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Sample records for skin

  1. Skin Dictionary

    MedlinePlus

    ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ...

  2. Sagging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ...

  3. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin Health and Skin Diseases Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... acne to wrinkles Did you know that your skin is the largest organ of your body? It ...

  4. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... are specialized skin cells that produce pigment called melanin. The melanin pigment produced by melanocytes gives skin its color. ... absorbing and scattering the energy. People with more melanin have darker skin and better protection from UV ...

  5. Skin Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    Your skin is your body's largest organ. It covers and protects your body. Your skin Holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration Keeps harmful ... it Anything that irritates, clogs, or inflames your skin can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, burning, ...

  6. Skin Biomes.

    PubMed

    Fyhrquist, N; Salava, A; Auvinen, P; Lauerma, A

    2016-05-01

    The cutaneous microbiome has been investigated broadly in recent years and some traditional perspectives are beginning to change. A diverse microbiome exists on human skin and has a potential to influence pathogenic microbes and modulate the course of skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis. In addition to the known dysfunctions in barrier function of the skin and immunologic disturbances, evidence is rising that frequent skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis, might be connected to a dysbiosis of the microbial community and changes in the skin microbiome. As a future perspective, examining the skin microbiome could be seen as a potential new diagnostic and therapeutic target in inflammatory skin disorders.

  7. Skin Complications

    MedlinePlus

    ... drugs that can help clear up this condition. Day-to-Day Skin Care See our tips for daily skin ... Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to Know Your ...

  8. Skin Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out of ... person has smoked. Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and ...

  9. Skin tears.

    PubMed

    Baranoski, S

    2001-08-01

    Skin tears are a serious, painful problem for older patients. Find out how your staff can recognize patients at risk, what they can do to prevent skin tears, and how to manage them effectively if they occur.

  10. Skin Pigment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professional Version Pigment Disorders Overview of Skin Pigment Albinism Vitiligo Hyperpigmentation Melasma Melanin is the brown pigment ... dark-skinned people produce the most. People with albinism have little or no melanin and thus their ...

  11. Sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Misery, L; Loser, K; Ständer, S

    2016-02-01

    Sensitive skin is a clinical condition defined by the self-reported facial presence of different sensory perceptions, including tightness, stinging, burning, tingling, pain and pruritus. Sensitive skin may occur in individuals with normal skin, with skin barrier disturbance, or as a part of the symptoms associated with facial dermatoses such as rosacea, atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Although experimental studies are still pending, the symptoms of sensitive skin suggest the involvement of cutaneous nerve fibres and neuronal, as well as epidermal, thermochannels. Many individuals with sensitive skin report worsening symptoms due to environmental factors. It is thought that this might be attributed to the thermochannel TRPV1, as it typically responds to exogenous, endogenous, physical and chemical stimuli. Barrier disruptions and immune mechanisms may also be involved. This review summarizes current knowledge on the epidemiology, potential mechanisms, clinics and therapy of sensitive skin. PMID:26805416

  12. Skin findings in newborns

    MedlinePlus

    Newborn skin characteristics; Infant skin characteristics; Neonatal care - skin ... the first few weeks of the baby's life. Newborn skin will vary, depending on the length of the pregnancy. Premature infants have thin, transparent skin. The skin of a ...

  13. Oily skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... keep your skin clean using warm water and soap, or a soapless cleanser. Clean your face with astringent pads if frequent face washing causes irritation. Use only water-based or oil-free cosmetics if you have oily skin. Your ...

  14. Skin graft

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused a large amount of skin loss Burns Cosmetic reasons or reconstructive surgeries where there has been ... Smoking increases your chance of problems such as slow healing. Ask your doctor or nurse for help ...

  15. Your Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Butterflies? Read This Chloe & Nurb Meet The Brain (Movie) Quiz: Do You Need a Flu Shot? Got ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Movie: Skin Acne Myths Blisters, Calluses, and Corns Fungal ...

  16. Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... nearby What to Do Teach kids not to pop, pick at, or scratch pimples, pus-filled infections, ... Your Skin Abscess Impetigo Ringworm Cellulitis Should I Pop My Pimple? Tips for Taking Care of Your ...

  17. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... States. The two most common types are basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer. They usually form on the head, face, ... If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. Treatments ...

  18. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... exposure to ultraviolet light, which is found in sunlight and in lights used in tanning salons. What ... the safe-sun guidelines. 1. Avoid the sun. Sunlight damages your skin. The sun is strongest during ...

  19. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Review. 17 Wu S, Han J, Laden F, Qureshi AA. Long-term ultraviolet flux, other potential risk factors, ... MR, Shive ML, Chren MM, Han J, Qureshi AA, Linos E. Indoor tanning and non-melanoma skin ...

  20. Hyperelastic skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... is most often seen in people who have Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. People with this disorder have very elastic skin. ... any member of your family been diagnosed with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome? What other symptoms are present? Alternative Names India ...

  1. Skin - clammy

    MedlinePlus

    ... of clammy skin include: Anxiety attack Heart attack Heat exhaustion Internal bleeding Low blood oxygen levels Sepsis (body-wide infection) Severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) Severe pain Shock (low blood pressure)

  2. Senescent Skin

    PubMed Central

    Kushniruk, William

    1974-01-01

    The cutaneous surface is continually influenced by aging and environmental factors. A longer life span is accompanied by an increase in the frequency of problems associated with aging skin. Although most of these changes and lesions are not life threatening, the premalignant lesions must be recognized and treated. The common aging and actinic skin changes are discussed and appropriate management is described. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:20469067

  3. Neuromodulators for Aging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ...

  4. How to Check Your Skin for Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Cancer Types Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Patient Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer Prevention Skin Cancer Screening Health Professional Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer ...

  5. Cutaneous skin tag

    MedlinePlus

    Skin tag; Acrochordon; Fibroepithelial polyp ... have diabetes. They are thought to occur from skin rubbing against skin. ... The tag sticks out of the skin and may have a short, narrow stalk connecting it to the surface of the skin. Some skin tags are as long as ...

  6. Skin Keratins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengrong; Zieman, Abigail; Coulombe, Pierre A

    2016-01-01

    Keratins comprise the type I and type II intermediate filament-forming proteins and occur primarily in epithelial cells. They are encoded by 54 evolutionarily conserved genes (28 type I, 26 type II) and regulated in a pairwise and tissue type-, differentiation-, and context-dependent manner. Keratins serve multiple homeostatic and stress-enhanced mechanical and nonmechanical functions in epithelia, including the maintenance of cellular integrity, regulation of cell growth and migration, and protection from apoptosis. These functions are tightly regulated by posttranslational modifications as well as keratin-associated proteins. Genetically determined alterations in keratin-coding sequences underlie highly penetrant and rare disorders whose pathophysiology reflects cell fragility and/or altered tissue homeostasis. Moreover, keratin mutation or misregulation represents risk factors or genetic modifiers for several acute and chronic diseases. This chapter focuses on keratins that are expressed in skin epithelia, and details a number of basic protocols and assays that have proven useful for analyses being carried out in skin.

  7. Skin Keratins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fengrong; Zieman, Abigail; Coulombe, Pierre A.

    2016-01-01

    Keratins comprise the type I and type II intermediate filament-forming proteins and occur primarily in epithelial cells. They are encoded by 54 evolutionarily conserved genes (28 type I, 26 type II) and regulated in a pairwise and tissue type-, differentiation-, and context-dependent manner. Keratins serve multiple homeostatic and stress-enhanced mechanical and nonmechanical functions in epithelia, including the maintenance of cellular integrity, regulation of cell growth and migration, and protection from apoptosis. These functions are tightly regulated by posttranslational modifications as well as keratin-associated proteins. Genetically determined alterations in keratin-coding sequences underlie highly penetrant and rare disorders whose pathophysiology reflects cell fragility and/or altered tissue homeostasis. Moreover, keratin mutation or misregulation represents risk factors or genetic modifiers for several acute and chronic diseases. This chapter focuses on keratins that are expressed in skin epithelia, and details a number of basic protocols and assays that have proven useful for analyses being carried out in skin. PMID:26795476

  8. Skin (Pressure) Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic Skin dryness Next Topic Sleep problems Skin (pressure) sores A skin or pressure sore develops when the blood supply to an ... is bedridden or always in a wheelchair puts pressure on the same places much of the time. ...

  9. Layers of the Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... produce the skin coloring or pigment known as melanin, which gives skin its tan or brown color ... Sun exposure causes melanocytes to increase production of melanin in order to protect the skin from damaging ...

  10. Learning about Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... have red or blond hair and blue or light-colored eyes - although anyone can get skin cancer. Skin cancer is related to lifetime exposure to UV radiation, therefore most skin cancers appear after age ...

  11. Scalded skin syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Ritter disease; Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSS) ... Scalded skin syndrome (SSS) is caused by infection with certain strains of Staphylococcus bacteria. The bacteria produce a toxin that causes the skin ...

  12. Skin Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer ... carcinoma include the following: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  13. Stages of Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer ... carcinoma include the following: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  14. Dry Skin (Xerosis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin, which may bleed if severe. Chapped or cracked lips. When dry skin cracks, germs can get ... cause the skin to become dry, raw, and cracked. Swimming : Some pools have high levels of chlorine, ...

  15. Basal cell skin cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur on skin that is regularly exposed to sunlight or other ultraviolet radiation. This type of skin ... skin cancer is to reduce your exposure to sunlight . Always use sunscreen: Apply sunscreen with sun protection ...

  16. Skin Cancer Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Infographics Children For Your Eyes Clothing Shade Sunscreen Sunburn Seal of Recommendation Are You at Risk? ... Defense The Mini Skin Cancer Prevention Handbook A "Sunscreen Gene"? Skin Cancer Facts & Statistics The Skin Cancer ...

  17. Allergy testing - skin

    MedlinePlus

    Patch tests - allergy; Scratch tests - allergy; Skin tests - allergy; RAST test ... There are three common methods of allergy skin testing. The skin prick test involves: Placing a small amount of substances that may be causing your symptoms on the skin, most often ...

  18. Estrogens and aging skin

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, M. Julie

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen deficiency following menopause results in atrophic skin changes and acceleration of skin aging. Estrogens significantly modulate skin physiology, targeting keratinocytes, fibroblasts, melanocytes, hair follicles and sebaceous glands, and improve angiogenesis, wound healing and immune responses. Estrogen insufficiency decreases defense against oxidative stress; skin becomes thinner with less collagen, decreased elasticity, increased wrinkling, increased dryness and reduced vascularity. Its protective function becomes compromised and aging is associated with impaired wound healing, hair loss, pigmentary changes and skin cancer.   Skin aging can be significantly delayed by the administration of estrogen. This paper reviews estrogen effects on human skin and the mechanisms by which estrogens can alleviate the changes due to aging. The relevance of estrogen replacement, selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and phytoestrogens as therapies for diminishing skin aging is highlighted. Understanding estrogen signaling in skin will provide a basis for interventions in aging pathologies. PMID:24194966

  19. Viral Skin Diseases.

    PubMed

    Ramdass, Priya; Mullick, Sahil; Farber, Harold F

    2015-12-01

    In the vast world of skin diseases, viral skin disorders account for a significant percentage. Most viral skin diseases present with an exanthem (skin rash) and, oftentimes, an accompanying enanthem (lesions involving the mucosal membrane). In this article, the various viral skin diseases are explored, including viral childhood exanthems (measles, rubella, erythema infectiosum, and roseola), herpes viruses (herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus, viral zoonotic infections [orf, monkeypox, ebola, smallpox]), and several other viral skin diseases, such as human papilloma virus, hand, foot, and mouth disease, molluscum contagiosum, and Gianotti-Crosti syndrome.

  20. [Sarcoidosis of the skin].

    PubMed

    Suga, Y; Ogawa, H

    1994-06-01

    Sarcoidosis is characterized by formation of epithelioid-cell tubercules, without caseation, of the affected organ systems. The mediastinum, peripheral lymph nodes and eyes, in addition to the skin, are most frequently affected. Between 10% and 30% of patients with systemic sarcoidosis in Japan have skin lesions. Skin sarcoidosis is morphologically classified into three basic groups, erythema nodosum, scar sarcoidosis and skin sarcoid. Skin sarcoid is characterized by specific cutaneous lesions of sarcoidosis, and may take nodular, plaque, angiolupoid, subcutaneous and some other forms. Clinical manifestations of the cutaneous lesions are usually asymptomatic and polymorphous. Skin biopsy is, however, often highly useful for confirming a diagnosis of sarcoidosis.

  1. Viral Skin Diseases.

    PubMed

    Ramdass, Priya; Mullick, Sahil; Farber, Harold F

    2015-12-01

    In the vast world of skin diseases, viral skin disorders account for a significant percentage. Most viral skin diseases present with an exanthem (skin rash) and, oftentimes, an accompanying enanthem (lesions involving the mucosal membrane). In this article, the various viral skin diseases are explored, including viral childhood exanthems (measles, rubella, erythema infectiosum, and roseola), herpes viruses (herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus, viral zoonotic infections [orf, monkeypox, ebola, smallpox]), and several other viral skin diseases, such as human papilloma virus, hand, foot, and mouth disease, molluscum contagiosum, and Gianotti-Crosti syndrome. PMID:26612372

  2. Scaly Skin (Ichthyosis Vulgaris)

    MedlinePlus

    ... should improve by restoring moisture (hydration) to the skin. Creams and ointments are better moisturizers than lotions, and ... Physician May Prescribe To treat the dry, scaly skin of ichthyosis ... cream or lotion containing the following: Prescription-strength alpha- ...

  3. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or unhealthy, it affects melanin production. Some pigmentation disorders affect just patches of ...

  4. PPD skin test

    MedlinePlus

    Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Mantoux skin test (PPD test, purified protein derivative test, Tb test, tuberculin skin test, TST, tuberculosis test) - diagnostic. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . ...

  5. Components of skin

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... skin layers from the outside environment and contains cells that make keratin, a substance that waterproofs and strengthens the skin. The epidermis also has cells that contain melanin, the dark pigment that gives ...

  6. Squamous cell skin cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur on skin that is regularly exposed to sunlight or other ultraviolet radiation. The earliest form of ... skin cancer is to reduce your exposure to sunlight . Always use sunscreen: Apply sunscreen with sun protection ...

  7. Examine Your Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... In Memory Melanoma Info Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding Your ... UPDATED: February 5, 2015 Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding Your ...

  8. Skin color - patchy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Injury Exposure to radiation (such as from the sun) Exposure to heavy metals Changes in hormone levels Exposure ... example, lighter-skinned people are more sensitive to sun exposure and damage, which raises the risk of skin ...

  9. Fungal Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fungal Skin Infections Overview of Fungal Skin Infections Candidiasis Overview of Dermatophytoses (Ringworm, Tinea) Athlete's Foot Jock ... are caused by yeasts (such as Candida —see Candidiasis ) or dermatophytes, such as Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton ( ...

  10. Automatic Skin Color Beautification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chih-Wei; Huang, Da-Yuan; Fuh, Chiou-Shann

    In this paper, we propose an automatic skin beautification framework based on color-temperature-insensitive skin-color detection. To polish selected skin region, we apply bilateral filter to smooth the facial flaw. Last, we use Poisson image cloning to integrate the beautified parts into the original input. Experimental results show that the proposed method can be applied in varied light source environment. In addition, this method can naturally beautify the portrait skin.

  11. Psychoneuroimmunology and the Skin.

    PubMed

    Honeyman, Juan F

    2016-08-23

    The nervous, immune, endocrine and integumentary systems are closely related and interact in a number of normal and pathological conditions. Nervous system mediators may bring about direct changes to the skin or may induce the release of immunological or hormonal mediators that cause pathological changes to the skin. This article reviews the psychological mechanisms involved in the development of skin diseases.

  12. Biology of Skin Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcos, Alain

    1983-01-01

    Information from scientific journals on the biology of skin color is discussed. Major areas addressed include: (1) biology of melanin, melanocytes, and melanosomes; (2) melanosome and human diversity; (3) genetics of skin color; and (4) skin color, geography, and natural selection. (JN)

  13. Skin self-exam

    MedlinePlus

    Skin cancer - self-exam; Melanoma - self-exam; Basal cell cancer - self-exam; Squamous cell - self-exam; Skin mole - self-exam ... Experts do not agree on whether or not skin self-exams should be performed. So there is ...

  14. [Dermatology and skin color].

    PubMed

    Petit, Antoine

    2010-09-01

    Melanin is the pigment that is responsible for skin, hair and eye colours. Genetics and sun exposure are the two key factors that determine skin pigmentation. In dermatology, skin colours is significant, not only for semiology and diagnosis, but also for epidemiology and wounds healing.

  15. Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    No matter if your skin is light, dark, or somewhere in between, everyone is at risk for skin cancer. Learn what skin cancer looks like, how to find it early, and how to lower the chance of skin cancer.

  16. Pursuing prosthetic electronic skin.

    PubMed

    Chortos, Alex; Liu, Jia; Bao, Zhenan

    2016-09-01

    Skin plays an important role in mediating our interactions with the world. Recreating the properties of skin using electronic devices could have profound implications for prosthetics and medicine. The pursuit of artificial skin has inspired innovations in materials to imitate skin's unique characteristics, including mechanical durability and stretchability, biodegradability, and the ability to measure a diversity of complex sensations over large areas. New materials and fabrication strategies are being developed to make mechanically compliant and multifunctional skin-like electronics, and improve brain/machine interfaces that enable transmission of the skin's signals into the body. This Review will cover materials and devices designed for mimicking the skin's ability to sense and generate biomimetic signals. PMID:27376685

  17. [Skin diseases and obesity].

    PubMed

    Guerra-Segovia, Carolina; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a public health problem worldwide. It predominates in industrialized countries; however, it is prevalent in all nations. It is defined as a condition of excess adipose tissue and is the result of changes in lifestyle, excessive consumption of energy-dense foods with poor nutritional value, physical inactivity and the reduction of open space where one can practice a sport. Although obesity is associated with multiple diseases, it is important to stress that the metabolic changes caused by it affect skin physiology and play a predisposing factor for the development of skin diseases. Very little has been studied on the impact of obesity on the skin. The purpose of this article is to review the most frequently skin diseases in obesity. Some skin pathologies in obesity are caused by changes in skin physiology, others are related to insulin resistance or constitute an exacerbating factor for dermatitis. This article covers the clinical features of obesity related skin disease and its management.

  18. Pursuing prosthetic electronic skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chortos, Alex; Liu, Jia; Bao, Zhenan

    2016-09-01

    Skin plays an important role in mediating our interactions with the world. Recreating the properties of skin using electronic devices could have profound implications for prosthetics and medicine. The pursuit of artificial skin has inspired innovations in materials to imitate skin's unique characteristics, including mechanical durability and stretchability, biodegradability, and the ability to measure a diversity of complex sensations over large areas. New materials and fabrication strategies are being developed to make mechanically compliant and multifunctional skin-like electronics, and improve brain/machine interfaces that enable transmission of the skin's signals into the body. This Review will cover materials and devices designed for mimicking the skin's ability to sense and generate biomimetic signals.

  19. Skin mirrors human aging.

    PubMed

    Nikolakis, Georgios; Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2013-12-01

    Abstract Aged skin exhibits disturbed lipid barrier, angiogenesis, production of sweat, immune functions, and calcitriol synthesis as well as the tendency towards development of certain benign or malignant diseases. These complex biological processes comprise endogenous and exogenous factors. Ethnicity also markedly influences the phenotype of skin aging. The theories of cellular senescence, telomere shortening and decreased proliferative capacity, mitochondrial DNA single mutations, the inflammation theory, and the free radical theory try to explain the biological background of the global aging process, which is mirrored in the skin. The development of advanced glycation end-products and the declining hormonal levels are major factors influencing intrinsic aging. Chronic photodamage of the skin is the prime factor leading to extrinsic skin aging. The deterioration of important skin functions, due to intrinsic and extrinsic aging, leads to clinical manifestations, which mirror several internal age-associated diseases such as diabetes, arterial hypertension and malignancies.

  20. Skin care and incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    Incontinence - skin care; Incontinence - pressure sore; Incontinence - pressure ulcer ... redness, peeling, irritation, and yeast infections likely. Bedsores ( pressure sores ) may also develop if the person: Has ...

  1. Bacterial Skin Infections.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Fadi; Khan, Tariq; Pujalte, George G A

    2015-12-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections account for 0.5% of outpatient visits to primary care. Skin and soft tissue infections can usually be managed in an outpatient setting. However, there are certain circumstances as discussed in this article that require more urgent care or inpatient management. Primary care providers should be able to diagnose, manage, and provide appropriate follow-up care for these frequently seen skin infections. This article provides family physicians with a comprehensive review of the assessment and management of common bacterial skin infections. PMID:26612370

  2. Bacterial Skin Infections.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Fadi; Khan, Tariq; Pujalte, George G A

    2015-12-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections account for 0.5% of outpatient visits to primary care. Skin and soft tissue infections can usually be managed in an outpatient setting. However, there are certain circumstances as discussed in this article that require more urgent care or inpatient management. Primary care providers should be able to diagnose, manage, and provide appropriate follow-up care for these frequently seen skin infections. This article provides family physicians with a comprehensive review of the assessment and management of common bacterial skin infections.

  3. About Skin: Your Body's Largest Organ

    MedlinePlus

    ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ...

  4. Skin Diseases: Skin and Sun—Not a good mix

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin and Sun —Not a good mix Past Issues / Fall 2008 ... turn Javascript on. Good skin care begins with sun safety. Whether it is something as simple as ...

  5. Skin Problems in Construction

    MedlinePlus

    ... 3 Keep skin clean Wash with soap and clean water if your skin comes in contact with hazardous ... caustics like wet cement. DO NOT use the water in the bucket used to clean your tools. DO NOT use hand sanitizers. Wash ...

  6. Biothermomechanics of skin tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, F.; Lu, T. J.; Seffen, K. A.

    Biothermomechanics of skin is highly interdisciplinary involving bioheat transfer, burn damage, biomechanics and neurophysiology. During heating, thermally induced mechanical stress arises due to the thermal denaturation of collagen, resulting in macroscale shrinkage. Thus, the strain, stress, temperature and thermal pain/damage are highly correlated; in other words, the problem is fully coupled. The aim of this study is to develop a computational approach to examine the heat transfer process and the heat-induced mechanical response, so that the differences among the clinically applied heating modalities can be quantified. Exact solutions for temperature, thermal damage and thermal stress for a single-layer skin model were first derived for different boundary conditions. For multilayer models, numerical simulations using the finite difference method (FDM) and finite element method (FEM) were used to analyze the temperature, burn damage and thermal stress distributions in the skin tissue. The results showed that the thermomechanical behavior of skin tissue is very complex: blood perfusion has little effect on thermal damage but large influence on skin temperature distribution, which, in turn, influences significantly the resulting thermal stress field; the stratum corneum layer, although very thin, has a large effect on the thermomechanical behavior of skin, suggesting that it should be properly accounted for in the modeling of skin thermal stresses; the stress caused by non-uniform temperature distribution in the skin may also contribute to the thermal pain sensation.

  7. Skin cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Kornek, Thomas; Augustin, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    Prevention signifies the avoidance of diseases. It also includes the early detection of diseases and taking measures to avoid worsening of an existing disease. Prevention is divided into primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. The prevention of skin cancer is particularly important due to the rising incidence of skin cancer in recent years. In Germany, 195.000 new cases of skin cancer, including non melanoma skin cancer and melanoma are occurring. Therefore, skin cancer is among the most common cancer diseases. Primary prevention comprises the reduction of skin cancer risk behavior, including education about the danger of UV exposure and the right way of dealing with natural and artificial UV radiation. The implementation of a systematic skin cancer screening in Germany contributes to secondary prevention. First data from the initial project in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany's most northern state, indicate for the first time that the incidence and mortality of melanoma can be reduced by secondary prevention. For tertiary prevention, the national associations recommend a risk-adapted, evidence-based follow-up for all types of skin cancer. From the perspectives of the payers and from the patients, prevention is assessed positively. Prevention can contribute to a reduction of disease burden.

  8. Archaea on human skin.

    PubMed

    Probst, Alexander J; Auerbach, Anna K; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The recent era of exploring the human microbiome has provided valuable information on microbial inhabitants, beneficials and pathogens. Screening efforts based on DNA sequencing identified thousands of bacterial lineages associated with human skin but provided only incomplete and crude information on Archaea. Here, we report for the first time the quantification and visualization of Archaea from human skin. Based on 16 S rRNA gene copies Archaea comprised up to 4.2% of the prokaryotic skin microbiome. Most of the gene signatures analyzed belonged to the Thaumarchaeota, a group of Archaea we also found in hospitals and clean room facilities. The metabolic potential for ammonia oxidation of the skin-associated Archaea was supported by the successful detection of thaumarchaeal amoA genes in human skin samples. However, the activity and possible interaction with human epithelial cells of these associated Archaea remains an open question. Nevertheless, in this study we provide evidence that Archaea are part of the human skin microbiome and discuss their potential for ammonia turnover on human skin.

  9. Skin and antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Poljsak, Borut; Dahmane, Raja; Godic, Aleksandar

    2013-04-01

    It is estimated that total sun exposure occurs non-intentionally in three quarters of our lifetimes. Our skin is exposed to majority of UV radiation during outdoor activities, e.g. walking, practicing sports, running, hiking, etc. and not when we are intentionally exposed to the sun on the beach. We rarely use sunscreens during those activities, or at least not as much and as regular as we should and are commonly prone to acute and chronic sun damage of the skin. The only protection of our skin is endogenous (synthesis of melanin and enzymatic antioxidants) and exogenous (antioxidants, which we consume from the food, like vitamins A, C, E, etc.). UV-induced photoaging of the skin becomes clinically evident with age, when endogenous antioxidative mechanisms and repair processes are not effective any more and actinic damage to the skin prevails. At this point it would be reasonable to ingest additional antioxidants and/or to apply them on the skin in topical preparations. We review endogenous and exogenous skin protection with antioxidants.

  10. The aging skin.

    PubMed

    Bergfeld, W F

    1997-01-01

    In the past, sun exposure has been an integral part of the American life style. Along with increased leisure time, outdoor recreational sports, and sun bathing has come greater exposure to the sun. The cumulative effects of unprotected sun exposure coupled with the changes in the ozone layer have resulted in a large photodamaged population and an epidemic of the most dangerous skin cancer, malignant melanoma. Photodamage begins early, with a child's first unprotected sun exposure. Clinical studies show that 50% of an individual's ultraviolet light exposure occurs before the age of 18 years. This damage from acute and chronic ultraviolet light exposure has produced the explosion of skin cancers. Over the next 4 years, it is expected that skin cancer will become the most common type of cancer, and malignant melanoma will become the leading cause of death from skin cancer. This growing hazard to the public has profound medical and psychological ramifications. This paper will focus on prevention, identification, evaluation and treatment of photodamage to skin, as well as skin cancer. Special emphasis will be given to the National Skin Cancer Prevention Education Program.

  11. Environment and the skin

    PubMed Central

    Suskind, Raymond R.

    1977-01-01

    The skin is an important interface between man and his environment; it is an important portal of entry for hazardous agents and a vulnerable target tissue as well. It is a uniquely accessible model system for detecting hazards and for studying mechanisms of a wide variety of biologic funcitons. Environmental causes of skin reactions comprise a vast array of physical, chemical and biological agents. To appreciate the role of the skin as an interface with man's environment, it is necessary to understand the multiple adaptive mechanisms, and the defenses of the skin against the environmental stresses. The skin is endowed with a versatile group of defenses against penetration, fluid loss from the body, thermal stress, solar radiation, physical trauma and microbial agents. Patterns of adverse response range in quality and intensity from uncomplicated itching to metastatic neoplasia. Environmental problems comprise a large segment of disabling skin disease. Although critical epidemiologic data is limited, cutaneous illnesses comprise a significant segment of occupational disease. This represents a significant loss in productivity and a major cause of disability. The most serious research needs include the development of surveillance systems for identifying skin hazards and determining frequency of environmental skin disease; the development of new models for studying cutaneous penetration; the elucidation of the mechanisms of nonallergic inflammatory reactions (primary irritation) and of the accommodation phenomenon; the development of more sensitive models for predicting adverse responses to marginal irritants; the utilization of modern skills of immunobiology and immunochemistry to elucidate mechanisms of allergic responses; the launching of epidemiologic studies to determine the long term effects of PCBs and associated compounds such as dioxins; and the expansion of research in the mechanisms of skin cancer in relation to susceptibility, genetic and metabolic

  12. Thermal Skin fabrication technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milam, T. B.

    1972-01-01

    Advanced fabrication techniques applicable to Thermal Skin structures were investigated, including: (1) chemical machining; (2) braze bonding; (3) diffusion bonding; and (4) electron beam welding. Materials investigated were nickel and nickel alloys. Sample Thermal Skin panels were manufactured using the advanced fabrication techniques studied and were structurally tested. Results of the program included: (1) development of improved chemical machining processes for nickel and several nickel alloys; (2) identification of design geometry limits; (3) identification of diffusion bonding requirements; (4) development of a unique diffusion bonding tool; (5) identification of electron beam welding limits; and (6) identification of structural properties of Thermal Skin material.

  13. Ultrasound skin tightening.

    PubMed

    Minkis, Kira; Alam, Murad

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound skin tightening is a noninvasive, nonablative method that allows for energy deposition into the deep dermal and subcutaneous tissue while avoiding epidermal heating. Ultrasound coagulation is confined to arrays of 1-mm(3) zones that include the superficial musculoaponeurotic system and connective tissue. This technology gained approval from the Food and Drug Administration as the first energy-based skin "lifting" device, specifically for lifting lax tissue on the neck, submentum, and eyebrows. Ultrasound has the unique advantage of direct visualization of treated structures during treatment. Ultrasound is a safe and efficacious treatment for mild skin tightening and lifting.

  14. Skin Diseases: Cross-section of human skin

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Cross-section of human skin Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Logical Images, Inc. I n the areas of skin health and skin diseases, the NIH's National Institute ...

  15. Chromophores in human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Antony R.

    1997-05-01

    Human skin, especially the epidermis, contains several major solar ultraviolet-radiation- (UVR-) absorbing endogenous chromophores including DNA, urocanic acid, amino acids, melanins and their precursors and metabolites. The lack of solubility of melanins prevents their absorption spectra being defined by routine techniques. Indirect spectroscopic methods show that their spectral properties depend on the stimulus for melanogenesis. The photochemical consequences of UVR absorption by some epidermal chromophores are relatively well understood whereas we lack a detailed understanding of the consequent photobiological and clinical responses. Skin action spectroscopy is not a reliable way of relating a photobiological outcome to a specific chromophore but is important for UVR hazard assessment. Exogenous chromophores may be administered to the skin in combination with UVR exposure for therapeutic benefit, or as sunscreens for the prevention of sunburn and possibly skin cancer.

  16. Skin Conditions during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... during pregnancy? • What is pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy (PUPPP)? • What is prurigo of pregnancy? • ... itchy skin. What is pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy (PUPPP)? In this condition, small, red ...

  17. Skin Care and Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Age Spots and Skin Tags Click for more information Age spots, once called "liver spots," are flat, brown ... surface. They are a common occurrence as people age, especially for women. They are ... options, specific conditions, and related issues. ...

  18. Skin Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at NCI (Intramural) ... is the body’s largest organ . It protects against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection . Skin also helps control ...

  19. An elastic second skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Betty; Kang, Soo-Young; Akthakul, Ariya; Ramadurai, Nithin; Pilkenton, Morgan; Patel, Alpesh; Nashat, Amir; Anderson, Daniel G.; Sakamoto, Fernanda H.; Gilchrest, Barbara A.; Anderson, R. Rox; Langer, Robert

    2016-08-01

    We report the synthesis and application of an elastic, wearable crosslinked polymer layer (XPL) that mimics the properties of normal, youthful skin. XPL is made of a tunable polysiloxane-based material that can be engineered with specific elasticity, contractility, adhesion, tensile strength and occlusivity. XPL can be topically applied, rapidly curing at the skin interface without the need for heat- or light-mediated activation. In a pilot human study, we examined the performance of a prototype XPL that has a tensile modulus matching normal skin responses at low strain (<40%), and that withstands elongations exceeding 250%, elastically recoiling with minimal strain-energy loss on repeated deformation. The application of XPL to the herniated lower eyelid fat pads of 12 subjects resulted in an average 2-grade decrease in herniation appearance in a 5-point severity scale. The XPL platform may offer advanced solutions to compromised skin barrier function, pharmaceutical delivery and wound dressings.

  20. Skin tumors on squirrels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Reilly, J.R.

    1955-01-01

    Skin tumors having the gross appearance of previously reported fibromas are reported on gray squirrels from N. Y., Md., Va., N. C., and W. Va. and from a fox squirrel from W. Va. and a porcupine from Pa.

  1. Genetics and skin aging

    PubMed Central

    Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Bekou, Vassiliki; Zouboulis, Christos C.

    2012-01-01

    Skin aging is a complex process and underlies multiple influences with the probable involvement of heritable and various environmental factors. Several theories have been conducted regarding the pathomechanisms of aged skin, however fundamental mechanisms still remain poorly understood. This article addresses the influence of genetics on skin aging and in particular deals with the differences observed in ethnic populations and between both genders. Recent studies indicate that male and female aged skin differs as far as the type, the consistency and the sensitivity to external factors is concerned. The same has been also documented between elderly people of different origin. Consequently, the aging process taking place in both genders and in diverse ethnic groups should be examined separately and products specialized to each population should be developed in order to satisfy the special needs. PMID:23467395

  2. Dry Skin (Xerosis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... by medical conditions, such as atopic dermatitis and malnutrition. Dry skin develops due to a decrease in ... Diabetes Hypothyroidism Down syndrome Liver or kidney disease Malnutrition HIV/AIDS Lymphoma Signs and Symptoms The most ...

  3. Skin Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... the body's largest organ . It protects against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection . Skin also helps control body ... cancer risk factors include: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  4. Healthy Skin Matters

    MedlinePlus

    ... don’t offer a safe alternative to natural sunlight. Exposure to ultraviolet (UV ) (uhl-truh-VYE-uh- ... the exposure comes from tanning beds or natural sunlight. This damage increases the risk of skin cancer ...

  5. [Skin-picking disorder].

    PubMed

    Niemeier, V; Peters, E; Gieler, U

    2015-10-01

    The disorder is characterized by compulsive repetitive skin-picking (SP), resulting in skin lesions. The patients must have undertaken several attempts to reduce or stop SP. The disorder must have led to clinically significant limitations in social, professional, or other important areas of life. The symptoms cannot be better explained by another emotional disorder or any other dermatological disease. In the new DSM-V, skin-picking disorder has been included in the diagnostic system as an independent disorder and describes the self-injury of the skin by picking or scratching with an underlying emotional disorder. SP is classified among the impulse-control disorders and is, thus, differentiated from compulsive disorders as such. There are often emotional comorbidities. In cases of pronounced psychosocial limitation, interdisciplinary cooperation with a psychotherapist and/or psychiatrist is indicated. PMID:26391325

  6. Aging changes in skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... sun exposure with areas that are protected from sunlight. Natural pigments seem to provide some protection against ... Exposures to industrial and household chemicals Indoor heating Sunlight can cause: Loss of elasticity (elastosis) Noncancerous skin ...

  7. Tuberculin Skin Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... perpendicular to the long axis). How Are TST Reactions Interpreted? Skin test interpretation depends on two factors: ... among high-risk groups. What Are False-Positive Reactions? Some persons may react to the TST even ...

  8. An elastic second skin.

    PubMed

    Yu, Betty; Kang, Soo-Young; Akthakul, Ariya; Ramadurai, Nithin; Pilkenton, Morgan; Patel, Alpesh; Nashat, Amir; Anderson, Daniel G; Sakamoto, Fernanda H; Gilchrest, Barbara A; Anderson, R Rox; Langer, Robert

    2016-08-01

    We report the synthesis and application of an elastic, wearable crosslinked polymer layer (XPL) that mimics the properties of normal, youthful skin. XPL is made of a tunable polysiloxane-based material that can be engineered with specific elasticity, contractility, adhesion, tensile strength and occlusivity. XPL can be topically applied, rapidly curing at the skin interface without the need for heat- or light-mediated activation. In a pilot human study, we examined the performance of a prototype XPL that has a tensile modulus matching normal skin responses at low strain (<40%), and that withstands elongations exceeding 250%, elastically recoiling with minimal strain-energy loss on repeated deformation. The application of XPL to the herniated lower eyelid fat pads of 12 subjects resulted in an average 2-grade decrease in herniation appearance in a 5-point severity scale. The XPL platform may offer advanced solutions to compromised skin barrier function, pharmaceutical delivery and wound dressings. PMID:27159017

  9. Bleeding into the skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... under the tissue in larger flat areas (called purpura ), or in a very large bruised area (called ... in the newborn) Aging skin (ecchymosis) Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (petechiae and purpura) Henoch-Schonlein purpura (purpura) Leukemia ( ...

  10. Skin lesion KOH exam

    MedlinePlus

    ... is present. The fungus may be related to ringworm , athlete's foot , jock itch , or another fungal infection. ... foot Candida infection of the skin Jock itch Ringworm Tinea corporis Update Date 4/14/2015 Updated ...

  11. Skin or nail culture

    MedlinePlus

    Mucosal culture; Culture - skin; Culture - mucosal; Nail culture; Culture - fingernail; Fingernail culture ... to prevent pain. A small sample of a fingernail or toenail may be taken. The sample is ...

  12. Skin, Hair, and Nails

    MedlinePlus

    ... special types of cells: Melanocytes produce melanin, the pigment that gives skin its color. All people have ... the epidermis). Hair also contains a yellow-red pigment; people who have blonde or red hair have ...

  13. Skin lesion of blastomycosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... in: Africa Canada Central and southeastern United States India Israel Saudi Arabia A person gets infected by ... is diagnosed by identifying the fungus in a culture taken from a skin lesion. This usually requires ...

  14. Nicotinamide and the skin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Andrew C; Damian, Diona L

    2014-08-01

    Nicotinamide, an amide form of vitamin B3, boosts cellular energy and regulates poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase 1, an enzyme with important roles in DNA repair and the expression of inflammatory cytokines. Nicotinamide shows promise for the treatment of a wide range of dermatological conditions, including autoimmune blistering disorders, acne, rosacea, ageing skin and atopic dermatitis. In particular, recent studies have also shown it to be a potential agent for reducing actinic keratoses and preventing skin cancers.

  15. Nicotinamide and the skin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Andrew C; Damian, Diona L

    2014-08-01

    Nicotinamide, an amide form of vitamin B3, boosts cellular energy and regulates poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase 1, an enzyme with important roles in DNA repair and the expression of inflammatory cytokines. Nicotinamide shows promise for the treatment of a wide range of dermatological conditions, including autoimmune blistering disorders, acne, rosacea, ageing skin and atopic dermatitis. In particular, recent studies have also shown it to be a potential agent for reducing actinic keratoses and preventing skin cancers. PMID:24635573

  16. [Improvement of skin moisture and skin texture with urea therapy].

    PubMed

    Puschmann, M; Gogoll, K

    1989-01-01

    A significant increase in skin moisture and an improvement in skin smoothness after application of a urea-containing cream was noticed in a large number of volunteers with healthy skin and in neurodermitis patients compared with untreated skin and with vehicle. The effect was shown after one application (short-term test) as well as after repeated application (long-term test). Regular application of preparation containing urea increases the moisture of a the skin and improves the skin's smoothness compared with its previous condition, with untreated skin, and with placebo preparations. PMID:2807927

  17. Ultraflexible organic photonic skin.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Tomoyuki; Zalar, Peter; Kaltenbrunner, Martin; Jinno, Hiroaki; Matsuhisa, Naoji; Kitanosako, Hiroki; Tachibana, Yutaro; Yukita, Wakako; Koizumi, Mari; Someya, Takao

    2016-04-01

    Thin-film electronics intimately laminated onto the skin imperceptibly equip the human body with electronic components for health-monitoring and information technologies. When electronic devices are worn, the mechanical flexibility and/or stretchability of thin-film devices helps to minimize the stress and discomfort associated with wear because of their conformability and softness. For industrial applications, it is important to fabricate wearable devices using processing methods that maximize throughput and minimize cost. We demonstrate ultraflexible and conformable three-color, highly efficient polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) and organic photodetectors (OPDs) to realize optoelectronic skins (oe-skins) that introduce multiple electronic functionalities such as sensing and displays on the surface of human skin. The total thickness of the devices, including the substrate and encapsulation layer, is only 3 μm, which is one order of magnitude thinner than the epidermal layer of human skin. By integrating green and red PLEDs with OPDs, we fabricate an ultraflexible reflective pulse oximeter. The device unobtrusively measures the oxygen concentration of blood when laminated on a finger. On-skin seven-segment digital displays and color indicators can visualize data directly on the body. PMID:27152354

  18. Pregnancy and Skin

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Rita V.; Gupta, Rajat; Mehta, Malay J.; Chaudhari, Arvind H.; Pilani, Abhishek P.; Patel, Nidhi

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy is associated with complex of endocrinological, immunological, metabolic, and vascular changes that may influence the skin and other organs in various ways. Pregnancy is a period in which more than 90% women have significant and complex skin changes that may have great impact on the woman's life. The dermatoses of pregnancy represent a heterogeneous group of skin diseases related to pregnancy and/or the postpartum period. The dermatoses of pregnancy can be classified into the following three groups: Physiologic skin changes in pregnancy, pre-existing dermatoses affected by pregnancy, and specific dermatoses of pregnancy. Though most of these skin dermatoses are benign and resolve in postpartum period, a few can risk fetal life and require antenatal surveillance. Most of the dermatoses of pregnancy can be treated conservatively but a few require intervention in the form of termination of pregnancy. Correct diagnosis is essential for the treatment of these disorders. This article discusses the current knowledge of various skin changes during pregnancy and the evaluation of the patient with pregnancy dermatoses with special emphasis on clinical features, diagnostic tests, maternal and fetal prognosis, therapy, and management. PMID:25657937

  19. Ultraflexible organic photonic skin.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Tomoyuki; Zalar, Peter; Kaltenbrunner, Martin; Jinno, Hiroaki; Matsuhisa, Naoji; Kitanosako, Hiroki; Tachibana, Yutaro; Yukita, Wakako; Koizumi, Mari; Someya, Takao

    2016-04-01

    Thin-film electronics intimately laminated onto the skin imperceptibly equip the human body with electronic components for health-monitoring and information technologies. When electronic devices are worn, the mechanical flexibility and/or stretchability of thin-film devices helps to minimize the stress and discomfort associated with wear because of their conformability and softness. For industrial applications, it is important to fabricate wearable devices using processing methods that maximize throughput and minimize cost. We demonstrate ultraflexible and conformable three-color, highly efficient polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) and organic photodetectors (OPDs) to realize optoelectronic skins (oe-skins) that introduce multiple electronic functionalities such as sensing and displays on the surface of human skin. The total thickness of the devices, including the substrate and encapsulation layer, is only 3 μm, which is one order of magnitude thinner than the epidermal layer of human skin. By integrating green and red PLEDs with OPDs, we fabricate an ultraflexible reflective pulse oximeter. The device unobtrusively measures the oxygen concentration of blood when laminated on a finger. On-skin seven-segment digital displays and color indicators can visualize data directly on the body.

  20. Ultraflexible organic photonic skin

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Tomoyuki; Zalar, Peter; Kaltenbrunner, Martin; Jinno, Hiroaki; Matsuhisa, Naoji; Kitanosako, Hiroki; Tachibana, Yutaro; Yukita, Wakako; Koizumi, Mari; Someya, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Thin-film electronics intimately laminated onto the skin imperceptibly equip the human body with electronic components for health-monitoring and information technologies. When electronic devices are worn, the mechanical flexibility and/or stretchability of thin-film devices helps to minimize the stress and discomfort associated with wear because of their conformability and softness. For industrial applications, it is important to fabricate wearable devices using processing methods that maximize throughput and minimize cost. We demonstrate ultraflexible and conformable three-color, highly efficient polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) and organic photodetectors (OPDs) to realize optoelectronic skins (oe-skins) that introduce multiple electronic functionalities such as sensing and displays on the surface of human skin. The total thickness of the devices, including the substrate and encapsulation layer, is only 3 μm, which is one order of magnitude thinner than the epidermal layer of human skin. By integrating green and red PLEDs with OPDs, we fabricate an ultraflexible reflective pulse oximeter. The device unobtrusively measures the oxygen concentration of blood when laminated on a finger. On-skin seven-segment digital displays and color indicators can visualize data directly on the body. PMID:27152354

  1. Skin flaps and grafts - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Free flap - self-care; Skin autografting - self-care; Pressure ulcer skin flap self-care; Burns skin flap self- ... skin infection Surgery for skin cancer Venous ulcers , pressure ulcers , or diabetic ulcers that DO NOT heal After ...

  2. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Shenefelt, Philip D; Shenefelt, Debrah A

    2014-01-01

    Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, "goose bumps", redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. PMID:25120377

  3. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders

    PubMed Central

    Shenefelt, Philip D; Shenefelt, Debrah A

    2014-01-01

    Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, “goose bumps”, redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. PMID:25120377

  4. Sprayed skin turbine component

    DOEpatents

    Allen, David B

    2013-06-04

    Fabricating a turbine component (50) by casting a core structure (30), forming an array of pits (24) in an outer surface (32) of the core structure, depositing a transient liquid phase (TLP) material (40) on the outer surface of the core structure, the TLP containing a melting-point depressant, depositing a skin (42) on the outer surface of the core structure over the TLP material, and heating the assembly, thus forming both a diffusion bond and a mechanical interlock between the skin and the core structure. The heating diffuses the melting-point depressant away from the interface. Subsurface cooling channels (35) may be formed by forming grooves (34) in the outer surface of the core structure, filling the grooves with a fugitive filler (36), depositing and bonding the skin (42), then removing the fugitive material.

  5. Skin friction balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ping, Tcheng (Inventor); Supplee, Frank H., Jr. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A skin friction balance uses a parallel linkage mechanism to avoid inaccuracies in skin friction measurement attributable to off-center normal forces. The parallel linkage mechanism includes a stationary plate mounted in a cage, and an upper and lower movable plate which are linked to each other and to the stationary plate throught three vertical links. Flexure pivots are provided for pivotally connecting the links and the plates. A sensing element connected to the upper plate moves in response to skin friction, and the lower plate moves in the opposite direction of the upper plate. A force motor maintains a null position of the sensing element by exerting a restoring force in response to a signal generated by a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT).

  6. Environment and the skin

    SciTech Connect

    Suskind, R.R. )

    1990-03-01

    The skin is an important organ of defense adaptation and a portal of entry for xenobiotics. It is vulnerable to physical, chemical, and biologic agents and capable of expressing responses to these agents in a variety of pathologic patterns. These patterns are characterized by morphologic and functional features which are elicited by careful examination and test procedures. Cutaneous cancer may result from exposure to nonionizing as well as ionizing radiation, to specific identifiable chemical hazards, and may be enhanced by trauma. Cutaneous hazards of chemical sources are largely found in the workplace and among consumer products, including drugs and toilet goods. Environmental skin diseases and injuries are preventable. Prior to use assessment for safety and for possible risks from exposure to an agent, product, or process is of primary importance in the prevention and control of environmental skin disease and injury.

  7. Imaging the skin.

    PubMed

    Aspres, Nicholas; Egerton, Ian B; Lim, Adrian C; Shumack, Stephen P

    2003-02-01

    Since the discovery of X-rays, the use of imaging technology has continued to play an important role in medicine. Technological advancements have led to the development of various imaging modalities, most of which have been used to image organs deep within the human body. More recently, attention has focused on the application of imaging technology for evaluation of the skin. A variety of techniques are currently being used to examine the skin and these include specialized photography, surface microscopy, ultrasound, laser Doppler perfusion imaging, confocal microscopy, and magnetic resonance imaging. These modalities can provide information that can assist in the management of skin problems. Although many of these techniques are still undergoing research, they are showing promise as useful clinical tools in dermatology.

