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Sample records for skin whitening cosmetics

  1. Characterization of suspected illegal skin whitening cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Desmedt, B; Van Hoeck, E; Rogiers, V; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O; De Paepe, K; Deconinck, E

    2014-03-01

    An important group of suspected illegal cosmetics consists of skin bleaching products, which are usually applied to the skin of the face, hands and décolleté for local depigmentation of hyper pigmented regions or more importantly, for a generalized reduction of the skin tone. These cosmetic products are suspected to contain illegal active substances that may provoke as well local as systemic toxic effects, being the reason for their banning from the EU market. In that respect, illegal and restricted substances in cosmetics, known to have bleaching properties, are in particular hydroquinone, tretinoin and corticosteroids. From a legislative point of view, all cosmetic products containing a prohibited whitening agent are illegal and must be taken off the EU market. A newly developed screening method using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-time off flight-mass spectrometry allows routine analysis of suspected products. 163 suspected skin whitening cosmetics, collected by Belgian inspectors at high risk sites such as airports and so-called ethnic cosmetic shops, were analyzed and 59% were classified as illegal. The whitening agents mostly detected were clobetasol propionate and hydroquinone, which represent a serious health risk when repeatedly and abundantly applied to the skin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Overview of skin whitening agents with an insight into the illegal cosmetic market in Europe.

    PubMed

    Desmedt, B; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O; Rogiers, V; Grosber, M; Deconinck, E; De Paepe, K

    2016-06-01

    Lightening skin tone is an ancient and well-documented practice, and remains common practice among many cultures. Whitening agents such as corticosteroids, tretinoin and hydroquinone are medically applied to effectively lighten the skin tone of hyperpigmented lesions. However, when these agents are used cosmetically, they are associated with a variety of side-effect. Alternative agents, such as arbutin and its derivatives kojic acid and nicotinamide have been subsequently developed for cosmetic purposes. Unfortunately, some cosmetics contain whitening agents that are banned for use in cosmetic products. This article provides an overview of the mode of action and potential side-effects of cosmetic legal and illegal whitening agents, and the pattern of use of these types of products. Finally, an EU analysis of the health problems due to the presence of illegal products on the market is summarized. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  3. In vitro Dermal Absorption of Hydroquinone: Protocol Validation and Applicability on Illegal Skin-Whitening Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Desmedt, Bart; Ates, Gamze; Courselle, Patricia; De Beer, Jacques O; Rogiers, Vera; Hendrickx, Benoit; Deconinck, Eric; De Paepe, Kristien

    2016-01-01

    In Europe, hydroquinone is a forbidden cosmetic ingredient. It is, however, still abundantly used because of its effective skin-whitening properties. The question arises as to whether the quantities of hydroquinone used become systemically available and may cause damage to human health. Dermal absorption studies can provide this information. In the EU, dermal absorption has to be assessed in vitro since the Cosmetic Regulation 1223/2009/EC forbids the use of animals. To obtain human-relevant data, a Franz diffusion cell protocol was validated using human skin. The results obtained were comparable to those from a multicentre validation study. The protocol was applied to hydroquinone and the dermal absorption ranged between 31 and 44%, which is within the range of published in vivo human values. This shows that a well-validated in vitro dermal absorption study using human skin provides relevant human data. The validated protocol was used to determine the dermal absorption of illegal skin-whitening cosmetics containing hydroquinone. All samples gave high dermal absorption values, rendering them all unsafe for human health. These results add to our knowledge of illegal cosmetics on the EU market, namely that they exhibit a negative toxicological profile and are likely to induce health problems. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Complications of cosmetic eye whitening.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ann Q; Hoppener, Catherine; Venkateswaran, Nandini; Choi, Daniel S; Lee, Wendy W

    2017-09-01

    Introduced in 2008 and subsequently popularized in South Korea, cosmetic eye whitening has been offered as a treatment of chronic conjunctival hyperemia. Patients undergo conjunctivectomy with topical mitomycin C (MMC) 0.02% application to achieve a whitened appearance from bleaching of avascular sclera. Much speculation has arisen from this procedure given the limited available evidence on its efficacy and safety. A literature search was performed to review common complications of cosmetic eye whitening, including chronic conjunctival epithelial defects, scleral thinning, avascular zones in the sclera, dry eye syndrome, and diplopia requiring strabismus surgery. Informing the general public of the risks of this procedure is of great importance for dermatologists and other cosmetic surgeons.

  5. HPLC-UV Method for the Identification and Screening of Hydroquinone, Ethers of Hydroquinone and Corticosteroids Possibly Used as Skin-Whitening Agents in Illicit Cosmetic Products.

    PubMed

    Gimeno, Pascal; Maggio, Annie-Françoise; Bancilhon, Marjorie; Lassu, Nelly; Gornes, Hervé; Brenier, Charlotte; Lempereur, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    Corticosteroids, hydroquinone and its ethers are regulated in cosmetics by the Regulation 1223/2009. As corticosteroids are forbidden to be used in cosmetics and cannot be present as contaminants or impurities, an identification of one of these illicit compounds deliberately introduced in these types of cosmetics is enough for market survey control. In order to quickly identify skin-whitening agents present in illegal cosmetics, this article proposes an HPLC-UV method for the identification and screening of hydroquinone, 3 ethers of hydroquinone and 39 corticosteroids that may be found in skin-whitening products. Two elution gradients were developed to separate all compounds. The main solvent gradient (A) allows the separation of 39 compounds among the 43 compounds considered in 50 min. Limits of detection on skin-whitening cosmetics are given. For compounds not separated, a complementary gradient elution (B) using the same solvents is proposed. Between 2004 and 2009, a market survey on "skin-whitening cosmetic" was performed on 150 samples and highlights that more than half of the products tested do not comply with the Cosmetic Regulation 1223/2009 (amending the Council Directive 76/768/EEC). © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The Hunt for Natural Skin Whitening Agents

    PubMed Central

    Smit, Nico; Vicanova, Jana; Pavel, Stan

    2009-01-01

    Skin whitening products are commercially available for cosmetic purposes in order to obtain a lighter skin appearance. They are also utilized for clinical treatment of pigmentary disorders such as melasma or postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Whitening agents act at various levels of melanin production in the skin. Many of them are known as competitive inhibitors of tyrosinase, the key enzyme in melanogenesis. Others inhibit the maturation of this enzyme or the transport of pigment granules (melanosomes) from melanocytes to surrounding keratinocytes. In this review we present an overview of (natural) whitening products that may decrease skin pigmentation by their interference with the pigmentary processes. PMID:20054473

  7. Application of solid phase extraction on multiwalled carbon nanotubes of some heavy metal ions to analysis of skin whitening cosmetics using ICP-AES.

    PubMed

    Alqadami, Ayoub A; Abdalla, Mohammad Abulhassan; AlOthman, Zeid A; Omer, Kamal

    2013-01-14

    A novel and highly sensitive method for the determination of some heavy metals in skin whitening cosmetics creams using multiwalled carbon nanotubes MWCNTs as solid phase extraction sorbent for the preconcentration of these heavy metals prior to their determination by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry is described. Different practical parameters have been thoroughly investigated and the optimum experimental conditions were employed. The developed method was then applied for the determination of arsenic, bismuth, cadmium, mercury, lead and titanium in samples of skin whitening cosmetics. The detection limits under these conditions for As, Bi, Cd, Pb, Hg and Ti were 2.4, 4.08, 0.3, 2.1, 1.8, and 1.8 ng·mL-1, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were found to be less than 2.0%. For validation, a certified reference material of NIST SRM 1570a spinach leaves was analyzed and the determined values were in good agreement with the certified values. The recoveries for spiked samples were found to be in the range of 89.6-104.4%.

  8. Application of Solid Phase Extraction on Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes of Some Heavy Metal Ions to Analysis of Skin Whitening Cosmetics Using ICP-AES

    PubMed Central

    ALqadami, Ayoub A.; Abdalla, Mohammad Abulhassan; ALOthman, Zeid A.; Omer, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    A novel and highly sensitive method for the determination of some heavy metals in skin whitening cosmetics creams using multiwalled carbon nanotubes MWCNTs as solid phase extraction sorbent for the preconcentration of these heavy metals prior to their determination by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry is described. Different practical parameters have been thoroughly investigated and the optimum experimental conditions were employed. The developed method was then applied for the determination of arsenic, bismuth, cadmium, mercury, lead and titanium in samples of skin whitening cosmetics. The detection limits under these conditions for As, Bi, Cd, Pb, Hg and Ti were 2.4, 4.08, 0.3, 2.1, 1.8, and 1.8 ng·mL−1, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were found to be less than 2.0%. For validation, a certified reference material of NIST SRM 1570a spinach leaves was analyzed and the determined values were in good agreement with the certified values. The recoveries for spiked samples were found to be in the range of 89.6–104.4%. PMID:23343988

  9. Necrotizing scleritis as a complication of cosmetic eye whitening procedure

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We report necrotizing scleritis as a serious complication of a cosmetic eye whitening procedure that involves the use of intraoperative and postoperative topical mitomycin C. Findings This is a single case report. A 59-year-old Caucasian male with a history of blepharitis status post uncomplicated LASIK refractive surgery reported chronic conjunctival hyperemia for 15 years prior to undergoing a cosmetic eye whitening procedure. He presented to our clinic 12 months after the cosmetic eye whitening procedure with progressive bilateral necrotizing scleritis and scleral calcification. Conclusions Chronic conjunctival hyperemia may prompt patients to seek surgical correction with cosmetic eye whitening procedures. However, conjunctival hyperemia secondary to tear deficiency and evaporative dry eye may predispose to poor wound healing. Serious complications including necrotizing scleritis may result from cosmetic eye whitening procedures and the use of topical mitomycin C. PMID:23514228

  10. Necrotizing scleritis as a complication of cosmetic eye whitening procedure.

    PubMed

    Leung, Theresa G; Dunn, James P; Akpek, Esen K; Thorne, Jennifer E

    2013-02-22

    We report necrotizing scleritis as a serious complication of a cosmetic eye whitening procedure that involves the use of intraoperative and postoperative topical mitomycin C. This is a single case report. A 59-year-old Caucasian male with a history of blepharitis status post uncomplicated LASIK refractive surgery reported chronic conjunctival hyperemia for 15 years prior to undergoing a cosmetic eye whitening procedure. He presented to our clinic 12 months after the cosmetic eye whitening procedure with progressive bilateral necrotizing scleritis and scleral calcification. Chronic conjunctival hyperemia may prompt patients to seek surgical correction with cosmetic eye whitening procedures. However, conjunctival hyperemia secondary to tear deficiency and evaporative dry eye may predispose to poor wound healing. Serious complications including necrotizing scleritis may result from cosmetic eye whitening procedures and the use of topical mitomycin C.

  11. [Pandalao and skin whitening in Mayotte].

    PubMed

    Levang, J; Eygonnet, F; Humbert, P

    2009-10-01

    Skin whitening (SW) is very common in dark-skinned populations and the practice is often named after a popular local brand of product and such is the case in Mayotte where this practice is called "pandalao". We carried out a descriptive epidemiological study in a sample of black Mahoran women aged 15 and over. The survey comprised a questionnaire completed by 163 women between 12 November 2007 and 24 January 2008. The aim of our study was to investigate the practice of SW in Mayotte and to determine its prevalence. Hundred percent of the subjects were aware of SW and 95% knew people practicing this procedure. The prevalence of users of whitening products was 33%, although 74% of these subjects did not use such products on a regular basis and 89% of the women limited application to exposed areas (visible to others). Sixty-three percent simultaneously applied Diproson (betamethasone dipropionate) and Pandalao, the main component of which is salicylic acid. Fifty-four percent of users had presented one or more adverse effects after application of these products and 28% had stopped this practice due to such adverse effects (chiefly acne and dyschromia). Although illegal, the trade in skin whitening products continues to grow because it is profitable and takes full advantage of the success of ethnic cosmetics. In Mayotte, as in metropolitan France and Africa, the existence of SW is acknowledged but is still taboo. However, a number of specific characteristics are seen in Mayotte: SW is rarely performed on the whole body, salicylic acid is added to a topical corticosteroid, and the traditional Mahoran mask, the "mzindzano", is still worn for photoprotection.

  12. Complications related to a cosmetic eye-whitening procedure.

    PubMed

    Vo, Rosalind C; Stafeeva, Ksenia; Aldave, Anthony J; Stulting, R Doyle; Moore, Quianta; Pflugfelder, Stephen C; Chungfat, Neil C; Holsclaw, Douglas S; Margolis, Todd P; Deng, Sophie X

    2014-11-01

    To report sight-threatening complications following extensive bulbar conjunctival resection and postoperative mitomycin C therapy for cosmetic eye-whitening in the United States. Retrospective noncomparative case series. Multicenter report of 9 patients referred for evaluation and management of complications following bilateral cosmetic eye whitening. Seventeen eyes of 9 patients underwent cosmetic eye-whitening performed between 2 and 48 months prior to referral to one of the centers. Sixteen of the 17 eyes had persistent conjunctival epithelial defects, with 10 eyes requiring amniotic membrane grafting to facilitate re-epithelialization. Four eyes of 2 patients developed limbal stem cell compromise confirmed with in vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy. One patient developed infectious scleritis and diplopia resulting from Tenon capsule scarring. Another patient developed scleral necrosis, secondary infectious scleritis, and infectious endophthalmitis. This patient subsequently developed noninfectious scleritis that required 3-drug-regimen immunosuppression. Severe adverse effects can occur after extensive cosmetic conjunctival resection followed by topical mitomycin C application. Patients and physicians should be aware of the potential sight-threatening complications associated with this eye-whitening procedure. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. The skin whitening industry in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Roger Lee

    2014-05-01

    Skin whitening is a big and booming industry in many developing countries. Its popularity owes mainly to post-colonial, internalized racism. This study examines whether government intervention is necessary and more efficient than market-driven approaches in addressing the health risks and harms associated with skin whitening. We gathered empirical data on the quality and quantity of health-related information about skin whiteners with a multi-stage probability sample of consumers in two cities in the Philippines (n=110; α=0.05). Regardless of their socio-demographic characteristics, we find that cognitive biases and information asymmetries build and sustain consumers' trust in manufacturers and distributors of skin whiteners while, paradoxically, breeding uncertainties over the integrity of these products. The results are product adulteration and misbranding, leading to pricing advantages for toxic whiteners over safer products. This has impeded regulatory efficacy. We recommend anchoring government intervention in transaction cost-reduction, containing the externalities of skin bleaching, and institutionalizing third party partnerships. Failure to do so would leave consumers extremely vulnerable to the forces of supply and demand that favor toxic whiteners, particularly in a market where voluntary collective action is difficult to organize.

  14. Power and Socioscientific Issues: The Pedagogy of Mire's Critique of Skin Whitening Cosmeceuticals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blades, David

    2012-01-01

    In her article, "The Scientification of Skin Whitening and the Entrepreneurial University- Linked Corporate Scientific Officer," published in this issue, Amina Mire (2012) deconstructs the tacit investments implicit in such discourses of beauty, in particular those linked to cosmetic products that purport to fight the "war on aging" through the…

  15. Quantitative determination of a-Arbutin, ß-Arbutin, Kojic acid, nicotinamide, hydroquinone, resorcinol, 4-methoxyphenol, 4-ethoxyphenol and ascorbic acid from skin whitening Products by HPLC-UV

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Development of an analytical method for the simultaneous determination of multifarious skin whitening agents will provide an efficient tool to analyze skin whitening cosmetics. An HPLC-UV method was developed for quantitative analysis of six commonly used whitening agents, a-arbutin, ß-arbutin, koji...

  16. Electro therapy facial and laser skin whitening: Clients' perspective.

    PubMed

    Lavanya, D; Manimaran, S; Bhagyalakshmi, K

    2018-01-01

    There are so many beauty salons in Metropolis who provide services to women exclusively [1]. These beauty salons depend mostly on electricity for their services to customers, without it there is no effective means of operation [2]. These beauty salons are definitely leading to women empowerment. The beauty salons are run by the women for women. Since they fall under the category of micro and small enterprises, these salons may avail so many financial and non- financial advantages from the Government of India. They also provide employment opportunities to the women employees. The development of such beauty salons rests on the clients' satisfaction on the provision of their services. Hence it is essential to measure the clients attitude towards the services offered by the beauty salons, especially electro therapy facial, laser skin whitening and laser hair removal treatments, which are coming under micro current treatment as a cosmetic tool.

  17. A Game-Theoretic Model of Marketing Skin Whiteners.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Roger Lee

    2015-01-01

    Empirical studies consistently find that people in less developed countries tend to regard light or "white" skin, particularly among women, as more desirable or superior. This is a study about the marketing of skin whiteners in these countries, where over 80 percent of users are typically women. It proceeds from the following premises: a) Purely market or policy-oriented approaches toward the risks and harms of skin whitening are cost-inefficient; b) Psychosocial and informational factors breed uninformed and risky consumer choices that favor toxic skin whiteners; and c) Proliferation of toxic whiteners in a competitive buyer's market raises critical supplier accountability issues. Is intentional tort a rational outcome of uncooperative game equilibria? Can voluntary cooperation nonetheless evolve between buyers and sellers of skin whiteners? These twin questions are key to addressing the central paradox in this study: A robust and expanding buyer's market, where cheap whitening products abound at a high risk to personal and societal health and safety. Game-theoretic modeling of two-player and n-player strategic interactions is proposed in this study for both its explanatory and predictive value. Therein also lie its practical contributions to the economic literature on skin whitening.

  18. Investigation of water-soluble elastin as a multifunctional cosmetic material: Moisturizing and whitening effects.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Asako; Hikima, Tomohiro; Taniguchi, Suguru; Nose, Takeru; Maeda, Iori

    Elastin and collagen are extracellular matrix proteins that are widely distributed in the body. Although elastin essentially functions as a skin moisturizer, there have been few reports on its other fundamental chemical and biological functions. In this study, we investigated the moisturizing and whitening (tyrosinase inhibition) effects of elastin to examine its usefulness as a cosmetic material. Water-soluble hot alkali pig aorta (HAPA)-elastin was prepared from pig aorta using the hot alkali method. HAPA-elastin showed a widely distributed molecular weight and had a coacervation property that mediated reversible self-assembly of its molecules with increasing temperature. Amino acid analysis of HAPA-elastin showed a high content (81.5%) of hydrophobic amino acids such as Gly, Ala, Val, and Pro. Des (desmosine) and Ide (isodesmosine), which are characteristic amino acids of elastin, accounted for more than 0.4% of the total amino acid content. HAPA-elastin showed a moisture-retaining property. The water content of skin samples treated with and without HAPA-elastin was 77.2% ± 7.8% and 49.4% ± 10.1%, respectively. HAPA-elastin also inhibited tyrosinase activity by 11.3% ± 3.9%. The results obtained indicate that elastin has a useful function as a cosmetic material.

  19. A study of the human skin-whitening effects of resveratryl triacetate.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Ja Hyun; Seok, Jin Kyung; An, Sang Mi; Baek, Ji Hwoon; Koh, Jae Sook; Boo, Yong Chool

    2015-04-01

    Resveratrol has a variety of bioactivities that include its anti-melanogenic effects, but its use in cosmetics has been challenging partly because of its chemical instability. Resveratryl triacetate (RTA) is a prodrug that can enhance stability. The purpose of this study was to examine the skin safety and whitening effects of RTA in human subjects. The primary skin irritation potentials of RTA and resveratrol were tested at 0.1 and 0.5 % on human subjects. Resveratrol at a concentration of 0.5 % induced weak skin irritation, whereas RTA did not induce any skin responses. The skin-whitening efficacy of a cosmetic formulation containing 0.4 % RTA was evaluated in two different test models. In the artificial tanning model, the test product and the control product were applied twice daily to the skin of the forearms of 22 human subjects after pigmentation induction by ultraviolet irradiation. Applying the test and the control products to the artificial tanning model for 8 weeks increased the individual topology angles (ITA°) by 17.06 and 13.81 %, respectively, a difference that was statistically significant (p < 0.05). In the hyperpigmentation model, the test product and the control product were applied twice daily to the faces of 21 human subjects. The averaged intensity of the hyperpigmented spots decreased by 2.67 % in the test group and 1.46 % in the control group, a difference that was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Therefore, RTA incorporated into cosmetic formulations can whiten human skin without inducing skin irritation.

  20. The Scientification of Skin Whitening and the Entrepreneurial University-Linked Corporate Scientific Officer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mire, Amina

    2012-01-01

    This work examines the interlocking strategies of scientific entrepreneurialism and academic capitalism in cutting-edge innovations in molecular biology, biomedicine, and other life sciences deployed in research and the development of high-end skin whitening and anti-aging cosmeceuticals. Skin whitening products and anti-aging cosmeceuticals are…

  1. Skin whitening and anti-corrugation activities of glycoprotein fractions from liquid extracts of boiled sea cucumber.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Jung; Park, So Yun; Hong, Sun-Mee; Kwon, Eun-Hye; Lee, Taek-Kyun

    2016-10-01

    To determine skin whitening and wrinkle improvement efficacy, glycoprotein fractions were extracted from liquid extracts of boiled sea cucumber and their effects on tyrosine and elastase inhibitory activities were assayed. Fractions above and below 50 kDa (>50 kDa and <50 kDa) were extracted via a series of steps involving: boiling, filtering, desalting and freeze drying. Cytotoxicity, skin whitening and wrinkle-removing effects of boiled liquid were determined. Our MTT data showed that neither glycoprotein fraction of boiled liquid induces cellular cytotoxicity up to a concentration of 10 mg/mL treatment of the mouse melanoma cell line, B16F10, with 10 mg/mL >50 kDa enhanced tyrosinase and elastase inhibitory activities by 50.84% and 28.78%, respectively. Correlations of the >50 kDa concentration with tyrosinase inhibitory (R2 = 0.968) and elastase inhibitory (R2 = 0.983) efficacy were significant. >50 kDa glycoprotein fraction isolated from liquid extracts of boiled sea cucumber, which can serve as a functional cosmetic ingredient for whitening and wrinkle improvement of skin. Copyright © 2016 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Complications of cosmetic skin bleaching in Africa].

    PubMed

    Morand, J J; Ly, F; Lightburn, E; Mahé, A

    2007-12-01

    Use of cosmetic products to bleach or lighten the skin is common among dark-skinned women in some sub-Saharan African countries. Long-term use of some pharmacologic compounds (e.g. hydroquinone, glucocorticoids and mercury) can cause adverse effects including dermatologic disorders such as dyschromia, exogenous ochronosis, acne and hypertrichosis, prominent striae, tinea corporis, pyoderma, erysipelas, scabies, and contact dermatitis and systemic complications such as hypertension, hypercorticism or surrenal deficiency, and mercurial nephropathy.

  3. Skin whitening effect of linoleic acid is enhanced by liposomal formulations.

    PubMed

    Shigeta, Yasutami; Imanaka, Hiromichi; Ando, Hideya; Ryu, Atsuko; Oku, Naoto; Baba, Naomichi; Makino, Taketoshi

    2004-04-01

    Linoleic acid (LA) is known to have a whitening effect on hyperpigmented skin, and is encapsulated in liposomes for topical application because of its low solubility in aqueous solution, although the effect of liposomalization of LA on the whitening activity has not been evaluated. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of liposomalization on the whitening activity of LA by using LA in ethanol, hydrogel containing LA, and hydrogel containing liposomal LA towards the UV-stimulated hyperpigmented dorsal skin of brownish guinea pigs. The whitening effect was far greater for hydrogel containing liposomal LA (0.1% w/w as a final concentration of LA) than for free LA in ethanol or hydrogel containing LA. Next, the whitening effect of LA was examined with UV-stimulated hyperpigmented human upper arm skin by using a hydrogel containing liposomal LA (0.1% LA) and non-liposomal LA (3.0, 10.0% LA). Liposomal LA (0.1%) showed a whitening effect comparable to 10.0% non-liposomal LA and was far more effective than 3.0% non-liposomal LA. These results indicate that liposomal formulations are favorable for the transdermal application of LA.

  4. Cosmetics

    MedlinePlus

    Cosmetics are products you apply to your body to clean it, make it more attractive, or change ... include Hair dyes Makeup Perfumes Skin-care creams Cosmetics that treat or prevent diseases are also drugs. ...

  5. Simultaneous determination of water-soluble whitening ingredients and adenosine in different cosmetic formulations by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection.

    PubMed

    Jeon, J-S; Kim, H-T; Kim, M-G; Oh, M-S; Hong, S-R; Yoon, M-H; Cho, S-M; Shin, H-C; Shim, J-H; Ramadan, A; Abd El-Aty, A M

    2016-06-01

    The Korean Cosmetic Act regulates the use of functional cosmetics) by the law. Four functional cosmetic groups, whitening, anti-wrinkle, UV protection and combination of whitening and anti-wrinkle, were categorized according to the Korean Cosmetic Act and Functional Cosmetics Codex. In this study, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with photodiode array detection (DAD) was employed for the simultaneous detection of arbutin (and its decomposition product, hydroquinone), niacinamide, ascorbyl glucoside, ethyl ascorbyl ether and adenosine in functional cosmetic products such as creams, emulsions and lotions. Separation by HPLC-DAD was conducted using a C18 column with a gradient elution of 5 mm KH2PO4 buffer (containing 0.1% phosphoric acid) and methanol (containing 0.1% phosphoric acid). The wavelengths for the detection of arbutin, hydroquinone, niacinamide, adenosine, ascorbyl glucoside and ethyl ascorbyl ether were 283, 289, 261, 257, 238 and 245 nm, respectively. This method exhibited good linearity (R(2) ≥ 0.999), precision (expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) < 2%) and mean recoveries (89.42-104.89%). The results obtained by monitoring 100 market samples showed that the detected levels of the tested materials are within the acceptable authorized concentration. The method developed herein is simple and can be used for market survey and quality control of functional cosmetics. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  6. Risk assessment of skin lightening cosmetics containing hydroquinone.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Mariko; Todo, Hiroaki; Akiyama, Takumi; Hirata-Koizumi, Mutsuko; Sugibayashi, Kenji; Ikarashi, Yoshiaki; Ono, Atsushi; Hirose, Akihiko; Yokoyama, Kazuhito

    2016-11-01

    Following reports on potential risks of hydroquinone (HQ), HQ for skin lightening has been banned or restricted in Europe and the US. In contrast, HQ is not listed as a prohibited or limited ingredient for cosmetic use in Japan, and many HQ cosmetics are sold without restriction. To assess the risk of systemic effects of HQ, we examined the rat skin permeation rates of four HQ (0.3%, 1.0%, 2.6%, and 3.3%) cosmetics. The permeation coefficients ranged from 1.2 × 10 -9 to 3.1 × 10 -7  cm/s, with the highest value superior than the HQ aqueous solution (1.6 × 10 -7  cm/s). After dermal application of the HQ cosmetics to rats, HQ in plasma was detected only in the treatment by highest coefficient cosmetic. Absorbed HQ levels treated with this highest coefficient cosmetic in humans were estimated by numerical methods, and we calculated the margin of exposure (MOE) for the estimated dose (0.017 mg/kg-bw/day in proper use) to a benchmark dose for rat renal tubule adenomas. The MOE of 559 is judged to be in a range safe for the consumer. However, further consideration may be required for regulation of cosmetic ingredients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Whitening effect of Sophora flavescens extract.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dae Hyun; Cha, Youn Jeong; Joe, Gi Jung; Yang, Kyeong Eun; Jang, Ik-Soon; Kim, Bo Hyeon; Kim, Jung Min

    2013-11-01

    Sophora flavescens Ait. (Leguminosae) has been proposed as a new whitening agent for cosmetics, because it has a strong ability to inhibit tyrosinase, a key enzyme in the formation of melanin. We conducted a study to determine whether ethanol extract of the roots of S. flavescens has the potential for use as a whitening cosmetic agent by investigating its underlying mechanisms of action. To elucidate the mechanism of action of S. flavescens extract, we used DNA microarray technology. We investigated the changes in the mRNA levels of genes associated with the formation and transport of melanosomes. We also identified the formation and transport of melanosomes with immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence analyses. Finally, the skin-whitening effect in vivo of S. flavescens extract was analyzed on human skin. We found that S. flavescens extract strongly inhibited tyrosinase activity (IC50, 10.4 μg/mL). Results also showed that key proteins involved in the formation and transport of melanosomes were dramatically downregulated at both mRNA and protein level in keratinocytes exposed to S. flavescens extract. In addition, a clinical trial of a cream containing 0.05% S. flavescens extract on human skin showed it had a significant effect on skin whitening by mechanical and visual evaluation (1.14-fold). This study provides important clues toward understanding the effects of S. flavescens extract on the formation and transport of melanosomes. From these results, we suggest that naturally occurring S. flavescens extract might be useful as a new whitening agent in cosmetics.

  8. Delayed manifestation of bilateral scleral thinning after I-BRITE(®) procedure and review of literature for cosmetic eye-whitening procedures.

    PubMed

    Moshirfar, Majid; McCaughey, Michael V; Fenzl, Carlton R; Santiago-Caban, Luis; Kramer, Gregory D; Mamalis, Nick

    2015-01-01

    To report a case of delayed-onset bilateral scleral thinning and calcium deposition following a cosmetic ocular-whitening procedure (I-BRITE(®)). A 33-year-old male patient with a history of right-sided ptosis repair and left-sided anterior uveitis had previously undergone bilateral I-BRITE treatment for chronic conjunctival hyperemia. Four years after the procedure, the patient was referred to our institution with bilateral scleral thinning and overlying calcific depositions. A literature review was performed through PubMed from 1980 through 2014 using the search terms 'cosmetic', 'ocular', 'conjunctivectomy', 'regional conjunctivectomy', 'I-BRITE', 'eye-whitening', 'scleritis', 'necrotizing scleritis', 'anterior uveitis', 'mitomycin C', '5-fluorouracil', and 'bevacizumab', along with associated cross-referencing from relevant articles. Examination of the patient revealed bilateral necrotizing scleritis within the nasal region of both eyes. Calcified plaques were also present within the areas of scleromalacia, along with epithelial defects demonstrated with fluorescein staining. Although evidence of previous intraocular inflammation was apparent within the left eye, there were no active signs of inflammation evident within either eye on initial presentation. Complication rates reported in the literature include: scleral thinning (1.8%), calcific plaque formation (2.9%), fibrovascular proliferation (13%), diplopia (1.2%), elevation of intraocular pressure (4.2%), and recurrence of conjunctival hyperemia (2.1%). Cosmetic ocular whitening procedures have an attendant high complication rate, and have been associated with several adverse postoperative complications, which have in turn generated several reservations regarding the veritable benefit of the procedure. Many postsurgical complications may demonstrate delayed apparition, varying from several months to several years after primary surgical intervention as in the case reported here.

  9. Whitening Effect of Black Tea Water Extract on Brown Guinea Pig Skin

    PubMed Central

    Choi, So-Young

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the whitening effect of black tea water extract (BT), BT was topically applied to artificially hyperpigmented spots on the back skins of brown guinea-pigs (weight: 450~500 g) induced by 1,500 mJ/ cm2 of ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation. The test compounds of 30 μl were applied twice a day, six days a week, for four weeks. The artificially hyperpigmented spots were divided into 5 groups: control (UVB + saline, C), vehicle control [UVB + propylene glycol: ethanol: water (5 : 3 : 2), VC], positive control (UVB + 2% hydroquinone, PC), experimental 1 (UVB + 1% BT), experimental 2 (UVB + 2% BT). After 4-week application, the spots were removed by biopsy punch under anesthetic condition and used as specimens for the histological examination. The total polyphenol and flavonoid contents of BT were 104 and 91 mg/g, respectively. The electron-donating ability of BT revealed a dose-dependent response, showing the excellent capacities of 86% at 800 μg/ml. The artificially hyperpigmented spots treated with the PC and BT were obviously lightened compared to the C and VC groups. At the fourth week, the melanin indices for the PC and BT groups were significantly lower (p < 0.00l) than those of the C and VC groups. In histological examination, PC and BT groups were significantly reduced in the melanin pigmentation, the proliferation of melanocytes and the synthesis of melanosomes compared to the C and VC groups. It is found that BT inhibits the proliferation of melanocytes and synthesis of melanosomes in vivo using brown guinea pigs, thereby showing a definite skin whitening effect. PMID:24278566

  10. Skin whitening among Cameroonian female university students: knowledge, attitudes, practices and motivations.

    PubMed

    Kouotou, Emmanuel Armand; Nansseu, Jobert Richie N; Adegbidi, Hugues; Zoa Mebara, Theophane Christel Joel; Ndjitoyap Ndam, Elie Claude

    2017-04-17

    Lack of data on skin whitening (SW) among Cameroonian female university students prompted us to undertake the present study which aimed at assessing the knowledge, attitudes, practices and motivations of female university students vis-a-vis SW. This was a cross-sectional study conducted from January to April 2013 in 4 university campuses of Yaoundé, Cameroon. Any female student regularly registered in one of the study sites, who was present at the campus when the investigator visited and volunteered to participate in the study was enrolled. Overall, we recruited 620 female students, their ages ranging from 16 to 46 years with a mean of 21.3 ± 2.9 years. Only 87 participants (14%) found that SW was a good practice. One hundred and sixty nine respondents (27.3%) were currently practicing SW with no age difference when compared to their counterparts (p = 0.09). The desire to have a uniform body skin color was the prevailing reason motivating the practice of SW (39.1%), followed by the need to have a soft skin (29%). Assessment of levels of knowledge regarding advantages of the black skin and deleterious effects of SW showed excellent scores (≥75% of good answers) only in 6.1 and 0.5% of cases respectively, with no difference between those practicing SW or not (all p values > 0.05). The practice of SW is common among Cameroonian female university students who should therefore be educated on the advantages of the black skin and the harmful effects of SW.

  11. Ultrasound detection and identification of cosmetic fillers in the skin.

    PubMed

    Wortsman, X; Wortsman, J; Orlandi, C; Cardenas, G; Sazunic, I; Jemec, G B E

    2012-03-01

    While the incidence of cosmetic filler injections is rising world-wide, neither exact details of the procedure nor the agent used are always reported or remembered by the patients. Thus, although complications are reportedly rare, availability of a precise diagnostic tool to detect cutaneous filler deposits could help clarify the association between the procedure and the underlying pathology. The aim of this study was to evaluate cutaneous sonography in the detection and identification of cosmetic fillers deposits and, describe dermatological abnormalities found associated with the presence of those agents. We used ultrasound in a porcine skin model to determine the sonographic characteristics of commonly available filler agents, and subsequently applied the analysis to detect and identify cosmetic fillers among patients referred for skin disorders. Fillers are recognizable on ultrasound and generate different patterns of echogenicity and posterior acoustic artefacts. Cosmetic fillers were identified in 118 dermatological patients; most commonly hyaluronic acid among degradable agents and silicone oil among non-degradable. Fillers deposits were loosely scattered throughout the subcutaneous tissue, with occasional infiltration of local muscles and loco-regional lymph nodes. Accompanying dermatopathies were represented by highly localized inflammatory processes unresponsive to conventional treatment, morphea-like reactions, necrosis of fatty tissue and epidermal cysts; in the case of non-degradable agents, the associated dermatopathies were transient, resolving upon disappearance of the filler. Cosmetic filler agents may be detected and identified during routine ultrasound of dermatological lesions; the latter appear to be pathologically related to the cosmetic procedure. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2011 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  12. Delayed manifestation of bilateral scleral thinning after I-BRITE® procedure and review of literature for cosmetic eye-whitening procedures

    PubMed Central

    Moshirfar, Majid; McCaughey, Michael V; Fenzl, Carlton R; Santiago-Caban, Luis; Kramer, Gregory D; Mamalis, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report a case of delayed-onset bilateral scleral thinning and calcium deposition following a cosmetic ocular-whitening procedure (I-BRITE®). Methods A 33-year-old male patient with a history of right-sided ptosis repair and left-sided anterior uveitis had previously undergone bilateral I-BRITE treatment for chronic conjunctival hyperemia. Four years after the procedure, the patient was referred to our institution with bilateral scleral thinning and overlying calcific depositions. A literature review was performed through PubMed from 1980 through 2014 using the search terms ‘cosmetic’, ‘ocular’, ‘conjunctivectomy’, ‘regional conjunctivectomy’, ‘I-BRITE’, ‘eye-whitening’, ‘scleritis’, ‘necrotizing scleritis’, ‘anterior uveitis’, ‘mitomycin C’, ‘5-fluorouracil’, and ‘bevacizumab’, along with associated cross-referencing from relevant articles. Results Examination of the patient revealed bilateral necrotizing scleritis within the nasal region of both eyes. Calcified plaques were also present within the areas of scleromalacia, along with epithelial defects demonstrated with fluorescein staining. Although evidence of previous intraocular inflammation was apparent within the left eye, there were no active signs of inflammation evident within either eye on initial presentation. Complication rates reported in the literature include: scleral thinning (1.8%), calcific plaque formation (2.9%), fibrovascular proliferation (13%), diplopia (1.2%), elevation of intraocular pressure (4.2%), and recurrence of conjunctival hyperemia (2.1%). Conclusion Cosmetic ocular whitening procedures have an attendant high complication rate, and have been associated with several adverse postoperative complications, which have in turn generated several reservations regarding the veritable benefit of the procedure. Many postsurgical complications may demonstrate delayed apparition, varying from several months to several years after primary

  13. Modeling and analysis of cosmetic treatment effects on human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunderstaedt, Reinhart A.; Hopermann, Hermann; Hillemann, Thomas

    2000-10-01

    In view of treatment effects of cosmetics, quality management becomes more and more important. Due to the efficiency reasons it is desirable to quantify these effects and predict them as a function of time. For this, a mathematical model of the skin's surface (epidermis) is needed. Such a model cannot be worked out purely analytically. It can only be derived with the help of measurement data. The signals of interest as output of different measurement devices consist of two parts: noise of high (spatial) frequencies (stochastic signal) and periodic functions (deterministic signal) of low (spatial) frequencies. Both parts can be separated by correlation analysis. The paper introduces in addition to the Fourier Transform (FT) with the Wavelet Transform (WT), a brand new, highly sophisticated method with excellent properties for both modeling the skin's surface as well as evaluating treatment effects. Its main physical advantage is (in comparison to the FT) that local irregularities in the measurement signal (e.g. by scars) remain at their place and are not represented as mean square values as it is the case when applying the FT. The method has just now been installed in industry and will there be used in connection with a new in vivo measurement device for quality control of cosmetic products. As texture parameter for an integral description of the human skin the fractal dimension D is used which is appropriate for classification of different skin regions and treatment effects as well.

  14. Inorganic mercury poisoning associated with skin-lightening cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2011-12-01

    Mercury and mercury salts, including mercurous chloride and mercurous oxide, are prohibited for use in cosmetic products as skin-lightening agents because of their high toxicity. Yet, the public continue to have access to these products. Reports of skin-lightening cosmetic products containing mercury and cases of mercury poisoning following the use of such products were identified using Medline (1950 - 28 March 2011) with mercury, mercury compounds, mercury poisoning, cosmetics and skin absorption as the subject headings. These searches identified 118 citations of which 31 were relevant. The rate of dermal absorption increases with the concentration of mercury and prior hydration of the skin. The degree of dermal absorption varies with the skin integrity and lipid solubility of the vehicle in the cosmetic products. Ingestion may occur after topical application around the mouth and hand-to-mouth contact. After absorption, inorganic mercury is distributed widely and elimination occurs primarily through the urine and feces. With long-term exposure, urinary excretion is the major route of elimination. The half-life is approximately 1-2 months. The kidneys are the major site of inorganic mercury deposition; renal damage includes reversible proteinuria, acute tubular necrosis and nephrotic syndrome. Gastrointestinal symptoms include a metallic taste, gingivostomatitis, nausea and hypersalivation. Although penetration of the blood-brain barrier by inorganic mercury is poor, prolonged exposure can result in central nervous system (CNS) accumulation and neurotoxicity. Inorganic mercury poisoning following the use of skin-lightening creams has been reported from Africa, Europe, USA, Mexico, Australia and Hong Kong. Nephrotic syndrome (mainly due to minimal change or membranous nephropathy) and neurotoxicity were the most common presenting features. As mercury-containing cosmetic products can contaminate the home, some close household contacts were also reported to have

  15. Prediction of Skin Temperature Distribution in Cosmetic Laser Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Kuen; Chen, Kuen-Tasnn; Cheng, Shih-Feng; Lin, Wen-Shiung; Chang, Cheng-Ren

    2008-01-01

    The use of lasers in cosmetic surgery has increased dramatically in the past decade. To achieve minimal damage to tissues, the study of the temperature distribution of skin in laser irradiation is very important. The phenomenon of the thermal wave effect is significant due to the highly focused light energy of lasers in very a short time period. The conventional Pennes equation does not take the thermal wave effect into account, which the thermal relaxation time (τ) is neglected, so it is not sufficient to solve instantaneous heating and cooling problem. The purpose of this study is to solve the thermal wave equation to determine the realistic temperature distribution during laser surgery. The analytic solutions of the thermal wave equation are compared with those of the Pennes equation. Moreover, comparisons are made between the results of the above equations and the results of temperature measurement using an infrared thermal image instrument. The thermal wave equation could likely to predict the skin temperature distribution in cosmetic laser surgery.

  16. Skin acceptability of a cosmetic moisturizer formulation in female subjects with sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Nisbet, Stephanie J

    2018-01-01

    This 3-week, open-label, noncomparative clinical study evaluated the skin acceptability of a cosmetic moisturizer in subjects with sensitive skin, by monitoring adverse events (AEs) and cutaneous discomfort related to normal usage. Female subjects aged between 18-60 years, with Fitzpatrick phototype classification I-IV and sensitive skin, verified by a positive reaction on the stinging test at screening, were included. Subjects applied the moisturizer to their face and body twice daily for 21±2 days at home and recorded study product usage and feelings of cutaneous discomfort (eg, dryness, prickling, stinging, and itching) in a diary; any AEs were reported to the clinic. At study end, skin acceptability of the moisturizer was investigator-assessed based on the nature of AEs and subjects' self-reported feelings of discomfort, and by clinical evaluation of skin reactions in the area of moisturizer application (appearance of erythema, formation of edema, and skin desquamation; scored according to an adapted Draize and Kligman scale). Only subjects with a treatment compliance of ≥80% were included in the final analysis. In total, 35 subjects initiated and completed the study; all were compliant to the minimum study product usage. Per investigator clinical dermatological assessment at study end, none of the 35 subjects had skin reactions in the area of moisturizer application and there were no reported AEs. One subject reported sensations of mild prickling and itching immediately after applying the moisturizer (not classified as AEs), which spontaneously remitted after complete absorption of the product and were noted only in exposed areas. These events were considered by the investigator as being possibly/probably related to the use of study product; however, no clinical signs of skin reaction were observed in the exposed areas. This cosmetic moisturizer appears generally well tolerated and suitable for topical use in subjects with sensitive skin.

  17. Skin acceptability of a cosmetic moisturizer formulation in female subjects with sensitive skin

    PubMed Central

    Nisbet, Stephanie J

    2018-01-01

    Purpose This 3-week, open-label, noncomparative clinical study evaluated the skin acceptability of a cosmetic moisturizer in subjects with sensitive skin, by monitoring adverse events (AEs) and cutaneous discomfort related to normal usage. Materials and methods Female subjects aged between 18–60 years, with Fitzpatrick phototype classification I–IV and sensitive skin, verified by a positive reaction on the stinging test at screening, were included. Subjects applied the moisturizer to their face and body twice daily for 21±2 days at home and recorded study product usage and feelings of cutaneous discomfort (eg, dryness, prickling, stinging, and itching) in a diary; any AEs were reported to the clinic. At study end, skin acceptability of the moisturizer was investigator-assessed based on the nature of AEs and subjects’ self-reported feelings of discomfort, and by clinical evaluation of skin reactions in the area of moisturizer application (appearance of erythema, formation of edema, and skin desquamation; scored according to an adapted Draize and Kligman scale). Only subjects with a treatment compliance of ≥80% were included in the final analysis. Results In total, 35 subjects initiated and completed the study; all were compliant to the minimum study product usage. Per investigator clinical dermatological assessment at study end, none of the 35 subjects had skin reactions in the area of moisturizer application and there were no reported AEs. One subject reported sensations of mild prickling and itching immediately after applying the moisturizer (not classified as AEs), which spontaneously remitted after complete absorption of the product and were noted only in exposed areas. These events were considered by the investigator as being possibly/probably related to the use of study product; however, no clinical signs of skin reaction were observed in the exposed areas. Conclusion This cosmetic moisturizer appears generally well tolerated and suitable for topical

  18. Body dysmorphic disorder and cosmetic dermatology: more than skin deep

    PubMed Central

    Castle, David J; Phillips, Katharine A; Dufresne, Raymond G

    2006-01-01

    Summary Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is relatively common in cosmetic practise, yet it remains under-recognized. BDD patients are unnaturally concerned with minimal or non-existent flaws, most commonly in the skin (e.g. facial acne or scarring) and hair (e.g. hair loss). Many patients develop social avoidance and suffer occupational or academic impairment. More severely ill patients may become housebound or even attempt suicide. Despite the minimal or non-existent nature of the perceived appearance flaws, patients with BDD may request dermatological treatments such as isotretinoin or dermabrasion. Although treatment outcome has received little investigation, it appears that most patients are dissatisfied with dermatological treatment and, even if the outcome is objectively acceptable, they do not worry any the less about their appearance afterwards. In contrast, a majority of patients respond to serotonin reuptake inhibitors or cognitive behavioural therapy. Treatment of these patients is best given by an experienced health professional. This may be a mental health professional or a dermatologist with an interest in psychological medicine. PMID:17147563

  19. Effects of cosmetics on the skin microbiome of facial cheeks with different hydration levels.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo Jung; Jeong, Sang Eun; Lee, Soyoun; Kim, Sungwoo; Han, Hyuntak; Jeon, Che Ok

    2018-04-01

    Basic cosmetics was used by volunteers belonging to high (HHG) and low (LHG) hydration groups for 4 weeks, and bacterial communities and biophysical parameters in facial skin were analyzed. Hydration level increases and transepidermal water loss and roughness decreases were observed in both groups after cosmetic use. Bacterial diversity was greater in LHG than HHG, and increased after cosmetic use in both groups. Bray-Curtis dissimilarities that were higher in LHG than HHG increased in HHG after cosmetic use, whereas they decreased in LHG. The phyla Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes and the genera Propionibacterium, Ralstonia, Burkholderia, Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium, Cupriavidus, and Pelomonas were identified as common groups and they were not significantly different between LHG and HHG except for Propionibacterium that was more abundant in HHG. After cosmetic use, Propionibacterium, Staphylococcus, and Corynebacterium decreased, whereas Ralstonia, not a core genus, increased, as did KEGG categories of lipid metabolism and xenobiotics biodegradation and metabolism, suggesting that Ralstonia in skin may have the ability to metabolize cosmetics components. Bacterial communities after cosmetic use were different from those in both LHG and HHG before the cosmetic use, indicating that bacterial communities in LHG were not shifted to resemble those in HHG by cosmetics use. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The Clinical Test of Nano gold Cosmetic for Recovering Skin Damage Due to Chemicals: Special Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taufikurohmah, T.; Wardana, A. P.; Tjahjani, S.; Sanjaya, I. G. M.; Baktir, A.; Syahrani, A.

    2018-01-01

    Manufacturing of Nano gold cosmetics was done at PT. Gizi Indonesia. Clinical trials to cosmetics data supported that cosmetics are able to treat skin health which has been reported partially. For special cases, the recovery process of facial skin damage should also receive attention including cases of facial skin damage caused by chemicals such as phenol, HCl, aqua regia or other harsh chemicals. The problem determined whether the Nano gold is able to recover skin damage due to the harsh chemicals. This clinical trial data on the forms of early skin damage caused by phenol was delivered in the forms of facial photos patients. The recovery progress of facial skin condition was obtained every week for two months. The data included the forms of widespread wounds during the recovery process. This statement supported by anova statistical analysis of the widespread wound changing every week for 8 times. The conclusion is skin damage due to Phenol impregnation can be recovered with the use of Nano gold cosmetics for 8 weeks. This results support the manufacturing of Nano gold cosmetics for the needs of society. It also suggest that Nano gold material can be used for medicine manufacturing in the future.

  1. The practice of skin-bleaching for a cosmetic purpose in immigrant communities.

    PubMed

    Mahé, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    Using skin-lightening compounds for a cosmetic purpose that are normally restricted to medical use or forbidden has become a world-wide practice. Complications are numerous. Immigrant communities often import their practice from their original country. A review of the literature on the subject of complications of cosmetic skin-bleaching, with special focus on data concerning immigrants originating from highly endemic countries, was conducted. Complications of cosmetic skin-bleaching are common, involving mainly the skin although some general complications are also reported with a growing incidence. The high frequency of this practice, added to the frequency of various complications, suggests it might be considered as a genuine public health problem currently. © 2014 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  2. Emotional benefit of cosmetic camouflage in the treatment of facial skin conditions: personal experience and review.

    PubMed

    Levy, Lauren L; Emer, Jason J

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies highlighting the psychological benefits of medical treatment for dermatological skin conditions have demonstrated a clear role for medical therapy in psychological health. Skin conditions, particularly those that are overtly visible, such as those located on the face, neck, and hands, often have a profound effect on the daily functioning of those affected. The literature documents significant emotional benefits using medical therapy in conditions such as acne, psoriasis, vitiligo, and rosacea, but there is little evidence documenting similar results with the use of cosmetic camouflage. Here we present a review highlighting the practical use of cosmetic camouflage makeup in patients with facial skin conditions and review its implications for psychological health. A search of the Medline and Scopus databases was performed to identify articles documenting the emotional benefit of cosmetic camouflage. Cosmetic camouflage provides a significant emotional benefit for patients with facial skin conditions, and this is substantiated by a literature review and personal experience. More clinical studies are needed to assess and validate the findings reported here. Patients with visible skin conditions have increased rates of depression, anxiety, and decreased self-esteem. It is prudent for us to consider therapies that can offer rapid and dramatic results, such as cosmetic camouflage.

  3. Emotional benefit of cosmetic camouflage in the treatment of facial skin conditions: personal experience and review

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Lauren L; Emer, Jason J

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent studies highlighting the psychological benefits of medical treatment for dermatological skin conditions have demonstrated a clear role for medical therapy in psychological health. Skin conditions, particularly those that are overtly visible, such as those located on the face, neck, and hands, often have a profound effect on the daily functioning of those affected. The literature documents significant emotional benefits using medical therapy in conditions such as acne, psoriasis, vitiligo, and rosacea, but there is little evidence documenting similar results with the use of cosmetic camouflage. Here we present a review highlighting the practical use of cosmetic camouflage makeup in patients with facial skin conditions and review its implications for psychological health. Methods A search of the Medline and Scopus databases was performed to identify articles documenting the emotional benefit of cosmetic camouflage. Results Cosmetic camouflage provides a significant emotional benefit for patients with facial skin conditions, and this is substantiated by a literature review and personal experience. More clinical studies are needed to assess and validate the findings reported here. Conclusion Patients with visible skin conditions have increased rates of depression, anxiety, and decreased self-esteem. It is prudent for us to consider therapies that can offer rapid and dramatic results, such as cosmetic camouflage. PMID:23152694

  4. Hypodermal delivery of cosmetic actives for improved facial skin morphology and functionality.

    PubMed

    Bojanowski, K

    2013-12-01

    Skin compartments traditionally targeted by cosmetic actives - epidermis and dermis - are anchored and nourished by the underlying hypodermis, which therefore should be a key target for skin-rejuvenating formulations. However, given the difficulty to reach even the superficial layers of the skin, and to its 'unglamorous' fatty composition, the regenerative potential of hypodermis remains largely untapped. Therefore, this study was to investigate the capacity of a cosmetic material to trigger a regenerative response in dermis and epidermis through a selective action on hypodermis. Furthermore, it aimed to establish the effect of such cosmetic material in transbuccal hypodermal delivery form, on the hypodermal precursor cells - the preadipocytes. A combination of grape seed extract and soy phospholipids was formulated and standardized for elastase activity and free radical inhibition. This formulation was then used to contact the hypodermal layer of human skin biopsies and - under a transbuccal delivery vehicle form - the 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, and its effects were quantified using PCR arrays and histochemistry. Application of the standardized grape/soy material to the hypodermal layer of skin triggered modulation of gene expression in the upper layers of the skin and resulted in the clear morphological improvement at the dermal and epidermal levels. Furthermore, when this material was formulated in a mucoadhesive, intraoral film and applied on 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, the resulting modulation of gene expression in these cells was consistent with differentiation and detoxification effects. These results suggest that transbuccal formulations of nutraceutical grade cosmetics have potential to induce signal transduction pathways in facial hypodermis, resulting in anti-aging effects throughout all skin compartments, including dermal and epidermal layers. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  5. Skin rejuvenation using cosmetic products containing growth factors, cytokines, and matrikines: a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Aldag, Caroline; Nogueira Teixeira, Diana; Leventhal, Phillip S

    2016-01-01

    Skin aging is primarily due to alterations in the dermal extracellular matrix, especially a decrease in collagen I content, fragmentation of collagen fibrils, and accumulation of amorphous elastin material, also known as elastosis. Growth factors and cytokines are included in several cosmetic products intended for skin rejuvenation because of their ability to promote collagen synthesis. Matrikines and matrikine-like peptides offer the advantage of growth factor-like activities but better skin penetration due to their much smaller molecular size. In this review, we summarize the commercially available products containing growth factors, cytokines, and matrikines for which there is evidence that they promote skin rejuvenation. PMID:27877059

  6. Ethnobotany of medicinal plants used by Assamese people for various skin ailments and cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Abinash Pratim; Ryakala, Venkat Kishore; Sharma, Pragya; Goswami, Pranab; Bora, Utpal

    2006-06-30

    The present paper deals with the medicinal plants used by the people of Assam for curing different skin ailments and for cosmetics. A total of 85 plants belonging to 49 families have been documented for their therapeutic use against skin diseases and as herbal care. The herbal medicines were prepared from various plant parts of single plant, or multiple plants. The majority of the preparation was made using water as the medium. The mode of application was topical, but in many cases it was also administered orally. In several cases the pure herbal preparations was administered along with milk, ghee, honey, coconut oil, curd, etc. Remedies for 18 skin ailments were documented through this study. About 14 plants are known for their use to cure multiple skin diseases. Among these Curcuma longa and Melia azaderach constitute the major plants. The herbal cosmetic products used by the people of Assam ranges from the enhancement of skin colour, hair care, removal of ugly spots, colouring of nails, palms, and teeth. However, many of the plant preparations used for enhancing beauty were also applied for therapeutic use. Herbal remedies were also available for skin burns, prickly heat and pimples. Information on nine plants used for managing dry skin also emerged from this study.

  7. Topical effectiveness of a cosmetic skincare treatment for acne-prone skin: a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Bartenjev, Igor; Oremović, Lenka; Rogl Butina, Mirjam; Sjerobabski Masnec, Ines; Bouloc, Anne; Voda, Karmen; Šitum, Mirna

    2011-06-01

    Physiological acne is a milder form of clinical acne and is very frequent in adult women (18 years of age and older). Acne therapy is usually unnecessary in such cases, and so appropriate cosmetic treatments are sought. To determine the effectiveness of a topical cosmetic hydrating skincare treatment for adult acne-prone skin (Normaderm, Vichy, France) against the clinical signs of physiological acne: few inflammatory and retentional lesions, uneven (grainy) skin relief, dilated pores, and occasional and/or local hyperseborrhea. Within the study, the tested product's keratolytic, antimicrobial, and antiseborrheic properties, and its overall ability to improve the clinical signs of physiological acne present in adult subjects were evaluated through objective and clinical evaluation methods by the investigators and through self-evaluation questionnaires by the subjects themselves. The study group was composed of 50 adult women between 18 and 35 years of age with combination or oily acne-prone skin, who were chosen according to previously defined inclusion criteria. They applied the product tested twice daily on thoroughly cleansed skin for a period of 2 months. The results were evaluated after 30 (±2) and 60 (±2) days. The number of inflammatory and retentional lesions on the forehead, cheeks, and chin decreased after 60 days of use (an average of 30.7% and 70.7%, respectively). The level of sebum secretion on the forehead decreased by 33.4% and the level of skin scaling decreased by 38.5% after 60 days of use. The moisture content in the horny layer on the forehead, cheeks, and chin increased by an average 39.7%. The decrease in pore size and content after 60 days of use was very noticeable. The subjects evaluated all the studied characteristics of the product tested very positively, with results already showing after 30 days of use. The results of the study confirm that the product tested is suitable for the cosmetic care of adult acne-prone skin, either as an

  8. Comparison of protocols for measuring cosmetic ingredient distribution in human and pig skin.

    PubMed

    Gerstel, D; Jacques-Jamin, C; Schepky, A; Cubberley, R; Eilstein, J; Grégoire, S; Hewitt, N; Klaric, M; Rothe, H; Duplan, H

    2016-08-01

    The Cosmetics Europe Skin Bioavailability and Metabolism Task Force aims to improve the measurement and prediction of the bioavailability of topically-exposed compounds for risk assessment. Key parameters of the experimental design of the skin penetration studies were compared. Penetration studies with frozen human and pig skin were conducted in two laboratories, according to the SCCS and OECD 428 guidelines. The disposition in skin was measured 24h after finite topical doses of caffeine, resorcinol and 7-ethoxycoumarin. The bioavailability distribution in skin layers of cold and radiolabelled chemicals were comparable. Furthermore, the distribution of each chemical was comparable in human and pig skin. The protocol was reproducible across the two laboratories. There were small differences in the amount of chemical detected in the skin layers, which were attributed to differences in washing procedures and anatomical sites of the skin used. In conclusion, these studies support the use of pig skin as an alternative source of skin should the availability of human skin become a limiting factor. If radiolabelled chemicals are not available, cold chemicals can be used, provided that the influence of chemical stability, reactivity or metabolism on the experimental design and the relevance of the data obtained is considered. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. A tiered approach to the use of alternatives to animal testing for the safety assessment of cosmetics: skin irritation.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, Martin; Jones, Penny; Goebel, Carsten; Dufour, Eric; Rowland, Joanna; Araki, Daisuke; Costabel-Farkas, Margit; Hewitt, Nicola J; Hibatallah, Jalila; Kirst, Annette; McNamee, Pauline; Schellauf, Florian; Scheel, Julia

    2009-07-01

    Evaluation of the skin irritancy and corrosivity potential of an ingredient is a necessity in the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients. To date, there are two formally validated alternatives to the rabbit Draize test for skin corrosivity in place, namely the rat skin transcutaneous electrical resistance (TER) assay and the Human Skin Model Test using EpiSkin, EpiDerm and SkinEthic reconstructed human epidermal equivalents. For skin irritation, EpiSkin, EpiDerm and SkinEthic are validated as stand-alone test replacements for the rabbit Draize test. Data from these tests are rarely considered in isolation and are evaluated in combination with other factors to establish the overall irritating or corrosive potential of an ingredient. In light of the deadlines established in the Cosmetics Directive for cessation of animal testing for cosmetic ingredients, a COLIPA scientific meeting was held in Brussels on 30th January, 2008 to review the use of alternative approaches and to set up a decision tree approach for their integration into tiered testing strategies for hazard and safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients and their use in products. In conclusion, the safety assessments for skin irritation/corrosion of new chemicals for use in cosmetics can be confidently accomplished using exclusively alternative methods.

  10. Whitening non vital teeth – a case report

    PubMed Central

    Moraru, Iren; Ţuculină, Mihaela; Bătăiosu, Marilena; Gheorghiţă, Lelia; Diaconu, Oana

    2012-01-01

    Commonly used in cosmetic dentistry teeth whitening can be used combined with other restorative techniques during dental treatment. Non-vital teeth whitening is necessary whenever we need an improvement of their aspect, as it’s a known fact that these teeth can have a grey or pink-grey coloration when they are not correctly endodontical treated. PMID:24778849

  11. Guiding principles for the implementation of non-animal safety assessment approaches for cosmetics: skin sensitisation.

    PubMed

    Goebel, Carsten; Aeby, Pierre; Ade, Nadège; Alépée, Nathalie; Aptula, Aynur; Araki, Daisuke; Dufour, Eric; Gilmour, Nicola; Hibatallah, Jalila; Keller, Detlef; Kern, Petra; Kirst, Annette; Marrec-Fairley, Monique; Maxwell, Gavin; Rowland, Joanna; Safford, Bob; Schellauf, Florian; Schepky, Andreas; Seaman, Chris; Teichert, Thomas; Tessier, Nicolas; Teissier, Silvia; Weltzien, Hans Ulrich; Winkler, Petra; Scheel, Julia

    2012-06-01

    Characterisation of skin sensitisation potential is a key endpoint for the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients especially when significant dermal exposure to an ingredient is expected. At present the mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA) remains the 'gold standard' test method for this purpose however non-animal test methods are under development that aim to replace the need for new animal test data. COLIPA (the European Cosmetics Association) funds an extensive programme of skin sensitisation research, method development and method evaluation and helped coordinate the early evaluation of the three test methods currently undergoing pre-validation. In May 2010, a COLIPA scientific meeting was held to analyse to what extent skin sensitisation safety assessments for cosmetic ingredients can be made in the absence of animal data. In order to propose guiding principles for the application and further development of non-animal safety assessment strategies it was evaluated how and when non-animal test methods, predictions based on physico-chemical properties (including in silico tools), threshold concepts and weight-of-evidence based hazard characterisation could be used to enable safety decisions. Generation and assessment of potency information from alternative tools which at present is predominantly derived from the LLNA is considered the future key research area. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Bioimpedance means of skin condition monitoring during therapeutic and cosmetic procedures].

    PubMed

    Alekseenko, V A; Kus'min, A A; Filist, S A

    2008-01-01

    Engineering and technological problems of bioimpedance skin surface mapping are considered. A typical design of a device based on a PIC 16F microcontroller is suggested. It includes a keyboard, LCD indicator, probing current generator with programmed frequency tuning, and units for probing current monitoring and bioimpedance measurement. The electrode matrix of the device is constructed using nanotechnology. A microcontroller-controlled multiplexor provides scanning of interelectrode impedance, which makes it possible to obtain the impedance image of the skin surface under the electrode matrix. The microcontroller controls the probing signal generator frequency and allows layer-by-layer images of skin under the electrode matrix to be obtained. This makes it possible to use reconstruction tomography methods for analysis and monitoring of the skin condition during therapeutic and cosmetic procedures.

  13. Integrated approach in the assessment of skin compatibility of cosmetic formulations with green coffee oil.

    PubMed

    Wagemaker, T A L; Rijo, P; Rodrigues, L M; Maia Campos, P M B G; Fernandes, A S; Rosado, C

    2015-10-01

    Green coffee oil (GCO) has been used in cosmetic formulations due to its emollient and anti-ageing properties. However, there are insufficient studies about its safety when applied in cosmetic formulations. Cytotoxicity of GCO and of formulations containing 2.5-15% of GCO was evaluated by the MTT reduction assay, in human keratinocytes. Formulations containing 15% of GCO and the vehicle were applied under in use conditions in the volar forearm of human volunteers during 3 days. Transepidermal water loss, stratum corneum water content and erythema index were evaluated each 24 h using biophysical techniques. The same formulations were probed for skin tolerance through a patch test. Neither pure GCO nor its formulations showed cytotoxic effects in concentrations up to 100 μg mL(-1) . Transepidermal water loss values showed a slight reduction when the formulation containing GCO was applied. Stratum corneum water content and erythema index did not show significant differences, as the results observed in the first day of the study were maintained throughout 3 days. None of the volunteers display any reaction after using an occlusive patch. The results obtained in the study indicate that GCO seems to be safe for topical applications and showed good skin compatibility under the experimental conditions of the study. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  14. Release and in vitro skin permeation of polyphenols from cosmetic emulsions.

    PubMed

    Zillich, O V; Schweiggert-Weisz, U; Hasenkopf, K; Eisner, P; Kerscher, M

    2013-10-01

    Polyphenols are natural antioxidants, which can inhibit oxidative chain reactions in human skin and prevent therefore some skin diseases and premature ageing. A prerequisite of this behaviour is their permeation through the skin barrier, in particular the stratum corneum (SC). In this study, we investigated the skin permeation kinetic of polyphenols, incorporated to semisolid emulsions, and the release of polyphenols from the emulsions. Mixtures of model substances, consisting of catechin, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), resveratrol, quercetin, rutin and protocatechuic acid (PCA), were formulated into o/w emulsions with different oil phase content. The in vitro experiments were carried out in Franz-type diffusion cells by means of ex vivo pig skin and a cellulose membrane. The increased oil content in the emulsion led to a significant decrease in initial release coefficients (K(r)), diffusion coefficients within the formulation (D(v)) and skin permeation coefficients (K(p)), respectively. The study considered the dependence of K(r) on molecular weight and lipophilicity of polyphenolics. For both more hydrophilic and more lipophilic substance groups, the values for K(r) were inverse proportional to molecular weight. For catechin, quercetin, rutin, resveratrol and PCA, a good correlation between K(p) and K(r) parameters was obtained. The most permeable substance was PCA (K(p) = 1.2·10(-3) cm h(-1)), and the least permeable was quercetin (K(p) = 1.5·10(-5) cm h(-1)). All substances could pass the SC barrier and were found mostly in the epidermis and dermis, confirming the potential of polyphenols as anti-ageing active cosmetic ingredients. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  15. Exploring the potential of using algae in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Min David; Chen, Ching-Chun; Huynh, Pauline; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2015-05-01

    The applications of microalgae in cosmetic products have recently received more attention in the treatment of skin problems, such as aging, tanning and pigment disorders. There are also potential uses in the areas of anti-aging, skin-whitening, and pigmentation reduction products. While algae species have already been used in some cosmetic formulations, such as moisturizing and thickening agents, algae remain largely untapped as an asset in this industry due to an apparent lack of utility as a primary active ingredient. This review article focuses on integrating studies on algae pertinent to skin health and beauty, with the purpose of identifying serviceable algae functions in practical cosmetic uses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The human skin/chick chorioallantoic membrane model accurately predicts the potency of cosmetic allergens.

    PubMed

    Slodownik, Dan; Grinberg, Igor; Spira, Ram M; Skornik, Yehuda; Goldstein, Ronald S

    2009-04-01

    The current standard method for predicting contact allergenicity is the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA). Public objection to the use of animals in testing of cosmetics makes the development of a system that does not use sentient animals highly desirable. The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of the chick egg has been extensively used for the growth of normal and transformed mammalian tissues. The CAM is not innervated, and embryos are sacrificed before the development of pain perception. The aim of this study was to determine whether the sensitization phase of contact dermatitis to known cosmetic allergens can be quantified using CAM-engrafted human skin and how these results compare with published EC3 data obtained with the LLNA. We studied six common molecules used in allergen testing and quantified migration of epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) as a measure of their allergic potency. All agents with known allergic potential induced statistically significant migration of LC. The data obtained correlated well with published data for these allergens generated using the LLNA test. The human-skin CAM model therefore has great potential as an inexpensive, non-radioactive, in vivo alternative to the LLNA, which does not require the use of sentient animals. In addition, this system has the advantage of testing the allergic response of human, rather than animal skin.

  17. Non-animal methods to predict skin sensitization (I): the Cosmetics Europe database.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Sebastian; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Alépée, Nathalie; Allen, David; Api, Anne Marie; Ashikaga, Takao; Clouet, Elodie; Cluzel, Magalie; Desprez, Bertrand; Gellatly, Nichola; Goebel, Carsten; Kern, Petra S; Klaric, Martina; Kühnl, Jochen; Lalko, Jon F; Martinozzi-Teissier, Silvia; Mewes, Karsten; Miyazawa, Masaaki; Parakhia, Rahul; van Vliet, Erwin; Zang, Qingda; Petersohn, Dirk

    2018-05-01

    Cosmetics Europe, the European Trade Association for the cosmetics and personal care industry, is conducting a multi-phase program to develop regulatory accepted, animal-free testing strategies enabling the cosmetics industry to conduct safety assessments. Based on a systematic evaluation of test methods for skin sensitization, five non-animal test methods (DPRA (Direct Peptide Reactivity Assay), KeratinoSens TM , h-CLAT (human cell line activation test), U-SENS TM , SENS-IS) were selected for inclusion in a comprehensive database of 128 substances. Existing data were compiled and completed with newly generated data, the latter amounting to one-third of all data. The database was complemented with human and local lymph node assay (LLNA) reference data, physicochemical properties and use categories, and thoroughly curated. Focused on the availability of human data, the substance selection resulted nevertheless resulted in a high diversity of chemistries in terms of physico-chemical property ranges and use categories. Predictivities of skin sensitization potential and potency, where applicable, were calculated for the LLNA as compared to human data and for the individual test methods compared to both human and LLNA reference data. In addition, various aspects of applicability of the test methods were analyzed. Due to its high level of curation, comprehensiveness, and completeness, we propose our database as a point of reference for the evaluation and development of testing strategies, as done for example in the associated work of Kleinstreuer et al. We encourage the community to use it to meet the challenge of conducting skin sensitization safety assessment without generating new animal data.

  18. Quality of life in pediatric patients before and after cosmetic camouflage of visible skin conditions.

    PubMed

    Ramien, Michele L; Ondrejchak, Sandra; Gendron, Roxanne; Hatami, Afshin; McCuaig, Catherine C; Powell, Julie; Marcoux, Danielle

    2014-11-01

    Visible vascular and pigmentary conditions have a negative impact on children's and adolescents' quality of life (QoL). We sought to quantitate the effect of visible skin anomalies and their camouflage on QoL. In all, 41 patients, 5 years of age and older, were taught to use cosmetic camouflage. QoL was assessed using the Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI) before and 6 months after the intervention. Satisfaction and use were evaluated after 1 and 6 months. Baseline QoL scores revealed a small impact of vascular anomalies (CDLQI score 4.2) and a small to moderate effect of pigmentary anomalies (CDLQI score 6.1). Six months after the intervention, QoL improved in the study population as a whole (CDLQI score 5.1 vs 2.1, P<.001), with significant improvements documented for facial lesions and vascular malformations. Cosmetic camouflage was well tolerated and patients with pigmentary anomalies were more likely to continue using the products. Limitations include small study population, few male patients, cultural influences not addressed, and limited range of conditions. Children and teenagers with visible vascular and pigmentary anomalies experience an impairment of QoL that is abrogated by introduction to use of cosmetic camouflage. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Use of the Bovine Udder Skin model to evaluate the tolerability of Mesem cosmetic cream.

