discovered three unknown bile acids that were increased in plasma from NPC but not control subjects. The bile acids most elevated in the NPC subjects were identified as 3β,5α,6β-trihydroxycholanic acid and its glycine conjugate, both of which were shown to be metabolites of cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol, an oxysterol elevated in NPC. A high-throughput, mass spectrometry-based method was developed and validated to measure the glycine-conjugated bile acid in dried blood spots. Analysis of dried blood spots from 4992 controls, 134 NPC carriers, and 44 NPC subjects provided 100% sensitivity and specificity in the study samples. Quantification of the bile acid in dried blood spots, therefore, provides the basis for a newborn screen for NPC that is ready for piloting in newborn screening programs. PMID:27147587

  5. Baseline studies on the feasibility of detecting a coal/shale interface with a self-powered sensitized pick

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, G. R., II

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of utilizing a sensitized pick to discriminate between cutting coal and roof material during the longwall mining process was investigated. A conventional longwall mining pick was instrumented and cutting force magnitudes were determined for a variety of materials, including Illinois #6 coal, shale type materials, and synthetic coal/shale materials.

  6. Connexins and skin disease: insights into the role of beta connexins in skin homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Martin, Patricia E M; van Steensel, Maurice

    2015-06-01

    Cell-to-cell communication triggered by connexin channels plays a central role in maintaining epidermal homeostasis. Here, we discuss the role of the beta connexin subgroup, where site-specific mutations in at least 4 of these proteins lead to distinctive non-inflammatory and inflammatory hyperproliferative epidermal disorders. Recent advances in the molecular pathways evoked and correlation with clinical outcome are discussed. The latest data provide increasing evidence that connexins in the epidermis are sensors to environmental stress and that targeting aberrant hemichannel activity holds significant therapeutic potential for inflammatory skin disorders.

  7. Effect of seasonal affective disorder and pathological tanning motives on efficacy of an appearance-focused intervention to prevent skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Hillhouse, Joel; Turrisi, Rob; Stapleton, Jerod; Robinson, June

    2010-05-01

    To evaluate the robustness of an appearance-focused intervention to prevent skin cancer in individuals reporting seasonal affective disorder (SAD) symptoms and pathological tanning motives. Randomized, controlled clinical trial. College campus. Four hundred thirty adult female indoor tanners (200 in the intervention group and 230 control participants). A booklet discussing the history of tanning, current tanning norms, UV radiation's effects on skin, recommendations for indoor tanning use focusing on abstinence and harm reduction recommendations, and information on healthier, appearance-enhancing alternatives to tanning. Self-reported attitudes, intentions, and tanning behaviors; pathological tanning motives assessed by a questionnaire developed for this study; and SAD symptoms assessed by the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire. Two of the 4 pathological tanning scales, opiatelike reactions to tanning and dissatisfaction with natural skin tone, were significant moderators demonstrating stronger treatment effects for individuals scoring higher on these scales. Treatment effects were equivalently positive (ie, no significant moderator effects) for all levels of SAD symptoms and all levels of the other 2 pathological tanning motive scales (ie, perceiving tanning as a problem and tolerance to the effects of tanning). The appearance-focused skin cancer prevention intervention is robust enough to reduce indoor tanning among tanners who exhibit SAD symptoms or pathological tanning motives. Tailored interventions may address individuals' motivations for tanning and their relation to maladaptive behavior, such as dissatisfaction with appearance or the need for relaxation because of anxiety.

  8. Skin Immune Landscape: Inside and Outside the Organism.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Florence; Mijouin, Lily; Pichon, Chantal

    2017-01-01

    The skin is an essential organ to the human body protecting it from external aggressions and pathogens. Over the years, the skin was proven to have a crucial immunological role, not only being a passive protective barrier but a network of effector cells and molecular mediators that constitute a highly sophisticated compound known as the "skin immune system" (SIS). Studies of skin immune sentinels provided essential insights of a complex and dynamic immunity, which was achieved through interaction between the external and internal cutaneous compartments. In fact, the skin surface is cohabited by microorganisms recognized as skin microbiota that live in complete harmony with the immune sentinels and contribute to the epithelial barrier reinforcement. However, under stress, the symbiotic relationship changes into a dysbiotic one resulting in skin disorders. Hence, the skin microbiota may have either positive or negative influence on the immune system. This review aims at providing basic background information on the cutaneous immune system from major cellular and molecular players and the impact of its microbiota on the well-coordinated immune responses in host defense.

  9. P and S automatic picks for 3D earthquake tomography in NE Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovisa, L.; Bragato, P.; Gentili, S.

    2006-12-01

    Earthquake tomography is useful to study structural and geological features of the crust. In particular, it uses P and S arrival times for reconstructing weaves velocity fields and locating earthquakes hypocenters. However, tomography needs a large effort to provide a high number of manual picks. On the other side, many automatic picking methods have been proposed, but they are usually applied to preliminary elaboration of the data (fast alert and automatic bulletin generation); they are generally considered not reliable for tomography. In this work, we present and discuss the results of Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs tomographies obtained using automatic picks generated by the system TAPNEI (Gentili and Bragato 2006), applied in the NE Italy. Preliminarily, in order to estimate the error in comparison with the unknown true arrival times, an analysis on the picking quality is done. The tests have been performed using two dataset: the first is made up by 240 earthquakes automatically picked by TAPNEI; the second counts in the same earthquakes but manually picked (OGS database). The grid and the software used to perform tomography (Sim28, Michelini and Mc Evilly, 1991) are the same in the two cases. Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs fields of the two tomographies and their differences are shown on vertical sections. In addiction, the differences in earthquakes locations are studied; in particular, the quality of the accuracy of the localizations has been analyzed by estimating the distance of the hypocenter distributions with respect to the manual locations. The analysis include also a qualitative comparison with an independent tomography (Gentile et al., 2000) performed using Simulps (Evans et al, 1994) on a set of 224 earthquakes accurately selected and manually relocated. The quality of the pickings and the comparison with the tomography obtained by manual data suggest that earthquake tomography with automatic data can provide reliable results. We suggest the use of such data when a large

  10. An Amphipathic Helix Directs Cellular Membrane Curvature Sensing and Function of the BAR Domain Protein PICK1.

    PubMed

    Herlo, Rasmus; Lund, Viktor K; Lycas, Matthew D; Jansen, Anna M; Khelashvili, George; Andersen, Rita C; Bhatia, Vikram; Pedersen, Thomas S; Albornoz, Pedro B C; Johner, Niklaus; Ammendrup-Johnsen, Ina; Christensen, Nikolaj R; Erlendsson, Simon; Stoklund, Mikkel; Larsen, Jannik B; Weinstein, Harel; Kjærulff, Ole; Stamou, Dimitrios; Gether, Ulrik; Madsen, Kenneth L

    2018-05-15

    BAR domains are dimeric protein modules that sense, induce, and stabilize lipid membrane curvature. Here, we show that membrane curvature sensing (MCS) directs cellular localization and function of the BAR domain protein PICK1. In PICK1, and the homologous proteins ICA69 and arfaptin2, we identify an amphipathic helix N-terminal to the BAR domain that mediates MCS. Mutational disruption of the helix in PICK1 impaired MCS without affecting membrane binding per se. In insulin-producing INS-1E cells, super-resolution microscopy revealed that disruption of the helix selectively compromised PICK1 density on insulin granules of high curvature during their maturation. This was accompanied by reduced hormone storage in the INS-1E cells. In Drosophila, disruption of the helix compromised growth regulation. By demonstrating size-dependent binding on insulin granules, our finding highlights the function of MCS for BAR domain proteins in a biological context distinct from their function, e.g., at the plasma membrane during endocytosis. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Movement strategy and performance in a high-volume order picking workstation.

    PubMed

    Könemann, Reinier; Bosch, Tim; de Looze, Michiel

    2012-01-01

    The design of a work station generally prescribes a global movement pattern of the operator, but also leaving some degrees of freedom regarding movement strategy. For a specific order picking work station, we studied the movement strategies, the underlying factors and its impact on performance. Eight subjects performed a task comprising, the picking and placing of an object and pressing a button in eight conditions varying in product weight, movement direction (left vs. right), and placing distance. Movements were analyzed and cycle times were obtained from video-recordings. We observed various types of strategy regarding hand use and global placing mode (reaching vs. placing). The different strategies did not show clear relationships with performance (in contrast to the various work place factors). Ergonomically spoken, the fact that the workstation allows movement variation without loss of performance, is favorable.

  12. Chemical peeling in ethnic/dark skin.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Wendy E

    2004-01-01

    Chemical peeling for skin of color arose in ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, and other ancient cultures in and around Africa. Our current fund of medical knowledge regarding chemical peeling is a result of centuries of experience and research. The list of agents for chemical peeling is extensive. In ethnic skin, our efforts are focused on superficial and medium-depth peeling agents and techniques. Indications for chemical peeling in darker skin include acne vulgaris, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, melasma, scarring, photodamage, and pseudofolliculitis barbae. Careful selection of patients for chemical peeling should involve not only identification of Fitzpatrick skin type, but also determining ethnicity. Different ethnicities may respond unpredictably to chemical peeling regardless of skin phenotype. Familiarity with the properties each peeling agent used is critical. New techniques discussed for chemical peeling include spot peeling for postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and combination peels for acne and photodamage. Single- or combination-agent chemical peels are shown to be efficacious and safe. In conclusion, chemical peeling is a treatment of choice for numerous pigmentary and scarring disorders arising in dark skin tones. Familiarity with new peeling agents and techniques will lead to successful outcomes.

  13. Systematic Approaches to Experimentation: The Case of Pick's Theorem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Iatridou, Maria

    2010-01-01

    In this paper two 10th graders having an accumulated experience on problem-solving ancillary to the concept of area confronted the task to find Pick's formula for a lattice polygon's area. The formula was omitted from the theorem in order for the students to read the theorem as a problem to be solved. Their working is examined and emphasis is…

  14. Rat epidermal keratinocyte organotypic culture (ROC) compared to human cadaver skin: the effect of skin permeation enhancers.

    PubMed

    Pappinen, Sari; Tikkinen, Sanna; Pasonen-Seppänen, Sanna; Murtomäki, Lasse; Suhonen, Marjukka; Urtti, Arto

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of the rat epidermal keratinocyte organotypic culture (ROC) to permeation enhancers, and to compare these responses to those in human cadaver skin. Different concentrations of two mixtures for enhancing permeation were investigated, sodium dodecyl sulfate:phenyl piperazine and methyl pyrrolidone:dodecyl pyridinium chloride, using skin impedance spectroscopy and two experimental compounds, the lipophilic corticosterone and the hydrophilic sucrose. The chemical irritation effects of the formulations were evaluated based on leakage of lactate dehydrogenase enzyme (LDH) and cellular morphological perturbation. This study provides evidence for direct correlations of permeation/permeation, impedance/impedance and permation/impedance between the culture model and human skin. The only exception was the enhancer induced permeation of sucrose which was 1-40-fold higher in ROC compared to human skin, reflecting the more disordered lipid organization in stratum corneum and consequently the greater number of polar pathways. LDH leakage and cellular morphology indicated that it was possible to differentiate between safe permeation enhancers from irritating agents. This is not only the first study to have compared the enhancer effects on a cultured skin model with human skin, but also it has demonstrated enhancer induced irritation using an artificial skin model.

  15. Study of skin and mucous membrane disorders among workers engaged in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and chrome plating industry

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Vijay Kumar; Deswal, Balbir Singh; Singh, Bachu Narayan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Inhalation of dusts and fumes arising during the manufacture of sodium dichromate from chrome ore, chromic acid mist emitted during electroplating, and skin contact with chromate produce hazards to workers. Objectives: (1) To elucidate the prevalence of skin and mucous membrane disorders among the workers engaged in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and chrome plating industry. (2) To know the relationship of prevalence with the duration of exposure to chrome mist, dust, and fumes. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted among all the workers engaged in sodium dichromate manufacturing and chrome plating from several industries situated near the Delhi-Haryana border in the districts of Faridabad and Sonepat of Haryana, India from January 01, 2014 to December 31, 2014. Materials and Methods: All the workers available from the concerned industries for the study were interviewed and medically examined after obtaining their informed consent. A total of 130 workers comprising 66 workers from the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and 64 workers from the chrome plating industry were examined on a pretested schedule. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistical methods (proportions, relative risk, and Chi-square test of significance with P value analyzed using Epi Info version 7). Results: All the workers were found to be males and of the adult age group. Out of the total examined, 69.69% and 56.22% of the workers had disorders of the nasal mucous membrane in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and the chrome plating industry, respectively. 42.42% and 28.22% of the workers had perforation of the nasal septum in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and chrome plating industry, respectively. 6.06% and 3.12% workers had skin ulcers in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and chrome plating industry, respectively. Nasal irritation and rhinorrhea were the most commonly found symptoms in both the processes

  16. Oculomotor abnormalities in children with Niemann-Pick type C.

    PubMed

    Blundell, James; Frisson, Steven; Chakrapani, Anupam; Gissen, Paul; Hendriksz, Chris; Vijay, Suresh; Olson, Andrew

    2018-02-01

    Niemann-Pick type C (NP-C) is a rare recessive disorder associated with progressive supranuclear gaze palsy. Degeneration occurs initially for vertical saccades and later for horizontal saccades. There are studies of oculomotor degeneration in adult NP-C patients [1, 2] but no comparable studies in children. We used high-resolution video-based eye tracking to record monocular vertical and horizontal eye movements in 2 neurological NP-C patients (children with clinically observable oculomotor abnormalities) and 3 pre-neurological NP-C patients (children without clinically observable oculomotor abnormalities). Saccade onset latency, saccade peak velocity and saccade curvature were compared to healthy controls (N=77). NP-C patients had selective impairments of vertical saccade peak velocity and vertical saccade curvature, with slower peak velocities and greater curvature. Changes were more pronounced in neurological than pre-neurological patients, showing that these measures are sensitive to disease progress, but abnormal curvature and slowed downward saccades were present in both groups, showing that eye-tracking can register disease-related changes before these are evident in a clinical exam. Both slowing, curvature and the detailed characteristics of the curvature we observed are predicted by the detailed characteristics of RIMLF population codes. Onset latencies were not different from healthy controls. High-resolution video-based eye tracking is a promising sensitive and objective method to measure NP-C disease severity and neurological onset. It may also help evaluate responses to therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Mast cell distribution in normal adult skin.

    PubMed

    Janssens, A S; Heide, R; den Hollander, J C; Mulder, P G M; Tank, B; Oranje, A P

    2005-03-01

    To investigate mast cell distribution in normal adult skin to provide a reference range for comparison with mastocytosis. Mast cells (MCs) were counted in uninvolved skin adjacent to basal cell carcinomas and other dermatological disorders in adults. There was an uneven distribution of MCs in different body sites using the anti-tryptase monoclonal antibody technique. Numbers of MCs on the trunk, upper arm, and upper leg were similar, but were significantly different from those found on the lower leg and forearm. Two distinct groups were formed--proximal and distal. There were 77.0 MCs/mm2 at proximal body sites and 108.2 MCs/mm2 at distal sites. Adjusted for the adjacent diagnosis and age, this difference was consistent. The numbers of MCs in uninvolved skin adjacent to basal cell carcinomas and other dermatological disorders were not different from those in the control group. Differences in the numbers of MCs between the distal and the proximal body sites must be considered when MCs are counted for a reliable diagnosis of mastocytosis. A pilot study in patients with mastocytosis underlined the variation in the numbers of MCs in mastocytosis and normal skin, but showed a considerable overlap. The observed numbers of MCs in adults cannot be extrapolated to children. MC numbers varied significantly between proximal and distal body sites and these differences must be considered when MCs are counted for a reliable diagnosis of mastocytosis. There was a considerable overlap between the numbers of MCs in mastocytosis and normal skin.

  18. Chemical peeling in ethnic skin: an update.

    PubMed

    Salam, A; Dadzie, O E; Galadari, H

    2013-10-01

    With the growth of cosmetic dermatology worldwide, treatments that are effective against skin diseases and augment beauty without prolonged recovery periods, or exposing patients to the risks of surgery, are increasing in popularity. Chemical peels are a commonly used, fast, safe and effective clinic room treatment that may be used for cosmetic purposes, such as for fine lines and photoageing, but also as primary or adjunct therapies for acne, pigmentary disorders and scarring. Clinicians are faced with specific challenges when using peels on ethnic skin (skin of colour). The higher risk of postinflammatory dyschromias and abnormal scarring makes peels potentially disfiguring. Clinicians should therefore have a sound knowledge of the various peels available and their safety in ethnic skin. This article aims to review the background, classification, various preparations, indications, patient assessment and complications of using chemical peels in ethnic skin. © 2013 The Authors BJD © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  19. DANDRUFF: THE MOST COMMERCIALLY EXPLOITED SKIN DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Ranganathan, S; Mukhopadhyay, T

    2010-01-01

    The article discuss in detail about the prevalence, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations of dandruff including the etio-pathology. The article also discusses in detail about various treatment methods available for dandruff. The status of dandruff being amphibious – a disease/disorder, and relatively less medical intervention is sought after for the treatment, dandruff is the most commercially exploited skin and scalp disorder/disease by personal care industries. PMID:20606879

  20. Iron deposition in skin of patients with haemochromatosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro, T.; Silva, J. N.; Alves, L. C.; Filipe, P.

    2003-09-01

    Haemochromatosis is the most common inherited liver disease in Caucasians and the most common autosomal recessive genetic disorder. It is characterized by inappropriately high iron absorption resulting in progressive iron overload in parenchymal organs such as liver, heart, pancreas, pituitary, joints, and skin. Upon early detection, haemochromatosis can be a manageable chronic disease but, if undetected, is potentially fatal. Skin biopsies were obtained from patients and from healthy donors. Images of the elemental distributions in skin were obtained using nuclear microscopy techniques (nuclear microprobe, NMP). Elemental profiles along skin, and intra-, and extra-cellular iron concentrations, were determined. Results for patients with haemochromatosis were cross-examined with morphologic features and with data obtained for healthy skin. Skin iron content is much increased in patients with haemochromatosis when compared with healthy subjects. Extensive iron deposits are observed at dermis, at the dermo-epidermal interface, at upper epidermis layers and at stratum corneum. Iron deposition was observed preferentially at cell boundaries or at the interstitial matrix.

  1. Characterising the variations in ethnic skin colours: a new calibrated data base for human skin.

    PubMed

    Xiao, K; Yates, J M; Zardawi, F; Sueeprasan, S; Liao, N; Gill, L; Li, C; Wuerger, S

    2017-02-01

    Accurate skin colour measurements are important for numerous medical applications including the diagnosis and treatment of cutaneous disorders and the provision of maxillofacial soft tissue prostheses. In this study, we obtained accurate skin colour measurements from four different ethnic groups (Caucasian, Chinese, Kurdish, Thai) and at four different body locations (Forehead, cheek, inner arm, back of hand) with a view of establishing a new skin colour database for medical and cosmetic applications. Skin colours are measured using a spectrophotometer and converted to a device-independent standard colour appearance space (CIELAB) where skin colour is expressed as values along the three dimensions: Lightness L*, Redness a* and Yellowness b*. Skin colour differences and variation are then evaluated as a function of ethnicity and body location. We report three main results: (1) When plotted in a standard colour appearance space (CIELAB), skin colour distributions for the four ethnic groups overlap significantly, although there are systematic mean differences. Between ethnicities, the most significant skin colour differences occur along the yellowness dimension, with Thai skin exhibiting the highest yellowness (b*) value and Caucasian skin the lowest value. Facial redness (a*) is invariant across the four ethnic groups. (2) Between different body locations, there are significant variations in redness (a*), with the forehead showing the highest redness value and the inner arm the lowest. (3) The colour gamut is smallest in the Chinese sample and largest in the Caucasian sample, with the Chinese gamut lying entirely the Caucasian gamut. Similarly, the largest variability in skin tones is found in the Caucasian group, and the smallest in the Chinese group. Broadly speaking, skin colour variation can be explained by two main factors: individual differences in lightness and yellowness are mostly due to ethnicity, whereas differences in redness are primarily due to

  2. Vestibular function in patients with Niemann-Pick type C disease.

    PubMed

    Bremova, Tatiana; Krafczyk, Siegbert; Bardins, Stanislavs; Reinke, Jörg; Strupp, Michael

    2016-11-01

    We investigated whether vestibular dysfunction may cause or contribute to postural imbalance and falls in patients with Niemann-Pick type C disease (NP-C). Eight patients with NP-C disease and 20 healthy controls were examined using the video-based head impulse test (vHIT) and caloric irrigation to investigate horizontal canal function as well as ocular- and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (o- and cVEMP), and binocular subjective visual vertical estimation (SVV) for otolith function, and static posturography. There were no significant differences in vestibulo-ocular gain, caloric excitability, o-/cVEMP measures or SVV between the two groups. Posturographic total sway path (tSP) and root mean square (RMS) were significantly higher in NP-C than in controls in 3 out of 4 conditions. The Romberg quotient (RQ) to assess the amount of visual stabilization was significantly lower in the NP-C than in the HC group. In contrast to other inherited metabolic disorders, such as Morbus Gaucher type 3, we did not find any evidence for an impairment of canal or otolith function in patients with NP-C as their cause of postural imbalance. Since RQ was low in NP-C patients, indicating proper sensory input, the observed increased postural sway is most likely due to a cerebellar dysfunction in NP-C, which may therefore, explain postural imbalance.

  3. Performing skin microbiome research: A method to the madness

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Heidi H.; Andersson, Björn; Clavel, Thomas; Common, John E.; Jackson, Scott A.; Olson, Nathan D.; Segre, Julia A.; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Growing interest in microbial contributions to human health and disease has increasingly led investigators to examine the microbiome in both healthy skin and cutaneous disorders, including acne, psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. The need for common language, effective study design, and validated methods are critical for high-quality, standardized research. Features, unique to skin, pose particular challenges when conducting microbiome research. This review discusses microbiome research standards and highlights important factors to consider, including clinical study design, skin sampling, sample processing, DNA sequencing, control inclusion, and data analysis. PMID:28063650

  4. Improved method for peak picking in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kempka, Martin; Sjödahl, Johan; Björk, Anders; Roeraade, Johan

    2004-01-01

    A method for peak picking for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS) is described. The method is based on the assumption that two sets of ions are formed during the ionization stage, which have Gaussian distributions but different velocity profiles. This gives rise to a certain degree of peak skewness. Our algorithm deconvolutes the peak and utilizes the fast velocity, bulk ion distribution for peak picking. Evaluation of the performance of the new method was conducted using peptide peaks from a bovine serum albumin (BSA) digest, and compared with the commercial peak-picking algorithms Centroid and SNAP. When using the new two-Gaussian algorithm, for strong signals the mass accuracy was equal to or marginally better than the results obtained from the commercial algorithms. However, for weak, distorted peaks, considerable improvement in both mass accuracy and precision was obtained. This improvement should be particularly useful in proteomics, where a lack of signal strength is often encountered when dealing with weakly expressed proteins. Finally, since the new peak-picking method uses information from the entire signal, no adjustments of parameters related to peak height have to be made, which simplifies its practical use. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Automation Diagnosis of Skin Disease in Humans using Dempster-Shafer Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairina, Dyna Marisa; Hatta, Heliza Rahmania; Rustam; Maharani, Septya

    2018-02-01

    Skin disease is an infectious disease that is common in people of all ages. Disorders of the skin often occur because there are factors, among others, are climate, environment, shelter, unhealthy living habits, allergies and others. Skin diseases in Indonesia are mostly caused by bacterial, fungal, parasitic, and allergies. The objective of the research is to diagnose skin diseases in humans by using the method of making decision tree then performing the search by forward chaining and calculating the probability value of Dempster-Shafer method. The results of research in the form of an automated system that can resemble an expert in diagnosing skin disease accurately and can help in overcoming the problem of skin diseases.