  8. Limitations of skin protection.

    PubMed

    Schliemann, Sibylle

    2007-01-01

    Skin protection products and gloves are essential constituents of personal protective equipment at workplaces, which can be used in a complementary way, each offering particular benefits and disadvantages. In many workplace situations, both measures are being used either in an alternating or in a combined manner, typically in professions with exposures to mild irritants and a high wet-work load, such as hairdressers, healthcare workers or employees in the food-processing industry. Skin protection creams can be used to reduce unnecessarily long glove usage in order to reduce occlusion-related effects on the skin barrier. Whenever rotating machines are used, these products are the only option due to safety regulations. However, some particular requirements can be postulated for skin-protective products claimed especially to be used in combination with gloves. Reduction of glove-induced perspiration, of stratum corneum swelling, and postocclusive barrier impairment are intended attributes of such products, which have been already successfully implemented in some commercially available products. On the other hand it has to be proven that the ingredients do not interfere with the glove material, neither in the way of degrading the material, thus making it permeable for harmful substances, nor by enhancing the potential release of rubber allergens. Examples out of the literature are reviewed showing that skin products can exhibit unpredictable effects on the allergen release of rubber materials, if not thoroughly tested for this purpose beforehand. Some raw materials should be avoided in protection products, though they are of established value when used in afterwork emollients to accelerate barrier recovery. Usage of moisturizers, in contrast to special barrier products, at the workplace together or even under gloves is therefore judged critically, although selected products showed beneficial effects in particular experimental settings. Another future option is the

  9. Skin tears: prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Wick, Jeannette Y; Zanni, Guido R

    2008-07-01

    While skin tears are common among the elderly in general, and residents of long-term care facilities in particular, there has been limited research into their treatment. Many facilities voluntarily track skin tears, and some states require facilities to report these events. Risk factors include age, xerosis (abnormal eye, skin, or mouth dryness), need for help in activities of daily living, presence of senile purpura, visual impairment, and poor nutrition. Plans to prevent skin tears that employ skin sleeves, padded side rails, gentle skin cleansers, moisturizing lotions, as well as staff education, can decrease by half the number of skin tears incurred in a long-term care facility. Although the treatment process seems simple, it is time consuming and can be painful for the patient. Residents with dementia or agitation often try to remove bulky dressings used to cover skin tears. Dressing changes may injure the fragile wound via skin stripping.

  10. Study of surfactant-skin interactions by skin impedance measurements.

    PubMed

    Lu, Guojin; Moore, David J

    2012-02-01

    The stratum corneum (SC) plays a very critical physiological role as skin barrier in regulating water loss through the skin and protects the body from a wide range of physical and chemical exogenous insults. Surfactant-containing formulations can induce skin damage and irritation owing to surfactant absorption and penetration. It is generally accepted that reduction in skin barrier properties occurs only after surfactants have penetrated/permeated into the skin barrier. To mitigate the harshness of surfactant-based cleansing products, penetration/permeation of surfactants should be reduced. Skin impedance measurements have been taken in vitro on porcine skin using vertical Franz diffusion cells to investigate the impact of surfactants, temperature and pH on skin barrier integrity. These skin impedance results demonstrate excellent correlation with other published methods for assessing skin damage and irritation from different surfactant chemistry, concentration, pH, time of exposure and temperature. This study demonstrates that skin impedance can be utilized as a routine approach to screen surfactant-containing formulations for their propensity to compromise the skin barrier and hence likely lead to skin irritation. PMID:21923733

  11. Study of surfactant-skin interactions by skin impedance measurements.

    PubMed

    Lu, Guojin; Moore, David J

    2012-02-01

    The stratum corneum (SC) plays a very critical physiological role as skin barrier in regulating water loss through the skin and protects the body from a wide range of physical and chemical exogenous insults. Surfactant-containing formulations can induce skin damage and irritation owing to surfactant absorption and penetration. It is generally accepted that reduction in skin barrier properties occurs only after surfactants have penetrated/permeated into the skin barrier. To mitigate the harshness of surfactant-based cleansing products, penetration/permeation of surfactants should be reduced. Skin impedance measurements have been taken in vitro on porcine skin using vertical Franz diffusion cells to investigate the impact of surfactants, temperature and pH on skin barrier integrity. These skin impedance results demonstrate excellent correlation with other published methods for assessing skin damage and irritation from different surfactant chemistry, concentration, pH, time of exposure and temperature. This study demonstrates that skin impedance can be utilized as a routine approach to screen surfactant-containing formulations for their propensity to compromise the skin barrier and hence likely lead to skin irritation.

  12. Skin imaging in systemic sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Taeyoung; Abignano, Giuseppina; Lettieri, Giovanni; Wakefield, Richard J.; Emery, Paul; Del Galdo, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Fibrotic involvement of the skin is a cardinal feature of systemic sclerosis (SSc). The extent of skin involvement is associated with internal organ involvement, coinciding with more severe disease course and poor prognosis. A palpation-based semi-quantitative score, the modified Rodnan skin score, is widely used for the assessment of skin involvement, but it is entailed by significant limitations. More objective approaches to measure skin involvement employing imaging have been explored continuously in the past decades and are currently advancing. Here, we review the use of different imaging techniques for the assessment of skin involvement in patients with SSc, focusing mainly on ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and optical coherence tomography.

  13. About Skin-to-Skin Care (Kangaroo Care)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Size Email Print Share About Skin-to-Skin Care Page Content Article Body You may be able ... care, also called kangaroo care. What is Kangaroo Care? Kangaroo care was developed in South America as ...

  14. Noninvasive Skin Tightening Treatment

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive skin tightening has become one of the most common cosmetic aesthetic procedures being performed today. The use of radiofrequency devices for these procedures has been at the forefront of this trend for the past several years. Newer and more sophisticated radiofrequency devices are being brought to the market and presented here are the Venus Freeze and Venus Legacy. PMID:26155322

  15. Monitoring pigmented skin lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Vincent P.; Bamber, Jeffery C.; Ott, Robert J.; Crawford, Diane C.; Mortimer, Peter S.

    2002-06-01

    The rising incidence of skin cancer has led to an increase in the number of patients with skin lesions that require diagnosis, mostly using subjective visual examination. Successful treatment depends on early diagnosis. Unfortunately diagnostic accuracy, even by experts, can be as low as 56%; therefore, an accurate, objective diagnostic aid is greatly needed. Reflectance characteristics of pigmented skin lesions were documented to evaluate their diagnostic potential. Reflectance spectra in the wavelength range 320-1100nm were obtained from 260 lesions. Differences between spectra from benign and malignant lesions were utilized by extracting features with the best discriminating power. Discrimination was evaluated using two techniques: multivariate statistical analysis and artificial neural networks, using histology as the standard. Each technique was tested in a blind study and assessed in terms of its ability to diagnose new cases and compared to the clinical diagnosis. The artificial neural network achieved the best diagnostic performance for discriminating between malignant melanoma and benign nevi, having a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 65%. Utilization of visible and infrared techniques for monitoring skin lesions has lead to improvements in diagnostic accuracy. We conclude that these techniques are worthy of further development and evaluation in clinical practice as a screening tool.

  16. Flexible electronics: Sophisticated skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Siegfried

    2013-10-01

    Advances in materials science and layout design have enabled the realization of flexible and multifunctional electronic devices. Two demonstrations of electronic skins, which combine temperature and pressure sensing with integrated thermal actuators and organic displays, unveil the potential of these devices for robotics and clinical applications.

  17. Mechanistic relationship among mutagenicity, skin sensitization, and skin carcinogenicity.

    PubMed Central

    Ashby, J; Hilton, J; Dearman, R J; Callander, R D; Kimber, I

    1993-01-01

    Twenty organic Salmonella mutagens, seven of which (including benzo[a]pyrene) are established skin carcinogens, and one of which (2-chloroethanol) is a well-defined noncarcinogen to skin, have been evaluated for skin-sensitizing activity using the local lymph node assay. The relative mutagenicity of the agents to Salmonella was also established. Fourteen of the chemicals were positive in the local lymph node assay, including the seven skin carcinogens. 2-Chloroethanol was inactive as a sensitizing agent. We suggest that a variety of factors contributes to the lack of sensitizing activity of the remaining six bacterial mutagens: extremes of intrinsic chemical reactivity, high water solubility reducing dermal translocation, and inappropriate dermal metabolism. Two reference skin-sensitizing agents (an oxazolinone and fluorescein isothiocyanate) were established as in vitro clastogens after their recognition as nonmutagens to Salmonella. These data imply that mutagenicity, rather than simply activity in the Salmonella assay, is a primary stimulus for electrophilic sensitization and carcinogenic initiation in the skin. We conclude that genotoxicity data for an agent can provide indications of the agent's potential to induce skin sensitization and that genotoxins which are skin-sensitizing agents have an enhanced potential to initiate skin carcinogenesis. We suggest that common, albeit individually distinct, structure-activity relationships underpin genotoxicity, skin sensitization, and the initiation of skin carcinogenesis. These relationships should simplify the hazard evaluation of chemicals and contribute to a reduction in animal usage. Several predictions of skin carcinogenicity are made based on the data presented. PMID:8513766

  18. Skin tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Mansbridge, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    The major applications of tissue-engineered skin substitutes are in promoting the healing of acute and chronic wounds. Several approaches have been taken by commercial companies to develop products to address these conditions. Skin substitutes include both acellular and cellular devices. While acellular skin substitutes act as a template for dermal formation, this discussion mainly covers cellular devices. In addressing therapeutic applications in tissue engineering generally, a valuable precursor is an understanding of the mechanism of the underlying pathology. While this is straightforward in many cases, it has not been available for wound healing. Investigation of the mode of action of the tissue-engineered skin substitutes has led to considerable insight into the mechanism of formation, maintenance and treatment of chronic wounds. Four aspects mediating healing are considered here for their mechanism of action: (i) colonization of the wound bed by live fibroblasts in the implant, (ii) the secretion of growth factors, (iii) provision of a suitable substrate for cell migration, particularly keratinocytes and immune cells, and (iv) modification of the immune system by secretion of neutrophil recruiting chemokines. An early event in acute wound healing is an influx of neutrophils that destroy planktonic bacteria. However, if the bacteria are able to form biofilm, they become resistant to neutrophil action and prevent reepithelialization. In this situation the wound becomes chronic. In chronic wounds, fibroblasts show a senescence-like phenotype with decreased secretion of neutrophil chemoattractants that make it more likely that biofilms become established. Treatment of the chronic wounds involves debridement to eliminate biofilm, and the use of antimicrobials. A role of skin substitutes is to provide non-senescent fibroblasts that attract and activate neutrophils to prevent biofilm re-establishment. The emphasis of the conclusion is the importance of preventing

  19. Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer This page lists cancer ... in skin cancer that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Basal Cell Carcinoma Aldara (Imiquimod) Efudex ( ...

  20. Breast skin and nipple changes

    MedlinePlus

    ... treatment. SCALY, FLAKING, ITCHY SKIN This is usually eczema or a bacterial or fungal infection. See your ... Atopic dermatitis, eczema, and noninfectious immunodeficiency disorders. In: James WD, Berger TG, Elston DM, eds. Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical ...

  1. Staining of skin with dihydroxyacetone.

    PubMed

    WITTGENSTEIN, E; BERRY, H K

    1960-09-30

    The reaction of skin with dihydroxyacetone to produce a brown "artificial tan" appears to proceed through combination with free amino groups in skin proteins, and particularly by combination of dihydroxyacetone with the free guanido group in arginine.

  2. The management of skin tears.

    PubMed

    Meuleneire, Frans

    During the ageing process the layers of the skin start to atrophy; the epidermis becomes thin and fragile, and dermal thickness decreases by 20 per cent (White et al, 1994). This makes skin tears a common problem among older people.

  3. Gram stain of skin lesion

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be done along with this test. Other studies are often done on a skin sample to determine if cancer is present. Viral skin lesions like herpes simplex are examined by other tests or a viral culture.

  4. What Is Melanoma Skin Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... that can become melanoma. They make a brown pigment called melanin , which gives the skin its tan ... to the sun, melanocytes make more of the pigment, causing the skin to tan or darken. Melanoma ...

  5. Drug metabolism in the skin.

    PubMed

    Baron, J M; Merk, H F

    2001-08-01

    The skin performs a wide range of active metabolic functions including xenobiotic metabolism involving metabolizing enzymes specific to the skin. In this review we focus on the role of drug metabolism: (i) in allergic reactions to substances of low molecular weight; (ii) in cutaneous vitamin A and D3 metabolism and its modulation; (iii) in the interaction of transport and metabolic enzymes in skin cells; and (iv) on novel tools for the measurement of drug metabolism in various compartments of the human skin.

  6. Brain-Skin Connection: Stress, Inflammation and Skin Aging

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Lyga, John

    2014-01-01

    The intricate relationship between stress and skin conditions has been documented since ancient times. Recent clinical observations also link psychological stress to the onset or aggravation of multiple skin diseases. However, the exact underlying mechanisms have only been studied and partially revealed in the past 20 years or so. In this review, the authors will discuss the recent discoveries in the field of “Brain-Skin Connection”, summarizing findings from the overlapping fields of psychology, endocrinology, skin neurobiology, skin inflammation, immunology, and pharmacology. PMID:24853682

  7. [Skin manifestations of monoclonal gammopathies].

    PubMed

    Hello, M; Barbarot, S; Néel, A; Connault, J; Graveleau, J; Durant, C; Decaux, O; Hamidou, M

    2014-01-01

    Whatever their aetiology, monoclonal gammopathies can be associated to several clinical features. Mechanisms are various and sometimes unknown. Skin is frequently involved and may represent a challenging diagnosis. Indeed, skin manifestations are either the presenting features and isolated, or at the background of a systemic syndrome. Our objective was to review the various skin manifestations that have been associated with monoclonal gammopathies.

  8. Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... doesn't matter whether you consider your skin light, dark, or somewhere in between. You are at risk for skin cancer. Being in the sun can damage your skin. Sunlight causes damage through ultraviolet, or UV rays, (they make up just one part of ...

  9. Skin Pedagogies and Abject Bodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenway, Jane; Bullen, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    How does the beauty industry "narrate the skin"? What does it teach women from different cultural groups about the female body? How does skin function as a site where female subjection and abjection are produced and reproduced? In this paper we examine the skin industry pointing to its extreme commodification of the female body and to the…

  10. Skin cancer: Etiology and management.

    PubMed

    Qadir, Muhammad Imran

    2016-05-01

    Nowadays, occurrence of skin cancer is very common in humans. It is reported that the most common cause of the skin cancer is excessive exposure to sunlight as it contains harmful radiations; the ultra violet rays. Different management strategies are used for different types of skin cancers, which are chemotherapy, radiation therapy.

  11. Polyamines and nonmelanoma skin cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmour, Susan K.

    2007-11-01

    Elevated levels of polyamines have long been associated with skin tumorigenesis. Tightly regulated metabolism of polyamines is critical for cell survival and normal skin homeostasis, and these controls are dysregulated in skin tumorigenesis. A key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is upregulated in skin tumors compared to normal skin. Use of transgenic mouse models has demonstrated that polyamines play an essential role in the early promotional phase of skin tumorigenesis. The formation of skin tumors in these transgenic mice is dependent upon polyamine biosynthesis, especially putrescine, since treatment with inhibitors of ODC activity blocks the formation of skin tumors and causes the rapid regression of existing tumors. Although the mechanism by which polyamines promote skin tumorigenesis are not well understood, elevated levels of polyamines have been shown to stimulate epidermal proliferation, alter keratinocyte differentiation status, increase neovascularization, and increase synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins in a manner similar to that seen in wound healing. It is becoming increasingly apparent that elevated polyamine levels activate not only epidermal cells but also underlying stromal cells in the skin to promote the development and progression of skin tumors. The inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis has potential to be an effective chemoprevention strategy for nonmelanoma skin cancer.

  12. For Some Skin Cancers, Targeted Drug Hits the Mark

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Types Skin Cancer Research Skin Cancer Patient Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer Prevention Skin Cancer Screening Health Professional Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer ...

  13. Skin barrier in rosacea*

    PubMed Central

    Addor, Flavia Alvim Sant'Anna

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies about the cutaneous barrier demonstrated consistent evidence that the stratum corneum is a metabolically active structure and also has adaptive functions, may play a regulatory role in the inflammatory response with activation of keratinocytes, angiogenesis and fibroplasia, whose intensity depends primarily on the intensity the stimulus. There are few studies investigating the abnormalities of the skin barrier in rosacea, but the existing data already show that there are changes resulting from inflammation, which can generate a vicious circle caused a prolongation of flare-ups and worsening of symptoms. This article aims to gather the most relevant literature data about the characteristics and effects of the state of the skin barrier in rosacea. PMID:26982780

  14. Adenolipoma of the skin.

    PubMed

    Del Agua, C; Felipo, F

    2004-10-15

    Adenolipoma of the skin is an unusual variant of lipoma recently described by Hitchcock et al. and characterized by the presence of normal eccrine sweat glands within a lipoma. We report a case and review the literature. A 45-year-old woman presented with a slow-growing, painless nodule on the thigh, clinically considered to be lipoma. Microscopically it comprised an adipose-tissue proliferation with a single eccrine secretory coil and associated duct in the periphery and in the center of the nodule. This benign lesion has been termed adenolipoma because of the presence of adipose tissue and eccrine glands. It probably represents only a histological curiosity in which the eccrine glands are entrapped by the adipose proliferation. Adenolipoma of the skin is a distinct lesion that can occur in the dermis or subcutaneous tissue.

  15. Skin barrier in rosacea.

    PubMed

    Addor, Flavia Alvim Sant'Anna

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies about the cutaneous barrier demonstrated consistent evidence that the stratum corneum is a metabolically active structure and also has adaptive functions, may play a regulatory role in the inflammatory response with activation of keratinocytes, angiogenesis and fibroplasia, whose intensity depends primarily on the intensity the stimulus. There are few studies investigating the abnormalities of the skin barrier in rosacea, but the existing data already show that there are changes resulting from inflammation, which can generate a vicious circle caused a prolongation of flare-ups and worsening of symptoms. This article aims to gather the most relevant literature data about the characteristics and effects of the state of the skin barrier in rosacea. PMID:26982780

  16. Delayed skin grafting.

    PubMed

    Ceilley, R I; Bumsted, R M; Panje, W R

    1983-04-01

    The use of skin grafts on granulating wounds is an established practice. Delaying the application of a full- or split-thickness skin graft may be an advantageous alternative method of surgical reconstruction in selected cases. Partial healing by secondary intention is useful for filling in deeper defects and usually produces a wound that is much smaller and of more normal contour than the original defect. Contraction of the graft bed is markedly influenced by location, tissue laxity, surface tension lines, motion, and wound geometry. Proper wound care, correct surgical preparation of the defect, and timing of the graft procedure are all important considerations in maximizing the overall result. Through-and-through defects and wounds produced over areas with little underlying support (eyelids and lip) often need flap reconstruction or immediate grafting to prevent undesirable functional and cosmetic results. By combining delayed healing and conventional reconstructive techniques, major tissue loss can often be restored while minimizing patient morbidity.

  17. Skin contamination dosimeter

    DOEpatents

    Hamby, David M.; Farsoni, Abdollah T.; Cazalas, Edward

    2011-06-21

    A technique and device provides absolute skin dosimetry in real time at multiple tissue depths simultaneously. The device uses a phoswich detector which has multiple scintillators embedded at different depths within a non-scintillating material. A digital pulse processor connected to the phoswich detector measures a differential distribution (dN/dH) of count rate N as function of pulse height H for signals from each of the multiple scintillators. A digital processor computes in real time from the differential count-rate distribution for each of multiple scintillators an estimate of an ionizing radiation dose delivered to each of multiple depths of skin tissue corresponding to the multiple scintillators embedded at multiple corresponding depths within the non-scintillating material.

  18. Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Samarasinghe, Venura; Madan, Vishal

    2012-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) represents the most common form of cancer in Caucasians, with continuing increase in incidence worldwide. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) accounts for 75% of cases of NMSC, and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) accounts for the remaining majority of NMSC cases. Whilst metastasis from BCC is extremely rare, metastasis from high-risk SCC may be fatal. In this article, we review the aetiology, diagnosis and management of NMSC. PMID:22557848

  19. Skin changes in sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Cronin, Etain

    1970-01-01

    The skin changes which occur in sarcoidosis are erythema nodosum and specific granulomata. The incidence of erythema nodosum and its frequency in England and Scandinavia is contrasted with its comparative rarity among Negro patients in the United States. The various types of granulomata are described and classified. In contrast with erythema nodosum, granulomata are more common in Negro than in Caucasian patients. ImagesPlate 2 PMID:5481102

  20. [Magnesium in skin allergy].

    PubMed

    Błach, Joanna; Nowacki, Wojciech; Mazur, Andrzej

    2007-10-08

    Magnesium is involved in many biological processes within the body. Magnesium deficiency causes many disorders, including impairment of immunity. This review summarizes present knowledge on the relationship between magnesium and skin allergy reactions. Special focus is on allergy types I and IV. At present the best knowledge is on allergy I. Magnesium deficiency in experimental animals, mainly rats, leads to characteristic hyperemia, an increase in IgE, neutrophilia and eosinophilia, an increase in the level of proinflammatory cytokines, mastocyte degranulation, histaminemia, and splenomegaly. These symptoms observed in hypomagnesemic rats are similar to those in atopic patients. Data on the relationship between magnesium and other types of allergy are scarce. Clinical observations show the beneficial effect of topical and oral administration of magnesium salts in patients with skin allergy. All the presented data point to an important role of magnesium in allergy reactions. Other studies are needed to better understand the mechanism of magnesium's action. Well-controlled clinical protocols should also be conducted to assess the efficiency of magnesium supplementation in patients with skin allergy.

  1. Skin-sparing mastectomy.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Rache M; Adamovich, Tara L

    2003-08-01

    The cosmetic appearance of the reconstructed breast is largely dependent upon the quantity of breast skin which remains after mastectomy. Leaving behind as much skin as is possible significantly improves the natural appearance of the reconstruction and reduces procedures required on the contralateral breast to achieve symmetry. SSM with immediate reconstruction offers superior aesthetic results to NSSM, with similar LR rates. As most recurrences will occur in chest wall skin, the ability to detect local recurrence is not impaired. The incidence of local wound complications with SSM is comparable to NSSM. It has been demonstrated that sentinel lymph node biopsy and axillary dissection can be performed adequately in SSM. There is no contraindication to postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy. There are some groups of patients for whom SSM is not indicated, such as patients with inflammatory carcinoma. SSM should be considered for selected patients with breast cancer in conjunction with all types of immediate reconstruction. In conclusion, numerous studies support the use of SSM on selected patients as an oncologically acceptable procedure with superior cosmetic results when compared with traditional NSSM. PMID:12875600

  2. Ultraviolet radiation and skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Deevya L; Saladi, Rao N; Fox, Joshua L

    2010-09-01

    Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer in fair-skinned populations in many parts of the world. The incidence, morbidity and mortality rates of skin cancers are increasing and, therefore, pose a significant public health concern. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is the major etiologic agent in the development of skin cancers. UVR causes DNA damage and genetic mutations, which subsequently lead to skin cancer. A clearer understanding of UVR is crucial in the prevention of skin cancer. This article reviews UVR, its damaging effects on the skin and its relationship to UV immunosuppression and skin cancer. Several factors influence the amount of UVR reaching the earth's surface, including ozone depletion, UV light elevation, latitude, altitude, and weather conditions. The current treatment modalities utilizing UVR (i.e. phototherapy) can also predispose to skin cancers. Unnecessary exposure to the sun and artificial UVR (tanning lamps) are important personal attributable risks. This article aims to provide a comprehensive overview of skin cancer with an emphasis on carefully evaluated statistics, the epidemiology of UVR-induced skin cancers, incidence rates, risk factors, and preventative behaviors & strategies, including personal behavioral modifications and public educational initiatives.

  3. [Dry skin and black skin: what are the facts?].

    PubMed

    Mahé, A

    2002-01-01

    We present a review of the data in the literature on the potential specificities of the stratum corneum of so-called "black" skin, together with the afferent cutaneous hydration regulation process. The methodology of the studies is often debatable, not only for basic (absence of definition of "black skin") but also for technical reasons. Their results are often contradicting. Other than certain subtle differences, related to potentially enhanced preservation of the epidermis of dark skin from heliodermal xerosis, we conclude in the similarity of the physicochemical characteristics of the stratum corneum in the different color of skin. Moreover, the data available do not suggest a predisposition of certain skin colors to the occurrence of pathological states involving the stratum corneum. However, dark skin is characterized by its semiologic capacity of taking on a "ashy" aspect related to a better assessment of normal or xerotic stratum corneum because of melanic pigmentation. PMID:11976544

  4. [Dry skin and black skin: what are the facts?].

    PubMed

    Mahé, A

    2002-01-01

    We present a review of the data in the literature on the potential specificities of the stratum corneum of so-called "black" skin, together with the afferent cutaneous hydration regulation process. The methodology of the studies is often debatable, not only for basic (absence of definition of "black skin") but also for technical reasons. Their results are often contradicting. Other than certain subtle differences, related to potentially enhanced preservation of the epidermis of dark skin from heliodermal xerosis, we conclude in the similarity of the physicochemical characteristics of the stratum corneum in the different color of skin. Moreover, the data available do not suggest a predisposition of certain skin colors to the occurrence of pathological states involving the stratum corneum. However, dark skin is characterized by its semiologic capacity of taking on a "ashy" aspect related to a better assessment of normal or xerotic stratum corneum because of melanic pigmentation.

  5. Skin moisturization mechanisms: new data.

    PubMed

    Bonté, F

    2011-05-01

    The main function of the skin is to protect the body against exogenous substances and excessive water loss. The skin barrier is located in the outermost layer of the skin, called the stratum corneum, which is composed of corneocytes, originating from the keratinocytes differentiation process, embedded in organized complex lipid domains. Moisturizing of the skin is recognized as the first anti-aging skin care. Skin moisturization is essential for its appearance, protection, complexion, softness and the reinforcement of its barrier properties against deleterious and exogenous environmental factors. The intrinsic water binding capacity of skin is not only due to the complex natural moisturizing factor present in corneocytes, but also to hyaluronic acid and a regulated water transport within the skin. Recent data shows that the water movements between the cells at the different levels of the epidermis are due to dedicated water and glycerol transport proteins named aquaporins. Their role in the skin moisturization is completed by corneodesmosomes and tight junctions. Water and pH are now shown to be of prime importance in the regulation of the epidermal enzymes linked to corneocytes desquamation and lipid synthesis. Furthermore, the level of moisturization of the skin is important in its protection against repeated exposure to various irritant agents or phenomena such as very frequent washing with strong tensioactive materials.

  6. Climate change and skin.

    PubMed

    Balato, N; Ayala, F; Megna, M; Balato, A; Patruno, C

    2013-02-01

    Global climate appears to be changing at an unprecedented rate. Climate change can be caused by several factors that include variations in solar radiation received by earth, oceanic processes (such as oceanic circulation), plate tectonics, and volcanic eruptions, as well as human-induced alterations of the natural world. Many human activities, such as the use of fossil fuel and the consequent accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, land consumption, deforestation, industrial processes, as well as some agriculture practices are contributing to global climate change. Indeed, many authors have reported on the current trend towards global warming (average surface temperature has augmented by 0.6 °C over the past 100 years), decreased precipitation, atmospheric humidity changes, and global rise in extreme climatic events. The magnitude and cause of these changes and their impact on human activity have become important matters of debate worldwide, representing climate change as one of the greatest challenges of the modern age. Although many articles have been written based on observations and various predictive models of how climate change could affect social, economic and health systems, only few studies exist about the effects of this change on skin physiology and diseases. However, the skin is the most exposed organ to environment; therefore, cutaneous diseases are inclined to have a high sensitivity to climate. For example, global warming, deforestation and changes in precipitation have been linked to variations in the geographical distribution of vectors of some infectious diseases (leishmaniasis, lyme disease, etc) by changing their spread, whereas warm and humid environment can also encourage the colonization of the skin by bacteria and fungi. The present review focuses on the wide and complex relationship between climate change and dermatology, showing the numerous factors that are contributing to modify the incidence and the clinical pattern of many

  7. Climate change and skin.

    PubMed

    Balato, N; Ayala, F; Megna, M; Balato, A; Patruno, C

    2013-02-01

    Global climate appears to be changing at an unprecedented rate. Climate change can be caused by several factors that include variations in solar radiation received by earth, oceanic processes (such as oceanic circulation), plate tectonics, and volcanic eruptions, as well as human-induced alterations of the natural world. Many human activities, such as the use of fossil fuel and the consequent accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, land consumption, deforestation, industrial processes, as well as some agriculture practices are contributing to global climate change. Indeed, many authors have reported on the current trend towards global warming (average surface temperature has augmented by 0.6 °C over the past 100 years), decreased precipitation, atmospheric humidity changes, and global rise in extreme climatic events. The magnitude and cause of these changes and their impact on human activity have become important matters of debate worldwide, representing climate change as one of the greatest challenges of the modern age. Although many articles have been written based on observations and various predictive models of how climate change could affect social, economic and health systems, only few studies exist about the effects of this change on skin physiology and diseases. However, the skin is the most exposed organ to environment; therefore, cutaneous diseases are inclined to have a high sensitivity to climate. For example, global warming, deforestation and changes in precipitation have been linked to variations in the geographical distribution of vectors of some infectious diseases (leishmaniasis, lyme disease, etc) by changing their spread, whereas warm and humid environment can also encourage the colonization of the skin by bacteria and fungi. The present review focuses on the wide and complex relationship between climate change and dermatology, showing the numerous factors that are contributing to modify the incidence and the clinical pattern of many

  8. [Merkel cell skin carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Krejcí, K; Zadrazil, J; Tichý, T; Horák, P; Ciferská, H; Hodulová, M; Zezulová, M; Zlevorová, M

    2010-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare tumour of the skin. It affects predominantly elderly Caucasian males on sun-exposed areas of the skin. Distinctively more frequent and at significantly lower age, its incidence is higher in immunocompromised patients. In these patients we often observe the highly aggressive course of Merkel cell carcinoma and a fatal outcome. The incidence of Merkel cell carcinoma has been rising in recent years and is more dramatic than the increased incidence of cutaneous melanoma. More than one-third of Merkel cell carcinoma patients will die from this cancer, making it twice as lethal as melanoma. The malignant transformation of Merkel cells is currently thought to be related to an infection with Merkel cell polyomavirus. In the early stage the discreet clinical picture may be contrary to extensive microscopic invasion and this seemingly benign appearance can delay diagnosis or increase the risk of insufficient tumour excision. The diagnosis is definitely confirmed by histological evaluation and immunohistochemical tests. A typical feature is the tendency of Merkel cell carcinoma to frequent local recurrence and early metastasizing into regional lymph nodes with subsequent tumour generalization. The mainstay of therapy is radical excision of the tumour and adjuvant radiotherapy targeted at the site of primary incidence and local draining lymph nodes. The efficacy of different chemotherapy protocols in Merkel cell carcinoma is limited and the median survival rate is measured in months. In the future, prophylaxis with vaccination against Merkel cell polyomavirus will hopefully be possible in high-risk patients, as well as therapeutic usage of antisense oligonucleotides or microRNAs, eventually complete Merkel cell carcinoma elimination by affecting the tumour suppressor gene Atonal homolog 1 expression. The staging of the tumour at time of diagnosis is the most important prognostic factor. In this respect, the importance of preventative skin

  9. Epidemiology of skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Leiter, Ulrike; Eigentler, Thomas; Garbe, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) are now the most common types of cancer in white populations. Both tumor entities show an increasing incidence rate worldwide but a stable or decreasing mortality rate. NMSC is the most common cancer in white-skinned individuals with a worldwide increasing incidence. NMSC is an increasing problem for health care services worldwide which causes significant morbidity. The rising incidence rates of NMSC are probably caused by a combination of increased exposure to ultraviolet (UV) or sun light, increased outdoor activities, changes in clothing style, increased longevity, ozone depletion, genetics and in some cases, immune suppression. An intensive UV exposure in childhood and adolescence was causative for the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) whereas for the etiology of SCC a chronic UV exposure in the earlier decades was accused. Cutaneous melanoma is the most rapidly increasing cancer in white populations, in the last 3 decades incidence rates have risen up to 5-fold. In 2008 melanoma was on place 5 in women and on place 8 in men of the most common solid tumor entities in Germany. The frequency of its occurrence is closely associated with the constitutive color of the skin, and the geographical zone. Changes in outdoor activities and exposure to sunlight during the past 50 years are an important factor for the increasing incidence of melanoma. Mortality rates of melanoma show a stabilization in the USA, Australia and also in European countries. In contrast to SCC, melanoma risk seems to be associated with an intermittent exposure to sunlight. Prevention campaigns aim on reducing incidence and achieving earlier diagnosis, which resulted in an ongoing trend toward thin melanoma since the last two decades. However, the impact of primary prevention measures on incidence rates of melanoma is unlikely to be seen in the near future, rather increasing incidence rates to 40-50/100,000 inhabitants/year should be expected in

  10. Epidemiology of skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Leiter, Ulrike; Eigentler, Thomas; Garbe, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) are now the most common types of cancer in white populations. Both tumor entities show an increasing incidence rate worldwide but a stable or decreasing mortality rate. NMSC is the most common cancer in white-skinned individuals with a worldwide increasing incidence. NMSC is an increasing problem for health care services worldwide which causes significant morbidity. The rising incidence rates of NMSC are probably caused by a combination of increased exposure to ultraviolet (UV) or sun light, increased outdoor activities, changes in clothing style, increased longevity, ozone depletion, genetics and in some cases, immune suppression. An intensive UV exposure in childhood and adolescence was causative for the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) whereas for the etiology of SCC a chronic UV exposure in the earlier decades was accused. Cutaneous melanoma is the most rapidly increasing cancer in white populations, in the last 3 decades incidence rates have risen up to 5-fold. In 2008 melanoma was on place 5 in women and on place 8 in men of the most common solid tumor entities in Germany. The frequency of its occurrence is closely associated with the constitutive color of the skin, and the geographical zone. Changes in outdoor activities and exposure to sunlight during the past 50 years are an important factor for the increasing incidence of melanoma. Mortality rates of melanoma show a stabilization in the USA, Australia and also in European countries. In contrast to SCC, melanoma risk seems to be associated with an intermittent exposure to sunlight. Prevention campaigns aim on reducing incidence and achieving earlier diagnosis, which resulted in an ongoing trend toward thin melanoma since the last two decades. However, the impact of primary prevention measures on incidence rates of melanoma is unlikely to be seen in the near future, rather increasing incidence rates to 40-50/100,000 inhabitants/year should be expected in

  11. Feasibility of skin surface elastography by tracking skin surface topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutts, Louise V.; Miller, Naomi R.; Harland, Christopher C.; Bamber, Jeffrey C.

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances have led to a multitude of image modalities being used for visualization of tissue stiffness. High-resolution images of tissue stiffness are desirable, as they have the potential to provide useful diagnostic information. A noncontact optical imaging method has the attractions of low cost, simplicity, and utility when skin contact is undesirable. However, previous optical techniques have required the application of paint or ink to the surface of the skin and so have required contact. Therefore, the present study assessed the feasibility of tracking skin surface topography to produce elastograms. The study showed, by analyzing a variety of silicone skin surface replicas from various body sites of subjects of different ages, that skin surface elastography by tracking surface topography would be feasible. The study further showed that the quality of the strain images can be optimized by measuring skin line pattern frequency. Skin samples with high skin line frequency will achieve best spatial resolution, in the order of 1 mm, comparable to contact techniques reported previously. A mechanically inhomogeneous silicone replica was then imaged, illustrating the technique's ability to detect strain contrast. Finally, the feasibility of implementing the technique in vivo was illustrated using a single pigmented skin lesion.

  12. Sun exposure, skin cancers and related skin conditions.

    PubMed

    Green, A; Whiteman, D; Frost, C; Battistutta, D

    1999-12-01

    Skin cancer is the most commonly occurring cancer in humans. Solar keratoses are related benign tumours that are at least ten times commoner than skin cancers and photoageing of the skin is still more common. Descriptive studies show that incidence rates of the main types of skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma are maximal in populations in which ambient sun exposure is high and skin (epidermal) transmission of solar radiation is high, suggesting strong associations with sun exposure. Analytic epidemiological studies confirm that exposure to the UV component of sunlight is the major environmental determinant of skin cancers and associated skin conditions and evidence of a causal association between cumulative sun exposure and SCC, solar keratoses and photodamage is relatively straightforward. Results for BCC and melanoma are complicated by several factors including the existence of subgroups of these diseases which do not appear to be caused by sun exposure yet have been included in most aetiological studies to date. Complementary to epidemiological data is the molecular evidence of ultraviolet (UV) mechanisms of carcinogenesis such as UV-specific mutations in the DNA of tumour suppressor genes in skin tumours. With increased UV irradiation resulting from thinning of the ozone layer, skin cancer incidence rates have been predicted to increase in the future--unless, as is hoped, human behaviour to reduce sun exposure can offset these predicted rises.

  13. Skin disease in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Soutou, Boutros; Aractingi, Sélim

    2015-07-01

    Skin manifestations during pregnancy are common and diversified. This review will focus on the most important entities to be recognized by obstetricians. These are, on the one hand, physiological changes, where unnecessary investigations should be avoided, and on the other, the specific dermatoses of pregnancy. These develop electively in pregnancy, and they are currently grouped into three disorders: polymorphic eruption of pregnancy, atopic eczema of pregnancy, and pemphigoid gestationis. Arguments for recognition of these are presented including detection of anti-BP180 antibodies. Follow-up and treatment depend on the precise diagnosis. Risks in fetal prognosis may occur in rare pemphigoid gestationis cases. PMID:25862358

  14. Improved Skin Friction Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphal, R. V.; Bachalo, W. D.; Houser, M. H.

    1986-01-01

    An improved system for measuring aerodynamic skin friction which uses a dual-laser-beam oil-film interferometer was developed. Improvements in the optical hardware provided equal signal characteristics for each beam and reduced the cost and complexity of the system by replacing polarization rotation by a mirrored prism for separation of the two signals. An automated, objective, data-reduction procedure was implemented to eliminate tedious manual manipulation of the interferometry data records. The present system was intended for use in two-dimensional, incompressible flows over a smooth, level surface without pressure gradient, but the improvements discussed are not limited to this application.

  15. Shedding skin and tears.

    PubMed

    Hammlerschlag, Carl A

    2007-06-01

    I am a purported expert in change and personal growth; that's the work I do with patients, and what I lecture and write about. I say that growth has nothing to do with adding on; it's always about letting go. Alas, it's always easier to tell others how to welcome shedding their skins than it is for me to do it myself. Letting go of the old and familiar is a necessary prerequisite for growth, but it's hard to do because no matter how much we may know, we have to move on. It always makes us feel vulnerable, which can inspire fear.

  16. Wnt signaling in skin organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    While serving as the interface between an organism and its environment, the skin also can elaborate a wide range of skin appendages to service specific purposes in a region-specific fashion. As in other organs, Wnt signaling plays a key role in regulating the proliferation, differentiation and motility of skin cells during their morphogenesis. Here I will review some of the recent work that has been done on skin organogenesis. I will cover dermis formation, the development of skin appendages, cycling of appendages in the adult, stem cell regulation, patterning, orientation, regional specificity and modulation by sex hormone nuclear receptors. I will also cover their roles in wound healing, hair regeneration and skin related diseases. It appears that Wnt signaling plays essential but distinct roles in different hierarchical levels of morphogenesis and organogenesis. Many of these areas have not yet been fully explored but are certainly promising areas of future research. PMID:19279724

  17. Pathophysiological Study of Sensitive Skin.

    PubMed

    Buhé, Virginie; Vié, Katell; Guéré, Christelle; Natalizio, Audrey; Lhéritier, Céline; Le Gall-Ianotto, Christelle; Huet, Flavien; Talagas, Matthieu; Lebonvallet, Nicolas; Marcorelles, Pascale; Carré, Jean-Luc; Misery, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    Sensitive skin is a clinical syndrome characterized by the occurrence of unpleasant sensations, such as pruritus, burning or pain, in response to various factors, including skincare products, water, cold, heat, or other physical and/or chemical factors. Although these symptoms suggest inflammation and the activation of peripheral innervation, the pathophysiogeny of sensitive skin remains unknown. We systematically analysed cutaneous biopsies from 50 healthy women with non-sensitive or sensitive skin and demonstrated that the intraepidermal nerve fibre density, especially that of peptidergic C-fibres, was lower in the sensitive skin group. These fibres are involved in pain, itching and temperature perception, and their degeneration may promote allodynia and similar symptoms. These results suggest that the pathophysiology of skin sensitivity resembles that of neuropathic pruritus within the context of small fibre neuropathy, and that environmental factors may alter skin innervation. PMID:26337000

  18. [Sensitive skin: a complex syndrome].

    PubMed

    Escalas-Taberner, J; González-Guerra, E; Guerra-Tapia, A

    2011-10-01

    Epidemiologic studies indicate that ever larger numbers of people report having sensitive skin, for which a European prevalence of 50% is estimated. Sensitive skin is characterized by hyperreactivity, with manifestations varying in relation to many factors. The pathogenesis of this disorder is poorly understood, although studies point to a biophysical mechanism. Objective diagnosis of sensitive skin is difficult, as information comes mainly from the patient's report of symptoms in the absence of effective, strongly predictive tests because of great interindividual variability in skin sensitivity. Substances that trigger a reaction in hypersensitive skin also vary greatly. The impact of this syndrome on quality of life is considerable and patients often present psychiatric symptoms; therefore, dermatologists should explore this possibility when taking a patient's history. Patient cooperation and physician persistence are both essential for treating sensitive skin.

  19. Advanced therapies of skin injuries.

    PubMed

    Maver, Tina; Maver, Uroš; Kleinschek, Karin Stana; Raščan, Irena Mlinarič; Smrke, Dragica Maja

    2015-12-01

    The loss of tissue is still one of the most challenging problems in healthcare. Efficient laboratory expansion of skin tissue to reproduce the skins barrier function can make the difference between life and death for patients with extensive full-thickness burns, chronic wounds, or genetic disorders such as bullous conditions. This engineering has been initiated based on the acute need in the 1980s and today, tissue-engineered skin is the reality. The human skin equivalents are available not only as models for permeation and toxicity screening, but are frequently applied in vivo as clinical skin substitutes. This review aims to introduce the most important recent development in the extensive field of tissue engineering and to describe already approved, commercially available skin substitutes in clinical use.

  20. Pathophysiological Study of Sensitive Skin.

    PubMed

    Buhé, Virginie; Vié, Katell; Guéré, Christelle; Natalizio, Audrey; Lhéritier, Céline; Le Gall-Ianotto, Christelle; Huet, Flavien; Talagas, Matthieu; Lebonvallet, Nicolas; Marcorelles, Pascale; Carré, Jean-Luc; Misery, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    Sensitive skin is a clinical syndrome characterized by the occurrence of unpleasant sensations, such as pruritus, burning or pain, in response to various factors, including skincare products, water, cold, heat, or other physical and/or chemical factors. Although these symptoms suggest inflammation and the activation of peripheral innervation, the pathophysiogeny of sensitive skin remains unknown. We systematically analysed cutaneous biopsies from 50 healthy women with non-sensitive or sensitive skin and demonstrated that the intraepidermal nerve fibre density, especially that of peptidergic C-fibres, was lower in the sensitive skin group. These fibres are involved in pain, itching and temperature perception, and their degeneration may promote allodynia and similar symptoms. These results suggest that the pathophysiology of skin sensitivity resembles that of neuropathic pruritus within the context of small fibre neuropathy, and that environmental factors may alter skin innervation.

  1. [Youth Healthcare guideline 'Skin disorders'].

    PubMed

    Deurloo, Jacqueline A; van Gameren-Oosterom, Helma B M; Kamphuis, Mascha

    2012-01-01

    There is a high incidence of skin disorders; these are also frequently encountered within Youth Healthcare (YHC). Some skin disorders are caused by an underlying disease, syndrome or child abuse. Therefore, detection of these causes in an early stage is important. Skin disorders can have a huge psychosocial impact on both child and parents. This is one of the reasons why prevention, detection, diagnosis, treatment, referral, and uniform advice and guidance are of great importance. The YHC Guideline examines counselling and advice, criteria for referral to primary or secondary healthcare, and skincare in general. It also describes the disorders that should be actively detected. The Guideline also looks at specific aspects of dark skins and ethnic diversity, and the impact of skin disorders on general wellbeing. The accompanying web-based tool includes argumentation and opinions from experts on more than 75 skin disorders, including illustrations and decision trees, to aid the drawing up of a treatment plan.

  2. [Youth Healthcare guideline 'Skin disorders'].

    PubMed

    Deurloo, Jacqueline A; van Gameren-Oosterom, Helma B M; Kamphuis, Mascha

    2012-01-01

    There is a high incidence of skin disorders; these are also frequently encountered within Youth Healthcare (YHC). Some skin disorders are caused by an underlying disease, syndrome or child abuse. Therefore, detection of these causes in an early stage is important. Skin disorders can have a huge psychosocial impact on both child and parents. This is one of the reasons why prevention, detection, diagnosis, treatment, referral, and uniform advice and guidance are of great importance. The YHC Guideline examines counselling and advice, criteria for referral to primary or secondary healthcare, and skincare in general. It also describes the disorders that should be actively detected. The Guideline also looks at specific aspects of dark skins and ethnic diversity, and the impact of skin disorders on general wellbeing. The accompanying web-based tool includes argumentation and opinions from experts on more than 75 skin disorders, including illustrations and decision trees, to aid the drawing up of a treatment plan. PMID:23151335

  3. [Radiotherapy of skin cancers].

    PubMed

    Hennequin, C; Rio, E; Mahé, M-A

    2016-09-01

    The indications of radiotherapy for skin cancers are not clearly defined because of the lack of randomised trials or prospective studies. For basal cell carcinomas, radiotherapy frequently offers a good local control, but a randomized trial showed that surgery is more efficient and less toxic. Indications of radiotherapy are contra-indications of surgery for patients older than 60, non-sclerodermiform histology and occurring in non-sensitive areas. Adjuvant radiotherapy could be proposed to squamous cell carcinomas, in case of poor prognostic factors. Dose of 60 to 70Gy are usually required, and must be modulated to the size of the lesions. Adjuvant radiotherapy seems beneficial for desmoplastic melanomas but not for the other histological types. Prophylactic nodal irradiation (45 to 50Gy), for locally advanced tumours (massive nodal involvement), decreases the locoregional failure rate but do not increase survival. Adjuvant radiotherapy (50 to 56Gy) for Merckel cell carcinomas increases also the local control rate, as demonstrated by meta-analysis and a large epidemiological study. Nodal areas must be included, if there is no surgical exploration (sentinel lymph node dissection). Kaposi sarcomas are radiosensitive and could be treated with relatively low doses (24 to 30Gy). Also, cutaneous lymphomas are good indications for radiotherapy: B lymphomas are electively treated with limited fields. The role of total skin electron therapy for T-lymphomas is still discussed; but palliative radiotherapy is very efficient in case of cutaneous nodules. PMID:27522189

  4. Skin - abnormally dark or light

    MedlinePlus

    ... drugs (such as minocycline and birth control pills) Endocrine diseases such as Addison disease Hemochromatosis (iron overload) Sun exposure Pregnancy Causes of hypopigmentation include: Skin inflammation Certain fungal ...

  5. The future of skin metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Alban; Vogel, Timothy M; Simonet, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Metagenomics, the direct exploitation of environmental microbial DNA, is complementary to traditional culture-based approaches for deciphering taxonomic and functional microbial diversity in a plethora of ecosystems, including those related to the human body such as the mouth, saliva, teeth, gut or skin. DNA extracted from human skin analyzed by sequencing the PCR-amplified rrs gene has already revealed the taxonomic diversity of microbial communities colonizing the human skin ("skin microbiome"). Each individual possesses his/her own skin microbial community structure, with marked taxonomic differences between different parts of the body and temporal evolution depending on physical and chemical conditions (sweat, washing etc.). However, technical limitations due to the low bacterial density at the surface of the human skin or contamination by human DNA still has inhibited extended use of the metagenomic approach for investigating the skin microbiome at a functional level. These difficulties have been overcome in part by the new generation of sequencing platforms that now provide sequences describing the genes and functions carried out by skin bacteria. These methodological advances should help us understand the mechanisms by which these microorganisms adapt to the specific chemical composition of each skin and thereby lead to a better understanding of bacteria/human host interdependence. This knowledge will pave the way for more systemic and individualized pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications.

  6. Skin decontamination: principles and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Chan, Heidi P; Zhai, Hongbo; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard I

    2013-11-01

    Skin decontamination is the primary intervention needed in chemical, biological and radiological exposures, involving immediate removal of the contaminant from the skin performed in the most efficient way. The most readily available decontamination system on a practical basis is washing with soap and water or water only. Timely use of flushing with copious amounts of water may physically remove the contaminant. However, this traditional method may not be completely effective, and contaminants left on the skin after traditional washing procedures can have toxic consequences. This article focuses on the principles and practices of skin decontamination. PMID:22851522

  7. Confocal Raman microspectroscopy for skin characterization: a comparative study between human skin and pig skin.

    PubMed

    Tfaili, Sana; Gobinet, Cyril; Josse, Gwendal; Angiboust, Jean-François; Manfait, Michel; Piot, Olivier

    2012-08-21

    The present paper provides a spectral comparison between abdominal human skin (Transkin) and pig ear skin using confocal Raman microspectroscopy at 660 nm. Pig ear skin is usually utilized as a substitute for human skin for active ingredients assessment in dermatological and cosmetics fields. Herein, the comparison is made at the level of the stratum corneum (SC), the SC/epidermis junction and the viable epidermis. The 660 nm excitation source appears to be the most appropriate wavelength for such skin characterization. From Raman signatures of both skin types, a tentative assignment of vibrations was performed in the fingerprint and the high wavenumber spectral regions. Significant differences were highlighted for lipid content in in-depth spectra and for hyaluronic acid (HA) and carotenoid in SC spectra. Marked tissular variability was also revealed by certain Raman vibrations. These intrinsic molecular data probed by confocal Raman microspectroscopy have to be considered for further applications such as cutaneous drug permeation.

