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Sample records for skin topically applied

  1. Topically applied hypericin exhibits skin penetrability on nude mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhuo-Heng; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Hou, Min; Yang, Tao; Lu, Lai-Chun; Xu, Xiao-Yu

    2018-06-13

    Hypericin, a powerful natural photosensitizer in photodynamic therapy (PDT), is suitable for treating skin diseases involving excess capillary proliferation. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the skin penetrability of topically applied hypericin, expecting a reduced risk of prolonged skin photosensitivity, which often occurs after systemic administration. Firstly, the Franz diffusion cell assays were performed to evaluate the penetration effects of different enhancers, including menthol, propylene glycol, camphanone, azone, and carbamide. In view of above evaluation results, we selected menthol as the enhancer in the subsequent in vivo studies. The setting groups were as follows: the blank control group, the light-exposure control group, the gel-base control group, the hypericin gel group, and a hypericin gel-containing menthol group. Except for the blank control, all other animals were irradiated by a LED light. Then, fluorescence microscopy was performed to examine the distribution of hypericin in the skin of nude mouse. Macroscopic and microscopic analyses were also carried out to detect pathological changes in the skin after topical hypericin-PDT treatment. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the expression change of PECAM-1. As shown in the results, menthol facilitated hypericin penetrate the skin of nude mice most. The results of in vivo assays revealed that hypericin penetrated nude mouse skin, spread to the dermis, and resulted in obvious photosensitivity reaction on the dermal capillaries. Moreover, skin injured by the photosensitive reaction induced by hypericin-PDT treatment was replaced by normal skin within 7 days. We concluded that topical applied hypericin could penetrate nude mouse skin well and has a great potential in PDT treatment of skin diseases.

  2. Skin permeation and antioxidant efficacy of topically applied resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Cristina; Martí, M; Barba, C; Carrer, V; Rubio, L; Coderch, L

    2017-08-01

    The permeation of resveratrol was assessed by in vitro and in vivo experiments 24 h after topical administration. The in vitro profile of resveratrol was assessed by Raman spectroscopy. Human skin permeation was analysed in vivo by the tape stripping method with the progressive removal of the stratum corneum layers using adhesive tape strips. Moreover, the free radical scavenging activity of resveratrol after its topical application was determined using the DPPH assay. The Raman spectra indicated that the topically applied resveratrol penetrates deep into the skin. The results showed high amounts of resveratrol in the different stratum corneum layers close to the surface and a constant lower amount in the upper layers of the viable epidermis. The concentration of resveratrol present in the outermost stratum corneum layers was obtained by tape stripping after in vivo application. The results demonstrated that resveratrol mainly remained in the human stratum corneum layers. After topical application, resveratrol maintained its antiradical activity. The antioxidant efficacy of the compound was higher in the inner layers of the stratum corneum. As these results have demonstrated, topically applied resveratrol reinforces the antioxidant system of the stratum corneum and provides an efficient means of increasing the tissue levels of antioxidants in the human epidermis.

  3. Topically Applied Carvedilol Attenuates Solar Ultraviolet Radiation Induced Skin Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kevin M; Liang, Sherry; Yeung, Steven; Oiyemhonlan, Etuajie; Cleveland, Kristan H; Parsa, Cyrus; Orlando, Robert; Meyskens, Frank L; Andresen, Bradley T; Huang, Ying

    2017-10-01

    In previous studies, the β-blocker carvedilol inhibited EGF-induced epidermal cell transformation and chemical carcinogen-induced mouse skin hyperplasia. As exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation leads to skin cancer, the present study examined whether carvedilol can prevent UV-induced carcinogenesis. Carvedilol absorbs UV like a sunscreen; thus, to separate pharmacological from sunscreen effects, 4-hydroxycarbazole (4-OHC), which absorbs UV to the same degree as carvedilol, served as control. JB6 P + cells, an established epidermal model for studying tumor promotion, were used for evaluating the effect of carvedilol on UV-induced neoplastic transformation. Both carvedilol and 4-OHC (1 μmol/L) blocked transformation induced by chronic UV (15 mJ/cm 2 ) exposure for 8 weeks. However, EGF-mediated transformation was inhibited by only carvedilol but not by 4-OHC. Carvedilol (1 and 5 μmol/L), but not 4-OHC, attenuated UV-induced AP-1 and NF-κB luciferase reporter activity, suggesting a potential anti-inflammatory activity. In a single-dose UV (200 mJ/cm 2 )-induced skin inflammation mouse model, carvedilol (10 μmol/L), applied topically after UV exposure, reduced skin hyperplasia and the levels of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, IL1β, IL6, and COX-2 in skin. In SKH-1 mice exposed to gradually increasing levels of UV (50-150 mJ/cm 2 ) three times a week for 25 weeks, topical administration of carvedilol (10 μmol/L) after UV exposure increased tumor latency compared with control (week 18 vs. 15), decreased incidence and multiplicity of squamous cell carcinomas, while 4-OHC had no effect. These data suggest that carvedilol has a novel chemopreventive activity and topical carvedilol following UV exposure may be repurposed for preventing skin inflammation and cancer. Cancer Prev Res; 10(10); 598-606. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Effect of topically applied lipids on surfactant-irritated skin.

    PubMed

    Lodén, M; Andersson, A C

    1996-02-01

    Moisturizers are used daily by many people to alleviate symptoms of dry skin. All of them contain lipids. It has been suggested that topically applied lipids may interfere with the structure and function of the permeability barrier. The influence of a single application of nine different lipids on normal skin and skin irritated by sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) was studied in 21 healthy subjects. Parameters assessed were visible signs of irritation, and objectively measured cutaneous blood flow and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). The substances tested were hydrocortisone, petrolatum, fish oil, borage oil, sunflower seed oil, canola oil, shea butter, and fractions of unsaponifiable lipids from canola oil and shea butter. Water was included as a control. On normal skin, no significant differences in the effects of the test substances were found, whereas significant differences were observed when they were applied to SLS-irritated skin. The visible signs of SLS-induced irritation were significantly less pronounced after treatment with the sterol-enriched fraction from canola oil than after treatment with water. This fraction, and hydrocortisone, reduced cutaneous blood flow. Furthermore, application of hydrocortisone, canola oil, and its sterol-enriched fraction, resulted in significantly lower TEWL than with water. The other lipids had no effect on the degree of irritation. In conclusion, lipids commonly used in moisturizers may reduce skin reactions to irritants. Previous studies have shown that, in barrier perturbed skin, the synthesis of sterols is increased. The observed effects of canola oil and its fraction of unsaponifiable lipids on SLS-induced irritation suggest the possibility that they assisted the skin in supplying the damaged barrier with adequate lipids.

  5. Contribution of the Hair Follicular Pathway to Total Skin Permeation of Topically Applied and Exposed Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Mohd, Fadli; Todo, Hiroaki; Yoshimoto, Masato; Yusuf, Eddy; Sugibayashi, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Generally, the blood and skin concentration profiles and steady-state skin concentration of topically applied or exposed chemicals can be calculated from the in vitro skin permeation profile. However, these calculation methods are particularly applicable to chemicals for which the main pathway is via the stratum corneum. If the contribution of hair follicles to the total skin permeation of chemicals can be obtained in detail, their blood and skin concentrations can be more precisely predicted. In the present study, the contribution of the hair follicle pathway to the skin permeation of topically applied or exposed chemicals was calculated from the difference between their permeability coefficients through skin with and without hair follicle plugging, using an in vitro skin permeation experiment. The obtained results reveal that the contribution of the hair follicle pathway can be predicted by using the chemicals’ lipophilicity. For hydrophilic chemicals (logarithm of n-octanol/water partition coefficient (log Ko/w) < 0), a greater reduction of permeation due to hair follicle plugging was observed than for lipophilic chemicals (log Ko/w ≥ 0). In addition, the ratio of this reduction was decreased with an increase in log Ko/w. This consideration of the hair follicle pathway would be helpful to investigate the efficacy and safety of chemicals after topical application or exposure to them because skin permeation and disposition should vary among skins in different body sites due to differences in the density of hair follicles. PMID:27854289

  6. Contribution of the Hair Follicular Pathway to Total Skin Permeation of Topically Applied and Exposed Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Mohd, Fadli; Todo, Hiroaki; Yoshimoto, Masato; Yusuf, Eddy; Sugibayashi, Kenji

    2016-11-15

    Generally, the blood and skin concentration profiles and steady-state skin concentration of topically applied or exposed chemicals can be calculated from the in vitro skin permeation profile. However, these calculation methods are particularly applicable to chemicals for which the main pathway is via the stratum corneum. If the contribution of hair follicles to the total skin permeation of chemicals can be obtained in detail, their blood and skin concentrations can be more precisely predicted. In the present study, the contribution of the hair follicle pathway to the skin permeation of topically applied or exposed chemicals was calculated from the difference between their permeability coefficients through skin with and without hair follicle plugging, using an in vitro skin permeation experiment. The obtained results reveal that the contribution of the hair follicle pathway can be predicted by using the chemicals' lipophilicity. For hydrophilic chemicals (logarithm of n -octanol/water partition coefficient (log K o/w ) < 0), a greater reduction of permeation due to hair follicle plugging was observed than for lipophilic chemicals (log K o/w ≥ 0). In addition, the ratio of this reduction was decreased with an increase in log K o/w . This consideration of the hair follicle pathway would be helpful to investigate the efficacy and safety of chemicals after topical application or exposure to them because skin permeation and disposition should vary among skins in different body sites due to differences in the density of hair follicles.

  7. Estimation of skin concentrations of topically applied lidocaine at each depth profile.

    PubMed

    Oshizaka, Takeshi; Kikuchi, Keisuke; Kadhum, Wesam R; Todo, Hiroaki; Hatanaka, Tomomi; Wierzba, Konstanty; Sugibayashi, Kenji

    2014-11-20

    Skin concentrations of topically administered compounds need to be considered in order to evaluate their efficacies and toxicities. This study investigated the relationship between the skin permeation and concentrations of compounds, and also predicted the skin concentrations of these compounds using their permeation parameters. Full-thickness skin or stripped skin from pig ears was set on a vertical-type diffusion cell, and lidocaine (LID) solution was applied to the stratum corneum (SC) in order to determine in vitro skin permeability. Permeation parameters were obtained based on Fick's second law of diffusion. LID concentrations at each depth of the SC were measured using tape-stripping. Concentration-depth profiles were obtained from viable epidermis and dermis (VED) by analyzing horizontal sections. The corresponding skin concentration at each depth was calculated based on Fick's law using permeation parameters and then compared with the observed value. The steady state LID concentrations decreased linearly as the site became deeper in SC or VED. The calculated concentration-depth profiles of the SC and VED were almost identical to the observed profiles. The compound concentration at each depth could be easily predicted in the skin using diffusion equations and skin permeation data. Thus, this method was considered to be useful for promoting the efficient preparation of topically applied drugs and cosmetics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Laser-induced thermal coagulation enhances skin uptake of topically applied compounds.

    PubMed

    Haak, C S; Hannibal, J; Paasch, U; Anderson, R R; Haedersdal, M

    2017-08-01

    Ablative fractional laser (AFL) generates microchannels in skin surrounded by a zone of thermally altered tissue, termed the coagulation zone (CZ). The thickness of CZ varies according to applied wavelength and laser settings. It is well-known that AFL channels facilitate uptake of topically applied compounds, but the importance of CZ is unknown. Franz Cells were used to investigate skin uptake and permeation of fluorescent labeled polyethylene glycols (PEGs) with mean molecular weights (MW) of 350, 1,000, and 5,000 Da. Microchannels with CZ thicknesses ranging from 0 to 80 μm were generated from micro-needles (0 μm, CZ-0), and AFL (10,600 nm) applied to -80°C deep frozen skin (20 μm, CZ-20) and skin equilibrated to room temperature (80 μm, CZ-80). Channels penetrated into similar mid-dermal skin depths of 600-700 μm, and number of channels per skin area was similar. At 4 hours incubation, skin uptake of PEGs into CZ and dermis was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy at specific skin depths of 150, 400, and 1,000 μm and the transcutaneous permeation was quantified by fluorescence of receptor fluids. Overall, the highest uptake of PEGs was reached through microchannels surrounded by CZ compared to channels with no CZ (CZ-20 and CZ-80>CZ-0).The thickness of CZ affected PEG distribution in skin. A thin CZ-20 favored significantly higher mean fluorescence intensities inside CZ areas compared to CZ-80 (PEG 350, 1,000, and 5,000; P < 0.001). In dermis, the uptake through CZ-20 channels was significantly higher than through CZ-80 and CZ-0 at all skin depths (PEG 350, 1,000 and 5,000, 150-1,000 μm; P < 0.001). Correspondingly, transcutaneous permeation of PEG 350 was highest in CZ-20 compared to CZ-80 and CZ-0 samples (P < 0.001). Permeation of larger molecules (PEG 1,000 and PEG 5,000) was generally low. Uptake of topical compounds is higher through microchannels surrounded by a CZ than without a CZ. Moreover, CZ thickness influences

  9. In vivo measurement of human skin absorption of topically applied substances by a photoacoustic technique.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Juárez, G; Vargas-Luna, M; Córdova, T; Varela, J B; Bernal-Alvarado, J J; Sosa, M

    2002-08-01

    A photoacoustic technique is used for studying topically applied substance absorption in human skin. The proposed method utilizes a double-chamber PA cell. The absorption determination was obtained through the measurement of the thermal effusivity of the binary system substance-skin. The theoretical model assumes that the effective thermal effusivity of the binary system corresponds to that of a two-phase system. Experimental applications of the method employed different substances of topical application in different parts of the body of a volunteer. The method is demonstrated to be an easily used non-invasive technique for dermatology research. The relative concentrations as a function of time of substances such as ketoconazol and sunscreen were determined by fitting a sigmoidal function to the data, while an exponential function corresponds to the best fit for the set of data for nitrofurazona, vaseline and vaporub. The time constants associated with the rates of absorption, were found to vary in the range between 10 and 58 min, depending on the substance and the part of the body.

  10. Effect of topically applied minoxidil on the survival of rat dorsal skin flap.

    PubMed

    Gümüş, Nazım; Odemiş, Yusuf; Yılmaz, Sarper; Tuncer, Ersin

    2012-12-01

    Flap necrosis still is a challenging problem in reconstructive surgery that results in irreversible tissue loss. This study evaluated the effect of topically applied minoxidil on angiogenesis and survival of a caudally based dorsal rat skin flap. For this study, 24 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups of eight each. A caudally based dorsal skin flap with the dimensions of 9 × 3 cm was raised. After elevation of the flaps, they were sutured back into their initial positions. In group 1 (control group), 1 ml of isotonic saline was applied topically to the flaps of all the animals for 14 days. In group 2, minoxidil solution was spread uniformly over the flap surface for 7 days after the flap elevation. In group 3, minoxidil solution was applied topically to the flap surface during a 14-day period. On day 7 after the flap elevation, the rats were killed. The average area of flap survival was determined for each rat. Subdermal vascular architecture and angiogenesis were evaluated under a light microscope after two full-thickness skin biopsy specimens had been obtained from the midline of the flaps. The lowest flap survival rate was observed in group 1, and no difference was observed between groups 1 and 2. Compared with groups 1 and 2, group 3 had a significantly increased percentage of flap survival (P < 0.05). Intense and moderate angiogenesis also was observed respectively at the proximal and distal areas of the flaps in group 3. The results of this experiment seem to show that the early effect of minoxidil is vasodilation and that prolonged use before flap elevation leads to angiogenesis, increasing flap viability. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  11. Analysis of photodynamic therapy applied to skin disorders by a topical photosensitizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanjul-Vélez, F.; Romanov, O. G.; López-Escobar, M.; Rodriguez-Colmenares, M. A.; Ortega-Quijano, N.; Arce-Diego, J. L.

    2008-11-01

    Optical treatment of pathological tissues comprises techniques like Low Intensity Laser Treatment (LILT) or Photodynamic Therapy (PDT). PDT consists on the inoculation of a photosensitizer in the tissue, which tends to be accumulated in cancerous cells, and on the posterior optical radiation of the area. The photosensitizer, that can be topical or systemic, is excited and cell necrosis is provoked. The collateral harmful effects of other destructive techniques, like radiotherapy or chemotherapy, are avoided with PDT. PDT can also be used as a complementary technique of conventional excisional surgical operations. The application of PDT to skin disorders is straightforward due to the fact that it is an external and accessible tissue. In this work, we analyze the application of PDT to several skin pathologies and the results obtained, by means of mainly the usage of MetvixR as a topical photosensitizer and with an optical source in the range of 635 nm. The analysis includes a predictive model of the PDT process, based on an optical propagation equation and a photosensitizer degradation approach that provides an estimation of tissue destruction.

  12. In vitro penetration through the skin layers of topically applied glucocorticoids.

    PubMed

    Carrer, Victor; Alonso, Cristina; Oliver, Marc Adrià; Coderch, Luisa

    2018-05-22

    Corticoids are actives widely used in the treatment of skin diseases. This work aims to study the penetration of three corticoids (betamethasone, clobetasol and flurandrenolide), their relationship with their Log D values and the effects of the vehicles. The three compounds were applied on a Franz-type diffusion cell in propylene glycol solution and their respective commercial creams and ointments. The active amounts found in the stratum corneum, epidermal and dermal layers of the skin were investigated. Their diffusions were greatly affected by the formulation, moreover higher amounts of substance in the epidermis and dermis were detected in ointments than in creams. The enhancement effect of propylene glycol was also observed. Moreover, the differences between the three substances could be related to their lipophilicity, molecular structure and molecular weight. The more hydrophobic compounds (clobetasol and betamethasone) are present in higher amounts in the epidermis and dermis, while the hydrophilic compound (flurandrenolide) is mostly present in the receptor fluid. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Monitoring the diffusion of topically applied drugs through human and pig skin using fiber evanescent wave spectroscopy (FEWS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spielvogel, Juergen; Reuter, Susanne; Hibst, Raimund; Katzir, Abraham

    1999-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine if the diffusion process of topically applied drugs can reliably be monitored using FEWS in respect to timely distribution of the drug and chemical alterations of the drug during the diffusion process. In order to do this, recently excised human and pig skin was cut into slices of different thickness while also taking into account the different layers skin is composed of (e.g. Dermis, Stratum Corneum). These layers were first characterized spectroscopically and optically using a microscope before the drug itself was applied topically. The diffusion process was monitored by placing the sample on an ATR (attenuated total reflection) element. Time series from 1 - 4 hours were taken and the characteristic absorption bands of the drug were analyzed in the mid-infrared. By using a first order approach on Fick's diffusion equations (skin assumed to be homogeneous) we were able to fit these experimental values and to obtain diffusion constants, e.g. for water at 3376 cm-1 in the order of 10-5 cm2/s, which compare well with previously published values. The results indicate that this technique can be applied to the prediction of transdermal drug delivery.

  14. Evaluation of the skin blanching of topically applied steroids using a chroma meter in animals.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Hiroshi; Fujino, Konomi; Todo, Hiroaki; Sugibayashi, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the utility of animal skins for determining the skin blanching of steroids. A Chroma Meter was used to determine the skin blanching of steroids. Hydrophilic creams containing clobetasol propionate (CP) or prednisolone (PS) were selected as model steroid formulations. Skin blanching, a*, was determined using a Chroma Meter after the application of 0.005, 0.01, 0.1, or 1.0% CP or PS hydrophilic cream to the back skin of guinea pigs and hairless rats for 24 h. The relationships between Δa*(6h) and the skin concentrations of the steroids were determined at 6 h after removal of the cream. Δa*(6h) was markedly decreased after the application of CP hydrophilic cream to guinea pigs, and a good linear relationship was observed between Δa*(6h) and skin concentration (r=0.98). In contrast, no relationship was observed between these parameters after the application of CP cream to the hairless rats. Although skin blanching was observed after PS cream application in guinea pigs, no relationship was observed between Δa*(6h) and skin concentration of PS in each animal. These results suggest that the skin blanching effect of CP in guinea pigs is greater than that of PS and that its blanching effect in guinea pigs was stronger than that in hairless rats. Guinea pigs were found to be a good animal model for determining the skin blanching produced by steroid creams. In addition, Chroma Meters can be effectively used in skin vasoconstrictive tests in guinea pigs.

  15. The effect of topically applied tissue expanders on radial forearm skin pliability: a prospective self-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of pre-operatively applied topical tissue expansion tapes have previously demonstrated increased rates of primary closure of radial forearm free flap donor sites. This is associated with a reduced cost of care as well as improved cosmetic appearance of the donor site. Unfortunately, little is known about the biomechanical changes these tapes cause in the forearm skin. This study tested the hypothesis that the use of topically applied tissue expansion tapes will result in an increase in forearm skin pliability in patients undergoing radial forearm free flap surgery. Methods Twenty-four patients scheduled for head and neck surgery requiring a radial forearm free flap were enrolled in this prospective self-controlled observational study. DynaClose tissue expansion tapes (registered Canica Design Inc, Almonte, Canada) were applied across the forearm one week pre-operatively. Immediately prior to surgery, the skin pliability of the dorsal and volar forearm sites were measured with the Cutometer MPA 580 (registered Courage-Khazaka Electronic GmbH, Cologne, Germany) on both the treatment and contralateral (control) arms. Paired t-tests were used to compare treatment to control at both sites, with p < 0.025 defined as statistically significant. Results There was a statistically significant increase in pliability by a mean of 0.05 mm (SD = 0.09 mm) between treatment and control arms on the dorsal site (95% CI [0.01, 0.08], p = 0.018). This corresponded to an 8% increase in pliability. In contrast, the volar site did not show a statistically significant difference between treatment and control (mean difference = 0.04 mm, SD = 0.20 mm, 95% CI [−0.04, 0.12], p = 0.30). Conclusions This result provides evidence that the pre-operative application of topical tissue expansion tapes produces measurable changes in skin biomechanical properties. The location of this change on the dorsal forearm is consistent with the method of tape

  16. Standardization of an in vitro Model for Evaluating the Bioavailability of Topically Applied Compounds on Damaged Skin: Application to Sunscreen Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jacques-Jamin, Carine; Jeanjean-Miquel, Corinne; Domergue, Anaïs; Bessou-Touya, Sandrine; Duplan, Hélène

    2017-01-01

    Information is lacking on the dermal penetration of topically applied formulations on in vitro skin models, under conditions where the stratum corneum (SC) is damaged. Therefore, we have developed a standardized in vitro barrier-disrupted skin model using tape stripping. Different tape stripping conditions were evaluated using histology, transepidermal water loss, infrared densitometry, and caffeine absorption. The effects of tape stripping were comparable using pig and human skin. Optimized conditions were used to test the effect of SC damage and UV irradiation on the absorption of an UV filter combination present in a sunscreen. The bioavailability of the filters was extremely low regardless of the extent of skin damage, suggesting bioavailability would not be increased if the consumer applied the sunscreen to sun-damaged skin. This standardized in vitro methodology using pig or human skin for damaged skin will add valuable information for the safety assessment of topically applied products. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. The extent of the uptake of plasmid into the skin determines the immune responses induced by a DNA vaccine applied topically onto the skin

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhen; Chung, Woon-Gye; Sloat, Brian R.; Löhr, Christiane V.; Weiss, Richard; Rodriguez, B. Leticia; Li, Xinran; Cui, Zhengrong

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Non-invasive immunization by applying plasmid DNA topically onto the skin is an attractive immunization approach. However, the immune responses induced are generally weak. Previously, we showed that the antibody responses induced by topical DNA vaccine were significantly enhanced when hair follicles in the application area were induced into anagen (growth) stage by hair plucking. In the present study, we further investigated the mechanism of immune enhancement. Methods Three different methods, hair plucking or treatment with retinoic acid (RA) or O- tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), were used to induce hair follicles into anagen stage before mice were dosed with a β-galactosidase-encoding plasmid, and the specific antibody responses induced were evaluated. Key findings The hair plucking method was more effective at enhancing the resultant antibody responses. Treatment with RA or TPA caused more damages to the skin and induced more severe local inflammations than hair plucking. However, hair plucking was most effective at enhancing the uptake or retention of the DNA in the application area. Conclusions The uptake of plasmid DNA in the application area correlated with the antibody responses induced by a topically applied DNA. PMID:21235583

  18. Imaging bio-distribution of a topically applied dermatological cream on minipig skin using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alex, Aneesh; Chaney, Eric J.; Criley, Jennifer M.; Spillman, Darold R.; Hutchison, Phaedra B.; Li, Joanne; Marjanovic, Marina; Frey, Steve; Cook, Steven; Boppart, Stephen A.; Arp, Zane A.

    2017-02-01

    Currently there is a lack of in vivo techniques to evaluate the spatial bio-distribution of dermal drugs over time without the need to take multiple serial biopsies. To address this gap, we investigated the use of multi-photon optical imaging methods to non-invasively track drug distribution on miniature pig (Species: Sus scrofa, Strain: Göttingen) skin in vivo. Minipig skin is the standard comparative research model to human skin, and is anatomically and functionally similar. We employed fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) to visualize the spatial distribution and residency time of a topically applied experimental dermatological cream. This was made possible by the endogenous fluorescent optical properties of the experimental drug (fluorescence lifetime > 3000 ps). Two different drug formulations were applied on 2 minipigs for 7 consecutive days, with the control creams applied on the contralateral side, followed by 7 days of post-application monitoring using a multi-modal optical imaging system (MPTflex-CARS, JenLab, Germany). FLIM images were obtained from the treated regions 24 hr post-application from day 1 to day 14 that allowed visualization of cellular and sub-cellular features associated with different dermal layers non-invasively to a depth of 200 µm. Five punch biopsies per animal were obtained from the corresponding treated regions between days 8 and 14 for bioanalytical analysis and comparison with results obtained using FLIM. In conclusion, utilization of non-invasive optical biopsy methods for dermal drug evaluation can provide true longitudinal monitoring of drug spatial distribution, remove sampling limitations, and be more time-efficient compared to traditional methods.

  19. Topically applied ZnO nanoparticles suppress allergen induced skin inflammation but induce vigorous IgE production in the atopic dermatitis mouse model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Metal oxide nanoparticles such as ZnO are used in sunscreens as they improve their optical properties against the UV-light that causes dermal damage and skin cancer. However, the hazardous properties of the particles used as UV-filters in the sunscreens and applied to the skin have remained uncharacterized. Methods Here we investigated whether different sized ZnO particles would be able to penetrate injured skin and injured allergic skin in the mouse atopic dermatitis model after repeated topical application of ZnO particles. Nano-sized ZnO (nZnO) and bulk-sized ZnO (bZnO) were applied to mechanically damaged mouse skin with or without allergen/superantigen sensitization. Allergen/superantigen sensitization evokes local inflammation and allergy in the skin and is used as a disease model of atopic dermatitis (AD). Results Our results demonstrate that only nZnO is able to reach into the deep layers of the allergic skin whereas bZnO stays in the upper layers of both damaged and allergic skin. In addition, both types of particles diminish the local skin inflammation induced in the mouse model of AD; however, nZnO has a higher potential to suppress the local effects. In addition, especially nZnO induces systemic production of IgE antibodies, evidence of allergy promoting adjuvant properties for topically applied nZnO. Conclusions These results provide new hazard characterization data about the metal oxide nanoparticles commonly used in cosmetic products and provide new insights into the dermal exposure and hazard assessment of these materials in injured skin. PMID:25123235

  20. Systemic and topical drugs for aging skin.

    PubMed

    Kockaert, Michael; Neumann, Martino

    2003-08-01

    The rejuvenation of aging skin is a common desire for our patients, and several options are available. Although there are some systemic methods, the most commonly used treatments for rejuvenation of the skin are applied topically. The most frequently used topical drugs include retinoids, alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs), vitamin C, beta hydroxy acids, anti-oxidants, and tocopherol. Combination therapy is frequently used; particularly common is the combination of retinoids and AHAs. Systemic therapies available include oral retinoids and vitamin C. Other available therapies such as chemical peels, face-lifts, collagen, and botulinum toxin injections are not discussed in this article.

  1. Simplifying Skin Disease Diagnosis with Topical Nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Yeo, David C; Xu, Chenjie

    2018-05-01

    A new study published in the journal Nature Biomedical Engineering 1 documents a novel diagnostic technology that exploits topically applied nanotechnology to detect skin tissue biomarkers for diagnosis. This concept is demonstrated by noninvasively imaging connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) mRNA in abnormal scar cells, whole tissue, and animal models. In this commentary, we highlight the main findings and discuss their implications. Successful implementation in the clinic could give rise to self-applied, biopsy-free diagnostic technology and significantly reduce healthcare burden. Crucially, noninvasive visualization of disease biomarkers, mobile device signal acquisition, and Internet-enabled transmission could significantly transform the diagnosis of skin disease and other superficial tissues.

  2. Effects of topically applied rapamycin and mycophenolic acid on TNCB-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kyung Eun; Lee, Ye Jin; Ryu, Yun Hee; Kim, Jung Eun; Kim, Hei Sung; Kim, Beom Joon; Kang, Hoon; Park, Young Min

    2015-06-01

    Rapamycin (RPM) and mycophenolic acid (MPA) are immunosuppressive drugs approved for use in preventing transplant rejection. These drugs have also been used in the field of dermatology as glucocorticoid sparing agents for autoimmune and inflammatory disorders such as atopic dermatitis (AD). The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of topically applied RPM and/or MPA on AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice. RPM (0.04% - 4%), MPA (0.2% - 5%), and formulations of both agents at various ratios were administrated topically to NC/Nga mice with 2-chloro-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNCB)-induced AD-like skin lesions. The therapeutic effects of topical RPM, MPA, and the mixed formulations in TNCB-treated NC/Nga mice were assessed by measuring skin severity scores, ear thickness, and histological changes in the lesioned skin including mast cell count and total serum IgE levels. Expression of interleukin (IL)-4, and interferon (IFN)-γ was also assessed. Topical 4% RPM and/or 1% MPA treatment significantly improved clinical signs of AD such as erythema, edema, excoriation, and dryness on day 29 (P<0.05). In addition, 4% RPM, 1% MPA, and the mixed formulations significantly decreased epidermal thickening, dermal edema, and cellular infiltration into the dermis compared with the vehicle. RPM (4%) and/or MPA (1%) significantly reduced the expression of IL-4 and IFN-γ mRNA and protein levels compared with the vehicle (P<0.05). No significant change in the levels of total serum IgE was induced by topical 4% RPM and/or 1% MPA. The present results demonstrated that topical 4% RPM and/or 1% MPA improved TNCB-induced AD-like lesions of NC/Nga mice by suppressing expression of Th2-related cytokines (IL-4) and Th1-related cytokines (IFN-γ). These findings suggest that RPM and/or MPA may be promising topical therapeutic candidates for the treatment of AD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of skin barrier disruption on immune responses to topically applied cross-reacting material, CRM(197), of diphtheria toxin.

    PubMed

    Godefroy, S; Peyre, M; Garcia, N; Muller, S; Sesardic, D; Partidos, C D

    2005-08-01

    The high accessibility of the skin and the presence of immunocompetent cells in the epidermis makes this surface an attractive route for needle-free administration of vaccines. However, the lining of the skin by the stratum corneum is a major obstacle to vaccine delivery. In this study we examined the effect of skin barrier disruption on the immune responses to the cross-reacting material CRM(197), a nontoxic mutant of diphtheria toxin (DTx) that is considered as a vaccine candidate. Application of CRM(197), together with cholera toxin (CT), onto the tape-stripped skin of mice elicited antibody responses that had anti-DTx neutralizing activity. Vaccine delivery onto mildly ablated skin or intact skin did not elicit any detectable anti-CRM(197) antibodies. Mice immunized with CRM(197) alone onto the tape-stripped skin mounted a vigorous antigen-specific proliferative response. In contrast, the induction of cellular immunity after CRM(197) deposition onto mildly ablated or intact skin was adjuvant dependent. Furthermore, epidermal cells were activated and underwent apoptosis that was more pronounced when the stratum corneum was removed by tape stripping. Overall, these findings highlight the potential for transcutaneous delivery of CRM(197) and establish a correlation between the degree of barrier disruption and levels of antigen-specific immune responses. Moreover, these results provide the first evidence that the development of a transcutaneous immunization strategy for diphtheria, based on simple and practical methods to disrupt the skin barrier, is feasible.

  4. The role of topically applied L-ascorbic acid in ex-vivo examination of burn-injured human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pielesz, Anna; Biniaś, Dorota; Bobiński, Rafał; Sarna, Ewa; Paluch, Jadwiga; Waksmańska, Wioletta

    2017-10-01

    Wound treatment and healing is complex and is comprised of an elaborate set of processes including cellular, spectroscopic and biochemical ones as well as the ;reaction; of local tissue to thermal injury. Vitamin C as L-ascorbic acid (LA) prevents injurious effects of oxidants because it reduces reactive oxygen species to stable molecules, it becomes oxidized to the short-lived ascorbyl radical. As a result, antioxidant treatment may contribute to minimizing injury in burn patients. The aim of this study is to assess changes in molecular structure of collagen extracted from human epidermis burn wound scab during incubation of the epidermis in L-ascorbic acid solution. The study will be performed using FTIR and FT Raman spectroscopies. During this research it was observed that the intensity of Raman peaks increased where healing was being modified by LA. The intensity of the amide III band at 1247 cm- 1 relative to the intensity at 1326 cm- 1 was used to test tissue repair degree at the incision site. FTIR spectra were recorded from frozen specimens of serum modified by LA; an analysis of shifts in the amide I band position was conducted. The appearance of a new band for frozen samples modified by LA was observed around 1149-1220 cm- 1. The above conclusions confirmed the creation of hydrogen bonds between Nsbnd H stretch and Cdbnd O. Samples being incubated in solutions of L-ascorbic acid demonstrated the absence of electrophoretic bands of albumin. Alterations in the surface of the skin incubated in L-ascorbic acid were investigated with the use of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). A decrease in external symptoms of burn injury was noted in the damaged epidermis incubated in L-ascorbic acid.

  5. Topical dissolved oxygen penetrates skin: model and method.

    PubMed

    Roe, David F; Gibbins, Bruce L; Ladizinsky, Daniel A

    2010-03-01

    It has been commonly perceived that skin receives its oxygen supply from the internal circulation. However, recent investigations have shown that a significant amount of oxygen may enter skin from the external overlying surface. A method has been developed for measuring the transcutaneous penetration of human skin by oxygen as described herein. This method was used to determine both the depth and magnitude of penetration of skin by topically applied oxygen. An apparatus consisting of human skin samples interposed between a topical oxygen source and a fluid filled chamber that registered changes in dissolved oxygen. Viable human skin samples of variable thicknesses with and without epidermis were used to evaluate the depth and magnitude of oxygen penetration from either topical dissolved oxygen (TDO) or topical gaseous oxygen (TGO) devices. This model effectively demonstrates transcutaneous penetration of topically applied oxygen. Topically applied dissolved oxygen penetrates through >700 microm of human skin. Topically applied oxygen penetrates better though dermis than epidermis, and TDO devices deliver oxygen more effectively than TGO devices. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Determination of the effect of lipophilicity on the in vitro permeability and tissue reservoir characteristics of topically applied solutes in human skin layers.

    PubMed

    Cross, Sheree E; Magnusson, Beatrice M; Winckle, Gareth; Anissimov, Yuri; Roberts, Michael S

    2003-05-01

    In order to establish the relationship between solute lipophilicity and skin penetration (including flux and concentration behavior), we examined the in vitro penetration and membrane concentration of a series of homologous alcohols (C2-C10) applied topically in aqueous solutions to human epidermal, full-thickness, and dermal membranes. The partitioning/distribution of each alcohol between the donor solution, stratum corneum, viable epidermis, dermis, and receptor phase compartments was determined during the penetration process and separately to isolated samples of each tissue type. Maximum flux and permeability coefficients are compared for each membrane and estimates of alcohol diffusivity are made based on flux/concentration data and also the related tissue resistance (the reciprocal of permeability coefficient) for each membrane type. The permeability coefficient increased with increasing lipophilicity to alcohol C8 (octanol) with no further increase for C10 (decanol). Log vehicle:stratum corneum partition coefficients were related to logP, and the concentration of alcohols in each of the tissue layers appeared to increase with lipophilicity. No difference was measured in the diffusivity of smaller more polar alcohols in the three membranes; however, the larger more lipophilic solutes showed slower diffusivity values. The study showed that the dermis may be a much more lipophilic environment than originally believed and that distribution of smaller nonionized solutes into local tissues below a site of topical application may be estimated based on knowledge of their lipophilicity alone.

  7. Topical 5-Fluorouracil associated skin reaction

    PubMed Central

    Chughtai, Komal; Gupta, Rahul; Upadhaya, Sunil

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Topical 5- Fluorouracil (5-FU) is used more frequently to treat actinic keratosis. We are presenting a skin reaction as a side effect of this medication. Treatment for such cases of 5-FU-induced skin reactions is based on proper skin care and treatment of any superimposed infections. Medical providers should be aware of such side effects to provide their patients with proper instructions to avoid complications. PMID:28845237

  8. Topical 5-Fluorouracil associated skin reaction.

    PubMed

    Chughtai, Komal; Gupta, Rahul; Upadhaya, Sunil; Al Hadidi, Samer

    2017-08-01

    Topical 5- Fluorouracil (5-FU) is used more frequently to treat actinic keratosis. We are presenting a skin reaction as a side effect of this medication. Treatment for such cases of 5-FU-induced skin reactions is based on proper skin care and treatment of any superimposed infections. Medical providers should be aware of such side effects to provide their patients with proper instructions to avoid complications.

  9. The effects of topically applied glycolic acid and salicylic acid on ultraviolet radiation-induced erythema, DNA damage and sunburn cell formation in human skin.

    PubMed

    Kornhauser, Andrija; Wei, Rong-Rong; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Coelho, Sergio G; Kaidbey, Kays; Barton, Curtis; Takahashi, Kaoruko; Beer, Janusz Z; Miller, Sharon A; Hearing, Vincent J

    2009-07-01

    alpha-Hydroxy acids (alphaHAs) are reported to reduce signs of aging in the skin and are widely used cosmetic ingredients. Several studies suggest that alphaHA can increase the sensitivity of skin to ultraviolet radiation. More recently, beta-hydroxy acids (betaHAs), or combinations of alphaHA and betaHA have also been incorporated into antiaging skin care products. Concerns have also arisen about increased sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation following use of skin care products containing beta-HA. To determine whether topical treatment with glycolic acid, a representative alphaHA, or with salicylic acid, a betaHA, modifies the short-term effects of solar simulated radiation (SSR) in human skin. Fourteen subjects participated in this study. Three of the four test sites on the mid-back of each subject were treated daily Monday-Friday, for a total of 3.5 weeks, with glycolic acid (10%), salicylic acid (2%), or vehicle (control). The fourth site received no treatment. After the last treatment, each site was exposed to SSR, and shave biopsies from all four sites were obtained. The endpoints evaluated in this study were erythema (assessed visually and instrumentally), DNA damage and sunburn cell formation. Treatment with glycolic acid resulted in increased sensitivity of human skin to SSR, measured as an increase in erythema, DNA damage and sunburn cell formation. Salicylic acid did not produce significant changes in any of these biomarkers. Short-term topical application of glycolic acid in a cosmetic formulation increased the sensitivity of human skin to SSR, while a comparable treatment with salicylic acid did not.

  10. The Effects of Topically Applied Glycolic Acid and Salicylic Acid on Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced Erythema, DNA Damage and Sunburn Cell Formation in Human Skin

    PubMed Central

    Kornhauser, Andrija; Wei, Rong-Rong; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Coelho, Sergio G.; Kaidbey, Kays; Barton, Curtis; Takahashi, Kaoruko; Beer, Janusz Z.; Miller, Sharon A.; Hearing, Vincent J.

    2009-01-01

    Background α-Hydroxy acids (αHA) are reported to reduce signs of aging in the skin and are widely used cosmetic ingredients. Several studies suggest that αHA can increase the sensitivity of skin to ultraviolet radiation. More recently, β-hydroxy acids (βHA), or combinations of αHA and βHA have also been incorporated into antiaging skin care products. Concerns have also arisen about increased sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation following use of skin care products containing β-HA. Objective To determine whether topical treatment with glycolic acid, a representative αHA, or with salicylic acid, a βHA, modifies the short-term effects of solar simulated radiation (SSR) in human skin. Methods Fourteen subjects participated in this study. Three of the four test sites on the mid-back of each subject were treated daily Monday - Friday, for a total of 3.5 weeks, with glycolic acid (10%), salicylic acid (2%), or vehicle (control). The fourth site received no treatment. After the last treatment, each site was exposed to SSR, and shave biopsies from all 4 sites were obtained. The endpoints evaluated in this study were erythema (assessed visually and instrumentally), DNA damage and sunburn cell formation. Results Treatment with glycolic acid resulted in increased sensitivity of human skin to SSR, measured as an increase in erythema, DNA damage and sunburn cell formation. Salicylic acid did not produce significant changes in any of these biomarkers. Conclusions Short-term topical application of glycolic acid in a cosmetic formulation increased the sensitivity of human skin to SSR, while a comparable treatment with salicylic acid did not. PMID:19411163

  11. New formulation of chemical peeling agent: 30% salicylic acid in polyethylene glycol. Absorption and distribution of 14C-salicylic acid in polyethylene glycol applied topically to skin of hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Setsuko; Mitsugi, Koichi; Ichige, Kazumi; Yoshida, Kenji; Sakuma, Tomoko; Ninomiya, Shin-ichi; Sudou, Tetsuji

    2002-04-01

    Salicylic acid is used in chemical peeling procedures. However, they have caused many side effects, even salicylism. To achieve a salicylic acid peeling that would be safer for topical use, we recently developed a new formulation consisting of 30% salicylic acid in polyethylene glycol (PEG) vehicle. In an extension of our previous research, we studied the absorption of 30% salicylic acid labeled with 14C in PEG vehicle applied topically to the intact and damaged skin of male hairless mice. An ointment containing 3 mg salicylic acid in 10 mg vehicle was applied to both groups. In animals with intact skin, 1 h after application the plasma concentration of radioactivity was 1665.1 ng eq/ml, significantly lower than the 21437.6 ng eq/ml observed in mice with damaged skin. Microautoradiograms of intact skin showed that the level of radioactivity in the cornified cell layer was similar at 6 h after application. However, in damaged skin, the overall level of radioactivity showed a decrease by 3 h after application. In the carcasses remaining after the treated intact and damaged skin had been removed, 0.09 and 11.38% of the applied radioactivity remained, respectively. These findings confirm that 30% salicylic acid in PEG vehicle is little absorbed through the intact skin of hairless mice, and suggest that salicylism related to absorption through the skin of quantities of topically applied salicylic acid is not likely to occur in humans with intact skin during chemical peeling with this preparation. This new preparation of 30% salicylic acid in PEG vehicle is believed to be safe for application as a chemical peeling agent.

  12. Reversal of skin aging with topical retinoids.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Bradley A; Unger, Jacob G; Rohrich, Rod J

    2014-04-01

    Topical skin care and its place in plastic surgery today are often overlooked by clinicians formulating a plan for facial rejuvenation. Not only is it important to consider topical skin care as part of comprehensive care, but clinicians should also be educated with the data available in today's literature. This review aims to familiarize the reader with the biological processes of skin aging and evidence-based clinical outcomes afforded by various topical therapies. Furthermore, this review will focus on solar damage, the value of retinoids, and how they can be used in conjunction with forms of treatment such as chemical peel, dermabrasion, and lasers. Finally, guidelines will be provided to help the physician administer appropriate skin care based on the data presented.

  13. Phototoxic effects of topical azelaic acid, benzoyl peroxide and adapalene were not detected when applied immediately before UVB to normal skin.

    PubMed

    Cetiner, Salih; Ilknur, Turna; Ozkan, Sebnem

    2004-01-01

    The enhancing effects on UVB erythema of topical agents applied on sun exposed areas are important due to their increased sunburn risk. Since the lesions in acne vulgaris are seen primarily on the face, the effects of topical agents used in acne treatment on the erythemogenicity of UVB is important. The aim of the present study was to examine whether azelaic acid cream, benzoyl peroxide gel, adapalene gel have the enhancing effects on UVB erythema which are widely used in the topical treatment of acne vulgaris. The minimal erythema dose (MED) was determined with phototest in 30 volunteers and the test was repeated with thin (0.1 cc/25 cm(2)) and thick (0.3 cc/25 cm(2)) azelaic acid cream, benzoyl peroxide gel, adapalene gel. The effects of each agent on MED was determined after 24 hours. MEDs of UVB were unaffected by azelaic acid cream, benzoyl peroxide gel and adapalene gel when applied immediately before irradiation. According to our results azelaic acid, benzoyl peroxide and adapalene do not seem to have enhancing effects on UVB erythema and thus increased sunburn risk.

  14. Topical use of dexpanthenol in skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Ebner, Fritz; Heller, Andreas; Rippke, Frank; Tausch, Irene

    2002-01-01

    Pantothenic acid is essential to normal epithelial function. It is a component of coenzyme A, which serves as a cofactor for a variety of enzyme-catalyzed reactions that are important in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fatty acids, proteins, gluconeogenesis, sterols, steroid hormones, and porphyrins. The topical use of dexpanthenol, the stable alcoholic analog of pantothenic acid, is based on good skin penetration and high local concentrations of dexpanthenol when administered in an adequate vehicle, such as water-in-oil emulsions. Topical dexpanthenol acts like a moisturizer, improving stratum corneum hydration, reducing transepidermal water loss and maintaining skin softness and elasticity. Activation of fibroblast proliferation, which is of relevance in wound healing, has been observed both in vitro and in vivo with dexpanthenol. Accelerated re-epithelization in wound healing, monitored by means of the transepidermal water loss as an indicator of the intact epidermal barrier function, has also been seen. Dexpanthenol has been shown to have an anti-inflammatory effect on experimental ultraviolet-induced erythema. Beneficial effects of dexpanthenol have been observed in patients who have undergone skin transplantation or scar treatment, or therapy for burn injuries and different dermatoses. The stimulation of epithelization, granulation and mitigation of itching were the most prominent effects of formulations containing dexpanthenol. In double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trials, dexpanthenol was evaluated for its efficacy in improving wound healing. Epidermal wounds treated with dexpanthenol emulsion showed a reduction in erythema, and more elastic and solid tissue regeneration. Monitoring of transepidermal water loss showed a significant acceleration of epidermal regeneration as a result of dexpanthenol therapy, as compared with the vehicle. In an irritation model, pretreatment with dexpanthenol cream resulted in significantly less damage to the stratum

  15. Topical ivermectin improves allergic skin inflammation.

    PubMed

    Ventre, E; Rozières, A; Lenief, V; Albert, F; Rossio, P; Laoubi, L; Dombrowicz, D; Staels, B; Ulmann, L; Julia, V; Vial, E; Jomard, A; Hacini-Rachinel, F; Nicolas, J-F; Vocanson, M

    2017-08-01

    Ivermectin (IVM) is widely used in both human and veterinary medicine to treat parasitic infections. Recent reports have suggested that IVM could also have anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we investigated the activity of IVM in a murine model of atopic dermatitis (AD) induced by repeated exposure to the allergen Dermatophagoides farinae, and in standard cellular immunological assays. Our results show that topical IVM improved allergic skin inflammation by reducing the priming and activation of allergen-specific T cells, as well as the production of inflammatory cytokines. While IVM had no major impact on the functions of dendritic cells in vivo and in vitro, IVM impaired T-cell activation, proliferation, and cytokine production following polyclonal and antigen-specific stimulation. Altogether, our results show that IVM is endowed with topical anti-inflammatory properties that could have important applications for the treatment of T-cell-mediated skin inflammatory diseases. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Follicular and percutaneous penetration pathways of topically applied minoxidil foam.

    PubMed

    Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Massoudy, Lida; Patzelt, Alexa; Lademann, Jürgen; Dietz, Ekkehart; Rasulev, Utkur; Garcia Bartels, Natalie

    2010-11-01

    In the past, it was assumed that the intercellular route was the only relevant penetration pathway for topically applied substances. Recent results on follicular penetration emphasize that the hair follicles represent a highly relevant and efficient penetration pathway and reservoir for topically applied substances. This study investigates a selective closure technique of hair follicle orifices in vivo assessing interfollicular and follicular absorption rates of topical minoxidil foam in humans. In delimited skin area, single hair orifices or interfollicular skin were blocked with a microdrop of special varnish-wax-mixture in vivo. Minoxidil foam (5%) was topically applied, and transcutaneous absorption was measured by a new surface ionization mass spectrometry technique in serum. Different settings (open, closed or none of both) enabled to clearly distinguish between interfollicular and follicular penetration of the topically applied minoxidil foam. Five minutes after topical application, minoxidil was detected in blood samples when follicles remained open, whereas with closed follicles 30 min were needed. Highest levels were found first when both pathways were open, followed by open follicles and subsequently by closed follicles. These results demonstrate the high importance of the follicular penetration pathway. Hair follicles are surrounded by a dense network of blood capillaries and dendritic cells and have stem cells in their immediate vicinity, making them ideal targets for drug delivery. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Decreasing Skin Graft Contraction through Topical Wound Bed Preparation with Anti-Inflammatory Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-2-0153 TITLE: Decreasing Skin Graft Contraction through Topical Wound Bed Preparation with Anti - Inflammatory Agents...Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Decreasing Skin Graft Contraction Through Topical Wound Bed Preparation with Anti - Inflammatory Agents 5a. CONTRACT...applied anti - inflammatory drugs that will reduce recipient site inflammation and skin graft contraction. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Graft contraction, anti

  18. Treatment of photoaged skin with topical tretinoin increases epidermal-dermal anchoring fibrils

    SciTech Connect

    Woodley, D.T.; Briggaman, R.A.; Zelickson, A.S.

    Topical 0.1% tretinoin or vehicle control was applied daily to the forearm skin of six caucasian adults for 4 months. Two-millimeter punch biopsy specimens were obtained from treatment sites at the beginning and end of the study period for electron microscopy. Anchoring fibrils within the epidermal-dermal junction of skin treatment sites were quantitated by blinded, standardized, computer-assisted morphometry. After 4 months of continual daily treatment, skin sites that received topical tretinoin showed double the anchoring fibril density compared with vehicle control sites. The possible mechanism by which topical tretinoin increases anchoring fibrils in skin include the drug's property of inhibitingmore » collagenase, a dermal enzyme that degrades anchoring fibril collagen. The authors speculate that increased numbers of collagenous anchoring fibrils within the papillary dermis of human skin is one of the connective-tissue correlates of the clinical improvement observed in photoaged skin after treatment with topical tretinoin.« less

  19. Skin Aging: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Specifics Bags Under Eyes (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) Also in Spanish Sagging Skin (American Society for Dermatologic Surgery) Clinical Trials ClinicalTrials.gov: Skin Aging (National Institutes of Health) Journal Articles References and abstracts from MEDLINE/PubMed (National ...

  20. Treatment of pruritus with topically applied opiate receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Bigliardi, Paul L; Stammer, Holger; Jost, Gerhard; Rufli, Theo; Büchner, Stanislaw; Bigliardi-Qi, Mei

    2007-06-01

    Pruritus is the most common and distressing skin symptom, and treatment of itch is a problem for thousands of people. The currently available therapies are not very effective. Therefore there is an urgent need to find new effective topical drugs against itching. We conducted two separate studies to evaluate the efficacy of topically applied naltrexone, an opioid receptor antagonist, in the treatment of severe pruritus. The objective of the first open study was to correlate the clinical efficacy of topically applied naltrexone in different pruritic skin disorders to a change of epidermal mu-opiate receptor (MOR) expression. The second study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study on pruritus in atopic dermatitis. Initially we performed an open pilot study on 18 patients with different chronic pruritic disorders using a topical formulation of 1% naltrexone for 2 weeks. A punch biopsy was performed in 11 patients before and after the application of the naltrexone cream and the staining of epidermal MOR was measured. Subsequently, a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial was performed with the same formulation. We included in this trial 40 patients with localized and generalized atopic dermatitis with severe pruritus. In the open study more than 70% of the patients using the 1% naltrexone cream experienced a significant reduction of pruritus. More interestingly, the topical treatment with naltrexone caused an increase of epidermal MOR staining. The regulation of the epidermal opioid receptor correlated with the clinical assessment. The placebo-controlled, crossover trial demonstrated clearly that the cream containing naltrexone had an overall 29.4% better effect compared with placebo. The formulation containing naltrexone required a median of 46 minutes to reduce the itch symptoms to 50%; the placebo, 74 minutes. We could only take biopsy specimens in 11 patients, which means that a satisfactory statistical analysis of the changes of epidermal

  1. Influence of metabolism in skin on dosimetry after topical exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Bronaugh, R.L.; Collier, S.W.; Macpherson, S.E.

    1994-12-01

    Metabolism of chemicals occurs in skin and therefore should be taken into account when one determines topical exposure dose. Skin metabolism is difficult to measure in vivo because biological specimens may also contain metabolites from other tissues. Metabolism in skin during percutaneous absorption can be studied with viable skin in flow-through diffusion cells. Several compounds metabolized by microsomal enzymes in skin (benzo[a]pyrene and 7-ethoxycoumarin) penetrated human and hairless guinea pig skin predominantly unmetabolized. However, compounds containing a primary amino group (p-aminobenzoic acid, benzocaine, and azo color reduction products) were substrates for acetyltransferase activity in skin and were substantially metabolized duringmore » absorption. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model has been developed with an input equation, allowing modeling after topical exposure. 14 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.« less

  2. Is topical anesthesia useful in noninvasive skin tightening using radiofrequency?

    PubMed

    Kushikata, Nobuharu; Negishi, Kei; Tezuka, Yukiko; Takeuchi, Kaori; Wakamatsu, Shingo

    2005-05-01

    The radiofrequency (RF) system has been applied to Asian skin for noninvasive skin tightening. The only drawback is the pain during the treatment. The relationships between the effectiveness of a topical anesthetic at various RF levels and the respective treatment results were compared and assessed after 3 months. Eighty-four females, ranging in age from 30 to 60 years, were divided into three groups of 28 subjects each. In all groups, the entire bilateral cheeks were treated. Group A underwent RF treatment (ThermaCool TC, Thermage, Hayward, CA, USA) with topical anesthesia and group B without anesthesia, and in group C, half of the face was treated with anesthesia and the other half was not. The degree of pain was recorded. Digital photographs of the patients pre- and post-treatment were objectively assessed by double-blinded physicians. Subjective assessment was performed with questionnaires. The average treatment levels for groups A and B were 14.13 and 14.02, respectively. Although anesthesia was useful for pain reduction, it did not allow a significant energy upgrade. In group C, 8 (28.6%) patients showed a statistically insignificant difference in the treatment levels, but not in the results, between the anesthetized and the unanesthetized sides. The use of anesthesia did not affect the final efficacy of the treatment compared with no anesthesia.

  3. Decreasing Skin Graft Contraction through Topical Wound Bed Preparation with Anti-Inflammatory Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    This proposal aims to identify topically applied anti-inflammatory drugs that will reduce recipient site inflammation and skin graft contraction. We...hypothesize that the elevated and prolonged inflammatory state of the recipient wound bed is a causative factor in the development of skin graft contraction...Using a porcine model of skin graft contraction, we will screen for anti-inflammatory agents (dose, schedule of administration, drug class

  4. Drug delivery with topically applied nanoparticles: science fiction or reality.

    PubMed

    Lademann, J; Richter, H; Meinke, M C; Lange-Asschenfeldt, B; Antoniou, C; Mak, W C; Renneberg, R; Sterry, W; Patzelt, A

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of topically applied drugs is determined by their action mechanism and their potential capacity of passing the skin barrier. Nanoparticles are assumed to be efficient carrier systems for drug delivery through the skin barrier. For flexible nanoparticles like liposomes, this effect has been well demonstrated. The penetration properties of solid nanoparticles are currently under intensive investigation. The crucial advantage of nanoparticles over non-particulate substances is their capability to penetrate deeply into the hair follicles where they can be stored for several days. There is no evidence, yet, that solid particles ≥40 nm are capable of passing through the healthy skin barrier. Therefore and in spite of the long-standing research efforts in this field, commercially available solid nanoparticle-based products for drug delivery through the healthy skin are still missing. Nevertheless, the prospects for the clinical use of nanoparticles in drug delivery are tremendous. They can be designed as transport systems delivering drugs efficiently into the hair follicles in the vicinity of specific target structures. Once deposited at these structures, specific signals might trigger the release of the drugs and exert their effects on the target cells. In this article, examples of such triggered drug release are presented. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. [Skin aging and evidence-based topical strategies].

    PubMed

    Bayerl, C

    2016-02-01

    Anti-aging in dermatology primarily focuses on the prevention of skin aging with UV protection (clothing and sunsceens), free radical scavengers (synthetic or botanic), and cell-protecting agents such as vitamin B3. For the correction of signs of early skin aging, retinoic acid derivatives in dermatological prescriptions are the best studied substances. Topical hormonal prescriptions are also an option if UV damage has not been the leading culprit for aging. Chemical peeling leads to a marked increase in collagen formation, the deaper the better. Ingredients in cream preparations can reduce superficial skin folds (polyphenols, amino acid peptides). Modulators of regular pigmentation are important for anti-aging preparations. Growth factors (plant extracts, recombinant growth factors) are not thoroughly studied regarding the cost-benefit and risk ratio. Complex precedures such as photodynamic therapy have an impact on the appearance of aged skin.

  6. A UV-Independent Topical Small-Molecule Approach for Melanin Production in Human Skin.

    PubMed

    Mujahid, Nisma; Liang, Yanke; Murakami, Ryo; Choi, Hwan Geun; Dobry, Allison S; Wang, Jinhua; Suita, Yusuke; Weng, Qing Yu; Allouche, Jennifer; Kemeny, Lajos V; Hermann, Andrea L; Roider, Elisabeth M; Gray, Nathanael S; Fisher, David E

    2017-06-13

    The presence of dark melanin (eumelanin) within human epidermis represents one of the strongest predictors of low skin cancer risk. Topical rescue of eumelanin synthesis, previously achieved in "redhaired" Mc1r-deficient mice, demonstrated significant protection against UV damage. However, application of a topical strategy for human skin pigmentation has not been achieved, largely due to the greater barrier function of human epidermis. Salt-inducible kinase (SIK) has been demonstrated to regulate MITF, the master regulator of pigment gene expression, through its effects on CRTC and CREB activity. Here, we describe the development of small-molecule SIK inhibitors that were optimized for human skin penetration, resulting in MITF upregulation and induction of melanogenesis. When topically applied, pigment production was induced in Mc1r-deficient mice and normal human skin. These findings demonstrate a realistic pathway toward UV-independent topical modulation of human skin pigmentation, potentially impacting UV protection and skin cancer risk. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Some Topics in Applied Electrochemical Kinetics,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    AD-A097 405- DEFENE RESEARCH ESTABLiSHMENT OTTAWA (6NTARID3 F/G 7/ 4 SOME TOPICS IN APP LIED ELECTROCHEMICAL K INETICS.(U) JUL go E J CASEY, J R...electroplating, for a trans- port masurement, for electropolishing ; or it may be a battery of cells for storage of electrical energy; ar it may be a cell for the...product, or some other. Sometimes, although not always, the UNCLASSIFIED 4 UNCLASSIFIED slopes of these different steps are unique and permit

  8. Development of paclitaxel-TyroSpheres for topical skin treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kilfoyle, Brian E.; Sheihet, Larisa; Zhang, Zheng; Laohoo, Marissa; Kohn, Joachim; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena B.

    2012-01-01

    A potential topical psoriasis therapy has been developed consisting of tyrosine-derived nanospheres (TyroSpheres) with encapsulated anti-proliferative paclitaxel. TyroSpheres provide enhancement of paclitaxel solubility (almost 4,000 times greater than PBS) by effective encapsulation and enable sustained, dose-controlled release over 72 hours under conditions mimicking skin permeation. TyroSpheres offer potential in the treatment of psoriasis, a disease resulting from over-proliferation of keratinocytes in the basal layer of the epidermis, by (a) enabling delivery of paclitaxel into the epidermis at concentrations >100 ng/cm2 of skin surface area and (b) enhancing the cytotoxicity of loaded paclitaxel to human keratinocytes (IC50 of paclitaxel-TyroSpheres was approximately 45% lower than that of free paclitaxel). TyroSpheres were incorporated into a gel-like viscous formulation to improve their flow characteristics with no impact on homogeneity, release or skin distribution of the payload. The findings reported here confirm that the TyroSpheres provide a platform for paclitaxel topical administration allowing skin drug localization and minimal systemic escape. PMID:22732474

  9. Topical application of probiotics in skin: adhesion, antimicrobial and antibiofilm in vitro assays.

    PubMed

    Lopes, E G; Moreira, D A; Gullón, P; Gullón, B; Cardelle-Cobas, A; Tavaria, F K

    2017-02-01

    When skin dysbiosis occurs as a result of skin disorders, probiotics can act as modulators, restoring microbial balance. Several properties of selected probiotics were evaluated so that their topical application could be considered. Adhesion, antimicrobial, quorum sensing and antibiofilm assays were carried out with several probiotic strains and tested against selected skin pathogens. All tested strains displayed significant adhesion to keratin. All lactobacilli with the exception of Lactobacillus delbrueckii, showed antimicrobial activity against skin pathogens, mainly due to organic acid production. Most of them also prevented biofilm formation, but only Propioniferax innocua was able to break down mature biofilms. This study demonstrates that although all tested probiotics adhered to human keratin, they showed limited ability to prevent adhesion of some potential skin pathogens. Most of the tested probiotics successfully prevented biofilm formation, suggesting that they may be successfully used in the future as a complement to conventional therapies in the treatment of a range of skin disorders. The topically used probiotics may be a natural, targeted treatment approach to several skin disorders and a complement to conventional therapies which present many undesirable side effects. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Phase IIB Randomized Study of Topical Difluoromethylornithine and Topical Diclofenac on Sun-Damaged Skin of the Forearm.

    PubMed

    Jeter, Joanne M; Curiel-Lewandrowski, Clara; Stratton, Steven P; Myrdal, Paul B; Warneke, James A; Einspahr, Janine G; Bartels, Hubert G; Yozwiak, Michael; Bermudez, Yira; Hu, Chengcheng; Bartels, Peter; Alberts, David S

    2016-02-01

    Prevention of nonmelanoma skin cancers remains a health priority due to high costs associated with this disease. Diclofenac and difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) have demonstrated chemopreventive efficacy for cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas. We designed a randomized study of the combination of DFMO and diclofenac in the treatment of sun-damaged skin. Individuals with visible cutaneous sun damage were eligible. Subjects were randomized to one of the three groups: topical DFMO applied twice daily, topical diclofenac applied daily, or DFMO plus diclofenac. The treatment was limited to an area on the left forearm, and the duration of use was 90 days. We hypothesized that combination therapy would have increased efficacy compared with single-agent therapy. The primary outcome was change in karyometric average nuclear abnormality (ANA) in the treated skin. Individuals assessing the biomarkers were blinded regarding the treatment for each subject. A total of 156 subjects were randomized; 144 had baseline and end-of-study biopsies, and 136 subjects completed the study. The ANA unexpectedly increased for all groups, with higher values correlating with clinical cutaneous inflammation. Nearly all of the adverse events were local cutaneous effects. One subject had cutaneous toxicity that required treatment discontinuation. Significantly more adverse events were seen in the groups taking diclofenac. Overall, the study indicated that the addition of topical DFMO to topical diclofenac did not enhance its activity. Both agents caused inflammation on a cellular and clinical level, which may have confounded the measurement of chemopreventive effects. More significant effects may be observed in subjects with greater baseline cutaneous damage. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Tacrolimus hydrate ointment inhibits skin plasma extravasation in rats induced by topical m-xylene but not capsaicin.

    PubMed

    Goto, Shiho; Kondo, Fumio; Ikai, Yoshitomo; Miyake, Mio; Futamura, Masaki; Ito, Komei; Sakamoto, Tatsuo

    2009-04-17

    Tacrolimus ointment is used to treat various chronic inflammatory skin diseases. However, the effect of this ointment on acute neurogenic inflammation in the skin remains to be fully elucidated. Topical capsaicin and m-xylene produce tachykinin release from sensory nerves in the skin, resulting in skin plasma leakage. We investigated the effect of tacrolimus ointment (0.1%) on skin microvascular leakage induced by topical capsaicin (10 mM) and m-xylene (neat), and intracutaneous compound 48/80 (c48/80) (10 microg/ml, 50 microl/site) in two groups of rats pretreated with excessive capsaicin or its vehicle. The amount of leaked Evans blue dye reflected skin plasma leakage. Capsaicin, m-xylene or c48/80 was applied to the shaved abdomens of rats 8 h after topical application of tacrolimus ointment or its base. Desensitization with capsaicin reduced the skin response to capsaicin and m-xylene by 100% and 65%, respectively, but not to c48/80. Tacrolimus ointment significantly inhibited the skin response induced by m-xylene and c48/80, regardless of pretreatment with capsaicin. However, topical tacrolimus did not influence the skin response induced by capsaicin. We also evaluated whether topical capsaicin and m-xylene, and intracutaneous c48/80 cause mast cell degranulation in skin treated with tacrolimus. Mast cell degranulation was microscopically assessed. Topical tacrolimus only significantly suppressed degranulation induced by m-xylene and c48/80. Our data shows that tacrolimus ointment partially inhibits plasma leakage and mast cell degranulation in rat skin induced by m-xylene and c48/80 but not capsaicin, suggesting that the inhibitory effect is not associated with a reduction in neurogenic-mediated mechanisms.

  12. Functional testing of topical skin formulations using an optimised ex vivo skin organ culture model.

    PubMed

    Sidgwick, G P; McGeorge, D; Bayat, A

    2016-07-01

    A number of equivalent-skin models are available for investigation of the ex vivo effect of topical application of drugs and cosmaceuticals onto skin, however many have their drawbacks. With the March 2013 ban on animal models for cosmetic testing of products or ingredients for sale in the EU, their utility for testing toxicity and effect on skin becomes more relevant. The aim of this study was to demonstrate proof of principle that altered expression of key gene and protein markers could be quantified in an optimised whole tissue biopsy culture model. Topical formulations containing green tea catechins (GTC) were investigated in a skin biopsy culture model (n = 11). Punch biopsies were harvested at 3, 7 and 10 days, and analysed using qRT-PCR, histology and HPLC to determine gene and protein expression, and transdermal delivery of compounds of interest. Reduced gene expression of α-SMA, fibronectin, mast cell tryptase, mast cell chymase, TGF-β1, CTGF and PAI-1 was observed after 7 and 10 days compared with treated controls (p < 0.05). Histological analysis indicated a reduction in mast cell tryptase and chymase positive cell numbers in treated biopsies compared with untreated controls at day 7 and day 10 (p < 0.05). Determination of transdermal uptake indicated that GTCs were detected in the biopsies. This model could be adapted to study a range of different topical formulations in both normal and diseased skin, negating the requirement for animal models in this context, prior to study in a clinical trial environment.

  13. A novel model of inflammatory pain in human skin involving topical application of sodium lauryl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Petersen, L J; Lyngholm, A M; Arendt-Nielsen, L

    2010-09-01

    Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) is a known irritant. It releases pro-inflammatory mediators considered pivotal in inflammatory pain. The sensory effects of SLS in the skin remain largely unexplored. In this study, SLS was evaluated for its effect on skin sensory functions. Eight healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Skin sites were randomized to topical SLS 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2% and vehicle for 24 h. Topical capsaicin 1% was applied for 30 min at 24 h after SLS application. Assessments included laser Doppler imaging of local vasodilation and flare reactions, rating of spontaneous pain, assessment of primary thermal and tactile hyperalgesia, and determination of secondary dynamic and static hyperalgesia. SLS induced significant and dose-dependent local inflammation and primary hyperalgesia to tactile and thermal stimulation at 24 h after application, with SLS 2% treatment eliciting results comparable to those observed following treatment with capsaicin 1%. SLS induced no spontaneous pain, small areas of flare, and minimal secondary hyperalgesia. The primary hyperalgesia vanished within 2-3 days, whereas the skin inflammation persisted and was only partly normalized by Day 6. SLS induces profound perturbations of skin sensory functions lasting 2-3 days. SLS-induced inflammation may be a useful model for studying the mechanisms of inflammatory pain.

  14. Effect of supplemented and topically applied antioxidant substances on human tissue.

    PubMed

    Darvin, M; Zastrow, L; Sterry, W; Lademann, J

    2006-01-01

    Systemic and topical application of antioxidant substances for the medical treatment and prophylaxis of many diseases as well as additional protection of the skin against the destructive action of free radicals and other reactive species has become very popular during the past years. Stimulated by the positive results of a fruit and vegetable diet in supporting medical treatment and in cosmetics, artificial and extracted antioxidant substances have been broadly applied. Surprisingly, not only positive but also strong negative results have been obtained by different authors. According to study reports artificial and extracted antioxidant substances support different kinds of medical therapies, if they are applied in mixtures of different compounds at low concentration levels. In the case of the application of high concentration of some single compounds, side effects were often observed. Regarding skin treatment by systemically applied antioxidant substances for cosmetic purposes, positive cosmetic effects as well as no effects, but almost no side effects, apart from a number of allergic reactions, were reported. One reason for this seems to be the lower concentration of systemically applied antioxidant substances in comparison with a medical application. Topical application of antioxidant substances is closely related to cosmetic treatment for skin protection and anti-aging. Positive results were also obtained in this case. The present review is an attempt to classify and summarize the published literature concerning the efficiency of action of systemic and topical applications of antioxidant substances, such as carotenoids and vitamins, on human organism and especially on the skin. The available literature on this topic is very extensive and the results are often contradictory. Nevertheless, there are some clear tendencies concerning systemic and topical application of antioxidant substances in medicine and cosmetics, and we summarize them in the present paper.

  15. The effects of topical L-selenomethionine on protection against UVB-induced skin cancer when given before, during, and after UVB exposure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previous studies in mice have shown that topical L-selenomethionine (SeMet) can prevent UVB-induced skin cancer when applied continuously before, during, and after the radiation exposure. With topical application of SeMet, selenium levels were shown to increase in the skin and liver, as well as in t...

  16. SU-F-T-379: Dosimetric Impacts of Topical Agents and Dressings On Skin in Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Tse, K; Morley, L; Cashell, A

    Purpose: This study investigated the superficial dose enhancement in the application of topical agents, clinical materials (thermal mask and bolus) and dressings in megavoltage photon beam radiotherapy. Different topical skin agents, clinical materials and dressings were evaluated and compared for their skin dosimetric impacts on the patients during radiation treatment. Methods: Superficial dose enhancements, or percentage doses with and without the studying materials, were measured using the 6 MV (Field size = 10×10 cm{sup 2}) photon beams produced by a Varian TrueBeam linear accelerator. Twelve topical agents, five dressings (dry and wet conditions) and three clinical materials were studied. Amore » solid water phantom was used with a MOSFET dose detector (TN-1002RD, Thomson and Nielsen Electronic, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada) located under a 1-mm PMMA slab to measure the skin dose. The distance between the radiation source and phantom surface was set to 100 cm in all measurements. The topical agents were distributed evenly with 1.5 mm thickness using our specific sample holder on the phantom surface. Extrapolations were made of 0.5 mm thickness for the agents to provide meaningful clinical value. Results: By comparing surface doses without studying materials, it is found that no topical agents had superficial dose enhancement higher than the clinical materials namely, thermoplastic mask (128%), 5-mm Superflab™ bolus (158%) and 10-mm Superflab™ bolus (171%) regarding the same thickness. Superficial dose enhancement of dry dressing did not exceed 110.5%, while wet dressings produced higher dose enhancements (133% for wet Mepilex lite and 141% for wet Mepilex Ag transfer). Conclusion: It is concluded that the evaluated topical agents and dry dressings did not increase the superficial dose to a concerning level, even using excessive thickness in every fraction of radiation treatment. Wet dressings were found producing the bolus effect, but was still substantially

  17. Decreasing Skin Graft Contraction through Topical Wound Bed Preparation with Anti-Inflammatory Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    factor in the development of skin graft contraction. Using a porcine model of skin graft contraction, we will screen for anti- inflammatory agents (dose...Award Number: W81XWH-14-2-0153 TITLE: Decreasing Skin Graft Contraction through Topical Wound Bed Preparation with Anti-Inflammatory Agents ...09/14/2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE “Decreasing Skin Graft Contraction through Topical Wound Bed Preparation with Anti-Inflammatory Agents ” 5a

  18. Visualization of drug distribution of topical minocycline in human facial skin with fluorescence microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermsmeier, Maiko; Sawant, Tanvee; Lac, Diana; Yamamoto, Akira; Chen, Xin; Nagavarapu, Usha; Evans, Conor L.; Chan, Kin Foong

    2017-02-01

    Minocycline is an antibiotic regularly prescribed to treat acne vulgaris. The only commercially available minocycline comes in an oral dosage form, which often results in systemic adverse effects. A topical minocycline composition (BPX-01) was developed to provide localized and targeted delivery to the epidermis and pilosebaceous unit where acne-related bacteria, Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), reside. As minocycline is a known fluorophore, fluorescence microscopy was performed to investigate its potential use in visualizing minocycline distribution within tissues. BPX-01 with various concentrations of minocycline, was applied topically to freshly excised human facial skin specimens. Spatial distribution of minocycline and its fluorescence intensity within the stratum corneum, epidermis, dermis, and pilosebaceous unit were assessed. The resulting fluorescence intensity data as a function of minocycline concentration may indicate clinically relevant therapeutic doses of topical BPX-01 needed to kill P. acnes and reduce inflammation for successful clinical outcomes.