  6. Tamoxifen and vitamin E treatments delay symptoms in the mouse model of Niemann-Pick C.

    PubMed

    Bascuñan-Castillo, Eric C; Erickson, Robert P; Howison, Christy M; Hunter, Robert J; Heidenreich, Randall H; Hicks, Chad; Trouard, Theodore P; Gillies, Robert J

    2004-01-01

    Niemann-Pick C disease (NPC) is an irreversible neurodegenerative disorder without current treatment. It is the result of deficient intracellular cholesterol movement. We investigated the effects of tamoxifen and vitamin E (D-alpha tocopherol) treatment on patterns of weight loss and motor function in the mouse model of Niemann-Pick C disease (Npc1-/- mice). Tamoxifen has multiple metabolic effects, including reducing oxidative damage, while vitamin E primarily has this property. Npc1-/- mice were identified and treatment was initiated at an approximate age of 21 days. Tamoxifen suspended in peanut oil was administered via intraperitoneal injection (weekly, at a dose calculated to deliver 0.023 microg/g/day). Vitamin E (25 IU) was administered orally via gavage once a week. Weight loss and Rota-Rod performance were analyzed by using Kaplan-Meyer survival curves. Tamoxifen treatment by itself significantly delayed weight loss (an endpoint of neurodegeneration) in male and female mice compared to untreated controls. Motor function was evaluated by performance on a Rota-Rod. Tamoxifen maintained Rota-Rod performance for about an extra week. Vitamin E treatment significantly delayed weight loss in females only. Rota-Rod performance was maintained slightly longer in mice treated with vitamin E. Simultaneous use of both treatments did not delay weight loss longer than tamoxifen-only treatment but had a greater effect than either treatment alone on Rota-Rod performance and demonstrated a significant positive effect on the early "learning curve" portion of the Rota-Rod evaluations. We found significant but relatively small improvements in rate of disease progression by treating Npc1-/- mice with tamoxifen and/or vitamin E. Some sex differences in response and an early improvement in Rota-Rod performance suggest areas for further study.

  7. Pick-N Multiple Choice-Exams: A Comparison of Scoring Algorithms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Daniel; Holzer, Matthias; Kopp, Veronika; Fischer, Martin R.

    2011-01-01

    To compare different scoring algorithms for Pick-N multiple correct answer multiple-choice (MC) exams regarding test reliability, student performance, total item discrimination and item difficulty. Data from six 3rd year medical students' end of term exams in internal medicine from 2005 to 2008 at Munich University were analysed (1,255 students,…

  8. Ultrafast optomechanical pulse picking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilienfein, Nikolai; Holzberger, Simon; Pupeza, Ioachim

    2017-01-01

    State-of-the-art optical switches for coupling pulses into and/or out of resonators are based on either the electro-optic or the acousto-optic effect in transmissive elements. In high-power applications, the damage threshold and other nonlinear and thermal effects in these elements impede further improvements in pulse energy, duration, and average power. We propose a new optomechanical switching concept which is based solely on reflective elements and is suitable for switching times down to the ten-nanosecond range. To this end, an isolated section of a beam path is moved in a system comprising mirrors rotating at a high angular velocity and stationary imaging mirrors, without affecting the propagation of the beam thereafter. We discuss three variants of the concept and exemplify practical parameters for its application in regenerative amplifiers and stack-and-dump enhancement cavities. We find that optomechanical pulse picking has the potential to achieve switching rates of up to a few tens of kilohertz while supporting pulse energies of up to several joules.

  9. Autoimmune disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... exact cause of autoimmune disorders is unknown. One theory is that some microorganisms (such as bacteria or ... the thyroid or pancreas Joints Muscles Red blood cells Skin A person may have more than one ...

  10. Expertise and the spatio-temporal characteristics of anticipatory information pick-up from complex movement patterns.

    PubMed

    Müller, Sean; Abernethy, Bruce; Eid, Michael; McBean, Rohan; Rose, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Groups of high- (n = 14), intermediate- (n = 12), and low-skilled (n = 15) cricket batsmen participated in two experiments to examine expertise-related differences in anticipatory information pick-up that combined temporal and spatial occlusion methodologies. In experiment 1 participants were shown video displays of a bowler delivering one of three different types of delivery with the display manipulated so that only selected local features of the bowler's movement pattern (bowling hand, bowling hand and arm, trunk, lower body, or whole body) were visible and then only for specific time periods prior to ball release. Only the highly-skilled players were able to produce better-than-chance predictions of ball type and then only under a limited set of display conditions. Information from bowling hand and arm cues was particularly critical although continuous visibility of these cues was apparently not essential for information pick-up. In experiment 2 the order in which particular features were made visible throughout the bowler's movement pattern was varied in an attempt to find the sequence of cues that was most favourable for effective information pick-up. The necessity in this experiment to switch vision between different features eliminated the highly-skilled players' capability to anticipate. Expert anticipation is dependent on sensitivity to information arising from a select set of local cues, and forced attentional switches between different cues negate effective information pick-up and, with it, the expert advantage.

  11. An automated framework for NMR resonance assignment through simultaneous slice picking and spin system forming.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Ahmed; Guo, Xianrong; Jing, Bing-Yi; Gao, Xin

    2014-06-01

    Despite significant advances in automated nuclear magnetic resonance-based protein structure determination, the high numbers of false positives and false negatives among the peaks selected by fully automated methods remain a problem. These false positives and negatives impair the performance of resonance assignment methods. One of the main reasons for this problem is that the computational research community often considers peak picking and resonance assignment to be two separate problems, whereas spectroscopists use expert knowledge to pick peaks and assign their resonances at the same time. We propose a novel framework that simultaneously conducts slice picking and spin system forming, an essential step in resonance assignment. Our framework then employs a genetic algorithm, directed by both connectivity information and amino acid typing information from the spin systems, to assign the spin systems to residues. The inputs to our framework can be as few as two commonly used spectra, i.e., CBCA(CO)NH and HNCACB. Different from the existing peak picking and resonance assignment methods that treat peaks as the units, our method is based on 'slices', which are one-dimensional vectors in three-dimensional spectra that correspond to certain ([Formula: see text]) values. Experimental results on both benchmark simulated data sets and four real protein data sets demonstrate that our method significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods while using a less number of spectra than those methods. Our method is freely available at http://sfb.kaust.edu.sa/Pages/Software.aspx.

  12. Microglia activation in Niemann-Pick disease, type C1 is amendable to therapeutic intervention.

    PubMed

    Cougnoux, Antony; Drummond, Rebecca A; Collar, Amanda L; Iben, James R; Salman, Alexander; Westgarth, Harrison; Wassif, Christopher A; Cawley, Niamh X; Farhat, Nicole Y; Ozato, Keiko; Lionakis, Michail S; Porter, Forbes D

    2018-06-15

    Niemann-Pick disease, type C1 (NPC1) is a neurodegenerative disorder with limited treatment options. NPC1 is associated with neuroinflammation; however, attempts to therapeutically target neuroinflammation in NPC1 have had mixed success. We show here that NPC1 neuroinflammation is characterized by an atypical microglia activation phenotype. Specifically, Npc1-/- microglia demonstrated altered morphology, reduced levels of lineage markers and a shift toward glycolytic metabolism. Treatment with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD), a drug currently being studied in a phase 2b/3 clinical trial, reversed all microglia-associated defects in Npc1-/- animals. In addition, impairing microglia mediated neuroinflammation by genetic deletion of IRF8 led to decreased symptoms and increased lifespan. We identified CD22 as a marker of dysregulated microglia in Npc1 mutant mice and subsequently demonstrated that elevated cerebrospinal fluid levels of CD22 in NPC1 patients responds to HPβCD administration. Collectively, these data provide the first in-depth analysis of microglia function in NPC1 and suggest possible new therapeutic approaches.

  13. Abnormal autonomic and associated brain activities during rest in autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Eilam-Stock, Tehila; Xu, Pengfei; Cao, Miao; Gu, Xiaosi; Van Dam, Nicholas T.; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Kolevzon, Alexander; Soorya, Latha; Park, Yunsoo; Siller, Michael; He, Yong; Hof, Patrick R.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are associated with social and emotional deficits, the aetiology of which are not well understood. A growing consensus is that the autonomic nervous system serves a key role in emotional processes, by providing physiological signals essential to subjective states. We hypothesized that altered autonomic processing is related to the socio-emotional deficits in autism spectrum disorders. Here, we investigated the relationship between non-specific skin conductance response, an objective index of sympathetic neural activity, and brain fluctuations during rest in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder relative to neurotypical controls. Compared with control participants, individuals with autism spectrum disorder showed less skin conductance responses overall. They also showed weaker correlations between skin conductance responses and frontal brain regions, including the anterior cingulate and anterior insular cortices. Additionally, skin conductance responses were found to have less contribution to default mode network connectivity in individuals with autism spectrum disorders relative to controls. These results suggest that autonomic processing is altered in autism spectrum disorders, which may be related to the abnormal socio-emotional behaviours that characterize this condition. PMID:24424916

  14. Selected Disorders of Skin Appendages--Acne, Alopecia, Hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Vary, Jay C

    2015-11-01

    This article reviewed some of the more common diseases of the skin appendages that are encountered in medicine: hyperhidrosis, acne, AA, FPHL, AGA, and TE. The pathophysiology behind the conditions and their treatments were discussed so that the clinician can make logical therapeutic choices for their affected patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sodium Pick-Up Ion Observations in the Solar Wind Upstream of Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasinski, J. M.; Raines, J. M.; Slavin, J. A.; Regoli, L. R.; Murphy, N.

    2018-05-01

    We present the first observations of sodium pick-up ions upstream of Mercury’s magnetosphere. From these observations we infer properties of Mercury’s sodium exosphere and implications for the solar wind interaction with Mercury’s magnetosphere.

  16. Seasonal variation of Martian pick-up ions: Evidence of breathing exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, M.; Hara, T.; Lundin, R.; Dubinin, E.; Fedorov, A.; Sauvaud, J.-A.; Frahm, R. A.; Ramstad, R.; Futaana, Y.; Holmstrom, M.; Barabash, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Mars Express (MEX) Ion Mass Analyser (IMA) found that the detection rate of the ring-like distribution of protons in the solar wind outside of the bow shock to be quite different between Mars orbital summer (around perihelion) and orbital winter (around aphelion) for four Martian years, while the north-south asymmetry is much smaller than the perihelion-aphelion difference. Further analyses using eight years of MEX/IMA solar wind data between 2005 and 2012 has revealed that the detection frequency of the pick-up ions originating from newly ionized exospheric hydrogen with certain flux strongly correlates with the Sun-Mars distance, which changes approximately every two years. Variation due to the solar cycle phase is not distinguishable partly because this effect is masked by the seasonal variation under the MEX capability of plasma measurements. This finding indicates that the variation in solar UV has a major effect on the formation of the pick-up ions, but this is not the only controlling factor.

  17. Automatic first-arrival picking based on extended super-virtual interferometry with quality control procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Shengpei; Hu, Tianyue; Liu, Yimou; Peng, Gengxin; Liang, Xianghao

    2017-12-01

    Static correction is a crucial step of seismic data processing for onshore play, which frequently has a complex near-surface condition. The effectiveness of the static correction depends on an accurate determination of first-arrival traveltimes. However, it is difficult to accurately auto-pick the first arrivals for data with low signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), especially for those measured in the area of the complex near-surface. The technique of the super-virtual interferometry (SVI) has the potential to enhance the SNR of first arrivals. In this paper, we develop the extended SVI with (1) the application of the reverse correlation to improve the capability of SNR enhancement at near-offset, and (2) the usage of the multi-domain method to partially overcome the limitation of current method, given insufficient available source-receiver combinations. Compared to the standard SVI, the SNR enhancement of the extended SVI can be up to 40%. In addition, we propose a quality control procedure, which is based on the statistical characteristics of multichannel recordings of first arrivals. It can auto-correct the mispicks, which might be spurious events generated by the SVI. This procedure is very robust, highly automatic and it can accommodate large data in batches. Finally, we develop one automatic first-arrival picking method to combine the extended SVI and the quality control procedure. Both the synthetic and the field data examples demonstrate that the proposed method is able to accurately auto-pick first arrivals in seismic traces with low SNR. The quality of the stacked seismic sections obtained from this method is much better than those obtained from an auto-picking method, which is commonly employed by the commercial software.

  18. ActiveSeismoPick3D - automatic first arrival determination for large active seismic arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paffrath, Marcel; Küperkoch, Ludger; Wehling-Benatelli, Sebastian; Friederich, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    We developed a tool for automatic determination of first arrivals in active seismic data based on an approach, that utilises higher order statistics (HOS) and the Akaike information criterion (AIC), commonly used in seismology, but not in active seismics. Automatic picking is highly desirable in active seismics as the number of data provided by large seismic arrays rapidly exceeds of what an analyst can evaluate in a reasonable amount of time. To bring the functionality of automatic phase picking into the context of active data, the software package ActiveSeismoPick3D was developed in Python. It uses a modified algorithm for the determination of first arrivals which searches for the HOS maximum in unfiltered data. Additionally, it offers tools for manual quality control and postprocessing, e.g. various visualisation and repicking functionalities. For flexibility, the tool also includes methods for the preparation of geometry information of large seismic arrays and improved interfaces to the Fast Marching Tomography Package (FMTOMO), which can be used for the prediction of travel times and inversion for subsurface properties. Output files are generated in the VTK format, allowing the 3D visualization of e.g. the inversion results. As a test case, a data set consisting of 9216 traces from 64 shots was gathered, recorded at 144 receivers deployed in a regular 2D array of a size of 100 x 100 m. ActiveSeismoPick3D automatically checks the determined first arrivals by a dynamic signal to noise ratio threshold. From the data a 3D model of the subsurface was generated using the export functionality of the package and FMTOMO.

  19. Targeting Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) Channel Softly: The Discovery of Passerini Adducts as a Topical Treatment for Inflammatory Skin Disorders.

    PubMed

    Serafini, Marta; Griglio, Alessia; Aprile, Silvio; Seiti, Fabio; Travelli, Cristina; Pattarino, Franco; Grosa, Giorgio; Sorba, Giovanni; Genazzani, Armando A; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Sara; Butron, Laura; Devesa, Isabel; Fernandez-Carvajal, Asia; Pirali, Tracey; Ferrer-Montiel, Antonio

    2018-05-24

    Despite being an old molecule, capsaicin is still a hot topic in the scientific community, and the development of new capsaicinoids is a promising pharmacological approach in the management of skin disorders related to inflammation and pruritus. Here we report the synthesis and the evaluation of capsaicin soft drugs that undergo deactivation by the hydrolyzing activity of skin esterases. The implanting of an ester group in the lipophilic moiety of capsaicinoids by the Passerini multicomponent reaction affords both agonists and antagonists that retain transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 channel (TRPV1) modulating activity and, at the same time, are susceptible to hydrolysis. The most promising antagonist identified shows in vivo anti-nociceptive activity on pruritus and hyperalgesia without producing hyperthermia, thus validating it as novel treatment for dermatological conditions that implicate TRPV1 channel dysfunction.

  20. A case of variant biochemical phenotype of Niemann-Pick disease type C accompanying savant syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hamatani, Mio; Jingami, Naoto; Uemura, Kengo; Nakasone, Naoe; Kinoshita, Hisanori; Yamakado, Hodaka; Ninomiya, Haruaki; Takahashi, Ryosuke

    2016-06-22

    A 40-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of vertical supranuclear gaze palsy, frequent sudden loss of muscle tonus and ataxia for several years. He had a history of prolonged neonatal jaundice. He was given a diagnosis of autism in his childhood, followed by a diagnosis of schizophrenia in his teenage. He also developed a savant skill of calendar calculating. (123)I-IMP-SPECT showed decreased cerebral blood flow in the left frontotemporal lobe as often seen in savant syndrome. Although genetic analysis of NPC1 and NPC2 revealed no pathogenic mutation, filipin staining of cultured fibroblasts from his biopsied skin revealed a certain amount of intracellular cholesterol storage pattern, indicating a variant biochemical phenotype of Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC). The diagnosis of adulthood onset NPC is difficult and challenging, especially for neurologists, because the symptoms and signs are not as clear as those in the classical childhood onset NPC and this subtype is not yet widely known. However, the diagnosis can be made by a combination of filipin staining of fibroblast and/or gene analysis. As a disease-specific therapy for NPC has been approved in Japan, the diagnosis of NPC is of significance.

  1. Overview of Common Sleep Disorders and Intersection with Dermatologic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Walia, Harneet K; Mehra, Reena

    2016-04-30

    Sleep disorders are very common, often under-recognized and therefore undertreated, are associated with a myriad of medical conditions and could lead to significant impairment of quality of life. This review provides an up-to-date synopsis of common sleep disorders encompassing insufficient sleep syndrome, insomnia, circadian rhythm disorders and obstructive sleep apnea with a brief overview of epidemiology, screening, diagnostic testing and treatment. We also emphasize the emerging area of the intersection of sleep disorders and dermatologic conditions and present compelling data regarding underlying mechanisms including sleep dysfunction in relation to disorders of skin inflammation, aging and skin cancer.

  2. Visual enhancements in pick-and-place tasks: Human operators controlling a simulated cylindrical manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Won S.; Tendick, Frank; Stark, Lawrence

    1989-01-01

    A teleoperation simulator was constructed with vector display system, joysticks, and a simulated cylindrical manipulator, in order to quantitatively evaluate various display conditions. The first of two experiments conducted investigated the effects of perspective parameter variations on human operators' pick-and-place performance, using a monoscopic perspective display. The second experiment involved visual enhancements of the monoscopic perspective display, by adding a grid and reference lines, by comparison with visual enhancements of a stereoscopic display; results indicate that stereoscopy generally permits superior pick-and-place performance, but that monoscopy nevertheless allows equivalent performance when defined with appropriate perspective parameter values and adequate visual enhancements.

  3. Interceptive Skills in Children Aged 9-11 Years, Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyatt, Caroline; Craig, Cathy M.

    2013-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that significant motor problems are associated with a diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), particularly in catching tasks. Catching is a complex, dynamic skill that involves the ability to synchronise one's own movement to that of a moving target. To successfully complete the task, the participant must pick up…

  4. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy using zinc phthalocyanine derivative for bacterial skin infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhuo; Zhang, Yaxin; Li, Linsen; Zhou, Shanyong; Chen, Jincan; Hu, Ping; Huang, Mingdong

    2014-09-01

    Folliculitis, furunculosis and acne vulgaris are very common skin disorders of the hair follicles and are associated with large grease-producing (sebaceous) glands. Although the detailed mechanisms involved these skin disorders are not fully understood, it is believed that the bacteria Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus are the key pathogenic factors involved. Conventional treatments targeting the pathogenic factors include a variety of topical and oral medications such as antibiotics. The wide use of antibiotics leads to bacterial resistance, and hence there is a need for new alternatives in above bacterial skin treatment. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) is based on an initial photosensitization of the infected area, followed by irradiation with visible light, producing singlet oxygen which is cytotoxic to bacteria. Herein we reported a zinc phthalocyanine derivative, pentalysine β-carbonylphthalocyanine zinc (ZnPc-(Lys)5) and its PACT effect for the bacteria involved in these skin infections. Our results demonstrated strong bactericidal effects of this photosensitizer on both strains of the bacteria, suggesting ZnPc-(Lys)5 as a promising antimicrobial photosensitizer for the treatment of infectious diseases caused by these bacteria.

  5. Induction of Skin-Derived Precursor Cells from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama-Nakagiri, Yoriko; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Moriwaki, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    The generation of full thickness human skin from dissociated cells is an attractive approach not only for treating skin diseases, but also for treating many systemic disorders. However, it is currently not possible to obtain an unlimited number of skin dermal cells. The goal of this study was to develop a procedure to produce skin dermal stem cells from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Skin-derived precursor cells (SKPs) were isolated as adult dermal precursors that could differentiate into both neural and mesodermal progenies and could reconstitute the dermis. Thus, we attempted to generate SKPs from iPSCs that could reconstitute the skin dermis. Human iPSCs were initially cultured with recombinant noggin and SB431542, an inhibitor of activin/nodal and TGFβ signaling, to induce neural crest progenitor cells. Those cells were then treated with SKP medium that included CHIR99021, a WNT signal activator. The induction efficacy from neural crest progenitor cells to SKPs was more than 97%. No other modifiers tested were able to induce those cells. Those human iPSC-derived SKPs (hiPSC-SKPs) showed a similar gene expression signature to SKPs isolated from human skin dermis. Human iPSC-SKPs differentiated into neural and mesodermal progenies, including adipocytes, skeletogenic cell types and Schwann cells. Moreover, they could be induced to follicular type keratinization when co-cultured with human epidermal keratinocytes. We here provide a new efficient protocol to create human skin dermal stem cells from hiPSCs that could contribute to the treatment of various skin disorders.

  6. Gene editing for skin diseases: designer nucleases as tools for gene therapy of skin fragility disorders.

    PubMed

    March, Oliver P; Reichelt, Julia; Koller, Ulrich

    2018-04-01

    What is the topic of this review? This review concerns current gene editing strategies for blistering skin diseases with respect to individual genetic constellations and distinct conditions. What advances does it highlight? Specificity and safety dominate the discussion of gene editing applications for gene therapy, where a number of tools are implemented. Recent developments in this rapidly progressing field pose further questions regarding which tool is best suited for each particular use. The current treatment of inherited blistering skin diseases, such as epidermolysis bullosa (EB), is largely restricted to wound care and pain management. More effective therapeutic strategies are urgently required, and targeting the genetic basis of these severe diseases is now within reach. Here, we describe current gene editing tools and their potential to correct gene function in monogenetic blistering skin diseases. We present the features of the most frequently used gene editing techniques, transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9), determining their preferential application for specific genetic conditions, including the type of mutational inheritance, the targeting site within the gene or the possibility to target the mutation specifically. Both tools have traits beneficial in specific situations. Promising developments in the field engender gene editing as a potentially powerful therapeutic option for future clinical applications. © 2017 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  7. Attenuated subjective ratings and skin conductance responses to neutral and negative pictures in non-psychopathic mentally disordered offenders with various diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Wahlund, Katarina; Sorman, Karolina; Gavazzeni, Joachim; Fischer, Håkan; Kristiansson, Marianne

    2010-11-30

    Altered autonomic arousal in relation to offending behavior has mainly been investigated in subjects with varying degrees of psychopathic traits. The present study sets out to investigate subjective ratings and skin conductance responses (SCRs) in mentally disordered offenders with various diagnoses but without psychopathy, specifically recruited from the forensic psychiatric system. Two subgroups were investigated; an antisocial group with antisocial personality disorder (APD) or antisocial traits (n=16) and a non-antisocial group with various diagnoses (n=25), in relation to a healthy non-criminal control group (n=20). All participants were male. SCRs and subjective ratings of arousal and valence were measured for neutral and negative pictures from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). The offenders showed significantly lower SCRs and subjective ratings than the control group. Moreover, there was no significant difference between antisocial and non-antisocial offenders, indicating that antisocial behavior might not be a differential factor. Thus, attenuated emotional responses may be a characteristic shared by mentally disordered offenders overall. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The association of dermatologist-diagnosed and self-reported skin diseases with skin-related quality of life in Latino migrant farmworkers.