  8. [Caring for perilesional skin or skin having a lesion risk].

    PubMed

    Segovia, Gómez T; Javares, Curto T; Barahona, M; Verdú, Soriano J

    2007-10-01

    In order to increase the clinical and scientific evidence of the Hyperoxygenated Fatty Acids (HFA) in emulsion preparation for skin care, this study considers to evaluate prospectively how it influences in the state of the periwound skin (when there are active lesions) or in which it presents a high risk of lesion production.

  9. Characteristics of the Aging Skin

    PubMed Central

    Farage, Miranda A.; Miller, Kenneth W.; Elsner, Peter; Maibach, Howard I.

    2013-01-01

    Significance Although most researches into the changes in skin with age focus on the unwelcome aesthetic aspects of the aging skin, skin deterioration with age is more than a merely cosmetic problem. Although mortality from skin disease is primarily restricted to melanoma, dermatological disorders are ubiquitous in older people with a significant impact on quality of life. The structural and functional deterioration of the skin that occurs with age has numerous clinical presentations, ranging from benign but potentially excruciating disorders like pruritus to the more threatening carcinomas and melanomas. Recent Advances The degenerative changes that occur in the aging skin are increasingly understood at both the molecular and cellular level, facilitating a deeper understanding of the structural and functional deterioration that these changes produce. Critical Issues A loss of both function and structural stability in skin proceeds unavoidably as individuals age, which is the result of both intrinsic and extrinsic processes, which contribute simultaneously to a progressive loss of skin integrity. Intrinsic aging proceeds at a genetically determined pace, primarily caused by the buildup of damaging products of cellular metabolism as well as an increasing biological aging of the cells. Estrogen levels strongly influence skin integrity in women as well; falling levels in midlife, therefore, produce premature aging as compared with similarly aged men. Extrinsic insults from the environment add to the dermatological signs of aging. Future Directions A deeper understanding of the physiological basis of skin aging will facilitate progress in the treatment of the unwelcome sequelae of aging skin, both cosmetic and pathogenic. PMID:24527317

  10. [Travel and skin diseases].

    PubMed

    Stüttgen, G

    1992-02-20

    The problem "travelling and dermatological diseases" is presented as a temporary change of place with associated changes in ecological conditions. Latent dermatoses may be provoked--but full-blown dermatoses may also improve with no specific treatment (climatic therapy of neurodermatitis). Physiological changes at the surface of the skin brought about by, for example, temperature or the effects of solar radiation, may allow fungal, bacterial or viral infections to develop. Direct contact with the living environment on land or in the water, in particular in the tropics, can lead to the development of diseases. Some dermatoses have a lengthy latency and develop only later at home. Recommendations for general and specific prophylaxis and treatment are made.

  11. The Sensitive Skin Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lev-Tov, Hadar; Maibach, Howard I

    2012-01-01

    Sensitive skin syndrome (SSS) is a common and challenging condition, yet little is known about its underlying pathophysiology. Patients with SSS often present with subjective complaints of severe facial irritation, burning, and/or stinging after application of cosmetic products. These complaints are out of proportion to the objective clinical findings. Defined as a self-diagnosed condition lacking any specific objective findings, SSS is by definition difficult to quantify and, therefore, the scientific community has yet to identify an acceptable objective screening test. In this overview we review recent epidemiological studies, present current thinking on the pathophysiology leading to SSS, discuss the challenges SSS presents, and recommend a commonsense approach to management. PMID:23248357

  12. Quiz: Test Your Skin Cancer IQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... of skin is usually the first step in skin cancer treatment and may have already occurred in the process ... Skin Cancer" Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment / Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma Early / NIH Research ...

  13. Uncovering common bacterial skin infections.

    PubMed

    Napierkowski, Daria

    2013-03-10

    The four most common bacterial skin infections are impetigo, erysipelas, cellulitis, and folliculitis. This article summarizes current information about the etiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and implications for primary care practice needed to effectively diagnose and treat common bacterial skin infections. PMID:23361375

  14. TOXIC RESPONSES OF THE SKIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The importance of fish skin is realized when one considers it is the interface between the external and intrnal environment of the animal. As will be pointed out in this chapter, fish skin has a number of vital functions many of which could be life threatening if perturbed beyond...

  15. Skin Diseases in the Tropics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahe, Antoine; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Common skin diseases are prevalent in tropical countries because of extreme weather conditions, mediocre hygiene, and lack of adequate treatment of infectious dermatoses. This guide describes the major endemic skin diseases and their signs for the purpose of helping unspecialized health agents train themselves and determine when a patient should…

  16. Aging Differences in Ethnic Skin

    PubMed Central

    Buainain De Castro Maymone, Mayra; Kundu, Roopal V.

    2016-01-01

    Aging is an inevitable and complex process that can be described clinically as features of wrinkles, sunspots, uneven skin color, and sagging skin. These cutaneous effects are influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors and often are varied based on ethnic origin given underlying structural and functional differences. The authors sought to provide updated information on facets of aging and how it relates to ethnic variation given innate differences in skin structure and function. Publications describing structural and functional principles of ethnic and aging skin were primarily found through a PubMed literature search and supplemented with a review of textbook chapters. The most common signs of skin aging despite skin type are dark spots, loss of elasticity, loss of volume, and rhytides. Skin of color has many characteristics that make its aging process unique. Those of Asian, Hispanic, and African American descent have distinct facial structures. Differences in the concentration of epidermal melanin makes darkly pigmented persons more vulnerable to dyspigmentation, while a thicker and more compact dermis makes facial lines less noticeable. Ethnic skin comprises a large portion of the world population. Therefore, it is important to understand the unique structural and functional differences among ethnicities to adequately treat the signs of aging. PMID:26962390

  17. Moisturizing Different Racial Skin Types

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Victor W.; Longaker, Michael T.; Yang, George P.

    2014-01-01

    The skin is a complex organ involved in thermoregulation, gas exchange, protection against pathogens, and barrier function to maintain proper hydration. When dry, the ability for skin to execute these tasks becomes impaired. Dry skin affects almost everyone as we age, but it is also dependent on external factors, such as dry climate, colder temperatures, and repeated washing. In addition, increasing evidence has shown racial variability in the physiological properties of skin, which directly impacts water content of the stratum corneum and sensitivity to exogenously applied agents. A multitude of products have been developed to treat dry skin, and as a group, moisturizers have been designed to either impart or restore hydration in the stratum corneum. Given the large number of moisturizers presently available, depending on individual components, several different mechanisms may be employed to promote skin hydration. As there exists dramatic racial variability in skin properties, certain moisturizers may thus be more effective in some and less effective in others to treat the common condition of dry skin. PMID:25013536

  18. Aging Differences in Ethnic Skin.

    PubMed

    Vashi, Neelam A; de Castro Maymone, Mayra Buainain; Kundu, Roopal V

    2016-01-01

    Aging is an inevitable and complex process that can be described clinically as features of wrinkles, sunspots, uneven skin color, and sagging skin. These cutaneous effects are influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors and often are varied based on ethnic origin given underlying structural and functional differences. The authors sought to provide updated information on facets of aging and how it relates to ethnic variation given innate differences in skin structure and function. Publications describing structural and functional principles of ethnic and aging skin were primarily found through a PubMed literature search and supplemented with a review of textbook chapters. The most common signs of skin aging despite skin type are dark spots, loss of elasticity, loss of volume, and rhytides. Skin of color has many characteristics that make its aging process unique. Those of Asian, Hispanic, and African American descent have distinct facial structures. Differences in the concentration of epidermal melanin makes darkly pigmented persons more vulnerable to dyspigmentation, while a thicker and more compact dermis makes facial lines less noticeable. Ethnic skin comprises a large portion of the world population. Therefore, it is important to understand the unique structural and functional differences among ethnicities to adequately treat the signs of aging. PMID:26962390

  19. Occupational Skin Diseases in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Gi

    2010-01-01

    Skin disease is the most common occupational disease, but the reported number is small in Korea due to a difficulty of detection and diagnosis in time. We described various official statistics and data from occupational skin disease surveillance system, epidemiological surveys and cases published in scientific journals. Until 1981, 2,222 cases of occupational skin disease were reported by Korean employee's regular medical check-up, accounting for 4.9% of the total occupational diseases. There was no subsequent official statistics to figure out occupational skin diseases till 1998. From 1999, the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency (KOSHA) published the number of occupational skin diseases through the statistics of Cause Investigation for Industrial Accidents. A total of 301 cases were reported from 1999 to 2007. Recent one study showed the figures of compensated occupational skin diseases. Many of them belonged to daily-paid workers in the public service, especially forestry workers. Also, it described the interesting cases such as vitiligo and trichloroethylene-induced Stevens-Johnson Syndrome. Skin diseases are still important though the number of cases has decreased, and therefore it is recommended to grasp the status of occupational skin diseases through continuous surveillance system and to make policy protecting high-risk group. PMID:21258591

  20. Ingested hyaluronan moisturizes dry skin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is present in many tissues of the body and is essential to maintain moistness in the skin tissues, which contain approximately half the body’s HA mass. Due to its viscosity and moisturizing effect, HA is widely distributed as a medicine, cosmetic, food, and, recently marketed in Japan as a popular dietary supplement to promote skin moisture. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study it was found that ingested HA increased skin moisture and improved treatment outcomes for patients with dry skin. HA is also reported to be absorbed by the body distributed, in part, to the skin. Ingested HA contributes to the increased synthesis of HA and promotes cell proliferation in fibroblasts. These effects show that ingestion of HA moisturizes the skin and is expected to improve the quality of life for people who suffer from dry skin. This review examines the moisturizing effects of dry skin by ingested HA and summarizes the series of mechanisms from absorption to pharmacological action. PMID:25014997

  1. Folate in skin cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Williams, J D; Jacobson, Elaine L; Kim, H; Kim, M; Jacobson, M K

    2012-01-01

    Skin, the largest, most exposed organ of the body, provides a protective interface between humans and the environment. One of its primary roles is protection against exposure to sunlight, a major source of skin damage where the UV radiation (UVR) component functions as a complete carcinogen. Melanin pigmentation and the evolution of dark skin is an adaptive protective mechanism against high levels of UVR exposure. Recently, the hypothesis that skin pigmentation balances folate preservation and Vitamin D production has emerged. Both micronutrients are essential for reproductive success. Photodegradation of bioactive folates suggests a mechanism for the increased tendency of populations of low melanin pigmentation residing in areas of high UV exposure to develop skin cancers. Folate is proposed as a cancer prevention target for its role in providing precursors for DNA repair and replication, as well as its ability to promote genomic integrity through the generation of methyl groups needed for control of gene expression. The cancer prevention potential of folate has been demonstrated by large-scale epidemiological and nutritional studies indicating that decreased folate status increases the risk of developing certain cancers. While folate deficiency has been extensively documented by analysis of human plasma, folate status within skin has not been widely investigated. Nevertheless, inefficient delivery of micronutrients to skin and photolysis of folate argue that documented folate deficiencies will be present if not exacerbated in skin. Our studies indicate a critical role for folate in skin and the potential to protect sun exposed skin by effective topical delivery as a strategy for cancer prevention.

  2. Laser speckle and skin cancer: skin roughness assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tim K.; Tchvialeva, Lioudmila; Zeng, Haishan; McLean, David I.; Lui, Harvey

    2009-10-01

    Incidence of skin cancer has been increasing rapidly since the last few decades. Non-invasive optical diagnostic tools may improve the diagnostic accuracy. In this paper, skin structure, skin cancer statistics and subtypes of skin cancer are briefly reviewed. Among the subtypes, malignant melanoma is the most aggressive and dangerous; early detection dramatically improves the prognosis. Therefore, a non-invasive diagnostic tool for malignant melanoma is especially needed. In addition, in order for the diagnostic tool to be useful, it must be able to differentiate melanoma from common skin conditions such as seborrheic keratosis, a benign skin disease that resembles melanoma according to the well known clinical-assessment ABCD rule. The key diagnostic feature between these two diseases is surface roughness. Based on laser speckle contrast, our research team has recently developed a portable, optical, non-invasive, in-vivo diagnostic device for quantifying skin surface roughness. The methodology of our technique is described in details. Examining the preliminary data collected in a pilot clinical study for the prototype, we found that there was a difference in roughness between melanoma and seborrheic keratosis. In fact, there was a perfect cutoff value for the two diseases based on our initial data.

  3. Usefulness of rat skin as a substitute for human skin in the in vitro skin permeation study.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Hiroyuki; Mano, Yoko; Terasaka, Shuichi; Sakurai, Takanobu; Furuya, Atsushi; Urano, Hidetoshi; Sugibayashi, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats are broadly used in preclinical studies for drug development, so a lot of information for the rats can be obtained especially from pharmacokinetic, pharmacological and toxicological studies. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether SD rat skin can be used to predict human skin permeability. In vitro permeation studies of the three model drugs, nicorandil, isosorbide dinitrate, and flurbiprofen, through human skin and SD rat skin were performed using Franz-type diffusion cells. The permeation rates of the three model drugs through human skin and SD rat skin were determined, and their variations were evaluated. The inter-individual variations in SD rat skin permeability of the three model drugs were much lower than that in human skin permeability, although the permeation rates of the three model drugs through the SD rat skin were about twice those through human skin. In addition, no difference in the skin permeability coefficients of the three model drugs was obtained between fresh SD rat skin and frozen SD rat skin. The markedly smaller variation in the permeability through SD rat skin compared with that through human skin indicated that in vitro permeation studies using SD rat skin would be especially useful for evaluating differences in the skin permeability of the three model drugs as well as for predicting human skin permeability.

  4. Itchy, Scaly Skin? Living with Psoriasis

    MedlinePlus

    ... exit disclaimer . Subscribe Itchy, Scaly Skin? Living With Psoriasis The thick, red, scaly skin of psoriasis can ... Diet Itchy, Scaly Skin? Wise Choices Links Treating Psoriasis Doctors often use a trial-and-error approach ...

  5. Integral skin electrode for electrocardiography is expendable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Inexpensive, expendable skin electrode for use in electrocardiography combines an electrical contact, conductive paste, and a skin-attachment adhesive. Application of the electrode requires only degreasing of the skin area.

  6. Treatment Options for Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer ... carcinoma include the following: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  7. Male skin and ingredients relevant to male skin care.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Z D

    2012-03-01

    Male skin care needs are heavily influenced by the need to remove facial hair on a regular basis. Facial skin issues associated with poor hair removal approaches are common and include razor burn and irritation. This paper evaluates current research on shaving technology and how careful ingredient selection can contribute to male skin health. The importance of maintaining hair softness during the shave and restoring facial hydration post-shave is discussed. Data are presented on how post-shave moisturizers containing glycerine and emollients can create an environment for improved barrier function which can be further improved by incorporating specific ingredients such as niacinamide.

  8. Contact cooling of the skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altshuler, G. B.; Zenzie, H. H.; Erofeev, A. V.; Smirnov, M. Z.; Anderson, R. R.; Dierickx, C.

    1999-04-01

    Skin precooling can be used to reduce epidermal thermal damage in laser procedures (such as hair removal) where the target structures are located up to several millimetres below the skin surface. We have developed and experimentally verified a computational model that describes contact precooling of a multilayered skin structure prior to laser irradiation. The skin surface is assumed to be brought into thermal contact with a cold plate made of material with a high thermal conductivity. The approximate analytical solution for the skin temperature is obtained by considering the plate as a local heat sink. The time evolution of temperature (in both the skin and the plate) is simulated numerically to yield the optimal cooling parameters. To experimentally verify the numerical results of the model, we performed direct measurements of skin temperature for contact cooling with a sapphire plate held at several different temperatures in the range +10 to C.

  9. Human skin volatiles: a review.

    PubMed

    Dormont, Laurent; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Cohuet, Anna

    2013-05-01

    Odors emitted by human skin are of great interest to biologists in many fields; applications range from forensic studies to diagnostic tools, the design of perfumes and deodorants, and the ecology of blood-sucking insect vectors of human disease. Numerous studies have investigated the chemical composition of skin odors, and various sampling methods have been used for this purpose. The literature shows that the chemical profile of skin volatiles varies greatly among studies, and the use of different sampling procedures is probably responsible for some of these variations. To our knowledge, this is the first review focused on human skin volatile compounds. We detail the different sampling techniques, each with its own set of advantages and disadvantages, which have been used for the collection of skin odors from different parts of the human body. We present the main skin volatile compounds found in these studies, with particular emphasis on the most frequently studied body regions, axillae, hands, and feet. We propose future directions for promising experimental studies on odors from human skin, particularly in relation to the chemical ecology of blood-sucking insects.

  10. Lyme Borreliosis and Skin

    PubMed Central

    Vasudevan, Biju; Chatterjee, Manas

    2013-01-01

    Lyme disease is a multisystem illness which is caused by the strains of spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and transmitted by the tick, Ixodes. Though very commonly reported from the temperate regions of the world, the incidence has increased worldwide due to increasing travel and changing habitats of the vector. Few cases have been reported from the Indian subcontinent too. Skin manifestations are the earliest to occur, and diagnosing these lesions followed by appropriate treatment, can prevent complications of the disease, which are mainly neurological. The three main dermatological manifestations are erythema chronicum migrans, borrelial lymphocytoma and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. Many other dermatological conditions including morphea, lichen sclerosus and lately B cell lymphoma, have been attributed to the disease. Immunofluorescence and polymerase reaction tests have been developed to overcome the problems for diagnosis. Culture methods are also used for diagnosis. Treatment with Doxycycline is the mainstay of management, though prevention is of utmost importance. Vaccines against the condition are still not very successful. Hence, the importance of recognising the cutaneous manifestations early, to prevent systemic complications which can occur if left untreated, can be understood. This review highlights the cutaneous manifestations of Lyme borreliosis and its management. PMID:23723463

  11. Lyme borreliosis and skin.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, Biju; Chatterjee, Manas

    2013-05-01

    Lyme disease is a multisystem illness which is caused by the strains of spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and transmitted by the tick, Ixodes. Though very commonly reported from the temperate regions of the world, the incidence has increased worldwide due to increasing travel and changing habitats of the vector. Few cases have been reported from the Indian subcontinent too. Skin manifestations are the earliest to occur, and diagnosing these lesions followed by appropriate treatment, can prevent complications of the disease, which are mainly neurological. The three main dermatological manifestations are erythema chronicum migrans, borrelial lymphocytoma and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. Many other dermatological conditions including morphea, lichen sclerosus and lately B cell lymphoma, have been attributed to the disease. Immunofluorescence and polymerase reaction tests have been developed to overcome the problems for diagnosis. Culture methods are also used for diagnosis. Treatment with Doxycycline is the mainstay of management, though prevention is of utmost importance. Vaccines against the condition are still not very successful. Hence, the importance of recognising the cutaneous manifestations early, to prevent systemic complications which can occur if left untreated, can be understood. This review highlights the cutaneous manifestations of Lyme borreliosis and its management. PMID:23723463

  12. Development of prosthetic skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilaru, Rohit

    The objective of this research was to embed tactile sensors in polyimides. This novel method could be utilized to realize prosthetic skin for sensing different kinds of mechanical stimuli. Tactile sensors have an increasing demand in medical sectors: upper and lower-limb prosthetics and in the industrial sectors: robot end-effectors, grippers and manipulators. The sensors developed are targeted for prosthetic arm tactile sensing applications. Current work presents piezoresistive differential pressure sensors fabricated on flexible polyimide film or substrate. A unique technique to bond a flexible superstrate polyimide layer to a MEMS tactile sensor array is presented in this thesis. The sensor is made of aluminium oxide membrane layer with nichrome piezoresistors as the half-Wheatstone bridge elements. Four different types of sensor designs have been characterized to obtain gauge factor of thin film nichrome. The sensor arrays with and without the superstrate film were simulated for obtaining the maximum stress, average strain and deflection of the membrane. The maximum change in output voltage was 0.8 mV. The gauge factors calculated for tactile sensor with superstrate range between 2.2 to 7.8 and without superstrate range 1.5 to 5.7.

  13. Skin-sparing mastectomy

    PubMed Central

    Rancati, Alberto O.

    2015-01-01

    The surgical treatment of breast cancer has evolved rapidly in recent decades. Conservative treatment was adopted in the late 1970s, with rates above 70%, and this was followed by a period during which the indications for surgical intervention were expanded to those patients at high risk for BRCA1, BRCA2 mutations, and also due to new staging standards and use of nuclear magnetic resonance. This increase in the indications for mastectomy coincided with the availability of immediate breast reconstruction as an oncologically safe and important surgical procedure for prevention of sequelae. Immediate reconstruction was first aimed at correcting the consequences of treatment, and almost immediately, the challenge of the technique became the achievement of a satisfactory breast appearance and shape, as well as normal consistency. The skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) in conservation first and nipple-areola complex (NAC) later was a result of this shift that occurred from the early 1990s to the present. The objective of this review is to present all these developments specifically in relation to SSM and analyze our personal experience as well as the experience of surgeons worldwide with an emphasis on the fundamental aspects, indications, surgical technique, complications, oncological safety, and cosmetic results of this procedure. PMID:26645008

  14. Skin cancer, melanoma, and sunlight.

    PubMed

    Fears, T R; Scotto, J; Schneiderman, M A

    1976-05-01

    Recent theoretical studies suggest that the earth's ozone layer which filters ultraviolet radiation may be depleted by a fleet of supersonic transports or by continued use of chlorofluoromethanes. It is now generally accepted that short wavelength ultraviolet radiation leads to the development of skin cancer. In this report we demonstrate an approach to estimating the increase in skin cancer incidence associated with increases in skin cancer incidence associated with increases in ultraviolet radiation. The purpose is to demonstrate the logic used and the assumptions that must be made when such estiamtes are made or cited. We emphasize that such estimates should be considered crude until the many assumptions can be investigated.

  15. Periostin in skin tissue and skin-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Yukie

    2014-06-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is not only involved in the maintenance of normal physiological tissue but also in interactions with other ECM components, tissue remodeling, and modulating immune responses. The skin provides a distinctive environment characterized by rich fibroblasts producing various ECM proteins, epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, and immune responses induced by external stimuli. Recently, periostin-a matricellular protein-has been highlighted for its pivotal functions in the skin. Analysis of periostin null mice has revealed that periostin contributes to collagen fibrillogenesis, collagen cross-linking, and the formation of ECM meshwork via interactions with other ECM components. Periostin expression is enhanced by mechanical stress or skin injury; this is indicative of the physiologically protective functions of periostin, which promotes wound repair by acting on keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Along with its physiological functions, periostin plays pathogenic roles in skin fibrosis and chronic allergic inflammation. In systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients, periostin levels reflect the severity of skin fibrosis. Periostin null mice have shown reduced skin fibrosis in a bleomycin-induced SSc mouse model, indicating a key role of periostin in fibrosis. Moreover, in atopic dermatitis (AD), attenuated AD phenotype has been observed in periostin null mice in a house dust mite extract-induced AD mouse model. Th2 cytokine-induced periostin acts on keratinocytes to produce inflammatory cytokines that further enhance the Th2 response, thereby sustaining and amplifying chronic allergic inflammation. Thus, periostin is deeply involved in the pathogenesis of AD and other inflammation-related disorders affecting the skin. Understanding the dynamic actions of periostin would be key to dissecting pathogenesis of skin-related diseases and to developing novel therapeutic strategies.

  16. Interaction of dermatologically relevant nanoparticles with skin cells and skin

    PubMed Central

    Rancan, Fiorenza; Ahlberg, Sebastian; Nazemi, Berouz; Choe, Chun Sik; Darvin, Maxim E; Hadam, Sabrina; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Loza, Kateryna; Diendorf, Jörg; Epple, Matthias; Graf, Christina; Rühl, Eckart; Meinke, Martina C; Lademann, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Summary The investigation of nanoparticle interactions with tissues is complex. High levels of standardization, ideally testing of different material types in the same biological model, and combinations of sensitive imaging and detection methods are required. Here, we present our studies on nanoparticle interactions with skin, skin cells, and biological media. Silica, titanium dioxide and silver particles were chosen as representative examples for different types of skin exposure to nanomaterials, e.g., unintended environmental exposure (silica) versus intended exposure through application of sunscreen (titanium dioxide) or antiseptics (silver). Because each particle type exhibits specific physicochemical properties, we were able to apply different combinations of methods to examine skin penetration and cellular uptake, including optical microscopy, electron microscopy, X-ray microscopy on cells and tissue sections, flow cytometry of isolated skin cells as well as Raman microscopy on whole tissue blocks. In order to assess the biological relevance of such findings, cell viability and free radical production were monitored on cells and in whole tissue samples. The combination of technologies and the joint discussion of results enabled us to look at nanoparticle–skin interactions and the biological relevance of our findings from different angles. PMID:25551064

  17. Skin microbiome and skin disease: the example of rosacea.

    PubMed

    Picardo, Mauro; Ottaviani, Monica

    2014-01-01

    The imbalance and/or the perturbation of the microbial populations that colonize the skin and that contribute to its defense may represent one of the causes of the development of noninfectious skin diseases. Atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, acne, and rosacea can be listed among these kinds of pathologies. In particular, considering that microbes have been long addressed as having a role in rosacea, this common dermatosis can be an interesting model to evaluate the correlation between microbiome alterations and the occurrence of clinical manifestations. Different microorganisms have been suggested to have a role in rosacea, but no direct correlation with the incidence of the pathology has been clearly defined. Skin microbiome composition is crucial for the correct skin immune functions and recent findings indicate an abnormal activation of innate immune system associated with the rosacea. The enhanced expression of toll-like receptor 2 in the epidermis of rosacea patients can represent a possible explanation for the amplified inflammatory response to external stimuli observed during the disease. In addition, significantly higher small intestinal bacterial overgrowth prevalence in rosacea subjects has been found and its eradication has been associated with a regression of the skin lesions. In conclusion, both skin and gut microbiome seem to have a role, even if synergistic with other factors, in the pathogenesis of rosacea. A deeper knowledge of human microbiome composition and microbe-host interactions will contribute to clarify the mechanism of development of rosacea and possibly will provide innovative therapeutic approaches. PMID:25291137

  18. Skin microbiome and skin disease: the example of rosacea.

    PubMed

    Picardo, Mauro; Ottaviani, Monica

    2014-01-01

    The imbalance and/or the perturbation of the microbial populations that colonize the skin and that contribute to its defense may represent one of the causes of the development of noninfectious skin diseases. Atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, acne, and rosacea can be listed among these kinds of pathologies. In particular, considering that microbes have been long addressed as having a role in rosacea, this common dermatosis can be an interesting model to evaluate the correlation between microbiome alterations and the occurrence of clinical manifestations. Different microorganisms have been suggested to have a role in rosacea, but no direct correlation with the incidence of the pathology has been clearly defined. Skin microbiome composition is crucial for the correct skin immune functions and recent findings indicate an abnormal activation of innate immune system associated with the rosacea. The enhanced expression of toll-like receptor 2 in the epidermis of rosacea patients can represent a possible explanation for the amplified inflammatory response to external stimuli observed during the disease. In addition, significantly higher small intestinal bacterial overgrowth prevalence in rosacea subjects has been found and its eradication has been associated with a regression of the skin lesions. In conclusion, both skin and gut microbiome seem to have a role, even if synergistic with other factors, in the pathogenesis of rosacea. A deeper knowledge of human microbiome composition and microbe-host interactions will contribute to clarify the mechanism of development of rosacea and possibly will provide innovative therapeutic approaches.

  19. Dry skin - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... frequently Washing your hands often Some soaps and detergents Skin conditions, such as eczema and psoriasis Certain ... Avoid rough fabrics like wool. Wash clothes with detergents that are free of dyes or fragrances. Drink ...

  20. Eldercare at Home: Skin Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... still leave the skin moist. Then apply a lotion, body oil, or moisturizer that is high in ... itching Try colloidal oatmeal (AveenoTM) baths. Use calamine lotion or cortisone creams on the itchy areas. Let ...

  1. Skin Diseases and the Adolescent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Marjorie

    1970-01-01

    Discusses such concerns as acne, syphilis, drug abuse, and tatoos. Indicates need for physician not only to treat skin diseases but to help adolescents to accept themselves and find constructive directions. (CJ)

  2. Insulin Resistance and Skin Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Napolitano, Maddalena; Megna, Matteo; Monfrecola, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    In medical practice, almost every clinician may encounter patients with skin disease. However, it is not always easy for physicians of all specialties to face the daily task of determining the nature and clinical implication of dermatologic manifestations. Are they confined to the skin, representing a pure dermatologic event? Or are they also markers of internal conditions relating to the patient's overall health? In this review, we will discuss the principal cutaneous conditions which have been linked to metabolic alterations. Particularly, since insulin has an important role in homeostasis and physiology of the skin, we will focus on the relationships between insulin resistance (IR) and skin diseases, analyzing strongly IR-associated conditions such as acanthosis nigricans, acne, and psoriasis, without neglecting emerging and potential scenarios as the ones represented by hidradenitis suppurativa, androgenetic alopecia, and hirsutism. PMID:25977937

  3. Taking Care of Your Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... using the product whenever redness or irritation happens. Screening Your Skin From Damage There is one product ... of your parents about whether to use an antibiotic (say: an-tie-bye-AH-tik) cream or ...

  4. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... the body's largest organ . It protects against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection . Skin also helps control body ... cancer risk factors include: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  5. Maintaining Healthy Skin -- Part 1

    MedlinePlus

    ... and nutrients from flowing to the body tissues. Edema , or swelling caused by fluid collecting in the ... feet, legs and hands). Skin over areas of edema becomes thin and pale and injures easily because ...

  6. Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for skin cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  7. Discovery – Preventing Skin Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer research includes stopping cancer before it spreads. NCI funded the development of the Melanoma Risk Assessment Tool and the ABC method. Both help to diagnose high-risk patients and prevent melanoma earlier in the fight against skin cancer.

  8. The skin-blanching assay.

    PubMed

    Smit, P; Neumann, H A M; Thio, H B

    2012-10-01

    The skin-blanching assay is used for the determination and bioequivalence of dermatologic glucocorticoids (GCs). The exact mechanism of the production of blanching is not fully understood, but it is considered that local vasoconstriction of the skin microvasculature and the consequent blood-flow reduction cause this phenomenon. Several factors influence skin blanching, including drug concentration, duration of application, nature of vehicle, occlusion, posture and location. The intensity of vasoconstriction can be measured in several ways: visual or quantitative methods, such as reflectance spectroscopy, thermography, laser Doppler velocimetry and chromametry. In literature, contradicting results in the correlation of the skin-blanching assay with different tests to determine GC sensitivity have been reported, limiting its clinical usefulness.

  9. [Vitamin D and the skin].

    PubMed

    Libon, F; Cavalier, E; Nikkels, A F

    2013-09-01

    Vitamin D is well known for its beneficial effects on phosphocalcic homeostasis. The discovery of the role of vitamin D in cancers, infections, cardiovascular or autoimmune pathologies have promoted interest for this molecule. Skin and vitamin D are closely related. The skin is not only the site of vitamin D synthesis, but also a target organ as calcitriol plays an important hormonal and regulatory role, acting on cell proliferation, differentiation and immunomodulation. Furthermore, vitamin D influences the incidence and therapeutic response of certain dermatoses. In addition, many medical situations, mainly dermatological, require strict photoprotection and may therefore indirectly be responsible for a vitamin D deficiency in patients. The current role of vitamin D in skin cancers, inflammatory and autoimmune skin diseases is summarized.

  10. Scaly-skinned Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The style of erosion along the highlands-lowlands boundary of southern Elysium Planitia has produced a strange pattern of troughs that look like the skin of a reptile. In reality, a very clear process of landscape degradation is evident in this image. Some process has produced polygon-shaped troughs that create zones of weakness in the uppermost crust. It is likely that wind-blown particles deepen and widen the troughs, producing isolated knobs and mesas. Ultimately, the erosional reworking of the landscape is so complete that all signs of the upper layer are removed, leaving the smooth lowland surface to the north.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  11. 19 CFR 12.63 - Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. 12.63 Section... OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.63 Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste composed of small pieces not large enough to...

  12. 19 CFR 12.63 - Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. 12.63 Section... OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.63 Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste composed of small pieces not large enough to...

  13. 19 CFR 12.63 - Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. 12.63 Section... OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.63 Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste composed of small pieces not large enough to...

  14. 19 CFR 12.63 - Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. 12.63 Section... OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.63 Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste composed of small pieces not large enough to...

  15. 19 CFR 12.63 - Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. 12.63 Section... OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.63 Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste composed of small pieces not large enough to...

  16. [Skin and chronic kidney disease].

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Raffaella; Mancini, Elena; Santoro, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Kidneys and skin are seldom considered associated, but their relationship is more closer than generally believed. In some immunological diseases (SLE...) and genetic syndromes (tuberous sclerosis, Fabrys disease...) the cutaneous manifestations are integral parts of the clinical picture. In advanced uremia, besides the well-known itching skin lesions, calciphylaxis may appear, a typical example of cutaneous involvement secondary to the metabolic complications (calcium-phosphate imbalance) of the renal disease. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis appears only in patients with renal failure and it has a very severe prognosis due to the systemic organ involvement. Moreover, there is a heterogeneous group of metabolic diseases, with renal involvement, that may be accompanied by skin lesions, either related to the disease itself or to its complications (diabetes mellitus, porphyrias). In systemic amyloidosis, fibrils may deposit even in dermis leading to different skin lesions. In some heroin abusers, in the presence of suppurative lesions in the sites of needle insertion, renal amyloidosis should be suspected, secondary to the chronic inflammation. Atheroembolic disease is nowadays frequently observed, as a consequence of the increasing number of invasive intravascular manoeuvres. Skin manifestations like livedo reticularis or the blue toe syndrome are the most typical signs, but often renal dysfunction is also present. In all these conditions, the skin lesion may be a first sign, a warning, that should arouse the suspicion of a more complex pathology, even with renal involvement. Being aware of this relationship is fundamental to accelerate the diagnostic process. PMID:25315722

  17. Radiation sterilization of skin allograft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kairiyama, E.; Horak, C.; Spinosa, M.; Pachado, J.; Schwint, O.

    2009-07-01

    In the treatment of burns or accidental loss of skin, cadaveric skin allografts provide an alternative to temporarily cover a wounded area. The skin bank facility is indispensable for burn care. The first human skin bank was established in Argentina in 1989; later, 3 more banks were established. A careful donor selection is carried out according to the national regulation in order to prevent transmissible diseases. As cadaveric human skin is naturally highly contaminated, a final sterilization is necessary to reach a sterility assurance level (SAL) of 10 -6. The sterilization dose for 106 batches of processed human skin was determined on the basis of the Code of Practice for the Radiation Sterilization of Tissue Allografts: Requirements for Validation and Routine Control (2004) and ISO 11137-2 (2006). They ranged from 17.6 to 33.4 kGy for bioburdens of >10-162.700 CFU/100 cm 2. The presence of Gram negative bacteria was checked for each produced batch. From the analysis of the experimental results, it was observed that the bioburden range was very wide and consequently the estimated sterilization doses too. If this is the case, the determination of a tissue-specific dose per production batch is necessary to achieve a specified requirement of SAL. Otherwise if the dose of 25 kGy is preselected, a standardized method for substantiation of this dose should be done to confirm the radiation sterilization process.

  18. UV radiation and the skin.

    PubMed

    D'Orazio, John; Jarrett, Stuart; Amaro-Ortiz, Alexandra; Scott, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    UV radiation (UV) is classified as a "complete carcinogen" because it is both a mutagen and a non-specific damaging agent and has properties of both a tumor initiator and a tumor promoter. In environmental abundance, UV is the most important modifiable risk factor for skin cancer and many other environmentally-influenced skin disorders. However, UV also benefits human health by mediating natural synthesis of vitamin D and endorphins in the skin, therefore UV has complex and mixed effects on human health. Nonetheless, excessive exposure to UV carries profound health risks, including atrophy, pigmentary changes, wrinkling and malignancy. UV is epidemiologically and molecularly linked to the three most common types of skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, which together affect more than a million Americans annually. Genetic factors also influence risk of UV-mediated skin disease. Polymorphisms of the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene, in particular, correlate with fairness of skin, UV sensitivity, and enhanced cancer risk. We are interested in developing UV-protective approaches based on a detailed understanding of molecular events that occur after UV exposure, focusing particularly on epidermal melanization and the role of the MC1R in genome maintenance. PMID:23749111

  19. Protective Skins for Composite Airliners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Vicki S.; Boone, Richard L.; Jones, Shannon; Pendse, Vandana; Hayward, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Traditional composite aircraft structures are designed for load bearing and then overdesigned for impact damage and hot humid environments. Seeking revolutionary improvement in the performance and weight of composite structures, Cessna Aircraft Company, with sponsorship from the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program/Subsonic Fixed Wing Project, has developed and tested a protective skin concept which would allow the primary composite structure to carry only load and would meet the impact, hot and humid, and other requirements through protective skins. A key requirement for the protective skins is to make any impact damage requiring repair visible. Testing from the first generation of skins helped identify the most promising materials which were used in a second generation of test articles. This report summarizes lessons learned from the first generation of protective skins, the design and construction of the second-generation test articles, test results from the second generation for impact, electromagnetic effects, aesthetics and smoothing, thermal, and acoustic (for the first time), and an assessment of the feasibility of the protective skin concept.

  20. [New views about the skin].

    PubMed

    Guimberteau, J-C; Delage, J-P; Wong, J

    2010-08-01

    As the follow up article to "Introduction to the knowledge of subcutaneous sliding system in humans" published in the "Annales de chirurgie plastique" we further investigate the architecture of the skin and comment on the subcutaneous multifibrillar and microvacuolar arrangements that provide form, mobility, adaptability and resistance to force of gravity. The study aimed to highlight the direct link between the skin and subcutaneous environment in dynamic living tissue. Through high resolution endoscopic observations made during live surgery it is revealed how microvacuoles and microspaces can provide dynamic structure and form during movement between the epidermis, dermis and hypodermis. The study reveals intriguing morphodynamics which are necessary to maintain mobility and continuity to neighboring tissues. The polyhedric design of the skin surface directly relates to multifibrillar pillars beneath the skin which dictate their patterning and movement. The concept of tissue continuity is realised by the chaotic and fractal organisation of multifibrils interlaced with cellular components which characteristics alter depending on the state of hydration. Understanding the integral arrangement that provides continuity of all the structures below the skin provides an appreciation to how skin behaves in relation to movement of the rest of the body.

  1. Pickering emulsions for skin decontamination.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Alicia; Bolzinger, Marie-Alexandrine; Rolland, Pauline; Chevalier, Yves; Josse, Denis; Briançon, Stéphanie

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed at developing innovative systems for skin decontamination. Pickering emulsions, i.e. solid-stabilized emulsions, containing silica (S-PE) or Fuller's earth (FE-PE) were formulated. Their efficiency for skin decontamination was evaluated, in vitro, 45min after an exposure to VX, one of the most highly toxic chemical warfare agents. Pickering emulsions were compared to FE (FE-W) and silica (S-W) aqueous suspensions. PE containing an oil with a similar hydrophobicity to VX should promote its extraction. All the formulations reduced significantly the amount of VX quantified on and into the skin compared to the control. Wiping the skin surface with a pad already allowed removing more than half of VX. FE-W was the less efficient (85% of VX removed). The other formulations (FE-PE, S-PE and S-W) resulted in more than 90% of the quantity of VX removed. The charge of particles was the most influential factor. The low pH of formulations containing silica favored electrostatic interactions of VX with particles explaining the better elimination from the skin surface. Formulations containing FE had basic pH, and weak interactions with VX did not improve the skin decontamination. However, these low interactions between VX and FE promote the transfer of VX into the oil droplets in the FE-PE.

  2. Systemic antioxidants and skin health.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Gloria; Torres, Abel

    2012-09-01

    Most dermatologists agree that antioxidants help fight free radical damage and can help maintain healthy skin. They do so by affecting intracellular signaling pathways involved in skin damage and protecting against photodamage, as well as preventing wrinkles and inflammation. In today's modern world of the rising nutraceutical industry, many people, in addition to applying topical skin care products, turn to supplementation of the nutrients missing in their diets by taking multivitamins or isolated, man-made nutraceuticals, in what is known as the Inside-Out approach to skin care. However, ingestion of large quantities of isolated, fragmented nutrients can be harmful and is a poor representation of the kind of nutrition that can be obtained from whole food sources. In this comprehensive review, it was found that few studies on oral antioxidants benefiting the skin have been done using whole foods, and that the vast majority of current research is focused on the study of compounds in isolation. However, the public stands to benefit greatly if more research were to be devoted toward the impact that physiologic doses of antioxidants (obtained from fruits, vegetables, and whole grains) can have on skin health, and on health in general.

  3. Pickering emulsions for skin decontamination.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Alicia; Bolzinger, Marie-Alexandrine; Rolland, Pauline; Chevalier, Yves; Josse, Denis; Briançon, Stéphanie

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed at developing innovative systems for skin decontamination. Pickering emulsions, i.e. solid-stabilized emulsions, containing silica (S-PE) or Fuller's earth (FE-PE) were formulated. Their efficiency for skin decontamination was evaluated, in vitro, 45min after an exposure to VX, one of the most highly toxic chemical warfare agents. Pickering emulsions were compared to FE (FE-W) and silica (S-W) aqueous suspensions. PE containing an oil with a similar hydrophobicity to VX should promote its extraction. All the formulations reduced significantly the amount of VX quantified on and into the skin compared to the control. Wiping the skin surface with a pad already allowed removing more than half of VX. FE-W was the less efficient (85% of VX removed). The other formulations (FE-PE, S-PE and S-W) resulted in more than 90% of the quantity of VX removed. The charge of particles was the most influential factor. The low pH of formulations containing silica favored electrostatic interactions of VX with particles explaining the better elimination from the skin surface. Formulations containing FE had basic pH, and weak interactions with VX did not improve the skin decontamination. However, these low interactions between VX and FE promote the transfer of VX into the oil droplets in the FE-PE. PMID:27021875

  4. How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ...

  5. 7 CFR 51.1549 - Skinning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Skinning. 51.1549 Section 51.1549 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Skinning § 51.1549 Skinning. (a) The following definitions provide a basis for describing lots of potatoes as to the degree of skinning whenever description may...

  6. 7 CFR 51.1549 - Skinning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Skinning. 51.1549 Section 51.1549 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Skinning § 51.1549 Skinning. (a) The following definitions provide a basis for describing lots of potatoes as to the degree of skinning whenever description may...

  7. 7 CFR 51.1549 - Skinning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Skinning. 51.1549 Section 51.1549 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Skinning § 51.1549 Skinning. (a) The following definitions provide a basis for describing lots of potatoes as to the degree of skinning whenever description may...

  8. Influence of skin penetration enhancers on skin barrier function and skin protease activity.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Diar; Hirata, Kazumasa; Hadgraft, Jonathan; Lane, Majella E

    2014-01-23

    In order to overcome the skin's excellent barrier function formulation scientists often employ skin penetration enhancers (SPEs) in topical and transdermal formulations. The effects of these compounds on skin health is still not well understood at the molecular level. The aim of the present work was to probe the effects of some common SPEs on desquamatory protease activity in healthy skin. The SPEs studied were isopropyl myristate (IPM), propylene glycol, (PG), propylene glycol laurate (PGL) and Transcutol™ (TC). Occluded infinite doses of each SPE were applied to human volunteers for 24 h. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) measurements were taken before and after application of SPEs. Tape strips were collected from the treated sites to determine protein content and the activity of two desquamatory proteases kallikrein 5 (KLK5) and kallikrein 7 (KLK7). TEWL values were also measured after tape stripping. PG was found to elevate both TEWL values and KLK7 activity to a significant extent (p<0.05). No significant effects were observed for the other SPEs. The ability of PG to alter the skin barrier at the macroscopic level and the influence of the molecule on protease activity reported here may have implications for its use in topical formulations used for the management of impaired skin barrier function such as atopic eczema or psoriasis. PMID:24063883

  9. Influence of skin penetration enhancers on skin barrier function and skin protease activity.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Diar; Hirata, Kazumasa; Hadgraft, Jonathan; Lane, Majella E

    2014-01-23

    In order to overcome the skin's excellent barrier function formulation scientists often employ skin penetration enhancers (SPEs) in topical and transdermal formulations. The effects of these compounds on skin health is still not well understood at the molecular level. The aim of the present work was to probe the effects of some common SPEs on desquamatory protease activity in healthy skin. The SPEs studied were isopropyl myristate (IPM), propylene glycol, (PG), propylene glycol laurate (PGL) and Transcutol™ (TC). Occluded infinite doses of each SPE were applied to human volunteers for 24 h. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) measurements were taken before and after application of SPEs. Tape strips were collected from the treated sites to determine protein content and the activity of two desquamatory proteases kallikrein 5 (KLK5) and kallikrein 7 (KLK7). TEWL values were also measured after tape stripping. PG was found to elevate both TEWL values and KLK7 activity to a significant extent (p<0.05). No significant effects were observed for the other SPEs. The ability of PG to alter the skin barrier at the macroscopic level and the influence of the molecule on protease activity reported here may have implications for its use in topical formulations used for the management of impaired skin barrier function such as atopic eczema or psoriasis.

  10. Skin Findings in Williams Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kozel, Beth A.; Bayliss, Susan J.; Berk, David R.; Waxler, Jessica L; Knutsen, Russell H.; Danback, Joshua R.; Pober, Barbara R.

    2014-01-01

    Previous examination in a small number of individuals with Williams syndrome (also referred to as Williams-Beuren syndrome) has shown subtly softer skin and reduced deposition of elastin, an elastic matrix protein important in tissue recoil. No quantitative information about skin elasticity in individuals with Williams syndrome is available; nor has there been a complete report of dermatologic findings in this population. To fill this knowledge gap, 94 patients with Williams syndrome aged 7-50 years were recruited as part of the Skin and Vascular Elasticity (WS-SAVE) study. They underwent either a clinical dermatologic assessment by trained dermatologists (2010 WSA family meeting) or measurement of biomechanical properties of the skin with the DermaLab™ suction cup (2012 WSA family meeting). Clinical assessment confirmed that soft skin is common in this population (83%), as is premature graying of the hair (80% of those 20 years or older), while wrinkles (92%) and abnormal scarring (33%) were detected in larger than expected proportions. Biomechanical studies detected statistically significant differences in dP (the pressure required to lift the skin), dT (the time required to raise the skin through a prescribed gradient), VE (viscoelasticity) and E (Young’s modulus) relative to matched controls. The RT (retraction time) also trended longer but was not significant. The biomechanical differences noted in these patients did not correlate with the presence of vascular defects also attributable to elastin insufficiency (vascular stiffness, hypertension, and arterial stenosis) suggesting the presence of tissue specific modifiers that modulate the impact of elastin insufficiency in each tissue. PMID:24920525

  11. Skin disinfection in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Malathi, I; Millar, M R; Leeming, J P; Hedges, A; Marlow, N

    1993-09-01

    Greater care and a more thorough approach to intravenous catheter site disinfection may be important for the prevention of catheter related sepsis, especially with coagulase negative staphylocci in preterm infants. The efficacy of skin disinfection was evaluated in preterm infants using a skin swabbing technique after disinfectant exposure. In the first part of the study, 25 peripheral intravascular catheter sites were quantitatively sampled immediately after routine cannula insertion. Bacterial counts greater than 100 colony forming units/cm2 were observed from 10 (40%) sites. In the second part, sampling for bacterial colony counts was done after skin cleansing with various durations of exposure of chlorhexidine/alcohol swabs or povidone iodine. The overall mean reduction in bacterial colony counts after skin cleansing ranged from 90-99%. Skin sterilisation was achieved in 33-92% of cases. The use of two consecutive 10 second exposures resulted in a significantly improved reduction in colony counts compared with a single 10 second wipe. A longer 30 second exposure also resulted in a greater reduction of bacterial numbers compared with a shorter duration of 5 or 10 seconds. Repopulation of disinfected sites occurred within 48 hours. This effect was delayed by occluding the cleansed site with a semipermeable dressing. There were no significant differences between povidone iodine and the chlorhexidine swabs in reducing bacterial numbers. This study has demonstrated that a brief exposure with a premoistened disinfectant swab is not sufficient for complete elimination of resident skin flora of newborn infants. The use of two consecutive cleanings, or a longer duration of cleansing is recommended for more effective skin sterilisation.