  19. Prophylactic topically applied ice to prevent cutaneous complications of nontarget chemoembolization and radioembolization.

    PubMed

    Wang, David S; Louie, John D; Kothary, Nishita; Shah, Rajesh P; Sze, Daniel Y

    2013-04-01

    Cutaneous complications can result from nontarget deposition during transcatheter arterial chemoembolization or radioembolization. Liver tumors may receive blood supply from parasitized extrahepatic arteries (EHAs) that also perfuse skin or from hepatic arteries located near the origin of the falciform artery (FA), which perfuses the anterior abdominal wall. To vasoconstrict cutaneous vasculature and prevent nontarget deposition, ice packs were topically applied to at-risk skin in nine chemoembolization treatments performed via 14 parasitized EHAs, seven chemoembolization treatments near the FA origin, and five radioembolization treatments in cases in which the FA could not be prophylactically coil-embolized. No postprocedural cutaneous complications were encountered.

  20. Topical and Applied Interests of Introductory Psychology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stalder, Daniel R.; Stec, Deborah A.

    2007-01-01

    Using forced-choice and continuous measures, introductory psychology students reported highest interest for the topical areas of clinical and social psychology (over biological, cognitive, and developmental) and for the applied areas of education and health (over business, environment, and law) at both the beginning and end of semesters. Among…

  1. Topical Application of Eupatilin Ameliorates Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in NC/Nga Mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Ye Jin; Lee, Jun Young; Park, Young Min

    2017-02-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory skin disorder with severe pruritus. Despite advancements in medicine, therapeutic treatments for AD are still limited. Eupatilin (5,7-dihydroxy-30,40,6-trimethoxyflavone) is one of the lipophilic flavonoids from Artemisia umbelliformis Lam. and Artemisia genipi Weber. Although it has been reported to act a role in improving inflammation, its action on AD is uncertain. In this study, we examined the role of eupatilin on AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice. 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene was repeatedly applied to the ear of NC/Nga mice to produce AD-like skin lesions. Eupatilin (1%, once a day for 5 consecutive days/week) was applied topically for four weeks for the evaluation of its therapeutic effects. 1% eupatilin cream significantly reduced the clinical severity score of AD-like lesions, compared to the vehicle ( p <0.005). A histopathological analysis revealed that 1% eupatilin cream significantly decreased the mast cell infiltration as well as inflammatory cell infiltration, compared to the vehicle ( p <0.005). We showed that 1% eupatilin cream significantly reduced the expression of thymic stromal lymphopoietin, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-4, and interleukin-19, but not interferon-γ, compared to the vehicle ( p <0.005). Considering the therapeutic reaction of eupatilin on AD-like lesions as in this study, the substance has a promising to be an adjuvant topical agent for the control of AD.

  2. Topical penetration of commercial salicylate esters and salts using human isolated skin and clinical microdialysis studies

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Sheree E; Anderson, Chris; Roberts, Michael S

    1998-01-01

    Aims The penetration of active ingredients from topically applied anti-inflammatory pharmaceutical products into tissues below the skin is the basis of their therapeutic efficacy. There is still controversy as to whether these agents are capable of direct penetration by diffusion through the tissues or whether redistribution in the systemic circulation is responsible for their tissue deposition below the application site. Methods The extent of direct penetration of salicylate from commercial ester and salt formulations into the dermal and subcutaneous tissue of human volunteers was determined using the technique of cutaneous microdialysis. We also examined differences in the extent of hydrolysis of the methylester of salicylate applied topically in human volunteers and in vitro skin diffusion cells using full-thickness skin and epidermal membranes. Results The present study showed that whilst significant levels of salicylate could be detected in the dermis and subcutaneous tissue of volunteers treated with the methylsalicylate formulation, negligible levels of salicylate were seen following application of the triethanolamine salicylate formulation. The tissue levels of salicylate from the methylsalicylate formulation were approx. 30-fold higher than the plasma concentrations. Conclusion The absorption and tissue concentration profiles for the commercial methylsalicylate formulation are indicative of direct tissue penetration and not solely redistribution by the systemic blood supply. PMID:9690946

  3. Topical efficacy of dimercapto-chelating agents against lewisite-induced skin lesions in SKH-1 hairless mice

    SciTech Connect

    Mouret, Stéphane, E-mail: stephane.mouret@irba.fr; Wartelle, Julien; Emorine, Sandy

    2013-10-15

    Lewisite is a potent chemical warfare arsenical vesicant that can cause severe skin lesions. Today, lewisite exposure remains possible during demilitarization of old ammunitions and as a result of deliberate use. Although its cutaneous toxicity is not fully elucidated, a specific antidote exists, the British anti-lewisite (BAL, dimercaprol) but it is not without untoward effects. Analogs of BAL, less toxic, have been developed such as meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and have been employed for the treatment of heavy metal poisoning. However, efficacy of DMSA against lewisite-induced skin lesions remains to be determined in comparison with BAL. We have thus evaluated inmore » this study the therapeutic efficacy of BAL and DMSA in two administration modes against skin lesions induced by lewisite vapor on SKH-1 hairless mice. Our data demonstrate a strong protective efficacy of topical application of dimercapto-chelating agents in contrast to a subcutaneous administration 1 h after lewisite exposure, with attenuation of wound size, necrosis and impairment of skin barrier function. The histological evaluation also confirms the efficacy of topical application by showing that treatments were effective in reversing lewisite-induced neutrophil infiltration. This protective effect was associated with an epidermal hyperplasia. However, for all the parameters studied, BAL was more effective than DMSA in reducing lewisite-induced skin injury. Together, these findings support the use of a topical form of dimercaprol-chelating agent against lewisite-induced skin lesion within the first hour after exposure to increase the therapeutic management and that BAL, despite its side-effects, should not be abandoned. - Highlights: • Topically applied dimercapto-chelating agents reduce lewisite-induced skin damage. • One topical application of BAL or DMSA is sufficient to reverse lewisite effects. • Topical BAL is more effective than DMSA to counteract lewisite-induced skin

  4. Metabolic changes in psoriatic skin under topical corticosteroid treatment.

    PubMed

    Sitter, Beathe; Johnsson, Margareta Karin; Halgunset, Jostein; Bathen, Tone Frost

    2013-08-14

    MR spectroscopy of intact biopsies can provide a metabolic snapshot of the investigated tissue. The aim of the present study was to explore the metabolic pattern of uninvolved skin, psoriatic skin and corticosteroid treated psoriatic skin. The three types of skin biopsy samples were excised from patients with psoriasis (N = 10). Lesions were evaluated clinically, and tissue biopsies were excised and analyzed by one-dimensional 1H MR spectroscopy. Relative levels were calculated for nine tissue metabolites. Subsequently, relative amounts of epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissue were scored by histopathological evaluation of HES stained sections. Seven out of 10 patients experienced at least 40% reduction in clinical score after corticosteroid treatment. Tissue biopsies from psoriatic skin contained lower levels of the metabolites myo-inositol and glucose, and higher levels of choline and taurine compared to uninvolved skin. In corticosteroid treated psoriatic skin, tissue levels of glucose, myo-inositol, GPC and glycine were increased, whereas choline was reduced, in patients with good therapeutic effect. These tissue levels are becoming more similar to metabolite levels in uninvolved skin. This MR method demonstrates that metabolism in psoriatic skin becomes similar to that of uninvolved skin after effective corticosteroid treatment. MR profiling of skin lesions reflect metabolic alterations related to pathogenesis and treatment effects.

  5. Effect of Topical Steroids on Skin Prick Test: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Ebbesen, Anne R; Riis, Lene A; Gradman, Josefine

    2018-05-04

    Topically applied corticosteroids on the skin can significantly inhibit the wheal response to allergens in skin prick test (SPT). The duration of this effect is unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the duration of the inhibitory effect of topical corticosteroids on SPT. Twenty-two healthy subjects were included in a single-blinded randomized study. All subjects were skin prick tested using a standard inhalant allergen panel. The subjects were randomized to treat either the left or right forearm with Betnovat ® cream (group III steroid) once a day for 10 days. Subsequently, the subjects were skin prick tested the following 5 days and at day 8 on both forearms. At baseline, the 22 individuals had positive SPT for a total of 72 allergens. Compared with the untreated arm, the mean size of the wheals was significantly reduced on day 1 (12 h after end of treatment) by 0.56 mm (95 % confidence interval (CI) [0.06; 1.06], p = 0.03) for allergens and 0.70 mm [0.32; 1.09] (p = 0.001) for histamine. On day 2 (36 h after end of treatment), the mean difference between treated and untreated arm was 0.47 mm [-0.08; 0.85] (p = 0.02) for allergen-induced wheals and 0.22 mm [-0.21; 0.64] (p = 0.31) for histamine-induced wheal. On day 3, 4, 5, and 8, there was no significant difference. Treatment with topical steroid significantly inhibited the response to SPT for 36 h but for less than 3 days. In addition, we demonstrated that topical applied corticosteroids inhibit the mean wheal size of the positive histamine control for a shorter time than for the allergens. Consequently, positive response to histamine control is not a valid marker for reliable skin prick test in steroid-treated patients. Plain language summary available for this article.

  6. Current Challenges and Future of Lipid nanoparticles formulations for topical drug application to oral mucosa, skin, and eye.

    PubMed

    Guilherme, Viviane A; Ribeiro, Ligia N M; Tofoli, Giovana Radomille; Franz-Montan, Michelle; de Paula, Eneida; de Jesus, Marcelo Bispo

    2017-11-21

    Topical drug administration offers an attractive route with minimal invasiveness. It also avoids limitations of intravenous administration such as the first pass metabolism and presystemic elimination within the gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, topical drug administration is safe, have few side effects, is easy to apply, and offers a fast onset of action. However, the development of effective topical formulations still represents a challenge for the desired effect to be reached, locally or systemically. Solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers are particular candidates to overcome the problem of topical drug administration. The nanometric particle size of lipid nanoparticles favors the physical adhesion to the skin or mucosal, what can also be attained with the formation of hybrid (nanoparticles/polymer) systems. In this review, we discuss the major challenges for lipid nanoparticles formulations for topical application to oral mucosa, skin, and eye, highlighting the strategies to improve the performance of lipid nanoparticles for topical applications. Next, we critically analyzed the in vitro and in vivo approaches used to evaluate lipid nanoparticles performance and toxicity. We addressed some major drawbacks related to lipid nanoparticle topical formulations and concluded the key points that have to be overcome to help them to reach the market in topical formulations to oral mucosa, skin and eye. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Ocular bioavailability and systemic loss of topically applied ophthalmic drugs.

    PubMed

    Patton, T F; Francoeur, M

    1978-02-01

    We used 20-day-old rabbits as a model to show that the ocular bioavailability of topically applied pilocarpine nitrate increased as the instilled volume of the drug was decreased. Decreasing the instilled volume from 25 to 5 microliter permitted a dosage reduction of greater than 2.5 times without sacrificing overall drug concentrations in the eye. Since only a small fraction of topically applied doses to the eye actually reached the interior of the eye, the remainder of the dose was lost and available for systemic absorption. The reduction in dosage permitted by this approach resulted in less drug appearing in the general circulation, as shown by comparative plasma level-time profiles. The advantages of reducing drop size are improved ocular bioavailability permitting the use of smaller doses; and less systemic drug loss, thus reducing the potential for systemic side effects. These advantages could be especially significant in the pediatric and geriatric age groups.

  8. Follicular penetration of topically applied caffeine via a shampoo formulation.

    PubMed

    Otberg, N; Teichmann, A; Rasuljev, U; Sinkgraven, R; Sterry, W; Lademann, J

    2007-01-01

    Follicular drug delivery is the prerequisite for an effective treatment of androgenetic alopecia or other reasons of premature hair loss. The follicular penetration of caffeine, applied topically in a shampoo formulation for 2 min, was measured with highly sensitive surface ionization in combination with mass spectroscopy, a selective method for the detection of very small quantities of transcutaneously absorbed substances in the blood. An experimental protocol, developed to selectively block the follicular pathway within the test area, was used. Based on this principle, a clear distinction between interfollicular and follicular penetration of topically applied caffeine was feasible. After 2 min, caffeine penetrated via the hair follicles and stratum corneum. It was found that the penetration via hair follicles was faster and higher compared with the interfollicular route and that hair follicles are the only pathway for fast caffeine absorption during the first 20 min after application. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Advanced Development of Leishmania Topical Skin Test Antigen

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-28

    can cause sensitization manifest by the conversion of a negative to positive delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin test. This was observed on the...third skin test with 30 ug and 50 ug doses of the crude lysate administered intradermally at monthly intervals. Fractionation of the lysate...identified dominant proteins at 8 kDa, 20 kDa, and 56-58 kDa. Skin tests in L. tropica sensitized guinea pigs with each of these fractions revealed

  10. Inhibition of Akt enhances the chemopreventive effects of topical rapamycin in mouse skin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dickinson, Sally E; Janda, Jaroslav; Criswell, Jane; Blohm-Mangone, Karen; Olson, Erik R.; Liu, Zhonglin; Barber, Christie; Rusche, Jadrian J.; Petricoin, Emmanuel; Calvert, Valerie; Einspahr, Janine G.; Dickinson, Jesse; Stratton, Steven P.; Curiel-Lewandrowski, Clara; Saboda, Kathylynn; Hu, Chengcheng; Bode, Ann M.; Dong, Zigang; Alberts, David S.; Bowden, G. Timothy

    2016-01-01

    The PI3Kinase/Akt/mTOR pathway has important roles in cancer development for multiple tumor types, including UV-induced non-melanoma skin cancer. Immunosuppressed populations are at increased risk of aggressive cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Individuals who are treated with rapamycin, (sirolimus, a classical mTOR inhibitor) have significantly decreased rates of developing new cutaneous SCCs compared to those that receive traditional immunosuppression. However, systemic rapamycin use can lead to significant adverse events. Here we explored the use of topical rapamycin as a chemopreventive agent in the context of solar simulated light (SSL)-induced skin carcinogenesis. In SKH-1 mice, topical rapamycin treatment decreased tumor yields when applied after completion of 15 weeks of SSL exposure compared to controls. However, applying rapamycin during SSL exposure for 15 weeks, and continuing for 10 weeks after UV treatment, increased tumor yields. We also examined whether a combinatorial approach might result in more significant tumor suppression by rapamycin. We validated that rapamycin causes increased Akt (S473) phosphorylation in the epidermis after SSL, and show for the first time that this dysregulation can be inhibited in vivo by a selective PDK1/Akt inhibitor, PHT-427. Combining rapamycin with PHT-427 on tumor prone skin additively caused a significant reduction of tumor multiplicity compared to vehicle controls. Our findings indicate that patients taking rapamycin should avoid sun exposure, and that combining topical mTOR inhibitors and Akt inhibitors may be a viable chemoprevention option for individuals at high risk for cutaneous SCC.

  11. Inhibition of Akt Enhances the Chemopreventive Effects of Topical Rapamycin in Mouse Skin

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Sally E.; Janda, Jaroslav; Criswell, Jane; Blohm-Mangone, Karen; Olson, Erik R.; Liu, Zhonglin; Barber, Christie; Petricoin, Emanuel F.; Calvert, Valerie S.; Einspahr, Janine; Dickinson, Jesse E.; Stratton, Steven P.; Curiel-Lewandrowski, Clara; Saboda, Kathylynn; Hu, Chengcheng; Bode, Ann M.; Dong, Zigang; Alberts, David S.; Bowden, G. Timothy

    2016-01-01

    The PI3Kinase/Akt/mTOR pathway has important roles in cancer development for multiple tumor types, including UV-induced non-melanoma skin cancer. Immunosuppressed populations are at increased risk of aggressive cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Individuals who are treated with rapamycin, (sirolimus, a classical mTOR inhibitor) have significantly decreased rates of developing new cutaneous SCCs compared to those that receive traditional immunosuppression. However, systemic rapamycin use can lead to significant adverse events. Here we explored the use of topical rapamycin as a chemopreventive agent in the context of solar simulated light (SSL)-induced skin carcinogenesis. In SKH-1 mice, topical rapamycin treatment decreased tumor yields when applied after completion of 15 weeks of SSL exposure compared to controls. However, applying rapamycin during SSL exposure for 15 weeks, and continuing for 10 weeks after UV treatment, increased tumor yields. We also examined whether a combinatorial approach might result in more significant tumor suppression by rapamycin. We validated that rapamycin causes increased Akt (S473) phosphorylation in the epidermis after SSL, and show for the first time that this dysregulation can be inhibited in vivo by a selective PDK1/Akt inhibitor, PHT-427. Combining rapamycin with PHT-427 on tumor prone skin additively caused a significant reduction of tumor multiplicity compared to vehicle controls. Our findings indicate that patients taking rapamycin should avoid sun exposure, and that combining topical mTOR inhibitors and Akt inhibitors may be a viable chemoprevention option for individuals at high risk for cutaneous SCC. PMID:26801880

  12. Inhibition of Akt Enhances the Chemopreventive Effects of Topical Rapamycin in Mouse Skin.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Sally E; Janda, Jaroslav; Criswell, Jane; Blohm-Mangone, Karen; Olson, Erik R; Liu, Zhonglin; Barber, Christy; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Calvert, Valerie S; Einspahr, Janine; Dickinson, Jesse E; Stratton, Steven P; Curiel-Lewandrowski, Clara; Saboda, Kathylynn; Hu, Chengcheng; Bode, Ann M; Dong, Zigang; Alberts, David S; Timothy Bowden, G

    2016-03-01

    The PI3Kinase/Akt/mTOR pathway has important roles in cancer development for multiple tumor types, including UV-induced nonmelanoma skin cancer. Immunosuppressed populations are at increased risk of aggressive cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Individuals who are treated with rapamycin (sirolimus, a classical mTOR inhibitor) have significantly decreased rates of developing new cutaneous SCCs compared with those that receive traditional immunosuppression. However, systemic rapamycin use can lead to significant adverse events. Here, we explored the use of topical rapamycin as a chemopreventive agent in the context of solar-simulated light (SSL)-induced skin carcinogenesis. In SKH-1 mice, topical rapamycin treatment decreased tumor yields when applied after completion of 15 weeks of SSL exposure compared with controls. However, applying rapamycin during SSL exposure for 15 weeks, and continuing for 10 weeks after UV treatment, increased tumor yields. We also examined whether a combinatorial approach might result in more significant tumor suppression by rapamycin. We validated that rapamycin causes increased Akt (S473) phosphorylation in the epidermis after SSL, and show for the first time that this dysregulation can be inhibited in vivo by a selective PDK1/Akt inhibitor, PHT-427. Combining rapamycin with PHT-427 on tumor prone skin additively caused a significant reduction of tumor multiplicity compared with vehicle controls. Our findings indicate that patients taking rapamycin should avoid sun exposure, and that combining topical mTOR inhibitors and Akt inhibitors may be a viable chemoprevention option for individuals at high risk for cutaneous SCC. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. Oxygen-dependent delayed fluorescence measured in skin after topical application of 5-aminolevulinic acid.

    PubMed

    Harms, Floor A; de Boon, Wadim M I; Balestra, Gianmarco M; Bodmer, Sander I A; Johannes, Tanja; Stolker, Robert J; Mik, Egbert G

    2011-10-01

    Mitochondrial oxygen tension can be measured in vivo by means of oxygen-dependent quenching of delayed fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). Here we demonstrate that delayed fluorescence is readily observed from skin in rat and man after topical application of the PpIX precursor 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). Delayed fluorescence lifetimes respond to changes in inspired oxygen fraction and blood supply. The signals contain lifetime distributions and the fitting of rectangular distributions to the data appears more adequate than mono-exponential fitting. The use of topically applied ALA for delayed fluorescence lifetime measurements might pave the way for clinical use of this technique. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. FTIR-ATR evaluation of topical skin protectants useful for sulfur mustard and related compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braue, Ernest H., Jr.; Litchfield, Marty R.; Bangledorf, Catherine R.; Rieder, Robert G.

    1992-03-01

    The US Army has a need to develop topical protectants that can decrease the effects of cutaneous exposure to chemical warfare (CW) agents. Such materials would enhance a soldier's ability to carry out the mission in a chemically hostile environment, would lessen the burden on medical personnel, and may allow the casualties to return to duty in a shorter period of time than might otherwise be possible. In a preliminary report (E. H. Braue, Jr. and M. G. Pannella, Applied Spectrosc., 44, 1061 (1990)), we described a unique analytical method using FT-IR spectroscopy and the horizontal attenuated total reflectance (ATR) accessory for evaluating the effectiveness of topical skin protectants (TSPs) against penetration by chemical agents. We now describe the application of this method to the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (HD).

  15. Topical Delivery of Immunosuppression to Prolong Xenogeneic and Allogeneic Split-Thickness Skin Graft Survival.

    PubMed

    Mastroianni, Melissa; Ng, Zhi Yang; Goyal, Ritu; Mallard, Christopher; Farkash, Evan A; Leonard, David A; Albritton, Alexander; Shanmugarajah, Kumaran; Kurtz, Josef M; Sachs, David H; Macri, Lauren K; Kohn, Joachim; Cetrulo, Curtis L

    2017-06-07

    Cadaveric skin allograft is the current standard of treatment for temporary coverage of large burn wounds. Porcine xenografts are viable alternatives but undergo α-1,3-galactose (Gal)-mediated hyperacute rejection and are lost by POD 3 because of naturally occurring antibodies to Gal in primate recipients. Using baboons, we previously demonstrated that xenografts from GalT-KO swine (lacking Gal) provided wound coverage comparable with allografts with systemic immunosuppression. In this study, we investigate topical immunosuppression as an alternative to prolong xenograft survival. Full-thickness wounds in baboons were created and covered with xenogeneic and allogeneic split-thickness skin grafts (STSGs). Animals were treated with slow-release (TyroSphere-encapsulated) topical formulations (cyclosporine-A [CSA] or Tacrolimus) applied 1) directly to the STSGs only, or 2) additionally to the wound bed before STSG and 1). Topical CSA did not improve either xenograft or allograft survival (median: treated grafts = 12.5 days, control = 14 days; P = 0.27) with similar results when topical Tacrolimus was used. Pretreatment of wound beds resulted in a significant reduction of xenograft survival compared with controls (10 vs 14 days; P = 0.0002), with comparable results observed in allografts. This observation was associated with marked reduction of inflammation on histology with Tacrolimus and not CSA. Prolongation of allograft and xenograft survival after application to full-thickness wound beds was not achieved with the current formulation of topical immunosuppressants. Modulation of inflammation within the wound bed was effective with Tacrolimus pretreatment before STSG application and may serve as a treatment strategy in related fields.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited

  16. P-Glycoprotein in skin contributes to transdermal absorption of topical corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Naoto; Nakamichi, Noritaka; Yamazaki, Erina; Oikawa, Masashi; Masuo, Yusuke; Schinkel, Alfred H; Kato, Yukio

    2017-04-15

    ATP binding cassette transporters, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), are expressed in skin, but their involvement in transdermal absorption of clinically used drugs remains unknown. Here, we examined their role in transdermal absorption of corticosteroids. Skin and plasma concentrations of dexamethasone after dermal application were reduced in P-gp and BCRP triple-knockout (Mdr1a/1b/Bcrp -/- ) mice. The skin concentration in Mdr1a/1b/Bcrp -/- mice was reduced in the dermis, but not in the epidermis, indicating that functional expression of these transporters in skin is compartmentalized. Involvement of these transporters in dermal transport of dexamethasone was also supported by the observation of a higher epidermal concentration in Mdr1a/1b/Bcrp -/- than wild-type mice during intravenous infusion. Transdermal absorption after dermal application of prednisolone, but not methylprednisolone or ethinyl estradiol, was also lower in Mdr1a/1b/Bcrp -/- than in wild-type mice. Transport studies in epithelial cell lines transfected with P-gp or BCRP showed that dexamethasone and prednisolone are substrates of P-gp, but are minimally transported by BCRP. Thus, our findings suggest that P-gp is involved in transdermal absorption of at least some corticosteroids in vivo. P-gp might be available as a target for inhibition in order to deliver topically applied drugs and cosmetics in a manner that minimizes systemic exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Topical treatments for fungal infections of the skin and nails of the foot.

    PubMed

    Crawford, F; Hollis, S

    2007-07-18

    Fungal infections of the feet normally occur in the outermost layer of the skin (epidermis). The skin between the toes is a frequent site of infection which can cause pain and itchiness. Fungal infections of the nail (onychomycosis) can affect the entire nail plate. To assess the effects of topical treatments in successfully treating (rate of treatment failure) fungal infections of the skin of the feet and toenails and in preventing recurrence. We searched the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register (January 2005), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library Issue 1, 2005), MEDLINE and EMBASE (from inception to January 2005). We screened the Science Citation Index, BIOSIS, CAB - Health and Healthstar, CINAHL DARE, NHS Economic Evaluation Database and EconLit (March 2005). Bibliographies were searched. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) using participants who had mycologically diagnosed fungal infections of the skin and nails of the foot. Two authors independently summarised the included trials and appraised their quality of reporting using a structured data extraction tool. Of the 144 identified papers, 67 trials met the inclusion criteria. Placebo-controlled trials yielded the following pooled risk ratios (RR) of treatment failure for skin infections: allylamines RR 0.33 (95% CI 0.24 to 0.44); azoles RR 0.30 (95% CI 0.20 to 0.45); ciclopiroxolamine RR 0.27 (95% CI 0.11 to 0.66); tolnaftate RR 0.19 (95% CI 0.08 to 0.44); butenafine RR 0.33 (95% CI 0.24 to 0.45); undecanoates RR 0.29 (95% CI 0.12 - 0.70). Meta-analysis of 11 trials comparing allylamines and azoles showed a risk ratio of treatment failure RR 0.63 (95% CI 0.42 to 0.94) in favour of allylamines. Evidence for the management of topical treatments for infections of the toenails is sparser. There is some evidence that ciclopiroxolamine and butenafine are both effective but they both need to be applied daily for prolonged periods (at least 1 year). The 6 trials of nail

  18. Benzoyl peroxide and clindamycin topical skin preparation decreases Propionibacterium acnes colonization in shoulder arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dizay, Hailey H; Lau, Diana G; Nottage, Wesley M

    2017-07-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a gram-positive anaerobe that can lead to devastating postoperative shoulder infections. The objective of this study was to investigate whether a benzoyl peroxide and clindamycin preoperative skin preparation reduces the incidence of P. acnes colonization during shoulder arthroscopy. Sixty-five shoulder arthroscopy patients were prospectively enrolled. A skin culture specimen was taken at the preoperative visit from standard arthroscopic portal sites. Topical benzoyl peroxide 5% and clindamycin 1.2% (BPO/C) gel was applied to the shoulder every night before surgery. Skin culture was repeated in the operating room before preparation with chlorhexidine gluconate. Shoulder arthroscopy proceeded, with final culture specimens obtained from within the shoulder. P. acnes skin colonization remained similar to prior studies at 47.7% (31 of 65 patients.) With >1 application, BPO/C was 78.9% (15 of 19 patients) effective in eliminating P. acnes superficial colonization. With 1 application, it was 66.7% (8 of 12 patients) effective in eliminating superficial colonization. Deep colonization was reduced to 3.1% (2 of 65 patients) compared with previous studies of 15% to 20% (P = .006). BPO/C was 100% effective at decreasing deep colonization with >1 application. P. acnes skin colonization is high at arthroscopic shoulder portals, especially in men. Despite standard skin preparation and prophylactic antibiotics, the rate of joint inoculation is much higher than the rate of infection reported in the literature. BPO/C effectively reduces P. acnes colonization in shoulder arthroscopy. It should be considered for use before shoulder procedures with a time-related trend of >1 application. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Human skin penetration and local effects of topical nano zinc oxide after occlusion and barrier impairment.

    PubMed

    Leite-Silva, V R; Sanchez, W Y; Studier, H; Liu, D C; Mohammed, Y H; Holmes, A M; Ryan, E M; Haridass, I N; Chandrasekaran, N C; Becker, W; Grice, J E; Benson, H A E; Roberts, M S

    2016-07-01

    Public health concerns continue to exist over the safety of zinc oxide nanoparticles that are commonly used in sunscreen formulations. In this work, we assessed the effects of two conditions which may be encountered in everyday sunscreen use, occlusion and a compromised skin barrier, on the penetration and local toxicity of two topically applied zinc oxide nanoparticle products. Caprylic/capric triglyceride (CCT) suspensions of commercially used zinc oxide nanoparticles, either uncoated or with a silane coating, were applied to intact and barrier impaired skin of volunteers, without and with occlusion for a period of six hours. The exposure time was chosen to simulate normal in-use conditions. Multiphoton tomography with fluorescence lifetime imaging was used to noninvasively assess zinc oxide penetration and cellular metabolic changes that could be indicative of toxicity. We found that zinc oxide nanoparticles did not penetrate into the viable epidermis of intact or barrier impaired skin of volunteers, without or with occlusion. We also observed no apparent toxicity in the viable epidermis below the application sites. These findings were validated by ex vivo human skin studies in which zinc penetration was assessed by multiphoton tomography with fluorescence lifetime imaging as well as Zinpyr-1 staining and toxicity was assessed by MTS assays in zinc oxide treated skin cryosections. In conclusion, applications of zinc oxide nanoparticles under occlusive in-use conditions to volunteers are not associated with any measurable zinc oxide penetration into, or local toxicity in the viable epidermis below the application site. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Skin graft fixation in severe burns: use of topical negative pressure.

    PubMed

    Kamolz, L P; Lumenta, D B; Parvizi, D; Wiedner, M; Justich, I; Keck, M; Pfurtscheller, K; Schintler, M

    2014-09-30

    Over the last 50 years, the evolution of burn care has led to a significant decrease in mortality. The biggest impact on survival has been the change in the approach to burn surgery. Early excision and grafting has become a standard of care for the majority of patients with deep burns; the survival of a given patient suffering from major burns is invariably linked to the take rate and survival of skin grafts. The application of topical negative pressure (TNP) therapy devices has demonstrated improved graft take in comparison to conventional dressing methods alone. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of TNP therapy on skin graft fixation in large burns. In all patients, we applied TNP dressings covering a %TBSA of >25. The following parameters were recorded and documented using BurnCase 3D: age, gender, %TBSA, burn depth, hospital length-of-stay, Baux score, survival, as well as duration and incidence of TNP dressings. After a burn depth adapted wound debridement, coverage was simultaneously performed using split-thickness skin grafts, which were fixed with staples and covered with fatty gauzes and TNP foam. The TNP foam was again fixed with staples to prevent displacement and finally covered with the supplied transparent adhesive film. A continuous subatmospheric pressure between 75-120 mm Hg was applied (VAC®, KCI, Vienna, Austria). The first dressing change was performed on day 4. Thirty-six out of 37 patients, suffering from full thickness burns, were discharged with complete wound closure; only one patient succumbed to their injuries. The overall skin graft take rate was over 95%. In conclusion, we consider that split thickness skin graft fixation by TNP is an efficient method in major burns, notably in areas with irregular wound surfaces or subject to movement (e.g. joint proximity), and is worth considering for the treatment of aged patients.

  1. Prevention. Part 7: professionally applied topical fluorides for caries prevention.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, R; Locker, D; Noble, J; Kay, E J

    2003-09-27

    This paper reviews the use of professionally applied topical fluorides (PATF) in caries prevention. PATFs are indicated for children and adults with one or more decayed smooth surfaces and/or those who are at high caries risk. Frequency of administration depends on the patient's caries risk, and is usually every 6 months. The effectiveness of fluoride varnish and gel applications has been well established in caries prevention trials involving permanent teeth. Although both types are effective, varnish may be preferred because it is easier to apply, reduces the risk of fluoride over-ingestion, and has greater patient acceptance. Fluoride foams are similar products to gels, but have not been tested clinically. The use of in-office two-part rinses is not recommended because they have not been proven effective. A cleaning, or prophylaxis, is not necessary before the application of topical fluoride for caries prevention. In conclusion, when used appropriately, PATFs are a safe, effective means of reducing caries risk among high-risk populations.

  2. Topical Application of Liposomal Antioxidant’s for Protection Against CEES Induced Skin Damage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    14. ABSTRACT The objective of this study is to develop an effective prophylactic therapy against an analog of mustard gas, 2-chloroethylethyl...sulfide (CEES). The therapy for CEES-induced skin damage will be based on the topical application of antioxidant liposomes. We will use EpiDerm cultured...to develop an effective prophylactic therapy against CEES-induced skin damage (analogous to HD effect) based on the topical application of

  3. Decreasing Skin Graft Contraction through Topical Wound Bed Preparation with Anti-Inflammatory Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    inflammatory agents - Wound healing -Contraction ACCOMPLISHMENTS: What were the major goals of the project? Develop treatments that modulate...1 AD _____________________ (Leave blank) Award Number: W81XWH-14-2-0153 TITLE: Decreasing Skin Graft Contraction through Topical Wound Bed...TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 15 Sep 2015 - 14 Sep 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Decreasing Skin Graft Contraction through Topical Wound Bed

  4. Comparison of skin permeability for three diclofenac topical formulations: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Folzer, E; Gonzalez, D; Singh, R; Derendorf, H

    2014-01-01

    Diclofenac is a hydrophilic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) widely used in humans and animals. There are limited published studies evaluating diclofenac's skin permeation following topical administration. The aim of our study was to evaluate and compare the in vitro permeation of three different diclofenac-containing formulations (patch, gel, solution) over 24 hours. These formulations were applied (n = 6 per formulation) to pig skin sandwiched between the two chambers in a static Franz diffusion cell and aliquots from the receptor medium were sampled at pre-defined time points. An HPLC method with UV detection was developed and validated with the aim of characterizing the transepidermal penetration in the in vitro system. Using this assay to determine the permeation parameters, results at 24 hours showed that the Flector patch released the highest drug amount (54.6%), whereas a lower drug amount was delivered with the Voltaren Emulgel (38.2%) and the solution (34.4%). The commercial gel showed the highest flux (39.9 +/- 0.9 microg/cm2/h) and the shortest lag-time (1.97 +/- 0.02 h). Based on these in vitro results using pig skin, the transdermal patch resulted in a long-lasting controlled release of diclofenac, while the gel had the shortest lag-time.

  5. Skin permeation and retention of topical bead formulation containing tranexamic acid.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, Ajay; Baskaran, Rengarajan; Yoo, Bong Kyu

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a topical bead formulation of tranexamic acid (TA) which can be used concomitantly with laser treatment. The bead formulation of TA (TAB) was successfully prepared by fluidized bed drying method. Physicochemical properties of the TAB were evaluated in terms of chemical stability of TA and differential scanning calorimetry. TA in the bead was stable up to six months at 25°C and existed as amorphous state. In vitro skin permeation and in vivo skin retention of TA in the beads were significantly higher compared to a commercial product. When the bead was dissolved into distilled water and applied concomitantly with laser treatment, the amount of TA retained in the skin in the in vivo study was inversely proportional to the energy levels of laser treatment, indicating absorption into subcutaneous tissue and drainage to systemic circulation. Therefore, when laser treatment is used concomitantly with TAB, energy level should be very carefully monitored to avoid possible adverse events associated with systemic side effects of TA.

  6. DA 5505: a novel topical formulation of terbinafine that enhances skin penetration and retention.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Raj Kumar; Han, Sang-Duk; Park, Hyoung Geun; Son, Miwon; Jun, Joon Ho; Kim, Jong Oh

    2015-01-01

    Topical fungal infections can become severe if left untreated. Efficient treatment modalities for topical fungal infections aid the penetration of antifungal agents deep into viable skin layers. Terbinafine is a fungicidal agent that inhibits ergosterol, an essential fungal component. The main objective of this study was to evaluate skin permeation and retention of a terbinafine-loaded solution containing chitosan as a film former. Comparative assessment of skin permeation and retention was performed using a prepared formulation (DA 5505) and marketed formulations of terbinafine in murine and porcine skin. To mimic fungal infection of skin, keratinized skin was induced in NC/Nga mice. In comparison with the marketed formulations, DA 5505 exhibited significantly better skin permeation. The flux, permeation coefficient, and enhancement ratio of terbinafine were remarkably increased by DA 5505 in comparison with the marketed formulations, and lag time was dramatically reduced. DA 5505 significantly increased cumulative terbinafine retention in viable skin layers in comparison with the marketed solution, suggesting enhanced efficacy. Furthermore, DA 5505 exhibited superior skin permeation in normal skin and keratinized skin. Thus, the DA 5505 formulation has the potential to effectively deliver terbinafine to superficial and deep cutaneous fungal infections.

  7. In vivo characterization of structural changes after topical application of glucocorticoids in healthy human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sora; Lademann, Jürgen; Darvin, Maxim E.; Richter, Claudia; Pedersen, Claus Bang; Richter, Heike; Schanzer, Sabine; Kottner, Jan; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Røpke, Mads Almose

    2017-07-01

    Topical glucocorticoids (GC) are known to induce changes in human skin with the potential to develop skin atrophy. Here, atrophogenic effects and subsequent structural changes in the skin after topical application of GC were investigated in vivo. Sixteen healthy volunteers were topically treated daily on the forearms with clobetasol propionate, betamethasone dipropionate, and the petrolatum vehicle for 4 weeks. All treated skin areas and a nontreated control area were examined by ultrasound, optical coherence tomography, confocal laser scanning microscopy, multiphoton tomography (MPT), and resonance Raman spectroscopy at baseline 1 day after last application and 1 week after last application. Investigated parameters included stratum corneum thickness, epidermal, and full skin thickness, keratinocyte size and density, keratinocyte nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio, skin surface classification, relative collagen and elastin signal intensity, second-harmonic generation-to-autofluorescence aging index of dermis (SAAID), and the antioxidant status of the skin. A reduction in epidermal and dermal skin thickness was observed in GC treated as well as in vehicle-treated and untreated skin areas on the volar forearm. MPT analysis showed an increased epidermal cell density and reduced cell size and nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio and a significant increase of SAAID after GC treatment indicating a restructuring or compression of collagen fibers clinically being observed as atrophic changes.

  8. Novel isotretinoin microemulsion-based gel for targeted topical therapy of acne: formulation consideration, skin retention and skin irritation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Mrunali R.; Patel, Rashmin B.; Parikh, Jolly R.; Patel, Bharat G.

    2016-04-01

    Isotretinoin was formulated in novel microemulsion-based gel formulation with the aim of improving its solubility, skin tolerability, therapeutic efficacy, skin-targeting efficiency and patient compliance. Microemulsion was formulated by the spontaneous microemulsification method using 8 % isopropyl myristate, 24 % Labrasol, 8 % plurol oleique and 60 % water as an external phase. All plain and isotretinoin-loaded microemulsions were clear and showed physicochemical parameters for the desired topical delivery and stability. The permeation profiles of isotretinoin through rat skin from selected microemulsion formulation followed zero-order kinetics. Microemulsion-based gel was prepared by incorporating Carbopol®971 in optimized microemulsion formulation having suitable skin permeation rate and skin uptake. Microemulsion-based gel showed desired physicochemical parameters and demonstrated advantage over marketed formulation in improving the skin tolerability of isotretinoin, indicating its potential in improving topical delivery of isotretinoin. The developed microemulsion-based gel may be a potential drug delivery vehicle for targeted topical delivery of isotretinoin in the treatment of acne.

  9. Formulation design for topical drug and nanoparticle treatment of skin disease.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Anthony P; Garrastazu, Gabriela; Sonvico, Fabio; Prow, Tarl W

    2015-02-01

    The skin has evolved to resist the penetration of foreign substances and particles. Topical therapeutic and cosmeceutical delivery is a growing field founded on selectively overcoming this barrier. Both the biology of the skin and the nature of the formulation/active ingredient must be aligned for efficient transcutaneous delivery. This review discusses the biological changes in the skin barrier that occur with common dermatological conditions. This context is the foundation for the discussion of formulation strategies to improve penetration profiles of common active ingredients in dermatology. Finally, we compare and contrast those approaches to recent advances described in the research literature with an eye toward the future of topical formulation design.

  10. The efficacy and safety of topically applied indigo naturalis ointment in patients with plaque-type psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yin-Ku; Wong, Wen-Rou; Chang, Ya-Ching; Chang, Chee-Jen; Tsay, Pei-Kwei; Chang, Shu-Chen; Pang, Jong-Hwei Su

    2007-01-01

    It has been reported in the Chinese literature that indigo naturalis exhibits potential antipsoriatic effects in systemic therapy. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of topically applied indigo naturalis on treating plaque-type psoriasis and to analyze the histological change in skin tissues. Fourteen patients with chronic plaque psoriasis were enrolled. The patients were topically applied with either indigo naturalis ointment or vehicle ointment on contralateral skin lesions daily for 8 weeks. Efficacy was evaluated on the basis of the clinical scores, including induration, scaling, erythema and clearing percentage. At the end of treatment, skin punch biopsies were taken and prepared for the immunohistochemical analysis. A significant reduction in clinical scores was achieved with topically applied indigo naturalis ointment. Analysis of biopsies showed a marked improvement of skin histology. The expressions of proliferating marker Ki-67 and inflammatory marker CD3 were decreased, but the differentiation marker such as filaggrin was increased in the epidermis after indigo naturalis ointment treatment. The results suggest that topical application of indigo naturalis ointment may be a novel, safe and effective therapy for psoriasis that is mediated, at least in part, by modulating the proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes in epidermis, as well as by inhibiting the infiltration of T lymphocytes and therefore the subsequent inflammatory reactions in psoriatic lesions. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Regulation of Skin-Applied Repellents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Before they can be marketed, most insect repellents must be registered by EPA, which indicates they have been evaluated and approved for human safety and effectiveness when applied according to label instructions.

  12. Dual influence of colloidal silica on skin deposition of vitamins C and E simultaneously incorporated in topical microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Rozman, Branka; Gosenca, Mirjam; Gasperlin, Mirjana; Padois, Karine; Falson, Franciose

    2010-07-01

    Colloidal silica is the thickener of interest for topical formulations and can therefore be used to optimize the viscosity of both hydrophilic and lipophilic microemulsions (MEs). To the best of our knowledge, no information is available about the effect of topically applied colloidal silica on skin penetration of drugs. So, our aim was to determine its influence on the effectiveness of ME in the simultaneous delivery of vitamins C and E to the skin. Two different aspects of silica possible function were investigated. Its effects on formulation characteristics were studied by determination of partition coefficient of the vitamins, their solubility and release profile. The direct impact of silica on the skin was further evaluated by transepidermal water loss measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and cell toxicity determination (MTT assay). The addition of colloidal silica to ME was shown to increase significantly the vitamins' solubility and their partition to the phase in which they were less soluble. Its presence also increased the amount of both vitamins in epidermis, which was confirmed by release studies. Furthermore, we demonstrated that colloidal silica interacts with excised skin. It decreased transepidermal water loss, probably by retaining water in the stratum corneum because of its massive accumulation in the upper layers, as revealed by SEM. The results confirmed that addition of colloidal silica in ME simultaneously loaded with vitamins C and E enhanced vitamins' skin bioavailability by its dual influence on delivery characteristics of ME as well as on skin properties.

  13. Topical stabilized retinol treatment induces the expression of HAS genes and HA production in human skin in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Hwa; Wong, Heng-Kuan; Serrano, José; Randhawa, Manpreet; Kaur, Simarna; Southall, Michael D; Parsa, Ramine

    2017-05-01

    Skin Aging manifests primarily with wrinkles, dyspigmentations, texture changes, and loss of elasticity. During the skin aging process, there is a loss of moisture and elasticity in skin resulting in loss of firmness finally leading to skin sagging. The key molecule involved in skin moisture is hyaluronic acid (HA), which has a significant water-binding capacity. HA levels in skin decline with age resulting in decrease in skin moisture, which may contribute to loss of firmness. Clinical trials have shown that topically applied ROL effectively reduces wrinkles and helps retain youthful appearance. In the current study, ROL was shown to induce HA production and stimulates the gene expression of all three forms of hyaluronic acid synthases (HAS) in normal human epidermal keratinocytes monolayer cultures. Moreover, in human skin equivalent tissues and in human skin explants, topical treatment of tissues with a stabilized-ROL formulation significantly induced the gene expression of HAS mRNA concomitant with an increased HA production. Finally, in a vehicle-controlled human clinical study, histochemical analysis confirmed increased HA accumulation in the epidermis in ROL-treated human skin as compared to vehicle. These results show that ROL increases skin expression of HA, a significant contributing factor responsible for wrinkle formation and skin moisture, which decrease during aging. Taken together with the activity to increase collagen, elastin, and cell proliferation, these studies establish that retinol provides multi-functional activity for photodamaged skin.

  14. Photoprotective effects of topical ginseng leaf extract using Ultraflo L against UVB-induced skin damage in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yang Hee; Lee, Hyun-Sun; Jung, Eun Young; Han, Sung-Hee; Park, Yooheon; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2017-10-01

    Abnormal activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) plays an important role in UV-induced wrinkle formation, which is a major dermatological problem. This formation occurs due to the degeneration of the extracellular matrix (ECM). In this study, we investigated the cutaneous photoprotective effects of Ultraflo L treated ginseng leaf (UTGL) in hairless mice. SKH-1 hairless mice (6 weeks of age) were randomly divided into four groups (8 mice/group). UTGL formulation was applied topically to the skin of the mice for 10 weeks. The normal control group received nonvehicle and was not irradiated with UVB. The UV control (UVB) group received nonvehicle and was exposed to gradient-UVB irradiation. The groups (GA) receiving topical application of UTGL formulation were subjected to gradient-UVB irradiation on 0.5 mg/cm 2 [GA-low (GA-L)] and 1.0 mg/cm 2 [(GA-high (GA-H)] of dorsal skin area, respectively. We found that topical treatment with UTGL attenuated UVB-induced epidermal thickness and impairment of skin barrier function. Additionally, UTGL suppressed the expression of MMP-2, -3, and -13 induced by UVB irradiation. Our results show that topical application of UTGL protects the skin against UVB-induced damage in hairless mice and suggest that UTGL can act as a potential agent for preventing and/or treating UVB-induced photoaging. UTGL possesses sunscreen properties and may exhibit photochemoprotective activities inside the skin of mice. Therefore, UTGL could be used as a potential therapeutic agent to protect the skin against UVB-induced photoaging.

  15. Using cyclodextrin complexation to enhance secondary photoprotection of topically applied ibuprofen.

    PubMed

    Godwin, Donald A; Wiley, Cody J; Felton, Linda A

    2006-01-01

    Each year millions of people are overexposed to the sun resulting in photodamage of the skin. Secondary photoprotection is the application of medicinal agents to the body after sun exposure to reduce this damage. The objective of this study was to determine the affects of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD) complexation on the secondary photoprotective properties of topically applied ibuprofen. Complexation of ibuprofen by HPCD was demonstrated by differential scanning calorimetry, while solubilities were determined using HPLC. A linear (r2>0.999) relationship was found between ibuprofen solubility and HPCD concentration. For subsequent experiments, the concentration of ibuprofen was held constant at the solubility in 10% HPCD (10.6 mg/ml), while the HPCD concentration varied from 0 to 20% (w/w). In vitro transdermal permeation experiments demonstrated a parabolic relationship between transdermal kinetic parameters and HPCD concentration, with maximum values for both flux and skin accumulation occurring with the 10% HPCD formulation. In vivo experiments were performed by exposing hairless mice to UV radiation and applying ibuprofen-HPCD formulations topically at various times following UV exposure. Edema and epidermal lipid damage data demonstrated that application of ibuprofen-HPCD formulations within 1h of UV exposure provided significant photoprotection.

  16. Topical effectiveness of a cosmetic skincare treatment for acne-prone skin: a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Bartenjev, Igor; Oremović, Lenka; Rogl Butina, Mirjam; Sjerobabski Masnec, Ines; Bouloc, Anne; Voda, Karmen; Šitum, Mirna

    2011-06-01

    Physiological acne is a milder form of clinical acne and is very frequent in adult women (18 years of age and older). Acne therapy is usually unnecessary in such cases, and so appropriate cosmetic treatments are sought. To determine the effectiveness of a topical cosmetic hydrating skincare treatment for adult acne-prone skin (Normaderm, Vichy, France) against the clinical signs of physiological acne: few inflammatory and retentional lesions, uneven (grainy) skin relief, dilated pores, and occasional and/or local hyperseborrhea. Within the study, the tested product's keratolytic, antimicrobial, and antiseborrheic properties, and its overall ability to improve the clinical signs of physiological acne present in adult subjects were evaluated through objective and clinical evaluation methods by the investigators and through self-evaluation questionnaires by the subjects themselves. The study group was composed of 50 adult women between 18 and 35 years of age with combination or oily acne-prone skin, who were chosen according to previously defined inclusion criteria. They applied the product tested twice daily on thoroughly cleansed skin for a period of 2 months. The results were evaluated after 30 (±2) and 60 (±2) days. The number of inflammatory and retentional lesions on the forehead, cheeks, and chin decreased after 60 days of use (an average of 30.7% and 70.7%, respectively). The level of sebum secretion on the forehead decreased by 33.4% and the level of skin scaling decreased by 38.5% after 60 days of use. The moisture content in the horny layer on the forehead, cheeks, and chin increased by an average 39.7%. The decrease in pore size and content after 60 days of use was very noticeable. The subjects evaluated all the studied characteristics of the product tested very positively, with results already showing after 30 days of use. The results of the study confirm that the product tested is suitable for the cosmetic care of adult acne-prone skin, either as an

  17. Understanding effects of topical ingredients on electrical measurement of skin hydration.

    PubMed

    Crowther, J M

    2016-12-01

    correlate with expert assessment of skin dryness, the level of water in the skin is only part of the story when it comes to understanding the benefits of topical moisturizing products applied to the skin. An alternative approach would be to consider skin 'moisturization' as a property which is influenced by water, salts and other materials such as humectants and emollients, which is more consistent with how the stratum corneum itself helps to maintain its plasticity and flexibility. In the work presented here, the Corneometer ® was more suited to providing a measurement which reflects the impact of multiple different components. © 2016 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  18. Nanocrystal: a novel approach to overcome skin barriers for improved topical drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Patel, Viral; Sharma, Om Prakash; Mehta, Tejal

    2018-04-01

    Skin is an important route of drug delivery for the treatment of various dermatological conditions. The advent of nanotechnology is paving the roadmaps for topical drug delivery by providing sustained release as well as maintaining a localized effect, outweighing the toxicity concern. Area covered: This review highlighted the morphology of skin, its barrier nature as well as drug penetration pathways after topical application of formulations. The existing methods to improve topical drug delivery, by infringing or permeating the skin barriers, are discussed. This context concretes the foundation to accentuate the need for the development of nanocrystal-based topical formulation. The mechanism of drug release, immediate as well as sustained release, after topical administration of drug nanocrystals is also elaborated. The special emphasis is given on the breakthrough achieved, in topical drug delivery using drug nanocrystals, so far in the plethora of literature, patents, and products, under clinical trial as well as in the market. Expert opinion: The current research on nanocrystals for topical drug delivery is highlighting the breakthroughs achieved so far. The output of these research envisages that topical nanocrystals based formulations can be a novel strategy for the drugs which are facing solubility, bioavailability and toxicity concerns.

  19. Prolonged treatment of fair-skinned mice with topical forskolin causes persistent tanning and UV protection.

    PubMed

    Spry, Malinda L; Vanover, Jillian C; Scott, Timothy; Abona-Ama, Osama; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Ito, Shosuke; D'Orazio, John A

    2009-04-01

    We previously reported that topical application of forskolin to the skin of fair-skinned MC1R-defective mice with epidermal melanocytes resulted in accumulation of eumelanin in the epidermis and was highly protective against UV-mediated cutaneous injury. In this report, we describe the long-term effects of chronic topical forskolin treatment in this animal model. Forskolin-induced eumelanin production persisted through 3 months of daily applications, and forskolin-induced eumelanin remained protective against UV damage as assessed by minimal erythematous dose (MED). No obvious toxic changes were noted in the skin or overall health of animals exposed to prolonged forskolin therapy. Body weights were maintained throughout the course of topical forskolin application. Topical application of forskolin was associated with an increase in the number of melanocytes in the epidermis and thickening of the epidermis due, at least in part, to an accumulation of nucleated keratinocytes. Together, these data suggest in this animal model, short-term topical regular application of forskolin promotes eumelanin induction and that over time, topical forskolin treatment is associated with persistent melanization, epidermal cell accumulation, and skin thickening.

  20. Injury thresholds for topical-cream-coated skin of hairless guinea pigs (cavia porcellus) in the near-infrared region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pocock, Ginger M.; Zohner, Justin J.; Stolarski, David J.; Buchanan, Kelvin C.; Jindra, Nichole M.; Figueroa, Manuel A.; Chavey, Lucas J.; Imholte, Michelle L.; Thomas, Robert J.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.

    2006-02-01

    The reflectance and absorption of the skin plays a vital role in determining how much radiation will be absorbed by human tissue. Any substance covering the skin would change the way radiation is reflected and absorbed and thus the extent of thermal injury. Hairless guinea pigs (cavia porcellus) in vivo were used to evaluate how the minimum visible lesion threshold for single-pulse laser exposure is changed with a topical agent applied to the skin. The ED 50 for visible lesions due to an Er: glass laser at 1540-nm with a pulse width of 50-ns was determined, and the results were compared with model predictions using a skin thermal model. The ED50 is compared with the damage threshold of skin coated with a highly absorbing topical cream at 1540 nm to determine its effect on damage pathology and threshold. The ED 50 for the guinea pig was then compared to similar studies using Yucatan minipigs and Yorkshire pigs at 1540-nm and nanosecond pulse duration. 1,2 The damage threshold at 24-hours of a Yorkshire pig for a 2.5-3.5-mm diameter beam for 100 ns was 3.2 Jcm -2; very similar to our ED 50 of 3.00 Jcm -2 for the hairless guinea pigs.

  1. Effects of topical corticosteroid and tacrolimus on ceramides and irritancy to sodium lauryl sulphate in healthy skin.

    PubMed

    Jungersted, Jakob Mutanu; Høgh, Julie K; Hellegren, Lars I; Jemec, Gregor B E; Agner, Tove

    2011-05-01

    The skin barrier, located in the stratum corneum, is influenced mainly by the lipid and protein composition of this layer. In eczematous diseases impairment of the skin barrier is thought to be of prime importance. Topical anti-inflammatory drugs and emollients are the most widely used eczema treatments. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of topically applied corticosteroid, tacrolimus and emollient on stratum corneum lipids and barrier parameters. Nineteen healthy volunteers participated in the study. Both forearms of the subjects were divided into four areas, which were treated twice daily for one week with betamethasone, tacrolimus, emollient, or left untreated, respectively. After one week each area was challenged with a 24 h sodium lauryl sulphate patch test. The lipids were collected using the cyanoacrylate method and evaluated by high performance thin layer chromatography. For evaluation of the skin barrier, transepidermal water loss, erythema and electrical capacitance were measured. The ceramide/cholesterol ratio was increased in betamethasone- (p = 0.008) and tacrolimus-treated (p = 0.025) skin compared with emollient-treated skin. No differences in ceramide subgroups were found between treatment regimes. Pretreatment with betamethasone (p = 0.01) or with tacrolimus (p = 0.001) causes a decreased inflammatory response to sodium lauryl sulphate compared with emollient. In conclusion, treatment with betamethasone and tacrolimus has a positive effect on the ceramide/cholesterol ratio and susceptibility to irritant reaction compared with an emollient.

  2. The skin health and beauty pyramid: a clinically based guide to selecting topical skincare products.

    PubMed

    Mayoral, Flor A; Kenner, Julie R; Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2014-04-01

    The use of cosmeceuticals by patients is now commonplace. Without consultation and direction from an informed clinician, marketing pressures can lead consumers to make poor product choices that can result in wasted money and unsatisfactory outcomes. Skin professionals need a scientifically based, succinct tool to guide their patients toward best topical skincare practices. The Skin Health and Beauty Pyramid is an educational framework and product guide created from extensive scientific literature and study review on ingredients, formulations and technologies affecting skin biology. This clinical tool can simplify product choices for physicians and clinicians in the process of professionally guiding patients toward the optimal use of topical products to achieve best outcomes for skin health and beauty.

  3. Topical retinoids in the management of photodamaged skin: from theory to evidence-based practical approach.

    PubMed

    Darlenski, R; Surber, C; Fluhr, J W

    2010-12-01

    Skin, being exposed directly to the environment, represents a unique model for demonstrating the synergistic effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on the ageing process. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is the major factor among exogenous stressors responsible for premature skin ageing. The problem of skin ageing has captured public attention and has an important social impact. Different therapeutic approaches have been developed to treat cutaneous ageing and to diminish or prevent the negative effects of UVR. Topical retinoids represent an important and powerful class of molecules in the dermatologist's hands for the treatment of photodamaged skin. Since their introduction more than 20 years ago, topical retinoids have shown beneficial efficacy and good safety profiles in the management of photodamaged skin, and as therapeutic anti-ageing agents. This review provides a brief retrospective of the development of topical retinoids in the treatment of photodamaged skin, elucidates their mechanism of action, delineates their use and addresses clinical, pharmaceutical and regulatory issues in connection with their intended use. © 2010 The Authors. BJD © 2010 British Association of Dermatologists.

  4. [Efficacy of Topical Agents for Symptomatic Treatment of Rotigotine Patch-Induced Skin Disorders].

    PubMed

    Yasutaka, Yuki; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Shibaguchi, Hirotomo; Kiyomi, Fumiaki; Hara, Koyomi; Ogata, Kentaro; Tsuboi, Yoshio; Kamimura, Hidetoshi

    2017-09-01

    Since the effect of a percutaneous absorption-type dopamine agonist (DA) preparation, rotigotine patch, stably persists by once-a-day application, this dosage form is appropriate for Parkinson's disease patients showing levodopa induced wearing off phenomenon. On the other hand, skin disorders, mainly application site reaction, are characteristic problems associated with use of the patch. In this study, to clarify the influence of a topical agent used to prevent or treat rotigotine patch-induced skin disorder on continuation of the patch application, patients who started rotigotine patch application at our hospital were retrospectively surveyed. The one-year continuation rate of rotigotine patch application was 37.3% (53 of 142 cases). It was insufficient to prevent skin disorders, only by the pre-treatment of a moisturizing agent alone. Regarding the effective rate of topical agents used to treat skin disorders, that of very strong-class steroids was 89.5%, being significantly higher than those of weak steroids, moisturizing agents, and antihistamines. It was suggested that for countermeasures against rotigotine patch-induced skin disorders, treatment with very strong-class steroids for external use early after development of skin disorders is more effective than preventive treatment with topical agents regardless of the type. (Received March 30, 2017; Accepted May 16, 2017; Published September 1, 2017).

  5. Improvement of Atrophic Acne Scars in Skin of Color Using Topical Synthetic Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) Serum: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, Marie Alexia; Herrmann, Jennifer; Moy, Lauren; Moy, Ronald

    2017-04-01

    BACKGROUND: Atrophic scarring in skin of color is a common, permanent, and distressing result of uncontrolled acne vulgaris. Ablative lasers and chemical peels are frequently used to improve the appearance of atrophic scars, primarily through the stimulation of collagen and elastin; however, these treatment modalities are associated with risks, such as dyspigmentation and hypertrophic scarring, especially in patients with darker skin.

    OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the efficacy of topically applied synthetic epidermal growth factor (EGF) serum in reducing the appearance of atrophic acne scars in skin of color.

    METHODS: A single-center clinical trial was performed on twelve healthy men and women (average age 32.5) with Fitzpatrick Type IV-V skin and evidence of facial grade II-IV atrophic acne scars. Subjects applied topical EGF serum to the full-face twice daily for 12 weeks. Scar improvement was investigated at each visit using an Investigator Global Assessment (IGA), a Goodman grade, clinical photography, and patient self-assessment.

    RESULTS: Eleven subjects completed the trial. Compared to baseline, there was an improvement in mean IGA score from 3.36 (SEM = 0.15) to 2.18 (SEM = 0.33). Mean Goodman grade was reduced from 2.73 (SEM = 0.19) to 2.55 (SEM = 0.21). Of the eleven pairs of before and after photographs, nine were correctly chosen as the post-treatment image by a blind investigator. On self-assessment, 81% reported a "good" to "excellent" improvement in their scars compared to baseline (P = 0.004).

    CONCLUSION: Topical EGF may improve the appearance of atrophic acne scars in skin of color. Additional, larger studies should be conducted to better characterize improvement.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(4):322-326.

    .

  6. [Symptomatic adrenal insufficiency secondary to the use of cutaneous topical steroids for skin-bleaching].

    PubMed

    Sène, D; Huong-Boutin, D L T; Thiollet, M; Barete, S; Cacoub, P; Piette, J-C

    2008-12-01

    In black population, the skin-bleaching with cutaneous topical corticosteroids on a large body area is a widespread practice and is associated with numerous cutaneous complications. We report a 25-year-old Congolese woman who was admitted for weakness, arthralgias and abdominal pain. The association of a relative hyperpigmentation of the small joints of hands and feet with clinical features of hypercorticism led to suspect a chronic use of cutaneous topical steroids for skin-bleaching. On biological tests, plasma cortisol and corticotropin levels were undetectable and the short corticotropin (ACTH) stimulation test was negative, leading to the diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency complicating the chronic use of topical steroids. Clinical symptoms resolved with hydrocortisone therapy. One year later, the patient admitted a five-year continuous use of cutaneous topical steroids (betamethasone, 0.05%). Skin-bleaching through chronic use of cutaneous topical steroids, is a common practice in black women, and should be suspected in the presence of adrenal insufficiency with or without clinical features of hypercorticism, and conversely, skin-bleaching users should be tested for hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal function.

  7. Newborn umbilical cord and skin care in Sylhet District, Bangladesh: Implications for promotion of umbilical cord cleansing with topical chlorhexidine

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Ashraful; Ali, Nabeel Ashraf; Sultana, Nighat; Mullany, Luke C.; Teela, Katherine C.; Khan, Nazib Uz Zaman; Baqui, Abdullah H.; Arifeen, Shams El; Mannan, Ishtiaq; Darmstadt, Gary L.; Winch, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Newborn cord care practices may directly contribute to infections, which account for a large proportion of the 4 million annual global neonatal deaths. This formative research study assessed current umbilical and skin care knowledge and practices for neonates in Sylhet, Bangladesh in preparation for a cluster-randomised trial of the impact of topical chlorhexidine cord cleansing on neonatal mortality and omphalitis. Methodology Unstructured interviews (n=60), structured observations (n=20), rating and ranking exercises (n=40), and household surveys (n=400) were conducted to elicit specific behaviours regarding newborn cord and skin care practices. These included hand-washing, skin and cord care at the time of birth, persons engaged in cord care, cord cutting practices, topical applications to the cord at the time of birth, wrapping/dressing of the cord stump, and use of skin-to-skin care. Results Ninety percent of deliveries occurred at home. The umbilical cord was almost always (98%) cut after delivery of the placenta, and cut by mothers in more than half the cases (57%). Substances were commonly (52%) applied to the stump after cord cutting; turmeric was the most common application (83%). Umbilical stump care revolved around bathing, skin massage with mustard oil, and heat massage on the umbilical stump. Forty-two percent of newborns were bathed on the day of birth. Mothers were the principal provider for skin and cord care during the neonatal period and 9% reported umbilical infections in their infants. Discussion Unhygienic cord care practices are prevalent in the study area. Efforts to promote hand washing, cord cutting with clean instruments, and avoiding unclean home applications to the cord may reduce exposure and improve neonatal outcomes. Such efforts should broadly target a range of caregivers, including mothers and other female household members. PMID:19057570

  8. Addressing Male Facial Skin Concerns: Clinical Efficacy of a Topical Skincare Treatment Product for Men.

    PubMed

    Makino, Elizabeth T; Jiang, Lily I; Tan, Priscilla; Cheng, Tsing; Mehta, Rahul C

    2018-03-01

    The growing male skincare market reflects the increased interest of men in addressing facial aging concerns and maintaining a healthy youthful appearance. Because of differences in skin structure and aging as well as in lifestyle and behavior, male facial skin presents unique challenges that may result in different priorities or treatment strategies compared to female skin. A clinical study was conducted to assess clinical efficacy and tolerability of a topical skincare treatment product that was developed to address several male facial skin concerns related to skin quality, skin aging, and shaving. The treatment product provided significant improvements in all clinical efficacy parameters including overall photodamage, tactile roughness, fine line/wrinkles, and coarse lines/wrinkles. Furthermore, significant improvements in erythema as well as dryness/scaling were observed. Subject self-assessment questionnaires showed that the treatment product was highly rated in both self-perceived efficacy as well as product attributes. Use of skincare treatment products that tackle specific male facial skin concerns could further optimize skin quality and support healthy and youthful looking skin in men.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(3):301-306.

    .

  9. An evaluation of the effect of a topical product containing salicin on the visible signs of human skin aging.

    PubMed

    Gopaul, Remona; Knaggs, Helen E; Lephart, Janet F; Holley, Kara C; Gibson, Erica M

    2010-09-01

    There are many different visible signs of skin aging. These include wrinkles, hyperpigmentation, lack of firmness, poor texture, enlarged pores, and dryness. While there are many topical agents that claim to deliver wide-spectrum anti-aging benefits, few target all of the signs of skin aging to the same extent. Salicin, an extract from white willow bark, has been researched as a potent anti-inflammatory agent when taken orally. Based on unpublished in-house comprehensive consumer clinical studies, it is believed salicin may have anti-aging capabilities when applied topically to human skin. This research evaluated the effect of a topical serum formulation containing salicin at 0.5% on the visible signs of skin aging. This single-center study enrolled 30 female subjects, showing mild to moderate signs of aging, between the ages of 35 and 70 having Fitzpatrick skin types ranging between I and IV. Subjects used the study serum product containing 0.5% salicin on their face twice daily for 12 weeks. Ordinal grading on a nine-point scale (0 = none, 1-3 = mild, 4-6 = moderate, 7-9 = severe) of facial fine lines, molted pigmentation, uneven skin tone, tactile roughness, global firmness appearance, jaw-line contour, radiance, and overall appearance was performed by investigator at baseline, week 1, week 4, week 8, and week 12. Digital photography, ultrasound, cutometry, and corneometry measurements were also performed at each time point. Twenty-nine of 30 subjects successfully completed the study. No tolerability issues were reported. The clinical investigator found statistically significant improvements in wrinkles, tactile roughness, pore size, radiance, and overall appearance at week 1 time point (P ≤ 0.05) against baseline and statistically significant improvements in mottled pigmentation, global firmness, and jaw-line contour at week 4 time point (P ≤ 0.05) against baseline. Cutometry, corneometry, and ultrasound measurements showed significant improvements at week

  10. Evidence of anti-inflammatory effect and percutaneous penetration of a topically applied fish oil preparation: a photoacoustic spectroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ames, Franciele Q.; Sato, Francielle; de Castro, Lidiane V.; de Arruda, Laura L. M.; da Rocha, Bruno A.; Cuman, Roberto K. N.; Baesso, Mauro L.; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar A.

    2017-05-01

    This paper investigates the topical anti-inflammatory effect of a fish oil preparation (FOP) in a croton oil (CO) model of skin inflammation. The photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) was applied to estimate the percutaneous penetration of the FOP and as a model to evaluate the topical inflammatory response. After applying CO, the groups of mice received a topical application of a FOP on the left ear. The right ear received the vehicle that was used to dilute the CO. After 6 h, ear tissue was collected to determine the percent inhibition of edema, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and cytokine levels and to perform PAS measurements. Treatment with FOP reduced edema and MPO activity, which was at least partially attributed to a decrease in the levels of tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, keratinocyte-derived chemokine, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. The topically applied FOP penetrated into the tissue and decreased the area of the bands that characterize inflamed tissue. The present results demonstrated the topical anti-inflammatory effect of the FOP. PAS suggests that FOP anti-inflammatory activity is linked with its ability to penetrate through the skin.

  11. Topically applied metal chelator reduces thermal injury progression in a rat model of brass comb burn.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng Z; Ayadi, Amina El; Goswamy, Juhi; Finnerty, Celeste C; Mifflin, Randy; Sousse, Linda; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Papaconstantinou, John; Herndon, David N; Ansari, Naseem H

    2015-12-01

    Oxidative stress may be involved in the cellular damage and tissue destruction as burn wounds continues to progress after abatement of the initial insult. Since iron and calcium ions play key roles in oxidative stress, this study tested whether topical application of Livionex formulation (LF) lotion, that contains disodium EDTA as a metal chelator and methyl sulfonyl methane (MSM) as a permeability enhancer, would prevent or reduce burns. We used an established brass comb burn model with some modifications. Topical application of LF lotion was started 5 min post-burn, and repeated every 8 h for 3 consecutive days. Rats were euthanized and skin harvested for histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. Formation of protein adducts of 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), malonadialdehyde (MDA) and acrolein (ACR) and expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) isozymes, ALDH1 and ALDH2 were assessed. LF lotion-treated burn sites and interspaces showed mild morphological improvement compared to untreated burn sites. Furthermore, the lotion significantly decreased the immunostaining of lipid aldehyde-protein adducts including protein -HNE, -MDA and -ACR adducts, and restored the expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase isozymes in the unburned interspaces. This data, for the first time, demonstrates that a topically applied EDTA-containing lotion protects burns progression with a concomitant decrease in the accumulation of reactive lipid aldehydes and protection of aldehyde dehydrogenase isozymes. Present studies are suggestive of therapeutic intervention of burns by this novel lotion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  12. Topically Applied Metal Chelator Reduces Thermal Injury Progression in a Rat Model of Brass Comb Burn

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cheng Z.; El Ayadi, Amina; Goswamy, Juhi; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Mifflin, Randy; Sousse, Linda; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Papaconstantinou, John; Herndon, David N.; Ansari, Naseem H.

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress may be involved in the cellular damage and tissue destruction as burn wounds continues to progress after abatement of the initial insult. Since iron and calcium ions play key roles in oxidative stress, this study tested whether topical application of Livionex formulation (LF) lotion, that contains disodium EDTA as a metal chelator and methyl sulfonyl methane (MSM) as a permeability enhancer, would prevent or reduce burn injury. Methods We used an established brass comb burn model with some modifications. Topical application of LF lotion was started 5 minutes post-burn, and repeated every 8 hours for 3 consecutive days. Rats were euthanized and skin harvested for histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. Formation of protein adducts of 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), malonadialdehyde (MDA) and acrolein (ACR) and expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) isozymes, ALDH1 and ALDH2 were assessed. Results LF lotion-treated burn sites and interspaces showed mild morphological improvement compared to untreated burn sites. Furthermore, the lotion significantly decreased the immunostaining of lipid aldehyde-protein adducts including protein -HNE, -MDA and -ACR adducts, and restored the expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase isozymes in the unburned interspaces. Conclusion This data, for the first time, demonstrates that a topically applied EDTA-containing lotion protects burn injury progression with a concomitant decrease in the accumulation of reactive lipid aldehydes and protection of aldehyde dehydrogenase isozymes. Present studies are suggestive of therapeutic intervention of burn injury by this novel lotion. PMID:26392023

  13. An Advertisement and Article Analysis of Skin Products and Topics in Popular Women's Magazines: Implications for Skin Cancer Prevention.

    PubMed

    Basch, Corey H; Mongiovi, Jennifer; Hillyer, Grace Clarke; Fullwood, M D; Ethan, Danna; Hammond, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, skin cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer, with an estimated 5 million people treated per year and annual medical treatment expenditures that exceed 8 billion dollars. The purpose of this study was two-fold: 1) to enumerate the number of advertisements for skin products with and without Sun Protection Factor (SPF) and to further analyze the specific advertisements for sunblock to determine if models, when present, depict sun safe behaviors and 2) to enumerate the number of articles related to the skin for content. Both aims include an assessment for differences in age and in magazines targeting a Black or Latina population. The sample for this cross sectional study was comprised of 99 issues of 14 popular United States magazines marketed to women, four of which market to a Black or Latina audience. There were 6,142 advertisements, of which 1,215 (19.8%, 95% CI: 18.8-20.8%) were related to skin products. Among the skin product advertisements, 1,145 (93.8%, 95% CI: 93.9-96.3%) depicted skin products without SPF. The majority of skin articles (91.2%, 95% CI: 91.7-100.0%), skin product advertisements (89.9%, 95% CI: 88.2-91.6%), and sunblock advertisements featuring models (were found in magazines aimed at the older (>24 yr) audience. Future research on this topic could focus on the extent to which images in these magazines translate into risky health behaviors, such as sun seeking, or excessive other harmful effects of UV radiation.

  14. MALDI imaging facilitates new topical drug development process by determining quantitative skin distribution profiles.

    PubMed

    Bonnel, David; Legouffe, Raphaël; Eriksson, André H; Mortensen, Rasmus W; Pamelard, Fabien; Stauber, Jonathan; Nielsen, Kim T

    2018-04-01

    Generation of skin distribution profiles and reliable determination of drug molecule concentration in the target region are crucial during the development process of topical products for treatment of skin diseases like psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. Imaging techniques like mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) offer sufficient spatial resolution to generate meaningful distribution profiles of a drug molecule across a skin section. In this study, we use matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) to generate quantitative skin distribution profiles based on tissue extinction coefficient (TEC) determinations of four different molecules in cross sections of human skin explants after topical administration. The four drug molecules: roflumilast, tofacitinib, ruxolitinib, and LEO 29102 have different physicochemical properties. In addition, tofacitinib was administrated in two different formulations. The study reveals that with MALDI-MSI, we were able to observe differences in penetration profiles for both the four drug molecules and the two formulations and thereby demonstrate its applicability as a screening tool when developing a topical drug product. Furthermore, the study reveals that the sensitivity of the MALDI-MSI techniques appears to be inversely correlated to the drug molecules' ability to bind to the surrounding tissues, which can be estimated by their Log D values. Graphical abstract.