    PubMed

    Raak, Christa; Molsberger, Friedrich; Pittermann, Wolfgang; Bertram, Mathias; Robens, Sibylle; Ostermann, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Observational studies of Mesem cream (based on Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. plant extract) found that it had positive effects on skin hydration and smoothing of the skin. However, some patients reported skin irritation effects. The current study evaluated the skin tolerability of Mesem cream, as compared to the carrier cream (without the active ingredient), by using the isolated perfused bovine udder skin model. The primary outcomes investigated were cytotoxicity (i.e. cell viability), assessed with the MTT assay, and irritancy and inflammation, assessed by measuring PGE₂ tissue levels. A total reaction score was calculated by combining the results for each parameter. In the case of a single topical application, significant differences were found between the carrier cream and the Mesem cream. While the application of carrier cream resulted in low cytotoxicity (-8.4% change in viability, as compared to the untreated control), the Mesem cream was more cytotoxic (-18.7% change). In addition, one hour after application, PGE₂ levels were higher in Mesem cream-treated skin, as compared to carrier cream-treated skin (16.6% versus 11.3%). Further experiments (tape-stripped skin and repeated application) also found significant differences between the two creams in the results obtained. Evaluation of the effectiveness, safety and tolerability of phyto-cosmetic products is important. Our results confirmed the findings of two previous human observational studies (the human patch test and open application study). Future experiments to understand the underlying principles of its effectiveness, safety and tolerability should include extracts of M. crystallinum L. juice, as well as the Mesem cream itself. 2017 FRAME.

  20. [Evidence-based cosmetics: concepts and applications in photoaging of the skin and xerosis].

    PubMed

    Pavicic, Tatjana; Steckmeier, Stephanie; Kerscher, Martina; Korting, Hans Christian

    2009-01-01

    As well as for topically used dermatological agents, studies performed according to the rules of evidence-based medicine (EBM) are also needed for cosmetics. Although the concept of evidence-based cosmetics has been only partly developed so far, there are some agents and preparations available that can be considered as evidence-based. In this paper we present data from several studies that claim to have examined and demonstrated the efficacy of cosmetic preparations for the management of solar damage and aging skin as well as lentigo and melanosis according to EBM criteria. Certainly, further controlled studies are needed to cover the main application areas of dermocosmetics. Retinol and antioxidant agents such as vitamin C and coenzymes that positively act via several mechanisms on collagen biosynthesis can be considered evidence-based substances for the management of aging skin. According to the same criteria, the preventive effect of regularly applied dermocosmetic sun screens on the development of actinic keratosis could also be shown. Dermocosmetic sun screens should offer adequate protection against UV-B and UV-A light by combining compatible organic and/or non-organic UV-filters and at the same time be well tolerated. Furthermore, they may contain some additional agents such as antioxidants, DNA repair enzymes, dexpanthenol, glycerin or hamamelis distillate. In the treatment of melanosis, a substantial bleaching effect corresponding to that of 0.1% topical tretinoin can be achieved with 10% all-trans-retinol gel. Preparations containing urea, ammonium lactate or glycerol in different concentrations are considered the best characterized and most effective substances for the care of dry skin. However, the lack of controlled studies confirming the efficacy of dermocosmetic products as well as the superiority of the preparation incorporating the active agent over the corresponding base is a problem yet to be solved. Undoubtedly, the efficacy and the

  1. Knowledge and Behavior Regarding Cosmetics in Koreans Visiting Dermatology Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sohee; Kim, Nack In; Ro, Young Suck; Kim, Joung Soo; Park, Young Min; Park, Chun Wook; Lee, Weon Ju; Kim, Dong Kun; Lee, Dong Won; Lee, Sang Jun

    2017-01-01

    Background Cosmetics can affect the skin condition profoundly, and yet no survey has been performed in Koreans visiting dermatology clinics. Objective To assess knowledge and consumer behavior regarding cosmetics in Koreans visiting dermatology clinics. Methods A questionnaire consisting of 43 questions concerning demographics and use/knowledge/selection/purchase of cosmetics was given to patients and accompanying persons who visited dermatologic clinics in university and private clinic settings. Results In total 1,015 subjects (73.2% females, mean age 32.5 years) completed the survey. Education level was college or higher in 72.8%. Thirty-one percent had been diagnosed with a skin disorder, atopic dermatitis and seborrheic dermatitis being the most frequent diagnoses (33.7% and 16.8%, respectively). The frequency of makeup/sunscreen/functional cosmetics use, amount of sunscreen use, recognition of functional cosmetics, and knowledge of shelf life were significantly correlated with level of education. Among “functional cosmetics,” whitening products were used most frequently (29.2%). Regardless of education level, 79.2% purchased cosmetics without checking ingredients, and 85.7% were unaware of the all-ingredient-labelling regulations, and yet subjects considered ingredient the most important factor when purchasing a product. Conclusion Outpatient subjects in their twenties and thirties are the most knowledgeable about cosmetics in Korea. PMID:28392645

  2. Hydrophilic Dogwood Extracts as Materials for Reducing the Skin Irritation Potential of Body Wash Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Nizioł-Łukaszewska, Zofia; Osika, Paweł; Wasilewski, Tomasz; Bujak, Tomasz

    2017-02-19

    A significant problem related to the use of surfactants in body wash cosmetics is their propensity to trigger skin irritations. Only scarce literature exists on the effect of plant extracts on the skin irritation potential. The present study is an attempt to determine the effect of hydrophilic dogwood extracts on the irritant potential of body wash gels. Extractants used in the study were water and mixtures of water with glycerine, water with trimethylglycine (betaine), and water with plant-derived glycol (propanediol). The basic biochemical properties, i.e., the ability to neutralize free radicals, and the content of polyphenols, anthocyanins and flavonoids, were determined. An attempt was undertaken to analyze the impact of the extract added to natural body wash gel formulations on product properties. The skin irritation potential was assessed by determining the zein number and the increase in the pH level of the bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution. The viscosity and foaming ability of the resulting products were evaluated. The studies revealed that an addition of dogwood extract contributes to an improvement in the properties of body wash gels and significantly increases the safety of product use through reducing the skin irritation effect.

  3. Quantitative Determination of α-Arbutin, β-Arbutin, Kojic Acid, Nicotinamide, Hydroquinone, Resorcinol, 4-Methoxyphenol, 4-Ethoxyphenol, and Ascorbic Acid from Skin Whitening Products by HPLC-UV.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Hong; Avonto, Cristina; Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Mei; Rua, Diego; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-01-01

    An HPLC-UV method was developed for the quantitative analysis of nine skin whitening agents in a single injection. These compounds are α-arbutin, β-arbutin, kojic acid, nicotinamide, resorcinol, ascorbic acid, hydroquinone, 4-methoxyphenol, and 4-ethoxyphenol. The separation was achieved on a reversed-phase C18 column within 30 min. The mobile phase was composed of water and methanol, both containing 0.1% acetic acid (v/v). The stability of the analytes was evaluated at different pH values between 2.3 and 7.6, and the extraction procedure was validated for different types of skin whitening product matrixes, which included two creams, a soap bar, and a capsule. The best solvent system for sample preparation was 20 mM NaH2PO4 containing 10% methanol at pH 2.3. The analytical method was validated for accuracy, precision, LOD, and LOQ. The developed HPLC-UV method was applied for the quantitation of the nine analytes in 59 skin whitening products including creams, lotions, sera, foams, gels, mask sheets, soap bars, tablets, and capsules.

  4. Impact of Cosmetic Camouflage on the Quality of Life of Children With Skin Disease and Their Families.

    PubMed

    Salsberg, Jennifer M; Weinstein, Miriam; Shear, Neil; Lee, Michelle; Pope, Elena

    2016-05-01

    Cosmetic camouflage is known to improve quality of life in adults. Few data are available regarding cosmetic camouflage in children, and thus it is not often selected as a mode of treatment. We sought to determine whether cosmetic camouflage leads to improved quality of life of pediatric patients with visible dermatoses and their parent or primary caregiver. Patients aged 5 to 17 years with visible skin disease and their parent were assessed with the Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI) and the Family Dermatology Life Quality Index (FDLQI) before and after consultation regarding cosmetic camouflage. Twenty-two children with skin conditions were included in the study. The mean CDLQI decreased from 6.82 (SD = 1.28) to 3.05 (SD = 0.65; P = .0014), while the mean FDLQI decreased from 7.68 (SD = 1.15) to 4.68 (SD = 0.92; P = .0012). Our study highlighted improvement in quality of life in patients with skin disorders who were managed with cosmetic camouflage. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Analysis of skin conductance response during evaluation of preferences for cosmetic products

    PubMed Central

    Ohira, Hideki; Hirao, Naoyasu

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed skin conductance response (SCR) as a psychophysiological index to evaluate affective aspects of consumer preferences for cosmetic products. To examine the test-retest reliability of association between preferences and SCR, we asked 33 female volunteers to complete two experimental sessions approximately 1 year apart. The participants indicated their preferences in a typical paired comparison task by choosing the better option from a combination of two products among four products. We measured anticipatory SCR prior to expressions of the preferences. We found that the mean amplitude of the SCR elicited by the preferred products was significantly larger than that elicited by the non-preferred products. The participants' preferences and corresponding SCR patterns were well preserved at the second session 1 year later. Our results supported cumulating findings that SCR is a useful index of consumer preferences that has future potential, both in laboratory and marketing settings. PMID:25709593

  6. EFFICACY OF PULSED DYE LASER IN COSMETICALLY DISTRESSING FACIAL DERMATOSES IN SKIN TYPES IV AND V

    PubMed Central

    Khandpur, Sujay; Sharma, Vinod K

    2008-01-01

    Background: Pulsed dye laser (PDL) has revolutionized treatment of vascular dermatoses. It has been successfully employed to treat several non-vascular conditions in fair skinned individuals without producing significant pigmentary and textural complications. Aim: A preliminary study was undertaken to assess its efficacy in cosmetically distressing facial, vascular and non-vascular dermatoses in Indian patients with skin types IV and V. Materials and Methods: Nine patients of ages 7 to 55 years, with facial verruca plana (VP- 4 cases), angiofibromas (AF- 4 cases) and multiple pyogenic granulomas (PG- one case) were recruited. They had no systemic complaints. Laser parameters used were (spot size/fluence/wavelength/pulse duration):VP- 5mm/5.5-7.5J/585nm/0.45ms; AF-5mm/6-8.5J/585nm/0.45ms;PG- 5mm/7J/585 and 595nm alternately/1.5ms. Response was assessed clinically and photographically. Results and Conclusions: All VP lesions completely resolved after 2-4 sessions (mean 3.25 sessions), AF showed 50% regression in all cases after 2-3 sessions (mean 2.5 sessions) and ≥75% subsidence after 3-7 sessions (mean 5.5 sessions) and in PG, after 3 sessions, there was complete subsidence of small satellite lesions with moderate shrinkage of larger papules and complete resolution after 5 sessions. Complications included transient hyperpigmentation/hypopigmentation only. There was no recurrence during next 6 months. PDL offers significant cosmetic improvement in facial dermatoses in Indian patients. PMID:19882031

  7. [Prevalence of the use of skin bleaching cosmetics in two areas in Dakar (Sénégal)].

    PubMed

    Wone, I; Tal-Dia, A; Diallo, O F; Badiane, M; Touré, K; Diallo, I

    2000-01-01

    The use of skin bleaching cosmetics is an increasingly widespread phenomenon in Africa. If the negative sanitary effects of this practice are today well known, reliable statistics on the importance of the problem within the global population are rare. Our study, conducted in two popular areas in Dakar, Usine bene taly and Usine Niary Taly, had 2 objectives: to determine the prevalence of the use of skin bleaching cosmetics in the studied zones, to describe the prevalence according to the following variables: age, matrimonial situation, level and/or type of instruction, job, type of agents used. For that purpose, we conducted a transverse study on a representative sample of 600 women from 15 to 55 years old. This study reveals a prevalence of the use of skin bleaching cosmetics of 67.2%. The agents found are hydroquinone derivatives (61%), topical corticosteroids (37%) and agents from unknown origin (2%). The use of skin bleaching cosmetics is more important among young women between 30 to 44 years (72.5%), married (72.2%), analphabets (75%), working (77.6%). Studies conducted in Mali and Togo gave comparable results, which give perspectives for a prevention based on education an awareness.

  8. Skin phototoxicity of cosmetic formulations containing photounstable and photostable UV-filters and vitamin A palmitate.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Lorena R; Tharmann, Julian; Maia Campos, Patricia M B G; Liebsch, Manfred

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro skin phototoxicity of cosmetic formulations containing photounstable and photostable UV-filters and vitamin A palmitate, assessed by two in vitro techniques: 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake Phototoxicity Test and Human 3-D Skin Model In Vitro Phototoxicity Test. For this, four different formulations containing vitamin A palmitate and different UV-filters combinations, two of them considered photostable and two of them considered photounstable, were prepared. Solutions of each UV-filter and vitamin under study and solutions of four different combinations under study were also prepared. The phototoxicity was assessed in vitro by the 3T3 NRU phototoxicity test (3T3-NRU-PT) and subsequently in a phototoxicity test on reconstructed human skin model (H3D-PT). Avobenzone presented a pronounced phototoxicity and vitamin A presented a tendency to a weak phototoxic potential. A synergistic effect of vitamin A palmitate on the phototoxicity of combinations containing avobenzone was observed. H3D-PT results did not confirm the positive 3T3-NRU-PT results. However, despite the four formulations studied did not present any acute phototoxicity potential, the combination 2 containing octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC), avobenzone (AVB) and 4-methylbenzilidene camphor (MBC) presented an indication of phototoxicity that should be better investigated in terms of the frequency of photoallergic or chronic phototoxicity in humans, once these tests are scientifically validated only to detect phototoxic potential with the aim of preventing phototoxic reactions in the general population, and positive results cannot predict the exact incidence of phototoxic reactions in humans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Development and validation of a questionnaire to evaluate how a cosmetic product for oily skin is able to improve well-being in women.

    PubMed

    Segot-Chicq, E; Compan-Zaouati, D; Wolkenstein, P; Consoli, S; Rodary, C; Delvigne, V; Guillou, V; Poli, F

    2007-10-01

    Skin diseases are known to negatively affect self-image and to have detrimental psychosocial effects. Oily skin is a cosmetic skin problem that women often describe as 'invalidating'. To develop and validate a questionnaire to assess the psychological and psychosocial effects of oily skin condition in women and the outcome of a targeted cosmetic skincare treatment. We developed and validated a concise 18-item questionnaire [oily skin self-image questionnaire (OSSIQ)] to assess perception, behavioural, and emotional consequences associated with oily skin condition. The questionnaire was then used to assess the effects of a skincare treatment for oily skin and compare them with sebum level measurements. The 18-item questionnaire clearly distinguished the oily skin group from the control group. Responsiveness, reliability, and construct validity showed satisfactory performance. The questionnaire provided a relevant assessment of the psychological benefits associated with the skincare programme. The OSSIQ is a valid tool that can be used to monitor the benefits of cosmetic skincare treatments.

  10. Histological and Immunohistochemical Evaluation of the Efficacy of a New Cosmetic Formulation in the Treatment of Skin Photoaging

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, N.; Miguel-Gomez, L.; Hermosa, A.; Sánchez-Neila, N.; Cuevas, J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective. Mechanism of action of cosmetic products is not often studied. The aim of this study is to determine the histological, immunohistochemical, and clinical changes of a new cosmetic formulation. Methods. Prospective, single-blind, patient-controlled, randomized study in 10 volunteers with mild to moderate skin photoaging on the back of their hands. The product was applied on one hand and a standard cream on the other hand, twice a day for three months. Standardized photographs were taken on basal (T0) and final visit (T1) and skin biopsies were performed. Changes on histological and immunohistochemical markers were studied. Subjective clinical changes were determined. Results. After treatment, a 26.3% improvement on epidermal thickness was detected and a significant increase on collagens I and III, elastin, and fibronectin fibers was achieved (p < 0.05). As the expression of MMPs remained stable, this improvement of dermal matrix was attributed to the stimulation of their synthesis. A significant clinical improvement on the treated hand was obtained, compared to control hand. Conclusion. This new cosmetic product with combination of three registered technologies (IFC-CAF, WGC, and RetinSphere), focused on regenerating dermal matrix and activating proliferation of skin cells, has shown to be efficient in the reversion of skin photoaging. PMID:28167957

  11. Moisturizing effect of cosmetic formulations containing Aloe vera extract in different concentrations assessed by skin bioengineering techniques.

    PubMed

    Dal'Belo, Susi Elaine; Gaspar, Lorena Rigo; Maia Campos, Patrícia Maria Berardo Gonçalves

    2006-11-01

    The polysaccharide-rich composition of Aloe vera extracts (Aloe barbadensis Miller), often used in cosmetic formulations, may impart moisturizing properties to the product. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cosmetic formulations containing different concentrations of freeze-dried Aloe vera extract on skin hydration, after a single and a 1- and 2-week period of application, by using skin bioengineering techniques. Stable formulations containing 5% (w/w) of a trilaureth-4 phosphate-based blend were supplemented with 0.10%, 0.25% or 0.50% (w/w) of freeze-dried Aloe vera extract and applied to the volar forearm of 20 female subjects. Skin conditions in terms of the water content of the stratum corneum and of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) (Corneometer CM 825 and Tewameter TM 210) were analysed before and after a single and 1- and 2-week period of daily application. After a single application, only formulations supplemented with 0.25% and 0.50% (w/w) of Aloe vera extract increased the water content of the stratum corneum, while after the 2-week period application, all formulations containing the extract (0.10%, 0.25% and 0.50%) had the same effect, in both cases as compared with the vehicle. TEWL was not modified after a single and after 1- and 2-week period of application, when compared with the vehicle. Our results show that freeze-dried Aloe vera extract is a natural effective ingredient for improving skin hydration, possibly through a humectant mechanism. Consequently, it may be used in moisturizing cosmetic formulations and also as a complement in the treatment of dry skin.

  12. Cosmetic and aesthetic skin photosurgery using a computer-assisted CO2 laser-scanning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutu, Doru C. A.; Dumitras, Dan C.; Nedelcu, Ioan; Ghetie, Sergiu D.

    1997-12-01

    Since the first application of CO2 laser in skin photosurgery, various techniques such as laser pulsing, beam scanning and computer-assisted laser pulse generator have been introduced for the purpose of reducing tissue carbonization and thermal necrosis. Using a quite simple XY optical scanner equipped with two galvanometric driven mirrors and an appropriate software to process the scanning data and control the interaction time and energy density in the scanned area, we have obtained a device which can improve CO2 laser application in cosmetic and aesthetic surgery. The opto-mechanical CO2 laser scanner based on two total reflecting flat mirrors placed at 90 degree(s) in respect to the XY scanning directions and independently driven through a magnetic field provides a linear movement of the incident laser beam in the operating field. A DA converter supplied with scanning data by the software enables a scanning with linearity better than 1% for a maximum angular deviation of 20 degree(s). Because the scanning quality of the laser beam in the operating field is given not only by the displacement function of the two mirrors, but also by the beam characteristics in the focal plane and the cross distribution in the laser beam, the surgeon can control through software either the scanning field dimensions or the distance between two consecutive points of the vertically and/or horizontally sweep line. The development of computer-assisted surgical scanning techniques will help control the surgical laser, to create either a reproducible incision with a controlled depth or a controlled incision pattern with minimal incision width, a long desired facility for plastic surgery, neurosurgery, ENT and dentistry.

  13. The assessment of the effect of a cosmetic product brightening the skin of people with discolorations of different etiology.

    PubMed

    Zasada, Malwina; Debowska, Renata; Pasikowska, Monika; Budzisz, Elzbieta

    2016-12-01

    Hyperpigmentations are disorders displayed with a change in the color of the skin, its strange shape, the lack of symmetry, and irregular placement. They appear no matter on the age, gender, and often as a congenital defect. Disorder connected with overproduction of melanin by pigmentary cells. The change of color is due to endogenous and exogenous cause. The aim of this thesis was to conduct a research in vivo. This will allow to judge the effectiveness of the cosmetic product which brightens the skin with hyperpigmentation problems. The characteristics of dermocosmetics were tested on people with various etiology of hyperpigmentation. The aim of the research was to assess the effect of the active substances used daily on skin hyperpigmentation. The tests were carried out on groups of patients with hyperpigmentations. The application of the pharmaceutical and the use of specific apparatus measurements were taken on every medical checkup. A survey was conducted to assess the changes in the face, neck, and neckline skin. The research was based on the apparatus analysis of the skin condition (MPA ® , VISIA ® ). Regular application of the pharmaceutical caused brightening of hyperpigmentations (P < 0.05). General improvement in skin condition was also observed - the increase in skin elasticity, smoothness, and the enhancement of hydration levels. Dermocosmetics for people with hyperpigmentation are an essential part of their medical treatment. In case of epidermal hyperpigmentation, the recipe of individually chosen and tested combination of ingredients enables us to reach satisfactory results. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A whitened face woman with nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Soo, Yannie Oi-Yan; Chow, Kai-Ming; Lam, Christopher Wai-Kei; Lai, Fernand Mac-Moune; Szeto, Cheuk-Chun; Chan, Michael Ho-Ming; Li, Philip Kam-Tao

    2003-01-01

    Skin whitening cream from developing countries is a recognized source of chronic mercury poisoning. The authors report on a 34-year-old Indonesian domestic helper who presented with nephrotic syndrome secondary to membranous nephropathy. It was subsequently found that she used a skin whitening cream regularly that was found to contain a mercury level of almost 2,000 times above the allowable limit. Her blood and urinary mercury levels were both grossly elevated. Her symptoms improved after she stopped using the cream. However, she returned to her home country before chelating therapy could be arranged. Because mercury-containing skin products are still widely available in developing countries, the use of these products should be considered a possible cause of membranous nephropathy in immigrants from those countries. Copyright 2003 by the National Kidney Foundation, Inc.

  15. Cosmetic outcome of skin adhesives versus transcutaneous sutures in laparoscopic port-site wounds: a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Buchweitz, Olaf; Frye, Christian; Moeller, Claus Peter; Nugent, Wolfgang; Krueger, Eckart; Nugent, Andreas; Biel, Peter; Juergens, Sven

    2016-06-01

    In an elective laparoscopic surgery, the cosmetic outcome becomes increasingly important. We conducted a study to evaluate the cosmetic outcome 3 months after a laparoscopic procedure and compared skin adhesive (SA) versus transcutaneous suture (TS). A randomized, controlled, prospective study was conducted at a single study centre in Hamburg, Germany. Seventy-seven patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery with two lower abdominal port sites met the study requirements. It was decided randomly which port site would be closed with SA. The opposite site was closed with TS. Wounds were assessed after 7-12 days and after 3 months. Cosmetic outcome was measured by a visual analogue scale (VAS) completed by the patient, by the Hollander wound evaluation scale (HWES) and by the judgement of blinded investigators. Seventy-seven subjects were randomized. Complete data from the 3-month follow-up visit were available from 56 patients (72.7 %). The VAS scale ranged from 0 to 100 mm with "0" representing the best possible cosmetic outcome. Median satisfaction was 2 mm in the TS group and 3 mm in the SA group. The mean was high in both groups 4.6 (s = 13.1) versus 3.8 mm (s = 4.6). The outcome was neither clinically nor statistically significant. Cosmetic outcome was assessed by an investigator, and the HWES showed no difference. In regard to complications, no difference was found between SA and TS, either. In conclusion this study demonstrated that closure of laparoscopic port-site wounds leads to equivalent outcomes whether SAs or TSs are used. Complications are rare in both methods. Thus, SAs seem to be a valid alternative to sutures in laparoscopic surgery. Registration site: www.clinicaltrials.gov . NCT02179723.

  16. Determination of N-acetylglucosamine in cosmetic formulations and skin test samples by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and UV detection.

    PubMed

    Pedrali, Alice; Bleve, Mariella; Capra, Priscilla; Jonsson, Tobias; Massolini, Gabriella; Perugini, Paola; Marrubini, Giorgio

    2015-03-25

    N-Acetylglucosamine is an ingredient in pharmaceuticals, nutritional supplements and in cosmetics. N-Acetylglucosamine in cosmetics is expected to improve skin hydration, reparation, and to contribute as anti-wrinkle agent. This study reports on the validation and application of an HPLC method based on HILIC and UV detection for determining N-acetylglucosamine in cosmetics and in samples obtained after testing the skin exposed to cosmetics formulations. The chromatographic column used is a ZIC(®)-pHILIC (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm particle size) on which a mobile phase containing acetonitrile-aqueous KH2PO4 (70:30, v/v) 15 mM was applied in isocratic elution mode injecting 20 μl of sample at 0.5 ml/min constant flow-rate and 10±1°C column temperature. Under these conditions the total run time was 10 min and N-acetylglucosamine eluted baseline separated from all other compounds in the samples. Calibration in the range from 40 to 80 μg/ml allowed to assess the method linearity (R(2)>0.999) in a concentration range corresponding to about 50% to 120% of the expected levels of N-acetylglucosamine in the formulations. Precision expressed by RSD% was always better than 2% in intra-day and inter-day assays of authentic samples. Accuracy was in all cases within 95-105% of the expected concentration value in formulations containing N-acetylglucosamine. The sensitivity of the method was at the level of 10 μg/ml as limit of detection, and at 40 μg/ml as limit of quantitation. The application of the method to formulations containing solid lipid nanoparticles documents its usefulness in cosmetic quality control. The results witness that the method is also suitable for the determination of N-acetylglucosamine in samples obtained from skin test strips. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cosmetic formulations containing Lithospermum erythrorhizon root extract show moisturizing effects on human skin.

    PubMed

    Chang, Man-Jau; Huang, Huey-Chun; Chang, Hsien-Cheh; Chang, Tsong-Min

    2008-07-01

    Retention of water in the stratum corneum of skin epidermis plays an important role in regulation of skin function. Loss of water may decline skin appearance gradually and lead to irregular skin disorders. The root extract of Lithospermum erythrorhizon (LES) is known for its various pharmacological activities. However, the potential skin care effect of LES is not clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the moisturizing efficacy and skin barrier repairing activity of LES. For this study, 30 healthy Asian females (age 20-30) with healthy skin had applied the test emulsions twice daily over a period of 28 days. The skin properties were measured by skin bioengineering techniques. Our preliminary results indicated that LES show moisturizing effect on skin hydration in a time- and dose-dependent pattern, and the maximum increase in skin humidity was 11.77 +/- 1.18% for emulsion LES5.00. Particularly, LES-containing emulsions significantly improve skin barrier function by decreasing the value of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) in a time- and dose-dependent pattern, and the maximum decrease in TEWL value was 7.68 +/- 0.79% for emulsion LES5.00. Taken together, our data demonstrate that LES is more effective in increasing skin humidity and decreasing the TEWL values, indicating the potential skin care effects of LES.

  18. Anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial properties of tetramethylhexadecenyl succinyl cysteine (TSC): a skin-protecting cosmetic functional ingredient.

    PubMed

    Fernandéz, J R; Rouzard, K; Voronkov, M; Huber, K L; Stock, J B; Stock, M; Gordon, J S; Pérez, E

    2015-02-01

    The skin is the first line of defence against exposure to microbial, physical, environmental and chemical insults. In mobilizing a protective response, several different cell types located in our skin release and respond to pro-inflammatory cytokines ensuring skin homeostasis and health. However, chronic activation of this response eventually causes damage resulting in premature ageing. Diosodium tetramethylhexadecenyl succinyl cysteine (TSC or SIG1273), an isoprenylcysteine small molecule, down modulates these inflammatory signalling pathways in various cell types (keratinocytes, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and endothelial cells) and possesses anti-bacterial properties. Thus, TSC represents a novel cosmetic functional ingredient that provides a broad spectrum of benefits for the skin. To assess the anti-inflammatory properties of TSC in several cutaneous cell types and further investigate its anti-microbial activity. Cultured normal human epidermal keratinocytes were exposed to chemical irritant phorbol 12-myrisate 13-acetate (TPA) or ultraviolet-B light (UVB) to induce pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α) production. T-cell receptor (TCR) activation of PBMCs and nickel (Ni(2+) ) treatments of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs) were performed resulting in IL-4, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-17 production. Streptococcus pyogenes were cultured to determine minimal inhibitory concentration values. In vitro studies demonstrate TSC blocks TPA and UVB-induced cytokine production in cultured keratinocytes. Similarly, TSC inhibits overproduction of IL-4 and IL-17 in T-cell receptor (TCR)-activated PBMCs as well as nickel induction of IL-6 and IL-8 in HDMECs. Lastly, TSC demonstrated anti-microbial properties, inhibiting cell growth of S. pyogenes. Tetramethylhexadecenyl succinyl cysteine represents a novel cosmetic functional ingredient that provides a dual modulating benefit of skin protection to individuals by reducing inflammation in

  19. Antimelanogenic Efficacy of Melasolv (3,4,5-Trimethoxycinnamate Thymol Ester) in Melanocytes and Three-Dimensional Human Skin Equivalent.

    PubMed

    Lee, John Hwan; Lee, Eun-Soo; Bae, Il-Hong; Hwang, Jeong-Ah; Kim, Se-Hwa; Kim, Dae-Yong; Park, Nok-Hyun; Rho, Ho Sik; Kim, Yong Jin; Oh, Seong-Geun; Lee, Chang Seok

    2017-01-01

    Excessive melanogenesis often causes unaesthetic hyperpigmentation. In a previous report, our group introduced a newly synthesized depigmentary agent, Melasolv™ (3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamate thymol ester). In this study, we demonstrated the significant whitening efficacy of Melasolv using various melanocytes and human skin equivalents as in vitro experimental systems. The depigmentary effect of Melasolv was tested in melan-a cells (immortalized normal murine melanocytes), α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-stimulated B16 murine melanoma cells, primary normal human melanocytes (NHMs), and human skin equivalent (MelanoDerm). The whitening efficacy of Melasolv was further demonstrated by photography, time-lapse microscopy, Fontana-Masson (F&M) staining, and 2-photon microscopy. Melasolv significantly inhibited melanogenesis in the melan-a and α-MSH-stimulated B16 cells. In human systems, Melasolv also clearly showed a whitening effect in NHMs and human skin equivalent, reflecting a decrease in melanin content. F&M staining and 2-photon microscopy revealed that Melasolv suppressed melanin transfer into multiple epidermal layers from melanocytes as well as melanin synthesis in human skin equivalent. Our study showed that Melasolv clearly exerts a whitening effect on various melanocytes and human skin equivalent. These results suggest the possibility that Melasolv can be used as a depigmentary agent to treat pigmentary disorders as well as an active ingredient in cosmetics to increase whitening efficacy. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Noninvasive label-free monitoring of cosmetics and pharmaceuticals in human skin using nonlinear optical microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osseiran, Sam; Wang, Hequn; Evans, Conor L.

    2017-02-01

    Over the past decade, nonlinear optical microscopy has seen a dramatic rise in its use in research settings due to its noninvasiveness, enhanced penetration depth, intrinsic optical sectioning, and the ability to probe chemical compounds with molecular specificity without exogenous contrast agents. Nonlinear optical techniques including two-photon excitation fluorescence (2PEF), fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), second harmonic generation (SHG), coherent anti-Stokes and stimulated Raman scattering (CARS and SRS, respectively), as well as transient and sum frequency absorption (TA and SFA, respectively), have been widely used to explore the physiology and microanatomy of skin. Recently, these modalities have shed light on dermal processes that could not have otherwise been observed, including the spatiotemporal monitoring of cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. However, a challenge quickly arises when studying such chemicals in a dermatological context: many exogenous compounds have optical signatures that can interfere with the signals that would otherwise be acquired from intact skin. For example, oily solvents exhibit strong signals when probing CH2 vibrations with CARS/SRS; chemical sun filters appear bright in 2PEF microscopy; and darkly colored compounds readily absorb light across a broad spectrum, producing strong TA/SFA signals. Thus, this discussion will first focus on the molecular contrast in skin that can be probed using the aforementioned nonlinear optical techniques. This will be followed by an overview of strategies that take advantage of the exogenous compounds' optical signatures to probe spatiotemporal dynamics while preserving endogenous information from skin.

  1. Cosmetics, categories, and the future.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2012-01-01

    Cosmetics is an interesting unregulated category of over-the-counter products designed to enhance appearance and skin health. The coloring agents used in cosmetics are regulated along with their preservative constituents. New understandings of skin physiology have allowed cosmetics to advance beyond appearance issues into the functional arena. Cosmeceuticals is an unrecognized term from a regulatory perspective that conveys the new cosmetic formulations ability to improve skin health. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Monte Carlo simulation of light reflection from cosmetic powders on the skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Takashi; Motoda, Masafumi; Igarashi, Takanori; Nakao, Keisuke

    2011-07-01

    The reflection and scattering properties of light incident on skin covered with powder particles have been investigated. A three-layer skin structure with a spot is modeled, and the propagation of light in the skin and the scattering of light by particles on the skin surface are simulated by means of a Monte Carlo method. Under the condition in which only single scattering of light occurs in the powder layer, the reflection spectra of light from the skin change dramatically with the size of powder particles. The color difference between normal skin and spots is found to diminish more when powder particles smaller than the wavelength of light are used. It is shown that particle polydispersity suppresses substantially the extreme spectral change caused by monodisperse particles with a size comparable to the light wavelength.

  3. Cosmetic Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Body Looking and feeling your best Cosmetic surgery Cosmetic surgery Teens might have cosmetic surgery for a number ... about my body? What are the risks of cosmetic surgery? top People who have cosmetic surgery face many ...

  4. Randomized double-blind trial comparing the cosmetic outcome of cutting diathermy versus scalpel for skin incisions.

    PubMed

    Aird, L N F; Bristol, S G; Phang, P T; Raval, M J; Brown, C J

    2015-04-01

    Controversy exists about whether cutting diathermy for skin incisions leads to a cosmetically inferior scar. Cosmetic outcomes were compared between skin incisions created with cutting diathermy versus scalpel. Wound infection rates and postoperative incisional pain were also compared. This was a randomized double-blind trial comparing cutting diathermy and scalpel in patients undergoing bowel resection. Scar cosmesis was assessed at 6 months after surgery by a plastic surgeon and a research associate using the Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS) and the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS). Patients also used POSAS to self-evaluate their scars. Wound infections within 30 days were recorded, and incision pain scores were measured on the first 5 days after operation. A total of 66 patients were randomized to cutting diathermy (31) or scalpel (35). At 6 months, there was no significant difference between the diathermy and scalpel groups in mean(s.d.) VSS scores (4·9(2·6) versus 5·0(1·9); P = 0·837), mean POSAS total scores (19·2(8·0) versus 20·0(7·4); P = 0·684) or subjective POSAS total scores (20·2(12·1) versus 21·3(10·4); P = 0·725). Neither were there significant differences in wound infection rates between the groups (5 of 30 versus 5 of 32; P = 1·000). Pain scores on day 1 after operation were significantly lower in the diathermy group (mean 1·68 versus 3·13; P = 0·018), but were not significantly different on days 2-5. Cutting diathermy is a cosmetically acceptable technique for abdominal skin incisions. There is no increased risk of wound infection, and diathermy may convey benefit in terms of early postoperative wound pain. NCT01496404 ( http://www.clinicaltrials.gov). © 2015 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Photostability of cosmetic UV filters on mammalian skin under UV exposure.

    PubMed

    Stiefel, Constanze; Schwack, Wolfgang; Nguyen, Yen-Thi Hai

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies showed that the common UV filter substances benzophenone-3 (BP-3), butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane (BM-DBM), octocrylene (OCR), ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC), ethylhexyl salicylate (EHS) and ethylhexyl triazone (EHT) were able to react with amino side chains of different proteins in vitro. To transfer the results to mammalian skin conditions, sunscreen products were applied on both prepared fresh porcine skin and glass plates, followed by UV irradiation and the determination of depletion of the respective UV filters. Significantly lower recoveries of the UV filters extracted from skin samples than from glass plates indicated the additional reaction of the UV filters with skin constituents, when proteins will be the most important reactants. Among the products tested, BP-3 showed the greatest differences in recoveries between glass and skin samples of about 13% and 24% after 2 and 4 h of irradiation, respectively, followed by EHS > BM-DBM > OCR > EHMC > EHT. The obtained results raise the question, whether the common in vitro evaluations of sunscreens, using inert substrate materials like roughened quartz or polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) plates are really suitable to fully replace in vivo methods, as they cannot include skin-typical reactions. © 2014 The American Society of Photobiology.

  6. Instrumental evaluation of anti-aging effects of cosmetic formulations containing palmitoyl peptides, Silybum marianum seed oil, vitamin E and other functional ingredients on aged human skin.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Hyung Jin; Jung, Ho Jung; Schrammek-Drusios, Med Christine; Lee, Sung Nae; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Kwon, Seung Bin; An, In-Sook; An, Sungkwan; Ahn, Kyu Joong

    2016-08-01

    Anti-aging cosmetics are widely used for improving signs of aged skin such as skin wrinkles, decreased elasticity, low dermal density and yellow skin tone. The present study evaluated the effects of cosmetic formulations, eye cream and facial cream, containing palmitoyl peptides, Silybum marianum ( S. marianum ) seed oil, vitamin E and other functional ingredients on the improvement of facial wrinkles, elasticity, dermal density and skin tone after 4 weeks period of application on aged human skin. Healthy volunteers (n=20) with aged skin were recruited to apply the test materials facially twice per day for 4 weeks. Skin wrinkles, elasticity, dermal density and skin tone were measured instrumentally for assessing the improvement of skin aging. All the measurements were conducted prior to the application of test materials and at 2 and 4 weeks of treatment. Crow's feet wrinkles were decreased 5.97% after 2 weeks of test material application and 14.07% after 4 weeks of application in comparison of pre-application. Skin elasticity was increased 6.81% after 2 weeks and 8.79% after 4 weeks. Dermal density was increased 16.74% after 2 weeks and 27.63% after 4 weeks. With the L* value indicating skin brightness and the a* value indicating erythema (redness), the results showed that brightness was increased 1.70% after 2 weeks and 2.14% after 4 weeks, and erythema was decreased 10.45% after 2 weeks and 22.39% after 4 weeks. Hence, the test materials appear to exert some degree of anti-aging effects on aged human skin. There were no abnormal skin responses from the participants during the trial period. We conclude that the facial and eye cream containing palmitoyl peptides and S. marianum seed oil, vitamin E and other ingredients have effects on the improvement of facial wrinkles, elasticity, dermal density and skin tone.

  7. Natural Substances for Prevention of Skin Photoaging: Screening Systems in the Development of Sunscreen and Rejuvenation Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Kostyuk, Vladimir; Potapovich, Alla; Albuhaydar, Ahmed R; Mayer, Wolfgang; De Luca, Chiara; Korkina, Liudmila

    2018-04-01

    Solar broadband UV irradiation is commonly regarded as a major causative reason for cutaneous photoaging. The pro-aging molecular pathways and cellular targets affected by UVA+UVB light in human skin have been extensively investigated. Notwithstanding growing knowledge in mechanisms of photoaging, research and development of clinically efficient, nontoxic, and sustainable topical preparations providing full physical, chemical, and biological photoprotection still remain a great challenge for pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. In this study, we are proposing a panel of the in vitro methods for preselection of natural photoprotective substances with high photostability and low phototoxicity able of absorbing a broadband UVA+UVB irradiation (physical sunscreen), reducing UV-related overproduction of free radicals and loss of endogenous antioxidants (chemical protection), and attenuating UV-induced cytotoxicity and immune and metabolic responses (biological protection) in primary human epidermal keratinocytes and immortalized human keratinocyte cultures. Our data showed that secondary metabolites biosynthesized in plant cells in response to UV irradiation, such as phenylpropanoids and their glycosylated metabolites, aglycons and glycosylated flavonoids, and leontopodic acids, hold the best promise for complete natural topical prevention of photoaging and rejuvenation of photoaged skin. Meristem plant cell cultures elicited by solar simulating UV could be the most environmentally sustainable biotechnological source of polyphenols with combined photoprotective and antiaging properties.

  8. Natural Substances for Prevention of Skin Photoaging: Screening Systems in the Development of Sunscreen and Rejuvenation Cosmetics

    PubMed Central

    Kostyuk, Vladimir; Potapovich, Alla; Albuhaydar, Ahmed R.; Mayer, Wolfgang; De Luca, Chiara

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Solar broadband UV irradiation is commonly regarded as a major causative reason for cutaneous photoaging. The pro-aging molecular pathways and cellular targets affected by UVA+UVB light in human skin have been extensively investigated. Notwithstanding growing knowledge in mechanisms of photoaging, research and development of clinically efficient, nontoxic, and sustainable topical preparations providing full physical, chemical, and biological photoprotection still remain a great challenge for pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. In this study, we are proposing a panel of the in vitro methods for preselection of natural photoprotective substances with high photostability and low phototoxicity able of absorbing a broadband UVA+UVB irradiation (physical sunscreen), reducing UV-related overproduction of free radicals and loss of endogenous antioxidants (chemical protection), and attenuating UV-induced cytotoxicity and immune and metabolic responses (biological protection) in primary human epidermal keratinocytes and immortalized human keratinocyte cultures. Our data showed that secondary metabolites biosynthesized in plant cells in response to UV irradiation, such as phenylpropanoids and their glycosylated metabolites, aglycons and glycosylated flavonoids, and leontopodic acids, hold the best promise for complete natural topical prevention of photoaging and rejuvenation of photoaged skin. Meristem plant cell cultures elicited by solar simulating UV could be the most environmentally sustainable biotechnological source of polyphenols with combined photoprotective and antiaging properties. PMID:28661208

  9. Nanotechnology in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Katz, Linda M; Dewan, Kapal; Bronaugh, Robert L

    2015-11-01

    Nanomaterials are being used in cosmetic products for various effects. However, their use also raises potential safety concerns. Some of these concerns can be addressed by determining the type of nanomaterials used, as well as stability, potential for skin absorption, route of exposure, and how they are formulated in cosmetic products. There has been considerable effort internationally to harmonize approaches in order to address definitional issues and safety concerns related to the use of nanomaterials in cosmetic products. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. HS-GC-MS method for the analysis of fragrance allergens in complex cosmetic matrices.

    PubMed

    Desmedt, B; Canfyn, M; Pype, M; Baudewyns, S; Hanot, V; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O; Rogiers, V; De Paepe, K; Deconinck, E

    2015-01-01

    Potential allergenic fragrances are part of the Cosmetic Regulation with labelling and concentration restrictions. This means that they have to be declared on the ingredients list, when their concentration exceeds the labelling limit of 10 ppm or 100 ppm for leave-on or rinse-off cosmetics, respectively. Labelling is important regarding consumer safety. In this way, sensitised people towards fragrances might select their products based on the ingredients list to prevent elicitation of an allergic reaction. It is therefore important to quantify potential allergenic ingredients in cosmetic products. An easy to perform liquid extraction was developed, combined with a new headspace GC-MS method. The latter was capable of analysing 24 volatile allergenic fragrances in complex cosmetic formulations, such as hydrophilic (O/W) and lipophilic (W/O) creams, lotions and gels. This method was successfully validated using the total error approach. The trueness deviations for all components were smaller than 8%, and the expectation tolerance limits did not exceed the acceptance limits of ± 20% at the labelling limit. The current methodology was used to analyse 18 cosmetic samples that were already identified as being illegal on the EU market for containing forbidden skin whitening substances. Our results showed that these cosmetic products also contained undeclared fragrances above the limit value for labelling, which imposes an additional health risk for the consumer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Spreading properties of cosmetic emollients: Use of synthetic skin surface to elucidate structural effect.

    PubMed

    Douguet, Marine; Picard, Céline; Savary, Géraldine; Merlaud, Fabien; Loubat-Bouleuc, Nathalie; Grisel, Michel

    2017-06-01

    The study focuses on the impact of structural and physicochemical properties of emollients on their spreadability. Fifty-three emollients, among which esters, silicones, vegetable and mineral oils, have been characterized. Their viscosity, surface tension, density and spreadability have been measured. Vitro-skin ® , an artificial skin substitute, was used as an artificial porous substrate to measure spreadability. Two different methods have been selected to characterize spreadability, namely contact angle and spreading value. Dynamic contact angle measurements showed that emollient spreadability is first governed by spontaneous spreading and that, in a second phase, absorption and migration into the porous substrate becomes the driver of the extension of the spreading area. Statistical analysis of physicochemical and spreading value data revealed that viscosity has a major impact on the spreading behavior of emollients whatever their chemical type. A special emphasis was placed on the ester family in which chemical diversity is very wide. The results highlighted a difference between "high viscosity esters" for which viscosity is the main factor impacting spreadability and "low viscosity esters" for which structural variations (mono/diester, saturated/unsaturated chain, linear/branched chain) have to be considered in addition to viscosity. Linear regressions were used to express spreading value as a function of viscosity for each of the four emollient families tested (esters, silicones, vegetable and mineral oils). These regressions allowed the development of reliable predictive models as a powerful tool for formulators to forecast spreadability of emollients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Application of skin adhesives in head and neck surgery: analysis of cosmetic results, applicability and cost-effectiveness of cyanoacrylate-based adhesives].

    PubMed

    Graefe, H; Wollenberg, B; Brocks, C

    2008-09-01

    In this work cyanoacrylate-based skin adhesives used in Germany for skin closure in head and neck surgery are compared with respect to ease of application, cost-effectiveness and cosmetic results. We compared 25 wounds sealed with a skin adhesive with 25 suture-sealed wounds. Bonding of surgical wounds with glue had a high level of acceptance in all patients. The tedious, time-consuming and sometimes painful postoperative removal of many sutures in patients is omitted. Patients can shower soon afterwards without additional protection as the adhesive provides a waterproof barrier. Problems of wound healing can immediately be detected through the transparent skin adhesive. Cosmetic long-term results of skin closure by adhesives are comparable to suture-sealed wounds. The adhesives available on the market differ mainly in the form of the applicator, the viscosity on application, as well as the strength after hardening. The application is easy to implement and significantly faster than conventional suturing. Apart from the cost savings of materials compared to the use of skin sutures and investment of Steri-Strips, expensive anesthesia and surgical time can also be saved.

  13. The globalization of whitening: prevalence of skin lighteners (or bleachers) use and its social correlates among university students in 26 countries.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; James, Caryl

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use of skin lighteners and its social correlates in university students from 26 low, middle income, and emerging economy countries. Using anonymous questionnaires, data were collected from 19,624 undergraduate university students (mean age 20.8, SD 2.8) from 27 universities in 26 countries across Asia, Africa, and the Americas. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify associations between sociodemographic, social, health risk, mental health and abuse, and the use of skin lighteners. Overall, the prevalence of previous 12-month skin lightener use was 24.5, and 16.7% in male and 30.0% in female students. The use of skin lighteners varied by country, ranging from 0% in Turkey to 83.8% in Thailand. In multivariate logistic regression analysis among both men and women, social variables (highly-organized religious activity and lack of personal mastery) and health variables (inconsistent condom use) were associated with skin lightening use. In addition, male students from a lower income country, having a lack of social support, and a history of childhood sexual abuse were more likely to use skin lighteners, and women aged 20-21 years old, residing on the university campus, being a student of health and welfare, and having a lack of personal control, inadequate physical activity, and depressive symptoms were more likely users of skin-lightening products. A high prevalence of skin lightener use was found in this large sample of university students, and social and health-related risk factors were identified. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  14. Analysis of yellowish skin color from an optical image and the development of 3D Skin Chroma Diagram(™).

    PubMed

    Han, J Y; Kim, E J; Lee, H K; Kim, M J; Nam, G W

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to define yellowish skin color, which is a major concern of Asian women, and to develop a 3D skin-pigment color model. A total of 22 Korean females were enrolled in this study. These women were asked to use a functional cosmetic product with whitening agents for 8 weeks. We photographed the subsurface reflection of each subject's face using polarized light. The color of the subsurface reflection is a result of diffusive light transports that are attenuated by various skin pigments such as melanin, hemoglobin, and skin base colors. In this subsurface photo image, we eliminated the color effects of melanin and hemoglobin distribution by skin color analysis resulting in skin base color. Based on a variety of observed skin base colors from which the melanin and hemoglobin pigments have been removed, we defined a standard skin color for the entire subject group, and then, we gained a particular yellowish skin color by excluding the standard skin color from the skin base color again. After applying whitening cosmetic products, the amount of melanin and hemoglobin was reduced by 7.3% and 18.6%, respectively. Also, through using our new analysis method, yellowish skin color has been improved by 2.8%. We showed the improvement on 3D Skin Chroma Diagram(™) three-dimensionally. It became possible to diagnose yellowish color on human skin and to analyze the improvement in skin tone both quantitatively and visually. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Marine Microbial-Derived Molecules and Their Potential Use in Cosmeceutical and Cosmetic Products.

    PubMed

    Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Barone, Giulio; Marcellini, Francesca; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Danovaro, Roberto

    2017-04-12

    The oceans encompass a wide range of habitats and environmental conditions, which host a huge microbial biodiversity. The unique characteristics of several marine systems have driven a variety of biological adaptations, leading to the production of a large spectrum of bioactive molecules. Fungi, fungi-like protists (such as thraustochytrids) and bacteria are among the marine organisms with the highest potential of producing bioactive compounds, which can be exploited for several commercial purposes, including cosmetic and cosmeceutical ones. Mycosporines and mycosporine-like amino acids, carotenoids, exopolysaccharides, fatty acids, chitosan and other compounds from these microorganisms might represent a sustainable, low-cost and fast-production alternative to other natural molecules used in photo-protective, anti-aging and skin-whitening products for face, body and hair care. Here, we review the existing knowledge of these compounds produced by marine microorganisms, highlighting the marine habitats where such compounds are preferentially produced and their potential application in cosmetic and cosmeceutical fields.

  16. New Whitening Constituents from Taiwan-Native Pyracantha koidzumii: Structures and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Analysis in Human Epidermal Melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Rong-Dih; Chen, Mei-Chuan; Liu, Yan-Ling; Lin, Yi-Tzu; Lu, Mei-Kuang; Hsu, Feng-Lin; Lee, Mei-Hsien

    2015-12-02

    Nontoxic natural products useful in skin care cosmetics are of considerable interest. Tyrosinase is a rate-limiting enzyme for which its inhibitor is useful in developing whitening cosmetics. Pyracantha koidzumii (Hayata) Rehder is an endemic species in Taiwan that exhibits tyrosinase-inhibitory activity. To find new active natural compounds from P. koidzumii, we performed bioguided isolation and studied the related activity in human epidermal melanocytes. In total, 13 compounds were identified from P. koidzumii in the present study, including two new compounds, 3,6-dihydroxy-2,4-dimethoxy-dibenzofuran (9) and 3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxybiphenyl-2'-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (13), as well as 11 known compounds. The new compound 13 exhibited maximum potency in inhibiting cellular tyrosinase activity, the protein expression of cellular tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein-2, as well as the mRNA expression of Paired box 3 and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor in a concentration-dependent manner. In the enzyme kinetic assay, the new compound 13 acted as an uncompetitive mixed-type inhibitor against the substrate l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and had a Km value against this substrate of 0.262 mM, as calculated using the Lineweaver-Burk plots. Taken together, our findings show compound 13 exhibits tyrosinase inhibition in human melanocytes and compound 13 may be a potential candidate for use in cosmetics.

  17. New Whitening Constituents from Taiwan-Native Pyracantha koidzumii: Structures and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Analysis in Human Epidermal Melanocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Rong-Dih; Chen, Mei-Chuan; Liu, Yan-Ling; Lin, Yi-Tzu; Lu, Mei-Kuang; Hsu, Feng-Lin; Lee, Mei-Hsien

    2015-01-01

    Nontoxic natural products useful in skin care cosmetics are of considerable interest. Tyrosinase is a rate-limiting enzyme for which its inhibitor is useful in developing whitening cosmetics. Pyracantha koidzumii (Hayata) Rehder is an endemic species in Taiwan that exhibits tyrosinase-inhibitory activity. To find new active natural compounds from P. koidzumii, we performed bioguided isolation and studied the related activity in human epidermal melanocytes. In total, 13 compounds were identified from P. koidzumii in the present study, including two new compounds, 3,6-dihydroxy-2,4-dimethoxy-dibenzofuran (9) and 3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxybiphenyl-2ʹ-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (13), as well as 11 known compounds. The new compound 13 exhibited maximum potency in inhibiting cellular tyrosinase activity, the protein expression of cellular tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein-2, as well as the mRNA expression of Paired box 3 and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor in a concentration-dependent manner. In the enzyme kinetic assay, the new compound 13 acted as an uncompetitive mixed-type inhibitor against the substrate l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and had a Km value against this substrate of 0.262 mM, as calculated using the Lineweaver–Burk plots. Taken together, our findings show compound 13 exhibits tyrosinase inhibition in human melanocytes and compound 13 may be a potential candidate for use in cosmetics. PMID:26633381

  18. Cosmetic Dentistry

    MedlinePlus

    If you have stained, broken or uneven teeth, cosmetic dentistry can help. Cosmetic dentistry is different from orthodontic treatment, which can straighten your teeth with braces or other devices. Cosmetic dental ...

  19. Whitening Efficacy of Whitening Mouth Rinses Used Alone or in Conjunction With Carbamide Peroxide Home Whitening.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Jbs; Sarlo, R S; Bresciani, E; Caneppele, Tmf

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of whitening mouth rinses on teeth previously whitened or not, exposed to food dyes. One hundred twenty enamel-dentin specimens, 3 mm in diameter, were obtained from bovine incisors. The specimens were stained for 14 days in staining broth. After staining, the initial color reading was performed via a spectrophotometer CM-2600d (Konica Minolta). Half of specimens were submitted to whitening (10% carbamide peroxide [CP]) for 14 days. They were then divided into three groups and were submitted to cycles of staining (five minutes) and mouth rinses (two minutes) for 12 weeks, with the following: CP-LI, Listerine Whitening; CP-PL, Plax Whitening; CP-BP, bromelain + papain; CP-DW, deionized water. LI, PL, BP, and DW groups were submitted to the same cited cycles but with no prior bleaching. The color measurements were performed after four, eight, and 12 weeks of treatment with mouth rinses. Data were submitted to repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test for multiple comparisons, with significance level at 5%. The results showed that the CP-LI, CP-PL, LI, and PL groups had greater color change than did the others. The CP-BP and BP groups were similar to CP-DW and DW. We therefore conclude that Listerine Whitening mouth rinse presented the highest bleaching effect, followed by Plax Whitening mouth rinse. Both maintained CP bleaching effect after 12 weeks of dye-rinse cycles. However, none of these rinses were able to produce whitening similar to CP. Bromelain- and papain-containing mouth rinses did not show bleaching effect, being similar to the control groups.

  20. Mercury and hydroquinone content of skin toning creams and cosmetic soaps, and the potential risks to the health of Ghanaian women.

    PubMed

    Agorku, Eric Selorm; Kwaansa-Ansah, Edward Ebow; Voegborlo, Ray Bright; Amegbletor, Pamela; Opoku, Francis

    2016-01-01

    In this study, sixty-two (62) skin-lightening creams and soaps were analysed for total mercury and hydroquinone levels. Total mercury was determined by the Cold Vapour Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry using an automatic mercury analyser and hydroquinone by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The mean concentration of total mercury in skin toning creams and cosmetic soaps were 0.098 ± 0.082 and 0.152 ± 0.126 μg/g, respectively. The mean concentration of hydroquinone was 0.243 ± 0.385 and 0.035 ± 0.021 % in skin toning creams and cosmetic soaps, respectively. All the creams and soaps analysed had mercury and hydroquinone levels below the US Food and Drug Administration's acceptable limit of 1 μg/g and 2 %, respectively. The low levels of mercury and hydroquinone in the creams and soaps analysed in this study therefore do not pose any potential risk to consumers who are mostly women in Ghana.

  1. In vitro and in vivo percutaneous absorption of retinol from cosmetic formulations: Significance of the skin reservoir and prediction of systemic absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Yourick, Jeffrey J.; Jung, Connie T.; Bronaugh, Robert L.

    2008-08-15

    The percutaneous absorption of retinol (Vitamin A) from cosmetic formulations was studied to predict systemic absorption and to understand the significance of the skin reservoir in in vitro absorption studies. Viable skin from fuzzy rat or human subjects was assembled in flow-through diffusion cells for in vitro absorption studies. In vivo absorption studies using fuzzy rats were performed in glass metabolism cages for collection of urine, feces, and body content. Retinol (0.3%) formulations (hydroalcoholic gel and oil-in-water emulsion) containing {sup 3}H-retinol were applied and absorption was measured at 24 or 72 h. All percentages reported are % of applied dose.more » In vitro studies using human skin and the gel and emulsion vehicles found 0.3 and 1.3% retinol, respectively, in receptor fluid at 24 h. Levels of absorption in the receptor fluid increased over 72 h with the gel and emulsion vehicles. Using the gel vehicle, in vitro rat skin studies found 23% in skin and 6% in receptor fluid at 24 h, while 72-h studies found 18% in skin and 13% in receptor fluid. Thus, significant amounts of retinol remained in rat skin at 24 h and decreased over 72 h, with proportional increases in receptor fluid. In vivo rat studies with the gel found 4% systemic absorption of retinol after 24 h and systemic absorption did not increase at 72 h. Retinol remaining in rat skin after in vivo application was 18% and 13% of the applied dermal dose after 24 and 72 h, respectively. Similar observations were made with the oil-in water emulsion vehicle in the rat. Retinol formed a reservoir in rat skin both in vivo and in vitro. Little additional retinol was bioavailable after 24 h. Comparison of these in vitro and in vivo results for absorption through rat skin indicates that the 24-h in vitro receptor fluid value accurately estimated 24-h in vivo systemic absorption. Therefore, the best single estimate of retinol systemic absorption from in vitro human skin studies is the 24-h

  2. Whitening effect of salicylic acid peels in Asian patients.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hyo Hyun; Kim, Il-hwan

    2006-03-01

    Patients with skin of color demand treatment modality suitable for their skin. Salicylic acid peel has effectiveness for both of acne and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation that are common in patients with skin of color. To assess the whitening effect of salicylic acid peels in Asian patients with acne objectively by the colorimetric method. Twenty-four healthy adult patients with acne participated voluntarily in the study. Any other systemic and topical acne treatments were prohibited. They had undergone full-face peels with 30% salicylic acid in absolute ethanol bi-weekly for 3 months. Colorimetric changes of the face were recorded with reflectance spectrophotometer. Paired comparisons with pretreatment CIE L*a*b* showed abrupt descent of L* value after first peel (p=.0286). Then there was continued increase of mean L* value, even though the final L* value did not reach a statistically significant level. The mean a* value decreased continually, and the a* values recorded after the second, third, fourth, fifth, and final peel showed significantly lowered levels (p=.0027, .0005, <.0001, <.0001, <.0001). Salicylic acid peels are beneficial in whitening the face of Asian patients with acne. The whitening effect would be an important factor in choosing the superficial peeling agent for them.

  3. Anti-skin-aging benefits of exopolymers from Aureobasidium pullulans SM2001.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Hu; Park, Soo Jin; Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Young Joon; Song, Chang Hyun; Choi, Seong Hun; Ku, Sae Kwang; Kang, Su Jin

    2014-01-01

    There have been many attempts to search for affordable and effective functional cosmetic ingredients, especially from natural sources. As research into developing a functional cosmetic ingredient, we investigated whether exopolymers from Aureobasidium pullulans SM2001 (E-AP-SM2001) exert antioxidant, antiwrinkle, whitening, and skin moisturizing effects. Antioxidant effects of E-AP-SM2001 were determined by measuring free radical scavenging capacity and superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity. Antiwrinkle effects were assessed through the inhibition of hyaluronidase, elastase, collagenase, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1. Whitening effects were measured by tyrosinase inhibition assay, and by melanin formation test in B16/F10 melanoma cells. Skin moisturizing effects were detected by mouse skin water content test. E-AP-SM2001 showed potent DPPH radical scavenging activity and SOD-like effects. Additionally, hyaluronidase, elastase, collagenase, and MMP-1 activities were significantly inhibited by E-AP-SM2001. We also observed that E-AP-SM2001 effectively reduced melanin production by B16/F10 melanoma cells and mushroom tyrosinase activities. Furthermore, significant increases in skin water content were detected in E-AP-SM2001- treated mouse skin, as compared with vehicle-treated control skin. Notably, a mask pack containing E-AP-SM2001 showed a >twofold more extensive moisturizing effect compared with one containing Saccharomycopsis ferment filtrate. Our results suggest that E-AP-SM2001 has adequate antiaging, antiwrinkle, and whitening benefits and skin moisturizing effect. These effects involve reducing hyaluronidase, elastase, collagenase, and MMP-1 activities, as well as inhibition of melanin production and tyrosinase activities. Therefore, the antioxidant E-AP-SM2001 may serve as a predictable functional ingredient.

  4. Cosmetic Dentistry

    MedlinePlus

    ... want a whiter shade. ; Discoloration occurs in the enamel and can be caused by medication, coffee, tea ... on the desired shade you wish to achieve. Whitening in the office may call for one or more 45-minute to one-hour visits to your dentist's ... ; Bonding is tooth-colored material used to fill in gaps or ...

  5. Improved cosmetic activity by optimizing the Lithospermum erythrorhizon extraction process.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Seon; Seo, Yong Chang; No, Ra Hwan; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to expand the use of Lithospermum erythrorhizon, which is a good source of natural dye, in skin whitening and immune activation cosmetics. The goal was to provide cosmeceutical data about the extraction yield and shikonin contents of this plant by optimizing the ultrasonic extraction and high pressure extraction conditions. Under optimal extraction conditions, which consisted of 500 MPa for 60 min and 120 kHz for 90 min, 27.49 and 3.19 % (w/w) of the highest extraction yield and shikonin contents were obtained, compared to 16.32 and 1.81 % from a conventional ethanol extract (EE) control. Hyaluronidase inhibition activity was measured as 44.24 % after adding 1.0 mg/ml of ethanol extract, but it was as high as 64.19 % when using extract produced by ultrasonication with high pressure extraction (UE + HPE). The MMP-1 expression levels from skin fibroblast cells (CCD-986sk) treated with or without UV irradiation were also lowered by as much as 110.6 % after adding 1.0 mg/ml of the UE + HPE extract, relative to 126.9 % from the EE. After UVA exposure, prostaglandin E2 production from RAW 264.7 was also lower, at 110.6 %, which also indicates that the extract from the UE + HPE process enhanced skin immune activation activities. For the skin whitening activity, tyrosinase inhibitory activity was observed at 67.15 % in the HPE + UE extract, which was ca. 20 % higher than that of the EE extract (57.48 %). To reduce melanin production in Clone M-3 cells, 79.5 % of the melanin production was estimated after adding 1.0 mg/ml of the UE + HPE extract compared to that of the control (no treatment), which was similar to the 77.4 % result found in an ascorbic acid positive control. The highest shikonin secretion was conclusively obtained under the optimal conditions and resulted in a significant improvement of the cosmetic activities of L. erythrorhizon extracts.

  6. Cosmetics Europe multi-laboratory pre-validation of the SkinEthic™ reconstituted human corneal epithelium test method for the prediction of eye irritation.

    PubMed

    Alépée, N; Bessou-Touya, S; Cotovio, J; de Smedt, A; de Wever, B; Faller, C; Jones, P; Le Varlet, B; Marrec-Fairley, M; Pfannenbecker, U; Tailhardat, M; van Goethem, F; McNamee, P

    2013-08-01

    Cosmetics Europe, The Personal Care Association, known as Colipa before 2012, conducted a program of technology transfer and assessment of Within/Between Laboratory (WLV/BLV) reproducibility of the SkinEthic™ Reconstituted Human Corneal Epithelium (HCE) as one of two human reconstructed tissue eye irritation test methods. The SkinEthic™ HCE test method involves two exposure time treatment procedures - one for short time exposure (10 min - SE) and the other for long time exposure (60 min - LE) of tissues to test substance. This paper describes pre-validation studies of the SkinEthic™ HCE test method (SE and LE protocols) as well as the Eye Peptide Reactivity Assay (EPRA). In the SE WLV study, 30 substances were evaluated. A consistent outcome with respect to viability measurement across all runs was observed with all substances showing an SD of less than 18%. In the LE WLV study, 44 out of 45 substances were consistently classified. These data demonstrated a high level of reproducibility within laboratory for both the SE and LE treatment procedures. For the LE BLV, 19 out of 20 substances were consistently classified between the three laboratories, again demonstrating a high level of reproducibility between laboratories. The results for EPRA WLV and BLV studies demonstrated that all substances analysed were categorised similarly and that the method is reproducible. The SkinEthic™ HCE test method entered into the experimental phase of a formal ECVAM validation program in 2010. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Improvement of skin condition in striae distensae: development, characterization and clinical efficacy of a cosmetic product containing Punica granatum seed oil and Croton lechleri resin extract

    PubMed Central

    Bogdan, Cătălina; Iurian, Sonia; Tomuta, Ioan; Moldovan, Mirela

    2017-01-01

    Striae distensae are a frequent skin condition associated with pregnancy, weight change or lack of skin elasticity. The aim of this research was to obtain a topical product containing herbal active ingredients with documented antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity (Punica granatum seed oil and Croton lechleri resin extract) and demonstrate its positive effect on prevention and treatment of striae distensae. First, the cream base formulation was optimized through experimental design. Secondly, the cream containing the two active ingredients was investigated in an interventional nonrandomized clinical trial. The clinical outcome was assessed through biophysical parameters and ultrasonographic evaluation. The state of the skin was evaluated by biophysical measurements and ultrasonography at the beginning of the study and after 3 and 6 weeks. The experimental design was successfully used to set the best ranges for the technological and formulation factors to obtain a cosmetic formulation with optimal characteristics. The study of clinical efficacy on the optimal formulation revealed an increase in the dermis thickness, hydration and elasticity values in both groups after 6 weeks of cream application. The new oil-in-water cream containing P. granatum seed oil and C. lechleri resin extract can be helpful in the prevention or improving of skin changes associated with striae. PMID:28280300

  8. Dental whitening--revisiting the myths.

    PubMed

    Perdigão, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    The popularity of dental bleaching has increased with the introduction of at-home whitening. Currently available whitening methods include those prescribed by a dental professional for use at home, those applied by the professional in the dental office, a combination of the two, or systems available over the counter. This article reviews the effect, efficacy, and safety of bleaching techniques and materials. Most whitening techniques are considered effective and safe when carried out under the supervision of a dental professional. This article also compares the efficacy and safety of some of the most popular bleaching techniques, including at-home whitening with carbamide peroxide, over-the-counter (OTC) systems, and in-office whitening. Some of these whitening techniques are illustrated in this article.

  9. Whitening of endodontically untreated calcified anterior teeth.

    PubMed

    Pedorella, C A; Meyer, R D; Woollard, G W

    2000-01-01

    Definitive treatment for whitening endodontically untreated anterior teeth with dystrophic calcification is provided by removing the coronal sclerotic dentin and utilizing internal and external bleaching as necessary.

  10. Tooth Whitening: What We Now Know

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Clifton M.

    2014-01-01

    Declarative Title Current research about tooth whitening shows that it is safe and effective when manufacturer’s protocol is followed, yet there are risks of which the profession and users should be aware. This update provides a summary of current research and assessment of the safety and efficacy of tooth whitening regimens. Background Tooth whitening has become one of the most frequently requested dental procedures by the public. The public has come to demand whiter, more perfect smiles and in response many choices for tooth whitening have been made available. These include home-based products such as toothpastes, gels, and films, as well as in-office based systems where products containing highly concentrated bleaching agents are applied under professional supervision. The profession and public have been aware of certain risks related to tooth whitening such as increased tooth sensitivity and gingival irritation. New research has shown that there are other risks such as tooth surface roughening and softening, increased potential for demineralization, degradation of dental restorations, and unacceptable color change of dental restorations. The new research is also focused on optimizing whitening procedures to reduce tooth sensitivity and to increase the persistence of the whitening. Methods Current reports in the literature are reviewed that are related to the use of peroxide based whitening methods. These reports include in vitro studies for method optimization and mechanism as well as clinical studies on effects of various whitening regimens. Conclusions When manufacturer’s instructions are followed, hydrogen peroxide and carbamide peroxide based tooth whitening is safe and effective. Patients should be informed of the risks associated with tooth whitening and instructed on identification of adverse occurrences so that they may seek professional help asneeded. PMID:24929591

  11. Predicting skin sensitization potential and inter-laboratory reproducibility of a human Cell Line Activation Test (h-CLAT) in the European Cosmetics Association (COLIPA) ring trials.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Hitoshi; Ryan, Cindy; Ovigne, Jean-Marc; Schroeder, Klaus R; Ashikaga, Takao

    2010-09-01

    Regulatory policies in Europe prohibited the testing of cosmetic ingredients in animals for a number of toxicological endpoints. Currently no validated non-animal test methods exist for skin sensitization. Evaluation of changes in cell surface marker expression in dendritic cell (DC)-surrogate cell lines represents one non-animal approach. The human Cell Line Activation Test (h-CLAT) examines the level of CD86 and CD54 expression on the surface of THP-1 cells, a human monocytic leukemia cell line, following 24h of chemical exposure. To examine protocol transferability, between-lab reproducibility, and predictive capacity, the h-CLAT has been evaluated by five independent laboratories in several ring trials (RTs) coordinated by the European Cosmetics Association (COLIPA). The results of the first and second RTs demonstrated that the protocol was transferable and basically had good between-lab reproducibility and predictivity, but there were some false negative data. To improve performance, protocol and prediction model were modified. Using the modified prediction model in the first and second RT, accuracy was improved. However, about 15% of the outcomes were not correctly identified, which exposes some of the limitations of the assay. For the chemicals evaluated, the limitation may due to chemical being a weak allergen or having low solubility (ex. alpha-hexylcinnamaldehyde). The third RT evaluated the modified prediction model and satisfactory results were obtained. From the RT data, the feasibility of utilizing cell lines as surrogate DC in development of in vitro skin sensitization methods shows promise. The data also support initiating formal pre-validation of the h-CLAT in order to fully understand the capabilities and limitations of the assay. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification and quantitation of vitamins K1 and K3 in cosmetic products for facial skin protection.