  12. Predicting chemically-induced skin reactions. Part II: QSAR models of skin permeability and the relationships between skin permeability and skin sensitization

    SciTech Connect

    Alves, Vinicius M.; Muratov, Eugene; Fourches, Denis; Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Tropsha, Alexander

    2015-04-15

    Skin permeability is widely considered to be mechanistically implicated in chemically-induced skin sensitization. Although many chemicals have been identified as skin sensitizers, there have been very few reports analyzing the relationships between molecular structure and skin permeability of sensitizers and non-sensitizers. The goals of this study were to: (i) compile, curate, and integrate the largest publicly available dataset of chemicals studied for their skin permeability; (ii) develop and rigorously validate QSAR models to predict skin permeability; and (iii) explore the complex relationships between skin sensitization and skin permeability. Based on the largest publicly available dataset compiled in this study, we found no overall correlation between skin permeability and skin sensitization. In addition, cross-species correlation coefficient between human and rodent permeability data was found to be as low as R{sup 2} = 0.44. Human skin permeability models based on the random forest method have been developed and validated using OECD-compliant QSAR modeling workflow. Their external accuracy was high (Q{sup 2}{sub ext} = 0.73 for 63% of external compounds inside the applicability domain). The extended analysis using both experimentally-measured and QSAR-imputed data still confirmed the absence of any overall concordance between skin permeability and skin sensitization. This observation suggests that chemical modifications that affect skin permeability should not be presumed a priori to modulate the sensitization potential of chemicals. The models reported herein as well as those developed in the companion paper on skin sensitization suggest that it may be possible to rationally design compounds with the desired high skin permeability but low sensitization potential. - Highlights: • It was compiled the largest publicly-available skin permeability dataset. • Predictive QSAR models were developed for skin permeability. • No concordance between skin

  13. The current management of skin tears.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoti; Lau, Kwan; Taira, Breena R; Singer, Adam J

    2009-07-01

    Each year, there are more than 1 million skin tears among the elderly and disabled. Because of their fragile nature, management of skin tears can be very challenging. Methods of wound closure should minimize additional trauma to the skin and promote an optimal wound healing environment while minimizing the risk of infection. The current article reviews the etiology, risk factors, classification, and therapeutic options for treating skin tears. We also review preventive measures to help reduce the incidence of skin tears.

  14. Skin lesions in returning travellers.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Juszczak, Dariusz; Jerzemowski, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Skin lesions, apart from diarrhoeas, fever of unknown origin, and respiratory tract infections belong to the most frequent medical problems in travellers returned from tropical and subtropical destinations, accounting more than 10% of reported cases. Most dermatoses have their clinical onset during travel, although some of them can occur after return. Travel-related dermatological problems can have a wide spectrum of clinical picture, from macular, popular or nodular rash, linear and migratory lesions, to plaques, vesicles, bullae, erosions or ulcers. Skin conditions in returning travellers may be of infectious and non-infectious aetiologies. Infectious lesions may be originally tropical (e.g. dengue, chikungunya, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, myiasis, tungiasis, loiasis), although the majority are cosmopolitan (arthropod bites, sunburns, allergic rashes). The evaluation of skin lesions depends on many factors, including immune status of patients, use of medicines, exposure on health hazards (fauna, flora, risky behaviours), as well as the time, duration and location of travel. As the number of travellers to tropical and subtropical destinations has been continuously rising, the number of skin illnesses has also been increasing. This means that specialists in travel medicine need to extend their knowledge of epidemiology, clinical features and diagnosis of travel-related health problems including skin lesions in returning travellers. PMID:26394319

  15. Malassezia skin diseases in humans.

    PubMed

    Difonzo, E M; Faggi, E; Bassi, A; Campisi, E; Arunachalam, M; Pini, G; Scarfì, F; Galeone, M

    2013-12-01

    Although Malassezia yeasts are a part of the normal microflora, under certain conditions they can cause superficial skin infection, such as pityriasis versicolor (PV) and Malassezia folliculitis. Moreover the yeasts of the genus Malassezia have been associated with seborrheic dermatitis and dandruff, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, and, less commonly, with confluent and reticulated papillomatosis, onychomycosis, and transient acantholytic dermatosis. The study of the clinical role of Malassezia species has been surrounded by controversy due to the relative difficulty in isolation, cultivation, and identification. This review focuses on the clinical, mycologic, and immunologic aspects of the various skin diseases associated with Malassezia. Moreover, since there exists little information about the epidemiology and ecology of Malassezia species in the Italian population and the clinical significance of these species is not fully distinguished, we will report data about a study we carried out. The aim of our study was the isolation and the identification of Malassezia species in PV-affected skin and non-affected skin in patients with PV and in clinically healthy individuals without any Malassezia associated skin disease. PMID:24442041

  16. Melatonin and human skin aging

    PubMed Central

    Kleszczynski, Konrad; Fischer, Tobias W.

    2012-01-01

    Like the whole organism, skin follows the process of aging during life-time. Additional to internal factors, several environmental factors, such as solar radiation, considerably contribute to this process. While fundamental mechanisms regarding skin aging are known, new aspects of anti-aging agents such as melatonin are introduced. Melatonin is a hormone produced in the glandula pinealis that follows a circadian light-dependent rhythm of secretion. It has been experimentally implicated in skin functions such as hair cycling and fur pigmentation, and melatonin receptors are expressed in many skin cell types including normal and malignant keratinocytes, melanocytes and fibroblasts. It possesses a wide range of endocrine properties as well as strong antioxidative activity. Regarding UV-induced solar damage, melatonin distinctly counteracts massive generation of reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial and DNA damage. Thus, there is considerable evidence for melatonin to be an effective anti-skin aging compound, and its various properties in this context are described in this review. PMID:23467217

  17. Biological Rhythms in the Skin

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Mary S.; Pelle, Edward; Dong, Kelly; Pernodet, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    Circadian rhythms, ≈24 h oscillations in behavior and physiology, are reflected in all cells of the body and function to optimize cellular functions and meet environmental challenges associated with the solar day. This multi-oscillatory network is entrained by the master pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus, which directs an organism’s rhythmic expression of physiological functions and behavior via a hierarchical system. This system has been highly conserved throughout evolution and uses transcriptional–translational autoregulatory loops. This master clock, following environmental cues, regulates an organism’s sleep pattern, body temperature, cardiac activity and blood pressure, hormone secretion, oxygen consumption and metabolic rate. Mammalian peripheral clocks and clock gene expression have recently been discovered and are present in all nucleated cells in our body. Like other essential organ of the body, the skin also has cycles that are informed by this master regulator. In addition, skin cells have peripheral clocks that can function autonomously. First described in 2000 for skin, this review summarizes some important aspects of a rapidly growing body of research in circadian and ultradian (an oscillation that repeats multiple times during a 24 h period) cutaneous rhythms, including clock mechanisms, functional manifestations, and stimuli that entrain or disrupt normal cycling. Some specific relationships between disrupted clock signaling and consequences to skin health are discussed in more depth in the other invited articles in this IJMS issue on Sleep, Circadian Rhythm and Skin. PMID:27231897

  18. Hyperspectral imaging of bruised skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randeberg, Lise L.; Baarstad, Ivar; Løke, Trond; Kaspersen, Peter; Svaasand, Lars O.

    2006-02-01

    Bruises can be important evidence in legal medicine, for example in cases of child abuse. Optical techniques can be used to discriminate and quantify the chromophores present in bruised skin, and thereby aid dating of an injury. However, spectroscopic techniques provide only average chromophore concentrations for the sampled volume, and contain little information about the spatial chromophore distribution in the bruise. Hyperspectral imaging combines the power of imaging and spectroscopy, and can provide both spectroscopic and spatial information. In this study a hyperspectral imaging system developed by Norsk Elektro Optikk AS was used to measure the temporal development of bruised skin in a human volunteer. The bruises were inflicted by paintball bullets. The wavelength ranges used were 400 - 1000 nm (VNIR) and 900 - 1700 nm (SWIR), and the spectral sampling intervals were 3.7 and 5 nm, respectively. Preliminary results show good spatial discrimination of the bruised areas compared to normal skin. Development of a white spot can be seen in the central zone of the bruises. This central white zone was found to resemble the shape of the object hitting the skin, and is believed to develop in areas where the impact caused vessel damage. These results show that hyperspectral imaging is a promising technique to evaluate the temporal and spatial development of bruises on human skin.

  19. Smart skin patterns protect springtails.

    PubMed

    Helbig, Ralf; Nickerl, Julia; Neinhuis, Christoph; Werner, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Springtails, arthropods who live in soil, in decaying material, and on plants, have adapted to demanding conditions by evolving extremely effective and robust anti-adhesive skin patterns. However, details of these unique properties and their structural basis are still unknown. Here we demonstrate that collembolan skin can resist wetting by many organic liquids and at elevated pressures. We show that the combination of bristles and a comb-like hexagonal or rhombic mesh of interconnected nanoscopic granules distinguish the skin of springtails from anti-adhesive plant surfaces. Furthermore, the negative overhang in the profile of the ridges and granules were revealed to be a highly effective, but as yet neglected, design principle of collembolan skin. We suggest an explanation for the non-wetting characteristics of surfaces consisting of such profiles irrespective of the chemical composition. Many valuable opportunities arise from the translation of the described comb-like patterns and overhanging profiles of collembolan skin into man-made surfaces that combine stability against wear and friction with superior non-wetting and anti-adhesive characteristics. PMID:21980383

  20. Skin lesions in returning travellers.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Juszczak, Dariusz; Jerzemowski, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Skin lesions, apart from diarrhoeas, fever of unknown origin, and respiratory tract infections belong to the most frequent medical problems in travellers returned from tropical and subtropical destinations, accounting more than 10% of reported cases. Most dermatoses have their clinical onset during travel, although some of them can occur after return. Travel-related dermatological problems can have a wide spectrum of clinical picture, from macular, popular or nodular rash, linear and migratory lesions, to plaques, vesicles, bullae, erosions or ulcers. Skin conditions in returning travellers may be of infectious and non-infectious aetiologies. Infectious lesions may be originally tropical (e.g. dengue, chikungunya, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, myiasis, tungiasis, loiasis), although the majority are cosmopolitan (arthropod bites, sunburns, allergic rashes). The evaluation of skin lesions depends on many factors, including immune status of patients, use of medicines, exposure on health hazards (fauna, flora, risky behaviours), as well as the time, duration and location of travel. As the number of travellers to tropical and subtropical destinations has been continuously rising, the number of skin illnesses has also been increasing. This means that specialists in travel medicine need to extend their knowledge of epidemiology, clinical features and diagnosis of travel-related health problems including skin lesions in returning travellers.

  1. Biological Rhythms in the Skin.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Mary S; Pelle, Edward; Dong, Kelly; Pernodet, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    Circadian rhythms, ≈24 h oscillations in behavior and physiology, are reflected in all cells of the body and function to optimize cellular functions and meet environmental challenges associated with the solar day. This multi-oscillatory network is entrained by the master pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus, which directs an organism's rhythmic expression of physiological functions and behavior via a hierarchical system. This system has been highly conserved throughout evolution and uses transcriptional-translational autoregulatory loops. This master clock, following environmental cues, regulates an organism's sleep pattern, body temperature, cardiac activity and blood pressure, hormone secretion, oxygen consumption and metabolic rate. Mammalian peripheral clocks and clock gene expression have recently been discovered and are present in all nucleated cells in our body. Like other essential organ of the body, the skin also has cycles that are informed by this master regulator. In addition, skin cells have peripheral clocks that can function autonomously. First described in 2000 for skin, this review summarizes some important aspects of a rapidly growing body of research in circadian and ultradian (an oscillation that repeats multiple times during a 24 h period) cutaneous rhythms, including clock mechanisms, functional manifestations, and stimuli that entrain or disrupt normal cycling. Some specific relationships between disrupted clock signaling and consequences to skin health are discussed in more depth in the other invited articles in this IJMS issue on Sleep, Circadian Rhythm and Skin. PMID:27231897

  2. Smart Skin Patterns Protect Springtails

    PubMed Central

    Helbig, Ralf; Nickerl, Julia; Neinhuis, Christoph; Werner, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Springtails, arthropods who live in soil, in decaying material, and on plants, have adapted to demanding conditions by evolving extremely effective and robust anti-adhesive skin patterns. However, details of these unique properties and their structural basis are still unknown. Here we demonstrate that collembolan skin can resist wetting by many organic liquids and at elevated pressures. We show that the combination of bristles and a comb-like hexagonal or rhombic mesh of interconnected nanoscopic granules distinguish the skin of springtails from anti-adhesive plant surfaces. Furthermore, the negative overhang in the profile of the ridges and granules were revealed to be a highly effective, but as yet neglected, design principle of collembolan skin. We suggest an explanation for the non-wetting characteristics of surfaces consisting of such profiles irrespective of the chemical composition. Many valuable opportunities arise from the translation of the described comb-like patterns and overhanging profiles of collembolan skin into man-made surfaces that combine stability against wear and friction with superior non-wetting and anti-adhesive characteristics. PMID:21980383

  3. Skin manifestations of food allergies.

    PubMed

    Martin, B L

    1999-03-01

    The role of dietary factors in chronic skin diseases has been a subject of controversy, but several investigators have shown the effectiveness of elimination diets in the management of some patients with atopic dermatitis. Chronic skin diseases are common, complex, and often difficult to treat; therefore, the physician should consider all possible causes. More people consider themselves to have food allergies than can actually be documented to have an immunologic reaction to foods. Six foods--egg, peanut, cow's milk, soy, fish, and wheat--account for most skin reactions to food in children, with egg, peanut, and cow's milk being most common. Elimination of the offending food can be an effective form of treatment, but it must be done with caution, and while ensuring that the patient maintains adequate nutrition.

  4. Analysis of nonablative skin resurfacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner, Thomas E.; Anvari, Bahman; Keikhanzadeh, Kurosh; Dave, Digant P.; Nelson, J. Stuart; Goodman, Dennis M.; Hennings, David R.; Baumgardner, John; Berry, Michael J.

    1997-05-01

    Nonablative skin resurfacing is a dermatologic procedure utilizing pulsed laser irradiation and dynamic cooling to induce selectively a wound healing response in the papillary and upper reticular dermis. Using temperature measurements of human skin provided by pulsed photothermal radiometry immediately following laser irradiation (lambda equals 1.32 micrometer), spatial distribution of thermal damage is predicted in response to various potential therapeutic laser- cryogen doses. Results of our analysis suggest that appropriate application of pulsed laser irradiation and cryogen spray cooling may be used to protect the epidermis and selectively confine thermal injury to the papillary and upper reticular dermis. Development of nonablative skin resurfacing will require understanding the relationship between the degree of dermal photocoagulation and the cutaneous wound healing response following laser irradiation.

  5. Surgical skin-marking techniques.

    PubMed

    Granick, M S; Heckler, F R; Jones, E W

    1987-04-01

    Surgical skin-marking inks and dyes are in everyday use for designing and planning incisions in plastic and reconstructive surgery. We have traced the historical development of surgical skin-marking techniques from ancient times to the present. The biochemical characteristics of the commonly used marking agents are discussed. A three-part experiment utilizing a pig model was carried out to test the tissue inflammatory response to the various dyes and inks when used intradermally as tattoos, the persistence of such tattoos, and the ease of skin erasure for each of eight stains. Methylene blue and gentian violet are recommended as the best all-purpose marking agents. The use of proprietary inks is discouraged.

  6. Animal models of skin regeneration.

    PubMed

    Gawronska-Kozak, Barbara; Grabowska, Anna; Kopcewicz, Marta; Kur, Anna

    2014-03-01

    Cutaneous injury in the majority of vertebrate animals results in the formation of a scar in the post-injured area. Scar tissues, although beneficial for maintaining integrity of the post-wounded region often interferes with full recovery of injured tissues. The goal of wound-healing studies is to identify mechanisms to redirect reparative pathways from debilitating scar formation to regenerative pathways that lead to normal functionality. To perform such studies models of regeneration, which are rare in mammals, are required. In this review we discussed skin regenerative capabilities present in lower vertebrates and in models of skin scar-free healing in mammals, e.g. mammalian fetuses. However, we especially focused on the attributes of two unusual models of skin scar-free healing capabilities that occur in adult mammals, that is, those associated with nude, FOXN1-deficient mice and in wild-type African spiny mice.

  7. Direct Measurements of Skin Friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhawan, Satish

    1953-01-01

    A device has been developed to measure local skin friction on a flat plate by measuring the force exerted upon a very small movable part of the surface of the flat plate. These forces, which range from about 1 milligram to about 100 milligrams, are measured by means of a reactance device. The apparatus was first applied to measurements in the low-speed range, both for laminar and turbulent boundary layers. The measured skin-friction coefficients show excellent agreement with Blasius' and Von Karman's results. The device was then applied to high-speed subsonic flow and the turbulent-skin-friction coefficients were determined up to a Mach number of about 0.8. A few measurements in supersonic flow were also made. This paper describes the design and construction of the device and the results of the measurements.

  8. Skin cancer prevention in Australia.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, C; Foley, P

    2009-11-01

    Australia has one of the highest skin cancer incidence and mortality rates in the world. The reason for these high rates is due in part to the high ambient UV radiation levels, combined with a predominantly susceptible fair-skinned population. To address this problem, since 1980 Australians have been exposed to social marketing campaigns to raise awareness of skin cancer prevention. These campaigns have used mass media alongside interventions in schools, workplaces, and in community and leisure settings to motivate sun protective behaviour. As a result of these interventions it can be demonstrated that social marketing campaigns can be a very effective method to not only motivate behaviour change, reduce sunburn, and increase awareness but more importantly, reduce melanoma rates and bring positive economic returns to government. However long term investment in this area is required otherwise any population gains in behaviour are very likely to be quickly eroded. PMID:19775367

  9. Surgical skin-marking techniques.

    PubMed

    Granick, M S; Heckler, F R; Jones, E W

    1987-04-01

    Surgical skin-marking inks and dyes are in everyday use for designing and planning incisions in plastic and reconstructive surgery. We have traced the historical development of surgical skin-marking techniques from ancient times to the present. The biochemical characteristics of the commonly used marking agents are discussed. A three-part experiment utilizing a pig model was carried out to test the tissue inflammatory response to the various dyes and inks when used intradermally as tattoos, the persistence of such tattoos, and the ease of skin erasure for each of eight stains. Methylene blue and gentian violet are recommended as the best all-purpose marking agents. The use of proprietary inks is discouraged. PMID:2434965

  10. Skin Problems: How to Protect Yourself from Job-Related Skin Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin irritation. Contact with acids, alkalis or heavy metals can cause painful burns. Skin Allergies. Contact with even small amounts of some substances can cause skin allergies. Common causes of work- ...

  11. Neurophysiology of Skin Thermal Sensations.

    PubMed

    Filingeri, Davide

    2016-06-13

    Undoubtedly, adjusting our thermoregulatory behavior represents the most effective mechanism to maintain thermal homeostasis and ensure survival in the diverse thermal environments that we face on this planet. Remarkably, our thermal behavior is entirely dependent on the ability to detect variations in our internal (i.e., body) and external environment, via sensing changes in skin temperature and wetness. In the past 30 years, we have seen a significant expansion of our understanding of the molecular, neuroanatomical, and neurophysiological mechanisms that allow humans to sense temperature and humidity. The discovery of temperature-activated ion channels which gate the generation of action potentials in thermosensitive neurons, along with the characterization of the spino-thalamo-cortical thermosensory pathway, and the development of neural models for the perception of skin wetness, are only some of the recent advances which have provided incredible insights on how biophysical changes in skin temperature and wetness are transduced into those neural signals which constitute the physiological substrate of skin thermal and wetness sensations. Understanding how afferent thermal inputs are integrated and how these contribute to behavioral and autonomic thermoregulatory responses under normal brain function is critical to determine how these mechanisms are disrupted in those neurological conditions, which see the concurrent presence of afferent thermosensory abnormalities and efferent thermoregulatory dysfunctions. Furthermore, advancing the knowledge on skin thermal and wetness sensations is crucial to support the development of neuroprosthetics. In light of the aforementioned text, this review will focus on the peripheral and central neurophysiological mechanisms underpinning skin thermal and wetness sensations in humans. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1279-1294, 2016.2016.

  12. Neurophysiology of Skin Thermal Sensations.

    PubMed

    Filingeri, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Undoubtedly, adjusting our thermoregulatory behavior represents the most effective mechanism to maintain thermal homeostasis and ensure survival in the diverse thermal environments that we face on this planet. Remarkably, our thermal behavior is entirely dependent on the ability to detect variations in our internal (i.e., body) and external environment, via sensing changes in skin temperature and wetness. In the past 30 years, we have seen a significant expansion of our understanding of the molecular, neuroanatomical, and neurophysiological mechanisms that allow humans to sense temperature and humidity. The discovery of temperature-activated ion channels which gate the generation of action potentials in thermosensitive neurons, along with the characterization of the spino-thalamo-cortical thermosensory pathway, and the development of neural models for the perception of skin wetness, are only some of the recent advances which have provided incredible insights on how biophysical changes in skin temperature and wetness are transduced into those neural signals which constitute the physiological substrate of skin thermal and wetness sensations. Understanding how afferent thermal inputs are integrated and how these contribute to behavioral and autonomic thermoregulatory responses under normal brain function is critical to determine how these mechanisms are disrupted in those neurological conditions, which see the concurrent presence of afferent thermosensory abnormalities and efferent thermoregulatory dysfunctions. Furthermore, advancing the knowledge on skin thermal and wetness sensations is crucial to support the development of neuroprosthetics. In light of the aforementioned text, this review will focus on the peripheral and central neurophysiological mechanisms underpinning skin thermal and wetness sensations in humans. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1279-1294, 2016.2016. PMID:27347898

  13. Tropical Skin Infections Among Israeli Travelers

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Michal; Benenson, Shmuel; Baum, Sharon; Schwartz, Eli

    2011-01-01

    Infectious skin disorders are common dermatologic illnesses in travelers. Knowledge of post-travel–related infectious skin disorders will allow for effective pre- and post-travel counseling. All cases of returning travelers seen in our center seeking care for infectious skin diseases were included in this study. For a comparison, data on returned travelers with non-infectious skin diseases and healthy travelers who had pre-travel consultations in our institution were also analyzed. Altogether, skin-related diagnosis was reported in 540 ill travelers, and among them, 286 (53%) had infectious skin diseases. Tropical skin infection was diagnosed in 64% of the infectious cases. Travelers returning from Latin America were significantly more ill with tropical skin infections than those traveling to Asia and Africa, The most common diagnoses were cutaneous leishmaniasis, myiasis, and cutaneous larva migrans. In conclusion, tropical skin infections are common among Israeli travelers, especially among those who visited Latin America. PMID:22049040

  14. Biopolymeric agents for skin wrinkle treatment.

    PubMed

    Lourith, Nattaya; Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree

    2016-10-01

    Skin aging is caused by several factors capable of deteriorating dermal matrix and is visibly noticed in skin color and skin contour deformities. In addition to the prevention of skin aging by application of antioxidants and sunscreens, treatment of skin wrinkles with those of dermal fillers is also recommended. Dermal filler products with enhanced injectability and longer duration are being developed continuously. Biodegradable polymers such as skin elastic fibers and dermal matrix mimetic used for treatment of skin wrinkle are summarized in this article. Additionally, the importance of amino acids, enzymes, and proteins in aesthetic of skin is addressed. Thus, elective agents are proposed for the dermatologists, cosmetic formulators, and the individuals facing skin aging problems. The candidate natural peptides from marine sources are additionally presented for widening the choice of actives application for treating aging. PMID:26963365

  15. Topical Steroid-Damaged Skin

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Anil; Roga, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    Topical steroids, commonly used for a wide range of skin disorders, are associated with side effects both systemic and cutaneous. This article aims at bringing awareness among practitioners, about the cutaneous side effects of easily available, over the counter, topical steroids. This makes it important for us as dermatologists to weigh the usefulness of topical steroids versus their side effects, and to make an informed decision regarding their use in each individual based on other factors such as age, site involved and type of skin disorder. PMID:25284849

  16. Rare emerging malignant skin tumours.

    PubMed

    Rongioletti, F; Ferreli, C; Pinna, A L; Atzori, L

    2015-08-01

    As clinical skills improve and innovative diagnostic techniques become available in the field of dermatology and dermatopathology, new types or additional variants of malignant skin tumors are described. This article reviews the current nomenclature, clinico-pathological features, differential diagnosis, prognostic and therapeutic implications of some new dermato(patho)logical rare emerging skin tumors, including epithelial tumors (squamous cell carcinoma with mucinous metaplasia), adnexal tumors (endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma), soft tissue tumors of vascular differentiation (pseudolymphomatous cutaneous angiosarcoma, pseudomyogenic hemangioendothelioma), hematopoietic tumors (blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm) and mixed epithelial/melanocytic tumor (squamomelanocytic tumor). PMID:26086411

  17. Imported skin diseases in dermatology.

    PubMed

    James, W D

    2001-11-01

    Millions of afflicted people suffer from conditions which Japanese dermatologists may rarely encounter. Many of our patients travel extensively either as part of work-related business trips or during vacationing. From three to ten percent of travelers experience skin, hair or nail disorders. With worldwide travel heightening exposure to the causative agents, there is an increasing likelihood that a patient with leishmaniasis, Boutonneuse fever, onchocerciasis, loaiasis, dengue fever, cutaneous larva migrans or other recently acquired skin conditions from a far away land will visit your office for diagnosis and treatment. The clinical characteristics, diagnostic tests and therapeutic options for such imported tropical diseases will be discussed.

  18. Skin anti-aging strategies

    PubMed Central

    Ganceviciene, Ruta; Liakou, Aikaterini I.; Theodoridis, Athanasios; Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Zouboulis, Christos C.

    2012-01-01

    Skin aging is a complex biological process influenced by a combination of endogenous or intrinsic and exogenous or extrinsic factors. Because of the fact that skin health and beauty is considered one of the principal factors representing overall “well-being” and the perception of “health” in humans, several anti-aging strategies have been developed during the last years. It is the intention of this article to review the most important anti-aging strategies that dermatologists have nowadays in hand, including including preventive measurements, cosmetological strategies, topical and systemic therapeutic agents and invasive procedures. PMID:23467476

  19. Zebrafish for modeling skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Cline, Abigail; Feldman, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    The experimental advantages of zebrafish make this model system highly amenable to the field of dermatology. Zebrafish skin development is similar to humans and its genome is ~70% orthologous to the human genome. Its external developmental process allows for genetic manipulation and analysis of embryogenesis within a short time frame with all important internal organs and skin compartments formed within 6 days. Zebrafish models of cutaneous human diseases offer insight into pathogenesis and a unique platform for testing of potential therapies. This review details the specific advantages of zebrafish and highlights its use in dermatological research. PMID:27617951

  20. Xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in human skin and SkinEthic reconstructed human skin models.

    PubMed

    Eilstein, Joan; Léreaux, Guillaume; Arbey, Eric; Daronnat, Edwige; Wilkinson, Simon; Duché, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    Skin metabolism is becoming a major consideration in the development of new cosmetic ingredients, skin being the first organ exposed to them. In order to replace limited samples of Excised human skin (EHS), in vitro engineered human skins have been developed. 3D models are daily used to develop and evaluate new cosmetic ingredients and have to be characterized and compared with EHS in terms of metabolic capabilities. This work presents the determination of apparent catalytic parameters (apparent Vmax, Km and the ratio Vmax/Km) in 3D models compared with EHS for cytochrome P450 dependent monooxygenase isoforms involved in drug metabolism, esterases, alcohol dehydrogenases, aldehyde dehydrogenases, peroxidases, glutathione S-transferases, N-acetyl transferases, uridinyl diphosphate glucuronyl transferases and sulfotransferases. Results show that all these enzymes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics are expressed and functional in the EHS and 3D models. Also, the Vmax/Km ratios (estimating the intrinsic metabolic clearances) show that the metabolic abilities are the most often comparable between the skin models and EHS. These results indicate that the 3D models can substitute themselves for EHS to select cosmetic ingredients on the basis of their metabolism, efficacy or/and safety. PMID:25808006

  1. Arsenic carcinogenesis in the skin.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hsin-Su; Liao, Wei-Ting; Chai, Chee-Yin

    2006-09-01

    Chronic arsenic poisoning is a world public health issue. Long-term exposure to inorganic arsenic (As) from drinking water has been documented to induce cancers in lung, urinary bladder, kidney, liver and skin in a dose-response relationship. Oxidative stress, chromosomal abnormality and altered growth factors are possible modes of action in arsenic carcinogenesis. Arsenic tends to accumulate in the skin. Skin hyperpigmentation and hyperkeratosis have long been known to be the hallmark signs of chronic As exposure. There are significant associations between these dermatological lesions and risk of skin cancer. The most common arsenic-induced skin cancers are Bowen's disease (carcinoma in situ), basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Arsenic-induced Bowen's disease (As-BD) is able to transform into invasive BCC and SCC. Individuals with As-BD are considered for more aggressive cancer screening in the lung and urinary bladder. As-BD provides an excellent model for studying the early stages of chemical carcinogenesis in human beings. Arsenic exposure is associated with G2/M cell cycle arrest and DNA aneuploidy in both cultured keratinocytes and As-BD lesions. These cellular abnormalities relate to the p53 dysfunction induced by arsenic. The characteristic clinical figures of arsenic-induced skin cancer are: (i) occurrence on sun-protected areas of the body; (ii) multiple and recrudescent lesions. Both As and UVB are able to induce skin cancer. Arsenic treatment enhances the cytotoxicity, mutagenicity and clastogenicity of UV in mammalian cells. Both As and UVB induce apoptosis in keratinocytes by caspase-9 and caspase-8 signaling, respectively. Combined UVB and As treatments resulted in the antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects by stimulating both caspase pathways in the keratinocytes. UVB irradiation inhibited mutant p53 and ki-67 expression, as well as increased in the number of apoptotic cells in As-BD lesions which resulted in an

  2. [Experimental models of human skin aging].

    PubMed

    Nikolakis, G; Zoschke, C; Makrantonaki, E; Hausmann, C; Schäfer-Korting, M; Zouboulis, C C

    2016-02-01

    The skin is a representative model for the study of human aging. Despite the high regenerative capacity of the skin, skin physiology changes over the course of life. Medical and cosmetic research is trying to prevent aging, to slow, to stop, or to reverse it. Effects of age-related DNA damage and of changing skin structure on pharmacological parameters are largely unknown. This review article summarizes the state of scientific knowledge in the field of experimental models of human skin aging and shows approaches to improve organotypic skin models, to develop predictive models of aging, and improve aging research.

  3. [Experimental models of human skin aging].

    PubMed

    Nikolakis, G; Zoschke, C; Makrantonaki, E; Hausmann, C; Schäfer-Korting, M; Zouboulis, C C

    2016-02-01

    The skin is a representative model for the study of human aging. Despite the high regenerative capacity of the skin, skin physiology changes over the course of life. Medical and cosmetic research is trying to prevent aging, to slow, to stop, or to reverse it. Effects of age-related DNA damage and of changing skin structure on pharmacological parameters are largely unknown. This review article summarizes the state of scientific knowledge in the field of experimental models of human skin aging and shows approaches to improve organotypic skin models, to develop predictive models of aging, and improve aging research. PMID:26743051

  4. [Occupational skin diseases in medical personnel].

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    Occupational skin diseases develop mostly in certain occupational groups at risk. The authors studied features of occupational skin diseases in medical personnel examined over 2003-2007. During this time, occupational skin disease was diagnosed in 118 individuals out of which 24 (20.3%) were medical staffers. All 24 examinees suffered from occupational allergic skin conditions. Most common causes of these were medicines, latex, desinfectants. Nurses are most prone to skin conditions (91.67%). Special risk group covers surgeons, psychiatrists and dentists. As medical staffers are occupational risk group for occupational skin conditions, diagnosed allergic dermatoses in them should be considered as having possible occupational occupational origin.

  5. Histopathology of laser skin resurfacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, Sharon L.; Baldwin, Bonnie; Chi, Eric; Ellard, Jeff; Schwartz, Jon A.

    1997-05-01

    Pulsed carbon-dioxide laser skin resurfacing is a purportedly 'non-thermal' procedure enjoying wide application as a cosmetic treatment for skin wrinkles. Treatment success has been based on clinical assessments of skin smoothness. Skin lesions (1 cm2) created by one, two or three superimposed carbon-dioxide laser passes were placed on the backs of 28 'fuzzy' Harlan Sprague Dawley rats. The variable laser irradiation parameters included measured energies ranging from 112 to 387/pulse with pulse widths of 65 and 125 microseconds and a repetition rate of 8 Hz. The square, flat laser beam measured 3 mm2 at the focal point. The lesions were collected from 0 to 10 days after treatment for qualitative and quantitative histopathology. Thermal damage and treatment effect tended to increase in severity and, to a lesser extent, depth with increased delivery parameters. In acute lesions, the vacuolated and fragmented, desiccated and thermally coagulated epidermis was partially removed exposing the underlying thermally coagulated dermal collagen and cells. Epidermal and dermal necrosis and slough occurred between 24 to 72 hours after treatment. Epithelial regeneration originated from the adnexa and the lesion edges. Dermal fibrous scar formation began at 5 days below the regenerated epidermis and became more prominent at 7 and 10 days.

  6. Pygmy resonances and neutron skins

    SciTech Connect

    Piekarewicz, J.

    2011-03-15

    In a study motivated by a recent experiment, the distribution of electric dipole strength in the neutron-rich {sup 68}Ni isotope was computed using a relativistic random-phase approximation with a set of effective interactions that - although well calibrated - predict significantly different values for the neutron-skin thickness in {sup 208}Pb. The emergence of low-energy 'pygmy' strength that exhausts about 5%-8% of the energy-weighted sum rule (EWSR) is clearly identified. In addition to the EWSR, special emphasis is placed on the dipole polarizability. In particular, our results suggest a strong correlation between the dipole polarizability of {sup 68}Ni and the neutron-skin thickness of {sup 208}Pb. Yet we find a correlation just as strong, and an even larger sensitivity, between the neutron-skin thickness of {sup 208}Pb and the fraction of the dipole polarizability exhausted by the pygmy resonance. These findings suggest that dipole polarizability may be used as a proxy for the neutron skin.

  7. Nothing but skin and bone

    PubMed Central

    Ross, F. Patrick; Christiano, Angela M.

    2006-01-01

    Skin and bone — what comes to mind at hearing this phrase? While certainly a metaphor for disease, it also defines two very different tissues, one a flexible and contiguous outer covering, the other a morphologically diverse hard tissue distributed at over 200 sites in the body. As the accompanying series of Reviews highlights, these tissues are indeed diverse, but there are also surprising similarities. Skin is the interface between the internal organs and the environment, and as such plays a crucial role in the body’s defense mechanism. The skin and its many appendages are responsible for functions as diverse as epidermal barrier and defense, immune surveillance, UV protection, thermoregulation, sweating, lubrication, pigmentation, the sensations of pain and touch, and, importantly, the protection of various stem cell niches in the skin. Bone serves a number of purposes: it provides protection for vital organs, a lever for locomotion, a reservoir for calcium, and the site of adult hematopoiesis. The tissue is composed of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and their individual precursors plus a complex mixture of mesenchymal, myeloid, and lymphoid cells in the marrow space. Finally, the endothelial microenvironment provides nutrition and is a conduit for the influx and emigration of cells that impact bone biology in several important ways. This Review series guides the reader through these various facets of 2 diverse, yet interdependent, tissues. PMID:16670754

  8. Studies on perioperative skin flora.

    PubMed

    Newsom, S W; Rowland, C

    1988-04-01

    Chlorhexidine in spirit is used to reduce the skin bacterial load before surgery; and recently prewashing with chlorhexidine scrub has been advocated. We describe three studies on cardio-thoracic surgical patients--particularly those having coronary artery grafts with long leg and sternal wounds. Two studies compared prewashes with chlorhexidine scrub (Hibiscrub-ICI) or soap. Study Number One (250 patients per group) was of wound infections; and Number Two (25 patients per group) was of alterations in skin flora for 10 days postoperation. Chlorhexidine scrub failed to reduce overall wound infection rates in Study 1, although leg wounds healed more quickly with less inflammation. Study Two showed that the scrub had a significant effect on skin flora that lasted at least 3 days postoperation. Study Number Three was of 100 patients (no chlorhexidine scrub) examined for methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRSE) by cultures of swabs from the leg, sternum and chest drain site before and after operation on methicillin agar. Three per cent of patients had MRSE preoperation (1 doctor) and 23% postoperation. One thousand strains were tested by agar dilution against methicillin and chlorhexidine. MRSE had a 2-8-fold increased resistance to chlorhexidine compared to a greater than 256-fold to methicillin. Thus although chlorhexidine has a marked persistent effect on skin flora, emergence of major resistance is unlikely. Use of postoperative chlorhexidine should be investigated further.

  9. Chronic Inflammation in Skin Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is linked to the development and progression of multiple cancers, including those of the lung, stomach, liver, colon, breast and skin. Inflammation not only drives the oncogenic transformation of epithelial cells under the stress of chronic infection and autoimmune diseases, but also promotes the growth, progression and metastatic spread of cancers. Tumor-infiltrating inflammatory cells are comprised of a diverse population of myeloid and immune cell types, including monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, T and B cells, and others. Different myeloid and lymphoid cells within tumor microenvironment exert diverse, often contradicting, effects during skin cancer development and progression. The nature of tumor-immune interaction determines the rate of cancer progression and the outcome of cancer treatment. Inflammatory environment within skin tumor also inhibits naturally occurring anti-tumor immunity and limits the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy. In this article we aim to give an overview on the mechanism by which inflammation interferes with the development and therapeutic intervention of cancers, especially those of the skin.

  10. Skin Failure: An Emerging Concept.

    PubMed

    Levine, Jeffrey M

    2016-07-01

    Skin failure is an emerging concept that clarifies trends in clinical practice. Its recognition provides common nomenclature, opens research directions, and questions assumptions regarding pressure ulcers as a quality measure. Adoption of the term is a step toward uniform terminology in compliance with a value based payment system.

  11. Moon Technology for Skin Care

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Estee Lauder uses digital image analyzer and software based on NASA lunar research in evaluation of cosmetic products for skincare. Digital image processing brings out subtleties otherwise undetectable, and allows better determination of product's effectiveness. Technique allows Estee Lauder to quantify changes in skin surface form and structure caused by application of cosmetic preparations.

  12. Climate change and skin cancer.

    PubMed

    van der Leun, Jan C; de Gruijl, Frank R

    2002-05-01

    Depletion of the ozone layer and climate change by the increasing greenhouse effect are distinctly different processes. It is becoming quite clear, however, that the two global environmental problems are interlinked in several ways [D. L. Albritton, P. J Aucamp, G. Mégie, R. T. Watson, Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion, 1998, World Meteorological Organization, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project, Report No. 44 (WMO, Geneva, 1998)]. In the present analysis we deal with the possibility of such an interlinkage within one effect on human health, namely, skin cancer. The increase in the incidence of skin cancer is one of the most extensively studied effects of increasing ultraviolet radiation by ozone depletion (F. R. de Gruijl, Skin cancer and solar radiation, Eur. J Cancer, 1999, 35, 2003-2009). We wondered if this impact could also be influenced by increasing environmental temperatures. Here we show that it is likely that such an influence will occur. For the same reason, it is likely that the baseline incidence of skin cancer will be augmented by rising temperatures, which may become significant in magnitude.

  13. TRP channels in the skin

    PubMed Central

    Tóth, Balázs I; Oláh, Attila; Szöllősi, Attila Gábor; Bíró, Tamás

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels not only act as ‘polymodal cellular sensors’ on sensory neurons but are also functionally expressed by a multitude of non-neuronal cell types. This is especially true in the skin, one of the largest organs of the body, where they appear to be critically involved in regulating various cutaneous functions both under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. In this review, we focus on introducing the roles of several cutaneous TRP channels in the regulation of the skin barrier, skin cell proliferation and differentiation, and immune functions. Moreover, we also describe the putative involvement of several TRP channels in the development of certain skin diseases and identify future TRP channel-targeted therapeutic opportunities. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on the pharmacology of TRP channels. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-10 PMID:24372189

  14. Vitamin D and the skin.

    PubMed

    Shahriari, Mona; Kerr, Philip E; Slade, Karren; Grant-Kels, Jane E

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin D is a fat-soluble nutrient that humans obtain through the diet and by synthesis in the skin upon exposure to ultraviolet B. Vitamin D is then converted by the liver to 25-hydroxyvitamin D, its major circulating form. This form is the best indicator of vitamin D nutritional status and is easily measured. Under the influence of parathyroid hormone, the kidney then converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, the biologically active, hormonal form of the nutrient that is important in the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus and is critical in building and maintaining healthy bones. Many cell types outside of the skeletal system, including various cells in the skin, also express the vitamin D receptor. In addition, many cell types convert circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D for local use. This metabolite has been shown to exert potent effects on cellular differentiation, cellular proliferation, and immune regulation. It is theorized that by these mechanisms vitamin D and its analogues are effective treatment options for psoriasis and other skin diseases. Insufficient vitamin D nutritional status has been associated with a host of other diseases, most notably cancer. There is evidence that supplementation with vitamin D reduces the overall incidence of cancer, although current evidence is insufficient to prove a causative effect. Sunscreen use blocks the ability of the skin to photosynthesize vitamin D, although the effect this has on the vitamin D status of the general population is unclear.

  15. The Microbiota of the Human Skin.

    PubMed

    Egert, Markus; Simmering, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to sum up important progress in the field of human skin microbiota research that was achieved over the last years.The human skin is one of the largest and most versatile organs of the human body. Owing to its function as a protective interface between the largely sterile interior of the human body and the highly microbially contaminated outer environment, it is densely colonized with a diverse and active microbiota. This skin microbiota is of high importance for human health and well-being. It is implicated in several severe skin diseases and plays a major role in wound infections. Many less severe, but negatively perceived cosmetic skin phenomena are linked with skin microbes, too. In addition, skin microorganisms, in particular on the human hands, are crucial for the field of hygiene research. Notably, apart from being only a potential source of disease and contamination, the skin microbiota also contributes to the protective functions of the human skin in many ways. Finally, the analysis of structure and function of the human skin microbiota is interesting from a basic, evolutionary perspective on human microbe interactions.Key questions in the field of skin microbiota research deal with (a) a deeper understanding of the structure (species inventory) and function (physiology) of the healthy human skin microbiota in space and time, (b) the distinction of resident and transient skin microbiota members, PMID:27161351

  16. The Microbiota of the Human Skin.

    PubMed

    Egert, Markus; Simmering, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to sum up important progress in the field of human skin microbiota research that was achieved over the last years.The human skin is one of the largest and most versatile organs of the human body. Owing to its function as a protective interface between the largely sterile interior of the human body and the highly microbially contaminated outer environment, it is densely colonized with a diverse and active microbiota. This skin microbiota is of high importance for human health and well-being. It is implicated in several severe skin diseases and plays a major role in wound infections. Many less severe, but negatively perceived cosmetic skin phenomena are linked with skin microbes, too. In addition, skin microorganisms, in particular on the human hands, are crucial for the field of hygiene research. Notably, apart from being only a potential source of disease and contamination, the skin microbiota also contributes to the protective functions of the human skin in many ways. Finally, the analysis of structure and function of the human skin microbiota is interesting from a basic, evolutionary perspective on human microbe interactions.Key questions in the field of skin microbiota research deal with (a) a deeper understanding of the structure (species inventory) and function (physiology) of the healthy human skin microbiota in space and time, (b) the distinction of resident and transient skin microbiota members,

  17. Enhanced chlorhexidine skin penetration with eucalyptus oil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) is a widely used skin antiseptic, however it poorly penetrates the skin, limiting its efficacy against microorganisms residing beneath the surface layers of skin. The aim of the current study was to improve the delivery of chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) when used as a skin antiseptic. Method Chlorhexidine was applied to the surface of donor skin and its penetration and retention under different conditions was evaluated. Skin penetration studies were performed on full-thickness donor human skin using a Franz diffusion cell system. Skin was exposed to 2% (w/v) CHG in various concentrations of eucalyptus oil (EO) and 70% (v/v) isopropyl alcohol (IPA). The concentration of CHG (μg/mg of skin) was determined to a skin depth of 1500 μm by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results The 2% (w/v) CHG penetration into the lower layers of skin was significantly enhanced in the presence of EO. Ten percent (v/v) EO in combination with 2% (w/v) CHG in 70% (v/v) IPA significantly increased the amount of CHG which penetrated into the skin within 2 min. Conclusion The delivery of CHG into the epidermis and dermis can be enhanced by combination with EO, which in turn may improve biocide contact with additional microorganisms present in the skin, thereby enhancing antisepsis. PMID:20860796

  18. Mechanisms of imiquimod skin penetration.

    PubMed

    Telò, Isabella; Pescina, Silvia; Padula, Cristina; Santi, Patrizia; Nicoli, Sara

    2016-09-10

    Imiquimod (IMQ) ia an immunostimulating drug used for the treatment of neoplastic skin diseases, such as actinic keratosis (AK) and superficial basal cell carcinoma (sBCC), and as adjuvant for vaccination. Imiquimod formulation and skin delivery is highly challenging because of its very low solubility in most pharmaceutical excipients and poor penetration properties. Objectives of the work were: (1) to evaluate IMQ solubility in different solvents and pharmaceutical excipients; (2) to evaluate IMQ skin retention after the application of simple saturated solutions; (3) to evaluate the role of stratum corneum and solvent uptake on IMQ skin retention and (4) to formulate IMQ in microemulsions - prepared using previously investigated components - and compare them with the commercial formulation. The results show that IMQ solubility is not related to the solubility parameter of the solvents considered. The highest solubility was found with oleic acid (74mg/ml); in the case of PEGs, the solubility increased linearly with MW (PEG 200: 1.9mg/ml; PEG 400 7.3mg/ml, PEG 600 12.8mg/ml). Imiquimod skin retention from saturated solutions (Tween 80, oleic acid, propylene glycol, PEG 200, PEG 400, PEG 600, Transcutol, 2-pyrrolidone, DMSO) resulted relatively similar, being 1.6μg/cm(2) in case of oleic acid (solubility 74mg/ml) and 0.18μg/cm(2) in case of propylene glycol (solubility 0.60mg/ml). Permeation experiments on stripped skin (no stratum corneum) and isolated dermis as well as uptake experiments on isolated stratum corneum sheets demonstrated that IMQ accumulation is related to skin solvent uptake. Finally, microemulsions (MEs) prepared with the above-studied components demonstrated a very good performance. In particular, a ME composed of 10% oleic acid, 35% Transcutol, 35% Tween 80 and 20% water is able to accumulate the same amount of drug as the commercial formulation but with far more efficiency, since its concentration was 12 times lower. PMID:27452419

  19. Sun’s effect on skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... outer) layer are cells that contain the pigment melanin. Melanin protects skin from the sun's ultraviolet rays, which ... to sunlight causes the skin to produce more melanin and to darken. The tan fades as these ...

  20. What Causes Our Skin to Age?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find a dermatologist What causes our skin to age? Many things cause our skin to age. Some ... Us Media contacts Advertising contacts AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2016 American Academy ...

  1. Turbine vane with high temperature capable skins

    DOEpatents

    Morrison, Jay A.

    2012-07-10

    A turbine vane assembly includes an airfoil extending between an inner shroud and an outer shroud. The airfoil can include a substructure having an outer peripheral surface. At least a portion of the outer peripheral surface is covered by an external skin. The external skin can be made of a high temperature capable material, such as oxide dispersion strengthened alloys, intermetallic alloys, ceramic matrix composites or refractory alloys. The external skin can be formed, and the airfoil can be subsequently bi-cast around or onto the skin. The skin and the substructure can be attached by a plurality of attachment members extending between the skin and the substructure. The skin can be spaced from the outer peripheral surface of the substructure such that a cavity is formed therebetween. Coolant can be supplied to the cavity. Skins can also be applied to the gas path faces of the inner and outer shrouds.

  2. The skin landscape following nonoptical capacitance imaging.

    PubMed

    Xhauflaire-Uhoda, Emmanuelle; Piérard, Gérald E; Quatresooz, Pascale

    2010-01-01

    Skin capacitance is an electrical property measurable at the level of the stratum corneum. Values are related to the moisture content of the tissue. Using the silicon image sensor technology, it has recently become possible to measure capacitance at 50 microm intervals on the skin surface. The resulting nonoptical picture corresponds to skin capacitance imaging. This novel tool for dermatologists highlights with precision the hollow skin surface patterns, including dermatoglyphics, the patterns of the shallow skin lines, and wrinkles. The topographic heterogeneity in skin surface hydration is made visible. In addition, the sweat gland and follicular openings are disclosed. Skin disorders induced by surfactants or presenting as hyperkeratotic areas, including some neoplasms, may show typical aspects. It is concluded that skin capacitance imaging brings added value to the clinical assessment performed by dermatologists. PMID:20141229

  3. Skin Bioprinting: Impending Reality or Fantasy?

    PubMed

    Ng, Wei Long; Wang, Shuai; Yeong, Wai Yee; Naing, May Win

    2016-09-01

    Bioprinting provides a fully automated and advanced platform that facilitates the simultaneous and highly specific deposition of multiple types of skin cells and biomaterials, a process that is lacking in conventional skin tissue-engineering approaches. Here, we provide a realistic, current overview of skin bioprinting, distinguishing facts from myths. We present an in-depth analysis of both current skin bioprinting works and the cellular and matrix components of native human skin. We also highlight current limitations and achievements, followed by design considerations and a future outlook for skin bioprinting. The potential of bioprinting with converging opportunities in biology, material, and computational design will eventually facilitate the fabrication of improved tissue-engineered (TE) skin constructs, making bioprinting skin an impending reality. PMID:27167724

  4. Sunscreens, Skin Cancer, and Your Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Terence M.; Wolfe, Dana P.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of sunlight on skin are described. The principal types of sunscreens and their properties are discussed. The three types of skin tumors, their cure rates, and treatment methods are examined. (Author/MT)

  5. X-ray microanalysis of psoriatic skin

    SciTech Connect

    Grundin, T.G.; Roomans, G.M.; Forslind, B.; Lindberg, M.; Werner, Y.