  15. The Effect in Topical Use of Lycogen(TM) via Sonophoresis for Anti-aging on Facial Skin.

    PubMed

    Hsin-Ti, Lai; Wen-Sheng, Liu; Yi-Chia, Wu; Ya-Wei, Lai; Wen, Zhi-Hong; David, Wang Hui-Min; Su-Shin, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Anti-aging skin care is a growing popular topic in cosmetic and aesthetic fields, and skin care rather then makeup tips draw more attention nowadays. The phenomenon of skin aging includes thinning of skin losses of elasticity and moisture, pigmented spot formation, and wrinkle development. Along with growth in age, the decreased rates of epithelium renewal and cellular recovery as well as the reduced contents of elastin, collagen, and glycosaminoglycans all contribute to creases or folds of skin. Available strategies for wrinkle treatments include topical use of skin care products with anti-aging contents, dermabrasion, laser, Botox injection, fillers injection, and facelift. Though all of these above options can provide different degrees of improvement in facial wrinkles, the cost-effect, pain of intervention therapy, and necessity of repetitive treatment may impact on choices made. Topical use of anti-aging skin products is the most convenient and cheap way to achieve skin anti-aging effect. Lycogen(TM) is an antioxidant, which can prevent the downregulation of pro-collagen I, intracellular accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and achieve the aim of skin rejuvenation. Twenty-six female patients were included in our study with ages between 30 and 45. They were randomly assigned to two groups: the vehicle control group and the experimental group. Patients in the control group applied a skin care product without Lycogen(TM)to the face via sonophoresis after facial cleanser use in the morning and at night. The experimental group applied a Lycogen(TM) -containing skin care product via sonophoresis in the same time schedule. We evaluated results, including pigmented spots, wrinkles, texture, pores, and red area by VISIA on weeks 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 respectively. In the aspect of pigmented spots, the experimental group showed significant difference in comparison with the vehicle control group on weeks 2, 6, 8, and 10. For wrinkles, the experimental group had

  16. The Cutaneous Microbiome and Aspects of Skin Antimicrobial Defense System Resist Acute Treatment with Topical Skin Cleansers.

    PubMed

    Two, Aimee M; Nakatsuji, Teruaki; Kotol, Paul F; Arvanitidou, Evangelia; Du-Thumm, Laurence; Hata, Tissa R; Gallo, Richard L

    2016-10-01

    The human skin microbiome has been suggested to play an essential role in maintaining health by contributing to innate defense of the skin. These observations have inspired speculation that the use of common skin washing techniques may be detrimental to the epidermal antibacterial defense system by altering the microbiome. In this study, several common skin cleansers were used to wash human forearms and the short-term effect on the abundance of the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 and the abundance and diversity of bacterial DNA was measured. Despite small but significant decreases in the amount of LL-37 on the skin surface shortly after washing, no significant change in the bacterial community was detected. Furthermore, Group A Streptococcus did not survive better on the skin after washing. In contrast, the addition of antimicrobial compounds such as benzalkonium chloride or triclocarban to soap before washing decreased the growth of Group A Streptococcus applied after rinse. These results support prior studies that hand washing techniques in the health care setting are beneficial and should be continued. Additional research is necessary to better understand the effects of chronic washing and the potential impact of skin care products on the development of dysbiosis in some individuals. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Photodynamic therapy of nonmelanoma skin cancer with topical hypericum perforatum extract--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kacerovská, Denisa; Pizinger, Karel; Majer, Filip; Smíd, Frantisek

    2008-01-01

    Hypericin, the photoactive compound of Hypericum perforatum, is probably the most powerful photosensitizer found in nature. This compound has shown high potency in the photodynamic treatment of tumor cells. However, there is only limited knowledge regarding the photodynamic effect of hypericin on nonmelanoma skin cancer cells. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the efficacy of photodynamic therapy with topical application of an extract of H. perforatum in actinic keratosis, basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and morbus Bowen (carcinoma in situ). The study was carried out on 34 patients--eight with actinic keratoses (AKs), 21 with BCC and five with Bowen's disease. The extract of H. perforatum was applied on the skin lesions under occlusion and that was followed by irradiation with 75 J cm(-2) of red light 2 h later. The treatment was performed weekly for 6 weeks on average. The percentage of complete clinical response was 50% for AKs, 28% in patients with superficial BCC and 40% in patients with Bowen's disease. There was only a partial remission seen in patients with nodular BCCs. A complete disappearance of tumor cells was found in the histologic preparation of 11% of patients with superficial BCCs and 80% in the patients with Bowen's disease. All patients complained of burning and pain sensations during irradiation. Although the results of this first clinical trial could be regarded as disappointing, there are still possibilities for improvement. Better preparation of the lesions, enhancement of hypericin delivery and other types of light exposure procedures could significantly improve the clinical outcomes of this relatively inexpensive treatment modality.

  18. Effects of Topical Tamoxifen on Wound Healing of Burned Skin in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mehrvarz, Shaban; Ebrahimi, Ali; Sahraei, Hedayat; Bagheri, Mohammad Hasan; Fazili, Sima; Manoochehry, Shahram; Rasouli, Hamid Reza

    2017-01-01

    Background This study aimed to assess the effects of the topical application of tamoxifen on wound healing of burned skin in Wistar rats by evaluating 3 healing characteristics: fibrotic tissue thickness (FTT), scar surface area (SSA), and angiogenesis in the healed scar tissue. Methods Eighteen male Wistar rats were used in this study. A third-degree burn wound was made on the shaved animals’ back, measuring 2×2×2 cm. In the first group, a 2% tamoxifen ointment was applied to the wound twice daily for 8 weeks. The second group received a placebo ointment during the same period. The third group did not receive any treatment and served as the control group. Results The median (interquartile range=[Q1, Q3]) FTT was 1.35 (1.15, 1.62) mm, 1.00 (0.95, 1.02) mm, and 1.25 (0.8, 1.5) mm in the control, tamoxifen, and placebo groups, respectively (P=0.069). However, the FTT in the tamoxifen group was less than in the placebo and control groups. The median angiogenesis was 3.5 (3.00, 6.25), 8.00 (6.75, 9.25), and 7.00 (5.50, 8.25) vessels per high-power field for the control, tamoxifen, and placebo groups, respectively (P=0.067). However, the median angiogenesis was higher in the tamoxifen group than in the control group. No significant difference was observed in the mean SSA between the tamoxifen group and the control group (P=0.990). Conclusions Local application of tamoxifen increased angiogenesis and decreased the FTT, with no change in the SSA in burned skin areas. These effects are expected to expedite the wound healing process, reducing contracture and preventing hypertrophic scar and keloid formation. PMID:28946718

  19. Anti-Inflammatory and Skin Barrier Repair Effects of Topical Application of Some Plant Oils

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tzu-Kai; Zhong, Lily; Santiago, Juan Luis

    2017-01-01

    Plant oils have been utilized for a variety of purposes throughout history, with their integration into foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products. They are now being increasingly recognized for their effects on both skin diseases and the restoration of cutaneous homeostasis. This article briefly reviews the available data on biological influences of topical skin applications of some plant oils (olive oil, olive pomace oil, sunflower seed oil, coconut oil, safflower seed oil, argan oil, soybean oil, peanut oil, sesame oil, avocado oil, borage oil, jojoba oil, oat oil, pomegranate seed oil, almond oil, bitter apricot oil, rose hip oil, German chamomile oil, and shea butter). Thus, it focuses on the therapeutic benefits of these plant oils according to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects on the skin, promotion of wound healing and repair of skin barrier. PMID:29280987

  20. Anti-Inflammatory and Skin Barrier Repair Effects of Topical Application of Some Plant Oils.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzu-Kai; Zhong, Lily; Santiago, Juan Luis

    2017-12-27

    Plant oils have been utilized for a variety of purposes throughout history, with their integration into foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products. They are now being increasingly recognized for their effects on both skin diseases and the restoration of cutaneous homeostasis. This article briefly reviews the available data on biological influences of topical skin applications of some plant oils (olive oil, olive pomace oil, sunflower seed oil, coconut oil, safflower seed oil, argan oil, soybean oil, peanut oil, sesame oil, avocado oil, borage oil, jojoba oil, oat oil, pomegranate seed oil, almond oil, bitter apricot oil, rose hip oil, German chamomile oil, and shea butter). Thus, it focuses on the therapeutic benefits of these plant oils according to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects on the skin, promotion of wound healing and repair of skin barrier.

  1. Corneal crystalline deposits associated with topically applied gatifloxacin.

    PubMed

    Elia, Maxwell; Khodadadeh, Sarah; Chow, Jessica

    2014-06-01

    To report a case of corneal crystalline deposits from the use of gatifloxacin 0.5% topical antibiotic after combined cataract extraction and trabeculotomy ab interno surgery. A 59-year-old woman presented after combined cataract extraction and trabeculotomy ab interno with crystalline deposits in the anterior corneal stroma. Clinical examination and slit-lamp photography were performed. The slit-lamp examination showed inferior white crystal deposition in the anterior stroma with overlying punctate epithelial erosions 4 weeks postoperatively. The eye was asymptomatic, but the deposition was cosmetically noticeable to the patient. Serial slit-lamp photography demonstrated resolution of the crystalline deposits 30 days after the discontinuation of eye drops. The authors present a rare case of stromal crystallization from topical gatifloxacin treatment. Complete resolution of corneal deposits was seen 30 days after the discontinuation of the drops without sequelae.

  2. Novel nanocarriers for topical drug delivery: investigating delivery efficiency and distribution in skin using two-photon microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirejev, Vladimir; Guldbrand, Stina; Bauer, Brigitte; Smedh, Maria; Ericson, Marica B.

    2011-03-01

    The complex structure of skin represents an effective barrier against external environmental factors, as for example, different chemical and biochemical compounds, yeast, bacterial and viral infections. However, this impermeability prevents efficient transdermal drug delivery which limits the number of drugs that are able to penetrate the skin efficiently. Current trends in drug application through skin focus on the design and use of nanocarriers for transport of active compounds. The transport systems applied so far have several drawbacks, as they often have low payload, high toxicity, a limited variability of inclusion molecules, or long degradation times. The aim of these current studies is to investigate novel topical drug delivery systems, e.g. nanocarriers based on cyclic oligosaccharides - cyclodextrins (CD) or iron (III)-based metal-organic frameworks (MOF). Earlier studies on cell cultures imply that these drug nanocarriers show promising characteristics compared to other drug delivery systems. In our studies, we use two-photon microscopy to investigate the ability of the nanocarriers to deliver compounds through ex-vivo skin samples. Using near infrared light for excitation in the so called optical window of skin allows deep-tissue visualization of drug distribution and localization. In addition, it is possible to employ two-photon based fluorescence correlation spectroscopy for quantitative analysis of drug distribution and concentrations in different cell layers.

  3. Evaluation of Skin Permeation of β-blockers for Topical Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Chantasart, Doungdaw; Hao, Jinsong; Li, S. Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose β-Blockers have recently become the main form of treatment of infantile hemangiomas. Due to the potential systemic adverse effects of β-blockers, topical skin treatment of the drugs is preferred. However, the effect and mechanism of dosage form pH upon skin permeation of these weak bases is not well understood. To develop an effective topical skin delivery system for the β-blockers, the present study evaluated skin permeation of β-blockers propranolol, betaxolol, timolol, and atenolol. Methods Experiments were performed in side-by-side diffusion cells with human epidermal membrane (HEM) in vitro to determine the effect of donor solution pH upon the permeation of the β-blockers across HEM. Results The apparent permeability coefficients of HEM for the β-blockers increased with their lipophilicity, suggesting the HEM lipoidal pathway as the main permeation mechanism of the β-blockers. The pH in the donor solution was a major factor influencing HEM permeation for the β-blockers with a 2- to 4-fold increase in the permeability coefficient per pH unit increase. This permeability versus pH relationship was found to deviate from theoretical predictions, possibly due to the effective stratum corneum pH being different from the pH in the donor solution. Conclusions The present results suggest the possibility of topical treatment of hemangioma using β-blockers. PMID:23208385

  4. Evaluation of skin permeation of β-blockers for topical drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Chantasart, Doungdaw; Hao, Jinsong; Li, S Kevin

    2013-03-01

    β-Blockers have recently become the main form of treatment of infantile hemangiomas. Due to the potential systemic adverse effects of β-blockers, topical skin treatment of the drugs is preferred. However, the effect and mechanism of dosage form pH upon skin permeation of these weak bases is not well understood. To develop an effective topical skin delivery system for the β-blockers, the present study evaluated skin permeation of β-blockers propranolol, betaxolol, timolol, and atenolol. Experiments were performed in side-by-side diffusion cells with human epidermal membrane (HEM) in vitro to determine the effect of donor solution pH upon the permeation of the β-blockers across HEM. The apparent permeability coefficients of HEM for the β-blockers increased with their lipophilicity, suggesting the HEM lipoidal pathway as the main permeation mechanism of the β-blockers. The pH in the donor solution was a major factor influencing HEM permeation for the β-blockers with a 2- to 4-fold increase in the permeability coefficient per pH unit increase. This permeability versus pH relationship was found to deviate from theoretical predictions, possibly due to the effective stratum corneum pH being different from the pH in the donor solution. The present results suggest the possibility of topical treatment of hemangioma using β-blockers.

  5. Topical Apigenin Improves Epidermal Permeability Barrier Homeostasis in Normal Murine Skin by Divergent Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Maihua; Sun, Richard; Hupe, Melanie; Kim, Peggy L.; Park, Kyungho; Crumrine, Debra; Lin, Tzu-kai; Santiago, Juan Luis; Mauro, Theodora M.; Elias, Peter M.; Man, Mao-Qiang

    2013-01-01

    The beneficial effects of certain herbal medicines on cutaneous function have been appreciated for centuries. Among these agents, Chrysanthemum extract, apigenin, has been used for skin care, particularly in China, for millennia. However, the underlying mechanisms by which apigenin benefits the skin are not known. In the present study, we first determined whether topical apigenin positively influences permeability barrier homeostasis, and then the basis thereof. Hairless mice were treated topically with either 0.1% apigenin or vehicle alone twice-daily for 9 days. At the end of treatments, permeability barrier function was assessed with either an electrolytic water analyzer or a Tewameter. Our results show that topical apigenin significantly enhanced permeability barrier homeostasis after tape stripping, though basal permeability barrier function remained unchanged. Improved barrier function correlated with enhanced filaggrin expression and lamellar body production, which was paralleled by elevated mRNA levels for the epidermal ABCA12. The mRNA levels for key lipid synthetic enzymes also were up-regulated by apigenin. Finally, both CAMP and mBD3 immunostaining were increased by apigenin. We conclude that topical apigenin improves epidermal permeability barrier function by stimulating epidermal differentiation, lipid synthesis and secretion, as well as cutaneous antimicrobial peptide production. Apigenin could be useful for the prevention and treatment of skin disorders characterized by permeability barrier dysfunction, associated with reduced filaggrin levels, and impaired antimicrobial defenses, such as atopic dermatitis. PMID:23489424

  6. Photoacoustic evaluation of the penetration of piroxicam gel applied with phonophoresis into human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silveira, F. L. F. D.; Barja, P. R.; Acosta-Avalos, D.

    2010-03-01

    The photoacoustic (PA) technique has been increasingly employed in biomedical studies, allowing in vivo skin measurements not easily performed with other techniques. It is possible to use PA measurements to evaluate transdermal delivery of products topically applied through manual massage or phonophoresis, that is the utilization of ultrasound waves to enhance drug absorption. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of the period of phonophoresis application in the transdermal penetration of piroxicam gel. In vivo PA measurements employed a tungsten lamp as light source and a thin aluminum foil closing the PA chamber. The PA signals of the arm (i) clean; and (ii) after phonophoresis were utilized to estimate the concentration of piroxicam into skin. For all (4) volunteers, drug concentration in skin after phonophoresis application was the same for the different application times employed; in this way, phonophoresis for one minute seemed to be sufficient to enhance piroxicam penetration into skin. The actual amount of drug delivered into tissue depends on the person, suggesting a dependency with the skin type, which affects the PA signal level [2]. We conclude that drug delivery depends not only on the application method, but also on the specific skin type.

  7. Topical use of sodium cromoglicate (cromolyn sodium) to treat atopic dermatitis and other skin allergies.

    PubMed

    Zur, Eyal

    2012-01-01

    Sodium cromoglicate (cromolyn sodium) is a very well-known medicine that has been used for many years for various allergic conditions. The topical use of this medicine is less known, and there are no commercial medicines of cream, gel, or lotion in most of the world. This article summarizes the clinical data accumulated from seventeen trials that checked the topical efficacy and safety of sodium cromoglicate and analyzes the clinical implementations of this medicine in the topical treatment of atopic dermatitis and other skin allergies. In addition, this article analyzes the various formulations that have been used in the clinical trials in an attempt to find the optimal formulation. The topical use of sodium cromoglicate seemed to have a promising potential, and implementing the data of this article can allow the compounding pharmacist a very interesting professional activity in very common and widespread allergic pathologies.

  8. Topical application of Bifidobacterium-fermented soy milk extract containing genistein and daidzein improves rheological and physiological properties of skin.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Kouji; Hanamizu, Tomoko; Sone, Toshiro; Chiba, Katsuyoshi; Kinoshita, Takashi; Yoshikawa, Satoshi

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of Bifidobacterium-fermented soy milk extract (BE) containing genistein and daidzein on the hyaluronic acid (HA) content and rheological and physiological properties of hairless mouse and/or human skin. Topical application of BE for six weeks significantly restored changes in the elasticity and viscoelasticity of mouse skin, increased the HA content, and hydrated and thickened mouse skin. Also, topical application of a gel formula containing 10% BE to the human forearm for three months significantly lessened the decrease in skin elasticity. Therefore, BE is expected to become a new cosmetic ingredient to prevent the loss of skin elasticity through enhancement of HA production.

  9. Dermostyx (IB1) - High efficacy and safe topical skin protectant against percutaneous toxic agents.

    PubMed

    Dachir, Shlomit; Barness, Izhak; Fishbine, Eliezer; Meshulam, Jacob; Sahar, Rita; Eisenkraft, Arik; Amir, Adina; Kadar, Tamar

    2017-04-01

    Prevention of the penetration of toxic agents through the skin is crucial for both military troops and civilian populations. We have developed a novel topical skin protectant (TSP), coded as IB1 and commercially available as Dermostyx protective solution (Rekah Pharm, Israel). The formulation afforded significant protection against chemical warfare agents such as sulfur mustard (SM) and VX (2LD50), pesticides such as parathion and irritants such as acrolein. The efficacy of the protectant was evaluated in the pig model using clinical, histological and biochemical monitoring. A single topical application prior to exposure to the toxic agents reduced significantly the size and severity of skin lesions and ameliorated or prevented systemic clinical symptoms. The barrier properties of IB1 are immediate upon application and remain effective for at least 12 h. It is absorbed into the stratum corneum of the skin and remains there until rinsing with water, yet the ingredients are not absorbed into the body. The formulation is a hydrophilic water-based solution, composed of magnesium sulfate and glycerin that are widely used in cosmetic and medicine, and was shown to be safe in preclinical and in Phase I clinical studies. The suggested mode of action is based on the unique interaction of glycerin with the stratum corneum, changing its properties to hydrophilic and on the "salting out" effect of magnesium sulfate. The expected use of the TSP is by application on exposed skin areas and sensitive skin sites (e.g. armpits, groin, waist), when necessary. A quantity of 10 ml is sufficient for one application covering approximately 20% of the body surface area. The formulation was approved for human use by the Israel Ministry of Health and a CE mark certificate in Europe has been recently issued (Class I). Dermostyx has been adopted by the IDF and first responders as a skin protectant for special needs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Topically delivered dissolved oxygen reduces inflammation and positively influences structural proteins in healthy intact human skin.

    PubMed

    Kellar, Robert S; Audet, Robert G; Roe, David F; Rheins, Lawrence A; Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2013-06-01

    As oxygen is essential for wound healing and there is limited diffusion across the stratum corneum into the epidermis, we wanted to evaluate whether the topical delivery of a total dissolved oxygen in dressing form on intact human subject skin would improve clinical and histologic skin functioning. Fifty normal, healthy subjects completed a pilot clinical evaluation to assess the efficacy and tolerability of a dissolved oxygen dressing (OxygeneSys™-Continuous) to improve the health and appearance of intact skin. Clinical analysis was performed on 50 subjects; histological and gene expression analysis was performed on 12 of the 50 subjects to assess the effect of the dissolved oxygen dressing. Clinical data demonstrate that the dressing is well tolerated, and several measures of skin health and integrity showed improvements compared with a control dressing site. Skin hydration measurements showed a statistically significant increase in skin hydration at 0-4, 4-8, and 0-8 weeks (P < 0.05 at each time point). The blinded clinical investigator's grading of desquamation, roughness, and skin texture show significant decreases from baseline to the 8-week time point (P < 0.05). The dressings were removed prior to the blinded clinical investigator's grading. These data were supported by the histological and gene expression studies, which showed a general reduction in inflammatory response markers and transcription products (IL-6, IL-8, TNF-alpha, MMP-1, and MMP-12), while facilitating a general increase in structural skin proteins (collagen I, elastin, and filaggrin). Additionally, p53 signals from biopsy samples support the clinical investigator's observations of no safety concerns. The data from this study demonstrate that the dressing has no deleterious effects and stimulates beneficial effects on intact, nonwounded skin. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Formulation study of topically applied lotion: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hussain Shah, Syed Nisar; Hussain, Talib; Ullah Khan, Ikram; Asghar, Sajid; Shahzad, Yasser

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the development and evaluation of a new topical formulation of diclofenac diethylamine (DDA) as a locally applied analgesic lotion. To this end, the lotion formulations were formulated with equal volume of varying concentrations (1%, 2%, 3%, 4%; v/v) of permeation enhancers, namely propylene glycol (PG) and turpentine oil (TO). These lotions were subjected to physical studies (pH, viscosity, spreadability, homogeneity, and accelerated stability), in vitro permeation, in vivo animal studies and sensatory perception testing. In vitro permeation of DDA from lotion formulations was evaluated across polydimethylsiloxane membrane and rabbit skin using Franz cells. It was found that PG and TO content influenced the permeation of DDA across model membranes with the lotion containing 4% v/v PG and TO content showed maximum permeation enhancement of DDA. The flux values for L4 were 1.20±0.02 μg.cm(-2).min(-1) and 0.67 ± 0.02 μg.cm(-2).min(-1) for polydimethylsiloxane and rabbit skin, respectively. Flux values were significantly different (p < 0.05) from that of the control. The flux enhancement ratio of DDA from L4 was 31.6-fold and 4.8-fold for polydimethylsiloxane and rabbit skin, respectively. In the in vivo animal testing, lotion with 4% v/v enhancer content showed maximum anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect without inducing any irritation. Sensatory perception tests involving healthy volunteers rated the formulations between 3 and 4 (values ranging between -4 to +4, indicating a range of very bad to excellent, respectively). It was concluded that the DDA lotion containing 4% v/v PG and TO exhibit the best performance overall and that this specific formulation should be the basis for further clinical investigations.

  12. Formulation Study of Topically Applied Lotion: In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Hussain Shah, Syed Nisar; Hussain, Talib; Ullah Khan, Ikram; Asghar, Sajid; Shahzad, Yasser

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This article presents the development and evaluation of a new topical formulation of diclofenac diethylamine (DDA) as a locally applied analgesic lotion. Methods To this end, the lotion formulations were formulated with equal volume of varying concentrations (1%, 2%, 3%, 4%; v/v) of permeation enhancers, namely propylene glycol (PG) and turpentine oil (TO). These lotions were subjected to physical studies (pH, viscosity, spreadability, homogeneity, and accelerated stability), in vitro permeation, in vivo animal studies and sensatory perception testing. In vitro permeation of DDA from lotion formulations was evaluated across polydimethylsiloxane membrane and rabbit skin using Franz cells. Results It was found that PG and TO content influenced the permeation of DDA across model membranes with the lotion containing 4% v/v PG and TO content showed maximum permeation enhancement of DDA. The flux values for L4 were 1.20±0.02 μg.cm-2.min-1 and 0.67 ± 0.02 μg.cm-2.min-1 for polydimethylsiloxane and rabbit skin, respectively. Flux values were significantly different (p < 0.05) from that of the control. The flux enhancement ratio of DDA from L4 was 31.6-fold and 4.8-fold for polydimethylsiloxane and rabbit skin, respectively. In the in vivo animal testing, lotion with 4% v/v enhancer content showed maximum anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect without inducing any irritation. Sensatory perception tests involving healthy volunteers rated the formulations between 3 and 4 (values ranging between -4 to +4, indicating a range of very bad to excellent, respectively). Conclusion It was concluded that the DDA lotion containing 4% v/v PG and TO exhibit the best performance overall and that this specific formulation should be the basis for further clinical investigations. PMID:23678465

  13. Effect of Topically Applied Diisopropylfluorophosphate on Glucose Metabolism in the Rat.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    intermediary metabolism, * liver , adipose tissue topical application. DFP - diisopropylfluorophosphate OL AIISTRACT’MOMNomrse sft NOMNY Ol~ dulp lekib) .1A...skin, liver and adipose tissue preparations were determined. DFP had no demonstratable effect on glucose oxidation. In contrast, DFP enhanced fatty...acid synthesis by 70% over the control values in the skin and by 56 and 92% in the liver and adipose tissue, respectively. DFP stimulated synthesis. of

  14. Pharmacokinetics of topically applied pilocarpine in the albino rabbit eye.

    PubMed

    Makoid, M C; Robinson, J R

    1979-04-01

    The temporal and spatial pattern of [3H]-pilocarpine nitrate distribution in the albino rabbit eye following topical administration was determined. A four-compartment caternary chain model describing this disposition corresponds to the precorneal area, the cornea, the aqueous humor, and the lens and vitreous. Simultaneous computer fitting of data from tissue corresponding to some compartments in the model supported the proposed model. Additional support was provided by the excellent correlation between predicted and observed values in multiple-dosing studies. Several important aspects of ocular drug disposition are evident from the model. The extensive parallel elimination at the absorption site gives rise to an apparent absorption rate constant that is one to two orders of magnitude larger than the true absorption rate constant. In addition, aqueous flow accounts for most of the drug removal. Thus, major effects on absorption and elimination, independent of the drug structure, suggest the possibility of similar pharmacokinetics for vastly different drugs.

  15. Topical treatment of oral cavity and wounded skin with a new disinfection system utilizing photolysis of hydrogen peroxide in rats.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yasutomo; Mokudai, Takayuki; Nakamura, Keisuke; Hayashi, Eisei; Kawana, Yoshiko; Kanno, Taro; Sasaki, Keiichi; Niwano, Yoshimi

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the acute locally injurious property of hydroxyl radical generation system by photolysis of H(2)O(2), which is a new disinfection system for the treatment of periodontitis developed in our laboratory. Firstly, generation of the hydroxyl radical by a test device utilizing the photolysis of H(2)O(2) was confirmed by applying an electron spin resonance (ESR)-spin trapping technique. Secondly, the bactericidal effect of the device was examined under a simulant condition in which Staphylococcus aureus suspended in 1 M H(2)O(2) was irradiated with laser light emitted from the test device, resulting in substantial reduction of the colony forming unit of the bacteria within a short time as 2 min. Finally, acute topical effect of the disinfection system on rat oral mucosa and wounded skin was evaluated by histological examination. No abnormal findings were observed in the buccal mucosal region treated three times with 1 M H(2)O(2) and irradiation. Similarly, no abnormal findings were observed during the healing of skin treated with 1 M H(2)O(2) and irradiation immediately after wounding. Since topical treatment with the novel disinfection technique utilizing the photolysis of H(2)O(2) had no detrimental effect on the oral mucosa and the healing of full thickness skin wounds in rats, it is expected that the acute locally injurious property of the disinfection technique is low.

  16. Tissue deposition of the insect repellent DEET and the sunscreen oxybenzone from repeated topical skin applications in rats.

    PubMed

    Fediuk, Daryl J; Wang, Tao; Raizman, Joshua E; Parkinson, Fiona E; Gu, Xiaochen

    2010-12-01

    Insect repellent N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) and sunscreen oxybenzone are capable of enhancing skin permeation of each other when applied simultaneously. We carried out a cellular study in rat astrocytes and neurons to assess cell toxicity of DEET and oxybenzone and a 30-day study in Sprague-Dawley rats to characterize skin permeation and tissue disposition of the compounds. Cellular toxicity occurred at 1 µg/mL for neurons and 7-day treatment for astrocytes and neurons. DEET and oxybenzone permeated across the skin to accumulate in blood, liver, and brain after repeated topical applications. DEET disappeared from the application site faster than oxybenzone. Combined application enhanced the disposition of DEET in liver. No overt sign of behavioral toxicity was observed from several behavioral testing protocols. It was concluded that despite measurable disposition of the study compounds in vivo, there was no evidence of neurotoxicological deficits from repeated topical applications of DEET, oxybenzone, or both. © The Author(s) 2010

  17. Percutaneous characterization of the insect repellent DEET and the sunscreen oxybenzone from topical skin application

    SciTech Connect

    Kasichayanula, Sreeneeranj; House, James D.; Wang Tao

    The synergistic percutaneous enhancement between insect repellent DEET and sunscreen oxybenzone has been proven in our laboratory using a series of in vitro diffusion studies. In this study, we carried out an in vivo study to characterize skin permeation profiles from topical skin application of three commercially available repellent and sunscreen preparations. The correlation between skin disposition and drug metabolism was attempted by using data collected. Both DEET and oxybenzone permeated across the skin after the application and achieved substantial systemic absorption. Combined use of DEET and oxybenzone significantly enhanced the percutaneous penetration percentages (ranging 36-108%) due to mutual enhancementmore » effects. Skin disposition indicated that DEET produced a faster transdermal permeation rate and higher systemic absorption extent, but oxybenzone formed a concentrated depot within the skin and delivered the content slowly over the time. In vivo AUC{sub P}/MRT of DEET and oxybenzone was increased by 37%/17% and 63%/10% when the two compounds were used together. No DEET was detected from the urine samples 48 h after the application. Tape stripping seemed to be a satisfactory approach for quantitative assessment of DEET and oxybenzone penetration into the stratum corneum. It was also concluded that pharmacological and toxicological perspectives from concurrent application of insect repellent and sunscreen products require further evaluation to ensure use efficacy and safety of these common consumer healthcare products.« less

  18. Percutaneous characterization of the insect repellent DEET and the sunscreen oxybenzone from topical skin application.

    PubMed

    Kasichayanula, Sreeneeranj; House, James D; Wang, Tao; Gu, Xiaochen

    2007-09-01

    The synergistic percutaneous enhancement between insect repellent DEET and sunscreen oxybenzone has been proven in our laboratory using a series of in vitro diffusion studies. In this study, we carried out an in vivo study to characterize skin permeation profiles from topical skin application of three commercially available repellent and sunscreen preparations. The correlation between skin disposition and drug metabolism was attempted by using data collected. Both DEET and oxybenzone permeated across the skin after the application and achieved substantial systemic absorption. Combined use of DEET and oxybenzone significantly enhanced the percutaneous penetration percentages (ranging 36-108%) due to mutual enhancement effects. Skin disposition indicated that DEET produced a faster transdermal permeation rate and higher systemic absorption extent, but oxybenzone formed a concentrated depot within the skin and delivered the content slowly over the time. In vivo AUCP/MRT of DEET and oxybenzone was increased by 37%/17% and 63%/10% when the two compounds were used together. No DEET was detected from the urine samples 48 h after the application. Tape stripping seemed to be a satisfactory approach for quantitative assessment of DEET and oxybenzone penetration into the stratum corneum. It was also concluded that pharmacological and toxicological perspectives from concurrent application of insect repellent and sunscreen products require further evaluation to ensure use efficacy and safety of these common consumer healthcare products.

  19. A novel role of topical iodine in skin: Activation of the Nrf2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Ben-Yehuda Greenwald, Maya; Frušić-Zlotkin, Marina; Soroka, Yoram; Ben-Sasson, Shmuel; Bianco-Peled, Havazelet; Kohen, Ron

    2017-03-01

    For a long time iodine has been used as an active dermal agent in the treatment of inflammatory, immune-mediated and infectious diseases. Moreover, topical iodine application has been reported to provide protection against sulfur-mustard-induced skin lesions, heat-induced and acid-induced skin burns in both haired guinea-pigs and mouse ear swelling models. However, the exact mechanism of action underlying these benefits of iodine has not yet been elucidated. In the current study, a novel mechanism of action by which iodine provides skin protection and relief, based on its electrophilic nature, is suggested. This study demonstrates that both iodine and iodide are capable of activating the Nrf2 pathway in human skin. As a result, skin protection against UVB-induced damage was acquired and the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8) from LPS-challenged skin was reduced. Iodide role in the enhanced activation of this pathway is demonstrated. The mode of action by which iodine and iodide activate the Nrf2 pathway is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Therapeutic Efficacy of Topically Applied KP-103 against Experimental Tinea Unguium in Guinea Pigs in Comparison with Amorolfine and Terbinafine

    PubMed Central

    Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki; Yokoo, Mamoru; Senda, Hisato; Kakehi, Kazuaki

    2002-01-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of KP-103, a novel topical triazole, in a guinea pig tinea unguium model was investigated. Experimental tinea unguium and tinea pedis were produced by inoculation of Trichophyton mentagrophytes SM-110 between the toes of the hind paw of guinea pigs. One percent solution (0.1 ml) of KP-103, amorolfine, or terbinafine was topically applied to the nails and whole sole of an infected foot once daily for 30 consecutive days, and terbinafine was also orally administered at a daily dose of 40 mg/kg of body weight for 30 consecutive days, starting on day 60 postinfection. The fungal burdens of nails and plantar skin were assessed using a new method, which makes it possible to recover infecting fungi by removing a carryover of the drug remaining in the treated tissues into the culture medium. Topically applied KP-103 inhibited the development of nail collapse, significantly reduced the fungal burden of the nails, and sterilized the infected plantar skin. On the other hand, topical amorolfine and topical or oral terbinafine were ineffective for tinea unguium, although these drugs eradicated or reduced the fungal burden of plantar skin. The in vitro activities of amorolfine and terbinafine against T. mentagrophytes SM-110 were 8- and 32-fold, respectively, decreased by the addition of 5% keratin to Sabouraud dextrose broth medium. In contrast, the activity of KP-103 was not affected by keratin because its keratin affinity is lower than those of the reference drugs, suggesting that KP-103 largely exists in the nails as an active form that was not bound to keratin and diffuses in the nail without being trapped by keratin. The effectiveness of KP-103 against tinea unguium is probably due to its favorable pharmacokinetic properties in the nails together with its potent antifungal activity. PMID:12435679

  1. Topical Vitamin C and the Skin: Mechanisms of Action and Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Al-Niaimi, Firas

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This review article details the main mechanisms of action and clinical applications of topical vitamin C on the skin, including its antioxidative, photoprotective, antiaging, and antipigmentary effects. DESIGN: A PubMed search for the relevant articles on vitamin C and the skin was conducted using the following key words: “vitamin C,” “ascorbic acid,” “ascorbyl-6-palmitate,”and “magnesium ascorbyl phosphate.” RESULTS: As one of the most powerful antioxidants in the skin, vitamin C has been shown to protect against photoaging, ultraviolet-induced immunosuppression, and photocarcinogenesis. It also has an antiaging effect by increasing collagen synthesis, stabilizing collagen fibers, and decreasing collagen degradation. It decreases melanin formation, thereby reducing pigmentation. Vitamin C is the primary replenisher of vitamin E and works synergistically with vitamin E in the protection against oxidative damage. CONCLUSION: Topical vitamin C has a wide range of clinical applications, from antiaging and antipigmentary to photoprotective. Currently, clinical studies on the efficacy of topical formulations of vitamin C remain limited, and the challenge lies in finding the most stable and permeable formulation in achieving the optimal results. PMID:29104718

  2. Evaluation of lipoic acid topical application on rats skin wound healing.

    PubMed

    Külkamp-Guerreiro, Irene Clemes; Souza, Marielly Nunes; Bianchin, Mariana Domingues; Isoppo, Mateus; Freitas, Joana Sachetti; Alves, João Alex; Piovezan, Anna Paula; Pohlmann, Adriana Raffin; Guterres, Sílvia Stanisçuaski

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of lipoic acid (thioctic acid) topical application on wound healing on rats skin, and the consequences of lipoic acid nanoencapsulation on this process. The model used was the healing activity on wounds induced by surgical incision on rats skin (n = 44). The parameters analyzed (11 days) were wound healing rate and histology (vascular proliferation, polymorphonuclear or mononuclear cells, and collagen synthesis or reepithelialization), after application of free lipoic acid or lipoic acid- loaded nanocapsules. The antioxidant activity of these formulations was evaluated by lipid peroxidation test. It was demonstrated for the first time that the topical application of lipoic acid improves wound healing. On the seventh day after surgery, the animals treated with lipoic acid showed increased healing rate (60.7 ± 8.4%) compared to the negative control group (43.0 ± 17.4%), as so improvement of histological parameters. The nanoencapsulation reverted the pro-oxidant activity presented in vitro by lipoic acid, whereas diminished wound repair. The topical application of lipoic acid produced an increase in the skin wound healing, which may be related to its pro-oxidant activity. On the other hand, the nanoencapsulation of the lipoic acid reversed the pro-oxidant activity, although presented minor healing activity.

  3. Topical Vitamin C and the Skin: Mechanisms of Action and Clinical Applications.

    PubMed

    Al-Niaimi, Firas; Chiang, Nicole Yi Zhen

    2017-07-01

    OBJECTIVE: This review article details the main mechanisms of action and clinical applications of topical vitamin C on the skin, including its antioxidative, photoprotective, antiaging, and antipigmentary effects. DESIGN: A PubMed search for the relevant articles on vitamin C and the skin was conducted using the following key words: "vitamin C," "ascorbic acid," "ascorbyl-6-palmitate,"and "magnesium ascorbyl phosphate." RESULTS: As one of the most powerful antioxidants in the skin, vitamin C has been shown to protect against photoaging, ultraviolet-induced immunosuppression, and photocarcinogenesis. It also has an antiaging effect by increasing collagen synthesis, stabilizing collagen fibers, and decreasing collagen degradation. It decreases melanin formation, thereby reducing pigmentation. Vitamin C is the primary replenisher of vitamin E and works synergistically with vitamin E in the protection against oxidative damage. CONCLUSION: Topical vitamin C has a wide range of clinical applications, from antiaging and antipigmentary to photoprotective. Currently, clinical studies on the efficacy of topical formulations of vitamin C remain limited, and the challenge lies in finding the most stable and permeable formulation in achieving the optimal results.

  4. Penetration of boron from topically applied borate solutions

    Treesearch

    Stan T. Lebow; Patricia K. Lebow; Steven A. Halverson

    2010-01-01

    Borate penetration relies on diffusion when borate and glycol-borate preservatives are applied to the surface of wood. This study evaluated the extent of borate penetration in framing lumber as a function of preservative formulation, wood moisture content, and diffusion time after treatment. In Phase I of the study, end-matched specimens were conditioned to target...

  5. Topical PDT in the Treatment of Benign Skin Diseases: Principles and New Applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Miri; Jung, Haw Young; Park, Hyun Jeong

    2015-09-25

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses a photosensitizer, light energy, and molecular oxygen to cause cell damage. Cells exposed to the photosensitizer are susceptible to destruction upon light absorption because excitation of the photosensitizing agents leads to the production of reactive oxygen species and, subsequently, direct cytotoxicity. Using the intrinsic cellular heme biosynthetic pathway, topical PDT selectively targets abnormal cells, while preserving normal surrounding tissues. This selective cytotoxic effect is the basis for the use of PDT in antitumor treatment. Clinically, PDT is a widely used therapeutic regimen for oncologic skin conditions such as actinic keratosis, squamous cell carcinoma in situ, and basal cell carcinoma. PDT has been shown, under certain circumstances, to stimulate the immune system and produce antibacterial, and/or regenerative effects while protecting cell viability. Thus, it may be useful for treating benign skin conditions. An increasing number of studies support the idea that PDT may be effective for treating acne vulgaris and several other inflammatory/infective skin diseases, including psoriasis, rosacea, viral warts, and aging-related changes. This review provides an overview of the clinical investigations of PDT and discusses each of the essential aspects of the sequence: its mechanism of action, common photosensitizers, light sources, and clinical applications in dermatology. Of the numerous clinical trials of PDT in dermatology, this review focuses on those studies that have reported remarkable therapeutic benefits following topical PDT for benign skin conditions such as acne vulgaris, viral warts, and photorejuvenation without causing severe side effects.

  6. Photoacoustic study of percutaneous absorption of Carbopol and transdermic gels for topic use in skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, R. C. P.; de Paiva, R. F.; da Silva, M. D.; Barja, P. R.

    2008-01-01

    Topical medicine application has been used to treat a good number of pathological processes. Its efficacy is associated to an efficient penetration of the drug in the internal skin layers, promoting systemic effects and excluding the possibility of drug degradation by the digestive tract and hepatic elimination. This work analyzes the penetration kinetics of two soluble bases employed as vehicles for topic application: superficial gel (Carbopol 940) and transdermic (transdermal) gel. Analysis was performed with the photoacoustic technique, based upon the absorption of modulated light by a sample with subsequent conversion of the absorbed energy in heat, generating acoustic waves in the air layer adjacent to the sample. Each of the two vehicles was evaluated through in vivo (human skin) and in vitro application. Measurements in vitro employed samples of VitroSkin (synthetic material with properties similar to those of real skin, employed in the pharmaceutical industry research). Results show that the permeation was faster for the transdermal gel, both for in vivo and in vitro measurements, indicating that in vitro measurements may be utilized in qualitative, comparative permeation studies.

  7. Topical acetylsalicylic, salicylic acid and indomethacin suppress pain from experimental tissue acidosis in human skin.

    PubMed

    Steen, K H; Reeh, P W; Kreysel, H W

    1995-09-01

    Topically applied acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), salicylic acid (SA) and indomethacin were tested in an experimental pain model that provides direct nociceptor excitation through cutaneous tissue acidosis. In 30 volunteers, sustained burning pain was produced in the palmar forearm through a continuous intradermal pressure infusion of a phosphate-buffered isotonic solution (pH 5.2). In 5 different, double-blind, randomized cross-over studies with 6 volunteers each, the flow rate of the syringe pump was individually adjusted to result in constant pain ratings of around 20% (50% in study 4) on a visual analog scale (VAS). The painful skin area was then covered with either placebo or the drugs which had been dissolved in diethylether. In the first study on 6 volunteers, ASA (60 mg/ml) or lactose (placebo) in diethylether (10 ml) was applied, using both arms at 3-day intervals. Both treatments resulted in sudden and profound pain relief due to the cooling effect of the evaporating ether. With lactose, however, the mean pain rating was restored close to the baseline within 6-8 min while, with ASA, it remained significantly depressed for the rest of the observation period (another 20 min). This deep analgesia was not accompanied by a loss of tactile sensation. The further studies served to show that indomethacin (4.5 mg/ml) and SA (60 mg/ml) were equally effective as ASA (each 92-96% pain reduction) and that the antinociceptive effects were due to local but not systemic actions, since ASA and SA dis not reach measurable plasma levels up to 3 h after topical applications. With a higher flow rate of acid buffer producing more intense pain (VAS 50%). ASA and SA were still able to significantly reduce the ratings by 90% or 84%, respectively. On the other hand, by increasing the flow rate by a factor of 2 on average, during the period of fully developed drug effect it was possible to overcome the pain suppression, which suggests a competitive mechanism of (acetyl-) salicylic

  8. The effect of topical anesthetic hydration on the depth of thermal injury from the plasma skin regeneration device.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Alicia R; Wu, Edward C; Liaw, Lih-Huei L; Garg, Rohit; Gangnes, Richard A

    2014-02-01

    The plasma skin regeneration (PSR) device delivers thermal energy to the skin by converting nitrogen gas to plasma. Prior to treatment, hydration of the skin is recommended as it is thought to limit the zone of thermal damage. However, there is limited data on optimal hydration time. This pilot study aims to determine the effect of topical anesthetic application time on the depth of thermal injury from a PSR device using histology. PSR (1.8 and 3.5 J) was performed after 0, 30, or 60 minutes of topical anesthetic application. Rhytidectomy was then performed and skin was fixed for histologic analysis. Four patients (two control and four treatment sites per patient) undergoing rhytidectomy were recruited for the study. Each patient served as his/her own control (no hydration). A scoring system for tissue injury was developed. Epidermal injury, the presence of vacuolization, blistering, damage to adnexal structures, and depth of dermal collagen changes were evaluated in over 1,400 high-power microscopy fields. There was a significant difference in the average thermal injury score, depth of thermal damage, and epidermal injury when comparing controls to 30 minutes of hydration (P = 0.012, 0.012, 0.017, respectively). There was no statistical difference between controls and 60 minutes of hydration or between 30 and 60 minutes of hydration. Epidermal vacuolization at low energy and patchy distribution of thermal injury was also observed. Topical hydration influences the amount of thermal damage when applied to skin for 30 minutes prior to treatment with the PSR device. There was a trend toward decreasing thermal damage at 60 minutes, and there was no difference between treatment for 30 or 60 minutes. The data suggest that application of topical anesthetic for a short period of time prior to treatment with the PSR device is cost-effective, safe, and may be clinically beneficial. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Long-term topical corticosteroid use and risk of skin cancer: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ratib, Sonia; Burden-Teh, Esther; Leonardi-Bee, Jo; Harwood, Catherine; Bath-Hextall, Fiona

    2018-06-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to synthesize available research evidence to determine the risk of skin cancer in patients with long-term use of topical corticosteroids (TCS). Topical corticosteroids are one of the most commonly prescribed medicines in dermatology and the mainstay of the treatment of atopic dermatitis and other skin conditions such as psoriasis. They are often required for months or years to control the disease and ultimately restore patients' quality of life. In some patients, TCS may have a local immunosuppressive effect and theoretically increase the risk of skin cancer, whilst on the other hand TCS may decrease the risk of skin cancer in patients where TCS are used to treat inflammatory skin disease. To date, no systematic review has been performed to collate evidence on the effect of long-term TCS use on the risk of skin cancer. This review considered studies that included people of all ages, genders and ethnicities, including HIV and transplant participants or participants with genetic diseases (for example, Gorlin-Goltz syndrome) This review considered studies that evaluated long-term use of topical corticosteroids. "Long-term" was defined as using TCS more than once a week for a month or longer. The review included cohort, cross-sectional and case-control observational studies exploring the association between the stated intervention and outcomes. The primary outcome measures of interest were: non-melanoma skin cancer (keratinocyte carcinoma), cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSSC), basal cell carcinoma (BCC) or melanoma skin cancer. Genital and oral skin cancers are considered to be slightly different so we did not include them in this review. We performed a comprehensive search of MEDLINE, Embase and LILACS on November 9, 2017 to identify observational epidemiological studies assessing the association between long-term TCS use and skin cancer. We also searched EThOS at the British Library and three drug safety databases to

  10. Ibuprofen transport into and through skin from topical formulations: in vitro-in vivo comparison.

    PubMed

    Herkenne, Christophe; Naik, Aarti; Kalia, Yogeshvar N; Hadgraft, Jonathan; Guy, Richard H

    2007-01-01

    The goal was to compare ibuprofen transport into and through skin in vivo in man and in vitro (across silicone membranes and freshly excised pig skin) from four marketed formulations. Ibuprofen gels were administered in vivo for 30 minutes. The stratum corneum (SC) at the application site was then tape-stripped, quantified gravimetrically, and extracted for drug analysis. Together with concomitant transepidermal water loss measurements, SC drug concentration-depth profiles were reproducibly determined and fitted mathematically to obtain a partition coefficient, a first-order rate constant related to ibuprofen diffusivity, and the total drug amount in the SC at the end of the application. All derived parameters were consistent across formulations. Ibuprofen permeation data through both silicone membrane and pig ear skin were also fitted to yield partitioning and diffusion parameters. The former revealed that ibuprofen partitioned differently from the gels into this model barrier. Across pig skin, however, better correlation with in vivo results was found. The dermatopharmacokinetic approach, using SC tape-stripping, offers a valid method to assess equivalency between topical drug formulations. In vitro experiments must be extrapolated cautiously to the clinic, especially when complex interactions between real formulations, which deliver both drug and excipients, and the skin occur.

  11. A Topical Mitochondria-Targeted Redox Cycling Nitroxide Mitigates Oxidative Stress Induced Skin Damage

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Rhonda M.; Epperly, Michael W.; Stottlemyer, J. Mark; Skoda, Erin M.; Gao, Xiang; Li, Song; Huq, Saiful; Wipf, Peter; Kagan, Valerian E.; Greenberger, Joel S.; Falo, Louis D.

    2017-01-01

    Skin is the largest human organ and provides a first line of defense that includes physical, chemical, and immune mechanisms to combat environmental stress. Radiation is a prevalent environmental stressor. Radiation induced skin damage ranges from photoaging and cutaneous carcinogenesis from UV exposure, to treatment-limiting radiation dermatitis associated with radiotherapy, to cutaneous radiation syndrome, a frequently fatal consequence of exposures from nuclear accidents. The major mechanism of skin injury common to these exposures is radiation induced oxidative stress. Efforts to prevent or mitigate radiation damage have included development of antioxidants capable of reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS). Mitochondria are particularly susceptible to oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dependent apoptosis plays a major role in radiation induced tissue damage. We reasoned that targeting a redox cycling nitroxide to mitochondria could prevent ROS accumulation, limiting downstream oxidative damage and preserving mitochondrial function. Here we show that in both mouse and human skin, topical application of a mitochondrial targeted antioxidant prevents and mitigates radiation induced skin damage characterized by clinical dermatitis, loss of barrier function, inflammation, and fibrosis. Further, damage mitigation is associated with reduced apoptosis, preservation of the skin’s antioxidant capacity, and reduction of irreversible DNA and protein oxidation associated with oxidative stress. PMID:27794421

  12. Influence of anatomical site and topical formulation on skin penetration of sunscreens

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Heather AE; Sarveiya, Vikram; Risk, Stacey; Roberts, Michael S

    2005-01-01

    Sunscreen products are widely used to protect the skin from sun-related damage. Previous studies have shown that some sunscreen chemicals are absorbed across the skin to the systemic circulation. The current study shows that absorption into the skin of sunscreen chemicals applied to the face is up to four times greater than that of the same product applied to the back. This has implications for the way sunscreen products are formulated and may allow the use of less potent products on the face compared with the rest of the body. The effect of formulation vehicles on the release and skin penetration of the common sunscreen agent benzophenone-3 (common name oxybenzone) was also assessed. Penetration of benzophenone-3 across excised human epidermis and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) membrane was measured using in vitro Franz-type diffusion cells. Penetration and epidermal retention was measured following application of infinite and finite (epidermis only) doses of benzophenone-3 in five vehicles: liquid paraffin, coconut oil, 50:50 ethanol:coconut oil, aqueous cream BP, and oily cream BP. Highest benzophenone-3 skin retention was observed for the ethanol:coconut oil combination. Maximal and minimal benzophenone-3 fluxes were observed from liquid paraffin and coconut oil, respectively. The alcohol-based vehicle exhibited low benzophenone-3 release from the vehicle but high skin penetration and retention. PMID:18360561

  13. Inhibition of ultraviolet-B epidermal ornithine decarboxylase induction and skin carcinogenesis in hairless mice by topical indomethacin and triamcinolone acetonide

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, N.J.; Connor, M.J.; Breeding, J.

    1982-10-01

    Modulation of ultraviolet-B (UVB) skin carcinogenesis by topical treatment with two antiinflammatory drugs expected to have different mechanisms of action has been studied in the hairless mouse. Indomethacin is a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agent which may act by inhibiting prostaglandin biosynthesis. Triamcinolone acetonide is a steroidal antiinflammatory agent. Both of these drugs inhibited the induction of epidermal ornithine decarboxylase by UVB when applied topically in a acetone vehicle. A UVB skin tumor study was designed. Groups of mice were irradiated daily with UVB for 20 days, each mouse receiving a total of 17.1 kJ UVB per sq m. Group 1 wasmore » treated with acetone immediately after each irradiation; Group 2 received 700 nmol indomethacin in acetone immediately after each irradiation; Group 3 received 14.4 nmol triamcinolone acetonide in acetone immediately after each irradiation. Mice were killed after 52 weeks, and the tumors were excised and examined histologically. Both topical indomethacin and topical triamcinolone acetonide were effective in reducing the incidence and size of the skin tumors induced by UVB. This evidence supports the hypothesis that the induction of ornithine decarboxylase may be a critical component of UVB skin carcinogenesis and that inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase induction can be used as a screen for agents which will inhibit UVB skin carcinogenesis.« less

  14. Topical Application of Oleuropein Induces Anagen Hair Growth in Telogen Mouse Skin

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Tao; Kim, Nahyun; Park, Taesun

    2015-01-01

    We observed that oleuropein, the main constituent of the leaves and unprocessed olive drupes of Olea europaea, protected mice from high-fat diet-induced adiposity by up-regulation of genes involved in Wnt10b-mediated signaling in adipose tissue. The activation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway is also well established to positively regulate the anagen phase of hair growth cycle in mice skin. Methodology and Principal Findings Oleuropein promoted cultured human follicle dermal papilla cell proliferation and induced LEF1 and Cyc-D1 mRNA expression and β-catenin protein expression in dermal papilla cells. Nuclear accumulation of β-catenin in dermal papilla cells was observed after oleuropein treatment. Topical application of oleuropein (0.4 mg/mouse/day) to C57BL/6N mice accelerated the hair-growth induction and increased the size of hair follicles in telogenic mouse skin. The oleuropein-treated mouse skin showed substantial upregulation of Wnt10b, FZDR1, LRP5, LEF1, Cyc-D1, IGF-1, KGF, HGF, and VEGF mRNA expression and β-catenin protein expression. Conclusions and Significance These results demonstrate that topical oleuroepin administration induced anagenic hair growth in telogenic C57BL/6N mouse skin. The hair-growth promoting effect of oleuropein in mice appeared to be associated with the stimulation of the Wnt10b/β-catenin signaling pathway and the upregulation of IGF-1, KGF, HGF, and VEGF gene expression in mouse skin tissue. PMID:26060936

  15. Pyridostigmine bromide modulates topical irritant-induced cytokine release from human epidermal keratinocytes and isolated perfused porcine skin.

    PubMed

    Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A; Baynes, Ronald E; Riviere, Jim E

    2003-02-01

    Gulf War personnel were given pyridostigmine bromide (PB) as a prophylactic treatment against organophosphate nerve agent exposure, and were exposed to the insecticide permethrin and the insect repellent N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET). The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of PB to modulate release of inflammatory biomarkers after topical chemical exposure to chemical mixtures containing permethrin and DEET applied in ethanol or water vehicles. Treatments were topically applied to isolated perfused porcine skin flaps (IPPSFs). Concentrations of interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) were assayed in perfusate to probe for potential inflammatory effects after complex mixture application. IPPSFs (n=4/treatment) were topically dosed with mixtures of permethrin, DEET, and permethrin/DEET, in ethanol. Each treatment was repeated with perfusate spiked with 50 ng/ml of PB. Perfusate was also spiked with 30 ng/ml diisopropylfluorophosphate to simulate low level organophosphate nerve agent exposure. Timed IPPSF venous effluent samples (0.5,1,2,4, and 8 h) were assayed by ELISA for IL-8 and TNF-alpha and by EIA for PGE(2). Overall, PB infusion caused a decrease or IL-8 and PGE(2) release. Effects on TNF-alpha were vehicle dependent. To probe the potential mechanism of this PB effect, human epidermal keratinocyte HEK cell cultures were exposed to permethrin DEET permethrin/DEET, with and without PB in DMSO. IL-8 was assayed at 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 h. PB suppressed IL-8 in permethrin and ethanol treatment from 4 to 24 h confirming the IPPSF results. In conclusion, these studies suggest that systemic exposure to PB suppressed IL-8 release at multiple time points in two skin model systems. This interaction merits further study.

  16. New CeO2 nanoparticles-based topical formulations for the skin protection against organophosphates.

    PubMed

    Zenerino, Arnaud; Boutard, Tifenn; Bignon, Cécile; Amigoni, Sonia; Josse, Denis; Devers, Thierry; Guittard, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    To reinforce skin protection against organophosphates (OPs), the development of new topical skin protectants (TSP) has received a great interest. Nanoparticles like cerium dioxide (CeO 2 ) known to adsorb and neutralize OPs are interesting candidates for TSP. However, NPs are difficult to disperse into formulations and they are suspected of toxicological issues. Thus, we want to study: (1) the effect of the addition of CeO 2 NPs in formulations for the skin protection (2) the impact of the doping of CeO 2 NPs by calcium; (3) the effect of two methods of dispersion of CeO 2 NPs: an O/W emulsion or a suspension of a fluorinated thickening polymer (HASE-F) grafted with these NPs. As a screening approach we used silicone membranes as a skin equivalent and Franz diffusion cells for permeation tests. The addition of pure CeO 2 NPs in both formulations permits the penetration to decrease by a 3-4-fold factor. The O/W emulsion allows is the best approach to obtain a film-forming coating with a good reproducibility of the penetration results; whereas the grafting of NPs to a thickener is the best way to obtain an efficient homogenous suspension of CeO 2 NPs with a decreased of toxicological impact but the coating is less film-forming which slightly impacts the reproducibility of the penetration results.

  17. Topical application of ochratoxin A causes DNA damage and tumor initiation in mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rahul; Ansari, Kausar M; Chaudhari, Bhushan P; Dhawan, Alok; Dwivedi, Premendra D; Jain, Swatantra K; Das, Mukul

    2012-01-01

    Skin cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer and 2-3 million new cases are being diagnosed globally each year. Along with UV rays, environmental pollutants/chemicals including mycotoxins, contaminants of various foods and feed stuffs, could be one of the aetiological factors of skin cancer. In the present study, we evaluated the DNA damaging potential and dermal carcinogenicity of a mycotoxin, ochratoxin A (OTA), with the rationale that dermal exposure to OTA in workers may occur during their involvement in pre and post harvest stages of agriculture. A single topical application of OTA (20-80 µg/mouse) resulted in significant DNA damage along with elevated γ-H2AX level in skin. Alteration in oxidative stress markers such as lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl, glutathione content and antioxidant enzymes was observed in a dose (20-80 µg/mouse) and time-dependent (12-72 h) manner. The oxidative stress was further emphasized by the suppression of Nrf2 translocation to nucleus following a single topical application of OTA (80 µg/mouse) after 24 h. OTA (80 µg/mouse) application for 12-72 h caused significant enhancement in- (a) reactive oxygen species generation, (b) activation of ERK1/2, p38 and JNK MAPKs, (c) cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase (37-67%), (d) induction of apoptosis (2.0-11.0 fold), (e) expression of p53, p21/waf1, (f) Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, (g) cytochrome c level, (h) activities of caspase 9 (1.2-1.8 fold) and 3 (1.7-2.2 fold) as well as poly ADP ribose polymerase cleavage. In a two-stage mouse skin tumorigenesis protocol, it was observed that a single topical application of OTA (80 µg/mouse) followed by twice weekly application of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate for 24 week leads to tumor formation. These results suggest that OTA has skin tumor initiating property which may be related to oxidative stress, MAPKs signaling and DNA damage.

  18. Topical photodynamic therapy with 5-ALA in the treatment of arsenic-induced skin tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karrer, Sigrid; Szeimies, Rolf-Markus; Landthaler, Michael

    1995-03-01

    A case of a 62-year-old woman suffering from psoriasis who was treated orally with arsenic 25 years ago is reported. The cumulative dose of arsenic trioxide was 800 mg. Since 10 years ago arsenic keratoses, basal cell carcinomas, Bowen's disease and invasive squamous cell carcinomas mainly on her hands and feet have developed, skin changes were clearly a sequence of arsenic therapy. Control of disease was poor, her right little finger had to be amputated. Topical photodynamic therapy with 5-aminolevulinic acid was performed on her right hand. Clinical and histological examinations 6 months after treatment showed an excellent cosmetic result with no signs of tumor residue.

  19. Inappropriate amounts of topical tacrolimus applied on Korean patients with eczema.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hyunju; Kim, Jeong-Min; Kim, Gun-Wook; Kim, Hoon-Soo; Ko, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Moon-Bum; Kim, Byung-Soo

    2017-06-01

    The limited efficacy of topical tacrolimus may result from insufficient frequency of application or amount applied in eczema patients. To investigate the frequency of application and amount of use of topical tacrolimus in patients with various types of eczema. The frequency of application and the applied amount of topical tacrolimus were assessed over two weeks. A total of 200 eczema patients completed this study. The average number of applications per day was 1.75 ± 0.53, despite instructions to apply the topical tacrolimus twice daily. With respect to the frequency of application, 147 (73.5%) and 122 (61.0%) of patients followed the prescription in the first and second weeks, respectively. The average amount applied per 2% of total body surface area (TBSA) was 0.54 ± 0.52 g. Only 53 (26.5%) patients applied between 80 and 120% of expected amount of topical tacrolimus. The frequency of application was self-reported, possibly resulting in limited accuracy. Korean patients with eczema tend to apply topical tacrolimus less frequently and in inappropriate amounts. Clear instructions regarding both the frequency and amount of application are needed to improve the therapeutic outcome with treatment with topical tacrolimus.

  20. Topical Application of Josamycin Inhibits Development of Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in NC/Nga Mice.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Katsuhiko; Tachioka, Kanta; Onodera, Kei; Ikeda, Reiko

    2017-01-01

    Patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) have superficial skin colonization by Staphylococcus aureus and an increased number of T helper type 2 (Th2) cells in their peripheral blood. Our previous study showed that josamycin, a macrolide antibiotic, had excellent bactericidal activity against S. aureus strains isolated from AD patients and simultaneously inhibited Th1 and Th2 cell development mediated by Langerhans cells. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of topical application of josamycin on AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice. Josamycin (0.1%) was topically administered to NC/Nga mice with AD-like skin lesions induced by 2, 4, 6-trinitrochlorobenzene (TNCB). The therapeutic effects of josamycin were assessed by measurement of the skin severity scores, histological changes in the lesioned skin, serum levels of total IgE, and expression of interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-4 in lymph nodes and skin lesions. Topical treatment with josamycin significantly suppressed the increase in the skin severity score in NC/Nga mice. This suppressive effect was equal to that of betamethasone, and was associated with a decrease in the density of cellular infiltration into the dermis, the mast cell count in the dermis and the serum IgE level. Furthermore, topical application of josamycin reduced the expression of IFN-γ and IL-4 in auricular lymph node cells and the skin lesions. The present results show that topical application of josamycin inhibits the development of AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice. This suggests that topical application of josamycin to AD lesions colonized by S. aureus would be beneficial for control of AD by acting on superficially located S. aureus and by inhibiting the development of Th1 and Th2 cells.This article is open to POST-PUBLICATION REVIEW. Registered readers (see "For Readers") may comment by clicking on ABSTRACT on the issue's contents page.

  1. Comparison of topical capsaicin and betamethasone in the treatment of chronic skin lesions due to sulfur mustard exposure.

    PubMed

    Panahi, Yunes; Davoudi, Seyyed Masoud; Moharamzad, Yashar; Beiraghdar, Fatemeh; Naghizadeh, Mohammad Mehdi

    2008-01-01

    Chronic pruritic skin lesions are considered to be one of the late complications of sulfur mustard exposure. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of topical capsaicin with that of betamethasone in the treatment of these lesions. In this investigator-blinded, randomized clinical trial, patients applied capsaicin cream 0.025% (n=32) or betamethasone cream 0.1% (n=32) 2 times a day for 6 weeks. Efficacy was based on a dermatologist assessment. The severity of the pruritus was assessed by pruritic score questionnaire and a visual analog scale before and after treatment. All patients complained of pruritus. Both groups showed a significant decrease in pruritus, scaling, and skin dryness (p<0.05), but burning sensation was not improved significantly in the capsaicin group. The mean (+/- standard deviation [SD]) baseline pruritic scores in the capsaicin and betamethasone groups were 29.4 (13.1) and 33.6 (7.2), respectively (p=0.1). The mean (SD) pruritus score change from baseline to after the treatment was significantly higher (p<0.001) in the betamethasone group than in the capsaicin group, 12.7 (6.4) vs. 6.9 (5.6). Fourteen (35%) patients in the capsaicin group reported a burning sensation and intolerable odor, but these effects were not serious enough to necessitate discontinuing the treatment. Topical capsaicin cream 0.025% was much less well tolerated than betamethasone and inferior to betamethasone in reducing chronic skin lesions and symptoms from sulfur mustard exposure.

  2. Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teaching, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Topics discussed in this column include patterns of inverse multipliers in modular arithmetic; diagrams for product sets, set intersection, and set union; function notation; patterns in the number of partitions of positive integers; and tessellations. (DT)

  3. Water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) can act as a penetration enhancer for topically applied substances

    PubMed Central

    Otberg, Nina; Grone, Diego; Meyer, Lars; Schanzer, Sabine; Hoffmann, Gerd; Ackermann, Hanns; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    Background: Water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) irradiation has been shown to enhance penetration of clinically used topically applied substances in humans through investigation of functional effects of penetrated substances like vasoconstriction by cortisone. Aim of the study: Investigation of the influence of wIRA irradiation on the dermatopharmacokinetics of topically applied substances by use of optical methods, especially to localize penetrating substances, in a prospective randomised controlled study in humans. Methods: The penetration profiles of the hydrophilic dye fluorescein and the lipophilic dye curcumin in separate standard water-in-oil emulsions were determined on the inner forearm of test persons by tape stripping in combination with spectroscopic measurements. Additionally, the penetration was investigated in vivo by laser scanning microscopy. Transepidermal water loss, hydration of the epidermis, and surface temperature were determined. Three different procedures (modes A, B, C) were used in a randomised order on three separate days of investigation in each of 12 test persons. In mode A, the two dyes were applied on different skin areas without water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) irradiation. In mode B, the skin surface was irradiated with wIRA over 30 min before application of the two dyes (Hydrosun® radiator type 501, 10 mm water cuvette, orange filter OG590, water-filtered spectrum: 590–1400 nm with dominant amount of wIRA). In mode C, the two dyes were applied and immediately afterwards the skin was irradiated with wIRA over 30 min. In all modes, tape stripping started 30 min after application of the formulations. Main variable of interest was the ratio of the amount of the dye in the deeper (second) 10% of the stratum corneum to the amount of the dye in the upper 10% of the stratum corneum. Results: The penetration profiles of the hydrophilic fluorescein showed in case of pretreatment or treatment with wIRA (modes B and C) an increased

  4. Effects of Topical Emu Oil on Burn Wounds in the Skin of Balb/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Afshar, Mohammad; Ghaderi, Reza; Zardast, Mahmoud; Delshad, Parvin

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the effect of topical Emu oil on the healing of burn wounds and hair follicle restoration in superficial II-degree burns in the skin of Balb/c mice. Thirty-two male Balb/c mice with burns on the back of the neck were divided into two groups: The Emu oil group received topical Emu oil twice daily, whereas the control was left untreated. Skin biopsies were obtained on days 4, 7, 10, and 14 of the experiment. Then the specimens were viewed with Olympus SZX research microscope. The Emu oil treated burns were found to heal more slowly and inflammation lasted longer in this group. The number of hair follicles in the margins of the wounds increased through time in the Emu oil group compared to the control group. Also, the hair follicles in the Emu oil group were in several layers and seemed to be more active and mature. Moreover, Emu oil had a positive effect on fibrogenesis and synthesis of collagen. The findings indicate that although Emu oil delays the healing process, it has a positive effect on wound healing and it increases the number of hair follicles in the margins of the wound. PMID:27069472

  5. In Silico Modelling of Transdermal and Systemic Kinetics of Topically Applied Solutes: Model Development and Initial Validation for Transdermal Nicotine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Lian, Guoping; Kattou, Panayiotis

    2016-07-01

    The purpose was to develop a mechanistic mathematical model for predicting the pharmacokinetics of topically applied solutes penetrating through the skin and into the blood circulation. The model could be used to support the design of transdermal drug delivery systems and skin care products, and risk assessment of occupational or consumer exposure. A recently reported skin penetration model [Pharm Res 32 (2015) 1779] was integrated with the kinetic equations for dermis-to-capillary transport and systemic circulation. All model parameters were determined separately from the molecular, microscopic and physiological bases, without fitting to the in vivo data to be predicted. Published clinical studies of nicotine were used for model demonstration. The predicted plasma kinetics is in good agreement with observed clinical data. The simulated two-dimensional concentration profile in the stratum corneum vividly illustrates the local sub-cellular disposition kinetics, including tortuous lipid pathway for diffusion and the "reservoir" effect of the corneocytes. A mechanistic model for predicting transdermal and systemic kinetics was developed and demonstrated with published clinical data. The integrated mechanistic approach has significantly extended the applicability of a recently reported microscopic skin penetration model by providing prediction of solute concentration in the blood.

  6. Laser-induced fluorescence diagnostics of basal cell carcinomas of the skin following topical ALA application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    af Klinteberg, Claes; Nilsson, Annika M.; Wang-Nordman, Ingrid; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Svanberg, Sune; Svanberg, Katarina

    1996-12-01

    Fourteen patients with superficial basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and fifteen patients with nodular BCCs were investigated by means of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) in connection with photodynamic therapy (PDT). Topical application of (delta) -amino levulinic acid (ALA) was performed six hours prior to the treatment session. Fluorescence spectra were recorded, using a point-monitoring system with an excitation wavelength of 405 nm. The measurements were performed in scans over the lesion and the surrounding normal skin before application of ALA, and immediately before and after the laser treatment. The selective uptake of the photosensitive resulted in a fluorescence intensity ratio of 2.4:1 for superficial BCCs and 2.5:1 for nodular BCCs. If the fluorescence intensity was divided by the autofluorescence, this resulted in a contrast enhancement of about a factor 6 for tumor tissue. In seven patients (five with nodular BCC and two with superficial BCC), additional fluorescence measurements were performed two and four hours following the ALA application, and two hours after the PDT procedure. Thus, the kinetics of the transformation of ALA to protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) could be followed, which indicated that the synthesis of PpIX was more rapid in the tumor than in the normal tissue. After four hours, the PpIX level inside the tumour was saturated, while there still was an accumulation in the surrounding skin. The highest contrast between tumor and normal skin was reached within two hours after the ALA application.

  7. Triple nanoemulsion potentiates the effects of topical treatments with microencapsulated retinol and modulates biological processes related to skin aging.

    PubMed

    Afornali, Alessandro; Vecchi, Rodrigo de; Stuart, Rodrigo Makowiecky; Dieamant, Gustavo; Oliveira, Luciana Lima de; Brohem, Carla Abdo; Feferman, Israel Henrique Stokfisz; Fabrício, Lincoln Helder Zambaldi; Lorencini, Márcio

    2013-01-01

    The sum of environmental and genetic factors affects the appearance and function of the skin as it ages. The identification of molecular changes that take place during skin aging provides biomarkers and possible targets for therapeutic intervention. Retinoic acid in different formulations has emerged as an alternative to prevent and repair age-related skin damage. To understand the effects of different retinoid formulations on the expression of genes associated with biological processes that undergo changes during skin aging. Ex-vivo skin samples were treated topically with different retinoid formulations. The modulation of biological processes associated with skin aging was measured by Reverse Transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). A formulation containing microencapsulated retinol and a blend of active ingredients prepared as a triple nanoemulsion provided the best results for the modulation of biological, process-related genes that are usually affected during skin aging. This association proved to be therapeutically more effective than tretinoin or microencapsulated retinol used singly.

  8. JAK3 as an Emerging Target for Topical Treatment of Inflammatory Skin Diseases.

    PubMed

    Alves de Medeiros, Ana Karina; Speeckaert, Reinhart; Desmet, Eline; Van Gele, Mireille; De Schepper, Sofie; Lambert, Jo

    2016-01-01

    The recent interest and elucidation of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway created new targets for the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases (ISDs). JAK inhibitors in oral and topical formulations have shown beneficial results in psoriasis and alopecia areata. Patients suffering from other ISDs might also benefit from JAK inhibition. Given the development of specific JAK inhibitors, the expression patterns of JAKs in different ISDs needs to be clarified. We aimed to analyze the expression of JAK/STAT family members in a set of prevalent ISDs: psoriasis, lichen planus (LP), cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE), atopic dermatitis (AD), pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) and alopecia areata (AA) versus healthy controls for (p)JAK1, (p)JAK2, (p)JAK3, (p)TYK2, pSTAT1, pSTAT2 and pSTAT3. The epidermis carried in all ISDs, except for CLE, a strong JAK3 signature. The dermal infiltrate showed a more diverse expression pattern. JAK1, JAK2 and JAK3 were significantly overexpressed in PG and AD suggesting the need for pan-JAK inhibitors. In contrast, psoriasis and LP showed only JAK1 and JAK3 upregulation, while AA and CLE were characterized by a single dermal JAK signal (pJAK3 and pJAK1, respectively). This indicates that the latter diseases may benefit from more targeted JAK inhibitors. Our in vitro keratinocyte psoriasis model displayed reversal of the psoriatic JAK profile following tofacitinib treatment. This direct interaction with keratinocytes may decrease the need for deep skin penetration of topical JAK inhibitors in order to exert its effects on dermal immune cells. In conclusion, these results point to the important contribution of the JAK/STAT pathway in several ISDs. Considering the epidermal JAK3 expression levels, great interest should go to the investigation of topical JAK3 inhibitors as therapeutic option of ISDs.