    PubMed

    De Orsi, D; Giannini, G; Gagliardi, L; Carpani, I; Tonelli, D

    2008-01-01

    A simple and rapid analytical method was developed for the determination of vitamins K1 and K3 in facial anti-rash creams. The procedure is based on an ultrasonic extraction of the cosmetic sample with dimethylacetamide, in the presence of an internal standard, followed by HPLC separation. HPLC was performed using a C18 column and spectrophotometric detection at 333 nm. A linear gradient elution was carried out starting with 50% acetonitrile-methanol (75:25 v/v) and water up to 100% acetonitrile-methanol for 5 min. Linearity was established over the concentration range from 0.2 to 1.0 mg/ml for vitamin K1 and from 0.02 to 0.1 mg/ml for vitamin K3, with LOD values of 100 ng and 20 ng injected, respectively. The accuracy was verified by spiking experiments on model cosmetic samples. The proposed method has been successfully applied for the analysis of commercial samples of creams.

  13. The regulatory role of the tetrapeptide AcSDKP in skin and hair physiology and the prevention of ageing effects in these tissues--a potential cosmetic role.

    PubMed

    Hajem, N; Chapelle, A; Bignon, J; Pinault, A; Liu, J-M; Salah-Mohellibi, N; Lati, E; Wdzieczak-Bakala, J

    2013-06-01

    The naturally occurring tetrapeptide acetyl-N-Ser-Asp-Lys-Pro (AcSDKP) recognized as a potent angiogenic factor was shown recently to contribute to the repair of cutaneous injuries. In the current article, we report the ability of AcSDKP to exert a beneficial effect on normal healthy skin and scalp and to compensate for the ageing process. In vitro AcSDKP at 10⁻¹¹-10⁻⁷ M significantly stimulates the growth of human keratinocytes, fibroblasts and follicle dermal papilla cells. Moreover, it enhances the growth of human epidermal keratinocyte progenitor and stem cells as shown in a clonogenic survival assay. Topical treatment of ex vivo cultured skin explants with 10⁻⁵ M AcSDKP increases the thickness of the epidermis and upregulates the synthesis of keratins 14 and 19, fibronectin, collagen III and IV as well as the glycoaminoglycans (GAGs). In the ex vivo-cultured hair follicles, AcSDKP promotes hair shaft elongation and induces morphological and molecular modifications matching the criteria of hair growth. Furthermore, AcSDKP at 10⁻¹¹-10⁻⁷ M was shown to improve epidermal barrier, stimulating expression of three protein components of tight junctions (claudin-1, occludin, ZO-1) playing an important role in connecting neighbouring cells. This tetrapeptide exercises also activation of SIRT1 implicated in the control of cell longevity. Indeed, a two-fold increase in the synthesis of SIRT1 by cultured keratinocytes was observed in the presence of 10⁻¹¹-10⁻⁷ M AcSDKP. In conclusion, these findings provide convincing evidence of the regulatory role of AcSDKP in skin and hair physiology and suggest a cosmetic use of this natural tetrapeptide to prevent skin ageing and hair loss and to promote the cutaneous regeneration and hair growth. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  14. An in vitro method for detecting chemical sensitization using human reconstructed skin models and its applicability to cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and medical device safety testing.

    PubMed

    McKim, James M; Keller, Donald J; Gorski, Joel R

    2012-12-01

    Chemical sensitization is a serious condition caused by small reactive molecules and is characterized by a delayed type hypersensitivity known as allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Contact with these molecules via dermal exposure represent a significant concern for chemical manufacturers. Recent legislation in the EU has created the need to develop non-animal alternative methods for many routine safety studies including sensitization. Although most of the alternative research has focused on pure chemicals that possess reasonable solubility properties, it is important for any successful in vitro method to have the ability to test compounds with low aqueous solubility. This is especially true for the medical device industry where device extracts must be prepared in both polar and non-polar vehicles in order to evaluate chemical sensitization. The aim of this research was to demonstrate the functionality and applicability of the human reconstituted skin models (MatTek Epiderm(®) and SkinEthic RHE) as a test system for the evaluation of chemical sensitization and its potential use for medical device testing. In addition, the development of the human 3D skin model should allow the in vitro sensitization assay to be used for finished product testing in the personal care, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. This approach combines solubility, chemical reactivity, cytotoxicity, and activation of the Nrf2/ARE expression pathway to identify and categorize chemical sensitizers. Known chemical sensitizers representing extreme/strong-, moderate-, weak-, and non-sensitizing potency categories were first evaluated in the skin models at six exposure concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 2500 µM for 24 h. The expression of eight Nrf2/ARE, one AhR/XRE and two Nrf1/MRE controlled gene were measured by qRT-PCR. The fold-induction at each exposure concentration was combined with reactivity and cytotoxicity data to determine the sensitization potential. The results demonstrated that

  15. Whitening the single discolored tooth.

    PubMed

    Kwon, So Ran

    2011-04-01

    This article discusses the possible methods available for whitening of a single discolored tooth. Treatment options can vary from restorative procedures such as crowns, veneers, or bonding to more conservative bleaching treatments. The long-term success of the treatment is dictated by proper diagnosis and treatment planning. The cause and severity of the discoloration has to be carefully evaluated when planning for bleaching options. The vitality of the pulp, presence and absence of symptoms, and periapical pathoses usually determine whether an external or internal bleaching approach will be considered. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Healing war wounds and perfuming exile: the use of vegetal, animal, and mineral products for perfumes, cosmetics, and skin healing among Sahrawi refugees of Western Sahara.

    PubMed

    Volpato, Gabriele; Kourková, Pavlína; Zelený, Václav

    2012-12-27

    Over the past decade, there has been growing interest within ethnobiology in the knowledge and practices of migrating people. Within this, scholars have given relatively less attention to displaced people and refugees: to the loss, maintenance, and adaptation of refugees' ethnobiological knowledge, and to its significance for refugees' wellbeing. This study focuses on cosmetics and remedies used to heal skin afflictions that are traditionally used by Sahrawi refugees displaced in South Western Algerian refugee camps. The research methods included a structured survey carried out with 37 refugee households, semi-structured interviews with 77 refugees, 24 retrospective interviews with refugees and other knowledgeable informants, and a voucher specimen collection of the plants and products cited. We recorded the use of 55 plant species, nine animal species, and six mineral products used within the three main use categories discussed in this paper: 1) Remedies for health issues that are typical of the desert environment where the Sahrawi once lived as nomads and now live as refugees (e.g. eye afflictions); 2) Remedies for wounds that are influenced by the Sahrawi's recent history of guerrilla warfare; and 3) Cosmetics and products used for body care, decoration and perfuming (e.g. hair care, teeth cleansing, henna use) and for aromatizing the air inside of tents and which are widely used in everyday life and social practices. We discuss the changes that have occurred in the patterns of use and procurement of these products with exile and sedentarization in refugee camps, and conclude that refugees are not simply passive recipients of national and international aid, but rather struggle to maintain and recover their traditional ethnobiological practices in exile. Finally, we suggest further research into the ethnobiological practices and knowledge of displaced populations.

  17. [Allergic contact dermatitis to cosmetics].

    PubMed

    Laguna, C; de la Cuadra, J; Martín-González, B; Zaragoza, V; Martínez-Casimiro, L; Alegre, V

    2009-01-01

    Contact dermatitis to cosmetics is a common problem in the general population, although its prevalence appears to be underestimated. We reviewed cases of allergic contact dermatitis to cosmetics diagnosed in our dermatology department over a 7-year period with a view to identifying the allergens responsible, the frequency of occurrence of these allergens, and the cosmetic products implicated. Using the database of the skin allergy department, we undertook a search of all cases of allergic contact dermatitis to cosmetics diagnosed in our department from January 2000 through October 2007. In this period, patch tests were carried out on 2,485 patients, of whom 740 were diagnosed with allergic contact dermatitis and the cause was cosmetics in 202 of these patients (170 women and 32 men), who accounted for 27.3 % of all cases. A total of 315 positive results were found for 46 different allergens. Allergens most often responsible for contact dermatitis in a cosmetics user were methylisothiazolinone (19 %), paraphenylenediamine (15.2 %), and fragrance mixtures (7.8 %). Acrylates were the most common allergens in cases of occupational disease. Half of the positive results were obtained with the standard battery of the Spanish Group for Research Into Dermatitis and Skin Allergies (GEIDAC). The cosmetic products most often implicated among cosmetics users were hair dyes (18.5 %), gels/soaps (15.7 %), and moisturizers (12.7 %). Most patients affected were women. Preservatives, paraphenylenediamine, and fragrances were the most frequently detected cosmetic allergens, in line with previous reports in the literature. Finally, in order to detect new cosmetic allergens, cooperation between physicians and cosmetics producers is needed.

  18. Physiological activity of irradiated green tea polyphenol on the human skin.

    PubMed

    An, Bong-Jeun; Kwak, Jae-Hoon; Son, Jun-Ho; Park, Jung-Mi; Lee, Jin-Young; Park, Tae Soon; Kim, So-Yeun; Kim, Yeoung-Sun; Jo, Cheorun; Byun, Myung-Woo

    2005-01-01

    Physiological activity of irradiated green tea polyphenol on the human skin was investigated for further industrial application. The green tea polyphenol was separated and irradiated at 40 kGy by y-ray. For an anti-wrinkle effect, the collagenase inhibition effect was higher in the irradiated sample (65.3%) than that of the non-irradiated control (56.8%) at 200 ppm of the concentration (p < 0.05). Collagen biosynthesis rates using a human fibroblast were 19.4% and 16.3% in the irradiated and the non-irradiated polyphenols, respectively. The tyrosinase inhibition effect, which is related to the skin-whitening effect, showed a 45.2% and 42.9% in the irradiated and the non-irradiated polyphenols, respectively, at a 100 ppm level. A higher than 90% growth inhibition on skin cancer cells (SK-MEL-2 and G361) was demonstrated in both the irradiated and the non-irradiated polyphenols. Thus, the irradiation of green tea polyphenol did not change and even increased its anti-wrinkle, skin-whitening and anticancer effects on the human skin. The results indicated that irradiated green tea polyphenol can be used as a natural ingredient with excellent physiological functions for the human skin through cosmetic or food composition.

  19. Pressurized liquid extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for confirming the photo-induced generation of dioxin-like derivatives and other cosmetic preservative photoproducts on artificial skin.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Rivera, Gerardo; Llompart, Maria; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Lores, Marta

    2016-04-01

    The stability and photochemical transformations of cosmetic preservatives in topical applications exposed to UV-light is a serious but poorly understood problem. In this study, a high throughput extraction and selective method based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was validated and applied to investigate the photochemical transformation of the antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), as well as the antimicrobials triclosan (TCS) and phenyl benzoate (PhBz) in an artificial skin model. Two sets of photodegradation experiments were performed: (i) UV-Irradiation (8W, 254nm) of artificial skin directly spiked with the target preservatives, and (ii) UV-irradiation of artificial skin after the application of a cosmetic cream fortified with the target compounds. After irradiation, PLE was used to isolate the target preservatives and their transformation products. The follow-up of the photodegradation kinetics of the parent preservatives, the identification of the arising by-products, and the monitorization of their kinetic profiles was performed by GC-MS. The photochemical transformation of triclosan into 2,8-dichloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (2,8-DCDD) and other dioxin-like photoproducts has been confirmed in this work. Furthermore, seven BHT photoproducts, and three benzophenones as PhBz by-products, have been also identified. These findings reveal the first evidences of cosmetic ingredients phototransformation into unwanted photoproducts on an artificial skin model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Reactivity of cosmetic UV filters towards skin proteins: model studies with Boc-lysine, Boc-Gly-Phe-Gly-Lys-OH, BSA and gelatin.

    PubMed

    Stiefel, C; Schwack, W

    2014-12-01

    skin sensitization, the results of this study can contribute to a better understanding of the underlying chemical mechanisms of such reactions. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  1. COSMETIC CAMOUFLAGE IN VITILIGO

    PubMed Central

    Sarveswari, K N

    2010-01-01

    Vitiligo is not a life–threatening nor a contagious disease. But the disfigurement of vitiligo can be devastating to its sufferers, especially dark-skinned individuals. Available treatment options are disappointing and sufferers often use various forms of camouflage. Remedial cosmetic cover creams help conceal the blemish of vitiligo at least temporarily. A high concentration of pigment is incorporated into water–free or anhydrous foundations to give a color that matches the patient’s skin, thereby concealing vitiligo patches. The article highlights the content and technique of application of these creams. PMID:21063508

  2. Nail cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Madnani, Nina A; Khan, Kaleem J

    2012-01-01

    The nail as an anatomic structure protects the terminal phalanx of the digit from injury. Historically, it has served as a tool for protection and for survival. As civilizations developed, it attained the additional function of adornment. Nail beautification is a big industry today, with various nail cosmetics available, ranging from nail hardeners, polishes, extensions, artificial/sculpted nails, and nail decorations. Adverse events may occur either during the nail-grooming procedure or as a reaction to the individual components of the nail cosmetics. This holds true for both the client and the nail technician. Typically, any of the procedures involves several steps and a series of products. Separate "nail-bars" have been set up dedicated to serve women and men interested in nail beautification. This article attempts to comprehensively inform and educate the dermatologist on the services offered, the products used, and the possible/potential adverse effects related to nail-grooming and nail cosmetics.

  3. Mercury Levels in Locally Manufactured Mexican Skin-Lightening Creams

    PubMed Central

    Peregrino, Claudia P.; Moreno, Myriam V.; Miranda, Silvia V.; Rubio, Alma D.; Leal, Luz O.

    2011-01-01

    Mercury is considered one of the most toxic elements for plants and animals. Nevertheless, in the Middle East, Asia and Latin America, whitening creams containing mercury are being manufactured and purchased, despite their obvious health risks. Due to the mass distribution of these products, this can be considered a global public health issue. In Mexico, these products are widely available in pharmacies, beauty aid and health stores. They are used for their skin lightening effects. The aim of this work was to analyze the mercury content in some cosmetic whitening creams using the cold vapor technique coupled with atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS). A total of 16 skin-lightening creams from the local market were investigated. No warning information was noted on the packaging. In 10 of the samples, no mercury was detected. The mercury content in six of the samples varied between 878 and 36,000 ppm, despite the fact that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has determined that the limit for mercury in creams should be less than 1 ppm. Skin creams containing mercury are still available and commonly used in Mexico and many developing countries, and their contents are poorly controlled. PMID:21776243

  4. Age estimation using level of eyebrow and eyelash whitening

    PubMed Central

    Kantarcı, Feride Aylin; Kantarcı, Muhammed Nabi; Bilgi, Sefer

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine whether eyebrow and eyelash whitening is an effective parameter in age estimation. Material/Methods We evaluated 1545 patients. Age groups were 1–10, 11–20, 21–30, 31–40, 41–50, 51–60, 61–70, 71–80, and 81–90 years. Level of whitening was categorized as level 0: no whitening, level 1: 1–3 strands, level 2: 3–10 strands, level 3: 10 strands–2/3 whitening, level 4: >3/4 whitening. Results Mean age was 42.39±20.01. While there was no eyebrow whitening in 87% of the subjects, level 4 whitening of eyebrows was observed in 0,8% of the subjects. There was no eyelash whitening in 97,7% of the subjects and no level 4 eyelash whitening was detected in any subject. Men had significantly more level 1, 2, 3, and 4 eyebrow whitening compared with women. There was no gender difference in terms of eyelash whitening level. There was no eyebrow and eyelash whitening in subjects age 1–40 years; whitening began in the 41–50 years age group and increased with age in other groups. Mean age was 39.59±19.63 years in subjects with no eyebrow whitening; 59 years in level 1, 61 years in level 2, 63 years in level 3, and 69 years in level 4 eyebrow whitening. Mean age was 41.85±19.87 in subjects with no eyelash whitening; and 63.57±10.75 in those with whitening. Conclusions Particularly after 41–50 years of age, level of eyebrow and eyelash whitening may be among a useful age estimation parameter. PMID:24448310

  5. Which plant for which skin disease? Part 2: Dermatophytes, chronic venous insufficiency, photoprotection, actinic keratoses, vitiligo, hair loss, cosmetic indications.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Juliane; Wölfle, Ute; Korting, Hans Christian; Schempp, Christoph

    2010-11-01

    This paper continues our review of scientifically evaluated plant extracts in dermatology. After plants effective against dermatophytes, botanicals with anti-edema effects in chronic venous insufficiency are discussed. There is good evidence from randomized clinical studies that plant extracts from grape vine leaves (Vitis vinifera), horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), sea pine (Pinus maritima) and butcher's broom (Ruscus aculeatus) can reduce edema in chronic venous insufficiency. Plant extracts from witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana), green tea (Camellia sinensis), the fern Polypodium leucotomos and others contain antioxidant polyphenolic compounds that may protect the skin from sunburn and photoaging when administered topically or systemically. Extracts from the garden spurge (Euphorbia peplus) and from birch bark (Betula alba) have been shown to be effective in the treatment of actinic keratoses in phase II studies. Some plant extracts have also been investigated in the treatment of vitiligo, various forms of hair loss and pigmentation disorders, and in aesthetic dermatology. © The Authors • Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

  6. Availability of cosmetic treatment using novel cosmetics-based material on patients with craniofacial concavity.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Shigeto; Kanetaka, Hiroyasu; Sagehashi, Yoshinori; Sasaki, Keiichi; Sato, Naoko

    2018-03-09

    Patients treated with maxillofacial prosthetics often experience emotional problems because of the remaining facial skin concavity such as a surgical scar. In such cases, cosmetic treatment can potentially correct their skin tone imperfections and deformities. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical availability of novel cosmetics-based material for craniofacial small concavity by initiating a cosmetic treatment in a preliminary case. Eighteen patients with aesthetic problems such as craniofacial deformities, small defects, and concavities on their faces underwent cosmetic treatment that was performed by makeup practitioners. Data were collected from the patient's charts and a survey questionnaire. A visual analog scale was used to conduct a survey regarding the satisfaction levels of the patients following cosmetic treatment with a novel cosmetics-based material. The cosmetic treatment was performed for a concavity on the left midface of a 67-year-old woman with partial maxillectomy. The novel cosmetics-based material was manufactured from a semi-translucent oil base. The satisfaction level of the patient increased after undergoing the cosmetic treatment. Regarding clinical applications, the novel cosmetics-based material can help reduce their cosmetic disturbance and restore the small deformity. These results suggest that the cosmetic treatment with the novel cosmetics-based material can be used as a subsidiary method for facial prostheses or an independent new method for correcting patients' small craniofacial concavity and for reducing visible deformity. Copyright © 2018 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cosmetics and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... general safety information. On This Page: What the Law Says About Cosmetic Safety How FDA Monitors Cosmetic ... That Are Not Cosmetics More Resources What the Law Says About Cosmetic Safety It’s important to know ...

  8. Present and future technologies of tooth whitening.

    PubMed

    Viscio, D; Gaffar, A; Fakhry-Smith, S; Xu, T

    2000-01-01

    Dental stains can be broadly classified as intrinsic or extrinsic. Intrinsic stains are a result of defects in tooth development, fluorosis, or acquired through the use of tetracycline. Extrinsic stains are localized mainly in the pellicle and are generated by the reaction between sugars and amino acids or acquired from the retention of exogenous chromophores in the pellicle. Three clinical methods are currently used for measuring stain removal and tooth whitening in the development of new whitening technologies: Lobene Stain Index, Shade Guide Color Change, and Minolta ChromaMeter. Professional tooth whitening products rely on proven technologies--35% hydrogen peroxide for in-office power bleaching or 10% to 15% carbamide peroxide for at-home bleaching--to reduce intrinsic stain and change the inherent tooth color. Over-the-counter tooth whitening products use a combination of surfactants, abrasives, anticalculus agents, and low levels of hydrogen peroxide to reduce extrinsic stain and help maintain tooth whiteness after professional treatment. Future technologies for whitening teeth could involve the use of activating agents to enhance the performance of hydrogen peroxide and natural enzymes.

  9. High-performance liquid chromatography-diode array and electrospray-mass spectrometry analysis of non-allowed substances in cosmetic products for preventing hair loss and other hormone-dependent skin diseases.

    PubMed

    De Orsi, Daniela; Pellegrini, Manuela; Pichini, Simona; Mattioli, Donatella; Marchei, Emilia; Gagliardi, Luigi

    2008-11-04

    A simple high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with ultraviolet diode array (UV-DAD) and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) detection has been developed for the determination of minoxidil, progesterone, estrone, spironolactone, canrenone, hydrocortisone and triamcinolone acetonide in cosmetic products. The presence of these substances in commercial cosmetic samples is prohibited. The compounds were separated by reversed phase chromatography with water (0.1% trifluoroacetic acid) and acetonitrile gradient elution and detected by UV-DAD at 230, 254 and 280 nm and by ESI-MS positive ionisation mode. Benzoic acid was used as internal standard. Linearity was studied with UV-DAD detection from 1.50 to 1,000 microg/ml or mug/g range, depending on the different compounds and type of cosmetic preparation and with ESI-MS in the 50-1,000 ng/ml or ng/g range. Good determination coefficients (r(2)>or=0.99) were found in both UV and ESI-MS. At three concentrations spanning the linear dynamic ranges of both UV-DAD and ESI-MS assay, mean recoveries were always higher than 90% for the different analytes. This method was successfully applied to the analysis of substances under investigations illegally added in cosmetic cream and lotions, sold on internet web sites to prevent hair loss and other hormone-dependent skin diseases, like acne and hirsutism.

  10. Marine Microbial-Derived Molecules and Their Potential Use in Cosmeceutical and Cosmetic Products

    PubMed Central

    Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Barone, Giulio; Marcellini, Francesca; Dell’Anno, Antonio; Danovaro, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    The oceans encompass a wide range of habitats and environmental conditions, which host a huge microbial biodiversity. The unique characteristics of several marine systems have driven a variety of biological adaptations, leading to the production of a large spectrum of bioactive molecules. Fungi, fungi-like protists (such as thraustochytrids) and bacteria are among the marine organisms with the highest potential of producing bioactive compounds, which can be exploited for several commercial purposes, including cosmetic and cosmeceutical ones. Mycosporines and mycosporine-like amino acids, carotenoids, exopolysaccharides, fatty acids, chitosan and other compounds from these microorganisms might represent a sustainable, low-cost and fast-production alternative to other natural molecules used in photo-protective, anti-aging and skin-whitening products for face, body and hair care. Here, we review the existing knowledge of these compounds produced by marine microorganisms, highlighting the marine habitats where such compounds are preferentially produced and their potential application in cosmetic and cosmeceutical fields. PMID:28417932

  11. Cosmetic Regulations: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Suhag, Jyoti; Dureja, Harish

    2015-01-01

    The regulatory framework, compliance requirement, efficacy, safety, and marketing of cosmetic products are considered the most important factors for growth of the cosmetic industry. There are different regulatory bodies across the globe that have their own insights for regulation; moreover, governments such as the United States, European Union, and Japan follow a stringent regulatory framework, whereas cosmetics are not so much strictly regulated in countries such as India, Brazil, and China. The alignment of a regulatory framework will play a significant role in the removal of barriers to trade, growth of market at an international level, innovation in the development and presentation of new products, and most importantly safety and efficacy of the marketed products. The present contribution gives insight into the important cosmetic regulations in areas of premarket approval, ingredient control, and labeling and warnings, with a special focus on the cosmetic regulatory environments in the United States, European Union, Japan, and India. Most importantly, the authors highlight the dark side of cosmetics associated with allergic reactions and even skin cancer. The importance of cosmetic regulations has been highlighted by dint of which the society can be healthier, accomplished by more stringent and harmonized regulations.

  12. Metals in cosmetics: implications for human health.

    PubMed

    Borowska, Sylwia; Brzóska, Malgorzata M

    2015-06-01

    Cosmetics, preparations repeatedly applied directly to the human skin, mucous membranes, hair and nails, should be safe for health, however, recently there has been increasing concern about their safety. Unfortunately, using these products in some cases is related to the occurrence of unfavourable effects resulting from intentional or the accidental presence of chemical substances, including toxic metals. Heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cadmium, arsenic and nickel, as well as aluminium, classified as a light metal, are detected in various types of cosmetics (colour cosmetics, face and body care products, hair cosmetics, herbal cosmetics, etc.). In addition, necessary, but harmful when they occur in excessive amounts, elements such as copper, iron, chromium and cobalt are also present in cosmetic products. Metals occurring in cosmetics may undergo retention and act directly in the skin or be absorbed through the skin into the blood, accumulate in the body and exert toxic effects in various organs. Some cases of topical (mainly allergic contact dermatitis) and systemic effects owing to exposure to metals present in cosmetics have been reported. Literature data show that in commercially available cosmetics toxic metals may be present in amounts creating a danger to human health. Thus, the present review article focused on the problems related to the presence of heavy metals and aluminium in cosmetics, including their sources, concentrations and law regulations as well as danger for the health of these products users. Owing to the growing usage of cosmetics it is necessary to pay special attention to these problems. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Cosmetic preservative labelling on the Thai market.

    PubMed

    Bunyavaree, Monthathip; Kasemsarn, Pranee; Boonchai, Waranya

    2016-04-01

    Preservatives are added to cosmetics and other consumer products to prevent microbial growth and product degradation. Many cosmetic preservatives are skin sensitizers and frequent causes of contact dermatitis. The use of preservatives may vary by country and/or region, according to legislation, and may be reflected in differences in the prevalence rates of preservative allergy worldwide. To examine the type and frequency of preservative use in cosmetics sold in Thai markets in metropolitan Bangkok, Thailand. Preservatives contained in 1000 different cosmetics sold in Thai markets were documented and analysed, based on the labelling of ingredients. Most of the cosmetic and skincare products sold in Thai markets were international brands, with only a small proportion of cosmetic products being produced in Thailand. International brand cosmetics were more likely to contain non-formaldehyde-releasing preservatives than domestically produced brands. Isothiazolinone-based preservatives, which are responsible for the current increase in the prevalence of contact allergy, were found at a significant frequency in domestically produced, leave-on cosmetic products. Preservatives in cosmetics were significantly different according to source of production and type of cosmetics. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Healing war wounds and perfuming exile: the use of vegetal, animal, and mineral products for perfumes, cosmetics, and skin healing among Sahrawi refugees of Western Sahara

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the past decade, there has been growing interest within ethnobiology in the knowledge and practices of migrating people. Within this, scholars have given relatively less attention to displaced people and refugees: to the loss, maintenance, and adaptation of refugees’ ethnobiological knowledge, and to its significance for refugees’ wellbeing. This study focuses on cosmetics and remedies used to heal skin afflictions that are traditionally used by Sahrawi refugees displaced in South Western Algerian refugee camps. Methods The research methods included a structured survey carried out with 37 refugee households, semi-structured interviews with 77 refugees, 24 retrospective interviews with refugees and other knowledgeable informants, and a voucher specimen collection of the plants and products cited. Results We recorded the use of 55 plant species, nine animal species, and six mineral products used within the three main use categories discussed in this paper: 1) Remedies for health issues that are typical of the desert environment where the Sahrawi once lived as nomads and now live as refugees (e.g. eye afflictions); 2) Remedies for wounds that are influenced by the Sahrawi’s recent history of guerrilla warfare; and 3) Cosmetics and products used for body care, decoration and perfuming (e.g. hair care, teeth cleansing, henna use) and for aromatizing the air inside of tents and which are widely used in everyday life and social practices. Conclusions We discuss the changes that have occurred in the patterns of use and procurement of these products with exile and sedentarization in refugee camps, and conclude that refugees are not simply passive recipients of national and international aid, but rather struggle to maintain and recover their traditional ethnobiological practices in exile. Finally, we suggest further research into the ethnobiological practices and knowledge of displaced populations. Resumen Sanando las heridas de guerra y perfumando el

  15. The current status of vital tooth whitening techniques.

    PubMed

    Blankenau, R; Goldstein, R E; Haywood, V B

    1999-08-01

    Tooth whitening of vital teeth continues to have a major impact on the practice of dentistry. The growing public interest in having whiter, brighter teeth is clearly evident in the advertisements from toothpaste manufacturers on "whitening" formulations of their products and by the number of individuals seeking whitening procedures from their dentists. In addition, new over-the-counter whitening products continue to emerge in a marketplace that cannot seem to get teeth white enough, bright enough, fast enough. What new products and procedures have evolved over the past decade to whiten teeth? Are they better, safer, faster, and more effective now? Are dentists meeting public demand for whiter teeth and is this quest having a positive or negative impact on the practice of dentistry or the patient's dental health? I posed these questions to a group of experts on whitening procedures to get their opinions and recommendations.

  16. a Test to Prove Cloud Whitening THEORY!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buttram, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Climate science researchers believe our planet can possibly tolerate twice the present carbon dioxide levels with no upwards temperature change, IF we could increase the amount of energy reflected back out into space by about 2.0%. (c)Cloudtec basically alters a blend of seawater and applies heat derived from magma to it at a temperature exceeding 2,000 degrees F. The interaction of seawater and magma displaces the oxygen, causing the volume of water to vaporize and expand over 4,000 times - transforming billions of tons of seawater into thousands of cubic miles of white, maritime, stratocumulus clouds to reflect the incident Sun's rays back out into space. A 6 month test to prove Cloud Whitening Theory will cost 6 million dollars. (No profit added.) This study will enable everyone on the planet with a computer the transparency to use satellite imagery and check out for themselves - if and when Cloud Whitening is occurring. If Cloud Whitening Theory is validated, (c)Cloudtec's innovation can strategically create the clouds we need to reflect the Sun's rays back out into space and help neutralize the projected 3.6 degrees F rise in temperature. Based on reasonable calculations of anthropogenic global warming: this one move alone would be comparable to slashing global carbon dioxide emissions by over 60% over the next 40 years.

  17. Esthetic and cosmetic dermatology.

    PubMed

    Wollina, Uwe; Goldman, Alberto; Berger, Uwe; Abdel-Naser, Mohammed Badawy

    2008-01-01

    The field of esthetic and cosmetic dermatology has gained remarkable interest all over the world. The major advantage of recent years is the high scientific levels of the most significant new developments in techniques and pharmacotherapy and other nonsurgical approaches. The present paper reviews selected fields of interest under this view. Sexual hormones are involved in the aging process of men and women. Skin function, in particular the epidermal barrier, is affected by a loss of endocrine activity. Hormone replacement therapy has only recently been introduced in treatment of aging males. This is an area of gender-medicine in dermatology with a strong well-aging attempt. Botulinum toxin therapy for hyperfunctional lines has become not only well-established but evidence-based medicine on its highest level. Recent advantages were gained in objective evaluation and monitoring the effect. Digital imaging techniques with various facets have been introduced to assess the achievements of treatment in the most objective way. This may become an example for other techniques as peeling, laser therapy, or radiofrequency in esthetic and cosmetic dermatology. Botulinum toxin has become a valuable tool for brow lifts. Details of the technique are discussed. Cellulite is a strongly female gender-related condition. During the past decades numerous treatments had been recommended but only recently a more critical scientific approach led to improvements in therapy of this common and disfiguring condition. Three major approaches are developed: (a) skin loosing with techniques such as subcision, (b) skin tightening with radiofrequency and other approaches, and (c) improving circulation in blood and lymphatic microvasculature using both physical treatments and pharmacotherapy. The last two chapters are devoted to body sculpturing by lipotransfer and lipolysis. Lipotransfer for facial or body sculpturing has a history of about 100 years. Nevertheless, recently the role of adult stem

  18. Hair cosmetics.

    PubMed

    O'Donoghue, M N

    1987-07-01

    Porosity, elasticity, and texture influence the hair's ability to be changed. The types of color--temporary, gradual, natural, semipermanent, and permanent--depend upon the size of the "coloring" molecule to determine whether they penetrate the cortex (permanent) or precipitate on the cuticle. Different types of hair--thick or coarse, fine or thin--have varying affinity for different products and coloring/waving methods. Damaged hair is treated differently from hair with healthy, less porous shafts. Because so many people have color-treated hair today, dermatologists should be aware of all the latest changes and improvements, in order to assist patients with damaged or congenitally deformed hair. Acid-based permanents are becoming the most commonly used. Daily care with shampooing and conditioning has attained its most sophisticated level with the use of anionic and cationic surfactants in all hair-care products. It is also important for the dermatologist to be aware of what help is available for his or her patients. Cosmetic companies are eager to help any patient with severe problems with texture, dullness, over-fine or congenitally defective hair. The physician should send the patient with a severe problem directly to the nearest company headquarters or major city office to have a hair analysis, and receive suggestions from the experts of that company. For patients with moderate to mild problems, the dermatologist should be able to recommend three or four good salons in the local area with which he or she is familiar. Our main goal as physicians is to take care of the entire patient and to enable him or her to have a good self-image.

  19. [Cosmetic eyelid surgery].

    PubMed

    Ruban, J-M; Barbier, J; Malet, T; Baggio, E

    2014-01-01

    Cosmetic eyelid surgery is becoming increasingly popular. It can rejuvenate the patient's appearance with relatively minor side effects. Its risk/benefit ratio is one of the best in facial cosmetic surgery. However, the patient does not always accurately assess the aesthetic appearance of his or her eyelids. This underscores the importance of clinical examination in order to determine the patient's wishes, and then make an accurate diagnosis and potential surgical plan. We currently oppose, in general, surgical techniques involving tissue removal (skin-muscle and/or fat) in favor of those involving tissue repositioning and grafting (autologous fat pearl transposition, obtained by liposuction, and lipostructure). Furthermore, the place of adjuvant therapies to blepharoplasty is steadily increasing. They mainly include surface treatments (peels and lasers), dermal fillers and anti-wrinkle botulinum toxin injections. They are also increasingly used in isolation in novel ways. In all cases, a perfect knowledge of anatomy and relevant skills and experience remain necessary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    González-Muñoz, P; Conde-Salazar, L; Vañó-Galván, S

    2014-11-01

    Contact dermatitis due to cosmetic products is a common dermatologic complaint that considerably affects the patient's quality of life. Diagnosis, treatment, and preventive strategies represent a substantial cost. This condition accounts for 2% to 4% of all visits to the dermatologist, and approximately 60% of cases are allergic in origin. Most cases are caused by skin hygiene and moisturizing products, followed by cosmetic hair and nail products. Fragrances are the most common cause of allergy to cosmetics, followed by preservatives and hair dyes; however, all components, including natural ingredients, should be considered potential sensitizers. We provide relevant information on the most frequent allergens in cosmetic products, namely, fragrances, preservatives, antioxidants, excipients, surfactants, humectants, emulsifiers, natural ingredients, hair dyes, sunscreens, and nail cosmetics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  1. Allergy to cosmetics: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Alani, Jennifer I; Davis, Mark Denis P; Yiannias, James A

    2013-01-01

    The term cosmetic has a broad definition and includes personal care products, hair care products, nail care products, and sunscreens. Modern cosmetics are safe for most users, and adverse reactions are very rare because the manufacturers invest heavily in safety, quality control, and product testing before releasing the product to the market. Despite these efforts, adverse reactions occur. Skin care products are major contributors to cosmetic allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), followed by hair care and nail care products. The most common allergens are fragrances and preservatives. The diagnosis of cosmetic allergy is established by reviewing the patient's clinical history and physical examination findings and confirmed with skin patch testing. Patch testing is the standard method for detecting allergens responsible for eliciting ACD. The purpose of this article was to review the prevalence, legislative laws, and role of patch testing in ACD.

  2. The use of QLF to quantify in vitro whitening in a product testing model.

    PubMed

    Pretty, I A; Edgar, W M; Higham, S M

    2001-11-24

    Professional and consumer interest in whitening products continues to increase against a background of both increased oral health awareness and demand for cosmetic procedures. In the current legal climate, few dentists are providing 'in-office' whitening treatments, and thus many patients turn to home-use products. The most common of these are the whitening toothpastes. Researchers are keen to quantify the effectiveness of such products through clinically relevant trials. Previous studies examining whitening products have employed a variety of stained substrates to monitor stain removal. This study aimed to quantify the removal of stain from human enamel using a new device, quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF). The experimental design follows that of a product-testing model. A total of 11 previously extracted molar teeth were coated with transparent nail varnish leaving an exposed window of enamel. The sound, exposed enamel was subject to a staining regime of human saliva, chlorhexidine and tea. Each of the eleven teeth was subjected to serial exposures of a positive control (Bocasan), a negative control (water) and a test product (Yotuel toothpaste). Following each two-minute exposure QLF images of the teeth were taken (a total of 5 applications). Following completion of one test solution, the teeth were cleaned, re-stained and the procedure repeated with the next solution. QLF images were stored on a PC and analysed by a blinded single examiner. The deltaQ value at 5% threshold was reported. ANOVA and paired t-tests were used to analyse the data. The study confirmed the ability of QLF to longitudinally quantify stain reduction from human enamel. The reliability of the technique in relation to positive and negative test controls was proven. The positive control had a significantly (alpha = 0.05) higher stain removal efficacy than water (p = 0.023) and Yotuel (p = 0.046). Yotuel was more effective than water (p = 0.023). The research community, the

  3. Optical filter for highlighting spectral features part I: design and development of the filter for discrimination of human skin with and without an application of cosmetic foundation.

    PubMed

    Nishino, Ken; Nakamura, Mutsuko; Matsumoto, Masayuki; Tanno, Osamu; Nakauchi, Shigeki

    2011-03-28

    Light reflected from an object's surface contains much information about its physical and chemical properties. Changes in the physical properties of an object are barely detectable in spectra. Conventional trichromatic systems, on the other hand, cannot detect most spectral features because spectral information is compressively represented as trichromatic signals forming a three-dimensional subspace. We propose a method for designing a filter that optically modulates a camera's spectral sensitivity to find an alternative subspace highlighting an object's spectral features more effectively than the original trichromatic space. We designed and developed a filter that detects cosmetic foundations on human face. Results confirmed that the filter can visualize and nondestructively inspect the foundation distribution.

  4. Transglycosylation of gallic acid by using Leuconostoc glucansucrase and its characterization as a functional cosmetic agent.

    PubMed

    Nam, Seung-Hee; Park, Jeongjin; Jun, Woojin; Kim, Doman; Ko, Jin-A; Abd El-Aty, A M; Choi, Jin Young; Kim, Do-Ik; Yang, Kwang-Yeol

    2017-12-22

    Gallic acid glycoside was enzymatically synthesized by using dextransucrase and sucrose from gallic acid. After purification by butanol partitioning and preparative HPLC, gallic acid glucoside was detected at m/z 355 (C 13 , H 16 , O 10 , Na) + by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The yield of gallic acid glucoside was found to be 35.7% (114 mM) by response surface methodology using a reaction mixture of 319 mM gallic acid, 355 mM sucrose, and 930 mU/mL dextransucrase. The gallic acid glucoside obtained showed 31% higher anti-lipid peroxidation and stronger inhibition (Ki = 1.23 mM) against tyrosinase than that shown by gallic acid (Ki = 1.98 mM). In UVB-irradiated human fibroblast cells, gallic acid glucoside lowered matrix metalloproteinase-1 levels and increased the collagen content, which was indicative of a stronger anti-aging effect than that of gallic acid or arbutin. These results indicated that gallic acid glucoside is likely a superior cosmetic ingredient with skin-whitening and anti-aging functions.

  5. Efficacy of do-it-yourself whitening as compared to conventional tooth whitening modalities: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Kwon, S R; Meharry, M; Oyoyo, U; Li, Y

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of do-it-yourself (DIY) whitening as compared to conventional tooth whitening modalities using different shade assessment tools. Extracted human molars (120) were randomly distributed to six groups (n=20). Whitening was performed according to manufacturer's directions for over-the-counter, dentist-dispensed for home use, and in-office whitening. DIY whitening consisted of a strawberry and baking soda mix. Additionally, negative and positive controls were used. Two evaluators used the Vita Classical (VC) and Vita Bleachedguide 3D-Master with interpolated numbers (BGi) for visual assessment at baseline and one-week, one-month, and three-month postwhitening. Instrumental measurements were performed with a spectrophotometer. Kruskal-Wallis procedure was used to assess color changes among groups and intraclass correlation (ICC) to evaluate agreement between evaluators. DIY exhibited lower color change (ΔSGUVC, ΔSGUBGi, ΔE*, where SGU = shade guide unit and E = overall color change) compared to other whitening groups at all time points (p<0.05). ICC demonstrated very good agreement between evaluators with VC and BGi at each time point. Both shade guides were related with each other and strongly related to instrumental measurements (p<0.05). DIY whitening was the least effective whitening modality. Both VC and BGi are related with each other and have good correlation with instrumental measurements.

  6. Cosmetic Dentistry - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Cosmetic Dentistry URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... W XYZ List of All Topics All Cosmetic Dentistry - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  7. [Sanitary control of cosmetics].

    PubMed

    Bonini, Maira; Pellino, Pasquale; Pilla, Mariateresa

    2005-01-01

    In the Lombardia region (Italy), the function of sanitary control of cosmetic products has been delegated to the local health units (ASL). The Province of Milano 1 Local Health Unit therefore carried out a cosmetics surveillance programme involving 92 cosmetic firms located in its territory. Manufacturing and storage conditions of cosmetics produced by the local firms were evaluated and overall, good sanitary conditions were found.

  8. Safety Assessment of Achillea millefolium as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2016-11-01

    Cosmetic ingredients derived from Achillea millefolium function in cosmetics as skin-conditioning agents-miscellaneous, skin-conditioning agents-humectants, and fragrance ingredients. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed relevant animal and human data to determine their safety in cosmetics and raised concerns about cosmetics containing linalool, thujone, quercetin, hydroquinone, or α-peroxyachifolid. Because final product formulations may contain multiple botanicals, each containing similar constituents of concern, formulators are advised to be aware of these components and to avoid reaching levels that may be hazardous to consumers. Additionally, industry was advised to use good manufacturing practices to limit impurities. The Panel concluded that achillea millefolium extract, achillea millefolium flower extract, and achillea millefolium flower/leaf/stem extract are safe in the present practices of use and concentration in cosmetics when formulated to be nonsensitizing. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Biotechnological production of arbutins (α- and β-arbutins), skin-lightening agents, and their derivatives.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dong-Ho; Jung, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Jae-Eun; Jeon, Eun-Jung; Kim, Wooki; Park, Cheon-Seok

    2012-09-01

    Arbutins (α- and β-arbutins) are glycosylated hydroquinones that are commercially used in the cosmetic industry. These compounds have an inhibitory function against tyrosinase, a critical enzyme for generating pigments, which leads to the prevention of melanin formation, resulting in a whitening effect on the skin. Although β-arbutin is found in various plants including bearberry, wheat, and pear, α-arbutin and other arbutin derivatives are synthesized by chemical and enzymatic methods. This article presents a mini-review of recent studies on the production of α-arbutin and other α- and β-arbutin derivatives via enzymatic bioconversion methods. In addition, the structures of α- and β-arbutin derivatives and their biological activities are discussed. The catalytic characteristics of various enzymes used in the biosynthesis of arbutin derivatives are also reviewed.

  10. Amyloidosis presented with whitening and loss of hair which improved after dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) treatment.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, S D; Yamamoto, R; Saito, K; Iwamoto, Y; Kuzuya, T; Ohba, S; Kobori, S; Saito, K

    1987-08-01

    A 67-year-old male patient presented with rapid progression of whitening and loss of hair in past 2 months was consulted due to the suspicion of hypothyroidism. He had been told to have cardiomegaly for 3 years. Thyroid function was within normal limit. Prostate biopsy was performed because of prostatic hypertrophy and mild elevation of serum acid phosphatase. Amyloid accumulation was observed in the biopsy specimen. Subsequent skin biopsies revealed the same result. The scalp hair and beard grew and turned to black gradually several months after dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) treatment. These findings suggest that some of the manifestation of amyloidosis may respond to DMSO treatment.

  11. Effects of a Novel Whitening Formulation on Dental Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Takesh, Thair; Sargsyan, Anik; Anbarani, Afarin; Ho, Jessica; Wilder-Smith, Petra

    2017-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to evaluate the enamel whitening effects of 2 new test formulations, one of which was a rinse, and the other a whitening strip. Materials and Methods Forty enamel chips were prepared from 20 healthy extracted teeth (2 from each tooth). After pre-staining and colorimetry to measure L* and b* values, 20 matched samples were immersed in either test or control rinses, and then colorimetry was performed again after 1 hr, 2 hr, 3 hr, 6 hr, 12 hr, 24 hr and 48 hrs (Each hour equates to one month of clinical use at the recommended dosage of 1 minute exposure 2 times a day). The remaining 20 matched samples were exposed to the test or control whitening strips and colorimetry was performed every 30 minutes for a total of 10 treatments. Results Overall, the whitening performance of test and control strips was similar. The test and control rinses had a similar lightening effect over the first 3 hours (equivalent to 3 months of clinical use). Subsequently, the control rinse continued to lighten samples, whereas the test rinse had little further effect. Conclusion Test and control-whitening strips showed similar effects; over time whitening strips showed a greater lightening effect than whitening rinses. PMID:28706755

  12. Effects of a Novel Whitening Formulation on Dental Enamel.

    PubMed

    Takesh, Thair; Sargsyan, Anik; Anbarani, Afarin; Ho, Jessica; Wilder-Smith, Petra

    2017-04-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the enamel whitening effects of 2 new test formulations, one of which was a rinse, and the other a whitening strip. Forty enamel chips were prepared from 20 healthy extracted teeth (2 from each tooth). After pre-staining and colorimetry to measure L* and b* values, 20 matched samples were immersed in either test or control rinses, and then colorimetry was performed again after 1 hr, 2 hr, 3 hr, 6 hr, 12 hr, 24 hr and 48 hrs (Each hour equates to one month of clinical use at the recommended dosage of 1 minute exposure 2 times a day). The remaining 20 matched samples were exposed to the test or control whitening strips and colorimetry was performed every 30 minutes for a total of 10 treatments. Overall, the whitening performance of test and control strips was similar. The test and control rinses had a similar lightening effect over the first 3 hours (equivalent to 3 months of clinical use). Subsequently, the control rinse continued to lighten samples, whereas the test rinse had little further effect. Test and control-whitening strips showed similar effects; over time whitening strips showed a greater lightening effect than whitening rinses.

  13. Update on nail cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, Julie; Rich, Phoebe

    2012-01-01

    Nail cosmetics are used by millions of people worldwide who desire smooth, lustrous nails. The nail cosmetic industry continues to expand to meet increasing consumer demand. In 2011 alone, consumers spent $6.6 billion on nail salon services. Although nail cosmetics are relatively safe, poor application techniques can promote disease, deformity, and allergic and irritant contact dermatitis. The foundation for managing nail cosmetic problems is prevention through education. Familiarity with the procedures and materials used in the nail cosmetic industry is necessary in order to recommend safe nail care strategies. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Efficacy of mouth rinses and toothpaste on tooth whitening.

    PubMed

    Torres, C R G; Perote, L C C C; Gutierrez, N C; Pucci, C R; Borges, A B

    2013-01-01

    People increasingly desire tooth whitening. Considering the wide range of whitening products on the market, this study evaluated the efficacy of whitening toothpastes and mouth rinses compared with the 10% carbamide peroxide (CP) whitening gel. We obtained 120 cylindrical specimens from bovine teeth, which were darkened for 24 hours in a coffee solution. The color measurement was performed by a spectrophotometer using the CIE L*a*b* system, and specimens were divided into six groups according to the use of the following agents: group 1, conventional fluoridated toothpaste; group 2, Close Up White Now; group 3, Listerine Whitening; group 4, Colgate Plax Whitening; group 5, experimental mouth rinse with Plasdone; and group 6, 10% CP Whiteness Perfect. After the simulation of 12 weeks of treatment for groups 1 to 5 and 14 days of treatment for group 6, the specimens were subjected to a new color reading. Data were subjected to one-way analysis of variance (α=0.05), which showed significant differences among groups after 12 weeks for ΔE (p=0.001). Results of the Tukey test revealed that groups 3, 4, and 6 presented significantly higher color alteration than groups 1, 2, and 5. The whitening toothpaste Close Up White Now and the experimental mouth rinse with Plasdone showed similar color alteration as conventional toothpaste after a 12-week treatment simulation. These groups presented significantly lower color alteration compared with whitening mouth rinses Listerine and Colgate Plax Whitening, which showed similar results to those observed after 14 days of bleaching with 10% CP treatment.

  15. Biosurfactants in cosmetic formulations: trends and challenges.

    PubMed

    Vecino, X; Cruz, J M; Moldes, A B; Rodrigues, L R

    2017-11-01

    Cosmetic products play an essential role in everyone's life. People everyday use a large variety of cosmetic products such as soap, shampoo, toothpaste, deodorant, skin care, perfume, make-up, among others. The cosmetic industry encompasses several environmental, social and economic impacts that are being addressed through the search for more efficient manufacturing techniques, the reduction of waste and emissions and the promotion of personal hygiene, contributing to an improvement of public health and at the same time providing employment opportunities. The current trend among consumers is the pursuit for natural ingredients in cosmetic products, as many of these products exhibit equal, better or additional benefits in comparison with the chemical-based products. In this sense, biosurfactants are natural compounds with great potential in the formulation of cosmetic products given by their biodegradability and impact in health. Indeed, many of these biosurfactants could exhibit a "prebiotic" character. This review covers the current state-of-the-art of biosurfactant research for cosmetic purposes and further discusses the future challenges for cosmetic applications.

  16. Evaluating the Whitening and Microstructural Effects of a Novel Whitening Strip on Porcelain and Composite Dental Materials

    PubMed Central

    Takesh, Thair; Sargsyan, Anik; Lee, Matthew; Anbarani, Afarin; Ho, Jessica; Wilder-Smith, Petra

    2017-01-01

    Aims The aim of this project was to evaluate the effects of 2 different whitening strips on color, microstructure and roughness of tea stained porcelain and composite surfaces. Methods 54 porcelain and 72 composite chips served as samples for timed application of over-the-counter (OTC) test or control dental whitening strips. Chips were divided randomly into three groups of 18 porcelain and 24 composite chips each. Of these groups, 1 porcelain and 1 composite set served as controls. The remaining 2 groups were randomized to treatment with either Oral Essentials® Whitening Strips or Crest® 3D White Whitestrips™. Sample surface structure was examined by light microscopy, profilometry and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Additionally, a reflectance spectrophotometer was used to assess color changes in the porcelain and composite samples over 24 hours of whitening. Data points were analyzed at each time point using ANOVA. Results In the light microscopy and SEM images, no discrete physical defects were observed in any of the samples at any time points. However, high-resolution SEM images showed an appearance of increased surface roughness in all composite samples. Using profilometry, significantly increased post-whitening roughness was documented in the composite samples exposed to the control bleaching strips. Composite samples underwent a significant and equivalent shift in color following exposure to Crest® 3D White Whitestrips™ and Oral Essentials® Whitening Strips. Conclusions A novel commercial tooth whitening strip demonstrated a comparable beaching effect to a widely used OTC whitening strip. Neither whitening strip caused physical defects in the sample surfaces. However, the control strip caused roughening of the composite samples whereas the test strip did not. PMID:29226023

  17. Insights into an adipocyte whitening program

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Bradford G

    2015-01-01

    White adipose tissue plays a critical role in regulating systemic metabolism and can remodel rapidly in response to changes in nutrient availability. Nevertheless, little is known regarding the metabolic changes occurring in adipocytes during obesity. Our laboratory recently addressed this issue in a commonly used, high-fat-diet mouse model of obesity. We found remarkable changes in adipocyte metabolism that occur prior to infiltration of macrophages in expanding adipose tissue. Results of metabolomic analyses, adipose tissue respirometry, electron microscopy, and expression analyses of key genes and proteins revealed dysregulation of several metabolic pathways, loss of mitochondrial biogenetic capacity, and apparent activation of mitochondrial autophagy which were followed in time by downregulation of numerous mitochondrial proteins important for maintaining oxidative capacity. These findings demonstrate the presence of an adipocyte whitening program that may be critical for regulating adipose tissue remodeling under conditions of chronic nutrient excess. PMID:26167407

  18. [Cosmetic innovations in the Guerlain patents deposited in the XIXth century].

    PubMed

    Bonté, Frédéric; Sirot, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    The XIXth century was the century of the development of hygiene, cosmetics industry, chemistry and modern pharmacy. After the French revolution, a new legislation establishes a law of recognition of the property of the inventors on their inventions. This paper describes the content of patents and certificates deposited in the XIXth century at the INPI, french national institute of the industrial property, by the creators of Guerlain, a luxury brand of perfumes and cosmetics. This paper allows to discover the variety of the inventions which recovers whitening lotion, soaps, ingenious devices and new perfume substances.

  19. Determination of the protection efficacy and homogeneity of the distribution of sunscreens applied onto skin pre-treated with cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Weigmann, Hans-Jürgen; de Sainte Claire, Maude Suisse; Schanzer, Sabine; Patzelt, Alexa; Meinke, Martina; Antoniou, Christina; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Jürgen

    2012-05-01

    The efficacy of sunscreens depends decisively on the homogeneity of its distribution on the skin surface, which is sensitively reflected by two spectroscopic data - the factor of inhomogeneity and the sum transmission - measured after tape stripping. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a skin pre-treatment with body lotion on the layout of the formulations. Six healthy volunteers were pre-treated using the body lotion, Nivea Body (Beiersdorf AG, Hamburg, Germany). The sunscreen was an oil/water (o/w) emulsion, Roc SPF 8 (RoC SA, Paris, France). The tape stripped tesa films were measured with a modified UV/VIS spectrometer Lambda 5 (PerkinElmer, Frankfurt/Main, Germany), the data of which were used to calculate both measurands. The obtained results made clear that the original spectroscopic data must be corrected taking into account the changed amounts of horny layer particles removed with the individual tape strips after pre-treatment. As a consequence of the correction, the factors of inhomogeneity as well as the sum transmissions confirm a more homogeneous distribution of the applied sunscreen. The findings confirm that the applied method is well suited to obtain information on the distribution of topically applied substances, and furthermore that the influence of the pre-treatment of the skin with the body lotion enhances the homogeneity of distribution and thus the sunscreen efficacy. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Phytoconstituents as photoprotective novel cosmetic formulations

    PubMed Central

    Saraf, S.; Kaur, C. D.

    2010-01-01

    Phytoconstituents are gaining popularity as ingredients in cosmetic formulations as they can protect the skin against exogenous and endogenous harmful agents and can help remedy many skin conditions. Exposure of skin to sunlight and other atmospheric conditions causes the production of reactive oxygen species, which can react with DNA, proteins, and fatty acids, causing oxidative damage and impairment of antioxidant system. Such injuries damage regulation pathways of skin and lead to photoaging and skin cancer development. The effects of aging include wrinkles, roughness, appearance of fine lines, lack of elasticity, and de- or hyperpigmentation marks. Herbal extracts act on these areas and produce healing, softening, rejuvenating, and sunscreen effects. We have selected a few photoprotective phytoconstituents, such as curcumin, resveratrol, tea polyphenols, silymarin, quercetin and ascorbic acid, and have discussed the considerations to be undertaken for the development of herbal cosmetic formulations that could reduce the occurrence of skin cancer and delay the process of photoaging. This article is aimed at providing specific and compiled knowledge for the successful preparation of photoprotective herbal cosmetic formulations. PMID:22228936

  1. Lipopeptides in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Kanlayavattanakul, M; Lourith, N

    2010-02-01

    Lipopeptides are biosurfactants extensively used in cosmetics. The consumption of cosmetics containing lipopeptides is increasing as a result of the exceptional surface properties and diverse biological activities of lipopeptides which facilitate a vast number of applications not only in the pharmaceutics industry which includes cosmetics but also in the food industry. Cosmetics containing lipopeptides are available in various dosage forms according to their beneficial surface properties, which include anti-wrinkle and moisturizing activities and cleansing cosmetics. The microbial production of lipopeptides particularly those with biological and surface activities applicable to cosmetics are summarized based on appropriate studies and patents up to the year 2008 to manage the information and sufficiently review the data.

  2. Safety Assessment of Microbial Polysaccharide Gums as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2016-07-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel assessed the safety of 34 microbial polysaccharide gums for use in cosmetics, finding that these ingredients are safe in cosmetic formulations in the present practices of use and concentration. The microbial polysaccharide gums named in this report have a variety of reported functions in cosmetics, including emulsion stabilizer, film former, binder, viscosity-increasing agent, and skin-conditioning agent. The Panel reviewed available animal and clinical data in making its determination of safety. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. A comparative clinical study evaluating stain removal efficacy of a new sensitivity whitening dentifrice compared to commercially available whitening dentifrices.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Nathan; Maggio, Brenda; Sufi, Farzana; Mason, Stephen; Kleber, Carl J

    2009-01-01

    To assess the extrinsic stain removal efficacy of a new sensitivity dentifrice containing sodium tripolyphosphate (STP) to marketed whitening toothpastes after six weeks of product use. This was a single-center, double-blind, stratified, six-week clinical study comparing the reduction in stain area and intensity of Sensodyne Extra Whitening to Crest Maximum Strength Sensitivity Protection Whitening plus Scope and Colgate Tartar Control Plus Whitening Mint dentifrice, as measured by MacPherson's Modification of the Lobene Stain Index (MMLSI) in a forced stain model. Two-hundred and ninety-five subjects completed the study. Tooth stain MMSLI scores showed significant differences between Sensodyne and Crest dentifrices in favor of Sensodyne for all surface sites (p = 0.014), and individually for facial (p = 0.023), lingual (p = 0.027), and interproximal (p = 0.014) surfaces. No significant statistical differences between Sensodyne and Colgate dentifrices were observed for any of the surfaces. Results from this stain removal clinical study demonstrate significant extrinsic stain removal efficacy for all dentifrices relative to baseline. Significant differences between the two marketed sensitivity whitening dentifrices were demonstrated in favor of the new Sensodyne Sensitivity Whitening dentifrice.

  4. Plant stem cells in cosmetics: current trends and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Trehan, Sonia; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena; Beri, Kavita

    2017-01-01

    Plant regeneration at the cellular and tissue level is a unique process. Similar to animals, the stem cells in plants have properties that help stimulate and regenerate plants after injury. The unique properties of plant stem cells have been a recent area of interest and focus both in developing new cosmetics and studying how these extracts/phytohormones will influence animal skin. This special report focuses on the current evidence-based trends in plant stem cell-based cosmetics and sheds light on the challenges that we need to overcome in order to see meaningful changes in human skin using topical cosmetics derived from plant stem cells. PMID:29134115

  5. Drug Delivery Through the Skin: Molecular Simulations of Barrier Lipids to Design more Effective Noninvasive Dermal and Transdermal Delivery Systems for Small Molecules Biologics and Cosmetics

    SciTech Connect

    J Torin Huzil; S Sivaloganathan; M Kohandel

    The delivery of drugs through the skin provides a convenient route of administration that is often preferable to injection because it is noninvasive and can typically be self-administered. These two factors alone result in a significant reduction of medical complications and improvement in patient compliance. Unfortunately, a significant obstacle to dermal and transdermal drug delivery alike is the resilient barrier that the epidermal layers of the skin, primarily the stratum corneum, presents for the diffusion of exogenous chemical agents. Further advancement of transdermal drug delivery requires the development of novel delivery systems that are suitable for modern, macromolecular protein andmore » nucleotide therapeutic agents. Significant effort has already been devoted to obtain a functional understanding of the physical barrier properties imparted by the epidermis, specifically the membrane structures of the stratum corneum. However, structural observations of membrane systems are often hindered by low resolutions, making it difficult to resolve the molecular mechanisms related to interactions between lipids found within the stratum corneum. Several models describing the molecular diffusion of drug molecules through the stratum corneum have now been postulated, where chemical permeation enhancers are thought to disrupt the underlying lipid structure, resulting in enhanced permeability. Recent investigations using biphasic vesicles also suggested a possibility for novel mechanisms involving the formation of complex polymorphic lipid phases. In this review, we discuss the advantages and limitations of permeation-enhancing strategies and how computational simulations, at the atomic scale, coupled with physical observations can provide insight into the mechanisms of diffusion through the stratum corneum.« less

  6. Comparison of two low sensitivity whiteners.

    PubMed

    Callan, Richard S; Browning, William D; Downey, Mary C; Brackett, Martha G

    2008-02-01

    To evaluate two commercially available doctor-supplied, patient-applied, bleaching systems for their ability to whiten the maxillary anterior teeth while at the same time not causing sensitivity. 46 participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups: One group received Rembrandt Xtra-Comfort and the other group Nite White Excel 2Z. Bleaching stents were fabricated and the bleaching systems were used following manufacturers' instructions. Participants recorded tray use and any sensitivity on a daily basis. Participants bleached for 2 weeks followed by 2 weeks of no bleaching. Color was evaluated at the first, second and fourth week following the initial delivery of bleaching trays. Color change was measured using the Vita Classic Shade Guide arranged by value. As a group, participants in the NW2Z group bleached for 302 days with a total of 48 days (16%) of sensitivity recorded. The Rembrandt Xtra Comfort group bleached for 313 total days with 97 days (31%) of sensitivity recorded. The difference in sensitivity between the two products proved to be statistically significant (Chi-square analysis, P < or = 0.0001). The median shade change for both products following 2 weeks of active treatment was six tabs. At the 4-week evaluation, the median shade change was 5.5 and 6.0 tabs respectively for Rembrandt and Nite White. There was no statistical difference between the products in respect to shade change.

  7. Bioadhesive hydrogels for cosmetic applications.

    PubMed

    Parente, M E; Ochoa Andrade, A; Ares, G; Russo, F; Jiménez-Kairuz, Á

    2015-10-01

    The use of bioadhesive hydrogels for skin care presents important advantages such as long residence times on the application site and reduced product administration frequency. The aim of the present work was to develop bioadhesive hydrogels for skin application, using caffeine as a model active ingredient. Eight hydrogels were formulated using binary combinations of a primary polymer (carbomer homopolymer type C (Carbopol(®) 980) or kappa carrageenan potassium salt (Gelcarin(®) GP-812 NF)) and a secondary polymer (carbomer copolymer type B (Pemulen(™) TR-1), xanthan gum or guar gum). Hydrogels were characterized by means of physico-chemical (dynamic rheological measurements, spreadability and adhesion measurements) and sensory methods (projective mapping in combination with a check-all-that-apply (CATA) question). Caffeine hydrogels were formulated using two of the most promising formulations regarding adhesion properties and sensory characteristics. In vitro active ingredient release studies were carried out. Hydrogel formulations showed a prevalently elastic rheological behaviour. Complex viscosity of carbomer homopolymer type C hydrogels was higher than that of the kappa carrageenan hydrogels. Besides, complex viscosity values were dependent on the secondary polymer present in the formulation. Significant differences among hydrogels were found in detachment force, work of adhesion and spreading diameter results. Association of projective mapping with CATA allowed to determine similarities and dissimilarities among samples. Cluster analysis associated the samples in two groups. Two hydrogels were selected to study the release of caffeine. Both hydrogels presented similar release profiles which were well described by the Higuchi model. Caffeine release was exclusively controlled by a diffusive process. Physico-chemical and sensory techniques enabled the identification of bioadhesive hydrogel formulations with positive characteristics for cosmetic applications

  8. Skin beautification with oral non-hydrolized versions of carnosine and carcinine: Effective therapeutic management and cosmetic skincare solutions against oxidative glycation and free-radical production as a causal mechanism of diabetic complications and skin aging.

    PubMed

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Deyev, Anatoliy I; Savel'yeva, Ekaterina L; Lankin, Vadim Z; Yegorov, Yegor E

    2012-10-01

    Advanced glycation Maillard reaction end products (AGEs) are causing the complications of diabetes and skin aging, primarily via adventitious and cross-linking of proteins. Long-lived proteins such as structural collagen are particularly implicated as pathogenic targets of AGE processes. The formation of α-dicarbonyl compounds represents an important step for cross-linking proteins in the glycation or Maillard reaction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of glycation coupled to the glycation free-radical oxidation reactions as markers of protein damage in the aging of skin tissue proteins and diabetes. To elucidate the mechanism for the cross-linking reaction, we studied the reaction between a three-carbon α-dicarbonyl compound, methylglyoxal, and amino acids using EPR spectroscopy, a spectrophotometric kinetic assay of superoxide anion production at the site of glycation and a chemiluminescence technique. The transglycating activity, inhibition of transition metal ions peroxidative catalysts, resistance to hydrolysis of carnosine mimetic peptide-based compounds with carnosinase and the protective effects of carnosine, carcinine and related compounds against the oxidative damage of proteins and lipid membranes were assessed in a number of biochemical and model systems. A 4-month randomized, double-blind, controlled study was undertaken including 42 subjects where the oral supplement of non-hydrolized carnosine (Can-C Plus® formulation) was tested against placebo for 3 months followed by a 1-month supplement-free period for both groups to assess lasting effects. Assessment of the age-related skin parameters and oral treatment efficacy measurements included objective skin surface evaluation with Visioscan® VC 98 and visual assessment of skin appearance parameters. The results together confirm that a direct one-electron transfer between a Schiff base methylglyoxal dialkylimine (or its protonated form) and methylglyoxal is responsible for

  9. [Nanomaterials in cosmetics--present situation and future].

    PubMed

    Masunaga, Takuji

    2014-01-01

    Cosmetics are consumer products intended to contribute to increasing quality of life and designed for long-term daily use. Due to such features of cosmetics, they are required to ensure quality and safety at a high level, as well as to perform well, in response to consumers' demands. Recently, the technology associated with nanomaterials has progressed rapidly and has been applied to various products, including cosmetics. For example, nano-sized titanium dioxide has been formulated in sunscreen products in pursuit of improving its performance. As some researchers and media have expressed concerns about the safety of nanomaterials, a vague feeling of anxiety has been raised in society. In response to this concern, the Japan Cosmetic Industry Association (JCIA) has begun original research related to the safety assurance of nanomaterials formulated in cosmetics, to allow consumers to use cosmetics without such concerns. This paper describes the activities of the JCIA regarding safety research on nanomaterials, including a survey of the actual usage of nanomaterials in cosmetics, analysis of the existence of nanomaterials on the skin, and assessment of skin carcinogenicity of nano-sized titanium dioxide. It also describes the international status of safety assurance and regulation regarding nanomaterials in cosmetics.

  10. Hair Cosmetics: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Gavazzoni Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis

    2015-01-01

    Hair cosmetics are an important tool that helps to increase patient's adhesion to alopecia and scalp treatments. This article reviews the formulations and the mode of action of hair cosmetics: Shampoos, conditioners, hair straightening products, hair dyes and henna; regarding their prescription and safetiness. The dermatologist's knowledge of hair care products, their use, and their possible side effects can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources and help dermatologists to better treat hair and scalp conditions according to the diversity of hair types and ethnicity. PMID:25878443

  11. Cinnamic acid derivatives in cosmetics - current use and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Gunia-Krzyżak, Agnieszka; Słoczyńska, Karolina; Popiół, Justyna; Koczurkiewicz, Paulina; Marona, Henryk; Pękala, Elżbieta

    2018-06-05

    Cinnamic acid derivatives are widely used in cosmetics and possess various functions. This group of compounds includes both naturally occurring as well as synthetic substances. On the basis of the Cosmetic Ingredient Database (CosIng) and available literature, this review summarizes their functions in cosmetics, including their physicochemical and biological properties as well as reported adverse effects. A perfuming function is typical of many derivatives of cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl alcohol, dihydrocinnamyl alcohol, and cinnamic acid itself; these substances are commonly used in cosmetics all over the world. Some of them show allergic and photoallergic potential, resulting in restrictions in maximum concentrations and/or a requirement to indicate the presence of some substances in the list of ingredients when their concentrations exceed certain fixed values in a cosmetic product. Another important function of cinnamic acid derivatives in cosmetics is UV protection. Ester derivatives such as ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (octinoxate), isoamyl p-methoxycinnamte (amiloxiate), octocrylene, and cinoxate are used in cosmetics all over the world as UV filters. However, their maximum concentrations in cosmetic products are restricted due to their adverse effects, which include contact and a photocontact allergies, phototoxic contact dermatitis, contact dermatitis, estrogenic modulation, and generation of reactive oxygen species. Other rarely utilized functions of cinnamic acid derivatives are as an antioxidant, in skin conditioning, hair conditioning, as a tonic, and in antimicrobial activities. Moreover, some currently investigated natural and synthetic derivatives of cinnamic acid have shown skin lightening and anti-aging properties. Some of them may become new cosmetic ingredients in the future. In particular, 4-hydroxycinnamic acid, which is currently indexed as a skin-conditioning cosmetics ingredient, has been widely tested in vitro and in vivo as a new drug candidate

  12. Microbiological purity assessment of cosmetics used by one and several persons and cosmetics after their expiry date

    PubMed

    Skowron, Krzysztof; Jakubicz, Agnieszka; Budzyńska, Anna; Kaczmarek, Agnieszka; Grudlewska, Katarzyna; Reśliński, Adrian; Gospodarek-Komkowska, Eugenia

    Microbiological purity of cosmetics provides safety of users during their use, prevents physicochemical changes of a preparation, infections and diseases of the skin. The aim of this study was to assess the level of microbiological contamination of cosmetics used by one person and by several people and cosmetics after their expiry date in relations to standards for marketed cosmetics, ensuring safety of their use. This study was conducted using 55 samples representing 19 types of cosmetics, divided into three groups: used by one person, used by several people and after the expiry date. In cosmetic samples the general numbers of aerobic mesophilic bacteria were determined with the spread plate method on tryptic-soy agar. The presence of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans were also checked. The number of aerobic mesophylic bacteria in the tested cosmetics ranged from the level below the method detectability to 1.3×107 cfu/g or ml. The presence of Staphylococcus spp. was found in 11 (20.0%) tested cosmetic samples and of P. aeruginosa in one tested preparation. Yeasts C. albicans were not detected, whereas contamination with fungi Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. ranging from 0.5×101 to 1.5×101 cfu/g or ml was recorded in four cosmetics. The level of microbiological contamination of cosmetics used by several people was higher than that of cosmetics used by one person. Cosmetics after the expiry date showed the highest microbiological contamination. The number of users of cosmetic and it expiry date exceeding influenced the level of microbial contamination of preparations.

  13. Automated detection of retinal whitening in malarial retinopathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, V.; Agurto, C.; Barriga, S.; Nemeth, S.; Soliz, P.; MacCormick, I.; Taylor, T.; Lewallen, S.; Harding, S.