    1985-10-01

    Electron probe x-ray microanalysis was used to study elemental distribution in uninvolved and involved skin from patients with psoriasis, and in skin from healthy controls. Significant differences were found between the involved and uninvolved psoriatic skin. In the involved skin, the concentrations of Mg, P, and K were higher in the stratum germinativum, spinosum, and granulosum, compared to the corresponding strata in uninvolved skin. Neither involved nor uninvolved psoriatic stratum germinativum differed markedly from nonpsoriatic control stratum germinativum. In uninvolved psoriatic skin only a lower level of K was noted. In comparison to uninvolved psoriatic skin, the elemental composition of the various strata of involved psoriatic skin shows a pattern typical for highly proliferative, nonneoplastic cells.

  6. Disposable baby wipes: efficacy and skin mildness.

    PubMed

    Odio, M; Streicher-Scott, J; Hansen, R C

    2001-04-01

    The results of a series of four clinical studies demonstrated that disposable baby wipes were milder to the skin than use of a cotton washcloth and water, recognized as a "gold standard" for skin mildness. Importantly, the baby wipes caused no significant change from the baseline value in any of the skin parameters examined. This observation verified that the test wipes are minimally disruptive to the epidermal barrier and thus suitable for use on intact or compromised, irritated skin. PMID:11917305

  7. Predicting chemically-induced skin reactions. Part II: QSAR models of skin permeability and the relationships between skin permeability and skin sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Vinicius M.; Muratov, Eugene; Fourches, Denis; Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Andrade, Carolina H.; Tropsha, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Skin permeability is widely considered to be mechanistically implicated in chemically-induced skin sensitization. Although many chemicals have been identified as skin sensitizers, there have been very few reports analyzing the relationships between molecular structure and skin permeability of sensitizers and non-sensitizers. The goals of this study were to: (i) compile, curate, and integrate the largest publicly available dataset of chemicals studied for their skin permeability; (ii) develop and rigorously validate QSAR models to predict skin permeability; and (iii) explore the complex relationships between skin sensitization and skin permeability. Based on the largest publicly available dataset compiled in this study, we found no overall correlation between skin permeability and skin sensitization. In addition, cross-species correlation coefficient between human and rodent permeability data was found to be as low as R2=0.44. Human skin permeability models based on the random forest method have been developed and validated using OECD-compliant QSAR modeling workflow. Their external accuracy was high (Q2ext = 0.73 for 63% of external compounds inside the applicability domain). The extended analysis using both experimentally-measured and QSAR-imputed data still confirmed the absence of any overall concordance between skin permeability and skin sensitization. This observation suggests that chemical modifications that affect skin permeability should not be presumed a priori to modulate the sensitization potential of chemicals. The models reported herein as well as those developed in the companion paper on skin sensitization suggest that it may be possible to rationally design compounds with the desired high skin permeability but low sensitization potential. PMID:25560673

  8. Facial skin care products and cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2014-01-01

    Facial skin care products and cosmetics can both aid or incite facial dermatoses. Properly selected skin care can create an environment for barrier repair aiding in the re-establishment of a healing biofilm and diminution of facial redness; however, skin care products that aggressively remove intercellular lipids or cause irritation must be eliminated before the red face will resolve. Cosmetics are an additive variable either aiding or challenging facial skin health.

  9. Automated screening of pigmentary skin neoplasms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudrin, Konstantin G.; Matorin, Oleg V.; Reshetov, Igor V.

    2015-01-01

    We have analysed the clinical symptoms and the malignization signs of pigmented skin neoplasms. We have estimated the complex of clinical parameters which could be measured for the purpose of skin screening diagnostic via digital image processing. Allowable errors of clinical parameter characterization have been calculated, and the origin of these errors has been discussed. Proposed technique for automated screening of pigmentary skin neoplasms should become an effective tool for early skin diagnostics.

  10. Color structured light imaging of skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bin; Lesicko, John; Moy, Austin; Reichenberg, Jason; Sacks, Michael; Tunnell, James W.

    2016-05-01

    We illustrate wide-field imaging of skin using a structured light (SL) approach that highlights the contrast from superficial tissue scattering. Setting the spatial frequency of the SL in a regime that limits the penetration depth effectively gates the image for photons that originate from the skin surface. Further, rendering the SL images in a color format provides an intuitive format for viewing skin pathologies. We demonstrate this approach in skin pathologies using a custom-built handheld SL imaging system.

  11. Achieving skin to skin contact in theatre for healthy newborns.

    PubMed

    2015-06-01

    The evidence base is supportive of early skin to skin contact (SSC) for optimal newborn-physiological adaptation, bonding and breastfeeding, and national guidelines encourage SSC as soon as possible, regardless of mode of birth. With an ever-rising caesarean (CS) rate, implementing SSC in theatre stands to benefit an increasing number of mothers and babies. While it may be best practice, in reality there is a lot of variation from trust to trust, and many hospitals do not facilitate it, citing numerous reasons as to why it is not possible. Midwives may feel that they should focus on norma birth, but it is our role to provide holistic care and normalise birth in all settings. This article looks at current evidence and the role of the midwife around facilitating SSC in theatre with an example from practice of how change has been implemented so that mothers and babies get the best start in life. PMID:26320329

  12. Electrochemical Skin Conductance Correlates with Skin Nerve Fiber Density

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Electrochemical skin conductance (ESC) using reverse iontophoresis and chronoamperometry has been used to evaluate abnormal function of small fibers. How ESC correlates with loss of small fibers in skin is unclear. Methods: This was a prospective, blinded study. The primary outcome measure was the correlation between ESC at the feet and results of skin biopsies including epidermal nerve fiber density (ENFD) and sweat gland nerve fiber density (SGNFD) at the distal leg. ESC, ENFD, and SGNFD data were normalized by adjusting for weight. The secondary outcome measures were the correlation between ESC and the following variables: quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test (QSART) and symptom scales (neuropathy, pain and autonomic). Results: Eighty-one patients (mean ± sd): age = 53.3 ± 17.3, men/women = 25/56 were enrolled in the study. ESC was reduced in subjects with abnormally low ENFD (ENFD normal/abnormal, ESC = 1.17 ± 0.27/0.87 ± 0.34 μSiemens/kg, p < 0.0008) and abnormally low SGNFD (SGNFD normal/abnormal ESC = 1.09 ± 0.34/0.78 ± 0.3 μSiemens/kg, p < 0.0003). ESC correlated with ENFD (ρ = 0.73, p = 0.0001) and SGNFD (ρ = 0.64, p = 0.0001). ESC did not correlate with symptom scales. Conclusion: ESC is diminished in subjects who have a reduced number of small fibers in the skin and the ESC reduction is proportional to ENFD and SGNFD. ESC can be useful in detecting loss of small nerve fibers. PMID:27605912

  13. Electrochemical Skin Conductance Correlates with Skin Nerve Fiber Density

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Electrochemical skin conductance (ESC) using reverse iontophoresis and chronoamperometry has been used to evaluate abnormal function of small fibers. How ESC correlates with loss of small fibers in skin is unclear. Methods: This was a prospective, blinded study. The primary outcome measure was the correlation between ESC at the feet and results of skin biopsies including epidermal nerve fiber density (ENFD) and sweat gland nerve fiber density (SGNFD) at the distal leg. ESC, ENFD, and SGNFD data were normalized by adjusting for weight. The secondary outcome measures were the correlation between ESC and the following variables: quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test (QSART) and symptom scales (neuropathy, pain and autonomic). Results: Eighty-one patients (mean ± sd): age = 53.3 ± 17.3, men/women = 25/56 were enrolled in the study. ESC was reduced in subjects with abnormally low ENFD (ENFD normal/abnormal, ESC = 1.17 ± 0.27/0.87 ± 0.34 μSiemens/kg, p < 0.0008) and abnormally low SGNFD (SGNFD normal/abnormal ESC = 1.09 ± 0.34/0.78 ± 0.3 μSiemens/kg, p < 0.0003). ESC correlated with ENFD (ρ = 0.73, p = 0.0001) and SGNFD (ρ = 0.64, p = 0.0001). ESC did not correlate with symptom scales. Conclusion: ESC is diminished in subjects who have a reduced number of small fibers in the skin and the ESC reduction is proportional to ENFD and SGNFD. ESC can be useful in detecting loss of small nerve fibers.

  14. Human skin surface evaluation by image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Liangen; Zhan, Xuemin; Xie, Fengying

    2003-12-01

    Human skin gradually lose its tension and becomes very dry as time flies by. Use of cosmetics is effective to prevent skin aging. Recently, there are many choices of products of cosmetics. To show their effects, It is desirable to develop a way to evaluate quantificationally skin surface condition. In this paper, An automatic skin evaluating method is proposed. The skin surface has the pattern called grid-texture. This pattern is composed of the valleys that spread vertically, horizontally, and obliquely and the hills separated by them. Changes of the grid are closely linked to the skin surface condition. They can serve as a good indicator for the skin condition. By measuring the skin grid using digital image processing technologies, we can evaluate skin surface about its aging, health, and alimentary status. In this method, the skin grid is first detected to form a closed net. Then, some skin parameters such as Roughness, tension, scale and gloss can be calculated from the statistical measurements of the net. Through analyzing these parameters, the condition of the skin can be monitored.

  15. Protecting Our Children from Skin Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Paul

    1993-01-01

    Skin cancer in the United States is epidemic. About 90% of skin cancers are caused by sun exposure. The age of patients developing melanoma is dropping dramatically. Parents must protect their children from the sun during all outdoor activities year round. The article presents recommendations for preventing skin cancer. (SM)

  16. Models to assess perfume diffusion from skin.

    PubMed

    Schwarzenbach, R; Bertschi, L

    2001-04-01

    Temperature, fragrance concentration on the skin and power of ventilation have been determined as crucial parameters in fragrance diffusion from skin. A tool has been developed to simulate perfume diffusion from skin over time, allowing headspace analysis and fragrance profile assessments in a highly reproducible way.

  17. 7 CFR 51.1549 - Skinning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Skinning. 51.1549 Section 51.1549 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Skinning § 51.1549 Skinning. (a) The following definitions provide a basis for describing lots of potatoes as to the degree of...

  18. 7 CFR 51.1549 - Skinning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Skinning. 51.1549 Section 51.1549 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Skinning § 51.1549 Skinning. (a) The following definitions provide a basis for describing lots of potatoes as to the degree of...

  19. Mycologic disorders of the skin.

    PubMed

    Outerbridge, Catherine A

    2006-08-01

    Cutaneous tissue can become infected when fungal organisms contaminate or colonize the epidermal surface or hair follicles. The skin can be a portal of entry for fungal infection when the epithelial barrier is breached or it can be a site for disseminated, systemic fungal disease. The two most common cutaneous fungal infections in small animals are dermatophytosis and Malassezia dermatitis. Dermatophytosis is a superficial cutaneous infection with one or more of the fungal species in the keratinophilic genera Microsporum, Trichophyton, or Epidermophyton. Malassezia pachydermatis is a nonlipid dependent fungal species that is a normal commensal inhabitant of the skin and external ear canal in dogs and cats. Malassezia pachydermatis is the most common cause of Malassezia dermatitis. The diagnosis and treatment of these cutaneous fungal infections will be discussed. PMID:16933479

  20. Skin phototype: a new perspective.

    PubMed

    Maresca, Vittoria; Flori, Enrica; Picardo, Mauro

    2015-07-01

    Cutaneous phototype is considered mainly related to cutaneous pigmentation and to the eumelanin/pheomelanin ratio, which is mostly genetically determined by the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) polymorphisms. However, data in literature indicate that, in addition to stimulation of eumelanin synthesis, the MC1R signalling activates antioxidant, DNA repair and survival pathways. New emerging aspects regarding photoprotection and skin phototypes are going beyond those features connected to the melanin content in the skin. Important new findings link the MC1R to nuclear receptors activation, shedding light on new extra-melanogenic effects dependent on the α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) activity and new ways through which such functions are modulated. These evidences indicate that several factors including melanin play a part in defining the basis for individual sun sensitivity, suggesting that the cutaneous phototype represents a 'biochemical fingerprint'.

  1. Phototherapy for sclerosing skin conditions.

    PubMed

    Teske, Noelle M; Jacobe, Heidi T

    2016-01-01

    Phototherapy is an effective treatment strategy for a variety of sclerosing skin conditions. There are a number of phototherapeutic modalities used for the treatment of sclerosing skin conditions, including ultraviolet (UV)A1, broadband UVA, psoralen plus UVA, and narrowband UVB phototherapy. As controlled trials with validated outcome measures are lacking for these therapies, existing evidence is largely level II for morphea and is even more minimal for scleroderma and other sclerosing disorders (scleroderma, lichen sclerosus, and chronic graft-versus-host disease, among others). Studies do suggest that phototherapy may be effective for many of these disorders, including those that have been unresponsive to other therapies. Phototherapy remains an attractive therapeutic option for patients due to its efficacy and favorable risk-versus-benefit profile. Phototherapy also offers a therapeutic alternative to systemic immunosuppressives for patients who cannot tolerate these medications. PMID:27638441

  2. Health effects of probiotics on the skin.

    PubMed

    Roudsari, M Rahmati; Karimi, R; Sohrabvandi, S; Mortazavian, A M

    2015-01-01

    Skin is the largest organ of the body and is constantly exposed to physical, chemical, bacterial, and fungal challenges. It is well known that probiotics are helpful for specific disorders and different clinical studies have indicated that probiotics have special effects in cutaneous apparatus directly or indirectly that can be considerable from versatile aspects. Probiotic bacteriotherapy can have great potential in preventing and treating the skin diseases including eczema, atopic dermatitis, acne, and allergic inflammation or in skin hypersensitivity, UV-induced skin damage, wound protection, and as a cosmetic product. The current paper comprehensively reviews the different health effects of probiotics on the skin.

  3. Common Skin Rashes in Children.

    PubMed

    Allmon, Amanda; Deane, Kristen; Martin, Kari L

    2015-08-01

    Because childhood rashes may be difficult to differentiate by appearance alone, it is important to consider the entire clinical presentation to help make the appropriate diagnosis. Considerations include the appearance and location of the rash; the clinical course; and associated symptoms, such as pruritus or fever. A fever is likely to occur with roseola, erythema infectiosum (fifth disease), and scarlet fever. Pruritus sometimes occurs with atopic dermatitis, pityriasis rosea, erythema infectiosum, molluscum contagiosum, and tinea infection. The key feature of roseola is a rash presenting after resolution of a high fever, whereas the distinguishing features in pityriasis rosea are a herald patch and a bilateral and symmetric rash in a Christmas tree pattern. The rash associated with scarlet fever usually develops on the upper trunk, then spreads throughout the body, sparing the palms and soles. Impetigo is a superficial bacterial infection that most commonly affects the face and extremities of children. Erythema infectiosum is characterized by a viral prodrome followed by the "slapped cheek" facial rash. Flesh-colored or pearly white papules with central umbilication occur with molluscum contagiosum, a highly contagious viral infection that usually resolves without intervention. Tinea is a common fungal skin infection in children that affects the scalp, body, groin, feet, hands, or nails. Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, relapsing inflammatory skin condition that may present with a variety of skin changes. PMID:26280141

  4. Diagnosing Common Benign Skin Tumors.

    PubMed

    Higgins, James C; Maher, Michael H; Douglas, Mark S

    2015-10-01

    Patients will experience a wide range of skin growths and changes over their lifetime. Family physicians should be able to distinguish potentially malignant from benign skin tumors. Most lesions can be diagnosed on the basis of history and clinical examination. Lesions that are suspicious for malignancy, those with changing characteristics, symptomatic lesions, and those that cause cosmetic problems may warrant medical therapy, a simple office procedure (e.g., excision, cryosurgery, laser ablation), or referral. Acrochordons are extremely common, small, and typically pedunculated benign neoplasms. Simple scissor or shave excision, electrodesiccation, or cryosurgery can be used for treatment. Sebaceous hyperplasia presents as asymptomatic, discrete, soft, pale yellow, shiny bumps on the forehead or cheeks, or near hair follicles. Except for cosmesis, they have no clinical significance. Lipomas are soft, flesh-colored nodules that are easily moveable under the overlying skin. Keratoacanthomas are rapidly growing, squamoproliferative benign tumors that resemble squamous cell carcinomas. Early simple excision is recommended. Pyogenic granuloma is a rapidly growing nodule that bleeds easily. Treatment includes laser ablation or shave excision with electrodesiccation of the base. Dermatofibromas are an idiopathic benign proliferation of fibroblasts. No treatment is required unless there is a change in size or color, bleeding, or irritation from trauma. Epidermal inclusion cysts can be treated by simple excision with removal of the cyst and cyst wall. Seborrheic keratoses and cherry angiomas generally do not require treatment. PMID:26447443

  5. Febrile Illness with Skin Rashes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Skin rashes that appear during febrile illnesses are in fact caused by various infectious diseases. Since infectious exanthematous diseases range from mild infections that disappear naturally to severe infectious diseases, focus on and basic knowledge of these diseases is very important. But, these include non-infectious diseases, so that comprehensive knowledge of these other diseases is required. Usually, early diagnostic testing for a febrile illness with a rash is inefficient. For clinical diagnosis of diseases accompanied by skin rash and fever, a complete history must be taken, including recent travel, contact with animals, medications, and exposure to forests and other natural environments. In addition, time of onset of symptoms and the characteristics of the rash itself (morphology, location, distribution) could be helpful in the clinical diagnosis. It is also critical to understand the patient's history of specific underlying diseases. However, diagnostic basic tests could be helpful in diagnosis if they are repeated and the clinical course is monitored. Generally, skin rashes are nonspecific and self-limited. Therefore, it could be clinically meaningful as a characteristic diagnostic finding in a very small subset of specific diseases. PMID:26483989

  6. Human papillomaviruses and skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Smola, Sigrun

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) infect squamous epithelia and can induce hyperproliferative lesions. More than 120 different HPV types have been characterized and classified into five different genera. While mucosal high-risk HPVs have a well-established causal role in anogenital carcinogenesis, the biology of cutaneous HPVs is less well understood. The clinical relevance of genus beta-PV infection has clearly been demonstrated in patients suffering from epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV), a rare inherited disease associated with ahigh rate of skin cancer. In the normal population genus beta-PV are suspected to have an etiologic role in skin carcinogenesis as well but this is still controversially discussed. Their oncogenic potency has been investigated in mouse models and in vitro. In 2009, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified the genus beta HPV types 5 and 8 as "possible carcinogenic" biological agents (group 2B) in EV disease. This chapter will give an overview on the knowns and unknowns of infections with genus beta-PV and discuss their potential impact on skin carcinogenesis in the general population.

  7. Essentials of skin laceration repair.

    PubMed

    Forsch, Randall T

    2008-10-15

    Skin laceration repair is an important skill in family medicine. Sutures, tissue adhesives, staples, and skin-closure tapes are options in the outpatient setting. Physicians should be familiar with various suturing techniques, including simple, running, and half-buried mattress (corner) sutures. Although suturing is the preferred method for laceration repair, tissue adhesives are similar in patient satisfaction, infection rates, and scarring risk in low skin-tension areas and may be more cost-effective. The tissue adhesive hair apposition technique also is effective in repairing scalp lacerations. The sting of local anesthesia injections can be lessened by using smaller gauge needles, administering the injection slowly, and warming or buffering the solution. Studies have shown that tap water is safe to use for irrigation, that white petrolatum ointment is as effective as antibiotic ointment in postprocedure care, and that wetting the wound as early as 12 hours after repair does not increase the risk of infection. Patient education and appropriate procedural coding are important after the repair. PMID:18953970

  8. Common Skin Rashes in Children.

    PubMed

    Allmon, Amanda; Deane, Kristen; Martin, Kari L

    2015-08-01

    Because childhood rashes may be difficult to differentiate by appearance alone, it is important to consider the entire clinical presentation to help make the appropriate diagnosis. Considerations include the appearance and location of the rash; the clinical course; and associated symptoms, such as pruritus or fever. A fever is likely to occur with roseola, erythema infectiosum (fifth disease), and scarlet fever. Pruritus sometimes occurs with atopic dermatitis, pityriasis rosea, erythema infectiosum, molluscum contagiosum, and tinea infection. The key feature of roseola is a rash presenting after resolution of a high fever, whereas the distinguishing features in pityriasis rosea are a herald patch and a bilateral and symmetric rash in a Christmas tree pattern. The rash associated with scarlet fever usually develops on the upper trunk, then spreads throughout the body, sparing the palms and soles. Impetigo is a superficial bacterial infection that most commonly affects the face and extremities of children. Erythema infectiosum is characterized by a viral prodrome followed by the "slapped cheek" facial rash. Flesh-colored or pearly white papules with central umbilication occur with molluscum contagiosum, a highly contagious viral infection that usually resolves without intervention. Tinea is a common fungal skin infection in children that affects the scalp, body, groin, feet, hands, or nails. Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, relapsing inflammatory skin condition that may present with a variety of skin changes.

  9. Proteoglycans in Normal and Healing Skin

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Margaret Mary; Melrose, James

    2015-01-01

    Significance: Proteoglycans have a distinct spatial localization in normal skin and are essential for the correct structural development, organization, hydration, and functional properties of this tissue. The extracellular matrix (ECM) is no longer considered to be just an inert supportive material but is a source of directive, spatial and temporal, contextual information to the cells via components such as the proteoglycans. There is a pressing need to improve our understanding of how these important molecules functionally interact with other matrix structures, cells and cellular mediators in normal skin and during wound healing. Recent Advances: New antibodies to glycosaminoglycan side chain components of skin proteoglycans have facilitated the elucidation of detailed localization patterns within skin. Other studies have revealed important proliferative activities of proteinase-generated fragments of proteoglycans and other ECM components (matricryptins). Knockout mice have further established the functional importance of skin proteoglycans in the assembly and homeostasis of the normal skin ECM. Critical Issues: Our comprehension of the molecular and structural complexity of skin as a complex, dynamic, constantly renewing, layered connective tissue is incomplete. The impact of changes in proteoglycans on skin pathology and the wound healing process is recognized as an important area of pathobiology and is an area of intense investigation. Future Directions: Advanced technology is allowing the development of new artificial skins. Recent knowledge on skin proteoglycans can be used to incorporate these molecules into useful adjunct therapies for wound healing and for maintenance of optimal tissue homeostasis in aging skin. PMID:25785238

  10. Near real-time skin deformation mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacenjar, Steve; Chen, Suzie; Jafri, Madiha; Wall, Brian; Pedersen, Richard; Bezozo, Richard

    2013-02-01

    A novel in vivo approach is described that provides large area mapping of the mechanical properties of the skin in human patients. Such information is important in the understanding of skin health, cosmetic surgery[1], aging, and impacts of sun exposure. Currently, several methods have been developed to estimate the local biomechanical properties of the skin, including the use of a physical biopsy of local areas of the skin (in vitro methods) [2, 3, and 4], and also the use of non-invasive methods (in vivo) [5, 6, and 7]. All such methods examine localized areas of the skin. Our approach examines the local elastic properties via the generation of field displacement maps of the skin created using time-sequence imaging [9] with 2D digital imaging correlation (DIC) [10]. In this approach, large areas of the skin are reviewed rapidly, and skin displacement maps are generated showing the contour maps of skin deformation. These maps are then used to precisely register skin images for purposes of diagnostic comparison. This paper reports on our mapping and registration approach, and demonstrates its ability to accurately measure the skin deformation through a described nulling interpolation process. The result of local translational DIC alignment is compared using this interpolation process. The effectiveness of the approach is reported in terms of residual RMS, image entropy measures, and differential segmented regional errors.

  11. Artificial skin in perspective: concepts and applications.

    PubMed

    Brohem, Carla A; Cardeal, Laura B da Silva; Tiago, Manoela; Soengas, María S; Barros, Silvia B de Moraes; Maria-Engler, Silvya S

    2011-02-01

    Skin, the largest organ of the human body, is organized into an elaborate layered structure consisting mainly of the outermost epidermis and the underlying dermis. A subcutaneous adipose-storing hypodermis layer and various appendages such as hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, nerves, lymphatics, and blood vessels are also present in the skin. These multiple components of the skin ensure survival by carrying out critical functions such as protection, thermoregulation, excretion, absorption, metabolic functions, sensation, evaporation management, and aesthetics. The study of how these biological functions are performed is critical to our understanding of basic skin biology such as regulation of pigmentation and wound repair. Impairment of any of these functions may lead to pathogenic alterations, including skin cancers. Therefore, the development of genetically controlled and well characterized skin models can have important implications, not only for scientists and physicians, but also for manufacturers, consumers, governing regulatory boards and animal welfare organizations. As cells making up human skin tissue grow within an organized three-dimensional (3D) matrix surrounded by neighboring cells, standard monolayer (2D) cell cultures do not recapitulate the physiological architecture of the skin. Several types of human skin recombinants, also called artificial skin, that provide this critical 3D structure have now been reconstructed in vitro. This review contemplates the use of these organotypic skin models in different applications, including substitutes to animal testing.

  12. Skin lightening preparations and the hydroquinone controversy.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2007-01-01

    Skin lightening preparations are widely used in dermatology by persons of all Fitzpatrick skin types. Fitzpatrick skin types I-III require local pigment lightening for the treatment of hormonally induced melasma and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation caused by acne and trauma. Fitzpatrick skin types IV and darker have an even greater need for skin lightening for social reasons, as well as pigmentary changes that occur around the eyes, in the intertriginous areas, following dermatitis, or with acne and trauma. The gold standard dermatologic agent for skin lightening was hydroquinone, until regulatory agencies in Japan, Europe, and most recently in the United States questioned the safety of this substance. This has encouraged research into alternative agents to inhibit skin pigmentation such as retinoids, mequinol, azelaic acid, arbutin, kojic acid, aleosin, licorice extract, ascorbic acid, soy proteins, and N-acetyl glucosamine. The efficacy and safety of each of these ingredients is examined as possible topical alternatives to hydroquinone. PMID:18045355

  13. Estimating physiological skin parameters from hyperspectral signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyas, Saurabh; Banerjee, Amit; Burlina, Philippe

    2013-05-01

    We describe an approach for estimating human skin parameters, such as melanosome concentration, collagen concentration, oxygen saturation, and blood volume, using hyperspectral radiometric measurements (signatures) obtained from in vivo skin. We use a computational model based on Kubelka-Munk theory and the Fresnel equations. This model forward maps the skin parameters to a corresponding multiband reflectance spectra. Machine-learning-based regression is used to generate the inverse map, and hence estimate skin parameters from hyperspectral signatures. We test our methods using synthetic and in vivo skin signatures obtained in the visible through the short wave infrared domains from 24 patients of both genders and Caucasian, Asian, and African American ethnicities. Performance validation shows promising results: good agreement with the ground truth and well-established physiological precepts. These methods have potential use in the characterization of skin abnormalities and in minimally-invasive prescreening of malignant skin cancers.

  14. Skin diseases following a Christmas tree pattern.

    PubMed

    Wollenberg, Andreas; Eames, Tatiana

    2011-01-01

    Pattern analysis of skin lesions is an art and a key competence of every dermatologist. Three major line patterns cover the human body-the dermatomes or Head zones, the nevoid lines of Blaschko, and the relaxed skin tension lines, or Langer lines. Head zones represent skin areas innervated from the same sensory neuronal segment or spinal nerve zone. Blaschko lines are borderlines of epidermal aberration caused by genetic mosaicism occurring in the early stages of embryogenesis. Langer lines show the direction of the lowest naturally occurring skin tension, and its thoracodorsal manifestation is the Christmas tree pattern. Here we review clinical aspects of pityriasis rosea, mycosis fungoides, stage 2 syphilis, exanthematic Kaposi sarcoma, exanthematic psoriasis, Leser-Trelat syndrome, and other primary skin diseases with a Christmas tree pattern. Secondary skin diseases, such as herpes zoster or indeterminate cell histiocytosis, may follow this pattern if they are linked to a primary skin disease by the Wolf isotopic response.

  15. A custom tailored model to investigate skin penetration in porcine skin and its comparison with human skin.

    PubMed

    Herbig, Michael E; Houdek, Pia; Gorissen, Sascha; Zorn-Kruppa, Michaela; Wladykowski, Ewa; Volksdorf, Thomas; Grzybowski, Stephan; Kolios, Georgios; Willers, Christoph; Mallwitz, Henning; Moll, Ingrid; Brandner, Johanna M

    2015-09-01

    Reliable models for the determination of skin penetration and permeation are important for the development of new drugs and formulations. The intention of our study was to develop a skin penetration model which (1) is viable and well supplied with nutrients during the period of the experiment (2) is mimicking human skin as far as possible, but still is independent from the problems of supply and heterogeneity, (3) can give information about the penetration into different compartments of the skin and (4) considers specific inter-individual differences in skin thickness. In addition, it should be quick and inexpensive (5) and without ethical implications (6). Using a chemically divers set of four topically approved active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), namely diclofenac, metronidazole, tazarotene, and terbinafine, we demonstrated that the model allows reliable determination of drug concentrations in different layers of the viable epidermis and dermis. For APIs susceptible for skin metabolism, the extent of metabolic transformation in epidermis and dermis can be monitored. Furthermore, a high degree of accordance in the ability for discrimination of skin concentrations of the substances in different layers was found in models derived from porcine and human skin. Viability, proliferation, differentiation and markers for skin barrier function were surveyed in the model. This model, which we call 'Hamburg model of skin penetration' is particularly suited to support a rational ranking and selection of dermatological formulations within drug development projects.

  16. 78 FR 63220 - Guidance for Industry on Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections: Developing Drugs for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin... guidance for industry entitled ``Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections: Developing Drugs for... drugs to treat acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI). This guidance finalizes...

  17. Unexpected skin barrier influence from nonionic emulsifiers.

    PubMed

    Bárány, E; Lindberg, M; Lodén, M

    2000-02-15

    Skin disorders are often treated with creams containing various active substances. The creams also contain emulsifiers, which are surface-active ingredients used to stabilize the emulsion. Emulsifiers are potential irritants and in the present study the influence of stearic acid, glyceryl stearate, PEG-2, -9, -40, and -100 stearate, steareth-2, -10 and -21 on normal as well as on irritated skin have been evaluated with non-invasive measurements. Test emulsions were created by incorporating 5% emulsifiers in a water/mineral oil mixture (50:50). The emulsions and their vehicle were then applied to normal skin for 48 h and to sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) damaged skin for 17 h in aluminum chambers. Twenty-four hours after removal of the chambers the test sites were evaluated for degree of irritation. In normal skin, the emulsifiers induced significant differences in TEWL but not in skin blood flow. Five of the emulsifiers increased TEWL. In SLS-damaged skin an aggravation of the irritation was expected. However, no differences regarding skin blood flow was noted from the emulsifiers. Furthermore, three emulsifiers unexpectedly decreased TEWL. These results highlight the possibility of absorption of these emulsifiers into the lipid bilayer, which increase TEWL in normal skin and decrease TEWL in damaged skin.

  18. Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria and Skin Health.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Ji Hye; Lee, Chang Y; Chung, Dae Kyun

    2016-10-25

    Human skin is the first defense barrier against the external environment, especially microbial pathogens and physical stimulation. Many studies on skin health with Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been published for many years, including prevention of skin disease and improvement of skin conditions. LAB, a major group of gram-positive bacteria, are known to be beneficial to human health by acting as probiotics. Recent studies have shown that LAB and their extracts have beneficial effects on maintenance and improvement of skin health. Oral administration of Lactobacillus delbrueckii inhibits the development of atopic disease. In addition, LAB and LAB extracts are known to have beneficial effects on intestinal diseases, with Lactobacillus plantarum having been shown to attenuate IL-10 deficient colitis. In addition to intestinal health, L. plantarum also has beneficial effects on skin. pLTA, which is lipoteichoic acid isolated from L. plantarum, has anti-photoaging effects on human skin cells by regulating the expression matrix meralloprotionase-1 (MMP-1) expression. While several studies have proposed a relationship between diseases of the skin and small intestines, there are currently no published reviews of the effects of LAB for skin health through regulation of intestinal conditions and the immune system. In this review, we discuss recent findings on the effects of LAB on skin health and its potential applications in beauty foods. PMID:26287529

  19. Principles of skin care in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Surber, C; Brandt, S; Cozzio, A; Kottner, J

    2015-12-01

    With aging, skin undergoes progressive structural and functional degeneration that leaves it prone to a wide variety of bothersome and even serious conditions and diseases. As skin conditions and diseases may affect all ages from cradle to grave, a disproportionate burden will clearly fall on the elderly and may significantly impact on quality of life (QoL). With a reduced ability of the skin to regenerate, the elderly are at an increased risk of skin breakdowns from even the simplest insults. It is therefore vital that skin care in the late adulthood is seen as a priority among both clinicians and caregivers. The scientific literature on diagnosing and assessing age-related skin conditions and diseases is vast; however, when it comes to preventive care and treatment, the scientific data available is less profound, and the recommendations are often based on personal experience, opinions or at best on consensus documents rather than on scientific data retrieved from controlled clinical trials. In addition to the absence of the scientific data, the imprecise terminology to describe the topical products, as well as the lack of understanding the essence of the vehicle, contributes to vague and often unhelpfully product recommendations. This paper aims to elucidate some basic principles of skincare, the choice of skincare products and their regulatory status. The paper discusses adherence to topical therapies, percutaneous absorption in the elderly, and skin surface pH and skin care. Lastly, it also discusses skin care principles in selected age related skin conditions and diseases.

  20. The role of cytokines in skin aging.

    PubMed

    Borg, M; Brincat, S; Camilleri, G; Schembri-Wismayer, P; Brincat, M; Calleja-Agius, J

    2013-10-01

    Cutaneous aging is one of the major noticeable menopausal complications that most women want to fight in their quest for an eternally youthful skin appearance. It may contribute to some maladies that occur in aging which, despite not being life-threatening, affect the well-being, psychological state and quality of life of aged women. Skin aging is mainly affected by three factors: chronological aging, decreased levels of estrogen after menopause, and environmental factors. Aged skin is characterized by a decrease in collagen content and skin thickness which result in dry, wrinkled skin that is easily bruised and takes a longer time to heal. Cytokines play a crucial role in the manifestation of these features of old skin. The pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibits collagen synthesis and enhances collagen degradation by increasing the production of MMP-9. It also lowers the skin immunity and thus increases the risk of cutaneous infections in old age. Deranged levels of several interleukins and interferons also affect the aging process. The high level of CCN1 protein in aged skin gives dermal fibroblasts an 'age-associated secretory phenotype' that causes abnormal homeostasis of skin collagen and leads to the loss of the function and integrity of skin. Further research is required especially to establish the role of cytokines in the treatment of cutaneous aging.

  1. The optics of human skin

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.R.; Parrish, J.A.

    1981-07-01

    An integrated review of the transfer of optical radiation into human skin is presented, aimed at developing useful models for photomedicine. The component chromophores of epidermis and stratum corneum in general determine the attenuation of radiation in these layers, moreso than does optical scattering. Epidermal thickness and melanization are important factors for UV wavelengths less than 300 nm, whereas the attenuation of UVA (320-400 nm) and visible radiation is primarily via melanin. The selective penetration of all optical wavelengths into psoriatic skin can be maximized by application of clear lipophilic liquids, which decrease regular reflectance by a refractive-index matching mechanism. Sensitivity to wavelengths less than 320 nm can be enhanced by prolonged aqueous bathing, which extracts urocanic acid and other diffusible epidermal chromophores. Optical properties of the dermis are modelled using the Kubelka-Munk approach, and calculations of scattering and absorption coefficients are presented. This simple approach allows estimates of the penetration of radiation in vivo using noninvasive measurements of cutaneous spectral remittance (diffuse reflectance). Although the blood chromophores Hb, HbO/sup 2/, and bilirubin determine dermal absorption of wavelengths longer than 320 nm, scattering by collagen fibers largely determines the depths to which these wavelengths penetrate the dermis, and profoundly modifies skin colors. An optical ''window'' exists between 600 and 1300 nm, which offers the possibility of treating large tissue volumes with certain long-wavelength photosensitizers. Moreover, whenever photosensitized action spectra extend across the near UV and/or visible spectrum, judicious choice of wavelengths allows some selection of the tissue layers directly affected.

  2. Drug hypersensitivity reactions involving skin.

    PubMed

    Hausmann, Oliver; Schnyder, Benno; Pichler, Werner J

    2010-01-01

    Immune reactions to drugs can cause a variety of diseases involving the skin, liver, kidney, lungs, and other organs. Beside immediate, IgE-mediated reactions of varying degrees (urticaria to anaphylactic shock), many drug hypersensitivity reactions appear delayed, namely hours to days after starting drug treatment, showing a variety of clinical manifestations from solely skin involvement to fulminant systemic diseases which may be fatal. Immunohistochemical and functional studies of drug-specific T cells in patients with delayed reactions confirmed a predominant role for T cells in the onset and maintenance of immune-mediated delayed drug hypersensitivity reactions (type IV reactions). In these reactions, drug-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are stimulated by drugs through their T cell receptors (TCR). Drugs can stimulate T cells in two ways: they can act as haptens and bind covalently to larger protein structures (hapten-carrier model), inducing a specific immune response. In addition, they may accidentally bind in a labile, noncovalent way to a particular TCR of the whole TCR repertoire and possibly also major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-molecules - similar to their pharmacologic action. This seems to be sufficient to reactivate certain, probably in vivo preactivated T cells, if an additional interaction of the drug-stimulated TCR with MHC molecules occurs. The mechanism was named pharmacological interaction of a drug with (immune) receptor and thus termed the p-i concept. This new concept may explain the frequent skin symptoms in drug hypersensitivity to oral or parenteral drugs. Furthermore, the various clinical manifestations of T cell-mediated drug hypersensitivity may be explained by distinct T cell functions leading to different clinical phenotypes. These data allowed a subclassification of the delayed hypersensitivity reactions (type IV) into T cell reactions which, by releasing certain cytokines and chemokines, preferentially activate and recruit

  3. Protective Skins for Aerogel Monoliths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leventis, Nicholas; Johnston, James C.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Meador, Ann B.

    2007-01-01

    A method of imparting relatively hard protective outer skins to aerogel monoliths has been developed. Even more than aerogel beads, aerogel monoliths are attractive as thermal-insulation materials, but the commercial utilization of aerogel monoliths in thermal-insulation panels has been inhibited by their fragility and the consequent difficulty of handling them. Therefore, there is a need to afford sufficient protection to aerogel monoliths to facilitate handling, without compromising the attractive bulk properties (low density, high porosity, low thermal conductivity, high surface area, and low permittivity) of aerogel materials. The present method was devised to satisfy this need. The essence of the present method is to coat an aerogel monolith with an outer polymeric skin, by painting or spraying. Apparently, the reason spraying and painting were not attempted until now is that it is well known in the aerogel industry that aerogels collapse in contact with liquids. In the present method, one prevents such collapse through the proper choice of coating liquid and process conditions: In particular, one uses a viscous polymer precursor liquid and (a) carefully controls the amount of liquid applied and/or (b) causes the liquid to become cured to the desired hard polymeric layer rapidly enough that there is not sufficient time for the liquid to percolate into the aerogel bulk. The method has been demonstrated by use of isocyanates, which, upon exposure to atmospheric moisture, become cured to polyurethane/polyurea-type coats. The method has also been demonstrated by use of commercial epoxy resins. The method could also be implemented by use of a variety of other resins, including polyimide precursors (for forming high-temperature-resistant protective skins) or perfluorinated monomers (for forming coats that impart hydrophobicity and some increase in strength).

  4. Superficial angiomyxoma of the skin.

    PubMed

    Abarzúa-Araya, Alvaro; Lallas, Aimillios; Piana, Simonetta; Longo, Caterina; Moscarella, Elvira; Argenziano, Giuseppe

    2016-07-01

    Superficial angiomyxomas (SA) of the skin are rare benign cutaneous tumors of soft tissue composed of prominent myxoid matrix and numerous blood vessels. SA are more common in males [1] and they are usually located on the trunk but can also appear on the lower limbs, head, neck and genitalia [2,3]. Treatment is surgical, the total excision is curative, but local recurrence is possible [4]. Herein we present a 72-year-old patient with a history of melanoma in situ, with a new lesion on the lower back. PMID:27648383

  5. Hair bleaching and skin burning.

    PubMed

    Forster, K; Lingitz, R; Prattes, G; Schneider, G; Sutter, S; Schintler, M; Trop, M

    2012-12-31

    Hairdressing-related burns are preventable and therefore each case is one too many. We report a unique case of a 16-yr-old girl who suffered full-thickness chemical and thermal burns to the nape of her neck and superficial burns to the occiput after her hair had been dyed blond and placed under a dryer to accelerate the highlighting procedure. The wound on the nape of the neck required surgical debridement and skin grafting. The grafted area resulted in subsequent scar formation.

  6. The skin and hypercoagulable states.

    PubMed

    Thornsberry, Laura A; LoSicco, Kristen I; English, Joseph C

    2013-09-01

    Hypercoagulable states (HS) are inherited or acquired conditions that predispose an individual to venous and/or arterial thrombosis. The dermatologist can play a vital role in diagnosing a patient's HS by recognizing the associated cutaneous manifestations, such as purpura, purpura fulminans, livedo reticularis, livedo vasculopathy (atrophie blanche), anetoderma, chronic venous ulcers, and superficial venous thrombosis. The cutaneous manifestations of HS are generally nonspecific, but identification of an abnormal finding can warrant a further workup for an underlying thrombophilic disorder. This review will focus on the basic science of hemostasis, the evaluation of HS, the skin manifestations associated with hypercoagulability, and the use of antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy in dermatology.

  7. Hydrodynamic skin-friction reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Jason C. (Inventor); Bushnell, Dennis M. (Inventor); Weinstein, Leonard M. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A process for reducing skin friction, inhibiting the effects of liquid turbulence, and decreasing heat transfer in a system involving flow of a liquid along a surface of a body includes applying a substantially integral sheet of a gas, e.g., air, immediately adjacent to the surface of the body, e.g., a marine vehicle, which has a longitudinally grooved surface in proximity with the liquid and with a surface material having high contact angle between the liquid and said wall to reduce interaction of the liquid, e.g., water, with the surface of the body, e.g., the hull of the marine vehicle.

  8. Laser treatment for skin disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloznelyte-Plesniene, Laima; Cepulis, Vytautas; Ponomarev, Igor V.

    1996-12-01

    The correct selection of patients is the most difficult part of the laser treatment. Since 1985 the total number of patients treated by us using different laser systems was 1544. High power lasers: Nd:YAG and CO2 lasers were used by us for surgical treatment. Low power lasers: Helium-Neon, Copper vapor, gold vapor and dye lasers were applied by us to PDT or to treatment of port wine hemangiomas. this paper reports our efforts in selecting the patients with different skin lesions for the treatment with different laser systems.

  9. Evaluation of mild skin cleansers.

    PubMed

    Wortzman, M S

    1991-01-01

    Each person makes the decision of how best to care for his or her own skin. Among the prime concerns, especially for facial skin, is the type of dirt, debris, or make-up to be removed. In most cases, all products do an adequate job in the removal of dirt; if not, the washing techniques can be modified to accomplish the task at hand. What cannot be controlled are the adverse side effects inherent in the use of that product. These adverse properties include damages to the barrier function of the skin; increased susceptibility to environmental sources of irritation and sensitization; frank irritation responses, such as erythema and edema; and reduction of the cosmetic qualities of the skin, such as degree of moisture and smoothness. Part of the problem is that most of these changes are subtle, occurring slowly over time. Often, the association of these problems with the use of a particular facial cleansing regimen is overlooked. The typical woman uses as many as 10 to 15 facial cosmetic and cleansing products each day, making the identification of a problem even more difficult. It is important to identify the risks associated with individual products and with product categories in general. Although the identification of a safe group of products to use for facial cleansing is desirable, the results of this investigation indicate that there are no simple answers. It has been assumed that because moisturizing cream formulations are routinely safe and mild in general use, a cleansing product in the same general form would share these attributes. We can see from the results in Table 2 and Figures 2, 3, 5, 7, and 9 that cleansing creams are not uniformly superior to cleansing bars in the key attributes that are used to evaluate mildness. In each evaluation there were individual cleansing creams that demonstrated statistically weaker performance than did cleansing bars in general. As a group, cleansing creams did well in the cosmetic categories of dryness and texture but

  10. Superficial angiomyxoma of the skin

    PubMed Central

    Abarzúa-Araya, Alvaro; Lallas, Aimillios; Piana, Simonetta; Longo, Caterina; Moscarella, Elvira; Argenziano, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Superficial angiomyxomas (SA) of the skin are rare benign cutaneous tumors of soft tissue composed of prominent myxoid matrix and numerous blood vessels. SA are more common in males [1] and they are usually located on the trunk but can also appear on the lower limbs, head, neck and genitalia [2,3]. Treatment is surgical, the total excision is curative, but local recurrence is possible [4]. Herein we present a 72-year-old patient with a history of melanoma in situ, with a new lesion on the lower back. PMID:27648383

  11. Superficial angiomyxoma of the skin

    PubMed Central

    Abarzúa-Araya, Alvaro; Lallas, Aimillios; Piana, Simonetta; Longo, Caterina; Moscarella, Elvira; Argenziano, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Superficial angiomyxomas (SA) of the skin are rare benign cutaneous tumors of soft tissue composed of prominent myxoid matrix and numerous blood vessels. SA are more common in males [1] and they are usually located on the trunk but can also appear on the lower limbs, head, neck and genitalia [2,3]. Treatment is surgical, the total excision is curative, but local recurrence is possible [4]. Herein we present a 72-year-old patient with a history of melanoma in situ, with a new lesion on the lower back.

  12. Developmental anomalies of the skin.

    PubMed

    Bellet, Jane Sanders

    2013-02-01

    This paper focuses on the diagnosis and management of developmental anomalies of the skin that may be seen early in life. Common locations include the head, nose, preauricular area of the face, neck, and spine. Those that occur in or near the midline can be more serious because of possible intracranial connections. Radiologic imaging of the areas of involvement is often important; computed tomography (CT) scans can delineate bony defects; whereas, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) more clearly defines intracranial connections. Occult spinal dysraphism can be suspected when certain cutaneous signs are present.

  13. Adaptive skin detection based on online training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ming; Tang, Liang; Zhou, Jie; Rong, Gang

    2007-11-01

    Skin is a widely used cue for porn image classification. Most conventional methods are off-line training schemes. They usually use a fixed boundary to segment skin regions in the images and are effective only in restricted conditions: e.g. good lightness and unique human race. This paper presents an adaptive online training scheme for skin detection which can handle these tough cases. In our approach, skin detection is considered as a classification problem on Gaussian mixture model. For each image, human face is detected and the face color is used to establish a primary estimation of skin color distribution. Then an adaptive online training algorithm is used to find the real boundary between skin color and background color in current image. Experimental results on 450 images showed that the proposed method is more robust in general situations than the conventional ones.

  14. Skin care of the diaper area.

    PubMed

    Adam, Ralf

    2008-01-01

    The skin of the diaper area has special needs for protection from the irritating effects of urine and feces and prevention of diaper dermatitis. These needs include products such as diapers that absorb the excreta, as well as products for cleansing and conditioning the skin. A number of factors play a role in development of diaper dermatitis, including prolonged exposure to excreta, alterations in skin pH or increased hydration, and changes in skin microbial flora. Recent decades have seen great improvements in our understanding of these factors and our ability to develop new and better products to protect baby skin. Better diaper designs and the development of pH-buffered baby wipes have improved the care of skin in the diaper area. Continuing research offers the promise of new products with additional benefits for caregivers and infants.

  15. The Genetics of Human Skin Disease

    PubMed Central

    DeStefano, Gina M.; Christiano, Angela M.