  9. Immunosuppressive macrolides of the type FK 506: a novel class of topical agents for treatment of skin diseases?

    PubMed

    Meingassner, J G; Stütz, A

    1992-06-01

    The immunosuppressive macrolide antibiotics FK 506 and rapamycin were tested for topical activity in experimental allergic contact dermatitis of farm pigs. This species was used because pig skin, in comparison to rodent skin, resembles human skin more closely. For comparison, cyclosporine A (CyA), which is orally but not topically active in patients with skin disease, dexamethasone, and clobetasol propionate were used. Treatment was performed twice, 30 min and 6 h after elicitation of challenge reaction. Topical application of 0.4 to 0.04% FK 506 caused a pronounced inhibition of inflammatory skin reactions of hypersensitivity to dinitrofluorobenzene. The treatment response was similar to the activity of 0.13% clobetasole. Dexamethasone (1.2%) was less active than clobetasol. In contrast, rapamycin and CyA were inactive at concentrations of 1.2 and 10%, respectively. Because the pig data on corticosteroids and cyclosporine A are in agreement with clinical findings, these studies indicate that immunosuppressive macrolides of the type FK 506 may be useful drugs for the topical treatment of human skin diseases that respond to local corticosteroids and oral treatment with cyclosporine A.

  10. Evaluation of efficacy and tolerance of a nighttime topical antioxidant containing resveratrol, baicalin, and vitamin e for treatment of mild to moderately photodamaged skin.

    PubMed

    Farris, Patricia; Yatskayer, Margarita; Chen, Nannan; Krol, Yevgeniy; Oresajo, Christian

    2014-12-01

    Resveratrol is an effective anti-aging molecule with diverse biologic activity. It functions as a dual antioxidant that can neutralize free radicals and increase intrinsic antioxidant capacity. Additionally resveratrol increases mitochondrial biogenesis and has anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, and anti-cancer activity. In this paper we will focus on the use of topically applied resveratrol using a proprietary blend containing 1% resveratrol, 0.5% baicalin, and 1% vitamin E. This stabilized high concentration formulation demonstrates percutaneous absorption and alterations in gene expression such as hemoxygenase-1 (HO-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFA), and collagen 3 (COL3A1). Clinical assessment showed a statistically significant improvement in fine lines and wrinkles, skin firmness, skin elasticity, skin laxity, hyperpigmentation, radiance, and skin roughness over baseline in 12 weeks. Ultrasound measurements in the periorbital area showed an average improvement of 18.9% in dermal thickness suggesting significant dermal remodeling. These studies confirm that topical resveratrol, baicalin, and vitamin E are valuable ingredient that can be used for skin rejuvenation.

  11. Evaluation of Skin Penetration of Diclofenac from a Novel Topical Non Aqueous Solution: A Comparative Bioavailability Study

    PubMed Central

    Nivsarkar, Manish; Patel, Ketan R.; Patel, Dixit D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Different topical formulations of diclofenac have varying skin penetration profile. Recent advances in science and technology has led to the development of many new formulations of drugs for topical drug delivery. One such technological development has led to the innovation of Dynapar QPS, a novel, non-aqueous, quick penetrating solution (QPS) of diclofenac diethylamine. Aim This study was aimed to measure the total exposure from the drug penetrating the skin in healthy human subjects and comparing the relative systemic bioavailability of Dynapar QPS® with diclofenac emulgel. Materials and Methods A 200 mg of diclofenac from either Dynapar QPS® (5 ml) or emulgel (20 g) was applied on back of subject as per the randomisation schedule. Blood samples were collected up to 16 hours post drug application. Plasma concentration of diclofenac was measured by pre-validated HPLC method. Pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters like Cmax, Tmax, t1/2, AUC0-t, AUC0-∞, and Kel, of diclofenac were determined for both the formulations. Results Mean Cmax after administration of Dynapar QPS® and diclofenac emulgel were 175.93 and 40.04 ng/ml, respectively. Tmax of diclofenac was almost half with QPS compared to emulgel (5.24 hrs versus 9.53 hrs respectively). The mean AUC0–t and AUC0-∞ after administration of Dynapar QPS® was higher as compared to diclofenac emulgel (AUC0–t: 1224.19 versus 289.78 ng.h/ml, respectively; AUC0-∞: 1718.21 versus 513.83 ng.h/ml, respectively). None of the subject experienced any adverse event during the study. Conclusion The results indicate an enhanced penetration and subsequent absorption of diclofenac from Dynapar QPS® as compared to diclofenac emulgel. Higher penetration is likely to translate into better pain relief in patients. PMID:26816910

  12. Evaluation of Skin Penetration of Diclofenac from a Novel Topical Non Aqueous Solution: A Comparative Bioavailability Study.

    PubMed

    Nivsarkar, Manish; Maroo, Sanjaykumar H; Patel, Ketan R; Patel, Dixit D

    2015-12-01

    Different topical formulations of diclofenac have varying skin penetration profile. Recent advances in science and technology has led to the development of many new formulations of drugs for topical drug delivery. One such technological development has led to the innovation of Dynapar QPS, a novel, non-aqueous, quick penetrating solution (QPS) of diclofenac diethylamine. This study was aimed to measure the total exposure from the drug penetrating the skin in healthy human subjects and comparing the relative systemic bioavailability of Dynapar QPS(®) with diclofenac emulgel. A 200 mg of diclofenac from either Dynapar QPS(®) (5 ml) or emulgel (20 g) was applied on back of subject as per the randomisation schedule. Blood samples were collected up to 16 hours post drug application. Plasma concentration of diclofenac was measured by pre-validated HPLC method. Pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters like Cmax, Tmax, t1/2, AUC0-t, AUC0-∞, and Kel, of diclofenac were determined for both the formulations. Mean Cmax after administration of Dynapar QPS(®) and diclofenac emulgel were 175.93 and 40.04 ng/ml, respectively. Tmax of diclofenac was almost half with QPS compared to emulgel (5.24 hrs versus 9.53 hrs respectively). The mean AUC0-t and AUC0-∞ after administration of Dynapar QPS(®) was higher as compared to diclofenac emulgel (AUC0-t: 1224.19 versus 289.78 ng.h/ml, respectively; AUC0-∞: 1718.21 versus 513.83 ng.h/ml, respectively). None of the subject experienced any adverse event during the study. The results indicate an enhanced penetration and subsequent absorption of diclofenac from Dynapar QPS(®) as compared to diclofenac emulgel. Higher penetration is likely to translate into better pain relief in patients.

  13. Near infrared spectrum simulation applied to human skin for diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Chen-Mu; Fang, Yi-Chin; Wang, Chih-Yu; Chiu, Pin-Chun; Wu, Guo-Ying; Zheng, Wei-Chi; Chemg, Shih-Hao

    2007-11-01

    This research proposes a new method for skin diagnose using near infrared as the light source (750nm~1300nm). Compared to UV and visible light, near infrared might penetrate relatively deep into biological soft tissue in some cases although NIR absorption property of tissue is not a constant for water, fat, and collagen etc. In the research, NIR absorption and scattering properties for skin are discussed firstly using the theory of molecule vibration from Quantum physics and Solid State Physics; secondly the practical model for various NIR absorption spectrum to skin tissue are done by optical simulation for human skin. Finally, experiments are done for further identification of proposed model for human skin and its reaction to near infrared. Results show success with identification from both theory and experiments.

  14. Skin hydration in postmenopausal women: argan oil benefit with oral and/or topical use.

    PubMed

    Boucetta, Kenza Qiraouani; Charrouf, Zoubida; Derouiche, Abdelfattah; Rahali, Younes; Bensouda, Yahya

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of daily consumption and/or application of argan oil on skin hydration in postmenopausal women. Sixty postmenopausal women consumed butter during the stabilization period and were randomly divided into two groups for the intervention period: the treatment group absorbed alimentary argan oil (n = 30) and the control group olive oil (n = 30). Both groups applied cosmetic argan oil in the left volar forearm during a sixty days' period. Evaluation of skin hydration, i.e. transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and water content of the epidermis (WCE) on both volar forearms of the two groups, were performed during three visits at D0, D30 and after sixty days (D60) of oils treatment. The consumption of argan oil has led to a significant decrease in TEWL (p = 0.023) and a significant increase in WCE (p = 0.001). The application of argan oil has led to a significant decrease in TEWL (p = 0.01) and a significant increase in WCE (p < 0.001). Our findings suggest that the daily consumption and application of argan oil have improved the skin hydration by restoring the barrier function and maintaining the water-holding capacity.

  15. A Review of the Use of Topical Calendula in the Prevention and Treatment of Radiotherapy-Induced Skin Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Kodiyan, Joyson; Amber, Kyle T.

    2015-01-01

    Calendula is a topical agent derived from a plant of the marigold family Calendula Officinalis. Containing numerous polyphenolic antioxidants, calendula has been studied in both the laboratory and clinical setting for the use in treating and preventing radiation induced skin toxicity. Despite strong evidence in the laboratory supporting calendula’s mechanism of action in preventing radiation induced skin toxicity, clinical studies have demonstrated mixed results. In light of the controversy surrounding the efficacy of calendula in treating and preventing radiodermatitis, the topic warrants further discussion. PMID:26783706

  16. A Review of the Use of Topical Calendula in the Prevention and Treatment of Radiotherapy-Induced Skin Reactions.

    PubMed

    Kodiyan, Joyson; Amber, Kyle T

    2015-04-23

    Calendula is a topical agent derived from a plant of the marigold family Calendula Officinalis. Containing numerous polyphenolic antioxidants, calendula has been studied in both the laboratory and clinical setting for the use in treating and preventing radiation induced skin toxicity. Despite strong evidence in the laboratory supporting calendula's mechanism of action in preventing radiation induced skin toxicity, clinical studies have demonstrated mixed results. In light of the controversy surrounding the efficacy of calendula in treating and preventing radiodermatitis, the topic warrants further discussion.

  17. Novel Biodegradable Porous Scaffold Applied to Skin Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui-Min; Chou, Yi-Ting; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Zhao-Ren; Chen, Chun-Hong; Ho, Mei-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Skin wound healing is an important lifesaving issue for massive lesions. A novel porous scaffold with collagen, hyaluronic acid and gelatin was developed for skin wound repair. The swelling ratio of this developed scaffold was assayed by water absorption capacity and showed a value of over 20 g water/g dried scaffold. The scaffold was then degraded in time- and dose-dependent manners by three enzymes: lysozyme, hyaluronidase and collagenase I. The average pore diameter of the scaffold was 132.5±8.4 µm measured from SEM images. With human skin cells growing for 7 days, the SEM images showed surface fractures on the scaffold due to enzymatic digestion, indicating the biodegradable properties of this scaffold. To simulate skin distribution, the human epidermal keratinocytes, melanocytes and dermal fibroblasts were seeded on the porous scaffold and the cross-section immunofluorescent staining demonstrated normal human skin layer distributions. The collagen amount was also quantified after skin cells seeding and presented an amount 50% higher than those seeded on culture wells. The in vivo histological results showed that the scaffold ameliorated wound healing, including decreasing neutrophil infiltrates and thickening newly generated skin compared to the group without treatments. PMID:23762223

  18. Topically applied vitamin C and cysteine derivatives protect against UVA-induced photodegradation of suprofen in ex vivo pigskin.

    PubMed

    Moison, Ralf M W; Rijnkels, Jolanda M; Podda, Elena; Righele, Francesca; Tomasello, Federica; Caffieri, Sergio; Beijersbergen van Henegouwen, Gerard M J

    2003-04-01

    Exposure of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug suprofen (SUP) to UV-radiation results in the formation of radicals, reactive oxygen species (ROS), photodecarboxylated products and photoadducts with biomacromolecules. Using an ex vivo pigskin explant model, we investigated whether topical coapplication of the water-soluble antioxidants vitamin C (Lascorbic acid, ASC), N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) or L-cysteine ethylester (CYSET) with SUP reduced ultraviolet A (UVA)-induced decomposition of SUP. UVA-induced changes in antioxidant bioavailability in the stratum corneum and epidermis were also studied. Epidermal bioavailability of SUP in sham-irradiated pigskin increased 2.2- to 4.1-fold after the lowest antioxidant doses (P < 0.05). As compared with no applied antioxidant, increasing doses of all tested antioxidants resulted in increased levels of SUP and decreased levels of photoproducts (P < 0.05). A maximal protection against SUP photodegradation of 70% was found after an ASC dose of 1 micromol/cm2; these values were 60% for a NAC dose of 10 micromol/cm2 and 50% for a CYSET dose of 5 micromol/cm2. Skin antioxidant levels increased with increasing applied dose (P < 0.05); the bioavailability of CYSET was approximately three-fold lower than that of ASC and NAC. UVA exposure resulted in 30-50% consumption of the topically applied ASC or NAC in the stratum corneum, whereas CYSET was not consumed. In conclusion, the topically applied water-soluble antioxidants ASC, NAC and CYSET protect against UVA-induced decomposition of SUP by scavenging radicals and ROS. Coapplication of these antioxidants may therefore be an effective way to reduce or prevent the phototoxic effects of SUP in vivo.

  19. Factorial design applied to the optimization of lipid composition of topical antiherpetic nanoemulsions containing isoflavone genistein

    PubMed Central

    Argenta, Débora Fretes; de Mattos, Cristiane Bastos; Misturini, Fabíola Dallarosa; Koester, Leticia Scherer; Bassani, Valquiria Linck; Simões, Cláudia Maria Oliveira; Teixeira, Helder Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize topical nanoemulsions containing genistein, by means of a 23 full factorial design based on physicochemical properties and skin retention. The experimental arrangement was constructed using oil type (isopropyl myristate or castor oil), phospholipid type (distearoylphosphatidylcholine [DSPC] or dioleylphosphaditylcholine [DOPC]), and ionic cosurfactant type (oleic acid or oleylamine) as independent variables. The analysis of variance showed effect of third order for particle size, polydispersity index, and skin retention of genistein. Nanoemulsions composed of isopropyl myristate/DOPC/oleylamine showed the smallest diameter and highest genistein amount in porcine ear skin whereas the formulation composed of isopropyl myristate/DSPC/oleylamine exhibited the lowest polydispersity index. Thus, these two formulations were selected for further studies. The formulations presented positive ζ potential values (>25 mV) and genistein content close to 100% (at 1 mg/mL). The incorporation of genistein in nanoemulsions significantly increased the retention of this isoflavone in epidermis and dermis, especially when the formulation composed by isopropyl myristate/DOPC/oleylamine was used. These results were supported by confocal images. Such formulations exhibited antiherpetic activity in vitro against herpes simplex virus 1 (strain KOS) and herpes simplex virus 22 (strain 333). Taken together, the results show that the genistein-loaded nanoemulsions developed in this study are promising options in herpes treatment. PMID:25336951

  20. An in vivo comparison of commonly used topical antimicrobials on skin graft healing after full-thickness burn injury.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Ozan L; Borman, Huseyin; Bahar, Taner; Ertaş, Nilgün M; Haberal, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Topical antimicrobials are frequently used for local control of infections in burn patients. It has been postulated that these agents retard wound healing. There are limited data about the effects of topical antimicrobial agents on skin graft healing. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of nitrofurazone, 1% silver sulfadiazine, and povidone-iodine on skin graft healing. Forty male rats were used in this study. A meshed skin graft, placed on an excised burn wound, was used as a model to compare topical agents with a control group. Skin graft survival rates, closure of meshed graft interstices (based on physical parameters, namely epithelialization and wound contraction), and histological changes were analyzed. Graft take was more than 85% in all groups. There was no difference between the mean values of the percent graft survival for each group (P > .05). Epithelialization occurred significantly earlier in animals in the nitrofurazone group (P < .05). There was no significant difference between groups in wound contraction rates (P >.05). There was no histological difference between the biopsy specimens of skin grafts. In specimens obtained from the interstices of the meshed graft, no significant differences were found among the groups regarding the wound healing parameters (P > .05). We found that nitrofurazone, silver sulfadiazine, and povidone-iodine had no negative effect on graft healing and take in noncontaminated burn wounds.

  1. Intraocular distribution of topically applied hydrophilic and lipophilic substances in rat eyes.

    PubMed

    Abdul Nasir, Nurul Alimah; Agarwal, Puneet; Agarwal, Renu; Iezhitsa, Igor; Alyautdin, Renad; Nukolova, Natalia N; Chekhonin, Vladimir P; Mohd Ismail, Nafeeza

    2016-10-01

    Topical administration is the preferred route of drug delivery for ophthalmic ailments. However, poor permeation through ocular surface and significant systemic absorption, makes the topical drug delivery challenging. Furthermore, distribution of topically delivered drugs varies with their physicochemical properties and the type of formulation used. Hence, this study was done to understand the pattern of ocular drug distribution of topically applied hydrophilic and lipophilic substances in two different formulations. 5-Carboxyfluorescein and 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate were used as representative candidates for hydrophilic and lipophilic substances, respectively. They were formulated in solution and liposomes. Single drop of either formulation containing hydrophilic or lipophilic substance was instilled topically, unilaterally to rat eyes. Subsequently, rats were sacrificed at 10, 30 and 120 min post-instillation. Eyes were cryosectioned and examined under confocal microscope to determine the fluorescence intensity in ocular tissues. Corneal permeation of hydrophilic and lipophilic substances in both formulations peaked at 30 min post-instillation. Liposomal-lipophilic dye and non-liposomal-hydrophilic dye showed better corneal distribution. Fluorescence was absent in contralateral eyes of non-liposomal-hydrophilic dye-treated animals but was present in contralateral eyes of liposomal-hydrophilic dye-treated animals. Fluorescence in contralateral eyes of liposomal-lipophilic dye-treated animals was significantly higher compared to non-liposomal-lipophilic dye-treated animals. Topically applied liposomal formulation of lipophilic substance provides higher corneal concentration of drug with lesser systemic absorption compared to its solution. For hydrophilic substance, topical use of solution provides greater corneal concentration compared to liposomes which is more likely to be absorbed systemically.

  2. The co-drug of conjugated hydroquinone and azelaic acid to enhance topical skin targeting and decrease penetration through the skin.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Pei-Wen; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A; Fang, Chia-Lang; Lin, Chwan-Fwu; Chen, Chun-Che; Fang, Jia-You

    2012-06-01

    A co-drug of hydroquinone (HQ) and azelaic acid (AA), bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)nonanedioate (BHN), was synthesized and investigated as a topical prodrug with the aim of improving the dermal delivery of the parent drugs. Physicochemical parameters were ascertained, and the enzymatic hydrolysis was examined. Skin permeation of HQ, AA, and BHN was studied by determining the skin deposition and flux across nude mouse skin under equivalent doses with the same thermodynamic activity. The partition coefficient (log P) of the co-drug increased by up to 5.0 with HQ and AA conjugation, which had respective log P values of 0.5 and 1.4. In the skin absorption experiment, BHN in ethanol/pH 7 buffer resulted in a 2-fold enhancement of skin deposition compared to both HQ and AA. With permeation using polyethylene glycol 400/pH 7 buffer as the vehicle, the co-drug, respectively, exhibited 8.1- and 1.4-fold enhancements of skin uptake compared to HQ and AA alone. The transdermal flux from BHN was negligible compared to those with HQ and AA treatments. The results of a preliminary safety evaluation showed no signs of stratum corneum disruption or erythema by BHN application within 24h. The co-drug approach provides a viable option for the treatment of skin hyperpigmentation of HQ and AA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of testosterone cream applied to scrotal skin.

    PubMed

    Iyer, R; Mok, S F; Savkovic, S; Turner, L; Fraser, G; Desai, R; Jayadev, V; Conway, A J; Handelsman, D J

    2017-07-01

    Scrotal skin is thin and has high steroid permeability, but the pharmacokinetics of testosterone via the scrotal skin route has not been studied in detail. The aim of this study was to define the pharmacokinetics of testosterone delivered via the scrotal skin route. The study was a single-center, three-phase cross-over pharmacokinetic study of three single doses (12.5, 25, 50 mg) of testosterone cream administered in random sequence on different days with at least 2 days between doses to healthy eugonadal volunteers with endogenous testosterone suppressed by administration of nandrolone decanoate. Serum testosterone, DHT and estradiol concentrations were measured by liquid chromatograpy, mass spectrometry in extracts of serum taken before and for 16 h after administration of each of the three doses of testosterone cream to the scrotal skin. Testosterone administration onto the scrotal skin produced a swift (peak 1.9-2.8 h), dose-dependent (p < 0.0001) increase in serum testosterone with the 25 mg dose maintaining physiological levels for 16 h. Serum DHT displayed a time- (p < 0.0001), but not dose-dependent, increase in concentration reaching a peak concentration of 1.2 ng/mL (4.1 nm) at 4.9 h which was delayed by 2 h after peak serum testosterone. There were no significant changes in serum estradiol over time after testosterone administration. We conclude that testosterone administration to scrotal skin is well tolerated and produces dose-dependent peak serum testosterone concentration with a much lower dose relative to the non-scrotal transdermal route. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  4. Topical Antimicrobial Treatments Can Elicit Shifts to Resident Skin Bacterial Communities and Reduce Colonization by Staphylococcus aureus Competitors

    PubMed Central

    SanMiguel, Adam J.; Meisel, Jacquelyn S.; Horwinski, Joseph; Zheng, Qi

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The skin microbiome is a complex ecosystem with important implications for cutaneous health and disease. Topical antibiotics and antiseptics are often employed to preserve the balance of this population and inhibit colonization by more pathogenic bacteria. However, despite their widespread use, the impact of these interventions on broader microbial communities remains poorly understood. Here, we report the longitudinal effects of topical antibiotics and antiseptics on skin bacterial communities and their role in Staphylococcus aureus colonization resistance. In response to antibiotics, cutaneous populations exhibited an immediate shift in bacterial residents, an effect that persisted for multiple days posttreatment. By contrast, antiseptics elicited only minor changes to skin bacterial populations, with few changes to the underlying microbiota. While variable in scope, both antibiotics and antiseptics were found to decrease colonization by commensal Staphylococcus spp. by sequencing- and culture-based methods, an effect which was highly dependent on baseline levels of Staphylococcus. Because Staphylococcus residents have been shown to compete with the skin pathogen S. aureus, we also tested whether treatment could influence S. aureus levels at the skin surface. We found that treated mice were more susceptible to exogenous association with S. aureus and that precolonization with the same Staphylococcus residents that were previously disrupted by treatment reduced S. aureus levels by over 100-fold. In all, the results of this study indicate that antimicrobial drugs can alter skin bacterial residents and that these alterations can have critical implications for cutaneous host defense. PMID:28630195

  5. Topical Antimicrobial Treatments Can Elicit Shifts to Resident Skin Bacterial Communities and Reduce Colonization by Staphylococcus aureus Competitors.

    PubMed

    SanMiguel, Adam J; Meisel, Jacquelyn S; Horwinski, Joseph; Zheng, Qi; Grice, Elizabeth A

    2017-09-01

    The skin microbiome is a complex ecosystem with important implications for cutaneous health and disease. Topical antibiotics and antiseptics are often employed to preserve the balance of this population and inhibit colonization by more pathogenic bacteria. However, despite their widespread use, the impact of these interventions on broader microbial communities remains poorly understood. Here, we report the longitudinal effects of topical antibiotics and antiseptics on skin bacterial communities and their role in Staphylococcus aureus colonization resistance. In response to antibiotics, cutaneous populations exhibited an immediate shift in bacterial residents, an effect that persisted for multiple days posttreatment. By contrast, antiseptics elicited only minor changes to skin bacterial populations, with few changes to the underlying microbiota. While variable in scope, both antibiotics and antiseptics were found to decrease colonization by commensal Staphylococcus spp. by sequencing- and culture-based methods, an effect which was highly dependent on baseline levels of Staphylococcus Because Staphylococcus residents have been shown to compete with the skin pathogen S. aureus , we also tested whether treatment could influence S. aureus levels at the skin surface. We found that treated mice were more susceptible to exogenous association with S. aureus and that precolonization with the same Staphylococcus residents that were previously disrupted by treatment reduced S. aureus levels by over 100-fold. In all, the results of this study indicate that antimicrobial drugs can alter skin bacterial residents and that these alterations can have critical implications for cutaneous host defense. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  6. Efficacy and safety of topical depigmenting agent in healthy human fair skin female volunteers: A single-arm study.

    PubMed

    Shah, Saurabh; Chew, Soon-Keong

    2017-11-28

    Skin hyperpigmentation is the darkening of skin due to the increased production of melanin in the body. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a botanical-based Rosa E pigmentation serum in healthy fair skin female volunteers with wrinkles, skin tone, and pigmentation. This was a single-arm, open label study conducted in healthy Indian females; 18 subjects aged 30-55, having fair Caucasian-like skin with at least 2 dark skin pigments with facial wrinkles diagnosed by dermatologist were selected. Rosa E pigmentation serum was applied twice a day for 84 days. Effect was evaluated by (i) instrumental technique (spectrophotometer ® 2600D), (ii) clinically by dermatologist regarding product efficacy (skin tone, antiwrinkle, pigmentation), and (iii) volunteers self-evaluation. The L* value of spectrophotometer reading represents lightness in the skin pigment. Reduction in the pigment was reported from day 14, with significant reductions observed till day 84 compared with baseline. Significant (P < .0001) skin pigmentation lightening was seen on day 14 (1.11) vastly improving on day 84 (1.94) based on photographic assessments. The significant reduction in skin pigment was 76.85%, Felix von Luschan skin color score was 30.24% (P < .0001) with a 7.38-fold reduction in skin tone and 57% reduction in facial wrinkles at day 84 from baseline. Rosa E pigmentation serum was found safe and effective in significant reduction in skin pigments, improvement of skin tone, and antiwrinkle properties instrumentally, clinically, and self-evaluation by volunteers. In these evaluations, best results were seen the longer the Rosa E was used. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Protective effects of a topical antioxidant mixture containing vitamin C, ferulic acid, and phloretin against ultraviolet-induced photodamage in human skin.

    PubMed

    Oresajo, Christian; Stephens, Thomas; Hino, Peter D; Law, Robert M; Yatskayer, Margarita; Foltis, Peter; Pillai, Sreekumar; Pinnell, Sheldon R

    2008-12-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of the skin leads to acute inflammatory reactions, such as erythema, sunburn, and chronic reactions, including premature skin aging and skin cancer. In this study, the effects of a topical antioxidant mixture consisting of vitamin C, ferulic acid, and phloretin on attenuating the harmful effects of UV irradiation on normal healthy volunteers were studied using biomarkers of skin damage. Ten subjects (age, 18-60 years; Fitzpatrick skin types II and III) were randomized and treated with antioxidant product or vehicle control on the lower back for four consecutive days. On day 3, the minimal erythema dose (MED) was determined for each subject at a different site on the back. On day 4, the two test sites received solar-simulated UV irradiation 1-5x MED at 1x MED intervals. On day 5, digital images were taken, and 4-mm punch biopsies were collected from the two 5x MED test sites and a control site from each subject for morphology and immunohistochemical studies. UV irradiation significantly increased the erythema of human skin in a linear manner from 1x to 5x MED. As early as 24 h after exposure to 5x MEDs of UV irradiation, there were significant increases in sunburn cell formation, thymine dimer formation, matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression, and p53 protein expression. All these changes were attenuated by the antioxidant composition. UV irradiation also suppressed the amount of CD1a-expressing Langerhans cells, indicating immunosuppressive effects of a single 5x MED dose of UV irradiation. Pretreatment of skin with the antioxidant composition blocked this effect. This study confirms the protective role of a unique mixture of antioxidants containing vitamin C, ferulic acid, and phloretin on human skin from the harmful effects of UV irradiation. Phloretin, in addition to being a potent antioxidant, may stabilize and increase the skin availability of topically applied vitamin C and ferulic acid. We propose that antioxidant mixture will

  8. Photoacoustic technique applied to the study of skin and leather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, M.; Varela, J.; Hernández, L.; González, A.

    1998-08-01

    In this paper the photoacoustic technique is used in bull skin for the determination of thermal and optical properties as a function of the tanning process steps. Our results show that the photoacoustic technique is sensitive to the study of physical changes in this kind of material due to the tanning process.

  9. [Study of skin retraction applied to the treatment of skin tumors. Mapping of the human body].

    PubMed

    Dumas, P; Benatar, M; Cardot-Leccia, N; Lebreton, E; Chignon-Sicard, B

    2012-04-01

    Skin, the main organ of the human body, is equipped with own biomechanical characteristics, highly variable depending on intra-individual factors (location, weight status, dermatological diseases…) and interindividual (age, sex…). Despite some recent cutometric studies, our review of the literature shows that there is no currently reliable analytical model representing the biomechanical behavior of the skin. Yet, this is a central issue in dermatology surgery, especially in the treatment of skin tumors, for the proper observance of surgical margins. We studied prospectively on 75 resection specimens (about 71 patient(s)), for the treatment of skin lesions tumor suspicious or known malignant or benign. Room dimensions were measured before and 5 minutes after excision, leading us to calculate a ratio of retraction of the skin surface. This retraction was correlated with age, gender, tumor type, and anatomic location of the site of excision. The power of retraction of the skin varies significantly by region of the body. It is maximum in the upper limb (hand excluded) and in the cervical region. At the cephalic region, skin of the ear and periorbital skin have capacities of important early retraction. Unlike the lower limb (foot excluded), the back skin of the nose and face appear to be a minimum of shrinkage. Age also seems to change on that capacity shrinkage, sex would have no influence. Our study confirms the variations in the ability of skin retraction based on a number of factors. In dermato-oncology, that power retraction could cause significant differences between clinical surgical margins and final pathologist margins. We believe it must be taken into account by the couple surgeon-pathologist, especially in the context of invasive and/or recurrent tumors. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  10. Topical calcitriol prior to photodynamic therapy enhances treatment efficacy in non-melanoma skin cancer mouse models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollakanti, Kishore; Anand, Sanjay; Maytin, Edward V.

    2015-03-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) such as basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are the most common form of human cancer worldwide, and their incidence is increasing. Photodynamic therapy (PDT), mediated by topically applied aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and subsequent exposure to light (either a laser or a noncoherent source), is being increasingly used for the treatment of dermatological disorders, including BCC and SCC. However, therapeutic responses of NMSCs to ALA-PDT are currently not superior to standard therapies, although the latter have undesirable side effects including scarring. In this study, we report that preconditioning of skin tumors with calcitriol (active form of Vitamin D; Vit D) prior to ALA-PDT, significantly improves the treatment outcome. In BCC and UVB-induced SCC mouse models, we identified an increase in tumor-specific accumulation of ALA induced photosensitizer (protoporphyrin IX, PpIX) due to Vit D preconditioning, of up to 6- fold in vivo. In addition, increased expression of differentiation (145 fold, p < 0.02) and proliferation (42 fold, p <0.005) markers were identified in BCC tumors, all leading to increased tumor destruction (18.3 fold, p < 0.03) with the combination approach, as compared to ALA-PDT alone. Histomorphological changes identified using hematoxylin and eosin staining, and results of TUNEL staining, together documented a beneficial effect of Vit D pretreatment upon tumor cell death. We conclude that this new combination approach with Vit D and ALA-PDT has great potential to achieve complete remission of NMSC tumors, with excellent cosmetic results and an overall beneficial impact upon patient care.

  11. Topical calcitriol prior to photodynamic therapy enhances treatment efficacy in non-melanoma skin cancer mouse models.

    PubMed

    Rollakanti, Kishore; Anand, Sanjay; Maytin, Edward V

    2015-03-02

    Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) such as basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are the most common form of human cancer worldwide, and their incidence is increasing. Photodynamic therapy (PDT), mediated by topically applied aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and subsequent exposure to light (either a laser or a noncoherent source), is being increasingly used for the treatment of dermatological disorders, including BCC and SCC. However, therapeutic responses of NMSCs to ALA-PDT are currently not superior to standard therapies, although the latter have undesirable side effects including scarring. In this study, we report that preconditioning of skin tumors with calcitriol (active form of Vitamin D; Vit D) prior to ALA-PDT, significantly improves the treatment outcome. In BCC and UVB-induced SCC mouse models, we identified an increase in tumor-specific accumulation of ALA induced photosensitizer (protoporphyrin IX, PpIX) due to Vit D preconditioning, of up to 6-fold in vivo . In addition, increased expression of differentiation (145 fold, p < 0.02) and proliferation (42 fold, p < 0.005) markers were identified in BCC tumors, all leading to increased tumor destruction (18.3 fold, p < 0.03) with the combination approach, as compared to ALA-PDT alone. Histomorphological changes identified using hematoxylin and eosin staining, and results of TUNEL staining, together documented a beneficial effect of Vit D pretreatment upon tumor cell death. We conclude that this new combination approach with Vit D and ALA-PDT has great potential to achieve complete remission of NMSC tumors, with excellent cosmetic results and an overall beneficial impact upon patient care.

  12. Topical calcitriol prior to photodynamic therapy enhances treatment efficacy in non-melanoma skin cancer mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Rollakanti, Kishore; Anand, Sanjay; Maytin, Edward V.

    2015-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) such as basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are the most common form of human cancer worldwide, and their incidence is increasing. Photodynamic therapy (PDT), mediated by topically applied aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and subsequent exposure to light (either a laser or a noncoherent source), is being increasingly used for the treatment of dermatological disorders, including BCC and SCC. However, therapeutic responses of NMSCs to ALA-PDT are currently not superior to standard therapies, although the latter have undesirable side effects including scarring. In this study, we report that preconditioning of skin tumors with calcitriol (active form of Vitamin D; Vit D) prior to ALA-PDT, significantly improves the treatment outcome. In BCC and UVB-induced SCC mouse models, we identified an increase in tumor-specific accumulation of ALA induced photosensitizer (protoporphyrin IX, PpIX) due to Vit D preconditioning, of up to 6-fold in vivo. In addition, increased expression of differentiation (145 fold, p < 0.02) and proliferation (42 fold, p < 0.005) markers were identified in BCC tumors, all leading to increased tumor destruction (18.3 fold, p < 0.03) with the combination approach, as compared to ALA-PDT alone. Histomorphological changes identified using hematoxylin and eosin staining, and results of TUNEL staining, together documented a beneficial effect of Vit D pretreatment upon tumor cell death. We conclude that this new combination approach with Vit D and ALA-PDT has great potential to achieve complete remission of NMSC tumors, with excellent cosmetic results and an overall beneficial impact upon patient care. PMID:25983370

  13. Effects of a topically applied wound ointment on epidermal wound healing studied by in vivo fluorescence laser scanning microscopy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange-Asschenfeldt, Bernhard; Alborova, Alena; Krüger-Corcoran, Daniela; Patzelt, Alexa; Richter, Heike; Sterry, Wolfram; Kramer, Axel; Stockfleth, Eggert; Lademann, Jürgen

    2009-09-01

    Epidermal wound healing is a complex and dynamic regenerative process necessary to reestablish skin integrity. Fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy (FLSM) is a noninvasive imaging technique that has previously been used for evaluation of inflammatory and neoplastic skin disorders in vivo and at high resolution. We employed FLSM to investigate the evolution of epidermal wound healing noninvasively over time and in vivo. Two suction blisters were induced on the volar forearms of the study participants, followed by removal of the epidermis. To study the impact of wound ointment on the process of reepithelization, test sites were divided into two groups, of which one test site was left untreated as a negative control. FLSM was used for serial/consecutive evaluations up to 8 days. FLSM was able to visualize the development of thin keratinocyte layers developing near the wound edge and around hair follicles until the entire epidermis has been reestablished. Wounds treated with the wound ointment were found to heal significantly faster than untreated wounds. This technique allows monitoring of the kinetics of wound healing noninvasively and over time, while offering new insights into the potential effects of topically applied drugs on the process of tissue repair.

  14. A comparative study to evaluate efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness between Whitfield's ointment + oral fluconazole versus topical 1% butenafine in tinea infections of skin

    PubMed Central

    Thaker, Saket J.; Mehta, Dimple S.; Shah, Hiral A.; Dave, Jayendra N.; Kikani, Kunjan M.

    2013-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of topical Whitfield's ointment plus oral fluconazole with topical 1% butenafine in tinea infections of the skin. Materials and Methods: Patients were randomly allocated to the two treatment groups and advised to apply either agent topically twice-a-day for 4 weeks on the lesions and fluconazole (150 mg) was administered once a week for 4 weeks in the study group applying Whitfield's ointment. Patients were followed-up at an interval of 10 days for clinical score and global evaluation response was assessed at baseline and during each follow-up. Results: Out of 120 patients enrolled in the study 103 completed the study. Patients treated with Whitfield's ointment and oral fluconazole reduced mean sign and symptom score from 8.81 ± 0.82 to 0.18 ± 0.59 while butenafine treated patients reduced it from 8.88 ± 0.53 to 0.31 ± 0.67 at the end of the treatment. Nearly, 98% patients were completely cleared of the lesion on the 3rd follow-up with both treatments. Conclusion: Whitfield's ointment with oral fluconazole is as efficacious, safe and cost-effective as compared with 1% butenafine in tinea infections of the skin. PMID:24347774

  15. A comparative study to evaluate efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness between Whitfield's ointment + oral fluconazole versus topical 1% butenafine in tinea infections of skin.

    PubMed

    Thaker, Saket J; Mehta, Dimple S; Shah, Hiral A; Dave, Jayendra N; Kikani, Kunjan M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of topical Whitfield's ointment plus oral fluconazole with topical 1% butenafine in tinea infections of the skin. Patients were randomly allocated to the two treatment groups and advised to apply either agent topically twice-a-day for 4 weeks on the lesions and fluconazole (150 mg) was administered once a week for 4 weeks in the study group applying Whitfield's ointment. Patients were followed-up at an interval of 10 days for clinical score and global evaluation response was assessed at baseline and during each follow-up. Out of 120 patients enrolled in the study 103 completed the study. Patients treated with Whitfield's ointment and oral fluconazole reduced mean sign and symptom score from 8.81 ± 0.82 to 0.18 ± 0.59 while butenafine treated patients reduced it from 8.88 ± 0.53 to 0.31 ± 0.67 at the end of the treatment. Nearly, 98% patients were completely cleared of the lesion on the 3(rd) follow-up with both treatments. Whitfield's ointment with oral fluconazole is as efficacious, safe and cost-effective as compared with 1% butenafine in tinea infections of the skin.

  16. Response of cochlear blood flow to prostaglandin E1 applied topically to the round window.

    PubMed

    Tominaga, Mitsuo; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Sone, Michihiko; Teranishi, Masa-aki; Nakashima, Tsutomu

    2006-03-01

    The increase in cochlear blood flow (CBF) after administration of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) to the round window depends on increased blood flow through the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA). To evaluate the response of CBF to PGE1 applied topically to the round window, and to investigate the origin of blood flow changes after this topical application. The response of CBF to topically applied PGE1 was measured by placing the tip of a laser Doppler probe on the bony wall of the basal turn of the cochlea after the middle ear mucosa over the cochlea had been removed in guinea pigs and rats. In rats, the CBF response to PGE1 administration was investigated after occlusion of the AICA or stapedial artery. CBF increased following PGE1 administration in both guinea pigs and rats. In rats, CBF increased from 100% to 132%+/-10% (mean+/-SD) after the topical application of 0.5 microl of a 0.014% PGE1 solution. CBF decreased after occlusion of the AICA or stapedial artery but did not increase after PGE1 administration during occlusion of the AICA. The CBF response to PGE1 administration was similar before and after occlusion of the stapedial artery.

  17. New Technique of Applying Topical Oxygen Therapy as a Cost-Effective Procedure.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Vivek; Aroor, Shashank; Gupta, Nikhil; Gupta, Arun; Agarwal, Nitin; Kaur, Navneet

    2015-12-01

    To describe the newly designed technique of applying topical oxygen therapy for large wounds. C arm sterile disposable cover is used for covering the wound. For abdominal and pelvis wounds, two artificial holes are created at one end of the cover for the inclusion of the limb. Free end of the cover is secured with adhesive, and a hole is created for the insertion of the suction catheter. Oxygen cylinder is connected to the suction catheter, and oxygen is supplied at the rate of 10 L/min. Three patients were treated with topical oxygen therapy. These patients were cases of necrotizing soft tissue infections and large post traumatic wounds. There were less requirements of debridement and granulation tissue appeared earlier. The cost of one cycle of the therapy is less than 500 INR. Topical oxygen therapy is the recent modality for improved wound healing. The novel method of applying topical oxygen devised by us is effective, feasible, and cost-effective as compared to standard devices.

  18. Non-occlusive topical exposure of human skin in vitro as model for cytotoxicity testing of irritant compounds.

    PubMed

    Lönnqvist, Susanna; Briheim, Kristina; Kratz, Gunnar

    2016-02-01

    Testing of irritant compounds has traditionally been performed on animals and human volunteers. Animal testing should always be restricted and for skin irritancy mice and rabbits hold poor predictive value for irritant potential in humans. Irritant testing on human volunteers is restricted by the duration subjects can be exposed, and by the subjectivity of interpreting the visual signs of skin irritation. We propose an irritant testing system using viable human full thickness skin with the loss of cell viability in the exposed skin area as end point measurement. Skin was exposed to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) at 20% concentration by non-occluded topical exposure to establish a positive control response and subsequent test compounds were statistically compared with the 20% SDS response. Cell viability and metabolism were measured with 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The model presents correlation between increased concentration of SDS and decreased viability of cells in the exposed skin area (R(2) = 0.76). We propose the model to be used for cytotoxicity testing of irritant compounds. With fully intact barrier function, the model comprises all cells present in the skin with quantifiable end point measurement.

  19. Triple nanoemulsion potentiates the effects of topical treatments with microencapsulated retinol and modulates biological processes related to skin aging *

    PubMed Central

    Afornali, Alessandro; de Vecchi, Rodrigo; Stuart, Rodrigo Makowiecky; Dieamant, Gustavo; de Oliveira, Luciana Lima; Brohem, Carla Abdo; Feferman, Israel Henrique Stokfisz; Fabrício, Lincoln Helder Zambaldi; Lorencini, Márcio

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The sum of environmental and genetic factors affects the appearance and function of the skin as it ages. The identification of molecular changes that take place during skin aging provides biomarkers and possible targets for therapeutic intervention. Retinoic acid in different formulations has emerged as an alternative to prevent and repair age-related skin damage. OBJECTIVES To understand the effects of different retinoid formulations on the expression of genes associated with biological processes that undergo changes during skin aging. METHODS Ex-vivo skin samples were treated topically with different retinoid formulations. The modulation of biological processes associated with skin aging was measured by Reverse Transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). RESULTS A formulation containing microencapsulated retinol and a blend of active ingredients prepared as a triple nanoemulsion provided the best results for the modulation of biological, process-related genes that are usually affected during skin aging. CONCLUSION This association proved to be therapeutically more effective than tretinoin or microencapsulated retinol used singly. PMID:24474102

  20. Transcriptional changes in organoculture of full-thickness human skin following topical application of all-trans retinoic acid

    PubMed Central

    Gillbro, J M; Al-Bader, T; Westman, M; Olsson, M J; Mavon, A

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Objective Retinoids are used as therapeutic agents for numerous skin diseases, for example, psoriasis, acne and keratinization disorders. The same substances have also been recognized in the treatment for hyperpigmentation disorders such as melasma. Other studies on photo-damaged skin have shown that retinoids reduce wrinkles, surface roughness, mottled pigmentation, and visual skin appearance as a whole. We tested the hypothesis that an organoculture of full-thickness human skin could be used as a preclinical model to investigate the retinoid transcriptional profile in human skin in vitro. Methods Full-thickness skin explants were exposed to topically applied all-trans retinoic acid (RA) for 24 h. The gene expression profile was analysed using oligonucleotide microarrays, and data were validated with real-time (RT) PCR. Results We showed that the expression of 93 genes was significantly altered more than twofold. Several of the altered genes, for example, KRT4, CYP26 and LCN2, have previously been shown to be affected by RA in keratinocyte monocultures, reconstructed epidermis and skin biopsies from patients treated topically or orally with RA. In addition, genes, such as SCEL, NRIP1, DGAT2, RDH12 EfnB2, MAPK14, SAMD9 and CEACAM6 not previously reported to be affected by RA in human skin, were identified for the first time in this study. Conclusion The results in the present study show that full-thickness human explants represent a valuable pre-clinical model for studying the effects of retinoids in skin. Résumé Objectif Les rétinoïdes sont utilisés comme agents thérapeutiques pour de nombreuses maladies de la peau, p.ex. le psoriasis, l'acné et les troubles de la kératinisation. Les mêmes substances ont également été reconnues dans le traitement des troubles de l' hyperpigmentation tels que le melasma. D'autres études sur la peau photo-endommagée ont montré que les rétinoïdes réduisent les rides, la rugosité de la surface, la

  1. Antimicrobial activity of topically-applied soyaethyl morpholinium ethosulfate micelles against Staphylococcus species.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shih-Chun; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Sung, Calvin T; Lin, Chwan-Fwu; Fang, Jia-You

    2016-03-01

    Here we evaluated the antibacterial efficacy of soyaethyl morpholinium ethosulfate (SME) micelles as an inherent bactericide against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The antimicrobial activity was examined by in vitro culture model and murine model of skin infection. Cationic micelles formed by benzalkonium chloride or cetylpyridinium chloride were used for comparison. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration against S. aureus and MRSA were 1.71-3.42 and 1.71-6.84 μg/ml, respectively. Topical administration of SME micelles significantly decreased the cutaneous infection and MRSA load in mice. The killing of bacteria was caused by direct cell wall/membrane rupture. SME micelles also penetrated into the bacteria to elicit a Fenton reaction and oxidative stress. SME micelles have potential as antimicrobial agents due to their lethal effect against S. aureus and MRSA with a low toxicity to mammalian cells.

  2. What happens in the skin? Integrating skin permeation kinetics into studies of developmental and reproductive toxicity following topical exposure.

    PubMed

    Dancik, Yuri; Bigliardi, Paul L; Bigliardi-Qi, Mei

    2015-12-01

    Animal-based developmental and reproductive toxicological studies involving skin exposure rarely incorporate information on skin permeation kinetics. For practical reasons, animal studies cannot investigate the many factors which can affect human skin permeation and systemic uptake kinetics in real-life scenarios. Traditional route-to-route extrapolation is based on the same types of experiments and requires assumptions regarding route similarity. Pharmacokinetic modeling based on skin physiology and structure is the most efficient way to incorporate the variety of intrinsic skin and exposure-dependent parameters occurring in clinical and occupational settings into one framework. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models enable the integration of available in vivo, in vitro and in silico data to quantitatively predict the kinetics of uptake at the site of interest, as needed for 21st century toxicology and risk assessment. As demonstrated herein, proper interpretation and integration of these data is a multidisciplinary endeavor requiring toxicological, risk assessment, mathematical, pharmaceutical, biological and dermatological expertise. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Enhanced effectiveness of tocotrienol-based nano-emulsified system for topical delivery against skin carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Pham, Jimmy; Nayel, Amy; Hoang, Christina; Elbayoumi, Tamer

    2016-06-01

    The potent anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic actions of tocotrienols (T3) against cancer, but not normal tissues, have been hampered by their limited systemic bioavailabilty. Recent expansive development of diverse nanoemulsion (NE) vehicles emphasized their vast potential to improve the effective dosing of different clinical and experimental drugs of lipophilic nature, such as T3. The emphasis of the present work is to develop a pharmaceutically scalable, low-energy nano-emulsification approach for optimized incorporation of T3-rich palm oil (Tocomin®), possessing anticancer activity as a potential cutaneous delivery platform for adjunctive therapy of skin carcinomas, either alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. Different Tocomin®-NEs, obtained with different homogenization strategies, were screened based on physicochemical uniformity (droplet size, charge and polydispersity) and subjected to stress physical stability testing, along with chemical content analysis (≥90% Tocomin® - incorporation efficiency). Adopted hybrid nano-emulsification of Tocomin®, correlated with highest preservation of DPPH-radical scavenging capacity of active T3 in prototype formulation, Tocomin®-NE, which effectively permeated diffusion cell membranes 4-folds higher than propyleneglycol (PG)-admixed Tocomin® control. Against two different cell models of human cutaneous carcinoma, Tocomin®-hybrid NE demonstrated significantly stronger cytotoxic profiles (p ≤ 0.01), visible in both concentration- and time- dependent manners, with at least 5-folds lower IC50 values, compared to those estimated for the closest Tocomin®-control. The proposed hybrid nano-emulsified formulation of Tocomin® provides simple and stable delivery platform, for effective topical application against keratinocyte tumors.

  4. Multifactorial skin barrier deficiency and atopic dermatitis: Essential topics to prevent the atopic march.

    PubMed

    Egawa, Gyohei; Kabashima, Kenji

    2016-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common inflammatory skin disease in the industrialized world and has multiple causes. Over the past decade, data from both experimental models and patients have highlighted the primary pathogenic role of skin barrier deficiency in patients with AD. Increased access of environmental agents into the skin results in chronic inflammation and contributes to the systemic "atopic (allergic) march." In addition, persistent skin inflammation further attenuates skin barrier function, resulting in a positive feedback loop between the skin epithelium and the immune system that drives pathology. Understanding the mechanisms of skin barrier maintenance is essential for improving management of AD and limiting downstream atopic manifestations. In this article we review the latest developments in our understanding of the pathomechanisms of skin barrier deficiency, with a particular focus on the formation of the stratum corneum, the outermost layer of the skin, which contributes significantly to skin barrier function. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Applying laser speckle images to skin science: skin lesion differentiation by polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tim K.; Tchvialeva, Lioudmila; Dhadwal, Gurbir; Sotoodian, Bahman; Kalai, Sunil; Zeng, Haishan; Lui, Harvey; McLean, David I.

    2012-01-01

    Skin cancer is a worldwide health problem. It is the most common cancer in the countries with a large white population; furthermore, the incidence of malignant melanoma, the most dangerous form of skin cancer, has been increasing steadily over the last three decades. There is an urgent need to develop in-vivo, noninvasive diagnostic tools for the disease. This paper attempts to response to the challenge by introducing a simple and fast method based on polarization and laser speckle. The degree of maintaining polarization estimates the fraction of linearly maintaining polarization in the backscattered speckle field. Clinical experiments of 214 skin lesions including malignant melanomas, squamous cell carcinomas, basal cell carcinomas, nevi, and seborrheic keratoses demonstrated that such a parameter can potentially diagnose different skin lesion types. ROC analyses showed that malignant melanoma and seborrheic keratosis could be differentiated by both the blue and red lasers with the area under the curve (AUC) = 0.8 and 0.7, respectively. Also malignant melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma could be separated by the blue laser (AUC = 0.9), while nevus and seborrheic keratosis could be identified using the red laser (AUC = 0.7). These experiments demonstrated that polarization could be a potential in-vivo diagnostic indicator for skin diseases.

  6. Applying laser speckle images to skin science: skin lesion differentiation by polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tim K.; Tchvialeva, Lioudmila; Dhadwal, Gurbir; Sotoodian, Bahman; Kalai, Sunil; Zeng, Haishan; Lui, Harvey; McLean, David I.

    2011-09-01

    Skin cancer is a worldwide health problem. It is the most common cancer in the countries with a large white population; furthermore, the incidence of malignant melanoma, the most dangerous form of skin cancer, has been increasing steadily over the last three decades. There is an urgent need to develop in-vivo, noninvasive diagnostic tools for the disease. This paper attempts to response to the challenge by introducing a simple and fast method based on polarization and laser speckle. The degree of maintaining polarization estimates the fraction of linearly maintaining polarization in the backscattered speckle field. Clinical experiments of 214 skin lesions including malignant melanomas, squamous cell carcinomas, basal cell carcinomas, nevi, and seborrheic keratoses demonstrated that such a parameter can potentially diagnose different skin lesion types. ROC analyses showed that malignant melanoma and seborrheic keratosis could be differentiated by both the blue and red lasers with the area under the curve (AUC) = 0.8 and 0.7, respectively. Also malignant melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma could be separated by the blue laser (AUC = 0.9), while nevus and seborrheic keratosis could be identified using the red laser (AUC = 0.7). These experiments demonstrated that polarization could be a potential in-vivo diagnostic indicator for skin diseases.

  7. Effect of topically applied dexpanthenol on epidermal barrier function and stratum corneum hydration. Results of a human in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Gehring, W; Gloor, M

    2000-07-01

    In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study the effect of topical dexpanthenol (CAS 81-13-0) formulated in two different lipophilic vehicles on epidermal barrier function in vivo was carried out. Seven days' treatment with dexpanthenol improved stratum corneum hydration and reduced transepidermal water loss. Active treatment was statistically different from the vehicle control on both measures. Our results suggest that topical dexpanthenol formulated in either lipophilic vehicle stabilizes the skin barrier function.

  8. Determination of the radioprotective effects of topical applications of MEA, WR-2721, and N-acetylcysteine on murine skin

    SciTech Connect

    Verhey, L.J.; Sedlacek, R.

    1983-01-01

    Topical applications of MEA (beta-mercaptoethylamine or cysteamine), WR-2721 (S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)-ethylphosphorothioic acid), and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) were tested for their ability to protect the normal skin of the hind legs of mice against acute and late damage from single doses of /sup 137/Cs radiation. No significant protection was observed with either WR-2721 or NAC. MEA was shown to offer significant protection against acute skin damage in both buffered and unbuffered forms, but no significant protection against late contraction. The use of topical MEA on unanesthetized animals breathing carbogen (95% O2, 5% CO2) appears to give an enhanced level of radioprotection over that shownmore » for anesthetized, air-breathing animals.« less

  9. Topical treatment with coenzyme Q10-containing formulas improves skin's Q10 level and provides antioxidative effects.

    PubMed

    Knott, Anja; Achterberg, Volker; Smuda, Christoph; Mielke, Heiko; Sperling, Gabi; Dunckelmann, Katja; Vogelsang, Alexandra; Krüger, Andrea; Schwengler, Helge; Behtash, Mojgan; Kristof, Sonja; Diekmann, Heike; Eisenberg, Tanya; Berroth, Andreas; Hildebrand, Janosch; Siegner, Ralf; Winnefeld, Marc; Teuber, Frank; Fey, Sven; Möbius, Janne; Retzer, Dana; Burkhardt, Thorsten; Lüttke, Juliane; Blatt, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Ubiquinone (coenzyme Q10, Q10) represents an endogenously synthesized lipid-soluble antioxidant which is crucial for cellular energy production but is diminished with age and under the influence of external stress factors in human skin. Here, it is shown that topical Q10 treatment is beneficial with regard to effective Q10 replenishment, augmentation of cellular energy metabolism, and antioxidant effects. Application of Q10-containing formulas significantly increased the levels of this quinone on the skin surface. In the deeper layers of the epidermis the ubiquinone level was significantly augmented indicating effective supplementation. Concurrent elevation of ubiquinol levels suggested metabolic transformation of ubiquinone resulting from increased energy metabolism. Incubation of cultured human keratinocytes with Q10 concentrations equivalent to treated skin showed a significant augmentation of energy metabolism. Moreover, the results demonstrated that stressed skin benefits from the topical Q10 treatment by reduction of free radicals and an increase in antioxidant capacity. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  10. Skin and Eye Irritation Assessment of Oil Palm ( Elaeis guineensis) Leaf Extract for Topical Application.

    PubMed

    Yusof, Nor Zuliana; Abd Gani, Siti Salwa; Azizul Hasan, Zafarizal Aldrin; Idris, Zainab

    2018-01-01

    Many types of phytochemicals have been found to be present in oil palm leaf and could potentially be used as functional ingredients for skincare product. However, as of today, there is no published report on hazard identification and safety assessment of oil palm ( Elaeis guineensis) leaf extract (OPLE), particularly on skin and eye irritation. In this study, potential hazard of OPLE on skin and eye irritation was evaluated as an initial step to the safety assessment of OPLE. In vitro cell viability study of OPLE on normal human dermal fibroblasts showed that OPLE was nontoxic to the cells with percentage viability more than 90% after 24 and 48 hours of incubation. Skin irritation potential of OPLE was evaluated using in vitro SkinEthic reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) model (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development [OECD] Test Guideline 439, 2015), while eye irritation potential was evaluated using in vitro SkinEthic Human corneal epithelium (HCE) model (OECD test guideline 492, 2017). Hazard identification results showed that OPLE at 1%, 5%, and 10% (wt/wt) was classified as nonirritant to the skin and eye where mean tissue viabilities of SkinEthic RHE and SkinEthic HCE were more than 50% and 60%, respectively. Therefore, we recommend a further safety assessment, such as human patch testing, to confirm the nonirritant of OPLE.

  11. 21 CFR 310.530 - Topically applied hormone-containing drug products for over-the-counter (OTC) human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Topically applied hormone-containing drug products... for Specific New Drugs or Devices § 310.530 Topically applied hormone-containing drug products for over-the-counter (OTC) human use. (a) The term “hormone” is used broadly to describe a chemical...

  12. 21 CFR 310.530 - Topically applied hormone-containing drug products for over-the-counter (OTC) human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Topically applied hormone-containing drug products... for Specific New Drugs or Devices § 310.530 Topically applied hormone-containing drug products for over-the-counter (OTC) human use. (a) The term “hormone” is used broadly to describe a chemical...

  13. Six week evaluation of the potential for topical desoximetasone 0.25% spray to induce photoallergic skin reaction.

    PubMed

    Patel, Nupur U; Gowda, Asha; Grammenos, Alexandra; Onikoyi, Omobola; Feldman, Steven R

    2018-05-01

    Desoximetasone 0.25% topical spray is a novel formulation that has not been tested or approved for safety and efficacy. The primary objective was to determine the potential of desoximetasone 0.25 and 0.05% topical sprays, as well as a vehicle to induce photoallergic skin reaction after repeated topical application and irradiation to the skin using a controlled photopatch testing procedure. 53 subjects completed the study, each with six application sites (two of each treatment), three of which were irradiated and three non-irradiated, for an induction period of three weeks and then challenge period at week 6. Desoximetasone 0.25 and 0.05%, as well as vehicle showed no evidence of potential to induce photosensitization. There was statistically significantly greater irritation at the vehicle irradiated site in comparison to the irradiated treatment area of desoximetasone 0.25% (p = .005) and the irradiated treatment area of desoximetasone 0.05% (p = .008). Our results suggest that regular treatment with desoximetasone 0.25 and 0.05% spray, followed by UV light exposure does not induce photosensitization or photo-irritation. These findings increase confidence for the use of this topical spray in eczema or psoriasis patients who may also be receiving UV light therapy and may contribute to the clinical management of these patients.

  14. Seeking better topical delivery technologies of moisturizing agents for enhanced skin moisturization.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeongmin; Kim, Jeong Tae; Barua, Sonia; Yoo, Seung-Yup; Hong, Seong-Chul; Lee, Kyung Bin; Lee, Jaehwi

    2018-01-01

    An adequate hydration level is essential to maintain epidermal barrier functions and normal physiological activities of skin tissues. Diverse moisturizing agents and pharmaceutical formulations for dermal deliveries have thus extensively been investigated. This review comprehensively discusses scientific outcomes of moisturizing agents and pharmaceutical vehicles for skin moisturization, thereby providing insight into designing innovative pharmaceutical formulations for effective skin moisturization. Areas covered: We discussed the functions of various moisturizing agents ranging from conventional creams to novel moisturizers which has recently been explored. In addition, novel pharmaceutical formulations for efficient dermal delivery of the moisturizers, in particular, nanocarriers, were discussed along with their uses in commercial products. Expert opinion: Although various moisturizing agents have demonstrated their promising effects, exploitation of pharmaceutical formulations for their dermal delivery have been limited to few commonly used moisturizing agents. Thus, combinatorial investigation of novel moisturizers and pharmaceutical vehicles should be further conducted. As a new concept for improving skin moisturization, skin regeneration technologies using therapeutic cells have recently shown great promise for skin moisturization, but major challenges remain, such as efficient delivery and prolonged survival of such cells. Thus, novel approaches for improving skin moisturization require continuous efforts of pharmaceutical scientists to address the remaining problems.

  15. Topical application of RTA 408 lotion activates Nrf2 in human skin and is well-tolerated by healthy human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Reisman, Scott A; Goldsberry, Angela R; Lee, Chun-Yue I; O'Grady, Megan L; Proksch, Joel W; Ward, Keith W; Meyer, Colin J

    2015-07-14

    Topical application of the synthetic triterpenoid RTA 408 to rodents elicits a potent dermal cytoprotective phenotype through activation of the transcription factor Nrf2. Therefore, studies were conducted to investigate if such cytoprotective properties translate to human dermal cells, and a topical lotion formulation was developed and evaluated clinically. In vitro, RTA 408 (3-1000 nM) was incubated with primary human keratinocytes for 16 h. Ex vivo, RTA 408 (0.03, 0.3, or 3 %) was applied to healthy human skin explants twice daily for 3 days. A Phase 1 healthy volunteer clinical study with RTA 408 Lotion (NCT02029716) consisted of 3 sequential parts. In Part A, RTA 408 Lotion (0.5 %, 1 %, and 3 %) and lotion vehicle were applied to individual 4-cm(2) sites twice daily for 14 days. In Parts B and C, separate groups of subjects had 3 % RTA 408 Lotion applied twice daily to a 100-cm(2) site for 14 days or a 500-cm(2) site for 28 days. RTA 408 was well-tolerated in both in vitro and ex vivo settings up to the highest concentrations tested. Further, RTA 408 significantly and dose-dependently induced a variety of Nrf2 target genes. Clinically, RTA 408 Lotion was also well-tolerated up to the highest concentration, largest surface area, and longest duration tested. Moreover, significant increases in expression of the prototypical Nrf2 target gene NQO1 were observed in skin biopsies, suggesting robust activation of the pharmacological target. Overall, these data suggest RTA 408 Lotion is well-tolerated, activates Nrf2 in human skin, and appears suitable for continued clinical development.

  16. In Vitro Evaluation of Sunscreen Safety: Effects of the Vehicle and Repeated Applications on Skin Permeation from Topical Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Parenti, Carmela

    2018-01-01

    The evaluation of UV-filter in vitro percutaneous absorption allows the estimation of the systemic exposure dose (SED) and the margin of safety (MoS) of sunscreen products. As both the vehicle and pattern of application may affect sunscreen safety and efficacy, we evaluated in vitro release and skin permeation of two widely used UV-filters, octylmethoxycinnamate (OMC) and butylmethoxydibenzoylmethane (BMBM) from topical formulations with different features (oil in water (O/W) emulsions with different viscosity, water in oil (W/O) emulsion, oils with different lipophilicity). To mimic in-use conditions, we carried out experiments repeating sunscreen application on the skin surface for three consecutive days. BMBM release from all these vehicles was very low, thus leading to poor skin permeation. The vehicle composition significantly affected OMC release and skin permeation, and slight increases of OMC permeation were observed after repeated applications. From skin permeation data, SED and MoS values of BMBM and OMC were calculated for all the investigated formulations after a single application and repeated applications. While MoS values of BMBM were always well beyond the accepted safety limit, the safety of sunscreen formulations containing OMC may depend on the vehicle composition and the application pattern. PMID:29495452

  17. Evaluation of a new topical skin protectant (RD1433) for the prevention and treatment of incontinence-associated dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Matar, Hazem; Larner, Joanne; Viegas, Vanessa; Kansagra, Sneha; Atkinson, Karen L; Shetage, Satyajit; Skamarauskas, John T; Theivendran, Baveetharan; Goldman, Virginia S; Chilcott, Robert P

    2017-09-01

    Context Incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) is a type of moisture-associated dermatitis caused by repeated skin exposure to urine or stool. A product that could mitigate such symptoms would have a significant impact on cost of care and patients' quality of life. Objective This study compared the clinical efficacy of RD1433 and a comparator product (Vaseline®) in preventing and treating experimental IAD skin lesions. Materials and methods For the "prevention" part of the study, skin sites in eight human volunteers were treated daily for 5 d with either RD1433 or Vaseline® immediately prior to synthetic urine exposure. In the "treatment" part, exposure to synthetic urine was substituted for Vaseline® or RD1433 application on the first 2 d to promote the development of skin lesions prior to the application of the products from day three. Product efficacy was quantified by visual scoring and an array of biophysical instruments. Results Both RD1433 and Vaseline® significantly reduced lesion progression when applied as a prophylactic. When applied as a treatment (following establishment of skin lesions), RD1433 demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in several measures of skin function whereas there was no statistically significant improvement following treatment with Vaseline®. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that RD1433 may be superior to Vaseline® in the prevention and treatment of experimental IAD lesions. Clearly, further work is required to establish the efficacy of RD1433 with patients in a clinical environment.

  18. In vivo gene silencing following non-invasive siRNA delivery into the skin using a novel topical formulation.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Vikas; Hickerson, Robyn P; Nainamalai, Sitheswaran; Campbell, Paul A; Smith, Frances J D; McLean, W H Irwin; Pedrioli, Deena M Leslie

    2014-12-28

    Therapeutics based on short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), which act by inhibiting the expression of target transcripts, represent a novel class of potent and highly specific next-generation treatments for human skin diseases. Unfortunately, the intrinsic barrier properties of the skin combined with the large size and negative charge of siRNAs make epidermal delivery of these macromolecules quite challenging. To help evaluate the in vivo activity of these therapeutics and refine delivery strategies we generated an innovative reporter mouse model that predominantly expresses firefly luciferase (luc2p) in the paw epidermis--the region of murine epidermis that most closely models the tissue architecture of human skin. Combining this animal model with state-of-the-art live animal imaging techniques, we have developed a real-time in vivo analysis work-flow that has allowed us to compare and contrast the efficacies of a wide range nucleic acid-based gene silencing reagents in the skin of live animals. While inhibition was achieved with all of the reagents tested, only the commercially available "self-delivery" modified Accell-siRNAs (Dharmacon) produced potent and sustained in vivo gene silencing. Together, these findings highlight just how informative reliable reporter mouse models can be when assessing novel therapeutics in vivo. Using this work-flow, we developed a novel clinically-relevant topical formulation that facilitates non-invasive epidermal delivery of unmodified and "self-delivery" siRNAs. Remarkably, a sustained >40% luc2p inhibition was observed after two 1-hour treatments with Accell-siRNAs in our topical formulation. Importantly, our ability to successfully deliver siRNA molecules topically brings these novel RNAi-based therapeutics one-step closer to clinical use. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Spatial photosensitizer fluorescence emission predictive analysis for photodynamic therapy monitoring applied to a skin disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas-García, Irene; Fanjul-Vélez, Félix; Arce-Diego, José Luis

    2012-03-01

    The development of Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) predictive models has become a valuable tool for an optimal treatment planning, monitoring and dosimetry adjustment. A few attempts have achieved a quite complete characterization of the complex photochemical and photophysical processes involved, even taking into account superficial fluorescence in the target tissue. The present work is devoted to the application of a predictive PDT model to obtain fluorescence tomography information during PDT when applied to a skin disease. The model takes into account the optical radiation distribution, a non-homogeneous topical photosensitizer distribution, the time dependent photochemical interaction and the photosensitizer fluorescence emission. The results show the spatial evolution of the photosensitizer fluorescence emission and the amount of singlet oxygen produced during PDT. The depth dependent photosensitizer fluorescence emission obtained is essential to estimate the spatial photosensitizer concentration and its degradation due to photobleaching. As a consequence the proposed approach could be used to predict the photosensitizer fluorescence tomographic measurements during PDT. The singlet oxygen prediction could also be employed as a valuable tool to predict the short term treatment outcome.

  20. Ultra-flexible nanocarriers for enhanced topical delivery of a highly lipophilic antioxidative molecule for skin cancer chemoprevention.

    PubMed

    Boakye, Cedar H A; Patel, Ketan; Doddapaneni, Ravi; Bagde, Arvind; Behl, Gautam; Chowdhury, Nusrat; Safe, Stephen; Singh, Mandip

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we developed cationic ultra-flexible nanocarriers (UltraFLEX-Nano) to surmount the skin barrier structure and to potentiate the topical delivery of a highly lipophilic antioxidative diindolylmethane derivative (DIM-D) for the inhibition of UV-induced DNA damage and skin carcinogenesis. UltraFLEX-Nano was prepared with 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane, cholesterol and tween-80 by ethanolic injection method; was characterized by Differential Scanning Calorimetric (DSC), Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and Atomic Force Microscopic (phase-imaging) analyses and permeation studies were performed in dermatomed human skin. The efficacy of DIM-D-UltraFLEX-Nano for skin cancer chemoprevention was evaluated in UVB-induced skin cancer model in vivo. DIM-D-UltraFLEX-Nano formed a stable mono-dispersion (110.50±0.71nm) with >90% encapsulation of DIM-D that was supported by HPLC, DSC, FT-IR and AFM phase imaging. The blank formulation was non-toxic to human embryonic kidney cells. UltraFLEX-Nano was vastly deformable and highly permeable across the stratum corneum; there was significant (p<0.01) skin deposition of DIM-D for UltraFLEX-Nano that was superior to PEG solution (13.83-fold). DIM-D-UltraFLEX-Nano pretreatment delayed the onset of UVB-induced tumorigenesis (2 weeks) and reduced (p<0.05) the number of tumors observed in SKH-1 mice (3.33-fold), which was comparable to pretreatment with sunscreen (SPF30). Also, DIM-D-UltraFLEX-Nano caused decrease (p<0.05) in UV-induced DNA damage (8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine), skin inflammation (PCNA), epidermal hyperplasia (c-myc, CyclinD1), immunosuppression (IL10), cell survival (AKT), metastasis (Vimentin, MMP-9, TIMP1) but increase in apoptosis (p53 and p21). UltraFLEX-Nano was efficient in enhancing the topical delivery of DIM-D. DIM-D-UltraFLEX-Nano was efficacious in delaying skin tumor incidence and multiplicity in SKH mice comparable to sunscreen (SPF30

  1. Anti-epidermal growth factor receptor skin toxicity: a matter of topical hydration.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Daris; Codecà, Carla; Bocci, Barbara; Crepaldi, Francesca; Violati, Martina; Viale, Giulia; Careri, Carmela; Caldiera, Sarah; Bordin, Veronica; Luciani, Andrea; Zonato, Sabrina; Cassinelli, Gabriela; Foa, Paolo

    2016-02-01

    Skin toxicity is a frequent complication of anti-epidermal growth factor receptor therapy, which can be an obstacle in maintaining the dose intensity and may negatively impact on the clinical outcome of cancer patients. Skin lesions depend on the disruption of the keratinocyte development pathways and no treatment is clearly effective in resolving the cutaneous alterations frequently found during anti-epidermal growth factor receptor therapy. Among systemic treatments, oral tetracycline proved to be useful in preventing skin manifestations. We describe the case of a patient affected by metastatic colorectal cancer, for whom a combination of chemotherapy and cetuximab was used as second-line treatment. The patient developed a symptomatic papulopustular skin rash that disappeared completely after a twice-daily application of a hydrating and moisturizing cream, mainly consisting of a mixture of paraffin, silicone compounds, and macrogol. The marked cutaneous amelioration allowed the patient to continue cetuximab without any further symptoms and was associated with a partial radiological response.

  2. From topical antidote against skin irritants to a novel counter-irritating and anti-inflammatory peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Berta; Erlanger-Rosengarten, Avigail; Proscura, Elena

    2008-06-15

    The primary purpose of the present study was to investigate the mechanism of the counter-irritating activity of topical iodine against skin lesions induced by chemical and thermal stimuli. The hypothesis that iodine exerts its activity by inducing an endogenous anti-inflammatory factor was confirmed by exposing guinea pig skin to heat stimulus followed by topical iodine treatment and skin extraction. Injection of the extract into naive guinea pigs reduced heat-induced irritation by 69%. The protective factor, identified as a new nonapeptide (histone H2A 36-44, H-Lys-Gly-Asn-Tyr-Ala-Glu-Arg-Ileu-Ala-OH), caused reduction of 40% in irritation score in heat-exposed guinea pigs. The murine analog (H-Lys-Gly-His-Tyr-Ala-Glu-Arg-Val-Gly-OH, termedmore » IIIM1) reduced sulfur mustard (SM)-induced ear swelling at a dose-dependent bell-shape manner reaching peak activity of 1 mg/kg. Cultured keratinocytes transfected with the peptide were more resistant towards SM than the control cells. The peptide suppressed oxidative burst in activated neutrophils in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, the peptide reduced glucose oxidase-induced skin edema in mice at a dose-dependent bell-shape manner. Apart from thermal and chemical-induced skin irritation this novel peptide might be of potential use in chronic dermal disorders such as psoriasis and pemphigus as well as non-dermal inflammatory diseases like multiple sclerosis, arthritis and colitis.« less

  3. Dodecyl Amino Glucoside Enhances Transdermal and Topical Drug Delivery via Reversible Interaction with Skin Barrier Lipids.