    2016-03-01

    Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe neurological complication associated with malarial infection. Malaria affects approximately 200 million people worldwide, and claims 600,000 lives annually, 75% of whom are African children under five years of age. Because most of these mortalities are caused by the high incidence of CM misdiagnosis, there is a need for an accurate diagnostic to confirm the presence of CM. The retinal lesions associated with malarial retinopathy (MR) such as retinal whitening, vessel discoloration, and hemorrhages, are highly specific to CM, and their detection can improve the accuracy of CM diagnosis. This paper will focus on development of an automated method for the detection of retinal whitening which is a unique sign of MR that manifests due to retinal ischemia resulting from CM. We propose to detect the whitening region in retinal color images based on multiple color and textural features. First, we preprocess the image using color and textural features of the CMYK and CIE-XYZ color spaces to minimize camera reflex. Next, we utilize color features of the HSL, CMYK, and CIE-XYZ channels, along with the structural features of difference of Gaussians. A watershed segmentation algorithm is used to assign each image region a probability of being inside the whitening, based on extracted features. The algorithm was applied to a dataset of 54 images (40 with whitening and 14 controls) that resulted in an image-based (binary) classification with an AUC of 0.80. This provides 88% sensitivity at a specificity of 65%. For a clinical application that requires a high specificity setting, the algorithm can be tuned to a specificity of 89% at a sensitivity of 82%. This is the first published method for retinal whitening detection and combining it with the detection methods for vessel discoloration and hemorrhages can further improve the detection accuracy for malarial retinopathy.

  14. Tooth Whitening And Temperature Rise With Two Bleaching Activation Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Abu-ElMagd, D. M.; El-Sayad, I. I.; Abd El-Gawad, L. M.

    2009-09-27

    To measure the tooth whitening and the surface and Intrapulpal temperature increase in vitro on freshly extracted upper human central incisors after chemical, Zoom AP light and diode laser activated bleaching. Thirty caries-free upper human incisors were selected. Teeth were divided into three equal groups according to the methods of activation of the bleaching agent (n = 10). A whitening gel containing hydrogen peroxide was applied to the buccal surface of all teeth. Group I was bleached using chemically activated hydrogen peroxide gel, for three applications of 15 min each. Group II was bleached with high intensity advanced power Zoommore » activation light (Zoom AP), for three applications of 15 min each. Group III was bleached with diode laser activation technique, where the teeth were irradiated with 2 Watt diode laser for three applications of 30 sec each. The whitening degree was assessed using an image analysis system, while temperature rise was recorded using a thermocouple on the external tooth surface and Intrapulpal. The degree of whitening increased significantly in all groups. However, the percentage of whitening was not statistically significantly different between the three groups. In addition, group II showed statistically significant higher mean rise in both surface and pulp temperatures than group I and group III. Chemical bleaching produces the same whitening effect as Zoom AP light and laser, with no surface or pulpal temperature rise. Laser application is faster and produces less surface and pulp temperature increase than Zoom AP light. Diode laser used to activate bleaching gels is not considered dangerous to the vitality of dental pulp using power settings of 2 W.« less

  15. Eye Cosmetic Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the applicator, and use of unapproved color additives. Keep it clean! Eye cosmetics are usually safe ... In the United States, the use of color additives is strictly regulated. A number of color additives ...

  16. Chlorhexidine in cosmetic products - a market survey.

    PubMed

    Opstrup, Morten S; Johansen, Jeanne D; Bossi, Rossana; Lundov, Michael D; Garvey, Lene H

    2015-01-01

    Chlorhexidine may cause type I and type IV allergy. Some chlorhexidine-allergic individuals have been exposed in the healthcare setting as patients or healthcare workers, but for others the source of sensitization is unknown. Chlorhexidine may be used as a preservative or an antimicrobial agent in cosmetic products at a concentration up to 0.3%, as set by the European Cosmetics Directive (now Regulations). To identify cosmetic product types containing chlorhexidine, and to measure the concentration of chlorhexidine in selected products. Between February 2013 and April 2013, we checked for chlorhexidine in cosmetic products in 14 supermarkets, one hairdressing salon and one beauty and retail store in Copenhagen, Denmark by reading the ingredient labels. The chlorhexidine concentration was measured in 10 selected products by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with an ultraviolet (UV) detector. Chlorhexidine was found in 80 of 2251 checked products (3.6%) in the following categories: hair products (57/760), creams (9/324), face washes (4/24), wet wipes (4/63), skin tonics (3/22), make-up removers (2/25), and mouth washes (1/17). Chlorhexidine concentrations were 0.01-0.15%. We found chlorhexidine in various cosmetic product types, predominantly aimed at females, and in hair products. The measured chlorhexidine concentrations were all within the permitted limit. The relevance for allergic sensitization should be further explored. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Safety Assessment of Pentaerythrityl Tetraesters as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-09-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of 16 pentaerythrityl tetraester compounds as used in cosmetics. These ingredients mostly function as hair-conditioning agents, skin-conditioning agents-miscellaneous and binders, skin-conditioning agents-occlusive, viscosity-increasing agents-nonaqueous, and skin-conditioning agents-emollient. The Panel reviewed the available animal and human data related to these ingredients and previous safety assessments of the fatty acid moieties. The Panel concluded that pentaerythrityl tetraisostearate and the other pentaerythrityl tetraester compounds were safe in the practices of use and concentration as given in this safety assessment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Recent progresses in application of fullerenes in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Lens, Marko

    2011-08-01

    Cosmetic industry is a fast growing industry with the continuous development of new active ingredients for skin care products. Fullerene C(60) and its derivates have been subject of intensive research in the last few years. Fullerenes display a wide range of different biological activities. Strong antioxidant capacities and effective quenching radical oxygen species (ROS) made fullerenes suitable active compounds in the formulation of skin care products. Published evidence on biological activities of fullerenes relevant for their application in cosmetics use and examples of published patents are presented. Recent trends in the use of fullerenes in topical formulations and patents are reviewed. Future investigations covering application of fullerenes in skin care are discussed.

  19. [Retinal whitening following vitrectomy for epiretinal macular membrane].

    PubMed

    Uemura, A

    1993-09-01

    To investigate the clinical pictures of retinal whitening following epiretinal membrane dissection. I studied retrospectively the records of 18 eyes which had undergone vitrectomy. Two types of retinal whitening were observed: cotton wool-like spots within the superficial retinal layers and a linear or dendritic pattern within the deep retinal layers. The spots were mainly noted in idiopathic cases and resolved completely in a few weeks, and the pattern was observed in macular pucker cases after retinal detachment surgery and persisted for a long time after vitrectomy.

  20. Allergic contact dermatitis to cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Park, Michelle E; Zippin, Jonathan H

    2014-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis caused by cosmetic products is an increasing concern given the continual creation and introduction of new cosmetics to the public. This article presents an overview of how to evaluate a patient for patch testing, including common areas for cosmetic-induced dermatitis, common cosmetic allergens, and proper management. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Safety Assessment of Talc as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Boyer, Ivan; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of talc for use in cosmetics. The safety of talc has been the subject of much debate through the years, partly because the relationship between talc and asbestos is commonly misunderstood. Industry specifications state that cosmetic-grade talc must contain no detectable fibrous, asbestos minerals. Therefore, the large amount of available animal and clinical data the Panel relied on in assessing the safety of talc only included those studies on talc that did not contain asbestos. The Panel concluded that talc is safe for use in cosmetics in the present practices of use and concentration (some cosmetic products are entirely composed of talc). Talc should not be applied to the skin when the epidermal barrier is missing or significantly disrupted. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Adverse reactions to cosmetics and methods of testing.

    PubMed

    Nigam, P K

    2009-01-01

    Untoward reactions to cosmetics, toiletries, and topical applications are the commonest single reason for hospital referrals with allergic contact dermatitis. In most cases, these are only mild or transient and most reactions being irritant rather than allergic in nature. Various adverse effects may occur in the form of acute toxicity, percutaneous absorption, skin irritation, eye irritation, skin sensitization and photosensitization, subchronic toxicity, mutagenicity/genotoxicity, and phototoxicity/photoirritation. The safety assessment of a cosmetic product clearly depends upon how it is used, since it determines the amount of substance which may be ingested, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin or mucous membranes. Concentration of ingredients used in the different products is also important. Various test procedures include in vivo animal models and in vitro models, such as open or closed patch test, in vivo skin irritation test, skin corrosivity potential tests (rat skin transcutaneous electrical resistance test, Episkin test), eye irritation tests (in vivo eye irritancy test and Draize eye irritancy test), mutagenicity/genotoxicity tests (in vitro bacterial reverse mutation test and in vitro mammalian cell chromosome aberration test), and phototoxicity/photoirritation test (3T3 neutral red uptake phototoxicity test). Finished cosmetic products are usually tested in small populations to confirm the skin and mucous membrane compatibility, and to assess their cosmetic acceptability.

  3. A Simple Recipe for Whitening Old Newspaper Clippings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Henry A.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a method for experimenting with both whitening and deacidifying old newspaper clippings using sodium borohydride bleaching. Clippings are soaked in distilled water then immersed in sodium borohydride for 15-20 minutes. After rinsing with distilled water, the paper is washed with saturated Ca(OH)2 solution. Readers should not begin…

  4. Female genital cosmetic surgery.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Dorothy; Lefebvre, Guylaine; Bouchard, Celine; Shapiro, Jodi; Blake, Jennifer; Allen, Lisa; Cassell, Krista

    2013-12-01

    To provide Canadian gynaecologists with evidence-based direction for female genital cosmetic surgery in response to increasing requests for, and availability of, vaginal and vulvar surgeries that fall well outside the traditional realm of medically-indicated reconstructions. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed or MEDLINE, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library in 2011 and 2012 using appropriate controlled vocabulary and key words (female genital cosmetic surgery). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to May 2012. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table). Recommendations 1. The obstetrician and gynaecologist should play an important role in helping women to understand their anatomy and to respect individual variations. (III-A) 2. For women who present with requests for vaginal cosmetic procedures, a complete medical, sexual, and gynaecologic history should be obtained and the absence of any major sexual or psychological dysfunction should be ascertained. Any possibility of coercion or exploitation should be ruled out. (III-B) 3. Counselling should be a priority for women requesting female genital cosmetic surgery. Topics should include normal variation and physiological changes over the lifespan, as well as the possibility of unintended consequences of cosmetic surgery to the genital area. The lack of evidence regarding outcomes and the lack of data on the

  5. Toxic metals contained in cosmetics: a status report.

    PubMed

    Bocca, Beatrice; Pino, Anna; Alimonti, Alessandro; Forte, Giovanni

    2014-04-01

    The persistence of metals in the environment and their natural occurrence in rocks, soil and water cause them to be present in the manufacture of pigments and other raw materials used in the cosmetic industry. Thus, people can be exposed to metals as trace contaminants in cosmetic products they daily use. Cosmetics may have multiple forms, uses and exposure scenarios, and metals contained in them can cause skin local problems but also systemic effects after their absorption via the skin or ingestion. Even this, cosmetics companies are not obliged to report on this kind of impurities and so consumers have no way of knowing about their own risk. This paper reviewed both the concentration of metals in different types of cosmetics manufactured and sold worldwide and the data on metals' dermal penetration and systemic toxicology. The eight metals of concern for this review were antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb). This was because they are banned as intentional ingredients in cosmetics, have draft limits as potential impurities in cosmetics and are known as toxic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Prohibited substances in cosmetics: prospect of the toxicity of acrylamide].

    PubMed

    Shen, Minxue; Sun, Zhenqiu; Shi, Jingcheng; Hu, Ming; Hu, Jingxuan; Liu, Yanhong

    2012-04-01

    Prohibited substances in cosmetics refer to substances which must not be among the raw material ingredients of cosmetic products. These substances are absorbed mostly through skin, as well as via lung and gastrointestinal tract. Polyacrylamide is ubiquitously used in industry and its decomposition residue acrylamide (ACR) easily finds its way into cosmetic products. ACR can either be oxidized to epoxide glycidamide or conjugated with glutathione, hemoglobin or DNA; ultimately it is excreted in urine. ACR causes neurotoxicity, reproductive toxicity and tumors in rodents. Occupational exposure to ACR causes neurotoxicity in humans; however, epidemiological evidence have not unambiguously answered the question of whether ACR exposure can increase cancer risk for humans.

  7. Are Cosmetics Used in Developing Countries Safe? Use and Dermal Irritation of Body Care Products in Jimma Town, Southwestern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Amasa, Wayessa; Santiago, Dante; Mekonen, Seblework; Ambelu, Argaw

    2012-01-01

    Background. Rabbit skin model was used to test skin irritation of the most commonly used cosmetic products in Jimma town, southwestern Ethiopia. The most commonly used cosmetics were Dove, Glysolid, College, Top Society, Fair and Lovely, Nivea, Lux, Magic fruit world, Solea, Body talk, Kris, Holly, Victoria, and Sweet Heart. Methods. Intact and abraded rabbit skins were tested for erythema and edema under shade and under sun exposure. Draize Primary Irritation Index (PII) was used to calculate skin irritation of each cosmetic. Cosmetic ingredients were analyzed from the labels. Results and Discussion. Only Dove cream caused no skin irritation except for an abraded skin under sun exposure for five consecutive days. It has been identified that application of cosmetics on abraded skin under sunny condition worsens the irritation. Cosmetic labels revealed that most ingredients used in all products were those restricted chemicals due to their adverse health effects. Conclusion. This study has concluded that use of cosmetics under sunshine and also on abraded skin increases skin irritation. Hence, those users who have abraded skin are advised not to apply those cosmetics on continuous basis specifically under sun exposure. PMID:23209460

  8. Incidence of tooth sensitivity after home whitening treatment.

    PubMed

    Jorgensen, Michael G; Carroll, William B

    2002-08-01

    A potential side effect of dentist-dispensed home tooth-whitening systems is tooth sensitivity. The authors conducted a randomized prospective double-blind study to determine the incidence of tooth sensitivity after home whitening treatment. Fifty adult subjects used a gel containing 15 percent carbamide peroxide and 0.11 percent fluoride ion; an additional 50 adult subjects used a placebo gel daily for four weeks. Each subject's plaque index score, gingival recession status, caries status, current dentifrice and smoking history were recorded at baseline. The researchers evaluated sensitivity weekly by interview for four weeks. Fifty-four percent of subjects in both test and control groups reported mild sensitivity; 10 percent of test subjects and 2 percent of control subjects reported moderate sensitivity; 4 percent of test subjects and no control subjects reported severe sensitivity. Sensitivity decreased with time; by the second week, no severe sensitivity was reported, and by the fourth week, no moderate sensitivity was reported. The authors found a statistically significant positive correlation between reported sensitivity and gingival recession. They found no statistically significant correlations between sensitivity and any of the other recorded parameters. Mild tooth sensitivity can be expected in approximately one-half of patients who undergo home whitening treatment using the gel studied. Approximately 10 percent of patients may experience moderate sensitivity, and 4 percent of patients may experience severe sensitivity for one to two weeks. Patients with gingival recession appear more likely to experience tooth sensitivity during home whitening treatment. Patients considering home whitening treatment should be advised that mild tooth sensitivity is a common side effect and that severe tooth sensitivity occasionally occurs. If gingival recession is present, the probability of tooth sensitivity increases, and tooth sensitivity tends to decrease as

  9. Hair cosmetics: dyes.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Tapia, A; Gonzalez-Guerra, E

    2014-11-01

    Hair plays a significant role in body image, and its appearance can be changed relatively easily without resort to surgical procedures. Cosmetics and techniques have therefore been used to change hair appearance since time immemorial. The cosmetics industry has developed efficient products that can be used on healthy hair or act on concomitant diseases of the hair and scalp. Dyes embellish the hair by bleaching or coloring it briefly, for temporary periods of longer duration, or permanently, depending on the composition of a dye (oxidative or nonoxidative) and its degree of penetration of the hair shaft. The dermatologist's knowledge of dyes, their use, and their possible side effects (contact eczema, cancer, increased porosity, brittleness) can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources that also treat hair and scalp conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  10. [Analyses of cosmetic sanitary quality in Hunan Province in 2010].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanhong; Sun, Zhenqiu; Shi, Jingcheng; Shen, Minxue; Hu, Jingxuan; Lei, Shiyue; Hu, Ming

    2012-05-01

    To establish a scientific foundation for cosmetic supervision and administration based on the analysis of the sanitary quality of cosmetics in Hunan Province during 2010. According to Cosmetic Sanitary Standards (set by the Ministry of Health, People's Republic of China), 150 random samples of cosmetics in Hunan were assayed both for microbial items (including total plate count, fungus and yeast, fecal coliform, staphylococcus aureus, pseudomonas aeruginosa) and chemical items (including 17 kinds of prohibited substances and 14 kinds of restricted substances). The total rate of cosmetics failing to meet the standards was 22.0% of the 150 samples; specific rates for failing perfumes, skin care products (eye cream) and deodorant products were, relatively, 70.6%, 60.00%, and 44.4%. Four kinds of prohibited substances, including diethyl phthalate, acrylamide, asbestos and neodymium, as well as 2 kinds of restricted substances, including triclosan and formaldehyde, were found to exceed standards. None of microbial items exceeded standard levels. The sanitary quality control of cosmetics is lax. Administrative departments should not only reinforce their post-production supervision with respect to cosmetics, but also consolidate their control over the process of cosmetic production in order to solve the problem of toxic residues or illegal and intentional adulterations.

  11. Self-preserving cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Varvaresou, A; Papageorgiou, S; Tsirivas, E; Protopapa, E; Kintziou, H; Kefala, V; Demetzos, C

    2009-06-01

    Preservatives are added to products for two reasons: first, to prevent microbial spoilage and therefore to prolong the shelf life of the product; second, to protect the consumer from a potential infection. Although chemical preservatives prevent microbial growth, their safety is questioned by a growing segment of consumers. Therefore, there is a considerable interest in the development of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics. In these formulations traditional/chemical preservatives have been replaced by other cosmetic ingredients with antimicrobial properties that are not legislated as preservatives according to the Annex VI of the Commission Directive 76/768/EEC and the amending directives (2003/15/EC, 2007/17/EC and 2007/22/EC). 'Hurdle Technology', a technology that has been used for the control of product safety in the food industry since 1970s, has also been applied for the production of self-preserving cosmetics. 'Hurdle Technology' is a term used to describe the intelligent combination of different preservation factors or hurdles to deteriorate the growth of microorganisms. Adherence to current good manufacturing practice, appropriate packaging, careful choice of the form of the emulsion, low water activity and low or high pH values are significant variables for the control of microbial growth in cosmetic formulations. This paper describes the application of the basic principles of 'Hurdle Technology' in the production of self-preserving cosmetics. Multifunctional antimicrobial ingredients and plant-derived essential oils and extracts that are used as alternative or natural preservatives and are not listed in Annex VI of the Cosmetic Directive are also reported.

  12. Mercury content in marketed cosmetics: analytical survey in Shijiazhuang, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Mercury is one of the skin-lightening ingredients in cosmetics as mercury ions are thought to inhibit the synthesis of the skin pigment melanin in melanocyte cells. The objective of this study was to evaluate the mercury levels of cosmetics currently marketed in Shijiazhuang, a northern city in China. We collected 146 random cosmetic samples and analyzed for mercury concentrations or levels by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Among the 146 samples, 134 (91.8%) were positive for mercury, and the concentrations of mercury ranged from not detectable to 592 ng/g. Cosmetic samples for children and babies had the highest detection rate (100%), followed by shampoo and hair conditioner (92.3%) and skin-lightening cream (92.0%). All of them were lower than the acceptable limit (1 μg/g) in China. Cosmetics for skin had the highest mean mercury content (45 ng/g), followed by hair products (42.1 ng/g). The concentrations of mercury detected in samples were lower than the current legal limit in China, indicating it may not pose a risk to consumers.

  13. Fragrances in Cosmetics

    MedlinePlus

    ... be used to force a company to tell “trade secrets.” Fragrance and flavor formulas are complex mixtures ... cosmetic components that are most likely to be “trade secrets.” To learn more, see the regulation on ...

  14. Bad Reaction to Cosmetics?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Yourself Health Fraud Bad Reactions to Cosmetics? Tell FDA! Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... 日本語 | فارسی | English FDA Accessibility Careers FDA Basics FOIA No FEAR Act ...

  15. Cosmetic Behavior Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, W. Paul

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the theoretical and practical applications of cosmetic behavior therapy in a private practice. Enhancement of physical appearance will frequently result in an enhancement of self-concept, and the client's attainment of physical attractiveness contributes to the probability of success in current culture. (Author/JAC)

  16. Dielectrophoresis enhances the whitening effect of carbamide peroxide on enamel.

    PubMed

    Ivanoff, Chris S; Hottel, Timothy L; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Riga, Alan T

    2011-10-01

    To compare the enamel whitening effect of a 20-minute dielectrophoresis enhanced electrochemical delivery to a 20-minute diffusion treatment. Forty freshly extracted human teeth without detectable caries or restoration were stored in distilled water at 4 degrees C and used within 1 month of extraction. Two different bleaching gels (Plus White 5 Minute Speed Whitening Gel and 35% Opalescence PF gel) were tested. The study had two parts: Part 1--Quantitative comparison of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, HP) absorption--following application of an over-the-counter 35% HP whitening gel (Plus White 5 Minute Speed Whitening Gel) to 30 (n = 30) extracted human teeth by conventional diffusion or dielectrophoresis. The amount of H2O2 that diffused from the dentin was measured by a colorimetric oxidation-reduction reaction kit. HP concentration was measured by UV-Vis spectroscopy at 550 nm. Part 2--HP diffusion in stained teeth--35% carbamide peroxide whitening gel (35% Opalescence PF gel) was applied to 10 extracted human teeth (n = 10) stained by immersion in a black tea solution for 48 hours. The teeth were randomly assigned to the 20-minute dielectrophoresis or diffusion treatment group; whitening was evaluated by a dental spectrophotometer and macro-photography. Part 1: The analysis found significant differences between both groups with relative percent errors of 3% or less (a single outlier had an RPE of 12%). The average absorbance for the dielectrophoresis group in round 1 was 79% greater than the diffusion group. The average absorbance for the dielectrophoresis group in round 2 was 130% greater than the diffusion group. A single-factor ANOVA found a statistically significant difference between the diffusion and dielectrophoresis groups (P = 0.01). Part 2--The average change in Shade Guide Units (SGU) was 0.6 for the diffusion group, well under the error of measurement of 0.82 SGU. The average change in SGU for the dielectrophoresis group was 9, significantly above the

  17. Allergy to selected cosmetic ingredients

    PubMed Central

    Adamczuk, Piotr; Wróblewska, Paula; Zwoliński, Jacek; Chmielewska-Badora, Jolanta; Krasowska, Ewelina; Galińska, Elżbieta M.; Cholewa, Grażyna; Piątek, Jacek; Koźlik, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    In an era in which cosmetics are commonly used, their often prolonged contact with the human body should determine the safety of their use. Often cosmetics are the cause of many side effects, mainly hypersensitivity reactions. Common groups of cosmetic components responsible for side effects are fragrances, preservatives and dyes. This paper focuses on the most allergenic components. PMID:24353491

  18. Immunofluorescence findings in rapid whitening of scalp hair.

    PubMed

    Guin, J D; Kumar, V; Petersen, B H

    1981-09-01

    Rapid whitening of scalp hair developed during a three-month period along with a diffuse, subtotal alopecia in a patient. Immunofluorescence microscopy of biopsy material showed prominent deposits of IgG and IgM in a granular pattern in the epithelium of the lower portions of hair follicles. Some return of the color and amount of scalp hair occurred within a year, but occasional bouts of hair loss continued to occur. It is theorized that the rapid graying was caused by a selective loss of pigmented hair, which was perhaps caused by an immunologic mechanism. Some of the findings suggest that the cause of this patient's loss of hair color may be different from those of patients who have been previously described as having rapid whitening of scalp hair because of alopecia areata or vitiligo.

  19. Tooth whitening evaluation of blue covarine containing toothpastes.

    PubMed

    Tao, Danying; Smith, Richard N; Zhang, Qiong; Sun, Jianing N; Philpotts, Carole J; Ricketts, Stephen R; Naeeni, Mojgan; Joiner, Andrew

    2017-12-01

    To measure the tooth whitening effects delivered immediately after brushing with silica-based toothpastes containing blue covarine in vitro and in vivo. Salivary pellicle coated human extracted teeth were brushed with either a slurry of a toothpaste containing blue covarine (BC), a formulation containing an increased level of blue covarine (BC+) or a negative control toothpaste containing no blue covarine. The colour of the specimens were measured in vitro using either a Minolta chromameter or a VITA Easyshade spectrophotometer, before and after brushing and changes in CIELAB values and tooth Whiteness Index (WIO) values calculated. In a double-blind cross-over clinical study, subjects brushed with either BC or BC+ toothpaste and tooth colour changes were measured with a digital image analysis system. The in vitro studies demonstrated that toothpastes containing blue covarine gave a significantly (p<0.05) greater change in b* and WIO values than the negative control toothpaste; the BC+ toothpaste gave a significantly greater increase in b* and WIO values than the BC toothpaste, and BC+ gave a significant increase in shade change versus the negative control. Clinical results showed that BC and BC+ gave a significant reduction in b* (p<0.0001) and increase in WIO (p<0.0001) from baseline indicating significant tooth whitening had occurred. The parameter changes were significantly greater when brushing with the BC+ toothpaste than with the BC toothpaste (WIO p=0.006; b* p=0.013). Toothpastes containing blue covarine gave a statistically significant reduction in tooth yellowness and improvement in tooth whiteness immediately after brushing in both in vitro and clinical studies. In addition, the higher concentration blue covarine toothpaste gave statistically significant greater tooth whitening benefits than the lower concentration blue covarine toothpaste. The silica-based toothpastes containing blue covarine evaluated in the current study gave tooth whitening benefits

  20. A Simple Recipe for Whitening Old Newspaper Clippings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Henry A.

    1995-07-01

    Newspaper clippings tend to brown quickly with aging as the result of chromophores that form during the degradation of one or more components of paper. Newsprint that consists of approximately 40% lignin is particularly susceptible to browning due to the relative ease of the oxidation of lignin. For readers who wish to experiment with both whitening and deacidifying old newspaper clippings, a simple recipe requiring few materials is presented.

  1. Use and potential of nanotechnology in cosmetic dermatology.

    PubMed

    Morganti, Pierfrancesco

    2010-02-24

    Biotechnology and nanotechnology are the key technologies of the twenty-first century, having enormous potential for innovation and growth. The academic and industrial goals for these technologies are the development of nanoscale biomolecular substances and analytical instruments for investigating cell biology at the cellular and molecular levels. Developments in nanotechnology will provide opportunities for cosmetic dermatology to develop new biocompatible and biodegradable therapeutics, delivery systems and more active compounds. Cosmetics have the primary function of keeping up a good appearance, changing the appearance, or correcting body odors, while maintaining the skin and its surroundings in good conditions. Thus cosmetic dermatology, recognizing the new realities of skin care products, has to emphasize the functional aspects of cosmetics through an understanding of their efficacy and safety in promoting good health. Nanoscience may help the scientific community to find more innovative and efficacious cosmetics. Understanding the physical model of the cell as a machine is essential to understand how all the cell components work together to accomplish a task. The efficacy and safety of new nanomaterials has to be deeply studied by ex vivo tests and innovative laboratory techniques. New delivery systems and natural nanocompounds, such as chitin nanofibrils for wound healing, are being used in cosmetic dermatology with good results, as are nanostructured TiO(2) and ZnO sunscreens. The challenge is open.

  2. Non-fragrance allergens in specific cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Travassos, Ana Rita; Claes, Lieve; Boey, Lies; Drieghe, Jacques; Goossens, An

    2011-11-01

    Reports about the nature of the ingredients responsible for allergic contact dermatitis caused by specific cosmetic products are scarce. Between January 2000 and December 2010, the specific cosmetic products having caused allergic contact dermatitis, as well as the individual allergenic cosmetic ingredients present in them, were recorded by use of a standardized form. Among 11 different categories of cosmetic product, skin care products, followed by hair care and body-cleansing products, were most often involved. The presence of the allergenic ingredient(s) in a specific cosmetic product was confirmed according to the ingredient label in 959 of 1448 records. Six hundred and twenty-one of 959 concerned non-fragrance components, preservatives being responsible for 58% of them. Reactions to formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers were most often correlated with body-cleansing products, particularly 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol and skin care products. They were followed by the methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone mixture, most frequently found as allergens in hair care and intimate hygiene products, and facial cleansers (in the last category together with diazolidinyl urea). Octocrylene was by far the most frequent (photo)allergen in sun care products. This study provides information on the presence and frequency of allergens in specific causal cosmetic products. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Vascular rarefaction mediates whitening of brown fat in obesity

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Ippei; Aprahamian, Tamar; Kikuchi, Ryosuke; Shimizu, Ayako; Papanicolaou, Kyriakos N.; MacLauchlan, Susan; Maruyama, Sonomi; Walsh, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a highly vascularized organ with abundant mitochondria that produce heat through uncoupled respiration. Obesity is associated with a reduction of BAT function; however, it is unknown how obesity promotes dysfunctional BAT. Here, using a murine model of diet-induced obesity, we determined that obesity causes capillary rarefaction and functional hypoxia in BAT, leading to a BAT “whitening” phenotype that is characterized by mitochondrial dysfunction, lipid droplet accumulation, and decreased expression of Vegfa. Targeted deletion of Vegfa in adipose tissue of nonobese mice resulted in BAT whitening, supporting a role for decreased vascularity in obesity-associated BAT. Conversely, introduction of VEGF-A specifically into BAT of obese mice restored vascularity, ameliorated brown adipocyte dysfunction, and improved insulin sensitivity. The capillary rarefaction in BAT that was brought about by obesity or Vegfa ablation diminished β-adrenergic signaling, increased mitochondrial ROS production, and promoted mitophagy. These data indicate that overnutrition leads to the development of a hypoxic state in BAT, causing it to whiten through mitochondrial dysfunction and loss. Furthermore, these results link obesity-associated BAT whitening to impaired systemic glucose metabolism. PMID:24713652

  4. Fullerene nanoparticle in dermatological and cosmetic applications.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, S Zeinab; Nafisi, Shohreh; Maibach, Howard I

    2017-04-01

    Nanoparticles are equipped with exceptional properties which make them well suitable for diverse and novel applications. Fullerene is one of the nanomaterials that has valuable applications in the field of biomedicine. It possesses exceptional antioxidant capacity which has made it a promising core ingredient in many dermatological and skin care products. However, fullerene has the potentials to display a range of activities resulting in cell death or dysfunction. This review outlines the achievements made so far by reporting studies that have focused on incorporating fullerene in skin care products and cosmetics and assessed their beneficial effects. We have also documented reports that have assessed toxicity of this novel carbon allotrope toward skin cells and discussed its possible dermal reactions. Aside from pointing out the recent developments, areas that can benefit from further researches are identified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. DOMAIN MISMATCH COMPENSATION FOR SPEAKER RECOGNITION USING A LIBRARY OF WHITENERS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-29

    DOMAIN MISMATCH COMPENSATION FOR SPEAKER RECOGNITION USING A LIBRARY OF WHITENERS Elliot Singer and Douglas Reynolds Massachusetts Institute of...development data is assumed to be unavailable. The method is based on a generalization of data whitening used in association with i-vector length...normalization and utilizes a library of whitening transforms trained at system development time using strictly out-of-domain data. The approach is

  6. Norartocarpetin from a folk medicine Artocarpus communis plays a melanogenesis inhibitor without cytotoxicity in B16F10 cell and skin irritation in mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many natural products used in preventive medicine have also been developed as cosmeceutical ingredients in skin care products, such as Scutellaria baicalensis and Gardenia jasminoides. Norartocarpetin is one of the antioxidant and antityrosinase activity compound in Artocarpus communis; however, the cytotoxicity, skin irritation and antimelanogenesis mechanisms of norartocarpetin have not been investigated yet. Methods In the present study, cell viability in vitro and skin irritation in vivo are used to determine the safety of norartocarpetin. The melanogenesis inhibition of norartocarpetin was determined by cellular melanin content and tyrosinase in B16F10 melanoma cell. Moreover, we examined the related-melanogenesis protein by western blot analysis for elucidating the antimelanogenesis mechanism of norartocarpin. Results The result of the present study demonstrated that norartocarpetin not only present non-cytotoxic in B16F10 and human fibroblast cells but also non-skin irritation in mice. Moreover, our result also first found that norartocarpetin downregulated phospho-cAMP response element-binding (phospho-CREB) and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) expression, which in turn decreased both synthesis of tyrosinases (TRP-1 and TRP-2) and cellular melanin content. This process is dependent on norartocarpetin phosphorylation by mitogen-activated protein kinases such as phospho-JNK and phospho-p38, and it results in decreased melanogenesis. Conclusion The present study suggests that norartocarpetin could be used as a whitening agent in medicine and/or cosmetic industry and need further clinical study. PMID:24325567

  7. Kathon CG and cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, S C

    1990-03-01

    Kathon CG was determined in 156 of the most commonly used cosmetic products in Denmark. 42% of the cosmetic products were found to contain Kathon CG. Kathon CG was present in 48% of "rinse off" and 31% of "leave on" cosmetic products. The 3:1 ratio of chloromethyl isothiazolinone (CMI): methyl isothiazolinone (MI) in Kathon CG was found to be disturbed in 41% of Kathon CG preserved cosmetic products. The disturbed CMI/MI ratio was shown in 29% "rinse off" and 73% "leave on" cosmetic products. It is suggested that the chemical reaction of the ketone group of the isothizaolinones with other ingredients in cosmetic products may disturb the CMI/MI ratio of Kathon CG. The results of the study have been discussed in relation to the use of Kathon CG in cosmetic products as well as test material for allergic reaction.

  8. Safety Assessment of Alkyl Ethylhexanoates as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of 16 alkyl ethylhexanoates for use in cosmetics, concluding that these ingredients are safe in cosmetic formulations in the present practices of use and concentrations when formulated to be nonirritating. The alkyl ethylhexanoates primarily function as skin-conditioning agents in cosmetics. The highest concentration of use reported for any of the alkyl ethylhexanoates is 77.3% cetyl ethylhexanoate in rinse-off formulations used near the eye, and the highest leave-on use reported is 52% cetyl ethylhexanoate in lipstick formulations. The Panel reviewed available animal and clinical data related to these ingredients, and the similarities in structure, properties, functions, and uses of ingredients from previous CIR assessments on constituent alcohols that allowed for extrapolation of the available toxicological data to assess the safety of the entire group. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Safety Assessment of Alkyl Esters as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Heldreth, Bart A; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-09-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of 237 alkyl esters for use in cosmetics. The alkyl esters included in this assessment have a variety of reported functions in cosmetics, with skin-conditioning agent being the most common function. The Panel reviewed available animal and clinical data in making its determination of safety on these ingredients, and where there were data gaps, similarity in structure, properties, functions, and uses of these ingredients allowed for extrapolation of the available toxicological data to assess the safety of the entire group. The Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe in cosmetic formulations in the present practices of use and concentration when formulated to be nonirritating. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Moon Technology for Skin Care

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Estee Lauder uses digital image analyzer and software based on NASA lunar research in evaluation of cosmetic products for skincare. Digital image processing brings out subtleties otherwise undetectable, and allows better determination of product's effectiveness. Technique allows Estee Lauder to quantify changes in skin surface form and structure caused by application of cosmetic preparations.

  11. Safety Assessment of Alkyl PEG Sulfosuccinates as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Wilbur; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-09-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of alkyl polyethylene glycol (PEG) sulfosuccinates, which function in cosmetics mostly as surfactants/cleansing agents. Although these ingredients may cause ocular and skin irritation, dermal penetration is unlikely because of the substantial polarity and molecular size of these ingredients. The Panel considered the negative oral carcinogenicity and reproductive and developmental toxicity data on chemically related laureths (PEG lauryl ethers) and negative repeated dose toxicity and skin sensitization data on disodium laureth sulfosuccinate supported the safety of these alkyl PEG sulfosuccinates in cosmetic products, but. The CIR Expert Panel concluded that the alkyl PEG sulfosuccinates are safe in the present practices of use and concentration when formulated to be nonirritating. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Efficacy of whitening oral rinses and dentifrices on color stability of bleached teeth

    PubMed Central

    Karadas, Muhammet

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of whitening toothpastes and mouthrinses on the color stability of teeth bleached with 16% carbamide peroxide (CP) after immersion in coffee solution. Materials and methods: Specimens obtained from bovine incisors were bleached with 16% CP for 14 days. After bleaching, the specimens were stained in coffee solution for 24 h and randomly divided into eight groups according to the following products (n = 10): distilled water (control group, DW), Scope White mouthrinse (SW), Crest 3D White mouthrinse (CWR), Crest 3D White toothpaste (CWT), Crest 3D White toothpaste and Crest 3D White mouthrinse (CWT + CWR), Listerine Whitening toothpaste (LWT), Listerine Whitening mouthrinse (LWR), and Listerine Whitening mouthrinse and Listerine Whitening toothpaste (LWR + LWT). Color measurements were conducted using a spectrophotometer. The data were assessed by analysis of variance for repeated measures and Tukey’s multiple comparison test (p < 0.05). Results: Immersion in coffee solution after bleaching caused perceptible staining on tooth specimens (ΔE > 3.46). The whitening effect of CWR on teeth stained after bleaching was significantly greater than that in the other groups (p < 0.001). Tooth whitening (ΔE) in each group showed no significant difference from 6 to 12 weeks (p > 0.05). The combination of mouthrinse and toothpaste did not increase the degree of tooth whitening. Conclusion: Whitening mouthrinse and toothpaste had similar effects on the control group in terms of whitening of teeth stained after bleaching. Nevertheless, Crest 3D White mouthrinse produced the greatest recovery whitening effect among all the products tested. PMID:28642898

  13. Effect of laser irradiation on crystalline structure of enamel surface during whitening treatment with hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Son, Jung-Hyun; An, Ji-Hae; Kim, Byung-Kuk; Hwang, In-Nam; Park, Yeong-Joon; Song, Ho-Jun

    2012-11-01

    This study is to evaluate the effect of laser activation on the whitening and crystalline structure of enamel surface during whitening treatment with hydrogen peroxide. Bovine teeth were treated with whitening gel containing 35% hydrogen peroxide. A whitening gel was applied on the enamel surface for a period of 5 min, and then irradiated using a diode laser (740 nm) during whitening treatment for 0, 30, 60, 120 and 180s for the GL0-W, GL30-W, GL60-W, GL120-W and GL180-W groups, respectively. The total whitening application time was 30 min for all groups. Laser-irradiated enamel groups showed a similar lightness compared to the GL0-W group. The thickness of porous layer observed on the enamel surface of GL0-W group was decreased by increasing the laser irradiation time. While the Ca and P contents of the GL0-W group were lower than those of the non-whitening treated group (GL0-C), the Ca and P contents of the GL180-W group were similar to those of the GL180-C group. The enamel crystallinity was dramatically decreased by whitening treatment without laser irradiation. However, the decrease of crystallinity was protected by laser irradiation during whitening treatment. Raman measurement verified that laser irradiation could prevent the loss of mineral compositions on enamel and maintain its crystalline structure. The professional whitening treatment with hydrogen peroxide and diode laser activation improves not only the whitening effect but also protects the change of enamel structure compared to the treatment with only gel. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Engineered inorganic nanoparticles and cosmetics: facts, issues, knowledge gaps and challenges.

    PubMed

    Wiechers, Johann W; Musee, Ndeke

    2010-10-01

    The cosmetic industry is among the first adaptors of nanotechnology through the use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) to enhance the performance of their products and meet the customers' needs. Recently, there have been increasing concerns from different societal stakeholders (e.g., governments, environmental activist pressure groups, scientists, general public, etc.) concerning the safety and environmental impact of ENPs used in cosmetics. This review paper seeks to address the twin concerns of the safety of cosmetics and the potential environmental impacts due to the constituent chemicals-the ENPs. The safety aspect is addressed by examining recently published scientific data on the possibility of ENPs penetrating human skin. Data indicates that although particular types of ENPs can penetrate into the skin, until now no penetration has been detected beyond the stratum corneum of the ENPs used in cosmetics. Yet, important lessons can be learned from the more recent studies that identify the characteristics of ENPs penetrating into and permeating through human skin. On the part of the environmental impact, the scientific literature has very limited or none existent specific articles addressing the environmental impacts of ENPs owing to the cosmetic products. Therefore, general ecotoxicological data on risk assessment of ENPs has been applied to ascertain if there are potential environmental impacts from cosmetics. Results include some of the first studies on the qualitative and quantitative risk assessment of ENPs from cosmetics and suggest that further research is required as the knowledge is incomplete to make definitive conclusions as is the case with skin penetration. The authors conclude that the cosmetic industry should be more transparent in its use of nanotechnology in cosmetic products to facilitate realistic risk assessments as well as scientists and pressure groups being accurate in their conclusions on the general applicability of their findings

  15. Safety assessment of Vitis vinifera (grape)-derived ingredients as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of 24 Vitis vinifera (grape)-derived ingredients and found them safe in the present practices of use and concentration in cosmetics. These ingredients function in cosmetics mostly as skin-conditioning agents, but some function as antioxidants, flavoring agents, and/or colorants. The Panel reviewed the available animal and clinical data to determine the safety of these ingredients. Additionally, some constituents of grapes have been assessed previously for safety as cosmetic ingredients by the Panel, and others are compounds that have been discussed in previous Panel safety assessments. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Cosmetic allergy: incidence, diagnosis, and management.

    PubMed

    Orton, David I; Wilkinson, John D

    2004-01-01

    A recent epidemiologic survey in the UK revealed that 23% of women and 13.8% of men experience some sort of adverse reaction to a personal care product over the course of a year. Although most of these reactions may be due to subjective sensory irritation, various studies reveal that up to 10% of dermatologic patients who are patch tested are allergic to cosmetic products or their constituent ingredients. Causative products include deodorants and perfumes, skin care products, hair care products, and nail cosmetics. Allergic contact dermatitis mainly results from fragrance chemicals and preservatives. Recent work has suggested that additional fragrance chemicals may need to be tested in order to identify those patients 'missed' by the current fragrance mix; in particular, hydroxy-isohexyl-3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (HMPPC Lyral) has been singled out as an important sensitizing agent. The increased usage of natural fragrances and botanic extracts can also cause problems in their own right or through co-reactivity. The preservative methyldibromo glutaronitrile has also been recognized as an increasingly important sensitizer in Europe, which has led to the recent recommendation that it should be prohibited from 'leave-on' products until information on 'safe' consumer levels becomes available. Other emerging allergens include UV filters, tosylamide/formaldehyde resin, and nail acrylates. The diagnosis of cosmetic allergy should be confirmed with patch testing, including testing of 'whole' products, when necessary, and repeat open application tests can be used to confirm the relevance of reactions in cases of doubt.

  17. Efficacy of different whitening modalities on bovine enamel and dentin.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, Annette; Vollmer, Doreen; Foitzik, Magdalena; Attin, Rengin; Attin, Thomas

    2005-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that bleaching treatment may be efficient in both enamel and dentin, but it is still unknown how much the subsurface dentin contributes to the color change of teeth. This in vitro study evaluated the whitening effect of different external bleaching agents on enamel-dentin slabs and subsurface dentin. Ninety bovine teeth were distributed among six groups (A, Opalescence 10%; B, Opalescence PF 15%; C, Opalescence Quick; D, Opalescence Extra Boost; E, Rapid White; F, Whitestrips). Two enamel-dentin specimens were prepared from the labial surface of each teeth. In one of the specimens enamel was removed, resulting in a dentin (CD) disc of 1 mm high. The labial and the pulpal sides of the second specimen were ground until the remaining enamel and dentin layers of the enamel-dentin sample (ED) were 1 mm each. Whitening treatment of the ED specimens was performed according to manufacturers' instructions. Pre- and posttreatment Lab values of ED samples were analyzed using CIE-Lab. Baseline Lab values of dentin were analyzed by evaluation of the CD specimen. Finally, enamel of the ED specimens was removed and color change of the exposed dentin (D) was recorded. For all treatment agents significant color changes (DeltaE) were observed for enamel-dentin samples and subsurface dentin specimens compared to controls. In groups A-D DeltaE was significantly higher in dentin than enamel-dentin. Furthermore, L and b values of bleached enamel-dentin and subsurface dentin samples differed significantly from baseline. Treatment with the tested external whitening bleaching agents resulted in color change of both enamel-dentin and subsurface dentin samples. The results indicate that color change of treated teeth might be highly influenced by color change of the subsurface dentin.

  18. Randomized controlled study of a cosmetic treatment for mild acne.

    PubMed

    Capitanio, B; Sinagra, J L; Weller, R B; Brown, C; Berardesca, E

    2012-06-01

    Cosmetic products are not tested with the same rigour as medical treatments, but recent high-quality studies have shown significant reductions in changes of skin ageing with use of cosmetic antiageing products. To test whether a cosmetic 'anti-spot' two-step treatment containing a complex of seaweed-derived oligosaccharide and zinc would produce a significant improvement in mild acne. A double-blind, vehicle-controlled trial of this treatment was performed for 8 weeks on 60 age-matched participants with mild acne. They were divided into two groups: 30 participants were treated with vehicle control and 30 with the active treatment containing a seaweed-derived oligosaccharide complexed with 0.1% zinc pyrrolidone. After 8 weeks, both groups had a reduction in comedones, papules and pustules, and this was significantly greater in the active than control group at 2, 4 and 8 weeks. Cosmetic products may offer some benefit for mild acne and still meet the requirements of the European Cosmetic Directive. In particular, the seaweed-derived oligosaccharide complexed with 0.1% zinc pyrrolidone used in this study produced a significant reduction in acne vs. a control treatment. Cosmetic companies should conduct blinded controlled trials of their product's efficacy and publish the results. © The Author(s). CED © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  19. Misuse of Topical Corticosteroids for Cosmetic Purpose in Antananarivo, Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Ranaivo, I. M.; Andrianarison, M.; Razanakoto, N. H.; Ramarozatovo, L. S.

    2017-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted in Antananarivo, Madagascar, from June to September 2012. We aim to evaluate the misuse of TC on the face for cosmetic purpose and the adverse effects due to its application. A questionnaire-based analysis was done among females who use topical corticosteroids on the face for cosmetic purpose. Of the 770 women questioned, 384 (49,8%) used topical corticosteroids for cosmetic purpose whose mean age was 38 years (range 16–73 years). Two hundred and sixty-one females (68%) used TC combined with handcrafted cosmetics, and 123 (32%) used TC alone. “Pandalao,” which contains salicylic acid, peppermint oil, lanolin, powder of Juanes de Vigo (mercury powder), and Vaseline, is the most handcrafted cosmetic combined with TC in our study (used by 29,4% respondents). Only one (0,26%) had obtained the TC by physician's prescription, 234 (61%) from cosmetic retailers, 92 (23%) directly from local pharmacies, 49 (12%) from beauticians, and 15 (4%) from unspecified sources. Lightening of skin color was the main reason for using TC in 44,8% of respondents in the absence of any primary dermatosis. Pigmentation disorders (63,2%) and cutaneous atrophy (52,1%) were the most adverse effects noted. PMID:28904977

  20. Misuse of Topical Corticosteroids for Cosmetic Purpose in Antananarivo, Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Sendrasoa, F A; Ranaivo, I M; Andrianarison, M; Raharolahy, O; Razanakoto, N H; Ramarozatovo, L S; Rapelanoro Rabenja, F

    2017-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted in Antananarivo, Madagascar, from June to September 2012. We aim to evaluate the misuse of TC on the face for cosmetic purpose and the adverse effects due to its application. A questionnaire-based analysis was done among females who use topical corticosteroids on the face for cosmetic purpose. Of the 770 women questioned, 384 (49,8%) used topical corticosteroids for cosmetic purpose whose mean age was 38 years (range 16-73 years). Two hundred and sixty-one females (68%) used TC combined with handcrafted cosmetics, and 123 (32%) used TC alone. "Pandalao," which contains salicylic acid, peppermint oil, lanolin, powder of Juanes de Vigo (mercury powder), and Vaseline, is the most handcrafted cosmetic combined with TC in our study (used by 29,4% respondents). Only one (0,26%) had obtained the TC by physician's prescription, 234 (61%) from cosmetic retailers, 92 (23%) directly from local pharmacies, 49 (12%) from beauticians, and 15 (4%) from unspecified sources. Lightening of skin color was the main reason for using TC in 44,8% of respondents in the absence of any primary dermatosis. Pigmentation disorders (63,2%) and cutaneous atrophy (52,1%) were the most adverse effects noted.

  1. Strategies in Development and Delivery of Nanotechnology Based Cosmetic Products.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Usama; Ahmad, Zeeshan; Khan, Ahmed Abdullah; Akhtar, Juber; Singh, Satya Prakash; Ahmad, Farhan Jalees

    2018-03-26

    The science of formulation involving cosmetic ingredients has always been a challenge since the release of active components greatly depends upon the carrier system involved and the selectivity of skin barrier. The principle obstacle of the skin resides in the epidermis and it's hard for many active components to cross it. The formulation related factors like size of particles, viscosity and lipophilicity of the components also play an important role in permeation of the dermal composition. Though widely used; conventional creams and gels still struggle in terms of success. This work focuses on nano based formulation strategies for successful delivery of cosmetic agents. Novel strategies like nanoemulsion, nanogels, liposomes, aquasomes, niosomes, dendrimers and fullerenes have paved way for successful delivery of dermal formulations to desire depths in the skin. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Cosmetic and Functional Nasal Deformities

    MedlinePlus

    ... nasal complaints. Nasal deformity can be categorized as “cosmetic” or “functional.” Cosmetic deformity of the nose results in a less ... taste , nose bleeds and/or recurrent sinusitis . A cosmetic or functional nasal deformity may occur secondary to ...

  3. Safety Assessment of Polyether Lanolins as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan; Heldreth, Bart

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of 39 polyether lanolin ingredients as used in cosmetics. These ingredients function mostly as hair conditioning agents, skin conditioning agent-emollients, and surfactant-emulsifying agents. The Panel reviewed available animal and clinical data, from previous CIR safety assessments of related ingredients and components. The similar structure, properties, functions, and uses of these ingredients enabled grouping them and using the available toxicological data to assess the safety of the entire group. The Panel concluded that these polyether lanolin ingredients are safe in the practices of use and concentration as given in this safety assessment.

  4. Safety assessment of nylon as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Christina; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of nylon polymers, which function in cosmetics primarily as bulking and opacifying agents. The Panel reviewed relevant animal and human data related to these large polymers and determined that they are not likely to penetrate the skin. Whatever residual monomers may be present were not present at a sufficient level to cause any reactions in test subjects at the maximum ingredient use concentration. Accordingly, the Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentration. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Safety Assessment of Chlorphenesin as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Wilbur; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-05-26

    Chlorphenesin functions as a biocide in cosmetics and is used at concentrations up to 0.32% in rinse-off products and up to 0.3% in leave-on products. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) noted that chlorphenesin was well absorbed when applied to the skin of rats; however, any safety concern was minimized because available data demonstrated an absence of toxicity. The Panel concluded that chlorphenesin is safe in the present practices of use and concentration. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. A clinical evaluation of bleaching using whitening wraps and strips.

    PubMed

    Matis, Bruce A; Cochran, Michael; Wang, Ge; Franco, Miguel; Eckert, George J; Carlotti, Ronald J; Bryan, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the degree of color change of teeth and the sensitivities of teeth and gums in an in vivo study. Ranir Whitening Wraps (WW2) and Crest Whitestrips Premium (WP2) were used twice a day and Ranir Whitening Wraps (WW1) were used once a day. Color evaluations occurred at baseline, after five and seven-day use of bleaching agent and 14 days post-bleaching. Color change was evaluated objectively and subjectively. Sensitivity evaluations were also accomplished. Seventy-six of the 78 subjects enrolled completed the study. All three products significantly lightened teeth. WW2 lightened more than WP2 and WW1 in L*, a*, b*, E and shade guide value. WP2 lightened more than WW1 in a*, b*, E and shade guide value. There was no difference in tooth sensitivity, but WW1 and WP2 caused less gingival sensitivity than WW2. The mean age of smokers was seven years younger than nonsmokers who qualified.

  7. Comparative clinical evaluation of two professional tooth-whitening products.

    PubMed

    Kowitz, G M; Nathoo, S A; Wong, R

    1994-01-01

    A 2-week study was conducted to compare the tooth-whitening efficacy of two 10% carbamide peroxide products: Colgate Platinum Professional Toothwhitening System and Rembrandt Lighten Bleaching Gel. Fifty subjects were divided into two groups and assigned a product to use for 2 weeks. Change in tooth color was measured by reflectance spectroscopy at the initiation of study, at 1 week, and at 2 weeks into the study. Color change was calculated using the color-difference equation established by the Commission International de L'Eclairage. Results showed that Colgate Platinum was 62% more effective at tooth whitening after 1 week and 83% more effective after 2 weeks of treatment vs Rembrandt. At the termination of the study, the mean color difference (deltaE) for Colgate Platinum was 4.29 and 2.34 for Rembrandt. Statistical analysis demonstrated that the Colgate product is significantly superior at increasing tooth whiteness, increasing tooth lightness, reducing redness, and reducing yellowness. In this study, no adverse reactions were noted on clinical examination and none were reported by panelists with normal healthy dentition.

  8. Safety Assessment of Panax spp Root-Derived Ingredients as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of 13 Panax spp root-derived ingredients as used in cosmetics. Panax "spp" indicates that multiple species within the genus are used in cosmetics, but not all species within that genus. Four species are being considered in this safety assessment. These ingredients function mostly as skin-conditioning agents-miscellaneous, fragrance ingredients, skin-conditioning agents-humectant, skin-conditioning agents-emollient, and cosmetic astringents. The Panel reviewed available data related to these ingredients and addressed the issue of pulegone, a constituent of these ingredients and other ingredients, such as peppermint oil. The Panel concluded that these Panax spp root-derived ingredients are safe in the practices of use and concentration as given in this safety assessment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Effect of whitening dentifrices on the surface roughness of commercial composites.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Guilherme Machado; Mota, Eduardo Gonçalves; Rodrigues-Junior, Sinval Adalberto; Burnett, Luiz Henrique

    2011-10-01

    Our study aimed to test the null hypothesis that whitening and non-whitening dentifrices affect similarly the surface roughness of commercial microhybrid composites, independent of the brushing time. One hundred and ninety-two disc-shaped specimens of Filtek Z250 (3 M/ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA) and Rok (SDI, Australia) were built up and randomly assigned to 24 groups, based on the dentifrices used (two whitening dentifrices: Colgate Max White-Colgate-Palmolive, São Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo, Brazil and Close Up Extra Whitening-Unilever, Brasil Higiene Pessoal e Limpeza Ltda, Ipojuca, Pernambuco, Brazil; and one non-whitening dentifrice: Colgate Total 12 Clean Mint-Colgate-Palmolive), and on the simulated brushing times (24 hours, 6, 12 and 24 months). The specimens were submitted to the toothbrushing regimens after which the surface roughness (Ra) was measured. Data was submitted to analysis of variance and Tukey test (α=0.05). The composite's surface roughness was significantly affected by the composites (p=0.0007), the dentifrices (p=0.0001), and the simulated brushing time (p=0.0001). Higher roughness was observed when the whitening dentifrices were used and when the brushing time increased. Filtek Z250 was more affected than Rok, especially after 24 months of simulated brushing. Whitening dentifrices produced higher surface roughness in the composites tested. The degree of surface compromising increased with brushing time and depends on the composite's microstructure and composition. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. [Role of cosmetics in environmental carcinogenesis].

    PubMed

    Riboulet-Delmas, G

    1983-09-01

    Cosmetics, which have been used for millenaries, have undergone a dramatic development since the last war. Conjointly with this development, cosmetology has entered a new, scientific, phase. A few facts will enable us to define the role of carcinogens in environmental carcinogenesis: first, by trying to determine what protection is given to the consumer against the carcinogenic risk; then, by delineating the protection provided by sunscreen agents against skin carcinomas induced by sun. Protection provided to consumers: physicochemical characteristics; Ames test for screening; animal experimentation; epidemiological studies; follow-up of products. Prevention of UV-dependent skin cancer; induction of skin tumors by sun; prevention. Individual factors which modulate these risks: Two examples: permeability of the psoriatic skin; morphotypes and sun. Given the present state of our knowledge, it seems inconceivable to achieve stricter scientific standards before marketing a product. One step is, and always will be, lacking for the evaluation of the noxiousness of a substance, i.e. its large scale, longterm evaluation in man, with allowances for biologic inequalities. This underscores the value of producer's daily vigilance, a vigilance which in fact concerns both the producer and the consumer.

  11. Final amended safety assessment of hydroquinone as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Andersen, F Alan; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W

    2010-01-01

    Hydroquinone is an aromatic compound that functions in cosmetics as an antioxidant, fragrance, reducing agent, or polymerization inhibitor. Hydroquinone is also used as a skin bleaching agent. Safety and toxicity information indicate that hydroquinone is dermally absorbed in humans from both aqueous and alcoholic formulations and is excreted mainly as the glucuronide or sulfate conjugates. Hydroquinone is associated with altered immune function in vitro and in vivo in animals and an increased incidence of renal tubule cell tumors and leukemia in F344 rats, but the relevance to humans is uncertain. Quantitatively, however, the use of hydroquinone in cosmetics is unlikely to result in renal neoplasia through this mode of action. Thus, hydroquinone is safe at concentrations of ≤1% in hair dyes and is safe for use in nail adhesives. Hydroquinone should not be used in other leave-on cosmetics.

  12. Investigating incidence of bacterial and fungal contamination in shared cosmetic kits available in the women beauty salons

    PubMed Central

    Dadashi, Leila; Dehghanzadeh, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rich texture of cosmetics can provide a suitable medium for growth of pathogenic microorganisms. In addition, skin microflora of anyone is unique which might be harmful to another person. Skin and eye pathogenicity could be communicated by sharing cosmetics in beauty saloons. The main objective of this study was to evaluate microbial contamination of in-use skin and eye cosmetics which are available as public make-up kits for women in the beauty salons. Methods: Fifty-two in-use skin and eye cosmetics were included in this cross sectional study.The specimens from all the cosmetics were collected following the owner’s informed consent, and then about 1 g of the cosmetics was added to nine ml of liquid Eugon LT100 broth medium,two for each product. Ten beauty salons randomly selected from different regions of Tabriz city between June and August 2016. Cosmetics were sampled and carried to the laboratory in sterile condition and then examined to determine bacterial and fungal species in the samples. Results: All of in-use cosmetic were contaminated with bacteria (95% CI = 93.1%-100.0%) and about 19.2% by fungus and yeast (95% CI = 10.8%-31.9%). Streptococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Acinetobacter, Bacillus spp., Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Klebsiella,Citrobacter, Rhodotorula and Candida were dominant species which were isolated from the cosmetics. Powders with 38.5% (95% CI = 17.7%-64.5%) and eyeliners with 30.0% (95%CI = 6.7%-65.2%) were the most fungal contaminated products. Conclusion: Shared cosmetics in beauty salons are almost contaminated by bacteria and fungus.Therefore, it is suggested to avoid sharing cosmetics by women and prevent use of public cosmetics in toilet saloons. PMID:27579260

  13. Collagen: A review on its sources and potential cosmetic applications.

    PubMed

    Avila Rodríguez, María Isabela; Rodríguez Barroso, Laura G; Sánchez, Mirna Lorena

    2018-02-01

    Collagen is a fibrillar protein that conforms the conjunctive and connective tissues in the human body, essentially skin, joints, and bones. This molecule is one of the most abundant in many of the living organisms due to its connective role in biological structures. Due to its abundance, strength and its directly proportional relation with skin aging, collagen has gained great interest in the cosmetic industry. It has been established that the collagen fibers are damaged with the pass of time, losing thickness and strength which has been strongly related with skin aging phenomena [Colágeno para todo. 60 y más. 2016. http://www.revista60ymas.es/InterPresent1/groups/revistas/documents/binario/ses330informe.pdf.]. As a solution, the cosmetic industry incorporated collagen as an ingredient of different treatments to enhance the user youth and well-being, and some common presentations are creams, nutritional supplement for bone and cartilage regeneration, vascular and cardiac reconstruction, skin replacement, and augmentation of soft skin among others [J App Pharm Sci. 2015;5:123-127]. Nowadays, the biomolecule can be obtained by extraction from natural sources such as plants and animals or by recombinant protein production systems including yeast, bacteria, mammalian cells, insects or plants, or artificial fibrils that mimic collagen characteristics like the artificial polymer commercially named as KOD. Because of its increased use, its market size is valued over USD 6.63 billion by 2025 [Collagen Market By Source (Bovine, Porcine, Poultry, Marine), Product (Gelatin, Hydrolyzed Collagen), Application (Food & Beverages, Healthcare, Cosmetics), By Region, And Segment Forecasts, 2014 - 2025. Grand View Research. http://www.grandviewresearch.com/industry-analysis/collagen-market. Published 2017.]. Nevertheless, there has been little effort on identifying which collagen types are the most suitable for cosmetic purposes, for which the present review will try to enlighten

  14. Effect of various tooth-whitening products on enamel microhardness.

    PubMed

    Grobler, S R; Majeed, A; Moola, M H

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of various tooth-whitening products containing carbamide peroxide (CP) or hydrogen peroxide (HP), on enamel microhardness. Enamel blocks were exposed to: Nite White ACP 10% CP (Group 2, n=10); Yotuel Patient 10% CP (Group 3, n=10); Opalescence PF 10% CP (Group 4, n=10); Opalescence PF 20% CP (Group 5, n=10); Opalescence Treswhite Supreme 10% HP (Group 6, n=10); Yotuel 10 Minutes 30% CP (Group 7, n=10); Opalescence Quick 45% CP (Group 8, n=10), Yotuel Special 35% HP (Group 9, n=10), Opalescence Boost 38% HP (Group 10, n=10) according to the instructions of the manufacturers. The control (Group 1, n=10) was enamel blocks kept in artificial saliva at 37 degrees C without any treatment. The microhardness values were obtained before exposure and after a 14-day treatment period. Specimens were kept in artificial saliva at 37 degrees C between treatments. Data were analysed using Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer Multiple Comparison Test. Indent marks on the enamel blocks were also examined under the Scanning Electron Microscope. All whitening products decreased enamel microhardness except group 10 but only Groups 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7 showed significant decrease in enamel microhardness as compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Groups 2, 3 and 7 differed significantly from all the other groups (p < 0.05). The highest damage was recorded for Group 2 (Nite White ACP 10% CP), which differed significantly from Groups 3 and 7. SEM images also showed damage to enamel. All products tested in this study decreased enamel microhardness except Opalescence Boost 38% HP. The products containing carbamide peroxide were more damaging to enamel because of the longer application times. Nite White ACP 10% CP showed the highest reduction in enamel microhardness as compared to other products tested.

  15. The determination of the radical power - an in vitro test for the evaluation of cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Herrling, T; Seifert, M; Sandig, G; Jung, K

    2016-06-01

    Cosmetic formulations are influenced by environmental impacts and ageing, resulting in rancidity and change of colour and structure. These changes are caused by free radicals (FRs). The sensitivity of cosmetics generating FRs is a metric for its quality and should be determined. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy in combination with UV irradiation tested cosmetics such as creams, milks, lotions and fragrances. The probes were directly measured without expensive preparation. Nine formulations are tested for its radical generation and ranked corresponding to the radical power. The transformation of the FR properties of three formulations to skin is measured by the radical skin status factor (RSF) method. It shows that the higher the radical power (RP) is, the lower the radical status RSF of skin will be. The knowledge of the sensitivity of cosmetics to generate FRs is necessary for its stabilization and prevention of potential damages to skin. It is a new way in development of cosmetics which has to be considered. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  16. Noninvasive Skin Tightening Treatment

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive skin tightening has become one of the most common cosmetic aesthetic procedures being performed today. The use of radiofrequency devices for these procedures has been at the forefront of this trend for the past several years. Newer and more sophisticated radiofrequency devices are being brought to the market and presented here are the Venus Freeze and Venus Legacy. PMID:26155322

  17. The teratology testing of cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Spézia, François; Barrow, Paul C

    2013-01-01

    In Europe, the developmental toxicity testing (including teratogenicity) of new cosmetic ingredients is performed according to the Cosmetics Directive 76/768/EEC: only alternatives leading to full replacement of animal experiments should be used. This chapter presents the three scientifically validated animal alternative methods for the assessment of embryotoxicity: the embryonic stem cell test (EST), the micromass (MM) assay, and the whole embryo culture (WEC) assay.

  18. Patterns of cosmetic contact allergy.

    PubMed

    Castanedo-Tardan, Mari Paz; Zug, Kathryn A

    2009-07-01

    Certain patterns of dermatitis, such as those affecting the face, eyelids, lips, and neck, should raise the suspicion of a cosmetic-related contact allergy. Patch testing with a broad screening series, supplemented by a patient's own personal care products, should be considered when evaluating patients with suspected cosmetic dermatitis. Once the offending allergen is identified, an avoidance regimen should be established to avoid further exposure.

  19. Double-blind whitening Night-Guard study using ten percent carbamide peroxide.

    PubMed

    Ouellet, D; Los, S; Case, H; Healy, R

    1992-01-01

    The conservative technique of professionally dispensed and supervised, home-administered vital bleaching is now a routine treatment in the dental profession. This double-blind study evaluated the Rembrandt Lightening Gel and Whitening Toothpaste for shade change, colorimeter shade change. As well, it evaluated soft tissue health by periodontal probing, plaque index, and bleeding index. A patient questionnaire evaluated perception of whitening, perception of oral hygiene, average hours per day, and average days per week. Bleaching trays were worn over a 4-week period. The bleaching system showed definitive whitening effects as evaluated with the Vita shade guide and the colorimeter. The bleaching system had no deleterious effects on the soft tissue. The Rembrandt toothpaste alone demonstrated two-shade lightening. This vital bleaching system shows definitive whitening of the teeth in short periods of time with no adverse effects.

  20. Electromyogram whitening for improved classification accuracy in upper limb prosthesis control.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lukai; Liu, Pu; Clancy, Edward A; Scheme, Erik; Englehart

    2013-09-01

    Time and frequency domain features of the surface electromyogram (EMG) signal acquired from multiple channels have frequently been investigated for use in controlling upper-limb prostheses. A common control method is EMG-based motion classification. We propose the use of EMG signal whitening as a preprocessing step in EMG-based motion classification. Whitening decorrelates the EMG signal and has been shown to be advantageous in other EMG applications including EMG amplitude estimation and EMG-force processing. In a study of ten intact subjects and five amputees with up to 11 motion classes and ten electrode channels, we found that the coefficient of variation of time domain features (mean absolute value, average signal length and normalized zero crossing rate) was significantly reduced due to whitening. When using these features along with autoregressive power spectrum coefficients, whitening added approximately five percentage points to classification accuracy when small window lengths were considered.

  1. Studies on preparation of medium fat liquid dairy whitener from buffalo milk employing ultrafiltration process.

    PubMed

    Khatkar, Sunil Kumar; Gupta, Vijay Kumar; Khatkar, Anju Boora

    2014-09-01

    A study was conducted to develop good quality medium fat liquid dairy whitener from buffalo milk employing ultrafiltration (UF) process. The buffalo skim milk was UF concentrated to 4.05 to 4.18 (23.63 ± 0.30 % TS) fold and standardized to 10 % fat (on Dry Matter Basis) (i.e. formulation) and homogenized at 175.76 kg/cm(2). The addition of 0.4 % mixture of monosodium and disodium phosphate (2:1 w/w) improved the heat stability of homogenized formulation to an optimum of 66 min. The bland flavour of homogenized formulation with added 0.4 % mixture of monosodium phosphate and disodium phosphate (2:1 w/w) and 18 % sugar (on DMB) (i.e. medium fat liquid dairy whitener) was improved significantly (P < 0.01) with the addition of 0.2 % potassium chloride, but heat stability of medium fat liquid dairy whitener got reduced substantially (i.e. 19 min). With subsequent heat treatment to 85 °C for 5 min, heat stability of medium fat liquid dairy whitener got improved to reasonable level of 27 min. Whitening ability in terms of L* value of medium fat liquid dairy whitener in both tea and coffee was significantly (P < 0.01) better when homogenized at 175.76 kg/cm(2) vis-à-vis 140.61 kg/cm(2). Standardized medium fat liquid dairy whitener had significantly (P < 0.01) greater protein content (i.e. approximately 2.43 times) compared to market dairy whitener samples. At 2 % solids level, standardized medium fat liquid dairy whitener in tea/coffee fetched significantly (P < 0.01) better sensory attributes and instrumental whitening ability compared to market sample at 3 % solids level. There could be clear 33 % solids quantity saving in case of developed product compared to market dairy whitener sample.

  2. Conventional and whitening toothpastes: cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and effect on the enamel surface.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Samira Esteves Afonso; Jóias, Renata Pilli; Santana-Melo, Gabriela Fátima; Ferreira, Lara Tolentino; El Achkar, Vivian Narana Ribeiro; Rode, Sigmar de Mello

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of whitening and common toothpastes, and the surface roughness of tooth enamel submitted to brushing with both toothpastes. Samples of whitening toothpastes [Colgate Whitening (CW) and Oral-B Whitening (OBW)] and regular (non-whitening) toothpastes (Colgate and Oral-B) were extracted in culture medium. Gingival human fibroblasts (FMM-1) were placed in contact with different dilutions of culture media that had been previously exposed to such materials, and the cytotoxicity was evaluated using the MTT assay. The genotoxicity was assessed by the micronucleus formation assay in Chinese hamster fibroblasts (V79). The cell survival rate and micronuclei number were assessed before and after exposure to the toothpaste extracts. For the surface roughness evaluation, 20 bovine tooth specimens, divided into four groups according to toothpastes, were submitted to 10,000 brushing cycles. The results were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U and two-way ANOVA tests (P < 0.05). MTT assay showed that Colgate was significantly less cytotoxic than CW, Oral-B and OBW at all dilutions (P < 0.01). CW was the most cytotoxic toothpaste (P < 0.01). The whitening toothpastes showed the highest numbers of micronuclei compared to the untreated control (UC) (P < 0.01). Colgate and Oral-B toothpastes were not genotoxic compared to UC (P = 0.326). The OBW toothpaste was statistically significantly abrasive to the enamel surface (P < 0.01). The whitening toothpastes and Oral-B were cytotoxic to the cells. The whitening toothpastes were more genotoxic to cells in vitro than the common toothpastes, and genotoxicity was more pronounced in the OBW toothpaste.