    2014-01-01

    The skin is composed of a variety of cell types expressing specific molecules and possessing different properties that facilitate the complex interactions and intercellular communication essential for maintaining the structural integrity of the skin. Importantly, a single mutation in one of these molecules can disrupt the entire organization and function of these essential networks, leading to cell separation, blistering, and other striking phenotypes observed in inherited skin diseases. Over the past several decades, the genetic basis of many monogenic skin diseases has been elucidated using classical genetic techniques. Importantly, the findings from these studies has shed light onto the many classes of molecules and essential genetic as well as molecular interactions that lend the skin its rigid, yet flexible properties. With the advent of the human genome project, next-generation sequencing techniques, as well as several other recently developed methods, tremendous progress has been made in dissecting the genetic architecture of complex, non-Mendelian skin diseases. PMID:25274756

  16. Stationary turbine component with laminated skin

    DOEpatents

    James, Allister W.

    2012-08-14

    A stationary turbine engine component, such as a turbine vane, includes a internal spar and an external skin. The internal spar is made of a plurality of spar laminates, and the external skin is made of a plurality of skin laminates. The plurality of skin laminates interlockingly engage the plurality of spar laminates such that the external skin is located and held in place. This arrangement allows alternative high temperature materials to be used on turbine engine components in areas where their properties are needed without having to make the entire component out of such material. Thus, the manufacturing difficulties associated with making an entire component of such a material and the attendant high costs are avoided. The skin laminates can be made of advanced generation single crystal superalloys, intermetallics and refractory alloys.

  17. A novel way to treat skin tears.

    PubMed

    Moradian, Scott; Klapper, Andrew M

    2016-04-01

    Skin tears are one of the most commonly treated wounds in the elderly population. In their most basic form, they are essentially traumatic random pattern flaps. We postulate that the injured blood flow to these skin flaps should be ignored and the tissue should be treated as a skin graft. A case report is presented of an 86-year-old female with an 8 × 3·5 cm skin tear to her right upper extremity after a hip fracture. In addition to conventional wound closure strips re-approximating the tissues, a disposable negative pressure wound therapy device was placed to act as bolster. Upon its removal on day 5, the opposed skin tear tissue was found to be 100% viable. We therefore propose that this update may be an improvement over classical skin tear treatments and should be followed up with a case series.

  18. The genetics of human skin disease.

    PubMed

    DeStefano, Gina M; Christiano, Angela M

    2014-10-01

    The skin is composed of a variety of cell types expressing specific molecules and possessing different properties that facilitate the complex interactions and intercellular communication essential for maintaining the structural integrity of the skin. Importantly, a single mutation in one of these molecules can disrupt the entire organization and function of these essential networks, leading to cell separation, blistering, and other striking phenotypes observed in inherited skin diseases. Over the past several decades, the genetic basis of many monogenic skin diseases has been elucidated using classical genetic techniques. Importantly, the findings from these studies has shed light onto the many classes of molecules and essential genetic as well as molecular interactions that lend the skin its rigid, yet flexible properties. With the advent of the human genome project, next-generation sequencing techniques, as well as several other recently developed methods, tremendous progress has been made in dissecting the genetic architecture of complex, non-Mendelian skin diseases. PMID:25274756

  19. Flexible Skins Containing Integrated Sensors and Circuitry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Chang

    2007-01-01

    Artificial sensor skins modeled partly in imitation of biological sensor skins are undergoing development. These sensor skins comprise flexible polymer substrates that contain and/or support dense one- and two-dimensional arrays of microscopic sensors and associated microelectronic circuits. They afford multiple tactile sensing modalities for measuring physical phenomena that can include contact forces; hardnesses, temperatures, and thermal conductivities of objects with which they are in contact; and pressures, shear stresses, and flow velocities in fluids. The sensor skins are mechanically robust, and, because of their flexibility, they can be readily attached to curved and possibly moving and flexing surfaces of robots, wind-tunnel models, and other objects that one might seek to equip for tactile sensing. Because of the diversity of actual and potential sensor-skin design criteria and designs and the complexity of the fabrication processes needed to realize the designs, it is not possible to describe the sensor-skin concept in detail within this article.

  20. Construction of new skin models and calculation of skin dose coefficients for electron exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeom, Yeon Soo; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Nguyen, Thang Tat; Choi, Chansoo; Han, Min Cheol; Jeong, Jong Hwi

    2016-08-01

    The voxel-type reference phantoms of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), due to their limited voxel resolutions, cannot represent the 50- μm-thick radiosensitive target layer of the skin necessary for skin dose calculations. Alternatively, in ICRP Publication 116, the dose coefficients (DCs) for the skin were calculated approximately, averaging absorbed dose over the entire skin depth of the ICRP phantoms. This approximation is valid for highly-penetrating radiations such as photons and neutrons, but not for weakly penetrating radiations like electrons due to the high gradient in the dose distribution in the skin. To address the limitation, the present study introduces skin polygon-mesh (PM) models, which have been produced by converting the skin models of the ICRP voxel phantoms to a high-quality PM format and adding a 50- μm-thick radiosensitive target layer into the skin models. Then, the constructed skin PM models were implemented in the Geant4 Monte Carlo code to calculate the skin DCs for external exposures of electrons. The calculated values were then compared with the skin DCs of the ICRP Publication 116. The results of the present study show that for high-energy electrons (≥ 1 MeV), the ICRP-116 skin DCs are, indeed, in good agreement with the skin DCs calculated in the present study. For low-energy electrons (< 1 MeV), however, significant discrepancies were observed, and the ICRP-116 skin DCs underestimated the skin dose as much as 15 times for some energies. Besides, regardless of the small tissue weighting factor of the skin ( w T = 0.01), the discrepancies in the skin dose were found to result in significant discrepancies in the effective dose, demonstarting that the effective DCs in ICRP-116 are not reliable for external exposure to electrons.

  1. Assessment of skin types, skin colours and cutaneous responses to ultraviolet radiation in an Asian population.

    PubMed

    Wee, L K; Chong, T K; Quee, D K

    1997-01-01

    Ninety normal individuals were included in this study on skin types, skin colours and cutaneous responses to ultraviolet radiation. Skin types were recorded using Fitzpatrick's classification, skin colours were measured using the Minolta Chromameter CR-300, and cutaneous responses to UV radiation were measured in terms of minimal erythema dose (MED) to UVA, UVB and the immediate pigment darkening dose to UVA (IPDDA). Skin colour measurements were taken from the right cheek to represent facultative skin colours, and from the buttock to represent constitutive skin colours. The colours measured were expressed by the L x a x b colour space. Skin types and some colour parameters (L and b from covered parts of body) correlated fairly well with the minimal erythema doses (MED) to UVA and UVB. Skin colour measurements are more objective than skin type assessment and could be better markers of photosensitivity. However, there is still considerable overlap in MEDs for persons with different skin colours, and further studies of these parameters are warranted. Our MEDs are higher than other reports on similar skin types and skin colours. This could be due to differences in methodology, genetic make-up or acclimatization from chronic sun exposure. This illustrates the importance of local controls for each institution dealing with photosensitive disorders.

  2. Attachment, skin deep? Relationships between adult attachment and skin barrier recovery.

    PubMed

    Robles, Theodore F; Brooks, Kathryn P; Kane, Heidi S; Schetter, Christine Dunkel

    2013-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between individual differences in adult attachment and skin barrier recovery. Dating couples (N = 34) completed a self-report measure of attachment anxiety and avoidance, and during two separate laboratory visits, normal skin barrier function was disrupted using a tape-stripping procedure, followed by a 20 min discussion of personal concerns in one visit and relationship problems in the other, counterbalanced randomly across visits. Skin barrier recovery was assessed by measuring transepidermal water loss up to 2 h after skin disruption. Multilevel modeling showed that skin barrier recovery did not differ between the personal concern or relationship problem discussions. Among women, greater attachment anxiety predicted faster skin barrier recovery across the two visits, while greater attachment avoidance predicted slower skin barrier recovery. Among men, greater attachment anxiety predicted slower skin barrier recovery during the personal concern discussion only. The observed effects remained significant after controlling for transepidermal water loss in undisturbed skin, suggesting that the relationship between attachment security and skin barrier recovery was not due to other skin-related factors like sweating. Cortisol changes, self-reported emotions, stress appraisals, and supportiveness ratings were tested as potential mediators, and none explained the relationships between attachment and skin barrier recovery. These findings are the first to demonstrate associations between individual differences in attachment style and restorative biological processes in the skin, even in a sample of young dating couples in satisfied relationships.

  3. Attachment, skin deep? Relationships between adult attachment and skin barrier recovery

    PubMed Central

    Robles, Theodore F.; Brooks, Kathryn P.; Kane, Heidi S.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between individual differences in adult attachment and skin barrier recovery. Dating couples (N = 34) completed a self-report measure of attachment anxiety and avoidance, and during two separate laboratory visits, normal skin barrier function was disrupted using a tape-stripping procedure, followed by a 20 min discussion of personal concerns in one visit and relationship problems in the other, counterbalanced randomly across visits. Skin barrier recovery was assessed by measuring transepidermal water loss up to 2 h after skin disruption. Multilevel modeling showed that skin barrier recovery did not differ between the personal concern or relationship problem discussions. Among women, greater attachment anxiety predicted faster skin barrier recovery across the two visits, while greater attachment avoidance predicted slower skin barrier recovery. Among men, greater attachment anxiety predicted slower skin barrier recovery during the personal concern discussion only. The observed effects remained significant after controlling for transepidermal water loss in undisturbed skin, suggesting that the relationship between attachment security and skin barrier recovery was not due to other skin-related factors like sweating. Cortisol changes, self-reported emotions, stress appraisals, and supportiveness ratings were tested as potential mediators, and none explained the relationships between attachment and skin barrier recovery. These findings are the first to demonstrate associations between individual differences in attachment style and restorative biological processes in the skin, even in a sample of young dating couples in satisfied relationships. PMID:22546664

  4. Insight into how skin changes perfume.

    PubMed

    Behan, J M; Macmaster, A P; Perring, K D; Tuck, K M

    1996-10-01

    Synopsis Overall consumer perception of personal products such as colognes, deodorants, talc, and soap is often strongly influenced by the presence and nature of the fragrance incorporated into these products, which is also true for the corresponding olfactory characteristics of skin during and after application. Although extensive research has been carried out to define the morphology and characteristics of living skin, relatively little is known about the physical or (bio)chemical behaviour of perfume once deposited onto skin. It is widely acknowledged that some perfumes may perform very differently on different skins, but little definitive information is available to elucidate the associated mechanism(s). Rationalization of this may necessitate understanding both the physical and the chemical interactions between perfume and skin. To assist studies in this area, techniques based on headspace analysis and solvent swabbing have been developed to monitor fragrance concentrations on and above skin in use. Using these techniques, we have carried out some initial exploration into the physical and chemical interactions between skin and perfume. (a) Physical interactions: differences in perfume behaviour when on skin and when on a relatively inert surface (vitreous tile) were quantified to build up at least a qualitative idea of the importance of physical interactions between skin and perfume. (b) Chemical interactions: the potential for skin-mediated chemical transformation of perfume was examined across a wide range of functional groups relevant to perfumes, but was found to be low under 'non-forcing'conditions (i.e. clean dry skin). However, some evidence has been found for changes in perfume ingredients in the underarm, probably arising from microbially catalysed reactions. It is envisaged that it may be possible to harness such transformations usefully - for example, to deliver unusual fragrance effects or enhance fragrance longevity. In addition, product

  5. Preventing and managing skin tears: a review.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Mary J

    2007-01-01

    Skin tears are an increasingly common problem in frail elders, and the wound, ostomy, and continence (WOC) nurse must be knowledgeable regarding both prevention and management of these lesions. A literature review was conducted to identify current concepts regarding management of skin tears. Articles reviewed provided numerous suggested interventions and protocols. Recurring themes were prevention of skin tears whenever possible and management of existing lesions with products that manage the exudate, maintain a moist surface, and prevent additional trauma.

  6. Skin and Soft Tissue Infections.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Kalyanakrishnan; Salinas, Robert C; Agudelo Higuita, Nelson Ivan

    2015-09-15

    Skin and soft tissue infections result from microbial invasion of the skin and its supporting structures. Management is determined by the severity and location of the infection and by patient comorbidities. Infections can be classified as simple (uncomplicated) or complicated (necrotizing or nonnecrotizing), or as suppurative or nonsuppurative. Most community-acquired infections are caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and beta-hemolytic streptococcus. Simple infections are usually monomicrobial and present with localized clinical findings. In contrast, complicated infections can be mono- or polymicrobial and may present with systemic inflammatory response syndrome. The diagnosis is based on clinical evaluation. Laboratory testing may be required to confirm an uncertain diagnosis, evaluate for deep infections or sepsis, determine the need for inpatient care, and evaluate and treat comorbidities. Initial antimicrobial choice is empiric, and in simple infections should cover Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species. Patients with complicated infections, including suspected necrotizing fasciitis and gangrene, require empiric polymicrobial antibiotic coverage, inpatient treatment, and surgical consultation for debridement. Superficial and small abscesses respond well to drainage and seldom require antibiotics. Immunocompromised patients require early treatment and antimicrobial coverage for possible atypical organisms. PMID:26371732

  7. Genetic heterogeneity of skin microvasculature.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Smith, Jason; Zhang, Zhen; Cole, Richard; Herron, Bruce J

    2010-04-15

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from existing vasculature, is a complex process that is essential for normal embryonic development. Current models for experimental evaluation of angiogenesis often use tissue from large vessels like the aorta and umbilical vein, which are phenotypically distinct from microvasculature. We demonstrate that the utilization of skin to measure microvascular angiogenesis in embryonic and adult tissues is an efficient way to quantify microvasculature angiogenesis. We validate this approach and demonstrate its added value by showing significant differences in angiogenesis in monogenic and polygenic mouse models. We discovered that the pattern of angiogenic response among inbred mouse strains in this ex vivo assay differs from the strain distributions of previous in vivo angiogenesis assays. The difference between the ex vivo and in vivo assays may be related to systemic factors present in whole animals. Expression analysis of cultured skin biopsies from strains of mice with opposing angiogenic response was performed to identify pathways that contribute to differential angiogenic response. Increased expression of negative regulators of angiogenesis in C57Bl/6J mice was associated with lower growth rates.

  8. Penetration through the Skin Barrier.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Benfeldt, Eva; Holmgaard, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    The skin is a strong and flexible organ with barrier properties essential for maintaining homeostasis and thereby human life. Characterizing this barrier is the ability to prevent some chemicals from crossing the barrier while allowing others, including medicinal products, to pass at varying rates. During recent decades, the latter has received increased attention as a route for intentionally delivering drugs to patients. This has stimulated research in methods for sampling, measuring and predicting percutaneous penetration. Previous chapters have described how different endogenous, genetic and exogenous factors may affect barrier characteristics. The present chapter introduces the theory for barrier penetration (Fick's law), and describes and discusses different methods for measuring the kinetics of percutaneous penetration of chemicals, including in vitro methods (static and flow-through diffusion cells) as well as in vivo methods (microdialysis and microperfusion). Then follows a discussion with examples of how different characteristics of the skin (age, site and integrity) and of the penetrants (size, solubility, ionization, logPow and vehicles) affect the kinetics of percutaneous penetration. Finally, a short discussion of the advantages and challenges of each method is provided, which will hopefully allow the reader to improve decision making and treatment planning, as well as the evaluation of experimental studies of percutaneous penetration of chemicals.

  9. Suicide risk in skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Picardi, Angelo; Lega, Ilaria; Tarolla, Emanuele

    2013-01-01

    Suicide accounts for about 1,000,000 deaths worldwide every year and is among the leading causes of death in young adults. Reports of high prevalence of suicidal ideation and increased suicide risk in several skin diseases raised concerns about deliberate self-harm in dermatological patients. The literature consistently points to an increased suicide risk in patients with psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and acne, with higher risk in patients in whom the skin condition is associated with clinically significant emotional distress, changes in body image, difficulties in close relationships, and impaired daily activities. Other risk factors for suicide include a history of suicide attempts, severe mental or physical disorders, alcoholism, unemployment, bereavement or divorce, and access to firearms or other lethal means. Dermatologists may play an important role in recognizing suicidal ideation and preventing fatal self-harm in their patients. Increasing dermatologists' awareness of the issue of suicide and developing mental health consultation-liaison services within dermatology settings would be instrumental in contributing to suicide prevention in this population. PMID:23245973

  10. Skin detection in hyperspectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Stephanie M.; Velez-Reyes, Miguel

    2015-05-01

    Hyperspectral imagers collect information of the scene being imaged at close contiguous bands in the electromagnetic spectrum at high spectral resolutions. The number of applications for these imagers has grown over the years as they are now used in various fields. Many algorithms are described in the literature for skin detection in color imagery. However increased detection accuracy, in particularly over cluttered backgrounds, and of small targets and in low spatial resolution systems can be achieved by taking advantage of the spectral information that can be collected with multi/hyperspectral imagers. The ultimate goal of our research work is the development of a human presence detection system over different backgrounds using hyperspectral imaging in the 400-1000nm region of the spectrum that can be used in the context of search and rescue operations, and surveillance in defense and security applications. The 400-1000 nm region is chosen because of availability of low cost imagers in this region of the spectrum. This paper presents preliminary results in the use of combinations of normalized difference indices that can be used to detect regions of interest in a scene that can be used as a pre-processor in a human detection system. A new normalized difference ratio, the Skin Normalized Difference Index (SNDI) is proposed. Experimental results show that a combination the NDGRI+NDVI+SNDI results in a probability of detection similar to that of the NDGRI. However, the combination of features results in a much lower probability of false alarm.

  11. Penetration through the Skin Barrier.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Benfeldt, Eva; Holmgaard, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    The skin is a strong and flexible organ with barrier properties essential for maintaining homeostasis and thereby human life. Characterizing this barrier is the ability to prevent some chemicals from crossing the barrier while allowing others, including medicinal products, to pass at varying rates. During recent decades, the latter has received increased attention as a route for intentionally delivering drugs to patients. This has stimulated research in methods for sampling, measuring and predicting percutaneous penetration. Previous chapters have described how different endogenous, genetic and exogenous factors may affect barrier characteristics. The present chapter introduces the theory for barrier penetration (Fick's law), and describes and discusses different methods for measuring the kinetics of percutaneous penetration of chemicals, including in vitro methods (static and flow-through diffusion cells) as well as in vivo methods (microdialysis and microperfusion). Then follows a discussion with examples of how different characteristics of the skin (age, site and integrity) and of the penetrants (size, solubility, ionization, logPow and vehicles) affect the kinetics of percutaneous penetration. Finally, a short discussion of the advantages and challenges of each method is provided, which will hopefully allow the reader to improve decision making and treatment planning, as well as the evaluation of experimental studies of percutaneous penetration of chemicals. PMID:26844902

  12. Getting under the skin of epidermal morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Elaine; Raghavan, Srikala

    2002-03-01

    At the surface of the skin, the epidermis serves as the armour for the body. Scientists are now closer than ever to understanding how the epidermis accomplishes this extraordinary feat, and is able to survive and replenish itself under the harshest conditions that face any tissue. By combining genetic engineering with cell-biological studies and with human genome data analyses, skin biologists are discovering the mechanisms that underlie the development and differentiation of the epidermis and hair follicles of the skin. This explosion of knowledge paves the way for new discoveries into the genetic bases of human skin disorders and for developing new therapeutics.

  13. UV signaling pathways within the skin

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongxiang; Weng, Qing Yu; Fisher, David E.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of UVR on the skin include tanning, carcinogenesis, immunomodulation, and synthesis of vitamin D, among others. Melanocortin 1 receptor polymorphisms correlate with skin pigmentation, UV sensitivity, and skin cancer risk. This article reviews pathways through which UVR induces cutaneous stress and the pigmentation response. Modulators of the UV tanning pathway include sunscreen agents, MC1R activators, adenylate cyclase activators, phosphodiesterase 4D3 inhibitors, T oligos, and MITF regulators such as histone deacetylase (HDAC)-inhibitors. UVR, as one of the most ubiquitous carcinogens, represents both a challenge and enormous opportunity in skin cancer prevention. PMID:24759085

  14. Newborn infant skin: physiology, development, and care.

    PubMed

    Visscher, Marty O; Adam, Ralf; Brink, Susanna; Odio, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Infant skin is critical to the newborn child's transition from the womb environment to the journey to self-sufficiency. This review provides an integrative perspective on the skin development in full term and premature infants. There is a particular focus on the role of vernix caseosa and on the implications of skin development for epidermal penetration of exogenous compounds. Healthy full-term newborn skin is well-developed and functional at birth, with a thick epidermis and well-formed stratum corneum (SC) layers. Transepidermal water loss is very low at birth, equal to, or lower than adults, indicating a highly effective skin barrier. Vernix facilitates SC development in full-term infants through a variety of mechanisms including physical protection from amniotic fluid and enzymes, antimicrobial effects, skin surface pH lowering, provision of lipids, and hydration. Premature infants, particularly those of very low birth weight, have a poor skin barrier with few cornified layers and deficient dermal proteins. They are at increased risk for skin damage, increased permeability to exogenous agents and infection. The SC barrier develops rapidly after birth but complete maturation requires weeks to months. The best methods for caring for infant skin, particularly in the diaper region, are described and related to these developmental changes. PMID:25889127

  15. Newborn infant skin: physiology, development, and care.

    PubMed

    Visscher, Marty O; Adam, Ralf; Brink, Susanna; Odio, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Infant skin is critical to the newborn child's transition from the womb environment to the journey to self-sufficiency. This review provides an integrative perspective on the skin development in full term and premature infants. There is a particular focus on the role of vernix caseosa and on the implications of skin development for epidermal penetration of exogenous compounds. Healthy full-term newborn skin is well-developed and functional at birth, with a thick epidermis and well-formed stratum corneum (SC) layers. Transepidermal water loss is very low at birth, equal to, or lower than adults, indicating a highly effective skin barrier. Vernix facilitates SC development in full-term infants through a variety of mechanisms including physical protection from amniotic fluid and enzymes, antimicrobial effects, skin surface pH lowering, provision of lipids, and hydration. Premature infants, particularly those of very low birth weight, have a poor skin barrier with few cornified layers and deficient dermal proteins. They are at increased risk for skin damage, increased permeability to exogenous agents and infection. The SC barrier develops rapidly after birth but complete maturation requires weeks to months. The best methods for caring for infant skin, particularly in the diaper region, are described and related to these developmental changes.

  16. Dialogue between skin microbiota and immunity.

    PubMed

    Belkaid, Yasmine; Segre, Julia A

    2014-11-21

    Human skin, the body's largest organ, functions as a physical barrier to bar the entry of foreign pathogens, while concomitantly providing a home to myriad commensals. Over a human's life span, keratinized skin cells, immune cells, and microbes all interact to integrate the processes of maintaining skin's physical and immune barrier under homeostatic healthy conditions and also under multiple stresses, such as wounding or infection. In this Review, we explore the intricate interactions of microbes and immune cells on the skin surface and within associated appendages to regulate this orchestrated maturation in the context of both host physiological changes and environmental challenges.

  17. A flexible skin piloerection monitoring sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jaemin; Seo, Dae Geon; Cho, Young-Ho

    2014-06-01

    We have designed, fabricated, and tested a capacitive-type flexible micro sensor for measurement of the human skin piloerection arisen from sudden emotional and environmental change. The present skin piloerection monitoring methods are limited in objective and quantitative measurement by physical disturbance stimulation to the skin due to bulky size and heavy weight of measuring devices. The proposed flexible skin piloerection monitoring sensor is composed of 3 × 3 spiral coplanar capacitor array using conductive polymer for having high capacitive density and thin enough thickness to be attached to human skin. The performance of the skin piloerection monitoring sensor is characterized using the artificial bump, representing human skin goosebump; thus, resulting in the sensitivity of -0.00252%/μm and the nonlinearity of 25.9% for the artificial goosebump deformation in the range of 0-326 μm. We also verified successive human skin piloerection having 3.5 s duration on the subject's dorsal forearms, thus resulting in the capacitance change of -6.2 fF and -9.2 fF for the piloerection intensity of 145 μm and 194 μm, respectively. It is demonstrated experimentally that the proposed sensor is capable to measure the human skin piloerection objectively and quantitatively, thereby suggesting the quantitative evaluation method of the qualitative human emotional status for cognitive human-machine interfaces applications.

  18. Classification of infrared spectra from skin tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, Laura M.; Mansfield, James R.; Crowson, A. Neil; Toole, John W. P.; Mantsch, Henry H.; Jackson, Michael

    2000-05-01

    The clinical differential diagnosis of skin tumors is an often-challenging task, to which the probing of skin with mid- and near-infrared (IR) light may be contributory. The development of objective methods for the analysis of IR spectra remains a major hurdle to developing clinically useful applications. The authors highlight different processing methods for IR spectra from skin biopsies and in-vivo skin tumors. Spectroscopic maps of biopsies of basal cell, squamous cell and melanocytic neoplasms were objectively grouped into distinct clusters that corresponded with tumor, epidermis, dermis, follicle and fat. Normal and abnormal skin components were located within maps using a search engine based upon linear discriminant analysis (LDA). In all instances, areas of tumor were distinct from normal tissue in biopsies. In-vivo, near-IR spectroscopy and LDA allowed discrimination between benign and malignant skin lesions with a high degree of accuracy. We conclude that IR spectroscopy has significant diagnostic promise in the skin cancer arena. The analytical methods described can now be used to create a powerful classification scheme in which to detect skin tumor cells within biopsied and living skin.

  19. Millimeter wave dosimetry of human skin.

    PubMed

    Alekseev, S I; Radzievsky, A A; Logani, M K; Ziskin, M C

    2008-01-01

    To identify the mechanisms of biological effects of mm waves it is important to develop accurate methods for evaluating absorption and penetration depth of mm waves in the epidermis and dermis. The main characteristics of mm wave skin dosimetry were calculated using a homogeneous unilayer model and two multilayer models of skin. These characteristics included reflection, power density (PD), penetration depth (delta), and specific absorption rate (SAR). The parameters of the models were found from fitting the models to the experimental data obtained from measurements of mm wave reflection from human skin. The forearm and palm data were used to model the skin with thin and thick stratum corneum (SC), respectively. The thin SC produced little influence on the interaction of mm waves with skin. On the contrary, the thick SC in the palm played the role of a matching layer and significantly reduced reflection. In addition, the palmar skin manifested a broad peak in reflection within the 83-277 GHz range. The viable epidermis plus dermis, containing a large amount of free water, greatly attenuated mm wave energy. Therefore, the deeper fat layer had little effect on the PD and SAR profiles. We observed the appearance of a moderate SAR peak in the therapeutic frequency range (42-62 GHz) within the skin at a depth of 0.3-0.4 mm. Millimeter waves penetrate into the human skin deep enough (delta = 0.65 mm at 42 GHz) to affect most skin structures located in the epidermis and dermis.

  20. Photoprotection of human skin beyond ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Grether-Beck, Susanne; Marini, Alessandra; Jaenicke, Thomas; Krutmann, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Photoprotection of human skin by means of sunscreens or daily skin-care products is traditionally centered around the prevention of acute (e.g. sunburn) and chronic (e.g. skin cancer and photoaging) skin damage that may result from exposure to ultraviolet rays (UVB and UVA). Within the last decade, however, it has been appreciated that wavelengths beyond the ultraviolet spectrum, in particular visible light and infrared radiation, contribute to skin damage in general and photoaging of human skin in particular. As a consequence, attempts have been made to develop skin care/sunscreen products that not only protect against UVB or UVA radiation but provide photoprotection against visible light and infrared radiation as well. In this article, we will briefly review the current knowledge about the mechanisms responsible for visible light/infrared radiation-induced skin damage and then, based on this information, discuss strategies that have been successfully used or may be employed in the future to achieve photoprotection of human skin beyond ultraviolet radiation. In this regard we will particularly focus on the use of topical antioxidants and the challenges that result from the task of showing their efficacy.

  1. Vulvar Skin Atrophy Induced by Topical Glucocorticoids

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Elisabeth; Groben, Pamela; Eanes, Alisa; Iyer, Priya; Ugoeke, Joseph; Zolnoun, Denniz

    2011-01-01

    Steroid induced skin atrophy is the most frequent and perhaps most important cutaneous side effect of topical glucocorticoid therapy. To date, it has not been described in vulvar skin. We describe a patient with significant vulvar skin atrophy following prolonged steroid application to treat vulvar dermatitis. The extensive atrophy in the perineum resulted in secondary ‘webbing’ and partial obstruction of genital hiatus and superimposed dyspareunia. Prolonged topical steroids may result in atrophic changes in vulvar skin. Therefore, further research in clinical correlates of steroid-induced atrophy in the vulvar region is warranted. PMID:22594868

  2. Skin resurfacing procedures: new and emerging options

    PubMed Central

    Loesch, Mathew M; Somani, Ally-Khan; Kingsley, Melanie M; Travers, Jeffrey B; Spandau, Dan F

    2014-01-01

    The demand for skin resurfacing and rejuvenating procedures has progressively increased in the last decade and has sparked several advances within the skin resurfacing field that promote faster healing while minimizing downtime and side effects for patients. Several technological and procedural skin resurfacing developments are being integrated into clinical practices today allowing clinicians to treat a broader range of patients’ skin types and pathologies than in years past, with noteworthy outcomes. This article will discuss some emerging and developing resurfacing therapies and treatments that are present today and soon to be available. PMID:25210469

  3. The Hunt for Natural Skin Whitening Agents

    PubMed Central

    Smit, Nico; Vicanova, Jana; Pavel, Stan

    2009-01-01

    Skin whitening products are commercially available for cosmetic purposes in order to obtain a lighter skin appearance. They are also utilized for clinical treatment of pigmentary disorders such as melasma or postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Whitening agents act at various levels of melanin production in the skin. Many of them are known as competitive inhibitors of tyrosinase, the key enzyme in melanogenesis. Others inhibit the maturation of this enzyme or the transport of pigment granules (melanosomes) from melanocytes to surrounding keratinocytes. In this review we present an overview of (natural) whitening products that may decrease skin pigmentation by their interference with the pigmentary processes. PMID:20054473

  4. Bioengineered Self-assembled Skin as an Alternative to Skin Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Climov, Mihail; Medeiros, Erika; Farkash, Evan A.; Qiao, Jizeng; Rousseau, Cecile F.; Dong, Shumin; Zawadzka, Agatha; Racki, Waldemar J.; Al-Musa, Ahmad; Sachs, David H.; Randolph, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    For patients with extensive burns or donor site scarring, the limited availability of autologous and the inevitable rejection of allogeneic skin drive the need for new alternatives. Existing engineered biologic and synthetic skin analogs serve as temporary coverage until sufficient autologous skin is available. Here we report successful engraftment of a self-assembled bilayered skin construct derived from autologous skin punch biopsies in a porcine model. Dermal fibroblasts were stimulated to produce an extracellular matrix and were then seeded with epidermal progenitor cells to generate an epidermis. Autologous constructs were grafted onto partial- and full-thickness wounds. By gross examination and histology, skin construct vascularization and healing were comparable to autologous skin grafts and were superior to an autologous bilayered living cellular construct fabricated with fibroblasts cast in bovine collagen. This is the first demonstration of spontaneous vascularization and permanent engraftment of a self-assembled bilayered bioengineered skin that could supplement existing methods of reconstruction. PMID:27482479

  5. Skin chromphore mapping by means of a modified video-microscope for skin malformation diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekina, Amina; Rubins, Uldis; Lihacova, Ilze; Zaharans, Janis; Spigulis, Janis

    2013-09-01

    Many spectral imaging devices are commercially available and used to detect certain skin pathology; however an alternative cost-efficient device can provide an advanced spectral analisys of skin. Multispectral device for diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions was developed and tested. Possibilities to map skin chromophores using a modified low-cost digital video-microscope is discussed. It was adapted for an advanced skin microscopy and used for detailed spectral analysis of skin. The device comprises CMOS digital imaging sensor, four-colour LED illumination system and image acquisition optics. The main goal is to obtain a set of spectral images of the skin area of interest for further conversion into maps of the main skin chromophores.

  6. Bioengineered Self-assembled Skin as an Alternative to Skin Grafts.

    PubMed

    Climov, Mihail; Medeiros, Erika; Farkash, Evan A; Qiao, Jizeng; Rousseau, Cecile F; Dong, Shumin; Zawadzka, Agatha; Racki, Waldemar J; Al-Musa, Ahmad; Sachs, David H; Randolph, Mark A; Huang, Christene A; Bollenbach, Thomas J

    2016-06-01

    For patients with extensive burns or donor site scarring, the limited availability of autologous and the inevitable rejection of allogeneic skin drive the need for new alternatives. Existing engineered biologic and synthetic skin analogs serve as temporary coverage until sufficient autologous skin is available. Here we report successful engraftment of a self-assembled bilayered skin construct derived from autologous skin punch biopsies in a porcine model. Dermal fibroblasts were stimulated to produce an extracellular matrix and were then seeded with epidermal progenitor cells to generate an epidermis. Autologous constructs were grafted onto partial- and full-thickness wounds. By gross examination and histology, skin construct vascularization and healing were comparable to autologous skin grafts and were superior to an autologous bilayered living cellular construct fabricated with fibroblasts cast in bovine collagen. This is the first demonstration of spontaneous vascularization and permanent engraftment of a self-assembled bilayered bioengineered skin that could supplement existing methods of reconstruction. PMID:27482479

  7. Tactile perception of skin and skin cream by friction induced vibrations.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shuyang; Bhushan, Bharat

    2016-11-01

    Skin cream smooths, softens, and moistens skin by altering surface roughness and tribological properties of skin. Sliding generates vibrations that activate mechanoreceptors located in skin. The brain interprets tactile information to identify skin feel. Understanding the tactile sensing mechanisms of skin with and without cream treatment is important to numerous applications including cosmetics, textiles, and robotics sensors. In this study, frequency spectra of friction force and friction induced vibration signals were carried out to investigate tactile perception by an artificial finger sliding on skin. The influence of normal load, velocity, and cream treatment time were studied. Coherence between friction force and vibration signals were found. The amplitude of vibration decreased after cream treatment, leading to smoother perception. Increasing normal load or velocity between contacting surfaces generated a smoother perception with cream treatment, but rougher perception without treatment. As cream treatment time increases, skin becomes smoother. The related mechanisms are discussed.

  8. Tactile perception of skin and skin cream by friction induced vibrations.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shuyang; Bhushan, Bharat

    2016-11-01

    Skin cream smooths, softens, and moistens skin by altering surface roughness and tribological properties of skin. Sliding generates vibrations that activate mechanoreceptors located in skin. The brain interprets tactile information to identify skin feel. Understanding the tactile sensing mechanisms of skin with and without cream treatment is important to numerous applications including cosmetics, textiles, and robotics sensors. In this study, frequency spectra of friction force and friction induced vibration signals were carried out to investigate tactile perception by an artificial finger sliding on skin. The influence of normal load, velocity, and cream treatment time were studied. Coherence between friction force and vibration signals were found. The amplitude of vibration decreased after cream treatment, leading to smoother perception. Increasing normal load or velocity between contacting surfaces generated a smoother perception with cream treatment, but rougher perception without treatment. As cream treatment time increases, skin becomes smoother. The related mechanisms are discussed. PMID:27474814

  9. Preferred skin color enhancement for photographic color reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Huanzhao; Luo, Ronnier

    2011-01-01

    Skin tones are the most important colors among the memory color category. Reproducing skin colors pleasingly is an important factor in photographic color reproduction. Moving skin colors toward their preferred skin color center improves the color preference of skin color reproduction. Several methods to morph skin colors to a smaller preferred skin color region has been reported in the past. In this paper, a new approach is proposed to further improve the result of skin color enhancement. An ellipsoid skin color model is applied to compute skin color probabilities for skin color detection and to determine a weight for skin color adjustment. Preferred skin color centers determined through psychophysical experiments were applied for color adjustment. Preferred skin color centers for dark, medium, and light skin colors are applied to adjust skin colors differently. Skin colors are morphed toward their preferred color centers. A special processing is applied to avoid contrast loss in highlight. A 3-D interpolation method is applied to fix a potential contouring problem and to improve color processing efficiency. An psychophysical experiment validates that the method of preferred skin color enhancement effectively identifies skin colors, improves the skin color preference, and does not objectionably affect preferred skin colors in original images.

  10. In vivo skin analysis (INSA) for quantitative determination of lotion transfer to human skin.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimpour, Arman; Ullman, Alan H

    2009-01-01

    There is a need during the development of cosmetic and skin products for simple, quantitative, noninvasive measurements of product deposition onto skin. In this article we describe INSA (in vivo skin analysis) as such a method for measuring the amount of lotion transferred to the skin from tissue products. Using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with an attenuated total reflectance (ATR FT-IR) sampling accessory, we were able to quantify lotion levels on the arms of subjects in minutes.

  11. Objective determination of Fitzpatrick skin type.

    PubMed

    Ravnbak, Mette Henriksen

    2010-08-01

    The overall aim of this Ph.D. project was to clarify what the subjective Fitzpatrick skin type represents with regard to the skin's reaction to UVR. Fitzpatrick skin type is used as an expression of the constitutive UV-sensitivity. It has been used for guiding dose-levels in phototherapy and is an important risk factor for skin cancer. The subjective Fitzpatrick skin type and the measured skin type PPF (pigment protection factor, calculated based on a skin reflectance measurement, predicts the UV-dose (SED) to give 1 MED) were investigated parallelly in relation to the clinically determined dose to erythema (MED) and/or pigmentation (MMD) to determine which one related best. PPF is an established method for assessing UV-sensitivity by predicting SED to MED. UV-dose to MED and/or MMD was determined after single UV-exposure to Solar Simulator on nates (n= 84) and after single and multiple (5, 6 or 12) UV-exposures (n = 24-62) on the back to four UV-sources (nUVB, Solar, bUVA and UVA1). SED to MMD was also related to wavelength. MED was only determined after a single and four UV-exposures to narrowband UVB (nUVB) and Solar Simulator (Solar). Volunteers with a broad range of constitutive pigmentation (skin types I-V) were included. Equal MMD doses (predetermined after a single UV-exposure) were used at the multiple exposures. The absolute increase in pigmentation after 6 and 12 UV-exposures, where steady-state pigmentation was reached, was independent of skin type and therefore could not enter into the calculations. But it proved that the MMD determinations after single exposure were correct and could be used at multiple UV-exposures. In contrary to what we expected, our results indicate that people may refer to the constitutive pigmentation, when they reply to the question of Fitzpatrick skin type. This applied to both erythema and pigmentation response as both dose to MED and MMD showed a better correlation to nates than to the back. As expected, our results from the

  12. Fusarium infections of the skin.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditya K.; Baran, Robert; Summerbell, Richard C.

    2000-04-01

    Fusarium species are ubiquitous and may be found in the soil, air and on plants. Fusarium species can cause mycotoxicosis in humans following ingestion of food that has been colonized by the fungal organism. In humans, Fusarium species can also cause disease that is localized, focally invasive or disseminated. The pathogen generally affects immunocompromised individuals with infection of immunocompetent persons being rarely reported. Localized infection includes septic arthritis, endophthalmitis, osteomyelitis, cystitis and brain abscess. In these situations relatively good response may be expected following appropriate surgery and oral antifungal therapy. Disseminated infection occurs when two or more noncontiguous sites are involved. Over eighty cases have been reported, many of which had a hematologic malignancy including neutropenia. The species most commonly involved include Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum, and Fusarium moniliforme (also termed F. verticillioides). The diagnosis of Fusarium infection may be made on histopathology, gram stain, mycology, blood culture, or serology. Portals of entry of disseminated infection include the respiratory tract, the gastrointestinal tract, and cutaneous sites.The skin can be an important and an early clue to diagnosis since cutaneous lesions may be observed at an early stage of the disease and in about seventy-five cases of disseminated Fusarium infection. Typical skin lesions may be painful red or violaceous nodules, the center of which often becomes ulcerated and covered by a black eschar. The multiple necrotizing lesions are often observed on the trunk and the extremities. Onychomycosis most commonly due to F. oxysporum or F. solani has been reported. The onychomycosis may be of several types: distal and lateral subungual (DLSO), white superficial (WSO), and proximal subungual (PSO). In proximal subungual onychomycosis there may be associated leukonychia and/or periungual inflammation. Patients with Fusarium

  13. Skin cancer in skin of color: an update on current facts, trends, and misconceptions.

    PubMed

    Battie, Claire; Gohara, Mona; Verschoore, Michèle; Roberts, Wendy

    2013-02-01

    For many fair-skinned individuals around the world, skin cancer is the leading malignancy. Although skin cancer comprises only 1% to 2% of all malignancies in those with darker complexions, the mortality rates in this subgroup are substantially higher when compared with their Caucasian counterparts. This discrepancy is largely as a result of delayed detection/treatment, and a false perception among patient and physician that brown skin confers complete protection against skin cancer. Recent studies show that 65% of surveyed African Americans never wore sunscreen, despite living in sunny climates, and that more than 60% of minority respondents erroneously believed that they were not at risk for skin cancer. Dark skin offers some protection from ultraviolet (UV) light. However, there is considerable heterogeneity in skin of color, a phenomenon that is accentuated by mixed heritage. Ethnicity does not confer skin type anymore. People of color do experience sunburn, and from a biological point of view, all skin types appear to be sensitive to UV-induced DNA damage, with an inverse relationship between skin color and sensitivity to UV light. Our population is changing rapidly, and within the next few decades minority populations will become the majority. It is therefore imperative to educate both physicians and patients on the perceived immunity against cutaneous malignancies, the need for sun protection, and the clinical signs of skin cancer in non-Caucasian people, so that future unnecessary mortality can be avoided.

  14. Antioxidant peptidomics reveals novel skin antioxidant system.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hailong; Wang, Xu; Liu, Xiuhong; Wu, Jing; Liu, Cunbao; Gong, Weiming; Zhao, Zhiqiang; Hong, Jing; Lin, Donghai; Wang, Yizheng; Lai, Ren

    2009-03-01

    It is generally agreed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to skin aging, skin disorders, and skin diseases. Skin possesses an extremely efficient antioxidant system. This antioxidant activity is conferred by two systems: antioxidant enzymes and small molecules that can scavenge ROS by donating electrons. No gene-encoded secreted ROS scavengers have been reported. Amphibian skin is a multifunctional organ acting in defense, respiration, and water regulation, although it seems susceptible. Amphibian skins are easily harmed by biological or non-biological attacks such as microorganism infection or radiation injury. Among vertebrates, skins of amphibian are exposed to more dangers of radiation injury than others. Radiation toxicity occurs by directly attacking the genetic material and/or by generating ROS. In addition, amphibian skin respiration and inflammatory response also induce ROS generation. It is rational to hypothesize that amphibian skins should have potent free radical scavenging and radioprotective ability for their survival. Rana pleuraden is distributed in Southwest of China; it lives in the subtropical plateau (altitude around 2300 m) where there is strong ultraviolet radiation and long duration of sunshine. By peptidomics and genomics approaches, a large amount of antioxidant peptides belonging to 11 different groups with variable structures were isolated from the skin secretions of R. pleuraden. Their free radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory abilities were studied. All of these peptide share highly homologous preproregions, although mature antioxidant peptides have very divergent primary structures, suggesting the possibility of a common ancestor. Some peptides were also found to have multifunctional properties, such as combined antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities. According to our knowledge, no gene-encoded specific antioxidant peptides have been reported except metallothionein. Our work possibly reveals a new

  15. Reflection type skin friction meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Promode R. (Inventor); Weinstein, Leonard M. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A housing block is provided having an upper surface conforming to the test surface of a model or aircraft. An oil film is supplied upstream of a transparent wedge window located in this upper surface by an oil pump system located external to the housing block. A light source located within the housing block supplies a light beam which passes through this transparent window and is reflected back through the transparent window by the upper surface of the oil film to a photo-sensitive position sensor located within the housing. This position sensor allows the slope history of the oil film caused by and aerodynamic flow to be determined. The skin friction is determined from this slope history. Internally located mirrors augment and sensitize the reflected beam as necessary before reaching the position sensor. In addition, a filter may be provided before this sensor to filter the beam.

  16. Skin immunization with influenza vaccines.

    PubMed

    Skountzou, Ioanna; Compans, Richard W

    2015-01-01

    Problems with existing influenza vaccines include the strain specificity of the immune response, resulting in the need for frequent reformulation in response to viral antigenic drift. Even in years when the same influenza strains are prevalent, the duration of immunity is limited, and results in the need for annual revaccination. The immunogenicity of the present split or subunit vaccines is also lower than that observed with whole inactivated virus, and the vaccines are not very effective in high risk groups such as the young or the elderly. Vaccine coverage is incomplete, due in part to concerns about the use of hypodermic needles for delivery. Alternative approaches for vaccination are being developed which address many of these concerns. Here we review new approaches which focus on skin immunization, including the development of needle-free delivery systems which use stable dry formulations and induce stronger and longer-lasting immune responses.

  17. Skin Temperature Recording with Phosphors

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Ray N.; Alt, Leslie L.

    1965-01-01

    New knowledge of temperature irregularities associated with various disease states has resulted in increasing interest in the recording of heat radiation from the human body. Infrared radiation from the skin is a surface phenomenon and the amount of such radiation increases with temperature. Previous recording techniques have been not only crude but difficult and expensive. An unconventional thermal imaging system is described which gives superior temperature patterns and is also simpler and cheaper than any of the other available procedures. This system is based on the employment of thermally sensitive phosphors which glow when exposed to ultraviolet illumination, in inverse proportion to the underlying temperature. The thermal image can be directly observed or more critically analyzed and photographed on a simple closed-circuit television monitor. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:14270208

  18. Filaggrin mutations and the skin.

    PubMed

    De, Dipankar; Handa, Sanjeev

    2012-01-01

    Filaggrin is very important in the terminal differentiation of the skin and the formation of cornified envelope in the stratum corneum. Several mutations in the filaggrin gene have been identified in the last decade, mostly from the European countries. Loss of function mutations in the filaggrin gene results in reduced production of filaggrin, depending on the type and site of mutation. Such mutations in the filaggrin gene have been shown to be the most significant genetic risk factor for development of atopic dermatitis and undoubtedly has a role in the pathogenesis of ichthyosis vulgaris. Though there is theoretical possibility of association with hand eczema and allergic contact dermatitis; in clinical studies, the strength of these associations was not significantly strong. In this review, we have discussed the structure and function of filaggrin, basic genetics, type of mutations in filaggrin gene, and association of such mutations with different dermatoses.

  19. Green tea and the skin.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Stephen

    2005-06-01

    Plant extracts have been widely used as topical applications for wound-healing, anti-aging, and disease treatments. Examples of these include ginkgo biloba, echinacea, ginseng, grape seed, green tea, lemon, lavender, rosemary, thuja, sarsaparilla, soy, prickly pear, sagebrush, jojoba, aloe vera, allantoin, feverwort, bloodroot, apache plume, and papaya. These plants share a common character: they all produce flavonoid compounds with phenolic structures. These phytochemicals are highly reactive with other compounds, such as reactive oxygen species and biologic macromolecules, to neutralize free radicals or initiate biological effects. A short list of phenolic phytochemicals with promising properties to benefit human health includes a group of polyphenol compounds, called catechins, found in green tea. This article summarizes the findings of studies using green tea polyphenols as chemopreventive, natural healing, and anti-aging agents for human skin, and discusses possible mechanisms of action.

  20. Latest insights into skin hyperpigmentation.

    PubMed

    Ortonne, Jean-Paul; Bissett, Donald L

    2008-04-01

    Hyperpigmentary problems, including postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, solar lentigos, and melasma, occur widely in the human population and are thus of broad interest for control. On the basis of genomic and proteomic understanding of the melanocyte and melanogenesis, there are potentially hundreds of proteins and other effectors involved in pigmentation. This knowledge, although complex, should prove most useful in identifying specific abnormalities that lead to the hyperpigmentary problems. Also available are new laboratory screening methods and skin color measurement tools that are increasing the pace at which materials can be screened and evaluated clinically for their effectiveness. Combined with a clear consumer need for effective pigmentation control agents, advanced pigmentary system understanding and new research capabilities are setting the stage for future technological advancements.

  1. 21 CFR 882.1540 - Galvanic skin response measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Galvanic skin response measurement device. 882... Galvanic skin response measurement device. (a) Identification. A galvanic skin response measurement device... electrical resistance of the skin and the tissue path between two electrodes applied to the skin....

  2. 21 CFR 882.1540 - Galvanic skin response measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Galvanic skin response measurement device. 882... Galvanic skin response measurement device. (a) Identification. A galvanic skin response measurement device... electrical resistance of the skin and the tissue path between two electrodes applied to the skin....

  3. 21 CFR 882.1540 - Galvanic skin response measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Galvanic skin response measurement device. 882... Galvanic skin response measurement device. (a) Identification. A galvanic skin response measurement device... electrical resistance of the skin and the tissue path between two electrodes applied to the skin....

  4. 21 CFR 882.1540 - Galvanic skin response measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Galvanic skin response measurement device. 882... Galvanic skin response measurement device. (a) Identification. A galvanic skin response measurement device... electrical resistance of the skin and the tissue path between two electrodes applied to the skin....