    PubMed

    Quandt, Sara A; Schulz, Mark R; Vallejos, Quirina M; Feldman, Steven R; Verma, Amit; Fleischer, Alan B; Rapp, Stephen R; Arcury, Thomas A

    2008-03-01

    Skin diseases are known to affect the quality of life (QoL), but data to support this are based on clinical samples. Few data document the skin-related QoL in the general population, and whether its association differs with self-reported or dermatologist-diagnosed skin ailments. Farmworkers are at high risk for skin diseases, and are an appropriate population in which to explore these associations. To compare the association between skin-related QoL and workers' self-reports of skin conditions or dermatologist-diagnosed skin diseases over the course of a work season. Three hundred and four Latino farmworkers were recruited from 45 randomly selected residential sites in North Carolina, USA, for longitudinal surveillance. The participants were interviewed up to five times at 3-week intervals and the reported skin problems and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) were recorded. Nine digital photographs were taken of each participant. A board-certified dermatologist rated each for the presence of specific skin diseases. An impact of skin disease on QoL was reported in 16% of interviews. In multivariate analyses with self-reported skin problems, feet or skin fungus, rash, itching, and poison ivy were predictors of QoL. Dermatologist-diagnosed inflammatory diseases and pigmentary disorders were significant predictors of QoL. The association was stronger for self-reported skin problems than for dermatologist-diagnosed conditions. In a population of farmworkers, skin problems had a clinically significant impact on QoL. Itch-related conditions and cosmetic conditions, such as acne and melasma, were important determinants of QoL. Treatment for these conditions in this population may enhance QoL.

  9. Gerodermia osteodysplastica and wrinkly skin syndrome: are they the same?

    PubMed

    Al-Gazali, L I; Sztriha, L; Skaff, F; Haas, D

    2001-07-01

    Gerodermia osteodysplastica (GO) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by premature aging, wrinkled, and lax skin with reduced elasticity which is more marked on the dorsum of the hands and feet associated with hyperextensible joints and osteoporosis. The wrinkly skin syndrome (WSS) is characterized by wrinkled skin over the dorsum of the hands, feet, and abdomen; hyperextensible joints, particularly of the hands; intrauterine growth retardation; postnatal failure to thrive; and mental and developmental delay. We report on five children from two consanguineous Arab families with features overlapping both GO and WSS. All five children had similar dysmorphic facial features consisting of broad and prominent forehead, hypotelorism with epicanthal folds, prominent bulbous nose, flat malar region, and large protruding ears. All had wrinkling of the skin more marked on the dorsum of the hands, feet, and abdomen; hyperextensibility of the joints, particularly of the hands; and aged appearance. Intrauterine growth retardation, subsequent failure to thrive, developmental delay, and variable degree of osteoporosis was also present in all of them. The older three children developed progressive prognathism. We suggest that GO and WSS could represent variable manifestation of the same disorder. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Psychic skin: psychotic defences, borderline process and delusions.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Martin

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, I apply the concept of psychic skin to analytic work with people suffering from personality disorders and psychoses. When psychoses emerge, the defensive skin which protects the ego is breached and violent unconscious forces rip through the personality. Some of the patients diagnosed as schizophrenic with whom I work have identified with archetypal characters such as Christ, Satan, John Lennon and the Queen. I attempt to show how the adoption of these inflated personas can serve as secondary psychic skins. Such delusional identifications can provide a protective shield to hide the denuded self and prevent intrusion from the external world. Through clinical example, I try to demonstrate how these archetypal 'second skins' can preserve life until internal and external conditions make it possible for the self to emerge. I contrast such psychotic identifications with 'thin-skinned' and 'thick-skinned' narcissism as well as 'defences of the self' in borderline states where the psychic skin may be damaged but does not disintegrate. I also look at the ways in which Jung's own personal experience was different from this and how he managed to avert psychotic breakdown. © 2012, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  11. Spectrum of SMPD1 mutations in Asian-Indian patients with acid sphingomyelinase (ASM)-deficient Niemann-Pick disease.

    PubMed

    Ranganath, Prajnya; Matta, Divya; Bhavani, Gandham SriLakshmi; Wangnekar, Savita; Jain, Jamal Mohammed Nurul; Verma, Ishwar C; Kabra, Madhulika; Puri, Ratna Dua; Danda, Sumita; Gupta, Neerja; Girisha, Katta M; Sankar, Vaikom H; Patil, Siddaramappa J; Ramadevi, Akella Radha; Bhat, Meenakshi; Gowrishankar, Kalpana; Mandal, Kausik; Aggarwal, Shagun; Tamhankar, Parag Mohan; Tilak, Preetha; Phadke, Shubha R; Dalal, Ashwin

    2016-10-01

    Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM)-deficient Niemann-Pick disease is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder caused by biallelic mutations in the SMPD1 gene. To date, around 185 mutations have been reported in patients with ASM-deficient NPD world-wide, but the mutation spectrum of this disease in India has not yet been reported. The aim of this study was to ascertain the mutation profile in Indian patients with ASM-deficient NPD. We sequenced SMPD1 in 60 unrelated families affected with ASM-deficient NPD. A total of 45 distinct pathogenic sequence variants were found, of which 14 were known and 31 were novel. The variants included 30 missense, 4 nonsense, and 9 frameshift (7 single base deletions and 2 single base insertions) mutations, 1 indel, and 1 intronic duplication. The pathogenicity of the novel mutations was inferred with the help of the mutation prediction software MutationTaster, SIFT, Polyphen-2, PROVEAN, and HANSA. The effects of the identified sequence variants on the protein structure were studied using the structure modeled with the help of the SWISS-MODEL workspace program. The p. (Arg542*) (c.1624C>T) mutation was the most commonly identified mutation, found in 22% (26 out of 120) of the alleles tested, but haplotype analysis for this mutation did not identify a founder effect for the Indian population. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest study on mutation analysis of patients with ASM-deficient Niemann-Pick disease reported in literature and also the first study on the SMPD1 gene mutation spectrum in India. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Individual Signatures Define Canine Skin Microbiota Composition and Variability

    PubMed Central

    Cuscó, Anna; Sánchez, Armand; Altet, Laura; Ferrer, Lluís; Francino, Olga

    2017-01-01

    Dogs present almost all their skin sites covered by hair, but canine skin disorders are more common in certain skin sites and breeds. The goal of our study is to characterize the composition and variability of the skin microbiota in healthy dogs and to evaluate the effect of the breed, the skin site, and the individual. We have analyzed eight skin sites of nine healthy dogs from three different breeds by massive sequencing of 16S rRNA gene V1–V2 hypervariable regions. The main phyla inhabiting the skin microbiota in healthy dogs are Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. Our results suggest that skin microbiota composition pattern is individual specific, with some dogs presenting an even representation of the main phyla and other dogs with only a major phylum. The individual is the main force driving skin microbiota composition and diversity rather than the skin site or the breed. The individual is explaining 45% of the distances among samples, whereas skin site explains 19% and breed 9%. Moreover, analysis of similarities suggests a strong dissimilarity among individuals (R = 0.79, P = 0.001) that is mainly explained by low-abundant species in each dog. Skin site also plays a role: inner pinna presents the highest diversity value, whereas perianal region presents the lowest one and the most differentiated microbiota composition. PMID:28220148

  13. Individual Signatures Define Canine Skin Microbiota Composition and Variability.

    PubMed

    Cuscó, Anna; Sánchez, Armand; Altet, Laura; Ferrer, Lluís; Francino, Olga

    2017-01-01

    Dogs present almost all their skin sites covered by hair, but canine skin disorders are more common in certain skin sites and breeds. The goal of our study is to characterize the composition and variability of the skin microbiota in healthy dogs and to evaluate the effect of the breed, the skin site, and the individual. We have analyzed eight skin sites of nine healthy dogs from three different breeds by massive sequencing of 16S rRNA gene V1-V2 hypervariable regions. The main phyla inhabiting the skin microbiota in healthy dogs are Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. Our results suggest that skin microbiota composition pattern is individual specific, with some dogs presenting an even representation of the main phyla and other dogs with only a major phylum. The individual is the main force driving skin microbiota composition and diversity rather than the skin site or the breed. The individual is explaining 45% of the distances among samples, whereas skin site explains 19% and breed 9%. Moreover, analysis of similarities suggests a strong dissimilarity among individuals ( R  = 0.79, P  = 0.001) that is mainly explained by low-abundant species in each dog. Skin site also plays a role: inner pinna presents the highest diversity value, whereas perianal region presents the lowest one and the most differentiated microbiota composition.

  14. Mammalian skin cell biology: at the interface between laboratory and clinic.

    PubMed

    Watt, Fiona M

    2014-11-21

    Mammalian skin research represents the convergence of three complementary disciplines: cell biology, mouse genetics, and dermatology. The skin provides a paradigm for current research in cell adhesion, inflammation, and tissue stem cells. Here, I discuss recent insights into the cell biology of skin. Single-cell analysis has revealed that human epidermal stem cells are heterogeneous and differentiate in response to multiple extrinsic signals. Live-cell imaging, optogenetics, and cell ablation experiments show skin cells to be remarkably dynamic. High-throughput, genome-wide approaches have yielded unprecedented insights into the circuitry that controls epidermal stem cell fate. Last, integrative biological analysis of human skin disorders has revealed unexpected functions for elements of the skin that were previously considered purely structural. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma of scrotal skin.

    PubMed

    Mehdi, Itrat; Praseeda, Indira; Al-Bahrani, Bassim Jaffer; Satayapal, Namrata; Monem, Assam Abdel; Al Kharusi, Suad

    2011-11-01

    Cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) is an uncommon diverse group of lympho-proliferative disorders involving the skin. They vary considerably in clinical presentation, microscopic features and immunophenotyping. The diagnosis is challenging, zealous, and often not easy. CD30+ve anaplastic large cell lymphoma is extremely rare. Its clinical spectrum varies from a solitary unifocal skin lesion of excellent prognosis to a multi focal systemic disease having a poor out come. The diagnosis is quite cumbersome, and often difficult. The differential diagnosis include from benign skin lesions to secondary cutaneous involvement by lymphoma. A correct diagnosis is integral with a complete metastatic/staging work up to avoid over treatment. The treatment options depend on extent of disease involvement and include surgical excision, surveillance, local radiotherapy, and systemic chemotherapy. The prognosis is good with unifocal local disease. We present here a very rare case of CD30+ ALCL of scrotal skin, in a middle aged male patient.

  16. Autoimmune abnormality affects ovulation and oocyte-pick-up in MRL/MpJ-Fas lpr/lpr mice.

    PubMed

    Hosotani, M; Ichii, O; Nakamura, T; Kanazawa, S O; Elewa, Y Hosny Ali; Kon, Y

    2018-01-01

    Ovulation and oocyte-pick-up are essential processes in fertilization. Herein, we found associations between autoimmune disease and the aforementioned processes in mice. At three and six months, along with the evaluation of autoimmune disease indices, the ovary, mesosalpinx, and oviducts were histologically examined in C57BL/6, MRL/MpJ, and MRL/MpJ-Fas lpr/lpr mice as healthy control, mild and severe models of autoimmune disease, respectively. In superovulated mice, the number of "oocyte cumulus complexes" found in the ampulla was macroscopically counted, and that of "ovulated oocytes" was histologically evaluated, as indicated by ruptured follicles or corpora hemorrhagica in ovaries. Finally, the oocyte-pick-up rate was calculated. In MRL/MpJ-Fas lpr/lpr mice, the oocyte-pick-up rate decreased with disease-related deterioration, unlike in other mouse strains. Further, more ovulated oocytes were found in MRL/MpJ mice than in C57BL/6 mice, and this number significantly decreased with aging in MRL/MpJ-Fas lpr/lpr mice. Numerous T-cells infiltrated into the infundibulum or a part of the mesosalpinx in aged MRL/MpJ-Fas lpr/lpr mice, and their infundibulum showed swelling and fewer ciliated epithelial cells compared to that of C57BL/6 mice. In conclusion, the progression of severe autoimmune disease affected the oocyte-pick-up process through histopathological changes in the infundibulum. These results provide important insights into female infertility associated with autoimmune disease.

  17. Combined multimodal photoacoustic tomography, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT based angiography system for in vivo imaging of multiple skin disorders in human(Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mengyang; Chen, Zhe; Sinz, Christoph; Rank, Elisabet; Zabihian, Behrooz; Zhang, Edward Z.; Beard, Paul C.; Kittler, Harald; Drexler, Wolfgang

    2017-02-01

    All optical photoacoustic tomography (PAT) using a planar Fabry-Perot interferometer polymer film sensor has been demonstrated for in vivo human palm imaging with an imaging penetration depth of 5 mm. The relatively larger vessels in the superficial plexus and the vessels in the dermal plexus are visible in PAT. However, due to both resolution and sensitivity limits, all optical PAT cannot reveal the smaller vessels such as capillary loops and venules. Melanin absorption also sometimes causes difficulties in PAT to resolve vessels. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) based angiography, on the other hand, has been proven suitable for microvasculature visualization in the first couple millimeters in human. In our work, we combine an all optical PAT system with an OCT system featuring a phase stable akinetic swept source. This multimodal PAT/OCT/OCT-angiography system provides us co-registered human skin vasculature information as well as the structural information of cutaneous. The scanning units of the sub-systems are assembled into one probe, which is then mounted onto a portable rack. The probe and rack design gives six degrees of freedom, allowing the multimodal optical imaging probe to access nearly all regions of human body. Utilizing this probe, we perform imaging on patients with various skin disorders as well as on healthy controls. Fused PAT/OCT-angiography volume shows the complete blood vessel network in human skin, which is further embedded in the morphology provided by OCT. A comparison between the results from the disordered regions and the normal regions demonstrates the clinical translational value of this multimodal optical imaging system in dermatology.

  18. Enhancing micro-seismic P-phase arrival picking: EMD-cosine function-based denoising with an application to the AIC picker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Xueyi; Li, Xibing; Morales-Esteban, A.; Dong, Longjun

    2018-03-01

    Micro-seismic P-phase arrival picking is an elementary step into seismic event location, source mechanism analysis, and seismic tomography. However, a micro-seismic signal is often mixed with high frequency noises and power frequency noises (50 Hz), which could considerably reduce P-phase picking accuracy. To solve this problem, an Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD)-cosine function denoising-based Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) picker (ECD-AIC picker) is proposed for picking the P-phase arrival time. Unlike traditional low pass filters which are ineffective when seismic data and noise bandwidths overlap, the EMD adaptively separates the seismic data and the noise into different Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs). Furthermore, the EMD-cosine function-based denoising retains the P-phase arrival amplitude and phase spectrum more reliably than any traditional low pass filter. The ECD-AIC picker was tested on 1938 sets of micro-seismic waveforms randomly selected from the Institute of Mine Seismology (IMS) database of the Chinese Yongshaba mine. The results have shown that the EMD-cosine function denoising can effectively estimate high frequency and power frequency noises and can be easily adapted to perform on signals with different shapes and forms. Qualitative and quantitative comparisons show that the combined ECD-AIC picker provides better picking results than both the ED-AIC picker and the AIC picker, and the comparisons also show more reliable source localization results when the ECD-AIC picker is applied, thus showing the potential of this combined P-phase picking technique.

  19. Human Skin Fungal Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Findley, Keisha; Oh, Julia; Yang, Joy; Conlan, Sean; Deming, Clayton; Meyer, Jennifer A.; Schoenfeld, Deborah; Nomicos, Effie; Park, Morgan; Kong, Heidi H.; Segre, Julia A.

    2013-01-01

    Traditional culture-based methods have incompletely defined the etiology of common recalcitrant human fungal skin diseases including athlete’s foot and toenail infections. Skin protects humans from invasion by pathogenic microorganisms, while providing a home for diverse commensal microbiota1. Bacterial genomic sequence data have generated novel hypotheses about species and community structures underlying human disorders2,3,4. However, microbial diversity is not limited to bacteria; microorganisms such as fungi also play major roles in microbial community stability, human health and disease5. Genomic methodologies to identify fungal species and communities have been limited compared with tools available for bacteria6. Fungal evolution can be reconstructed with phylogenetic markers, including ribosomal RNA gene regions and other highly conserved genes7. Here, we sequenced and analyzed fungal communities of 14 skin sites in 10 healthy adults. Eleven core body and arm sites were dominated by Malassezia fungi, with species-level classifications revealing greater topographical resolution between sites. By contrast, three foot sites, plantar heel, toenail, and toeweb, exhibited tremendous fungal diversity. Concurrent analysis of bacterial and fungal communities demonstrated that skin physiologic attributes and topography differentially shape these two microbial communities. These results provide a framework for future investigation of interactions between pathogenic and commensal fungal and bacterial communities in maintaining human health and contributing to disease pathogenesis. PMID:23698366

  20. Friends or Foes? Host defense (antimicrobial) peptides and proteins in human skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Niyonsaba, François; Kiatsurayanon, Chanisa; Chieosilapatham, Panjit; Ogawa, Hideoki

    2017-11-01

    Host defense peptides/proteins (HDPs), also known as antimicrobial peptides/proteins (AMPs), are key molecules in the cutaneous innate immune system. AMPs/HDPs historically exhibit broad-spectrum killing activity against bacteria, enveloped viruses, fungi and several parasites. Recently, AMPs/HDPs were shown to have important biological functions, including inducing cell proliferation, migration and differentiation; regulating inflammatory responses; controlling the production of various cytokines/chemokines; promoting wound healing; and improving skin barrier function. Despite the fact that AMPs/HDPs protect our body, several studies have hypothesized that these molecules actively contribute to the pathogenesis of various skin diseases. For example, AMPs/HDPs play crucial roles in the pathological processes of psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, rosacea, acne vulgaris, systemic lupus erythematosus and systemic sclerosis. Thus, AMPs/HDPs may be a double-edged sword, promoting cutaneous immunity while simultaneously initiating the pathogenesis of some skin disorders. This review will describe the most common skin-derived AMPs/HDPs (defensins, cathelicidins, S100 proteins, ribonucleases and dermcidin) and discuss the biology and both the positive and negative aspects of these AMPs/HDPs in skin inflammatory/infectious diseases. Understanding the regulation, functions and mechanisms of AMPs/HDPs may offer new therapeutic opportunities in the treatment of various skin disorders. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Beneficial effects of anti-inflammatory therapy in a mouse model of Niemann-Pick disease type C1.

    PubMed

    Smith, David; Wallom, Kerri-Lee; Williams, Ian M; Jeyakumar, Mylvaganam; Platt, Frances M

    2009-11-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C1 (NPC1) is a neurodegenerative lysosomal disorder characterized by sphingolipid and cholesterol storage in the late endocytic system. In common with other neurodegenerative diseases, activation of the innate immune system occurs in the brain resulting in neuro-inflammation. Targeting inflammation in the brain therefore represents a potential clinical intervention strategy that aims to slow the rate of disease progression and improve quality of life. We evaluated non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an anti-oxidant to determine whether these agents are disease modifying in an acute mouse model of NPC1. NSAIDs significantly prolonged the lifespan of NPC1 mice and slowed the onset of clinical signs. However, anti-oxidant therapy was of no significant benefit. Combining NSAID therapy with substrate reduction therapy (SRT) resulted in additive benefit. These data suggest that anti-inflammatory therapy may be a useful adjunctive treatment in the clinical management of NPC1, alone or combined with SRT.

  2. Germline NLRP1 Mutations Cause Skin Inflammatory and Cancer Susceptibility Syndromes via Inflammasome Activation.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Franklin L; Mamaï, Ons; Sborgi, Lorenzo; Boussofara, Lobna; Hopkins, Richard; Robinson, Kim; Szeverényi, Ildikó; Takeichi, Takuya; Balaji, Reshmaa; Lau, Aristotle; Tye, Hazel; Roy, Keya; Bonnard, Carine; Ahl, Patricia J; Jones, Leigh Ann; Baker, Paul J; Lacina, Lukas; Otsuka, Atsushi; Fournie, Pierre R; Malecaze, François; Lane, E Birgitte; Akiyama, Masashi; Kabashima, Kenji; Connolly, John E; Masters, Seth L; Soler, Vincent J; Omar, Salma Samir; McGrath, John A; Nedelcu, Roxana; Gribaa, Moez; Denguezli, Mohamed; Saad, Ali; Hiller, Sebastian; Reversade, Bruno

    2016-09-22

    Inflammasome complexes function as key innate immune effectors that trigger inflammation in response to pathogen- and danger-associated signals. Here, we report that germline mutations in the inflammasome sensor NLRP1 cause two overlapping skin disorders: multiple self-healing palmoplantar carcinoma (MSPC) and familial keratosis lichenoides chronica (FKLC). We find that NLRP1 is the most prominent inflammasome sensor in human skin, and all pathogenic NLRP1 mutations are gain-of-function alleles that predispose to inflammasome activation. Mechanistically, NLRP1 mutations lead to increased self-oligomerization by disrupting the PYD and LRR domains, which are essential in maintaining NLRP1 as an inactive monomer. Primary keratinocytes from patients experience spontaneous inflammasome activation and paracrine IL-1 signaling, which is sufficient to cause skin inflammation and epidermal hyperplasia. Our findings establish a group of non-fever inflammasome disorders, uncover an unexpected auto-inhibitory function for the pyrin domain, and provide the first genetic evidence linking NLRP1 to skin inflammatory syndromes and skin cancer predisposition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The cutaneous ecosystem: the roles of the skin microbiome in health and its association with inflammatory skin conditions in humans and animals.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues Hoffmann, Aline

    2017-02-01

    Inhabiting a sterile world is no longer an acceptable or desirable concept. Recent studies developed in the microbiome field have unveiled complex microbial populations inhabiting the skin, digestive, respiratory and reproductive tracts. Microbiome studies have opened new venues to explore the human and animal second genome, its functions and its importance in maintaining health. The composition of the skin microbiome varies across different body sites and across individuals, being influenced by different host habits, including for instance age, sex, diet, hygiene and lifestyle. Exposure to a diverse skin microbiome is now considered to be a key component in immune regulation, and imbalances in these microbial populations are being associated with human and animal skin inflammatory disorders. We have learned that in several skin conditions, there is a significant alteration in the diversity and composition of the microbiota colonizing the skin. For instance, in human and animal patients with atopic dermatitis, dysbiosis of the skin microbiota results in lower diversity of microbial populations. Whether these altered microbial populations are the cause or the effect of inflammatory skin conditions seen in humans and animals are still under investigation, but there is no doubt that the microbiome has an important role in maintaining skin health. This review focuses on the most current studies describing the skin microbiome in humans and animals, its role in modulating the immune system, and its association with human and animal skin diseases. © 2017 ESVD and ACVD.

  4. Dendritic Core-Multishell Nanocarriers in Murine Models of Healthy and Atopic Skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radbruch, Moritz; Pischon, Hannah; Ostrowski, Anja; Volz, Pierre; Brodwolf, Robert; Neumann, Falko; Unbehauen, Michael; Kleuser, Burkhard; Haag, Rainer; Ma, Nan; Alexiev, Ulrike; Mundhenk, Lars; Gruber, Achim D.

    2017-01-01

    Dendritic hPG-amid-C18-mPEG core-multishell nanocarriers (CMS) represent a novel class of unimolecular micelles that hold great potential as drug transporters, e.g., to facilitate topical therapy in skin diseases. Atopic dermatitis is among the most common inflammatory skin disorders with complex barrier alterations which may affect the efficacy of topical treatment.

  5. Cometary pick-up ions observed near Giacobini-Zinner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloeckler, G.; Hovestadt, D.; Ipavich, F. M.; Scholer, M.; Klecker, B.

    1986-01-01

    The number and energy density of cometary water-group ions observed near Comet Giacobini-Zinner are derived using the rest-frame distribution functions. The data reveal that density profiles of inbound and outbound passes and their shape correlate with pick-up ion production model predictions. The lose rate and production rate of water-group cometary molecules calculated from predicted and measured density profiles are 2 x 10 to the -6th/sec and 2.6 x 10 to the 28th/sec respectively. The shapes of the distribution functions are examined to study the solar wind/cometary ions interaction process.

  6. Cometary pick-up ions observed near Giacobini-Zinner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloeckler, G.; Hovestadt, D.; Ipavich, F. M.; Scholer, M.; Klecker, B.; Galvin, A. B.

    1986-03-01

    The number and energy density of cometary water-group ions observed near Comet Giacobini-Zinner are derived using the rest-frame distribution functions. The data reveal that density profiles of inbound and outbound passes and their shape correlate with pick-up ion production model predictions. The lose rate and production rate of water-group cometary molecules calculated from predicted and measured density profiles are 2 x 10 to the -6th/sec and 2.6 x 10 to the 28th/sec respectively. The shapes of the distribution functions are examined to study the solar wind/cometary ions interaction process.