  3. Effect of a whitening agent application on enamel bond strength of self-etching primer systems.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Masashi; Sato, Hikaru; Sato, Tomomi; Moore, B Keith; Platt, Jeffrey A

    2004-06-01

    Though reduction in bond strength after tooth whitening has been reported, little is known about it's effect on enamel bond strength of two-step bonding systems that exclude phosphoric acid etching prior to bonding agent application. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of whitening procedure using an in-office whitening agent on enamel bond strength of self-etching primer systems. Three self-etching primer systems, Imperva Fluoro Bond, Mac Bond II, Clearfil SE Bond, and a one-bottle adhesive system Single Bond as a control material, were used. Bovine mandibular incisors were mounted in self-curing resin and the facial enamel or dentin surfaces were ground wet on 600-grit SiC paper. An in-office whitening agent, Hi-Lite was applied on the tooth surface according to the manufacturer's instruction. Bonding procedures were done soon after rinsing off the whitening agent or after 24 hours storage in distilled water. Specimens without whitening procedure were prepared as controls. Fifteen specimens per test group were stored in 37 degrees C distilled water for 24 hours, then shear tested at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/minute. One-way ANOVA followed by Duncan multiple range test were used for statistical analysis of the results. For the specimens made soon after rinsing off the whitening agent, a significant decrease in enamel bond strength was observed for all the bonding systems used. For the specimens made after 24 hours storage in water, a small decrease in enamel bond strength was observed and no significant differences were found compared to those of controls (without whitening). From the results of this study, enamel bond strengths of the self-etching primer systems might be affected to a lesser degree after rinsing with water followed by 24 hours storage in water.

  4. Effect of various tooth whitening modalities on microhardness, surface roughness and surface morphology of the enamel.

    PubMed

    Kwon, So Ran; Kurti, Steven R; Oyoyo, Udochukwu; Li, Yiming

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of four whitening modalities on surface enamel as assessed with microhardness tester, profilometer, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Whitening was performed according to manufacturer's directions for over-the-counter (OTC), dentist dispensed for home use (HW) and in-office (OW) whitening. Do-it-yourself (DIY) whitening consisted of a strawberry and baking soda mix. Additionally, negative and positive controls were used. A total of 120 enamel specimens were used for microhardness testing at baseline and post-whitening. Following microhardness testing specimens were prepared for SEM observations. A total of 120 enamel specimens were used for surface roughness testing at baseline and post-whitening (n = 20 per group). Rank-based Analysis of Covariance was performed to compare microhardness and surface roughness changes. Tests of hypotheses were two-sided with α = 0.05. There was a significant difference in Knoop hardness changes (ΔKHN) among the groups (Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.0001). Significant hardness reduction was observed in the positive control and DIY group (p < 0.0001). Mean surface roughness changes (ΔRa) were significantly different among the groups (Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.0001). Surface roughness increased in the OTC group (p = 0.03) and in the positive control (p < 0.0001). The four whitening modalities-DIY, OTC, HW and OW induced minimal surface morphology changes when observed with SEM. It can be concluded that none of the four whitening modalities adversely affected enamel surface morphology. However, caution should be advised when using a DIY regimen as it may affect enamel microhardness and an OTC product as it has the potential to increase surface roughness.

  5. Effect of pH on whitening efficacy of 35% hydrogen peroxide and enamel microhardness.

    PubMed

    Jurema, Ana Luiza Barbosa; de Souza, Mauricio Yugo; Torres, Carlos Rocha Gomes; Borges, Alessandra Bühler; Caneppele, Taciana Marco Ferraz

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of 35% hydrogen peroxide at different pH values and the degree of tooth staining on whitening efficacy and enamel microhardness. 90 enamel-dentin specimens were obtained from bovine incisors. They were randomly divided into 2 groups (n = 45), 1 group was immersed in a staining broth for 14 days, and another group was not stained and kept in distilled water at 37°C. Twenty-four hours after the staining procedure, each group was distributed into 3 subgroups that were whitened by 35% hydrogen peroxide with different pH values (5, 7, and 8.4) for 30 minutes. The color was measured at baseline and 7 days after whitening. Microhardness was measured at baseline, immediate, 24 hours, and 1 month after the whitening procedure. Data were submitted to 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey test for multiple comparisons for color analysis. Repeated measures ANOVA and the Tukey test were used to analyze microhardness data. The color change of the stained groups (ΔE 00  = 4.6) was significantly higher than that of the nonstained groups (ΔE 00  = 3.7). Microhardness value decreased significantly immediately after whitening for all subgroups and did not return to initial values. For each measurement time, microhardness was not significantly different among subgroups with different pH values. Despite the effectiveness of 35% hydrogen peroxide, changes on gel pH did not affect the whitening efficacy, and the enamel was superficially demineralized, regardless of pH values. Independently of the pH value of whitening gel, enamel undergoes superficial demineralization and with a reduction in superficial microhardness that does not return to the initial values. However, using hydrogen peroxide with different pH values does not alter the whitening effect. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Radiofrequency in cosmetic dermatology.

    PubMed

    Beasley, Karen L; Weiss, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    The demand for noninvasive methods of facial and body rejuvenation has experienced exponential growth over the last decade. There is a particular interest in safe and effective ways to decrease skin laxity and smooth irregular body contours and texture without downtime. These noninvasive treatments are being sought after because less time for recovery means less time lost from work and social endeavors. Radiofrequency (RF) treatments are traditionally titrated to be nonablative and are optimal for those wishing to avoid recovery time. Not only is there minimal recovery but also a high level of safety with aesthetic RF treatments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of whitening and regular dentifrices on orthodontic clear ligature color stability.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Adauê S; Kaizer, Marina R; Salgado, Vinícius E; Soldati, Dener C; Silva, Roberta C; Moraes, Rafael R

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of brushing orthodontic clear ligatures with a whitening dentifrice containing a blue pigment (Close Up White Now, Unilever, London, UK) on their color stability, when exposed to a staining agent. Ligatures from 3M Unitek (Monrovia, CA, USA) and Morelli (Sorocaba, SP, Brazil) were tested. Baseline color measurements were performed and nonstained groups (control) were stored in distilled water whereas test groups were exposed for 1 hour daily to red wine. Specimens were brushed daily using regular or whitening dentifrice. Color measurements were repeated after 7, 14, 21, and 28 days using a spectrophotometer based on the CIE L*a*b* system. Decreased luminosity (CIE L*), increased red discoloration (CIE a* axis), and increased yellow discoloration (CIE b* axis) were generally observed for ligatures exposed to the staining agent. Color variation was generally lower in specimens brushed with regular dentifrice, but ligatures brushed with whitening dentifrice were generally less red and less yellow than regular dentifrice. The whitening dentifrice led to blue discoloration trend, with visually detectable differences particularly apparent according to storage condition and ligature brand. The whitening dentifrice containing blue pigment did not improve the ligature color stability, but it decreased yellow discoloration and increased a blue coloration. The use of a whitening dentifrice containing blue pigment during orthodontic treatment might decrease the yellow discoloration of elastic ligatures. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Safety Assessment of Methyl Glucose Polyethers and Esters as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Wilbur; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2016-11-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of methyl glucose polyethers and esters which function in cosmetics as skin/hair-conditioning agents, surfactants, or viscosity increasing agents. The esters included in this assessment are mono-, di-, or tricarboxyester substituted methyl glucosides, and the polyethers are mixtures of various chain lengths. The Panel reviewed available animal and clinical data, including the molecular weights, log K ow s, and other properties in making its determination of safety on these ingredients. Where there were data gaps, similarities between molecular structures, physicochemical and biological characteristics, and functions and concentrations in cosmetics allowed for extrapolation of the available toxicological data to assess the safety of the entire group. The Panel concluded that there likely would be no significant systemic exposure from cosmetic use of these ingredients, and that these ingredients are safe in cosmetic formulations in the present practices of use and concentration. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. PARACENTRAL ACUTE MIDDLE MACULOPATHY ASSOCIATED WITH RETINAL ARTERY OCCLUSION AFTER COSMETIC FILLER INJECTION.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, Jayanth; Shahlaee, Abtin; Shieh, Wen-Shi; Rahimy, Ehsan

    2017-01-01

    To report a single case of paracentral acute middle maculopathy in association with retinal artery occlusion in the setting of ipsilateral facial cosmetic filler injection. Case report. A 35-year-old woman presenting with sudden vision loss to finger count vision immediately after left nasal fat pad cosmetic filler injection. Dilated funduscopic examination revealed a swollen optic disc with multiple branch arterial occlusions with visible embolic material. Fluorescein angiography confirmed multiple branch arterial occlusions in addition to a focal choroidal infarction in the macula. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography revealed middle retinal hyperreflectivity in the superotemporal macula consistent with paracentral acute middle maculopathy. En face optical coherence tomography demonstrated a superotemporal area of whitening at the level of the deep capillary plexus corresponding to the paracentral acute middle maculopathy lesion seen on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. On twelve-month follow-up, final visual acuity was 20/100 due to optic neuropathy. Emboli from cosmetic facial filler injections may rarely result in ipsilateral arterial occlusions and now have a novel association with paracentral acute middle maculopathy likely due to deep capillary plexus feeder vessel occlusion.

  10. [The dermatological indications of laser: beyond cosmetic target.

    PubMed

    Abosaleh, Marem; Boehncke, Wolf-Henning; Laubach, Hans

    2017-01-11

    During the last 30 years, the use of lasers in dermatology has gone far beyond the spectrum of aesthetic and cosmetic applications. Techniques are more than simple removal by CO2 Laser. Increasing knowledge, understanding, and experience have helped to effectively treat numerous important skin diseaes by the use of lasers. However, high-quality clinical trials are sparse in this domain. Consequently, so far only the treatment of hemangiomas and warts is a laser indication reimbursed by insurance companies. This article discusses three types of skin diseases where substantial progress has been reported in the scientific literature in 2016, namely pigmentary disorders, vascular diseases, and inflammatory dermatoses.

  11. Preparation of titanium phosphates with additives in hydrothermal process and their powder properties for cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Onoda, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Taisuke

    2013-04-01

    In this study, titanium phosphates were prepared from titanium chloride and phosphoric acid, sodium pyrophosphate and sodium triphosphate solutions with water retention compounds in hydrothermal process as a novel white pigment for cosmetics. Their chemical composition, powder properties, photo catalytic activity, water retention and smoothness were studied. The addition of glycerin in the preparation from sodium pyrophosphate has the useful method to obtain homogenized spherical particles of titanium phosphate pigments for the cosmetics. These titanium phosphates had less photo catalytic activity to protect the sebum on the skin. © 2012 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  12. Designing new functional cosmetic ingredients from polyglycerol, a versatile bio-based platform for improved sustainability.

    PubMed

    Fevola, Michael J; Sun, Frank C; York, Stacey E

    Polyglycerol (PG) is a well-known cosmetic ingredient and important precursor for the synthesis of a variety of cosmetic ingredients, such as surfactants, emulsifiers, and conditioning agents for hair and skin. When derived from renewable resources, PG can provide a more sustainable platform for the development of new ingredients with improved performance in cosmetic applications. This paper will discuss recent advances in the utilization of bio-based PG ingredients as alternatives to traditional ethoxylate chemistries for mild nonionic surfactants, substantive humectants, and micellar thickeners.

  13. The abrasive effect of commercial whitening toothpastes on eroded enamel.

    PubMed

    Mosquim, Victor; Martines Souza, Beatriz; Foratori Junior, Gerson Aparecido; Wang, Linda; Magalhães, Ana Carolina

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the in vitro abrasive effect of commercial whitening toothpastes on eroded bovine enamel samples in respect to erosive tooth wear. 72 bovine crowns were embedded, polished and subjected to the baseline profile analysis. The samples were then protected in 2/3 of the enamel surface and were randomly assigned to six groups (n= 12/group): G1: Oral-B 3D White, G2: Close-up Diamond Attraction Power White, G3: Sorriso Xtreme White 4D, G4: Colgate Luminous White, G5: Crest (conventional toothpaste), G6:erosion only (control). All samples were submitted to an erosive pH cycling (4 x 90 seconds in 0.1% citric acid, pH 2.5, per day) and abrasive challenges (2 x 15 seconds, per day) for 7 days. After the first and the last daily cycles, the samples were subjected to abrasive challenges, using a toothbrushing machine, soft toothbrushes and slurry of the tested toothpastes (1.5 N). Between the challenges, the samples were immersed in artificial saliva. The final profile was obtained and overlaid to the baseline profile for the calculation of the erosive tooth wear (μm). The data were subjected to Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn tests (P< 0.05). G1 promoted the highest enamel wear (3.68±1.06 μm), similarly to G3 (3.17± 0.80 μm) and G4 (3.44± 1.29 μm). G3 and G4 performed similarly between them and compared with G5 (2.35± 1.44 μm). G2 (1.51± 0.95 μm) and G6 (0.85± 0.36 μm) showed the lowest enamel wear, which did not differ between them and from G5. Oral-B 3D White showed the highest abrasive potential while Close-up Diamond Attraction Power White showed the lowest abrasive potential on eroded enamel in vitro. This study showed that some commercial whitening toothpastes, especially those containing pyrophosphate associated with hydrated silica, enhanced enamel erosive wear.

  14. Reconstruction Techniques of Choice for the Facial Cosmetic Units.

    PubMed

    Russo, F; Linares, M; Iglesias, M E; Martínez-Amo, J L; Cabo, F; Tercedor, J; Costa-Vieira, R; Toledo-Pastrana, T; Ródenas, J M; Leis, V

    2017-10-01

    A broad range of skin flaps can be used to repair facial surgical defects after the excision of a tumor. The aim of our study was to develop a practical guideline covering the most useful skin grafts for each of the distinct facial cosmetic units. This was a multicenter study in which 10 dermatologists with extensive experience in reconstructive surgery chose their preferred technique for each cosmetic unit. The choice of flaps was based on personal experience, taking into account factors such as suitability of the reconstruction technique for the specific defect, the final cosmetic result, surgical difficulty, and risk of complications. Each dermatologist proposed 2 flaps in order of preference for each cosmetic subunit. A score of 10 was given to the first flap and a score of 5 to the second. The total score obtained for each of the options proposed by the participating dermatologists was used to draw up a list of the 3 best grafts for each site. There was notable unanimity of criteria among most of the dermatologists for reconstructive techniques such as the glabellar flap for defects of the medial canthus of the eye, the bilateral advancement flag flap or H flap for the forehead, the rotary door flap for the auricle of the ear, the Mustarde flap for the infraorbital cheek, the O-Z rotation flap for the scalp, the Tenzel flap for the lower eyelid, and the island flap for the upper lip. The results of this study will be useful as a practical guide to choosing the best reconstruction technique for each of the facial cosmetic units. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Cosmetic surgery and conscientious objection.

    PubMed

    Minerva, Francesca

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, I analyse the issue of conscientious objection in relation to cosmetic surgery. I consider cases of doctors who might refuse to perform a cosmetic treatment because: (1) the treatment aims at achieving a goal which is not in the traditional scope of cosmetic surgery; (2) the motivation of the patient to undergo the surgery is considered trivial; (3) the patient wants to use the surgery to promote moral or political values that conflict with the doctor's ones; (4) the patient requires an intervention that would benefit himself/herself, but could damage society at large. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Preservatives in Personal Hygiene and Cosmetic Products, Topical Medications, and Household Cleaners in Spain.

    PubMed

    Pastor-Nieto, María Antonia; Alcántara-Nicolás, Francisco; Melgar-Molero, Virginia; Pérez-Mesonero, Raquel; Vergara-Sánchez, Aránzazu; Martín-Fuentes, Adriana; González-Muñoz, Patricia; de Eusebio-Murillo, Ester

    2017-10-01

    Preservatives are added to cosmetic, household cleaning, and other industrial products to prevent the growth of microorganisms. Unfortunately, exposure to these substances can cause sensitization. Between January and June 2015, we analyzed the ingredients of 2300 products commercially available in Spain to identify the frequency of a wide variety of preservatives in different product categories. We analyzed 1093 skin care and cosmetic products sold exclusively in pharmacies (dermocosmetics), 458 household cleaning and personal hygiene and cosmetic products sold in supermarkets, 636 topical medications, and 113 cosmetic products sold in a herbal shop. Phenoxyethanol, citric acid, sodium benzoate, and potassium sorbate were very common in all the cosmetic product categories. Parabens were present in 16.1% of dermocosmetic products, 14.45% of cosmetic products available in supermarkets, 0.88% of cosmetic products available in the herbal shop, 5.18% of topical medications, and in none of the cleaning products. Isothiazolinones were identified in 2.56% of dermocosmetic products, 18% of cosmetic products in supermarkets, 7.9% of cosmetic products in the herbal shop, 63.63% of household cleaners, and in none of the topical medications. Formaldehyde releasers were detected in 5.76% of dermocosmetic products, 6.42% of cosmetic products sold in supermarkets, 7.96% of cosmetic products sold in the herbal shop, 3.93% of topical medications, and 16.74% of household cleaners. Evaluation of the presence of preservatives in everyday products allows us to indirectly estimate exposure levels to each one. Measures restricting the use of the most problematic preservatives need to be strengthened. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Stain removal and whitening by baking soda dentifrice: A review of literature.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiming

    2017-11-01

    Tooth discoloration may be caused by intrinsic or extrinsic stains or a combination of both. There are 2 major approaches to removing the stains, including the chemical mechanism using peroxides for tooth bleaching and the mechanical mechanism using abrasives in prophylactic pastes and dentifrices to remove stains, resulting in a whitening effect. Attempts have also been made to add a low concentration of peroxides to dentifrices to enhance their abrasive cleaning to remove tooth stains. This article provides a review of both in vitro and clinical studies on stain removal and whitening effect of dentifrices containing sodium bicarbonate (baking soda). In recent years, whitening dentifrices have become popular because of little additional effort for use, ease of availability, low cost, and accumulated evidence of clinical efficacy and safety in the literature. Advances in research and technology have led to innovative formulations of dentifrices using baking soda as the sole abrasive or a component of an abrasive system. Baking soda is biologically compatible with acid-buffering capacities, antibacterial at high concentrations, and has a relatively lower abrasivity. The evidence available in the literature indicates that baking soda-based dentifrices are effective and safe for tooth stain removal and consequently whitening. A number of clinical studies have also shown that baking soda-based dentifrices are more effective in stain removal and whitening than some non-baking soda-containing dentifrices with a higher abrasivity. So far, research efforts have mainly focused on stain removal and tooth-whitening efficacy and clinical safety of baking soda dentifrices used with manual toothbrushes, with only a few studies investigating their effects using powered toothbrushes, for which further research is encouraged. As part of a daily oral hygiene practice, baking soda-based dentifrice is a desirable, alternative or additional measure for tooth stain removal and whitening

  18. Psychological aspects of cosmetic rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Marcus, P

    1984-07-01

    This paper summarises some of the major findings of a doctoral research entitled "Psychological Aspects of Cosmetic Rhinoplasty" carried out when the author was working in the United Kingdom on a thesis that was accepted for the degree of PhD by the University of London. From the point of view of the clinical psychologist there can be no doubt that cosmetic rhinoplasty does have largely beneficial short- and long-term psychological and behavioural effects on patients who request the operation and several observations and experiments are described to account for the efficacy and therapeutic value of this operation.

  19. Effect of a New Bleaching Gel on Tooth Whitening.

    PubMed

    Barry, T N; Bailey, C W; Ashcraft-Olmscheid, D; Vandewalle, K S

    The purpose of this study was to compare the whitening efficacy of a novel bleaching agent containing a unique tribarrel hydremide-peroxide gel (KöR) with a traditional bleaching system of hydrogen peroxide or carbamide peroxide (Opalescence). Bovine incisors were mounted into a custom resin, arch-shaped mounting device. Four groups of 10 teeth were created using mounting devices containing five teeth each. The in-office and home bleaching gels of KöR and Opalescence were applied to the teeth alone and in trays to simulate a combination of in-office and home bleaching or home bleaching only. Spectrophotometer readings of L* a* b* were performed at baseline, the end of active bleaching (immediate), and three and six months postbleaching. Immediately postbleaching, the use of Opalescence gel resulted in greater change in ΔE* and Δb* (less yellow) for combined and home bleaching techniques compared with KöR. After six months, Opalescence had significantly greater ΔE* and Δb* compared with KöR for home bleaching only. There was no significant difference in ΔL* between Opalescence and KöR at any time period with either technique.

  20. The use and interpretation of in vitro data in regulatory toxicology: cosmetics, toiletries and household products.

    PubMed

    Indans, Ian

    2002-02-28

    There is currently a drive to eliminate animal testing for cosmetics, toiletries and household products; indeed, the European Union Cosmetics Directive aims to prohibit the use of experimental animals for the testing of finished cosmetic products after 2002. At present, national prohibitions are in place in the UK, Germany, Austria and the Netherlands, for the testing of finished cosmetic products and cosmetic ingredients. In the USA animal testing for certain types of finished products is mandatory. Against this background, the currently available regulatory in vitro tests comprise methods for eye irritation, skin corrosivity, genotoxicity, dermal penetration and photoirritation. The draft updates to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development guidelines for eye and skin irritation advocate the use of in vitro or ex vivo methods prior to the commencement of animal studies. At present, testing for these endpoints cannot be completed in vitro, but potentially corrosive substances and products can be classified without the need for animal studies. Regulatory genotoxicity testing can be completed using only in vitro methods, provided that a clear negative outcome is obtained for each test. Data from dermal penetration studies may be used to refine risk assessments. Current developments in areas such as skin sensitisation and skin irritation promise that in the reasonably near future such information may be generated without the use of animals.

  1. Investigating Motivations for Women's Skin Bleaching in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kelly M.; Robkin, Navit; Gaska, Karie; Njoki, Lillian Carol

    2011-01-01

    Why do many African women continue to use damaging skin-bleaching cosmetics that contain dangerous chemicals (e.g., mercury) that may increase their rates of infertility, skin cancer, and serious skin/brain/kidney disease? To address this question, our study investigated motivations driving the preservation of skin-bleaching practices in Tanzania.…

  2. Selection of fragrance for cosmetic cream containing olive oil.

    PubMed

    Parente, María Emma; Gámbaro, Adriana; Boinbaser, Lucía; Roascio, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Perceptions of essences for potential use in the development of a line of cosmetic emulsions containing olive oil were studied. Six cream samples prepared with six essences selected in a preliminary study were evaluated for overall liking and intention to purchase by a 63-women sample. A check-all-that-apply (CATA) question consisting of 32 terms was used to gather information about consumer perceptions of fragrance, affective associations, effects on the skin, price, target market, zones of application, and occasions of use. Hierarchical cluster analysis led to the identification of two consumer clusters with different frequency of use of face creams. The two clusters assigned different overall liking scores to the samples and used the CATA terms differently to describe them. A fragrance with jasmine as its principal note was selected for further development of cosmetic creams, as it was awarded the highest overall liking scores by respondents of the two clusters, and was significantly associated with cosmetic features including nourishing, moisturizing, softening, with a delicious and mild smell, and with a natural image, as well as being considered suitable for face and body creams. The use of CATA questions enabled the rapid identification of attributes associated by respondents with a cosmetic cream's fragrance, in addition to contributing relevant information for the definition of marketing and communication strategies.

  3. Safety Evaluation of Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Compounds for Cosmetic Use

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Chan Young; Kim, Kyu-Bong

    2015-01-01

    Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are products of condensed ethylene oxide and water that can have various derivatives and functions. Since many PEG types are hydrophilic, they are favorably used as penetration enhancers, especially in topical dermatological preparations. PEGs, together with their typically nonionic derivatives, are broadly utilized in cosmetic products as surfactants, emulsifiers, cleansing agents, humectants, and skin conditioners. The compounds studied in this review include PEG/PPG-17/6 copolymer, PEG-20 glyceryl triisostearate, PEG-40 hydrogenated castor oil, and PEG-60 hydrogenated castor oil. Overall, much of the data available in this review are on PEGylated oils (PEG-40 and PEG-60 hydrogenated castor oils), which were recommended as safe for use in cosmetics up to 100% concentration. Currently, PEG-20 glyceryl triisostearate and PEGylated oils are considered safe for cosmetic use according to the results of relevant studies. Additionally, PEG/PPG-17/6 copolymer should be further studied to ensure its safety as a cosmetic ingredient. PMID:26191379

  4. [Allergy to cosmetics. I. Fragrances].

    PubMed

    Kieć-Swierczyńska, Marta; Krecisz, Beata; Swierczyńska-Machura, Dominika

    2004-01-01

    The authors report current information on allergy to aromatic agents present in cosmetics and products of household chemistry. In the perfume industry, about 3000 aromas are used. Single products may contain from 10 to 300 compounds. The problem of difficulties encountered in the diagnosis of hypersensitivity to odors is addressed. The mixture of 8 such products used in diagnostic screening is able to detect allergy only in about 30% of patients who do not tolerate cosmetics. Changing frequency of allergy to individual aromas is discussed. It has been now observed that cinnamon products are less allergic than chemical compounds present in oak moss. Since the 1990s of the last century, allergy to a synthetic aromatic agent, Lyral is the subject of interest in many research centers involved in studies of contact allergy. Half the cosmetics present in European markets, especially deodorants, after shave cosmetics, hand and body lotions contain this agent. It induces positive reactions in about 10% of patients allergic to aromatic agents. Detection of allergy to Lyral is difficult as it is not included in the set of commercial allergens used to diagnose hypersensitivity to aromatic agents.

  5. Physical-chemical characteristics of whitening toothpaste and evaluation of its effects on enamel roughness.

    PubMed

    Hilgenberg, Sérgio Paulo; Pinto, Shelon Cristina Souza; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Santos, Fábio André; Wambier, Denise Stadler

    2011-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the physical-chemical characteristics of whitening toothpastes and their effect on bovine enamel after application of a bleaching agent (16% carbamide peroxide). Physical-chemical analysis was made considering mass loss by desiccation, ash content and pH of the toothpastes. Thirty bovine dental enamel fragments were prepared for roughness measurements. The samples were subjected to bleaching treatments and simulated brushing: G1. Sorriso Dentes Brancos (Conventional toothpaste), G2. Close-UP Whitening (Whitening toothpaste), and G3. Sensodyne Branqueador (Whitening toothpaste). The average roughness (Ra) was evaluated prior to the bleaching treatment and after brushing. The results revealed differences in the physical-chemical characteristics of the toothpastes (p < 0.0001). The final Ra had higher values (p < 0.05) following the procedures. The mean of the Ra did not show significant differences, considering toothpaste groups and bleaching treatment. Interaction (toothpaste and bleaching treatment) showed significant difference (p < 0.0001). The whitening toothpastes showed differences in their physical-chemical properties. All toothpastes promoted changes to the enamel surface, probably by the use of a bleaching agent.

  6. [Assessment of the sensitizing potency of cosmetic ingredients and commodities. How will the ingredients of cosmetics and commodities be tested in Europe today and tomorrow?].

    PubMed

    Peiser, M; Platzek, T; Luch, A

    2012-03-01

    Cosmetics and certain commodities are applied or used by consumers directly on the skin. Creams may remain on the skin for longer periods, hair is dyed multiple times per year, nickel ions can be released from studs and piercings in areas of skin damage or migrate from toy materials into the skin of children. Accordingly, using or handling such products always entails a risk for developing a contact allergy. Moreover, daily usage and repeated contacts to certain cosmetics and commodities might lead to repeated elicitation of contact eczema in people already sensitized against allergenic ingredients. Unfortunately, contact allergy is not curable. For the assessment of the allergenic potential of chemicals, only testing based on animal experiments was available in the past. In 2003, the 7(th) amendment of the Cosmetics Directive 76/768/EWG laid down a ban on animal testing of cosmetic ingredients and from 2013 a general marketing ban of such products as well. Therefore, the development and validation of non-animal methods for assessing the toxicological endpoint sensitization/allergenic potency of chemicals is a major task for the years ahead and remains equally a challenge for industry and regulatory agencies.

  7. [Post-operative infections after cosmetic tourism].

    PubMed

    Holst-Albrechtsen, Sine; Sørensen, Lene Birk; Juel, Jacob

    2018-06-11

    Cosmetic tourism is defined as patient mobility across borders, typically constituted by patients seeking cosmetic surgery at lower costs abroad. The most common procedures are abdominoplasty, fat grafting and breast augmentation. Very little is known about the complication rates after cosmetic tourism, and there is a paucity of evidence in all aspects of cosmetic tourism. In this review, we focus on post-operative complications i.e. post-operative infections, in particular with rare microorganisms such as mycobacteria.

  8. [Cosmetic surgery of the male genitalia].

    PubMed

    Chevallier, D; Haertig, A; Faix, A; Droupy, S

    2013-07-01

    To describe the indications and results of techniques to change the appearance of the penis for aesthetic reasons. Provide recommendations concerning cosmetic surgery of the male genitalia. We have selected from Medline Database, articles published between 1990 and 2011. Forty articles have been selected excluding papers reporting populations less than five cases per type of procedure. There is no consensus on the size below which it is justifiable to accept or attempt to modify the size of the penis. Length of the penis in maximal tension less than 9.5 cm or 10 cm in erection can be considered as an acceptable limit, in a patient who suffers from it. The assessment of men asking for penile enlargement must include a psychosexological or psychiatric evaluation, looking for a dysmorphophobia or another psychiatric condition. Penile extenders under medical control must be the first-line treatment option for patient seeking penile lenghtening procedure when justified. In case of failure, three techniques can be used alone or in combination: penile lengthening by section of the suspensory ligaments and suprapubic skin advancement, lipectomy of Mons pubis and scrotal webbing section. The results are modest, the rate of complications significant and satisfaction low. Girth enlargement techniques by injection of autologous fat give inconsistent aesthetic results and satisfaction rates are low. All other techniques remain experimental. Cosmetic surgery of the penis is associated with a high risk of forensic exposure and surgery should be only proposed after a multidisciplinary consensus, followed by a time of reflection given to the patient after full disclosure. Applications for the purpose of reconstruction surgery after trauma or consequences of cancer treatment are justified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Kinetic release of hydrogen peroxide from different whitening products.

    PubMed

    da Silva Marques, Duarte Nuno; Silveira, Joao Miguel; Marques, Joana Rita; Amaral, Joao Almeida; Guilherme, Nuno Marques; da Mata, António Duarte

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the kinetics of hydrogen peroxide (HP) release from five different bleaching products: VivaStyle® 10% fitted tray gel, VivaStyle® 30% in-office bleaching gel, VivaStyle® Paint-On Plus paint-on bleaching varnish, Opalescence PF® 10% carbamide peroxide gel and Trèswhite Supreme™ 10% HP gel. Each product was firstly titrated for its HP content by a described method. HP release kinetics was assessed by a modified spectrophotometric technique. One sample t test was performed to test for differences between the manufacturers' claimed HP concentrations and the titrated HP content in the whitening products. Analysis of variance plus Tamhane's post hoc tests and Pearson correlation analysis were used as appropriate. Values of P < 0.05 were taken as significant. Titrated HP revealed an increased content when compared to the manufacturer's specifications for all the products tested (P < 0.05), although only products from one manufacturer produced significantly higher results. All products presented a significant (P < 0.05) and sustained release of HP. However, the product with paint-on cellulose-based matrix resulted in significantly (P < 0.05) faster kinetics when compared to other products tested. These results are consistent with manufacturers' reduced recommended application times. The results of this study suggest that modifying the matrix composition may be a viable alternative to HP concentration increase, since this may result in faster release kinetics without exposure to high HP concentrations.

  10. Alternatives for skin sensitisation: Hazard identification and potency categorisation: Report from an EPAA/CEFIC LRI/Cosmetics Europe cross sector workshop, ECHA Helsinki, April 23rd and 24th 2015.

    PubMed

    Basketter, David; Ashikaga, Takao; Casati, Silvia; Hubesch, Bruno; Jaworska, Joanna; de Knecht, Joop; Landsiedel, Robert; Manou, Irene; Mehling, Annette; Petersohn, Dirk; Rorije, Emiel; Rossi, Laura H; Steiling, Winfried; Teissier, Silvia; Worth, Andrew

    2015-11-01

    In the two years since the last workshop report, the environment surrounding the prediction of skin sensitisation hazards has experienced major change. Validated non-animal tests are now OECD Test Guidelines. Accordingly, the recent cross sector workshop focused on how to use in vitro data for regulatory decision-making. After a review of general approaches and six case studies, there was broad consensus that a simple, transparent stepwise process involving non-animal methods was an opportunity waiting to be seized. There was also strong feeling the approach should not be so rigidly defined that assay variations/additional tests are locked out. Neither should it preclude more complex integrated approaches being used for other purposes, e.g. potency estimation. All agreed the ultimate goal is a high level of protection of human health. Thus, experience in the population will be the final arbiter of whether toxicological predictions are fit for purpose. Central to this is the reflection that none of the existing animal assays is perfect; the non-animal methods should not be expected to be so either, but by integrated use of methods and all other relevant information, including clinical feedback, we have the opportunity to continue to improve toxicology whilst avoiding animal use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Study on objectively evaluating skin aging according to areas of skin texture].

    PubMed

    Shan, Gaixin; Gan, Ping; He, Ling; Sun, Lu; Li, Qiannan; Jiang, Zheng; He, Xiangqian

    2015-02-01

    Skin aging principles play important roles in skin disease diagnosis, the evaluation of skin cosmetic effect, forensic identification and age identification in sports competition, etc. This paper proposes a new method to evaluate the skin aging objectively and quantitatively by skin texture area. Firstly, the enlarged skin image was acquired. Then, the skin texture image was segmented by using the iterative threshold method, and the skin ridge image was extracted according to the watershed algorithm. Finally, the skin ridge areas of the skin texture were extracted. The experiment data showed that the average areas of skin ridges, of both men and women, had a good correlation with age (the correlation coefficient r of male was 0.938, and the correlation coefficient r of female was 0.922), and skin texture area and age regression curve showed that the skin texture area increased with age. Therefore, it is effective to evaluate skin aging objectively by the new method presented in this paper.

  12. Micro-structural integrity of dental enamel subjected to two tooth whitening regimes.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Reina; Shibata, Yo; Manabe, Atsufumi; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2010-04-01

    Colour modification of tooth enamel has proven successful, but it is unclear how various bleaching applications affect micro-structural integrity of the whitened enamel. To investigate the internal structural integrity of human intact tooth enamel with the application of two commonly used whitening regimes (in-office power bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide and home bleaching with 10% carbamide peroxide), evaluations were performed on teeth of identical colour classification. After the bleaching applications, the enamel mineral density was quantified and visualised with micro-computed tomography. The micro-structural differences between the whitened tooth enamel samples were distinctive, though the colour parameter changes within the samples were equivalent. Home bleaching achieved colour modification by demineralisation, whereas in-office bleaching depended on redistribution of the minerals after treatment and subsequent enhanced mineralisation.

  13. Application of a zero-latency whitening filter to compact binary coalescence gravitational-wave searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukada, Leo; Cannon, Kipp; Hanna, Chad; Keppel, Drew; Meacher, Duncan; Messick, Cody

    2018-05-01

    Joint electromagnetic and gravitational-wave (GW) observation is a major goal of both the GW astronomy and electromagnetic astronomy communities for the coming decade. One way to accomplish this goal is to direct follow-up of GW candidates. Prompt electromagnetic emission may fade quickly, therefore it is desirable to have GW detection happen as quickly as possible. A leading source of latency in GW detection is the whitening of the data. We examine the performance of a zero-latency whitening filter in a detection pipeline for compact binary coalescence (CBC) GW signals. We find that the filter reproduces signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) sufficiently consistent with the results of the original high-latency and phase-preserving filter for both noise and artificial GW signals (called "injections"). Additionally, we demonstrate that these two whitening filters show excellent agreement in χ2 value, a discriminator for GW signals.

  14. Development of a Spirulina Extract/Alginate-Imbedded PCL Nanofibrous Cosmetic Patch.

    PubMed

    Byeon, Seon Yeong; Cho, Myung Kwon; Shim, Kyou Hee; Kim, Hye Jin; Song, Hyeon Gi; Shin, Hwa Sung

    2017-09-28

    Cosmetic patches have recently been developed as skin products for personal care owing to rapid advances in the technology of delivery of active ingredients, moisture, and adhesiveness to skin. Alginate and Spirulina are typical marine resources used in cosmetic products. This research involved the development of a Spirulina extract-impregnated alginate nanofiber cosmetic patch supported by a polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofiber cover ( Spi /Alg-PCL NF patch). In addition to the ability of alginate to affect moisture and adhesiveness to skin, the impregnation of Spirulina extract strengthened those abilities as well as its own bioactive effectiveness. All fabrication processing steps were undertaken in aqueous solution. The three components (alginate, Spirulina extract, and PCL) had no detected cytotoxicity in human keratinocyte cell-based examination. In addition, wetting the pre-dried patch on the skin resulted in the Spirulina extract being released within 30 min. The results indicate the excellence of the Spi /Alg-PCL NF patch as a skin-care cosmetic device.

  15. Preservatives and fragrances in selected consumer-available cosmetics and detergents.

    PubMed

    Yazar, Kerem; Johnsson, Stina; Lind, Marie-Louise; Boman, Anders; Lidén, Carola

    2011-05-01

    Preservatives and fragrances are important and frequent skin sensitizers, found in a wide range of products intended for personal and occupational use. To examine the use of preservatives and fragrances in certain cosmetics and detergents on the market. The product types studied were shampoos, hair conditioners, liquid soaps, wet tissues, washing-up liquids, and multi-purpose cleaners. Ingredient labels of 204 cosmetic products and ingredient data sheets of 97 detergents, available on company websites, were examined. The preservatives most frequently identified were phenoxyethanol, methylparaben, sodium benzoate, propylparaben, and methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone. Parabens were found in 44% of cosmetics and 9% of detergents; formaldehyde-releasers in 25% of cosmetics and 8% of detergents; and isothiazolinones in 23% of cosmetics and 28% of detergents. The fragrances most frequently identified were linalool, limonene, hexyl cinnamal, butylphenyl methylpropional, and citronellol. Eighty-eight per cent of the products contained fragrances, and any of the 26 fragrances requiring labelling were found in half of the cosmetics and one-third of the detergents. Several preservatives and fragrances with well-known skin-sensitizing potential were common in the examined product types. Such products may be used several times a day by consumers and workers. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. On estimating attenuation from the amplitude of the spectrally whitened ambient seismic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weemstra, Cornelis; Westra, Willem; Snieder, Roel; Boschi, Lapo

    2014-06-01

    Measuring attenuation on the basis of interferometric, receiver-receiver surface waves is a non-trivial task: the amplitude, more than the phase, of ensemble-averaged cross-correlations is strongly affected by non-uniformities in the ambient wavefield. In addition, ambient noise data are typically pre-processed in ways that affect the amplitude itself. Some authors have recently attempted to measure attenuation in receiver-receiver cross-correlations obtained after the usual pre-processing of seismic ambient-noise records, including, most notably, spectral whitening. Spectral whitening replaces the cross-spectrum with a unit amplitude spectrum. It is generally assumed that cross-terms have cancelled each other prior to spectral whitening. Cross-terms are peaks in the cross-correlation due to simultaneously acting noise sources, that is, spurious traveltime delays due to constructive interference of signal coming from different sources. Cancellation of these cross-terms is a requirement for the successful retrieval of interferometric receiver-receiver signal and results from ensemble averaging. In practice, ensemble averaging is replaced by integrating over sufficiently long time or averaging over several cross-correlation windows. Contrary to the general assumption, we show in this study that cross-terms are not required to cancel each other prior to spectral whitening, but may also cancel each other after the whitening procedure. Specifically, we derive an analytic approximation for the amplitude difference associated with the reversed order of cancellation and normalization. Our approximation shows that an amplitude decrease results from the reversed order. This decrease is predominantly non-linear at small receiver-receiver distances: at distances smaller than approximately two wavelengths, whitening prior to ensemble averaging causes a significantly stronger decay of the cross-spectrum.

  17. Effectiveness and mode of action of whitening dentifrices on enamel extrinsic stains.

    PubMed

    Alshara, Salem; Lippert, Frank; Eckert, George J; Hara, Anderson T

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to investigate the mode of action and the whitening effect of whitening dentifrices. Two hundred fifty-six bovine enamel specimens (10 × 10 mm(2)) were prepared, partially stained, and assigned into eight groups (n = 32): six whitening dentifrices, one nonwhitening and deionized water (negative control), and further divided in two subgroups (n = 16), according to the test model: chemical (dentifrice slurry treatment only) or chemo-mechanical (slurry + toothbrushing). Specimens were treated with dentifrice slurries 2 ×/day for 1 min and toothbrushed or not, according to each model. In between dentifrice treatments, specimens were artificially stained for 5 h. This protocol was repeated for 5 days and enamel color changes (∆E) were measured after each day (days 1-5). The abrasive level of the dentifrices was determined following the ISO11609 guidelines. In the chemo-mechanical model, the whitening action of all dentifrices was observed after day 1, being higher than the negative control group (p < 0.05). In days 2-5, nonsignificant changes in color were observed for all groups (p > 0.05). Differences on ∆E among dentifrices were observed, and they seemed to correlate well with their abrasive level (r(2) = 0.80). In the chemical model, no significant differences were observed among groups (p > 0.05), with ∆E remaining constant throughout the study. Higher ∆E values were observed in the chemo-mechanical model compared to the chemical (p < 0.05). All tested dentifrices were effective in whitening stained enamel and their mode of action showed to be mainly mechanical (toothbrushing abrasion). The abrasive level of dentifrices seems to determine its whitening effectiveness.

  18. Galloyl-RGD as a new cosmetic ingredient

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The cosmetics market has rapidly increased over the last years. For example, in 2011 it reached 242.8 billion US dollars, which was a 3.9% increase compared to 2010. There have been many recent trials aimed at finding the functional ingredients for new cosmetics. Gallic acid is a phytochemical derived from various herbs, and has anti-fungal, anti-viral, and antioxidant properties. Although phytochemicals are useful as cosmetic ingredients, they have a number of drawbacks, such as thermal stability, residence time in the skin, and permeability through the dermal layer. To overcome these problems, we considered conjugation of gallic acid with a peptide. Results We synthesized galloyl-RGD, which represents a conjugate of gallic acid and the peptide RGD, purified it by HPLC and characterized by MALDI-TOF with the aim of using it as a new cosmetic ingredient. Thermal stability of galloyl-RGD was tested at alternating temperatures (consecutive 4°C, 20°C, or 40°C for 8 h each) on days 2, 21, 41, and 61. Galloyl-RGD was relatively safe to HaCaT keratinocytes, as their viability after 48 h incubation with 500 ppm galloyl-RGD was 93.53%. In the group treated with 50 ppm galloyl-RGD, 85.0% of free radicals were removed, whereas 1000 ppm galloyl-RGD suppressed not only L-DOPA formation (43.8%) but also L-DOPA oxidation (54.4%). Conclusions Galloyl-RGD is a promising candidate for a cosmetic ingredient. PMID:25103826

  19. Galloyl-RGD as a new cosmetic ingredient.

    PubMed

    Park, Dae-Hun; Jung, Dae Hyun; Kim, Soo Jung; Kim, Sung Han; Park, Kyung Mok

    2014-08-08

    The cosmetics market has rapidly increased over the last years. For example, in 2011 it reached 242.8 billion US dollars, which was a 3.9% increase compared to 2010. There have been many recent trials aimed at finding the functional ingredients for new cosmetics. Gallic acid is a phytochemical derived from various herbs, and has anti-fungal, anti-viral, and antioxidant properties. Although phytochemicals are useful as cosmetic ingredients, they have a number of drawbacks, such as thermal stability, residence time in the skin, and permeability through the dermal layer. To overcome these problems, we considered conjugation of gallic acid with a peptide. We synthesized galloyl-RGD, which represents a conjugate of gallic acid and the peptide RGD, purified it by HPLC and characterized by MALDI-TOF with the aim of using it as a new cosmetic ingredient. Thermal stability of galloyl-RGD was tested at alternating temperatures (consecutive 4°C, 20°C, or 40°C for 8 h each) on days 2, 21, 41, and 61. Galloyl-RGD was relatively safe to HaCaT keratinocytes, as their viability after 48 h incubation with 500 ppm galloyl-RGD was 93.53%. In the group treated with 50 ppm galloyl-RGD, 85.0% of free radicals were removed, whereas 1000 ppm galloyl-RGD suppressed not only L-DOPA formation (43.8%) but also L-DOPA oxidation (54.4%). Galloyl-RGD is a promising candidate for a cosmetic ingredient.

  20. Determinants of inhalant (whitener) use among street children in a South Indian city.

    PubMed

    Praveen, Devarsetty; Maulik, Pallab K; Raghavendra, Bellara; Khan, Maseer; Guggilla, Rama K; Bhatia, Prakash

    2012-08-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in the year 2008 among 174 children in observation homes in Hyderabad, India, to estimate the distribution of inhalant (whitener) use among this population. Data were collected using an instrument developed for this purpose. About 61% of the children were boys and their mean age was 12.2 years (range 5-18 years). Whitener use was found in 35% of the children along with concurrent use of other substances. Peer pressure was the commonest cause reported for initiating substance use. The high prevalence is an important concern for the Indian policymakers given the large number of street children in Indian cities.

  1. Encapsulation of cosmetic active ingredients for topical application--a review.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Francisca; Santos, Lúcia

    2016-02-01

    Microencapsulation is finding increasing applications in cosmetics and personal care markets. This article provides an overall discussion on encapsulation of cosmetically active ingredients and encapsulation techniques for cosmetic and personal care products for topical applications. Some of the challenges are identified and critical aspects and future perspectives are addressed. Many cosmetics and personal care products contain biologically active substances that require encapsulation for increased stability of the active materials. The topical and transdermal delivery of active cosmetic ingredients requires effective, controlled and safe means of reaching the target site within the skin. Preservation of the active ingredients is also essential during formulation, storage and application of the final cosmetic product. Microencapsulation offers an ideal and unique carrier system for cosmetic active ingredients, as it has the potential to respond to all these requirements. The encapsulated agent can be released by several mechanisms, such as mechanical action, heat, diffusion, pH, biodegradation and dissolution. The selection of the encapsulation technique and shell material depends on the final application of the product, considering physical and chemical stability, concentration, required particle size, release mechanism and manufacturing costs.

  2. Cosmetics for acne: indications and recommendations for an evidence-based approach.

    PubMed

    Dall'oglio, F; Tedeschi, A; Fabbrocini, G; Veraldi, S; Picardo, M; Micali, G

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this review was to evaluate, by a thorough revision of the literature, the true efficacy of currently available topic and systemic cosmetic acne agents. The efficacy of currently available cosmetic acne agents has been retrospectively evaluated via thorough revision of the literature on matched electronic databases (PubMed). All retrieved studies, either randomized clinical trials or clinical trials, controlled or uncontrolled were considered. Scientific evidence suggests that most cosmetic products for acne may enhance the clinical outcome. Cleansers should be indicated to all acne patients; those containing benzoyl peroxide or azelaic/salicylic acid/triclosan show the best efficacy profile. Sebum-controlling agents containing nicotinamide or zinc acetate may minimize excessive sebum production. Cosmetics with antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory substances such as, respectively, ethyl lactate or phytosphingosine and nicotinamide or resveratrol, may speed acne recovery. Topical corneolytics, including retinaldehyde/glycolic acid or lactic acid, induce a comedolytic effect and may also facilitate skin absorption of topical drugs. Finally, the use of specific moisturizers should be strongly recommended in all acne patients. Cosmetics, if correctly prescribed, may improve the performance of the therapy, whereas wrong procedures and/or inadequate cosmetics may worsen acne. Cosmetological recommendations may allow clinicians to make informed decisions about the role of various cosmetics and to indentify the appropriate indications and precautions. The choice of the most effective product should take into consideration the ongoing pharmacological therapy and acne type/severity as well.

  3. Allergic contact dermatitis due to cosmetics: A clinical and epidemiological study in a tertiary hospital.

    PubMed

    Zaragoza-Ninet, V; Blasco Encinas, R; Vilata-Corell, J J; Pérez-Ferriols, A; Sierra-Talamantes, C; Esteve-Martínez, A; de la Cuadra-Oyanguren, J

    2016-05-01

    The incidence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to cosmetics in the general population is rising with the increasing use of cosmetic products and their proliferation and diversification. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of ACD to cosmetics in our setting, analyze changes over time, describe the clinical and epidemiological features of this allergic reaction, and identify the allergens and cosmetics involved. We performed a prospective study at the skin allergy unit in Hospital General Universitario de Valencia in Spain between 2005 and 2013 and compared our findings with data collected retrospectively for the period 1996 to 2004. The 5419 patients who underwent patch testing during these 2 periods were included in the study. The mean prevalence of ACD to cosmetics increased from 9.8% in the first period (1996-2004) to 13.9% in the second period (2005-2013). A significant correlation was found between ACD to cosmetics and female sex but not atopy. Kathon CG (blend of methylchloroisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone), fragrances, and paraphenylenediamine were the most common causes of ACD to cosmetics during both study periods, and acrylates and sunscreens were identified as emerging allergens during the second period. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Complications After Cosmetic Surgery Tourism.

    PubMed

    Klein, Holger J; Simic, Dario; Fuchs, Nina; Schweizer, Riccardo; Mehra, Tarun; Giovanoli, Pietro; Plock, Jan A

    2017-04-01

    Cosmetic surgery tourism characterizes a phenomenon of people traveling abroad for aesthetic surgery treatment. Problems arise when patients return with complications or need of follow-up care. To investigate the complications of cosmetic surgery tourism treated at our hospital as well as to analyze arising costs for the health system. Between 2010 and 2014, we retrospectively included all patients presenting with complications arising from cosmetic surgery abroad. We reviewed medical records for patients' characteristics including performed operations, complications, and treatment. Associated cost expenditure and Diagnose Related Groups (DRG)-related reimbursement were analyzed. In total 109 patients were identified. All patients were female with a mean age of 38.5 ± 11.3 years. Most procedures were performed in South America (43%) and Southeast (29.4%) or central Europe (24.8%), respectively. Favored procedures were breast augmentation (39.4%), abdominoplasty (11%), and breast reduction (7.3%). Median time between the initial procedure abroad and presentation was 15 days (interquartile range [IQR], 9) for early, 81.5 days (IQR, 69.5) for midterm, and 4.9 years (IQR, 9.4) for late complications. Main complications were infections (25.7%), wound breakdown (19.3%), and pain/discomfort (14.7%). The majority of patients (63.3%) were treated conservatively; 34.8% became inpatients with a mean hospital stay of 5.2 ± 3.8 days. Overall DRG-related reimbursement premiums approximately covered the total costs. Despite warnings regarding associated risks, cosmetic surgery tourism has become increasingly popular. Efficient patients' referral to secondary/tertiary care centers with standardized evaluation and treatment can limit arising costs without imposing a too large burden on the social healthcare system. 4. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. Cosmetic rhinoplasty: revision rates revisited.

    PubMed

    Neaman, Keith C; Boettcher, Adam K; Do, Viet H; Mulder, Corlyne; Baca, Marissa; Renucci, John D; VanderWoude, Douglas L

    2013-01-01

    Cosmetic rhinoplasty has great potential to change a patient's appearance. It also carries the very real risk of patient dissatisfaction and request for revision. Although there have been many published patient series studying various aspects of rhinoplasty, questions remain regarding revision rates, as well as risk factors for complications, dissatisfaction, and revision. The authors investigate the rate of cosmetic rhinoplasty revision at a plastic surgery group practice and identify risk factors for revision. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed for all patients who presented to a single multisurgeon practice for primary rhinoplasty, septorhinoplasty, and revision rhinoplasty between 1998 and 2008. Patient demographics, preoperative complaints, preoperative physical examination findings, detailed operative data, and postoperative outcomes were abstracted from the charts. Complication rates, revision rates, and postoperative patient satisfaction were calculated and analyzed for identifiable risk factors. Of 369 consecutive cosmetic rhinoplasties performed during the study period, 279 (72.7%) were conducted with an open approach. The overall complication, dissatisfaction, and revision rates were 7.9%, 15.4%, and 9.8%, respectively. Postoperatively, most patients (87%) were identified by their surgeons as having had successful anatomical correction of their nasal deformity. History of previous nasal operation or facial fracture, lack of anatomical correction, and occurrence of postoperative complications were associated with both revision and dissatisfaction (P < .05). Failure to address the nasal tip at the time of primary rhinoplasty was associated with a higher level of dissatisfaction. Cosmetic rhinoplasty is one of the most challenging procedures in plastic surgery; however, these data indicate that a high level of patient satisfaction is attainable within a plastic surgery group practice if certain factors are considered. Specifically, surgeons

  6. Eye cosmetic usage and associated ocular comfort.

    PubMed

    Ng, Alison; Evans, Katharine; North, Rachel; Purslow, Christine

    2012-11-01

    Eye cosmetics usage is commonplace and whilst some products such as eyeliner are applied with close proximity to the ocular surface, there is little knowledge of the short- and long-term ocular effects of eye cosmetic formulations. This study aimed to investigate the use of eye cosmetics and identify any relationships between ocular comfort and cosmetic usage. Results were collated from an online survey comprising 23 questions that recorded demographics, Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) score, extent and range of eye cosmetic use and perceived comfort differences with and without eye cosmetics. The 1360 female respondents (median age 25, interquartile range 20-34 years) completed the survey; 83% reported using eye cosmetics regularly (≥ 3 times per week) with mascara being most commonly used. Fifty three per cent used at least three different eye cosmetics products regularly. OSDI scores of cosmetics users were similar to non-users (p = 0.083), but perceived comfort was greater when cosmetics were not used (p < 0.001). In occasional cosmetics users (use of products < 3 times per week), 65% reported a reduction in comfort when cosmetics were used. Median OSDI scores suggested a trend towards reduced comfort amongst eyeliner users (p = 0.07) although frequency and type of cosmetic products used did not appear to influence OSDI scores. This study shows the use of multiple eye cosmetics is extensive and associated with the perception of ocular discomfort. With such widespread use of these products, more research is required to assess the effect on the ocular surface and tear film, which may be underestimated. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2012 The College of Optometrists.

  7. The influence of a novel in-office tooth whitening procedure using an Er,Cr:YSGG laser on enamel surface morphology.

    PubMed

    Dionysopoulos, Dimitrios; Strakas, Dimitrios; Koliniotou-Koumpia, Eugenia

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of a novel in-office tooth whitening procedure using Er,Cr:YSGG laser radiation on bovine enamel. Forty-eight enamel specimens were prepared from bovine canines and divided into four groups: Group 1 specimens (control) received no whitening treatment; Group 2 received whitening treatment with an at-home whitening agent (22% carbamide peroxide) for 7 days; Group 3 received whitening treatment with a novel in-office whitening agent (35% H(2)O(2)); Group 4 received the same in-office whitening therapy with Group 3 using Er,Cr:YSGG laser in order to accelerate the whitening procedure. The specimens were stored for 10 days after the whitening treatment in artificial saliva. Vickers hardness was determined using a microhardness tester and surface roughness was evaluated using a VSI microscope. Three specimens of each experimental group were examined under SEM and the mineral composition of the specimens was evaluated using EDS. Data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA, Tukey's post-hoc test, Wilcoxon signed rank and Kruskal-Wallis tests (a = 0.05). The surface microhardness of the enamel was reduced after the in-office whitening treatments (P< 0.05), but not influenced after the at-home whitening treatment (P> 0.05). Moreover, the surface roughness was not significantly changed after tooth whitening. EDS analysis did not show alterations in the enamel mineral composition, while SEM observations indicated changes in the surface morphology, especially after in-office tooth whitening (P< 0.05). The laser-assisted whitening treatment with Er,Cr:YSGG laser did not affect the alterations in enamel surface compared with the conventional in-office whitening technique. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Photodamaged skin. Update on therapeutic management.

    PubMed Central

    Goldhar, J. N.; Yong, P. Y.

    1993-01-01

    With baby boomers aging, the medical community is ushered into a new era of patient care, that of cosmetic maintenance and rejuvenation. The authors critically review pharmacologic treatments for preventing and treating photodamaged skin. Issues concerning sunscreens, tretinoin, silicone tissue augmentation, fat transplantation, collagen replacement therapy, and chemical exfoliation of the skin are addressed. Images Figure 1 PMID:8495125

  9. Cosmetic surgery in Australia: a risky business?

    PubMed

    Parker, Rhian

    2007-08-01

    Cosmetic surgery is increasing in popularity in Australia and New Zealand, as it is across other Western countries. However, there is no systematic mechanism for gathering data about cosmetic surgery, nor about the outcomes of that surgery. This column argues that the business of cosmetic surgery in Australia has questionable marketing standards, is conducted with little scrutiny or accountability and offers patients imperfect knowledge about cosmetic procedures. It also argues that while medical practitioners debate among themselves over who should carry out cosmetic procedures, little attention has been paid to questionable advertising in the industry and even less to highlighting the real risks of undergoing cosmetic surgery. While consumers are led to believe that cosmetic surgery is accessible, affordable and safe, they are sheltered from the reality of invasive and risky surgery and from the ability to clearly discern that all cosmetic procedures carry risk. While doctors continue to undertake advertising and engage in a territorial war, they fail to address the really important issues in cosmetic surgery. These are: providing real evidence about what happens in the industry, developing stringent regulations under which the industry should operate and ensuring that all patients considering cosmetic surgery are fully informed as to the risks of that surgery.

  10. Influence of UV filters on the texture profile and efficacy of a cosmetic formulation.

    PubMed

    Fossa Shirata, M M; Campos, P M B G Maia

    2017-12-01

    Considering that many cosmetic products contain UV filters in their composition and that few studies have evaluated the role of UV filters in the physical properties and clinical efficacy of these products, the aim of this study was to assess the influence of UV filters on the properties and immediate effects of a cosmetic formulation. Four cosmetic formulations, vehicle (V), vehicle containing UV filters (F), vehicle containing cassava polysaccharides and alfalfa (A) oligosaccharides and vehicle containing UV filters plus cassava polysaccharides and alfalfa oligosaccharides (multifunctional formulation, M) were developed. The texture profile of the formulations was analysed with a TA.XT plus Texturometer ® . Twenty female volunteers aged 39-45 years were then selected for the assessment of immediate clinical efficacy of the formulations under study and of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), stratum corneum water content and microrelief of the skin obtained with their use. The presence of UV filters resulted in an improvement of the physical properties of the multifunctional cosmetic formulation (M) and of skin microrelief. However, the presence of UV filters also caused a significant decrease in hydration. The presence of sunscreens had a negative influence on immediate skin hydration and TEWL. On the other hand, it positively influenced parameters related to the physical properties of the multifunctional formulation and skin microrelief. Thus, we conclude that the influence of UV filters on the development of cosmetic formulations is an important factor to be considered because it can have either positive or negative effect on the efficacy of the product. © 2017 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  11. IN VIVO STUDIES AND STABILITY STUDY OF CLADOPHORA GLOMERATA EXTRACT AS A COSMETIC ACTIVE INGREDIENT.

    PubMed

    Fabrowska, Joanna; Kapuscinska, Alicja; Leska, Boguslawa; Feliksik-Skrobich, Katarzyna; Nowak, Izabela

    2017-03-01

    Marine algae are widely used as cosmetics raw materials. Likewise, freshwater alga Cladophora glomerata may be a good source of fatty acids and others bioactive agents. The aims of this study was to find out if the addition of the extract from the freshwater C. glonerata affects the stability of prepared cosmetic emulsions and to investigate in vivo effects of the extract in cosmetic formulations on hydration and elasticity of human skin. Extract from the freshwater C. glonierata was obtained using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). Two forms of O/W emulsions were prepared: placebo and emulsion containing 0.5% of Cladophora SFE extract. The stability of obtained emulsions was investigated by using Turbiscan Lab Expert. Emulsions were applied by .volunteers daily. Corneometer was used to evaluate skin hydration and cutometer to examine skin elasticity. Measurements were conducted at reference point (week 0) and after 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th week of application. The addition of Cladophora extract insignificantly affected stability of the emulsion. The extract from C. glomerata in the emulsion influenced the improvement of both skin hydration and its elasticity. Thus, freshwater C. glonierata extract prepared via SFE method may be considered as an effective cosmetic raw material used as a moisturizing and firming agent.

  12. Toothpastes containing abrasive and chemical whitening agents: efficacy in reducing extrinsic dental staining.

    PubMed

    Soares, Cristina Neves Girao Salgado; Amaral, Flavia Lucisano Botelho do; Mesquita, Marcelo Ferraz; Franca, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes; Basting, Roberta Tarkany; Turssi, Cecilia Pedroso

    2015-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the efficacy of toothpastes containing abrasive and chemical whitening agents in reducing the extrinsic discoloration of dental enamel. Sixty slabs of dentin from human teeth were sealed so that only the enamel surface was exposed. The enamel surfaces were photographed for initial color assessment. Staining was performed by immersing the dental slabs in 0.2% chlorhexidine solution for 2 minutes and then in black tea for 60 minutes. This process was repeated 15 times. Photographs were taken at the end of the staining process, and the slabs were divided into 5 groups (n = 12), 3 to be brushed with toothpastes containing chemical whitening agents (2 containing phosphate salts and 1 containing phosphate salts plus hydrogen peroxide) and 2 to represent control groups (ordinary/nonwhitening toothpaste and distilled water). The dental slabs were subjected to mechanical toothbrushing with toothpaste slurry or distilled water, according to each group's specifications. After brushing, more photographs were taken for color analysis. The results showed a significant reduction in luminosity after the staining process in addition to an increase in the colors red and yellow (P < 0.001). After brushing, there was a significant increase in luminosity and a reduction in both red and yellow (P < 0.001). However, there was no observed difference between the changes in color values in dental enamel slabs brushed with whitening toothpastes and the changes found in slabs brushed with ordinary toothpaste. The whitening toothpastes did not outperform an ordinary toothpaste in the removal of extrinsic staining.

  13. In vitro cariostatic effect of whitening toothpastes in human dental enamel-microhardness evaluation.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Melina Mayumi; Rodrigues, José Augusto; Marchi, Giselle Maria; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, the cariostatic effect of whitening toothpastes. Ninety-five dental fragments were obtained from nonerupted third molars. The fragments were embedded in polystyrene resin and sequentially polished with abrasive papers (400-, 600-, and 1,000-grit) and diamond pastes of 6, 3, and 1 microm. The fragments were assigned in five groups according to toothpaste treatment: G1 = Rembrandt Plus with Peroxide; G2 = Crest Dual Action Whitening; G3 = Aquafresh Whitening Triple Protection; and the control groups: G4 = Sensodyne Original (without fluoride); G5 = Sensodyne Sodium Bicarbonated (with fluoride). The initial enamel microhardness evaluations were done. For 2 weeks the fragments were submitted daily to a de-remineralization cycle followed by a 10-minute toothpaste slurry. After that, the final microhardness tests were done. The percentage of mineral loss of enamel was determined for statistical analysis. Analysis of variance and the Tukey test were applied. The results did not show statistically significant differences in mineral loss among groups G1, G2, G3, and G5, which statistically differ from G4 (toothpaste without fluoride). G4 showed the highest mineral loss (P < or = .05). The whitening toothpastes evaluated showed a cariostatic effect similar to regular, nonwhitening toothpaste.

  14. In vitro study on tooth enamel lesions related to whitening dentifrice.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Danilo Barral; Silva, Luciana Rodrigues; Campos, Elisângela de Jesus; Correia de Araújo, Roberto Paulo

    2011-01-01

    The tooth whitening substances for extrinsic use that are available in Brazil contain hydrogen peroxide or carbamide peroxide. Several studies have attributed the appearance of lesions in the enamel morphology, including hypersensitivity, to these substances. Such lesions justify fluoride therapy and application of infrared lasers, among other procedures. However, there is no consensus among researchers regarding the relevance of the severity of lesions detected on the tooth surface. The present study was carried out with an aim of evaluating in vitro the effects of the hydrogen peroxide, carbamide peroxide and sodium bicarbonate contained in dentifrice formulations, on human tooth enamel. After darkening process in laboratory, human premolars were brushed using dentifrice containing the two whitening substances (Rembrandt - carbamide peroxide and Mentadent - hydrogen peroxide) and the abrasive product (Colgate - sodium bicarbonate). The degree of specimen staining before and after this procedure was determined using spectrophotometry. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to obtain images, which were analyzed to show the nature of the lesions that appeared on the enamel surface. The effectiveness of the whitening caused by hydrogen peroxide and carbamide peroxide and the abrasion caused by bicarbonate were confirmed, given that the treated test pieces returned to their original coloration. Based on SEM, evaluation of the enamel surfaces subjected to the test products showed that different types of morphologic lesions of varying severity appeared. Whitening dentifrice containing hydrogen peroxide and carbamide peroxide produced lesions on the enamel surface such that the greatest sequelae were associated with exposure to hydrogen peroxide.

  15. Use of quantitative light-induced fluorescence to monitor tooth whitening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaechi, Bennett T.; Higham, Susan M.

    2001-04-01

    The changing of tooth shade by whitening agents occurs gradually. Apart from being subjective and affected by the conditions of the surroundings, visual observation cannot detect a very slight change in tooth color. An electronic method, which can communicate the color change quantitatively, would be more reliable. Quantitative Light- induced Fluorescence (QLF) was developed to detect and assess dental caries based on the phenomenon of change of autofluorescence of a tooth by demineralization. However, stains on the tooth surface exhibit the same phenomenon, and therefore QLF can be used to measure the percentage fluorescence change of stained enamel with respect to surrounding unstained enamel. The present study described a technique of assessing the effect of a tooth-whitening agent using QLF. This was demonstrated in two experiments in which either wholly or partially stained teeth were whitened by intermittent immersion in sodium hypochlorite. Following each immersion, the integrated fluorescence change due to the stain was quantified using QLF. In either situation, the value of (Delta) Q decreased linearly as the tooth regained its natural shade. It was concluded that gradual changing of the shade of discolored teeth by a whitening agent could be quantified using QLF.

  16. Citric acid compounds of tangerines peel extract (Citrus reticulata) as potential materials teeth whitening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratiwi, F.; Tinata, J. K.; Prakasa, A. W.; Istiqomah; Hartini, E.; Isworo, S.

    2017-04-01

    Peel of citrus fruit (Citrus reticulata) has a variety of possible chemical compounds that may serve as a potential whitening teeth. This research is conducted on a laboratory scale; therefore, it needs to be developed on an application scale. A quasi-experimental was employed in this study. Citric acid extraction was carried out on the type of Sweet Orange (Citrus Aurantium L), Tangerine (Citrus Reticulata Blanco or Citrus Nobilis), Pomelo (Citrus Maxima Merr, Citrus grandis Osbeck), and Lemon (Citrus Limon Linn). Citric acid’s ability test as teeth whitener was performed on premolar teeth with concentrations of 2.5%, 5%, and 10%. The experiments were replicated in 3 times, and teeth whiteness level was measured using Shade Guide VITA Classical. The result of this research showed that citric acid in every kind of orange peel with various concentration has different abilities on whitening teeth. The highest colour level obtained from Tangerine peel’s citric acid concentration of 5%. Orange peel extract has the best teeth whitening abilities tested by the method of Gass Chromatography to know the active ingredients.

  17. [Perivenular whitening in central retinal vein occlusion demonstrated by "en-face" OCT].

    PubMed

    Marc, C; Gire, J; Boulicot, C; Guigou, S

    2013-10-01

    We report the case of a patient with a central vein occlusion associated with perivenular whitening. The "en-face" spectral domain OCT precisely demonstrated the ischemic area. This case underscores the utility of the "en-face" mode in the follow-up CRVO. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  18. An in situ investigation into the abrasion of eroded dental hard tissues by a whitening dentifrice.

    PubMed

    Turssi, C P; Faraoni, J J; Rodrigues, A L; Serra, M C

    2004-01-01

    This crossover study aimed to investigate abrasion of previously eroded hard dental tissues by a whitening dentifrice compared to a regular dentifrice. After a 3-day lead-in period, 14 volunteers were randomly assigned to use one of the toothpastes while wearing a removable appliance, containing 3 enamel and 3 root dentine slabs on each side. On the first day salivary pellicle was allowed to form. Twice daily for the following 3 days, one side of each appliance was immersed in an acidic carbonated drink ex vivo while the other side remained unexposed. Specimens were then brushed with the allocated dentifrice. After a 3-day washout period, new sets of enamel and dentine slabs were mounted in the appliances and the participants commenced period 2 using the alternative toothpaste. Acid-treated specimens always showed more wear than untreated specimens. The whitening dentifrice did not significantly increase the wear of softened enamel compared with the regular dentifrice. Brushing with the whitening toothpaste led to significantly greater wear of sound enamel and of both eroded and sound dentine than the regular dentifrice. The results suggest that whitening dentifrices may not increase the wear of acid-softened enamel but may have a more deleterious effect on dentine than regular toothpastes.

  19. Fatty acid sulphoalkyl amides and esters as cosmetic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Petter, P J

    1984-10-01

    Synopsis A review is given of the manufacture, properties and applications of the anionic surfactants commonly known as taurates and isethionates (fatty acid sulphoalkyl amides and esters, respectively). Originally developed in the 1930s for textile processing, these surfactants are used increasingly in the cosmetic field, particularly those derived from coconut fatty acid. Both types are produced from sodium isethionate, HO degrees C(2)H(4)SO(3)Na. The acyl isethionate, R degrees COO degrees C(2)H(4)SO(3)Na, is obtained by reaction with a fatty acid ('direct process'). or fatty acid chloride ('indirect process'). The direct process is cheaper but requires extreme conditions which can lead to discoloration of the product and a loss of shorter chain fatty acid components. The N-methyl-N-acyltaurate, R degrees CON(R(1))C(2)H(4)SO(3)Na, is obtained by Schotten-Baumann reaction of a fatty acid chloride with N-methyltaurine, which is derived from sodium isethionate via methylamine. Taurates and isethionates retain the benefits of the soaps to which they are structurally similar, but chemical modifications have eliminated many undesirable features. Thus they combine good detergency and wetting with high foaming, and maintain their performance in hard or salt water. Taurates are stable to hydrolysis over the whole pH range. Isethionates are prone to hydrolysis at high (>8) or low (<5) pH, but this does not normally present a problem in cosmetic formulations. Above all, these surfactants are characterized by their extreme mildness to skin. Syndet and syndet/soap bars based on isethionate can be formulated at neutral pH ('Dove type'bars) instead of the alkaline pH of soap, and have been shown in various studies to be milder than soap and better tolerated by the young, the old and those with sensitive skins. Similarly, isethionates have been shown to be less irritating than other anionic or amphoteric surfactants used in cosmetics. The difference has been related to the

  20. Plant stem cells as innovation in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Moruś, Martyna; Baran, Monika; Rost-Roszkowska, Magdalena; Skotnicka-Graca, Urszula

    2014-01-01

    The stem cells thanks to their ability of unlimited division number or transformation into different cell types creating organs, are responsible for regeneration processes. Depending on the organism in which the stem cells exists, they divide to the plant or animal ones. The later group includes the stem cells existing in both embryo's and adult human's organs. It includes, among others, epidermal stem cells, located in the hair follicle relieves and also in its basal layers, and responsible for permanent regeneration of the epidermis. Temporary science looks for method suitable for stimulation of the epidermis stem cells, amongst the other by delivery of e.g., growth factors for proliferation that decrease with the age. One of the methods is the use of the plant cell culture technology, including a number of methods that should ensure growth of plant cells, issues or organs in the environment with the microorganism-free medium. It uses abilities of the different plant cells to dedifferentiation into stem cells and coming back to the pluripotent status. The extracts obtained this way from the plant stem cells are currently used for production of both common or professional care cosmetics. This work describes exactly impact of the plant stem cell extract, coming from one type of the common apple tree (Uttwiler Spätlauber) to human skin as one of the first plant sorts, which are used in cosmetology and esthetic dermatology.