  5. 21 CFR 882.1540 - Galvanic skin response measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Galvanic skin response measurement device. 882... Galvanic skin response measurement device. (a) Identification. A galvanic skin response measurement device... electrical resistance of the skin and the tissue path between two electrodes applied to the skin....

  6. New data on skin photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Morganti, P; Fabrizi, G

    2000-08-01

    Absorbed ultraviolet (UV) radiation is responsible for photochemical degradation of the skin. Erythema is the most apparent result of the sunburn reaction, but the most serious results are photoaging and photocarcinogenesis, largely mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). To prevent these light-induced reactions, effective protection against both UVB and UVA radiations are essential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective efficacy against both UVB and UVA rays of three sunscreen preparations (two creams and one lotion), evaluating also their water resistance. For this purpose SPF (Sun Protection Factor) and UVA protection were tested, respectively, on 40 and 20 pre-selected volunteers (male and female, < 22-years-old with skin types I, II and III) by the Colipa test method and the Mark et al. methodology. A wash-off test was also conducted to determine the resistance to water. Results obtained showed that the three formulations studied underline interesting SPF values from about 20-30 with an excellent correlation between visual and colorimetric results obtained (P < 0.05). The controlled decrease in effectiveness of only 20% after 10 min washing proved that the vehicle is also an important factor in determining the protective efficacy. From the obtained data, the studied formulations seem to have an high SPF and UVA protection efficacy together with a good water resistance. According to several other studies, it is possible to confirm therefore that the regular use of these sunscreens may certainly reduce the harmful effect caused by long-term exposure to UVB and UVA radiation.

  7. Integrated Decision Strategies for Skin Sensitization Hazard

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the top priorities of the Interagency Coordinating Committee for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) is the identification and evaluation of non-animal alternatives for skin sensitization testing. Although skin sensitization is a complex process, the key biologi...

  8. Impaired Biomechanical Properties of Diabetic Skin

    PubMed Central

    Bermudez, Dustin M.; Herdrich, Benjamin J.; Xu, Junwang; Lind, Robert; Beason, David P.; Mitchell, Marc E.; Soslowsky, Louis J.; Liechty, Kenneth W.

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic skin is known to have deficient wound healing properties, but little is known of its intrinsic biomechanical properties. We hypothesize that diabetic skin possesses inferior biomechanical properties at baseline, rendering it more prone to injury. Skin from diabetic and nondiabetic mice and humans underwent biomechanical testing. Real-time PCR was performed for genes integral to collagen synthesis and degradation. MMP-2 and MMP-9, and TIMP-1 protein levels were assessed by ELISA and zymography. Collagen I and III content was assessed using Western blot analysis. At baseline, both murine and human diabetic skin was biomechanically inferior compared to nondiabetic skin, with decreased maximum stress and decreased modulus (P < 0.001 and < 0.05, respectively). Surprisingly, the expression of genes involved in collagen synthesis were significantly up-regulated, and genes involved in collagen degradation were significantly down-regulated in murine diabetic skin (P < 0.01). In addition, MMP-2 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 protein ratios were significantly lower in murine diabetic skin (P < 0.05). Collagen I levels and I:III ratios were lower in diabetic skin (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that the predisposition of diabetics to wounds may be the result of impaired tissue integrity at baseline, and are due, in part, to a defect in the regulation of collagen protein synthesis at the post-transcriptional level. PMID:21514435

  9. Skin Temperature Biofeedback in Children and Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suter, Steve; Loughry-Machado, Glenna

    1981-01-01

    Skin temperature biofeedback performance was studied in 38 6- to 10-year-old children and 38 of their parents across two sessions of audio biofeedback segments in which participants alternately attempted hand-warming and hand-cooling. Children were superior to adults in controlling skin temperature in the presence of biofeedback. (Author/DB)

  10. Undergraduate Laboratory Module on Skin Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, James J.; Andrews, Samantha N.; Prausnitz, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    To introduce students to an application of chemical engineering directly related to human health, we developed an experiment for the unit operations laboratory at Georgia Tech examining diffusion across cadaver skin in the context of transdermal drug delivery. In this laboratory module, students prepare mouse skin samples, set up diffusion cells…

  11. Microphthalmia with linear skin defects syndrome.

    PubMed

    García-Rabasco, Ana; De-Unamuno, Blanca; Martínez, Francisco; Febrer-Bosch, Isabel; Alegre-de-Miquel, Víctor

    2013-01-01

    Microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) or microcornea, dermal aplasia and sclerocornea (MIDAS) syndrome is a rare X-linked-dominant disorder. We present a patient with agenesis of corpus callosum, ocular abnormalities, and multiple skin defects. The cytogenetic studies of the MLS critical region (Xp22.2) were normal, but a skewed X-chromosome inactivation pattern (85:15) was observed.

  12. Balloon fabrics made of Goldbeater's skins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chollet, L

    1922-01-01

    Goldbeater's skin, which is the prepared outside membrane of the large intestine of an ox, is examined as a balloon fabric and details of how goldbeater's skin is prepared for use are provided. The construction techniques employed by Germany, France, and England are all discussed.

  13. Hyperspectral signature analysis of skin parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyas, Saurabh; Banerjee, Amit; Garza, Luis; Kang, Sewon; Burlina, Philippe

    2013-02-01

    The temporal analysis of changes in biological skin parameters, including melanosome concentration, collagen concentration and blood oxygenation, may serve as a valuable tool in diagnosing the progression of malignant skin cancers and in understanding the pathophysiology of cancerous tumors. Quantitative knowledge of these parameters can also be useful in applications such as wound assessment, and point-of-care diagnostics, amongst others. We propose an approach to estimate in vivo skin parameters using a forward computational model based on Kubelka-Munk theory and the Fresnel Equations. We use this model to map the skin parameters to their corresponding hyperspectral signature. We then use machine learning based regression to develop an inverse map from hyperspectral signatures to skin parameters. In particular, we employ support vector machine based regression to estimate the in vivo skin parameters given their corresponding hyperspectral signature. We build on our work from SPIE 2012, and validate our methodology on an in vivo dataset. This dataset consists of 241 signatures collected from in vivo hyperspectral imaging of patients of both genders and Caucasian, Asian and African American ethnicities. In addition, we also extend our methodology past the visible region and through the short-wave infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. We find promising results when comparing the estimated skin parameters to the ground truth, demonstrating good agreement with well-established physiological precepts. This methodology can have potential use in non-invasive skin anomaly detection and for developing minimally invasive pre-screening tools.

  14. Responsive corneosurfametry following in vivo skin preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Uhoda, E; Goffin, V; Pierard, G E

    2003-12-01

    Skin is subjected to many environmental threats, some of which altering the structure and function of the stratum corneum. Among them, surfactants are recognized factors that may influence irritant contact dermatitis. The present study was conducted to compare the variations in skin capacitance and corneosurfametry (CSM) reactivity before and after skin exposure to repeated subclinical injuries by 2 hand dishwashing liquids. A forearm immersion test was performed on 30 healthy volunteers. 2 daily soak sessions were performed for 5 days. At inclusion and the day following the last soak session, skin capacitance was measured and cyanoacrylate skin-surface strippings were harvested. The latter specimens were used for the ex vivo microwave CSM. Both types of assessments clearly differentiated the 2 hand dishwashing liquids. The forearm immersion test allowed the discriminant sensitivity of CSM to increase. Intact skin capacitance did not predict CSM data. By contrast, a significant correlation was found between the post-test conductance and the corresponding CSM data. In conclusion, a forearm immersion test under realistic conditions can discriminate the irritation potential between surfactant-based products by measuring skin conductance and performing CSM. In vivo skin preconditioning by surfactants increases CSM sensitivity to the same surfactants. PMID:15025702

  15. Self-Powered Analogue Smart Skin.

    PubMed

    Shi, Mayue; Zhang, Jinxin; Chen, Haotian; Han, Mengdi; Shankaregowda, Smitha A; Su, Zongming; Meng, Bo; Cheng, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Haixia

    2016-04-26

    The progress of smart skin technology presents unprecedented opportunities for artificial intelligence. Resolution enhancement and energy conservation are critical to improve the perception and standby time of robots. Here, we present a self-powered analogue smart skin for detecting contact location and velocity of the object, based on a single-electrode contact electrification effect and planar electrostatic induction. Using an analogue localizing method, the resolution of this two-dimensional smart skin can be achieved at 1.9 mm with only four terminals, which notably decreases the terminal number of smart skins. The sensitivity of this smart skin is remarkable, which can even perceive the perturbation of a honey bee. Meanwhile, benefiting from the triboelectric mechanism, extra power supply is unnecessary for this smart skin. Therefore, it solves the problems of batteries and connecting wires for smart skins. With microstructured poly(dimethylsiloxane) films and silver nanowire electrodes, it can be covered on the skin with transparency, flexibility, and high sensitivity. PMID:27010713

  16. 43 CFR 15.8 - Skin diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Skin diving. 15.8 Section 15.8 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.8 Skin diving. Diving with camera, or diving for observation and pleasure is permitted and encouraged within the Preserve....

  17. 43 CFR 15.8 - Skin diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Skin diving. 15.8 Section 15.8 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.8 Skin diving. Diving with camera, or diving for observation and pleasure is permitted and encouraged within...

  18. 43 CFR 15.8 - Skin diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Skin diving. 15.8 Section 15.8 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.8 Skin diving. Diving with camera, or diving for observation and pleasure is permitted and encouraged within...

  19. 43 CFR 15.8 - Skin diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Skin diving. 15.8 Section 15.8 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.8 Skin diving. Diving with camera, or diving for observation and pleasure is permitted and encouraged within...

  20. 43 CFR 15.8 - Skin diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Skin diving. 15.8 Section 15.8 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.8 Skin diving. Diving with camera, or diving for observation and pleasure is permitted and encouraged within...

  1. Reducing Skin Picking via Competing Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Thompson, Ada; Reske, Cara L.; Gable, Lauren M.; Barton-Arwood, Sally

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the outcomes of a competing activities intervention to decrease skin picking exhibited by a 9-year-old student with comorbid diagnoses. Results of an ABCBAB design revealed that the use of student-selected manipulatives resulted in reduced skin picking. (Contains 1 figure.)

  2. Tumors of the skin and soft tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    The majority of the body surface is covered by the skin. Many internal disorders are reflected in the condition of the skin. One of the major functions of the skin is protection of the other organ systems from a variety of environmental insults. In this role, the skin itself is exposed to factors that can ultimately cause chronic diseases and cancer. Since it is relatively easy to recognize skin abnormalities, most skin cancers are brought to professional attention sooner than other types of cancer. However, due to the close resemblance between many skin neoplasms and noncancerous dermatologic disorders, these neoplasms may be mistreated for months or even years. In veterinary oncology, as in human medicine, most cancers can be effectively treated or cured following an accurate diagnosis. Once diagnosed, skin neoplasms should be aggressively treated. If causal factors are known, exposure to these factors should be limited through removal of the agent (for chemical carcinogens) or limiting exposure to the agent (for other carcinogens such as sunlight). 10 tabs. (MHB)

  3. Airborne particle exposure and extrinsic skin aging.

    PubMed

    Vierkötter, Andrea; Schikowski, Tamara; Ranft, Ulrich; Sugiri, Dorothea; Matsui, Mary; Krämer, Ursula; Krutmann, Jean

    2010-12-01

    For decades, extrinsic skin aging has been known to result from chronic exposure to solar radiation and, more recently, to tobacco smoke. In this study, we have assessed the influence of air pollution on skin aging in 400 Caucasian women aged 70-80 years. Skin aging was clinically assessed by means of SCINEXA (score of intrinsic and extrinsic skin aging), a validated skin aging score. Traffic-related exposure at the place of residence was determined by traffic particle emissions and by estimation of soot in fine dust. Exposure to background particle concentration was determined by measurements of ambient particles at fixed monitoring sites. The impact of air pollution on skin aging was analyzed by linear and logistic regression and adjusted for potential confounding variables. Air pollution exposure was significantly correlated to extrinsic skin aging signs, in particular to pigment spots and less pronounced to wrinkles. An increase in soot (per 0.5 × 10(-5) per m) and particles from traffic (per 475  kg per year and square km) was associated with 20% more pigment spots on forehead and cheeks. Background particle pollution, which was measured in low residential areas of the cities without busy traffic and therefore is not directly attributable to traffic but rather to other sources of particles, was also positively correlated to pigment spots on face. These results indicate that particle pollution might influence skin aging as well.

  4. Skin care: Historical and contemporary views

    PubMed Central

    AlGhamdi, Khalid M.; AlHomoudi, Fahad A.; Khurram, Huma

    2013-01-01

    Primary prevention, specifically skin care, is an important principle in Islamic theology just as it is emphasized in contemporary medicine. Many skin diseases can be prevented by a proactive approach to skin care, such as proper hygiene and routine inspections, principles that are constantly highlighted in the Islamic literature. Islam promotes primary prevention of disease, including recommendations for skin care practices. The recommendations for skin care practices in Islamic teachings are analogous to current medical guidelines. Sun avoidance, which is recommended by Islam, is mandatory for diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, melasma and skin cancers. Skin care and hygiene practices are recommended in Islam and it is considered an important mechanism for reducing the transmission of infections in modern medicine. The body creases and hair are ideal sites for malicious infestations to grow. The practice of “Wudu” includes washing the hands, feet, and hair with clean water. It is an indispensible part of daily prayers which is mandatory for every Muslim. Oral hygiene is also an integral part of both preventive medicine and Islamic teachings. Genital hygiene, particularly after urination and defecation, is recommended in Islamic teachings and is known to prevent urinary and vaginal infections in contemporary medicine. Male circumcision is an Islamic practice. Recently, it was proven that circumcised men are less likely to have sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. This paper reviews skin care from an Islamic perspective and its relevance to contemporary medicine by translating the simple self care principles into practical guidelines in everyday use. PMID:25061400

  5. 21 CFR 878.4660 - Skin marker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Skin marker. 878.4660 Section 878.4660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4660 Skin marker. (a) Identification. A...

  6. 21 CFR 878.4660 - Skin marker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Skin marker. 878.4660 Section 878.4660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4660 Skin marker. (a) Identification. A...

  7. 21 CFR 878.4660 - Skin marker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Skin marker. 878.4660 Section 878.4660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4660 Skin marker. (a) Identification. A...

  8. 21 CFR 878.4660 - Skin marker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Skin marker. 878.4660 Section 878.4660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4660 Skin marker. (a) Identification. A...

  9. 21 CFR 878.4660 - Skin marker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Skin marker. 878.4660 Section 878.4660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4660 Skin marker. (a) Identification. A...

  10. Responsive corneosurfametry following in vivo skin preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Uhoda, E; Goffin, V; Pierard, G E

    2003-12-01

    Skin is subjected to many environmental threats, some of which altering the structure and function of the stratum corneum. Among them, surfactants are recognized factors that may influence irritant contact dermatitis. The present study was conducted to compare the variations in skin capacitance and corneosurfametry (CSM) reactivity before and after skin exposure to repeated subclinical injuries by 2 hand dishwashing liquids. A forearm immersion test was performed on 30 healthy volunteers. 2 daily soak sessions were performed for 5 days. At inclusion and the day following the last soak session, skin capacitance was measured and cyanoacrylate skin-surface strippings were harvested. The latter specimens were used for the ex vivo microwave CSM. Both types of assessments clearly differentiated the 2 hand dishwashing liquids. The forearm immersion test allowed the discriminant sensitivity of CSM to increase. Intact skin capacitance did not predict CSM data. By contrast, a significant correlation was found between the post-test conductance and the corresponding CSM data. In conclusion, a forearm immersion test under realistic conditions can discriminate the irritation potential between surfactant-based products by measuring skin conductance and performing CSM. In vivo skin preconditioning by surfactants increases CSM sensitivity to the same surfactants.

  11. Green tea and skin--anticarcinogenic effects.

    PubMed

    Mukhtar, H; Katiyar, S K; Agarwal, R

    1994-01-01

    Because of its special aroma, green tea is a popular beverage consumed by some human populations worldwide. In recent years, many laboratory studies have shown that in a variety of animal tumor bioassay systems the administration of green tea, specifically the polyphenolic fraction isolated from green tea leaves (green tea polyphenols), affords protection against cancer induction. In mouse skin tumor bioassay systems, topical application of green tea polyphenols to skin has been shown to result in protection against a) 3-methylcholanthrene-induced skin tumorigenicity, b) 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced skin tumor initiation, c) 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and other tumor promoters caused tumor promotion in DMBA-initiated skin, and d) benzoyl peroxide- and 4-nitroquinoline N-oxide caused enhanced malignant progression of nonmalignant lesions. Green tea extract has also been shown to cause partial regression of established skin papillomas in mouse. Similarly, chronic oral feeding of green tea polyphenols or water extract of green tea has also been shown to result in the protection against both chemical carcinogen- and ultraviolet B radiation-induced skin tumorigenicity. Collectively these data suggest that green tea possesses significant chemopreventive effect against each stage of carcinogenesis, and that it may be useful against inflammatory responses associated with the exposure of skin to chemical tumor promoters as well as to solar radiation. Available data regarding the mechanism by which green tea affords these diversified effects is discussed.

  12. Photodamaged skin. Update on therapeutic management.

    PubMed Central

    Goldhar, J. N.; Yong, P. Y.

    1993-01-01

    With baby boomers aging, the medical community is ushered into a new era of patient care, that of cosmetic maintenance and rejuvenation. The authors critically review pharmacologic treatments for preventing and treating photodamaged skin. Issues concerning sunscreens, tretinoin, silicone tissue augmentation, fat transplantation, collagen replacement therapy, and chemical exfoliation of the skin are addressed. Images Figure 1 PMID:8495125

  13. Reflectance Confocal Microscopy for Inflammatory Skin Diseases.

    PubMed

    Agozzino, M; Gonzalez, S; Ardigò, M

    2016-10-01

    In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a relatively novel non-invasive tool for microscopic evaluation of the skin used prevalently for diagnosis and management of skin tumour. Its axial resolution, its non-invasive and easy clinical application represents the goals for a large diffusion of this technique. During the last 15 years, RCM has been demonstrated to be able to increase the sensibility and sensitivity of dermoscopy in the diagnosis of skin tumours integrating in real time clinic, dermoscopic and microscopic information useful for the definition of malignancy. Despite to date, no large comparative studies on inflammatory skin diseases has been published in the literature, several papers already showed that RCM has a potential for the evaluation of the descriptive features of the most common inflammatory skin diseases as psoriasis, lupus erythematosus, contact dermatitis and others. The aim of the application of this technique in non-neoplastic skin diseases has been prevalently focused on the possibility of clinical diagnosis confirmation, as well as therapeutic management. Moreover, the use of RCM as driver for an optimised skin biopsy has been also followed in order to reduce the number of unsuccessful histopathological examination. In this review article we describe the confocal features of the major groups of inflammatory skin disorders focusing on psoriasiform dermatitis, interface dermatitis and spongiotic dermatitis. PMID:26996333

  14. Reflectance Confocal Microscopy for Inflammatory Skin Diseases.

    PubMed

    Agozzino, M; Gonzalez, S; Ardigò, M

    2016-10-01

    In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a relatively novel non-invasive tool for microscopic evaluation of the skin used prevalently for diagnosis and management of skin tumour. Its axial resolution, its non-invasive and easy clinical application represents the goals for a large diffusion of this technique. During the last 15 years, RCM has been demonstrated to be able to increase the sensibility and sensitivity of dermoscopy in the diagnosis of skin tumours integrating in real time clinic, dermoscopic and microscopic information useful for the definition of malignancy. Despite to date, no large comparative studies on inflammatory skin diseases has been published in the literature, several papers already showed that RCM has a potential for the evaluation of the descriptive features of the most common inflammatory skin diseases as psoriasis, lupus erythematosus, contact dermatitis and others. The aim of the application of this technique in non-neoplastic skin diseases has been prevalently focused on the possibility of clinical diagnosis confirmation, as well as therapeutic management. Moreover, the use of RCM as driver for an optimised skin biopsy has been also followed in order to reduce the number of unsuccessful histopathological examination. In this review article we describe the confocal features of the major groups of inflammatory skin disorders focusing on psoriasiform dermatitis, interface dermatitis and spongiotic dermatitis.

  15. The structure, function, and importance of ceramides in skin and their use as therapeutic agents in skin-care products.

    PubMed

    Meckfessel, Matthew H; Brandt, Staci

    2014-07-01

    Ceramides (CERs) are epidermal lipids that are important for skin barrier function. Much research has been devoted to identifying the numerous CERs found in human skin and their function. Alterations in CER content are associated with a number of skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis. Newer formulations of skin-care products have incorporated CERs into their formulations with the goal of exogenously applying CERs to help skin barrier function. CERs are a complex class of molecules and because of their growing ubiquity in skin-care products, a clear understanding of their role in skin and use in skin-care products is essential for clinicians treating patients with skin diseases. This review provides an overview of the structure, function, and importance of skin CERs in diseased skin and how CERs are being used in skin-care products to improve or restore skin barrier function.

  16. Skin cancer and solar UV radiation.

    PubMed

    de Gruijl, F R

    1999-12-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation in sunlight is the most prominent and ubiquitous physical carcinogen in our natural environment. It is highly genotoxic but does not penetrate the body any deeper than the skin. Like all organisms regularly exposed to sunlight, the human skin is extremely well adapted to continuous UV stress. Well-pigmented skin is clearly better protected than white Caucasian skin. The sun-seeking habits of white Caucasians in developed countries are likely to have contributed strongly to the increase in skin cancer observed over the last century. Skin cancer is by far the most common type of cancer in the U.S.A. and Australia, which appears to be the result of an 'unnatural displacement' of people with sun-sensitive skin to sub-tropical regions. Although campaigns have been successful in informing people about the risks of sun exposure, general attitudes and behaviour do not yet appear to have changed to the extent that trends in skin cancer morbidity and the corresponding burden on public healthcare will be reversed. The relationship between skin cancer and regular sun exposure was suspected by physicians in the late 19th century, and subsequently substantiated in animal experiments in the early part of the 20th century. UV radiation was found to be highly genotoxic, and DNA repair proved to be crucial in fending off detrimental effects such as mutagenesis and cell death. In fact, around 1940 it was shown that the wavelength dependence of mutagenicity paralleled the UV absorption by DNA. In the 1970s research on UV carcinogenesis received a new impetus from the arising concern about a possible future depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer: the resulting increases in ambient UV loads were expected to raise skin cancer incidences. Epidemiological studies in the last decades of the 20th century have greatly refined our knowledge on the aetiology of skin cancers. Analyses of gene mutations in skin carcinomas have identified UV radiation as the cause

  17. Effect of tap-water iontophoresis on sweat gland recruitment, skin temperature and skin blood flow.

    PubMed

    Kolkhorst, Fred W; DiPasquale, Dana M; Buono, Michael J

    2002-02-01

    Our interest was to quantify the role of sweat gland activation on the maintenance of skin temperature during mild exercise in the heat. Seven days of tap-water iontophoresis decreased the number of active sweat glands by 72% which significantly increased forearm skin temperature and blood flow during mild exercise (70 W) in the heat (32 degrees C). Skin temperature of the treated forearm was 0.5 degrees C warmer (P=0.049); skin blood flow in the treated forearm was 13% higher than the control arm (P=0.021). These results illustrate the importance of sweat evaporation on skin temperature and blood flow during exercise.

  18. Controlling reactive oxygen species in skin at their source to reduce skin aging.

    PubMed

    Kern, Dale G; Draelos, Zoe D; Meadows, Christiaan; James Morré, D; Morré, Dorothy M

    2010-01-01

    Activity of an age-related, superoxide-forming, cell-surface oxidase (arNOX) comparing dermis, epidermis, serum, and saliva from female and male subjects ages 28-72 years measured spectrophotometrically using reduction of ferricytochrome c correlated with oxidative skin damage as estimated from autofluoresence of skin using an Advanced Glycation End products Reader (AGE-Reader; DiagnOptics B.V., Netherlands). By reducing arNOX activity in skin with arNOX-inhibitory ingredients (NuSkin's ageLOC technology), skin appearance was improved through decreased protein cross-linking and an accelerated increase in collagen.

  19. Controlling reactive oxygen species in skin at their source to reduce skin aging.

    PubMed

    Kern, Dale G; Draelos, Zoe D; Meadows, Christiaan; James Morré, D; Morré, Dorothy M

    2010-01-01

    Activity of an age-related, superoxide-forming, cell-surface oxidase (arNOX) comparing dermis, epidermis, serum, and saliva from female and male subjects ages 28-72 years measured spectrophotometrically using reduction of ferricytochrome c correlated with oxidative skin damage as estimated from autofluoresence of skin using an Advanced Glycation End products Reader (AGE-Reader; DiagnOptics B.V., Netherlands). By reducing arNOX activity in skin with arNOX-inhibitory ingredients (NuSkin's ageLOC technology), skin appearance was improved through decreased protein cross-linking and an accelerated increase in collagen. PMID:19954332

  20. Bodies in skin: a philosophical and theological approach to genetic skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Walser, Angelika

    2010-03-01

    This contribution evolved from my work in a European network and is dedicated to the rare genetic skin diseases. To gain a deeper knowledge about the question, what it means to suffer from a genetic skin disease, I have discussed the concepts of skin in philosophical and theological anthropology. Presuming that ancient interpretations of skin diseases (moral and cultical impurity) are still relevant today, feminist Christian theology shows the ways of deconstructing stigmatizing paradigma by using the body as a hermeneutic category. Skin becomes the "open borderline" of the human being, pointing out both the social vulnerability and the transcendent capacity of the human person. PMID:19148755

  1. Effect of tap-water iontophoresis on sweat gland recruitment, skin temperature and skin blood flow.

    PubMed

    Kolkhorst, Fred W; DiPasquale, Dana M; Buono, Michael J

    2002-02-01

    Our interest was to quantify the role of sweat gland activation on the maintenance of skin temperature during mild exercise in the heat. Seven days of tap-water iontophoresis decreased the number of active sweat glands by 72% which significantly increased forearm skin temperature and blood flow during mild exercise (70 W) in the heat (32 degrees C). Skin temperature of the treated forearm was 0.5 degrees C warmer (P=0.049); skin blood flow in the treated forearm was 13% higher than the control arm (P=0.021). These results illustrate the importance of sweat evaporation on skin temperature and blood flow during exercise. PMID:11858947

  2. Bodies in skin: a philosophical and theological approach to genetic skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Walser, Angelika

    2010-03-01

    This contribution evolved from my work in a European network and is dedicated to the rare genetic skin diseases. To gain a deeper knowledge about the question, what it means to suffer from a genetic skin disease, I have discussed the concepts of skin in philosophical and theological anthropology. Presuming that ancient interpretations of skin diseases (moral and cultical impurity) are still relevant today, feminist Christian theology shows the ways of deconstructing stigmatizing paradigma by using the body as a hermeneutic category. Skin becomes the "open borderline" of the human being, pointing out both the social vulnerability and the transcendent capacity of the human person.

  3. Impaired skin integrity related to radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ratliff, C.

    1990-09-01

    Skin reactions associated with radiation therapy require frequent nursing assessment and intervention. Preventive interventions and early management can minimize the severity of the skin reaction. With the understanding of the pathogenesis of radiation skin reactions, the ET nurse can determine who is at risk and then implement preventive measures. Because radiation treatment is fractionated, skin reactions do not usually occur until midway through the course of therapy and will subside within a few weeks after completion of radiation. Many patients and their families still fear that radiation causes severe burns. Teaching and anticipatory guidance by the ET nurse is needed to assist patients and their families to overcome this fear, and to educate them on preventive skin care regimens.

  4. Skin cleansing in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Raab, W

    1990-01-01

    Skin cleansing has to be considered as an important component of daily hygiene in normal skin and as an important part of therapy in diseased skin. The crucial point is the choice of the cleansing agent to be recommended as skin tolerance of detergents is sometimes low. The evaluation of cleansing products depends upon their cleansing action (detergent or adsorptive), on the general and specifically epidermal toxicity of the components, on the rinsability of the product, and on the amount and nature of the additives, e. g. perfume oils. The knowledge of all the above-mentioned points will help the cosmetic adviser as well as the dermatologist to make the right choice depending upon the actual condition of the skin.

  5. A Review of Acne in Ethnic Skin

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Erica C.

    2010-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is one of the most common conditions for which all patients, including those with skin of color (Fitzpatrick skin types IV–VI), seek dermatological care. The multifactorial pathogenesis of acne appears to be the same in ethnic patients as in Caucasians. However, there is controversy over whether certain skin biology characteristics, such as sebum production, differ in ethnic patients. Clinically, acne lesions can appear the same as those seen in Caucasians; however, histologically, all types of acne lesions in African Americans can be associated with intense inflammation including comedones, which can also have some degree of inflammation. It is the sequelae of the disease that are the distinguishing characteristics of acne in skin of color, namely postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and keloidal or hypertrophic scarring. Although the medical and surgical treatment options are the same, it is these features that should be kept in mind when designing a treatment regimen for acne in skin of color. PMID:20725545

  6. Skin barrier in atopic dermatitis: beyond filaggrin.

    PubMed

    Zaniboni, Mariana Colombini; Samorano, Luciana Paula; Orfali, Raquel Leão; Aoki, Valéria

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a complex pathogenesis, where changes in skin barrier and imbalance of the immune system are relevant factors. The skin forms a mechanic and immune barrier, regulating water loss from the internal to the external environment, and protecting the individual from external aggressions, such as microorganisms, ultraviolet radiation and physical trauma. Main components of the skin barrier are located in the outer layers of the epidermis (such as filaggrin), the proteins that form the tight junction (TJ) and components of the innate immune system. Recent data involving skin barrier reveal new information regarding its structure and its role in the mechanic-immunological defense; atopic dermatitis (AD) is an example of a disease related to dysfunctions associated with this complex. PMID:27579743

  7. Skin aging: are adipocytes the next target?

    PubMed

    Kruglikov, Ilja L; Scherer, Philipp E

    2016-07-01

    Dermal white adipose tissue (dWAT) is increasingly appreciated as a special fat depot. The adipocytes in this depot exert a variety of unique effects on their surrounding cells and can undergo massive phenotypic changes. Significant modulation of dWAT content can be observed both in intrinsically and extrinsically aged skin. Specifically, skin that has been chronically photo-damaged displays a reduction of the dWAT volume, caused by the replacement of adipocytes by fibrotic structures. This is likely to be caused by the recently uncovered process described as "adipocyte-myofibroblast transition" (AMT). In addition, contributions of dermal adipocytes to the skin aging processes are also indirectly supported by spatial correlations between the prevalence of hypertrophic scarring and the appearance of signs of skin aging in different ethnic groups. These observations could elevate dermal adipocytes to prime targets in strategies aimed at counteracting skin aging. PMID:27434510

  8. Plants used to treat skin diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tabassum, Nahida; Hamdani, Mariya

    2014-01-01

    Skin diseases are numerous and a frequently occurring health problem affecting all ages from the neonates to the elderly and cause harm in number of ways. Maintaining healthy skin is important for a healthy body. Many people may develop skin diseases that affect the skin, including cancer, herpes and cellulitis. Some wild plants and their parts are frequently used to treat these diseases. The use of plants is as old as the mankind. Natural treatment is cheap and claimed to be safe. It is also suitable raw material for production of new synthetic agents. A review of some plants for the treatment of skin diseases is provided that summarizes the recent technical advancements that have taken place in this area during the past 17 years. PMID:24600196

  9. Pre-operative antiseptic skin preparation.

    PubMed

    Murkin, Claire Elizabeth

    Theatre nurses use antiseptic skin preparation products every day, but little thought seems to be given as to why a surgeon has a particular preference for one antiseptic skin preparation over another - whether it is for its efficacy, safety or application properties. Woodhead et al (2004) states that nurses still work in a ritualistic environment. Rituals are 'any action performed according to custom, without understanding the reasons why it is being practised'. Nursing practice should be evidence-based; nurses should understand the rationale behind the choice of a particular antiseptic, and be knowledgable about the clinical effectiveness of antiseptic's use pre-operatively, to achieve optimum results. This article focuses on the main types of antiseptic skin preparation while highlighting each product's activity and the relevant considerations for choosing the appropriate product for each patient. Theatre staff need to emphasize the importance of skin preparation and the correct application techniques, while educating the scrub team and surgeons with respect to skin preparation.

  10. A new method of measuring skin humidity.

    PubMed

    Reinhart, H; Brenneisen, G

    1976-08-01

    A device suitable for the long-time measurement of relative skin humidity is described. This is a simple circuit with a resistance bridge for lithium chloride sensors connected to a digitally steered logic circuit, which causes dried air to stream intermittently through a measuring chamber placed on the skin in such a way that the relative humidity over the skin is maintained at a constant level. The number of switching time periods is proportional to the relative humidity (secretion performance) of the skin and can be counted, recorded, or directly fed into a digital calculator. The apparatus, including a two-channel version with skin temperature recording, has proved useful in sleep investigations under extreme climatic conditions.

  11. Increased skin temperature during transcutaneous electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Abram, S E; Asiddao, C B; Reynolds, A C

    1980-01-01

    Conflicting reports have appeared in the literature concerning the effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on skin temperature. This report studied 33 patients with chronic pain involving one extremity (13 upper, 20 lower) to determine whether changes in sympathetic tone, as reflected in skin temperature, occurred in response to electrical stimulation of painful areas. Stimulation was carried out for 20 to 45 minutes. Skin temperatures were measured from the thumbs or great toes of stimulated and contralateral extremities before and during stimulation. Skin temperature rose 2.5 +/- 0.7 (mean +/- SEM) in both the ipsilateral and contralateral extremity in patients who experienced relief of pain during stimulation. There was no significant change in skin temperature in patients who experienced no relief.

  12. Sepsis, parenteral vaccination and skin disinfection

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Ian F.

    2016-01-01

    ASBSTRACT Disinfection should be required for all skin penetrative procedures including parenteral administration of vaccines. This review analyses medically attended infectious events following parenteral vaccination in terms of their microbiological aetiology and pathogenesis. Like ‘clean’ surgical site infections, the major pathogens responsible for these events were Staphylococcal species, implicating endogenous con-tamination as a significant source of infection. As 70% isopropyl alcohol swabbing has been shown to effectively disinfect the skin, it would be medico-legally difficult to defend a case of sepsis with the omission of skin disinfection unless the very low risk of this event was adequately explained to the patient and documented prior to vaccination. There was a significant cost-benefit for skin disinfection and cellulitis. Skin disinfection in the context of parenteral vaccination represents a new paradigm of medical practice; the use of a low cost intervention to prevent an event of very low prevalence but of significant cost. PMID:27295449

  13. Pulsed laser radiation therapy of skin tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlov, A.P.; Moskalik, K.G.

    1980-11-15

    Radiation from a neodymium laser was used to treat 846 patients with 687 precancerous lesions or benign tumors of the skin, 516 cutaneous carcinomas, 33 recurrences of cancer, 51 melanomas, and 508 metastatic melanomas in the skin. The patients have been followed for three months to 6.5 years. No relapses have been observed during this period. Metastases to regional lymph nodes were found in five patients with skin melanoma. Pulsed laser radiation may be successfully used in the treatment of precancerous lesions and benign tumors as well as for skin carcinoma and its recurrences, and for skin melanoma. Laser radiation is more effective in the treatment of tumors inaccessible to radiation therapy and better in those cases in which surgery may have a bad cosmetic or even mutilating effect. Laser beams can be employed in conjunction with chemo- or immunotherapy.

  14. Skin barrier in atopic dermatitis: beyond filaggrin*

    PubMed Central

    Zaniboni, Mariana Colombini; Samorano, Luciana Paula; Orfali, Raquel Leão; Aoki, Valéria

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a complex pathogenesis, where changes in skin barrier and imbalance of the immune system are relevant factors. The skin forms a mechanic and immune barrier, regulating water loss from the internal to the external environment, and protecting the individual from external aggressions, such as microorganisms, ultraviolet radiation and physical trauma. Main components of the skin barrier are located in the outer layers of the epidermis (such as filaggrin), the proteins that form the tight junction (TJ) and components of the innate immune system. Recent data involving skin barrier reveal new information regarding its structure and its role in the mechanic-immunological defense; atopic dermatitis (AD) is an example of a disease related to dysfunctions associated with this complex. PMID:27579743

  15. Skin aging: are adipocytes the next target?

    PubMed Central

    Kruglikov, Ilja L.; Scherer, Philipp E.

    2016-01-01

    Dermal white adipose tissue (dWAT) is increasingly appreciated as a special fat depot. The adipocytes in this depot exert a variety of unique effects on their surrounding cells and can undergo massive phenotypic changes. Significant modulation of dWAT content can be observed both in intrinsically and extrinsically aged skin. Specifically, skin that has been chronically photo-damaged displays a reduction of the dWAT volume, caused by the replacement of adipocytes by fibrotic structures. This is likely to be caused by the recently uncovered process described as “adipocyte-myofibroblast transition” (AMT). In addition, contributions of dermal adipocytes to the skin aging processes are also indirectly supported by spatial correlations between the prevalence of hypertrophic scarring and the appearance of signs of skin aging in different ethnic groups. These observations could elevate dermal adipocytes to prime targets in strategies aimed at counteracting skin aging. PMID:27434510

  16. 75 FR 22148 - Request for the Technical Review of 22 Draft Skin Notation Assignments and Skin Notation Profiles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... Skin Notation Assignments and Skin Notation Profiles AGENCY: National Institute for Occupational Safety... public review of the draft skin notations and support technical documents entitled ``Skin Notations Profiles, for 22 chemicals.'' NIOSH is requesting technical reviews of the draft Skin Notation Profiles....

  17. Brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) skin carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bunton, T E

    2000-06-01

    Alternative models using fish species have been tested in liver toxicity and carcinogenesis bioassays. Similar models have not been developed for skin. The brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) has shown potential as a model for skin carcinogenesis studies due to its sensitivity to environmental chemical pollutants. The present study is an initial morphologic and biochemical characterization of the normal and neoplastic brown bullhead skin to assess its suitability as a model of skin carcinogenesis. Brown bullhead were removed from Back River in the Chesapeake Bay region, an area historically polluted with heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Histology, histochemistry, and electron microscopy were used to stage the morphologic development and progression of neoplasia in skin. The distribution of keratin, a family of structural proteins with altered expression in mammalian tumorigenesis, was analyzed with one and two dimensional gel electrophoresis and nitrocellulose blots of extracts from normal skin. Keratin expression in skin and other organs was also assessed with immunohistochemistry using AE1, AE3, and PCK 26 antibodies, and the proliferation index in skin and neoplasms with PCNA antibody. Skin lesions appeared to progress from hyperplasia through carcinoma, and the proliferation index was increased in papilloma. Also in papilloma, intercellular interdigitations appeared increased and desmosomes decreased which may in future studies correlate with changes in expression of other molecular markers of neoplastic progression. Both Type I and Type II keratin subfamilies were detected in skin using gel electrophoresis with the complimentary keratin blot-binding assay. For further development of the brown bullhead model, future studies can compare and relate these baseline data to alterations in expression of keratin and other markers in fish neoplasms and to molecular events which occur in man. PMID:10930121

  18. Setup for investigating gold nanoparticle penetration through reconstructed skin and comparison to published human skin data.

    PubMed

    Labouta, Hagar I; Thude, Sibylle; Schneider, Marc

    2013-06-01

    Owing to the limited source of human skin (HS) and the ethical restrictions of using animals in experiments, in vitro skin equivalents are a possible alternative for conducting particle penetration experiments. The conditions for conducting penetration experiments with model particles, 15-nm gold nanoparticles (AuNP), through nonsealed skin equivalents are described for the first time. These conditions include experimental setup, sterility conditions, effective applied dose determination, skin sectioning, and skin integrity check. Penetration at different exposure times (two and 24 h) and after tissue fixation (fixed versus unfixed skin) are examined to establish a benchmark in comparison to HS in an attempt to get similar results to HS experiments presented earlier. Multiphoton microscopy is used to detect gold luminescence in skin sections. λ(ex)=800 nm is used for excitation of AuNP and skin samples, allowing us to determine a relative index for particle penetration. Despite the observed overpredictability of penetration into skin equivalents, they could serve as a first fast screen for testing the behavior of nanoparticles and extrapolate their penetration behavior into HS. Further investigations are required to test a wide range of particles of different physicochemical properties to validate the skin equivalent-human skin particle penetration relationship.

  19. Influence of dietary carotenoids on radical scavenging capacity of the skin and skin lipids.

    PubMed

    Meinke, M C; Friedrich, A; Tscherch, K; Haag, S F; Darvin, M E; Vollert, H; Groth, N; Lademann, J; Rohn, S

    2013-06-01

    Nutrition rich in carotenoids is well known to prevent cell damage, premature skin aging, and skin cancer. Cutaneous carotenoids can be enriched in the skin by nutrition and topically applied antioxidants have shown an increase in radical protection after VIS/NIR irradiation. In this paper, it was investigated whether orally administered carotenoids increase the radical scavenging activity and the radical protection of the skin using in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and the skin lipid profile was investigated applying HPTLC on skin lipid extracts. Furthermore, in vivo Raman resonance spectroscopy was used to measure the cutaneous carotenoid concentration. A double blind placebo controlled clinical study was performed with 24 healthy volunteers, who have shown a slow but significant and effective increase in cutaneous carotenoids in the verum group. The enhancement in carotenoids increases the radical scavenging activity of the skin and provides a significant protection against stress induced radical formation. Furthermore, the skin lipids in the verum group increased compared to the placebo group but only significantly for ceramide [NS]. These results indicate that a supplementation with dietary products containing carotenoids in physiological concentrations can protect the skin against reactive oxygen species and could avoid premature skin aging and other radical associated skin diseases.

  20. Setup for investigating gold nanoparticle penetration through reconstructed skin and comparison to published human skin data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labouta, Hagar I.; Thude, Sibylle; Schneider, Marc

    2013-06-01

    Owing to the limited source of human skin (HS) and the ethical restrictions of using animals in experiments, in vitro skin equivalents are a possible alternative for conducting particle penetration experiments. The conditions for conducting penetration experiments with model particles, 15-nm gold nanoparticles (AuNP), through nonsealed skin equivalents are described for the first time. These conditions include experimental setup, sterility conditions, effective applied dose determination, skin sectioning, and skin integrity check. Penetration at different exposure times (two and 24 h) and after tissue fixation (fixed versus unfixed skin) are examined to establish a benchmark in comparison to HS in an attempt to get similar results to HS experiments presented earlier. Multiphoton microscopy is used to detect gold luminescence in skin sections. λex=800 nm is used for excitation of AuNP and skin samples, allowing us to determine a relative index for particle penetration. Despite the observed overpredictability of penetration into skin equivalents, they could serve as a first fast screen for testing the behavior of nanoparticles and extrapolate their penetration behavior into HS. Further investigations are required to test a wide range of particles of different physicochemical properties to validate the skin equivalent-human skin particle penetration relationship.

  1. The effects of skin disease on the penetration kinetics of hydrocortisone through canine skin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ahlstrom, Liisa A; Cross, Sheree E; Mills, Paul C

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of allergic skin disease on the penetration kinetics of hydrocortisone through canine skin in vitro. Full-thickness lesional and nonlesional (normal) skin was removed from the dorsal lumbosacral and dorsocaudal thoracic regions, respectively, of five canine cadavers. The dogs were suspected of having flea allergy dermatitis based on their distribution and types of skin lesions. Nonlesional skin was confirmed to be histologically normal, and the histopathology of the lesional skin was consistent with allergic dermatitis. Excised skin was clipped, mounted in Franz-type diffusion cells, and the transdermal penetration of a saturated, radiolabelled hydrocortisone solution was measured over 30 h. When the penetration data for all five dogs were pooled, a restricted (or residual) maximal likelihood mixed model predicted that the permeability coefficient and pseudosteady-state flux of hydrocortisone was more than twice as great (95% confidence interval 1.55-2.71 times as great; P < 0.0001) through lesional compared with nonlesional skin. There was no significant difference in the lag time for hydrocortisone penetration through lesional compared with nonlesional skin of the dogs. This study has confirmed that the transdermal penetration of hydrocortisone may be altered, typically increased twofold, but could be as high as 10-fold, through lesional compared with nonlesional skin of dogs with suspected flea allergy dermatitis. This is likely to be affected by variables such as disease severity, concurrent infections and interindividual differences in skin characteristics.

  2. Burden of malignancy after a primary skin cancer: recurrence, multiple skin cancers and second primary cancers.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Hans; Williams, Dan

    2010-01-01

    The current paper summarizes relevant recent research on the high risk of recurrence, multiple skin cancers and second primary cancers in the growing number of people with a history of skin cancer; the ultimate purpose is to better assess the burden of malignancy following skin cancer. A number of challenges exist in identifying and tracking both melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) cases. Most jurisdictions do not routinely track NMSC cases and, even if they do, it is customary to only include the first diagnosis. There are variable rules for counting multiple melanoma cancers, and recurrences are not considered for either major type of skin cancer. Applying insights from recent studies of this issue to Canadian cancer statistics would increase reported diagnoses of NMSC by about 26% and melanoma by 10% in this country. This approach to a fuller assessment of the burden of skin cancers has been called a "diagnosis-based incidence approach" as compared with a "patient-based incidence approach". A further issue that is not usually taken into account when assessing the burden of skin cancers is the 20% to 30% elevated risk of noncutaneous second primary cancers following a primary skin tumour. In summary, individuals with skin cancer are subject to a high risk of recurrence, multiple skin cancers and second primary cancers. This burden should be a special concern in the large and growing pool of individuals with a history of skin cancer, as well as among prevention planners.

  3. UV treatments on the physicochemical properties of tilapia skin and pig skin gelatin.

    PubMed

    Wu, C K; Tsai, J S; Chen, Z Y; Sung, W C

    2015-06-01

    Tilapia skin gelatin, pig skin gelatin, and their mousse premixes were exposed to UV irradiation for 103, 206, and 309 kJ/cm(2). All samples after 309 kJ/cm(2) exposure exhibited a significant increase in gel strength, gel forming ability as well as viscosity of solutions. It was shown that UV treatment could also improve the pig skin gelatin foam stability and foam formation ability compared to those of tilapia skin gelatin. Nevertheless, the panelists gave the lowest scores to mousse made with 309 kJ/cm(2) UV-irradiated premix mousse pig skin gelatin. Tilapia skin gelatin could be used as a substitute ingredient for premix mousse made from pig skin gelatin.

  4. An evaluation of the relationship between 'atopic skin' and skin irritability in metalworker trainees.

    PubMed

    Stolz, R; Hinnen, U; Elsner, P

    1997-06-01

    Skin hyperirritability to irritants as well as atopy are considered to be predisposing factors for contact dermatitis. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether these predictive factors are independent or whether they are so closely related that one could possibly replace the other 205 metalworker trainees underwent skin examination for skin atopy, including standardized questionnaire, clinical examination of the skin and a series of skin irritability tests. These tests included measurements of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) before and after irritation with 3 different irritants: sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The results of the linear regression analysis demonstrate that skin atopy is not associated with increased skin irritability, as assessed by the irritability testing methods presented.

  5. [Skin sensitizers in cosmetics and skin care products].

    PubMed

    Minamoto, Keiko

    2010-01-01

    Cosmetics are defined as "articles with mild action on the human body, which are intended to be applied to the human body through rubbing, sprinkling or other methods, aiming to clean, beautify and increase the attractiveness, alter the appearance or to keep the skin or hair in good condition (The Pharmaceutical Affairs Law: Article 2)." Consequently, they include personal hygiene products such as shampoos, soaps and toothpaste. In Europe, 1% of the population is estimated to be allergic to fragrances and 2-3% to ingredients of cosmetics; 10% of outpatients patch-tested for cosmetics allergy were found to be positive. Allergenic ingredients of cosmetics can be fragrances, hair dye, preservatives, antioxidants, emollients, surfactants, UV absorbers, pigments or resins used in nail cosmetics. Among standard allergen series, eight substances are related to cosmetics; in Japan in 2003, p-phenylenediamine (hair dyes) induced allergic reactions with the highest rate of 7.9% in outpatients patch-tested (n=805), followed by fragrance mix No. 1 (4.0%, mixture of eight fragrances frequently used), colophony (3.2%, main contents of pine resin), lanolin alcohol (2.7%,emollients), and formaldehyde, parabens, Kathon CG (2.7% ,1.9% and 1.0%, respectively; preservatives). Cosmetic allergy symptoms tend to be mild except those caused by hair dye. However, the population exposed to cosmetics is huge and the number of ingredients used in cosmetics increased up to more than 6000. Here, major cosmetic ingredient allergens, mainly reported in Japan, are reviewed and discussed.

  6. What's New in Research and Treatment of Melanoma Skin Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic Additional resources for melanoma skin cancer What’s new in melanoma skin cancer research? Research into the ... Melanoma Talking With Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Skin Cancer - Melanoma Research? Other Resources and ...

  7. Keep Your Skin Healthy: Protecting Your Outer Self

    MedlinePlus

    ... A yellow tint might indicate liver disease. And dark or unusual moles might be a warning sign ... Household Burns Your Microbes and You Healthy Skin Matters Skin Care and Aging Skin Cancer (Including Melanoma) ...