    PubMed

    Kopečná, Monika; Macháček, Miloslav; Prchalová, Eva; Štěpánek, Petr; Drašar, Pavel; Kotora, Martin; Vávrová, Kateřina

    2017-03-01

    Skin permeation/penetration enhancers are substances that enable drug delivery through or into the skin. To search for new enhancers with high but reversible activity and acceptable toxicity, we synthesized a series of D-glucose derivatives, both hydrophilic and amphiphilic. Initial evaluation of the ability of these sugar derivatives to increase permeation and penetration of theophylline through/into human skin compared with a control (no enhancer) or sorbitan monolaurate (Span 20; positive control) revealed dodecyl 6-amino-6-deoxy-α-D-glucopyranoside 5 as a promising enhancer. Furthermore, this amino sugar 5 increased epidermal concentration of a highly hydrophilic antiviral cidofovir by a factor of 7. The effect of compound 5 on skin electrical impedance suggested its direct interaction with the skin barrier. Infrared spectroscopy of isolated stratum corneum revealed no effect of enhancer 5 on the stratum corneum proteins but an overall decrease in the lipid chain order. The enhancer showed acceptable toxicity on HaCaT keratinocyte and 3T3 fibroblast cell lines. Finally, transepidermal water loss returned to baseline values after enhancer 5 had been removed from the skin. Compound 5, a dodecyl amino glucoside, is a promising enhancer that acts through a reversible interaction with the stratum corneum lipids.

  4. Effects of topically applied tocotrienol on cataractogenesis and lens redox status in galactosemic rats.

    PubMed

    Abdul Nasir, Nurul Alimah; Agarwal, Renu; Vasudevan, Sushil; Tripathy, Minaketan; Alyautdin, Renad; Ismail, Nafeeza Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative and nitrosative stress underlies cataractogenesis, and therefore, various antioxidants have been investigated for anticataract properties. Several vitamin E analogs have also been studied for anticataract effects due to their antioxidant properties; however, the anticataract properties of tocotrienols have not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the effects of topically applied tocotrienol on the onset and progression of cataract and lenticular oxidative and nitrosative stress in galactosemic rats. In the first part of this study, we investigated the effects of topically applied microemulsion formulation of tocotrienol (TTE) using six concentrations ranging from 0.01% to 0.2%. Eight groups of Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 9) received distilled water, vehicle, or one of the six TTE concentrations as pretreatment topically twice daily for 3 weeks while on a normal diet. After pretreatment, animals in groups 2-8 received a 25% galactose diet whereas group 1 continued on the normal diet for 4 weeks. During this 4-week period, topical treatment continued as for pretreatment. Weekly slit-lamp examination was conducted to assess cataract progression. At the end of the experimental period, the animals were euthanized, and the proteins and oxidative stress parameters were estimated in the lenses. In the second part of the study, we compared the anticataract efficacy of the TTE with the liposomal formulation of tocotrienol (TTL) using five groups of Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 15) that received distilled water, TTE, TTL, or corresponding vehicle. The mode of administration and dosing schedule were the same as in study 1. Weekly ophthalmic examination and lens protein and oxidative stress estimates were performed as in study 1. Lens nitrosative stress was also estimated. During the 4-week treatment period, the groups treated with 0.03% and 0.02% tocotrienol showed slower progression of cataract compared to the vehicle-treated group (p<0.05), whereas the group

  5. Effects of topically applied tocotrienol on cataractogenesis and lens redox status in galactosemic rats

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Renu; Vasudevan, Sushil; Tripathy, Minaketan; Alyautdin, Renad; Ismail, Nafeeza Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Oxidative and nitrosative stress underlies cataractogenesis, and therefore, various antioxidants have been investigated for anticataract properties. Several vitamin E analogs have also been studied for anticataract effects due to their antioxidant properties; however, the anticataract properties of tocotrienols have not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the effects of topically applied tocotrienol on the onset and progression of cataract and lenticular oxidative and nitrosative stress in galactosemic rats. Methods In the first part of this study, we investigated the effects of topically applied microemulsion formulation of tocotrienol (TTE) using six concentrations ranging from 0.01% to 0.2%. Eight groups of Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 9) received distilled water, vehicle, or one of the six TTE concentrations as pretreatment topically twice daily for 3 weeks while on a normal diet. After pretreatment, animals in groups 2–8 received a 25% galactose diet whereas group 1 continued on the normal diet for 4 weeks. During this 4-week period, topical treatment continued as for pretreatment. Weekly slit-lamp examination was conducted to assess cataract progression. At the end of the experimental period, the animals were euthanized, and the proteins and oxidative stress parameters were estimated in the lenses. In the second part of the study, we compared the anticataract efficacy of the TTE with the liposomal formulation of tocotrienol (TTL) using five groups of Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 15) that received distilled water, TTE, TTL, or corresponding vehicle. The mode of administration and dosing schedule were the same as in study 1. Weekly ophthalmic examination and lens protein and oxidative stress estimates were performed as in study 1. Lens nitrosative stress was also estimated. Results During the 4-week treatment period, the groups treated with 0.03% and 0.02% tocotrienol showed slower progression of cataract compared to the vehicle-treated group (p

  6. Topical Formulation Containing Naringenin: Efficacy against Ultraviolet B Irradiation-Induced Skin Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Renata M.; Pinho-Ribeiro, Felipe A.; Steffen, Vinicius S.; Silva, Thais C. C.; Caviglione, Carla V.; Bottura, Carolina; Fonseca, Maria J. V.; Vicentini, Fabiana T. M. C.; Vignoli, Josiane A.; Baracat, Marcela M.; Georgetti, Sandra R.; Verri, Waldiceu A.; Casagrande, Rubia

    2016-01-01

    Naringenin (NGN) exhibits anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, but it remains undetermined its topical actions against ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced inflammation and oxidative stress in vivo. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and functional antioxidant stability of NGN containing formulations, and the effects of selected NGN containing formulation on UVB irradiation-induced skin inflammation and oxidative damage in hairless mice. NGN presented ferric reducing power, ability to scavenge 2,2′-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline- 6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and hydroxyl radical, and inhibited iron-independent and dependent lipid peroxidation. Among the three formulations containing NGN, only the F3 kept its physicochemical and functional stability over 180 days. Topical application of F3 in mice protected from UVB-induced skin damage by inhibiting edema and cytokine production (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10). Furthermore, F3 inhibited superoxide anion and lipid hydroperoxides production and maintained ferric reducing and ABTS scavenging abilities, catalase activity, and reduced glutathione levels. In addition, F3 maintained mRNA expression of cellular antioxidants glutathione peroxidase 1, glutathione reductase and transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2), and induced mRNA expression of heme oxygenase-1. In conclusion, a formulation containing NGN may be a promising approach to protecting the skin from the deleterious effects of UVB irradiation. PMID:26741806

  7. Topical application of green and white tea extracts provides protection from solar-simulated ultraviolet light in human skin.

    PubMed

    Camouse, Melissa M; Domingo, Diana Santo; Swain, Freddie R; Conrad, Edward P; Matsui, Mary S; Maes, Daniel; Declercq, Lieve; Cooper, Kevin D; Stevens, Seth R; Baron, Elma D

    2009-06-01

    Tea polyphenols have been found to exert beneficial effects on the skin via their antioxidant properties. We sought to determine whether topical application of green tea or white tea extracts would prevent simulated solar radiation-induced oxidative damages to DNA and Langerhans cells that may lead to immune suppression and carcinogenesis. Skin samples were analysed from volunteers or skin explants treated with white tea or green tea after UV irradiation. In another group of patients, the in vivo immune protective effects of green and white tea were evaluated using contact hypersensitivity to dinitrochlorobenzene. Topical application of green and white tea offered protection against detrimental effects of UV on cutaneous immunity. Such protection is not because of direct UV absorption or sunscreen effects as both products showed a sun protection factor of 1. There was no significant difference in the levels of protection afforded by the two agents. Hence, both green tea and white tea are potential photoprotective agents that may be used in conjunction with established methods of sun protection.

  8. Nano-formulation for topical treatment of precancerous lesions: skin penetration, in vitro, and in vivo toxicological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Calienni, Maria Natalia; Temprana, Carlos Facundo; Prieto, Maria Jimena; Paolino, Donatella; Fresta, Massimo; Tekinay, Ayse Begum; Alonso, Silvia Del Valle; Montanari, Jorge

    2018-06-01

    With the aim of improving the topical delivery of the antineoplastic drug 5-fluorouracil (5FU), it was loaded into ultradeformable liposomes composed of soy phosphatidylcholine and sodium cholate (UDL-5FU). The liposome populations had a mean size of 70 nm without significant changes in 56 days, and the ultradeformable formulations were up to 324-fold more elastic than conventional liposomes. The interaction between 5FU and the liposomal membrane was studied by three methods, and also release profile was obtained. UDL-5FU did penetrate the stratum corneum of human skin. At in vitro experiments, the formulation was more toxic on a human melanoma-derived than on a human keratinocyte-derived cell line. Cells captured liposomes by metabolically active processes. In vivo toxicity experiments were carried out in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae by studying the swimming activity, morphological changes, and alterations in the heart rate after incubation. UDL-5FU was more toxic than free 5FU. Therefore, this nano-formulation could be useful for topical application in deep skin precancerous lesions with advantages over current treatments. This is the first work that assessed the induction of apoptosis, skin penetration in a Saarbrücken penetration model, and the toxicological effects in vivo of an ultradeformable 5FU-loaded formulation.

  9. Topical vesicular formulations of Curcuma longa extract on recuperating the ultraviolet radiation-damaged skin.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Chanchal Deep; Saraf, Swarnlata

    2011-12-01

      Ultraviolet radiations generate reactive oxygen species, leading to adverse effects on skin properties. Botanical extracts are multifunctional in nature having various properties like photoprotection, anti-aging, moisturizing, antioxidant, astringent, anti-irritant, and antimicrobial activity.   The aim of this study was to formulate creams having Curcuma longa extract loaded novel vesicular systems (liposomes, ethosomes, and transfersomes) and study their photoprotective effect by assessment of skin hydration (Cutometer) and sebum content (Sebumeter).   The alcoholic C. longa extract loaded liposomes, ethosomes, and transfersomes having 0.5-2.0% w/w extract were prepared, evaluated for size, entrapment efficiency, and incorporated into the cream. Their long-term interaction with skin (6 weeks) was compared in terms of their effects on skin hydration and sebum content.   Vesicular size obtained was in the range 167.3 ± 3.0 to 262.4 ± 2.4 nm with low polydispersity index (0.2-0.3) and high entrapment efficiency. The efficacy was in the order C. longa extract loaded transfersomal creams > C. longa extract loaded ethosomal creams > C. longa extract loaded liposomal creams > C. longa extract loaded creams > Empty transfersome loaded cream > Empty ethosome loaded cream > Empty liposome loaded cream > Base cream.   The photoprotective properties of the constituents of C. longa extract and hydrant, moisturizing lipid components of nano vesicles with better skin penetration resulted in improvement in skin properties like skin hydration and sebum content. The herbal extract loaded nano vesicles incorporated in cream could be used as photoprotective formulations. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Nanostructured lipid carriers-based flurbiprofen gel after topical administration: acute skin irritation, pharmacodynamics, and percutaneous absorption mechanism.

    PubMed

    Song, Aihua; Su, Zhen; Li, Sanming; Han, Fei

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess the preliminary safety and effectiveness of nanostructured lipid carriers-based flurbiprofen gel (FP NLC-gel), the acute irritation test, in vivo pharmacodynamics evaluation and pharmacokinetic study were investigated after topical application. No dropsy and erythema were observed after continuous dosing 7 d of FP NLC-gel on the rabbit skin, and the xylene-induced ear drossy could be inhibited by FP NLC-gel at different dosages. The maximum concentration of FP in rats muscle was 2.03 μg/g and 1.55 μg/g after oral and topical administration, respectively. While the peak concentration in untreated muscle after topical administration was only 0.37 μg/mL. And at any time, following topical administration the mean muscle-plasma concentration ratio Cmuscle/CPlasma was obviously higher than that following oral administration. Results indicated that FP could directly penetrate into the subcutaneous muscle tissue from the administration site. Thus, the developed FP NLC-gel could be a safe and effective vehicle for topical delivery of FP.

  11. Complex formation of sericoside with hydrophilic cyclodextrins: improvement of solubility and skin penetration in topical emulsion based formulations.

    PubMed

    Rode, T; Frauen, M; Müller, B W; Düsing, H J; Schönrock, U; Mundt, C; Wenck, H

    2003-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to devise novel methods for improving the solubility of the anti-inflammatory triterpenoid sericoside, the main component of Terminalia sericea extract, thus enabling its incorporation into topical formulations. Sericoside was stabilized by complex formation with hydrophilic derivatives of beta- and gamma-cyclodextrins in a molar ratio of 1.0:1.1. The complex of extract and cyclodextrin was equilibrated in water at 25 degrees C for approximately 24 h. The dehydrated complexes of T. sericea extract and cyclodextrin were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry analysis and X-ray diffraction. Complex formation with beta-cyclodextrin as well as gamma-cyclodextrin derivatives was detectable using these three analytical tools; however, only complexes with gamma-cyclodextrin derivatives showed stability upon storage after incorporation into topical o/w or w/o formulations. Furthermore, a T. sericea extract/gamma-cyclodextrin complex incorporated in an o/w formulation resulted in a 2.6-fold higher percutaneous penetration of sericoside in in vitro excised pig skin as compared to pure T. sericea extract. For the first time, the virtually insoluble anti-inflammatory active sericoside was incorporated into a topical emulsion based formulation in a stable manner, resulting in efficient skin penetration. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Science B.V.

  12. TOPICAL REVIEW: Climate change, ozone depletion and the impact on ultraviolet exposure of human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diffey, Brian

    2004-01-01

    For 30 years there has been concern that anthropogenic damage to the Earth's stratospheric ozone layer will lead to an increase of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation reaching the Earth's surface, with a consequent adverse impact on human health, especially to the skin. More recently, there has been an increased awareness of the interactions between ozone depletion and climate change (global warming), which could also impact on human exposure to terrestrial UV. The most serious effect of changing UV exposure of human skin is the potential rise in incidence of skin cancers. Risk estimates of this disease associated with ozone depletion suggest that an additional peak incidence of 5000 cases of skin cancer per year in the UK would occur around the mid-part of this century. Climate change, which is predicted to lead to an increased frequency of extreme temperature events and high summer temperatures, will become more frequent in the UK. This could impact on human UV exposure by encouraging people to spend more time in the sun. Whilst future social trends remain uncertain, it is likely that over this century behaviour associated with climate change, rather than ozone depletion, will be the largest determinant of sun exposure, and consequent impact on skin cancer, of the UK population.

  13. Topical application of nitrosonifedipine, a novel radical scavenger, ameliorates ischemic skin flap necrosis in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Fukunaga, Yutaka; Izawa-Ishizawa, Yuki; Horinouchi, Yuya; Sairyo, Eriko; Ikeda, Yasumasa; Ishizawa, Keisuke; Tsuchiya, Koichiro; Abe, Yoshiro; Hashimoto, Ichiro; Tamaki, Toshiaki

    2017-04-01

    Ischemic skin flap necrosis can occur in random pattern flaps. An excess amount of reactive oxygen species is generated and causes necrosis in the ischemic tissue. Nitrosonifedipine (NO-NIF) has been demonstrated to possess potent radical scavenging ability. However, there has been no study on the effects of NO-NIF on ischemic skin flap necrosis. Therefore, they evaluated the potential of NO-NIF in ameliorating ischemic skin flap necrosis in a mouse model. A random pattern skin flap (1.0 × 3.0 cm) was elevated on the dorsum of C57BL/6 mice. NO-NIF was administered by topical injection immediately after surgery and every 24 hours thereafter. Flap survival was evaluated on postoperative day 7. Tissue samples from the skin flaps were harvested on postoperative days 1 and 3 to analyze oxidative stress, apoptosis and endothelial dysfunction. The viable area of the flap in the NO-NIF group was significantly increased (78.30 ± 7.041%) compared with that of the control group (47.77 ± 6.549%, p < 0.01). NO-NIF reduced oxidative stress, apoptosis and endothelial dysfunction, which were evidenced by the decrease of malondialdehyde, p22phox protein expression, number of apoptotic cells, phosphorylated p38 MAPK protein expression, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 protein expression while endothelial nitric oxide synthase protein expression was increased. In conclusion, they demonstrated that NO-NIF ameliorated ischemic skin flap necrosis by reducing oxidative stress, apoptosis, and endothelial dysfunction. NO-NIF is considered to be a candidate for the treatment of ischemic flap necrosis. © 2017 by the Wound Healing Society.

  14. Skin penetration and kinetics of pristine fullerenes (C{sub 60}) topically exposed in industrial organic solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Xin R., E-mail: xia@ncsu.ed; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A.; Riviere, Jim E.

    2010-01-01

    Pristine fullerenes (C{sub 60}) in different solvents will be used in many industrial and pharmaceutical manufacturing and derivatizing processes. This report explores the impact of solvents on skin penetration of C{sub 60} from different types of industrial solvents (toluene, cyclohexane, chloroform and mineral oil). Yorkshire weanling pigs (n = 3) were topically dosed with 500 muL of 200 mug/mL C{sub 60} in a given solvent for 24 h and re-dosed daily for 4 days to simulate the worst scenario in occupational exposures. The dose sites were tape-stripped and skin biopsies were taken after 26 tape-strips for quantitative analysis. When dosedmore » in toluene, cyclohexane or chloroform, pristine fullerenes penetrated deeply into the stratum corneum, the primary barrier of skin. More C{sub 60} was detected in the stratum corneum when dosed in chloroform compared to toluene or cyclohexane. Fullerenes were not detected in the skin when dosed in mineral oil. This is the first direct evidence of solvent effects on the skin penetration of pristine fullerenes. The penetration of C{sub 60} into the stratum corneum was verified using isolated stratum corneum in vitro; the solvent effects on the stratum corneum absorption of C{sub 60} were consistent with those observed in vivo. In vitro flow-through diffusion cell experiments were conducted in pig skin and fullerenes were not detected in the receptor solutions by 24 h. The limit of detection was 0.001 mug/mL of fullerenes in 2 mL of the receptor solutions.« less

  15. Nanocarriers for optimizing the balance between interfollicular permeation and follicular uptake of topically applied clobetasol to minimize adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Mathes, C; Melero, A; Conrad, P; Vogt, T; Rigo, L; Selzer, D; Prado, W A; De Rossi, C; Garrigues, T M; Hansen, S; Guterres, S S; Pohlmann, A R; Beck, R C R; Lehr, C-M; Schaefer, U F

    2016-02-10

    The treatment of various hair disorders has become a central focus of good dermatologic patient care as it affects men and women all over the world. For many inflammatory-based scalp diseases, glucocorticoids are an essential part of treatment, even though they are known to cause systemic as well as local adverse effects when applied topically. Therefore, efficient targeting and avoidance of these side effects are of utmost importance. Optimizing the balance between drug release, interfollicular permeation, and follicular uptake may allow minimizing these adverse events and simultaneously improve drug delivery, given that one succeeds in targeting a sustained release formulation to the hair follicle. To test this hypothesis, three types of polymeric nanocarriers (nanospheres, nanocapsules, lipid-core nanocapsules) for the potent glucocorticoid clobetasol propionate (CP) were prepared. They all exhibited a sustained release of drug, as was desired. The particles were formulated as a dispersion and hydrogel and (partially) labeled with Rhodamin B for quantification purposes. Follicular uptake was investigated using the Differential Stripping method and was found highest for nanocapsules in dispersion after application of massage. Moreover, the active ingredient (CP) as well as the nanocarrier (Rhodamin B labeled polymer) recovered in the hair follicle were measured simultaneously, revealing an equivalent uptake of both. In contrast, only negligible amounts of CP could be detected in the hair follicle when applied as free drug in solution or hydrogel, regardless of any massage. Skin permeation experiments using heat-separated human epidermis mounted in Franz Diffusion cells revealed equivalent reduced transdermal permeability for all nanocarriers in comparison to application of the free drug. Combining these results, nanocapsules formulated as an aqueous dispersion and applied by massage appeare to be a good candidate to maximize follicular targeting and minimize drug

  16. Topical absorption and toxicity studies of jet fuel hydrocarbons in skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad, Faqir

    Kerosene-based fuels have been used for many decades. Over 2 million military and civilian personnel each year are occupationally exposed to various jet fuel mixtures. Dermatitis is one of the major health concerns associated with these exposures. In the past, separate absorption and toxicity studies have been conducted to find the etiology of such skin disorders. There was a need for integrated absorption and toxicity studies to define the causative constituents of jet fuel responsible for skin irritation. The focus of this thesis was to study the percutaneous absorption and to identify the hydrocarbons (HC) causing irritation in jet fuels so that preventive measures could be taken in the future. The initial study was conducted to understand the possible mechanism for additive interactions on hydrocarbon absorption/disposition in silastic, porcine skin and isolated perfused porcine skin flap (IPPSF) models. The influence of JP-8 (100) additives (MDA, BHT, 8Q405) on the dermal kinetics of 14C-naphthalene and 14C/3H-dodecane as markers of HC absorption was evaluated. This study indicated that individual and combination of additives influenced marker disposition in different membranes. MDA was a significant suppressor while BHT was a significant enhancer of naphthalene absorption in IPPSF. The 8Q405 significantly reduced naphthalene content in dosed silastic and skin indicating a direct interaction between additive and marker HC. Similarly, the individual MDA and BHT significantly retained naphthalene in the stratum corneum of porcine skin, but the combination of both of these additives statistically decreased the marker retention in the stratum corneum suggesting a potential biological interaction. This study concluded that all components of a chemical mixture should be assessed since the effects of single components administered alone or as pairs may be confounded when all are present in the complete mixture. However, this study indicated that the marker HC

  17. Calcitriol Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... ointment into the skin until no medication is visible. Do not cover the skin where you applied ... psoriasis that involves exposing the skin to ultraviolet [UV] light).tell your doctor if you are pregnant, ...

  18. Case histories of bald eagles and other raptors killed by organophosphorus insecticides topically applied to livestock

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Kolbe, E.J.; Hill, E.F.; Blus, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    Since 1982 when secondary poisoning of a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) was documented following the recommended use of famphur applied topically to cattle, the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center has tested dead birds of prey for poisoning by famphur and other pour-on organophosphorus (OP) insecticides. Brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity was first determined, then if ChE was depressed greater than or equal to 50%, stomach and/or crop contents were evaluated for anti-ChE compounds. This report presents the circumstances surrounding the OP-caused deaths of eight bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), two red-tailed hawks, and one great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) between March 1984 and March 1985. OP poisoning of raptors by pour-on insecticides in the United States is widespread, but its magnitude is unknown.

  19. Case histories of bald eagles and other raptors killed by organophosphorus insecticides topically applied to livestock.

    PubMed

    Henny, C J; Kolbe, E J; Hill, E F; Blus, L J

    1987-04-01

    Since 1982 when secondary poisoning of a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) was documented following the recommended use of famphur applied topically to cattle, the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center has tested dead birds of prey for poisoning by famphur and other pour-on organophosphorus (OP) insecticides. Brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity was first determined, then if ChE was depressed greater than or equal to 50%, stomach and/or crop contents were evaluated for anti-ChE compounds. This report presents the circumstances surrounding the OP-caused deaths of eight bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), two red-tailed hawks, and one great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) between March 1984 and March 1985. OP poisoning of raptors by pour-on insecticides in the United States is widespread, but its magnitude is unknown.

  20. Evaluation of a topical treatment for the relief of sensitive skin

    PubMed Central

    Heinicke, Ingrid R; Adams, Damian H; Barnes, Tanya M; Greive, Kerryn A

    2015-01-01

    Background Approximately, 50% of the population claim to have sensitive skin, which has created an important challenge for dermatologists and the cosmetic industry. This study evaluates the properties of QV Face Rescue Gel (Rescue Gel) that contains a combination of moisturizing and anti-irritant ingredients, and which is used to relieve the symptoms of sensitive facial skin. Methods The ability of Rescue Gel to induce collagen types I and III in cultured neonatal human foreskin fibroblasts compared to transforming growth factor beta 1, a known potent inducer of collagen types I and III, was measured using immunofluorescence staining. Furthermore, healthy volunteers were recruited to measure the potential for Rescue Gel to reduce erythema induced by solar-simulated ultraviolet radiation on the skin compared to 0.5% hydrocortisone cream (positive control) as well as it’s ability to decrease transepidermal water loss compared to baseline levels. In addition, the formulation was tested for its potential to be 1) nonstinging using a facial sting/discomfort assay performed on volunteers who reacted positively to lactic acid, 2) nonirritating as determined by repeat insult patch tests, and 3) noncomedogenic. Results Rescue Gel significantly induced collagen types I and III in cultured human foreskin fibroblasts similarly to transforming growth factor beta 1. In volunteers, Rescue Gel was shown to significantly reduce erythema induced by solar-simulated ultraviolet radiation similarly to 0.5% hydrocortisone, and to significantly reduce transepidermal water loss compared to baseline levels. Further, the formulation was found to be nonstinging, nonirritating, and noncomedogenic. No adverse events were observed. Conclusion In this study, Rescue Gel has been shown to exhibit properties that make it effective for use on sensitive or irritated facial skin, without exacerbation of the symptoms associated with sensitive skin. PMID:26251625

  1. Topical application of glycolic acid suppresses the UVB induced IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1 and COX-2 inflammation by modulating NF-κB signaling pathway in keratinocytes and mice skin.

    PubMed

    Tang, Sheau-Chung; Liao, Pei-Yun; Hung, Sung-Jen; Ge, Jheng-Siang; Chen, Shiou-Mei; Lai, Ji-Ching; Hsiao, Yu-Ping; Yang, Jen-Hung

    2017-06-01

    Glycolic acid (GA), commonly present in fruits, has been used to treat dermatological diseases. Extensive exposure to solar ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation plays a crucial role in the induction of skin inflammation. The development of photo prevention from natural materials represents an effective strategy for skin keratinocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the glycolic acid (GA)-induced reduction of UVB-mediated inflammatory responses. We determined the effects of different concentrations of GA on the inflammatory response of human keratinocytes HaCaT cells and C57BL/6J mice dorsal skin. After GA was topically applied, HaCaT and mice skin were exposed to UVB irradiation. GA reduced the production of UVB-induced nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)-dependent inflammatory mediators [interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, tumor necrosis factor-α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1)] at both mRNA and protein levels. GA inhibited the UVB-induced promoter activity of NF-κB in HaCaT cells. GA attenuated the elevation of senescence associated with β-galactosidase activity but did not affect the wound migration ability. The topical application of GA inhibited the genes expression of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, COX-2, and MCP-1 in UVB-exposed mouse skin. The mice to UVB irradiation after GA was topically applied for 9 consecutive days and reported that 1-1.5% of GA exerted anti-inflammatory effects on mouse skin. We clarified the molecular mechanism of GA protection against UVB-induced inflammation by modulating NF-κB signaling pathways and determined the optimal concentration of GA in mice skin exposed to UVB irradiation. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Acute treatment with kerosene damages the dermal barrier and alters the distribution of topically applied benzo(a)pyrene in mice.

    PubMed

    LaDow, Kathy; Schumann, Brenda L; Luse, Nicole; Warshawsky, Dave; Pickens, William L; Hoath, Steven B; Talaska, Glenn

    2011-12-01

    The dermal route is important in many occupational exposures. Some materials may reduce the barrier function of the skin to enhance absorption and effect on internal organs. We have reported previously that kerosene cleaning following treatment with used engine oil increased DNA adduct levels in the lungs of mice compared with animals treated with used oil alone. To investigate what other physiological parameters might be affected by kerosene, we conducted in vitro and in vivo measurements of skin barrier function. We also topically applied (3)H-BAP(100 nM in 25 μL acetone) and washed half the mice with 25 μL kerosene 1 hr after carcinogen application. Groups of four mice were euthanized from 1 to 72 hr after treatment. Skin, lungs, and livers were harvested from each animal and stored separately. Kerosene application reduced the barrier function of the skin in vitro beyond the effect of the acetone vehicle and the vehicle plus BAP. In vivo studies indicated that kerosene treatment reduced the barrier function at 4 and 8 hr post application and that the barrier function recovered at 24 hr after a single treatment. The fraction of the radiolabel remaining in the skin of animals treated with (3)H-BAP and washed with kerosene was significantly less than those not washed, beginning at 24 hr (p< 0.05). Fractional distribution to the lungs and livers of these animals became significantly elevated at this time. Kerosene treatment compromises dermal barrier function and the ability of the skin to retain water, enhances carcinogen absorption, and alters organ distribution. This appears to contribute to the increase in BAP DNA adducts we reported earlier.

  3. Topical Application of Liposomal Antioxidants for Protection Against CEES Induced Skin Damage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    The DSM Nutritional Products (www.dsm.com ) supplied us with 100 g quantities of mixed tocopherols (with a very high content of γ-tocopherol) for...Studies on the Yucatan mini-pig have demonstrated that laminin in the dermo-epithelial junction is a target for partial protease degradation following HD...therapies. J Burns Wounds. 2005;4:e1. 14. Lindsay CD, Rice P. Changes in connective tissue macromolecular components of Yucatan mini-pig skin

  4. Considerations for applying VARSKIN mod 2 to skin dose calculations averaged over 10 cm2.

    PubMed

    Durham, James S

    2004-02-01

    VARSKIN Mod 2 is a DOS-based computer program that calculates the dose to skin from beta and gamma contamination either directly on skin or on material in contact with skin. The default area for calculating the dose is 1 cm2. Recently, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued new guidelines for calculating shallow dose equivalent from skin contamination that requires the dose be averaged over 10 cm2. VARSKIN Mod 2 was not filly designed to calculate beta or gamma dose estimates averaged over 10 cm2, even though the program allows the user to calculate doses averaged over 10 cm2. This article explains why VARSKIN Mod 2 overestimates the beta dose when applied to 10 cm2 areas, describes a manual method for correcting the overestimate, and explains how to perform reasonable gamma dose calculations averaged over 10 cm2. The article also describes upgrades underway in Varskin 3.

  5. In vivo multiphoton imaging of human skin: assessment of topical corticosteroid-induced epidermis atrophy and depigmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ait El Madani, Hassan; Tancrède-Bohin, Emmanuelle; Bensussan, Armand; Colonna, Anne; Dupuy, Alain; Bagot, Martine; Pena, Ana-Maria

    2012-02-01

    Multiphoton microscopy has emerged in the past decade as a promising tool for noninvasive skin imaging. Our aim was to evaluate the potential of multiphoton microscopy to detect topical corticosteroids side effects within the epidermis and to provide new insights into their dynamics. Healthy volunteers were topically treated with clobetasol propionate on a small region of their forearms under overnight occlusion for three weeks. The treated region of each patient was investigated at D0, D7, D15, D22 (end of the treatment), and D60. Our study shows that multiphoton microscopy allows for the detection of corticoid-induced epidermis modifications: thinning of stratum corneum compactum and epidermis, decrease of keratinocytes size, and changes in their morphology from D7 to D22. We also show that multiphoton microscopy enables in vivo three-dimensional (3-D) quantitative assessment of melanin content. We observe that melanin density decreases during treatment and almost completely disappears at D22. Moreover, these alterations are reversible as they are no longer present at D60. Our study demonstrates that multiphoton microscopy is a convenient and powerful tool for noninvasive 3-D dynamical studies of skin integrity and pigmentation.

  6. Evaluation of the antioxidant capacity and preventive effects of a topical emulsion and its vehicle control on the skin response to UV exposure.

    PubMed

    Zhai, H; Behnam, S; Villarama, C D; Arens-Corell, M; Choi, M J; Maibach, H I

    2005-01-01

    Supplying topical exogenous antioxidants to the skin may prevent or minimize free radical-induced damaging. This study determines antioxidative capacity of a topical skin care emulsion (an oil-in-water vitamin E-containing formulation) versus its vehicle on human skin that was exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) by utilizing a photochemiluminescence device and biophysical methods. Ten healthy Caucasians (3 male and 7 female; mean age 47 +/- 10 years) were enrolled. In a randomized and double-blind manner, a pH-balanced vitamin E emulsion or its vehicle control was applied onto predesignated forearm prior to UVR exposure. Thirty minutes after application, these test sites were exposed to a UV light to induce the minimal erythema dose. One untreated site served as a blank control. Visual scoring and instrumental measurements were recorded at baseline and at 24 h and 48 h thereafter. At day 3, after completing instrumental measurements, each test site was stripped three times in a consecutive manner with a proprietary adhesive tape disc. These tapes were quantified for antioxidant capacity using a photochemiluminescence device. Vitamin E emulsion and vehicle control significantly (p < 0.05) suppressed visual scores when compared with blank control at day 2 and day 3 after UV exposure. However, vitamin E emulsion showed significantly (p < 0.05) lower visual scores when compared with vehicle control at day 2 and day 3 after UV exposure.Also,vitamin E emulsion and its vehicle control significantly (p < 0.05) diminished skin color measurement (a*) values when compared with blank control at day 2 and day 3 after UV exposure. At day 2 after UV exposure, only vitamin E emulsion significantly (p < 0.05) reduced skin blood flow volume when compared with blank control. Vitamin E emulsion and its vehicle control showed significant (p < 0.05) reduction of blood flow volume when compared with blank control at day 3 after UV exposure. Vitamin E emulsion and its vehicle control

  7. Optical coherence tomography applied to tests of skin care products in humans--a case study.

    PubMed

    Vasquez-Pinto, L M C; Maldonado, E P; Raele, M P; Amaral, M M; de Freitas, A Z

    2015-02-01

    When evaluating skin care products for human skin, quantitative test methods need to be simple, precise and reliable. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), provides high-resolution sectional images of translucent materials to a depth of a few millimeters, a technique usually applied to medical measurements in ophthalmology and dermatology. This study aimed to demonstrate the application of OCT as the main technique for monitoring changes in skin topography during tests of a wrinkle-reduction product in humans. We used a commercial OCT apparatus to perform clinical examinations of skin roughness in treated and non-treated sites in the periorbital region of thirty human voluntaries who were using an anti-aging product commercially available: Natura Chronos® Flavonóides de Passiflora 45+ FPS15, from Natura Cosméticos, Brazil. Measurements were performed days 0, 7, 14 and 28 of treatment. Equipment and software allowed real-time recording of skin roughness parameters and wrinkle depths. The OCT measurements have allowed the monitoring of changes in skin roughness, which have shown reduction in treated sites around 10%. The obtained depth distributions also indicate reduction in the occurrence of wrinkles deeper than 170 μm. The verified results are consistent with those typically obtained after successful treatment with modern anti-aging products. By using the OCT technique, it was possible to quantify changes in skin roughness and in the distribution of depths of skin wrinkles, with adequate sensitivity. OCT imaging allows the direct visualization of the skin topography with resolution of micrometers, a reliable and interactive tool for clinical use. Therefore, for the first time, we demonstrated the use of OCT technique to verify the efficacy of cosmetic products in real time. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The effects of topical sodium cromoglicate on itch and flare in human skin induced by intradermal histamine: a randomised double-blind vehicle controlled intra-subject design trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Itch is a prominent feature of many skin diseases, particularly atopic dermatitis and cutaneous mastocytosis. Sodium cromoglicate (SCG), a chromone developed for the treatment of allergic disease has been shown to reduce the severity of itch when applied topically to subjects with atopic dermatitis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether topical sodium cromoglicate can reduce the severity of itch induced by intradermal histamine. Methods SCG was introduced into the skin of healthy volunteers both by iontophoresis and by topical application using a new 4% cutaneous emulsion (Altoderm™). The skin was then challenged with intradermal histamine. Measurements were made of severity of itch, size of wheal and flare and change in blood flux Results SCG significantly reduced the severity of itch (P = 0.0045) and flare (P = 0.0143) when delivered by iontophoresis. SCG 4% cutaneous emulsion significantly reduced severity of itch (P = 0.024) and flare (P = 0.015) in atopic subjects. Trend analysis showed increasing effect on itch with increased concentrations of SCG, which was significant (P = 0.046). There were no effects on wheal or blood flux. Conclusions Topically applied SCG, administered in a new cutaneous emulsion base, significantly reduced the itch and flare caused by intradermal histamine. The effect was greatest in atopic subjects and increased with the concentration of SCG in the emulsion. Trial registration ISRCTN35671014 PMID:21385340

  9. Topical application of spent coffee ground extracts protects skin from ultraviolet B-induced photoaging in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyeon-Son; Park, Eu Ddeum; Park, Yooheon; Han, Sung Hee; Hong, Ki Bae; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2016-06-08

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of spent coffee ground (SCG) on ultraviolet (UV) B-induced photoaging in hairless mice. The oil fraction (OSCG) and ethanol extract (ESCG) of SCG were prepared from SCG. OSCG contained a much higher level of caffeine (547.32 ± 1.68 μg mg(-1)) when compared to the sum of its chlorogenic acid derivatives (∼119 μg mg(-1)), and pyrazines were the major aromatic compounds in OSCG. OSCG effectively inhibited the UVB-induced increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species in HaCaT cells. Topical application of OSCG or ESCG significantly reduced the UVB-induced wrinkle formation in mice dorsal skin. The combined application of OSCG and ESCG (OEH) led to a decrease in the wrinkle area by over 35% when compared with the UVB-treated control (UVBC). Epidermal thickness was also reduced by 40%. This result was connected to the significant reduction in transdermal water loss (27%) and erythema formation (48%) that result from UVB irradiation. Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) and antibody-based histological analyses showed that OSCG and ESCG effectively suppressed the UVB-induced decrease in collagen content. The level of type 1 collagen (COL1) in the OEH group was enhanced by around 40% compared with the UVB control group (UVBC). This was attributed to the down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP2, 9, and 13), which are known to be responsible for collagen destruction. Our results indicate that topical treatment with OSCG/ESCG protects mouse skin from UVB-induced photoaging by down-regulating MMPs; therefore, suggesting the potential of SCG extracts as a topical anti-photoaging agent.

  10. Topical clobetasol in conjunction with topical tretinoin is effective in preventing scar formation after superficial partial-thickness burn ulcers of the skin: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Taheri, Arash; Moradi Tuchayi, Sara; Alinia, Hossein; Orscheln, Courtney S; Mansoori, Parisa; Feldman, Steven R

    2015-01-01

    Deep erythema and inflammation after re-epithelialization of superficial wounds is a sign of scar formation. Corticosteroids may prevent scarring by suppression of inflammation and fibroblast activity. Tretinoin may increase the efficacy of corticosteroids in this setting. To evaluate the efficacy of corticosteroids plus tretinoin for prevention of scars after superficial wounds. In a retrospective study of patients with superficial partial thickness thermal skin burn, we compared the patients who received clobetasol plus tretinoin after re-epithelialization with patients who did not receive any medication. Clobetasol propionate 0.05% ointment was used twice daily with overnight occlusive dressing in conjunction with twice weekly topical tretinoin 0.05% cream. Among 43 patients who had light pink or no erythema after re-epithelialization and consequently did not receive clobetasol + tretinoin, no scar was developed. Among patients who had deep erythema after re-epithelialization, rate of scar formation was significantly higher in 14 patients who did not receive clobetasol + tretinoin than in 21 patients who received clobetasol + tretinoin (64% and 19%, respectively; p = 0.01). Clobetasol + tretinoin can significantly decrease the incidence of scar formation in patients with inflammation after re-epithelialization of superficial wounds.

  11. Luliconazole Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... the feet and between the toes), tinea cruris (jock itch; fungal infection of the skin in the ... cream to apply to the skin. To treat jock itch and ringworm, luliconazole is usually applied once ...

  12. Effective Skin Cancer Treatment by Topical Co-delivery of Curcumin and STAT3 siRNA Using Cationic Liposomes.

    PubMed

    Jose, Anup; Labala, Suman; Ninave, Kunal Manoj; Gade, Sudeep Kumar; Venuganti, Venkata Vamsi Krishna

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of iontophoretic co-delivery of curcumin and anti-STAT3 siRNA using cationic liposomes against skin cancer. Curcumin was encapsulated in DOTAP-based cationic liposomes and then complexed with STAT3 siRNA. This nanocomplex was characterized for the average particle size, zeta-potential, and encapsulation efficiency. The cell viability studies in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells have shown that the co-delivery of curcumin and STAT3 siRNA significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited the cancer cell growth compared with either liposomal curcumin or STAT3 siRNA alone. The curcumin-loaded liposomes were able to penetrate up to a depth of 160 μm inside the skin after iontophoretic (0.47 mA/cm 2 ) application. The in vivo efficacy studies were performed in the mouse model of melanoma skin cancer. Co-administration of the curcumin and STAT3 siRNA using liposomes significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited the tumor progression as measured by tumor volume and tumor weight compared with either liposomal curcumin or STAT3 siRNA alone. Furthermore, the iontophoretic administration of curcumin-loaded liposome-siRNA complex showed similar effectiveness in inhibiting tumor progression and STAT3 protein suppression compared with intratumoral administration. Taken together, cationic liposomes can be utilized for topical iontophoretic co-delivery of small molecule and siRNA for effective treatment of skin diseases.

  13. Ex vivo localization and permeation of cisplatin from novel topical formulations through excised pig, goat, and mice skin and in vitro characterization for effective management of skin-cited malignancies.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vandana; Trivedi, Piyush

    2015-01-01

    It would be advantageous to administer cisplatin topically for treatment of cutaneous malignancies. Present work focuses on ex vivo and in vitro characterization of proultraflexible topical formulations. Permeation of cisplatin through the excised pig, goat, and mice skin was quantitatively determined. Data indicate that protransfersome carbopol gel (pcg) formulation clearly delayed drug permeation through skin. Permeation of cisplatin from protransfersome system (ps) formulation was enhanced by approximately 1.5 fold compared with pcg for pig and goat skin. Localization of drug from pcg was higher and showed less permeation. Cisplatin-loaded pcg formulation is better to treat cutaneous malignancies.

  14. Quantitative precorneal disposition of topically applied pilocarpine nitrate in rabbit eyes.

    PubMed

    Patton, T F; Robinson, J R

    1976-09-01

    The present study was designed to quantitate the influence of several precorneal factors on the disposition of topically applied ophthalmic drugs. With tritiated pilocarpine nitrate methodology was developed for in vivo assessment of the relative contribution of tear turnover, instilled solution drainage, and nonproductive absorption to the loss of drug from the precorneal area. Studies were conducted in both awake and anesthetized rabbits whose drainage ducts were either unobstructed or plugged, and the loss of drug was monitored directly from the precorneal area or as appearance in the aqueous humor. By selective variation in experimental conditions, the influence of tear turnover, instilled solution drainage, and nonproductive absorption on ocular drug bioavailability was separately studied and quantitated. Instilled solution drainage was by far the largest contributing factor in the loss of drug from the precorneal area of the eye and, in the range of instilled volumes normally employed, tear turnover played a relatively minor role in drug loss. Compared to the cornea, precorneal tissue other than the cornea has a considerably greater surface area and thus is a potentially signifanct route for drug loss. However, under normal circumstances, loss by this route was minimal as compared to loss via instilled solution drainage.

  15. Should topical opioid analgesics be regarded as effective and safe when applied to chronic cutaneous lesions?

    PubMed

    Farley, Peter

    2011-06-01

    The induction of analgesia for many chronic cutaneous lesions requires treatment with an opioid analgesic. In many patients suffering with these wounds such drugs are either contraindicated or shunned because of their association with death. There are now case reports involving over 100 patients with many different types of chronic superficial wounds, which suggest that the topical application of an opioid in a suitable gel leads to a significant reduction in the level of perceived pain. Some work has been undertaken to elucidate the mechanisms by which such a reduction is achieved. To date there have been no proven deleterious effects of such an analgesic system upon wound healing. Although morphine is not absorbed through the intact epidermis, an open wound provides no such barrier and for large wounds drug absorption can be problematic. However, for most chronic cutaneous lesions, where data has been gathered, the blood levels of the drug applied ranges from undetectable to below that required for a systemic effect. If proven, the use of opioids in this way would provide adequate analgesia for a collection of wounds, which are difficult to treat in patients who are often vulnerable. Proof of this concept is now urgently required. © 2011 The Author. JPP © 2011 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  16. Skin permeation mechanism and bioavailability enhancement of celecoxib from transdermally applied nanoemulsion

    PubMed Central

    Shakeel, Faiyaz; Baboota, Sanjula; Ahuja, Alka; Ali, Javed; Shafiq, Sheikh

    2008-01-01

    Background Celecoxib, a selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitor has been recommended orally for the treatment of arthritis and osteoarthritis. Long term oral administration of celecoxib produces serious gastrointestinal side effects. It is a highly lipophilic, poorly soluble drug with oral bioavailability of around 40% (Capsule). Therefore the aim of the present investigation was to assess the skin permeation mechanism and bioavailability of celecoxib by transdermally applied nanoemulsion formulation. Optimized oil-in-water nanoemulsion of celecoxib was prepared by the aqueous phase titration method. Skin permeation mechanism of celecoxib from nanoemulsion was evaluated by FTIR spectral analysis, DSC thermogram, activation energy measurement and histopathological examination. The optimized nanoemulsion was subjected to pharmacokinetic (bioavailability) studies on Wistar male rats. Results FTIR spectra and DSC thermogram of skin treated with nanoemulsion indicated that permeation occurred due to the disruption of lipid bilayers by nanoemulsion. The significant decrease in activation energy (2.373 kcal/mol) for celecoxib permeation across rat skin indicated that the stratum corneum lipid bilayers were significantly disrupted (p < 0.05). Photomicrograph of skin sample showed the disruption of lipid bilayers as distinct voids and empty spaces were visible in the epidermal region. The absorption of celecoxib through transdermally applied nanoemulsion and nanoemulsion gel resulted in 3.30 and 2.97 fold increase in bioavailability as compared to oral capsule formulation. Conclusion Results of skin permeation mechanism and pharmacokinetic studies indicated that the nanoemulsions can be successfully used as potential vehicles for enhancement of skin permeation and bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. PMID:18613981

  17. Topical application of Acheflan on rat skin injury accelerates wound healing: a histopathological, immunohistochemical and biochemical study.

    PubMed

    Perini, Jamila Alessandra; Angeli-Gamba, Thais; Alessandra-Perini, Jessica; Ferreira, Luiz Claudio; Nasciutti, Luiz Eurico; Machado, Daniel Escorsim

    2015-06-30

    Dermal wound healing involves a cascade of complex events including angiogenesis and extracellular matrix remodeling. Several groups have focused in the study of the skin wound healing activity of natural products. The phytomedicine Acheflan®, and its main active constituent is the oil from Cordia verbenacea which has known anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antimicrobial activities. To our knowledge, no investigation has evaluated the effect of Acheflan® in an experimental model of skin wound healing. The present study has explored the wound healing property of Acheflan® and has compared it with topical effectiveness of collagenase and fibrinolysin by using Wistar rat cutaneous excision wound model. Animals were divided into four groups: untreated animals are negative control (NC), wounds were treated topically every day with Collagenase ointment (TC), with Fibrinolysin ointment (TF) and with cream Acheflan (TAc). Skin samples were collected on zero, 8th and 15th days after wounding. The healing was assessed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE), picrosirius red, hydoxyproline content and immunohistochemical analysis of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9). Statistical analysis was done by ANOVA and Student t-test (p < 0.05). The histological analysis HE of wound in the TAc group was more efficient because it was possible to observe the complete remodeling of the epidermis indicating the regression of lesions compared with the NC. The evaluation of picrosirius staining has demonstrated a significant increase of collagen distribution in the TC and TAc treatments compared with NC and TF groups. These results are corroborated with hydroxyproline content. Skin TC and TAc treated rats have showed an increase of VEGF and MMP-9 compared with NC and TF groups. All parameters were significant (P < 0.05). The phytomedicine Acheflan® (oil of Cordia verbenacea) and TC possess higher therapeutic properties for wound healing compared

  18. Efficacy of 65% permethrin applied as a topical spot-on against walking dandruff caused by the mite, Cheyletiella yasguri in dogs.

    PubMed

    Endris, R G; Reuter, V E; Nelson, J D; Nelson, J A

    2000-01-01

    The efficacy of a 65% permethrin topically applied spot-on formulation (Defend EXspot Topical Remedy for Dogs, Schering-Plough Animal Health, Union, NJ) was determined against the dog mite, Cheyletiella yasguri (Smiley, 1965). Female dogs and their litters comprised the experimental unit, and all dogs in an experimental unit were treated on the same day 4 to 6 weeks after whelping. Mites and mite eggs were counted weekly on an untreated control group of six litters (15 pups) and on a group of six litters (14 pups) treated with 65% permethrin. Pups in the untreated control group maintained high numbers of Cheyletiella yasguri throughout the 14- to 21-day observation period. No mites or mite eggs were detected on dogs within 7 to 21 days after application of 65% permethrin. No adverse reactions were noted during the study. Clinical signs of infestation with C. yasguri--which included skin irritation, thickening of the stratum corneum, scratching with resultant scabs, pruritus, and flaky, scaly skin-were eliminated when mites were killed by the 65% permethrin formulation.

  19. The in vitro use of the hair follicle closure technique to study the follicular and percutaneous permeation of topically applied drugs.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Jessica; Niedorf, Frank; Wohlert, Mareike; Kietzmann, Manfred

    2012-03-01

    Recent studies on follicular permeation emphasise the importance of hair follicles as diffusion pathways, but only a limited amount of data are available about the follicular permeation of topically applied drugs. This study examines the use of a hair follicle closure technique in vitro, to determine the participation of hair follicles in transdermal drug penetration. Various substances, with different lipophilicities, were tested: caffeine, diclofenac, flufenamic acid, ibuprofen, paracetamol, salicylic acid and testosterone. Diffusion experiments were conducted with porcine skin, the most common replacement material for human skin, in Franz-type diffusion cells over 28 hours. Different experimental settings allowed the differentiation between interfollicular and follicular permeation after topical application of the test compounds. A comparison of the apparent permeability coefficients of the drugs demonstrates that the percutaneous permeations of caffeine and flufenamic acid were significantly higher along the hair follicles. In the cases of paracetamol and testosterone, the follicular pathway appears to be of importance, while no difference was found between interfollicular and follicular permeation for diclofenac, ibuprofen and salicylic acid. Thus, the hair follicle closure technique represents an adequate in vitro method for gaining information about follicular or percutaneous permeation, and can replace in vivo testing in animals or humans. 2012 FRAME.

  20. Skin regeneration in deep second-degree scald injuries either by infusion pumping or topical application of recombinant human erythropoietin gel.

    PubMed

    Giri, Priya; Ebert, Sabine; Braumann, Ulf-Dietrich; Kremer, Mathias; Giri, Shibashish; Machens, Hans-Günther; Bader, Augustinus

    2015-01-01

    Large doses of recombinant growth factors formulated in solution form directly injected into the body is usual clinical practice in treating second-degree scald injuries, with promising results, but this approach creates side effects; furthermore, it may not allow appropriate levels of the factor to be sensed by the target injured tissue/organ in the specific time frame, owing to complications arising from regeneration. In this research, two delivery methods (infusion pumping and local topical application) were applied to deliver recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) for skin regeneration. First, rHuEPO was given in deep second-degree scald injury sites in mice by infusion pump. Vascularization was remarkably higher in the rHuEPO pumping group than in controls. Second, local topical application of rHuEPO gel was given in deep second-degree scald injury sites in rats. Histological analysis showed that epithelialization rate was significantly higher in the rHuEPO gel-treated group than in controls. Immunohistochemical studies showed that the rHuEPO gel-treated group showed remarkably higher expression of skin regeneration makers than the control group. An accurate method for visualization and quantification of blood vessel networks in target areas has still not been developed up to this point, because of technical difficulties in detecting such thin blood vessels. A method which utilizes a series of steps to enhance the image, removes noise from image background, and tracks the vessels edges for vessel segmentation and quantification has been used in this study. Using image analysis methods, we were able to detect the microvascular networks of newly formed blood vessels (less than 500 μm thickness), which participate in the healing process, providing not only nutrition and oxygen to grow tissues but also necessary growth factors to grow tissue cells for complete skin regeneration. The rHuEPO-treated group showed higher expression of stem cell markers (CD 31, CD

  1. Skin regeneration in deep second-degree scald injuries either by infusion pumping or topical application of recombinant human erythropoietin gel

    PubMed Central

    Giri, Priya; Ebert, Sabine; Braumann, Ulf-Dietrich; Kremer, Mathias; Giri, Shibashish; Machens, Hans-Günther; Bader, Augustinus

    2015-01-01

    Large doses of recombinant growth factors formulated in solution form directly injected into the body is usual clinical practice in treating second-degree scald injuries, with promising results, but this approach creates side effects; furthermore, it may not allow appropriate levels of the factor to be sensed by the target injured tissue/organ in the specific time frame, owing to complications arising from regeneration. In this research, two delivery methods (infusion pumping and local topical application) were applied to deliver recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) for skin regeneration. First, rHuEPO was given in deep second-degree scald injury sites in mice by infusion pump. Vascularization was remarkably higher in the rHuEPO pumping group than in controls. Second, local topical application of rHuEPO gel was given in deep second-degree scald injury sites in rats. Histological analysis showed that epithelialization rate was significantly higher in the rHuEPO gel-treated group than in controls. Immunohistochemical studies showed that the rHuEPO gel-treated group showed remarkably higher expression of skin regeneration makers than the control group. An accurate method for visualization and quantification of blood vessel networks in target areas has still not been developed up to this point, because of technical difficulties in detecting such thin blood vessels. A method which utilizes a series of steps to enhance the image, removes noise from image background, and tracks the vessels edges for vessel segmentation and quantification has been used in this study. Using image analysis methods, we were able to detect the microvascular networks of newly formed blood vessels (less than 500 μm thickness), which participate in the healing process, providing not only nutrition and oxygen to grow tissues but also necessary growth factors to grow tissue cells for complete skin regeneration. The rHuEPO-treated group showed higher expression of stem cell markers (CD 31, CD

  2. Impact of topical application of sulfur mustard on mice skin and distant organs DNA repair enzyme signature.

    PubMed

    Sauvaigo, Sylvie; Sarrazy, Fanny; Batal, Mohamed; Caillat, Sylvain; Pitiot, Benoit; Mouret, Stéphane; Cléry-Barraud, Cécile; Boudry, Isabelle; Douki, Thierry

    2016-01-22

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent that, upon topical application, damages skin and reaches internal organs through diffusion in blood. Two major toxic consequences of SM exposure are inflammation, associated with oxidative stress, and the formation of alkylated DNA bases. In the present study, we investigated the impact of exposure to SM on DNA repair, using two different functional DNA repair assays which provide information on several Base Excision Repair (BER) and Excision/Synthesis Repair (ESR) activities. BER activities were reduced in all organs as early as 4h after exposure, with the exception of the defense systems against 8-oxo-guanine and hypoxanthine which were stimulated. Interestingly, the resulting BER intermediates could activate inflammation signals, aggravating the inflammation triggered by SM exposure and leading to increased oxidative stress. ESR activities were found to be mostly inhibited in skin, brain and kidneys. In contrast, in the lung there was a general increase in ESR activities. In summary, exposure to SM leads to a significant decrease in DNA repair in most organs, concomitant with the formation of DNA damage. These synergistic genotoxic effects are likely to participate in the high toxicity of this alkylating agent. Lungs, possibly better equipped with repair enzymes to handle exogenous exposure, are the exception. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantifying the visual appearance of sunscreens applied to the skin using indirect computer image colorimetry.

    PubMed

    Richer, Vincent; Kharazmi, Pegah; Lee, Tim K; Kalia, Sunil; Lui, Harvey

    2018-03-01

    There is no accepted method to objectively assess the visual appearance of sunscreens on the skin. We present a method for sunscreen application, digital photography, and computer analysis to quantify the appearance of the skin after sunscreen application. Four sunscreen lotions were applied randomly at densities of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mg/cm 2 to areas of the back of 29 subjects. Each application site had a matched contralateral control area. High-resolution standardized photographs including a color card were taken after sunscreen application. After color balance correction, CIE L*a*b* color values were extracted from paired sites. Differences in skin appearance attributed to sunscreen were represented by ΔE, which in turn was calculated from the linear Euclidean distance within the L*a*b* color space between the paired sites. Sunscreen visibility as measured by median ΔE varied across different products and application densities and ranged between 1.2 and 12.1. The visibility of sunscreens varied according to product SPF, composition (organic vs inorganic), presence of tint, and baseline b* of skin (P < .05 for all). Standardized sunscreen application followed by digital photography and indirect computer-based colorimetry represents a potential method to objectively quantify visibility of sunscreen on the skin. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The Efficacy and Safety of Topical Dapsone Gel, 5% for the Treatment of Acne Vulgaris in Adult Females With Skin of Color.

    PubMed

    Alexis, Andrew F; Burgess, Cheryl; Callender, Valerie D; Herzog, Jo L; Roberts, Wendy E; Schweiger, Eric S; Stockton, Toni C; Gallagher, Conor J

    2016-02-01

    Topical dapsone gel, 5% is approved for treatment of acne vulgaris but has not been studied specifically in women with skin of color (SOC; Fitzpatrick skin types IV, V, or VI). Evaluate safety and efficacy of dapsone gel, 5% applied topically twice daily for 12 weeks in women with SOC. Females with SOC aged 18 years and older with facial acne participated in a multicenter, open-label, single-group, 12-week pilot study of twice-daily monotherapy with dapsone gel, 5%. The investigator-rated 5-point Global Acne Assessment Score (GAAS) was used to assess efficacy. The impact of acne on subjects was assessed using the validated Acne Symptom and Impact Scale (ASIS). The study enrolled and treated 68 women with SOC and facial acne. GAAS decreased significantly from baseline to week 12 (mean, -1.2 [95% CI, -1.4, -1.0]; P<.001), a 39.0% improvement. Overall, 42.9% of subjects were responders based on a GAAS of 0 or 1 at week 12. Subjects also experienced significant reductions in mean total lesions (52% decrease), inflammatory lesions (65%), and comedo counts (41%; all P<.001). Dapsone gel, 5% monotherapy was associated with significant improvement in subject-assessed acne signs (P<.001) and impact on quality of life (QOL; P<.001), based on ASIS. Dapsone gel, 5% used twice daily was well tolerated, with no treatment-related adverse events. The local dermal tolerability scores tended to remain stable or decrease from baseline to week 12. Monotherapy with dapsone gel, 5% administered twice daily was safe and effective for treatment of facial acne in women with SOC. Significant improvement in overall acne severity and both inflammatory lesions and comedones was observed. Further, study subjects reported considerable improvement in both acne signs and impact on QOL.

  5. Contact toxicity of 17 insecticides applied topically to adult bark beetles

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Lyon

    1971-01-01

    Thirteen insecticides were tested against Ips paraconfusus Lanier, and six against the western pine beetle (Dendroctonus brevicomis Lec.). The ranking of toxicity at LD90 by topical application to I. paraconfusus was: SD 3450 > endosulfan > malathion > lindane > phorate >...

  6. A new, objective, quantitative scale for measuring local skin responses following topical actinic keratosis therapy with ingenol mebutate.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Robert; Marmur, Ellen; Anderson, Lawrence; Welburn, Peter; Katsamas, Janelle

    2014-12-01

    Local skin responses (LSRs) are the most common adverse effects of topical actinic keratosis (AK) therapy. There is currently no method available that allows objective characterization of LSRs. Here, the authors describe a new scale developed to quantitatively and objectively assess the six most common LSRs resulting from topical AK therapy with ingenol mebutate. The LSR grading scale was developed using a 0-4 numerical rating, with clinical descriptors and representative photographic images for each rating. Good inter-observer grading concordance was demonstrated in peer review during development of the tool. Data on the use of the scale are described from four phase III double-blind studies of ingenol mebutate (n = 1,005). LSRs peaked on days 4 (face/scalp) or 8 (trunk/extremities), with mean maximum composite LSR scores of 9.1 and 6.8, respectively, and a rapid return toward baseline by day 15 in most cases. Mean composite LSR score at day 57 was generally lower than at baseline. The LSR grading scale is an objective tool allowing practicing dermatologists to characterize and compare LSRs to existing and, potentially, future AK therapies.

  7. Optical microscopy of targeted drug delivery and local distribution in skin of a topical minocycline: implications in translational research and guidance for therapeutic dose selection (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermsmeier, Maiko; Sawant, Tanvee; Lac, Diana; Yamamoto, Akira; Chen, Xin; Huang, Susan Y.; Nagavarapu, Usha; Evans, Conor L.; Chan, Kin Foong; Daniels, AnnaMarie

    2017-02-01

    Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory skin condition commonly resulting in negative aesthetic and social impacts on those affected. Minocycline, currently available as an oral antibiotic for moderate to severe acne, has a known minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for the acne-causing bacterium Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) in vitro, with its anti-inflammatory properties also eliciting inhibitory effects on pro-inflammatory molecules. A novel topical gel composition containing solubilized minocycline (BPX-01) has been developed to directly deliver the drug to the skin. Because minocycline is a known fluorophore, fluorescence microscopy and concurrent quantitative measurements were performed on excised human facial skin dosed with different concentrations, in order to determine the spatial distribution of the drug and quantification of its local concentration in the epidermis and the pilosebaceous unit where P. acnes generally reside. Local minocycline delivery confirmed achievement of an adequate therapeutic dose to support clinical studies. Subsequently, a 4-week double-blind, randomized, vehicle controlled clinical study was performed to assess the safety and efficacy of 1% minocycline BPX-01 applied daily. No instances of cutaneous toxicity were reported, and a greater than 1 log reduction of P. acnes count was observed at week 4 with statistical significance from baseline and vehicle control. In addition, no detectable amounts of minocycline in the plasma were reported, suggesting the potential of this new formulation to diminish the known systemic adverse effects associated with oral minocycline. Follow-on clinical plans are underway to further establish the safety of BPX-01 and to evaluate its efficacy against inflammatory acne lesions in a 225 patient multi-center dose-finding study.

  8. Topical effects of frog "Rana ridibunda" skin secretions on wound healing and reduction of wound microbial load.

    PubMed

    Mashreghi, Mohammad; Rezazade Bazaz, Mahere; Mahdavi Shahri, Nasser; Asoodeh, Ahmad; Mashreghi, Mansour; Behnam Rassouli, Morteza; Golmohammadzadeh, Shiva

    2013-02-13

    Study of the interrelationships between human and the animals in their environment has always been a subject of interest and caused discoveries of the animal applications in medicine. From the latest century, these remedies called back in traditional medicine of Vietnam and South America and frog skin was used as a biological dressing and had good effects in healing wounds. Also, frog skin secretions have wound healing properties and reduce inflammation. In this study we applied these secretions in the form of ointment to investigate their healing activities. Skin secretions were extracted from Rana ridibunda to evaluate their effects on wound healing in mice. Secretion used as raw extract (RE) and ultrafiltrated extract, using a membrane with cutoff 10kDa as under 10kDa (U10E), was administrated as ointment every 48h on wound site. Control group was left without any treatment and also there was other group treated with ointment (O group) alone. On 2, 4 and 6 days post injury, animals were euthanized and images were taken for wound closure evaluation. Then wound locations were removed for histological assays. Also wound microbial load was examined. Observational parameters including wound closure and wound microbiology in experimental groups compared with the control and O groups have been studied. The results showed U10E group has better effects than RE, O and control groups. Histological parameters, including numbers of inflammatory and fibroblast cells and amount of collagen fibers, neovascularization, as well, represented greater degree of wound healing in U10E group compared with RE, O, and control groups. Our results showed that frog skin secretions were significantly effective in promoting wound healing process. The U10E extract from the frog R. ridibunda possesses a potent accelerating wound healing effect that promises good potential for clinical application in wound care. Further studies will be required to characterize special molecules encompassing

  9. Skin permeability and local tissue concentrations of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs after topical application.

    PubMed

    Singh, P; Roberts, M S

    1994-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are being administered increasingly by transdermal drug delivery for the treatment of local muscle inflammation. The human epidermal permeabilities of different NSAIDs (salicylic acid, diethylamine salicylate, indomethacin, naproxen, diclofenac and piroxicam) from aqueous solutions is dependent on the drug's lipophilicity. A parabolic relationship was observed when the logarithms of NSAID permeability coefficients were plotted against the logarithms of NSAID octanol-water partition coefficients (log P), the optimum log P being around 3. The local tissue concentrations of these drugs after dermal application in aqueous solutions were then determined in a rat model. The extent of local, as distinct from systemic delivery, for each NSAID was assessed by comparing the tissue concentrations obtained below a treated site to those in contralateral tissues. Local direct penetration was evident for all NSAIDs up to a depth of about 3 to 4 mm below the applied site, with distribution to deeper tissues being mainly through the systemic blood supply. A comparison of the predicted tissue concentrations of each NSAID after its application to human epidermis was then made by a convolution of the epidermal and underlying tissue concentration-time profiles. The estimated tissue concentrations after epidermal application of NSAIDs could be related to their maximal fluxes across epidermis from an applied vehicle.

  10. Clinical outcomes and response of patients applying topical therapy for pyoderma gangrenosum: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Kim S; Ormerod, Anthony D; Craig, Fiona E; Greenlaw, Nicola; Norrie, John; Mitchell, Eleanor; Mason, James M; Johnston, Graham A; Wahie, Shyamal; Williams, Hywel C

    2016-11-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is an uncommon dermatosis with a limited evidence base for treatment. We sought to estimate the effectiveness of topical therapies in the treatment of patients with PG. This was a prospective cohort study of UK secondary care patients with a clinical diagnosis of PG that was suitable for topical treatment (recruited between July 2009 and June 2012). Participants received topical therapy after normal clinical practice (primarily topical corticosteroids [classes I-III] and tacrolimus 0.03% or 0.1%). The primary outcome was speed of healing at 6 weeks. Secondary outcomes included the following: proportion healed by 6 months; time to healing; global assessment; inflammation; pain; quality of life; treatment failure; and recurrence. Sixty-six patients (22-85 years of age) were enrolled. Clobetasol propionate 0.05% was the most commonly prescribed therapy. Overall, 28 of 66 (43.8%) ulcers healed by 6 months. The median time to healing was 145 days (95% confidence interval, 96 days to ∞). Initial ulcer size was a significant predictor of time to healing (hazard ratio, 0.94 [95% confidence interval, 0.88-1.00); P = .043). Four patients (15%) had a recurrence. Our study did not include a randomized comparator. Topical therapy is potentially an effective first-line treatment for PG that avoids the possible side effects associated with systemic therapy. It remains unclear whether more severe disease will respond adequately to topical therapy alone. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Topically applied 1% voriconazole induces dysplastic changes on the ocular surface: animal study.

    PubMed

    Arikan, Gul; Karatas, Ezgi; Lebe, Banu; Ayhan, Ziya; Utine, Canan Asli; Kutsoylu, Oya Eren; Gunenc, Uzeyir; Yilmaz, Osman

    2018-04-26

    To identify the risk of inducing ocular surface dysplasia following topical administration of 1% voriconazole eye drop. Fourteen noninflamed healthy eyes of 14 white adult New Zealand rabbits were included in the study. The rabbits were randomly divided into two groups comprised of 7 rabbits each. Group 1 received topical 1% voriconazole and Group 2 received topical saline as the control group. In all animals, right eye was selected for the study. In Group 1 (Voriconazole Group), single drop of voriconazole was instilled every 10 min consecutively for 17 times a day for 60 days. In Group 2 (Control Group), single drop of saline was instilled every 10 min consecutively for 17 times a day for 60 days. At two months, animals were sacrificed and study eyes were enucleated with the eyelids. The specimens were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and histopathologic changes in cornea, bulbar and palpebral conjunctiva were evaluated under light microscope. There were no macroscopically visible lesions on the ocular surface of any rabbits. Histopathological evaluation showed mild to moderate dysplasia localized mainly in the limbus and extending to the adjacent cornea and bulbar conjunctiva in all rabbits in Voriconazole Group. Severe dysplasia or carcinoma in situ was not observed. In the Control Group, dysplasia was not observed, at all. This animal study provides a possible relationship between topically administered 1% voriconazole and ocular surface dysplasia. We recommend ophthalmologists to be aware of the risk of ocular surface dysplasia in patients received voriconazole eye drop.

  12. Choline- versus imidazole-based ionic liquids as functional ingredients in topical delivery systems: cytotoxicity, solubility, and skin permeation studies.

    PubMed

    Santos de Almeida, Tânia; Júlio, Ana; Saraiva, Nuno; Fernandes, Ana Sofia; Araújo, Maria Eduarda M; Baby, André Rolim; Rosado, Catarina; Mota, Joana Portugal

    2017-11-01

    Poor drug solubility represents a problem for the development of topical formulations. Since ionic liquids (ILs) can be placed in either lipophilic or hydrophilic solutions, they may be advantageous vehicles in such delivery systems. Nonetheless, it is vital to determine their usefulness when used at concentrations were cell viability is maintained, which was considered herein. Five different ILs were prepared-three imidazole-based ILs: [C2mim][Br], [C4mim][Br], and [C6mim][Br]; and two choline-based ILs: [Cho][Phe] and [Cho][Glu]. Their cytotoxicity in human keratinocytes (HaCat cells), their influence in drug solubility and in percutaneous permeation, using pig skin membranes, was evaluated. Caffeine and salicylic acid were used as model actives. Choline-based ILs proved to be more suitable as functional ingredients, since they showed higher impact on drug solubility and a lower cytotoxicity. The major solubility enhancement was observed for caffeine and further solubility studies were carried out with this active in several concentrations of the choline-based ILs (0.1; 0.2; 0.5; 1.0; 3.0 and 5.0%, w/w) at 25 °C and 32 °C. Solubility was greatly influenced by concentrations up to 0.5%. The choline-based ILs showed no significant impact on the skin permeation, for both actives. The size of the imidazole-based ILs alkyl chain enhances the caffeine solubility and permeation, but also the ILs cytotoxicity. Stable O/W emulsions and gels were prepared containing the less toxic choline-based ILs and caffeine. Our results indicate that the choline-based ILs were effective functional ingredients, since, when used at nontoxic concentrations, they allowed a higher drug loading, while maintaining the stability of the formulations.

  13. Effects of Locally Applied Glycerol and Xylitol on the Hydration, Barrier Function and Morphological Parameters of the Skin.

    PubMed

    Korponyai, Csilla; Szél, Edit; Behány, Zoltán; Varga, Erika; Mohos, Gábor; Dura, Ágnes; Dikstein, Shabtay; Kemény, Lajos; Erős, Gábor

    2017-02-08

    Glycerol and xylitol hydrate the skin and improve its barrier function over a short period. We studied the effects of glycerol and xylitol on the physiological properties and morphology of the skin after longer-term application. Twelve volunteers with dry skin were examined. Three areas on the arms were determined. Area 1 served as untreated control. The vehicle was applied to area 2, while area 3 was treated twice daily with a formulation containing glycerol (5%) and xylitol (5%) for 14 days. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), hydration and biomechanical properties of the skin were monitored. Biopsies were taken for routine histology and immunohistochemistry for filaggrin and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1). The polyols increased the skin hydration and protein quantity of filaggrin, elevated the interdigitation index, decreased the TEWL and improved the biomechanical properties of the skin, but did not change the protein expression of MMP-1. A combination of glycerol and xylitol can be useful additional therapy for dry skin.

  14. Antioxidant-based topical formulations influence on the inflammatory response of Japanese skin: A clinical study using non-invasive techniques.

    PubMed

    Wagemaker, Tais A L; Maia Campos, Patrícia M B G; Shimizu, Kenji; Kyotani, Daiki; Yoshida, Daisuke

    2017-08-01

    Cutaneous irritants exposure induces an excess of ROS in the skin and can ensue an inflammatory response. Topical antioxidant-based formulations can help to counteract ROS generation. This study evaluated the influence of antioxidant-based topical formulations on the inflammatory response of skin, using a combination of in vivo real-time non-invasive techniques. Nine test areas were defined on each volar forearm of the 25 Japanese volunteers. Measurements were performed before and after treatment with 15μL of a 5% sodium dodecyl sulfate solution and 15μL of the same based formulation or the vehicle with 1% of the antioxidants. Volunteers without antioxidant treatment showed more pronounced erythematous areas. Transepidermal water loss of areas treated with green tea polyphenol (GTP)-based formulation showed fully recovered skin. Skin barrier damage caused by repeated applications of SDS showed characteristic alterations, detectable by in vivo confocal microscopy such as desquamation, spongiosis and inflammatory infiltrates. The majority of confocal microscopy inflammation signs were found in skin without treatment followed by the vehicle. Ascorbyl tetraisopalmitate, Coenzyme Q 10 , GTP- and Resveratrol-based formulations reduced the anti-inflammatory cytokines release and attenuated inflammatory signs. The combination of techniques provides results that highlight the importance of antioxidant-based formulations for rapid skin recovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Topical or oral treatment of peach flower extract attenuates UV-induced epidermal thickening, matrix metalloproteinase-13 expression and pro-inflammatory cytokine production in hairless mice skin

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jiwon; Shin, Chang-Yup; Chung, Jin Ho

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Ultraviolet radiation (UV) is a major cause of skin photoaging. Previous studies reported that ethanol extract (PET) of Prunus persica (L.) Batsch flowers (PPF, peach flowers) and its subfractions, particularly the ethylacetate (PEA) and n-butanol extracts (PBT), have potent antioxidant activity and attenuate the UV-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression in human skin cells. In this study, we investigated the protective activity of PPF extract against UV-induced photoaging in a mouse model. MATERIALS/METHODS Hairless mice were treated with PET or a mixture of PEA and PBT either topically or orally along with UV irradiation. Histological changes and biochemical alterations of mouse skin were examined. Major phenolic compounds in PPF extract were analyzed using an ACQUITY UPLC system. RESULTS The overall effects of topical and oral treatments with PPF extract on the UV-induced skin responses exhibited similar patterns. In both experiments, the mixture of PEA and PBT significantly inhibited the UV-induced skin and epidermal thickening, while PET inhibited only the UV-induced epidermal thickening. Treatment of PET or the mixture of PEA and PBT significantly inhibited the UV-induced MMP-13 expression, but not typeⅠ collagen expression. Topical treatment of the mixture of PEA and PBT with UV irradiation significantly elevated catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-peroxidase (GPx) activities in the skin compared to those in the UV irradiated control group, while oral treatment of the mixture of PEA and PBT or PET elevated only catalase and SOD activities, but not GPx. Thirteen phytochemical compounds including 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid, cimicifugic acid E and B, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside and kaempferol glycoside derivatives were identified in the PPF extract. CONCLUSIONS These results demonstrate that treatment with PET or the mixture of PEA and PBT, both topically or orally, attenuates UV-induced photoaging via the

  16. Clindamycin Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... gel, a solution (liquid), a lotion, and a pledget (swab) to apply to the skin. The foam ... usually applied once a day. The solution, lotion, pledgets, and most brands of gel are applied twice ...