  1. Beam shaping for cosmetic hair removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizotte, Todd E.; Tuttle, Tracie

    2007-09-01

    Beam shaping has the potential to provide comfort to people who require or seek laser based cosmetic skin procedures. Of immediate interest is the procedure of aesthetic hair removal. Hair removal is performed using a variety of wavelengths from 480 to 1200 nm by means of filtered Xenon flash lamps (pulsed light) or 810 nm diode lasers. These wavelengths are considered the most efficient means available for hair removal applications, but current systems use simple reflector designs and plane filter windows to direct the light to the surface being exposed. Laser hair removal is achieved when these wavelengths at sufficient energy levels are applied to the epidermis. The laser energy is absorbed by the melanin (pigment) in the hair and hair follicle which in turn is transformed into heat. This heat creates the coagulation process, which causes the removal of the hair and prevents growth of new hair [1]. This paper outlines a technique of beam shaping that can be applied to a non-contact based hair removal system. Several features of the beam shaping technique including beam uniformity and heat dispersion across its operational treatment area will be analyzed. A beam shaper design and its fundamental testing will be discussed in detail.

  2. Premature hair whitening is an independent predictor of carotid intima-media thickness in young and middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Erdoğan, Turan; Kocaman, Sinan Altan; Çetin, Mustafa; Durakoğlugil, Murtaza Emre; Uğurlu, Yavuz; Şahin, İsmail; Çanga, Aytun

    2013-01-01

    Premature graying or whitening of the hair may possibly represent premature atherosclerotic changes as a surrogate marker of different host responses to cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs). This study was undertaken to test whether carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) as a validated surrogate marker of the severity and extent of coronary artery disease (CAD) is higher in subjects with prominent signs of hair whitening, independent of chronological age and other CVRFs. The current study was conducted in young and middle-aged patients (<55 years age) without a history of cardiovascular disease. Two hundred and two eligible patients consecutively admitted to our outpatient clinic for CVRF management were included. A gray/white-hair scale was used to determine the percentage of hair whitening. In the groups determined according to the degree of hair whitening, age (p<0.001), waist circumference (p=0.011), the presence of hypertension (p=0.003), the uric acid levels (p=0.008), the C - reactive protein levels (p=0.002) and CIMT (p<0.001) were significantly different. When we performed multivariate analyses to determine the independent predictors of CIMT and hair whitening, CIMT was found to be related to age, waist circumference, the levels of uric acid, bilirubin and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, the presence of a family history of CAD and hair whitening, while hair whitening was found to be related to age, hypertension, the bilirubin level and CIMT. Our findings suggest that premature hair whitening intensity is independently related to CIMT. In cumulative assessments of CVRFs on the human body, the presence of premature hair whitening may be useful in identifying individuals with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

  3. Effect of Whitening Toothpastes on Dentin Abrasion: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Gustavo Henrique Apolinario; Nogueira, Marcia Bessa; Gaio, Eduardo Jose; Rosing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker; Santiago, Sergio Lima; Rego, Rodrigo Otavio

    To compare the effect of toothbrushing abrasion with hydrated silica-based whitening and regular toothpastes on root dentin using contact profilometry. Ninety dentin specimens (4 x 4 x 2 mm) were randomly divided into five experimental groups (n = 18) according to the toothpaste: three whitening (W1, W2 and W3) and two regular toothpastes (R1 and R2) produced by two different manufacturers. Using a brushing machine, each specimen was brushed with a constant load of 300 g for 2500 cycles (4.5 cycles/s). The toothpastes were diluted at a ratio of 1:3 w/w (dentifrice:distilled water). The brush diamond tip of the profilometer moved at a constant speed of 0.05 mm/s with a force of 0.7 mN. The average value of brushing abrasion in μm (mean ± SD) was obtained from five consecutive measurements of each specimen: W1 = 8.86 ± 1.58, W2 = 7.59 ± 1.04, W3 = 8.27 ± 2.39, R1 = 2.89 ± 1.05 and R2= 2.94 ± 1.29. There was a significant difference between groups (ANOVA, p<0.0001). Post-hoc Tukey's test for multiple comparisons showed differences between all the whitening and regular toothpastes, but not among the whitening nor among the regular toothpastes. The whitening toothpastes tested can cause more dentin abrasion than the regular ones.

  4. Effects of regular and whitening dentifrices on remineralization of bovine enamel in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kielbassa, Andrej M; Tschoppe, Peter; Hellwig, Elmar; Wrbas, Karl-Thomas

    2009-02-01

    To compare in vitro the remineralizing effects of different regular dentifrices and whitening dentifrices (containing pyrophosphates) on predemineralized enamel. Specimens from 84 bovine incisors were embedded in epoxy resin, partly covered with nail varnish, and demineralized in a lactic acid solution (37 degrees C, pH 5.0, 8 days). Parts of the demineralized areas were covered with nail varnish, and specimens were randomly assigned to 6 groups. Subsequently, specimens were exposed to a remineralizing solution (37 degrees C, pH 7.0, 60 days) and brushed 3 times a day (1:3 slurry with remineralizing solution) with 1 of 3 regular dentifrices designed for anticaries (group 1, amine; group 2, sodium fluoride) or periodontal (group 3, amine/stannous fluoride) purposes or whitening dentifrice containing pyrophosphates (group 4, sodium fluoride). An experimental dentifrice (group 5, without pyrophosphates/fluorides) and a whitening dentifrice (group 6, monofluorophosphate) served as controls. Mineral loss and lesion depths were evaluated from contact microradiographs, and intergroup comparisons were performed using the closed-test procedure (alpha =.05). Compared to baseline, specimens brushed with the dentifrices containing stannous/amine fluorides revealed significant mineral gains and lesion depth reductions (P < .05). Concerning the reacquired mineral, the whitening dentifrice performed worse than the regular dentifrices (P > .05), while mineral gain, as well as lesion depth, reduction was negligible with the control groups. Dentifrices containing pyrophosphates perform worse than regular dentifrices but do not necessarily affect remineralization. Unless remineralizing efficacy is proven, whitening dentifrices should be recommended only after deliberate consideration in caries-prone patients.

  5. Effect of tooth whitening strips on fatigue resistance and flexural strength of bovine dentin in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Namhee; De Souza, Grace M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of whitening strips on bovine dentin fatigue resistance and flexural strength in vitro. Materials and methods A total of eighty bovine dentin specimens (2x2x17mm) were treated with either: control glycerine gel on plastic film wrap or whitening strips containing 9.5% hydrogen peroxide. Treatment was applied for 30 minutes, twice a day, for 1- or 4-weeks. After the last treatment, ten specimens per group were randomly selected to undergo fatigue testing (106 cycles, 3Hz, 20N) while the other ten were subjected to flexural strength testing after ten days of storage in artificial saliva. Kaplan-Meier method with a log rank test, Wilcoxon test and Cox regression were used to assess fatigue test results (p<0.05). One-way ANOVA and Tukey’s tests were used to compare the flexural strength results (p<0.05). Results There were significant differences in survival during the fatigue test among the groups (p<0.001). Treatment (control or bleach) was a significant factor for specimen survival (p<0.001, Exp(B) = 33.45). There were significant differences in mean flexural strength (p<0.001). No significant difference was found between “1-wk control” and “4-wk control”. The mean flexural strength and fatigue resistance of the “4-wk bleach” were significantly lower than all the other groups. Conclusions The use of whitening strips reduced the fatigue resistance and flexural strength of bovine dentin in vitro. Until the effect of whitening strips on mechanical properties of human dentin is fully elucidated, it remains prudent to advise patients to avoid excessive direct use of whitening strips on dentin. PMID:28278191

  6. Alternatives to the use of animals in safety testing as required by the EU-Cosmetics Directive 2009.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Ingredients of cosmetic products are no longer allowed to be tested by animal experimentation (EU-Cosmetics Directive 76/768 EEC). For several toxicological endpoints this testing ban applies since March 11, 2009, while repeated dose toxicity tests and the test on skin sensitisation will follow on March 11, 2013. All currently available alternatives meeting the requirements of the first deadline are compiled in the following.

  7. Cosmetics as endocrine disruptors: are they a health risk?

    PubMed

    Nicolopoulou-Stamati, Polyxeni; Hens, Luc; Sasco, Annie J

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to chemicals from different sources in everyday life is widespread; one such source is the wide range of products listed under the title "cosmetics", including the different types of popular and widely-advertised sunscreens. Women are encouraged through advertising to buy into the myth of everlasting youth, and one of the most alarming consequences is in utero exposure to chemicals. The main route of exposure is the skin, but the main endpoint of exposure is endocrine disruption. This is due to many substances in cosmetics and sunscreens that have endocrine active properties which affect reproductive health but which also have other endpoints, such as cancer. Reducing the exposure to endocrine disruptors is framed not only in the context of the reduction of health risks, but is also significant against the background and rise of ethical consumerism, and the responsibility of the cosmetics industry in this respect. Although some plants show endocrine-disrupting activity, the use of well-selected natural products might reduce the use of synthetic chemicals. Instruments dealing with this problem include life-cycle analysis, eco-design, and green labels; in combination with the committed use of environmental management systems, they contribute to "corporate social responsibility".

  8. Medicinal and cosmetic uses of Bee's Honey - A review.

    PubMed

    Ediriweera, E R H S S; Premarathna, N Y S

    2012-04-01

    Bee's honey is one of the most valued and appreciated natural substances known to mankind since ancient times. There are many types of bee's honey mentioned in Ayurveda. Their effects differ and 'Makshika' is considered medicinally the best. According to modern scientific view, the best bee's honey is made by Apis mellifera (Family: Apidae). In Sri Lanka, the predominant honey-maker bee is Apis cerana. The aim of this survey is to emphasize the importance of bee's honey and its multitude of medicinal, cosmetic and general values. Synonyms, details of formation, constitution, properties, and method of extraction and the usages of bee's honey are gathered from text books, traditional and Ayurvedic physicians of Western and Southern provinces, villagers of 'Kalahe' in Galle district of Sri Lanka and from few search engines. Fresh bee's honey is used in treatment of eye diseases, throat infections, bronchial asthma, tuberculosis, hiccups, thirst, dizziness, fatigue, hepatitis, worm infestation, constipation, piles, eczema, healing of wounds, ulcers and used as a nutritious, easily digestible food for weak people. It promotes semen, mental health and used in cosmetic purposes. Old bee's honey is used to treat vomiting, diarrhea, rheumatoid arthritis, obesity, diabetes mellitus and in preserving meat and fruits. Highly popular in cosmetic treatment, bee's honey is used in preparing facial washes, skin moisturizers, hair conditioners and in treatment of pimples. Bee's honey could be considered as one of the finest products of nature that has a wide range of beneficial uses.

  9. Does cosmetic surgery improve psychosocial wellbeing?

    PubMed Central

    Castle, David J; Honigman, Roberta J; Phillips, Katharine A

    2006-01-01

    Both men and women are becoming increasingly concerned about their physical appearance and are seeking cosmetic enhancement. Most studies report that people are generally happy with the outcome of cosmetic procedures, but little rigorous evaluation has been done. More extensive (“type change”) procedures (eg, rhinoplasty) appear to require greater psychological adjustment by the patient than “restorative” procedures (eg, face-lift). Patients who have unrealistic expectations of outcome are more likely to be dissatisfied with cosmetic procedures. Some people are never satisfied with cosmetic interventions, despite good procedural outcomes. Some of these have a psychiatric disorder called “body dysmorphic disorder”. PMID:12064961

  10. Kant and the cosmetic surgeon.

    PubMed

    Carey, J S

    1989-07-01

    Philosophers know that modern philosophy owes a great debt to the intellectual contributions of the 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant. This essay attempts to show how cosmetic surgeons, and all surgeons at that, could learn much from his work. Not only did Kant write about the structure of human reasoning and how it relates to appearances but he also wrote about the nature of duties and other obligations. His work has strongly influenced medical ethics. In a more particular way, Kant wrote the most important work on aesthetics. His theory still influences how philosophers understand the meaning of the beautiful and how it pertains to the human figure. This essay presents an exercise in trying to apply Kantian philosophy to aesthetic plastic surgery. Its intention is to show cosmetic surgeons some of the implicit and explicit philosophical principles and potential arguments undergirding their potential surgical evaluations. It is meant to challenge the surgeon to reconsider how decisions are made using philosophical reasoning instead of some of the more usual justifications based on psychology or sociology.

  11. 21 CFR 700.11 - Cosmetics containing bithionol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cosmetics containing bithionol. 700.11 Section 700...) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.11 Cosmetics containing bithionol. (a) Bithionol has been used to some extent as an antibacterial agent in cosmetic preparations such as detergent...

  12. 21 CFR 700.11 - Cosmetics containing bithionol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cosmetics containing bithionol. 700.11 Section 700...) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.11 Cosmetics containing bithionol. (a) Bithionol has been used to some extent as an antibacterial agent in cosmetic preparations such as detergent...

  13. 21 CFR 700.11 - Cosmetics containing bithionol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cosmetics containing bithionol. 700.11 Section 700...) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.11 Cosmetics containing bithionol. (a) Bithionol has been used to some extent as an antibacterial agent in cosmetic preparations such as detergent...

  14. 21 CFR 700.11 - Cosmetics containing bithionol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Cosmetics containing bithionol. 700.11 Section 700...) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.11 Cosmetics containing bithionol. (a) Bithionol has been used to some extent as an antibacterial agent in cosmetic preparations such as detergent...

  15. 21 CFR 700.11 - Cosmetics containing bithionol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cosmetics containing bithionol. 700.11 Section 700...) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.11 Cosmetics containing bithionol. (a) Bithionol has been used to some extent as an antibacterial agent in cosmetic preparations such as detergent...

  16. Middle Cerebral Artery, Ophthalmic Artery, and Multibranch Retinal Vessel Occlusion After Cosmetic Autologous Fat Transfer to Forehead.

    PubMed

    Roshandel, Danial; Soheilian, Masoud; Pakravan, Mohammad; Aghayan, Sara; Peyman, Gholam A

    2015-05-01

    A 65-year-old woman with left hemiparesis and sudden loss of visual acuity in her right eye presented a few hours after cosmetic injection of autologous fat to her forehead. Right eye visual acuity was no light perception. Funduscopy revealed widespread retinal whitening and multibranch retinal vessel occlusion. Fluorescein angiography showed markedly delayed choroidal and retinal filling together with occlusion of multiple branches of retinal arteries and veins. On magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, multiple lesions compatible with recent infarction were detected. The authors diagnosed multibranch retinal artery and vein occlusion in the right ophthalmic and middle cerebral arteries due to fat emboli. This case emphasizes the need to reevaluate the safety of such aesthetic procedures, particularly in the facial zone to prevent devastating complications. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. A survey of cosmetic surgery training in plastic surgery programs in the United States.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Colin M; Rotemberg, S Cristina; Moreira-Gonzalez, Andrea; Zins, James E

    2008-11-01

    Aesthetic surgery is evolving rapidly, both technologically and conceptually. It is critical for the specialty that aesthetic surgery training keep pace with this rapid evolution. To shed more light on this issue, a survey was sent to all program directors and senior plastic surgery residents to record their impressions of the quality of cosmetic surgery resident training. The authors report the results of this national cosmetic surgery training survey canvassing all 89 plastic surgery programs. A three-page survey delineating resident preparedness in aesthetic surgery was sent to senior plastic surgery residents and program directors in April of 2006 and collected through October of 2006. Of 814 surveys, 292 responses were obtained from 64 percent of program directors and 33 percent of senior residents. Breast augmentation, breast reduction, and abdominoplasty were most frequently performed with the highest resident comfort levels. Rhinoplasty remained a particular area of trainee concern, but confidence levels were also low in face lifts, endoscopic procedures, and body contouring techniques. Experience with skin resurfacing, fillers, and botulinum toxin type A was another area of concern. Although 51 percent of residents felt prepared to integrate cosmetic surgery into their practices on graduation, 36 percent felt that further cosmetic training was desirable. The information collected revealed significant differences in opinions between program directors and senior residents. Senior residents felt deficient in facial cosmetic, minimally invasive, and recently developed body contouring techniques. On the basis of these results and the authors' experience in resident education, changes in cosmetic surgery training are suggested.

  18. Ethylhexylglycerin: a low-risk, but highly relevant, sensitizer in 'hypo-allergenic' cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Aerts, Olivier; Verhulst, Lien; Goossens, An

    2016-05-01

    Ethylhexylglycerin is a relatively new cosmetic ingredient that is used for its surfactant, emollient, skin-conditioning and antimicrobial properties. Since 2002, it has been occasionally reported as a contact allergen. To report on 13 patients who presented with allergic contact dermatitis caused by ethylhexylglycerin, evaluated at two Belgian university patch test clinics during the period 1990-2015. The patients were patch tested with the European baseline series, a cosmetic series, and - if indicated - additional series. Both the cosmetic products used and their single ingredients were patch tested. All but one of the ethylhexylglycerin-allergic patients were female, with a median age of 43 years (range: 29-81 years), most often suffering from dermatitis on the face, and sometimes on the hands and/or axillae. As the culprit products, leave-on cosmetics were identified, including a high number of proclaimed 'hypo-allergenic' and 'preservative-free' facial creams, sun protection creams, and deodorants. Ethylhexylglycerin is a rare, but highly relevant, cosmetic sensitizer, even in those products advertised to be safe for consumers. Targeted patch testing with ethylhexylglycerin 5% pet. is very useful, and routine patch testing in a cosmetic series may be considered. Higher test concentrations might be indicated in selected cases. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Photomutagenicity of cosmetic ingredient chemicals azulene and guaiazulene

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Yan, Jian; Fu, Peter P.; Parekh, Karishma A.; Yu, Hongtao

    2013-01-01

    The photomutagenicity of the popular skin conditioning agents azulene and guaiazulene were tested in Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100 and TA102. Following irradiation with UVA and/or visible light, both azulene and guaiazulene exhibited mutagenicity 4–5-fold higher than the spontaneous background mutation. In contrary, naphthalene, a structural isomer of azulene, was not photomutagenic under the same conditions. Azulene was photomutagenic when irradiated with UVA light alone, visible light alone, or a combination of UVA and visible light. Azulene and guaiazulene are not mutagenic when the experiment is conducted with the exclusion of light. Therefore, extreme care must be taken when using cosmetic products with azulene/guaiazulene as ingredients since after applying these products on the skin, exposure to sunlight is inevitable. PMID:14563527

  20. 21 CFR 700.13 - Use of mercury compounds in cosmetics including use as skinbleaching agents in cosmetic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use of mercury compounds in cosmetics including use as skinbleaching agents in cosmetic preparations also regarded as drugs. 700.13 Section 700.13...) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.13 Use of mercury compounds in cosmetics...

  1. 21 CFR 700.13 - Use of mercury compounds in cosmetics including use as skinbleaching agents in cosmetic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use of mercury compounds in cosmetics including use as skinbleaching agents in cosmetic preparations also regarded as drugs. 700.13 Section 700.13...) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.13 Use of mercury compounds in cosmetics...

  2. 21 CFR 700.13 - Use of mercury compounds in cosmetics including use as skinbleaching agents in cosmetic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Use of mercury compounds in cosmetics including use as skinbleaching agents in cosmetic preparations also regarded as drugs. 700.13 Section 700.13...) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.13 Use of mercury compounds in cosmetics...

  3. Interest in cosmetic improvement as a marker for tanning behavior: a survey of 1602 respondents

    PubMed Central

    Cathcart, Shelley; DeCoster, Jamie; Northington, Marian; Cantrell, Wendy; Elmets, Craig A.; Elewski, Boni E.

    2011-01-01

    Dermatologists see many patients interested in improving their physical appearance through cosmetic procedures or medical means. Dermatologists frequently counsel patients on sun protection as well, particularly those with a personal or family history of skin cancer, sun-sensitive dermatoses or those with obvious sun damage. Our objective in this study was to identify novel markers of skin cancer risk which may aid dermatologists in targeting extra sun protection counseling for certain groups. A sixteen-question survey was distributed to subjects nineteen years of age and older in public areas of downtown Birmingham, Alabama in August and September of 2008. Overall, about 40% of both genders reported that they were highly concerned that current sun exposure could cause skin cancer. Participants interested in at least one appearance-related questionnaire item were significantly more likely than those not interested to rate tanned skin as highly important (31.6% vs 17.5%, p<0.001), and to report regret for previous sun exposure (12.5% vs 3.6%, p<0.001). Subjects who thought tanned skin was important were significantly more likely to report interest in improving their appearance through cosmetic procedures and medical means. We conclude that individuals with an interest in improving their physical appearance through cosmetic procedures or medical means may be especially in need of sun protection counseling. PMID:21332909

  4. Interest in cosmetic improvement as a marker for tanning behavior: a survey of 1602 respondents.

    PubMed

    Cathcart, Shelley; DeCoster, Jamie; Northington, Marian; Cantrell, Wendy; Elmets, Craig A; Elewski, Boni E

    2011-03-01

    Dermatologists see many patients interested in improving their physical appearance through cosmetic procedures or medical means. Dermatologists frequently counsel patients on sun protection as well, particularly those with a personal or family history of skin cancer, sun-sensitive dermatoses or those with obvious sun damage. Our objective in this study was to identify novel markers of skin cancer risk, which may aid dermatologists in targeting extra sun protection counseling for certain groups. A 16-question survey was distributed to subjects 19 years of age and older in public areas of downtown Birmingham, Alabama in August and September of 2008. Overall, about 40% of both genders reported that they were highly concerned that current sun exposure could cause skin cancer. Participants interested in at least one appearance-related questionnaire item were significantly more likely than those not interested to rate tanned skin as highly important (31.6%vs. 17.5%, P<0.001), and to report regret for previous sun exposure (12.5%vs. 3.6%, P<0.001). Subjects who thought tanned skin was important were significantly more likely to report interest in improving their appearance through cosmetic procedures and medical means. We conclude that individuals with an interest in improving their physical appearance through cosmetic procedures or medical means may be especially in need of sun protection counseling. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Moisturizing and Antiinflammatory Properties of Cosmetic Formulations Containing Centella asiatica Extract

    PubMed Central

    Ratz-Łyko, A.; Arct, J.; Pytkowska, K.

    2016-01-01

    Centella asiatica extract is a rich source of natural bioactive substances, triterpenoid saponins, flavonoids, phenolic acids, triterpenic steroids, amino acids and sugars. Thus, many scavenging free radicals, exhibit antiinflammatory activity and affect on the stratum corneum hydration and epidermal barrier function. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vivo moisturizing and antiinflammatory properties of cosmetic formulations (oil-in-water emulsion cream and hydrogel) containing different concentrations of Centella asiatica extract. The study was conducted over four weeks on a group of 25 volunteers after twice a day application of cosmetic formulations with Centella asiatica extract (2.5 and 5%, w/w) on their forearms. The measurement of basic skin parameters (stratum corneum hydration and epidermal barrier function) was performed once a week. The in vivo antiinflammatory activity based on the methyl nicotinate model of microinflammation in human skin was evaluated after four weeks application of tested formulations. In vivo tests formulations containing 5% of Centella asiatica extract showed the best efficacy in improving skin moisture by increase of skin surface hydration state and decrease in transepidermal water loss as well as exhibited antiinflammatory properties based on the methyl nicotinate model of microinflammation in human skin. Comparative tests conducted by corneometer, tewameter and chromameter showed that cosmetic formulations containing Centella asiatica extract have the moisturizing and antiinflammatory properties. PMID:27168678

  6. Simultaneous determination of arbutin and its decomposed product hydroquinone in whitening creams using high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection: Effect of temperature and pH on decomposition.

    PubMed

    Jeon, J S; Kim, B H; Lee, S H; Kwon, H J; Bae, H J; Kim, S K; Park, J A; Shim, J H; Abd El-Aty, A M; Shin, H C

    2015-12-01

    Arbutin is an effective agent for the treatment of melanin disorders. Arbutin may be converted to hydroquinone under conditions of high temperature, ultraviolet (UV) radiation and dilute acid. The aim of the current study was to develop an analytical method to determine the levels of arbutin and hydroquinone in whitening cosmetic products using high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection (HPLC-DAD). In addition, we investigated the effects of high temperature and pH on the decomposition of arbutin. Samples extracted using two-step sonications were separated on a C18 column using a gradient mobile phase consisting of water and methanol. A 60-mm (40 μL) DAD cell was used to enhance the sensitivity of hydroquinone determination. Thermal decomposition of arbutin was evaluated at temperatures ranging from 60 to 120°C for 1-36 h. The method showed good linearity (R(2) ≥ 0.9997), precision (relative standard deviation, RSD < 5%) and acceptable extraction recovery (90-102.6%). The limits of quantitation for arbutin and hydroquinone were 0.0085 and 0.0119 μg mL(-1) , respectively. One sample of 21 cosmetic products tested contained arbutin at a concentration 1.61 g 100 g(-1) cream and 0.12 g 100 g(-1) cream of hydroquinone. Arbutin (327.18 ppm) decomposed after 6 h at 120°C and produced 10.73 ppm of hydroquinone. The developed method is simple to detect both arbutin and hydroquinone simultaneously in cosmetic products, at an adequate level of sensitivity. Notably, temperature and pH did not influence the decomposition of arbutin to hydroquinone in a 2% arbutin cream. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  7. Coping with Cosmetic Effects of Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Educators Search English Español Coping With Cosmetic Effects of Cancer Treatment KidsHealth / For Parents / Coping With ... estéticos del tratamiento del cáncer What Are Cosmetic Effects of Cancer Treatment? Cancer treatment can bring about ...

  8. Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion's Pandora's Box

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? A A A | Print | Share Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? Foot and ankle surgeons warn ... extreme and imprudent as it may sound, the cosmetic surgery craze is not just for faces anymore—it ...

  9. Miscalibrations in judgements of attractiveness with cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alex L; Kramer, Robin S S; Ward, Robert

    2014-10-01

    Women use cosmetics to enhance their attractiveness. How successful they are in doing so remains unknown--how do men and women respond to cosmetics use in terms of attractiveness? There are a variety of miscalibrations where attractiveness is concerned--often, what one sex thinks the opposite sex finds attractive is incorrect. Here, we investigated observer perceptions about attractiveness and cosmetics, as well as their understanding of what others would find attractive. We used computer graphic techniques to allow observers to vary the amount of cosmetics applied to a series of female faces. We asked observers to optimize attractiveness for themselves, for what they thought women in general would prefer, and what they thought men in general would prefer. We found that men and women agree on the amount of cosmetics they find attractive, but overestimate the preferences of women and, when considering the preferences of men, overestimate even more. We also find that models' self-applied cosmetics are far in excess of individual preferences. These findings suggest that attractiveness perceptions with cosmetics are a form of pluralistic ignorance, whereby women tailor their cosmetics use to an inaccurate perception of others' preferences. These findings also highlight further miscalibrations of attractiveness ideals.

  10. Cosmetics Safety Q&A: Shelf Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... of cosmetics? The shelf life for eye-area cosmetics is more limited than for other products. Because of repeated microbial exposure during use by the consumer and the risk of eye infections, some industry experts recommend replacing mascara 3 months after purchase. ...

  11. Safety Assessment of Amino Acid Alkyl Amides as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Christina L; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the product use, formulation, and safety data of 115 amino acid alkyl amides, which function as skin and hair conditioning agents and as surfactants-cleansing agents in personal care products. Safety test data on dermal irritation and sensitization for the ingredients with the highest use concentrations, lauroyl lysine and sodium lauroyl glutamate, were reviewed and determined to adequately support the safe use of the ingredients in this report. The Panel concluded that amino acid alkyl amides are safe in the present practices of use and concentration in cosmetics, when formulated to be nonirritating.

  12. Professionalism and Commercialism on Cosmetic Surgeons' Websites.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung-Yeon; Park, SangHee

    2017-07-01

    This study analyzed the homepages of 250 cosmetic surgeons' websites by focusing on the representation of cosmetic surgery providers, cosmetic surgery recipients, and cosmetic surgery practice itself. Based on a literature review, some common elements of the webpages were preidentified as the indicators of professionalism or commercialism. Subsequently, each homepage was scrutinized for their presence and salience. Overall, cosmetic surgeons' websites were high in professionalism and low in commercialism in their representation of the service providers. In depicting the recipients, the websites were moderate in both professionalism and commercialism. The representation of practice was low in professionalism and moderate in commercialism. Implications of these findings for doctors, regulators, and consumer advocates are discussed and directions for future research are proposed.

  13. REACH: impact on the US cosmetics industry?

    PubMed

    Pouillot, Anne; Polla, Barbara; Polla, Ada

    2009-03-01

    The Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and restriction of Chemicals (REACH) is a recent European regulation on chemical substances meant to protect human health and the environment. REACH imposes the "precautionary principle" where additional data and definitive action are required when uncertainty is identified. The cosmetics industry is only partially concerned by REACH: while the stages of registration and evaluation apply to cosmetics, those of authorization and restriction most likely will not, as cosmetic ingredients are already subject to regulation by various agencies and directives. REACH has potential benefits to the industry including the possibility of reassuring consumers and improving their image of chemicals and cosmetics. However, REACH also has potential disadvantages, mainly with regard to impeding innovation. The American cosmetics industry will be affected by REACH, because all US manufacturers who export substances to Europe will have to fully comply with REACH.

  14. Effect of at-home whitening strips on the surface roughness and color of a composite and an ormocer restorative material.

    PubMed

    Gurbuz, Ayhan; Ozkan, Pelin; Yilmaz, Kerem; Yilmaz, Burak; Durkan, Rukiye

    2013-01-01

    Oxygenating agents like carbamide peroxide or H(2) O(2) are commonly used whitening agents. They have varying influence on the color and surface roughness of resin-based restorative materials and teeth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an at-home peroxide whitening agent applied through a whitening strip on the color and surface roughness of a nanofilled composite resin and an ormocer-based resin. Disc-shaped (2 mm thick, 10 mm diameter) nanofilled resin composite (n = 10) and ormocer (n = 10) specimens were prepared. All specimens were treated with a whitening strip. Whitening procedures were performed applying a 6.5% hydrogen peroxide whitening strip (Crest White Strips Professional) for 30 minutes twice each day for a period of 21 consecutive days. During the test intervals, the specimens were rinsed under running distilled water for 1 minute to remove the whitening agents and immersed in 37°C distilled water until the next treatment. Surface roughness and color of the specimens were measured with a profilometer and a colorimeter, respectively, before and after whitening. Color changes were calculated (ΔE) using L*, a*, and b* coordinates. Repeated measures of variance analysis and Duncan test were used for statistical evaluation (α= 0.05). The average surface roughness of composite increased from 1.4 Ra to 2.0 Ra, and from 0.8 Ra to 0.9 Ra for the ormocer material; however, these changes in roughness after whitening were not significant (p > 0.05). Also, when two materials were compared, the surface roughness of restorative materials was not different before and after whitening (p > 0.05). L* and b* values for each material changed significantly after whitening (p < 0.05). ΔE values (before/after whitening) calculated for composite (11.9) and ormocer (16.1) were not significantly different from each other (p > 0.05). The tested whitening agent did not affect the surface roughness of either resin-based restorative material. Both materials

  15. Wetting and adhesion evaluation of cosmetic ingredients and products: correlation of in vitro-in vivo contact angle measurements.

    PubMed

    Capra, P; Musitelli, G; Perugini, P

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this work was to use the contact angle measurement in order to predict the behaviour of ingredients and finished cosmetic products on skin to improve skin feel and product texture. Different classes of cosmetic ingredients and formulations were evaluated. The contact angle measurements were carried out by the sessile drop method using an apparatus, designed and set up in laboratory. Glass, Teflon and human skin were the reference substrates. In a preliminary phase, TEWL parameter, sebum content and hydration of human skin were measured to set up method. Data demonstrated that glass substrate may be used as replacement of the skin:critical surface tension of skin and glass were about of 27 and 31 dyne cm -1 , respectively. Non-ionic surfactant with increasing HLB was evaluated: a correlation between contact angle measured and HLB was not observed because of different and complex molecular structure. In detail, ethylhexyl hydroxystearate (θ glass = 17.1°) showed lower contact angle value with respect to Polysorbate 20 (θ glass = 28.1°). Sodium laureth sulphate and stearalkonium chloride were also evaluated: anionic molecule showed more affinity for glass with respect to Teflon (θ glass = 21.7° and θ Teflon = 52.3°). Lipids and silicones showed different affinity for substrate according to hydrophilic groups and hydrocarbon chain: contact angles of silicones remained unchanged independently from substrate. Finished cosmetic products (O/W, W/O emulsions, cleansing oil, dry skin oil) showed different profiles according to surfactant and its affinity for continuous phase of the formulation. Comparing the values of the contact angle on skin of non-ionic surfactants, as ethylhexyl hydroxystearate and Polysorbate 20, they showed values lower (near to zero) than ones of sodium laureth sulphate and Stearalkonium Chloride (21.7° and 66.8°, respectively). Finally, finished cosmetic products tested on human skin showed different profile: corresponded contact

  16. Calcium release rates from tooth enamel treated with dentifrices containing whitening agents and abrasives.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Danilo Barral; Silva, Luciana Rodrigues; de Araujo, Roberto Paulo Correia

    2010-01-01

    Tooth whitening agents containing hydrogen peroxide and carbamide peroxide are used frequently in esthetic dental procedures. However, lesions on the enamel surface have been attributed to the action of these products. Using conventional procedures for separating and isolating biological structures, powdered enamel was obtained and treated with hydrogen peroxide, carbamide peroxide, and sodium bicarbonate, ingredients typically found in dentifrices. The enamel was exposed to different pH levels, and atomic emission spectrometry was used to determine calcium release rates. As the pH level increased, the rate of calcium release from enamel treated with dentifrices containing whitening agents decreased. Carbamide peroxide produced the lowest amount of decalcification, while sodium bicarbonate produced the highest release rates at all pH levels.

  17. Human skin surface evaluation by image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Liangen; Zhan, Xuemin; Xie, Fengying

    2003-12-01

    Human skin gradually lose its tension and becomes very dry as time flies by. Use of cosmetics is effective to prevent skin aging. Recently, there are many choices of products of cosmetics. To show their effects, It is desirable to develop a way to evaluate quantificationally skin surface condition. In this paper, An automatic skin evaluating method is proposed. The skin surface has the pattern called grid-texture. This pattern is composed of the valleys that spread vertically, horizontally, and obliquely and the hills separated by them. Changes of the grid are closely linked to the skin surface condition. They can serve as a good indicator for the skin condition. By measuring the skin grid using digital image processing technologies, we can evaluate skin surface about its aging, health, and alimentary status. In this method, the skin grid is first detected to form a closed net. Then, some skin parameters such as Roughness, tension, scale and gloss can be calculated from the statistical measurements of the net. Through analyzing these parameters, the condition of the skin can be monitored.

  18. Can whitening toothpastes maintain the optical stability of enamel over time?

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Eduardo Moreira; Maia, Juliana Nunes da Silva Meirelles Dória; Mitraud, Carine Gnatiuk; Russo, Juliana do Espírito Santo; Poskus, Laiza Tatiana; Guimarães, José Guilherme Antunes

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Besides the effects on the health of individuals, cigarette smoking can also interfere with the appearance of their teeth. Objective To evaluate the effect of cigarette smoking-toothbrushing-cycling (CSTC) with whitening toothpastes on the roughness and optical behavior of bovine enamel for eight weeks. Material and Methods Thirty bovine dentin/enamel discs, 8.0 mm in diameter and 2.0 mm thick, were randomly divided into three groups according to the toothpastes: whitening (Colgate Luminous White - CW and Oral B 3D White - OW), and a non-whitening (Colgate - C). The roughness, color (CIE L*a*b* system), translucency and gloss were measured before and after the specimens were submitted to CSTC. The topography of the specimens was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. During the first week, the specimens were daily subjected to the consumption of 20 cigarettes and brushed (40 strokes/100 g) with the toothpastes' slurries. Thereafter, the CSTC was weekly applied in an accumulated model (140 cigarettes/280 strokes) for seven weeks. The data were submitted to two-way ANOVA, Tukey's HSD test, and paired-t test (α=0.05). Results The three toothpastes produced significant changes in roughness, color, translucency and gloss (p<0.05). After eight weeks, the roughness and the gloss produced by the three toothpastes were similar (p>0.05), while OW produced the lowest color change and the translucency of C was lower than that of CW (p<0.05). The three toothpastes produced a significant decrease in L* values and a significant increase in a* values after eight weeks (p<0.05). No significant difference in the b* coordinate was found for OW (p=0.13) There were topographic changes in the enamel surfaces. Conclusions The whitening toothpastes increased the roughness, changed the topography and were not able to maintain the optical stability of enamel exposed over eight weeks. PMID:29412362

  19. Can Whitening Strips interfere with the Bond Strength of Composite Resins?

    PubMed

    Firoozmand, Leily Macedo; Reis, Washington Luís Machado dos; Vieira, Mercêdes Aroucha; Nunes, Adriana Gomes; Tavarez, Rudys Rodolfo de Jesus; Tonetto, Mateus Rodrigues; Bramante, Fausto Silva; Bhandi, Shilpa H; Roma, Regina Vieira de Oliveira; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro the bond strength of composite resins on enamel previously treated with whitening strips. A total of 48 bovine incisors were allocated to four experimental groups (n = 12 each): G1 (WSC)- treated with 9.5% hydrogen peroxide whitening strips (3D White Whitestrips® Advanced Vivid/CREST); G2 (WSO)-treated with 10% hydrogen peroxide whitening strips (3D WhiteTM/Oral B); G3 (WG)-treated with 7.5% hydrogen peroxide gel with fluorine, calcium and potassium nitrate (White Class®/FGM); and G4 (C)-control not subjected to bleaching treatment. The specimens were subjected to bleaching over 2 weeks following the manufacturers' instructions. Following the elaboration of the composite resin test specimens, the samples were stored in artificial saliva and subsequently subjected to the micro-shear test using the universal testing machine (EMIC®). The bond strength values were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's statistical test (5%). Significant differences were observed among the investigated groups (p < 0.05). The G3-WG exhibited greater values compared with the control group and the groups treated with strips, G1-WSC and G2-WSO. Analysis of the bond interface revealed that a large fraction of the failures occurred at the enamel-resin interface. The bond strength decreased following 14 days of treatment with bleaching strips, whereas the whitening gel with 7.5% hydrogen peroxide, calcium and fluorine increased the bond strength.

  20. Can whitening toothpastes maintain the optical stability of enamel over time?

    PubMed

    Silva, Eduardo Moreira da; Maia, Juliana Nunes da Silva Meirelles Dória; Mitraud, Carine Gnatiuk; Russo, Juliana do Espírito Santo; Poskus, Laiza Tatiana; Guimarães, José Guilherme Antunes

    2018-02-01

    Besides the effects on the health of individuals, cigarette smoking can also interfere with the appearance of their teeth. To evaluate the effect of cigarette smoking-toothbrushing-cycling (CSTC) with whitening toothpastes on the roughness and optical behavior of bovine enamel for eight weeks. Thirty bovine dentin/enamel discs, 8.0 mm in diameter and 2.0 mm thick, were randomly divided into three groups according to the toothpastes: whitening (Colgate Luminous White - CW and Oral B 3D White - OW), and a non-whitening (Colgate - C). The roughness, color (CIE L*a*b* system), translucency and gloss were measured before and after the specimens were submitted to CSTC. The topography of the specimens was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. During the first week, the specimens were daily subjected to the consumption of 20 cigarettes and brushed (40 strokes/100 g) with the toothpastes' slurries. Thereafter, the CSTC was weekly applied in an accumulated model (140 cigarettes/280 strokes) for seven weeks. The data were submitted to two-way ANOVA, Tukey's HSD test, and paired-t test (α=0.05). The three toothpastes produced significant changes in roughness, color, translucency and gloss (p<0.05). After eight weeks, the roughness and the gloss produced by the three toothpastes were similar (p>0.05), while OW produced the lowest color change and the translucency of C was lower than that of CW (p<0.05). The three toothpastes produced a significant decrease in L* values and a significant increase in a* values after eight weeks (p<0.05). No significant difference in the b* coordinate was found for OW (p=0.13) There were topographic changes in the enamel surfaces. The whitening toothpastes increased the roughness, changed the topography and were not able to maintain the optical stability of enamel exposed over eight weeks.

  1. Chemical peeling in ethnic skin: an update.

    PubMed

    Salam, A; Dadzie, O E; Galadari, H

    2013-10-01

    With the growth of cosmetic dermatology worldwide, treatments that are effective against skin diseases and augment beauty without prolonged recovery periods, or exposing patients to the risks of surgery, are increasing in popularity. Chemical peels are a commonly used, fast, safe and effective clinic room treatment that may be used for cosmetic purposes, such as for fine lines and photoageing, but also as primary or adjunct therapies for acne, pigmentary disorders and scarring. Clinicians are faced with specific challenges when using peels on ethnic skin (skin of colour). The higher risk of postinflammatory dyschromias and abnormal scarring makes peels potentially disfiguring. Clinicians should therefore have a sound knowledge of the various peels available and their safety in ethnic skin. This article aims to review the background, classification, various preparations, indications, patient assessment and complications of using chemical peels in ethnic skin. © 2013 The Authors BJD © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  2. [Research on the designing method of a special shade guide for tooth whitening].

    PubMed

    Xu, Yingxin

    2015-10-01

    To investigate a method of designing an accurate and scientific shade guide, especially used for judging the effect of tooth whitening, by analyzing the colorimetric values of discolored teeth statistically. One hundred thirty-six pictures of patients who had been receiving the Beyond cold light whitening treatment from February 2009 to July 2014 were analyzed, including 25 tetracycline teeth, 61 mottled-enamel teeth, and 50 yellow teeth. The colorimetric values of discolored teeth were measured. The L* values of shade tabs were calculated by hierarchical clustering of those of discolored teeth. The a* and b* values of shade tabs were the mean of those observed for discolored teeth. Accordingly, different shade guides were designed for each type of discolored teeth, and the effects were evaluated. A statistically significant difference in colorimetric values was found among the three types of discolored teeth. Compared with the Vitapan Classical shade guide, the shade guides designed through the present method were more scientific and accurate in judging the effect of tooth whitening. Moreover, the arrangement of shade tabs was more logical, and the color difference between shade tabs and discolored teeth was smaller. The proposed designing method is theoretically feasible, although its clinical effect has yet to be proven.

  3. The measurement of enamel and dentine abrasion by tooth whitening products using an in situ model.

    PubMed

    Joiner, A; Collins, L Z; Cox, T F; Pickles, M J; Weader, E; Liscombe, C; Holt, J S

    2005-01-01

    To determine the enamel and dentine wear of two whitening toothpastes using an in situ model with ex vivo brushing. Human enamel/dentine (approximately 50:50) blocks (approximately 4 x 4mm) were placed in the upper buccal aspects of full or partial dentures of a group of 25 subjects. Subjects brushed the specimens ex vivo with either a calcium carbonate/perlite or silica containing whitening toothpaste under exaggerated conditions as compared to normal for 30 s, twice per day. Specimens were removed after 4, 8 and 12 weeks and the wear to the enamel and dentine was determined. Enamel wear was determined by change in Knoop indent length and dentine wear was determined from the enamel-dentine step height, measured using optical profilometry. The mean wear after 12 weeks was for enamel 0.27 and 0.19 microns, and for dentine 34.3 and 61.1 microns, for the calcium carbonate/perlite and silica toothpastes respectively. There were no significant differences between products after 12 weeks. The rate of wear was found to decrease throughout the duration of the study. There were no significant differences between the two whitening toothpastes in terms of enamel and dentine wear after 12 weeks brushing.

  4. The effect of three whitening oral rinses on enamel micro-hardness.

    PubMed

    Potgieter, E; Osman, Y; Grobler, S R

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect on human enamel micro-hardness of three over-the-counter whitening oral rinses available in South Africa. Enamel fragments were gathered into three groups of 15 each. One group was exposed to Colgate Plax Whitening Blancheur, the second group to White Glo 2 in 1 and the third to Plus White, in each case for periods recommended by the respective manufacturers. Surface micro-hardness of all groups was measured before and after a 14 day treatment period. pH levels of the oral rinses were also determined with a combination pH electrode. Pre- and post- treatment data were analysed by the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Sum Test. According to the micro-hardness values no significant (p > 0.05) enamel damage was found as a result of treatment. However, it was observed that Colgate Pax and White Glo decreased the enamel hardness, an early sign of enamel damage, while Plus White showed a small increase in hardness. The three whitening oral rinses on the South African market do not damage the tooth enamel significantly when used as recommended by the manufacturers. However, extending the contact period and increasing the frequency of application might lead to damage of enamel.

  5. Effect of four over-the-counter tooth-whitening products on enamel microhardness.

    PubMed

    Majeed, A; Grobler, S R; Moola, M H; Oberholzer, T G

    2011-10-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of four over-the-counter tooth-whitening products on enamel microhardness. Fifty enamel blocks were prepared from extracted human molar teeth. The enamel surfaces were polished up to 1200 grit fineness and the specimens randomly divided into five groups. Enamel blocks were exposed to: Rapid White (n=10); Absolute White (n=10); Speed White (n=10) and White Glo (n=10) whitening products, according to the manufacturers' instructions. As control, ten enamel blocks were kept in artificial saliva at 37 degrees C without any treatment. Microhardness values were obtained before exposure (baseline) and after 1, 7 and 14-day treatment periods using a digital hardness tester with a Vickers diamond indenter. Data were analysed using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Sum Test, one-way ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer Multiple Comparison Test (p<0.05). Both Rapid White and Absolute White reduced enamel microhardness. Speed White increased the microhardness of enamel, while White Glo and artificial saliva had no effect on hardness. Over-the-counter tooth-whitening products might decrease enamel microhardness depending on the type of product.

  6. Efficacy of tooth whitening with different calcium phosphate-based formulations.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jian; Xu, Xiaohui; Lai, Guangyun; Kunzelmann, Karl-Heinz

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this in-vitro study was to evaluate the efficacy of tooth whitening using different calcium phosphate-based formulations. Teeth were treated with three different hydroxyapatite preparations at different concentrations and with two control preparations; each tooth was treated a total of three times. After application of the last material, hydrodynamic shear force was applied to mimic mechanical loading. After each treatment, tooth color was measured using a dental spectrophotometer, and the mean changes in L*a*b* values between different measurements were expressed as ∆E. The results indicated significant differences between the materials, but neither dose- nor time-dependent associations were found. The suspension containing tricalcium phosphate (10 wt%) showed the most obvious color change (∆E = 2.20 ± 0.90), while the suspension containing zinc-carbonate-apatite (20 wt%) showed the least obvious color change (∆E = 0.91 ± 0.50). Calcium phosphate-based formulations that can adhere to the enamel surface and contribute to tooth whitening have promising tooth-whitening potential. © 2013 Eur J Oral Sci.

  7. The Whitening of Brown Fat and Its Implications for Weight Management in Obesity.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Ippei; Walsh, Kenneth

    2015-06-01

    Systemic inflammation resulting from dysfunction of white adipose tissue (WAT) accelerates the pathologies of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. In contrast to WAT, brown adipose tissue (BAT) is abundant in mitochondria that produce heat by uncoupling respiratory chain process of ATP synthesis. Besides BAT's role in thermogenesis, accumulating evidence has shown that it is involved in regulating systemic metabolism. Studies have analyzed the "browning" processes of WAT as a means to combat obesity, whereas few studies have focused on the impact and molecular mechanisms that contribute to obesity-linked BAT dysfunction--a process that is associated with the "whitening" of this tissue. Compared to WAT, a dense vascular network is required to support the high energy consumption of BAT. Recently, vascular rarefaction was shown to be a significant causal factor in the whitening of BAT in mouse models. Vascular insufficiency leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and loss in BAT and contributes to systemic insulin resistance. These data suggest that BAT "whitening," resulting from vascular dysfunction, can impact obesity and obesity-linked diseases. Conversely, agents that promote BAT function could have utility in the treatment of these conditions.

  8. Nanotechnology in cosmetics: Opportunities and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Silpa; Jose, Shoma; Sumod, U. S.; Sabitha, M.

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the science of manipulating atoms and molecules in the nanoscale - 80,000 times smaller than the width of a human hair. The world market for products that contain nanomaterials is expected to reach $2.6 trillion by 2015. The use of nanotechnology has stretched across various streams of science, from electronics to medicine and has now found applications in the field of cosmetics by taking the name of nanocosmetics. This widespread influence of nanotechnology in the cosmetic industries is due to the enhanced properties attained by the particles at the nano level including color, transparency, solubility etc. The different types of nanomaterials employed in cosmetics include nanosomes, liposomes, fullerenes, solid lipid nanoparticles etc. Recently, concerns over the safety of such nanocosmetics are raised and have forced the cosmetic industries to limit the use of nanotechnology in cosmetics and for enforcing laws to undergo a full-fledged safety assessment before they enter into the market. In this review, emphasis is made on the types of nanomaterials used in cosmetics by the various cosmetic brands, the potential risks caused by them both to human life and also to the environment and what all regulations have been undertaken or can be taken to overcome them. PMID:22923959

  9. Fragrance allergens in 'specific' cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Nardelli, Andrea; Drieghe, Jacques; Claes, Lieve; Boey, Lies; Goossens, An

    2011-04-01

    Together with preservative agents, fragrance components are the most important sensitizing culprits in cosmetic products. To identify the nature of the fragrance ingredients responsible for allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from specific cosmetic products. Between 2000 and 2009, positive patch test reactions or positive usage tests with the patients' own cosmetic products, were recorded using a standardised form. Of the 806 cosmetic records, corresponding to 485 patient files, 344 concerned reactions to fragrance ingredients that according to the label were present ('Presence Confirmed' [PC n = 301]) or suspected to be present ('Presence Not Confirmed' [PNC n = 376]) in the causal cosmetic products used, which belonged to 15 different categories, toilet waters/fine perfumes being the most frequent. Geraniol in fragrance mix I (FM I) and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (HICC) in FM II were the most frequent PC, and together with hydroxycitronellal and Evernia prunastri (oak moss) the most frequent PNC ingredients in the causal cosmetic products. Limonene was the most frequent PC confirmed fragrance allergen. This study not only underlines the usefulness of fragrance-ingredient labelling in order to identify the causal allergen(s) present in specific cosmetic products, but may also provide information on trends in the actual use of sensitizing fragrance ingredients in them. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Final safety assessment of thiodipropionic acid and its dialkyl esters as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Diamante, Catherine; Fiume, Monice Zondlo; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Alan Andersen, F

    2010-07-01

    Dilauryl thiodipropionate (DLTDP), dicetyl thiodipropionate, dimyristyl thiodipropionate, distearyl thiodipropionate, and ditridecyl thiodipropionate are dialkyl esters of their respective alcohols and thiodipropionic acid (TDPA) used in cosmetics. Ingested DLTDP was excreted in the urine as TDPA. Single-dose acute oral and parenteral studies and subchronic and chronic repeated dose oral studies did not suggest significant toxicity. Neither DLTDP nor TDPA was irritating to animal skin or eyes and they were not sensitizers. TDPA was neither a teratogen nor a reproductive toxicant. Genotoxicity studies were negative for TDPA and DLTDP. Clinical testing demonstrated some evidence of irritation but no sensitization or photosensitization. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel considered that the data from DLTDP reasonably may be extrapolated to the other dialkyl esters and concluded that these ingredients were safe for use in cosmetic products that are formulated to be nonirritating.

  11. Lipid nanoparticles as novel delivery systems for cosmetics and dermal pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Puglia, Carmelo; Bonina, Francesco

    2012-04-01

    Lipid nanoparticles are innovative carrier systems developed as an alternative to traditional vehicles such as emulsions, liposomes and polymeric nanoparticles. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and the newest nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) show important advantages for dermal application of cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. This article focuses on the main features of lipid nanoparticles, in terms of their preparation and recent advancements. A detailed review of the literature is presented, introducing the importance of these systems in the topical delivery of drugs and active substances. Lipid nanoparticles are able to enhance drug penetration into the skin, allowing increased targeting to the epidermis and consequently increasing treatment efficiency and reducing the systemic absorption of drugs and cosmetic actives. The complete biodegradation of lipid nanoparticles and their biocompatible chemical nature have secured them the title of 'nanosafe carriers.' SLN and NLC represent a new technological era, which has been taken over by the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry, which will open new channels for effective topical delivery of substances.

  12. Safety Assessment of Diethanolamine and Its Salts as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel assessed the safety of diethanolamine and its salts as used in cosmetics. Diethanolamine functions as a pH adjuster; the 16 salts included in this rereview reportedly function as surfactants, emulsifying agents, viscosity increasing agents, hair or skin conditioning agents, foam boosters, or antistatic agents. The Panel reviewed available animal and clinical data, as well as information from previous CIR reports. Since data were not available for each individual ingredient, and since the salts dissociate freely in water, the Panel extrapolated from previous reports to support safety. The Panel concluded that diethanolamine and its salts are safe for use when formulated to be nonirritating. These ingredients should not be used in cosmetic products in which N-nitroso compounds can be formed.

  13. Aesthetic problems associated with the cosmetic use of bleaching products.

    PubMed

    Ly, Fatimata; Soko, Anta Soumare; Dione, Demba Anta; Niang, Suzanne Oumou; Kane, Assane; Bocoum, Thierno Ibrahima; Dieng, Mame Thierno; Ndiaye, Bassirou

    2007-10-01

    The use of skin bleaching products for cosmetic purposes is a frequent practice (25-96%) in women from sub-Saharan Africa. The dermatologic complications associated with this practice have been comprehensively reported. The aim of this work was to study the epidemiologic, clinical, and cosmetic aspects of these complications in order to produce better therapeutic guidelines for their management. This was a prospective, descriptive study performed over a 6-month period. All women aged between 15 and 50 years, who consulted a dermatologist (Le Dantec Hospital or Institute of Social Hygiene), experienced a complication associated with artificial depigmentation, and agreed to take part in the study, were included. The data were input and analyzed using Epi info version 6.0. Eighty-six female patients were included, with a mean age of 29.34 years (range, 16-49 years). The breakdown by level of education was as follows: primary (48.8%), secondary (18.3%), and higher (8.5%) education. Twenty-two per cent of our population had not attended school. The mean monthly cost of skin bleaching products was 6.22 euros. The initial skin tone before using skin bleaching products was black in 41.5% of patients, light in 32.9%, and intermediate in 25.6%. The mean duration of exposure was 6.7 +/- 5 years (range, 1-30 years). The breakdown by skin bleaching products showed that topical corticosteroids were the most frequently used (78%), followed by hydroquinone (56%), products based on vegetable extracts (31.7%), caustic products (8.5%), and, finally, products of unknown composition (41.4%). Two components or more were frequently combined (86.5%). The aesthetic complications of artificial depigmentation were the reason for consulting a dermatologist in 10 patients (12%). Nineteen types of aesthetic complication were reported in our sample. Hyperpigmentation of the joints was the most frequently found complication (85.4%), followed by striae atrophicae (72%) and skin atrophy (59

  14. Marketing strategies for the cosmetic practice.

    PubMed

    Austin, C J

    1994-01-01

    Appropriate marketing business systems need to be in place to attract and sustain a cosmetic dentistry patient base. Marketing for this sector is most effective when consistently patterned after businesses with high-end consumer services and products. Motivating patients of record and potential new patients to choose cosmetic dental services involves implementing both basic marketing and a series of cosmetic-specific marketing strategies. Consultants are valuable for the process of developing a strategic plan and making recommendations for developing new marketing business systems.

  15. [The therapeutic function of cosmetic surgery].

    PubMed

    Saboye, J

    2012-08-01

    The therapeutic purpose or not of cosmetic surgery is the criterion chosen by the tax authorities to secure acts for aesthetic purposes to VAT. Purpose and necessity of medical therapy are often confused. Yet there are two distinct concepts. In the case of cosmetic surgery, its therapeutic purpose is recognized by physicians and judges. This is the psychological improvement after surgery, well be secondary to surgery, although be desired by the WHO, which demonstrates the therapeutic purpose of cosmetic surgery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Cosmetic arm lengthening with monorail fixator.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Hemendra Kumar; Singh, Balvinder; Garg, Mohit; Khatkar, Vipin; Batra, Sumit; Sharma, Vinod Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Upper limb length discrepancy is a rare occurrence. Humerus shortening may need specialized treatment to restore the functional and cosmetic status of upper limb. We report a case of humerus lengthening of 9 cm with a monorail external fixator and the result was observed during a 2-year follow-up. Humerus lengthening needs specialized focus as it is not only a cosmetic issue but also a functional demand. The monorail unilateral fixator is more functional and cosmetically acceptable, and thus becomes an effective treatment option.

  17. Role of macromolecules in the safety of use of body wash cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Bujak, Tomasz; Wasilewski, Tomasz; Nizioł-Łukaszewska, Zofia

    2015-11-01

    One of the most challenging problems related to the use of surfactants in body wash cosmetics is their potential to cause skin irritations. Surfactants can bind with proteins, remove lipids from the epidermal surface, contribute to the disorganization of liquid crystal structures in the intercellular lipids, and interact with living skin cells. These processes can lead to skin irritations and allergic reactions, and impair the epidermal barrier function. The present study is an attempt to assess the effect of polymers and hydrolysed proteins present in the formulations of model body wash cosmetics on product properties. Special attention was given to the safety of use of this product type. The study examined three macromolecules: polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), hydrolysed wheat protein (HWP) and polyvinylpyrrolidone/hydrolysed wheat protein crosspolymer (PVP/HWP). The addition of the substances under study was found to improve the foaming properties of body wash cosmetics, increase their stability during storage, and contribute significantly to an improvement in the safety of product use by reducing the irritant potential. The strongest ability to reduce the skin irritation potential was determined for the formula enriched with the PVP/HWP crosspolymer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Cosmetics Europe strategy for animal-free genotoxicity testing: project status up-date.

    PubMed

    Pfuhler, S; Fautz, R; Ouedraogo, G; Latil, A; Kenny, J; Moore, C; Diembeck, W; Hewitt, N J; Reisinger, K; Barroso, J

    2014-02-01

    The Cosmetics Europe (formerly COLIPA) Genotoxicity Task Force has driven and funded three projects to help address the high rate of misleading positives in in vitro genotoxicity tests: The completed "False Positives" project optimized current mammalian cell assays and showed that the predictive capacity of the in vitro micronucleus assay was improved dramatically by selecting more relevant cells and more sensitive toxicity measures. The on-going "3D skin model" project has been developed and is now validating the use of human reconstructed skin (RS) models in combination with the micronucleus (MN) and Comet assays. These models better reflect the in use conditions of dermally applied products, such as cosmetics. Both assays have demonstrated good inter- and intra-laboratory reproducibility and are entering validation stages. The completed "Metabolism" project investigated enzyme capacities of human skin and RS models. The RS models were shown to have comparable metabolic capacity to native human skin, confirming their usefulness for testing of compounds with dermal exposure. The program has already helped to improve the initial test battery predictivity and the RS projects have provided sound support for their use as a follow-up test in the assessment of the genotoxic hazard of cosmetic ingredients in the absence of in vivo data. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Laser abrasion for cosmetic and medical treatment of facial actinic damage

    SciTech Connect

    David, L.M.; Lask, G.P.; Glassberg, E.

    1989-06-01

    Previous studies have shown the carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) laser to be effective in the treatment of actinic cheilitis. After CO/sub 2/ laser abrasion, normal skin and marked cosmetic improvement of the lip were noted. In our study, twenty-three patients were treated with CO/sub 2/ laser abrasions for cosmetic improvement of facial lines and actinic changes. Pre- and postoperative histopathologic examinations were made on two patients. Preoperative examination of specimens from actinically damaged skin showed atypical keratinocytes in the basal layer of the epidermis, with overlying dense compact orthokeratosis and parakeratosis. Abundant solar elastosis was seen in the papillary dermis.more » Postoperative histologic specimens showed a normal-appearing epidermis with fibrosis in the papillary dermis and minimal solar elastosis (about four weeks after laser treatment). At present, various modalities are available for the regeneration of the aged skin, including chemical peels and dermabrasion. Significantly fewer complications were noted with CO/sub 2/ laser abrasion than with these methods. Thus, CO/sub 2/ laser abrasion can be useful in the cosmetic and medical treatment of the aged skin. Marked clinical and histologic improvement has been demonstrated.« less

  20. Evaluation of dermatological effects of cosmetic formulations containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae extract and vitamins.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, L R; Camargo, F B; Gianeti, M D; Maia Campos, P M B G

    2008-11-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae extract (SCE) is used in cosmetics since it can act in oxidative stress and improve skin conditions. This study investigated dermatological effects of cosmetic formulations containing SCE and/or vitamins A, C and E. The formulation studied was supplemented or not (F1: vehicle) with vitamins A, C and E esters (F2) or with SCE (F3) or with the combination of vitamins and SCE (F4). Formulations were patch tested on back skin of volunteers. For efficacy studies, formulations were applied on volunteers and transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin moisture (SM), skin microrelief (SMR) and free radicals protection were analysed after 3h, 15 and 30 days of application. Volunteers were also asked about efficacy perception. It was observed that F4 provoked a slight erythema in one volunteer. All formulations enhanced forearm SM. Only F3 and F4 presented long term effects on SMR and showed higher texture values; F3 had the highest brightness values. Our results suggest that vitamins and SCE showed effects in SM and SMR. Only formulations containing SC had long term effects in the improvement of SMR. Thus, these kinds of evaluations are very important in cosmetics development to evaluate the best risk and benefit correlation.

  1. Consumption of cosmetic products by the French population. Third part: Product exposure amount.

    PubMed

    Dornic, N; Ficheux, A S; Roudot, A C

    2017-08-01

    A recent study in France provided valuable data on the frequency and amount of use of cosmetic products (Ficheux et al., 2015, 2016a). The aim of the present study was to generate Product Exposure Amount data, i.e. the amounts of cosmetics applied to the skin among the French population using the raw data collected during the previous enquiry. These data are useful to derive Consumer exposure level data which are paramount for skin sensitization risk assessments. Exposure data were generated for 69 different cosmetics, classified as products for the hair, face, buccal hygiene, hands, feet, body, shaving and depilation, sunscreens as well as products specifically intended for babies. Exposure was calculated using a probabilistic Monte Carlo method. The main strength of this work was the break-down of data by age and sex. The results showed that some data used by the International Fragrance Association in skin sensitization risk assessments, in particular facial care products and deodorants, could be unsuitable for the protection of French consumers. For the first time, data were also generated for products intended for babies' nappy area. These data will be useful for the implementation of the Quantitative Risk Assessment for skin sensitization among the French population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Delivery of cosmetic covers to persons with transtibial and transfemoral amputations in an outpatient prosthetic practice.

    PubMed

    Highsmith, M Jason; Kahle, Jason T; Knight, Molly; Olk-Szost, Ayla; Boyd, Melinda; Miro, Rebecca M

    2016-06-01

    Limb loss negatively impacts body image to the extent that functional activity and societal participation are affected. Scientific literature is lacking on the subject of cosmetic covering for prostheses and the rate of cosmetic cover utilization by cover type, gender, amputation level, and type of healthcare reimbursement. To describe the delivery of cosmetic covers in lower limb prostheses in a sample of people with lower extremity amputation. Cross-sectional design Patient records from an outpatient practice were reviewed for people who received a transtibial or transfemoral prosthesis within a selected 2-year period. A total of 294 records were reviewed. Regardless of the amputation level, females were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) more likely to receive a cover. Type of insurance did not affect whether or not a cover was used, but Medicare reimbursed more pull-up skin covers. There were differences regarding cosmetic cover delivery based on gender, and Medicare reimbursed for more pull-up skin covers at the transtibial level than other reimbursors did. This analysis was conducted in a warm, tropical geographic region of the United States. Results may differ in other parts of the world based on many factors including climate and local views of body image and disability. Cosmetic covering rates are clinically relevant because they provide insight into which gender is utilizing more cosmetic covers. Furthermore, it can be determined which type of covers are being utilized with greater frequency and which insurance type is providing more coverage for them. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2015.

  3. Erosion Potential of Tooth Whitening Regimens as Evaluated with Polarized Light Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Brambert, Patrick; Qian, Fang; Kwon, So Ran

    2015-11-01

    Tooth whitening is a widely utilized esthetic treatment in dentistry. With increased access to over-the-counter (OTC) systems concerns have been raised as to potential adverse effects associated with overuse of whitening materials. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate enamel erosion due to different whitening regimens when used in excess of recommended guidelines. Extracted human teeth (n = 66) were randomly divided into 11 groups (n = 6/group). Specimens were exposed to OTC products: Crest Whitestrips and 5-minute natural white and a do-it-yourself (DIY) strawberry whitening recipe. Within each regimen, groups were further divided per exposure time: specimens receiving the recommended product dosage; 5 times the recommended dosage; and 10 times the recommended dosage. Negative and positive controls were treated with grade 3 water and 1.0% citric acid, respectively. Specimens were nail-varnished to limit application to a 1 × 4 mm window. Following treatment, specimens were sectioned and erosion (drop in μm) measured using polarized light microscopy. Two-sample t-test was used to detect difference in amount of enamel erosion between negative and positive groups, while one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by post hoc Dunnett's test was used to detect difference between set of treatment groups and negative control groups or among all experimental groups. There was significant difference in mean amount of enamel erosion (p < 0.0001). Mean enamel erosion for positive control group was significantly greater than that for negative control group (23.50 vs 2.65 μm). There was significant effect for type of treatments on enamel erosion [F(9,50) = 25.19; p < 0.0001]. There was no significant difference between the negative control and each of treatment groups (p > 0.05 for all instances), except for Natural White_10 times treatment group (p < 0.0001) that was significantly greater than the negative control group (14.82 vs 2.65 μm). Caution is advised when

  4. A clinical evaluation of 10 percent vs. 15 percent carbamide peroxide tooth-whitening agents.

    PubMed

    Kihn, P W; Barnes, D M; Romberg, E; Peterson, K

    2000-10-01

    Agents with carbamide peroxide, or CP, in various concentrations are widely prescribed for at-home tooth whitening. It is not clear, however, if the more concentrated gels will whitening teeth to a greater extent, as no controlled clinical trials have been reported. The authors conducted a double-blind study of human subjects to evaluate whether a 15 percent CP tooth-whitening system was more effective than a 10 percent CP system, and to determine if tooth sensitivity increased with use of the higher concentration. The authors recruited 57 subjects with maxillary anterior teeth of shade A3 or darker (as gauged against a value-oriented shade guide). The subjects were 18 to 65 years of age and in good general and dental health. After matching the subjects by sex and age, the authors randomly assigned them to either a control group, which used a 10 percent CP whitening agent, or an experimental group, which used a 15 percent CP agent. The results indicated that there was no significant difference in shade change between the groups after one week of treatment (t = 1.455, P = .05), but there was a significant difference at the end of the treatment period (t = 2.303, P < .05), as well as two weeks after treatment concluded (t = 2.248, P < .05). There was no significant difference in sensitivity (t = 1.399, P > .05). There was a significant difference in color change between the 10 percent CP and 15 percent CP groups at the end of the study period. There was no significant difference in level of tooth sensitivity between the two groups, and the incidence was equal; there was, however, a significant difference in variability of tooth sensitivity between the two groups. If performed under the careful guidance of a dentist, at-home whitening is an effective treatment, regardless of whether 10 percent CP or 15 percent CP is used. There may be added color change and varying sensitivity with the use of 15 percent CP.

  5. Effects of cosmetics containing purified honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) venom on acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang Mi; Lee, Kwang Gill; Pak, Sok Cheon

    2013-09-01

    Acne vulgaris is a chronic dermatologic problem with multiple factors involved in its pathogenesis. Alternative solutions to acne treatment were instigated by antibiotic resistance despite of its extensive use. Purified bee venom (PBV) has been proposed as a promising candidate for that purpose. The present study was designed to confirm the antibacterial effect of PBV and access the efficacy of cosmetics containing PBV in subjects with acne vulgaris. The skin bacterium Propionibacterium acnes was incubated with PBV at various concentrations and bacterial growth was evaluated using the colony forming unit (CFU) assay. The mechanism of PBV employed in killing P. acnes was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In addition, a total of 12 subjects were randomized in a double-blind, controlled trial to receive either cosmetics containing PBV or cosmetics without PBV for two weeks. Evaluations included lesion counts and skin microorganism. PBV exhibited antimicrobial activity in a concentration-dependent manner, reducing the number of P. acnes CFU by approximately 6 logs at a concentration of 0.5 mg. When PBV concentration was higher than 1.0 mg, no P. acnes colonies were spotted on an agar. TEM and SEM of untreated P. acnes illustrated the normal pleomorphic structure, whereas the PBV-treated bacterium lost the integrity of surface architecture. Significant difference (P=0.027) in the grading levels based on numbers of lesion counts for inflammatory and noninflammatory was observed in favour of the PBV group compared with the control group. In terms of average decrement of skin microorganism, subjects receiving cosmetics containing PBV experienced a significant 57.5% decrease of adenosine triphosphate levels, whereas participants receiving cosmetics without PBV experienced a nonsignificant decrease of 4.7%. These results show that the in vitro actions of antimicrobial activity of PBV were translated in vivo. Cosmetics

  6. Modified methods for growing 3-D skin equivalents: an update.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Rebecca; Ambler, Carrie A

    2014-01-01

    Artificial epidermis can be reconstituted in vitro by seeding primary epidermal cells (keratinocytes) onto a supportive substrate and then growing the developing skin equivalent at the air-liquid interface. In vitro skin models are widely used to study skin biology and for industrial drug and cosmetic testing. Here, we describe updated methods for growing 3-dimensional skin equivalents using de-vitalized, de-epidermalized dermis (DED) substrates including methods for DED substrate preparation, cell seeding, growth conditions, and fixation procedures.