  7. Skin conductance and memory fragmentation after exposure to an emotional film clip in depersonalization disorder.

    PubMed

    Giesbrecht, Timo; Merckelbach, Harald; van Oorsouw, Kim; Simeon, Daphne

    2010-05-30

    It is often assumed that when confronted with an emotional event, patients with DPD inhibit information processing. It is also thought that this fosters memory fragmentation. This hypothesis has not been tested in chronic depersonalization. The aim of this study was to investigate the temporal pattern of autonomic responding to emotional material in depersonalization disorder, along with concomitant deficits in subjective and objective memory formation (i.e., difficulties to form a coherent narrative consisting of an ordered sequence of events). Participants with depersonalization disorder (n=14) and healthy control participants (n=14) viewed an emotional video clip while their skin conductance (SC) levels were measured. Peritraumatic dissociation was measured before and after the clip, and memory performance was measured 35 min after viewing. Compared to controls, depersonalized participants exhibited a distinctly different temporal pattern of autonomic responding, characterized by an earlier peak and subsequent flattening of SCLs. Maximum SCLs did not differ between the two groups. Moreover, unlike the control group, depersonalized participants showed no SC recovery after clip offset. In terms of memory performance, patients exhibited objective memory fragmentation, which they also reported subjectively. However, they did not differ from controls in free recall performance. Apparently, emotional responding in DPD is characterized by a shortened latency to peak with subsequent flattening and is accompanied by memory fragmentation in the light of otherwise unremarkable memory functioning. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Chronic pruritus in the absence of specific skin disease: an update on pathophysiology, diagnosis, and therapy.

    PubMed

    Cassano, Nicoletta; Tessari, Gianpaolo; Vena, Gino A; Girolomoni, Giampiero

    2010-12-01

    Chronic pruritus is a major and distressing symptom of many cutaneous and systemic diseases and can significantly impair the patient's quality of life. Pruritus perception is the final result of a complex network involving dedicated nerve pathways and brain areas, and an increasing number of peripheral and central mediators are thought to be involved. Itch is associated with most cutaneous disorders and, in these circumstances, its management overlaps with that of the skin disease. Itch can also occur without associated skin diseases or primary skin lesions, but only with nonspecific lesions secondary to rubbing or scratching. Chronic itch with no or minimal skin changes can be secondary to important diseases, such as neurologic disorders, chronic renal failure, cholestasis, systemic infections, malignancies, and endocrine disorders, and may also result from exposure to some drugs. The search for the cause of pruritus usually requires a meticulous step-by-step assessment involving careful history taking as well as clinical examination and laboratory investigations. Few evidence-based treatments for pruritus are available. Topical therapy, oral histamine H(1) receptor antagonists, and phototherapy with UV radiation can target pruritus elicitation in the skin, whereas antiepileptic drugs, opioid receptor antagonists, and antidepressants can block signal processing in the CNS.

  9. Epstein-Barr Virus-Positive T/NK-Cell Lymphoproliferative Disorders Manifested as Gastrointestinal Perforations and Skin Lesions: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hai-Juan; Li, Ji; Song, Hong-Mei; Li, Zheng-Hong; Dong, Mei; Zhou, Xiao-Ge

    2016-02-01

    Systemic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) of childhood is a highly aggressive EBV-positive T/natural killer (NK)-cell LPD, which emerges in the background of chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV) or shortly after primary acute EBV infection. The clinical presentations of CAEBV are varied; patients with atypical manifestations are easily misdiagnosed. We described a 14-year-old boy suffering from digestive disorders and intermittent fever for 1 year and 9 months, whose conditions worsened and skin lesions occurred 2 months before hospitalization. He was diagnosed as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and treated accordingly. His other clinical features, hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, and elevated inflammatory marks, were found in hospitalization. The boy suffered from repeatedly spontaneous intestinal perforations shortly after hospitalization and died of intestinal hemorrhea. The pathological results of intestine and skin both showed EBV-positive T/NK-cell LPD (lymphoma stage).There are rare studies reporting gastrointestinal perforations in EBV-positive T/NK-cell LPD, let alone repeatedly spontaneous perforations. Based on the clinical features and pathological results of this patient, the disease progressed from CAEBV (T-cell type) to systemic EBV-positive T-cell LPD of childhood (lymphoma). Not all the patients with CAEBV could have unusual patterns of anti-EBV antibodies. However, the presence of high EBV loads (EBV-encoded early small ribonucleic acid (RNA) (EBER) in affected tissues and/or EBV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in peripheral blood) is essential for diagnosing CAEBV. Maybe because of his less common clinical features for CAEBV and negative anti-EBV antibodies, the boy was not diagnosed correctly. We should have emphasized the test for EBER or EBV-DNA. Meanwhile, for the IBD patients whose manifestations were not typical, and whose conditions were not improved by suitable

  10. Structure of Dimeric and Tetrameric Complexes of the BAR Domain Protein PICK1 Determined by Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering.

    PubMed

    Karlsen, Morten L; Thorsen, Thor S; Johner, Niklaus; Ammendrup-Johnsen, Ina; Erlendsson, Simon; Tian, Xinsheng; Simonsen, Jens B; Høiberg-Nielsen, Rasmus; Christensen, Nikolaj M; Khelashvili, George; Streicher, Werner; Teilum, Kaare; Vestergaard, Bente; Weinstein, Harel; Gether, Ulrik; Arleth, Lise; Madsen, Kenneth L

    2015-07-07

    PICK1 is a neuronal scaffolding protein containing a PDZ domain and an auto-inhibited BAR domain. BAR domains are membrane-sculpting protein modules generating membrane curvature and promoting membrane fission. Previous data suggest that BAR domains are organized in lattice-like arrangements when stabilizing membranes but little is known about structural organization of BAR domains in solution. Through a small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis, we determine the structure of dimeric and tetrameric complexes of PICK1 in solution. SAXS and biochemical data reveal a strong propensity of PICK1 to form higher-order structures, and SAXS analysis suggests an offset, parallel mode of BAR-BAR oligomerization. Furthermore, unlike accessory domains in other BAR domain proteins, the positioning of the PDZ domains is flexible, enabling PICK1 to perform long-range, dynamic scaffolding of membrane-associated proteins. Together with functional data, these structural findings are compatible with a model in which oligomerization governs auto-inhibition of BAR domain function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [The menopause and the skin (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Aron-Brunetière, R

    It is currently admitted that the skin and its appendages plays an important part in steroid metabolism, especially in genital androgens, estrogens and progestogens. This activity produces the cutaneous changes sometimes associated with the premenopause period : facial hyper-seborrhea, seborrhea of the scalp, loss of scalp hairs, increaed pilosity on the cheeks and upper lip, whether they occur spontaneously or after hormonal treatment. Following the menopause-onset a progressive decreases in hair growth, can be observed, especially in the axillary and pubic regions, with occasional diffuse alopecia, increase in degeneration of elastic tissue, and atrophy of the vaginal mucosa, in fact as some changes appearing in the skin show correlations with the hormonal changes, others appear to be more closely related to aging of the skin. Thus, hormonal therapy will not be able to treat efficiently all these disorders.

  12. Evaluation of peak picking quality in LC-MS metabolomics data.

    PubMed

    Brodsky, Leonid; Moussaieff, Arieh; Shahaf, Nir; Aharoni, Asaph; Rogachev, Ilana

    2010-11-15

    The output of LC-MS metabolomics experiments consists of mass-peak intensities identified through a peak-picking/alignment procedure. Besides imperfections in biological samples and instrumentation, data accuracy is highly dependent on the applied algorithms and their parameters. Consequently, quality control (QC) is essential for further data analysis. Here, we present a QC approach that is based on discrepancies between replicate samples. First, the quantile normalization of per-sample log-signal distributions is applied to each group of biologically homogeneous samples. Next, the overall quality of each replicate group is characterized by the Z-transformed correlation coefficients between samples. This general QC allows a tuning of the procedure's parameters which minimizes the inter-replicate discrepancies in the generated output. Subsequently, an in-depth QC measure detects local neighborhoods on a template of aligned chromatograms that are enriched by divergences between intensity profiles of replicate samples. These neighborhoods are determined through a segmentation algorithm. The retention time (RT)-m/z positions of the neighborhoods with local divergences are indicative of either: incorrect alignment of chromatographic features, technical problems in the chromatograms, or to a true biological discrepancy between replicates for particular metabolites. We expect this method to aid in the accurate analysis of metabolomics data and in the development of new peak-picking/alignment procedures.

  13. The spectrum of skin diseases in a black population in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Dlova, Ncoza C; Mankahla, Avumile; Madala, Nomandla; Grobler, Anneke; Tsoka-Gwegweni, Joyce; Hift, Richard J

    2015-03-01

    Precise knowledge of the prevalence and spectrum of skin diseases in a population allows for effective planning for provision of dermatology services and distribution of resources. There are no published data on the epidemiology of skin disorders in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal. We investigated the prevalence of skin diseases in black African patients attending a predominantly black private healthcare facility and profiled the patients. Clinical charts of all black African patients seen between January 2003 and December 2010 in a private practice in Durban were reviewed. The diseases seen were described and the prevalence calculated. A total of 6664 patient charts were reviewed. The five most common conditions were acne, eczemas, dyschromias, infections, and hair disorders. These data agree with reports from other parts of the world. Selection bias was presented by a single private practice, thus data may not be fully representative of our population. Acne, eczemas, dyschromias, infections, and hair disorders are, in that order, the five most common disorders encountered. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  14. Global mortality from conditions with skin manifestations.

    PubMed

    Boyers, Lindsay N; Karimkhani, Chante; Naghavi, Mohsen; Sherwood, David; Margolis, David J; Hay, Roderick J; Williams, Hywel C; Naldi, Luigi; Coffeng, Luc E; Weinstock, Martin A; Dunnick, Cory A; Pederson, Hannah; Vos, Theo; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2014-12-01

    Global Burden of Disease Study is a research database containing systematically compiled information from vital statistics and epidemiologic literature to inform research, public policy, and resource allocation. We sought to compare mortality among conditions with skin manifestations in 50 developed and 137 developing countries from 1990 to 2010. This was a cross-sectional study to calculate mean age-standardized mortality (per 100,000 persons) across countries for 10 disease categories with skin manifestations. We compared differences in mortality from these disorders by time period (year 1990 vs year 2010) and by developing versus developed country status. Melanoma death rates were 5.6 and 4.7 times greater in developed compared with developing countries in 1990 and 2010, respectively. Measles death rates in 1990 and 2010 were 345 and 197 times greater in developing countries, and corresponding syphilis death rates were 33 and 45 times greater. Inability to adjust for patient-, provider-, and geographic-level confounders may limit the accuracy and generalizability of these results. The mortality burden from skin-related conditions differs between developing and developed countries, with the greatest differences observed for melanoma, measles, and syphilis. These results may help prioritize and optimize efforts to prevent and treat these disorders. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The menstrual cycle and the skin.

    PubMed

    Raghunath, R S; Venables, Z C; Millington, G W M

    2015-03-01

    Perimenstrual exacerbations of dermatoses are commonly recognized, yet our knowledge of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remains imperfect. Research into the effects of oestrogen on the skin has provided evidence to suggest that oestrogen is associated with increases in skin thickness and dermal water content, improved barrier function, and enhanced wound healing. Research into the effects of progesterone suggests that the presence of various dermatoses correlates with peak levels of progesterone. Dermatoses that are exacerbated perimenstrually include acne, psoriasis, atopic eczema and irritant dermatitis, and possibly also erythema multiforme. Exacerbations occur at the peak levels of progesterone in the menstrual cycle. Underlying mechanisms include reduced immune and barrier functions as a result of cyclical fluctuations in oestrogen and/or progesterone. Autoimmune progesterone and oestrogen dermatitis are the best-characterized examples of perimenstrual cutaneous reactions to hormones produced during the menstrual cycle. In this review, we describe the current understanding of the menstrual cycle, and its effect on the skin and cutaneous disorders. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  16. Photocarcinogenesis and Skin Cancer Prevention Strategies.

    PubMed

    Seebode, Christina; Lehmann, Janin; Emmert, Steffen

    2016-03-01

    In this review the basic principles of UV-induced carcinogenesis are summarized and the state of the art diagnosis and therapeutic strategies are discussed. The prevalent keratinocyte-derived neoplasms of the skin are basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas. Cutaneous melanoma is less frequent but associated with high mortality. Common risk factors for all three tumor entities include sun exposure and DNA-repair deficiencies. Photocarcinogenesis follows a multistep model of cancer development in which ultraviolet-induced DNA damage leads to mutations resulting in activation of oncogenes or silencing of tumor-suppressor genes. This ends in a cellular mutator phenotype even more prone to mutation acquisition. DNA repair, especially the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway, counteracts mutation formation and skin cancer development. This is vividly demonstrated by the NER-defective disorder xeroderma pigmentosum. Primary skin cancer preventative strategies, therefore, include reduction of DNA photodamage by protection from the sun. Secondary preventative strategies include skin cancer screening. This implies standard examination techniques with the naked eye, an epiluminescence microscope, or digital epiluminescence microscopy. More advanced techniques include confocal laser scan microscopy. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  17. Hypercalciuria in a child with acral peeling skin syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gorczyca, Daiva; Węgłowska, Jolanta; Prescha, Anna; Woźniak, Zdzisław; Nesteruk, Dominika; Wertheim-Tysarowska, Katarzyna; Śmigiel, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of 3-year-old Caucasian boy who developed monthly cyclic attacks of skin peeling of the palms and soles over 1.5 years. The skin peeling was associated with hypercalciuria. No mutation was present in TGM5 and CSTA genes, but the typical clinical picture and the biopsy from flaccid blisters on the feet confirmed the acral peeling skin syndrome (APSS). The possible associations of rare genetic disorders and metabolic conditions in the course of APSS need to be investigated.

  18. Probing skin interaction with hydrogen peroxide using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zonios, George; Dimou, Aikaterini; Galaris, Dimitrios

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is an important oxidizing agent in biological systems. In dermatology, it is frequently used as topical antiseptic, it has a haemostatic function, it can cause skin blanching, and it can facilitate skin tanning. In this work, we investigated skin interaction with hydrogen peroxide, non-invasively, using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. We observed transient changes in the oxyhaemoglobin and deoxyhaemoglobin concentrations as a result of topical application of dilute H2O2 solutions to the skin, with changes in deoxyhaemoglobin concentration being more pronounced. Furthermore, we did not observe any appreciable changes in melanin absorption properties as well as in the skin scattering properties. We also found no evidence for production of oxidized haemoglobin forms. Our observations are consistent with an at least partial decomposition of hydrogen peroxide within the stratum corneum and epidermis, with the resulting oxygen and/or remaining hydrogen peroxide inducing vasoconstriction to dermal blood vessels and increasing haemoglobin oxygen saturation. An assessment of the effects of topical application of hydrogen peroxide to the skin may serve as the basis for the development of non-invasive techniques to measure skin antioxidant capacity and also may shed light onto skin related disorders such as vitiligo.

  19. The impact of skin diseases on quality of life: A multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Sanclemente, G; Burgos, C; Nova, J; Hernández, F; González, C; Reyes, M I; Córdoba, N; Arévalo, Á; Meléndez, E; Colmenares, J; Ariza, S; Hernández, G

    2017-04-01

    To date, no formal study has been published regarding how Colombian patients with skin disorders could be affected according to their perception of disease. To determine the impact in quality of life of skin diseases in a Colombian population. This multicenter study included patients with skin disease from almost the whole country. Individuals >18 years old; of any gender; with any skin disease and who signed informed consent, were included. We applied the Colombian validated version of the Skindex-29 instrument. A total of 1896 questionnaires had sufficient information for the analyses. No significant differences in sociodemographic characteristics of patients who returned the questionnaire incomplete vs. complete, were found. Participants mean age was 41.5 years. There were no statistical differences in men vs. women regarding the global (p=0.37), symptoms (p=0.71) and emotions (p=0.32) domains, whereas statistical differences were found in the function domain (p=0.04; Mann-Whitney U test). Psoriasis, contact dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, urticaria, hair disorders, Hansen's disease, scars, hyperhidrosis and genital human papillomavirus disease scored the highest. Skindex-29 score variability as a result of differences in the location of the skin lesions, their inflammatory or non-inflammatory nature, and the start of therapy. Even the most localized or asymptomatic skin lesion in our population leads to a disruption at some level of patient's wellness. This study adds well supported scientific data of the burden of skin diseases worldwide. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. The L266V tau mutation is associated with frontotemporal dementia and Pick-like 3R and 4R tauopathy.

    PubMed

    Hogg, Marion; Grujic, Zoran M; Baker, Matt; Demirci, Serpil; Guillozet, Angela L; Sweet, Alison P; Herzog, Laura L; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, M-Marsel; LaPointe, Nichole E; Gamblin, T C; Berry, Robert W; Binder, Lester I; de Silva, Rohan; Lees, Andrew; Espinoza, Marisol; Davies, Peter; Grover, Andrew; Sahara, Naruhiko; Ishizawa, Takashi; Dickson, Dennis; Yen, Shu-Hui; Hutton, Michael; Bigio, Eileen H

    2003-10-01

    We report a case of rapidly progressive frontotemporal dementia presenting at age 33 years. At autopsy there was severe atrophy of the frontal and temporal lobes. Tau-positive Pick bodies, which ultrastructurally were composed of straight filaments, were present, accompanied by severe neuronal loss and gliosis. RD3, a tau antibody specific for the three-repeat (3R) isoforms, labeled the Pick bodies. ET3, a four-repeat (4R) isoform-specific tau antibody, did not label Pick bodies, but highlighted rare astrocytes, and threads in white matter bundles in the corpus striatum. Analysis of the tau gene revealed an L266V mutation in exon 9. Analysis of brain tissue from this case revealed elevated levels of exon 10+ tau RNA and soluble 4R tau. However, both 3R and 4R isoforms were present in sarkosyl-insoluble tau fractions with a predominance of the shortest 3R isoform. The L266V mutation is associated with decreased rate and extent of tau-induced microtubule assembly, and a 3R isoform-specific increase in tau self assembly as measured by an in vitro assay. Combined, these data indicate that L266V is a pathogenic tau mutation that is associated with Pick-like pathology. In addition, the results of the RD3 and ET3 immunostains clearly explain for the first time the presence of both 3R and 4R tau isoforms in preparations of insoluble tau from some Pick's disease cases.

  1. Application of protease technology in dermatology: rationale for incorporation into skin care with initial observations on formulations designed for skin cleansing, maintenance of hydration, and restoration of the epidermal permeability barrier.

    PubMed

    Del Rosso, James Q

    2013-06-01

    This article reviews background on proteases and their functions, their physiological significance in skin, and the potential implications of incorporating specific proteases and protease blends into dermatological products, including skin care formulations. The history of protease blend formulations used in wound model studies and for other disorders is reviewed. In vitro data with use of a specific 3-protease blend with evaluation of the impact on various skin proteins and peptides is also discussed in this article.

  2. [Modern documentary research on disease menu of acupuncture-moxibustion for mental and behavioral disorder].

    PubMed

    Hu, You-Ping; Chen, Yong; Xing, Lin; Niu, Bai-Lu; Zhu, Feng-Juan; Han, Jing; Wang, Yu; Bian, Wei; Liu, Cong-Sheng; Wei, Li; Du, Yuan-Hao

    2011-10-01

    Dominant disease menu of mental and behavioral disorder of acupuncture therapy was summarized and obtained in this article. Literatures on clinical treatment of mental and behavioral disorder with acupuncture were picked up from CBMdisc and CNKI during 1978 to 2007. Types of mental and behavioral disorder and report frequency of each disease treated with acupuncture were counted. And dominant diseases which were favorable to be treated with acupuncture were acquired through analysis and inductive method. Twenty-nine diseases of mental and behavioral disorder are favorable to be treated with acupuncture which were mentioned in totally 1967 related documents. It is found that the number of reports of sleep disorder, depression, hysteria aphronesia, dementia and sexual disorder are ranked as the top five. It is concluded that the preponderant diseases of mental and behavioral disorder treated by acupuncture are dementia, withdrawal syndrome, mental retardation, obsessive-compulsive disorder, sleep disorder, gastrointestinal neurosis (gastrointestinal disorders), depression, alcoholism and globus hystericus.

  3. Microscopic pick-and-place teleoperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatti, Pamela; Hannaford, Blake; Marbot, Pierre-Henry

    1993-03-01

    A three degree-of-freedom direct drive mini robot has been developed for biomedical applications. The design approach of the mini robot relies heavily upon electromechanical components from the Winchester disk drive industry. In the current design, the first joint is driven by actuators from a 5.25' drive, and the following joints are driven by actuators typical of 3.5' drives. The system has 5 - 10 micrometers of position repeatability and resolution in all three axes. A mini gripper attachment has been fabricated for the robot to explore manipulation of objects ranging from 50 micrometers to 500 micrometers . Mounted on the robot, the gripper has successfully performed pick and place operations under teleoperated control. The mini robot serves to precisely position the gripper, and a needle-like finger of the gripper deflects so the fingers can grip a target object. The gripper finger capable of motion is fabricated with a piezoelectric bimorph crystal which deflects with an applied DC voltage. The experimental results are promising, and the mini gripper may be modified for future biomedical and micro assembly applications.

  4. Rapid screening for lipid storage disorders using biochemical markers. Expert center data and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Voorink-Moret, M; Goorden, S M I; van Kuilenburg, A B P; Wijburg, F A; Ghauharali-van der Vlugt, J M M; Beers-Stet, F S; Zoetekouw, A; Kulik, W; Hollak, C E M; Vaz, F M

    2018-02-01

    In patients suspected of a lipid storage disorder (sphingolipidoses, lipidoses), confirmation of the diagnosis relies predominantly on the measurement of specific enzymatic activities and genetic studies. New UPLC-MS/MS methods have been developed to measure lysosphingolipids and oxysterols, which, combined with chitotriosidase activity may represent a rapid first tier screening for lipid storage disorders. A lysosphingolipid panel consisting of lysoglobotriaosylceramide (LysoGb3), lysohexosylceramide (LysoHexCer: both lysoglucosylceramide and lysogalactosylceramide), lysosphingomyelin (LysoSM) and its carboxylated analogue lysosphingomyelin-509 (LysoSM-509) was measured in control subjects and plasma samples of predominantly untreated patients affected with lipid storage disorders (n=74). In addition, the oxysterols cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol and 7-ketocholesterol were measured in a subset of these patients (n=36) as well as chitotriosidase activity (n=43). A systematic review of the literature was performed to assess the usefulness of these biochemical markers. Specific elevations of metabolites, i.e. without overlap between controls and other lipid storage disorders, were found for several lysosomal storage diseases: increased LysoSM levels in acid sphingomyelinase deficiency (Niemann-Pick disease type A/B), LysoGb3 levels in males with classical phenotype Fabry disease and LysoHexCer (i.e. lysoglucosylceramide/lysogalactosylceramide) in Gaucher and Krabbe diseases. While elevated levels of LysoSM-509 and cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol did not discriminate between Niemann Pick disease type C and acid sphingomyelinase deficiency, LysoSM-509/LysoSM ratio was specifically elevated in Niemann-Pick disease type C. In Gaucher disease type I, mild increases in several lysosphingolipids were found including LysoGb3 with levels in the range of non-classical Fabry males and females. Chitotriosidase showed specific elevations in symptomatic Gaucher disease, and was mildly

  5. Application of distilled white vinegar in the cloaca to counter the increase in Campylobacter numbers on broiler skin during feather removal.