  17. Severe hyperkalemia as a complication of timolol, a topically applied beta-adrenergic antagonist

    SciTech Connect

    Swenson, E.R.

    1986-06-01

    Severe hyperkalemia occurred in a patient with radiation pneumonitis and glaucoma shortly after beginning prednisone therapy. There was no evidence of renal failure, diabetes, acidosis, increased potassium intake, or significant tissue trauma. Medications having adverse effects on potassium metabolism were considered, and the patient's use of timolol maleate eyedrops was discontinued. His serum potassium level normalized despite continuation of the prednisone therapy. He became hyperkalemic on rechallenge with timolol and normokalemic following its withdrawal. This case indicates that the potential for beta-blocker-induced hyperkalemia exists even with topical appreciation.

  18. Effect of topically applied Saccharomyces boulardii on the healing of acute porcine wounds: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Partlow, Jessica; Blikslager, Anthony; Matthews, Charles; Law, Mac; Daniels, Joshua; Baker, Rose; Labens, Raphael

    2016-04-11

    Normal wound healing progresses through a series of interdependent physiological events: inflammation, angiogenesis, re-epithelialization, granulation tissue formation and extracellular matrix remodeling. Alterations in this process as well as the bacterial type and load on a wound may alter the wound healing rate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of topical Saccharomyces boulardii on the healing of acute cutaneous wounds, using a prospective, controlled, experimental study, with six purpose bred landrace pigs. All wounds healed without apparent complications. Comparison of the mean 3D and 2D wound surface area measurements showed no significant difference between treatment groups as wounds decreased similarly in size over the duration of the study. A significant reduction in wound surface area was identified sooner using 3D assessments (by day 9) compared to 2D assessments (by day 12) (P < 0.001). There was no significant effect of treatment group on the number of multiple isolates or the most common isolates obtained relative to control wounds. There was no histologically appreciable difference between the wounds of the different groups. Topical application of Saccharomyces boulardii does not hasten wound healing or change the wounds' microbiome under the conditions reported in this study.

  19. Design and optimization of topical methotrexate loaded niosomes for enhanced management of psoriasis: application of Box-Behnken design, in-vitro evaluation and in-vivo skin deposition study.

    PubMed

    Abdelbary, Aly A; AbouGhaly, Mohamed H H

    2015-05-15

    Psoriasis, a skin disorder characterized by impaired epidermal differentiation, is regularly treated by systemic methotrexate (MTX), an effective cytotoxic drug but with numerous side effects. The aim of this work was to design topical MTX loaded niosomes for management of psoriasis to avoid systemic toxicity. To achieve this goal, MTX niosomes were prepared by thin film hydration technique. A Box-Behnken (BB) design, using Design-Expert(®) software, was employed to statistically optimize formulation variables. Three independent variables were evaluated: MTX concentration in hydration medium (X1), total weight of niosomal components (X2) and surfactant: cholesterol ratio (X3). The encapsulation efficiency percent (Y1: EE%) and particle size (Y2: PS) were selected as dependent variables. The optimal formulation (F12) displayed spherical morphology under transmission electron microscopy (TEM), optimum particle size of 1375.00 nm and high EE% of 78.66%. In-vivo skin deposition study showed that the highest value of percentage drug deposited (22.45%) and AUC0-10 (1.15 mg.h/cm(2)) of MTX from niosomes were significantly greater than that of drug solution (13.87% and 0.49 mg.h/cm(2), respectively). Moreover, in-vivo histopathological studies confirmed safety of topically applied niosomes. Concisely, the results showed that targeted MTX delivery might be achieved using topically applied niosomes for enhanced treatment of psoriasis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Topical Application of Trisodium Ascorbyl 6-Palmitate 2-Phosphate Actively Supplies Ascorbate to Skin Cells in an Ascorbate Transporter-Independent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Shibuya, Shuichi; Sakaguchi, Ikuyo; Ito, Shintaro; Kato, Eiko; Watanabe, Kenji; Izuo, Naotaka; Shimizu, Takahiko

    2017-01-01

    Ascorbic acid (AA) possesses multiple beneficial functions, such as regulating collagen biosynthesis and redox balance in the skin. AA derivatives have been developed to overcome this compound’s high fragility and to assist with AA supplementation to the skin. However, how AA derivatives are transferred into cells and converted to AA in the skin remains unclear. In the present study, we showed that AA treatment failed to increase the cellular AA level in the presence of AA transporter inhibitors, indicating an AA transporter-dependent action. In contrast, torisodium ascorbyl 6-palmitate 2-phosphate (APPS) treatment significantly enhanced the cellular AA level in skin cells despite the presence of inhibitors. In ex vivo experiments, APPS treatment also increased the AA content in a human epidermis model. Interestingly, APPS was readily metabolized and converted to AA in keratinocyte lysates via an intrinsic mechanism. Furthermore, APPS markedly repressed the intracellular superoxide generation and promoted viability associated with an enhanced AA level in Sod1-deficient skin cells. These findings indicate that APPS effectively restores the AA level and normalizes the redox balance in skin cells in an AA transporter-independent manner. Topical treatment of APPS is a beneficial strategy for supplying AA and improving the physiology of damaged skin. PMID:28640219

  1. An experimental double-blind irradiation study of a novel topical product (TPF 50) compared to other topical products with DNA repair enzymes, antioxidants, and growth factors with sunscreens: implications for preventing skin aging and cancer.

    PubMed

    Emanuele, Enzo; Spencer, James M; Braun, Martin

    2014-03-01

    The exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is a major risk factor for skin aging and the development of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Although traditional sunscreens remain the mainstay for the prevention of UVR-induced skin damage, they cannot ensure a complete protection against the whole spectrum of molecular lesions associated with UVR exposure. The formation of helix-distorting photoproducts such as cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD), as well as oxidative damage to DNA bases, including the formation of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG) are among the key DNA lesions associated with photoaging and tumorigenesis. Besides DNA lesions, UVR-induced formation of free radicals can result in protein carbonylation (PC), a major form of irreversible protein damage that inactivates their biological function. This study compares a complex novel topical product (TPF50) consisting of three actives, ie, 1) traditional physical sunscreens (SPF 50), 2) a liposome-encapsulated DNA repair enzymes complex (photolyase, endonuclease, and 8-oxoguanine glycosylase [OGG1]), and 3) a potent antioxidant complex (carnosine, arazine, ergothionine) to existing products. Specifically, we assessed the ability of TFP50 vs those of DNA repair and antioxidant and growth factor topical products used with SPF 50 sunscreens in preventing CPD, 8OHdG, and PC formation in human skin biopsies after experimental irradiations. In head-to-head comparison studies, TPF50 showed the best efficacy in reducing all of the three molecular markers. The results indicated that the three TPF50 components had a synergistic effect in reducing CPD and PC, but not 8OHdG. Taken together, our results indicate that TPF50 improves the genomic and proteomic integrity of skin cells after repeated exposure to UVR, ultimately reducing the risk of skin aging and NMSC.

  2. Collagen concentration on the facial skin of postmenopausal women after topical treatment with estradiol and genistein: a randomized double-blind controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Silva, Lidia Aragão; Ferraz Carbonel, Adriana Aparecida; de Moraes, Andréa Regina Barbosa; Simões, Ricardo S; Sasso, Gisela Rodrigues da Silva; Goes, Lívia; Nunes, Winnie; Simões, Manuel Jesus; Patriarca, Marisa Teresinha

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the effects of topical estrogen and genistein (a soy isoflavone) on the facial skin collagen of postmenopausal women not undergoing systemic hormonal therapy. This is a prospective, double blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Volunteer women (N = 30) 45-55 year old from the Endocrine Gynecology sector of the Gynecology Department of the Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP). The Ethical Committee of the Federal University of São Paulo approved the study (report no. 386/2004; registration on ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01553773), were assigned to topical treatment with either estrogen or genistein for 24 weeks. We quantified and compared facial collagen concentration before and after each treatment by performing pre-auricular skin biopsies. Our data showed an increase in the amount of both type I and type III facial collagen by the end of both treatments. However, the outcomes of the estrogen GI (ER) group were superior to the genistein GII (GEN) group, with statistical significance p < 000.1 Conclusion: Treatment with topical estrogen is superior to genistein, but both have positive impacts on facial skin collagen. Nevertheless, it is still unclear whether prolonged use of genistein and other topical phytoestrogens could produce systemic effects and further research is needed to clarify this question.

  3. Topical atorvastatin ameliorates 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate induced skin inflammation by reducing cutaneous cytokine levels and NF-κB activation.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Nagaraj M; Muley, Milind M; Jaji, Mallikarjun S; Vijaykanth, G; Raghul, J; Reddy, Neetin Kumar D; Vishwakarma, Santosh L; Rajesh, Navin B; Mookkan, Jeyamurugan; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari; Narayanan, Shridhar

    2015-06-01

    Atorvastatin is a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme-A reductase inhibitor used in the treatment of atherosclerosis and dyslipidemia. Studies have evaluated the utility of statins in the treatment of skin inflammation but with varied results. In the present study, we investigated the effect of atorvastatin on TNF-α release and keratinocyte proliferation in vitro and in acute and chronic 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) induced skin inflammation in vivo. Atorvastatin significantly inhibited lipopolysacharide induced TNF-α release in THP-1 cells and keratinocyte proliferation in HaCaT cells. In an acute study, topical atorvastatin showed dose dependent reduction in TPA induced skin inflammation with highest efficacy observed at 500 µg/ear dose. In chronic study, topical atorvastatin significantly reduced TPA induced ear thickness, ear weight, cutaneous cytokines, MPO activity and improved histopathological features comparable to that of dexamethasone. Atorvastatin also inhibited TPA stimulated NF-κB activation in mouse ear. In conclusion, our results suggest that atorvastatin ameliorates TPA induced skin inflammation in mice at least in part, due to inhibition of cytokine release and NF-κB activation and may be beneficial for the treatment skin inflammation like psoriasis.

  4. Amelioration of atopic-like skin conditions in NC/Tnd mice by topical application with distilled Alpinia intermedia Gagnep extracts.

    PubMed

    Amagai, Yosuke; Katsuta, Chihiro; Nomura, Yoshihiro; Oida, Kumiko; Matsuda, Kenshiro; Jang, Hyosun; Ahn, Ginnae; Hamasaki, Tetsuyoshi; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Akane

    2017-11-01

    Alpinia intermedia, a perennial plant that belongs to the Zingiberaceae family, has been used in folk medicine for a long time in the southern region of Japan. Because skin care is an effective approach that enables patients to manage their atopic dermatitis (AD), various herbal ingredients with few adverse effects have been evaluated for use in AD patients in recent years. In this study, we examined whether distilled extracts obtained from A. intermedia were beneficial for AD-like skin conditions in NC/Tnd mice. Topical application with the A. intermedia extracts significantly reduced the severity of AD, transepidermal water loss and scratching behavior in the mice. Supplementation of the extracts to cell cultures suppressed the expression of Tslp mRNA in PAM212 keratinocytes, degranulation in bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells (BMCMC), and neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells and dorsal root ganglia. In addition, the component analysis revealed that β-pinene was a major constituent of the A. intermedia extracts. The inhibitory effects of β-pinene both in vivo and in vitro were also demonstrated. These results indicate that topical application with the A. intermedia extract to the skin of NC/Tnd mice improved the condition of the skin by suppressing multiple inflammatory responses. The extracts may become novel skin-care remedies for AD patients. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Dermatological Association.

  5. Aminolevulinic acid-photodynamic therapy combined with topically applied vascular disrupting agent vadimezan leads to enhanced antitumor responses.

    PubMed

    Marrero, Allison; Becker, Theresa; Sunar, Ulas; Morgan, Janet; Bellnier, David

    2011-01-01

    The tumor vascular-disrupting agent (VDA) vadimezan (5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid, DMXAA) has been shown to potentiate the antitumor activity of photodynamic therapy (PDT) using systemically administered photosensitizers. Here, we characterized the response of subcutaneous syngeneic Colon26 murine colon adenocarcinoma tumors to PDT using the locally applied photosensitizer precursor aminolevulinic acid (ALA) in combination with a topical formulation of vadimezan. Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS), a noninvasive method for monitoring blood flow, was utilized to determine tumor vascular response to treatment. In addition, correlative CD31-immunohistochemistry to visualize endothelial damage, ELISA to measure induction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and tumor weight measurements were also examined in separate animals. In our previous work, DCS revealed a selective decrease in tumor blood flow over time following topical vadimezan. ALA-PDT treatment also induced a decrease in tumor blood flow. The onset of blood flow reduction was rapid in tumors treated with both ALA-PDT and vadimezan. CD31-immunostaining of tumor sections confirmed vascular damage following topical application of vadimezan. Tumor weight measurements revealed enhanced tumor growth inhibition with combination treatment compared with ALA-PDT or vadimezan treatment alone. In conclusion, vadimezan as a topical agent enhances treatment efficacy when combined with ALA-PDT. This combination could be useful in clinical applications. © 2011 The Authors. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2011 The American Society of Photobiology.

  6. Efficacy of topical hydrating and emollient lotion containing 10% urea ISDIN® plus dexpanthenol (Ureadin Rx 10) in the treatment of skin xerosis and pruritus in hemodialyzed patients: an open prospective pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Castello, M; Milani, M

    2011-10-01

    Dry skin and pruritus are common complication of end-stage renal diseases (ESRD), affecting up to 80% of dialysis patients. They are chronic, unpleasant skin manifestations with a strong negative impact on patients' quality of life, often inducing sleeplessness and mood disorders. The pathogenesis of skin xerosis (SX) and uraemic pruritus (UP) are multifactorial. Moisturizing emollients are commonly used for the treatment of SX and UP. Urea is used in dermatology due to its excellent hydrating and moisturizing properties. Urea is useful in all cases of dry skin and, depending on the concentration levels, will act as moisturizing or keratolitic agent. Ureadin Rx 10 is a topical hydrating and emollient lotion formulation. So far no data are available regarding the efficacy of topical application of urea in lotion in the treatment of SX and UP in dialysed patients. In a prospective open pilot trial we assessed the effect of topical 10% Urea ISDIN® plus dexpanthenol lotion in the treatment of SX and UP in dialyzed patients. A total of 15 hemodialyzed patients (3 men; 12 women, mean age 66 years) with SX and UP were enrolled after their informed consent in the trial. Topical 10% Urea ISDIN® plus dexpanthenol (Ureadin RX; ISDIN) lotion (URx) was applied twice daily over the arm and the legs for 28 consecutive days. Primary outcomes were a 5-point SRRC Index score (evaluating scaling roughness, redness and cracks) and a 4-point itching score (IS) both measured at baseline and after 2 and 4 weeks of treatment. At baseline mean (SD) SRRC was 5 (2.3). After URx treatment SRRC significantly (P=0.0001) decreased to 1.6 (2.1) and to 0.9 (1.2) after two and four weeks respectively (a relative reduction of 82% at week 4). IS at baseline was 1.0 (1.4). URx reduced IS significantly (P=0.008) to 0.2 (0.5) at week 2 and to 0.06 at week 4 (a relative reduction of 94% at week 4). Local tolerability was excellent/good in 14 out of 15 patients. One patient reported mild burning

  7. Determination of the protection efficacy and homogeneity of the distribution of sunscreens applied onto skin pre-treated with cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Weigmann, Hans-Jürgen; de Sainte Claire, Maude Suisse; Schanzer, Sabine; Patzelt, Alexa; Meinke, Martina; Antoniou, Christina; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Jürgen

    2012-05-01

    The efficacy of sunscreens depends decisively on the homogeneity of its distribution on the skin surface, which is sensitively reflected by two spectroscopic data - the factor of inhomogeneity and the sum transmission - measured after tape stripping. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a skin pre-treatment with body lotion on the layout of the formulations. Six healthy volunteers were pre-treated using the body lotion, Nivea Body (Beiersdorf AG, Hamburg, Germany). The sunscreen was an oil/water (o/w) emulsion, Roc SPF 8 (RoC SA, Paris, France). The tape stripped tesa films were measured with a modified UV/VIS spectrometer Lambda 5 (PerkinElmer, Frankfurt/Main, Germany), the data of which were used to calculate both measurands. The obtained results made clear that the original spectroscopic data must be corrected taking into account the changed amounts of horny layer particles removed with the individual tape strips after pre-treatment. As a consequence of the correction, the factors of inhomogeneity as well as the sum transmissions confirm a more homogeneous distribution of the applied sunscreen. The findings confirm that the applied method is well suited to obtain information on the distribution of topically applied substances, and furthermore that the influence of the pre-treatment of the skin with the body lotion enhances the homogeneity of distribution and thus the sunscreen efficacy. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Minoxidil topical treatment may be more efficient if applied on damp scalp in comparison with dry scalp.

    PubMed

    Angelo, T; Barbalho, G N; Gelfuso, G M; Gratieri, T

    2016-09-01

    There is yet no consensus among prescribers whether minoxidil (MXD) formulations should be applied on wet/damp or dry scalp and no clear FDA guidelines on the matter. We hypothesized that the use of MXD on damp scalp may lead to higher drug penetration. First, because the drug diffusion and consequent deposition into the hair follicle may be favored when follicle cast is humid. Second, because humidity may also prevent drug crystallization and, therefore, maintain a higher thermodynamic activity for longer periods, which leads to increased penetration. Following in vitro experiments on rat and porcine skin we confirmed the hypothesis, which could markedly improve treatment effectiveness. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Benefits of applying technology to Devonian shale wells. Topical report, July-December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Voneiff, G.W.; Gatens, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The report summarizes the benefits of applying technology to Devonian Shales wells in the Appalachian Basin. The results of the work suggest that an intermediate level of technology application, with an incremental cost of $6,700/well, is best for routine application in the Devonian Shales. The technology level uses conventional well tests, rock mechanical properties logs, a borehole camera, and a moderate logging suite. Most of these tools and technologies should be used on only a portion of the wells in multi-well projects, reducing the per well cost of the technology. Determining the correct reservoir description is critical to optimizing themore » stimulation treatment. The most critical reservoir properties are bulk and matrix permeabilities, net pay, stress profile, and natural fracture spacing in the direction perpendicular to induced hydraulic fractures. Applying technology to improve the accuracy of the reservoir description can significantly increase well profitability.« less

  10. 21 CFR 878.4011 - Tissue adhesive with adjunct wound closure device for topical approximation of skin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY... approximated skin edges of wounds from surgical incisions, including punctures from minimally invasive surgery...

  11. 21 CFR 878.4011 - Tissue adhesive with adjunct wound closure device for topical approximation of skin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY... approximated skin edges of wounds from surgical incisions, including punctures from minimally invasive surgery...

  12. 21 CFR 878.4011 - Tissue adhesive with adjunct wound closure device for topical approximation of skin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY... approximated skin edges of wounds from surgical incisions, including punctures from minimally invasive surgery...

  13. Tretinoin Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... Use clean fingertips, a gauze pad, or a cotton swab to apply the medication. Use enough medication ... lightly. Do not oversaturate the gauze pad or cotton swab. Apply the medication to the affected skin ...

  14. Dermal bioaccessibility of flame retardants from indoor dust and the influence of topically applied cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Gopal; Abdallah, Mohamed Abou-Elwafa; de Sáa, Eugenia Villaverde; Harrad, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    Despite extensive literature on their potential adverse health effects, there is a lack of information on human dermal exposure to organic flame retardant chemicals (FRs). This study applies an in vitro physiologically based extraction test to provide new insights into the dermal bioaccessibility of various FRs from indoor dust to synthetic sweat/sebum mixture (SSSM). The bioaccessible fractions of α-, β- and γ-hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) to 1:1 (sweat/sebum) mixture were 41%, 47%, 50% and 40%, respectively. For Tris-2-chloroethyl phosphate (TCEP), tris (1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP) and tris-1,3-dichloropropyl phosphate (TDCIPP), bioaccessible fractions were 10%, 17% and 19%. Composition of the SSSM and compound-specific physicochemical properties were the major factors influencing the bioaccessibility of target FRs. Except for TBBPA, the presence of cosmetics (moisturising cream, sunscreen lotion, body spray and shower gel) had a significant effect (P<0.05) on the bioaccessibility of the studied FRs. The presence of cosmetics decreased the bioaccessibility of HBCDs from indoor dust, whereas shower gel and sunscreen lotion enhanced the bioaccessibility of target PFRs. Our bioaccessibility data were applied to estimate the internal exposure of UK adults and toddlers to the target FRs via dermal contact with dust. Our worst-case scenario exposure estimates fell far below available health-based limit values for TCEP, TCIPP and TDCIPP. However, future research may erode the margin of safety for these chemicals.

  15. Confocal Raman microscopy and multivariate statistical analysis for determination of different penetration abilities of caffeine and propylene glycol applied simultaneously in a mixture on porcine skin ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Mujica Ascencio, Saul; Choe, ChunSik; Meinke, Martina C; Müller, Rainer H; Maksimov, George V; Wigger-Alberti, Walter; Lademann, Juergen; Darvin, Maxim E

    2016-07-01

    Propylene glycol is one of the known substances added in cosmetic formulations as a penetration enhancer. Recently, nanocrystals have been employed also to increase the skin penetration of active components. Caffeine is a component with many applications and its penetration into the epidermis is controversially discussed in the literature. In the present study, the penetration ability of two components - caffeine nanocrystals and propylene glycol, applied topically on porcine ear skin in the form of a gel, was investigated ex vivo using two confocal Raman microscopes operated at different excitation wavelengths (785nm and 633nm). Several depth profiles were acquired in the fingerprint region and different spectral ranges, i.e., 526-600cm(-1) and 810-880cm(-1) were chosen for independent analysis of caffeine and propylene glycol penetration into the skin, respectively. Multivariate statistical methods such as principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) combined with Student's t-test were employed to calculate the maximum penetration depths of each substance (caffeine and propylene glycol). The results show that propylene glycol penetrates significantly deeper than caffeine (20.7-22.0μm versus 12.3-13.0μm) without any penetration enhancement effect on caffeine. The results confirm that different substances, even if applied onto the skin as a mixture, can penetrate differently. The penetration depths of caffeine and propylene glycol obtained using two different confocal Raman microscopes are comparable showing that both types of microscopes are well suited for such investigations and that multivariate statistical PCA-LDA methods combined with Student's t-test are very useful for analyzing the penetration of different substances into the skin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Demodex as a Delivery Vector for Topical Targeted Medications in the Skin for Early Melanoma and Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer.

    PubMed

    Strobel, Stephen L

    2017-09-01

    The potential utilization of Demodex mites as delivery vectors for cytotoxic medications directed to early skin cancer is proposed. Potential benefits, proof of concept, and limitations are discussed. © 2017 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  17. Therapeutic Efficacy of Topically Applied Antioxidant Medicinal Plant Extracts in a Mouse Model of Experimental Dry Eye

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jee Bum; Li, Ying; Choi, Ji Suk; Lee, Hyo Seok

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the therapeutic effects of topical administration of antioxidant medicinal plant extracts in a mouse model of experimental dry eye (EDE). Methods. Eye drops containing balanced salt solution (BSS) or 0.001%, 0.01%, and 0.1% extracts were applied for the treatment of EDE. Tear volume, tear film break-up time (BUT), and corneal fluorescein staining scores were measured 10 days after desiccating stress. In addition, we evaluated the levels of interleukin- (IL-) 1β, tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, IL-6, interferon- (IFN-) γ, and IFN-γ associated chemokines, percentage of CD4+C-X-C chemokine receptor type 3 positive (CXCR3+) T cells, goblet cell density, number of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) positive cells, and extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Results. Compared to the EDE and BSS control groups, the mice treated with topical application of the 0.1% extract showed significant improvements in all clinical parameters, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ levels, percentage of CD4+CXCR3+ T cells, goblet cell density, number of 4-HNE-positive cells, and extracellular ROS production (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Topical application of 0.1% medicinal plant extracts improved clinical signs, decreased inflammation, and ameliorated oxidative stress marker and ROS production on the ocular surface of the EDE model mice. PMID:27313829

  18. Effect of topically applied sildenafil citrate on wound healing: experimental study.

    PubMed

    Gürsoy, Koray; Oruç, Melike; Kankaya, Yüksel; Ulusoy, Mustafa Gürhan; Koçer, Uğur; Kankaya, Duygu; Gürsoy, Reyhan Neslihan; Çevik, Özge; Öğüş, Elmas; Fidanci, Vildan

    2014-08-16

    Wound healing is a complex process that necessitates organization of different cell types and several signalling molecules. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of sildenafil citrate, which decreases cGMP degradation, on wound healing by secondary intention.This study was performed using 25 Sprague Dawley rats weighing 200-250 grams. 4 dorsal defects were created. Four different treatment modalities which were 1% and 5% sildenafil citrate gel prepared with carbopol, pure carbopol gel without any drug in it and 0,9% NaCl solution; were applied to each lesion of the same rat. Randomly selected five rats (25 rats in total) were sacrificed on 3rd, 5th, 7th, 10th, and 14th days; and the effect of each modality was evaluated by means of defect area measurement, histopathological examination and measurement of tissue hydroxyproline levels.Sildenafil citrate gel application decreased the defect areas in a dose independent manner starting from 3rd day and dose dependent manner after 7th day. By means of vascularization, sildenafil citrate increased vascularity starting from 3rd day. The strength of acute inflammation was superior in sildenafil groups starting from 5th day; and the amount and maturation of granulation in the wound bed, as well as the strength of chronic inflammation were superior in defects treated with sildenafil citrate as early as 7th day.

  19. Effect of topically applied sildenafil citrate on wound healing: experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Gürsoy, Koray; Oruç, Melike; Kankaya, Yüksel; Ulusoy, M. Gürhan; Koçer, Uğur; Kankaya, Duygu; Gürsoy, R. Neslihan; Çevik, Özge; Öğüş, Elmas; Fidanci, Vildan

    2014-01-01

    Wound healing is a complex process that necessitates organization of different cell types and several signalling molecules. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of sildenafil citrate, which decreases cGMP degradation, on wound healing by secondary intention. This study was performed using 25 Sprague Dawley rats weighing 200-250 grams. 4 dorsal defects were created. Four different treatment modalities which were 1% and 5% sildenafil citrate gel prepared with carbopol, pure carbopol gel without any drug in it and 0,9% NaCl solution; were applied to each lesion of the same rat. Randomly selected five rats (25 rats in total) were sacrificed on 3rd, 5th, 7th, 10th, and 14th days; and the effect of each modality was evaluated by means of defect area measurement, histopathological examination and measurement of tissue hydroxyproline levels. Sildenafil citrate gel application decreased the defect areas in a dose independent manner starting from 3rd day and dose dependent manner after 7th day. By means of vascularization, sildenafil citrate increased vascularity starting from 3rd day. The strength of acute inflammation was superior in sildenafil groups starting from 5th day; and the amount and maturation of granulation in the wound bed, as well as the strength of chronic inflammation were superior in defects treated with sildenafil citrate as early as 7th day. PMID:25172969

  20. Topical hydrocortisone 17-butyrate 21-propionate in the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases: pharmacological data, clinical efficacy, safety and calculation of the therapeutic index.

    PubMed

    Fölster-Holst, R; Abeck, D; Torrelo, A

    2016-03-01

    Hydrocortisone 17-butyrate 21-propionate (hydrocortisone buteprate, HBP) is a medium potent, non-halogenated double-ester of hydrocortisone with a favorable benefit/risk ratio for the treatment of inflammatory skin disorders. HBP is available as a 0.1% cream or ointment formulation. Good results were obtained with a once-daily topical treatment. HBP is characterized by a strong topical anti-inflammatory activity and weak systemic action. It is considered to have potency comparable to that of betamethasone 17-valerate (BV), but its systemic effects are less pronounced. HBP was shown to have a good efficacy in the treatment of various oozing and lichenified eczematous skin diseases including atopic dermatitis (AD) and in the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris. Even in very young children, HBP proved successful as an effective and safe drug. A therapeutic index of 2.0 can be attributed to this glucocorticoid. In this respect, there is no difference between topical HBP and other topical glucocorticoids with increased benefit/risk ratio, e.g. prednicarbate (PC), methylprednisolone aceponate (MPA) and mometasone furoate (MM).

  1. Topically Applied Epsilon-Aminocaproic Acid Reduces Blood Loss and Length of Hospital Stay After Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Harper, Robert A; Sucher, Mark G; Giordani, Mauro; Nedopil, Alexander J

    2017-11-01

    Perioperative blood loss after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) affects postoperative recovery. Tranexamic acid is safe and efficient in reducing blood loss without increasing thromboembolic events. Epsilon-aminocaproic acid (ε-ACA) is less expensive than and as safe as tranexamic acid. Its efficiency when locally applied in TKA is unknown. The authors retrospectively followed 240 consecutive patients treated by 1 surgeon with TKA from January 2012 to August 2016. From January 2013 to May 2015, the authors topically applied 5 g of ε-ACA to the open wound after tourniquet release and before closure (ε-ACA-after-tourniquet-release group). From August 2015 to August 2016, the authors topically applied 5 g of ε-ACA intraoperatively to the open wound 3 minutes before tourniquet release (ε-ACA-before-tourniquet-release group). The last 80 patients not receiving ε-ACA (control group), the 80 patients in the ε-ACA-after-tourniquet-release group, and the 80 patients in the ε-ACA-before-tourniquet-release group were compared regarding blood loss, treatment costs, and thromboembolic complications. The mean±SD calculated blood loss was 1478.8±367.1 mL for the control group, 1424.0±249.3 mL for the ε-ACA-after-tourniquet-release group, and 1052.3±419.1 mL for the ε-ACA-before-tourniquet-release group (P<.05). Using ε-ACA before tourniquet release reduced the length of hospital stay by 0.7 days (P<.05) compared with not using ε-ACA, leading to cost savings of $1547.37 per patient. One patient in the ε-ACA-before-tourniquet-release group and 1 patient in the control group developed a venous thromboembolism in the postoperative period. Epsilon-aminocaproic acid significantly reduces blood loss after TKA when topically applied before tourniquet release. Its application reduced costs by decreasing the length of hospital stay and did not increase thromboembolic events. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(6):e1044-e1049.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. In vivo bioluminescence imaging to evaluate systemic and topical antibiotics against community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-infected skin wounds in mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yi; Ramos, Romela Irene; Cho, John S; Donegan, Niles P; Cheung, Ambrose L; Miller, Lloyd S

    2013-02-01

    Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) frequently causes skin and soft tissue infections, including impetigo, cellulitis, folliculitis, and infected wounds and ulcers. Uncomplicated CA-MRSA skin infections are typically managed in an outpatient setting with oral and topical antibiotics and/or incision and drainage, whereas complicated skin infections often require hospitalization, intravenous antibiotics, and sometimes surgery. The aim of this study was to develop a mouse model of CA-MRSA wound infection to compare the efficacy of commonly used systemic and topical antibiotics. A bioluminescent USA300 CA-MRSA strain was inoculated into full-thickness scalpel wounds on the backs of mice and digital photography/image analysis and in vivo bioluminescence imaging were used to measure wound healing and the bacterial burden. Subcutaneous vancomycin, daptomycin, and linezolid similarly reduced the lesion sizes and bacterial burden. Oral linezolid, clindamycin, and doxycycline all decreased the lesion sizes and bacterial burden. Oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole decreased the bacterial burden but did not decrease the lesion size. Topical mupirocin and retapamulin ointments both reduced the bacterial burden. However, the petrolatum vehicle ointment for retapamulin, but not the polyethylene glycol vehicle ointment for mupirocin, promoted wound healing and initially increased the bacterial burden. Finally, in type 2 diabetic mice, subcutaneous linezolid and daptomycin had the most rapid therapeutic effect compared with vancomycin. Taken together, this mouse model of CA-MRSA wound infection, which utilizes in vivo bioluminescence imaging to monitor the bacterial burden, represents an alternative method to evaluate the preclinical in vivo efficacy of systemic and topical antimicrobial agents.

  3. In Vivo Bioluminescence Imaging To Evaluate Systemic and Topical Antibiotics against Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus-Infected Skin Wounds in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yi; Ramos, Romela Irene; Cho, John S.; Donegan, Niles P.; Cheung, Ambrose L.

    2013-01-01

    Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) frequently causes skin and soft tissue infections, including impetigo, cellulitis, folliculitis, and infected wounds and ulcers. Uncomplicated CA-MRSA skin infections are typically managed in an outpatient setting with oral and topical antibiotics and/or incision and drainage, whereas complicated skin infections often require hospitalization, intravenous antibiotics, and sometimes surgery. The aim of this study was to develop a mouse model of CA-MRSA wound infection to compare the efficacy of commonly used systemic and topical antibiotics. A bioluminescent USA300 CA-MRSA strain was inoculated into full-thickness scalpel wounds on the backs of mice and digital photography/image analysis and in vivo bioluminescence imaging were used to measure wound healing and the bacterial burden. Subcutaneous vancomycin, daptomycin, and linezolid similarly reduced the lesion sizes and bacterial burden. Oral linezolid, clindamycin, and doxycycline all decreased the lesion sizes and bacterial burden. Oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole decreased the bacterial burden but did not decrease the lesion size. Topical mupirocin and retapamulin ointments both reduced the bacterial burden. However, the petrolatum vehicle ointment for retapamulin, but not the polyethylene glycol vehicle ointment for mupirocin, promoted wound healing and initially increased the bacterial burden. Finally, in type 2 diabetic mice, subcutaneous linezolid and daptomycin had the most rapid therapeutic effect compared with vancomycin. Taken together, this mouse model of CA-MRSA wound infection, which utilizes in vivo bioluminescence imaging to monitor the bacterial burden, represents an alternative method to evaluate the preclinical in vivo efficacy of systemic and topical antimicrobial agents. PMID:23208713

  4. Topical treatment with pterostilbene, a natural phytoalexin, effectively protects hairless mice against UVB radiation-induced skin damage and carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sirerol, J Antoni; Feddi, Fatima; Mena, Salvador; Rodriguez, María L; Sirera, Paula; Aupí, Miguel; Pérez, Salvador; Asensi, Miguel; Ortega, Angel; Estrela, José M

    2015-08-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate in the SKH-1 hairless mouse model the effect of pterostilbene (Pter), a natural dimethoxy analog of resveratrol (Resv), against procarcinogenic ultraviolet B radiation (UVB)-induced skin damage. Pter prevented acute UVB (360 mJ/cm(2))-induced increase in skin fold, thickness, and redness, as well as photoaging-associated skin wrinkling and hyperplasia. Pter, but not Resv, effectively prevented chronic UVB (180 mJ/cm(2), three doses/week for 6 months)-induced skin carcinogenesis (90% of Pter-treated mice did not develop skin carcinomas, whereas a large number of tumors were observed in all controls). This anticarcinogenic effect was associated with (a) maintenance of skin antioxidant defenses (i.e., glutathione (GSH) levels, catalase, superoxide, and GSH peroxidase activities) close to control values (untreated mice) and (b) an inhibition of UVB-induced oxidative damage (using as biomarkers 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, protein carbonyls, and isoprostanes). The molecular mechanism underlying the photoprotective effect elicited by Pter was further evaluated using HaCaT immortalized human keratinocytes and was shown to involve potential modulation of the Nrf2-dependent antioxidant response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Safety and Efficacy of Treatment With a 1,927-nm Diode Laser With and Without Topical Hydroquinone for Facial Hyperpigmentation and Melasma in Darker Skin Types.

    PubMed

    Vanaman Wilson, Monique J; Jones, Isabela T; Bolton, Joanna; Larsen, Lisa; Fabi, Sabrina Guillen

    2018-04-13

    The nonablative, fractional, 1,927-nm diode laser is theoretically a safe and effective treatment for hyperpigmentation and melasma in darker skin and may potentiate topical cosmeceutical delivery. To evaluate the use of a nonablative, fractional, 1,927-nm diode laser with and without topical 2% hydroquinone (HQ) cream for moderate-to-severe facial hyperpigmentation in Fitzpatrick skin Types III-V. Forty adults underwent 4 laser treatments at 2-week intervals and were randomized to daily application of 2% HQ cream or moisturizer. Follow-ups were conducted 4 and 12 weeks after the final laser treatment. Hydroquinone and moisturizer groups demonstrated Mottled Pigmentation Area and Severity Index improvements of approximately 50% at post-treatment Weeks 4 and 12. Blinded investigator-assessed hyperpigmentation and photodamage improved significantly for both the groups at post-treatment Weeks 4 and 12. Subject satisfaction improved significantly in both the groups by post-treatment Week 4. Although investigator-rated Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale scores were significantly better in the HQ group at post-treatment Week 12, satisfaction was higher among those using moisturizer. No adverse events were noted. The nonablative, fractional, 1,927-nm diode laser produced significant improvement in hyperpigmentation in Fitzpatrick skin Types III-V by 4 weeks, with maintenance of results at 12 weeks after treatment even without HQ.

  6. Formulation of tretinoin-loaded topical proniosomes for treatment of acne: in-vitro characterization, skin irritation test and comparative clinical study.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Salwa Abdel; Abdelmalak, Nevine Shawky; Badawi, Alia; Elbayoumy, Tahany; Sabry, Nermeen; El Ramly, Amany

    2015-01-01

    Tretinoin (TRT) is a widely used retinoid for the topical treatment of acne, photo-aged skin, psoriasis and skin cancer which makes it a good candidate for topical formulation. Yet side effects, like redness, swelling, peeling, blistering and, erythema, in addition to its high lipophilicity make this challenging. Therefore, the aim of this study was the development of TRT-loaded proniosomes to improve the drug efficacy and to increase user acceptability and compliance by reducing its side effects. Nine formulae were prepared according to 3(2) factorial design and were evaluated for their morphology, vesicle size, entrapment efficiency (EE %), and% of drug released after 5 h. Hydrogel of the candidate formula, N8G (proniosomes prepared with 0.025% TRT, and Span60: cholesterol molar ratio of 3:1 and incorporated in 1% carbopol gel) was developed and evaluated for skin irritation test and clinical study in acne patients compared to marketed product. Candidate formula showed higher efficacy and very low irritation potential when compared to marketed product in human volunteers.

  7. Effects of Carbopol® 934 proportion on nanoemulsion gel for topical and transdermal drug delivery: a skin permeation study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yin; Ouyang, Wu-Qing; Wei, Yun-Peng; Syed, Shahid Faraz; Hao, Chao-Shuang; Wang, Bo-Zhen; Shang, Yan-Hong

    Nanoemulsions (NEs) are used as transdermal drug delivery systems for systematic therapeutic purposes. We hypothesized that the skin permeation profile of an NE could be modulated by incorporating it into a hydrogel containing differing proportions of thickening agent. The objectives of this study were as follows: 1) to determine the stability and skin irritability of NE gels (NGs) containing 1%, 2%, and 3% (w/w) Carbopol ® 934 (CP934) (termed NG1, NG2, and NG3, respectively); 2) to compare the skin permeation profiles and drug deposition patterns of the NGs; and 3) to visualize the drug delivery routes of the NGs. Terbinafine and citral were incorporated into the NGs as model drugs. Ex vivo skin permeation tests indicated that the percutaneous flux rates of terbinafine decreased in the order NE (215 μg/cm 2 ) > NG1 (213 μg/cm 2 ) > NG2 (123 μg/cm 2 ) > NG3 (74.3 μg/cm 2 ). The flux rates of citral decreased in the order NE (1,026 μg/cm 2 ) > NG1 (1,021 μg/cm 2 ) > NG2 (541 μg/cm 2 ) > NG3 (353 μg/cm 2 ). The NGs accumulated greater amounts of the drugs in the stratum corneum and less in the epidermis/dermis than did the NE ( P <0.05) over a period of 12 h. Laser scanning confocal microscopy indicated that the NGs altered the main drug delivery routes from skin appendages to intercellular paths. Histological images suggested that perturbations to the skin structure, specifically the size of the epidermal intercellular spaces and the separation distance of dermal collagen bundles, could be significantly minimized by increasing the proportion of CP934. These results suggest that adjustments of the CP934 proportions can be used to modulate the skin permeation profiles of NGs for specific therapeutic purposes.

  8. Studying skin tumourigenesis and progression in immunocompetent hairless SKH1-hr mice using chronic 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene topical applications to develop a useful experimental skin cancer model.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Giju; Tuk, Bastiaan; Song, Ji-Ying; Truong, Hoa; Gerritsen, Hans C; de Gruijl, Frank R; Sterenborg, Henricus J C M

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies have established that 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) can initiate skin tumourigenesis in conventional furred mouse models by acting on hair follicle stem cells. However, further cancer progression depends on repeated applications of tumour promoter agents. This study evaluated the timeline involved in skin tumourigenesis and progression in immunocompetent hairless SKH1-hr mice with dysfunctional hair follicles using only DMBA with no additional tumour promoter agents. The results showed that topical application of 30 µg (117 nmol) of DMBA over the back and flank regions of the mouse once a week and 15 µg (58.5 nmol) twice a week produced skin tumours after 7-8 weeks. However, by week 14 a heavy benign tumour load required the mice to be euthanized. Lowering the DMBA dose to 15 µg (58.5 nmol) once a week produced tumours more slowly and allowed the mice to be studied for a longer period to week 23. This low-dose DMBA regimen yielded a high percentage of malignant tumours (58.8%) after 23 weekly applications. Additionally DMBA-treated skin showed an increase in mean epidermal thickness in comparison to untreated and acetone-treated skin. Despite the aberrant hair follicles in SKH1-hr mice, this chemically driven skin cancer model in hairless mice can serve as a suitable alternative to the ultraviolet-induced skin cancer models and can be reliably replicated as demonstrated by both the pilot and main experiments.

  9. Human skin penetration of the major components of Australian tea tree oil applied in its pure form and as a 20% solution in vitro.

    PubMed

    Cross, Sheree E; Russell, Michael; Southwell, Ian; Roberts, Michael S

    2008-05-01

    The safety of topical application of Australian tea tree Oil (TTO) is confounded by a lack of transdermal penetration data, which adequately informs opinions and recommendations. In this study we applied TTO in its pure form and as a 20% solution in ethanol in vitro to human epidermal membranes from three different donors, mounted in horizontal Franz-type diffusion cells, using normal 'in use' dosing conditions (10 mg/cm2). In addition, we examined the effect of partially occluding the application site on the penetration of TTO components. Our data showed that only a small quantity of TTO components, 1.1-1.9% and 2-4% of the applied amount following application of a 20% TTO solution and pure TTO, respectively, penetrated into or through human epidermis. The largest TTO component penetrating the skin was terpinen-4-ol. Following partial occlusion of the application site, the penetration of terpinen-4-ol increased to approximately 7% of the applied TTO. Measurement of the rate of evaporation of tea tree oil from filter paper (7.4 mg/cm2) showed that 98% of the oil evaporated in 4 hours. Overall, it is apparent that the penetration of TTO components through human skin is limited.

  10. In vivo topical application of acetyl aspartic acid increases fibrillin-1 and collagen IV deposition leading to a significant improvement of skin firmness.

    PubMed

    Gillbro, J M; Merinville, E; Cattley, K; Al-Bader, T; Hagforsen, E; Nilsson, M; Mavon, A

    2015-10-01

    Acetyl aspartic acid (A-A-A) was discovered through gene array analysis with corresponding Cmap analysis. We found that A-A-A increased keratinocyte regeneration, inhibited dermal matrix metalloprotease (MMP) expression and relieved fibroblast stiffness through reduction of the fibroblast stiffness marker F-actin. Dermal absorption studies showed successful delivery to both the epidermal and dermal regions, and in-use trial demonstrated that 1% A-A-A was well tolerated. In this study, the aim was to investigate whether A-A-A could stimulate the synthesis of extracellular matrix supporting proteins in vivo and thereby improving the viscoelastic properties of human skin by conducting a dual histological and biophysical clinical study. Two separate double-blind vehicle-controlled in vivo studies were conducted using a 1% A-A-A containing oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion. In the histological study, 16 female volunteers (>55 years of age) exhibiting photodamaged skin on their forearm were included, investigating the effect of a 12-day treatment of A-A-A on collagen IV (COLIV) and fibrillin-1. In a subsequent pilot study, 0.1% retinol was used for comparison to A-A-A (1%). The biomechanical properties of the skin were assessed in a panel of 16 women (>45 years of age) using the standard Cutometer MPA580 after topical application of the test products for 28 days. The use of multiple suction enabled the assessment of F4, an area parameter specifically representing skin firmness. Twelve-day topical application of 1% A-A-A significantly increased COLIV and fibrillin with 13% and 6%, respectively, compared to vehicle. 1% A-A-A and 0.1% retinol were found to significantly reduce F4 after 28 days of treatment by 15.8% and 14.7%, respectively, in the pilot Cutometer study. No significant difference was found between retinol and A-A-A. However, only A-A-A exhibited a significant effect vs. vehicle on skin firmness which indicated the incremental benefit of A-A-A as a skin

  11. Cobalt chloride induces metaphase when topically applied to larvae and pupae of the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini).

    PubMed

    Ueira-Vieira, C; Tavares, R R; Morelli, S; Pereira, B B; Silva, R P; Torres-Mariano, A R; Kerr, W E; Bonetti, A M

    2013-06-20

    In order to optimize preparations of bee metaphases, we tested cobalt chloride, which has been used as a metaphase inducer in other organisms, such as hamsters and fish. Four microliters of 65 mM cobalt chloride aqueous solution was topically applied to larval and pupal stages of the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris. The cerebral ganglion was removed after treatment and prepared for cytogenetic analysis. Identically manipulated untreated individuals were used as controls. The number of metaphases was increased 3-fold in treated individuals compared to controls. The micronucleus test showed no mutagenic effects of cobalt chloride on M. scutellaris cells. We concluded that cobalt chloride is a metaphase-inducing agent in M. scutellaris, thus being useful for cytogenetic analyses.

  12. Topically applied standardized aqueous extract of Curcuma longa Linn. suppresses endotoxin-induced uveal inflammation in rats.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Renu; Gupta, S K; Agarwal, Puneet; Srivastava, Sushma

    2013-10-01

    Aqueous extract of C. longa when administered 4 h after induction of E. coli lipopolysaccharide-induced uveitis in rats showed significantly suppressed inflammation with a significantly lower mean clinical grade, histopathological grade and aqueous humor (AH) protein level compared to vehicle treated group. Although, prednisolone group showed significantly lower clinical grade, histopathological grades and AH protein levels compared to C. longa group, TNF-alpha levels did not differ significantly. Moreover, when the aqueous extract was administered starting from 3 days before induction of uveitis, the mean clinical and histopathological grade as well as AH protein and TNF-alpha levels were comparable to C. longa group when treatment was administered 4 h after induction of uveitis. It is concluded that topically applied standardized aqueous extract of C. longa suppresses endotoxin-induced uveitis in rats by reducing TNF-alpha activity.

  13. Effect of topical sunscreens on the UV-radiation-induced suppression of the alloactivating capacity in human skin in vivo.

    PubMed

    van Praag, M C; Out-Luyting, C; Claas, F H; Vermeer, B J; Mommaas, A M

    1991-10-01

    Exposure of mice or humans to solar or artificial ultraviolet radiation (UV) has been shown to induce a number of changes in the immune system that may influence their susceptibility to skin tumors. The protective effect of sunscreens on these changes is not clear. Thirty-two patients with a variety of dermatoses routinely undergoing treatment with standard UVB (n = 19) or PUVA (n = 13) therapy were studied. One of the two tested sunscreens or its vehicle was applied to the right flexor forearm immediately prior to each total-body UV exposure. Epidermal sheets were obtained by the suction-blister method from the left flexor forearm before treatment and from both flexor forearms after 4 weeks of photo- or photochemotherapy and used as stimulator epidermal cells (EC) in the mixed epidermal cell-lymphocyte reaction (MECLR). After 4 weeks of either UVB or PUVA therapy the MECLR responses on EC from both arms were markedly decreased. Neither the tested sunscreens nor their vehicles prevented the UV-induced suppression of the alloactivating capacity. The failure of sunscreens to protect against the UV-induced suppression of the alloactivating capacity could be explained in two ways. First, the energy not absorbed by the sunscreen could be sufficient to induce suppression of the alloactivating capacity. An alternative explanation could be systemic immune suppression by UV. In order to discriminate between these possibilities only the right forearms of 10 healthy volunteers, treated with a sunscreen or its vehicle, were irradiated with UVB during 4 weeks. In this manner systemic immune suppression by UVB could be excluded. This experiment resulted in a similar suppression of the MECLR responses, as induced by total body UVB irradiation, without any protection by the sunscreen. Apparently, the UV dose not absorbed by the sunscreen was capable to induce suppression of the alloactivating capacity. Our results indicate that people protected from sunburn by sunscreens may be

  14. Skin penetration and photoprotection of topical formulations containing benzophenone-3 solid lipid microparticles prepared by the solvent-free spray-congealing technique.

    PubMed

    Martins, Rodrigo Molina; Siqueira, Silvia; Fonseca, Maria José Vieira; Freitas, Luis Alexandre Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Solid-lipid microparticles loaded with high amounts of the sunscreen UV filter benzophenone-3 were prepared by spray congealing with the objective of decreasing its skin penetration and evaluate whether the sunscreen's photoprotection were impaired by the microencapsulation process. The microparticles were produced using the natural lipids carnauba wax or bees wax and three different concentrations of benzophenone-3 (30, 50 and 70%) using spray congealing technique. The microparticles presented properties suitable for topical application, such as spherical morphology, high encapsulation efficiency (95.53-102.2%), average particle sizes between 28.5 and 60.0 µm with polydispersivities from 1.2 to 2.5. In studies of in vitro skin penetration and preliminary stability, formulations of gel cream containing carnauba wax solid lipid microparticles and 70% benzophenone-3 when compared to the formulation added of bees wax solid-lipid microparticles containing 70% benzophenone-3, was stable considering the several parameters evaluated and were able to decrease the penetration of the UV filter into pig skin. Moreover, the formulations containing solid lipid microparticles with 70% benzophenone-3 increased the photoprotective capacity of benzophenone-3 under UV irradiation. The results show that spray-congealed microparticles are interesting solid forms to decrease the penetration solar filters in the skin without compromising their photoprotection.

  15. Topical application of zinc oxide nanoparticles reduces bacterial skin infection in mice and exhibits antibacterial activity by inducing oxidative stress response and cell membrane disintegration in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Pati, Rashmirekha; Mehta, Ranjit Kumar; Mohanty, Soumitra; Padhi, Avinash; Sengupta, Mitali; Vaseeharan, Baskarlingam; Goswami, Chandan; Sonawane, Avinash

    2014-08-01

    Here we studied immunological and antibacterial mechanisms of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) against human pathogens. ZnO-NPs showed more activity against Staphylococcus aureus and least against Mycobacterium bovis-BCG. However, BCG killing was significantly increased in synergy with antituberculous-drug rifampicin. Antibacterial mechanistic studies showed that ZnO-NPs disrupt bacterial cell membrane integrity, reduce cell surface hydrophobicity and down-regulate the transcription of oxidative stress-resistance genes in bacteria. ZnO-NP treatment also augmented the intracellular bacterial killing by inducing reactive oxygen species production and co-localization with Mycobacterium smegmatis-GFP in macrophages. Moreover, ZnO-NPs disrupted biofilm formation and inhibited hemolysis by hemolysin toxin producing S. aureus. Intradermal administration of ZnO-NPs significantly reduced the skin infection, bacterial load and inflammation in mice, and also improved infected skin architecture. We envision that this study offers novel insights into antimicrobial actions of ZnO-NPs and also demonstrates ZnO-NPs as a novel class of topical anti-infective agent for the treatment of skin infections. This in-depth study demonstrates properties of ZnO nanoparticles in infection prevention and treatment in several skin infection models, dissecting the potential mechanisms of action of these nanoparticles and paving the way to human applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Targeting Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) Channel Softly: The Discovery of Passerini Adducts as a Topical Treatment for Inflammatory Skin Disorders.

    PubMed

    Serafini, Marta; Griglio, Alessia; Aprile, Silvio; Seiti, Fabio; Travelli, Cristina; Pattarino, Franco; Grosa, Giorgio; Sorba, Giovanni; Genazzani, Armando A; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Sara; Butron, Laura; Devesa, Isabel; Fernandez-Carvajal, Asia; Pirali, Tracey; Ferrer-Montiel, Antonio

    2018-05-24

    Despite being an old molecule, capsaicin is still a hot topic in the scientific community, and the development of new capsaicinoids is a promising pharmacological approach in the management of skin disorders related to inflammation and pruritus. Here we report the synthesis and the evaluation of capsaicin soft drugs that undergo deactivation by the hydrolyzing activity of skin esterases. The implanting of an ester group in the lipophilic moiety of capsaicinoids by the Passerini multicomponent reaction affords both agonists and antagonists that retain transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 channel (TRPV1) modulating activity and, at the same time, are susceptible to hydrolysis. The most promising antagonist identified shows in vivo anti-nociceptive activity on pruritus and hyperalgesia without producing hyperthermia, thus validating it as novel treatment for dermatological conditions that implicate TRPV1 channel dysfunction.

  17. Manifestation of atopic dermatitis-like skin in TNCB-induced NC/Nga mice is ameliorated by topical treatment of substance P, possibly through blockade of allergic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyeongwon; Kim, Dong-Jin; Nam, Seungwoo; Lim, Sunki; Hwang, Jae-Sung; Park, Ki Sook; Hong, Hyun Sook; Shin, Min Kyung; Chung, Eunkyung; Son, Youngsook

    2018-04-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder characterized by intense pruritus and eczematous lesion. In this study, topically applied substance P (SP) significantly alleviated AD-like clinical symptoms in 2, 4, 6-trinitrochlorobenzene (TNCB)-induced dermatitis in NC/Nga mice. This effect was nullified by pretreatment of the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) antagonist CP99994. SP treatment significantly reduced the infiltration of mast cells and CD3-positive T cells as well as inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), in AD-like skin lesions and decreased the levels of IgE and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine in serum. This SP-induced alleviation of allergic inflammatory responses was also confirmed as reduced activation in the axillary lymph nodes (aLN) and spleen, suggesting the systemic effect of SP on immune responses in TNCB-induced NC/Nga mice. Furthermore, SP-mediated TSLP reduction was confirmed in human keratinocyte culture under pro-inflammatory TNF-α stimulation. Taken together, these results suggest that topically administered SP may have potential as a medication for atopic dermatitis. © 2017 The Authors. Experimental Dermatology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Topically Applied Curcumin-Loaded Nanoparticles Treat Erectile Dysfunction in a Rat Model of Type-2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Draganski, Andrew; Tar, Moses T; Villegas, Guillermo; Friedman, Joel M; Davies, Kelvin P

    2018-05-01

    Curcumin, a naturally occurring anti-inflammatory compound, has shown promise in pre-clinical studies to treat erectile dysfunction (ED) associated with type-1 diabetes. However, poor bioavailability following oral administration limits its efficacy. The present study evaluated the potential of topical application of curcumin-loaded nanoparticles (curc-np) to treat ED in a rat model of type-2 diabetes (T2D). Determine if topical application of curc-np treats ED in a T2D rat model and modulates expression of inflammatory markers. Curc-np (4 mg curcumin) or blank nanoparticles were applied every 2 days for 2 weeks to the shaved abdomen of 20-week-old Zucker diabetic fatty male rats (N = 5 per group). Lean Zucker diabetic fatty male rat controls were treated with blank nanoparticles (N = 5). Penetration of nanoparticles and curcumin release were confirmed by 2-photon fluorescence microscopy and histology. Erectile function was determined by measuring intracorporal pressure (ICP) normalized to systemic blood pressure (ICP/BP) following cavernous nerve stimulation. Corporal tissue was excised and reverse transcription and quantitative polymerase chain reaction used to determine expression of the following markers: nuclear factor (NF)-κβ, NF-κβ-activating protein (Nkap), NF erythroid 2-related factor-2, Kelch-like enoyl-CoA hydratase-associated protein-1, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), variable coding sequence-A1, phosphodiesterase-5, endothelial and neuronal nitric oxide synthase, Ras homolog gene family member A, and Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinases-1 and -2. Erectile function by determination of ICP/BP and expression of molecular markers in corporal tissue by RT-qPCR. Nanoparticles penetrated the abdominal epidermis and persisted in hair follicles for 24 hours. Curc-np-treated animals exhibited higher average ICP/BP than animals treated with blank nanoparticles at all levels of stimulation and this was statistically significant (P < .05) at 0.75 m

  19. Sertaconazole Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... cream into the skin. Wash your hands with soap and water after applying sertaconazole cream. Do not ... any other antifungal medications such as clotrimazole (Lotrimin), ketoconazole (Nizoral), or miconazole (Desenex, Lotrimin AF); any of ...

  20. Fluocinonide Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... that you should. Such use may increase side effects.If you are using fluocinonide on a child's ... or plastic pants. Such use may increase side effects.Do not apply other skin preparations or products ...

  1. Betamethasone Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... or plastic pants. Such use may increase side effects.Do not apply other skin preparations or products ... that you should. Such use may increase side effects.Call your doctor if the treated area gets ...

  2. Flurandrenolide Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... or plastic pants. Such use may increase side effects.Do not apply other skin preparations or products ... that you should. Such use may increase side effects.If your doctor directs you to use flurandrenolide ...

  3. Triamcinolone Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... of medications called corticosteroids. It works by activating natural substances in the skin to reduce swelling, redness, ... or aerosol (spray) on your scalp, part your hair, apply a small amount of the medicine on ...

  4. Clobetasol Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... of medications called corticosteroids. It works by activating natural substances in the skin to reduce swelling, redness, ... or solution (liquid) on your scalp, part your hair, apply a small amount of the medicine on ...

  5. 21 CFR 878.4011 - Tissue adhesive with adjunct wound closure device for topical approximation of skin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY... approximated skin edges of wounds from surgical incisions, including punctures from minimally invasive surgery, and simple, thoroughly cleansed, trauma-induced lacerations. It may be used in conjunction with, but...

  6. Skin Parameter Map Retrieval from a Dedicated Multispectral Imaging System Applied to Dermatology/Cosmetology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In vivo quantitative assessment of skin lesions is an important step in the evaluation of skin condition. An objective measurement device can help as a valuable tool for skin analysis. We propose an explorative new multispectral camera specifically developed for dermatology/cosmetology applications. The multispectral imaging system provides images of skin reflectance at different wavebands covering visible and near-infrared domain. It is coupled with a neural network-based algorithm for the reconstruction of reflectance cube of cutaneous data. This cube contains only skin optical reflectance spectrum in each pixel of the bidimensional spatial information. The reflectance cube is analyzed by an algorithm based on a Kubelka-Munk model combined with evolutionary algorithm. The technique allows quantitative measure of cutaneous tissue and retrieves five skin parameter maps: melanin concentration, epidermis/dermis thickness, haemoglobin concentration, and the oxygenated hemoglobin. The results retrieved on healthy participants by the algorithm are in good accordance with the data from the literature. The usefulness of the developed technique was proved during two experiments: a clinical study based on vitiligo and melasma skin lesions and a skin oxygenation experiment (induced ischemia) with healthy participant where normal tissues are recorded at normal state and when temporary ischemia is induced. PMID:24159326

  7. Confocal Raman spectroscopy: In vivo biochemical changes in the human skin by topical formulations under UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Tosato, M G; Orallo, D E; Ali, S M; Churio, M S; Martin, A A; Dicelio, L

    2015-12-01

    A new approach to the study of the effects on human skin of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) and gadusol (Gad) incorporated in polymer gel is proposed in this work. The depth profile and photoprotector effects of Pluronic F127® gels containing each of the natural actives were evaluated by in vivo confocal Raman spectroscopy aiming at the analysis of the biochemical changes on human skin. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) showed that the data corresponding to different depths of the skin, from surface to 4 μm, and from 6 to 16 μm, remained in the same cluster. In vivo Raman spectra, classified into five different layers of epidermis according to their similarities, indicated that the amount of Gad gel increased by about 26% in the outermost layer of the stratum corneum (SC) and that MAAs gel at 2 μm depth was 103.4% higher than in the outermost layer of the SC. Variations in the SC of urocanic acid at 1490-1515 cm(-1) and 1652 cm(-1) and histidine at 1318 cm(-1) were calculated, before and after UV exposure with or without gels. With the application of gels the vibrational modes that correspond to lipids in trans conformation (1063 and 1128 cm(-1)) increased with respect to normal skin, whereas gauche conformation (1085 cm(-1)) disappeared. Our studies suggest that gels protected the skin against the stress of the natural defense mechanism caused by high levels of UV exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Use of alpha-tocopherol esters for topical vitamin E treatment: evaluation of their skin permeation and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ben-Shabat, Shimon; Kazdan, Yolia; Beit-Yannai, Elie; Sintov, Amnon C

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate new pro-vitamins based on α-tocopherol (α-Toc) and fatty acids, and to compare their properties with those of α-tocopherol acetate (α-TAc). Skin levels of α-Toc-fatty acid ester conjugates, total α-Toc and endogenous α-Toc were measured in skin samples taken from separate groups of treated and untreated rats. Multiple and extensive treatment with α-Toc oleate and α-TAc was also carried out to assess the skin accumulation and safety of these esters. The in-vivo studies revealed that α-Toc-fatty acid conjugates penetrated into the skin quantitatively while being comparable with the permeation of α-TAc. Differences were found between the levels of total α-Toc and endogenous α-Toc after application of α-TAc, α-Toc oleate, α-Toc linoleate, α-Toc-α linolenate and α-Toc palmitate, indicating that α-Toc conjugates of these fatty acids, but not α-Toc γ-linolenate or α-Toc stearate, were hydrolysed to free α-Toc. In long-term and extensive treatment, α-TAc was found to be lethal to rats treated with 1.15 mg/kg of this agent, which had been spread over 16 cm(2) of skin. Similar treatment with α-Toc oleate did not produce any side effects. This study suggests that α-Toc conjugates with unsaturated fatty acids may be a good alternative as stable vitamin E derivatives, rather than the α-TAc ester. © 2013 The Authors. JPP © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  9. Impact of application site on the efficacy of two topically-applied insecticides to Culex quinquefasciatus Say

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ultra-low volume and low volume insecticide treatments commonly used to control mosquito populations were evaluated for efficacy against Culex quinquefasciatus using a topical bioassay technique. Traditional topical bioassays focus pesticide application to the mesothoracic pleural area. Although, in...

  10. The percutaneous toxicokinetics of Sulphur mustard in a damaged skin porcine model and the evaluation of WoundStat™ as a topical decontaminant.

    PubMed

    Hall, Charlotte A; Lydon, Helen L; Dalton, Christopher H; Chipman, J Kevin; Graham, John S; Chilcott, Robert P

    2017-09-01

    This study used a damaged skin, porcine model to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of WoundStat™ for decontamination of superficial (non-haemorrhaging), sulphur mustard-contaminated wounds. The dorsal skin of 12 female pigs was subjected to controlled physical damage and exposed to 10 μL 14 C-radiolabelled sulphur mustard ( 14 C-SM). Animals were randomly assigned to either a control or a treatment group. In the latter, WoundStat™ was applied 30 s post exposure and left in situ for 1 h. Skin lesion progression and decontaminant efficacy were quantified over 6 h using a range of biophysical measurements. Skin, blood and organ samples were taken post mortem for histopathological assessment, 14 C-SM distribution and toxicokinetic analyses. Application of SM to damaged skin without decontamination was rapidly followed by advanced signs of toxicity, including ulceration and decreased blood flow at the exposure site in all animals. WoundStat™ prevented ulceration and improved blood flow at the exposure site in all decontaminated animals (n = 6). Furthermore, significantly smaller quantities of 14 C-SM were detected in the blood (45% reduction), and recovered from skin (70% reduction) and skin surface swabs (99% reduction) at 6 h post-challenge. Overall, the distribution of 14 C-SM in the internal organs was similar for both groups, with the greatest concentration in the kidneys, followed by the liver and small intestine. WoundStat™ significantly reduced the amount of 14 C-SM recovered from the liver, a key organ for SM metabolism and detoxification. This study demonstrates that WoundStat™ is a suitable product for reducing the ingress and toxicity of a chemical warfare agent. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Effect of Topically Applied Azithromycin on Corneal Epithelial and Endothelial Apoptosis in a Rat Model of Corneal Alkali Burn.

    PubMed

    Arikan, Sedat; Karaca, Turan; Ertekin, Yusuf Haydar; Comez, Arzu Taskiran; Ersan, Ismail; Demirtas, Selim; Elmas, Sait; Tufan, Hasan Ali; Turkon, Hakan

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the antiapoptotic effect of topically administered azithromycin (AZM) on corneal epithelial and endothelial cells in a rat model of corneal alkali burn. Twenty-four Wistar albino rats were divided into 4 equal groups as pseudovehicle (group 1), control (group 2), alkali burned (group 3), and treatment (group 4) groups. Alkali injury was induced only in the right corneas of rats belonging to groups 3 and 4 using 1N NaOH. The rats in group 3 and the rats in group 4 were respectively treated either with an artificial tear gel or with 1.5% AZM eye drops for 5 days. At the fifth day of the experiment, the apoptosis in the corneal epithelium and endothelium of all rats was assessed using a terminal dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay. In addition, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) density in the corneal epithelium was measured in all rats. The mean numbers of TUNEL+ cells in the corneal epithelium and endothelium of rats in group 3 were 117.1 ± 23.8 and 34.6.± 11.3, respectively, whereas in group 4, they were 75.8 ± 15.7 and 14.7 ± 3.5, respectively. Also the mean TNF-α densities in the corneal epithelium in group 3 and group 4 were 2.65 ± 1.3 and 1.65 ± 1.1, respectively. There was a significant decrease in the mean number of TUNEL+ cells in the corneal epithelium and endothelium and in the mean TNF-α density in the corneal epithelium of rats in group 4, when compared with group 3. Topically applied AZM can decrease TNF-α-induced apoptosis in corneal alkali burn.

  12. Topical treatment of malignant and premalignant skin lesions by very low concentrations of a standard mixture (BEC) of solasodine glycosides.

    PubMed

    Cham, B E; Daunter, B; Evans, R A

    1991-09-01

    A cream formulation containing high concentrations (10%) of a standard mixture of solasodine glycosides (BEC) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of malignant and benign human skin tumours. We now report that a preparation (Curaderm) which contains very low concentrations of BEC (0.005%) is effective in the treatment of keratoses, basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the skin of humans. In an open study, clinical and histological observations indicated that all lesions (56 keratoses, 39 BCCs and 29 SCCs) treated with Curaderm had regressed. A placebo formulation had no effect on a smaller number of treated lesions. Curaderm had no adverse effect on the liver, kidneys or haematopoietic system.

  13. Protective effect of topical application of α-tocopherol and/or N-acetyl cysteine on argemone oil/alkaloid-induced skin tumorigenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Pal, Anu; Alam, Shamshad; Singhal, Jaya; Kumar, Rahul; Ansari, Kausar M; Das, Mukul

    2013-01-01

    Since bioantioxidants in plasma of Epidemic Dropsy patients [a condition caused by consumption of adulterated mustard oil with argemone oil (AO)] were found to be significantly decreased, the beneficial effect of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and α-tocopherol (TOCO) against AO- or sanguinarine (SANG)-induced tumorigenicity was undertaken in mice. Topical application of TOCO and NAC either alone or in combination showed significant protection against AO/TPA- and SANG/TPA-induced skin tumorigenicity. Histopathological findings suggest that papillomatous growth in AO/TPA- and SANG/TPA-treated animals were substantially protected following topical application of TOCO or NAC. Further, treatment of TOCO and NAC either alone or in combination to AO/TPA- or SANG/TPA-induced mice significantly decreased lipid peroxidation, along with significant revival in glutathione (GSH) content and activities of tyrosinase, histidase, catalase, SOD, GSH peroxidase, and GSH reductase in skin. In vitro studies showed that TOCO and/or NAC significantly decreased the AO and SANG induced cell proliferation and activation of ERK, p38, JNK MAPKs and NF-κB signaling in HaCaT cells. In summary, TOCO and NAC may be useful in preventing the tumorigenic response of AO and SANG probably by acting as scavenger of free radicals and inhibiting MAPKs and NF-κB signaling.

  14. Gram-positive bacteria as an antigen topically applied into gingival sulcus of immunized rat accelerates periodontal destruction.

    PubMed

    Nagano, F; Kaneko, T; Yoshinaga, Y; Ukai, T; Kuramoto, A; Nakatsu, S; Oshino, K; Ichimura, I; Hara, Y

    2013-08-01

    Periodontitis is generally accepted to relate to gram-negative bacteria, and the host defense system influences its onset and progression. However, little is known about the relation between gram-positive bacteria and periodontitis. In this study, we topically applied gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial suspensions to the gingival sulcus in rats after immunization, and then histopathologically examined their influence on periodontal destruction. Rats previously immunized with heat-treated and sonicated Staphylococcus aureus or Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans were used as immunized groups. The non-immunized group received only sterile phosphate-buffered saline. In each animal, S. aureus or A. actinomycetemcomitans suspension was applied topically to the palatal gingival sulcus of first molars every 24 h for 10 d. Blood samples were collected and the serum level of anti-S. aureus or anti-A. actinomycetemcomitans immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The first molar regions were resected and observed histopathologically. Osteoclasts were stained with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). The formation of immune complexes was confirmed by immunohistological staining of C1qB. Serum levels of anti-S. aureus and anti-A. actinomycetemcomitans IgG antibodies in the immunized groups were significantly higher than those in the non-immunized groups were. The loss of attachment, increase in apical migration of the junctional epithelium, and decreases in alveolar bone level and number of TRAP-positive multinuclear cells in each immunized group were significantly greater than in each non-immunized group. The presence of C1qB was observed in the junctional epithelium and adjacent connective tissue in the immunized groups. Heat-treated and sonicated S. aureus and A. actinomycetemcomitans induced attachment loss in rats immunized with their suspensions. Our results suggest that not only gram-negative but also gram

  15. A retrospective review of pain control by a two-step irradiance schedule during topical ALA-photodynamic therapy of non-melanoma skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Zeitouni, Nathalie C; Paquette, Anne D; Housel, Joseph P; Shi, Yi; Wilding, Gregory E; Foster, Thomas H; Henderson, Barbara W

    2013-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with topical δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) of non-melanoma skin cancers is often associated with treatment-limiting pain. A previous study on basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) at Roswell Park Cancer Institute evaluated a two-step irradiance scheme as a means of minimizing pain, preserving outcomes, and limiting treatment time. We used an initial low irradiance until 90% of the protoporphyrin IX was photobleached, followed by a high irradiance interval until the prescribed fluence was delivered. Success of this pilot investigation motivated integration of the protocol into routine practice. Here, we present a retrospective review of recent clinical experience in a broad patient population. This was a retrospective review of an existing dermatology database. Fourteen caucasion patients-nine men and five women, ages 18-80, with a total of 51 superficial and 73 nodular BCCs, and three Bowen's disease lesions-were included. ALA was applied to each lesion for approximately 4 hours. Lesions received an initial irradiance of 30-50 mW/cm(2) for 20 J/cm(2) , followed by 150 mW/cm(2) for a total fluence of 200-300 J/cm(2) . Pain was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS). Clinical outcome was determined at 6-12 months. Median VAS scores were 1.0 for both irradiances. Five of 127 lesions required pain control with 1% xylocaine. Pain was strongly influenced by lesion location but not by lesion type, number, or size. Complete responses were achieved in 84.1% of BCCs, which compares favorably with reported results for single ALA-PDT treatments. Two of three Bowen's disease lesions showed a complete response. Complete responses for nodular BCCs were 37%, which are also within the range of reported outcomes. A two-step irradiance protocol in ALA-PDT effectively minimizes pain, maintains excellent clinical outcomes in superficial lesions, and adds minimal treatment time. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. A Retrospective Review of Pain Control by a Two-Step Irradiance Schedule During Topical ALA-Photodynamic Therapy of Non-melanoma Skin Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zeitouni, Nathalie C.; Paquette, Anne D.; Housel, Joseph P.; Shi, Yi; Wilding, Gregory; Foster, Thomas H.; Henderson, Barbara W.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with topical δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) of non-melanoma skin cancers is often associated with treatment-limiting pain. A previous study on basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) at Roswell Park Cancer Institute evaluated a two-step irradiance scheme as a means of minimizing pain, preserving outcomes, and limiting treatment time. We used an initial low irradiance until 90% of the protoporphyrin IX was photobleached, followed by a high irradiance interval until the prescribed fluence was delivered. Success of this pilot investigation motivated integration of the protocol into routine practice. Here we present a retrospective review of recent clinical experience in a broad patient population. Study Design/Materials and Methods This was a retrospective review of an existing dermatology data base. Fourteen caucasion patients - 9 men and 5 women, ages 18 to 80, with a total of 51 superficial and 73 nodular BCCs, and three Bowen's disease lesions – were included. ALA was applied to each lesion for approximately 4h. Lesions received an initial irradiance of 30 - 50 mW/cm2 for 20 J/cm2, followed by 150 mW/cm2 for a total fluence of 200-300 J/cm2. Pain was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS). Clinical outcome was determined at 6-12 months. Results Median VAS scores were 1.0 for both irradiances. Five of 127 lesions required pain control with 1% xylocaine. Pain was strongly influenced by lesion location but not by lesion type, number, or size. Complete responses were achieved in 84.1% of BCCs, which compares favorably with reported results for single ALA-PDT treatments. Two of three Bowen's disease lesions showed a complete response. Complete responses for nodular BCCs were 37%, which are also within the range of reported outcomes. Conclusions A two-step irradiance protocol in ALA-PDT effectively minimizes pain, maintains excellent clinical outcomes in superficial lesions, and adds minimal treatment time. PMID:23390058

  17. Topically Delivered Adipose Derived Stem Cells Show an Activated-Fibroblast Phenotype and Enhance Granulation Tissue Formation in Skin Wounds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-31

    have similar surface markers . We found that topically delivered ASCs are engrafted and proliferate in the wounds. We showed that transplanted ASCs...Material Command (W81XWH-10-2-0054). Flow cytometry was supported by the Northwestern University Flow Cytometry Facility and a Cancer Center Support...blasticidin. GFP expressing cells were further selected by flow cytometry using the Northwestern University Flow Cytometry Facility. Treatment of MSCs

  18. High-speed Raman-encoded molecular imaging of freshly excised tissue surfaces with topically applied SERRS nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu "Winston"; Yang, Qian; Kang, Soyoung; Wall, Matthew A.; Liu, Jonathan T. C.