  7. Vigilance in industry: cosmetics and household cleaning products. Balance sheet of case report from 2005 to 2007.

    PubMed

    Kornfeld-Lecanu, S; Zajaczkowski, F; Dubourg, S; Martin, L; Lefort, S; Siest, S

    2010-12-01

    Unlike medicinal products, cosmetics are not subject to marketing authorization in France. Nevertheless, the Agence Francaise de Sécurité Sanitaire des Produits de Santé (AFSSAPS; French Agency for the Safety of Healthcare Products) has been working on the development of a cosmetovigilance system for several years, with the aim of establishing standard procedures for collecting adverse reactions to cosmetics from the manufacturers. To assess the incidence of skin reactions to cosmetics or household products. Unilever established its own 'vigilance' standard system in France in late 2003. This report describes the experience acquired from 2005 to 2007. Case reports were collected in compliance with a standard procedure. The cases were then analysed by the consultant dermatologist in accordance with a pharmacovigilance-based method (chronological criteria, clinical criteria, possible rechallenge test, patch tests). During the period 2005 to 2007, a total of 102,689 consumers contacted the consumer department, including 842 (0.82%) who reported skin reactions. After analysis of the collected data, 0.144 skin reaction cases per million units sold were found to be attributable to cosmetic or household products. The implementation of a structured vigilance system in the cosmetics and household products industry is an efficient tool for manufacturers, both for information purposes and for product improvement, as well as meeting the transparency requirements of health authorities and consumers. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2010 British Association of Dermatologists.

  8. Review of data on the dermal penetration of mineral oils and waxes used in cosmetic applications.

    PubMed

    Petry, T; Bury, D; Fautz, R; Hauser, M; Huber, B; Markowetz, A; Mishra, S; Rettinger, K; Schuh, W; Teichert, T

    2017-10-05

    Mineral oils and waxes used in cosmetic products, also referred to as "personal care products" outside the European Union, are mixtures of predominantly saturated hydrocarbons consisting of straight-chain, branched and ring structures with carbon chain lengths greater than C16. They are used in skin and lip care cosmetic products due to their excellent skin tolerance as well as their high protecting and cleansing performance and broad viscosity options. Recently, concerns have been raised regarding potential adverse health effects of mineral oils and waxes from dermal application of cosmetics. In order to be able to assess the risk for the consumer the dermal penetration potential of these ingredients has to be evaluated. The scope and objective of this review are to identify and summarize publicly available literature on the dermal penetration of mineral oils and waxes as used in cosmetic products. For this purpose, a comprehensive literature search was conducted. A total of 13 in vivo (human, animal) and in vitro studies investigating the dermal penetration of mineral oils and waxes has been identified and analysed. The majority of the substances were dermally adsorbed to the stratum corneum and only a minor fraction reached deeper skin layers. Overall, there is no evidence from the various studies that mineral oils and waxes are percutaneously absorbed and become systemically available. Thus, given the absence of dermal uptake, mineral oils and waxes as used in cosmetic products do not present a risk to the health of the consumer. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Facial Cosmetics and Attractiveness: Comparing the Effect Sizes of Professionally-Applied Cosmetics and Identity.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alex L; Kramer, Robin S S

    2016-01-01

    Forms of body decoration exist in all human cultures. However, in Western societies, women are more likely to engage in appearance modification, especially through the use of facial cosmetics. How effective are cosmetics at altering attractiveness? Previous research has hinted that the effect is not large, especially when compared to the variation in attractiveness observed between individuals due to differences in identity. In order to build a fuller understanding of how cosmetics and identity affect attractiveness, here we examine how professionally-applied cosmetics alter attractiveness and compare this effect with the variation in attractiveness observed between individuals. In Study 1, 33 YouTube models were rated for attractiveness before and after the application of professionally-applied cosmetics. Cosmetics explained a larger proportion of the variation in attractiveness compared with previous studies, but this effect remained smaller than variation caused by differences in attractiveness between individuals. Study 2 replicated the results of the first study with a sample of 45 supermodels, with the aim of examining the effect of cosmetics in a sample of faces with low variation in attractiveness between individuals. While the effect size of cosmetics was generally large, between-person variability due to identity remained larger. Both studies also found interactions between cosmetics and identity-more attractive models received smaller increases when cosmetics were worn. Overall, we show that professionally-applied cosmetics produce a larger effect than self-applied cosmetics, an important theoretical consideration for the field. However, the effect of individual differences in facial appearance is ultimately more important in perceptions of attractiveness.

  10. Facial Cosmetics and Attractiveness: Comparing the Effect Sizes of Professionally-Applied Cosmetics and Identity

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Robin S. S.

    2016-01-01

    Forms of body decoration exist in all human cultures. However, in Western societies, women are more likely to engage in appearance modification, especially through the use of facial cosmetics. How effective are cosmetics at altering attractiveness? Previous research has hinted that the effect is not large, especially when compared to the variation in attractiveness observed between individuals due to differences in identity. In order to build a fuller understanding of how cosmetics and identity affect attractiveness, here we examine how professionally-applied cosmetics alter attractiveness and compare this effect with the variation in attractiveness observed between individuals. In Study 1, 33 YouTube models were rated for attractiveness before and after the application of professionally-applied cosmetics. Cosmetics explained a larger proportion of the variation in attractiveness compared with previous studies, but this effect remained smaller than variation caused by differences in attractiveness between individuals. Study 2 replicated the results of the first study with a sample of 45 supermodels, with the aim of examining the effect of cosmetics in a sample of faces with low variation in attractiveness between individuals. While the effect size of cosmetics was generally large, between-person variability due to identity remained larger. Both studies also found interactions between cosmetics and identity–more attractive models received smaller increases when cosmetics were worn. Overall, we show that professionally-applied cosmetics produce a larger effect than self-applied cosmetics, an important theoretical consideration for the field. However, the effect of individual differences in facial appearance is ultimately more important in perceptions of attractiveness. PMID:27727311

  11. Impact of Eye Cosmetics on the Eye, Adnexa, and Ocular Surface.

    PubMed

    Ng, Alison; Evans, Katharine; North, Rachel V; Jones, Lyndon; Purslow, Christine

    2016-07-01

    Despite the fact that cosmetic products undergo rigorous testing to ensure they are safe for human use, some users report mild discomfort following their application. The cutaneous changes, such as allergic dermatitis, are well reported, but the ocular changes associated with eye cosmetic use are less so. Some pigmented cosmetic products may accumulate within the lacrimal system and conjunctivae over many years of use, but immediate reports of eye discomfort after application are most common. Changes to the tear film and its stability may occur shortly after application, and contact lens wearers can also be affected by lens spoliation from cosmetic products. Additionally, creams used in the prevention of skin aging are often applied around the eyes, and retinoids present in these formulations can have negative effects on meibomian gland function and may be a contributing factor to dry eye disease. The aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge regarding the impact of cosmetic products on the eye, ocular surface, and tear film.

  12. Ecodesign of cosmetic formulae: methodology and application.

    PubMed

    L'Haridon, J; Martz, P; Chenéble, J-C; Campion, J-F; Colombe, L

    2018-04-01

    This article describes an easy-to-use ecodesign methodology developed and applied since 2014 by the L'Oréal Group to improve the sustainable performance of its new products without any compromise on their cosmetic efficacy. Cosmetic products, after being used, are often discharged into the sewers and the aquatic compartment. This discharge is considered as dispersive and continuous. A consistent progress in reducing the environmental impact of cosmetic products can be achieved through focusing upon three strategic indicators: biodegradability, grey water footprint adapted for ecodesign (GWFE) and a global indicator, complementary to these two endpoints. Biodegradability represents the key process in the removal of organic ingredients from the environment. GWFE is defined herein as the theoretical volume of natural freshwater required to dilute a cosmetic formula after being used by the consumer, down to a concentration without any foreseeable toxic effects upon aquatic species. Finally, the complementary indicator highlights a possible alert on formula ingredients due to an unfavourable environmental profile based on hazard properties: for example Global Harmonization System/Classification, Labelling and Packaging (GHS/CLP) H410 classification or potential very persistent and very bioaccumulative (vPvB) classification. The ecodesign of a new cosmetic product can be a challenge as the cosmetic properties and quality of this new product should at least match the benchmark reference. As shown in the case studies described herein, new methodologies have been developed to maximize the biodegradability of cosmetic formulae, to minimize their GWFE and to limit the use of ingredients that present an unfavourable environmental profile, while reaching the highest standards in terms of cosmetic efficacy. By applying these methodologies, highly biodegradable products (≥ 95% based on ingredient composition) have been developed and marketed, with a low GWFE. This new

  13. Whitening Effect of Watersoluble Royal Jelly from South Korea.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang Mi; Kim, Jung Min; Hong, In Phyo; Woo, Soon Ok; Kim, Se Gun; Jang, Hye Ri; Park, Kwan Kyu; Pak, Sok Cheon

    2015-01-01

    Royal jelly has been widely used as a health supplement worldwide. However, royal jelly has been implicated in allergic reactions, and we developed a water-soluble royal jelly (WSRJ) without the allergy inducing protein. In this study, we aimed to identify the anti-melanogenic efficacy of WSRJ. B16F1 melanoma cells were first treated with 10 nM α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and then with various doses of WSRJ. In addition, we investigated the mRNA and protein expression of melanogenesis-related genes such as tyrosinase, tyrosinase related protein-1 (TRP-1) and TRP-2 by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. WSRJ directly inhibited tyrosinase and cellular tyrosinase activity, which decreased melanin synthesis in α-MSH stimulated B16F1 melanoma cells a level comparable to that observed with arbutin. WSRJ decreased the mRNA and protein expressions of tyrosinase, TRP-1, and TRP-2, which was comparable to that observed with arbutin. WSRJ has strong anti-melanogenic activity, which invoice direct inhibition of tyrosinase enzyme activity and suppression of expression of melanogenesis related genes. Results from this study suggests that WSRJ is a potential candidate for the treatment of skin pigmentation.

  14. Multicenter study of preservative sensitivity in patients with suspected cosmetic contact dermatitis in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang S; Hong, Dong K; Jeong, Nam J; Lee, Jeung H; Choi, Yun-Seok; Lee, Ai-Young; Lee, Cheol-Heon; Kim, Kea J; Park, Hae Y; Yang, Jun-Mo; Lee, Ga-Young; Lee, Joon; Eun, Hee C; Moon, Kee-Chan; Seo, Seong J; Hong, Chang K; Lee, Sang W; Choi, Hae Y; Lee, Jun Y

    2012-08-01

    As many new cosmetic products are introduced into the market, attention must be given to contact dermatitis, which is commonly caused by cosmetics. We investigate the prevalence of preservative allergy in 584 patients with suspected cosmetic contact dermatitis at 11 different hospitals. From January 2010 to March 2011, 584 patients at 11 hospital dermatology departments presented with cosmetic contact dermatitis symptoms. These patients were patch-tested for preservative allergens. An irritancy patch test performed on 30 control subjects using allergens of various concentrations showed high irritancy rates. Preservative hypersensitivity was detected in 41.1% of patients. Allergens with the highest positive test rates were benzalkonium chloride (12.1%), thimerosal (9.9%) and methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI) (5.5%). Benzalkonium chloride and chlorphenesin had the highest irritancy rate based on an irritancy patch test performed using various concentrations. Seven of 30 normal subjects had a positive irritant patch reading with 0.1% benzalkonium chloride and eight of 30 normal subjects had a positive irritant patch reading at 4 days with 0.5% chlorphenesin in petrolatum. Although benzalkonium chloride was highly positive for skin reactions in our study, most reactions were probably irritation. MCI/MI and thimerosal showed highly positive allergy reactions in our study. The optimum concentration of chlorphenesin to avoid skin reactions is less than 0.5%. © 2012 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  15. Cosmetic medicine: facial resurfacing and injectables.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Alexander T; Ahmad, Jamil; Fagien, Steven; Rohrich, Rod J

    2012-01-01

    After studying this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Describe the most common options available for minimally invasive facial rejuvenation. 2. Identify key elements essential to each treatment option. 3. Know how to avoid and manage complications for these procedures. Minimally invasive cosmetic procedures continue to increase in popularity. This article is intended to provide a broad and practical overview of common minimally invasive cosmetic techniques available to the plastic surgeon.

  16. Socioeconomic factors influencing cosmetic usage patterns.

    PubMed

    Park, Gyeong-Hun; Nam, Chanhee; Hong, Seungphil; Park, Byungcheol; Kim, Hakrim; Lee, Taewon; Kim, Kyubong; Lee, Jong Hee; Kim, Myung Hwa

    2018-05-01

    Despite daily exposure to chemicals in cosmetic products, there are few studies on the exposure levels to cosmetics particularly in Asians. We sought to investigate the usage pattern of cosmetics, including eye makeup products, fragrances, color makeups, and hair and nail care products, in Koreans. An online survey of 1,800 participants (908 males and 892 females, aged 15-59 years) from 5 Metropolitan cities (Seoul, Incheon, Daejeon, Daegu, and Busan) in Korea was conducted. For overall types of cosmetics, the proportion of users was 7.1% (range: 0.0-46.3%) in males and 30.7% (range: 1.0-82.8%) in females. The most prevalently used product was perfume (46.3%) in males and lipstick (82.8%) in females. In addition, the mean number of application for overall types of cosmetics was 22.7 (range: 4.6-49.4) times per month in male users and 24.8 (range: 4.2-62.0) in female users. The usage pattern was significantly altered according to demographic and socioeconomic factors, including age group, occupation, and income. This work estimated the prevalences and frequencies of use of a wide collection of cosmetics from a large number of Koreans and found that the usage pattern was significantly associated with demographic and socioeconomic factors.

  17. Effectiveness of a new dentifrice with baking soda and peroxide in removing extrinsic stain and whitening teeth.

    PubMed

    Ghassemi, A; Hooper, W; Vorwerk, L; Domke, T; DeSciscio, P; Nathoo, S

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of this randomized, controlled, six-week clinical trial was to determine the effectiveness and safety of a new whitening dentifrice in removing extrinsic tooth stain and whitening teeth. An additional two-week exploratory study was conducted to determine whether the whitening or stain-prevention activity of the dentifrice would persist following cessation of use. In the first study (Phase I), one-hundred and forty-six qualifying subjects were randomly assigned to either a sodium bicarbonate whitening dentifrice group (Arm & Hammer Advance White Extreme Whitening Baking Soda and Peroxide Toothpaste) or a silica-based negative control dentifrice group, and brushed twice daily with their assigned dentifrice for six weeks. Tooth shade on the labial surfaces of the eight incisors was assessed using a Vita Classic shade guide, and extrinsic tooth stain was scored using a Modified Lobene Stain Index (MLSI) at baseline, week 4, and week 6. In Phase II (after the week 6 examination), volunteers from the Arm & Hammer whitening dentifrice group were randomly assigned to continue using the whitening dentifrice or to use the negative control dentifrice twice daily for two weeks. The six-week shade and stain index scores served as the baseline for this exploratory phase and were rescored after two weeks. The whitening dentifrice group had statistically significant (p < 0.0001) mean shade score reductions of 1.82 and 2.57 from baseline to weeks 4 and 6, respectively. For the same periods, the negative control dentifrice group was virtually unchanged from baseline. For tooth stain, the MLSI total mean scores for the whitening dentifrice group showed statistically significant (p < 0.0001) decreases from baseline of 1.42 (41.6%) and 2.11 (61.6%) at weeks 4 and 6, respectively. In contrast, the negative control dentifrice group had a MLSI reduction of 0.07 at week 4 and a 0.06 increase at week 6. Between-group analyses using baseline-adjusted ANCOVA showed the

  18. Protective effects of skin permeable epidermal and fibroblast growth factor against ultraviolet-induced skin damage and human skin wrinkles.

    PubMed

    An, Jae Jin; Eum, Won Sik; Kwon, Hyuck Se; Koh, Jae Sook; Lee, Soo Yun; Baek, Ji Hwoon; Cho, Yong-Jun; Kim, Dae Won; Han, Kyu Huyng; Park, Jinseu; Jang, Sang Ho; Choi, Soo Young

    2013-12-01

    Epidermal and fibroblast growth factor (EGF and FGF1) proteins play an important role in the regeneration and proliferation of skin cells. EGF and FGF1 have considerable potential as possible therapeutic or cosmetic agents for the treatment of skin damage including wrinkles. Using protein transduction domains (PTD), we investigated whether PTD-EGF and FGF1 transduced into skin cells and tissue. Transduced proteins showed protective effects in a UV-induced skin damage model as well as against skin wrinkles. Transduced PTD-EGF and FGF1 proteins were detected by immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry. The effects of PTD-EGF and FGF1 were examined by WST assay, Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and skin wrinkle parameters. The PTD-EGF and FGF1 increased cell proliferation and collagen type 1 alpha 1 protein accumulation in skin tissue. Also, PTD-EGF and FGF1 inhibited UV-induced skin damage. Furthermore, topical application of PTD-EGF and FGF1 contained ampoules which were considered to improve the wrinkle parameters of human skin. These results show that PTD-EGF and FGF1 can be a potential therapeutic or cosmetic agent for skin damaged and injury including wrinkles and aging. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Safety assessment of propylene glycol, tripropylene glycol, and PPGs as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2012-01-01

    Propylene glycol is an aliphatic alcohol that functions as a skin conditioning agent, viscosity decreasing agent, solvent, and fragrance ingredient in cosmetics. Tripropylene glycol functions as a humectant, antioxidant, and emulsion stabilizer. Polypropylene glycols (PPGs), including PPG-3, PPG-7, PPG-9, PPG-12, PPG-13, PPG-15, PPG-16, PPG-17, PPG-20, PPG-26, PPG-30, PPG-33, PPG-34, PPG-51, PPG-52, and PPG-69, function primarily as skin conditioning agents, with some solvent use. The majority of the safety and toxicity information presented is for propylene glycol (PG). Propylene glycol is generally nontoxic and is noncarcinogenic. Clinical studies demonstrated an absence of dermal sensitization at use concentrations, although concerns about irritation remained. The CIR Expert Panel determined that the available information support the safety of tripropylene glycol as well as all the PPGs. The Expert Panel concluded that PG, tripropylene glycol, and PPGs ≥3 are safe as used in cosmetic formulations when formulated to be nonirritating.

  20. Stability of cosmetic emulsion containing different amount of hemp oil.

    PubMed

    Kowalska, M; Ziomek, M; Żbikowska, A

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the optimal conditions, that is the content of hemp oil and time of homogenization to obtain stable dispersion systems. For this purpose, six emulsions were prepared, their stability was examined empirically and the most correctly formulated emulsion composition was determined using a computer simulation. Variable parameters (oil content and homogenization time) were indicated by the optimization software based on Kleeman's method. Physical properties of the synthesized emulsions were studied by numerous techniques involving particle size analysis, optical microscopy, Turbiscan test and viscosity of emulsions. The emulsion containing 50 g of oil and being homogenized for 6 min had the highest stability. Empirically determined parameters proved to be consistent with the results obtained using the computer software. The computer simulation showed that the most stable emulsion should contain from 30 to 50 g of oil and should be homogenized for 2.5-6 min. The computer software based on Kleeman's method proved to be useful for quick optimization of the composition and production parameters of stable emulsion systems. Moreover, obtaining an emulsion system with proper stability justifies further research extended with sensory analysis, which will allow the application of such systems (containing hemp oil, beneficial for skin) in the cosmetic industry. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  1. Cosmetic components causing contact urticaria: a review and update.

    PubMed

    Verhulst, Lien; Goossens, An

    2016-12-01

    Immediate skin reactions are common in dermatological practice, but may often be overlooked. The main objective of this article is to provide an update of the literature concerning immediate-type reactions or contact urticaria/contact urticaria syndrome caused by cosmetic ingredients in terms of immediate clinical symptoms, positive reactions following open, scratch or, most often, prick testing, and sometimes the detection of specific IgE antibodies. To this end, a selective search in different medical literature databases was performed. This yielded a list of cosmetic ingredients causing immediate reactions, including hair dyes and bleaches, preservatives, fragrance and aroma chemicals, sunscreens, hair glues, plant-derived and animal-derived components, permanent makeup and tattoos, glycolic acid peel, lip plumper, and alcohols. Many of the reported cases, however, lack appropriate controls and detailed investigation. Contact urticaria may occur with or without systemic symptoms, which are sometimes life-threatening. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Sensitive skin: review of an ascending concept*

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Ida; Silveira, Jéssica Eleonora P. S.; Hafner, Mariana de Figueiredo Silva; Toyota, Raquel; Pedroso, Debora Midori M.

    2017-01-01

    Sensitive skin is a condition characterized by stinging, burning and itching sensations. The diagnosis, pathophysiology and treatment of sensitive skin are still under discussion. In the last years, studies on its epidemiology have been performed, showing a high prevalence and impact on quality of life. Brazilian population was also considered in these studies. Cosmetics, climate changes and skin barrier impairment are the main factors that contribute for skin hyperreactivity. New studies are trying to bring new knowledge about the theme. This review will describe data on epidemiology, triggering factors, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment. PMID:28954102

  3. Skin graft

    MedlinePlus

    ... that need skin grafts to heal Venous ulcers, pressure ulcers , or diabetic ulcers that do not heal Very ... graft; Full thickness skin graft Patient Instructions Preventing pressure ulcers Surgical wound care - open Images Skin graft Skin ...

  4. Ethnobotanical survey of cosmetic plants used in Marquesas Islands (French Polynesia).

    PubMed

    Jost, Xénia; Ansel, Jean-Luc; Lecellier, Gaël; Raharivelomanana, Phila; Butaud, Jean-François

    2016-11-29

    Cosmetic plants and their uses have often been neglected in ethnobotanical surveys which focus mainly on plants with medicinal or food uses. Thus, this survey was carried out to specifically investigate cosmetics in a small community and to establish a cosmetopoeia, based on the model of pharmacopoeia for medicinal plants. The geographic spread of the survey covered the Marquesas Islands, one of the five archipelagos of French Polynesia (Pacific Ocean). This archipelago was also recently investigated for its pharmacopoeia. This survey is based on individual interviews of Marquesan informants on the islands of Tahiti (Society archipelago) and Nuku Hiva (Marquesas archipelago). The methodological approach was semi-directive with open-ended questions based on cosmetic criteria (application area, cosmetic use, plant). Before each interview, researchers and the informant signed a Prior Informed Consent (PIC). Quantitative analyses were performed using basic statistics and the indice of Fidelity Level (FL). Twenty-eight informants from five of the six inhabited Marquesan islands were interviewed and yielded more than 500 cosmetic recipes. Marquesan cosmetopoeia included 79 plant taxa, of which 5% are Marquesan endemics, 23% are indigenous, 28% are Polynesian introductions and 44% are modern introductions. Among the introduced species, half were cultivated whereas the other half were weedy species. Most of the plants were abundant and only eight species were considered rare, of which four were Marquesan endemics. Main cosmetic plants were identified through informant citations and fidelity levels, and included Calophyllum inophyllum, Cananga odorata, Citrus aurantiifolia, Cocos nucifera, Curcuma longa, Gardenia taitensis, Mentha spp., Ocimum basilicum, Rauvolfia nukuhivensis and Santalum insulare var. marchionense. The most referred application areas were skin, hair and private parts whereas the main cosmetic uses were perfume, hydration, medicinal care and healing

  5. Preparation of Keratin Hydrolysate from Chicken Feathers and Its Application in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Mokrejš, Pavel; Huťťa, Matouš; Pavlačková, Jana; Egner, Pavlína

    2017-11-27

    Keratin hydrolysates (KHs) are established standard components in hair cosmetics. Understanding the moisturizing effects of KH is advantageous for skin-care cosmetics. The goals of the protocol are: (1) to process chicken feathers into KH by alkaline-enzymatic hydrolysis and purify it by dialysis, and (2) to test if adding KH into an ointment base (OB) increases hydration of the skin and improves skin barrier function by diminishing transepidermal water loss (TEWL). During alkaline-enzymatic hydrolysis feathers are first incubated at a higher temperature in an alkaline environment and then, under mild conditions, hydrolyzed with proteolytic enzyme. The solution of KH is dialyzed, vacuum dried, and milled to a fine powder. Cosmetic formulations comprising from oil in water emulsion (O/W) containing 2, 4, and 6 weight% of KH (based on the weight of the OB) are prepared. Testing the moisturizing properties of KH is carried out on 10 men and 10 women at time intervals of 1, 2, 3, 4, 24, and 48 h. Tested formulations are spread at degreased volar forearm sites. The skin hydration of stratum corneum (SC) is assessed by measuring capacitance of the skin, which is one of the most world-wide used and simple methods. TEWL is based on measuring the quantity of water transported per a defined area and period of time from the skin. Both methods are fully non-invasive. KH makes for an excellent occlusive; depending on the addition of KH into OB, it brings about a 30% reduction in TEWL after application. KH also functions as a humectant, as it binds water from the lower layers of the epidermis to the SC; at the optimum KH addition in the OB, up to 19% rise in hydration in men and 22% rise in women occurs.

  6. Do plastic surgeons have cosmetic surgery?

    PubMed

    Gurunluoglu, Raffi; Gurunluoglu, Aslin

    2009-12-01

    Thoughts and attitudes of plastic surgeons about having cosmetic surgery on themselves remain obscure for the most part and pose an attractive subject to study. A survey was distributed to a random sample of 2635 American Society of Plastic Surgeons member and candidate member surgeons to determine plastic surgeons' interest in both minimally invasive cosmetic procedures and cosmetic surgical procedures, selection of facility type, selection of surgeon, and their satisfaction level. There were 276 responses. Sixty-two percent of the plastic surgeons had undergone at least one type of minimally invasive cosmetic procedure. Female plastic surgeons had significantly more minimally invasive cosmetic procedures compared with male plastic surgeons (84.9 versus 57 percent; p < 0.05). The most common procedure was botulinum toxin type A injection (31.5 percent). Approximately one-third of plastic surgeons had at least one type of cosmetic surgery. The most common cosmetic surgical procedure was liposuction of the trunk and/or extremity (18.6 percent). Male plastic surgeons were more likely to have a procedure than men in the general population, and female plastic surgeons were less likely to have breast augmentation than the general population. The percentage of operations conducted by a plastic surgeon was 88.2 percent. The percentage performed by a nationally known surgeon was 45.3 percent; 75.9 percent of plastic surgeons selected a surgeon who was certified by the American Board of Plastic Surgery. The satisfaction rate was 90 percent. The survey provides insight on the stance of American Society of Plastic Surgeons member and candidate member surgeons on the subject. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first survey designed for this purpose.

  7. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Program-Expert Safety Assessments of Cosmetic Ingredients in an Open Forum.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Ivan J; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Heldreth, Bart; Fiume, Monice M; Gill, Lillian J

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) is a nonprofit program to assess the safety of ingredients in personal care products in an open, unbiased, and expert manner. Cosmetic Ingredient Review was established in 1976 by the Personal Care Products Council (PCPC), with the support of the US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) and the Consumer Federation of America (CFA). Cosmetic Ingredient Review remains the only scientific program in the world committed to the systematic, independent review of cosmetic ingredient safety in a public forum. Cosmetic Ingredient Review operates in accordance with procedures modeled after the USFDA process for reviewing over-the-counter drugs. Nine voting panel members are distinguished, such as medical professionals, scientists, and professors. Three nonvoting liaisons are designated by the USFDA, CFA, and PCPC to represent government, consumer, and industry, respectively. The annual rate of completing safety assessments accelerated from about 100 to more than 400 ingredients by implementing grouping and read-across strategies and other approaches. As of March 2017, CIR had reviewed 4,740 individual cosmetic ingredients, including 4,611 determined to be safe as used or safe with qualifications, 12 determined to be unsafe, and 117 ingredients for which the information is insufficient to determine safety. Examples of especially challenging safety assessments and issues are presented here, including botanicals. Cosmetic Ingredient Review continues to strengthen its program with the ongoing cooperation of the USFDA, CFA, the cosmetics industry, and everyone else interested in contributing to the process.

  8. Effect of whitening dentifrices on the surface roughness of a nanohybrid composite resin

    PubMed Central

    da Rosa, Gabriela Migliorin; da Silva, Luciana Mendonça; de Menezes, Márcio; do Vale, Hugo Felipe; Regalado, Diego Ferreira; Pontes, Danielson Guedes

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The present study verified the influence of whitening dentifrices on the surface roughness of a nanohybrid composite resin. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two specimens were prepared with Filtek™ Z350 XT (3M/ESPE) and randomly divided into four groups (n = 08) that were subjected to brushing simulation equivalent to the period of 1 month. The groups assessed were a control group with distilled water (G1), Colgate Total 12 Professional Clean (G2), Sensodyne Extra Whitener Extra Fresh (G3), and Colgate Luminous White (G4). A sequence of 90 cycles was performed for all the samples. The initial roughness of each group was analyzed by the Surface Roughness Tester (TR 200-TIME Group Inc., CA, USA). After the brushing period, the final roughness was measured, and the results were statistically analyzed using nonparametric Kruskal–Wallis and Dunn tests for intergroup roughness comparison in the time factor. For intragroup and “Δ Final − Initial” comparisons, the Wilcoxon test and (one-way) ANOVA were, respectively, performed (α = 0.05). Results: The roughness mean values before and after brushing showed no statistically significant difference when the different dentifrices were used. None of the dentifrices analyzed increased significantly the nanohybrid composite resin surface roughness in a 1 month of tooth brushing simulation. Conclusions: These results suggest that no hazardous effect on the roughness of nanohybrid composite resin can be expected when whitening dentifrices are used for a short period. Similar studies should be conducted to analyze other esthetic composite materials. PMID:27095891

  9. Effect of whitening toothpastes on bonding of restorative materials to enamel of primary teeth.

    PubMed

    Abdelmegid, F Y

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro investigation was to measure shear bond strength (SBS) of a resin composite and a resin-modified glass ionomer to enamel of primary teeth after application of different whitening toothpastes (WTs). Eighty labial enamel surfaces of primary incisors were randomly distributed into 8 groups of 10 each according to the surface treatment and bonding material. G1 and G2, control (brushed with water without WT); G3 and G4, (brushed with Colgate Optic White WT [Colgate-Palmolive Company, New York, NY, USA]), G5 and G6, (brushed with Crest Pro-Health Whitening WT [Procter and Gamble, Cincinnati, OH, USA]) and G7 and G8, (brushed with Arm and Hammer Advance White Extreme Whitening with Stain Defense WT [Church and Dwight Co., Princeton, NJ, USA]). SBS was measured at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min and the type of bond failure was assessed using a stereomicroscope. There was significant difference between SBS of composite resin in groups 1, 3, 5, and 7 (P < 0.001), but no difference between resin-modified glass ionomer in groups 2, 4, 6, and 8 (P < 0.056). SBS of group 1 (control) was greater than groups 3, 5, and 7. There was a significant difference between group 1 and group 2 as well as group 7 and group 8 (P < 0.001). WTs affect SBS of resin composite, but not resin-modified glass ionomer to enamel of primary teeth. No difference of failure modes between different groups of tested materials.

  10. Effects of tooth whitening and orange juice on surface properties of dental enamel.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yan-Fang; Amin, Azadeh; Malmstrom, Hans

    2009-06-01

    To study the effects of 6% H2O2 activated with LED light on surface enamel as compared to orange juice challenges in vitro. A total of 40 human enamel discs were incubated in saliva overnight to allow pellicle formation and then divided into three groups: 15 for whitening treatments, 15 for orange juice immersions and 10 for normal saline controls. Baseline microhardness was measured with a microhardness Knoop indenter (50g, 10s) and surface topography was evaluated with a focus-variation 3D scanning microscopy. Enamel discs were treated with H2O2 or orange juice for 20 min each cycle for five cycles to simulate daily treatment with the products for 5 days. The discs were stored in saliva between treatment cycles. Microhardness and surface topography were evaluated again after treatments. Changes in microhardness and in surface area roughness (Sa), mean maximum peak-to-valley distance (Sz) and the developed surface area ratio (Sdr) were compared before and after treatments (t-test) and among groups (ANOVA). Enamel surface hardness decreased by 84% after orange juice immersion but no statistically significant changes were observed in the whitening and control groups. Surface topography changed significantly only in the orange juice group as shown by increased Sa (1.2 microm vs. 2.0 microm), Sz (7.7 microm vs. 10.2 microm) and Sdr (2.8% vs. 6.0%). No such changes were observed in the whitening and control groups. In comparison to orange juice challenges, the effects of 6% H2O2 on surface enamel are insignificant. Orange juice erosion markedly decreased hardness and increased roughness of enamel.

  11. Effects of whitening dentifrice on yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal surfaces after simulating brushing.

    PubMed

    Pinelli, Lígia Antunes Pereira; Gimenes Olbera, Amanda Caroline; Candido, Lucas Miguel; Miotto, Larissa Natiele; Antonio, Selma Gutierrez; Fais, Laiza Maria Grassi

    2017-01-01

    The changes that occur after brushing yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) are unknown. These changes may favor the retention of microorganisms and chemisorption of water, impairing its longevity. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of a whitening dentifrice on Y-TZP surfaces after simulating 10 years of brushing. Seventy-two bar-shaped specimens (20×4×1.2 mm) were divided into 4 groups: storage in distilled water (SW, control), brushing with distilled water (BW), brushing with dentifrice (BD), and brushing with whitening dentifrice (BWD). Brushing was conducted using a linear brushing machine (878400 cycles, 0.98 N, soft toothbrush). The mean roughness (Ra) was analyzed with a profilometer and the superficial topography with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at baseline and after treatment. Crystalline phases were characterized using x-ray diffraction. Baseline and posttreatment Ra were analyzed using the 1-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD multiple comparison test; the paired t test was used for intragroup comparison (all α=.05). The Ra (μm) means (before/after treatment) were SW 0.28/0.28; BW 0.32/0.31; BD 0.28/0.36; BWD 0.30/0.20. No statistically significant difference was found for Ra at baseline (P=.108) than for posttreatment results (P<.001); the BD group had higher Ra values when compared with baseline (P=.019); the BWD group had the lowest values (P<.001). The BD surfaces showed pronounced scratches and detachment of the surface, while BWD showed smoother surfaces; similar crystallographic results among groups were observed. Brushing Y-TZP with conventional dentifrice increased roughness, while brushing with whitening dentifrice reduced roughness. Neither dentifrice changed the crystallographic phases after brushing. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial to Evaluate Extrinsic Stain Removal of a Whitening Dentifrice.

    PubMed

    Terézhalmy, Géza; He, Tao; Anastasia, Mary Kay; Eusebio, Rachelle

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the extrinsic stain removal efficacy of a new whitening dentifrice containing sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) over a two-week period. This study used a controlled and randomized, examiner-blind, single-center, two-treatment, parallel group design. Subjects with visible extrinsic dental stain on facial surfaces of their anterior teeth, and meeting all study criteria, were entered into the trial. The test group received the whitening dentifrice with sodium fluoride and SHMP and an ADA reference soft manual toothbrush. Subjects in the control group received a dental prophylaxis after the initial examination at Baseline and were instructed to use their usual oral hygiene products at home. Subjects returned at Day 3 and Week 2 for re-evaluation of extrinsic dental stain. Extrinsic stain was measured using the Interproximal Modified Lobene (IML) Stain Index; safety was assessed based on clinical examination. Fifty subjects (mean age 32.0 years) completed the study, with 25 in each group. Statistically significant reductions in composite stain for whole tooth, as well as interproximal, gingival, and body surfaces were observed for both groups at Day 3 and Week 2 (p < 0.0001) with no significant differences between the two groups (p > 0.3). At Day 3, median percent reductions in composite IML stain from Baseline were 98% for the prophylaxis group and 100% for the test dentifrice group. At Week 2, median percent reductions in composite IML stain were 100% compared to Baseline for both groups. No adverse events were reported for either group. The whitening dentifrice demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in IML stain after three days and two weeks of use relative to baseline. Stain reduction with the toothpaste was comparable to a dental prophylaxis.

  13. Graph-based normalization and whitening for non-linear data analysis.

    PubMed

    Aaron, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we construct a graph-based normalization algorithm for non-linear data analysis. The principle of this algorithm is to get a spherical average neighborhood with unit radius. First we present a class of global dispersion measures used for "global normalization"; we then adapt these measures using a weighted graph to build a local normalization called "graph-based" normalization. Then we give details of the graph-based normalization algorithm and illustrate some results. In the second part we present a graph-based whitening algorithm built by analogy between the "global" and the "local" problem.

  14. Effect of Bleaching Gel Viscosity on Tooth Whitening Efficacy and Pulp Chamber Penetration: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Kwon, S R; Pallavi, Fnu; Shi, Y; Oyoyo, U; Mohraz, A; Li, Y

    Whitening efficacy has been related to hydrogen peroxide (HP) diffusion into tooth structure. However, little information is available relating rheological properties to whitening efficacy. The purpose was to evaluate the whitening efficacy and HP penetration level of a 10% HP gel at three different viscosities and to compare them to a strip delivery system. Extracted molars (n=120) were randomly assigned into five groups (n=24/ group): NC_MED (negative control; median): medium viscosity gel without HP; LOW: 10% HP gel (low viscosity experimental gel, Ultradent Products Inc); MED: 10% HP gel (medium viscosity experimental gel, Ultradent); HIGH: 10% HP gel (high viscosity gel, Ultradent); and CWS: Crest 3D Whitestrips 1-Hour Express (Procter & Gamble). All teeth were subjected to five 60-minute whitening sessions. Instrumental color measurements were performed at baseline (T 0 ), and 1-day after each application (T 1 -T 5 ), and 1-month after whitening (T 6 ). HP penetration was estimated with leucocrystal violet and horseradish peroxidase. A Kruskal-Wallis test and post hoc Bonferroni test were performed to assess the difference in tooth color change and HP penetration among the groups (α=0.05). Hydrogen peroxide penetration levels and overall color changes at T 6 were 0.24 μg/mL / 2.80; 0.48 μg/mL / 8.48; 0.44 μg/mL / 7.72; 0.35 μg/mL / 8.49; 0.36 μg/mL / 7.30 for groups NC, LOW, MED, HIGH, and CWS, respectively. There was a significant difference for HP penetration, while there was no significant difference among the four experimental groups for tooth color change. Rheological properties should be considered when developing new whitening formulations.

  15. Effect of Light-Activated Tooth Whitening on Color Change Relative to Color of Artificially Stained Teeth.

    PubMed

    Kwon, So Ran; Kurti, Steven R; Oyoyo, Udochukwu; Li, Yiming

    2015-01-01

    There is still controversy as to the efficacy of light activation used in tooth whitening. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of light activation on tooth color change relative to the artificial dye color. Extracted human third molars (160) were randomly distributed into eight groups of 20 specimens each based on artificial staining and use of light activation. All groups received three 45-minute sessions of in-office whitening at 3-day intervals. Color measurements were performed with an intraoral spectrophotometer at baseline prior to staining (T0), after artificial staining (T1), 1-day--(T2), and 1-week--(T3) post-whitening. Color differences were calculated relative to after artificial staining color parameters (L*1, a*1, b*1) with the use of a software analysis program enabling synchronization of two images. Within the same staining groups, the light-activated samples exhibited a greater color change than their nonlight-activated counterparts. However, only in the case of the yellow-stained samples at 1-day post-whitening was there a significant difference between the nonlight-activated and light-activated groups (Tukey's post hoc multiple comparison test for pairwise comparisons, p < 0.05). Light activation is a valid method for enhancing the efficacy of tooth whitening with respect to overall color change and works best with yellow stains. Light activation is a valid method for enhancing the efficacy of tooth whitening with respect to overall color change and works best with yellow stains.

  16. The appearance of facial foundation cosmetics applied after metronidazole gel 1%.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe D; Colón, Luz E; Preston, Norman; Johnson, Lori A; Gottschalk, Ronald W

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the cosmetic appearance of commonly marketed facial cosmetics when used after the application of metronidazole gel 1%. An observational. open-label, single-site study was conducted with women (N=30) aged 20 to 75 years and diagnosed with moderate papulopustular rosacea (investigator global severity score of 3). After cleansing the face with a gentle skin cleanser, participants applied metronidazole gel 1% once daily before applying their usual facial foundation. Two surveys were conducted: (1) investigator assessment of cosmetic appearance; and (2) participant assessment of cosmetic appearance. The investigator also evaluated erythema, disease severity, and tolerability at baseline and week 2. Adverse events were collected. The 28 per-protocol (PP) participants had a mean age (standard deviation [SD]) of 54.0 (10.3) years and a mean duration (SD) of rosacea of 15.4 (13.2) years. The median response score for both the investigator and participant assessments of cosmetic appearance was 10 (best) for each survey question. Signs and symptoms of rosacea did not increase with use of metronidazole gel 1% and the participants' selected cosmetic regimen. At baseline all 28 participants were classified as having moderate erythema. At week 2, 18 (64%) participants were classified as having moderate erythema and 10 (36%) mild. At baseline all 28 (100%) participants were classified as having moderate rosacea according to the investigator global severity score. At week 2, 10 (36%) participants were classified as mild and 18 (64%) moderate. In addition, few participants reported cutaneous irritation during the study. At week 2, 10 participants had dryness, 2 had itching, 8 had scaling, and 2 had stinging/burning. According to surveys completed by the investigator and the participants themselves, most participants had a good cosmetic appearance with their facial foundation cosmetics that were applied after metronidazole gel 1%. The use of

  17. Safety of ingredients used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Marks, James G; Andersen, F Alan

    2005-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) program was established in 1976 by the Cosmetics, Toiletry, and Fragrance Association, with the support of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Consumer Federation of America (CFA). CIR performs independent, expert reviews to determine if ingredients used in cosmetics are safe. CIR staff prepares summaries of available data and the CIR Expert Panel reviews the data in open, public meetings. If more data are needed, requests are made. Unpublished studies may be provided, but become public and available for review once summarized in CIR safety assessments. Tentative conclusions are supported with a rationale and public comment is sought. Taking any input into consideration, a final safety assessment monograph is issued. These monographs are submitted for publication in the peer-reviewed International Journal of Toxicology . To date, 1194 individual cosmetic ingredients have been addressed. Of these, 683 were found to be safe in cosmetics in the present practices of use and concentration. With qualifications, another 388 have been found safe for use in cosmetics; specific qualifications for each are given. Nine ingredients have been deemed unsafe for use in cosmetics and the safety issue has been described. The available data were found insufficient to support the safety of 114 ingredients; the needed data are listed. Hair dyes represent an important product category reviewed by CIR. In considering hair dyes, the CIR Expert Panel reviews experimental and clinical data specific to the particular chemical structure of each hair dye and reviews epidemiologic studies that address hair dye use that are less specific. Recently the CIR Expert Panel concluded that the available epidemiologic studies are insufficient to conclude there is a causal relationship between hair dye use and cancer and other end points. It is inevitable that new information will become available concerning ingredients for which safety assessments were

  18. Measurement of skin colors of world population and its application for preparing make-up products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takata, Sadaki; Akimoto, Makio; Kawada, Kiyoshi; Takahashi, Motoji; Kumagai, Shigenori

    2002-06-01

    We attempted to analyze the skin color of women from the world using identical apparatuses and under identical conditions. The data was used for developing cosmetic products. The skin colors of a total of 1703 women over the world were measured to clarify the characteristics of skin color. Skin color measurement was done by using a spectrometric colorimeter. We modified the conventional erythema and melanin indices and established new respective indices which can reflect various spectral information of whole visible region. The present results were used to design new cosmetics in consideration of the optical properties of skin.

  19. Motives for cosmetic procedures in Saudi women.

    PubMed

    Al-Natour, Sahar H

    2014-01-01

    The media-fuelled obsession with beauty in modern society has led more women to seek elective cosmetic procedures to meet the portrayed ideals of beauty in different cultures. This study gives insights into incentives and desires to undergo cosmetic procedures in a conservative society with strict religious practices where women are veiled. Questionnaire data were obtained from 509 Saudi women who responded to a survey distributed randomly to a sample of Saudi women aged 17 to 72 years. At least 1 elective cosmetic procedure was performed in 42% of the women, of whom 77.8% wore a veil. Another 33% considered having a procedure. The motives for seeking a cosmetic procedure were to improve self-esteem in 83.7%, attract a husband in 63.3%, or prevent a husband from seeking another wife in 36.2%. The decision to seek a procedure was affected by the media, with high peer influence. Motivation for elective cosmetic procedures in Saudi women is influenced by a combination of emotional and cultural factors, level of education, marital status, and religious beliefs. The veil is not an impediment for seeking such procedures. The limitation of the study was missing data analysis as some items in the questionnaire were completed inaccurately or left unanswered.

  20. Assessing cosmetic results after breast conserving surgery.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Maria João; Oliveira, Helder; Cardoso, Jaime

    2014-07-01

    "Taking less treating better" has been one of the major improvements of breast cancer surgery in the last four decades. The application of this principle translates into equivalent survival of breast cancer conserving treatment (BCT) when compared to mastectomy, with a better cosmetic outcome. While it is relatively easy to evaluate the oncological results of BCT, the cosmetic outcome is more difficult to measure due to the lack of an effective and consensual procedure. The assessment of cosmetic outcome has been mainly subjective, undertaken by a panel of expert observers or/and by patient self-assessment. Unfortunately, the reproducibility of these methods is low. Objective methods have higher values of reproducibility but still lack the inclusion of several features considered by specialists in BCT to be fundamental for cosmetic outcome. The recent addition of volume information obtained with 3D images seems promising. Until now, unfortunately, no method is considered to be the standard of care. This paper revises the history of cosmetic evaluation and guides us into the future aiming at a method that can easily be used and accepted by all, caregivers and caretakers, allowing not only the comparison of results but the improvement of performance. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Interface Between Cosmetic and Migraine Surgery.

    PubMed

    Gfrerer, Lisa; Guyuron, Bahman

    2017-10-01

    This article describes connections between migraine surgery and cosmetic surgery including technical overlap, benefits for patients, and why every plastic surgeon may consider screening cosmetic surgery patients for migraine headache (MH). Contemporary migraine surgery began by an observation made following forehead rejuvenation, and the connection has continued. The prevalence of MH among females in the USA is 26%, and females account for 91% of cosmetic surgery procedures and 81-91% of migraine surgery procedures, which suggests substantial overlap between both patient populations. At the same time, recent reports show an overall increase in cosmetic facial procedures. Surgical techniques between some of the most commonly performed facial surgeries and migraine surgery overlap, creating opportunity for consolidation. In particular, forehead lift, blepharoplasty, septo-rhinoplasty, and rhytidectomy can easily be part of the migraine surgery, depending on the migraine trigger sites. Patients could benefit from simultaneous improvement in MH symptoms and rejuvenation of the face. Simple tools such as the Migraine Headache Index could be used to screen cosmetic surgery patients for MH. Similarity between patient populations, demand for both facial and MH procedures, and technical overlap suggest great incentive for plastic surgeons to combine both. Level of Evidence V This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  2. Cosmetic Professionals' Awareness of Body Dysmorphic Disorder.

    PubMed

    Bouman, Theo K; Mulkens, Sandra; van der Lei, Berend

    2017-02-01

    Preoccupation with a perceived appearance flaw is the main feature of body dysmorphic disorder. The majority of these patients seek and often receive some sort of cosmetic procedure, although this condition is considered to be a contraindication. This study evaluates cosmetic professionals' recognition of body dysmorphic disorder and the way they act on this. Members of Dutch professional associations for aesthetic plastic surgery, dermatology, and cosmetic medicine received an online survey by means of their association's digital mailing lists; the survey was completed by 173 respondents. Most participants indicated being more or less familiar with the diagnostic criteria and clinical picture of body dysmorphic disorder. Approximately two-thirds of the participants reported that they had encountered between one and five of these patients in their practice over the past year, a percentage that is significantly lower than the estimated prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder. The majority of professionals sometimes or often address body image problems during consultation, most of them collaborate with psychologists or psychiatrists when encountering a patient with body dysmorphic disorder, and approximately 70 percent had refused to perform a procedure in such a patient. Our results converge with those of previous studies, showing that most cosmetic professionals have some degree of awareness of body dysmorphic disorder, although the number they report encountering in clinical practice departs from prevalence figures. When a patient is identified as having body dysmorphic disorder, the professionals use this knowledge to guide their decision to perform a cosmetic procedure.

  3. Immobilised lipases in the cosmetics industry.

    PubMed

    Ansorge-Schumacher, Marion B; Thum, Oliver

    2013-08-07

    Commercial products for personal care, generally perceived as cosmetics, have an important impact on everyday life worldwide. Accordingly, the market for both consumer products and specialty chemicals comprising their ingredients is considerable. Lipases have started to play a minor role as active ingredients in so-called 'functional cosmetics' as well as a major role as catalysts for the industrial production of various specialty esters, aroma compounds and active agents. Interestingly, both applications almost always require preparation by appropriate immobilisation techniques. In addition, for catalytic use special reactor concepts often have to be employed due to the mostly limited stability of these preparations. Nevertheless, these processes show distinct advantages based on process simplification, product quality and environmental footprint and are therefore apt to more and more replace traditional chemical processes. Here, for the first time a review on the various aspects of using immobilised lipases in the cosmetics industry is given.

  4. Contact-Allergic Reactions to Cosmetics

    PubMed Central

    Goossens, An

    2011-01-01

    Contact-allergic reactions to cosmetics may be delayed-type reactions such as allergic and photo-allergic contact dermatitis, and more exceptionally also immediate-type reactions, that is, contact urticaria. Fragrances and preservative agents are the most important contact allergens, but reactions also occur to category-specific products such as hair dyes and other hair-care products, nail cosmetics, sunscreens, as well as to antioxidants, vehicles, emulsifiers, and, in fact, any possible cosmetic ingredient. Patch and prick testing to detect the respective culprits remains the golden standard for diagnosis, although additional tests might be useful as well. Once the specific allergens are identified, the patients should be informed of which products can be safely used in the future. PMID:21461388

  5. Tactile perception of skin and skin cream by friction induced vibrations.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shuyang; Bhushan, Bharat

    2016-11-01

    Skin cream smooths, softens, and moistens skin by altering surface roughness and tribological properties of skin. Sliding generates vibrations that activate mechanoreceptors located in skin. The brain interprets tactile information to identify skin feel. Understanding the tactile sensing mechanisms of skin with and without cream treatment is important to numerous applications including cosmetics, textiles, and robotics sensors. In this study, frequency spectra of friction force and friction induced vibration signals were carried out to investigate tactile perception by an artificial finger sliding on skin. The influence of normal load, velocity, and cream treatment time were studied. Coherence between friction force and vibration signals were found. The amplitude of vibration decreased after cream treatment, leading to smoother perception. Increasing normal load or velocity between contacting surfaces generated a smoother perception with cream treatment, but rougher perception without treatment. As cream treatment time increases, skin becomes smoother. The related mechanisms are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Personality and Psychological Aspects of Cosmetic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Golshani, Sanobar; Mani, Arash; Toubaei, Shahin; Farnia, Vahid; Sepehry, Amir Ali; Alikhani, Mostafa

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, cosmetic surgery in Iran, which is provided almost entirely by the private sector, has gained popularity despite evidence of its potential risks. In most cases, cosmetic surgeries are done to increase self-satisfaction and self-esteem, thus seeking cosmetic surgery potentially shows an individual's psychological profile. Current evidence needs studies on the psychological profile of Asian cosmetic surgery patients. The present study investigates psychological profile and personality traits of people seeking cosmetic surgery in Iran. The present prospective observational study was conducted with a sample of 274 randomly selected persons seeking cosmetic surgery (rhinoplasty, blepharoplasty, face/jaw implant, mammoplasty, and liposuction). All participants completed the validated and reliable the Global Severity Index (GSI)-Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R)-and the short Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). The prevalence rate of psychiatric problems based on the GSI cut-off point (>63) of SCL-90-R was about 51 %, and interpersonal sensitivity and psychosis were the highest and lowest endorsed syndromes among the subjects, respectively. Openness had the lowest mean score; agreeableness and extroversion had the highest mean. The current study shows that understanding and psychological evaluation prior to surgery is necessary and screening can reduce the number of unnecessary surgeries and may enhance satisfaction with surgical results. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.

  7. Adhesion of Acanthamoeba on Cosmetic Contact Lenses

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate the adhesion of Acanthamoeba trophozoites on cosmetic contact lenses (CLs) with and without CL care multipurpose solution (MPS) treatment. Methods Acanthamoeba lugdunensis L3a trophozoites were inoculated onto disks trimmed from CLs: 1-day Acuvue moist, 1-day Acuvue define, Acuvue 2, and Acuvue 2 define. After 18-hour inoculation, the number of adherent trophozoites was counted under phase contrast microscopy. The effects of MPS, Opti-Free Express, soaking CLs for 6 hours, on Acanthamoeba adhesion were analyzed. Scanning electron microscopic examination was performed for assessment of Acanthamoeba attached on the lens surface. Results Acanthamoeba trophozoites showed greater adhesion to cosmetic CL (P = 0.017 for 1-day CL and P = 0.009 for 2-week CL) although there was no significant difference between the types of cosmetic CL. On all lenses, the number of adherent Acanthamoeba was significantly reduced after treatment with MPS (P < 0.001 for 1-day Acuvue moist, P = 0.046 for 1-day Acuvue define, P < 0.001 for Acuvue 2, and P = 0.015 for Acuvue 2 define), but there was still significant difference between conventional and cosmetic CLs (P = 0.003 for 1-day CL and P < 0.001 for 2-week CL, respectively). More attachment of Acanthamoeba was observed on colored area and the acanthopodia of Acanthamoeba was placed on the rough surface of colored area. Conclusion Acanthamoeba showed a greater affinity for cosmetic CL and mostly attached on colored area. Although MPS that contained myristamidopropyl dimethylamine reduced the adhesion rate, there was a significant difference between conventional and cosmetic CLs. PMID:29318793

  8. Adolescent girls' views on cosmetic surgery: A focus group study.

    PubMed

    Ashikali, Eleni-Marina; Dittmar, Helga; Ayers, Susan

    2016-01-01

    This study examined adolescent girls' views of cosmetic surgery. Seven focus groups were run with girls aged 15-18 years (N = 27). Participants read case studies of women having cosmetic surgery, followed by discussion and exploration of their views. Thematic analysis identified four themes: (1) dissatisfaction with appearance, (2) acceptability of cosmetic surgery, (3) feelings about undergoing cosmetic surgery and (4) cosmetic surgery in the media. Results suggest the acceptability of cosmetic surgery varies according to the reasons for having it and that the media play an important role by normalising surgery and under-representing the risks associated with it. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. [Expected change of direction in Polish law regarding cosmetics].

    PubMed

    Karłowski, Kazimierz; Smietanka, Barbara; Biernat, Urszula; Burzyńska, Izabela; Pawłowska, Kamila

    2004-01-01

    In connection with adaptation of Polish law to UE regulations, new Polish Act on cosmetics was published. There were also prepared regulations concerning: lists the substances forbidden to be used in cosmetics, permitted to be used in cosmetics only with restrictions, allowed colouring agents, preservatives and UV filters, rules of non-inclusion of one or more ingredients on the list used for the labelling, establishing National System for Informing about Cosmetics and methods of analysis necessary for checking the composition of cosmetic products. Publication in Official Journal of the European Union L. 66/26 Directive 2003/15/EC shows direction necessary changes in Polish Act on cosmetics.

  10. The validated hypoallergenic cosmetics rating system: its 30-year evolution and effect on the prevalence of cosmetic reactions.

    PubMed

    Verallo-Rowell, Vermén M

    2011-01-01

    The validated hypoallergenic (vh) rating system was initiated in 1988 to try to objectively validate the "hypoallergenic" claim in cosmetics. To show how the system rates cosmetic hypoallergenicity and to compare the prevalence of cosmetic contact dermatitis (CCD) among users of regular cosmetics versus cosmetics with high VH numbers. (1) Made a VH list based on top allergens from patch-test results published by the North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACDG) and the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA); (2) reviewed global regulatory, cosmetic, drug, packaging, and manufacturing practices to show how allergens may contaminate products; (3) compared cosmetic ingredients lists against the VH list to obtain the VH rating (the more allergens absent, the higher the VH rating); and (4) obtained CCD prevalence among users of regular cosmetics versus users of cosmetics with high VH ratings. (1) Two VH lists (1988, 2003) included only cosmetic allergens in the NACDG surveys, the third (2007) included cosmetic and potential contaminant noncosmetic allergens, and the fourth (2010) adds ESSCA patch-test surveys. (2) CCD prevalence is 0.05 to 0.12% (average, 0.08%) among users of cosmetics with high VH ratings versus 2.4 to 36.3% among users of regular cosmetics. The VH rating system is shown to objectively validate the hypoallergenic cosmetics claim.

  11. [Influence of the psyche on cosmetic treatments].

    PubMed

    Höfel, L

    2015-01-01

    The wish for an attractive appearance is evident in many people. Aesthetic, cosmetic and surgical treatment is willingly made use of in order to fit into the current beauty ideal. A considerable portion of people who decide to follow this path show signs of psychological problems. One has to recognize and evaluate these for the planning or, if necessary, refusal of further treatment. In this article, the most common psychological problems in the cosmetic and aesthetic field of work are presented. A guideline for handling these patients is explained. Thus, a productive and relaxed cooperation will be possible which enables psychological and physical satisfaction for the medical team and the patients.

  12. Raman spectroscopy analysis of dental enamel treated with whitening product - Influence of saliva in the remineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silveira, J.; Coutinho, S.; Marques, D.; Castro, J.; Mata, A.; Carvalho, M. L.; Pessanha, S.

    2018-06-01

    In this work we present the analysis of dental enamel treated with an over-the-counter whitening product, bought in e-commerce at a very low cost, used without medical supervision in an abusive manner, in order to evaluate its demineralization action. Moreover, we studied the influence of renewal or non-renewal of saliva solution in which the specimens were stored throughout the study. The Degree of Demineralization was determined through the evaluation of the PO43- symmetric stretching band ( 959 cm-1) in Raman spectra of the specimens in different days during the course of the study. Results showed that a maximum of demineralization occurred between days 27 and 34 of application. Titration of the whitening product revealed a content of hydrogen peroxide 170-fold higher than what is allowed in Europe, according with legislation. Despite this extreme concentration of hydrogen peroxide, the demineralization was not as great as could be expected suggesting an important role of the pH of the solution in this demineralization mechanism.

  13. Raman spectroscopy analysis of dental enamel treated with whitening product - Influence of saliva in the remineralization.

    PubMed

    Silveira, J; Coutinho, S; Marques, D; Castro, J; Mata, A; Carvalho, M L; Pessanha, S

    2018-06-05

    In this work we present the analysis of dental enamel treated with an over-the-counter whitening product, bought in e-commerce at a very low cost, used without medical supervision in an abusive manner, in order to evaluate its demineralization action. Moreover, we studied the influence of renewal or non-renewal of saliva solution in which the specimens were stored throughout the study. The Degree of Demineralization was determined through the evaluation of the PO 4 3- symmetric stretching band (~959cm -1 ) in Raman spectra of the specimens in different days during the course of the study. Results showed that a maximum of demineralization occurred between days 27 and 34 of application. Titration of the whitening product revealed a content of hydrogen peroxide 170-fold higher than what is allowed in Europe, according with legislation. Despite this extreme concentration of hydrogen peroxide, the demineralization was not as great as could be expected suggesting an important role of the pH of the solution in this demineralization mechanism. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Effects of tooth whitening agents and acidic drinks on the surface properties of dental enamel].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoling; Chen, Zhiqun; Lin, Yao; Shao, Jinquan; Yin, Lu

    2013-10-01

    Using tooth whitening agents (bleaching clip) in vitro and acidic drinks, we conducted a comparative study of the changes in enamel surface morphology, Ca/P content, and hardness. Tooth whitening glue pieces, cola, and orange juice were used to soak teeth in artificial saliva in vitro. Physiological saline was used as a control treatment. The morphology of the four groups was observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) immediately after the teeth were soaked for 7 and 14 d. The changes in Ca/P content and microhardness were analyzed. The enamel surfaces of the teeth in the three test groups were demineralized. The Ca/P ratio and the average microhardness were significantly lower than those of the control group immediately after the teeth were soaked (P < 0.05). The Ca/P ratio and microhardness gradually increased after 7 d. No significant difference was observed between the control group and the test groups after 14 d (P > 0.05). Bleaching agents caused transient demineralization of human enamel, but these agents could induce re-mineralization and repair of enamel over time. Demineralization caused by bleaching covered a relatively normal range compared with acidic drinks and daily drinking.

  15. Effective of diode laser on teeth enamel in the teeth whitening treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klunboot, U.; Arayathanitkul, K.; Chitaree, R.; Emarat, N.

    2011-12-01

    This research purpose is to investigate the changing of teeth color and to study the surface of teeth after treatment by laser diode at different power densities for tooth whitening treatment. In the experiment, human-extracted teeth samples were divided into 7 groups of 6 teeth each. After that laser diode was irradiated to teeth, which were coated by 38% concentration of hydrogen peroxide, during for 20, 30 and 60 seconds at power densities of 10.9 and 52.1 W/cm2. The results of teeth color change were described by the CIEL*a*b* systems and the damage of teeth surface were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the power density of the laser diode could affect the whiteness of teeth. The high power density caused more luminous teeth than the low power density did, but on the other hand the high power density also caused damage to the teeth surface. Therefore, the laser diode at the low power densities has high efficiency for tooth whitening treatment and it has a potential for other clinical applications.

  16. Comparison of in vitro fluoride uptake from whitening toothpastes and a conventional toothpaste in demineralised enamel.

    PubMed

    Altenburger, Markus J; Bernhart, Jasmin; Schicha, Thurid D; Wrbas, Karl-Thomas; Hellwig, Elmar

    2010-01-01

    Studies on the compatibility of abrasives and fluoride compounds deal exclusively with fluoride uptake and remineralization after storing the enamel specimens in a toothpaste-saliva mixture. The influence of brushing on the fluoride uptake when highly abrasive toothpastes are used has hardly been investigated so far. The aim of the present study was to investigate fluoride uptake in initially demineralised dental enamel after storage in, or brushing with, whitening toothpaste slurries, compared to a conventional toothpaste. For this purpose two widely available whitening toothpastes with ionically bound fluoride (sodium fluoride NaF), two with covalently-bound fluoride toothpastes (sodium monofluorophosphate, NaMFP) and a conventional amine fluoride toothpaste (AmF) were compared. The fluoride uptake after use of the AmF toothpaste was shown to be statistically significantly higher than that after application of the NaF toothpastes, which in turn was statistically significantly higher than the uptake resulting from NaMFP application. The fluoride uptake was slightly higher when the enamel samples were brushed with NaF toothpaste, rather than just stored in the respective toothpaste slurry. Brushing with highly abrasive toothpastes did not negatively influence fluoride uptake in demineralised dental enamel. The ionic form of the fluoride in toothpastes appears to be critical for increased fluoride uptake. The acidic components of the AmF toothpaste improved fluoride uptake compared to alkaline NaF toothpastes.

  17. Clinical evaluation of a new 10% carbamide peroxide tooth-whitening agent.

    PubMed

    Barnes, D M; Kihn, P W; Romberg, E; George, D; DePaola, L; Medina, E

    1998-10-01

    NUPRO Gold Tooth Whitening System was evaluated for efficacy according to the proposed ADA guidelines for acceptance. Sixty participants with discolored anterior teeth participated in a 14-day, double-blind, clinical trial. The participants were matched for age, gender, and oral health status and were given either a placebo gel without the active agent or the NUPRO Gold active gel, which they wore in a custom-fabricated mouth guard for home use. The shade of each participant's maxillary anterior teeth was evaluated using a value-oriented Vita Lumin Vacuum Shade Guide before the study. The same shade guide was used to determine shade changes. Time of use of the agent and potential side effects, such as tooth and gingival hypersensitivity and tissue irritation, were assessed at all recall examinations and were recorded by participants in daily diaries. The average shade change for the placebo users was less than one shade. The average shade change for the NUPRO Gold users was 6.96 shades. Tooth hypersensitivity varied from none to severe. Tissue irritation was minimal. The results of these evaluations indicate that NUPRO Gold is effective as a tooth-whitening system, when administered properly under the supervision of a dentist, with commonly reported side effects of transient tooth sensitivity and minimal gingival sensitivity. Little or no change in tissue health was noted. This study was supported by Dentsply Preventive Care (York, Pennsylvania).

  18. Color reproduction of human skin by spectral reflectance using RGB images and the Wiener estimation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Kiyomi; Miyazawa, Shota; Funamizu, Hideki; Yuasa, Tomonori; Nishidate, Izumi; Aizu, Yoshihisa

    2017-04-01

    Skin measurements based on spectral reflectance are widely studied in the fields of medical care and cosmetics. It has the advantage that several skin properties can be estimated in the non-invasive and non-contacting manner. In this study, we demonstrate the color reproduction of human skin by spectral reflectance using RGB images and the Wiener estimation method.

  19. The enlightenment from Malaysian consumers' perspective toward cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Ayob, Ain; Awadh, Ammar Ihsan; Jafri, Juliana; Jamshed, Shazia; Ahmad, Hawa Mas Azmar; Hadi, Hazrina

    2016-01-01

    Variety of cosmetic products was used in our daily life, yet the amount and types of the cosmetic products used by the consumers were varied, which may be due to the different perspectives held by each of the consumers. To explore consumers' perspectives toward cosmetic products. An interview guide was developed with a set of 12 semistructured questions. Participants in Kuantan, Pahang were recruited via the purposive sampling, and they undergo in-depth face-to-face interviews. All of the interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and were analyzed via thematic content analysis. For the awareness of cosmetic products, less aware about the cosmetic products in Malaysia were noted among the participants. In terms of perceptions about the cosmetic products, participants expressed positive perceptions toward natural cosmetic products, quality were seen as synonymous with branded products and halal certification. Next, for the attitude toward the use of cosmetic products, participants were influenced by ingredients, product brand, and halal certification. Based on personal experiences, they provide complaints and suggestions for the enhancement of cosmetic products' quality. Participants were found to have less awareness about the cosmetic products in Malaysia. Besides, they realized about the chemical ingredients and halal certification for the cosmetic products. Therefore, they held positive perceptions and practiced positive attitudes toward natural and halal cosmetic products. Finally, adverse reactions from the use of cosmetic products were commonly experienced by the participants, which contributed mainly by the ingredients. Thus, they hoped for serious approached to be enacted to solve this problem.

  20. Ingested hyaluronan moisturizes dry skin.

    PubMed

    Kawada, Chinatsu; Yoshida, Takushi; Yoshida, Hideto; Matsuoka, Ryosuke; Sakamoto, Wakako; Odanaka, Wataru; Sato, Toshihide; Yamasaki, Takeshi; Kanemitsu, Tomoyuki; Masuda, Yasunobu; Urushibata, Osamu

    2014-07-11

    Hyaluronan (HA) is present in many tissues of the body and is essential to maintain moistness in the skin tissues, which contain approximately half the body's HA mass. Due to its viscosity and moisturizing effect, HA is widely distributed as a medicine, cosmetic, food, and, recently marketed in Japan as a popular dietary supplement to promote skin moisture. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study it was found that ingested HA increased skin moisture and improved treatment outcomes for patients with dry skin. HA is also reported to be absorbed by the body distributed, in part, to the skin. Ingested HA contributes to the increased synthesis of HA and promotes cell proliferation in fibroblasts. These effects show that ingestion of HA moisturizes the skin and is expected to improve the quality of life for people who suffer from dry skin. This review examines the moisturizing effects of dry skin by ingested HA and summarizes the series of mechanisms from absorption to pharmacological action.

  1. Ingested hyaluronan moisturizes dry skin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is present in many tissues of the body and is essential to maintain moistness in the skin tissues, which contain approximately half the body’s HA mass. Due to its viscosity and moisturizing effect, HA is widely distributed as a medicine, cosmetic, food, and, recently marketed in Japan as a popular dietary supplement to promote skin moisture. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study it was found that ingested HA increased skin moisture and improved treatment outcomes for patients with dry skin. HA is also reported to be absorbed by the body distributed, in part, to the skin. Ingested HA contributes to the increased synthesis of HA and promotes cell proliferation in fibroblasts. These effects show that ingestion of HA moisturizes the skin and is expected to improve the quality of life for people who suffer from dry skin. This review examines the moisturizing effects of dry skin by ingested HA and summarizes the series of mechanisms from absorption to pharmacological action. PMID:25014997

  2. A patent survey case: how could technological forecasting help cosmetic chemists with product innovation?

    PubMed

    Domicio Da Silva Souza, Ivan; Juliana Pinheiro, Bárbara; Passarini Takahashi, Vania

    2012-01-01

    Patents represent a free and open source of data for studying innovation and forecasting technological trends. Thus, we suggest that new discussions about the role of patent information are needed. To illustrate the relevance of this issue, we performed a survey of patents involving skin care products, which were granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) between 2006 and 2010, to identify opportunities for innovation and technological trends. We quantified the use of technologies in 333 patents. We plotted a life cycle of technologies related to natural ingredients. We also determined the cross impact of the technologies identified. We observed technologies related to processes applied to cosmetics (2.2%), functional packaging and applicators (2.9%), excipients and active compounds (21.5%), and cosmetic preparations (73.5%). Further, 21.6% of the patents were related to the use of natural ingredients. Several opportunities for innovation were discussed throughout this paper, for example, the use of peptides as active compounds or intracellular carriers (only 3.9% of the technologies in cosmetic preparations). We also observed technological cross impacts that suggested a trend toward multifunctional cosmetics, among others. Patent surveys may help researchers with product innovation because they allow us to identify available and unexplored technologies and turn them into whole new concepts.