    PubMed

    Berrang, M E; Smith, D P; Hinton, A

    2006-02-01

    Because of the escape of highly contaminated gut contents from the cloaca of positive carcasses, Campylobacter numbers recovered from broiler carcass skin samples increase during automated feather removal. Vinegar is known to have antimicrobial action. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of vinegar placed in the cloaca prior to feather removal on the numbers of Campylobacter recovered from broiler breast skin. Broilers were stunned, killed, and bled in a pilot processing plant. Vinegar was placed in the colons of the chickens prior to scalding. Carcasses were scalded, and Campylobacter numbers were determined on breast skin before and after passage through a commercial-style feather-picking machine. Campylobacter numbers recovered from the breast skin of untreated control carcasses increased during feather removal from 1.3 log CFU per sample prior to defeathering to 4.2 log afterward. Placement of water in the colon before scalding had no effect on Campylobacter numbers. Campylobacter numbers recovered from the breast skin of carcasses treated with vinegar also increased during defeathering but to a significantly lesser extent. Treated carcasses experienced only a 1-log increase from 1.6 log CFU per sample before feather removal to 2.6 log CFU per sample afterward. Application of an effective food-grade antimicrobial in the colon prior to scald can limit the increase in Campylobacter contamination of broiler carcasses during defeathering.

  6. Pick-off annihilation of positronium in matter using full correlation single particle potentials: solid He.

    PubMed

    Zubiaga, A; Tuomisto, F; Puska, M J

    2015-01-29

    We investigate the modeling of positronium (Ps) states and their pick-off annihilation trapped at open volumes pockets in condensed molecular matter. Our starting point is the interacting many-body system of Ps and a He atom because it is the smallest entity that can mimic the energy gap between the highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals of molecules, and yet the many-body structure of the HePs system can be calculated accurately enough. The exact-diagonalization solution of the HePs system enables us to construct a pairwise full-correlation single-particle potential for the Ps-He interaction, and the total potential in solids is obtained as a superposition of the pairwise potentials. We study in detail Ps states and their pick-off annihilation rates in voids inside solid He and analyze experimental results for Ps-induced voids in liquid He obtaining the radii of the voids. More importantly, we generalize our conclusions by testing the validity of the Tao-Eldrup model, widely used to analyze ortho-Ps annihilation measurements for voids in molecular matter, against our theoretical results for the solid He. Moreover, we discuss the influence of the partial charges of polar molecules and the strength of the van der Waals interaction on the pick-off annihilation rate.

  7. High-performance integrated pick-up circuit for SPAD arrays in time-correlated single photon counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acconcia, Giulia; Cominelli, Alessandro; Peronio, Pietro; Rech, Ivan; Ghioni, Massimo

    2017-05-01

    The analysis of optical signals by means of Single Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) has been subject to a widespread interest in recent years. The development of multichannel high-performance Time Correlated Single Photon Counting (TCSPC) acquisition systems has undergone a fast trend. Concerning the detector performance, best in class results have been obtained resorting to custom technologies leading also to a strong dependence of the detector timing jitter from the threshold used to determine the onset of the photogenerated current flow. In this scenario, the avalanche current pick-up circuit plays a key role in determining the timing performance of the TCSPC acquisition system, especially with a large array of SPAD detectors because of electrical crosstalk issues. We developed a new current pick-up circuit based on a transimpedance amplifier structure able to extract the timing information from a 50-μm-diameter custom technology SPAD with a state-of-art timing jitter as low as 32ps and suitable to be exploited with SPAD arrays. In this paper we discuss the key features of this structure and we present a new version of the pick-up circuit that also provides quenching capabilities in order to minimize the number of interconnections required, an aspect that becomes more and more crucial in densely integrated systems.

  8. Delivery of acid sphingomyelinase in normal and niemann-pick disease mice using intercellular adhesion molecule-1-targeted polymer nanocarriers.

    PubMed

    Garnacho, Carmen; Dhami, Rajwinder; Simone, Eric; Dziubla, Thomas; Leferovich, John; Schuchman, Edward H; Muzykantov, Vladimir; Muro, Silvia

    2008-05-01

    Type B Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) is a multiorgan system disorder caused by a genetic deficiency of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM), for which lung is an important and challenging therapeutic target. In this study, we designed and evaluated new delivery vehicles for enzyme replacement therapy of type B NPD, consisting of polystyrene and poly(lactic-coglycolic) acid polymer nanocarriers targeted to intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, an endothelial surface protein up-regulated in many pathologies, including type B NPD. Real-time vascular imaging using intravital microscopy and postmortem imaging of mouse organs showed rapid, uniform, and efficient binding of fluorescently labeled ICAM-1-targeted ASM nanocarriers (anti-ICAM/ASM nanocarriers) to endothelium after i.v. injection in mice. Fluorescence microscopy of lung alveoli actin, tissue histology, and 125I-albumin blood-to-lung transport showed that anti-ICAM nanocarriers cause neither detectable lung injury, nor abnormal vascular permeability in animals. Radioisotope tracing showed rapid disappearance from the circulation and enhanced accumulation of anti-ICAM/125I-ASM nanocarriers over the nontargeted naked enzyme in kidney, heart, liver, spleen, and primarily lung, both in wild-type and ASM knockout mice. These data demonstrate that ICAM-1-targeted nanocarriers may enhance enzyme replacement therapy for type B NPD and perhaps other lysosomal storage disorders.

  9. Patient request for pharmacist counseling and satisfaction: Automated prescription delivery system versus regular pick-up counter.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Jan D; Oen, Austin; Robertson, Suzie; Nguyen, Nancy; Daniels, Charles

    2009-01-01

    To assess the rate of patient-requested pharmacist counseling for refill prescriptions and satisfaction with pick-up process for patients using an automated prescription delivery system (APDS) versus those using a regular pick-up counter and to explore patient willingness to use an APDS as a tool for pharmacist monitoring of medication therapy outcomes. In this uncontrolled, cross-sectional, survey study, we assessed use of APDS or the regular counter by 116 patients picking up refill prescriptions at two community pharmacies. The main outcome measures were number of patients requesting pharmacist counseling for refill prescriptions, patient satisfaction with pick-up process, and patient willingness to use an APDS to report medication therapy outcomes. None of the regular counter users and only two APDS users (3.7%) requested counseling for their refill prescription (P = 0.126). Almost all patients agreed that they were able to talk to a pharmacist about their prescription if they wanted to do so (95.1% regular counter and 92.3% APDS; P = 0.268). The majority (75%) of patients using APDS indicated that they would be willing to use the system to answer questions or perform simple tests to provide information that the pharmacist could use to improve medication effectiveness or reduce adverse effects. Very few patients (ADPS or regular counter) asked to speak to a pharmacist about their refill medications, although it appeared that no perceived barriers to pharmacist access existed. Most APDS patients were willing to use this new technology to provide information about therapy outcomes to the pharmacist. Further exploration and testing of the APDS as a data collection tool to enhance pharmacist access to therapy outcomes is warranted.

  10. Raman microspectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for the non-invasive analysis of fibrillin-1 deficiency in the skin and in the in vitro skin models.

    PubMed

    Brauchle, Eva; Bauer, Hannah; Fernes, Patrick; Zuk, Alexandra; Schenke-Layland, Katja; Sengle, Gerhard

    2017-04-01

    Fibrillin microfibrils and elastic fibers are critical determinants of elastic tissues where they define as tissue-specific architectures vital mechanical properties such as pliability and elastic recoil. Fibrillin microfibrils also facilitate elastic fiber formation and support the association of epithelial cells with the interstitial matrix. Mutations in fibrillin-1 (FBN1) are causative for the Marfan syndrome, a congenital multisystem disorder characterized by progressive deterioration of the fibrillin microfibril/ elastic fiber architecture in the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, ocular, and dermal system. In this study, we utilized Raman microspectroscopy in combination with principal component analysis (PCA) to analyze the molecular consequences of fibrillin-1 deficiency in skin of a mouse model (GT8) of Marfan syndrome. In addition, full-thickness skin models incorporating murine wild-type and Fbn1 GT8/GT8 fibroblasts as well as human HaCaT keratinocytes were generated and analyzed. Skin models containing GT8 fibroblasts showed an altered epidermal morphology when compared to wild-type models indicating a new role for fibrillin-1 in dermal-epidermal crosstalk. Obtained Raman spectra together with PCA allowed to discriminate between healthy and deficient microfibrillar networks in murine dermis and skin models. Interestingly, results obtained from GT8 dermis and skin models showed similar alterations in molecular signatures triggered by fibrillin-1 deficiency such as amide III vibrations and decreased levels of glycan vibrations. Overall, this study indicates that Raman microspectroscopy has the potential to analyze subtle changes in fibrillin-1 microfibrils and elastic fiber networks. Therefore Raman microspectroscopy may be utilized as a non-invasive and sensitive diagnostic tool to identify connective tissue disorders and monitor their disease progression. Mutations in building blocks of the fibrillin microfibril/ elastic fiber network manifest in disease

  11. Diabetes mellitus and the skin*

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Adriana Lucia; Miot, Helio Amante; Haddad Junior, Vidal

    2017-01-01

    Several dermatoses are routinely associated with diabetes mellitus, especially in patients with chronic disease. This relationship can be easily proven in some skin disorders, but it is not so clear in others. Dermatoses such necrobiosis lipoidica, granuloma annulare, acanthosis nigricans and others are discussed in this text, with an emphasis on proven link with the diabetes or not, disease identification and treatment strategy used to control those dermatoses and diabetes. PMID:28225950

  12. Of Soap and Seborrhea: Skin Problems in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Nickerson, Granville

    1972-01-01

    Skin lesions in infants can herald serious internal problems or be relatively benign. Interpreting skin manifestations can be extremely confusing, therefore, and although many can be ‘spot’ diagnoses, puzzling rashes should be approached systematically according to the areas that are affected and the nature of the lesions. Dr. Nickerson describes common dermatological conditions seen in the newborn and older infants and advocates a common sense approach, especially on questions of what to bathe the baby with. He outlines followup procedures for those conditions which are signs of more serious internal disorders, and emphasizes reassurance and education of the mother. PMID:20468758

  13. Atopic Dermatitis: A Disease of Altered Skin Barrier and Immune Dysregulation

    PubMed Central

    Boguniewicz, Mark; Leung, Donald YM

    2011-01-01

    Summary Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an important chronic or relapsing inflammatory skin disease that often precedes asthma and allergic disorders. New insights into the genetics and pathophysiology of AD point to an important role of structural abnormalities in the epidermis as well as immune dysregulation not only for this skin disease but also for the development of asthma and allergies. Patients with AD have a unique predisposition to colonization or infection by microbial organisms, most notably Staphylococcus aureus and herpes simplex virus. Measures directed at healing and protecting the skin barrier and addressing the immune dysregulation are essential in the treatment of patients with AD and early intervention may improve outcomes for both the skin disease as well as other target organs. PMID:21682749

  14. Nutraceuticals for Skin Care: A Comprehensive Review of Human Clinical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Sánchez, Almudena; Micol, Vicente

    2018-01-01

    The skin is the body’s largest organ, it participates in sensitivity and offers protection against microorganisms, chemicals and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Consequently, the skin may suffer alterations such as photo-ageing, immune dysfunction and inflammation which may significantly affect human health. Nutraceuticals represent a promising strategy for preventing, delaying, or minimising premature ageing of the skin and also to alleviate certain skin disorders. Among them, bioactive peptides and oligosaccharides, plant polyphenols, carotenoids, vitamins and polyunsaturated fatty acids are the most widely used ingredients. Supplementation with these products has shown evidence of having an effect on the signs of ageing and protection against UV radiation ageing in several human trials. In this review, the most relevant human studies on skin nutraceuticals are evaluated and the statistical resolution, biological relevance of their results, and, the trial protocols are discussed. In conclusion, quality and rigorousness of the trials must be improved to build credible scientific evidence for skin nutraceuticals and to establish a cause-effect relationship between the ingredients the beneficial effects for the skin. PMID:29587342

  15. Nutraceuticals for Skin Care: A Comprehensive Review of Human Clinical Studies.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sánchez, Almudena; Barrajón-Catalán, Enrique; Herranz-López, María; Micol, Vicente

    2018-03-24

    The skin is the body's largest organ, it participates in sensitivity and offers protection against microorganisms, chemicals and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Consequently, the skin may suffer alterations such as photo-ageing, immune dysfunction and inflammation which may significantly affect human health. Nutraceuticals represent a promising strategy for preventing, delaying, or minimising premature ageing of the skin and also to alleviate certain skin disorders. Among them, bioactive peptides and oligosaccharides, plant polyphenols, carotenoids, vitamins and polyunsaturated fatty acids are the most widely used ingredients. Supplementation with these products has shown evidence of having an effect on the signs of ageing and protection against UV radiation ageing in several human trials. In this review, the most relevant human studies on skin nutraceuticals are evaluated and the statistical resolution, biological relevance of their results, and, the trial protocols are discussed. In conclusion, quality and rigorousness of the trials must be improved to build credible scientific evidence for skin nutraceuticals and to establish a cause-effect relationship between the ingredients the beneficial effects for the skin.

  16. Electro-gene transfer to skin using a noninvasive multielectrode array

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Siqi; Donate, Amy; Basu, Gaurav; Lundberg, Cathryn; Heller, Loree; Heller, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Because of its large surface area and easy access for both delivery and monitoring, the skin is an attractive target for gene therapy for cutaneous diseases, vaccinations and several metabolic disorders. The critical factors for DNA delivery to the skin by electroporation (EP) are effective expression levels and minimal or no tissue damage. Here, we evaluated the non-invasive multielectrode array (MEA) for gene electrotransfer. For these studies we utilized a guinea pig model, which has been shown to have a similar thickness and structure to human skin. Our results demonstrate significantly increased gene expression 2 to 3 logs above injection of plasmid DNA alone over 15 days. Furthermore, gene expression could be enhanced by increasing the size of the treatment area. Transgene expressing cells were observed exclusively in the epidermal layer of the skin. In contrast to caliper or plate electrodes, skin EP with the MEA greatly reduced muscle twitching and resulted in minimal and completely recoverable skin damage. These results suggest EP with the MEA can be an efficient and non-invasive skin delivery method with less adverse side effects than other EP delivery systems and promising clinical applications. PMID:21262290

  17. Lymph node pick up by separate stations: Option or necessity.

    PubMed

    Morgagni, Paolo; Nanni, Oriana; Carretta, Elisa; Altini, Mattia; Saragoni, Luca; Falcini, Fabio; Garcea, Domenico

    2015-05-27

    To evaluate whether lymph node pick up by separate stations could be an indicator of patients submitted to appropriate surgical treatment. One thousand two hundred and three consecutive gastric cancer patients submitted to radical resection in 7 general hospitals and for whom no information was available on the extension of lymphatic dissection were included in this retrospective study. Patients were divided into 2 groups: group A, where the stomach specimen was directly formalin-fixed and sent to the pathologist, and group B, where lymph nodes were picked up after surgery and fixed for separate stations. Sixty-two point three percent of group A patients showed < 16 retrieved lymph nodes compared to 19.4% of group B (P < 0.0001). Group B (separate stations) patients had significantly higher survival rates than those in group A [46.1 mo (95%CI: 36.5-56.0) vs 27.7 mo (95%CI: 21.3-31.9); P = 0.0001], independently of T or N stage. In multivariate analysis, group A also showed a higher risk of death than group B (HR = 1.24; 95%CI: 1.05-1.46). Separate lymphatic station dissection increases the number of retrieved nodes, leads to better tumor staging, and permits verification of the surgical dissection. The number of dissected stations could potentially be used as an index to evaluate the quality of treatment received.

  18. Spectrum of skin diseases presented at LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, southwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akinboro, Adeolu O; Mejiuni, Ayodele D; Akinlade, Mathias O; Audu, Bosede M; Ayodele, Olugbenga E

    2015-04-01

    Patterns of skin disease in developing nations are changing as frequencies of non-communicable diseases continue to increase. Appraisal of the current status of the disease profile is of utmost importance for health planning and resource allocation. A prospective analysis of 895 cases of outpatient consultation during the years 2005-2010 was conducted. The mean ± standard deviation age of patients was 31.1 ± 19.1 years. Non-infectious skin diseases accounted for 80.9% of all cases. Eczemas/dermatitis (27.0%), urticarias/erythemas (11.0%), fungal infections (9.5%), skin appendage disorders (8.9%), papulosquamous diseases (8.2%), pigmentary diseases (8.2%), viral infections (6.8%), and tumors and malignant skin lesions (5.4%) represented the most common presentations. Atopic dermatitis was the most common type of eczema (29.8%) among children (odds ratio [OR] 1.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09-2.13; P = 0.013), in whom cornification disorders (OR 3.90, 95% CI 1.73-8.92; P < 0.001) and viral infections (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.09-3.25; P = 0.021) were also frequent. Adults were more likely to be diagnosed with drug eruptions (OR 3.58, 95% CI 1.09-11.80; P = 0.003), tumors/malignancy (OR 4.97, 95% CI 1.53-16.10; P = 0.030), or autoimmune connective tissue disorders (OR 8.13, 95% CI 1.09-60.20; P = 0.015). Female subjects were significantly affected by urticarias (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.00-2.33; P = 0.030) and papulosquamous diseases (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.09-3.03; P = 0.019). The present pattern shows that non-infectious skin diseases are predominant. Occurrences of eczemas and urticarias are increasing at similar rates, whereas infectious skin diseases are decreasing in frequency. Resources and research should be directed towards the prevention of non-infectious skin diseases at this time as the campaign for a cleaner environment continues. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  19. Phenotypic variability in gap junction syndromic skin disorders: experience from KID and Clouston syndromes' clinical diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Kutkowska-Kaźmierczak, Anna; Niepokój, Katarzyna; Wertheim-Tysarowska, Katarzyna; Giza, Aleksandra; Mordasewicz-Goliszewska, Maria; Bal, Jerzy; Obersztyn, Ewa

    2015-08-01

    Connexins belong to the family of gap junction proteins which enable direct cell-to-cell communication by forming channels in adjacent cells. Mutations in connexin genes cause a variety of human diseases and, in a few cases, result in skin disorders. There are significant differences in the clinical picture of two rare autosomal dominant syndromes: keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness (KID) syndrome and hidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (Clouston syndrome), which are caused by GJB2 and GJB6 mutations, respectively. This is despite the fact that, in both cases, malfunctioning of the same family proteins and some overlapping clinical features (nail dystrophy, hair loss, and palmoplantar keratoderma) is observed. KID syndrome is characterized by progressive vascularizing keratitis, ichthyosiform erythrokeratoderma, and neurosensory hearing loss, whereas Clouston syndrome is characterized by nail dystrophy, hypotrichosis, and palmoplantar keratoderma. The present paper presents a Polish patient with sporadic KID syndrome caused by the mutation of p.Asp50Asn in GJB2. The patient encountered difficulties in obtaining a correct diagnosis. The other case presented is that of a family with Clouston syndrome (caused by p.Gly11Arg mutation in GJB6), who are the first reported patients of Polish origin suffering from this disorder. Phenotype diversity among patients with the same genotypes reported to date is also summarized. The conclusion is that proper diagnosis of these syndromes is still challenging and should always be followed by molecular verification.

  20. Psychodermatology: A Guide to Understanding Common Psychocutaneous Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jafferany, Mohammad

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This review focuses on classification and description of and current treatment recommendations for psychocutaneous disorders. Medication side effects of both psychotropic and dermatologic drugs are also considered. Data Sources: A search of the literature from 1951 to 2004 was performed using the MEDLINE search engine. English-language articles were identified using the following search terms: skin and psyche, psychiatry and dermatology, mind and skin, psychocutaneous, and stress and skin. Data Synthesis: The psychotropic agents most frequently used in patients with psychocutaneous disorders are those that target anxiety, depression, and psychosis. Psychiatric side effects of dermatologic drugs can be significant but can occur less frequently than the cutaneous side effects of psychiatric medications. In a majority of patients presenting to dermatologists, effective management of skin conditions requires consideration of associated psychosocial factors. For some dermatologic conditions, there are specific demographic and personality features that commonly associate with disease onset or exacerbation. Conclusions: More than just a cosmetic disfigurement, dermatologic disorders are associated with a variety of psychopathologic problems that can affect the patient, his or her family, and society together. Increased understanding of biopsychosocial approaches and liaison among primary care physicians, psychiatrists, and dermatologists could be very useful and highly beneficial. PMID:17632653

  1. Heat Shock Protein Beta-1 Modifies Anterior to Posterior Purkinje Cell Vulnerability in a Mouse Model of Niemann-Pick Type C Disease.

    PubMed

    Chung, Chan; Elrick, Matthew J; Dell'Orco, James M; Qin, Zhaohui S; Kalyana-Sundaram, Shanker; Chinnaiyan, Arul M; Shakkottai, Vikram G; Lieberman, Andrew P

    2016-05-01

    Selective neuronal vulnerability is characteristic of most degenerative disorders of the CNS, yet mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain poorly characterized. Many forms of cerebellar degeneration exhibit an anterior-to-posterior gradient of Purkinje cell loss including Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC) disease, a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by progressive neurological deficits that often begin in childhood. Here, we sought to identify candidate genes underlying vulnerability of Purkinje cells in anterior cerebellar lobules using data freely available in the Allen Brain Atlas. This approach led to the identification of 16 candidate neuroprotective or susceptibility genes. We demonstrate that one candidate gene, heat shock protein beta-1 (HSPB1), promoted neuronal survival in cellular models of NPC disease through a mechanism that involved inhibition of apoptosis. Additionally, we show that over-expression of wild type HSPB1 or a phosphomimetic mutant in NPC mice slowed the progression of motor impairment and diminished cerebellar Purkinje cell loss. We confirmed the modulatory effect of Hspb1 on Purkinje cell degeneration in vivo, as knockdown by Hspb1 shRNA significantly enhanced neuron loss. These results suggest that strategies to promote HSPB1 activity may slow the rate of cerebellar degeneration in NPC disease and highlight the use of bioinformatics tools to uncover pathways leading to neuronal protection in neurodegenerative disorders.

  2. Salidroside suppresses solar ultraviolet-induced skin inflammation by targeting cyclooxygenase-2.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dan; Yuan, Ping; Ke, Changshu; Xiong, Hua; Chen, Jingwen; Guo, Jinguang; Lu, Mingmin; Ding, Yanyan; Fan, Xiaoming; Duan, Qiuhong; Shi, Fei; Zhu, Feng

    2016-05-03

    Solar ultraviolet (SUV) irradiation causes skin disorders such as inflammation, photoaging, and carcinogenesis. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) plays a key role in SUV-induced skin inflammation, and targeting COX-2 may be a strategy to prevent skin disorders. In this study, we found that the expression of COX-2, phosphorylation of p38 or JNKs were increased in human solar dermatitis tissues and SUV-irradiated human skin keratinocyte HaCaT cells and mouse epidermal JB6 Cl41 cells. Knocking down COX-2 inhibited the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), the phosphorylation of p38 or JNKs in SUV-irradiated cells, which indicated that COX-2 is not only the key enzyme for PGs synthesis, but also an upstream regulator of p38 or JNKs after SUV irradiation. The virtual ligand screening assay was used to search for natural drugs in the Chinese Medicine Database, and indicated that salidroside might be a COX-2 inhibitor. Molecule modeling indicated that salidroside can directly bind with COX-2, which was proved by in vitro pull-down binding assay. Ex vivo studies showed that salidroside has no toxicity to cells, and inhibits the production of PGE2, phosphorylation of p38 or JNKs, and secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) caused by SUV irradiation. In vivo studies demonstrated that salidroside attenuates the skin inflammation induced by SUV. In brief, our data provided the evidences for the protective role of salidroside against SUV-induced inflammation by targeting COX-2, and salidroside might be a promising drug for the treatment of SUV-induced skin inflammation.