    2018-04-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticles (NPs) are increasingly being engineered for a variety of disease-detection and treatment applications. For example, we have previously developed a fiber-optic Raman-encoded molecular imaging (REMI) system for spectral imaging of biomarker-targeted SERS NPs topically applied on tissue surfaces to identify residual tumors at surgical margins. Although accurate tumor detection was achieved, the commercial SERS NPs used in our previous studies lacked the signal strength to enable high-speed imaging with high pixel counts (large fields of view and/or high spatial resolution), which limits their use for certain time-constrained clinical applications. As a solution, we explored the use of surface-enhanced resonant Raman scattering (SERRS) NPs to enhance imaging speeds. The SERRS NPs were synthesized de novo, and then conjugated to HER2 antibodies to achieve high binding affinity, as validated by flow cytometry. Under identical tissue-staining and imaging conditions, the targeted SERRS NPs enabled reliable identification of HER2-overexpressed tumor xenografts with 50-fold-enhanced imaging speed compared with our standard targeted SERS NPs. This enables our REMI system to image tissue surfaces at a rate of 150 cm2 per minute at a spatial resolution of 0.5 mm.

  19. Mutual medication in capuchin monkeys – Social anointing improves coverage of topically applied anti-parasite medicines

    PubMed Central

    Bowler, Mark; Messer, Emily J. E.; Claidière, Nicolas; Whiten, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Wild and captive capuchin monkeys will anoint themselves with a range of strong smelling substances including millipedes, ants, limes and onions. Hypotheses for the function of the behaviour range from medicinal to social. However, capuchin monkeys may anoint in contact with other individuals, as well as individually. The function of social anointing has also been explained as either medicinal or to enhance social bonding. By manipulating the abundance of an anointing resource given to two groups of tufted capuchins, we tested predictions derived from the main hypotheses for the functions of anointing and in particular, social anointing. Monkeys engaged in individual and social anointing in similar proportions when resources were rare or common, and monkeys holding resources continued to join anointing groups, indicating that social anointing has functions beyond that of gaining access to resources. The distribution of individual and social anointing actions on the monkeys’ bodies supports a medicinal function for both individual and social anointing, that requires no additional social bonding hypotheses. Individual anointing targets hard-to-see body parts that are harder to groom, whilst social anointing targets hard-to-reach body parts. Social anointing in capuchins is a form of mutual medication that improves coverage of topically applied anti-parasite medicines. PMID:26456539

  20. Mutual medication in capuchin monkeys - Social anointing improves coverage of topically applied anti-parasite medicines.

    PubMed

    Bowler, Mark; Messer, Emily J E; Claidière, Nicolas; Whiten, Andrew

    2015-10-12

    Wild and captive capuchin monkeys will anoint themselves with a range of strong smelling substances including millipedes, ants, limes and onions. Hypotheses for the function of the behaviour range from medicinal to social. However, capuchin monkeys may anoint in contact with other individuals, as well as individually. The function of social anointing has also been explained as either medicinal or to enhance social bonding. By manipulating the abundance of an anointing resource given to two groups of tufted capuchins, we tested predictions derived from the main hypotheses for the functions of anointing and in particular, social anointing. Monkeys engaged in individual and social anointing in similar proportions when resources were rare or common, and monkeys holding resources continued to join anointing groups, indicating that social anointing has functions beyond that of gaining access to resources. The distribution of individual and social anointing actions on the monkeys' bodies supports a medicinal function for both individual and social anointing, that requires no additional social bonding hypotheses. Individual anointing targets hard-to-see body parts that are harder to groom, whilst social anointing targets hard-to-reach body parts. Social anointing in capuchins is a form of mutual medication that improves coverage of topically applied anti-parasite medicines.

  1. Percutaneous absorption of topically applied DTIC-14C (NSC-45388) in Yorkshire white pigs. Final report, 14 September-14 November 1976

    SciTech Connect

    Skierkowski, P.; Murphy, J.C.; Watson, E.S.

    1978-03-01

    The absorption of topically applied DTIC (5-(3,3-dimethyl-1-triazeno) imidazole-4-carboxamide-2-14C) (NSC-45388) was studied in female, weanling, Yorkshire white pigs. After 48 hours, an average of 9.61% of the topically applied dose was excreted in the urine of the test animals. Liver and kidney showed the most consistent uptake of radioactivity with heart and adrenal samples also showing significant uptake. Radioactivity was detected in random muscle samples at 6 hours after application, and in bone after 48 hours. A significant percentage of the applied dose was generally detected at and near the site of application.

  2. Comparative analysis of Lacistema pubescens and dexamethasone on topical treatment of skin inflammation in a chronic disease model and side effects.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Josiane M; Conegundes, Jéssica L M; Pinto, Nícolas C C; Mendes, Renata F; Castañon, Maria Christina M N; Scio, Elita

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the chronic topical anti-inflammatory activity of the pharmaceutical formulation ProHLP containing the hexane fraction of Lacistema pubescens (HLP). It was also investigated the possible cutaneous and systemic adverse effects of HLP and ProHLP in mice when compared to dexamethasone. The chronic topical anti-inflammatory activity was determined by croton oil multiple application-induced mouse ear oedema model. Histopathological analyses of ear tissue samples sensitized with croton oil were performed. Cutaneous atrophy induced by HLP and topical glucocorticoid treatments and excision skin wounds model to evidenced possible adverse reactions were also determined. ProHLP significantly reduced the mice ear oedema and considerably accelerated the wound-healing process. Also, HLP did not lead cutaneous atrophy and preserved the clinical aspect of the thymus, adrenal and spleen, unlike dexamethasone. The results suggested that ProHLP is an efficient and safer pharmaceutical formulation to treat chronic inflammatory diseases. © 2018 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  3. Gross and histologic evaluation of effects of photobiomodulation, silver sulfadiazine, and a topical antimicrobial product on experimentally induced full-thickness skin wounds in green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

    PubMed

    Cusack, Lara M; Mayer, Joerg; Cutler, Daniel C; Rissi, Daniel R; Divers, Stephen J

    2018-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess effects of photobiomodulation, silver sulfadiazine, and a topical antimicrobial product for the treatment of experimentally induced full-thickness skin wounds in green iguanas (Iguana iguana). ANIMALS 16 healthy subadult green iguanas. PROCEDURES Iguanas were anesthetized, and three 5-mm cutaneous biopsy specimens were obtained from each iguana (day 0). Iguanas were randomly assigned to 2 treatment groups, each of which had a control treatment. Wounds in the topical treatment group received silver sulfadiazine, a topical antimicrobial product, or no treatment. Wounds in the laser treatment group received treatment with a class 4 laser at 5 or 10 J/cm 2 or no treatment. Wound measurements were obtained daily for 14 days. Iguanas were euthanized, and treatment sites were evaluated microscopically to detect ulceration, bacterial contamination, reepithelialization, necrosis, inflammation, fibrosis, and collagen maturity. RESULTS On day 14, wounds treated with a laser at 10 J/cm 2 were significantly smaller than those treated with silver sulfadiazine, but there were no other significant differences among treatments. Histologically, there were no significant differences in ulceration, bacterial infection, reepithelialization, necrosis, inflammation, fibrosis, and collagen maturity among treatments. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Photobiomodulation at 10 J/cm 2 appeared to be a safe treatment that was tolerated well by green iguanas, but it did not result in substantial improvement in histologic evidence of wound healing, compared with results for other treatments or no treatment.

  4. Simultaneous absorption of vitamins C and E from topical microemulsions using reconstructed human epidermis as a skin model.

    PubMed

    Rozman, Branka; Gasperlin, Mirjana; Tinois-Tessoneaud, Estelle; Pirot, Fabrice; Falson, Francoise

    2009-05-01

    Antioxidants provide the mainstay for skin protection against free radical damage. The structure of microemulsions (ME), colloidal thermodynamically stable dispersions of water, oil and surfactant, allows the incorporation of both lipophilic (vitamin E) and hydrophilic (vitamin C) antioxidants in the same system. The objective of this work was to investigate the potential of non-thickened (o/w, w/o and gel-like) and thickened (with colloidal silica) ME as carriers for the two vitamins using reconstructed human epidermis (RHE). The amounts of these vitamins accumulated in and permeated across the RHE were determined, together with factors affecting skin deposition and permeation. Notable differences were observed between formulations. The absorption of vitamins C and E in RHE layers was in general enhanced by ME compared to solutions. The incorporation of vitamins in the outer phase of ME resulted in greater absorption than that when vitamins were in the inner phase. The location of the antioxidants in the ME and affinity for the vehicle appear to be crucial in the case of non-thickened ME. Addition of thickener enhanced the deposition of vitamins E and C in the RHE. By varying the composition of ME, RHE absorption of the two vitamins can be significantly modulated.

  5. Ciclopirox Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... Use the applicator brush attached to the bottle cap to apply ciclopirox topical solution evenly to all ... can reach these areas. Wipe off the bottle cap and neck and replace the cap tightly on ...

  6. Further development of LLNA:DAE method as stand-alone skin-sensitization testing method and applied for evaluation of relative skin-sensitizing potency between chemicals.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Kunihiko; Shinoda, Shinsuke; Hagiwara, Saori; Itagaki, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    To date, there has been no well-established local lymph node assay (LLNA) that includes an elicitation phase. Therefore, we developed a modified local lymph node assay with an elicitation phase (LLNA:DAE) to discriminate true skin sensitizers from chemicals that gave borderline positive results and previously reported this assay. To develop the LLNA:DAE method as a useful stand-alone testing method, we investigated the complete procedure for the LLNA:DAE method using hexyl cinnamic aldehyde (HCA), isoeugenol, and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) as test compounds. We defined the LLNA:DAE procedure as follows: in the dose-finding test, four concentrations of chemical applied to dorsum of the right ear on days 1, 2, and 3 and dorsum of both ears on day 10. Ear thickness and skin irritation score were measured on days 1, 3, 5, 10, and 12. Local lymph nodes were excised and weighed on day 12. The test dose for the primary LLNA:DAE study was selected as the dose that gave the highest left ear lymph node weight in the dose-finding study, or the lowest dose that produced a left ear lymph node of over 4 mg. This procedure was validated using nine different chemicals. Furthermore, qualitative relationship was observed between the degree of elicitation response in the left ear lymph node and the skin sensitizing potency of 32 chemicals tested in this study and the previous study. These results indicated that LLNA:DAE method was as first LLNA method that was able to evaluate the skin sensitizing potential and potency in elicitation response.

  7. Development of haemostatic decontaminants for the treatment of wounds contaminated with chemical warfare agents. 2: evaluation of in vitro topical decontamination efficacy using undamaged skin.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Christopher H; Hall, Charlotte A; Lydon, Helen L; Chipman, J K; Graham, John S; Jenner, John; Chilcott, Robert P

    2015-05-01

    The risk of penetrating, traumatic injury occurring in a chemically contaminated environment cannot be discounted. Should a traumatic injury be contaminated with a chemical warfare (CW) agent, it is likely that standard haemostatic treatment options would be complicated by the need to decontaminate the wound milieu. Thus, there is a need to develop haemostatic products that can simultaneously arrest haemorrhage and decontaminate CW agents. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a number of candidate haemostats for efficacy as skin decontaminants against three CW agents (soman, VX and sulphur mustard) using an in vitro diffusion cell containing undamaged pig skin. One haemostatic product (WoundStat™) was shown to be as effective as the standard military decontaminants Fuller's earth and M291 for the decontamination of all three CW agents. The most effective haemostatic agents were powder-based and use fluid absorption as a mechanism of action to sequester CW agent (akin to the decontaminant Fuller's earth). The envisaged use of haemostatic decontaminants would be to decontaminate from within wounds and from damaged skin. Therefore, WoundStat™ should be subject to further evaluation using an in vitro model of damaged skin. Copyright © 2014 Crown copyright. Journal of Applied Toxicology © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Applying the community health worker model in dermatology: a curriculum for skin cancer prevention education training.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Audrey A; Maisonet, Jezabel; Kirsner, Robert S; Strasswimmer, John

    2017-05-01

    Incidence of skin cancer is rising in Hispanic populations and minorities often have more advanced disease and experience higher mortality rates. Community health worker (CHW) programs to promote primary and secondary prevention show promise for many diseases, but an adequate training program in skin cancer prevention is not documented. We present a model for CHW specialty certification in skin cancer prevention for underserved, Hispanic communities. We designed a culturally appropriate CHW training program according to an empowerment model of education for skin cancer prevention and detection in underserved Hispanic communities. We partnered with a large nonprofit clinic in South Florida. Nineteen CHWs completed the 2-h training course. After the course, 82.4% (n = 14) strongly agreed with the statement "I feel confident I can educate others on the warning signs of melanoma." Eighty-eight percent (88.2%, n = 15) strongly agreed that they felt confident that they could educate others on the importance of sun safety. One hundred percent (n = 19) answered each question about how the sun affects the skin correctly while 84.2% (n = 16) were able to identify the "ABCDEs" of melanoma. Nearly 90% strongly agreed with "I plan to change my personal sun safety behaviors based on what I learned today". Our results indicate successful transfer of information and empowerment to CHWs with high levels of confidence. Disease specific "specialty certifications" are a component of effective CHW policies. An appropriate training tool for skin cancer education is an important addition to a growing list of CHW specialty certifications. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  9. A comparative study of the effects of topical application of Aloe vera, thyroid hormone and silver sulfadiazine on skin wounds in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Norouzian, Mohsen; Zarein-Dolab, Saeed; Dadpay, Masoomeh; Gazor, Roohollah

    2012-01-01

    Many research studies report the healing effects of Aloe Vera, thyroid hormone cream and silver sulfadiazine. However, the effects of these therapeutic agents are not well understood and have not been compared in one study. This study aimed at investigating the effects of topical application of an Aloe vera gel, a thyroid hormone cream and a silver sulfadiazine cream on the healing of skin wounds surgically induced in Wistar rats for determining the treatment of choice. In a randomized controlled trial, twelve male rats, aged 120 days and with a mean weight of 250 to 300 g, were divided randomly into 5 groups based on drug treatments: Aloe vera gel (AV), thyroid hormone cream (TC), silver sulfadiazine 1% (S), vehicle (V) and control. To evaluate the efficacy of each treatment technique, a biomechanical approach was used to assess tensile stress after 14 days of treatment. Tensile stress was significantly improved in the Aloe vera gel group as compared with the other four groups (P≤0.05). While the other treatment options resulted in better healing than the control group, this difference was not significant. We conclude that Aloe vera topical application accelerated the healing process more than thyroid hormone, silver sulfadiazine and vehicle in surgically induced incisions in rats. PMID:22474470

  10. Human skin levels of retinoic acid and cytochrome P-450-derived 4-hydroxyretinoic acid after topical application of retinoic acid in vivo compared to concentrations required to stimulate retinoic acid receptor-mediated transcription in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Duell, E A; Aström, A; Griffiths, C E; Chambon, P; Voorhees, J J

    1992-01-01

    Metabolism of retinoic acid to a less active metabolite, 4-hydroxyretinoic acid, occurs via cytochrome P-450 isozyme(s). Effect of a pharmacological dose of retinoic acid on the level of retinoic acid in skin and on cytochrome P-450 activity was investigated. A cream containing 0.1% retinoic acid or cream alone was applied topically to adult human skin for four days under occlusion. Treated areas were removed by a keratome and a microsomal fraction was isolated from each biopsy. In vitro incubation of 3H-retinoic acid with microsomes from in vivo retinoic acid treated sites resulted in a 4.5-fold increase (P = 0.0001, n = 13) in its transformation to 4-hydroxyretinoic acid in comparison to in vitro incubations with microsomes from in vivo cream alone treated sites. This cytochrome P-450 mediated activity was oxygen- and NADPH-dependent and was inhibited 68% by 5 microM ketoconazole (P = 0.0035, n = 8) and 51% by carbon monoxide (P = 0.02, n = 6). Cotransfection of individual retinoic acid receptors (RARs) or retinoid X receptor-alpha (RXR-alpha) and a chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) reporter plasmid containing a retinoic acid responsive element into CV-1 cells was used to determine the ED50 values for stimulation of CAT activity by retinoic acid and its metabolites. Levels of all trans and 13-cis RA in RA-treated tissues were greater than the ED50 values determined for all three RARs with these compounds. Furthermore, the level of all trans RA was greater than the ED50 for RXR-alpha whereas the 4-OH RA level was greater than the ED50 for RAR-beta and RAR-gamma but less than for RAR-alpha and RXR-alpha. These data suggest that there are sufficient amounts of retinoic acid in treated skin to activate gene transcription over both RARs and RXR-alpha. PMID:1328295

  11. 4-Day evaluation of the irritation potential of topical desoximetasone 0.25% and 0.05% spray on light-exposed skin.

    PubMed

    Patel, Nupur U; Grammenos, Alexandra; Gowda, Asha; Onikoyi, Omobola; Feldman, Steven R

    2018-06-01

    The safety and potential side effects of desoximetasone 0.25% and 0.05% sprays have not previously been studied. The primary objective of this study was to determine the irritation potential of desoximetasone 0.25%, 0.05% and vehicle sprays in response to irradiation. Thirty-four subjects were enrolled in the study, each with three study treatments (desoximetasone 0.25%, 0.05% topical sprays and vehicle) were applied to two sites each on the back of every subject, with half of the sites irradiated with filtered UV light. Dermal reactions at the test sites were evaluated using a visual scale with corresponding numerical scores that rated the degree of erythema and oedema. Desoximetasone 0.25%, 0.05%, and vehicle caused no detectable signs of phototoxicity when examined on days 3 and 4. Mean scores of desoximetasone 0.25%, 0.05% and vehicle to non-irradiated treatment areas showed no signs of irritation. Our results suggest that regular application of desoximetasone 0.25% and 0.05% topical sprays do not induce photosensitization or photoirritation. The safety of this topical spray may help with clinical management of patients using topical corticosteroids while also receiving therapeutic UV light exposure. Thus, patients can use desoximetasone sprays without concerns of side effects due to therapeutic light or sun exposure.

  12. Accelerated barrier recovery and enhancement of the barrier integrity and properties by topical application of a pH 4 compared to a pH 5.8 w/o emulsion in aged skin.

    PubMed

    Angelova-Fischer, I; Fischer, T W; Abels, C; Zillikens, D

    2018-03-25

    Increased skin surface pH is an important host-related factor for deteriorated barrier function in the aged. We investigated whether restoration of the skin pH through topical application of a water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion with pH 4 improved the barrier homeostasis in aged skin and compared the effects to an identical galenic formulation with pH 5.8. The effects of the test formulations on the barrier recovery were investigated by repeated measurements of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin pH 3 h, 6 h and 24 h after acetone-induced impairment of the barrier function in aged skin. The long-term effects of the pH 4 and pH 5.8 emulsions were analyzed by investigation of the barrier integrity/cohesion, the skin surface pH and the skin roughness and scaliness before and after a 4-week, controlled application of the formulations. The application of the pH 4 emulsion accelerated the barrier recovery in aged skin: 3 h and 6 h after acetone-induced barrier disruption the differences in the TEWL recovery between the pH4-treated and acetone control field were significant. Furthermore, the long-term application of the pH 4 formulation resulted in significantly decreased skin pH, enhanced barrier integrity and reduced skin surface roughness and scaliness. At the same time points, the pH 5.8 formulation exerted only minor effects on the barrier function parameters. Exogenous acidification through topical application of a w/o emulsion with pH 4 leads to improvement of the barrier function and maintenance of the barrier homeostasis in aged skin. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of haemostatic decontaminants for treatment of wounds contaminated with chemical warfare agents. 3: Evaluation of in vitro topical decontamination efficacy using damaged skin.

    PubMed

    Lydon, Helen L; Hall, Charlotte A; Dalton, Christopher H; Chipman, J Kevin; Graham, John S; Chilcott, Robert P

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that haemostatic products with an absorptive mechanism of action retain their clotting efficiency in the presence of toxic materials and are effective in decontaminating chemical warfare (CW) agents when applied to normal, intact skin. The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess three candidate haemostatic products for effectiveness in the decontamination of superficially damaged porcine skin exposed to the radiolabelled CW agents, soman (GD), VX and sulphur mustard (HD). Controlled physical damage (removal of the upper 100 μm skin layer) resulted in a significant enhancement of the dermal absorption of all three CW agents. Of the haemostatic products assessed, WoundStat™ was consistently the most effective, being equivalent in performance to a standard military decontaminant (fuller's earth). These data suggest that judicious application of haemostatic products to wounds contaminated with CW agents may be a viable option for the clinical management of casualties presenting with contaminated, haemorrhaging injuries. Further studies using a relevant animal model are required to confirm the potential clinical efficacy of WoundStat™ for treating wounds contaminated with CW agents. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. A Randomized, Investigator-Blinded Comparison of Two Topical Regimens in Fitzpatrick Skin Types III-VI With Moderate to Severe Facial Hyperpigmentation.

    PubMed

    Vanaman Wilson, Monique J; Jones, Isabela T; Bolton, Joanna; Larsen, Lisa; Wu, Douglas C; Goldman, Mitchel P

    2017-11-01

    Purpose: Though hydroquinone (HQ) remains the gold standard for treatment of hyperpigmentation, concerns about its safety have prompted the development of HQ-free topical skin lightening systems. To compare the efficacy and tolerability of a new HQ-free system and a popular HQ-based system for the improvement of facial hyperpigmentation and photoaging in darker skin types. This investigator-blinded trial randomized 30 subjects of Fitzpatrick skin types III to VI with moderate to severe hyperpigmentation to a new 7-product HQ-free system or a 7-product HQ-based system for 12 weeks. At 4, 8, and 12 week follow-up visits, a blinded investigator assessed efficacy and tolerability using standardized scales. Subjects also performed a self-assessment at each visit. Both the HQ-free and HQ-based systems produced significant improvements in Overall Hyperpigmentation that were sustained through week 12 (P=0.008, 0.0003). The HQ-based system demonstrated better improvement in overall hyperpigmentation at weeks 4, 8, 12 (P=0.01, 0.001, 0.003, respectively). Mottled Pigmentation Area Severity Index (MoPASI) scores improved with both systems (P=0.02, 0.01), with no statistically significant differences between the two treatment groups. Subject-rated hyperpigmentation was not different between groups. Subjects reported significantly more discomfort with the HQ-free system at week 8 (P=0.02); otherwise, measures of irritation were the same between groups. All irritation was described as mild to moderate. At week 12, 100% of subjects in the HQ-free group and 92.3% of subjects in the HQ-based group were satisfied with their outcome. Both a new HQ-free skincare system and a widely-available HQ-based system improved hyperpigmentation in Fitzpatrick skin types III to VI. Though the HQ-based system produced greater improvement in hyperpigmentation when compared to the HQ-free system, there was no difference in MoPASI scores between the treatment groups. Subjects were satisfied with

  15. Diflorasone Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... area, do not use tight-fitting diapers or plastic pants. Such use may increase side effects.Do not apply other skin preparations or products on the treated area without talking with your doctor.Do not wrap or bandage the treated area unless your doctor ...

  16. The Effect of Polyhexanide, Octenidine Dihydrochloride, and Tea Tree Oil as Topical Antiseptic Agents on In Vivo Microcirculation of the Human Skin: A Noninvasive Quantitative Analysis.

    PubMed

    Rothenberger, Jens; Krauss, Sabrina; Tschumi, Christian; Rahmanian-Schwarz, Afshin; Schaller, Hans-Eberhard; Held, Manuel

    2016-10-01

    Antiseptics are indispensable for wound management and should focus not only on the efficacy in reducing the bacterial burden but also on how much they interfere in wound healing. In this study, the authors analyzed the direct effect of topical antiseptic agents on the microcirculation of intact human skin. The perfusion dynamics were assessed before, and 10 minutes after, the volunteers' fingers of the right hand (n = 20) were immersed in the following solutions - octenidine dihydrochloride, polyhexanide, tea tree oil, and saline solution. The authors used the Oxygen to See (LEA Medizintechnik GmbH, Giessen, Germany) diagnostic device for noninvasive determination of oxygen supply in microcirculation of blood perfused tissues, which combines a laser light to determine blood flow, as well as white light to determine hemoglobin oxygenation and the relative amount of hemoglobin. Tea tree oil (÷19.0%) (B. Braun Melsungen AG, Melsungen, Germany) and polyhexanide (÷12.4%) (Lavanid, Serag Wiessner GmbH, Naila, Germany) caused a significant increase in blood flow compared to the negative control (-25.6%). Octenidine (Octenisept, Schülke & Mayr GmbH, Norderstedt, Germany) showed a nonsignificant trend towards an increase in blood flow (÷7.2%). There were alterations in the values of hemoglobin oxygenation and the relative amount of hemoglobin, but these were not significant. Perfusion is an important factor for wound healing. Therefore, it might be advantageous if antiseptic agents would increase blood flow. Tea tree oil and polyhexanide have a positive effect on skin blood flow and can therefore be used especially in critically perfused wounds, provided the adverse reactions and the antimicrobial efficacy are comparable.

  17. Accelerated re-epithelialization of partial-thickness skin wounds by a topical betulin gel: Results of a randomized phase III clinical trials program.

    PubMed

    Barret, Juan P; Podmelle, Fred; Lipový, Břetislav; Rennekampff, Hans-Oliver; Schumann, Hauke; Schwieger-Briel, Agnes; Zahn, Tobias R; Metelmann, Hans-Robert

    2017-09-01

    The clinical significance of timely re-epithelialization is obvious in burn care, since delayed wound closure is enhancing the risk of wound site infection and extensive scarring. Topical treatments that accelerate wound healing are urgently needed to reduce these sequelae. Evidence from preliminary studies suggests that betulin can accelerate the healing of different types of wounds, including second degree burns and split-thickness skin graft wounds. The goal of this combined study program consisting of two randomized phase III clinical trials in parallel is to evaluate whether a topical betulin gel (TBG) is accelerating re-epithelialization of split-thickness skin graft (STSG) donor site wounds compared to standard of care. Two parallel blindly evaluated, randomised, controlled, multicentre phase III clinical trials were performed in adults undergoing STSG surgery (EudraCT nos. 2012-003390-26 and 2012-000777-23). Donor site wounds were split into two equal halves and randomized 1:1 to standard of care (a non-adhesive moist wound dressing) or standard of care plus TBG consisting of 10% birch bark extract and 90% sunflower oil (Episalvan, Birken AG, Niefern-Oeschelbronn, Germany). The primary efficacy assessment was the intra-individual difference in time to wound closure assessed from digital photographs by three blinded experts. A total of 219 patients were included and treated in the two trials. Wounds closed faster with TBG than without it (15.3 vs. 16.5 days; mean intra-individual difference=-1.1 days [95% CI, -1.5 to -0.7]; p<0.0001). This agreed with unblinded direct clinical assessment (difference=-2.1 days [95% CI, -2.7 to -1.5]; p<0.0001). Adverse events possibly related to treatment were mild or moderate and mostly at the application site. TBG accelerates re-epithelialization of partial thickness wounds compared to the current standard of care, providing a well-tolerated contribution to burn care in practice. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by

  18. Effects of pressure applied during standardized spinal mobilizations on peripheral skin blood flow: A randomised cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Zegarra-Parodi, Rafael; Pazdernik, Vanessa K; Roustit, Matthieu; Park, Peter Yong Soo; Degenhardt, Brian F

    2016-02-01

    Peripheral skin blood flow (SBF) changes during and after spinal mobilization (SM), evaluated with laser Doppler flowmetry, may document physiological responses associated with SM. To document variations in SBF during and after application of an SM and evaluate influence of pressure on SBF by applying the same standardized SM with 3 different nonnoxious pressures. Cross-over design with 4 interventions on 4 different days: control (no touch) and 3 SMs applied rhythmically at 5%, 40%, or 80% of pain pressure threshold (sham SM, low-pressure SM, or high-pressure SM, respectively). Thirty-two individuals participated. The inspiratory gasp (IG) test was our positive control of vasoconstriction through excitation of the skin sympathetic nervous activity (SSNA). Each session comprised 5 phases: (1) baseline at the end of a 20-min acclimatization, (2) IG test, (3) post-IG phase, (4) SM phase or no manual contact for control, and (5) post-SM phase. A Biopac MP36 system collected SBF data, and a Novel Pliance-X system recorded pressure data. Equal and significant bilateral vasodilation occurred during application of unilateral sham SM, low-pressure SM, and high-pressure SM. Post-SM significant vasodilation persisted after high-pressure SM. The current study is the first to describe bilateral peripheral SBF changes occurring during and 5 min after application of standardized SMs. Our post-SM vasodilation suggests involvement of mechanisms other than the putative SSNA-excitatory mechanism proposed with skin conductance measurements. Persistence of post-SM vasodilation following only high-pressure SM suggests possible pressure-dependent mechanisms. However, further research is warranted to clarify our findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Simultaneous effects of tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (TPGS) on local hair growth promotion and systemic absorption of topically applied minoxidil in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Ho; Sheu, Ming-Thau; Wu, An-Bang; Lin, Keng-Ping; Ho, Hsiu-O

    2005-12-08

    In this study, topical minoxidil solutions supplemented with TPGS in cosolvent systems of various compositions consisting of water, alcohol, and polyethylene glycol 400 were designed to evaluate the efficacy of promoting hair growth after topical application and the safety in terms of the amount of minoxidil absorbed through the skin into the circulation using C57BL/6J mice as a model. The commercial product of 2% Regaine) was used as the positive control. The role, which sulfotransferase activity plays in hair growth with treatment using minoxidil, was determined as well. The results revealed that the addition of 0.5% TPGS was able to enhance the proliferation of hair, but an increase in the amount of TPGS to 2% led to deterioration in the enhancement of hair growth. At the higher added amount (2.0%) of TPGS, the promotion of hair growth was slightly reduced for both cosolvent formulations F1 (100% water) and F3 (100% PEG 400), whereas it was reduced to a greater extent for the cosolvent formulations F8-F10. In comparison, the influences of cosolvent compositions with TPGS amounts of 0.0 and 2.0% on the promotion of hair growth were similar. On the contrary, variability in the promotion of hair growth by different solvent formulations was minimal when the added amount of TPGS was 0.5%. In general, a relationship between hair growth and sulfotransferase activities after topical application of 2% Regaine and minoxidil formulations containing various amounts of TPGS was not demonstrated. Plasma concentrations of minoxidil with 2% Regaine were found to be greater than those of 2% minoxidil in those cosolvent formulations containing various amounts of TPGS, while showing insignificant differences among those 10 cosolvent formulations with a fixed amount of TPGS. A tendency for the plasma concentration of minoxidil to increase after the topical administration of minoxidil formulations containing the higher amount of TPGS (2%) was noted.

  20. The percutaneous toxicokinetics of VX in a damaged skin porcine model and the evaluation of WoundStat™ as a topical decontaminant.

    PubMed

    Lydon, Helen; Hall, Charlotte; Matar, Hazem; Dalton, Christopher; Chipman, J Kevin; Graham, John S; Chilcott, Robert P

    2018-03-01

    This study used a damaged skin, porcine model to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of WoundStat™ for the decontamination of superficial, nerve agent-contaminated wounds. Anaesthetized animals were randomly assigned to either control (n = 7), no decontamination (n = 12) or WoundStat™ (n = 12) treatment groups. Pigs were exposed to a 5× LD 50 dose of neat, radiolabelled S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl]-O-ethyl methyl-phosphonothioate (VX; or equivalent volume of sterile saline for the control group) via an area of superficially damaged skin on the ear. WoundStat™ was applied at 30 seconds post-exposure to assigned animals. The VX contaminant (or saline) and decontaminant remained in place for the duration of the study (up to 6 hours). Physiological parameters and signs of intoxication were recorded during the exposure period. Skin and organ samples were taken post mortem for 14 C-VX distribution analyses. Blood samples were taken periodically for toxicokinetic and whole-blood acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity analyses. VX exposure was accompanied by a rapid decrease in AChE activity in all animals, regardless of decontamination. However, decontamination significantly improved survival rate and time and reduced the severity of signs of intoxication. In addition, the distribution of 14 C-VX in key internal organs and post mortem blood samples was significantly lower in the WoundStat™ treatment group. This study demonstrates that WoundStat™ may be a suitable medical countermeasure for increasing both survival rate and time following VX exposure. The results also suggest that AChE activity is not a useful prognostic indicator. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Differences in therapeutic effects of topically applied corticosteroid and tacrolimus on atopic dermatitis-like symptoms in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Atsushi; Tominaga, Mitsutoshi; Takahashi, Nobuaki; Matsuda, Hironori; Kamata, Yayoi; Umehara, Yoshie; Ko, Kyi Chan; Suga, Yasushi; Ogawa, Hideoki; Takamori, Kenji

    2017-04-01

    Topical corticosteroid and calcineurin inhibitor have similar therapeutic benefits in atopic dermatitis (AD), but the differences in therapeutic mechanisms of action of these agents against AD symptoms are not fully understood. This study was performed to examine the different effects of topical betamethasone valerate (BMV), clobetasol propionate (CBP), and tacrolimus (TAC) on itch-related behavior and dermatitis in NC/Nga mice with AD-like symptoms. AD-like dermatitis was induced in the dorsal skin of NC/Nga mice by repeated topical application of Dermatophagoides farinae body (Dfb) ointment twice weekly for three weeks. Mice with dermatitis scores over 5 were divided into five groups with equal dermatitis scores and treated with BMV, CBP, TAC, or Vaseline (Vas) once daily for two consecutive days, or were not treated (NT). Scratching behavior was analyzed using a SCLABA ® -Real system. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) before and after treatment was measured using a Tewameter ® TM210. Skin collected from each group was analyzed histologically. After the second treatment, dermatitis showed significantly greater improvement in the CBP and TAC-treated groups than in the Vas-treated and NT groups. The numbers of scratching bouts were significantly lower in CBP and TAC-treated mice than in Vas-treated mice. TEWL was significantly lower in TAC-, but not in CBP-, treated mice than in Vas-treated mice. Immunohistochemical examination showed that BMV, CBP and TAC did not reduce the increased densities of epidermal protein gene product 9.5- and substance P-immunoreactive fibers. The numbers of dermal CD4-immunoreactive T cells were significantly lower in BMV and CBP-treated mice than in Vas-treated and NT mice. The numbers of dermal eosinophils were significantly lower in BMV, CBP and TAC-treated mice than in Vas-treated and NT mice, with CBP showing the strongest effect. CBP significantly reduced epidermal thickness compared with Vas and NT. There were no significant

  2. Quantification of the carcinogenic effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in used engine oil by topical application onto the skin of mice.

    PubMed

    Grimmer, G; Dettbarn, G; Brune, H; Deutsch-Wenzel, R; Misfeld, J

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to identify the substances mainly responsible for the carcinogenic effect of used engine oil from gasoline engines using topical application as a carcinogen-specific bioassay. This was performed by comparison of the tumorigenic effect of single fractions with that of an unseparated sample of the lubricating oil. The probit analysis of the results shows: 1) The used engine oil, from gasoline-driven automobiles, investigated provoked local tumors after long-term application to the dorsal skin of mice. The incidence of carcinoma depended on the dose of the oil. 2) The fraction of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) containing more than three rings accounts for about 70% of the total carcinogenicity in the case of crankcase oil. This fraction constitutes only up to 1.14% by weight of the total oil sample. 3) The content of benzo(a)pyrene (216.8 mg/kg) accounts for 18% of the total carcinogenicity of the used oil. 4) Regarding the reduced carcinogenicity of the oil sample, which was reconstituted from all fractions, it seems possible that some of the carcinogenic substances were lost due to volatility, with evaporation of the solvents from the oil-fractionation processes. 5) Regarding the small effect of the PAH-free fraction, as well as the equal carcinogenic effects of the PAH-fraction (containing more than three rings) and the reconstituted oil sample, no hints for a co-carcinogenic activity were obtained.

  3. Evidence for percutaneous absorption of isotretinoin from the photo-isomerization of topical tretinoin.

    PubMed

    Lehman, P A; Malany, A M

    1989-11-01

    Tretinoin (0.1% Retin-A cream) was topically applied to human cadaver skin in vitro using Franz diffusion chambers. The photo-isomerization of tretinoin and retinoic acid percutaneous absorption in the absence of metabolic activity were assessed with and without ambient light exposure to the skin. Using HPLC, UV, and GC/MSD, a retinoid exhibiting identical chromatographic and spectral characteristics of isotretinoin was observed in the samples from the skin exposed to light, but was virtually absent in the skin samples maintained in the dark. From a single topical application of tretinoin, isotretinoin was as abundant as tretinoin in the chamber receiver solution, dermis, epidermis, and on the skin surface at 24 h after topical application. The data suggest the possibility that isotretinoin may have an important role in the pharmacology of topically applied tretinoin.

  4. Reduction of oxidative-nitrosative stress underlies anticataract effect of topically applied tocotrienol in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Abdul Nasir, Nurul Alimah; Agarwal, Renu; Sheikh Abdul Kadir, Siti Hamimah; Vasudevan, Sushil; Tripathy, Minaketan; Iezhitsa, Igor; Mohammad Daher, Aqil; Ibrahim, Mohd Ikraam; Mohd Ismail, Nafeeza

    2017-01-01

    Cataract, a leading cause of blindness, is of special concern in diabetics as it occurs at earlier onset. Polyol accumulation and increased oxidative-nitrosative stress in cataractogenesis are associated with NFκB activation, iNOS expression, ATP depletion, loss of ATPase functions, calpain activation and proteolysis of soluble to insoluble proteins. Tocotrienol was previously shown to reduce lens oxidative stress and inhibit cataractogenesis in galactose-fed rats. In current study, we investigated anticataract effects of topical tocotrienol and possible mechanisms involved in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in Sprague Dawley rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Diabetic rats were treated with vehicle (DV) or tocotrienol (DT). A third group consists of normal, non-diabetic rats were treated with vehicle (NV). All treatments were given topically, bilaterally, twice daily for 8 weeks with weekly slit lamp monitoring. Subsequently, rats were euthanized and lenses were subjected to estimation of polyol accumulation, oxidative-nitrosative stress, NFκB activation, iNOS expression, ATP levels, ATPase activities, calpain activity and total protein levels. Cataract progression was delayed from the fifth week onwards in DT with lower mean of cataract stages compared to DV group (p<0.01) despite persistent hyperglycemia. Reduced cataractogenesis in DT group was accompanied with lower aldose reductase activity and sorbitol level compared to DV group (p<0.01). DT group also showed reduced NFκB activation, lower iNOS expression and reduced oxidative-nitrosative stress compared to DV group. Lenticular ATP and ATPase and calpain 2 activities in DT group were restored to normal. Consequently, soluble to insoluble protein ratio in DT group was higher compared to DV (p<0.05). In conclusion, preventive effect of topical tocotrienol on development of cataract in STZ-induced diabetic rats could be attributed to reduced lens aldose reductase

  5. Reduction of oxidative-nitrosative stress underlies anticataract effect of topically applied tocotrienol in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Nasir, Nurul Alimah; Agarwal, Renu; Sheikh Abdul Kadir, Siti Hamimah; Vasudevan, Sushil; Tripathy, Minaketan; Iezhitsa, Igor; Mohammad Daher, Aqil; Ibrahim, Mohd Ikraam; Mohd Ismail, Nafeeza

    2017-01-01

    Cataract, a leading cause of blindness, is of special concern in diabetics as it occurs at earlier onset. Polyol accumulation and increased oxidative-nitrosative stress in cataractogenesis are associated with NFκB activation, iNOS expression, ATP depletion, loss of ATPase functions, calpain activation and proteolysis of soluble to insoluble proteins. Tocotrienol was previously shown to reduce lens oxidative stress and inhibit cataractogenesis in galactose-fed rats. In current study, we investigated anticataract effects of topical tocotrienol and possible mechanisms involved in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in Sprague Dawley rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Diabetic rats were treated with vehicle (DV) or tocotrienol (DT). A third group consists of normal, non-diabetic rats were treated with vehicle (NV). All treatments were given topically, bilaterally, twice daily for 8 weeks with weekly slit lamp monitoring. Subsequently, rats were euthanized and lenses were subjected to estimation of polyol accumulation, oxidative-nitrosative stress, NFκB activation, iNOS expression, ATP levels, ATPase activities, calpain activity and total protein levels. Cataract progression was delayed from the fifth week onwards in DT with lower mean of cataract stages compared to DV group (p<0.01) despite persistent hyperglycemia. Reduced cataractogenesis in DT group was accompanied with lower aldose reductase activity and sorbitol level compared to DV group (p<0.01). DT group also showed reduced NFκB activation, lower iNOS expression and reduced oxidative-nitrosative stress compared to DV group. Lenticular ATP and ATPase and calpain 2 activities in DT group were restored to normal. Consequently, soluble to insoluble protein ratio in DT group was higher compared to DV (p<0.05). In conclusion, preventive effect of topical tocotrienol on development of cataract in STZ-induced diabetic rats could be attributed to reduced lens aldose reductase

  6. Resolvin E1 analog RX-10045 0.1% reduces corneal stromal haze in rabbits when applied topically after PRK.

    PubMed

    Torricelli, Andre A M; Santhanam, Abirami; Agrawal, Vandana; Wilson, Steven E

    2014-01-01

    To perform a masked study to determine whether resolvin E1 (RvE1), a lipid-derived immunomodulator, could regulate the development of corneal haze and opacity-related myofibroblasts after opacity-generating high correction photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) in rabbits. Three groups of eight rabbits each were included in the study. Nine diopter (D) PRK for myopia was performed in each test cornea, and the eyes were treated with 30 µl of topical solution every 4 h (six times a day) for 5 days starting immediately after PRK. Group 1 was treated with 0.1% RX-10045, a prodrug of an RvE1 analog; group 2 was treated with 0.01% RX-10045; and group 3 was treated with vehicle control solution. At 1 month after PRK, haze was graded at the slit-lamp by a masked observer. Immunohistochemistry for α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) was performed on the central cornea of each test eye to determine the anterior stromal myofibroblast density. Corneal opacity was significantly lower in the 0.1% RX-10045 group, but not the 0.01% RX-10045 group, compared to the vehicle control group (p=0.029), at 1 month after -9.0D PRK. At 1 month after -9.0D PRK, SMA+ myofibroblast densities in the anterior stroma were not statistically significantly different among the three groups, although a trend toward lower myofibroblast generation was noted in the 0.1% RX-10045 group. Topical 0.1% RX-10045, a prodrug of an RvE1 analog, reduces corneal opacity after haze-generating PRK in rabbits. Further studies are needed to determine the precise points at which RvE1 decreases corneal opacity after injury.

  7. Topically applied connective tissue growth factor/CCN2 improves diabetic preclinical cutaneous wound healing: potential role for CTGF in human diabetic foot ulcer healing.

    PubMed

    Henshaw, F R; Boughton, P; Lo, L; McLennan, S V; Twigg, S M

    2015-01-01

    Topical application of CTGF/CCN2 to rodent diabetic and control wounds was examined. In parallel research, correlation of CTGF wound fluid levels with healing rate in human diabetic foot ulcers was undertaken. Full thickness cutaneous wounds in diabetic and nondiabetic control rats were treated topically with 1 μg rhCTGF or vehicle alone, on 2 consecutive days. Wound healing rate was observed on day 14 and wound sites were examined for breaking strength and granulation tissue. In the human study across 32 subjects, serial CTGF regulation was analyzed longitudinally in postdebridement diabetic wound fluid. CTGF treated diabetic wounds had an accelerated closure rate compared with vehicle treated diabetic wounds. Healed skin withstood more strain before breaking in CTGF treated rat wounds. Granulation tissue from CTGF treatment in diabetic wounds showed collagen IV accumulation compared with nondiabetic animals. Wound α-smooth muscle actin was increased in CTGF treated diabetic wounds compared with untreated diabetic wounds, as was macrophage infiltration. Endogenous wound fluid CTGF protein rate of increase in human diabetic foot ulcers correlated positively with foot ulcer healing rate (r = 0.406; P < 0.001). These data collectively increasingly substantiate a functional role for CTGF in human diabetic foot ulcers.

  8. Ipomoea pes-caprae (L.) R. Br (Convolvulaceae) relieved nociception and inflammation in mice - A topical herbal medicine against effects due to cnidarian venom-skin contact.

    PubMed

    da Silva Barth, Cristiane; Tolentino de Souza, Hugo Guilherme; Rocha, Lilian W; da Silva, Gislaine Francieli; Dos Anjos, Mariana Ferreira; Pastor, Veronica D'Avila; Belle Bresolin, Tania Mari; Garcia Couto, Angelica; Roberto Santin, José; Meira Quintão, Nara Lins

    2017-03-22

    induced by histamine injection. Finally, the semisolid presented significant inhibition in trypsin- and capsaicin-induced spontaneous nociception. The hydroethanolic extract of I. pes-caprae showed compliance with the topical popular use of the herbal product to relieve the symptoms evoked by the cnidarian venom-skin contact, such as neurogenic oedema and nociception. The extract components seem to interfere with the effects resulting from the TRPV1, B 2 R and PAR-2 activation, once it interfered with painful-behaviour and oedema induced by capsaicin, BK and trypsin, pointing the histaminergic system as the main target, once it is an important mediator in the signalling pathway of the aforementioned receptors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Application site and adult age impact on the efficacy of two topically-applied insecticides to Culex quinquefasciatus Say

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Insecticide droplets will impact the mosquito body, but little is known about the interaction of these droplets to a mosquito as it is flying through the air. Droplets of insecticide were applied to the mosquito body in order to determine if a droplet of insecticide will kill a mosquito when it com...

  10. Using chamomile solution or a 1% topical hydrocortisone ointment in the management of peristomal skin lesions in colostomy patients: results of a controlled clinical study.

    PubMed

    Charousaei, Firuzeh; Dabirian, Azam; Mojab, Faraz

    2011-05-01

    Peristomal skin complications interfere with stoma appliance use and negatively affect patient quality of life. To find an alternative to long-term peristomal skin treatment involving corticosteroid products, a prospective study was conducted to compare the effect of a German chamomile solution to topical steroids on peristomal skin lesions in colostomy patients. Persons seeking care for the treatment of a peristomal skin lesion were assigned to a treatment regimen of once-a-day hydrocortisone 1% ointment (n = 36) or twice-a-day chamomile compress (n = 36) application. Treatments were assigned by matching patient demographic, history, and skin condition variables. At baseline, no significant differences between the variables were observed. Forty-two (42) of the 72 patients were female. Most participants had their stoma for more than 1 year (18.14 months in the chamomile and 17.69 months in the steroid group). Lesions were assessed every 3 days for a maximum of 28 days. Lesions healed significantly faster in the chamomile than in the hydrocortisone group (mean time to healing 8.89 ± 4.89 and 14.53 ± 7.6 days, respectively; P = 0.001). Stoma patient symptoms (pain and itching) also resolved more expediently in the chamomile than in the hydrocortisone group. Because corticosteroids are nonspecific anti-inflammatory agents, herbal extract use can prevent the side effects of long-term topical corticosteroid use. The results of this study suggest that German chamomile can be recommended to relieve itching and inflammation and that twice-daily application facilitates healing of peristomal skin lesions. Methods to facilitate the application of topical treatments without interfering with appliance adhesion or necessitating frequent appliance removal should be refined. Additional randomized studies are needed to confirm the results of this study.

  11. Effect of topical application of virgin coconut oil on skin components and antioxidant status during dermal wound healing in young rats.

    PubMed

    Nevin, K G; Rajamohan, T

    2010-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of a topical application of virgin coconut oil (VCO) on excision wounds in young rats. Three sets of experiments with 3 groups of female Sprague-Dawley rats each consisting of 6 animals were used for studying wound closure time, antioxidant status and biochemical parameters. Group 1 was the control; groups 2 and 3 were treated with 0.5 and 1.0 ml VCO, respectively, 24 h after wound creation for 10 days. After the experimental period, the healing property of VCO was evaluated by monitoring the time taken for complete epithelization as well as levels of various parameters of the wound's granulation tissue. The collagen solubility pattern, glycohydrolase activity, and histopathology of the granulation tissue were also analyzed. The antioxidant status during wound healing was monitored continuously for 14 days. VCO-treated wounds healed much faster, as indicated by a decreased time of complete epithelization and higher levels of various skin components. Pepsin-soluble collagen showed a significant increase in VCO- treated wounds, indicating a higher collagen cross-linking. Glycohydrolase activities were also found to be increased due to a higher turnover of collagen. Antioxidant enzyme activities, and reduced glutathione and malondialdehyde levels were found to be increased on the 10th day after wounding, which were found to have returned to normal levels on day 14 in the treated wounds. The lipid peroxide levels were found to be lower in the treated wounds. A histopathological study showed an increase in fibroblast proliferation and neovascularization in VCO-treated wounds compared to controls. The beneficial effect of VCO can be attributed to the cumulative effect of various biologically active minor components present in it. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. A single topical dose of erythropoietin applied on a collagen carrier enhances calvarial bone healing in pigs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose The osteogenic potency of erythropoietin (EPO) has been documented. However, its efficacy in a large-animal model has not yet been investigated; nor has a clinically safe dosage. The purpose of this study was to overcome such limitations of previous studies and thereby pave the way for possible clinical application. Our hypothesis was that EPO increases calvarial bone healing compared to a saline control in the same subject. Methods We used a porcine calvarial defect model. In each of 18 pigs, 6 cylindrical defects (diameter: 1 cm; height: 1 cm) were drilled, allowing 3 pairwise comparisons. Treatment consisted of either 900 IU/mL EPO or an equal volume of saline in combination with either autograft, a collagen carrier, or a polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold. After an observation time of 5 weeks, the primary outcome (bone volume fraction (BV/TV)) was assessed with high-resolution quantitative computed tomography. Secondary outcome measures were histomorphometry and blood samples. Results The median BV/TV ratio of the EPO-treated collagen group was 1.06 (CI: 1.02–1.11) relative to the saline-treated collagen group. Histomorphometry showed a similar median effect size, but it did not reach statistical significance. Autograft treatment had excellent healing potential and was able to completely regenerate the bone defect independently of EPO treatment. Bony ingrowth into the PCL scaffold was sparse, both with and without EPO. Neither a substantial systemic effect nor adverse events were observed. The number of blood vessels was similar in EPO-treated defects and saline-treated defects. Interpretation Topical administration of EPO on a collagen carrier moderately increased bone healing. The dosing regime was safe, and could have possible application in the clinical setting. However, in order to increase the clinical relevance, a more potent but still clinically safe dose should be investigated. PMID:24564750

  13. Skin and antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Poljsak, Borut; Dahmane, Raja; Godic, Aleksandar

    2013-04-01

    It is estimated that total sun exposure occurs non-intentionally in three quarters of our lifetimes. Our skin is exposed to majority of UV radiation during outdoor activities, e.g. walking, practicing sports, running, hiking, etc. and not when we are intentionally exposed to the sun on the beach. We rarely use sunscreens during those activities, or at least not as much and as regular as we should and are commonly prone to acute and chronic sun damage of the skin. The only protection of our skin is endogenous (synthesis of melanin and enzymatic antioxidants) and exogenous (antioxidants, which we consume from the food, like vitamins A, C, E, etc.). UV-induced photoaging of the skin becomes clinically evident with age, when endogenous antioxidative mechanisms and repair processes are not effective any more and actinic damage to the skin prevails. At this point it would be reasonable to ingest additional antioxidants and/or to apply them on the skin in topical preparations. We review endogenous and exogenous skin protection with antioxidants.

  14. Use of nonthermal blue (405- to 420-nm) and near-infrared light (850- to 900-nm) dual-wavelength system in combination with glycolic acid peels and topical vitamin C for skin photorejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Nathalie; Fritz, Klaus; Mordon, Serge

    2006-09-01

    A major cause of skin aging is a chronic microinflammation created by environmental conditions and ultraviolet exposures. The hand-free application on the skin of a new intense light combining a narrowband blue-light (405- to 420-nm) antiinflammatory emission and a near-infrared (850- to 890-nm) emission inducing self-defense mechanisms provides a new component to photorejuvenation and antiaging treatment protocols. An innovative skin rejuvenation schedule is presented in this study. It includes skin exposure to the light, with concomitant glycolic peels and daily vitamin C cream regimen for group A and only topical vitamin C cream and glycolic peels for control group B. Results show a significant improvement on pore size, rhytids, and radiance in group A. Conversely no improvement is noticed in group B except for a brief increase of skin radiance. Mechanisms of action of that specific light source are discussed. The exposure to this device can clinically enhance conventional antiaging protocols in skin rejuvenation.

  15. Topical treatments of Saussurea costus root and Thuja orientalis L. synergistically alleviate atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions by inhibiting protease-activated receptor-2 and NF-κB signaling in HaCaT cells and Nc/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hye Jeong; Kim, Min Jung; Kang, Suna; Moon, Na Rang; Kim, Da Sol; Lee, Na Ra; Kim, Kang Sung; Park, Sunmin

    2017-03-06

    The root of Saussurea costus (Aucklandia lappa Decne, Aucklandiae Radix, SC) and Thuja orientalis L. (TOL) have been traditionally used as anti-inflammatory agents in Korea. However, they have not been studied for the efficacy of atopic dermatitis (AD) treatment, a chronic inflammatory skin disease. We investigated the efficacy of topical applications with 1,3-butyleneglycol extracts of SC and TOL to alleviate the symptoms of AD. HaCaT cells and the dorsal skin of Nc/Nga mice had a local exposure of house mite extracts and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), respectively. After lesions developed, we topically applied 1,3-butylen glycol (vehicle; control), SC (30%), TOL (30%), or SC (15%)+TOL (15%) to the skin lesions for 5 weeks. The normal-control was not exposed to DNCB. The skin thickness, mast cell infiltration, serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) and IgG1 and gene expressions of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13, and IFN-γ in the dorsal skin and HaCaT cells were measured. Chlorogenic acid (129.6±10.2μg/g) for SC and catechin and apigenin (93.4±13.2 and 16.9±1.3μg/g, respectively) for TOL were used as indicator compounds for the strength of the extracts. SC+TOL decreased the expression of protease-activated receptor-2 and ICAM-1 and the release of TNF-α and IL-6 in HaCaT cells activated by 3μg/mL house mite extracts in comparison to either of SC or TOL alone. In Nc/Nga mice challenged with DNCB, SC+TOL synergistically attenuated clinical symptoms of AD such as erythema, hemorrhage, edema, excoriation and dryness in the dorsal skin better than either SC or TOL alone. Histological analysis of the dorsal skin also showed that SC+TOL treatment significantly and additively decreased the inflammatory cellular infiltrate, including mast cells and eosinophils in comparison to either of SC or TOL. SC+TOL also decreased serum IgE and IgG1 levels and the expression of IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-13 mRNA in dorsal skin in DNCB-treated Nc/Nga mice. SC+TOL relieved the symptoms of AD by

  16. Efficient topical delivery of chlorogenic acid by an oil-in-water microemulsion to protect skin against UV-induced damage.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Shuji; Yoshii, Kenta; Morita, Shin-ya; Teraoka, Reiko

    2011-01-01

    We examined the intradermal delivery of a hydrophilic polyphenol chlorogenic acid by in vitro study using excised guinea pig dorsal skin and Yucatan micropig skin. Skin accumulation as well as the solubility of chlorogenic acid in aqueous vehicles was much greater than for other polyphenols such as quercetin and genistein. However, since enhancement of skin delivery seemed to be necessary to exhibit its protective effects against oxidative damage of skin, we examined the effects of microemulsions as vehicles. Using microemulsions consisting of 150 mM NaCl solution, isopropyl myristate, polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80) and ethanol, skin accumulation as well as solubility of chlorogenic acid further increased. Enhancement effect of an oil-in-water (o/w-type) microemulsion was greater than that of a water-in-oil (w/o-type) microemulsion possibly due to the greater increase in solubility. This finding was quite different from previous findings on relatively hydrophobic polyphenols such as quercetin and genistein. Pretreatment of guinea pig dorsal skin with chlorogenic acid containing microemulsion gel prevented erythema formation induced by UV irradiation. These findings indicate the potential use of hydrophilic chlorogenic acid with o/w-type microemulsion as a vehicle to protect skin against UV-induced oxidative damage.

  17. Topically applied NO-releasing nanoparticles can increase intracorporal pressure and elicit spontaneous erections in a rat model of radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Tar, Moses; Cabrales, Pedro; Mahantesh, Navarti; Adler, Brandon; Nacharaju, Parimala; Friedman, Adam; Friedman, Joel; Davies, Kelvin P.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP) suffer from erectile dysfunction (ED) refractory to PDE5 inhibitors, which act downstream of CN-mediated release of nitric oxide (NO). Direct delivery of NO to the penis could potentially circumvent this limitation. Aim To determine if topically applied NO-releasing nanoparticles (NO-np) can elicit erections in a rat model of RP and demonstrate that the mechanism is through increased blood flow. Methods 26 Sprague–Dawley rats underwent bilateral transection of the CN. One week later NO-np were applied topically to the penile shaft in DMSO-gel (10 animals) or coconut oil (6 animals). Control animals were treated with empty-np. Erectile function was determined through the intracorporal pressure/blood pressure ratio (ICP/BP). The effect of the NO-np on blood flow was determined using a hamster dorsal window chamber. Main Outcome Measures Animals were investigated for spontaneous erections, onset and duration of erectile response and basal ICP/BP ratio. Microcirculatory blood-flow was determined through arteriolar and venular diameter and blood flow. Results Eight of ten animals treated with NO-np suspended in DMSO-gel had significant increases in basal ICP/BP, and six out of these ten animals demonstrated spontaneous erections of approximately one minute duration. Onset of spontaneous erections ranged from 5–37 minutes and occurred for at least 45 minutes. Similar results were observed with NO-np applied in coconut oil. No erectile response was observed in control animal models treated with empty-np. The hamster dorsal window chamber demonstrated NO-np applied as a suspension in coconut oil caused a significant increase in the microcirculatory blood flow, sustained over 90 minutes. Conclusions Topically applied NO-np induced spontaneous erections and increased basal ICP in an animal model of RP. These effects are most likely due to increased microcirculatory blood flow. These characteristics suggest that

  18. Topically applied NO-releasing nanoparticles can increase intracorporal pressure and elicit spontaneous erections in a rat model of radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Tar, Moses; Cabrales, Pedro; Navati, Mahantesh; Adler, Brandon; Nacharaju, Parimala; Friedman, Adam J; Friedman, Joel; Davies, Kelvin P

    2014-12-01

    Patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP) suffer from erectile dysfunction (ED) refractory to phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors, which act downstream of cavernous nerve (CN)-mediated release of nitric oxide (NO). Direct delivery of NO to the penis could potentially circumvent this limitation. This study aimed to determine if topically applied NO-releasing nanoparticles (NO-NPs) could elicit erections in a rat model of RP through increased blood flow. Twenty-six Sprague Dawley rats underwent bilateral transection of the CN. One week later, NO-NPs were applied topically to the penile shaft in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) gel (10 animals) or coconut oil (6 animals). Control animals were treated with empty NPs. Erectile function was determined through the intracorporal pressure/blood pressure ratio (ICP/BP). The effect of the NO-NPs on blood flow was determined using a hamster dorsal window chamber. Animals were investigated for spontaneous erections, onset and duration of erectile response, and basal ICP/BP ratio. Microcirculatory blood flow was determined through measurements of arteriolar and venular diameter and red blood cell velocity. Eight of 10 animals treated with NO-NPs suspended in DMSO gel had significant increases in basal ICP/BP, and 6 out of these 10 animals demonstrated spontaneous erections of approximately 1 minute in duration. Time to onset of spontaneous erections ranged from 5 to 37 minutes, and they occurred for at least 45 minutes. Similar results were observed with NO-NPs applied in coconut oil. No erectile response was observed in control animal models treated with empty NPs. The hamster dorsal window chamber experiment demonstrated that NO-NPs applied as a suspension in coconut oil caused a significant increase in the microcirculatory blood flow, sustained over 90 minutes. Topically applied NO-NPs induced spontaneous erections and increased basal ICP in an animal model of RP. These effects are most likely due to increased microcirculatory blood

  19. Undergraduate teaching modules featuring geodesy data applied to critical social topics (GETSI: GEodetic Tools for Societal Issues)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt-Sitaula, B. A.; Walker, B.; Douglas, B. J.; Charlevoix, D. J.; Miller, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    The GETSI project, funded by NSF TUES, is developing and disseminating teaching and learning materials that feature geodesy data applied to critical societal issues such as climate change, water resource management, and natural hazards (serc.carleton.edu/getsi). It is collaborative between UNAVCO (NSF's geodetic facility), Mt San Antonio College, and Indiana University. GETSI was initiated after requests by geoscience faculty for geodetic teaching resources for introductory and majors-level students. Full modules take two weeks but module subsets can also be used. Modules are developed and tested by two co-authors and also tested in a third classroom. GETSI is working in partnership with the Science Education Resource Center's (SERC) InTeGrate project on the development, assessment, and dissemination to ensure compatibility with the growing number of resources for geoscience education. Two GETSI modules are being published in October 2015. "Ice mass and sea level changes" includes geodetic data from GRACE, satellite altimetry, and GPS time series. "Imaging Active Tectonics" has students analyzing InSAR and LiDAR data to assess infrastructure earthquake vulnerability. Another three modules are in testing during fall 2015 and will be published in 2016. "Surface process hazards" investigates mass wasting hazard and risk using LiDAR data. "Water resources and geodesy" uses GRACE, vertical GPS, and reflection GPS data to have students investigating droughts in California and the High Great Plains. "GPS, strain, and earthquakes" helps students learn about infinitesimal and coseismic strain through analysis of horizontal GPS data and includes an extension module on the Napa 2014 earthquake. In addition to teaching resources, the GETSI project is compiling recommendations on successful development of geodesy curricula. The chief recommendations so far are the critical importance of including scientific experts in the authorship team and investing significant resources in

  20. Tactile friction of topical formulations.

    PubMed

    Skedung, L; Buraczewska-Norin, I; Dawood, N; Rutland, M W; Ringstad, L

    2016-02-01

    The tactile perception is essential for all types of topical formulations (cosmetic, pharmaceutical, medical device) and the possibility to predict the sensorial response by using instrumental methods instead of sensory testing would save time and cost at an early stage product development. Here, we report on an instrumental evaluation method using tactile friction measurements to estimate perceptual attributes of topical formulations. Friction was measured between an index finger and an artificial skin substrate after application of formulations using a force sensor. Both model formulations of liquid crystalline phase structures with significantly different tactile properties, as well as commercial pharmaceutical moisturizing creams being more tactile-similar, were investigated. Friction coefficients were calculated as the ratio of the friction force to the applied load. The structures of the model formulations and phase transitions as a result of water evaporation were identified using optical microscopy. The friction device could distinguish friction coefficients between the phase structures, as well as the commercial creams after spreading and absorption into the substrate. In addition, phase transitions resulting in alterations in the feel of the formulations could be detected. A correlation was established between skin hydration and friction coefficient, where hydrated skin gave rise to higher friction. Also a link between skin smoothening and finger friction was established for the commercial moisturizing creams, although further investigations are needed to analyse this and correlations with other sensorial attributes in more detail. The present investigation shows that tactile friction measurements have potential as an alternative or complement in the evaluation of perception of topical formulations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Stimulation of the penetration of particles into the skin by plasma tissue interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lademann, O.; Richter, H.; Kramer, A.; Patzelt, A.; Meinke, M. C.; Graf, C.; Gao, Q.; Korotianskiy, E.; Rühl, E.; Weltmann, K.-D.; Lademann, J.; Koch, S.

    2011-10-01

    A high number of treatments in dermatology are based on the penetration of topically applied drugs through the skin barrier. This process is predominantly inefficient, on account of the strong protection properties of the upper skin layer - the stratum corneum. If the skin barrier is damaged, the penetration efficiency of topically applied drugs increases. Therefore, different methods have been developed to influence the barrier properties of the skin. Recently, it could be demonstrated that a cold tissue tolerable plasma (TTP) produced by a plasma-jet can strongly enhance drug delivery through the skin. These investigations were performed by using a solution of fluorescent dye as a model drug. In the present study, these investigations were carried out using fluorescent silica particles at different sizes. The aim of the study was to investigate whether or not there is a limitation in size for topically applied substances to pass through the skin barrier after plasma treatment.

  2. A modified algorithm for continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy applied to in-vivo animal experiments and on human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaessens, John H. G. M.; Hopman, Jeroen C. W.; Liem, K. Djien; de Roode, Rowland; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.; Thijssen, Johan M.

    2008-02-01

    Continuous wave Near Infrared Spectroscopy is a well known non invasive technique for measuring changes in tissue oxygenation. Absorption changes (ΔO2Hb and ΔHHb) are calculated from the light attenuations using the modified Lambert Beer equation. Generally, the concentration changes are calculated relative to the concentration at a starting point in time (delta time method). It is also possible, under certain assumptions, to calculate the concentrations by subtracting the equations at different wavelengths (delta wavelength method). We derived a new algorithm and will show the possibilities and limitations. In the delta wavelength method, the assumption is that the oxygen independent attenuation term will be eliminated from the formula even if its value changes in time, we verified the results with the classical delta time method using extinction coefficients from different literature sources for the wavelengths 767nm, 850nm and 905nm. The different methods of calculating concentration changes were applied to the data collected from animal experiments. The animals (lambs) were in a stable normoxic condition; stepwise they were made hypoxic and thereafter they returned to normoxic condition. The two algorithms were also applied for measuring two dimensional blood oxygen saturation changes in human skin tissue. The different oxygen saturation levels were induced by alterations in the respiration and by temporary arm clamping. The new delta wavelength method yielded in a steady state measurement the same changes in oxy and deoxy hemoglobin as the classical delta time method. The advantage of the new method is the independence of eventual variation of the oxygen independent attenuations in time.

  3. Applying tattoo dye as a third-harmonic generation contrast agent for in vivo optical virtual biopsy of human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Ming-Rung; Lin, Chen-Yu; Liao, Yi-Hua; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2013-02-01

    Third-harmonic generation (THG) microscopy has been reported to provide intrinsic contrast in elastic fibers, cytoplasmic membrane, nucleus, actin filaments, lipid bodies, hemoglobin, and melanin in human skin. For advanced molecular imaging, exogenous contrast agents are developed for a higher structural or molecular specificity. We demonstrate the potential of the commonly adopted tattoo dye as a THG contrast agent for in vivo optical biopsy of human skin. Spectroscopy and microscopy experiments were performed on cultured cells with tattoo dyes, in tattooed mouse skin, and in tattooed human skin to demonstrate the THG enhancement effect. Compared with other absorbing dyes or nanoparticles used as exogenous THG contrast agents, tattoo dyes are widely adopted in human skin so that future clinical biocompatibility evaluation is relatively achievable. Combined with the demonstrated THG enhancement effect, tattoo dyes show their promise for future clinical imaging applications.

  4. The effect of topical virgin coconut oil on SCORAD index, transepidermal water loss, and skin capacitance in mild to moderate pediatric atopic dermatitis: a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Evangelista, Mara Therese Padilla; Abad-Casintahan, Flordeliz; Lopez-Villafuerte, Lillian

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic skin disease characterized by defects in the epidermal barrier function and cutaneous inflammation, in which transepidermal water loss (TEWL) is increased and the ability of the stratum corneum to hold water is impaired, causing decreased skin capacitance and hydration. This study investigated the effects of topical virgin coconut oil (VCO) and mineral oil, respectively, on SCORAD (SCORing of Atopic Dermatitis) index values, TEWL, and skin capacitance in pediatric patients with mild to moderate AD, using a randomized controlled trial design in which participants and investigators were blinded to the treatments allocated. Patients were evaluated at baseline, and at 2, 4, and 8 weeks. A total of 117 patients were included in the analysis. Mean SCORAD indices decreased from baseline by 68.23% in the VCO group and by 38.13% in the mineral oil group (P < 0.001). In the VCO group, 47% (28/59) of patients achieved moderate improvement and 46% (27/59) showed an excellent response. In the mineral oil group, 34% (20/58) of patients showed moderate improvement and 19% (11/58) achieved excellent improvement. The VCO group achieved a post-treatment mean TEWL of 7.09 from a baseline mean of 26.68, whereas the mineral oil group demonstrated baseline and post-treatment TEWL values of 24.12 and 13.55, respectively. In the VCO group, post-treatment skin capacitance rose to 42.3 from a baseline mean of 32.0, whereas that in the mineral oil group increased to 37.49 from a baseline mean of 31.31. Thus, among pediatric patients with mild to moderate AD, topical application of VCO for eight weeks was superior to that of mineral oil based on clinical (SCORAD) and instrumental (TEWL, skin capacitance) assessments. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  5. Direct estimation of the permeation of topical excipients through artificial membranes and human skin with non-invasive Terahertz time-domain techniques.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Dominguez, Victor; Boix-Montañes, Antoni; Redo-Sanchez, Albert; Tejada-Palacios, Javier

    2016-07-01

    Drug permeation through skin, or a synthetic membrane, from locally acting pharmaceutical products can be influenced by the permeation behaviour of pharmaceutical excipients. Terahertz time-domain technology is investigated as a non-invasive method for a direct and accurate measurement of excipients permeation through synthetic membranes or human skin. A series of in-vitro release and skin permeation experiments of liquid excipients (e.g. propylene glycol and polyethylene glycol 400) has been conducted with vertical diffusion cells. The permeation profiles of excipients through different synthetic membranes or skin were obtained using Terahertz pulses providing a direct measurement. Corresponding permeation flux and permeability coefficient values were calculated based on temporal changes of the terahertz pulses. The influence of different experimental conditions, such as the polarity of the membrane and the viscosity of the permeant, was assessed in release experiments. Specific transmembrane flux values of those excipients were directly calculated with statistical differences between cases. Finally, an attempt to estimate the skin permeation of propylene glycol with this technique was also achieved. All these permeation results were likely comparable to those obtained by other authors with usual analytical techniques. Terahertz time-domain technology is shown to be a suitable technique for an accurate and non-destructive measurement of the permeation of liquid substances through different synthetic membranes or even human skin. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  6. In vivo assessment of cytological changes by means of reflectance confocal microscopy - demonstration of the effect of topical vitamin E on skin irritation caused by sodium lauryl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Casari, Alice; Farnetani, Francesca; De Pace, Barbara; Losi, Amanda; Pittet, Jean-Christophe; Pellacani, Giovanni; Longo, Caterina

    2017-03-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis is caused by skin barrier damage. Vitamin E is an antioxidant that is commonly used in cosmetics to prevent photo-damage. To show the usefulness of reflectance confocal microscopy in the assessment of irritant skin damage caused by sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and of the protective action of vitamin E applied prior to skin irritation. Ten healthy volunteers were enrolled. Irritation was induced by the application of a patch test containing SLS 5% aq. for 24 h. Three sites were compared: one site on which a product with vitamin E was applied before SLS treatment, one site on which the same product was applied after SLS treatment, and one control site (SLS only). Each site was evaluated with reflectance confocal microscopy, providing in vivo tissue images at nearly histological resolution. We also performed a computerized analysis of the VivaStack® images. Reflectance confocal microscopy is able to identify signs of skin irritation and the preventive effect of vitamin E application. Reflectance confocal microscopy is useful in the objective assessment of irritative skin damage. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Apply

    Science.gov Websites

    linkedin facebook Twitter YouTube Twitter Content Apply now » Los Alamos National Laboratory Search Site submit About Mission Business Newsroom Publications Los Alamos National Laboratory Delivering Capabilities Deploying Innovation Technology Opportunities Innovation in New Mexico Los Alamos Collaboration

  8. Optical coherence tomography demonstrates differential epidermal thinning of human forearm volar skin after 2 weeks application of a topical corticosteroid vs a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory alternative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zenghai; Boadi, Joseph; Danby, Simon; Cork, Michael; Matcher, Stephen J.