  3. Women's attitudes to beauty, aging, and the place of cosmetic procedures: insights from the QUEST Observatory.

    PubMed

    Ehlinger-Martin, Agnès; Cohen-Letessier, Anny; Taïeb, Maryna; Azoulay, Elisabeth; du Crest, Dominique

    2016-03-01

    The quest for beauty has been a constant theme in human history since the earliest civilizations. The QUEST Observatory, an online observational study, investigated how women continue the pursuit of beauty in the 21st century by examining women's perceptions of facial attractiveness and the strategies they adopt to combat the effects of time on their faces. To investigate women's attitudes toward beauty, aging, and the place of minimally invasive cosmetic procedures and anti-aging skincare. An in-depth questionnaire was developed by experts in dermatology, esthetic medicine, and social anthropology as the basis for this online, observational study. A nationally representative sample of 1000 French women aged between 25 and 70 years took part in the study. The main criteria for beauty were identified as a natural look, self-confidence, and attractive skin. A woman is considered to be at the peak of beauty in her mid-thirties just before early signs of facial aging begin to appear. Approximately 50% of women contemplate cosmetic procedures, but less than 10% go ahead. Confidence in the practitioner and good postprocedure follow-up are as influential as efficacy, safety, and cost in decisions about cosmetic procedures. The QUEST Observatory sheds valuable light on factors that affect women's choices regarding strategies for anti-aging and cosmetic procedures. These findings will help esthetic practitioners to better understand their patients and to meet their expectations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Safety Assessment of Formic Acid and Sodium Formate as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Wilbur; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2016-11-01

    Formic acid functions as a fragrance ingredient, preservative, and pH adjuster in cosmetic products, whereas sodium formate functions as a preservative. Because of its acidic properties, formic acid is a dermal and ocular irritant. However, when used as a pH adjuster in cosmetic formulations, formic acid will be neutralized to yield formate salts, for example, sodium formate, thus minimizing safety concerns. Formic acid and sodium formate have been used at concentrations up to 0.2% and 0.34%, respectively, with hair care products accounting for the highest use concentrations of both ingredients. The low use concentrations of these ingredients in leave-on products and uses in rinse-off products minimize concerns relating to skin/ocular irritation or respiratory irritation potential. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel concluded that formic acid and sodium formate are safe in the present practices of use and concentration in cosmetics, when formulated to be nonirritating. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Safety Assessment of Anthemis nobilis-Derived Ingredients as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Wilbur; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    Anthemis nobilis (Roman chamomile) flower extract, anthemis nobilis flower oil, anthemis nobilis flower powder, and anthemis nobilis flower water are ingredients that function as fragrance ingredients and skin-conditioning agents in cosmetic products. These ingredients are being used at concentrations up to 10% (anthemis nobilis flower water) in cosmetic products. The available data indicate that these 4 ingredients are not irritating or sensitizing. Chemical composition data and the low use concentrations suggest that systemic toxicity would not be likely if percutaneous absorption of constituents were to occur. Formulations may contain more than 1 botanical ingredient; each may contribute to the final concentration of a single component. Manufacturers were cautioned to avoid reaching levels of plant constituents that may cause sensitization or other adverse effects. Industry should continue to use good manufacturing practices to limit impurities in the ingredient before blending into cosmetic formulations. The Expert Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentration in cosmetics, when formulated to be nonsensitizing.

  6. A comparative study of the rheological and sensory properties of a petroleum-free and a petroleum-based cosmetic cream.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fan C; Marangoni, Alejandro G

    A petroleum-free skin cream was developed using food-grade ingredients. The rheological and sensorial properties of this petroleum-free skin cream were compared to a commercially available petroleum-based skin cream. Specifically, large-amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS) characterization of the two skin creams was performed. The petroleum-free skin cream showed similar linear and nonlinear viscoelastic rheological properties, comparable skin hydration functions, and consumer acceptance as the commercially available skin cream. A schematic diagram aiming to correlate the physical and sensorial properties of skin cream was also proposed at the end of the work. Results of this work could provide the cosmetic industry necessary information for the development of alternatives for petroleum-based skin creams.

  7. An Innovations-Based Noise Cancelling Technique on Inverse Kepstrum Whitening Filter and Adaptive FIR Filter in Beamforming Structure

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jinsoo

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an acoustic noise cancelling technique using an inverse kepstrum system as an innovations-based whitening application for an adaptive finite impulse response (FIR) filter in beamforming structure. The inverse kepstrum method uses an innovations-whitened form from one acoustic path transfer function between a reference microphone sensor and a noise source so that the rear-end reference signal will then be a whitened sequence to a cascaded adaptive FIR filter in the beamforming structure. By using an inverse kepstrum filter as a whitening filter with the use of a delay filter, the cascaded adaptive FIR filter estimates only the numerator of the polynomial part from the ratio of overall combined transfer functions. The test results have shown that the adaptive FIR filter is more effective in beamforming structure than an adaptive noise cancelling (ANC) structure in terms of signal distortion in the desired signal and noise reduction in noise with nonminimum phase components. In addition, the inverse kepstrum method shows almost the same convergence level in estimate of noise statistics with the use of a smaller amount of adaptive FIR filter weights than the kepstrum method, hence it could provide better computational simplicity in processing. Furthermore, the rear-end inverse kepstrum method in beamforming structure has shown less signal distortion in the desired signal than the front-end kepstrum method and the front-end inverse kepstrum method in beamforming structure. PMID:22163987

  8. An in vivo study of the effect of a 38 percent hydrogen peroxide in-office whitening agent on enamel.

    PubMed

    Cadenaro, Milena; Navarra, Chiara Ottavia; Mazzoni, Annalisa; Nucci, Cesare; Matis, Bruce A; Di Lenarda, Roberto; Breschi, Lorenzo

    2010-04-01

    In an in vivo study, the authors tested the hypothesis that no difference in enamel surface roughness is detectable either during or after bleaching with a high-concentration in-office whitening agent. The authors performed profilometric and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analyses of epoxy resin replicas of the upper right incisors of 20 participants at baseline (control) and after each bleaching treatment with a 38 percent hydrogen peroxide whitening agent, applied four times, at one-week intervals. The authors used analysis of variance for repeated measures to analyze the data statistically. The profilometric analysis of the enamel surface replicas after the in vivo bleaching protocol showed no significant difference in surface roughness parameters (P > .05) compared with those at baseline, irrespective of the time interval. Results of the correlated SEM analysis showed no relevant alteration on the enamel surface. Results of this in vivo study support the tested hypothesis that the application of a 38 percent hydrogen peroxide in-office whitening agent does not alter enamel surface roughness, even after multiple applications. The use of a 38 percent hydrogen peroxide in-office whitening agent induced no roughness alterations of the enamel surface, even after prolonged and repeated applications.

  9. Role of fluoridated carbamide peroxide whitening gel in the remineralization of demineralized enamel: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Bollineni, Swetha; Janga, Ravi Kumar; Venugopal, L; Reddy, Indukuri Ravikishore; Babu, P Ravisekhar; Kumar, Sunil S

    2014-05-01

    The use of self-administered carbamide peroxide bleaching gels has become increasingly popular for whitening of discolored vital teeth. Studies have reported that its use may induce increased levels of sensitivity and surface roughness of the tooth due to demineralization. This study evaluates the effect of fluoride addition to the bleaching agent - its remineralizing capacity and alterations in the whitening properties. Twenty-four extracted lower third molar teeth, with the pretreatment shade determined, were taken up in the study. Each tooth was sectioned into four and labeled as groups A, B, C, and D. The tooth quadrants in group A-C were demineralized; groups A and B were treated with 10% carbamide peroxide gel (group-A without fluoride and group-B with 0.463% fluoride addition) (no further treatment was carried out for group c) group-D remained as the control. The post-treatment shade was determined. The tooth samples were sectioned (approximately 200 μm) for evaluation under a light microscope. The depth of demineralization was analyzed at five different equidistant points. Statistical analysis was carried out with t-tests, accepting ≤0.05 as significant. Addition of fluoride caused remineralization of demineralized enamel. The tooth whitening system showed that the remineralization properties did not affect the whitening properties.

  10. Factors Associated With Optimal Long-Term Cosmetic Results in Patients Treated With Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Using Balloon-Based Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Vicini, Frank A., E-mail: fvicini@beaumont.edu; Keisch, Martin; Shah, Chirag

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate factors associated with optimal cosmetic results at 72 months for early-stage breast cancer patients treated with Mammosite balloon-based accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Methods and Materials: A total of 1,440 patients (1,449 cases) with early-stage breast cancer undergoing breast-conserving therapy were treated with balloon-based brachytherapy to deliver APBI (34 Gy in 3.4-Gy fractions). Cosmetic outcome was evaluated at each follow-up visit and dichotomized as excellent/good (E/G) or fair/poor (F/P). Follow-up was evaluated at 36 and 72 months to establish long-term cosmesis, stability of cosmesis, and factors associated with optimal results. Results: The percentage of evaluable patients withmore » excellent/good (E/G) cosmetic results at 36 months and more than 72 months were 93.3% (n = 708/759) and 90.4% (n = 235/260). Factors associated with optimal cosmetic results at 72 months included: larger skin spacing (p = 0.04) and T1 tumors (p = 0.02). Using multiple regression analysis, the only factors predictive of worse cosmetic outcome at 72 months were smaller skin spacing (odds ratio [OR], 0.89; confidence interval [CI], 0.80-0.99) and tumors greater than 2 cm (OR, 4.96, CI, 1.53-16.07). In all, 227 patients had both a 36-month and a 72-month cosmetic evaluation. The number of patients with E/G cosmetic results decreased only slightly from 93.4% at 3 years to 90.8% (p = 0.13) at 6 years, respectively. Conclusions: APBI delivered with balloon-based brachytherapy produced E/G cosmetic results in 90.4% of cases at 6 years. Larger tumors (T2) and smaller skin spacing were found to be the two most important independent predictors of cosmesis.« less

  11. [Dealing with the body through cosmetic surgery].

    PubMed

    Mateu, Jacques; Tournier, Sylvie

    2011-06-01

    Plastic surgery is reconstructive or cosmetic. It alters the appearance of a body which a patient is unable to live with, an unconventional or badly perceived body, one of the causes of malaise. After the operation, the patient must be supported without judgement in coming to terms with his or her new body image.

  12. How Smart Are You About Cosmetics?

    MedlinePlus

    ... color additives must be approved for their intended use. For example, a particular color additive may only be used in an eye shadow if it is approved for cosmetic use, including the area of the eyes. Many colors even have to be "certified" by FDA. That ...

  13. Establishing a multidisciplinary academic cosmetic center.

    PubMed

    Rao, Venkat K; Schmid, Daniel B; Hanson, Summer E; Bentz, Michael L

    2011-12-01

    The demand for cosmetic services has risen rapidly in recent years, but has slowed down with the current economic downturn. Managed care organizations and Medicare have been steadily reducing their reimbursements for physician services. The payment for reconstructive surgical procedures has been decreasing and is likely to worsen with healthcare reform, and many plastic surgery residency programs are facing fiscal challenges. An adequate volume of patients needing cosmetic services is necessary to recruit and train the best candidates to the residency programs. Self-pay patients will help ensure the fiscal viability of plastic surgery residency programs. Attracting patients to an academic healthcare center will become more difficult in a recession without the appropriate facilities, programs, and pricing strategies. Setting up a modern cosmetic services program at an academic center has some unique challenges, including funding, academic politics, and turf. The authors opened a free-standing academic multidisciplinary center at their medical school 3 years ago. The center is an off-site, 13,000-sq ft facility that includes faculty from plastic surgery, ear, nose, and throat, dermatology, and vascular surgery. In this article, the authors discuss the process of developing and executing a plan for starting an aesthetic services center in an academic setting. The financing of the center and factors in pricing services are discussed. The authors show the impact of the center on their cosmetic surgery patient volumes, resident education, and finances. They expect that their experience will be helpful to other plastic surgery programs at academic medical centers.

  14. Cosmetics Advertising: A Look at the Foundations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Nancy

    Social, economic, and popular scientific trends converged in the early twentieth century to support the mass popularity of cosmetics. Twentieth-century magazine ads for personal care and beauty products reflected the contemporary belief that "science" was on the verge of being able to cure almost anything, including physical flaws and…

  15. Cosmetic websites Scotland: legal or lurid.

    PubMed

    Gunn, Eilidh G M; Loh, Charles Yuen Yung; Athanassopoulos, Thanassi

    2014-08-01

    The provision of cosmetic interventions and their advertising have recently come under intense scrutiny in the wake of the PIP scandal and Keogh report. A study of Scottish websites offering esthetic procedures was conducted to determine adherence to the advertising standards and regulations currently in place. Regulations are provided by the Advertising Standards Authority, Committee on Advertising Practice, Independent Healthcare Advisory Services and General Medical Council. An Internet search was then conducted to search for providers of non-surgical and surgical cosmetic procedures. Overall 125 websites were reviewed. 109 local and 16 national with 17 websites associated with cosmetic surgeons. 26 websites failed to adhere to regulations. Failure was related to advertising of POM on the homepage or dropdown menu (20), offering enticements inappropriately (6). 26.6% of websites did not display qualifications of the practitioners. Only 16.6% of websites described the specific and the non-specific side effects of "anti-wrinkle injections" and only 12.5% mentioned alternative treatments. The majority of websites reviewed adhered to current advertising standards. Plastic surgeons provide a small percentage of cosmetic procedures. Greater regulation at the point of product entry and of all esthetic practitioners is required. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Comparison of the color difference between teeth underwent cold light whitening and two kinds of shade guides].

    PubMed

    Xu, Y X

    2018-06-18

    To investigate which shade guide, Vitapan Classical or Vita Bleachedguide 3DMaster, is better matched with the color of teeth in judging whitening effect, by comparing the color difference between shade tabs and corresponding teeth underwent cold light tooth whitening. A total of 60 patients underwent Beyond cold light tooth whitening from May 2014 to April 2016. The patients were divided into two experimental groups according to the shade guide used. Vitapan Classical shade guide was used to judge whitening effect in one group, and Vita Bleachedguide 3DMaster shade guide was used in another. Shade matching was carried out before and after whitening in both the two groups, and the results were recorded by digital photographs. Shade matching procedures were carried out by two doctors independently. If they chose the same tab, it would be seen as the shade matching result; While if they chose different tabs, another doctor would be invited to make a decision. Photographs were taken in preset conditions: intraoral photos of the full dentition in the front, and the proportion of shooting was 1:3; aperture was F22; shutter speed was 1/200; intensity of flash was M/8; ISO value was 200. The photographs were analyzed by Photoshop software. Chromatic values were measured, and color difference values were calculated. Measuring of chromatic values was carried out by three doctors independently, and all the photos were measured twice by each doctor. Six measure results of each photo were recorded, and the maximum and the minimum were excluded, then the mean was seen as the final result. The color difference values were compared by independent-sample t test. Besides, changes of shade tabs after whitening in the two groups were recorded. Color difference value was 5.06±1.71 in Vitapan Classical group, and 3.39±1.36 in Vita Bleachedguide 3D-Master group. There was statistically significant difference between the two groups (t=4.68,P<0.001). Change of shade tabs was 3.63

  17. A clinical evaluation comparing two H2O2 concentrations used with a light-assisted chairside tooth whitening system.

    PubMed

    Ward, Marilyn; Felix, Heather

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of two different BriteSmile hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) gels in a split-arch protocol for whitening teeth in a clinical setting when used in conjunction with a BriteSmile BS4000 lamp. Fifteen subjects were enrolled into a single-center clinical trial. The efficacy of the BriteSmile BS4000 lamp using both 15% H2O2 and 25% H2O2 gel formulations was tested. Study subjects were concurrently exposed to the whitening lamp with the 15% H2O2 gel placed on half of their anterior teeth and the 25% H2O2 gel on the other half for a total light and gel exposure of 60 minutes. The clinical data collected were shade score, gingival health, and dentinal hypersensitivity self-assessment. Changes in tooth shade were better for subjects exposed to the 25% gel and the dental whitening lamp (average 8.0 shade changes) compared to subjects exposed to the 15% gel and dental whitening lamp (average 7.6 shade changes) immediately after treatment. The same held true at the 7-day follow-up (25% gel average 7.4 shade changes versus 15% gel average 7.3 shade changes). However, these differences were not statistically significant. No reports of irritation of gingival soft tissues were documented. The relative changes in mean sensitivity scores were similar for both groups with no significant differences in mean sensitivity scores between the groups. Both concentrations of H2O2 gel and the whitening lamp combined gave study subjects an average of 8.0 (25% gel) and 7.6 (15% gel) shade changes immediately after treatment. The 7-day follow-up examination resulted in a regression of lightest to an average of 7.4 (25% gel) and 7.3 (15% gel). It was concluded that the use of the chairside whitening light and either 15% or 25% hydrogen peroxide gel is safe and effective for whitening teeth in 1 hour.

  18. Skin Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    Your skin is your body's largest organ. It covers and protects your body. Your skin Holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration Keeps harmful ... it Anything that irritates, clogs, or inflames your skin can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, burning, ...

  19. Sunscreens--the ultimate cosmetic.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Ronni; Matz, Hagit; Orion, Edith; Lipozencić, Jasna

    2003-01-01

    One decade ago, a sun protection factor (SPF) of 15 was considered a complete blocker of ultraviolet radiation (UV). The logic behind that cutoff point was that sunscreens with this SPF number would always prevent erythema and that preventing erythema would prevent all the ill effects of UV exposure. Today, we know that both of these assumptions were wrong and we tend to recommend higher SPF. Consumers apply only about one-quarter to one-half thickness of the layer of sunscreen material used to measure the SPF in the laboratory. That means that less than 50% of the SPF number claimed on the label is spread on the consumer's skin, meaning that a sunscreen with an SPF 30 will give the real protection of an SPF of 15. Therefore, recommend 60 when you want a real protection of 30! Significant injury, DNA damage, mutations, and carcinogenesis can and do occur also with cumulative suberythemal UV exposure. Thus, erythema induction, a criterion that defines SPF, is not a good indicator of UV damage. We also need higher SPF values to prevent the damage caused by suberythemal doses of UV. The value of the SPF claimed on the label is diminished by environmental factors that are not taken into account during SPF measurements in the laboratory, such as sweating, water immersion, rubbing off, and photodegradation. There are some misunderstandings and confusion about the mode of action of physical sunscreens. It was originally considered that, in contrast to organic sunscreens, the inorganic metal oxides (zinc oxide and titanium dioxide) acted as scatterers or reflectors of UV light, as a mirror. This is not the case with modern micronized forms of metal oxides. It has been shown that both zinc oxide and titanium dioxide mobilize electrons within their atomic structure while absorbing UV radiation. Thus, although metallic oxides are not inert per se, in their coated form they are stable, non-toxic, and safe and they act as highly efficient UV attenuators. Therefore, we recommend

  20. A Survey Comparing Delegation of Cosmetic Procedures Between Dermatologists and Nondermatologists.

    PubMed

    Austin, Molly B; Srivastava, Divya; Bernstein, Ira H; Dover, Jeffrey S

    2015-07-01

    How delegation of procedures varies among cosmetic specialties in the United States is not well described. To better describe current practices in delegation of procedures to nonphysicians among physicians of different cosmetic specialties in the United States. An Internet-based survey was administered to physician members of the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery (ASDS), the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery (ASAPS), and the American Society for Laser Medicine and Surgery (ASLMS). A total of 823 responses were collected. Two hundred ninety-one of the 521 dermatologists (55.9%) reported delegating cosmetic procedures compared with 223 of the 302 nondermatologists (73.8%) (p < .05). When delegation occurred, dermatologists were more likely than nondermatologists to delegate the following procedures to higher level non-physician providers (NPP): chemical peels, neuromodulator and filler injections, laser hair removal, pulsed dye laser, tattoo removal, intense pulsed light, nonablative fractional laser, and sclerotherapy. No difference in delegation rate was noted between dermatologists and non-dermatologist physicians with respect to microdermabrasion, ablative fractional laser, cryolipolysis, radiofrequency skin tightening, focused ultrasound skin tightening, and focused ultrasound fat reduction. Dermatologists delegate procedures to NPP less frequently than non-dermatologist physicians, and when they do, it is typically to higher level NPP.

  1. Formulation and evaluation of carrot seed oil-based cosmetic emulsions.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shalini; Lohani, Alka; Mishra, Arun Kumar; Verma, Anurag

    2018-05-08

    The present study deals with the evaluation of antiaging potential of carrot seed oil-based cosmetic emulsions. Briefly, cosmetic emulsions composed of carrot seed oil in varying proportions (2, 4, and 6% w/v) were prepared using the hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) technique. Coconut oil, nonionic surfactants (Tween 80 and Span 80), and xanthan gum were used as the oil phase, emulgent, and emulsion stabilizer, respectively. The formed emulsions were evaluated for various physical, chemical, and biochemical parameters such as the zeta potential, globule size measurement, antioxidant activity, sun protection factor (SPF), skin irritation, and biochemical studies. The zeta potential values ranged from -43.2 to -48.3, indicating good stability. The polydispersity index (PDI) of various emulsion formulations ranged from 0.353 to 0.816. 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl- (DPPH) and nitric oxide-free radical scavenging activity showed the antioxidant potential of the prepared carrot seed oil emulsions. The highest SPF value (6.92) was shown by F3 having 6%w/v carrot seed oil. Histopathological data and biochemical analysis (ascorbic acid (ASC) and total protein content) suggest that these cosmetic emulsions have sufficient potential to be used as potential skin rejuvenating preparations.

  2. Content of fragrance mix ingredients and customer complaints of cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Bárány, E; Lodén, M

    2000-06-01

    In relation to the wide use of cosmetics, serious adverse effects are rare. Occasionally, unwanted effects such as contact dermatitis are reported. Allergic reactions to cosmetics are often caused by fragrances. The aim was to investigate the content of fragrance mix (FM) ingredients in cosmetic products of the brand ACO HUD (Stockholm, Sweden) and the frequency of customer skin complaints about fragranced and unfragranced products over 4.5 years. Content of FM ingredients in the fragrances used was both analyzed and requested from the suppliers. Customer complaints were those reported to the company. Between 1 and 7 of FM ingredients were present in levels of less than 0.1 to 770 ppm. The ingredients, in order of frequency, were geraniol, eugenol, hydroxycitronellal, alpha-amyl cinnamic aldehyde, isoeugenol, cinnamic alcohol, and oak moss. Cinnamic aldehyde was not found. No significant difference was found either between the frequency of complaints about products with and without fragrance (P = .21) or in a paired comparison of 17 formulas marketed with and without fragrance (P = .24). The study suggests that the investigated fragranced products had a low content of FM ingredients, which might explain the absence of a higher frequency of adversities. Furthermore, it appears that under such circumstances fragrances may be used without introducing an increased rate of spontaneous complaints of skin reactions.

  3. Safety evaluation of traces of nickel and chrome in cosmetics: The case of Dead Sea mud.

    PubMed

    Ma'or, Ze'evi; Halicz, Ludwik; Portugal-Cohen, Meital; Russo, Matteo Zanotti; Robino, Federica; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Rogiers, Vera

    2015-12-01

    Metal impurities such as nickel and chrome are present in natural ingredients-containing cosmetic products. These traces are unavoidable due to the ubiquitous nature of these elements. Dead Sea mud is a popular natural ingredient of cosmetic products in which nickel and chrome residues are likely to occur. To analyze the potential systemic and local toxicity of Dead Sea mud taking into consideration Dead Sea muds' natural content of nickel and chrome. The following endpoints were evaluated: (Regulation No. 1223/20, 21/12/2009) systemic and (SCCS's Notes of Guidance) local toxicity of topical application of Dead Sea mud; health reports during the last five years of commercial marketing of Dead Sea mud. Following exposure to Dead Sea mud, MoS (margin of safety) calculations for nickel and chrome indicate no toxicological concern for systemic toxicity. Skin sensitization is also not to be expected by exposure of normal healthy skin to Dead Sea mud. Topical application, however, is not recommended for already nickel-or chrome-sensitized persons. As risk assessment of impurities present in cosmetics may be a difficult exercise, the case of Dead Sea mud is taken here as an example of a natural material that may contain traces of unavoidable metals. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of exposure for baby cosmetic care products in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunyoung; Yun, Jongbok; Ha, Jaehyoun; Park, Byung Cheol; Park, Gyeong Hun; Kim, Hak Rim; Hong, Seung Phil; Kim, Kyu Bong; Kim, Myung Hwa

    2017-08-01

    Assessment of exposure to cosmetic products via the skin is important for evaluating the risks associated with the use of these products. However, few exposure studies have been conducted with babies, particularly in Asia. The aim of our study was to assess the exposure to selected cosmetic products in babies under the age of 36 months, over both winter and summer months. We evaluated exposure for seven cosmetic baby care products identified in a previous web-based survey as being commonly used by Korean parents. Parents were instructed to use their baby's products as per their usual habit, recording usage for each product on a daily basis over a 14-day period. Products were weighed at the start and completion of the study, with the change in weight used to determine the total amount of product used. Descriptive statistics for daily exposure were calculated. In this study, daily exposure for different products was influenced by sex, age groups and seasons. Of specific note, 3.51% of the lotion in a wet wipe was transferred to the skin. In conclusion, we provide baseline exposure data for baby products, with exposure being based on parents' usual use of the products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Final safety assessment of Coal Tar as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    2008-01-01

    Coal Tar is a semisolid by-product obtained in the destructive distillation of bituminous coal, which functions in cosmetic products as a cosmetic biocide and denaturant--antidandruff agent is also listed as a function, but this is considered an over-the-counter (OTC) drug use. Coal Tar is a nearly black, viscous liquid, heavier than water, with a naphthalene-like odor and a sharp burning taste, produced in cooking ovens as a by-product in the manufacture of coke. Crude Coal Tar is composed of 48% hydrocarbons, 42% carbon, and 10% water. In 2002, Coal Tar was reported to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to be used in four formulations, all of which appear to be OTC drug products. Coal Tar is monographed by the FDA as Category I (safe and effective) OTC drug ingredient for use in the treatment of dandruff, seborrhoea, and psoriasis. Coal Tar is absorbed through the skin of animals and humans and is systemically distributed. In short-term studies, mice fed a diet containing Coal Tar found it unpalatable, but no adverse effects were reported other than weight loss; rats injected with Coal Tar experienced malaise in one study and decreased water intake and increased liver weights in another; rabbits injected with Coal Tar residue experienced eating avoidance, respiratory difficulty, sneezing, and weight loss. In a subchronic neurotoxicity study using mice, a mixture of phenols, cresols, and xylenols at concentrations approximately equal to those expected in Coal Tar extracts produced regionally selective effects, with a rank order of corpus striatum > cerebellum > cerebral cortex. Coal Tar applied to the backs of guinea pigs increases epidermal thickness. Painting female rabbits with tar decreases the absolute and relative weights of the ovaries and decreased the number of interstitial cells in the ovary. Four therapeutic Coal Tar preparations used in the treatment of psoriasis were mutagenic in the Ames assay. Urine and blood from patients treated with Coal Tar

  6. A study of hydrogen peroxide chemistry and photochemistry in tea stain solution with relevance to clinical tooth whitening.

    PubMed

    Young, Nigel; Fairley, Peter; Mohan, Veena; Jumeaux, Coline

    2012-12-01

    Tooth whitening using hydrogen peroxide is a complex process, and there is still some controversy about the roles of pH, temperature, chemical activators, and the use of light irradiation. In this work the basic interactions between whitening agents and stain molecules are studied in simple solutions, thus avoiding the physics of diffusion and light penetration in the tooth to give clarity on the basic chemistry which is occurring. The absorbance of tea stain solution at 450 nm was measured over a period of 40 min, with various compositions of whitening agent added (including hydrogen peroxide, ferrous gluconate and potassium hydroxide) and at the same time the samples were subjected to blue light (465 nm) or infra-red light (850 nm) irradiation, or alternatively they were heated to 37°C. It is shown that the reaction rates between chromogens in the tea solution and hydrogen peroxide can be accelerated significantly using ferrous gluconate activator and blue light irradiation. Infra red irradiation does not increase the reaction rate through photochemistry, it serves only to increase the temperature. Raising the temperature leads to inefficiency through the acceleration of exothermic decomposition reactions which produce only water and oxygen. By carrying out work in simple solution it was possible to show that ferrous activators and blue light irradiation significantly enhance the whitening process, whereas infra red irradiation has no significant effect over heating. The importance of controlling the pH within the tooth structure during whitening is also demonstrated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cryotherapy - skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin; Warts - freezing; Warts - cryotherapy; Actinic keratosis - cryotherapy; Solar keratosis - cryotherapy ... warts Destroy precancerous skin lesions (actinic keratoses or solar keratoses) In rare cases, cryotherapy is used to ...

  8. Skin abscess

    MedlinePlus

    Abscess - skin; Cutaneous abscess; Subcutaneous abscess; MRSA - abscess; Staph infection - abscess ... Skin abscesses are common and affect people of all ages. They occur when an infection causes pus ...

  9. Comparison of the Skin Penetration of 3 Metabolically Stable Chemicals Using Fresh and Frozen Human Skin.

    PubMed

    Jacques-Jamin, Carine; Duplan, Hélène; Rothe, Helga; Vaillant, Ophelie; Eilstein, Joan; Grégoire, Sebastien; Cubberley, Richard; Lange, Daniela; Ellison, Corie; Klaric, Martina; Hewitt, Nicola; Schepky, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The Cosmetics Europe ADME Task Force is developing in vitro and in silico tools for predicting skin and systemic concentrations after topical application of cosmetic ingredients. There are conflicting reports as to whether the freezing process affects the penetration of chemicals; therefore, we evaluated whether the storage of human skin used in our studies (8-12 weeks at -20°C) affected the penetration of model chemicals. Finite doses of trans-cinnamic acid (TCA), benzoic acid (BA), and 6-methylcoumarin (6MC) (non-volatile, non-protein reactive and metabolically stable in skin) were applied to fresh and thawed frozen skin from the same donors. The amounts of chemicals in different skin compartments were analysed after 24 h. Although there were some statistical differences in some parameters for 1 or 2 donors, the penetration of TCA, BA, and 6MC was essentially the same in fresh and frozen skin, i.e., there were no biologically relevant differences in penetration values. Statistical differences that were evident indicated that penetration was marginally lower in frozen than in fresh skin, indicating that the barrier function of the skin was not lost. The penetration of the 3 chemicals was essentially unaffected by freezing the skin at -20°C for up to 12 weeks. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Excellent Aesthetic and Functional Outcome After Fractionated Carbon Dioxide Laser Skin Graft Revision Surgery: Case Report and Review of Laser Skin Graft Revision Techniques.

    PubMed

    Ho, Derek; Jagdeo, Jared

    2015-11-01

    Skin grafts are utilized in dermatology to reconstruct a defect secondary to surgery or trauma of the skin. Common indications for skin grafts include surgical removal of cutaneous malignancies, replacement of tissue after burns or lacerations, and hair transplantation in alopecia. Skin grafts may be cosmetically displeasing, functionally limiting, and significantly impact patient's quality-of-life. There is limited published data regarding skin graft revision to enhance aesthetics and function. Here, we present a case demonstrating excellent aesthetic and functional outcome after fractionated carbon dioxide (CO2) laser skin graft revision surgery and review of the medical literature on laser skin graft revision techniques.

  11. Bacterial cellulose skin masks-Properties and sensory tests.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Guilherme; de Mello, Carolina Véspoli; Chiari-Andréo, Bruna Galdorfini; Isaac, Vera Lucia Borges; Ribeiro, Sidney José Lima; Pecoraro, Édison; Trovatti, Eliane

    2017-09-29

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a versatile material produced by microorganisms in the form of a membranous hydrogel, totally biocompatible, and endowed with high mechanical strength. Its high water-holding capacity based on its highly porous nanofibrillar structure allows BC to incorporate and to release substances very fast, thus being suitable for the preparation of skincare masks. The preparation and characterization of cosmetic masks based on BC membranes and active cosmetics. The masks were prepared by the simple incorporation of the cosmetic actives into BC membranes, used as a swelling matrix. The masks were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), sensory tests, and skin moisture tests on volunteers. The results of sensory tests revealed the good performance of BC, being considered effective by the panel of volunteers, specially for adhesion to the skin (7.7 at the score scale), and improvement of the skin moisture (the hydration effect increased 76% in 75% of the volunteers that used vegetable extract mask formulation [VEM]), or a decrease in skin hydration (80% of the volunteers showed 32.6% decrease on skin hydration using propolis extract formulation [PEM] treatment), indicating the BC nanofiber membranes can be used to skincare applications. The results demonstrate the BC can be used as an alternative support for cosmetic actives for skin treatment. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Surgical Management of the Thick-Skinned Nose.

    PubMed

    Davis, Richard E; Hrisomalos, Emily N

    2018-02-01

    When executed properly, open structure rhinoplasty can dramatically improve the consistency, durability, and quality of the cosmetic surgical outcome. Moreover, in expert hands, dramatic transformations in skeletal architecture can be accomplished with minimal risk and unparalleled control, all while preserving nasal airway function. While skeletal enhancements have become increasingly more controlled and precise, the outer skin-soft tissue envelope (SSTE) often presents a formidable obstacle to a satisfactory cosmetic result. In noses with unusually thick skin, excessive skin volume and characteristically hostile healing responses frequently combine to obscure or sometimes even negate cosmetic skeletal modifications and taint the surgical outcome. For this challenging patient subgroup, care must be taken to optimize the SSTE using a graduated treatment strategy directed at minimizing skin thickness and controlling unfavorable healing responses. When appropriate efforts are implemented to manage thick nasal skin, cosmetic outcomes are often substantially improved, sometimes even negating the ill-effects of thick skin altogether. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  13. 21 CFR 700.13 - Use of mercury compounds in cosmetics including use as skinbleaching agents in cosmetic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Use of mercury compounds in cosmetics including use as skinbleaching agents in cosmetic preparations also regarded as drugs. 700.13 Section 700.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS...

  14. Safety Assessment of Polyquaternium-22 and Polyquarternium-39 as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Wilbur; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2016-11-01

    Polyquaternium-22 and polyquaternium-39 are polymers that function as antistatic agents, film formers, and hair fixatives in cosmetic products. These ingredients are being used at concentrations up to 2% (polyquaternium-22, in a rinse-off product) and up to 3% (polyquaternium-39, in rinse-off and leave-on products). The unreacted monomer content of these ingredients was considered low and of no toxicological concern. Limited data showed no skin irritation/sensitization. Although these ingredients were nongenotoxic in bacterial assays, mammalian genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and reproductive and developmental toxicity data were not available. These polymers, however, are large, highly polar molecules that would likely not be absorbed, and neither local effects in the respiratory tract nor systemic toxicity are expected following product application/exposure. The Expert Panel concluded that polyquaternium-22 and polyquaternium-39 are safe in the present practices of use and concentration in cosmetic formulations. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Quantitative analysis of virgin coconut oil in cream cosmetics preparations using fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rohman, A; Man, Yb Che; Sismindari

    2009-10-01

    Today, virgin coconut oil (VCO) is becoming valuable oil and is receiving an attractive topic for researchers because of its several biological activities. In cosmetics industry, VCO is excellent material which functions as a skin moisturizer and softener. Therefore, it is important to develop a quantitative analytical method offering a fast and reliable technique. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy with sample handling technique of attenuated total reflectance (ATR) can be successfully used to analyze VCO quantitatively in cream cosmetic preparations. A multivariate analysis using calibration of partial least square (PLS) model revealed the good relationship between actual value and FTIR-predicted value of VCO with coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.998.

  16. Wrinkle and roughness measurement by the Antera 3D and its application for evaluation of cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Messaraa, C; Metois, A; Walsh, M; Hurley, S; Doyle, L; Mansfield, A; O'Connor, C; Mavon, A

    2018-01-24

    Skin topographic measurements are of paramount importance in the field of dermo-cosmetic evaluation. The aim of this study was to investigate how the Antera 3D, a multi-purpose handheld camera, correlates with other topographic techniques and changes in skin topography following the use of a cosmetic product. Skin topographic measurements were collected on 26 female volunteers aged 45-70 years with the Antera 3D, the DermaTOP and image analysis on parallel-polarized pictures. Different filters for analysis from the Antera 3D were investigated for repeatability, correlations with other imaging techniques and ability to detect improvements of skin topography following application of a serum. Most of Antera 3D parameters were found to be strongly correlated with the DermaTOP parameters. No association was found between the Antera 3D parameters and measurements on parallel-polarized photographs. The measurements repeatability was comparable among the different filters for analysis, with the exception of wrinkle max depth and roughness Rt. Following a single application of a tightening serum, both Antera 3D wrinkles and texture parameters were able to record significant improvements, with the best improvements observed with the large filter. The Antera 3D demonstrated its relevance for cosmetic product evaluation. We also provide recommendations for the analysis based on our findings. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Automated model selection in covariance estimation and spatial whitening of MEG and EEG signals.

    PubMed

    Engemann, Denis A; Gramfort, Alexandre

    2015-03-01

    Magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography (M/EEG) measure non-invasively the weak electromagnetic fields induced by post-synaptic neural currents. The estimation of the spatial covariance of the signals recorded on M/EEG sensors is a building block of modern data analysis pipelines. Such covariance estimates are used in brain-computer interfaces (BCI) systems, in nearly all source localization methods for spatial whitening as well as for data covariance estimation in beamformers. The rationale for such models is that the signals can be modeled by a zero mean Gaussian distribution. While maximizing the Gaussian likelihood seems natural, it leads to a covariance estimate known as empirical covariance (EC). It turns out that the EC is a poor estimate of the true covariance when the number of samples is small. To address this issue the estimation needs to be regularized. The most common approach downweights off-diagonal coefficients, while more advanced regularization methods are based on shrinkage techniques or generative models with low rank assumptions: probabilistic PCA (PPCA) and factor analysis (FA). Using cross-validation all of these models can be tuned and compared based on Gaussian likelihood computed on unseen data. We investigated these models on simulations, one electroencephalography (EEG) dataset as well as magnetoencephalography (MEG) datasets from the most common MEG systems. First, our results demonstrate that different models can be the best, depending on the number of samples, heterogeneity of sensor types and noise properties. Second, we show that the models tuned by cross-validation are superior to models with hand-selected regularization. Hence, we propose an automated solution to the often overlooked problem of covariance estimation of M/EEG signals. The relevance of the procedure is demonstrated here for spatial whitening and source localization of MEG signals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. High levels of hydrogen peroxide in overnight tooth-whitening formulas: effects on enamel and pulp.

    PubMed

    Pugh, George; Zaidel, Lynette; Lin, Nora; Stranick, Michael; Bagley, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Limited data are available to assess the safety of high levels of hydrogen peroxide in overnight tooth-whitening formulas. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of hydrogen peroxide on enamel microhardness, pulp penetration, and enamel morphology. Colgate Platinum Professional Overnight Whitening System (Colgate Oral Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Canton, MA, USA) (10% carbamide peroxide, equivalent to 3.5% hydrogen peroxide) was compared with two prototype formulations containing either 7.0% or 12.0% hydrogen peroxide. In the pulp chamber studies, human extracted teeth were exposed to 3.5%, 7.0%, or 12.0% hydrogen peroxide for 30 minutes, 4 hours, or 7 hours. Microhardness, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis, and atomic force microscopy evaluations were made from enamel blocks cut from human extracted molars. The enamel blocks were evaluated following 14 7-hour treatments (98 h total). At 7 hours' post-treatment, hydrogen peroxide penetrated the pulp chamber at 23.12 +/- 10.09, 24.58 +/- 6.90, and 26.39 +/- 5.43 microg for 3.5%, 7.0%, and 12.0% hydrogen peroxide, respectively. With regard to enamel morphology, pulp penetration, microhardness, and elemental composition, no statistically significant differences were observed between treatment groups following 98 hours of treatment. Hydrogen peroxide does not adversely affect enamel morphology or microhardness. The levels recovered in pulp indicate that hydrogen peroxide is not expected to inhibit pulpal enzymes. Overnight tray products containing levels of hydrogen peroxide of 3.5%, 7.0%, and 12.0% are not expected to adversely affect the enamel or pulpal enzymes. Additional safety studies are needed to assess the potential for tooth sensitivity and gingival irritation.

  19. Effects of different preparation procedures during tooth whitening on enamel bonding.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Dustin; Xu, Changqi; Hong, Liang; Wang, Yong

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess effects of some clinically related preparation procedures during tooth whitening on enamel bonding properties. Sixty-two extracted human teeth were cleaned and divided into four groups. Forty-two of the teeth were left with their natural surface intact while 20 teeth were polished to form a flat surface. Half of the tooth served as the experimental side and received one of the two whitening products: Opalescence (10% carbamide peroxide) and Crest Whitestrips (6.5% hydrogen peroxide), for 2 weeks. Post-bleaching intervals included: 1 day, 1 week, and 2 weeks. On these days, tooth (10 mm x 1.5 mm x 1.5 mm) sections were evaluated using Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and tensile bond strength tests. T-test, ANOVA test, and mixed model regression analysis were used to assess the differences. No significant difference existed between natural surface and polished surface teeth for all groups at both Day One and Week Two (P > 0.05). On Day One, both treated groups had significant lower bond strength than the control group (P = 0.002). After 2 weeks, no significant difference existed between any group (P = 0.381). SEM indicated that resin-enamel interfaces in bleached enamel exhibited more defects in granular formations when compared to the control. Raman results indicated a lower degree of polymerization (DP) of adhesive at the interface for treated teeth surfaces. In summary, pre-bleaching surface treatments such as polish or non-polish, had no effect on bond strength. Bleaching significantly decreased bond strength initially, but after 2 weeks, bleaching had no significant effect on bond strength. Storage time had significant effect on Opalescence treated enamel, but not on control and Whitestrip treated enamel. The decrease of bond strength may be related to interfacial defects and low DP due to oxygen release after bleaching.

  20. Low-temperature atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced tooth whitening: the next-generation technology.

    PubMed

    Claiborne, D; McCombs, G; Lemaster, M; Akman, M A; Laroussi, M

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the plasma pencil (PP) device in conjunction with H2 O2 gel. The purpose of this study was to determine whether LTAPP delivered using the PP would enhance the tooth-whitening process while causing no thermal threat. The study consisted of thirty extracted human teeth that were randomized into two groups: Group I received LTAPP plus 36% H2 O2 gel at 10, 15 and 20 min and Group II received 36% H2 O2 gel only at the same time intervals. Tooth surface temperature was measured periodically throughout the experiment using a non-contact thermometer. Digital photographs were taken pre- and post-treatment and transferred to Adobe Photoshop for comparison, using the CIELAB Color Value System. Only L* (lightness) values were evaluated in this study. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and t-test at the 0.05 level. The results revealed a statistically significant difference in mean CIE L* values after exposure to LTAPP plus 36% H2 O2 gel, compared with 36% H2 O2 only, in the 10- and 20-min groups (P = 0.0003 and 0.0103, respectively). The temperature in both treatment groups remained under 80°F throughout the study, which is below the thermal threat for vital tooth bleaching. Utilizing PP device in conjunction with 36% H2 O2 safely accelerates and enhances the tooth-whitening process. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The role of oxidized regenerate cellulose to prevent cosmetic defects in oncoplastic breast surgery.

    PubMed

    Franceschini, G; Visconti, G; Terribile, D; Fabbri, C; Magno, S; Di Leone, A; Salgarello, M; Masetti, R

    2012-07-01

    Breast conserving surgery (BCS) combined with postoperative radiotherapy has become the gold standard of locoregional treatment for the majority of patients with early-stage breast cancer, offering equivalent survival and improved body image and lifestyle scores as compared to mastectomy. In an attempt to optimize the oncologic safety and cosmetic results of BCS, oncoplastic procedures (OPP) have been introduced in recent years combining the best principles of surgical oncology with those of plastic surgery. However, even with the use of OPP, cosmetic outcomes may result unsatisfying when a large volume of parenchyma has to be removed, particularly in small-medium size breasts. The aim of this article is to report our preliminary results with the use of oxidized regenerate cellulose (ORC) (Tabotamp fibrillar, Johnson & Johnson; Ethicon, USA) as an agent to prevent cosmetic defects in patients undergoing OPP for breast cancer and to analyze the technical refinements that can enhance its efficacy in optimizing cosmetic defects. Different OPP are selected based on the location and size of the tumor as well as volume and shape of the breast. After excision of the tumor, glandular flaps are created by dissection of the residual parenchyma from the pectoralis and serratus muscles and from the skin. After careful haemostasis, five layers of ORC are positioned on the pectoralis major in the residual cavity and covered by advancement of the glandular flaps. Two additional layers of ORC are positioned above the flaps and covered by cutaneous-subcutaenous flaps. The use of ORC after OPP has shown promising preliminary results, indicating a good tolerability and positive effects on cosmesis. This simple and reliable surgical technique may allow not only to reduce the rate of post-operative bleeding and infection at the surgical site but also to improve cosmetic results.

  2. A Study of the Possible Harmful Effects of Cosmetic Beauty Products on Human Health.

    PubMed

    Kaličanin, Biljana; Velimirović, Dragan

    2016-04-01

    The origins of the usage of different substances in beauty, skin, body, hair, and nails care products can be found in ancient times. To achieve better quality and enhance their effects, some additives such as preservatives, stabilizers, mineral pigments, dye, and shine were added to these products. Some of these substances may also have allergic, irritating, and harmful effects on human health. The aim of this study was the optimization of the potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA) for the purpose of determining the content of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, zinc), in some commercial cosmetic beauty products (lipsticks, lip glosses, eye shadows, and henna hair dye). In addition, in order to monitor the potential adverse effects of henna dye on hair quality, as well as the total body burden of heavy metals (Pb, Cd), the paper analyzed hair samples before and after henna dye treatment. Beauty products used for cosmetic purposes can have adverse effects to human health due to the fact that they contain lead, a highly toxic metal. The lead content in the tested samples varied depending on the additives used along with the method of production. The cosmetic products that were analyzed in this study contained a certain amount of zinc, which is an essential element, although its content above the prescribed limit may lead to side effects. Highly toxic metal, cadmium, was not detected in the tested samples. The presence of these metals in cosmetic products certainly indicate that it is necessary to monitor and determinate the content of toxic heavy metals in these products, especially because they are in direct contact with skin or mucous membranes and are often used in daily life.

  3. Amended final report of the safety assessment of dibutyl adipate as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Dibutyl Adipate, the diester of butyl alcohol and adipic acid, functions as a plasticizer, skin-conditioning agent, and solvent in cosmetic formulations. It is reportedly used at a concentration of 5% in nail polish and 8% in suntan gels, creams, and liquids. Dibutyl Adipate is soluble in organic solvents, but practically insoluble in water. Dibutyl Adipate does not absorb radiation in the ultraviolet (UV) region of the spectrum. Dibutyl Adipate is not toxic in acute oral or dermal animal toxicity tests. In a subchronic dermal toxicity study, 1.0 ml/kg day-1 caused a significant reduction in body weight gain in rabbits, but 0.5 ml/kg/day1 was without effect. In a study with dogs, no adverse effects were observed when an emulsion containing 6.25% Dibutyl Adipate was applied to the entire body twice a week for 3 months. Dibutyl Adipate was tested for dermal irritation using rabbits and mice and a none to minimal irritation was observed. Dibutyl Adipate at a concentration of 25% was not a sensitizer in a guinea pig maximization study. Undiluted Dibutyl Adipate was minimally irritating to the eyes of rabbits and 0.1% was nonirritating. A significant increase in fetal gross abnormalities was observed in rats given intraperitoneal injections of Dibutyl Adipate at 1.75 ml/kg on 3 separate days during gestation, but no effect was seen in animals given 1.05 ml/kg. Dibutyl Adipate was not genotoxic in either bacterial or mammalian test systems. Clinical patch tests confirmed the absence of skin irritation found in animal tests. Clinical phototoxicity tests were negative. Dibutyl Adipate at 0.1% was not an ocular irritant in two male volunteers. In a clinical test of comedogenicity, Dibutyl Adipate produced no effect. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel recognized that use of Dibutyl Adipate in suntan cosmetic products will result in repeated, frequent exposure in a leave-on product. The available data demonstrate no skin sensitization or cumulative skin

  4. Cosmetic surgery on children - professional and legal obligations in Australia.

    PubMed

    Kitipornchai, Leon; Then, Shih-Ning

    2011-07-01

    Public awareness and concern about cosmetic surgery on children is increasing. Nationally and internationally questions have been raised by the media and government bodies about the appropriateness of children undergoing cosmetic surgery. Considering the rates of cosmetic surgery in comparable Western societies, it seems likely that the number of physicians in Australia who will deal with a request for cosmetic surgery for a child will continue to increase. This is a sensitive issue and it is essential that physicians understand the professional and legal obligations that arise when cosmetic surgery is proposed for a child. This article reviews the current professional and legal obligations that physicians have to competent and incompetent children for whom cosmetic surgery has been requested. A case study is used to highlight the factors that Australian primary care physicians must consider before referring and conducting cosmetic surgery on children.

  5. Brief encounters: Assembling cosmetic surgery tourism.

    PubMed

    Holliday, Ruth; Bell, David; Cheung, Olive; Jones, Meredith; Probyn, Elspeth

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports findings from a large-scale, multi-disciplinary, mixed methods project which explores empirically and theoretically the rapidly growing but poorly understood (and barely regulated) phenomenon of cosmetic surgery tourism (CST). We explore CST by drawing on theories of flows, networks and assemblages, aiming to produce a fuller and more nuanced account of - and accounting for - CST. This enables us to conceptualise CST as an interplay of places, people, things, ideas and practices. Through specific instances of assembling cosmetic surgery that we encountered in the field, and that we illustrate with material from interviews with patients, facilitators and surgeons, our analysis advances understandings and theorisations of medical mobilities, globalisation and assemblage thinking. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Skin tightening.

    PubMed

    Woolery-Lloyd, Heather; Kammer, Jenna N

    2011-01-01

    Skin tightening describes the treatment of skin laxity via radiofrequency (RF), ultrasound, or light-based devices. Skin laxity on the face is manifested by progressive loss of skin elasticity, loosening of the connective tissue framework, and deepening of skin folds. This results in prominence of submandibular and submental tissues. Genetic factors (chronological aging) and extrinsic factors (ultraviolet radiation) both contribute to skin laxity. There are many RF, ultrasound, and light-based devices directed at treating skin laxity. All of these devices target and heat the dermis to induce collagen contraction. Heating of the dermis causes collagen denaturation and immediate collagen contraction in addition to long-term collagen remodeling. Via RF, light, or ultrasound, these skin tightening devices deliver heat to the dermis to create new collagen and induce skin tightening. This chapter will provide an overview of the various skin tightening devices. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Archaeology: formulation of a Roman cosmetic.

    PubMed

    Evershed, R P; Berstan, R; Grew, F; Copley, M S; Charmant, A J H; Barham, E; Mottram, H R; Brown, G

    2004-11-04

    The discovery of a small tin canister in London during archaeological excavations of a Roman temple precinct, dated to the middle of the second century AD, is a landmark in the study of this class of artefact. Such discoveries from the Roman world are rare and this is the only one to be found so far with its lid and contents--a whitish medicinal or cosmetic cream--providing a unique opportunity for us to study the ancient formulation.

  8. Impact of gaps in the asteroseismic characterization of pulsating stars. I. The efficiency of pre-whitening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual-Granado, J.; Suárez, J. C.; Garrido, R.; Moya, A.; Hernández, A. García; Rodón, J. R.; Lares-Martiz, M.

    2018-06-01

    Context. It is known that the observed distribution of frequencies in CoRoT and Kepler δ Scuti stars has no parallelism with any theoretical model. Pre-whitening is a widespread technique in the analysis of time series with gaps from pulsating stars located in the classical instability strip, such as δ Scuti stars. However, some studies have pointed out that this technique might introduce biases in the results of the frequency analysis. Aims: This work aims at studying the biases that can result from pre-whitening in asteroseismology. The results will depend on the intrinsic range and distribution of frequencies of the stars. The periodic nature of the gaps in CoRoT observations, only in the range of the pulsational frequency content of the δ Scuti stars, is shown to be crucial to determining their oscillation frequencies, the first step in performing asteroseismology of these objects. Hence, here we focus on the impact of pre-whitening on the asteroseismic characterization of δ Scuti stars. Methods: We select a sample of 15 δ Scuti stars observed by the CoRoT satellite, for which ultra-high-quality photometric data have been obtained by its seismic channel. In order to study the impact on the asteroseismic characterization of δ Scuti stars we perform the pre-whitening procedure on three datasets: gapped data, linearly interpolated data, and data with gaps interpolated using Autoregressive and Moving Average models (ARMA). Results: The different results obtained show that at least in some cases pre-whitening is not an efficient procedure for the deconvolution of the spectral window. Therefore, in order to reduce the effect of the spectral window to a minimum, in addition to performing a pre-whitening of the data, it is necessary to interpolate with an algorithm that is aimed to preserve the original frequency content. Tables 5-49 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  9. Near real-time skin deformation mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacenjar, Steve; Chen, Suzie; Jafri, Madiha; Wall, Brian; Pedersen, Richard; Bezozo, Richard

    2013-02-01

    A novel in vivo approach is described that provides large area mapping of the mechanical properties of the skin in human patients. Such information is important in the understanding of skin health, cosmetic surgery[1], aging, and impacts of sun exposure. Currently, several methods have been developed to estimate the local biomechanical properties of the skin, including the use of a physical biopsy of local areas of the skin (in vitro methods) [2, 3, and 4], and also the use of non-invasive methods (in vivo) [5, 6, and 7]. All such methods examine localized areas of the skin. Our approach examines the local elastic properties via the generation of field displacement maps of the skin created using time-sequence imaging [9] with 2D digital imaging correlation (DIC) [10]. In this approach, large areas of the skin are reviewed rapidly, and skin displacement maps are generated showing the contour maps of skin deformation. These maps are then used to precisely register skin images for purposes of diagnostic comparison. This paper reports on our mapping and registration approach, and demonstrates its ability to accurately measure the skin deformation through a described nulling interpolation process. The result of local translational DIC alignment is compared using this interpolation process. The effectiveness of the approach is reported in terms of residual RMS, image entropy measures, and differential segmented regional errors.

  10. Cutaneous lasers and skin camouflage make-up: a useful alternative intervention for periorbital hairy congenital melanocytic naevus.

    PubMed

    Townley, William A; Bragg, Thomas W H; Wright, Philip A; Cole, Richard P

    2013-12-01

    Periorbital congenital melanocytic naevi can be very disfiguring and difficult to treat effectively. Although surgical excision and reconstruction is the most widely accepted treatment strategy, we describe a case in which cutaneous lasers treatment followed by the application of cosmetic skin camouflage make-up provided an alternative solution delivering a good cosmetic improvement.

  11. Effect of cosmetic matrices on the release and odour profiles of the supercritical CO2 extract of Origanum majorana L.

    PubMed

    Costa, P; Velasco, C V; Loureiro, J M; Rodrigues, A E

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the effect of different cosmetic matrices on the release profile and odour intensity of the fragrance O. majorana was investigated for the first time. The fragrance compounds of O. majorana were extracted by supercritical fluid extraction using carbon dioxide (SFE-CO2 ) at 40°C and two operating pressures (8.5 and 10 MPa), and their chemical profiles were assessed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-FID/MS). Lastly, the fragrance compounds were incorporated into three cosmetic matrices (glycerine, dipropylene glycol and skin lotion) to assess their release and odour profiles over time using dynamic headspace (DHS)/GC-FID/MS and Odour Value concept, respectively. The SFE-CO2 enabled recovering extracts with the pleasant scent of the living plant, and the increment of pressure induced an increase on the extraction yield. GC-FID/MS analyses revealed that oxygen-containing monoterpenes was the principal group of components identified in both SFE-CO2 extracts. The fragrance compounds were more retained in dipropylene glycol, and the major deviations from the original odour intensity (control) were observed in the presence of dipropylene glycol and skin lotion. The hydrophilic character of the cosmetic matrices strongly influenced the release of the fragrance compounds, thus affecting the odour profile of the studied mixtures. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  12. Evaluation of anti-wrinkle effects of a novel cosmetic containing retinol using the guideline of the Japan Cosmetic Industry Association.

    PubMed

    Kawada, Akira; Konishi, Natsuko; Momma, Tomoyuki; Oiso, Naoki; Kawara, Shigeru

    2009-11-01

    Retinol is known to be effective in the treatment of sallowness, wrinkling, red blotchiness and hyperpigmented spots in aging skin. In this study, we have evaluated the anti-wrinkle effects of a new cosmetic containing retinol. An open study was performed in 30 healthy Japanese women who had wrinkles at the corners of the eyes. The tested lotion, Retin-OX+ (RoC SA, Colombes, France), was applied on wrinkles of one side of the face for 8 weeks, and not on the other site as a control. Anti-wrinkle effects were evaluated by two methods: (i) doctors' observation and photos based on the guideline of the Japan Cosmetic Industry Association; and (ii) the Robo Skin Analyzer. This lotion showed marked and moderate improvement in 34% of the subjects with a significant difference as compared with the control sites (P < 0.05). Moreover, the length and area decreased in the applied site more than the control site with a significant difference (P < 0.01). All the patients completed the study without significant adverse reactions. The tested lotion was well tolerated and may be an optional preparation for the treatment of wrinkles at the corner of the eyes.

  13. Redefining face contour with a novel anti-aging cosmetic product: an open-label, prospective clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Garre, Aurora; Martinez-Masana, Gemma; Piquero-Casals, Jaime; Granger, Corinne

    2017-01-01

    Background Skin aging is accelerated by multiple extrinsic factors: ultraviolet radiation, smoking and pollution increase oxidative activity, damaging cellular and extracellular components such as DNA, proteins, and lipids. With age, collagen and hyaluronic acid levels decline, resulting in loss of elasticity and moisture of the skin. Over time this damage leads to characteristic signs that make the skin look older: altered facial contour, sagging skin, wrinkles, and an uneven complexion. This study evaluated the anti-aging effects of a new facial cream formulated with carnosine, Alteromonas ferment extract, crosspolymer hyaluronic acid, and a tripeptide. Methods An open-label intra-individual study to assess the anti-aging efficacy of the investigational product in 33 women aged 45 to 65 years. The product was applied twice daily for 56 days. Facial contour and skin deformation, elasticity, hydration, and complexion were measured with specialized equipment at baseline and days 28 and 56. Additionally, subjects completed questionnaires at days 28 and 56 on the perceived efficacy and cosmetic characteristics of the product. Results After 56 days of use of the investigational product, a redefining effect was observed, with a significant decrease in sagging jawline (7%). Skin was significantly more hydrated (12%), firmer (29%), and more elastic (20%) (P<0.001 for all). On complexion assessment, skin texture (a measure of skin smoothness) and spots (brown and red skin lesions) also improved significantly (12% and 6% decrease, respectively). In the subjective self-evaluation, the majority of subjects reported that the skin was visibly tightened and more elastic, flexible, and moisturized (91%, 88%, 91%, and 90%, respectively). The product was well tolerated with no adverse events reported during the study. Conclusion This new cosmetic product demonstrated anti-aging effects after 56 days of use, most notably a redefined facial contour and improved complexion. It is a

  14. Redefining face contour with a novel anti-aging cosmetic product: an open-label, prospective clinical study.

    PubMed

    Garre, Aurora; Martinez-Masana, Gemma; Piquero-Casals, Jaime; Granger, Corinne

    2017-01-01

    Skin aging is accelerated by multiple extrinsic factors: ultraviolet radiation, smoking and pollution increase oxidative activity, damaging cellular and extracellular components such as DNA, proteins, and lipids. With age, collagen and hyaluronic acid levels decline, resulting in loss of elasticity and moisture of the skin. Over time this damage leads to characteristic signs that make the skin look older: altered facial contour, sagging skin, wrinkles, and an uneven complexion. This study evaluated the anti-aging effects of a new facial cream formulated with carnosine, Alteromonas ferment extract, crosspolymer hyaluronic acid, and a tripeptide. An open-label intra-individual study to assess the anti-aging efficacy of the investigational product in 33 women aged 45 to 65 years. The product was applied twice daily for 56 days. Facial contour and skin deformation, elasticity, hydration, and complexion were measured with specialized equipment at baseline and days 28 and 56. Additionally, subjects completed questionnaires at days 28 and 56 on the perceived efficacy and cosmetic characteristics of the product. After 56 days of use of the investigational product, a redefining effect was observed, with a significant decrease in sagging jawline (7%). Skin was significantly more hydrated (12%), firmer (29%), and more elastic (20%) ( P <0.001 for all). On complexion assessment, skin texture (a measure of skin smoothness) and spots (brown and red skin lesions) also improved significantly (12% and 6% decrease, respectively). In the subjective self-evaluation, the majority of subjects reported that the skin was visibly tightened and more elastic, flexible, and moisturized (91%, 88%, 91%, and 90%, respectively). The product was well tolerated with no adverse events reported during the study. This new cosmetic product demonstrated anti-aging effects after 56 days of use, most notably a redefined facial contour and improved complexion. It is a safe and effective anti-aging product.

  15. The use of optical coherence tomography to analyze the efficacy of skin care products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irani, Sarosh; Turani, Zahra; Fotouhi, Audrey; Daveluy, Steven; Mehregan, Darius; Chen, Wei; Gelovani, Juri; Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we assess the applicability of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for non-invasive imaging of skin morphology for the assessment of efficacy of cosmetic skin wrinkle-reduction products in humans. Evaluation of skin care products for reduction of facial wrinkles is largely limited to photographic (non-quantitative) comparison of skin surface texture before and after either single or prolonged application of skin care product. OCT could be a technique for monitoring changes in cross-sectional skin morphology. An optical attenuation coefficient analysis is also carried out to quantitatively study the changes in different layers of the skin.

  16. The Microbiota of the Human Skin.

    PubMed

    Egert, Markus; Simmering, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to sum up important progress in the field of human skin microbiota research that was achieved over the last years.The human skin is one of the largest and most versatile organs of the human body. Owing to its function as a protective interface between the largely sterile interior of the human body and the highly microbially contaminated outer environment, it is densely colonized with a diverse and active microbiota. This skin microbiota is of high importance for human health and well-being. It is implicated in several severe skin diseases and plays a major role in wound infections. Many less severe, but negatively perceived cosmetic skin phenomena are linked with skin microbes, too. In addition, skin microorganisms, in particular on the human hands, are crucial for the field of hygiene research. Notably, apart from being only a potential source of disease and contamination, the skin microbiota also contributes to the protective functions of the human skin in many ways. Finally, the analysis of structure and function of the human skin microbiota is interesting from a basic, evolutionary perspective on human microbe interactions.Key questions in the field of skin microbiota research deal with (a) a deeper understanding of the structure (species inventory) and function (physiology) of the healthy human skin microbiota in space and time, (b) the distinction of resident and transient skin microbiota members, (c) the distinction of beneficial skin microorganisms from microorganisms or communities with an adverse or sickening effect on their hosts, (d) factors shaping the skin microbiota and its functional role in health and disease, (e) strategies to manipulate the skin microbiota for therapeutic reasons.

  17. Films based on neutralized chitosan citrate as innovative composition for cosmetic application.

    PubMed

    Libio, Illen C; Demori, Renan; Ferrão, Marco F; Lionzo, Maria I Z; da Silveira, Nádya P

    2016-10-01

    In this work, citrate and acetate buffers, were investigated as neutralizers to chitosan salts in order to provide biocompatible and stable films. To choose the appropriate film composition for this study, neutralized chitosan citrate and acetate films, with and without the plasticizer glycerol, were prepared and characterized by thickness, moisture content, degree of swelling, total soluble matter in acid medium, simultaneous thermal analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Chitosan films neutralized in citrate buffer showed greater physical integrity resulted from greater thicknesses, lower moisture absorbance, lower tendency to solubility in the acid medium, and better swelling capacities. According to thermal analyses, these films had higher interaction with water which is considered an important feature for cosmetic application. Since the composition prepared in citrate buffer without glycerol was considered to present better physical integrity, it was applied to investigate hyaluronic acid release in a skin model. Skins treated with those films, with or without hyaluronic acid, show stratum corneum desquamation and hydration within 10min. The results suggest that the neutralized chitosan citrate film prepared without glycerol promotes a cosmetic effect for skin exfoliation in the presence or absence of hyaluronic acid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. High-performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of hydrogen peroxide present or released in teeth bleaching kits and hair cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Gimeno, Pascal; Bousquet, Claudine; Lassu, Nelly; Maggio, Annie-Françoise; Civade, Corinne; Brenier, Charlotte; Lempereur, Laurent

    2015-03-25

    This manuscript presents an HPLC/UV method for the determination of hydrogen peroxide present or released in teeth bleaching products and hair products. The method is based on an oxidation of triphenylphosphine into triphenylphosphine oxide by hydrogen peroxide. Triphenylphosphine oxide formed is quantified by HPLC/UV. Validation data were obtained using the ISO 12787 standard approach, particularly adapted when it is not possible to make reconstituted sample matrices. For comparative purpose, hydrogen peroxide was also determined using ceric sulfate titrimetry for both types of products. For hair products, a cross validation of both ceric titrimetric method and HPLC/UV method using the cosmetic 82/434/EEC directive (official iodometric titration method) was performed. Results obtained for 6 commercialized teeth whitening products and 5 hair products point out similar hydrogen peroxide contain using either the HPLC/UV method or ceric sulfate titrimetric method. For hair products, results were similar to the hydrogen peroxide content using the cosmetic 82/434/EEC directive method and for the HPLC/UV method, mean recoveries obtained on spiked samples, using the ISO 12787 standard, ranges from 100% to 110% with a RSD<3.0%. To assess the analytical method proposed, the HPLC method was used to control 35 teeth bleaching products during a market survey and highlight for 5 products, hydrogen peroxide contents higher than the regulated limit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Type of closure prevents microbial contamination of cosmetics during consumer use.

    PubMed Central

    Brannan, D K; Dille, J C

    1990-01-01

    The dispensing closure used for containers plays an important role in protecting cosmetics from in-use microbial contamination. This hypothesis was tested by aseptically packing unpreserved shampoo and skin lotion into containers with three different closure types which provided various degrees of protection against consumer and environmental microbial insults. Shampoo was packed in containers with slit-cap (n = 25), flip-cap (n = 25), or screw-cap (n = 28) closures. Skin lotion was packed in containers with pump-top (n = 21), flip-cap (n = 18), or screw-cap (n = 21) closures. The products were then used by volunteers under actual in-use conditions for 3 (shampoo) or 2 (skin lotion) weeks. After use, the products were evaluated for microbial contamination by using standard methods for enumeration and identification. The standard screw-cap closure provided only minimal protection against microbial contamination of both the shampoo (29% contamination incidence) and the skin lotion (71%). The slit-cap closure on the shampoo container and the flip-cap closure on the skin lotion container provided slightly enhanced degrees of protection (21 and 39% contamination incidence, respectively). The greatest amount of protection (i.e., lowest contamination incidence) was provided by the flip-cap closure for the shampoo container (0%) and the pump-top closure for the skin lotion container (10%). As a result, closure type plays an important role in protecting poorly preserved products from in-use microbial contamination. Images PMID:2339896

  20. Baby care product development: artificial urine in vitro assay is useful for cosmetic product assessment.

    PubMed

    Degouy, Arnaud; Gomez-Berrada, Marie-Pierre; Ferret, Pierre-Jacques

    2014-02-01

    As a result of infants' inability to control urination, the skin of the diaper area has special needs for protection from irritating effects of urine and prevention of diaper dermatitis such as products for cleansing and protection of the skin. Several in vitro models are currently available to assess tolerance. In vitro testing using artificial urine allows the protective effects of diaper-region cosmetics to be ascertained. Thus, a new model defined as "artificial urine in vitro assay" has been added to our traditional pre-clinical in vitro testing program. IL1-α is a highly active and pleiotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine. It plays a key role in inflammation and is the biological mirror of irritation induced by diaper dermatitis. This study determines, on human skin explants, if a cosmetic formula is (1) tolerated equally as well in the presence of artificial urine as in its absence and (2) is able to decrease IL1-α production induced by artificial urine or Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate. 31 tests including 17 in-house formulas, 10 bench-markers and 4 combinations of products were performed and data obtained are represented on a simple four-point scale (from practically non protective to very protective). It allows determination of formula-type groups that will have predictable protective properties in subsequent clinical trials and comparison with competitors' products. It is a useful aid in the formulation stage and provides readily-useable data for the cosmetic risk assessment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The enlightenment from Malaysian consumers’ perspective toward cosmetic products

    PubMed Central

    Ayob, Ain; Awadh, Ammar Ihsan; Jafri, Juliana; Jamshed, Shazia; Ahmad, Hawa Mas Azmar; Hadi, Hazrina

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds: Variety of cosmetic products was used in our daily life, yet the amount and types of the cosmetic products used by the consumers were varied, which may be due to the different perspectives held by each of the consumers. Objectives: To explore consumers’ perspectives toward cosmetic products. Methods: An interview guide was developed with a set of 12 semistructured questions. Participants in Kuantan, Pahang were recruited via the purposive sampling, and they undergo in-depth face-to-face interviews. All of the interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and were analyzed via thematic content analysis. Results: For the awareness of cosmetic products, less aware about the cosmetic products in Malaysia were noted among the participants. In terms of perceptions about the cosmetic products, participants expressed positive perceptions toward natural cosmetic products, quality were seen as synonymous with branded products and halal certification. Next, for the attitude toward the use of cosmetic products, participants were influenced by ingredients, product brand, and halal certification. Based on personal experiences, they provide complaints and suggestions for the enhancement of cosmetic products’ quality. Conclusions: Participants were found to have less awareness about the cosmetic products in Malaysia. Besides, they realized about the chemical ingredients and halal certification for the cosmetic products. Therefore, they held positive perceptions and practiced positive attitudes toward natural and halal cosmetic products. Finally, adverse reactions from the use of cosmetic products were commonly experienced by the participants, which contributed mainly by the ingredients. Thus, they hoped for serious approached to be enacted to solve this problem. PMID:27413352

  2. Molecularly imprinted covalent organic polymers for the selective extraction of benzoxazole fluorescent whitening agents from food samples.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hui; Wang, Rongyu; Wang, Xiao; Ji, Wenhua

    2018-06-21

    Molecularly imprinted covalent organic polymers were constructed by an imine-linking reaction between 1,3,5-triformylphloroglucinol and 2,6-diaminopyridine and used for the selective solid-phase extraction of benzoxazole fluorescent whitening agents from food samples. Binding experiments showed that imprinting sites on molecularly imprinted polymers had higher selectivity for targets compared with those of the corresponding non-imprinted polymers. Parameters affecting the solid-phase extraction procedure were examined. Under optimal conditions, actual samples were treated and the eluent was analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection. The results showed that the established method owned the wide linearity, satisfactory detection limits and quantification limits, and acceptable recoveries. Thus, this developed method possesses the practical potential to the selectively determine benzoxazole fluorescent whitening agents in complex food samples. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Cancer risk among Danish women with cosmetic breast implants.

    PubMed

    Friis, Søren; Hölmich, Lisbet R; McLaughlin, Joseph K; Kjøller, Kim; Fryzek, Jon P; Henriksen, Trine F; Olsen