  3. Pick-N-Pull Auto Dismantlers, Kansas City, LLC Inc. - Clean Water Act Public Notice

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against Pick-N-Pull Auto Dismantlers, Kansas City, LLC, a subsidiary of Schnitzer Steel Industries, Inc., for alleged violations at its facilities at 8012 East Truman Rd., Kansas C

  4. Presynaptic PICK1 facilitates trafficking of AMPA-receptors between active zone and synaptic vesicle pool.

    PubMed

    Haglerød, C; Hussain, S; Nakamura, Y; Xia, J; Haug, F-M S; Ottersen, O P; Henley, J M; Davanger, S

    2017-03-06

    Previous studies have indicated that presynaptic α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate receptors (AMPARs) contribute to the regulation of neurotransmitter release. In hippocampal synapses, the presynaptic surface expression of several AMPAR subunits, including GluA2, is regulated in a ligand-dependent manner. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the presynaptic trafficking of AMPARs are still unknown. Here, using bright-field immunocytochemistry, western blots, and quantitative immunogold electron microscopy of the hippocampal CA1 area from intact adult rat brain, we demonstrate the association of AMPA receptors with the presynaptic active zone and with small presynaptic vesicles, in Schaffer collateral synapses in CA1 of the hippocampus. Furthermore, we show that GluA2 and protein interacting with C kinase 1 (PICK1) are colocalized at presynaptic vesicles. Similar to postsynaptic mechanisms, overexpression of either PICK1 or pep2m, which inhibit the N-ethylmaleimide sensitive fusion protein (NSF)-GluA2 interaction, decreases the concentration of GluA2 in the presynaptic active zone membrane. These data suggest that the interacting proteins PICK1 and NSF act as regulators of presynaptic GluA2-containing AMPAR trafficking between the active zone and a vesicle pool that may provide the basis of presynaptic components of synaptic plasticity. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. All rights reserved.

  5. Humpback whale populations share a core skin bacterial community: towards a health index for marine mammals?

    PubMed

    Apprill, Amy; Robbins, Jooke; Eren, A Murat; Pack, Adam A; Reveillaud, Julie; Mattila, David; Moore, Michael; Niemeyer, Misty; Moore, Kathleen M T; Mincer, Tracy J

    2014-01-01

    Microbes are now well regarded for their important role in mammalian health. The microbiology of skin--a unique interface between the host and environment--is a major research focus in human health and skin disorders, but is less explored in other mammals. Here, we report on a cross-population study of the skin-associated bacterial community of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae), and examine the potential for a core bacterial community and its variability with host (endogenous) or geographic/environmental (exogenous) specific factors. Skin biopsies or freshly sloughed skin from 56 individuals were sampled from populations in the North Atlantic, North Pacific and South Pacific oceans and bacteria were characterized using 454 pyrosequencing of SSU rRNA genes. Phylogenetic and statistical analyses revealed the ubiquity and abundance of bacteria belonging to the Flavobacteria genus Tenacibaculum and the Gammaproteobacteria genus Psychrobacter across the whale populations. Scanning electron microscopy of skin indicated that microbial cells colonize the skin surface. Despite the ubiquity of Tenacibaculum and Psychrobater spp., the relative composition of the skin-bacterial community differed significantly by geographic area as well as metabolic state of the animals (feeding versus starving during migration and breeding), suggesting that both exogenous and endogenous factors may play a role in influencing the skin-bacteria. Further, characteristics of the skin bacterial community from these free-swimming individuals were assembled and compared to two entangled and three dead individuals, revealing a decrease in the central or core bacterial community members (Tenacibaculum and Psychrobater spp.), as well as the emergence of potential pathogens in the latter cases. This is the first discovery of a cross-population, shared skin bacterial community. This research suggests that the skin bacteria may be connected to humpback health and immunity and could possibly serve

  6. Humpback Whale Populations Share a Core Skin Bacterial Community: Towards a Health Index for Marine Mammals?

    PubMed Central

    Apprill, Amy; Robbins, Jooke; Eren, A. Murat; Pack, Adam A.; Reveillaud, Julie; Mattila, David; Moore, Michael; Niemeyer, Misty; Moore, Kathleen M. T.; Mincer, Tracy J.

    2014-01-01

    Microbes are now well regarded for their important role in mammalian health. The microbiology of skin – a unique interface between the host and environment - is a major research focus in human health and skin disorders, but is less explored in other mammals. Here, we report on a cross-population study of the skin-associated bacterial community of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae), and examine the potential for a core bacterial community and its variability with host (endogenous) or geographic/environmental (exogenous) specific factors. Skin biopsies or freshly sloughed skin from 56 individuals were sampled from populations in the North Atlantic, North Pacific and South Pacific oceans and bacteria were characterized using 454 pyrosequencing of SSU rRNA genes. Phylogenetic and statistical analyses revealed the ubiquity and abundance of bacteria belonging to the Flavobacteria genus Tenacibaculum and the Gammaproteobacteria genus Psychrobacter across the whale populations. Scanning electron microscopy of skin indicated that microbial cells colonize the skin surface. Despite the ubiquity of Tenacibaculum and Psychrobater spp., the relative composition of the skin-bacterial community differed significantly by geographic area as well as metabolic state of the animals (feeding versus starving during migration and breeding), suggesting that both exogenous and endogenous factors may play a role in influencing the skin-bacteria. Further, characteristics of the skin bacterial community from these free-swimming individuals were assembled and compared to two entangled and three dead individuals, revealing a decrease in the central or core bacterial community members (Tenacibaculum and Psychrobater spp.), as well as the emergence of potential pathogens in the latter cases. This is the first discovery of a cross-population, shared skin bacterial community. This research suggests that the skin bacteria may be connected to humpback health and immunity and could possibly

  7. Autoimmune bullous skin diseases. Part 1: Clinical manifestations.

    PubMed

    Kneisel, Andrea; Hertl, Michael

    2011-10-01

    Autoimmune bullous skin diseases are characterized by autoantibodies against adhesion molecules of the skin. Pemphigus is a disorder with an intraepidermal loss of adhesion and is characterized by fragile blisters and erosions. Pemphigus vulgaris often shows extensive lesions of the oral mucosa, while pemphigus foliaceus is commonly restricted to cutaneous involvement with puff pastry-like scale formation. Paraneoplastic pemphigus is obligatorily associated with malignancies and often presents as hemorrhagic stomatitis with multiforme-like exanthems. IgA pemphigus typically presents with pustules and annular plaques but not with mucosal involvement. The clinical spectrum of the pemphigoids includes tense blisters, urticarial plaques, and prurigo- like eczematous lesions. Pemphigoid gestationis mostly occurs during the last trimester of pregnancy and mucous membrane pemphigoid primarily involves the oral mucosa and conjunctivae and leads to scarring. Linear IgA bullous dermatosis manifests with tense blisters in a "cluster of jewels"-like pattern in childhood and is more heterogeneous in adulthood. Classical epidermolysis bullosa acquisita shows extensive skin fragility. Dermatitis herpetiformis is associated with gluten-sensitive enteropathy and manifests clinically with severe itching and papulovesicles on the extensor surfaces of the extremities and the lumbosacral area. The intention of the review is to demonstrate the heterogeneous clinical spectrum of autoimmune bullous disorders. © The Authors • Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

  8. Skin Cancer in Skin of Color

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, Porcia T.

    2009-01-01

    Skin cancers in skin of color often present atypically or with advanced stage in comparison to Caucasian patients. Health care providers must maintain a high index of suspicion when examining skin lesions in skin of color. PMID:19691228

  9. Peak-picking fundamental period estimation for hearing prostheses.

    PubMed

    Howard, D M

    1989-09-01

    A real-time peak-picking fundamental period estimation device is described which is used in advanced hearing prostheses for the totally and profoundly deafened. The operation of the peak picker is compared with three well-established fundamental frequency estimation techniques: the electrolaryngograph, which is used as a "standard" hardware implementations of the cepstral technique, and the Gold/Rabiner parallel processing algorithm. These comparisons illustrate and highlight some of the important advantages and disadvantages that characterize the operation of these techniques. The special requirements of the hearing prostheses are discussed with respect to the operation of each device, and the choice of the peak picker is found to be felicitous in this application.

  10. Use of Drawings to Identify Thought Impairment among Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Catherine Roller; Wallace, JoAnna; Huffman, Lynne C.

    2004-01-01

    This study explores how children's drawings, as rated on the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale (FEATS), are related to their emotional and behavioral health. Participating students (ages 8-16, N=53), attending a therapeutic day school for students with emotional and behavioral disorders, drew a picture of a person picking an apple from a tree…

  11. Longitudinal Changes in White Matter Fractional Anisotropy in Adult-Onset Niemann-Pick Disease Type C Patients Treated with Miglustat.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Elizabeth A; Velakoulis, Dennis; Desmond, Patricia; Walterfang, Mark

    2018-01-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a rare neurometabolic disorder resulting in impaired intracellular lipid trafficking. The only disease-modifying treatment currently available is miglustat, an iminosugar that inhibits the accumulation of lipid metabolites in neurons and other cells. This longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study examined how the rate of white matter change differed between treated and non-treated adult-onset NPC patient groups. Nine adult-onset NPC patients (seven undergoing treatment with miglustat, two not treated) underwent DTI neuroimaging. Rates of change in white matter structure as indexed by Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) of fractional anisotropy were compared between treated and untreated patients. Treated patients were found to have a significantly slower rate of white matter change in the corticospinal tracts, the thalamic radiation and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus. This is further evidence that miglustat treatment may have a protective effect on white matter structure in the adult-onset form of the disease.

  12. Contributions of spectral frequency analyses to the study of P50 ERP amplitude and suppression in bipolar disorder with or without a history of psychosis.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Christine A; Kieffaber, Paul D; Vohs, Jenifer L; O'Donnell, Brian F; Shekhar, Anantha; Hetrick, William P

    2008-11-01

    The present study investigated event-related brain potential (ERP) indices of auditory processing and sensory gating in bipolar disorder and subgroups of bipolar patients with or without a history of psychosis using the P50 dual-click procedure. Auditory-evoked activity in two discrete frequency bands also was explored to distinguish between sensory registration and selective attention deficits. Thirty-one individuals with bipolar disorder and 28 non-psychiatric controls were compared on ERP indices of auditory processing using a dual-click procedure. In addition to conventional P50 ERP peak-picking techniques, quantitative frequency analyses were applied to the ERP data to isolate stages of information processing associated with sensory registration (20-50 Hz; gamma band) and selective attention (0-20 Hz; low-frequency band). Compared to the non-psychiatric control group, patients with bipolar disorder exhibited reduced S1 response magnitudes for the conventional P50 peak-picking and low-frequency response analyses. A bipolar subgroup effect suggested that the attenuated S1 magnitudes from the P50 peak-picking and low-frequency analyses were largely attributable to patients without a history of psychosis. The analysis of distinct frequency bands of the auditory-evoked response elicited during the dual-click procedure allowed further specification of the nature of auditory sensory processing and gating deficits in bipolar disorder with or without a history of psychosis. The observed S1 effects in the low-frequency band suggest selective attention deficits in bipolar patients, especially those patients without a history of psychosis, which may reflect a diminished capacity to selectively attend to salient stimuli as opposed to impairments of inhibitory sensory processes.

  13. Injury-activated glial cells promote wound healing of the adult skin in mice.

    PubMed

    Parfejevs, Vadims; Debbache, Julien; Shakhova, Olga; Schaefer, Simon M; Glausch, Mareen; Wegner, Michael; Suter, Ueli; Riekstina, Una; Werner, Sabine; Sommer, Lukas

    2018-01-16

    Cutaneous wound healing is a complex process that aims to re-establish the original structure of the skin and its functions. Among other disorders, peripheral neuropathies are known to severely impair wound healing capabilities of the skin, revealing the importance of skin innervation for proper repair. Here, we report that peripheral glia are crucially involved in this process. Using a mouse model of wound healing, combined with in vivo fate mapping, we show that injury activates peripheral glia by promoting de-differentiation, cell-cycle re-entry and dissemination of the cells into the wound bed. Moreover, injury-activated glia upregulate the expression of many secreted factors previously associated with wound healing and promote myofibroblast differentiation by paracrine modulation of TGF-β signalling. Accordingly, depletion of these cells impairs epithelial proliferation and wound closure through contraction, while their expansion promotes myofibroblast formation. Thus, injury-activated glia and/or their secretome might have therapeutic potential in human wound healing disorders.

  14. [Skin vessel lesions in aluminum potroom workers].

    PubMed

    Siurin, S A; Nikanov, A N; Shilov, V V

    2012-01-01

    The features of development of the skin vessels lesions in 550 aluminum production workers have been investigated. The high prevalence of these disorders have been revealed in anode-operators and cell-operators, 49, 3 and 26.0% of workers, respectively. The regularity and staging of the development of this abnormity have been established, etiology, pathogenesis and clinical significance of those remain unknown.

  15. PROTON HEATING BY PICK-UP ION DRIVEN CYCLOTRON WAVES IN THE OUTER HELIOSPHERE: HYBRID EXPANDING BOX SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Hellinger, Petr; Trávníček, Pavel M., E-mail: petr.hellinger@asu.cas.cz

    Using a one-dimensional hybrid expanding box model, we investigate properties of the solar wind in the outer heliosphere. We assume a proton–electron plasma with a strictly transverse ambient magnetic field and, aside from the expansion, we take into account the influence of a continuous injection of cold pick-up protons through the charge-exchange process between the solar wind protons and hydrogen of interstellar origin. The injected cold pick-up protons form a ring distribution function, which rapidly becomes unstable, and generate Alfvén cyclotron waves. The Alfvén cyclotron waves scatter pick-up protons to a spherical shell distribution function that thickens over that timemore » owing to the expansion-driven cooling. The Alfvén cyclotron waves heat solar wind protons in the perpendicular direction (with respect to the ambient magnetic field) through cyclotron resonance. At later times, the Alfvén cyclotron waves become parametrically unstable and the generated ion-acoustic waves heat protons in the parallel direction through Landau resonance. The resulting heating of the solar wind protons is efficient on the expansion timescale.« less

  16. Embodied intersubjective engagement in mother–infant tactile communication: a cross-cultural study of Japanese and Scottish mother–infant behaviors during infant pick-up

    PubMed Central

    Negayama, Koichi; Delafield-Butt, Jonathan T.; Momose, Keiko; Ishijima, Konomi; Kawahara, Noriko; Lux, Erin J.; Murphy, Andrew; Kaliarntas, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the early development of cultural differences in a simple, embodied, and intersubjective engagement between mothers putting down, picking up, and carrying their infants between Japan and Scotland. Eleven Japanese and ten Scottish mothers with their 6- and then 9-month-old infants participated. Video and motion analyses were employed to measure motor patterns of the mothers’ approach to their infants, as well as their infants’ collaborative responses during put-down, pick-up, and carry phases. Japanese and Scottish mothers approached their infants with different styles and their infants responded differently to the short duration of separation during the trial. A greeting-like behavior of the arms and hands was prevalent in the Scottish mothers’ approach, but not in the Japanese mothers’ approach. Japanese mothers typically kneeled before making the final reach to pick-up their children, giving a closer, apparently gentler final approach of the torso than Scottish mothers, who bent at the waist with larger movements of the torso. Measures of the gap closure between the mothers’ hands to their infants’ heads revealed variably longer duration and distance gap closures with greater velocity by the Scottish mothers than by the Japanese mothers. Further, the sequence of Japanese mothers’ body actions on approach, contact, pick-up, and hold was more coordinated at 6 months than at 9 months. Scottish mothers were generally more variable on approach. Measures of infant participation and expressivity indicate more active participation in the negotiation during the separation and pick-up phases by Scottish infants. Thus, this paper demonstrates a culturally different onset of development of joint attention in pick-up. These differences reflect cultures of everyday interaction. PMID:25774139

  17. Embodied intersubjective engagement in mother-infant tactile communication: a cross-cultural study of Japanese and Scottish mother-infant behaviors during infant pick-up.

    PubMed

    Negayama, Koichi; Delafield-Butt, Jonathan T; Momose, Keiko; Ishijima, Konomi; Kawahara, Noriko; Lux, Erin J; Murphy, Andrew; Kaliarntas, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the early development of cultural differences in a simple, embodied, and intersubjective engagement between mothers putting down, picking up, and carrying their infants between Japan and Scotland. Eleven Japanese and ten Scottish mothers with their 6- and then 9-month-old infants participated. Video and motion analyses were employed to measure motor patterns of the mothers' approach to their infants, as well as their infants' collaborative responses during put-down, pick-up, and carry phases. Japanese and Scottish mothers approached their infants with different styles and their infants responded differently to the short duration of separation during the trial. A greeting-like behavior of the arms and hands was prevalent in the Scottish mothers' approach, but not in the Japanese mothers' approach. Japanese mothers typically kneeled before making the final reach to pick-up their children, giving a closer, apparently gentler final approach of the torso than Scottish mothers, who bent at the waist with larger movements of the torso. Measures of the gap closure between the mothers' hands to their infants' heads revealed variably longer duration and distance gap closures with greater velocity by the Scottish mothers than by the Japanese mothers. Further, the sequence of Japanese mothers' body actions on approach, contact, pick-up, and hold was more coordinated at 6 months than at 9 months. Scottish mothers were generally more variable on approach. Measures of infant participation and expressivity indicate more active participation in the negotiation during the separation and pick-up phases by Scottish infants. Thus, this paper demonstrates a culturally different onset of development of joint attention in pick-up. These differences reflect cultures of everyday interaction.

  18. Pluronic based β-cyclodextrin polyrotaxanes for treatment of Niemann-Pick Type C disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Christopher J.; Loren, Bradley P.; Alam, Md Suhail; Mondjinou, Yawo; Skulsky, Joseph L.; Chaplain, Cheyenne R.; Haldar, Kasturi; Thompson, David H.

    2017-04-01

    Niemann-Pick Type C disease (NPC) is a rare metabolic disorder characterized by disruption of normal cholesterol trafficking within the cells of the body. There are no FDA approved treatments available for NPC patients. Recently, the cycloheptaglucoside 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) has shown efficacy as a potential NPC therapeutic by extending lifetime in NPC mice, delaying neurodegeneration, and decreasing visceral and neurological cholesterol burden. Although promising, systemic HP-β-CD treatment is limited by a pharmacokinetic profile characterized by rapid loss through renal filtration. To address these shortcomings, we sought to design a family of HP-β-CD pro-drug delivery vehicles, known as polyrotaxanes (PR), capable of increasing the efficacy of a given injected dose by improving both pharmacokinetic profile and bioavailability of the HP-β-CD agent. PR can effectively diminish the cholesterol pool within the liver, spleen, and kidney at molar concentrations 10-to-100-fold lower than monomeric HP-β-CD. In addition to this proof-of-concept, use of PR scaffolds with differing physiochemical properties reveal structure-activity relationships in which PR characteristics, including hydrophobicity, threading efficiency and surface charge, were found to both decisively and subtly effect therapeutic efficacy. PR scaffolds exhibit absorption, pharmacokinetics, and biodistribution patterns that are significantly altered from monomeric HP-β-CD. In all, PR scaffolds hold great promise as potential treatments for visceral disease in NPC patients.

  19. Pluronic based β-cyclodextrin polyrotaxanes for treatment of Niemann-Pick Type C disease.

    PubMed

    Collins, Christopher J; Loren, Bradley P; Alam, Md Suhail; Mondjinou, Yawo; Skulsky, Joseph L; Chaplain, Cheyenne R; Haldar, Kasturi; Thompson, David H

    2017-04-28

    Niemann-Pick Type C disease (NPC) is a rare metabolic disorder characterized by disruption of normal cholesterol trafficking within the cells of the body. There are no FDA approved treatments available for NPC patients. Recently, the cycloheptaglucoside 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) has shown efficacy as a potential NPC therapeutic by extending lifetime in NPC mice, delaying neurodegeneration, and decreasing visceral and neurological cholesterol burden. Although promising, systemic HP-β-CD treatment is limited by a pharmacokinetic profile characterized by rapid loss through renal filtration. To address these shortcomings, we sought to design a family of HP-β-CD pro-drug delivery vehicles, known as polyrotaxanes (PR), capable of increasing the efficacy of a given injected dose by improving both pharmacokinetic profile and bioavailability of the HP-β-CD agent. PR can effectively diminish the cholesterol pool within the liver, spleen, and kidney at molar concentrations 10-to-100-fold lower than monomeric HP-β-CD. In addition to this proof-of-concept, use of PR scaffolds with differing physiochemical properties reveal structure-activity relationships in which PR characteristics, including hydrophobicity, threading efficiency and surface charge, were found to both decisively and subtly effect therapeutic efficacy. PR scaffolds exhibit absorption, pharmacokinetics, and biodistribution patterns that are significantly altered from monomeric HP-β-CD. In all, PR scaffolds hold great promise as potential treatments for visceral disease in NPC patients.

  20. Adult-Onset Acral Peeling Skin Syndrome in a Non-Identical Twin: A Case Report in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Reshmi; Omole, Olufemi B.; Rigby, Jonathan; Grayson, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Female, 44 Final Diagnosis: Acral peeeling skin syndrome Symptoms: Recurrent skin exfoliation Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Skin biopsy Specialty: Dermatology Objective: Rare disease Background: Acral peeling skin syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder in which skin exfoliation is limited to the hands and feet. While it typically manifests from early childhood, in this first reported case from South Africa, the patient did not manifest clinically until the fourth decade of life. Case Report: A 44-year-old woman of African descent, 1 of a set of non-identical twins, presented with recurrent episodes of skin peeling of the upper and lower limbs. The first episode occurred 4 years prior, followed by perennial skin peeling during the spring seasons. She was not on treatment for any chronic disease and reported no exposure to chemicals or other irritants. The family, including the non-identical twin sister, has no history of skin disorders and the patient’s HIV antibody test was negative. At presentation, physical examination revealed ongoing exfoliation with new skin formation on the palms and soles. The mucous membranes and nails were spared. Other systems were normal. Skin biopsy taken from the palms confirmed peeling skin syndrome. The patient was managed with topical aqueous cream and analgesics. She was briefly counseled on the nature and prognosis of the disease, and referred for genetic testing and counseling. On follow-up, she continues to have skin peeling once or twice a year. Conclusions: This first reported case of this rare disease in South Africa contributes to the growing body of literature on the disease and highlights the need for clinicians to be aware of its variable clinical onset. PMID:25549719

  1. Altered transition metal homeostasis in Niemann-Pick disease, Type C1

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Ya Hui; Faux, Noel G.; Killilea, David W.; Yanjanin, Nicole; Firnkes, Sally; Volitakis, Irene; Ganio, George; Walterfang, Mark; Hastings, Caroline; Porter, Forbes D.; Ory, Daniel S.; Bush, Ashley I.

    2014-01-01

    The loss of NPC1 protein function is the predominant cause of Niemann-Pick type C1 disease (NP-C1), a systemic and neurodegenerative disorder characterized by late-endosomal/lysosomal accumulation of cholesterol and other lipids. Limited evidence from post-mortem human tissues, an Npc1−/− mouse model, and cell culture studies also suggest failure of metal homeostasis in NP-C1. To investigate these findings, we performed a comprehensive transition metal analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), plasma and tissue samples from human NP-C1 patients and an Npc1−/− mouse model. NPC1 deficiency in the Npc1−/− mouse model resulted in a perturbation of transition metal homeostasis in the plasma and key organs (brain, liver, spleen, heart, lungs, and kidneys). Analysis of human patient CSF, plasma and post-mortem brain tissues also indicated disrupted metal homeostasis. There was a disparity in the direction of metal changes between the human and the Npc1−/− mouse samples, which may reflect species-specific metal metabolism. Nevertheless, common to both species is brain zinc accumulation. Furthermore, treatment with the glucosylceramide synthase inhibitor miglustat, the only drug shown in a controlled clinical trial to have some efficacy for NP-C1, did not correct the alterations in CSF and plasma transition metal and ceruloplasmin (CP) metabolism in NP-C1 patients. These findings highlight the importance of NPC1 function in metal homeostasis, and indicate that metal-targeting therapy may be of value as a treatment for NP-C. PMID:24343124

  2. [Most common skin disorders caused by excessive exposure to sunlight].