    2013-03-01

    The effects on skin of two commercially available topical creams for the treatment of eczema are quantitatively studied using optical coherence tomography. An archetypal corticosteroid (Betamethasone valerate) is compared with a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (Tacrolimus monohydrate) via left/right comparisons of the epidermal thickness of volar forearm skin on selected volunteers, at baseline and after 14 days of treatment. In 3 of 4 subjects we confirmed previous observations that corticosteroids produce pronounced physical thinning of the epidermis over timescales of a few weeks. In 3 of 4 subjects we further found that Tacrolimus produced no change in epidermal thickness. In one of 4 subjects we found evidence that the epidermis was actually thickened following treatment using Tacrolimus.

  9. Complementary clinical effects of topical tightening treatment in conjunction with a radiofrequency procedure.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, David J; Yatskayer, Margarita; Raab, Susana; Chen, Nannan; Krol, Yevgeniy; Oresajo, Christian

    2014-10-01

    Abstract Background: Skin laxity and cellulite on the buttocks and thighs are two common cosmetic concerns. Skin tightening with radiofrequency (RF) devices has become increasingly popular. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a topical skin laxity tightening agent when used in combination with an RF device. A double-blinded, randomized clinical trial enrolled twenty females with mild-to-moderate skin laxity on the posterior thighs/buttocks. Each subject underwent two monthly treatments with an RF source (Alma Accent) to both legs. Subjects were then randomized to apply a topical agent (Skinceuticals Body Tightening Concentrate) twice daily to only one designated thigh/buttock throughout the eight-week duration of the study. All subjects were evaluated for improvement in lifting, skin tone, radiance, firmness/tightness, skin texture, and overall appearance based on photographic evaluation by blinded investigators at 12 weeks following the final RF treatment. A statistically significant improvement was found in the overall appearance on both sides treated with the RF device when compared to baseline. However, the area treated with the topical agent showed a statistically significantly greater degree of improvement than the side where no topical agent was applied. No adverse effects were reported. The use of a novel skin tightening agent used after RF procedures is both safe and effective for treatment of skin laxity on the buttocks and thighs. Combined therapy leads to a better result.

  10. Use of an in vitro human skin permeation assay to assess bioequivalence of two topical cream formulations containing butenafine hydrochloride (1%, w/w).

    PubMed

    Mitra, Amitava; Kim, Nanhye; Spark, Darren; Toner, Frank; Craig, Susan; Roper, Clive; Meyer, Thomas A

    2016-12-01

    The primary objective of this work was to investigate, using an in vitro human skin permeation study, whether changes in the excipients of butenafine hydrochloride cream would have any effect on bioperformance of the formulation. Such in vitro data would be a surrogate for any requirement of a bioequivalence (BE) study to demonstrate formulation similarity. A LC-MS/MS method for quantitation of butenafine in various matrices was developed and validated. A pilot study was performed to validate the in vitro skin permeation methodology using three cream formulations containing butenafine hydrochloride at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% (w/w). Finally, a definitive in vitro human skin permeation study was conducted, comparing the extent of butenafine hydrochloride permeation from the new formulation to that from the current formulation. The results of the study comparing the two formulations showed that there was no statistically significant difference in the extent of butenafine permeation into human skin. In conclusion, these in vitro data demonstrated that the formulation change is likely to have no significant impact on the bioperformance of 1% (w/w) butenafine hydrochloride cream. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Induction of atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome-like skin lesions by repeated topical application of a crude extract of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jong Soon; Lee, Kiho; Han, Sang-Bae; Ahn, Ji-Mi; Lee, Hyunju; Han, Mi Hwa; Yoon, Yeo Dae; Yoon, Won Kee; Park, Song-Kyu; Kim, Hwan Mook

    2006-10-01

    Mite antigen has been considered to play important roles in the development of atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome (AEDS). In the present study, we attempted to induce an AEDS-like skin lesion in mice using Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus crude extract (DPE) as an antigen and performed pathophysiological evaluations. Ears of mice were tape-stripped and DPE was painted 3 times a week. Eczematous skin lesion and ear swelling were apparent in NC/Nga mice treated with DPE after 2 weeks, whereas neither skin lesion nor ear swelling were observed in BALB/c mice even after 30 days. Histological evaluation demonstrated that edema, epidermal hyperplasia and the accumulation of inflammatory cells were apparent in the ears of DPE-treated NC/Nga mice. In contrast to skin lesion and ear swelling, total serum IgE levels were increased in both NC/Nga and BALB/c mice. Treatment with DPE also increased auricular lymph node weight in both NC/Nga mice and BALB/c mice. To further characterize, we analyzed cytokine mRNA expression in ears and lymph nodes of DPE-treated NC/Nga mice. Increased expression of IL-4 and TNF-alpha mRNA was observed in both ears and lymph nodes of NC/Nga mice treated with DPE. Additionally, there was no change in the responsiveness of BALB/c mice to DPE treatment by adaptive transfer of serum from DPE-treated NC/Nga mice to BALB/c mice. Taken together, our results indicate that eczematous skin lesion and ear swelling caused by repeated application of DPE in NC/Nga mice has a Th2-dominant background and that inflammation is involved in this process. The animal model of AEDS established in this report may be used to investigate the pathogenesis of AEDS and evaluate the potential therapeutic agents for AEDS.

  12. Topical delivery of anti-TNFα siRNA and capsaicin via novel lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles efficiently inhibits skin inflammation in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Pinaki R.; Marepally, Srujan; Patel, Apurva R.; Voshavar, Chandrashekhar; Chaudhuri, Arabinda; Singh, Mandip

    2013-01-01

    The barrier properties of the skin pose a significant but not insurmountable obstacle for development of new effective anti-inflammatory therapies. The objective of this study was to design and evaluate therapeutic efficacy of anti-nociception agent Capsaicin (Cap) and anti-TNFα siRNA (siTNFα) encapsulated cyclic cationic head Lipid-Polymer hybrid Nanocarriers (CyLiPns) against chronic skin inflammatory diseases. Physico-chemical characterizations including hydrodynamic size, surface potential and entrapment efficacies of CyLiPns were found to be 163 ± 9 nm, 35.14 ± 8.23 mV and 92% for Cap, respectively. In vitro skin distribution studies revealed that CyLiPns could effectively deliver FITC-siRNA upto 360 µm skin depth. Further, enhanced (p<0.001) Cap permeation from CyLiPns was observed compared to Capsaicin-Solution and Capzasin-HP. Therapeutic efficacies of CyLiPns were assessed using imiquamod induced psoriatic plaque like model. CyLiPns carrying both Cap and siTNFα showed significant reduced expression of TNFα, NF-κB, IL-17, IL-23 and Ki-67 genes compare to either drugs alone (p<0.05) and was in close comparison with Topgraf®;. Collectively these findings support our notion that novel cationic lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles can efficiently carry siTNFα and Cap into deeper dermal milieu and Cap with combination of siTNFα show synergism in treating skin inflammation. PMID:23643662

  13. Apply lightweight deep learning on internet of things for low-cost and easy-to-access skin cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Pranjal; Yu, Dantong; Qin, Hong

    2018-03-01

    Melanoma is the most dangerous form of skin cancer that often resembles moles. Dermatologists often recommend regular skin examination to identify and eliminate Melanoma in its early stages. To facilitate this process, we propose a hand-held computer (smart-phone, Raspberry Pi) based assistant that classifies with the dermatologist-level accuracy skin lesion images into malignant and benign and works in a standalone mobile device without requiring network connectivity. In this paper, we propose and implement a hybrid approach based on advanced deep learning model and domain-specific knowledge and features that dermatologists use for the inspection purpose to improve the accuracy of classification between benign and malignant skin lesions. Here, domain-specific features include the texture of the lesion boundary, the symmetry of the mole, and the boundary characteristics of the region of interest. We also obtain standard deep features from a pre-trained network optimized for mobile devices called Google's MobileNet. The experiments conducted on ISIC 2017 skin cancer classification challenge demonstrate the effectiveness and complementary nature of these hybrid features over the standard deep features. We performed experiments with the training, testing and validation data splits provided in the competition. Our method achieved area of 0.805 under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Our ultimate goal is to extend the trained model in a commercial hand-held mobile and sensor device such as Raspberry Pi and democratize the access to preventive health care.

  14. Crisaborole Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Crisaborole is used to treat eczema (atopic dermatitis; a skin condition which causes the skin to be ... itchy and to sometimes develop red, scaly rashes ). Crisaborole is in a class of medications called phosphodiesterase ...

  15. Imiquimod Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... growths on the skin caused by too much sun exposure) on the face or scalp. Imiquimod cream ... have or have ever had unusual sensitivity to sunlight, any skin disease such as psoriasis, graft vs. ...

  16. A novel, topical, nonsteroidal, TRPV1 antagonist, PAC-14028 cream improves skin barrier function and exerts anti-inflammatory action through modulating epidermal differentiation markers and suppressing Th2 cytokines in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-Hae; Choi, Chang Soon; Bae, Il-Hong; Choi, Jin Kyu; Park, Young-Ho; Park, Miyoung

    2018-04-30

    Although it is established that epidermal barrier disturbance and immune dysfunction resulting in IgE sensitization are critical factors in the development of cutaneous inflammation, the pathogenesis and targeted therapy of atopic dermatitis (AD)-specific pathways have still been unknown. Taking into account the fact that Th2 cytokines in AD have both unique and overlapping functions including increased epidermal thickening, inflammation, and decreased expressing of the barrier proteins keratinocyte differentiation, we sought to clarify our hypothesis that TRPV1 antagonist plays a critical role in skin barrier function and can be a therapeutic target for AD. AD-like dermatitis was induced in hairless mice by repeated oxazolone (Ox) challenges to hairless mice. The functional studies concerning skin barrier function, anti-inflammatory action, and molecular mechanism by TRPV1 antagonism were conducted by histopathological assays, ELISA, qPCR, western blotting, and skin blood flow measurement. Topically administered TRPV1 antagonist, PAC-14028 (Asivatrep: C 21 H 22 F 5 N 3 O 3 S), improved AD-like dermatitis and skin barrier functions, and restored the expression of epidermal differentiation markers. In addition, the PAC-14028 cream significantly inhibited cutaneous inflammation by decreasing the expression of serum IgE, and the epidermal expression of IL-4, and IL-13 in Ox-AD mice. These results may provide a novel insight into the molecular mechanism of PAC-14028 cream involved in anti-inflammatory effects and skin barrier functions by suppressing the multiple signaling pathways including IL-4/-13-mediated activation of JAK/STAT, TRPV1, and neuropeptides. PAC-14028 cream can be a potential therapeutic tool for the treatment of chronic inflammation and disrupted barrier function in patients with AD. Copyright © 2018 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Enhancement of 8-methoxypsoralen topical delivery via nanosized niosomal vesicles: Formulation development, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of skin deposition.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Ahmed Alaa; Abd El-Alim, Sameh Hosam; Asfour, Marwa Hasanein

    2017-01-30

    The aim of the present study is to enhance the skin penetration and deposition of 8-methoxypsoraln (8-MOP) via niosomal vesicles to increase its local efficacy and safety. 8-MOP niosomes were prepared by the thin film hydration method using Span 60 or Span 40 along with cholesterol at five different molar ratios. The obtained vesicles revealed high entrapment efficiencies (83.04-89.90%) with nanometric vesicle diameters (111.1-198.8nm) of monodisperse distribution (PDI=0.145-0.216), zeta potential values <-48.3mV and spherical morphology under transmission electron microscopy. Optimized niosomal formulations depicted a biphasic in vitro release pattern in phosphate buffer (pH 5.5)/ethanol (7:3v/v) and displayed good physical stability after storage for 6 months at room (20-25°C) and refrigeration (4-8°C) temperatures. The two optimized formulations were incorporated in 5% sodium carboxy methylcellulose based hydrogel matrix which showed optimum pH values (7.37-7.39), pseudoplastic with thixotropic rheological behavior and more retarded 8-MOP release, by 23.82 and 14.89%, compared to niosomal vesicles after 24h. In vitro drug permeation and deposition studies, using rat skins, revealed promoted penetration and accumulation of 8-MOP after 8h. The skin penetration was further confirmed in vivo by confocal laser scanning microscopy, after 2h application period using rhodamine-loaded niosomal hydrogels compared to plain rhodamine hydrogel, as a florescence marker. Therefore, enhanced permeation and skin deposition of 8-MOP delivered by niosomes may help in improving the efficacy and safety of long-term treatment with 8-MOP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Prophylactic Effect of Oral Minocycline in Combination with Topical Steroid and Skin Care Against Panitumumab-induced Acneiform Rash in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Maya; Iihara, Hirotoshi; Fujii, Hironori; Ishihara, Masashi; Matsuhashi, Nobuhisa; Takahashi, Takao; Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Itoh, Yoshinori

    2015-11-01

    Although the anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody panitumumab is effective in treating colorectal cancer, the occurrence of severe skin disorders often discontinues therapy. Herein, we investigated by a retrospective chart review the effect of prophylactic oral minocycline in combination with skin treatment using moisturizer on the incidence of skin disorders and tumor response in metastatic colorectal cancer patients who received panitumumab. In a total of 55 patients, 38 patients were eligible, consisting the pre-emptive group (N=25) and reactive group (N=13). Acneiform rash and other adverse events were graded according to the CTCAE v4.0. The occurrence of acneiform rash (grade ≥2) was significantly lower in pre-emptive group than in reactive group (44.0% vs. 84.6%, p=0.04). No significant differences in the occurrence of other adverse events were observed between the two groups. Tumor response was not significantly different between the two groups (36.0% vs. 7.7%, OR, 6.75; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.75-60.76, p=0.12). Mean time to treatment failure was 149.7 days and 110.2 days in the pre-emptive group and reactive treatment group, respectively (HR=0.58; 95% CI= 0.26-1.28, p=0.18). Prophylactic oral minocycline combined with skin care reduced panitumumab-induced acneiform rash without a significant influence on tumor response. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  19. EFFECTS OF CHRONIC TOPICAL APPLICATION OF 12-0-TETRADECANOYLPHORBOL-13-ACETATE ON THE SKIN AND INTERNAL ORGANS OF SENCAR MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Repetitive topical applications of 2 micrograms TPA twice weekly for 37 to 52 weeks induced a sustained epidermal hyperplasia, hyperplasia of hair follicles, and increased dermal cellularity in SENCAR mice. In addition, after 52 weeks of protracted promoter treatment most animals...

  20. Pilot Study to Evaluate the Effect of Topical Dimethicone on Clinical Signs and Skin Barrier Function in Dogs with Naturally Occurring Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Pellicoro, C.; Marsella, R.; Ahrens, K.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a skin protectant solution (dimethicone 2%) on clinical signs and skin barrier function in canine atopic dermatitis (AD). Eighteen dogs with AD were randomly divided into two groups, one received dimethicone and the other received the vehicle (cyclomethicone) on selected areas (pinnae, groin, and axillae) daily for 4 weeks. Owners and investigators were blinded regarding group allocation. Clinical efficacy was evaluated using a scoring system and skin barrier by measuring the transepidermal water loss. Twelve dogs completed the study (50% drop rate in the vehicle and 20% in the dimethicone). For clinical signs, analysis of variance showed an effect of time (P < 0.005; day 0 > day 28) and region (axillae < groin < pinnae) but no effect of group or group × time interaction. For transepidermal water loss, analysis of variance showed only a main effect of region (axillae > pinnae > groin). Pearson found no correlation between transepidermal water loss and clinical scores. In this pilot study dimethicone had no significant effect on clinical signs and transepidermal water loss in canine atopic dermatitis. PMID:23710417

  1. Effectiveness, safety, and effect on quality of life of topical salicylic acid peels for treatment of postinflammatory hyperpigmentation in dark skin.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Smita S; Boone, Susan L; Alam, Murad; Yoo, Simon; White, Lucile; Rademaker, Alfred; Helenowski, Irene; West, Dennis P; Kundu, Roopal V

    2009-04-01

    There are no randomized split-face model studies investigating treatments for postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) in dark skin. To assess the efficacy, safety, and effect on quality of life of salicylic acid peels for PIH in dark skin. Ten subjects with Fitzpatrick skin phototypes IV to VI were randomized to receive two 20% salicylic acid peels followed by three 30% salicylic acid peels to half of the face. The contralateral half remained untreated. Response was evaluated by photography reviewed by three blinded dermatologists. The Visual Analog Scale, Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), and treatment quality questionnaire were administered. Improvement of PIH on the treatment side according to each rater (p=.81, p=.81, p=.42) and according to the raters combined (p=.11) approached but did not reach statistical significance. Subjects' Visual Analog Scale scores indicated significantly greater improvement of PIH on the treatment side than in the control (p=.004). Quality of life measured according to the DLQI improved after treatment but not statistically significantly so (p=.13). Treatment had no significant adverse effects. Salicylic acid peels are safe in this population. Although patients rated them as clinically effective, blinded raters found a brief series of peels to have less efficacy. Measured quality of life improved nominally.

  2. Efficacy and tolerability assessment of a topical formulation containing copper sulfate and hypericum perforatum on patients with herpes skin lesions: a comparative, randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Clewell, Amy; Barnes, Matt; Endres, John R; Ahmed, Mansoor; Ghambeer, Daljit K S

    2012-02-01

    Topical Acyclovir has moderate efficacy on recurrent HSV symptoms, requiring repeat applications for several days. Topical Dynamiclear, which requires only a single dose application, may provide a more effective and convenient treatment option for symptomatic management of HSV. The study assessed the comparative efficacy and tolerability of a single use, topical formulation containing copper sulfate pentahydrate and Hypericum perforatum that is marketed as Dynamiclear™ to a topical 5% Acyclovir cream standard preparation and use. A prospective, randomized, multi-centered, comparative, open-label clinical study was conducted. A total of 149 participants between 18 and 55 years of age with active HSV-1 and HSV-2 lesions were recruited for the 14-day clinical trial. Participants were randomized into two groups: A (n=61), those receiving the Dynamiclear formulation, and B (n=59), those receiving 5% Acyclovir. Efficacy parameters were assessed via physical examination at baseline (day 1), day 2, 3, 8, and 14. Laboratory safety tests were conducted at baseline and on day 14. Use of the Dynamiclear formulation was found to have no significant adverse effects and was well tolerated by participants. All hematological and biochemical markers were within normal range for the Dynamiclear group. Statistically, odds for being affected by burning and stinging sensation were 1.9 times greater in the Acyclovir group in comparison to the Dynamiclear group. Similarly, the odds of being affected by symptoms of acute pain, erythema and vesiculation were 1.8, 2.4, and 4.4 times higher in the Acyclovir group in comparison to the Dynamiclear group. The Dynamiclear formulation was well tolerated, and efficacy was demonstrated in a number of measured parameters, which are helpful in the symptomatic management of HSV-1 and HSV-2 lesions in adult patients. Remarkably, the effects seen from this product came from a single application.

  3. Efficacy of topical phenol decontamination strategies on severity of acute phenol chemical burns and dermal absorption: in vitro and in vivo studies in pig skin.

    PubMed

    Monteiro-Riviere, N A; Inman, A O; Jackson, H; Dunn, B; Dimond, S

    2001-05-01

    Pure phenol is colorless and used in the manufacture of phenolic resins, plastics, explosives, fertilizers, paints, rubber, textiles, adhesives, pharmaceuticals, paper, soap, and wood preservatives. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of several phenol decontamination strategies following dermal exposure using the pig as a model for human exposure, and then assess the effect of the two best treatments on phenol absorption in the isolated perfused porcine skin flap (IPPSF). Six anesthetized Yorkshire pigs were exposed to 89% aqueous phenol for 1 min using Hilltop chambers (10 skin sites/pig; 400 microl/site). Exposure to phenol was followed by one of 10 different decontamination procedures: 1-, 5-, 15-, and 30-min water wash; Ivory soap solution; polyethylene glycol (PEG 400); PEG 400/industrial methylated spirits (IMS); PEG 400/ethanol (EtOH); polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP)/70% isopropanol (IPA); and 70% IPA. For each of the last five strategies, 1-min treatment washes were repeatedly alternated with 1-min water washes for a total of 15 min. Evaluation was based on scoring of erythema, edema, and histological parameters such as intracellular and intercellular epidermal edema, papillary dermal edema, perivascular infiltrates, pyknotic stratum basale cells, and epidermal-dermal separation. It was concluded that PEG 400 and 70% IPA were superior to the other treatments investigated and equally efficacious in the reduction of phenol-induced skin damage. In addition, phenol absorption was assessed utilizing the two most effective in vivo treatments in the IPPSF. The assessment of percutaneous absorption of phenol found the PEG 400, 70% IPA, and 15-min water treatments significantly (P < 0.05) reduced phenol absorption relative to no treatment.

  4. The effectiveness of an adhesively bonded composite patch repair as applied to a transport aircraft lower wing skin

    SciTech Connect

    Ruschau, J.J.; Coate, J.E.

    1996-12-31

    Specimens were machined from lower wing skin extrusions of a transport aircraft, precracked under fatigue loading, repaired with a boron/epoxy patch, and subsequently fatigue tested under simulated flight loading conditions to evaluate the effectiveness of an adhesively bonded repair patch. Testing was performed at RT and -54{degrees}C for two configurations: one with the crack running up the integral stiffener (riser), the other running down the riser towards the outer skin surface. Cracks were initiated from a single 6.35 mm diameter hole located in the riser portion of the 7075-T6 wing skin material. Ultrasonic inspections were performed during fatigue loading tomore » determine crack growth and damage underneath the patch. Limited results show the adhesively bonded patch was successful in stopping or greatly reducing any further crack growth. Under laboratory air conditions, no crack growth occurred following 30,000 equivalent flight hours, double the expected life of the patched structure. Similarly at -54{degrees}C, no crack growth was observed for a patched crack growing up the riser following 15,000 EFH. For the case of a crack growing down the riser at the lower test temperature, some crack growth was measured, though at a greatly reduced rate.« less

  5. Critical quality attributes, in vitro release and correlated in vitro skin permeation-in vivo tape stripping collective data for demonstrating therapeutic (non)equivalence of topical semisolids: A case study of "ready-to-use" vehicles.

    PubMed

    Ilić, Tanja; Pantelić, Ivana; Lunter, Dominique; Đorđević, Sanela; Marković, Bojan; Ranković, Dragana; Daniels, Rolf; Savić, Snežana

    2017-08-07

    This work aimed to prove the ability of "ready-to-use" topical vehicles based on alkyl polyglucoside-mixed emulsifier (with/without co-solvent modifications) to replace the conventionally used pharmacopoeial bases (e.g., non-ionic hydrophilic cream) in compounding practice. For this purpose, considering the regulatory efforts to establish alternative, scientifically valid methods for evaluating therapeutic equivalence of topical semisolids, we performed a comparative assessment of microstructure, selected critical quality attributes (CQAs) and in vitro/in vivo product performances, by utilizing aceclofenac as a model drug. The differences in composition between investigated samples have imposed remarkable variances in monitored CQAs (particularly in the amount of aceclofenac dissolved, rheological properties and water distribution mode), reflecting the distinct differences in microstructure formed, as partially observed by polarization microscopy and confocal Raman spectral imaging. Although not fully indicative of the in vivo performances, in vitro release data (vertical diffusion vs. immersion cells) proved the microstructure peculiarities, asserting the rheological properties as decisive factor for obtained liberation profiles. Contrary, in vitro permeation results obtained using pig ear epidermis correlated well with in vivo dermatopharmacokinetic data and distinguished unequivocally between tested formulations, emphasizing the importance of skin/vehicle interactions. In summary, suggested multi-faceted approach can provide adequate proof on topical semisolids therapeutic equivalence or lack thereof. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Raman spectroscopy analysis of the skin of patients with melasma before standard treatment with topical corticosteroids, retinoic acid, and hydroquinone mixture.

    PubMed

    Moncada, B; Castillo-Martínez, C; Arenas, E; León-Bejarano, F; Ramírez-Elías, M G; González, F J

    2016-05-01

    Melasma is an abnormal acquired hyperpigmentation of the face of unknown origin, it is considered a single disease and very little has been found regarding its pathogenesis. It is usually assumed that melasma is due to excessive melanin production, but previous work using Raman spectroscopy showed degraded molecules of melanin in some melasma subjects, which may help to explain the success or failure of the standard therapy. We perform Raman spectroscopy measurements on in vivo skin from melasma patients before treatment to identify the molecular structure of melanin within every melasma lesion. The Raman spectra were grouped according to the treatment response from patient, and the Raman spectra were analyzed. Raman spectroscopy measurements showed a different molecular structure of the patients who did not respond to treatment, those patients shows atypical Raman skin spectrum with peaks associated with melanin not well defined, which is consistent with molecular degradation and protein breakdown. Our results are consistent with our previous work in the sense that melasma patients who do not respond to treatment have an abnormal melanin. We believe it will eventually help to decide the treatment of melasma in clinical dermatology. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Thermal Detection Thresholds of Aδ- and C-Fibre Afferents Activated by Brief CO2 Laser Pulses Applied onto the Human Hairy Skin

    PubMed Central

    Churyukanov, Maxim; Plaghki, Léon; Legrain, Valéry; Mouraux, André

    2012-01-01

    Brief high-power laser pulses applied onto the hairy skin of the distal end of a limb generate a double sensation related to the activation of Aδ- and C-fibres, referred to as first and second pain. However, neurophysiological and behavioural responses related to the activation of C-fibres can be studied reliably only if the concomitant activation of Aδ-fibres is avoided. Here, using a novel CO2 laser stimulator able to deliver constant-temperature heat pulses through a feedback regulation of laser power by an online measurement of skin temperature at target site, combined with an adaptive staircase algorithm using reaction-time to distinguish between responses triggered by Aδ- and C-fibre input, we show that it is possible to estimate robustly and independently the thermal detection thresholds of Aδ-fibres (46.9±1.7°C) and C-fibres (39.8±1.7°C). Furthermore, we show that both thresholds are dependent on the skin temperature preceding and/or surrounding the test stimulus, indicating that the Aδ- and C-fibre afferents triggering the behavioural responses to brief laser pulses behave, at least partially, as detectors of a change in skin temperature rather than as pure level detectors. Most importantly, our results show that the difference in threshold between Aδ- and C-fibre afferents activated by brief laser pulses can be exploited to activate C-fibres selectively and reliably, provided that the rise in skin temperature generated by the laser stimulator is well-controlled. Our approach could constitute a tool to explore, in humans, the physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms involved in processing C- and Aδ-fibre input, respectively. PMID:22558230

  8. Impact of prebiotics and probiotics on skin health.

    PubMed

    Al-Ghazzewi, F H; Tester, R F

    2014-06-01

    This review discusses the role of pre- and probiotics with respect to improving skin health by modulating the cutaneous microbiota. The skin ecosystem is a complex environment covered with a diverse microbiota community. These are classified as either transient or resident, where some are considered as beneficial, some essentially neutral and others pathogenic or at least have the capacity to be pathogenic. Colonisation varies between different parts of the body due to different environmental factors. Pre- and probiotic beneficial effects can be delivered topically or systemically (by ingestion). The pre- and probiotics have the capacity to optimise, maintain and restore the microbiota of the skin in different ways. Topical applications of probiotic bacteria have a direct effect at the site of application by enhancing the skin natural defence barriers. Probiotics as well as resident bacteria can produce antimicrobial peptides that benefit cutaneous immune responses and eliminate pathogens. In cosmetic formulations, prebiotics can be applied to the skin microbiota directly and increase selectively the activity and growth of beneficial 'normal' skin microbiota. Little is known about the efficacy of topically applied prebiotics. Nutritional products containing prebiotics and/or probiotics have a positive effect on skin by modulating the immune system and by providing therapeutic benefits for atopic diseases. This review underlines the potential use of pre- and probiotics for skin health.

  9. Atmospheric skin aging-Contributors and inhibitors.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, David; Farris, Patricia; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2018-04-01

    Cutaneous aging is a complex biological process consisting of 2 elements: intrinsic aging, which is primarily determined by genetics, and extrinsic aging, which is largely caused by atmospheric factors, such as exposure to sunlight and air pollution, and lifestyle choices, such as diet and smoking. The role of the solar spectrum, comprised of ultraviolet light, specifically UVB (290-320 nm) and UVA (320-400) in causing skin damage, including skin cancers, has been well documented. In recent years, the contribution of visible light (400-700 nm) and infrared radiation (above 800 nm) in causing skin damage, similar to the photodamage caused by UV light, is also being elucidated. In addition, other atmospheric factors such as air pollution (smog, ozone, particulate matter, etc.) have been implicated in premature skin aging. The skin damage caused by environmental exposure is largely attributable to a complex cascade of reactions inside the skin initiated by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which causes oxidative damage to cellular components such as proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. These damaged skin cells initiate inflammatory responses leading to the eventual damage manifested in chronically exposed skin. Novel therapeutic strategies to combat ROS species generation are being developed to prevent the skin damage caused by atmospheric factors. In addition to protecting skin from solar radiation using sunscreens, other approaches using topically applied ingredients, particularly antioxidants that penetrate the skin and protect the skin from within, have also been well documented. This review summarizes current knowledge of atmospheric aggressors, including UVA, UVB, visible light, infrared radiation (IR), and ozone on skin damage, and proposes new avenues for future research in the prevention and treatment of premature skin aging caused by such atmospheric factors. New therapeutic modalities currently being developed are also discussed. © 2018

  10. 12-OH-nevirapine sulfate, formed in the skin, is responsible for nevirapine-induced skin rash.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Amy M; Novalen, Maria; Tanino, Tadatoshi; Uetrecht, Jack P

    2013-05-20

    Nevirapine (NVP) treatment is associated with a significant incidence of skin rash in humans, and it also causes a similar immune-mediated skin rash in Brown Norway (BN) rats. We have shown that the sulfate of a major oxidative metabolite, 12-OH-NVP, covalently binds in the skin. The fact that the sulfate metabolite is responsible for covalent binding in the skin does not prove that it is responsible for the rash. We used various inhibitors of sulfation to test whether this reactive sulfate is responsible for the skin rash. Salicylamide (SA), which depletes 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) in the liver, significantly decreased 12-OH-NVP sulfate in the blood, but it did not prevent covalent binding in the skin or the rash. Topical application of 1-phenyl-1-hexanol, a sulfotransferase inhibitor, prevented covalent binding in the skin as well as the rash, but only where it was applied. In vitro incubations of 12-OH-NVP with PAPS and cytosolic fractions from the skin of rats or from human skin also led to covalent binding that was inhibited by 1-phenyl-1-hexanol. Incubation of 12-OH-NVP with PAPS and sulfotransferase 1A1*1, a human isoform that is present in the skin, also led to covalent binding, and this binding was also inhibited by 1-phenyl-1-hexanol. We conclude that salicylamide did not deplete PAPS in the skin and was unable to prevent covalent binding or the rash, while topical 1-phenyl-1-hexanol inhibited sulfation of 12-OH-NVP in the skin and did prevent covalent binding and the rash. These results provide definitive evidence that 12-OH-NVP sulfate formed in skin is responsible for NVP-induced skin rashes. Sulfotransferase is one of the few metabolic enzymes with significant activity in the skin, and it may be responsible for the bioactivation of other drugs that cause skin rashes.

  11. Topical Antimicrobials for Burn Wound Infections

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Tianhong; Huang, Ying-Ying; Sharma, Sulbha K.; Hashmi, Javad T.; Kurup, Divya B.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Throughout most of history, serious burns occupying a large percentage of body surface area were an almost certain death sentence because of subsequent infection. A number of factors such as disruption of the skin barrier, ready availability of bacterial nutrients in the burn milieu, destruction of the vascular supply to the burned skin, and systemic disturbances lead to immunosuppression combined together to make burns particularly susceptible to infection. In the 20th century the introduction of antibiotic and antifungal drugs, the use of topical antimicrobials that could be applied to burns, and widespread adoption of early excision and grafting all helped to dramatically increase survival. However the relentless increase in microbial resistance to antibiotics and other antimicrobials has led to a renewed search for alternative approaches to prevent and combat burn infections. This review will cover patented strategies that have been issued or filed with regard to new topical agents, preparations, and methods of combating burn infections. Animal models that are used in preclinical studies are discussed. Various silver preparations (nanocrystalline and slow release) are the mainstay of many approaches but antimicrobial peptides, topical photodynamic therapy, chitosan preparations, new iodine delivery formulations, phage therapy and natural products such as honey and essential oils have all been tested. This active area of research will continue to provide new topical antimicrobials for burns that will battle against growing multi-drug resistance. PMID:20429870

  12. Increased cutaneous oxygen availability by topical application of hydrogen peroxide cream enhances the photodynamic reaction to topical 5-aminolevulinic acid-methyl ester.

    PubMed

    Manifold, R N; Anderson, C D

    2011-05-01

    Topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) photodynamic therapy (PDT) of skin lesions is an accepted treatment for skin tumours but success rates need improvement. The effectiveness of PDT is influenced by availability of oxygen. The aim of this study was to demonstrate, in normal skin, whether a decrease in skin oxygen tension reduces the photodynamic reaction (PDR); and whether the addition of topical hydrogen peroxide can reverse the effect. Topical MAL and red light were administered to the inner forearms of 40 healthy volunteers. Skin oxygen availability was lowered during the illumination phase of the PDT, by applying blanching pressure with a plastic slide. Topical hydrogen peroxide was applied under the pressure slide, immediately prior to illumination, to reverse the effect. Erythema was assessed by naked eye and laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI), at baseline and at 1, 5, 24 and 48 h following illumination. Decreasing oxygen availability by pressure altered the PDR with a larger number of subjects (17.5%) not demonstrating any visible erythema at any time point after plastic slide pressure compared to a PDR Control site (7.5%). The addition of topical hydrogen peroxide during pressure application, restored the number of subjects showing no visible erythema compared to that of PDR Control. LDPI data showed that there was a decrease in mean perfusion after plastic slide pressure when comparing the change from baseline to 24 h (P < 0.05) with the PDR Control. The addition of hydrogen peroxide not only restored but also increased the mean perfusion compared to that of PDR Control when comparing the change from baseline to 5 h and the change from baseline to 24 h (P < 0.001). Increasing oxygen availability increased the PDR in normal skin. The possibility that addition of topical hydrogen peroxide to PDT protocols for non-melanoma skin cancer may increase reactivity and, thus, be relevant for outcomes warrants further study.

  13. Salicylic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... stinging in the area where you applied topical salicylic acid Some side effects can be serious. If you experience any of ... of the eyes, face, lips, or tongue Topical salicylic acid may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual ...

  14. Topical bioavailability of diclofenac from locally-acting, dermatological formulations.

    PubMed

    Cordery, S F; Pensado, A; Chiu, W S; Shehab, M Z; Bunge, A L; Delgado-Charro, M B; Guy, R H

    2017-08-30

    Assessment of the bioavailability of topically applied drugs designed to act within or beneath the skin is a challenging objective. A number of different, but potentially complementary, techniques are under evaluation. The objective of this work was to evaluate in vitro skin penetration and stratum corneum tape-stripping in vivo as tools with which to measure topical diclofenac bioavailability from three approved and commercialized products (two gels and one solution). Drug uptake into, and its subsequent clearance from, the stratum corneum of human volunteers was used to estimate the input rate of diclofenac into the viable skin layers. This flux was compared to that measured across excised porcine skin in conventional diffusion cells. Both techniques clearly demonstrated (a) the superiority in terms of drug delivery from the solution, and (b) that the two gels performed similarly. There was qualitative and, importantly, quantitative agreement between the in vitro and in vivo measurements of drug flux into and beyond the viable skin. Evidence is therefore presented to support an in vivo - in vitro correlation between methods to assess topical drug bioavailability. The potential value of the stratum corneum tape-stripping technique to quantify drug delivery into (epi)dermal and subcutaneous tissue beneath the barrier is demonstrated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled pilot study on the effects of topical blackcurrant emulsion enriched in essential fatty acids, ceramides and 18-beta glycyrrhetinic acid on clinical signs and skin barrier function in dogs with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Marsella, Rosanna; Cornegliani, Luisa; Ozmen, Ibrahim; Bohannon, Mary; Ahrens, Kim; Santoro, Domenico

    2017-12-01

    Lipid-based emulsions can be useful for the management of canine atopic dermatitis (cAD). 18-beta glycyrrhetinic acid (GRA), a component of liquorice root, has anti-inflammatory and anti-pruritic effects. To evaluate the effects of a topical lipid emulsion containing ceramides, fatty acids and GRA on clinical signs of cAD and skin barrier in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Client owned (n = 45) dogs with nonseasonal, mild/moderate AD, received either treatment or placebo for three months. Skin lesions, pruritus, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and global assessment (GA) were evaluated. Fourteen dogs receiving treatment and 14 receiving the placebo completed the study. After one month ≥50% reduction in pruritus was seen in seven of 14 dogs (50%) in the Treatment group, and in two of 14 dogs (14.3%) in the Control group (P = 0.047). After two and three months, significant reduction in pruritus was not seen. For Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index (CADESI), TEWL and GA, there were no significant findings over time or between groups. The emulsion had some transient beneficial clinical effects. However, it was not effective in controlling pruritus as a monotherapy. Further studies should examine whether owner compliance was a factor in the steady decline of effect on pruritus scores. Further studies evaluating its role as an adjunctive therapy are indicated. © 2017 ESVD and ACVD.

  16. Polymeric nanoparticles-based topical delivery systems for the treatment of dermatological diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zheng; Tsai, Pei-Chin; Ramezanli, Tannaz; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena B.

    2013-01-01

    Human skin not only functions as a permeation barrier (mainly due to the stratum corneum layer), but also provides a unique delivery pathway for therapeutic and other active agents. These compounds penetrate via intercellular, intracellular and transappendageal routes, resulting in topical delivery (into skin strata) and transdermal delivery (to subcutaneous tissues and into the systemic circulation). Passive and active permeation enhancement methods have been widely applied to increase the cutaneous penetration. The pathology, pathogenesis and topical treatment approaches of dermatological diseases, such as psoriasis, contact dermatitis, and skin cancer, are then discussed. Recent literature has demonstrated that nanoparticles-based topical delivery systems can be successful in treating these skin conditions. The studies are reviewed starting with the nanoparticles based on natural polymers specially chitosan, followed by those made of synthetic, degradable (aliphatic polyesters) and non-degradable (polyarylates) polymers; emphasis is given to nanospheres made of polymers derived from naturally occurring metabolites, the tyrosine-derived nanospheres (TyroSpheres™). In summary, the nanoparticles-based topical delivery systems combine the advantages of both the nano-sized drug carriers and the topical approach, and are promising for the treatment of skin diseases. For the perspectives, the penetration of ultra-small nanoparticles (size smaller than 40 nm) into skin strata, the targeted delivery of the encapsulated drugs to hair follicle stem cells, and the combination of nanoparticles and microneedle array technologies for special applications such as vaccine delivery are discussed. PMID:23386536

  17. Topical vitamin C: a useful agent for treating photoaging and other dermatologic conditions.

    PubMed

    Farris, Patricia K

    2005-07-01

    Cosmeceuticals containing antioxidants are among the most popular antiaging remedies. Topically applied antioxidants exert their benefits by offering protection from damaging free radicals produced when skin is exposed to ultraviolet light or allowed to age naturally. Vitamin C is a naturally occurring potent water-soluble antioxidant. Accordingly, it has been incorporated into a variety of cosmeceuticals designed to protect and rejuvenate photoaged skin. This article reviews the scientific data and clinical studies supporting the use of topically applied vitamin C for treating photoaged skin. Other innovative uses for vitamin C cosmeceuticals are also discussed. A significant body of scientific research supports the use of cosmeceuticals containing vitamin C. Cutaneous benefits include promoting collagen synthesis, photoprotection from ultraviolet A and B, lightening hyperpigmentation, and improvement of a variety of inflammatory dermatoses. Because of the diverse biologic effects of this compound, topical vitamin C has become a useful part of the dermatologist's armamentarium.

  18. Becaplermin Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... along with good ulcer care including: removal of dead tissue by a medical professional; the use of ... It works by helping to repair and replace dead skin and other tissues, attracting cells that repair ...

  19. Ketoconazole Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection of the skin that causes brown or light colored spots on the chest, back, arms, legs, ... not in the bathroom). Protect the medication from light and do not allow it to freeze.Unneeded ...

  20. Fluocinolone Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... of medications called corticosteroids. It works by activating natural substances in the skin to reduce swelling, redness, ... and then rinse the shampoo out of your hair and off your body with plenty of water. ...

  1. Pimecrolimus Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Pimecrolimus is used to control the symptoms of eczema (atopic dermatitis; a skin disease that causes the ... treat patients who cannot use other medications for eczema, or whose symptoms were not controlled by other ...

  2. Tacrolimus Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... ointment is used to treat the symptoms of eczema (atopic dermatitis; a skin disease that causes the ... use other medications for their condition or whose eczema has not responded to another medication. Tacrolimus is ...

  3. Clioquinol Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat skin infections such as eczema, athlete's foot, jock itch, and ringworm.This medication is sometimes prescribed ... a day for 4 weeks (2 weeks for jock itch). Follow the directions on the label carefully, ...

  4. Moisturizing potentials of ascorbyl palmitate and calcium ascorbate in various topical formulations.

    PubMed

    Gönüllü, U; Yener, G; Uner, M; Incegül, T

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this study was to use two of Vitamin C derivatives, lipophilic ascorbyl palmitate and hydrophilic calcium ascorbate to determine their skin-hydrating effects for the first time. For this purpose, anhydrous cream, gel and w/o emulsion were prepared and applied to the volunteers' inner forearms. A commercial topical preparation containing a known moisturizer, Vitamin E, was also chosen and used for comparison. Moisture contents of the skin were measured by using corneometer.

  5. Cetuximab-induced skin exanthema: Improvement by a reactive skin therapy.

    PubMed

    Schimanski, Carl C; Moehler, Markus; Zimmermann, Tim; Wörns, Markus A; Steinbach, Alma; Baum, Michael; Galle, Peter R

    2010-01-01

    More than 80% of patients treated with cetuximab develop an acneiform follicular skin exanthema. Grade 3 exanthema develops in 9-19% of these cases, bearing the risk of cetuximab dose-reduction or cessation. We retrospectively analysed a cohort of 20 patients treated with cetuximab and an in-house reactive skin protocol upon development of an exanthema. The reactive skin protocol was built up as follows: grade 1 exanthema: topical cleansing syndet (Dermowas®) + topical metronidazole cream (Rosiced®); grade 2 exanthema: grade 1 treatment + oral minocycline 50 mg twice per day; grade 3 exanthema: grade 2 treatment + topical corticoid (Dermatop®) + topical nadifloxacin (Nadixa®). As soon as a grade 3 had improved to a grade less than or equal to 2, the application of the topical corticoid was ceased. During the initial 12 weeks of therapy with cetuximab, all patients developed a skin exanthema (20/20; 100%). Of these, 2 patients (10%) developed a grade 3 exanthema, 10 patients (50%) experienced a grade 2 and 8 patients (40%) a grade 1 exanthema. Time to onset ranged from 1 to 4 weeks, with the average time to onset being 2.8 weeks. Applying the reactive skin protocol after the first occurrence of an exanthema, the grade of exanthema was downgraded as follows: no patients (0%) had a persisting grade 3 exanthema, while only 2 patients (10%) experienced a persisting grade 2 exanthema and 8 patients (40%) a persisting grade 1 exanthema. In the majority of cases (10 patients; 50%), the reactive skin protocol completely controlled the exanthema (grade 0). The average time to exanthema reduction by one grade was 9.5 days. No dose reductions of cetuximab were necessary. Cetuximab-induced skin exanthema is effectively managed by applying our reactive protocol. The simple protocol is based on a topical cleansing syndet and topical metronidazole and is to be intensified by the addition of oral minocycline, a topical corticoid and topical nadifloxacine, in cases of high

  6. Appearance benefits of skin moisturization.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Z-X; DeLaCruz, J

    2011-02-01

    Skin hydration is essential for skin health. Moisturized skin is generally regarded as healthy and healthy looking. It is thus speculated that there may be appearance benefits of skin moisturization. This means that there are corresponding changes in the optical properties when skin is moisturized. The appearance of the skin is the result of light reflection, scattering and absorption at various skin layers of the stratum corneum, epidermis, dermis and beyond. The appearance benefits of skin moisturization are likely primarily due to the changes in the optical properties of the stratum corneum. We hypothesize that the major optical effect of skin moisturization is the decrease of light scattering at the skin surface, i.e., the stratum corneum. This decrease of surface scattering corresponds to an increase of light penetration into the deeper layers of the skin. An experiment was conducted to measure the corresponding change in skin spectral reflectance, the skin scattering coefficient and skin translucency with a change in skin hydration. In the experiment, skin hydration was decreased with the topical application of acetone and alcohol and increased with the topical application of known moisturizers and occlusives such as PJ. It was found that both the skin spectral reflectance and the skin scattering coefficient increased when the skin was dehydrated and decreased when the skin was hydrated. Skin translucency increased as the skin became moisturized. The results agree with the hypothesis that there is less light scattering at the skin surface and more light penetration into the deeper skin layers when the skin is moisturized. As a result, the skin appears darker, more pinkish and more translucent. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Topical Sandalwood Oil for Common Warts.

    PubMed

    Haque, Malika; Coury, Daniel L

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of sandalwood oil for cutaneous viral warts caused by human papillomavirus. Sandalwood oil was applied topically twice daily for 12 weeks to cutaneous warts on any area of the body. Data collected at each visit included measurement of wart size, photograph of the warts, and documentation of treatment compliance and any adverse reactions. Ten subjects were enrolled and received treatment. At the end of the study, 8 of 10 (80%) had complete resolution of all treated warts. The remaining 2 subjects had improvement rated as moderate (25% to >90%). There were no complaints of skin irritation, erythema, itching, peeling of skin or scarring, pain or discomfort, or other adverse events reported. Sandalwood oil appears to be effective in the painless treatment of cutaneous warts caused by human papillomavirus.

  8. Laser-assisted delivery of topical methotrexate - in vitro investigations.

    PubMed

    Taudorf, Elisabeth Hjardem

    2016-06-01

    Ablative fractional lasers (AFXL) are increasingly used to treat dermatological disorders and to facilitate laser-assisted topical drug delivery. In this thesis, laser-tissue interactions generated by stacked pulses with a miniaturized low-power 2,940 nm AFXL were characterized (study I). Knowledge of the correlation between laser parameters and tissue effects was used to deliver methotrexate (MTX) topically through microscopic ablation zones (MAZs) of precise dimensions. MTX is a well-known chemotherapeutic and anti-inflammatory drug that may cause systemic adverse effects, and topical delivery is thus of potential benefit. The impact of MAZ depth (study II) and transport kinetics (study III) on MTX deposition in skin as well as transdermal permeation was determined in vitro. Quantitative analyses of dermal and transdermal MTX concentrations were performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (study II & III), while qualitative analyses of MTX biodistribution in skin were illustrated and semi-quantified by fluorescence microscopy (study II & III) and desorption electro spray mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI) (study III). Laser-tissue interactions generated by AFXL: AFXL-exposure generated a variety of MAZ-dimensions. MAZ depth increased linearly with the logarithm of total energy delivered by stacked pulses, but was also affected by variations in power, pulse energy, pulse duration, and pulse repetition rate. Coagulation zones lining MAZs increased linearly with the applied total energy, while MAZ width increased linearly with the logarithm of stacked pulses. Results were gathered in a mathematical model estimating relations between laser parameters and specific MAZ dimensions. Impact of MAZ depth on AFXL-assisted topical MTX delivery: Pretreatment by AFXL facilitated topical MTX delivery to all skin layers. Deeper MAZs increased total MTX deposition in skin compared to superficial MAZs and altered the intradermal biodistribution profile towards

  9. [Non adherence and topical steroids].

    PubMed

    Aubert, H; Barbarot, S

    2012-01-01

    Compliance raises very specific questions in dermatology related to the frequent use of local treatments: creams or ointments, including topical corticosteroids. The adherence in dermatology is a complex issue. It is difficult to quantify objectively because of the patient subjectivity, the constant adaptation to changes in the course of the disease, and due to the lack of adapted device. Moreover poor compliance may be related to topical corticosteroid phobia, defined as a fear vis-à-vis the topical corticosteroids, rational or not. The topical corticosteroid phobia is very common in the management of chronic inflammatory skin diseases especially in atopic dermatitis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Pyrethrin and Piperonyl Butoxide Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... a shampoo to apply to the skin and hair. It is usually applied to the skin and hair in two or three treatments. The second treatment ... much shampoo you will need based on your hair length. Be sure to use enough shampoo to ...

  11. Squamous cell skin cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur on skin that is regularly exposed to sunlight or other ultraviolet radiation. The earliest form of ... skin cancer is to reduce your exposure to sunlight . Always use sunscreen: Apply sunscreen with sun protection ...

  12. Myorelaxant Effect of Bee Venom Topical Skin Application in Patients with RDC/TMD Ia and RDC/TMD Ib: A Randomized, Double Blinded Study

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was the evaluation of myorelaxant action of bee venom (BV) ointment compared to placebo. Parallel group, randomized double blinded trial was performed. Experimental group patients were applying BV for 14 days, locally over masseter muscles, during 3-minute massage. Placebo group patients used vaseline for massage. Muscle tension was measured twice (TON1 and TON2) in rest muscle tonus (RMT) and maximal muscle contraction (MMC) on both sides, right and left, with Easy Train Myo EMG (Schwa-medico, Version 3.1). Reduction of muscle tonus was statistically relevant in BV group and irrelevant in placebo group. VAS scale reduction was statistically relevant in both groups: BV and placebo. Physiotherapy is an effective method for myofascial pain treatment, but 0,0005% BV ointment gets better relief in muscle tension reduction and analgesic effect. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02101632. PMID:25050337

  13. Antioxidant capacity of 3D human skin EpiDerm model: effects of skin moisturizers.

    PubMed

    Grazul-Bilska, A T; Bilski, J J; Redmer, D A; Reynolds, L P; Abdullah, K M; Abdullah, A

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of skin moisturizers on total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of human skin using EpiDerm model. Three different skin moisturizers containing antioxidant ingredients (samples 1-3) or aloe vera extract were topically applied to EpiDerm units and incubated for 2 and 24 h to determine acute and longer-term effects of applied samples on TAC and glutathione peroxidase activity in medium and/or homogenized skin tissues. Total antioxidant capacity in medium and skin homogenates was enhanced (P < 0.0001) by gel containing antioxidant ingredients (sample 2) after 2 and 24 h of incubation. Total antioxidant capacity in medium was also enhanced (P < 0.001) by cream containing antioxidant ingredients (sample 3) after 24 h of incubation. Overall, TAC in medium was greater (P < 0.02) after 24 h than 2 h of incubation. Skin moisturizer cream with high antioxidant levels determined by using oxygen radical absorbance capacity testing (sample 1) and aloe vera extract did not affect TAC. Glutathione peroxidase activity was enhanced (P < 0.0001) in medium and skin homogenates by sample 2 but not by any other sample. These data demonstrate high potential of gel and cream (samples 2 and 3) containing antioxidant ingredients in enhancing antioxidant capacity of EpiDerm which will likely contribute to overall skin health. Results of this experiment will help to better understand mechanisms of effects of skin moisturizers containing antioxidant ingredients on skin function at the tissue level and to establish effective strategies for skin protection and clinical treatments of skin disorders and possibly healing wounds.

  14. Fluorouracil Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused by years of too much exposure to sunlight). Fluorouracil cream and topical solution are also used ... plan to avoid unnecessary or prolonged exposure to sunlight and UV light (such as tanning booths) and ...

  15. Assessing complexity of skin blood flow oscillations in response to locally applied heating and pressure in rats: Implications for pressure ulcer risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Fuyuan; O'Brien, William D.; Jan, Yih-Kuen

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of local heating on the complexity of skin blood flow oscillations (BFO) under prolonged surface pressure in rats. Eleven Sprague-Dawley rats were studied: 7 rats underwent surface pressure with local heating (△t=10 °C) and 4 rats underwent pressure without heating. A pressure of 700 mmHg was applied to the right trochanter area of rats for 3 h. Skin blood flow was measured using laser Doppler flowmetry. The loading period was divided into nonoverlapping 30 min epochs. For each epoch, multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MDFA) was utilized to compute DFA coefficients and complexity of endothelial related metabolic, neurogenic, and myogenic frequencies of BFO. The results showed that under surface pressure, local heating led to a significant decrease in DFA coefficients of myogenic frequency during the initial epoch of loading period, a sustained decrease in complexity of myogenic frequency, and a significantly higher degree of complexity of metabolic frequency during the later phase of loading period. Surrogate tests showed that the reduction in complexity of myogenic frequency was associated with a loss of nonlinearity whereas increased complexity of metabolic frequency was associated with enhanced nonlinearity. Our results indicate that increased metabolic activity and decreased myogenic response due to local heating manifest themselves not only in magnitudes of metabolic and myogenic frequencies but also in their structural complexity. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using complexity analysis of BFO to monitor the ischemic status of weight-bearing skin and risk of pressure ulcers.

  16. Skin Penetration Enhancement by Natural Oils for Dihydroquercetin Delivery.

    PubMed

    Čižinauskas, Vytis; Elie, Nicolas; Brunelle, Alain; Briedis, Vitalis

    2017-09-12

    Natural oils are commonly used in topical pharmaceutical formulations as emulsifiers, stabilizers or solubility enhancers. They are presented as safe and inert components, mainly used for formulation purposes. It is confirmed that natural oils can affect the skin penetration of various substances. Fatty acids are mainly responsible for this effect. Current understanding lacks reliable scientific data on penetration of natural oils into the skin and their skin penetration enhancement potential. In the current study, fatty acid content analysis was used to determine the principal fatty acids in soybean, olive, avocado, sea-buckthorn pulp, raspberry seed and coconut oils. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry bioimaging was used to determine the distribution of these fatty acids in human skin ex vivo after application of the oils. Skin penetration enhancement ratios were determined for a perspective antioxidant compound dihydroquercetin. The results demonstrated skin penetration of fatty acids from all oils tested. Only soybean and olive oils significantly increased the skin distribution of dihydroquercetin and can be used as skin penetration enhancers. However, no correlation can be determined between the fatty acids' composition and skin penetration enhancement using currently available methodological approaches. This indicates that potential chemical penetration enhancement should be evaluated during formulation of topically applied products containing natural oils.

  17. Comparison of the Skin Penetration of 3 Metabolically Stable Chemicals Using Fresh and Frozen Human Skin.

    PubMed

    Jacques-Jamin, Carine; Duplan, Hélène; Rothe, Helga; Vaillant, Ophelie; Eilstein, Joan; Grégoire, Sebastien; Cubberley, Richard; Lange, Daniela; Ellison, Corie; Klaric, Martina; Hewitt, Nicola; Schepky, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The Cosmetics Europe ADME Task Force is developing in vitro and in silico tools for predicting skin and systemic concentrations after topical application of cosmetic ingredients. There are conflicting reports as to whether the freezing process affects the penetration of chemicals; therefore, we evaluated whether the storage of human skin used in our studies (8-12 weeks at -20°C) affected the penetration of model chemicals. Finite doses of trans-cinnamic acid (TCA), benzoic acid (BA), and 6-methylcoumarin (6MC) (non-volatile, non-protein reactive and metabolically stable in skin) were applied to fresh and thawed frozen skin from the same donors. The amounts of chemicals in different skin compartments were analysed after 24 h. Although there were some statistical differences in some parameters for 1 or 2 donors, the penetration of TCA, BA, and 6MC was essentially the same in fresh and frozen skin, i.e., there were no biologically relevant differences in penetration values. Statistical differences that were evident indicated that penetration was marginally lower in frozen than in fresh skin, indicating that the barrier function of the skin was not lost. The penetration of the 3 chemicals was essentially unaffected by freezing the skin at -20°C for up to 12 weeks. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Skin Cancer - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Expand Section Skin Cancer: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Cáncer de piel: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español (Spanish) National Library of Medicine Skin Cancer - español (Spanish) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Ukrainian ( ...

  19. Comparison of topically applied flurbiprofen or bromfenac ophthalmic solution on post-operative ocular hypertension in canine patients following cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jennifer; English, Robert; Nadelstein, Brad; Weigt, Anne; Berdoulay, Andrew; Binder, Dan; Ngan, Esther

    2017-03-01

    To compare the prevalence and kinetics of ocular hypertension after routine cataract extraction when using a predominately COX-2 inhibitor (bromfenac) versus a predominately COX-1 inhibitor (flurbiprofen) in combination with a topical corticosteroid. Patients undergoing unilateral or bilateral cataract surgery were randomly assigned to receive flurbiprofen or bromfenac at the day of surgery and continued for 6 weeks postoperatively, along with topical neo poly dexamethasone. No systemic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications were administered before or after surgery. Intraocular pressure was monitored pre and postoperatively. When an IOP of >25 mmHg was detected, therapeutic intervention was performed. Eyes in both treatment groups showed a similar IOP profile with the highest mean IOP occurring two hours postsurgery and slowly declining during the next 6 weeks. However, eyes receiving bromfenac had a higher mean IOP at 2 h post-op (22.1 mmHg) than eyes receiving flurbiprofen (18.8 mmHg) and a slower decrease in IOP in the weeks after surgery. Over the course of the study, a higher percentage of eyes receiving bromfenac had therapy discontinued over concerns of elevated IOP compared to eyes receiving flurbiprofen (bromfenac 23.1% and flurbiprofen 9.8%). On average, the risk of having elevated intraocular pressure with bromfenac is 1.04 times higher than with flurbiprofen. Elevated postoperative IOP was observed in both treatment groups; however, bromfenac-treated eyes were more likely to require intervention for elevated IOP. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  20. Topical delivery of a preformed photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy of cutaneous lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleinick, Nancy L.; Kenney, Malcolm E.; Lam, Minh; McCormick, Thomas; Cooper, Kevin D.; Baron, Elma D.

    2012-02-01

    Photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy (PDT) are most commonly delivered to patients or experimental animals via intravenous injection. After initial distribution throughout the body, there can be some preferential accumulation within tumors or other abnormal tissue in comparison to the surrounding normal tissue. In contrast, the photosensitizer precursor, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) or one of its esters, is routinely administered topically, and more specifically, to target skin lesions. Following metabolic conversion to protoporphyrin IX, the target area is photoilluminated, limiting peripheral damage and targeting the effective agent to the desired region. However, not all skin lesions are responsive to ALA-PDT. Topical administration of fully formed photosensitizers is less common but is receiving increased attention, and some notable advances with selected approved and experimental photosensitizers have been published. Our team has examined topical administration of the phthalocyanine photosensitizer Pc 4 to mammalian (human, mouse, pig) skin. Pc 4 in a desired formulation and concentration was applied to the skin surface at a rate of 5-10 μL/cm2 and kept under occlusion. After various times, skin biopsies were examined by confocal microscopy, and fluorescence within regions of interest was quantified. Early after application, images show the majority of the Pc 4 fluorescence within the stratum corneum and upper epidermis. As a function of time and concentration, penetration of Pc 4 across the stratum corneum and into the epidermis and dermis was observed. The data indicate that Pc 4 can be delivered to skin for photodynamic activation and treatment of skin pathologies.

  1. Benzoyl Peroxide Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... the benzoyl peroxide product to one or two small areas you want to treat for 3 days when ... cream, or gel, first wash the affected skin areas and gently pat dry with a towel. Then apply a small amount of benzoyl Peroxide, rub it in gently. ...

  2. Comment on "Topically Applied Connective Tissue Growth Factor/CCN2 Improves Diabetic Preclinical Cutaneous Wound Healing: Potential Role for CTGF in Human Diabetic Foot Ulcer Healing".

    PubMed

    Li, Hongling; Cao, Cong; Huang, Ai; Man, Yi

    2015-01-01

    A recent paper in this journal, presented a novel method by topical application of growth factors in stimulating diabetic cutaneous wound healing that caught our attention. We believe that the experimental method in the article is efficient and creative, but it also has some controversies and shortcomings to be discussed. We noted that the authors used "Tegaderm" as a semiocclusive dressing film and stated that it exerted a "splinting effect" on the wound margins and controlled contraction. Indeed, the "Tegaderm" itself can serve as a dressing film to isolate the wound bed with outside environments while the "splinting effect" is mainly achieved by adding silicone splints around the wound. Considering the unique properties of silicone splints and "Tegaderm," our experimental group propose an alternative method named "combined-suturing" technique that is not only suturing the silicone splints but also securing the "Tegaderm" around the wound. The specific reasons and operative procedures are explained in detail in this letter.

  3. Beneficial effect of a moisturizing cream as adjunctive treatment to oral isotretinoin or topical tretinoin in the management of acne.

    PubMed

    Laquieze, Sabine; Czernielewski, Janusz; Rueda, Marie-José

    2006-01-01

    Despite their beneficial effects on the treatment of acne vulgaris, topical and oral retinoids may cause severe local irritation (retinoid dermatitis) due to their mechanism of action, thereby jeopardizing patient adherence, and thus compromising treatment efficacy. Alleviating dryness and improving skin comfort by using a moisturizer concomitantly to retinoids could enhance efficacy. In the present study, 30 subjects receiving either oral isotretinoin for at least 2 months or topical tretinoin for at least one month applied a moisturizing cream (Cetaphil Moisturizing Cream) twice daily for 15 days on one half of the face while the other side remained untreated. Clinical assessments, confirmed by biophysical measurements, showed that the moisturizer provided a significant improvement in skin dryness, roughness, and desquamation. Skin properties and skin discomfort were also greatly improved and subjects were very satisfied with the product. Retinoid-induced skin irritation can be relieved by the regular use of a gentle moisturizing cream as an adjunctive treatment.

  4. Malathion Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... follow these steps: Be sure to keep your eyes closed during this treatment. You may need to have an adult help you apply the lotion. Apply malathion lotion to dry hair and scalp area paying special attention to ...

  5. Spinosad Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... face and eyes. Be sure to keep your eyes closed during this treatment. You may need to have an adult help you apply the suspension. Apply spinosad suspension to dry hair and scalp area. Be sure to use ...

  6. Tropomyosin Receptor Antagonism in Cylindromatosis (TRAC), an early phase trial of a topical tropomyosin kinase inhibitor as a treatment for inherited CYLD defective skin tumours: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Cranston, Amy; Stocken, Deborah D; Stamp, Elaine; Roblin, David; Hamlin, Julia; Langtry, James; Plummer, Ruth; Ashworth, Alan; Burn, John; Rajan, Neil

    2017-03-07

    Patients with germline mutations in a tumour suppressor gene called CYLD develop multiple, disfiguring, hair follicle tumours on the head and neck. The prognosis is poor, with up to one in four mutation carriers requiring complete surgical removal of the scalp. There are no effective medical alternatives to treat this condition. Whole genome molecular profiling experiments led to the discovery of an attractive molecular target in these skin tumour cells, named tropomyosin receptor kinase (TRK), upon which these cells demonstrate an oncogenic dependency in preclinical studies. Recently, the development of an ointment containing a TRK inhibitor (pegcantratinib - previously CT327 - from Creabilis SA) allowed for the assessment of TRK inhibition in tumours from patients with inherited CYLD mutations. Tropomysin Receptor Antagonism in Cylindromatosis (TRAC) is a two-part, exploratory, early phase, single-centre trial. Cohort 1 is a phase 1b open-labelled trial, and cohort 2 is a phase 2a randomised double-blinded exploratory placebo-controlled trial. Cohort 1 will determine the safety and acceptability of applying pegcantratinib for 4 weeks to a single tumour on a CYLD mutation carrier that is scheduled for a routine lesion excision (n = 8 patients). Cohort 2 will investigate if CYLD defective tumours respond following 12 weeks of treatment with pegcantratinib. As patients have multiple tumours, we intend to treat 10 tumours in each patient, 5 with active treatment and 5 with placebo. Patients will be allocated both active and placebo treatments to be applied randomly to tumours on the left or right side. The target is to treat 150 tumours in a maximum of 20 patients. Tumour volume will be measured at baseline and at 4 and 12 weeks. The primary outcome measure is the proportion of tumours responding to treatment by 12 weeks, based on change in tumour volume, with secondary measures based on adverse event profile, treatment compliance and acceptability, changes

  7. Methods for evaluating changes in skin condition due to the effects of antimicrobial hand cleansers: two studies comparing a new waterless chlorhexidine gluconate/ethanol-emollient antiseptic preparation with a conventional water-applied product.

    PubMed

    Grove, G L; Zerweck, C R; Heilman, J M; Pyrek, J D

    2001-12-01

    Hand-cleansing products that are milder to the skin of health care personnel are being developed, but the available methodologies to appropriately evaluate these products and quantify differences are not generally being applied in well-controlled studies. Two randomized, blinded, bilateral comparison studies evaluated skin condition during use of 2 antiseptic hand preparation products: a new 1% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG)/61% wt/wt ethanol antiseptic hand preparation in a unique emollient system for waterless/brushless application and a conventional 4% CHG antimicrobial product that is applied with water and a scrub brush. Trained technicians applied treatments 6 times (for a surgical scrub study) or 24 times (for a personnel handwash study) daily to the hands of healthy volunteers during 5 days of controlled washing. An expert grader evaluated skin for dryness, erythema, and roughness. Subjects completed a self-assessment questionnaire on skin condition. Transepidermal water loss was measured by an evaporimeter, and the skin surface hydration level was measured by an electrical conductance meter. Fifty-eight subjects were enrolled in the 2 studies and received both treatments. In general, skin treated with the waterless CHG/ethanol product scored significantly (P <.004) better on evaluations of visual dryness and erythema and showed greater improvement in the level of hydration (P <.003). In the health care personnel handwash study, transepidermal water loss was less than that for skin treated with the conventional CHG product (P <.002). Subject assessments showed similar results (total score, P <.007). All 3 approaches of expert grader evaluation, subject assessment, and instrumentation were in concordance, demonstrating that the waterless CHG/ethanol product was gentler to skin than the conventional CHG product.

  8. Comprehensive review on additives of topical dosage forms for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Garg, Tarun; Rath, Goutam; Goyal, Amit K

    2015-12-01

    Skin is the largest organ of the human body and plays the most important role in protecting against pathogen and foreign matter. Three important modes such as topical, regional and transdermal are widely used for delivery of various dosage forms. Among these modes, the topical dosage forms are preferred because it provides local therapeutic activity when applied to the skin or mucous membranes. Additives or pharmaceutical excipients (non-drug component of dosage form) are used as inactive ingredients in dosage form or tools for structuring dosage forms. The main use of topical dosage form additives are controling the extent of absorption, maintaining the viscosity, improving the stability as well as organoleptic property and increasing the bulk of the formulation. The overall goal of this article is to provide the clinician with information related to the topical dosage form additives and their current major applications against various diseases.

  9. Evaluation of a cyanoacrylate dressing to manage peristomal skin alterations under ostomy skin barrier wafers.

    PubMed

    Milne, Catherine T; Saucier, Darlene; Trevellini, Chenel; Smith, Juliet

    2011-01-01

    Peristomal skin alterations under ostomy barrier wafers are a commonly reported problem. While a number of interventions to manage this issue have been reported, the use of a topically applied cyanoacrylate has received little attention. This case series describes the use of a topical cyanoacrylate for the management of peristomal skin alterations in persons living with an ostomy. Using a convenience sample, the topical cyanoacrylate dressing was applied to 11 patients with peristomal skin disruption under ostomy wafers in acute care and outpatient settings. The causes of barrier function interruption were also addressed to enhance outcomes. Patients were assessed for wound discomfort using a Likert Scale, time to healing, and number of appliance changes. Patient satisfaction was also examined. Average reported discomfort levels were 9.5 out of 10 at the initial peristomal irritation assessment visit decreased to 3.5 at the first wafer change and were absent by the second wafer change. Wafers had increasing wear time between changes in both settings with acute care patients responding faster. Epidermal resurfacing occurred within 10.2 days in outpatients and within 7 days in acute care patients. Because of the skin sealant action of this dressing, immediate adherence of the wafer was reported at all pouch changes.

  10. Targeting superficial or nodular Basal cell carcinoma with topically formulated small molecule inhibitor of smoothened.

    PubMed

    Tang, Tracy; Tang, Jean Y; Li, Dongwei; Reich, Mike; Callahan, Christopher A; Fu, Ling; Yauch, Robert L; Wang, Frank; Kotkow, Karen; Chang, Kris S; Shpall, Elana; Wu, Angela; Rubin, Lee L; Marsters, James C; Epstein, Ervin H; Caro, Ivor; de Sauvage, Frederic J

    2011-05-15

    Inappropriate activation of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway in skin is critical for the development of basal cell carcinomas (BCC). We have investigated the anti-BCC efficacy of topically-applied CUR61414, an inhibitor of the Hh signal transduction molecule Smoothened. In preclinical studies, we used a depilatory model to evaluate the ability of topical formulations of CUR61414 to repress Hh responsive cells found at the base of hair follicles in normal skin. We also tested the in vivo effects of topical CUR61414 on murine BCCs developed in Ptch1 (+/-) K14-CreER2 p53 fl/fl mice. In a phase I clinical study, we evaluated the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of a multidose regimen of CUR61414 (0.09%, 0.35%, 1.1%, and 3.1%) applied topically to human superficial or nodular BCCs for up to 28 days. In mice, topical CUR61414 significantly inhibited skin Hh signaling, blocked the induction of hair follicle anagen, and shrank existing BCCs. However, we observed no clinical activity of this formulation in human superficial or nodular BCCs in a phase I clinical study. Our data highlight some of the challenges of translating preclinical experience into successful human results for a topical anticancer agent. ©2011 AACR.

  11. Effects on skin blood flow by provocation during local analgesia.

    PubMed

    Arildsson, M; Nilsson, G E; Strömberg, T

    2000-01-01

    Although topical analgesia cream has been used for several years, little is known about its effects on the microcirculation. Previous studies have shown a vasoconstrictive effect after short application times and a vasodilatation after longer application. It has also been shown that vasomotion does not occur in the analgesized skin. The present study was undertaken to investigate the alterations in skin blood perfusion following local cooling, local heating and pin-pricking after the establishment of analgesia. In 11 healthy volunteers, skin analgesia was attained by use of a eutectic mixture of lidocaine and prilocaine (EMLA, Astra Pain Control AB, Sweden) applied to the skin three hours prior to provocation. The changes in skin blood perfusion, after applying three different provocation methods, were studied using the laser Doppler technique. Local cooling and heating to temperatures of +10 and +45 degrees C, respectively, were applied for 9 s by use of a copper probe (O12 mm). In the pin-prick provocation method, a combined effect of deflection and penetration of the skin to in total 3 mm was attained. Identical provocation methods were applied to placebo treated and untreated skin areas. After heat provocation, significant differences in the perfusion response between the treatments were seen (P < 0.0001). Skin areas treated with analgesia cream responded with a slow increase in perfusion that persisted beyond the four minute measurement period. Placebo and untreated areas decreased their perfusion over time. After cooling a significant reduction in skin perfusion was seen, irrespective of the treatment. Similarly, after pin-pricking a perfusion increase was seen for all treatments. The findings indicate that topical analgesia influences the myogenic control of the blood flow in those vascular plexa measured by laser Doppler following heat provocation. No differences could be seen in the response to pin-pricking and cooling for the different treatments

  12. The Health Curriculum: 500 Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Oliver E.

    2001-01-01

    This 1958 paper divides 500 health topics into 20 categories: health as a social accomplishment/social problem; nutrition; physical fitness; mental health and disease; heredity/eugenics; infection/immunity; chronic and degenerative disease; substance abuse; skin care; vision, hearing, and speech; dental health; safety; physical environment; health…

  13. Dermal carotenoid level and kinetics after topical and systemic administration of antioxidants: enrichment strategies in a controlled in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Darvin, Maxim E; Fluhr, Joachim W; Schanzer, Sabine; Richter, Heike; Patzelt, Alexa; Meinke, Martina C; Zastrow, Leonhard; Golz, Karin; Doucet, Olivier; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Juergen

    2011-10-01

    High doses of sun-emitted UV-radiation induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) as major pro-oxidants thus inducing premature skin aging. The best prevention of the destructive action of free radicals in human skin is textile coverings, topical sunscreens and the development of a high antioxidative protective network. The effects of topical, systemic and combined application of antioxidants (AO) were investigated on human skin in vivo. Topical application of creams and systemic incorporation of tablets both containing AO was investigated in vivo by resonance Raman spectroscopy. Topical, systemic and combined AO-treatments induced a statistically significant increase of AO levels in human skin while placebo did not show any changes. The highest accumulation was induced by the combination of topical and systemic AO. Carotenoid-tablets combined with placebo-cream induced less carotenoid accumulation than carotenoid-tablets alone. Carotenoid levelling after the end of treatment lasted for around 2 weeks following the topical application of AOs, and up to 5 weeks after systemic administration, depending on the BMI of volunteers. Topically applied AO are stored in the SC for a short time only due to the rapid AO-depletion by desquamation, textile contact, washing and environmental stress. In contrast to topical application, the systemically applied carotenoids are stored in the body fat tissue and slowly released onto the skin surface with sweat and sebum. The combined topical and systemic application of AO represents an optimal form of protection of the AO-network. Copyright © 2011 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.