    PubMed

    Zitás, Éva; Mészáros, Judit

    2016-01-17

    The healing properties of sunlight has been known for millennia, however the gradual deterioration of the ozone layer and the increased use of sun tanning beds in recent decades are causing an increase in skin damaging ultraviolet exposure. In this article the most common photodermatoses and the principles of their treatments are reviewed.

  3. Biomarkers of skin toxicity induced by anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibody treatment in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Akiko; Hashimoto, Hironobu; Takahashi, Naoki; Yamada, Yasuhide

    2016-01-14

    Skin toxicity is a common symptom of anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody treatment and is also a predictive marker of its efficacy in colorectal cancer patients. However, severe skin disorders induced by such antibodies negatively impact on the quality of life of patients and decreases drug compliance during treatment. If we can predict the high-risk group susceptible to severe skin toxicity before treatment, we can undertake the early management of any arising skin disorders and formulate a more accurate prognosis for anti-EGFR antibody treatment. Previous studies have identified molecular markers of skin toxicity induced by anti-EGFR antibody, such as EGFR polymorphisms, the expression of inflammatory chemokines and serum levels of EGFR ligands. A clinical trial was undertaken involving the escalation of cetuximab doses, guided by the grade of skin toxicity observed, such as no or low-grade, in metastatic colorectal cancer (the EVEREST study). The dose escalation of cetuximab was confirmed by a safety profile and had the tendency to achieve a higher response rate in KRAS wild-type patients. A large, prospective randomized trial is now ongoing (EVEREST 2) and the results of this trial may contribute to personalized medicine in KRAS wild-type colorectal cancer patients.

  4. Biomarkers of skin toxicity induced by anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibody treatment in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kubo, Akiko; Hashimoto, Hironobu; Takahashi, Naoki; Yamada, Yasuhide

    2016-01-01

    Skin toxicity is a common symptom of anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody treatment and is also a predictive marker of its efficacy in colorectal cancer patients. However, severe skin disorders induced by such antibodies negatively impact on the quality of life of patients and decreases drug compliance during treatment. If we can predict the high-risk group susceptible to severe skin toxicity before treatment, we can undertake the early management of any arising skin disorders and formulate a more accurate prognosis for anti-EGFR antibody treatment. Previous studies have identified molecular markers of skin toxicity induced by anti-EGFR antibody, such as EGFR polymorphisms, the expression of inflammatory chemokines and serum levels of EGFR ligands. A clinical trial was undertaken involving the escalation of cetuximab doses, guided by the grade of skin toxicity observed, such as no or low-grade, in metastatic colorectal cancer (the EVEREST study). The dose escalation of cetuximab was confirmed by a safety profile and had the tendency to achieve a higher response rate in KRAS wild-type patients. A large, prospective randomized trial is now ongoing (EVEREST 2) and the results of this trial may contribute to personalized medicine in KRAS wild-type colorectal cancer patients. PMID:26811634

  5. Skin photoprotection by natural polyphenols: anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and DNA repair mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Joi A; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2010-03-01

    Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory studies have implicated solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation in various skin diseases including, premature aging of the skin and melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers. Chronic UV radiation exposure-induced skin diseases or skin disorders are caused by the excessive induction of inflammation, oxidative stress and DNA damage, etc. The use of chemopreventive agents, such as plant polyphenols, to inhibit these events in UV-exposed skin is gaining attention. Chemoprevention refers to the use of agents that can inhibit, reverse or retard the process of these harmful events in the UV-exposed skin. A wide variety of polyphenols or phytochemicals, most of which are dietary supplements, have been reported to possess substantial skin photoprotective effects. This review article summarizes the photoprotective effects of some selected polyphenols, such as green tea polyphenols, grape seed proanthocyanidins, resveratrol, silymarin and genistein, on UV-induced skin inflammation, oxidative stress and DNA damage, etc., with a focus on mechanisms underlying the photoprotective effects of these polyphenols. The laboratory studies conducted in animal models suggest that these polyphenols have the ability to protect the skin from the adverse effects of UV radiation, including the risk of skin cancers. It is suggested that polyphenols may favorably supplement sunscreens protection, and may be useful for skin diseases associated with solar UV radiation-induced inflammation, oxidative stress and DNA damage.

  6. Mineralization/Anti-Mineralization Networks in the Skin and Vascular Connective Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiaoli; Uitto, Jouni

    2014-01-01

    Ectopic mineralization has been linked to several common clinical conditions with considerable morbidity and mortality. The mineralization processes, both metastatic and dystrophic, affect the skin and vascular connective tissues. There are several contributing metabolic and environmental factors that make uncovering of the precise pathomechanisms of these acquired disorders exceedingly difficult. Several relatively rare heritable disorders share phenotypic manifestations similar to those in common conditions, and, consequently, they serve as genetically controlled model systems to study the details of the mineralization process in peripheral tissues. This overview will highlight diseases with mineral deposition in the skin and vascular connective tissues, as exemplified by familial tumoral calcinosis, pseudoxanthoma elasticum, generalized arterial calcification of infancy, and arterial calcification due to CD73 deficiency. These diseases, and their corresponding mouse models, provide insight into the pathomechanisms of soft tissue mineralization and point to the existence of intricate mineralization/anti-mineralization networks in these tissues. This information is critical for understanding the pathomechanistic details of different mineralization disorders, and it has provided the perspective to develop pharmacological approaches to counteract the consequences of ectopic mineralization. PMID:23665350

  7. Single stem cell gene therapy for genetic skin disease.

    PubMed

    Larsimont, Jean-Christophe; Blanpain, Cédric

    2015-04-01

    Stem cell gene therapy followed by transplantation into damaged regions of the skin has been successfully used to treat genetic skin blistering disorder. Usually, many stem cells are virally transduced to obtain a sufficient number of genetically corrected cells required for successful transplantation, as genetic insertion in every stem cell cannot be precisely defined. In this issue of EMBO Molecular Medicine, Droz-Georget Lathion et al developed a new strategy for ex vivo single cell gene therapy that allows extensive genomic and functional characterization of the genetically repaired individual cells before they can be used in clinical settings.

  8. Stem Cells in Skin Regeneration, Wound Healing, and Their Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ojeh, Nkemcho; Pastar, Irena; Tomic-Canic, Marjana; Stojadinovic, Olivera

    2015-01-01

    The skin is the largest organ of the body and has an array of functions. Skin compartments, epidermis, and hair follicles house stem cells that are indispensable for skin homeostasis and regeneration. These stem cells also contribute to wound repair, resulting in restoration of tissue integrity and function of damaged tissue. Unsuccessful wound healing processes often lead to non-healing wounds. Chronic wounds are caused by depletion of stem cells and a variety of other cellular and molecular mechanisms, many of which are still poorly understood. Current chronic wound therapies are limited, so the search to develop better therapeutic strategies is ongoing. Adult stem cells are gaining recognition as potential candidates for numerous skin pathologies. In this review, we will discuss epidermal and other stem cells present in the skin, and highlight some of the therapeutic applications of epidermal stem cells and other adult stem cells as tools for cell/scaffold-based therapies for non-healing wounds and other skin disorders. We will also discuss emerging concepts and offer some perspectives on how skin tissue-engineered products can be optimized to provide efficacious therapy in cutaneous repair and regeneration. PMID:26512657

  9. Stem Cells in Skin Regeneration, Wound Healing, and Their Clinical Applications.

    PubMed

    Ojeh, Nkemcho; Pastar, Irena; Tomic-Canic, Marjana; Stojadinovic, Olivera

    2015-10-23

    The skin is the largest organ of the body and has an array of functions. Skin compartments, epidermis, and hair follicles house stem cells that are indispensable for skin homeostasis and regeneration. These stem cells also contribute to wound repair, resulting in restoration of tissue integrity and function of damaged tissue. Unsuccessful wound healing processes often lead to non-healing wounds. Chronic wounds are caused by depletion of stem cells and a variety of other cellular and molecular mechanisms, many of which are still poorly understood. Current chronic wound therapies are limited, so the search to develop better therapeutic strategies is ongoing. Adult stem cells are gaining recognition as potential candidates for numerous skin pathologies. In this review, we will discuss epidermal and other stem cells present in the skin, and highlight some of the therapeutic applications of epidermal stem cells and other adult stem cells as tools for cell/scaffold-based therapies for non-healing wounds and other skin disorders. We will also discuss emerging concepts and offer some perspectives on how skin tissue-engineered products can be optimized to provide efficacious therapy in cutaneous repair and regeneration.

  10. Whole-genome expression analyses of type 2 diabetes in human skin reveal altered immune function and burden of infection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chun; Chen, Xiaopan; Shu, Jing; Lee, Chun-Ting

    2017-05-23

    Skin disorders are among most common complications associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Although T2DM patients are known to have increased risk of infections and other T2DM-related skin disorders, their molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. This study aims to identify dysregulated genes and gene networks that are associated with T2DM in human skin. We compared the expression profiles of 56,318 transcribed genes on 74 T2DM cases and 148 gender- age-, and race-matched non-diabetes controls from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) database. RNA-Sequencing data indicates that diabetic skin is characterized by increased expression of genes that are related to immune responses (CCL20, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, CXCL13, and CCL18), JAK/STAT signaling pathway (JAK3, STAT1, and STAT2), tumor necrosis factor superfamily (TNFSF10 and TNFSF15), and infectious disease pathways (OAS1, OAS2, OAS3, and IFIH1). Genes in cell adhesion molecules pathway (NCAM1 and L1CAM) and collagen family (PCOLCE2 and COL9A3) are downregulated, suggesting structural changes in the skin of T2DM. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, this pioneer analytic study reports comprehensive unbiased gene expression changes and dysregulated pathways in the non-diseased skin of T2DM patients. This comprehensive understanding derived from whole-genome expression profiles could advance our knowledge in determining molecular targets for the prevention and treatment of T2DM-associated skin disorders.

  11. Prevalence and characterization of neonatal skin disorders in the first 72h of life.

    PubMed

    Reginatto, Flávia Pereira; DeVilla, Damie; Muller, Fernanda M; Peruzzo, Juliano; Peres, Letícia P; Steglich, Raquel B; Cestari, Tania F

    To determine the prevalence of neonatal dermatological findings and analyze whether there is an association between these findings and neonatal and pregnancy characteristics and seasonality. Newborns from three maternity hospitals in a Brazilian capital city were randomly selected to undergo dermatological assessment by dermatologists. 2938 neonates aged up to three days of life were randomly selected, of whom 309 were excluded due to Intensive Care Unit admission. Of the 2530 assessed neonates, 49.6% were Caucasians, 50.5% were males, 57.6% were born by vaginal delivery, and 92.5% of the mothers received prenatal care. Some dermatological finding was observed in 95.8% of neonates; of these, 88.6% had transient neonatal skin conditions, 42.6% had congenital birthmarks, 26.8% had some benign neonatal pustulosis, 2% had lesions secondary to trauma (including scratches), 0.5% had skin malformations, and 0.1% had an infectious disease. The most prevalent dermatological findings were: lanugo, which was observed in 38.9% of the newborns, sebaceous hyperplasia (35%), dermal melanocytosis (24.61%), skin desquamation (23.3%), erythema toxicum neonatorum (23%), salmon patch (20.4%), skin erythema (19%), genital hyperpigmentation (18.4%), eyelid edema (17.4%), milia (17.3%), genital hypertrophy (12%), and skin xerosis (10.9%). Dermatological findings are frequent during the first days of life and some of them characterize the newborn's skin. Mixed-race newborns and those whose mothers had some gestational risk factor had more dermatological findings. The gestational age, newborn's ethnicity, gender, Apgar at the first and fifth minutes of life, type of delivery, and seasonality influenced the presence of specific neonatal dermatological findings. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Tissue Engineered Skin and Wound Healing: Current Strategies and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Nandana; Chouhan, Dimple; Mandal, Biman B

    2017-01-01

    The global volume of skin damage or injuries has major healthcare implications and, accounts for about half of the world's annual expenditure in the healthcare sector. In the last two decades, tissue-engineered skin constructs have shown great promise in the treatment of various skin-related disorders such as deep burns and wounds. The treatment methods for skin replacement and repair have evolved from utilization of autologous epidermal sheets to more complex bilayered cutaneous tissue engineered skin substitutes. However, inadequate vascularization, lack of flexibility in drug/growth factors loading and inability to reconstitute skin appendages such as hair follicles limits their utilization for restoration of normal skin anatomy on a routine basis. Recent advancements in cutting-edge technology from stem cell biology, nanotechnology, and various vascularization strategies have provided a tremendous springboard for researchers in developing and manipulating tissue engineered skin substitutes for improved skin regeneration and wound healing. This review summarizes the overview of skin tissue engineering and wound healing. Herein, developments and challenges of various available biomaterials, cell sources and in vitro skin models (full thickness and wound healing models) in tissue-engineered skin research are discussed. Furthermore, central to the discussion is the inclusion of various innovative strategies starting from stem cells, nanotechnology, vascularization strategies, microfluidics to three dimensional (3D) bioprinting based strategies for generation of complex skin mimics. The review then moves on to highlight the future prospects of advanced construction strategies of these bioengineered skin constructs and their contribution to wound healing and skin regeneration on current practice. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. The skin function: a factor of anti-metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shi-Sheng; Li, Da; Zhou, Yi-Ming; Cao, Ji-Min

    2012-04-26

    The body's total antioxidant capacity represents a sum of the antioxidant capacity of various tissues/organs. A decrease in the body's antioxidant capacity may induce oxidative stress and subsequent metabolic syndrome, a clustering of risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The skin, the largest organ of the body, is one of the major components of the body's total antioxidant defense system, primarily through its xenobiotic/drug biotransformation system, reactive oxygen species-scavenging system, and sweat glands- and sebaceous glands-mediated excretion system. Notably, unlike other contributors, the skin contribution is variable, depending on lifestyles and ambient temperature or seasonal variations. Emerging evidence suggests that decreased skin's antioxidant and excretory functions (e.g., due to sedentary lifestyles and low ambient temperature) may increase the risk for metabolic syndrome. This review focuses on the relationship between the variability of skin-mediated detoxification and elimination of exogenous and endogenous toxic substances and the development of metabolic syndrome. The potential role of sebum secretion in lipid and cholesterol homeostasis and its impact on metabolic syndrome, and the association between skin disorders (acanthosis nigricans, acne, and burn) and metabolic syndrome are also discussed.

  14. Pick and Eat Crop Testing: Dwarf Tomato and Pepper as Candidate Space Crops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Massa, G. D.; Stutte, G. W.; Spencer, L. E.; Hummerick, M. E.; Sirmons, T.; Douglas, G. L.

    2016-01-01

    Several dwarf tomato and pepper varieties were evaluated under International Space Station (ISS)-simulated growth conditions (22 degrees Centigrade, 50 percent relative humidity, 1500 parts per million CO2, and 300 micromoles per square meter per second of light for 16 hours per day) with the goal of selecting those with the best growth, nutrition, and organoleptic potential for use in a pick and eat salad crop system on ISS and future exploration flights. Testing included six cultivars of tomato (Red Robin, Scarlet Sweet 'N' Neat, Tiny Tim, Mohamed, Patio Princess, and Tumbler) and six cultivars of pepper (Red Skin, Fruit Basket, Cajun Belle, Chablis, Sweet Pickle, and Pompeii). Plants were grown to an age sufficient to produce fruit (up to 106 days for tomato and 109 days for pepper) using Turface (arcillite) potting media with 18-6-8 control-release fertilizer and supplemental nutrient solution beginning around 60-days-age. Tomato fruits were harvested when they showed full red color, beginning around 70-days age and then at weekly intervals thereafter, while peppers were grown until fruits showed color and were harvested twice (first test) and just once at the end of the second test, with the final harvests including colored and green fruit. Plant sizes, yields, and nutritional attributes were measured and used to down-select to three cultivars for each species. In particular, we were interested in cultivars that were short (dwarf) but still produced high yields. Nutritional data included elemental (Ca, Mg, Fe, and K) content, vitamin K, phenolics, lycopene (for tomato), anthocyanin, lutein, and zeaxanthin. The three down-selected cultivars for each species were grown again and the harvested fruit sent to NASA's Johnson Space Center for sensory evaluation, which included overall acceptability, appearance, color intensity, aroma, flavor and texture. The combined data were compared and given weighting factors to rank the cultivars as candidates for testing in

  15. Case Report: Ursodeoxycholic acid treatment in Niemann-Pick disease type C; clinical experience in four cases

    PubMed Central

    Movsesyan, Nina; Platt, Frances M.

    2017-01-01

    In this case series, we demonstrate that Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) improves liver dysfunction in Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) and may restore a suppressed cytochrome p450 system. NPC disease is a progressive neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disease caused by mutations in either the NPC1 or NPC2 genes. Liver disease is a common feature presenting either acutely as cholestatic jaundice in the neonatal period, or in later life as elevated liver enzymes indicative of liver dysfunction. Recently, an imbalance in bile acid synthesis in a mouse model of NPC disease was linked to suppression of the P450 detoxification system and was corrected by UDCA treatment. UDCA (3α, 7β-dihydroxy-5β-cholanic acid), a hydrophilic bile acid, is used to treat various cholestatic disorders. In this report we summarise the findings from four independent cases of NPC, three with abnormal liver enzyme levels at baseline, that were subsequently treated with UDCA. The patients differed in age and clinical features, they all tolerated the drug well, and in those with abnormal liver function, there were significant improvements in their liver enzyme parameters. PMID:29119141

  16. What Skills and Tactics Are Needed to Play Adult Pick-Up Basketball Games?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jianyu; Liu, Wenhao; Moffit, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine skill levels and performance patterns of regular players of pick-up basketball games. By a survey, 65 participants were identified as regular players and participated in the study. An observational instrument used to analyze game performance of the participants was developed and both content and construct…

  17. In Silico Estimation of Skin Concentration Following the Dermal Exposure to Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Tomomi; Yoshida, Shun; Kadhum, Wesam R; Todo, Hiroaki; Sugibayashi, Kenji

    2015-12-01

    To develop an in silico method based on Fick's law of diffusion to estimate the skin concentration following dermal exposure to chemicals with a wide range of lipophilicity. Permeation experiments of various chemicals were performed through rat and porcine skin. Permeation parameters, namely, permeability coefficient and partition coefficient, were obtained by the fitting of data to two-layered and one-layered diffusion models for whole and stripped skin. The mean skin concentration of chemicals during steady-state permeation was calculated using the permeation parameters and compared with the observed values. All permeation profiles could be described by the diffusion models. The estimated skin concentrations of chemicals using permeation parameters were close to the observed levels and most data fell within the 95% confidence interval for complete prediction. The permeability coefficient and partition coefficient for stripped skin were almost constant, being independent of the permeant's lipophilicity. Skin concentration following dermal exposure to various chemicals can be accurately estimated based on Fick's law of diffusion. This method should become a useful tool to assess the efficacy of topically applied drugs and cosmetic ingredients, as well as the risk of chemicals likely to cause skin disorders and diseases.

  18. Cosmetic formulations containing Lithospermum erythrorhizon root extract show moisturizing effects on human skin.

    PubMed

    Chang, Man-Jau; Huang, Huey-Chun; Chang, Hsien-Cheh; Chang, Tsong-Min

    2008-07-01

    Retention of water in the stratum corneum of skin epidermis plays an important role in regulation of skin function. Loss of water may decline skin appearance gradually and lead to irregular skin disorders. The root extract of Lithospermum erythrorhizon (LES) is known for its various pharmacological activities. However, the potential skin care effect of LES is not clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the moisturizing efficacy and skin barrier repairing activity of LES. For this study, 30 healthy Asian females (age 20-30) with healthy skin had applied the test emulsions twice daily over a period of 28 days. The skin properties were measured by skin bioengineering techniques. Our preliminary results indicated that LES show moisturizing effect on skin hydration in a time- and dose-dependent pattern, and the maximum increase in skin humidity was 11.77 +/- 1.18% for emulsion LES5.00. Particularly, LES-containing emulsions significantly improve skin barrier function by decreasing the value of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) in a time- and dose-dependent pattern, and the maximum decrease in TEWL value was 7.68 +/- 0.79% for emulsion LES5.00. Taken together, our data demonstrate that LES is more effective in increasing skin humidity and decreasing the TEWL values, indicating the potential skin care effects of LES.

  19. Predicting chemically-induced skin reactions. Part II: QSAR models of skin permeability and the relationships between skin permeability and skin sensitization

    SciTech Connect

    Alves, Vinicius M.; Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599; Muratov, Eugene

    Skin permeability is widely considered to be mechanistically implicated in chemically-induced skin sensitization. Although many chemicals have been identified as skin sensitizers, there have been very few reports analyzing the relationships between molecular structure and skin permeability of sensitizers and non-sensitizers. The goals of this study were to: (i) compile, curate, and integrate the largest publicly available dataset of chemicals studied for their skin permeability; (ii) develop and rigorously validate QSAR models to predict skin permeability; and (iii) explore the complex relationships between skin sensitization and skin permeability. Based on the largest publicly available dataset compiled in this study, wemore » found no overall correlation between skin permeability and skin sensitization. In addition, cross-species correlation coefficient between human and rodent permeability data was found to be as low as R{sup 2} = 0.44. Human skin permeability models based on the random forest method have been developed and validated using OECD-compliant QSAR modeling workflow. Their external accuracy was high (Q{sup 2}{sub ext} = 0.73 for 63% of external compounds inside the applicability domain). The extended analysis using both experimentally-measured and QSAR-imputed data still confirmed the absence of any overall concordance between skin permeability and skin sensitization. This observation suggests that chemical modifications that affect skin permeability should not be presumed a priori to modulate the sensitization potential of chemicals. The models reported herein as well as those developed in the companion paper on skin sensitization suggest that it may be possible to rationally design compounds with the desired high skin permeability but low sensitization potential. - Highlights: • It was compiled the largest publicly-available skin permeability dataset. • Predictive QSAR models were developed for skin permeability. • No concordance between

  20. The Assessment of Skin Color and Iron Levels in Pediatric Patients with β-Thalassemia Major Using a Visual Skin Color Chart.

    PubMed

    Bucak, Ibrahim H; Almis, Habip; Benli, Samet; Turgut, Mehmet

    2017-03-01

    Patients with β-thalassemia major (β-TM), a disease that emerges due to disorder of hemoglobin (Hb) synthesis, require life-long erythrocyte transfusion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate skin color and iron levels of patients with β-TM using a visual skin color chart. Each patient's skin color was matched on a skin color chart under a fluorescent lamp by the same physician on each occasion. Iron, iron binding capacity, ferritin and complete blood count (CBC) were studied for each patient enrolled. Colors marked on the visual skin color chart were compared with the laboratory results. Thirty-five patients being monitored at our hospital were included, 19 (54.3%) males and 16 (45.7%) females. The colors marked on the chart darkened as patients aged (p = 0.002, r = 0.49), the frequency of annual transfusions (p = 0.022, r = 0.385), ferritin levels (p < 0.001, r = 0.72) and iron levels increased (p = 0.001, r = 0.538) and as total iron binding capacity (TIBC) decreased (p < 0.001, r = -0.709). On the basis of this study, iron deposition in patients with β-TM was correlated with the colors on the chart.

  1. Visual recognition system of cherry picking robot based on Lab color model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qirong; Zuo, Jianjun; Yu, Tingzhong; Wang, Yan

    2017-12-01

    This paper designs a visual recognition system suitable for cherry picking. First, the system deals with the image using the vector median filter. And then it extracts a channel of Lab color model to divide the cherries and the background. The cherry contour was successfully fitted by the least square method, and the centroid and radius of the cherry were extracted. Finally, the cherry was successfully extracted.

  2. Withaferin A suppresses the up-regulation of acetyl-coA carboxylase 1 and skin tumor formation in a skin carcinogenesis mouse model.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenjuan; Zhang, Chunjing; Du, Hongyan; Huang, Vincent; Sun, Brandi; Harris, John P; Richardson, Quitin; Shen, Xinggui; Jin, Rong; Li, Guohong; Kevil, Christopher G; Gu, Xin; Shi, Runhua; Zhao, Yunfeng

    2016-11-01

    Withaferin A (WA), a natural product derived from Withania somnifera, has been used in traditional oriental medicines to treat neurological disorders. Recent studies have demonstrated that this compound may have a potential for cancer treatment and a clinical trial has been launched to test WA in treating melanoma. Herein, WA's chemopreventive potential was tested in a chemically-induced skin carcinogenesis mouse model. Pathological examinations revealed that WA significantly suppressed skin tumor formation. Morphological observations of the skin tissues suggest that WA suppressed cell proliferation rather than inducing apoptosis during skin carcinogenesis. Antibody Micro array analysis demonstrated that WA blocked carcinogen-induced up-regulation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1), which was further confirmed in a skin cell transformation model. Overexpression of ACC1 promoted whereas knockdown of ACC1 suppressed anchorage-independent growth and oncogene activation of transformable skin cells. Further studies demonstrated that WA inhibited tumor promotor-induced ACC1 gene transcription by suppressing the activation of activator protein 1. In melanoma cells, WA was also able to suppress the expression levels of ACC1. Finally, results using human skin cancer tissues confirmed the up-regulation of ACC1 in tumors than adjacent normal tissues. In summary, our results suggest that withaferin A may have a potential in chemoprevention and ACC1 may serve as a critical target of WA. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Teledermatologist expert skin advice: A unique model of care for managing skin disorders and adverse drug reactions in hepatitis C patients.

    PubMed

    Charlston, Samuel; Siller, Gregory

    2018-03-23

    To conduct an audit of teledermatologist expert skin advice, a store and forward tele-dermatological service, to determine its effectiveness and user satisfaction in managing cutaneous adverse drug reactions in patients with hepatitis C, and to demonstrate a unique collaborative model of care for patients receiving specialised drug therapy. A retrospective analysis of data on teledermatologist expert skin advice referrals from January 2014 to December 2015 was performed. The primary outcomes assessed included number of referrals, referral locations, diagnoses, response times, quality of clinical information provided and user satisfaction ratings. Altogether 43 consultations from 29 referring sites were received from Australian metropolitan and rural settings. Of the patients, 43 were diagnosed with an adverse drug reaction related to the use of either telaprevir or simeprevir. The average time taken for the dermatologist to reply electronically with a final diagnosis and management plan was 1 h 57 min. As many as 26% of referrals required additional photos to establish a diagnosis due to poor-quality images or insufficient detail. Altogether 18 clinicians completed the customer satisfaction survey, all of whom rated teledermatologist expert skin advice nine or above on a scale of one to 10. Teledermatologist expert skin advice was regarded by clinicians as a valuable patient care service. The platform is a novel modality that supports patients undergoing specialised treatments at risk of cutaneous adverse drug reaction. © 2018 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  4. The Brazilian Research Consortium on Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders: recruitment, assessment instruments, methods for the development of multicenter collaborative studies and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Euripedes Constantino; Ferrão, Ygor Arzeno; Rosário, Maria Conceição do; Mathis, Maria Alice de; Torres, Albina Rodrigues; Fontenelle, Leonardo Franklin; Hounie, Ana Gabriela; Shavitt, Roseli Gedanke; Cordioli, Aristides Volpato; Gonzalez, Christina Hojaij; Petribú, Kátia; Diniz, Juliana Belo; Malavazzi, Dante Marino; Torresan, Ricardo C; Raffin, Andréa Litvin; Meyer, Elisabeth; Braga, Daniela T; Borcato, Sonia; Valério, Carolina; Gropo, Luciana N; Prado, Helena da Silva; Perin, Eduardo Alliende; Santos, Sandro Iêgo; Copque, Helen; Borges, Manuela Corrêa; Lopes, Angélica Prazeres; Silva, Elenita D da

    2008-09-01

    To describe the recruitment of patients, assessment instruments, implementation, methods and preliminary results of The Brazilian Research Consortium on Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders, which includes seven university sites. This cross-sectional study included a comprehensive clinical assessment including semi-structured interviews (sociodemographic data, medical and psychiatric history, disease course and comorbid psychiatric diagnoses), and instruments to assess obsessive-compulsive (Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale and Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale), depressive (Beck Depression Inventory) and anxious (Beck Anxiety Inventory) symptoms, sensory phenomena (Universidade de São Paulo Sensory Phenomena Scale), insight (Brown Assessment Beliefs Scale), tics (Yale Global Tics Severity Scale) and quality of life (Medical Outcome Quality of Life Scale Short-form-36 and Social Assessment Scale). The raters' training consisted of watching at least five videotaped interviews and interviewing five patients with an expert researcher before interviewing patients alone. The reliability between all leaders for the most important instruments (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, Universidade de São Paulo Sensory Phenomena Scale) was measured after six complete interviews. Inter-rater reliability was 96%. By March 2008, 630 obsessive-compulsive disorder patients had been systematically evaluated. Mean age (+/-SE) was 34.7 (+/-0.51), 56.3% were female, and 84.6% Caucasian. The most prevalent obsessive compulsive symptom dimensions were symmetry and contamination. The most common comorbidities were major depression, generalized anxiety and social anxiety disorder. The most common DSM-IV impulsive control disorder was skin picking. The sample was composed mainly by Caucasian individuals, unmarried, with some kind of occupational activity, mean age of 35 years, onset of obsessive

  5. Determining the mechanical properties of rat skin with digital image speckle correlation.

    PubMed

    Guan, E; Smilow, Sarah; Rafailovich, Miriam; Sokolov, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    Accurate measurement of the mechanical properties of skin has numerous implications in surgical repair, dermal disorders and the diagnosis and treatment of trauma to the skin. Investigation of facial wrinkle formation, as well as research in the areas of skin aging and cosmetic product assessment can also benefit from alternative methodologies for the measurement of mechanical properties. A noncontact, noninvasive technique, digital image speckle correlation (DISC), has been successfully introduced to measure the deformation field of a skin sample loaded by a material test machine. With the force information obtained from the loading device, the mechanical properties of the skin, such as Young's modulus, linear limitation and material strength, can be calculated using elastic or viscoelastic theory. The DISC method was used to measure the deformation of neonatal rat skin, with and without a glycerin-fruit-oil-based cream under uniaxial tension. Deformation to failure procedure of newborn rat skin was recorded and analyzed. Single skin layer failures were observed and located by finding the strain concentration. Young's moduli of freshly excised rat skin, cream-processed rat skin and unprocessed rat skin, 24 h after excision, were found with tensile tests to be 1.6, 1.4 and 0.7 MPa, respectively. Our results have shown that DISC provides a novel technique for numerous applications in dermatology and reconstructive surgeries. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  6. Is aversive learning a marker of risk for anxiety disorders in children?

    PubMed Central

    Craske, Michelle G.; Waters, Allison M.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Naliboff, Bruce; Lipp, Ottmar V.; Negoro, Hideki; Ornitz, Edward M.

    2016-01-01

    Aversive conditioning and extinction were evaluated in children with anxiety disorders (n = 23), at-risk for anxiety disorders (n = 15), and controls (n = 11). Participants underwent 16 trials of discriminative conditioning of two geometric figures, with (CS+) or without (CS−) an aversive tone (US), followed by 8 extinction trials (4 CS+, 4 CS−), and 8 extinction re-test trials averaging 2 weeks later. Skin conductance responses and verbal ratings of valence and arousal to the CS+/CS− stimuli were measured. Anxiety disordered children showed larger anticipatory and unconditional skin conductance responses across conditioning, and larger orienting and anticipatory skin conductance responses across extinction and extinction re-test, all to the CS+ and CS−, relative to controls. At-risk children showed larger unconditional responses during conditioning, larger orienting responses during the first block of extinction, and larger anticipatory responses during extinction re-test, all to the CS+ and CS−, relative to controls. Also, anxiety disordered children rated the CS+ as more unpleasant than the other groups. Elevated skin conductance responses to signals of threat (CS+) and signals of safety (CS−; CS+ during extinction) are discussed as features of manifestation of and risk for anxiety in children, compared to the specificity of valence judgments to the manifestation of anxiety. PMID:18539262

  7. Co-Requirement of PICK1 Binding and PKC Phosphorylation for Stable Surface Expression of the Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor mGluR7

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Young Ho; Pelkey, Kenneth A.; Lavezzari, Gabriela; Roche, Paul A.; Huganir, Richard L.; McBain, Chris J.; Roche, Katherine W.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY The presynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) mGluR7 modulates excitatory neurotransmission by regulating neurotransmitter release, and plays a critical role in certain forms of synaptic plasticity. Although the dynamic regulation of mGluR7 surface expression governs a novel form of metaplasticity in the hippocampus, little is known about the molecular mechanisms regulating mGluR7 trafficking. We now show that mGluR7 surface expression is stabilized by both PKC phosphorylation and by receptor binding to the PDZ domain-containing protein PICK1. Phosphorylation of mGluR7 on serine 862 (S862) inhibits CaM binding thereby increasing mGluR7 surface expression and receptor binding to PICK1. Furthermore, in mice lacking PICK1, PKC-dependent increases in mGluR7 phosphorylation and surface expression are diminished, and mGluR7-dependent plasticity at mossy fiber-interneuron hippocampal synapses is impaired. These data support a model in which PICK1 binding and PKC phosphorylation act together to stabilize mGluR7 on the cell surface in vivo. PMID:18549785

  8. The impact of human immunodeficiency virus-related diseases on pigmented skin types.

    PubMed

    Ameen, M

    2013-10-01

    Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains a significant problem globally. Early diagnosis and treatment with antiretroviral drugs has considerably improved health outcomes and decreased disease-related morbidity. HIV infection is associated with a wide range of skin disorders enabling dermatologists to diagnose HIV as well as associated opportunistic infections early in the course of disease. Despite concerted efforts by international health organizations to limit disease incidence, the prevalence of HIV infection remains high and is highest in sub-Saharan Africa. The diagnosis of HIV-related skin diseases is challenging as immunosuppression often results in atypical disease presentation. In addition, the clinical presentation will vary in pigmented skin types. The aim of this article is to describe disease variation in pigmented skin types. © 2013 The Author BJD © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  9. [SKIN PATHOLOGY IN DIABETES MELLITUS: CLINICAL AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGICAL CORRELATIONS (REVIEW)].

    PubMed

    Kochet, K; Lytus, I; Svistunov, I; Sulaieva, O

    2017-12-01

    Skin pathology is registered in vast majority of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Despite the abundance of publications on dermatological problems in DM, there is still a number of gaps to be discussed in terms of pathophysiological mechanisms. The goal of this review was to assess the mechanisms of development of different skin pathologies under DM. One of the key pathogenic mechanisms of skin lesions in diabetes is hyperglycemia and the effects of the advanced glycation end products, inducing oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and inflammation; that in its turn can accelerate the mechanisms of skin aging, the development of diabetic dermopathy and scleredema diabeticorum. Imbalance of growth factors, cytokines and hormones under insulin resistance, is associated with increased proliferation of keratinocytes, fibroblasts and sebocytes, mast cell dysfunction and melanogenesis disorders in acanthosis nigricans, acrochordons, acne and inflammatory dermatitis in diabetic patients. In addition, authors discuss the role of dendritic cells and macrophages dysfunction in impairment of peripheral tolerance and diabetic wounds pathogenesis in patients with DM.

  10. Absence of skin rash in Goodpasture's syndrome: the hyaluronan effect.

    PubMed

    Stern, A; Stern, R

    2014-12-01

    Goodpasture's syndrome is a rare disease that involves rapidly progressive kidney failure as well as hemorrhagic lung disease. It is a form of autoimmune disorder with unusual features; marked male preponderance, in contrast with other autoimmune disease in which females are at far greater risk. The autoantibodies are directed again the carboxy-extension non-collagenous (NC1) portion of one of the basement membrane-specific collagen IV alpha 3 chains. Basal laminas throughout the body share this structure, including those in kidney, lung and skin. But curiously, skin is rarely involved in Goodpasture's syndrome. Hyaluronan is a large extracellular matrix carbohydrate polymer. Half of total body hyaluronan occurs in skin. High molecular weight hyaluronan, a potent immunosuppressive polymer, might be functioning as an immune shield for skin in Goodpasture's syndrome, and be the basis for the anomaly. A summary of this putative effect is described, including possible molecular mechanisms involved, and suggestions for testing this hypothesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Skin Diseases: Cross-section of human skin

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Cross-section of human skin Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Logical Images, Inc. I n the areas of skin health and skin diseases, the NIH's National Institute ...

  12. Loss of Water from Saturn's E-Ring Through Ion Pick-Up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leisner, J. S.; Russell, C. T.; Dougherty, M. K.; Blanco-Cano, X.; Smith, E. J.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    2005-01-01

    One of the possible loss processes for Saturn s E-ring is ionization followed by acceleration by the electric field associated with the corotating magnetized plasma. It is possible to determine if this process is occurring by detecting electromagnetic waves at the gyrofrequency of water group ions. If the energy the particle gains in this pick-up process is sufficiently great, the picked up ions will generate ion cyclotron waves. Pioneer 11 and Voyager 1 both observed intervals of such waves associated with water group ions during their passes through Saturn s E-ring. Presently the magnetometer onboard the Cassini spacecraft is also seeing water group ion cyclotron oscillations. The Cassini data allow the spatial and temporal behavior of the waves to be mapped in ways not possible during the previous flybys. Analyses of these waves allow us to study the rate of mass loading and its latitudinal and local time variation. In conjunction with previous data, we can then determine the variation as the inclination of the ring to the Sun changes, in accordance with Saturn's seasons. These waves may be the clue to how Saturn powers its magnetosphere as the newly born ions could be the driver for the radial motion of the plasma and to how the E-ring may play the equivalent role to that of Io in the jovian magnetosphere.

  13. Detecting and Locating Seismic Events Without Phase Picks or Velocity Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrowsmith, S.; Young, C. J.; Ballard, S.; Slinkard, M.

    2015-12-01

    The standard paradigm for seismic event monitoring is to scan waveforms from a network of stations and identify the arrival time of various seismic phases. A signal association algorithm then groups the picks to form events, which are subsequently located by minimizing residuals between measured travel times and travel times predicted by an Earth model. Many of these steps are prone to significant errors which can lead to erroneous arrival associations and event locations. Here, we revisit a concept for event detection that does not require phase picks or travel time curves and fuses detection, association and location into a single algorithm. Our pickless event detector exploits existing catalog and waveform data to build an empirical stack of the full regional seismic wavefield, which is subsequently used to detect and locate events at a network level using correlation techniques. Because the technique uses more of the information content of the original waveforms, the concept is particularly powerful for detecting weak events that would be missed by conventional methods. We apply our detector to seismic data from the University of Utah Seismograph Stations network and compare our results with the earthquake catalog published by the University of Utah. We demonstrate that the pickless detector can detect and locate significant numbers of events previously missed by standard data processing techniques.

  14. Adult-onset acral peeling skin syndrome in a non-identical twin: a case report in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Reshmi; Omole, Olufemi B; Rigby, Jonathan; Grayson, Wayne

    2014-12-31

    Acral peeling skin syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder in which skin exfoliation is limited to the hands and feet. While it typically manifests from early childhood, in this first reported case from South Africa, the patient did not manifest clinically until the fourth decade of life. A 44-year-old woman of African descent, 1 of a set of non-identical twins, presented with recurrent episodes of skin peeling of the upper and lower limbs. The first episode occurred 4 years prior, followed by perennial skin peeling during the spring seasons. She was not on treatment for any chronic disease and reported no exposure to chemicals or other irritants. The family, including the non-identical twin sister, has no history of skin disorders and the patient's HIV antibody test was negative. At presentation, physical examination revealed ongoing exfoliation with new skin formation on the palms and soles. The mucous membranes and nails were spared. Other systems were normal. Skin biopsy taken from the palms confirmed peeling skin syndrome. The patient was managed with topical aqueous cream and analgesics. She was briefly counseled on the nature and prognosis of the disease, and referred for genetic testing and counseling. On follow-up, she continues to have skin peeling once or twice a year. This first reported case of this rare disease in South Africa contributes to the growing body of literature on the disease and highlights the need for clinicians to be aware of its variable clinical onset.

  15. Predicting chemically-induced skin reactions. Part II: QSAR models of skin permeability and the relationships between skin permeability and skin sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Vinicius M.; Muratov, Eugene; Fourches, Denis; Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Andrade, Carolina H.; Tropsha, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Skin permeability is widely considered to be mechanistically implicated in chemically-induced skin sensitization. Although many chemicals have been identified as skin sensitizers, there have been very few reports analyzing the relationships between molecular structure and skin permeability of sensitizers and non-sensitizers. The goals of this study were to: (i) compile, curate, and integrate the largest publicly available dataset of chemicals studied for their skin permeability; (ii) develop and rigorously validate QSAR models to predict skin permeability; and (iii) explore the complex relationships between skin sensitization and skin permeability. Based on the largest publicly available dataset compiled in this study, we found no overall correlation between skin permeability and skin sensitization. In addition, cross-species correlation coefficient between human and rodent permeability data was found to be as low as R2=0.44. Human skin permeability models based on the random forest method have been developed and validated using OECD-compliant QSAR modeling workflow. Their external accuracy was high (Q2ext = 0.73 for 63% of external compounds inside the applicability domain). The extended analysis using both experimentally-measured and QSAR-imputed data still confirmed the absence of any overall concordance between skin permeability and skin sensitization. This observation suggests that chemical modifications that affect skin permeability should not be presumed a priori to modulate the sensitization potential of chemicals. The models reported herein as well as those developed in the companion paper on skin sensitization suggest that it may be possible to rationally design compounds with the desired high skin permeability but low sensitization potential. PMID:25560673

  16. Frontotemporal dementia with Pick-type histology associated with Q336R mutation in the tau gene.

    PubMed

    Pickering-Brown, S M; Baker, M; Nonaka, T; Ikeda, K; Sharma, S; Mackenzie, J; Simpson, S A; Moore, J W; Snowden, J S; de Silva, R; Revesz, T; Hasegawa, M; Hutton, M; Mann, D M A

    2004-06-01

    In this report, we describe the clinical and neuropathological features of a case of familial frontotemporal dementia (FTD), with onset at 58 years of age and disease duration of 10 years, associated with a novel mutation, Q336R, in the tau gene (tau). In vitro studies concerning the properties of tau proteins bearing this mutation, with respect to microtubule assembly and tau filament aggregation, are reported. Clinically, the patient showed alterations in memory, language and executive functions and marked behavioural change consistent with FTD, although the extent of memory impairment was more than is characteristic of FTD. At autopsy, there was degeneration of the frontal and temporal lobes associated with the presence of hyperphosphorylated tau proteins in swollen (Pick) cells and intraneuronal inclusions (Pick bodies). By immunohistochemistry, the Pick bodies contained both 3-repeat and 4-repeat tau proteins although, because no fresh tissues were available for analysis, the exact isoform composition of the aggregated tau proteins could not be determined. Neurons within frontal cortex contained neurofibrillary tangle-like structures, comprising both straight and twisted tubules, or Pick bodies in which the filaments were short and randomly orientated. In vitro, and in common with other tau missense mutations, Q336R caused an increase in tau fibrillogenesis. However, in contrast to most other tau missense mutations, Q336R increased, not decreased, the ability of mutant tau to promote microtubule assembly. Nonetheless, this latter functional change may likewise be detrimental to neuronal function by inducing a compensatory phosphorylation that may yield increased intracellular hyperphosphorylated tau species that are also liable to fibrillize. We believe the mutation is indeed pathogenic and disease causing and not simply a coincidental rare and benign polymorphism. Since this mutation is segregating with the FTD clinical and neuropathological phenotype, it has

  17. [Factitious disorders in dermatology: Value of the dissociative state concept].

    PubMed

    Fekih-Romdhane, F; Homri, W; Labbane, R

    2016-03-01

    Factitious disorders in dermatology consist of intentionally self-inflicted skin lesions that vary in morphology and distribution and occur on surfaces readily accessible to the patient's hands. They tend to be a chronic condition that waxes and wanes according to the circumstances of the patient's life. Patient management poses a particular challenge to the clinician and the prognosis is considered poor. The aetiopathogenesis of factitious disorders in dermatology is not completely understood. We present a case in which we suggested the occurrence of factitious behaviour during a dissociative state, and we briefly describe our diagnostic and therapeutic approach. A 48-year-old unemployed woman was referred to our department of psychiatry by her dermatologist for suspected factitious disorder. The patient was diagnosed with diabetes mellitus type 1 and had been hospitalized repeatedly for confirmed diabetic ketoacidosis. The onset of the disease was related to marital discord with her spouse. Numerous skin lesions had appeared on her face, arms, legs, neck and back. These lesions resulted in multiple hospital admissions and in amputation of her left leg. The condition had worsened considerably after her separation from her husband. During the initial conversation, the patient was unable to provide a clear history of the disease. She denied any knowledge of the circumstances in which these skin lesions appeared, and she did not admit self-infliction. Her mood was depressed and her speech was slow. We suspected that our patient was herself causing her skin lesions while in a dissociative state. Several arguments militate in favour of our hypothesis, particularly her history of childhood maltreatment and the association of traumatic life events with simultaneous deterioration of the skin. The explanation of the dissociative mechanism helped us to strengthen the therapeutic relationship. Within a few days, we noted a slow regression of the lesions, but the patient was

  18. Type a niemann-pick disease. Description of three cases with delayed myelination.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, A; Sibilio, M; Caranci, F; Bartiromo, F; Taurisano, R; Balivo, F; Melis, D; Parenti, G; Cirillo, S; Elefante, R; Brunetti, A

    2008-06-03

    We describe three patients with type A Niemann-Pick disease (NPD-A). NPD-A is an autosomal recessive neuronal storage disease classified among the sphingolipidoses, characterized by accumulation of sphingomyelin in various tissues and in the brain. Magnetic Resonance imaging (MRI) of our three patients showed a marked delay of myelination with frontal atrophy. Few descriptions of this MRI pattern of delayed myelination have been published to date.

  19. Salt water and skin interactions: new lines of evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbajo, Jose Manuel; Maraver, Francisco

    2018-04-01

    In Health Resort Medicine, both balneotherapy and thalassotherapy, salt waters and their peloids, or mud products are mainly used to treat rheumatic and skin disorders. These therapeutic agents act jointly via numerous mechanical, thermal, and chemical mechanisms. In this review, we examine a new mechanism of action specific to saline waters. When topically administered, this water rich in sodium and chloride penetrates the skin where it is able to modify cellular osmotic pressure and stimulate nerve receptors in the skin via cell membrane ion channels known as "Piezo" proteins. We describe several models of cutaneous adsorption/desorption and penetration of dissolved ions in mineral waters through the skin (osmosis and cell volume mechanisms in keratinocytes) and examine the role of these resources in stimulating cutaneous nerve receptors. The actions of salt mineral waters are mediated by a mechanism conditioned by the concentration and quality of their salts involving cellular osmosis-mediated activation/inhibition of cell apoptotic or necrotic processes. In turn, this osmotic mechanism modulates the recently described mechanosensitive piezoelectric channels.

  20. Skin, fascias, and scars: symptoms and systemic connections

    PubMed Central

    Bordoni, Bruno; Zanier, Emiliano

    2014-01-01

    Every element or cell in the human body produces substances that communicate and respond in an autocrine or paracrine mode, consequently affecting organs and structures that are seemingly far from each other. The same also applies to the skin. In fact, when the integrity of the skin has been altered, or when its healing process is disturbed, it becomes a source of symptoms that are not merely cutaneous. The skin is an organ, and similar to any other structure, it has different functions in addition to connections with the central and peripheral nervous system. This article examines pathological responses produced by scars, analyzing definitions and differences. At the same time, it considers the subcutaneous fascias, as this connective structure is altered when there is a discontinuous cutaneous surface. The consequence is an ample symptomatology, which is not limited to the body area where the scar is located, such as a postural or trigeminal disorder. PMID:24403836