  8. Exploring the prevalence of skin tears and skin properties related to skin tears in elderly patients at a long-term medical facility in Japan.

    PubMed

    Koyano, Yuiko; Nakagami, Gojiro; Iizaka, Shinji; Minematsu, Takeo; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Tamai, Nao; Mugita, Yuko; Kitamura, Aya; Tabata, Keiko; Abe, Masatoshi; Murayama, Ryoko; Sugama, Junko; Sanada, Hiromi

    2016-04-01

    The identification of appropriate skin tear prevention guidelines for the elderly requires clinicians to focus on local risk factors such as structural alterations of the epidermis and dermis related to skin tears. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to explore the prevalence of skin tears and to explore skin properties related to skin tears in elderly Japanese patients at a long-term medical facility. After doing the prevalence study, 18 participants with skin tears and 18 without were recruited and an evaluation of their skin properties using 20-MHz ultrasonography, skin blotting and also Corneometer CM-825, Skin-pH-meterPH905, VapoMeter, Moisture Meter-D and CutometerMPA580 was undertaken. A total of 410 patients were examined, the median age was 87 years and 73·2% were women. The prevalence of skin tears was 3·9%, and 50% of skin tears occurred on the dorsal forearm. The changes in skin properties associated with skin tears included increased low-echogenic pixels (LEP) by 20-MHz ultrasonography, decreased type IV collagen and matrix metalloproteinase-2, and increased tumour necrosis factor-α by skin blotting. In conclusion, this study suggests that increased dermal LEP, including solar elastosis, may represent a risk factor for skin tears; this indicates that skin tear risk factors might not only represent chronological ageing but also photoageing.

  9. Effect of Skin-To-Skin Contact on Preterm Infant Skin Barrier Function and Hospital-Acquired Infection

    PubMed Central

    Abouelfettoh, Amel; Ludington-Hoe, Susan M.; Burant, Chris J.; Visscher, Marty O.

    2011-01-01

    Background The preterm infants' skin is structurally and functionally immature at birth because of immature stratum corneum barrier function, leading to problems with fluid loses, thermoregulation, and infection. Two parameters of barrier function can be non-invasively assessed: Stratum Corneum Hydration (SCH) and Transepidermal Water Loss (TEWL). Skin-to-Skin Care (SSC) is the proposed independent variable that might affect barrier function by decreasing TEWL and increasing SCH, thereby improving stratum corneum barrier function and consequently decreasing the rate of infection. No study of SSC's effects on TEWL and SCH of preterm infants could be found. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of 5 daily Skin-to-Skin Contact sessions on infant skin hydration (SCH), transepidermal evaporated water loss (TEWL), and on SCH when TEWL was controlled, and on the presence of hospital acquired infection. Methods A one-group pretest-test-posttest design with 10 preterm infants (28 - 30 wks GA < 32 wks postmenstrual age, and no infection at entry). Test = 90 minutes of SSC; pre-test and post-test = 30 minutes each of prone positioning in an incubator. SCH and TEWL were taken on Days 1 and 5 at the beginning, middle and end of each period using Multi-Probe Adaptor. A 3 X 3 X 2 Repeated Measures Mixed Models Design, including a covariate, was used to analyze level of Skin Hydration. Specifically, the model tested comparisons in SCH made across repetitions, time, and days, as well as all possible interactions while controlling for TEWL. Descriptive statistics described the number of positive blood cultures during hospitalization and the presence of infections four weeks post-discharge. Results Significant differences in skin hydration were found across TIME (Pre-SSC, SSC, Post-SSC) (F = 21.86; p < 0.001). One infant had a positive blood culture during hospitalization; no infants had signs of infection by 4 weeks post-discharge. Conclusions The study has begun

  10. [Structure, function and reconstruction of skin surface lipid film].

    PubMed

    Lu, Benrong; Liu, Yi; Li, Shilong; Wang, Gang

    2016-02-01

    After healing of burn wound, skin of scar, transplanted skin grafts, and healed donor site wound suffer from temporary or permanent loss of function of sebaceous glands and dysfunction of skin surface lipid film formation, resulting in desiccation, desquamation, and sensitiveness of the skin, making areas of newly formed skin unsatisfactory. Therefore a good rehabilitation may fail. In this paper, the composition, physiochemical properties, and reconstruction of skin surface lipid film are discussed.

  11. Immunization with DNA through the skin.

    PubMed

    Peachman, Kristina K; Rao, Mangala; Alving, Carl R

    2003-11-01

    The skin has evolved as a barrier to prevent external agents, including pathogens, from entering the body. It has a complex and efficient immune surveillance system, which includes Langerhans cells and dendritic cells. By targeting the body's natural defense system, skin-DNA immunization attempts to produce an efficient immune response. Nucleic acid vaccines provide DNA for protein expression in a variety of cells, including keratinocytes, Langerhans cells, and dendritic cells, which are located in the two main areas of the skin, the epidermis (the most superficial layer) and the dermis. After maturation, Langerhans cells and dermal dendritic cells can migrate to local lymph nodes where presentation of antigens to T cells can occur and thus start a variety of immunologic responses. Dermal immunization methods described in this article target the epidermis, the dermis, or both and include: (a) stripping; (b) chemical modification; (c) trans-epidermal immunization (transcutaneous immunization or non-invasive vaccination of the skin); (d) gene gun technology; (e) electroporation; (f) intradermal injections; and (g) microseeding. These techniques all require the removal of hair, the circumvention or modification of the stratum corneum layer of the epidermis, and the addition of DNA or amplification of DNA signal. As the biology of the skin and the mechanisms of DNA vaccination are elucidated, these skin immunization techniques will be optimized. With refinement, skin-DNA immunization will achieve the goal of producing a reliable and efficacious immune response to a variety of pathogens.

  12. In vitro human skin penetration of diethanolamine.

    PubMed

    Kraeling, M E K; Yourick, J J; Bronaugh, R L

    2004-10-01

    Concerns about the safety of diethanolamine (DEA) have been raised by the National Toxicology Program (NTP). Therefore, we measured the extent of DEA absorption in human skin relevant to exposures from shampoos, hair dyes and body lotions. Radiolabeled [14C]-DEA was added to two commercial products from each class and applied to excised viable and non-viable human skin in flow-through diffusion cells. The products remained on the skin for 5, 30 and 24 h for shampoos, hair dyes and body lotions, respectively. After 24 h, most of the absorbed dose was found in skin: 2.8% for shampoos, 2.9% for hair dyes and 10.0% for body lotions. Only small amounts were absorbed into the receptor fluid: 0.08%, 0.09% and 0.9% for shampoos, hair dyes and body lotions respectively. There was no significant difference in the absorption of DEA through viable and non-viable skin or from product application doses of 1, 2 or 3 mg lotion/cm2. In 72 h daily repeat dose studies with a lotion, DEA appeared to accumulate in the skin (29.2%) with little diffusing out into the receptor fluid. Therefore, skin levels of DEA should not be included in estimates of systemic absorption used in exposure assessments.

  13. Biaxial mechanical characterization of bat wing skin.

    PubMed

    Skulborstad, A J; Swartz, S M; Goulbourne, N C

    2015-06-01

    The highly flexible and stretchable wing skin of bats, together with the skeletal structure and musculature, enables large changes in wing shape during flight. Such compliance distinguishes bat wings from those of all other flying animals. Although several studies have investigated the aerodynamics and kinematics of bats, few have examined the complex histology and mechanical response of the wing skin. This work presents the first biaxial characterization of the local deformation, mechanical properties, and fiber kinematics of bat wing skin. Analysis of these data has provided insight into the relationships among the structural morphology, mechanical properties, and functionality of wing skin. Large spatial variations in tissue deformation and non-negligible fiber strains in the cross-fiber direction for both chordwise and spanwise fibers indicate fibers should be modeled as two-dimensional elements. The macroscopic constitutive behavior was anisotropic and nonlinear, with very low spanwise and chordwise stiffness (hundreds of kilopascals) in the toe region of the stress-strain curve. The structural arrangement of the fibers and matrix facilitates a low energy mechanism for wing deployment and extension, and we fabricate examples of skins capturing this mechanism. We propose a comprehensive deformation map for the entire loading regime. The results of this work underscore the importance of biaxial field approaches for soft heterogeneous tissue, and provide a foundation for development of bio-inspired skins to probe the effects of the wing skin properties on aerodynamic performance. PMID:25895436

  14. Stem cells of the skin epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Laura; Fuchs, Elaine

    2003-01-01

    Tissue stem cells form the cellular base for organ homeostasis and repair. Stem cells have the unusual ability to renew themselves over the lifetime of the organ while producing daughter cells that differentiate into one or multiple lineages. Difficult to identify and characterize in any tissue, these cells are nonetheless hotly pursued because they hold the potential promise of therapeutic reprogramming to grow human tissue in vitro, for the treatment of human disease. The mammalian skin epithelium exhibits remarkable turnover, punctuated by periods of even more rapid production after injury due to burn or wounding. The stem cells responsible for supplying this tissue with cellular substrate are not yet easily distinguishable from neighboring cells. However, in recent years a significant body of work has begun to characterize the skin epithelial stem cells, both in tissue culture and in mouse and human skin. Some epithelial cells cultured from skin exhibit prodigious proliferative potential; in fact, for >20 years now, cultured human skin has been used as a source of new skin to engraft onto damaged areas of burn patients, representing one of the first therapeutic uses of stem cells. Cell fate choices, including both self-renewal and differentiation, are crucial biological features of stem cells that are still poorly understood. Skin epithelial stem cells represent a ripe target for research into the fundamental mechanisms underlying these important processes. PMID:12913119

  15. Male skin care: shaving and moisturization needs.

    PubMed

    Oblong, John E

    2012-01-01

    Historically, most cosmetic and medical cosmetic research has been focused on the female consumer. Advancements in the development of grooming instruments as well as changing consumer habits and attitudes toward male cosmetic skin care needs support the need to develop a deeper understanding of male skin biology and how that can be used to improve the quality of life relative to societal interactions. Male skin biology has been found to have unique properties that are distinct from females and have a significant impact on the way males groom and maintain their overall appearance. Research to date has found that male skin has a different response profile to such environmental insults as UV, heat, and stress that is based not on just differences in cosmetic or dermatological product usage but also on underlying biological differences. These differences are discussed with the implications to a broader understanding of male facial skin care needs that spans from daily grooming practices to overall health status that impacts higher incidence rate of skin cancer among males. This highlights that male skin care has a holistic need to ensure proper grooming and sunscreen moisturizer usage. PMID:22913441

  16. Male skin care: shaving and moisturization needs.

    PubMed

    Oblong, John E

    2012-01-01

    Historically, most cosmetic and medical cosmetic research has been focused on the female consumer. Advancements in the development of grooming instruments as well as changing consumer habits and attitudes toward male cosmetic skin care needs support the need to develop a deeper understanding of male skin biology and how that can be used to improve the quality of life relative to societal interactions. Male skin biology has been found to have unique properties that are distinct from females and have a significant impact on the way males groom and maintain their overall appearance. Research to date has found that male skin has a different response profile to such environmental insults as UV, heat, and stress that is based not on just differences in cosmetic or dermatological product usage but also on underlying biological differences. These differences are discussed with the implications to a broader understanding of male facial skin care needs that spans from daily grooming practices to overall health status that impacts higher incidence rate of skin cancer among males. This highlights that male skin care has a holistic need to ensure proper grooming and sunscreen moisturizer usage.

  17. Hand skin reconstruction from skeletal landmarks.

    PubMed

    Lefèvre, P; Van Sint Jan, S; Beauthier, J P; Rooze, M

    2007-11-01

    Many studies related to three-dimensional facial reconstruction have been previously reported. On the other hand, no extensive work has been found in the literature about hand reconstruction as an identification method. In this paper, the feasibility of virtual reconstruction of hand skin based on (1) its skeleton and (2) another hand skin and skeleton used as template was assessed. One cadaver hand and one volunteer's hand have been used. For the two hands, computer models of the bones and skin were obtained from computerized tomography. A customized software allowed locating spatial coordinates of bony anatomical landmarks on the models. From these landmarks, the spatial relationships between the models were determined and used to interpolate the missing hand skin. The volume of the interpolated skin was compared to the real skin obtained from medical imaging for validation. Results seem to indicate that such a method is of interest to give forensic investigators morphological clues related to an individual hand skin based on its skeleton. Further work is in progress to finalize the method.

  18. Electric dipole polarizability and the neutral skin

    SciTech Connect

    Piechaczek, A.; Nazarewicz, Witold; Reinhard, P.-G.; Agrawal, Bijay K; Colo, Gianluca; Paar, Nils; Roca-Maza, X; Vretenar, Dario

    2012-01-01

    The recent high-resolution measurement of the electric dipole (E1) polarizability {alpha}{sub D} in {sup 208}Pb [A. Tamii et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 062502 (2011)] provides a unique constraint on the neutron-skin thickness of this nucleus. The neutron-skin thickness r{sub skin} of {sup 208}Pb is a quantity of critical importance for our understanding of a variety of nuclear and astrophysical phenomena. To assess the model dependence of the correlation between {alpha}{sub D} and r{sub skin}, we carry out systematic calculations for {sup 208}Pb, {sup 132}Sn, and {sup 48}Ca based on the nuclear density functional theory using both nonrelativistic and relativistic energy density functionals. Our analysis indicates that whereas individual models exhibit a linear dependence between {alpha}{sub D} and r{sub skin}, this correlation is not universal when one combines predictions from a host of different models. By averaging over these model predictions, we provide estimates with associated systematic errors for r{sub skin} and {alpha}{sub D} for the nuclei under consideration. We conclude that precise measurements of r{sub skin} in both {sup 48}Ca and {sup 208}Pb - combined with the recent measurement of {alpha}{sub D} - should significantly constrain the isovector sector of the nuclear energy density functional.

  19. Lymphatic albumin clearance from psoriatic skin

    SciTech Connect

    Staberg, B.; Klemp, P.; Aasted, M.; Worm, A.M.; Lund, P.

    1983-12-01

    In nine patients with untreated psoriasis vulgaris, human serum albumin labelled with /sup 125/I or /sup 131/I was injected intradermally in symmetrically located involved and uninvolved skin. The activity of the depots was followed by external detection, and the arrival of labelled albumin in plasma was monitored. In involved psoriatic skin the local mean half-time (T1/2) for tracer disappearance was 20.8 +/- 8.2 (S.D.) hr and in clinically normal skin, 29.1 +/- 9.6 (S.D.) hr. The difference was significant (p less than 0.002). Accordingly, the tracer from involved skin reached higher plasma levels than the tracer from uninvolved skin. However, under slight lymphatic stasis the appearance rate of radiolabelled albumin in plasma from both tissues was minimal during 1 to 2 hours after the injection, indicating that a local direct transvascular drainage of plasma albumin from the interstitium of diseased and normal skin was negligible. We conclude that the previously demonstrated increased extravasation of plasma proteins in involved psoriatic skin is compensated by an increased lymphatic drainage of plasma proteins, and not by an increased local transvascular return.

  20. Depigmented Skin and Phantom Color Measurements for Realistic Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, Paul; Leachman, Sancy; Boucher, Kenneth; Ozçelik, Tunçer Burak

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that regardless of human skin phototype, areas of depigmented skin, as seen in vitiligo, are optically indistinguishable among skin phototypes. The average of the depigmented skin measurements can be used to develop the base color of realistic prostheses. Methods and Materials Data from 20 of 32 recruited vitiligo study participants. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy measurements were made from depigmented skin and adjacent pigmented skin, then compared to 66 pigmented polydimethylsiloxane phantoms to determine pigment concentrations in turbid media for making realistic facial prostheses. Results The Area Under spectral intensity Curve (AUC) was calculated for average spectroscopy measurements of pigmented sites in relation to skin phototype (p=0.0505) and depigmented skin in relation to skin phototype (p=0.59). No significant relationship exists between skin phototypes and depigmented skin spectroscopy measurements. The average of the depigmented skin measurements (AUC 19,129) was the closest match to phantom 6.4 (AUC 19,162) Conclusions Areas of depigmented skin are visibly indistinguishable per skin phototype, yet spectrometry shows that depigmented skin measurements varied and were unrelated to skin phototype. Possible sources of optical variation of depigmented skin include age, body site, blood flow, quantity/quality of collagen, and other chromophores. The average of all depigmented skin measurements can be used to derive the pigment composition and concentration for realistic facial prostheses. PMID:23750920

  1. Facial skin pores: a multiethnic study.

    PubMed

    Flament, Frederic; Francois, Ghislain; Qiu, Huixia; Ye, Chengda; Hanaya, Tomoo; Batisse, Dominique; Cointereau-Chardon, Suzy; Seixas, Mirela Donato Gianeti; Dal Belo, Susi Elaine; Bazin, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Skin pores (SP), as they are called by laymen, are common and benign features mostly located on the face (nose, cheeks, etc) that generate many aesthetic concerns or complaints. Despite the prevalence of skin pores, related literature is scarce. With the aim of describing the prevalence of skin pores and anatomic features among ethnic groups, a dermatoscopic instrument, using polarized lighting, coupled to a digital camera recorded the major features of skin pores (size, density, coverage) on the cheeks of 2,585 women in different countries and continents. A detection threshold of 250 μm, correlated to clinical scorings by experts, was input into a specific software to further allow for automatic counting of the SP density (N/cm(2)) and determination of their respective sizes in mm(2). Integrating both criteria also led to establishing the relative part of the skin surface (as a percentage) that is actually covered by SP on cheeks. The results showed that the values of respective sizes, densities, and skin coverage: 1) were recorded in all studied subjects; 2) varied greatly with ethnicity; 3) plateaued with age in most cases; and 4) globally refected self-assessment by subjects, in particular those who self-declare having "enlarged pores" like Brazilian women. Inversely, Chinese women were clearly distinct from other ethnicities in having very low density and sizes. Analyzing the present results suggests that facial skin pore's morphology as perceived by human eye less result from functional criteria of associated appendages such as sebaceous glands. To what extent skin pores may be viewed as additional criteria of a photo-altered skin is an issue to be further addressed. PMID:25733918

  2. Skin cell proliferation stimulated by microneedles.

    PubMed

    Liebl, Horst; Kloth, Luther C

    2012-03-01

    A classical wound may be defined as a disruption of tissue integrity. Wounds, caused by trauma from accidents or surgery, that close via secondary intention rely on the biological phases of healing, i.e., hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling (HIPR). Depending on the wound type and severity, the inflammation phase begins immediately after injury and may last for an average of 7-14 days. Concurrent with the inflammation phase or slightly delayed, cell proliferation is stimulated followed by the activation of the remodeling (maturation) phase. The latter phase can last as long as 1 year or more, and the final healed state is represented by a scar tissue, a cross-linked collagen formation that usually aligns collagen fibers in a single direction. One may assume that skin microneedling that involves the use of dozens or as many as 200 needles that limit penetration to 1.5 mm over 1 cm(2) of skin would cause trauma and bleeding followed by the classical HIPR. However, this is not the case or at least the HIPR phases are significantly curtailed and healing never ends in a scar formation. Conversely dermabrasion used in aesthetic medicine for improving skin quality is based on "ablation" (destruction or wounding of superficial skin layers), which requires several weeks for healing that involves formation of new skin layers. Such procedures provoke an acute inflammatory response. We believe that a less intense inflammatory response occurs following microneedle perforation of the skin. However, the mechanism of action of microneedling appears to be different. Here we review the potential mechanisms by which microneedling of the skin facilitates skin repair without scarring after the treatment of superficial burns, acne, hyperpigmentation, and the non-advancing periwound skin surrounding the chronic ulcerations of the integument. PMID:24527373

  3. Facial skin pores: a multiethnic study

    PubMed Central

    Flament, Frederic; Francois, Ghislain; Qiu, Huixia; Ye, Chengda; Hanaya, Tomoo; Batisse, Dominique; Cointereau-Chardon, Suzy; Seixas, Mirela Donato Gianeti; Dal Belo, Susi Elaine; Bazin, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Skin pores (SP), as they are called by laymen, are common and benign features mostly located on the face (nose, cheeks, etc) that generate many aesthetic concerns or complaints. Despite the prevalence of skin pores, related literature is scarce. With the aim of describing the prevalence of skin pores and anatomic features among ethnic groups, a dermatoscopic instrument, using polarized lighting, coupled to a digital camera recorded the major features of skin pores (size, density, coverage) on the cheeks of 2,585 women in different countries and continents. A detection threshold of 250 μm, correlated to clinical scorings by experts, was input into a specific software to further allow for automatic counting of the SP density (N/cm2) and determination of their respective sizes in mm2. Integrating both criteria also led to establishing the relative part of the skin surface (as a percentage) that is actually covered by SP on cheeks. The results showed that the values of respective sizes, densities, and skin coverage: 1) were recorded in all studied subjects; 2) varied greatly with ethnicity; 3) plateaued with age in most cases; and 4) globally refected self-assessment by subjects, in particular those who self-declare having “enlarged pores” like Brazilian women. Inversely, Chinese women were clearly distinct from other ethnicities in having very low density and sizes. Analyzing the present results suggests that facial skin pore’s morphology as perceived by human eye less result from functional criteria of associated appendages such as sebaceous glands. To what extent skin pores may be viewed as additional criteria of a photo-altered skin is an issue to be further addressed. PMID:25733918

  4. Polyphenols: skin photoprotection and inhibition of photocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Afaq, F; Katiyar, S K

    2011-12-01

    Polyphenols are a large family of naturally occurring plant products and are widely distributed in plant foods, such as, fruits, vegetables, nuts, flowers, bark and seeds, etc. These polyphenols contribute to the beneficial health effects of dietary products. Clinical and epidemiological studies suggest that exposure of the skin to environmental factors/pollutants, such as solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation induce harmful effects and leads to various skin diseases including the risk of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers. The incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer, comprising of squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma, is a significant public health concern world-wide. Exposure of the skin to solar UV radiation results in inflammation, oxidative stress, DNA damage, dysregulation of cellular signaling pathways and immunosuppression thereby resulting in skin cancer. The regular intake of natural plant products, especially polyphenols, which are widely present in fruits, vegetables, dry legumes and beverages have gained considerable attention as protective agents against the adverse effects of UV radiation. In this article, we first discussed the impact of polyphenols on human health based on their structure-activity relationship and bioavailability. We then discussed in detail the photoprotective effects of some selected polyphenols on UV-induced skin inflammation, proliferation, immunosuppression, DNA damage and dysregulation of important cellular signaling pathways and their implications in skin cancer management. The selected polyphenols include: green tea polyphenols, pomegranate fruit extract, grape seed proanthocyanidins, resveratrol, silymarin, genistein and delphinidin. The new information on the mechanisms of action of these polyphenols supports their potential use in skin photoprotection and prevention of photocarcinogenesis in humans. PMID:22070679

  5. Polyphenols: skin photoprotection and inhibition of photocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Afaq, F; Katiyar, S K

    2011-12-01

    Polyphenols are a large family of naturally occurring plant products and are widely distributed in plant foods, such as, fruits, vegetables, nuts, flowers, bark and seeds, etc. These polyphenols contribute to the beneficial health effects of dietary products. Clinical and epidemiological studies suggest that exposure of the skin to environmental factors/pollutants, such as solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation induce harmful effects and leads to various skin diseases including the risk of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers. The incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer, comprising of squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma, is a significant public health concern world-wide. Exposure of the skin to solar UV radiation results in inflammation, oxidative stress, DNA damage, dysregulation of cellular signaling pathways and immunosuppression thereby resulting in skin cancer. The regular intake of natural plant products, especially polyphenols, which are widely present in fruits, vegetables, dry legumes and beverages have gained considerable attention as protective agents against the adverse effects of UV radiation. In this article, we first discussed the impact of polyphenols on human health based on their structure-activity relationship and bioavailability. We then discussed in detail the photoprotective effects of some selected polyphenols on UV-induced skin inflammation, proliferation, immunosuppression, DNA damage and dysregulation of important cellular signaling pathways and their implications in skin cancer management. The selected polyphenols include: green tea polyphenols, pomegranate fruit extract, grape seed proanthocyanidins, resveratrol, silymarin, genistein and delphinidin. The new information on the mechanisms of action of these polyphenols supports their potential use in skin photoprotection and prevention of photocarcinogenesis in humans.

  6. Skin Cell Proliferation Stimulated by Microneedles

    PubMed Central

    Liebl, Horst; Kloth, Luther C.

    2012-01-01

    A classical wound may be defined as a disruption of tissue integrity. Wounds, caused by trauma from accidents or surgery, that close via secondary intention rely on the biological phases of healing, i.e., hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling (HIPR). Depending on the wound type and severity, the inflammation phase begins immediately after injury and may last for an average of 7–14 days. Concurrent with the inflammation phase or slightly delayed, cell proliferation is stimulated followed by the activation of the remodeling (maturation) phase. The latter phase can last as long as 1 year or more, and the final healed state is represented by a scar tissue, a cross-linked collagen formation that usually aligns collagen fibers in a single direction. One may assume that skin microneedling that involves the use of dozens or as many as 200 needles that limit penetration to 1.5 mm over 1 cm2 of skin would cause trauma and bleeding followed by the classical HIPR. However, this is not the case or at least the HIPR phases are significantly curtailed and healing never ends in a scar formation. Conversely dermabrasion used in aesthetic medicine for improving skin quality is based on “ablation” (destruction or wounding of superficial skin layers), which requires several weeks for healing that involves formation of new skin layers. Such procedures provoke an acute inflammatory response. We believe that a less intense inflammatory response occurs following microneedle perforation of the skin. However, the mechanism of action of microneedling appears to be different. Here we review the potential mechanisms by which microneedling of the skin facilitates skin repair without scarring after the treatment of superficial burns, acne, hyperpigmentation, and the non-advancing periwound skin surrounding the chronic ulcerations of the integument. PMID:24527373

  7. Lizard-Skin Surface Texture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    The south polar region of Mars is covered seasonally with translucent carbon dioxide ice. In the spring gas subliming (evaporating) from the underside of the seasonal layer of ice bursts through weak spots, carrying dust from below with it, to form numerous dust fans aligned in the direction of the prevailing wind.

    The dust gets trapped in the shallow grooves on the surface, helping to define the small-scale structure of the surface. The surface texture is reminiscent of lizard skin (figure 1).

    Observation Geometry Image PSP_003730_0945 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 14-May-2007. The complete image is centered at -85.2 degrees latitude, 181.5 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 248.5 km (155.3 miles). At this distance the image scale is 24.9 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) so objects 75 cm across are resolved. The image shown here has been map-projected to 25 cm/pixel . The image was taken at a local Mars time of 06:04 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 69 degrees, thus the sun was about 21 degrees above the horizon. At a solar longitude of 237.5 degrees, the season on Mars is Northern Autumn.

  8. Pigmentary disorders in oriental skin.

    PubMed

    Jimbow, M; Jimbow, K

    1989-01-01

    Brown hyperpigmented disorders may be melanotic in which there is a normal number of epidermal melanocytes but melanin pigment is increased in the epidermis (eg, melasma), melanocytotic, in which melanocytes are increased (eg, café-au-lait macules), and nonmelanotic hyperpigmentation (eg, minocycline pigmentation). Blue hyperpigmented disorders may also be melanotic in which there is a normal number of epidermal melanocytes, but melanin pigment is present in the upper dermis (eg, gray/slate pigmentation in Riehl's melanosis), melanocytotic in which melanocytes are present in both the epidermis and dermis (eg, blue pigmentation in Nevus Ota and Mongolian spot), and nonmelanotic hyperpigmentation in which pigment is present in the deep dermis (eg, blue pigmentation in tattoos). Hypomelanosis (leukoderma) may be divided histopathologically into melanocytopenic disorders on which melanocytes are absent (eg, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome and vitiligo), melanopenic disorders in which melanocytes are present but melanin is reduced (eg, nevus depigmentosus and incontinentia pigmenti achromians), and nonmelanotic disorders in which melanin pigmentation is unaffected (nevus anemicus) and the pigmentary abnormality is caused by something other than melanin. There are numerous pigmentary disorders in the oriental skin, and some of them are either characteristic to or established in the orientals. Importantly, a number of congenital hypermelanotic and hypomelanotic diseases (eg, nevus depigmentosus, incontinentia pigmenti, and incontinentia pigmenti achromians, take a distribution following to the Blaschko's line.

  9. Dermal absorption and skin damage following hydrofluoric acid exposure in an ex vivo human skin model.

    PubMed

    Dennerlein, Kathrin; Kiesewetter, Franklin; Kilo, Sonja; Jäger, Thomas; Göen, Thomas; Korinth, Gintautas; Drexler, Hans

    2016-04-25

    The wide industrial use of hydrofluoric acid (HF) poses a high risk for accidental dermal exposure. Despite local and systemic hazards associated with HF, information on percutaneous penetration and tissue damage is rare. In the present ex vivo study, the dermal absorption of HF (detected in terms of fluoride ions) was quantified and the skin damaging potential as a function of concentration and exposure duration was assessed. Percutaneous penetration of HF (c=5, 30, and 50%) at 3 exposure durations (3, 5, and 10 min) was investigated in a static diffusion cell model using freshly excised human skin. Alterations of skin were histologically evaluated. HF rapidly penetrated through skin under formation of a considerable intradermal reservoir (∼ 13-67% of total absorbed fluoride). Histologically, epidermal alterations were detected already after exposure to 5% HF for 3 min. The degree of skin damage increased with rising concentration and exposure duration leading to coagulation necrosis. For HF concentrations of ≥ 30%, skin damage progressed into deeper skin layers. Topically applied HF concentration was the principal parameter determining HF induced skin effects. The intradermal HF retention capacity associated with progression and prolongation of HF induced skin effects must be considered in the review of skin decontamination procedures.

  10. A New Skin Tensiometer Device: Computational Analyses To Understand Biodynamic Excisional Skin Tension Lines

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Sharad P.; Matulich, Justin; Charlton, Nick

    2016-01-01

    One of the problems in planning cutaneous surgery is that human skin is anisotropic, or directionally dependent. Indeed, skin tension varies between individuals and at different body sites. Many a surgeon has tried to design different devices to measure skin tension to help plan excisional surgery, or to understand wound healing. However, many of the devices have been beset with problems due to many confounding variables - differences in technical ability, material (sutures) used and variability between different users. We describe the development of a new skin tensiometer that overcomes many historical technical issues. A new skin tension measuring device is presented here. It was designed to be less user-dependent, more reliable and usable on different bodily sites. The design and computational optimizations are discussed. Our skin tensiometer has helped understand the differences between incisional and excisional skin lines. Langer, who pioneered the concept of skin tension lines, created incisional lines that differ from lines caused by forces that need to be overcome when large wounds are closed surgically (excisional tension). The use of this innovative device has led to understanding of skin biomechanics and best excisional skin tension (BEST) lines. PMID:27453542

  11. A New Skin Tensiometer Device: Computational Analyses To Understand Biodynamic Excisional Skin Tension Lines.

    PubMed

    Paul, Sharad P; Matulich, Justin; Charlton, Nick

    2016-07-25

    One of the problems in planning cutaneous surgery is that human skin is anisotropic, or directionally dependent. Indeed, skin tension varies between individuals and at different body sites. Many a surgeon has tried to design different devices to measure skin tension to help plan excisional surgery, or to understand wound healing. However, many of the devices have been beset with problems due to many confounding variables - differences in technical ability, material (sutures) used and variability between different users. We describe the development of a new skin tensiometer that overcomes many historical technical issues. A new skin tension measuring device is presented here. It was designed to be less user-dependent, more reliable and usable on different bodily sites. The design and computational optimizations are discussed. Our skin tensiometer has helped understand the differences between incisional and excisional skin lines. Langer, who pioneered the concept of skin tension lines, created incisional lines that differ from lines caused by forces that need to be overcome when large wounds are closed surgically (excisional tension). The use of this innovative device has led to understanding of skin biomechanics and best excisional skin tension (BEST) lines.

  12. Effects of skin stretching without joint movement on skin extensibility of rats

    PubMed Central

    Tasaka, Atsushi; Ono, Takeya; Ishikura, Hideki; Aihara, Kazuki; Sato, Yuta; Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Morifuji, Takeshi; Oki, Sadaaki

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the possibility of maintaining skin extensibility by stretching the skin involved in disuse joint contracture. [Subjects and Methods] The study was carried out using 18 male Wistar rats. The rats were randomly allocated to three groups. The control group received no intervention for the right ankle joint, the fixation group received one-week’s fixation of the right ankle joint in maximum plantar-flexion with a cast, and the stretching group received continuous stretching of the skin over the Achilles tendon for 30 min once daily for one week with the cast removed during the skin stretching, but the joint was not moved. On the final day, skin extensibility of the skin from the posterior aspect of the ankle joint was determined using a tensile strength tester and a length-tension curve. [Results] Statistical analysis of the data revealed significant differences in the skin extensibility among the three groups. The stretching group showed significantly greater improvement of skin extensibility than the fixation group. [Conclusion] Skin stretching without moving the joint was demonstrated to be useful for maintaining skin extensibility. PMID:27799714

  13. The effect of Cetaphil Gentle Skin Cleanser on the skin barrier of patients with rosacea.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe D

    2006-04-01

    A good skin care regimen is a critical part of rosacea treatment; however, care must be taken to choose nonirritating products because individuals with rosacea tend to have sensitive skin, and irritants can trigger a worsening of symptoms. This study examines the use of Cetaphil Gentle Skin Cleanser (a nonalkaline nonirritating cleanser) in patients with rosacea. To eliminate the confounding effects of various treatments, the cleanser was studied for a 2-week period in the absence of rosacea therapy following a 2-week washout period in patients with mild to moderate rosacea. During the washout period, patients were asked to cleanse twice daily with Dove Sensitive Skin Bar. During the 2-week study period, patients were monitored for skin barrier function through transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and corneometry; patients also were monitored for rosacea severity. Thirty patients were enrolled. No significant increase in TEWL was demonstrated at any point during the study, indicating that the gentle skin cleanser did not damage the skin barrier. Additionally, the cleanser was shown to maintain skin hydration. Furthermore, a post hoc statistical analysis suggests there was a significant reduction (P<.05) in investigator-assessed rosacea severity on the cheeks, forehead, and nose at the end of week 1 and on the cheeks, forehead, and chin at the end of week 2 compared with the end of the washout period (after 2 weeks of cleansing with Dove Sensitive Skin Bar). The mild nonirritating action of the gentle skin cleanser was supported by the lack of adverse events and the tolerability shown in the study. There were no increases in erythema, scaling, dryness, stinging, burning, or lack of smoothness in the skin during the 2-week study period, despite the fact that patients were not being treated for their rosacea during the study. These results indicate that Cetaphil Gentle Skin Cleanser may be a good choice for the cleansing part of a total rosacea skin care regimen.

  14. Skin thickness effects on in vivo LXRF

    SciTech Connect

    Preiss, I.L.; Washington, W. II

    1995-12-31

    The analysis of lead concentration in bone utilizing LXRF can be adversely effected by overlying issue. A quantitative measure of the attenuation of the 10.5 keV Pb L a x-ray signal by skin and skin equivalent plastic has been conducted. Concentration ranges in plaster of Paris and goat bone from 7 to 90 ppm with attenuators of Lucite{reg_sign} and pig skin were examined. It is concluded that no quantitative or semi quantitative analysis can be achieved if overlying sue thickness exceeds 3 mm for Ph concentrations of less than 30 porn Ph in bone.

  15. Skin dose measurement with MICROSPEC-2{trademark}

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, H.H.; Chen, J.; Ing, H.; Clifford, E.T.H.; McLean, T.

    1997-10-01

    For many years, the Eberline HP-260{trademark} beta detectors were used for skin dose measurements at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This detector does not measure the beta spectrum and the skin dose can only be determined if the contaminating radioactive isotope is known. A new product MICROSPEC-2{trademark}, has been developed which consists of a small portable computer with a multichannel analyzer and a beta probe consisting of a phoswich detector. The system measures the beta spectrum and automatically folds in the beta fluence-to-dose conversion function to yield the skin dose.

  16. [Management of skin lesions in returning travelers].

    PubMed

    Monsel, Gentiane; Caumes, Éric

    2015-04-01

    Dermatoses in returning travellers are common. These dermatoses are mainly infectious, the most common being bacterial infections of cosmopolitan origin (cellulitis, pyoderma and abcess). Others dermatoses are environmental diseases such as sunburns, arthropod-related reactions and superficial injuries. The most common tropical skin disease is hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans but treating physicians may also face patients with localized cutaneous leishmaniasis, tungiasis, or myiasis. Also some systemic infections can be associated with skin manifestations. The most useful treatments in this setting are oral antihistamines, topical steroids, antibiotics effective against bacterial skin infection, booster for tetanus immunization, and rabies vaccination in case of animal exposure. PMID:26058193

  17. Congenital skin fossae in the zygomatic region.

    PubMed

    Hanawa, Y; Iwahira, Y; Maruyama, Y

    1993-01-01

    A unique case of a congenital skin fossa in the zygomatic region in a 3-year-old girl is reported. Little has been written about congenital fossae, or dimples. They are thought to develop in the wound resulting from the fetal tissue being compressed between a sharp bony point and the uterine wall. The skin and subcutaneous tissue become compressed and adherent, and when the pressure is released, surrounding parts can stand up, while the attached part remains tied down, forming small dimples or fossae, what have been called "pressure dimples." This is the first report of a skin fossa located in the zygomatic region, as far as we know. PMID:8416522

  18. Quantification of skin quality through speckle analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotay, Amrit; Buttenschoen, Kim-Kristin K.; Girkin, J. M.

    2015-02-01

    The surface of the skin plays an important role in the diagnosis of many clinical conditions, in relation to ageing and the acceptance of many consumer products. Considerable resource has been applied to skin in terms of cancer diagnosis but the actual surface finish of the tissue has been frequently overlooked. An optical system and associated imaging processing method has been developed which analyses the speckle pattern, recorded on a basic digital imaging system, and provides a quantitative analysis of the surface roughness. Results demonstrate that these measurements can be linked with more qualitative perceptions of skin quality (roughness).

  19. Antioxidant cosmeto-textiles: skin assessment.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Cristina; Martí, Meritxell; Martínez, Vanessa; Rubio, Laia; Parra, José L; Coderch, Luisa

    2013-05-01

    Resveratrol, a natural product, has been reported to have antioxidant activities such as the scavenging of free radicals. This compound could be used in the dermocosmetic field to protect the skin from oxidative stress. In this work, the percutaneous profile of resveratrol in ethanol solutions through pig skin was determinated by an in vitro methodology. The percutaneous absorption of resveratrol was measured and compared with trolox, an analogous of Vitamin E. Both antioxidants were found in all skin sections (stratum corneum, epidermis, and dermis). Besides, the free radical scavenging activity of resveratrol and trolox has been evaluated using DPPH method. The effective dose (ED₅₀) of compounds and DPPH radical inhibition in each skin layer were evaluated. Under the conditions used for these experiments, it can be deduced that resveratrol is more efficient than trolox as an antioxidant, also in the inner skin layers. The cosmeto-textiles with an active substance incorporated into their structure are increasingly used in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries. The action of several cosmeto-textiles on the skin was assessed by in vitro and in vivo methodologies. Samples of these cosmeto-textiles were prepared with resveratrol incorporated into cotton and polyamide fabrics. An in vitro percutaneous absorption was used to demonstrate the delivery of the resveratrol from the textile to the different skin layers (stratum corneum, epidermis, and dermis). Additionally, these cosmeto-textiles containing the antioxidant were applied onto the forearms of volunteers to evaluate the textiles' efficacy in skin penetration. The antioxidant's antiradical capacity was evaluated using the DPPH method. Results showed that resveratrol could be detected in the dermis, epidermis, and stratum corneum (SC) by an in vitro percutaneous absorption method and was also detected in the outermost layers of the SC by an in vivo method (stripping). A smaller amount of resveratrol was

  20. Skin friction drag measurements by LDV.

    PubMed

    Mazumder, M K; Wanchoo, S; McLeod, P C; Ballard, G S; Mozumdar, S; Caraballo, N

    1981-08-15

    A laser Doppler velocimeter employing a microscope objective as the receiving lens has been developed for measuring fluid velocity inside the boundary layer flow field with a spatial resolution of 40 microm. The method was applied for direct measurement of aerodynamic skin friction drag from the measured velocity gradient at the wall. Experimental results obtained on skin friction and on velocity components in a turbulent boundary layer on a low speed wind tunnel showed good agreement with previously reported data using conventional instruments such as hot-wire anemometers and Preston tubes. The method thus provides a tool for measurement and control of skin friction on aerodynamic bodies without perturbing the flow field.

  1. Ethnic skin types: are there differences in skin structure and function?

    PubMed

    Rawlings, A V

    2006-04-01

    People of skin of colour comprise the majority of the world's population and Asian subjects comprise more than half of the total population of the earth. Even so, the literature on the characteristics of the subjects with skin of colour is limited. Several groups over the past decades have attempted to decipher the underlying differences in skin structure and function in different ethnic skin types. However, most of these studies have been of small scale and in some studies interindividual differences in skin quality overwhelm any racial differences. There has been a recent call for more studies to address genetic together with phenotypic differences among different racial groups and in this respect several large-scale studies have been conducted recently. The most obvious ethnic skin difference relates to skin colour which is dominated by the presence of melanin. The photoprotection derived from this polymer influences the rate of the skin aging changes between the different racial groups. However, all racial groups are eventually subjected to the photoaging process. Generally Caucasians have an earlier onset and greater skin wrinkling and sagging signs than other skin types and in general increased pigmentary problems are seen in skin of colour although one large study reported that East Asians living in the U.S.A. had the least pigment spots. Induction of a hyperpigmentary response is thought to be through signaling by the protease-activated receptor-2 which together with its activating protease is increased in the epidermis of subjects with skin of colour. Changes in skin biophysical properties with age demonstrate that the more darkly pigmented subjects retaining younger skin properties compared with the more lightly pigmented groups. However, despite having a more compact stratum corneum (SC) there are conflicting reports on barrier function in these subjects. Nevertheless, upon a chemical or mechanical challenge the SC barrier function is reported to be

  2. Ethnic skin types: are there differences in skin structure and function?

    PubMed

    Rawlings, A V

    2006-04-01

    People of skin of colour comprise the majority of the world's population and Asian subjects comprise more than half of the total population of the earth. Even so, the literature on the characteristics of the subjects with skin of colour is limited. Several groups over the past decades have attempted to decipher the underlying differences in skin structure and function in different ethnic skin types. However, most of these studies have been of small scale and in some studies interindividual differences in skin quality overwhelm any racial differences. There has been a recent call for more studies to address genetic together with phenotypic differences among different racial groups and in this respect several large-scale studies have been conducted recently. The most obvious ethnic skin difference relates to skin colour which is dominated by the presence of melanin. The photoprotection derived from this polymer influences the rate of the skin aging changes between the different racial groups. However, all racial groups are eventually subjected to the photoaging process. Generally Caucasians have an earlier onset and greater skin wrinkling and sagging signs than other skin types and in general increased pigmentary problems are seen in skin of colour although one large study reported that East Asians living in the U.S.A. had the least pigment spots. Induction of a hyperpigmentary response is thought to be through signaling by the protease-activated receptor-2 which together with its activating protease is increased in the epidermis of subjects with skin of colour. Changes in skin biophysical properties with age demonstrate that the more darkly pigmented subjects retaining younger skin properties compared with the more lightly pigmented groups. However, despite having a more compact stratum corneum (SC) there are conflicting reports on barrier function in these subjects. Nevertheless, upon a chemical or mechanical challenge the SC barrier function is reported to be

  3. [Severe apparent life-threatening event during "skin-to-skin": treatment with hypothermia].

    PubMed

    Marin, N; Valverde, E; Cabañas, F

    2013-10-01

    'Skin-to-skin' in healthy newborn infants is currently routine practice in Spanish maternity wards. This practice has shown benefits in increasing the duration of breast-feeding and maternal bonding behaviour with no significant adverse events. Early sudden deaths and severe apparent life-threatening events (ALTE) during the first 24 hours of life are infrequent, but well recognised. Risk factors during 'skin to skin' have been established. These events can lead to high neonatal morbidity and mortality. Hypothermia is now the standard of care for moderate to severe hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy and has shown to reduce mortality and neurological morbidity in children with hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury. Although there are no clinical trials that evaluate hypothermia after a severe ALTE, neonates who suffer it should be considered for this treatment. We present a case of a healthy newborn who had an ALTE during skin-to-skin with his mother and was treated with hypothermia.

  4. Radiological Dose Assessment - Nonuniform Skin Dose, Radioactive Skin Contamination, and Multiple Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    W. C. Inkret; M. E. Schillaci

    1999-03-01

    Radioactive skin contamination with {beta}- and {gamma}-emitting radionuclides may result in biologically significant absorbed doses to the skin. A specific exposure scenario of interest is a nonuniform skin dose delivered by {beta}- and {gamma}-emissions from radioactive skin contamination. The United States Department of Energy requires a formal evaluation and reporting of nonuniform skin doses. The United States Department of Energy also requires specific, formal procedures for evaluating the results from the placement or use of multiple dosimeters. Action levels relative to potential absorbed doses for the contamination survey instrumentation in use at Los Alamos and formal procedures for evaluating nonuniform skin doses and multiple dosimeters are developed and presented here.

  5. Skin irritation and sensitization: mechanisms and new approaches for risk assessment. 1. Skin irritation.

    PubMed

    Fluhr, J W; Darlenski, R; Angelova-Fischer, I; Tsankov, N; Basketter, D

    2008-01-01

    Cutaneous irritation presents a major health problem with serious social and occupational impact. The interaction between an irritant and the human skin depends on multiple factors: the intrinsic properties and the nature of the irritant itself, and specific individual- and environment-related variables. The main pathological mechanisms of irritancy include skin barrier disruption, induction of a cytokine cascade and involvement of the oxidative stress network; all of them resulting in a visible or subclinical inflammatory reaction. In vivo, different non-invasive parameters for the evaluation of skin irritation and irritant potential of compounds and their specific formulations have been introduced, such as epidermal barrier function, skin hydration, surface pH, lipid composition, skin colour and skin blood flow. The diverse physiological changes caused by irritating agents require implementation of a multiparametric approach in the evaluation of cutaneous irritancy.

  6. [Severe apparent life-threatening event during "skin-to-skin": treatment with hypothermia].

    PubMed

    Marin, N; Valverde, E; Cabañas, F

    2013-10-01

    'Skin-to-skin' in healthy newborn infants is currently routine practice in Spanish maternity wards. This practice has shown benefits in increasing the duration of breast-feeding and maternal bonding behaviour with no significant adverse events. Early sudden deaths and severe apparent life-threatening events (ALTE) during the first 24 hours of life are infrequent, but well recognised. Risk factors during 'skin to skin' have been established. These events can lead to high neonatal morbidity and mortality. Hypothermia is now the standard of care for moderate to severe hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy and has shown to reduce mortality and neurological morbidity in children with hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury. Although there are no clinical trials that evaluate hypothermia after a severe ALTE, neonates who suffer it should be considered for this treatment. We present a case of a healthy newborn who had an ALTE during skin-to-skin with his mother and was treated with hypothermia. PMID:24051185

  7. Chronic Itchy Skin Rashes in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... is often due to diaper dermatitis or sometimes psoriasis. Eczema (atopic dermatitis) and psoriasis may involve either limited or extensive areas of ... injured by repeated scratching and rubbing. Lichen simplex… Psoriasis Psoriasis is a non-contagious, lifelong skin problem ...

  8. [Skin and occupational artificial UV-radiation].

    PubMed

    Fartasch, M; Wittlich, M; Broding, H C; Gellert, B; Blome, H; Brüning, T

    2012-10-01

    In various areas of professional activity, exposure of skin to ultraviolet radiation coming from artificial sources may occur. These UV rays differ from the solar UV radiation due to their intensity and spectrum. We review current developments with the introduction of statutory exposure limit values for jobs with UV radiation from artificial sources, a selection of relevant activities with artificial UV exposure and an overview of the occurrence of skin disorders and dermatologically relevant skin diseases caused by these specific occupational exposures. The latter is relevant for medical advice in occupational dermatology and occupational medicine. On the basis of existing studies on welders and studies regarding occupations with "open flames" (using the example of the glassblower) it is evident that so far no reliable data exist regarding the chronic photodamage or the occurrence of UV-typical skin cancers, but instead clear evidence exists regarding the regular occurrence of acute light damage in these occupations.

  9. Anisotropy of light propagation in human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickell, Stephan; Hermann, Marcus; Essenpreis, Matthias; Farrell, Thomas J.; Krämer, Uwe; Patterson, Michael S.

    2000-10-01

    Using spatially resolved, steady state diffuse reflectometry, a directional dependence was found in the propagation of visible and near infrared light through human skin in vivo. The skin's reduced scattering coefficient µ's varies by up to a factor of two between different directions of propagation at the same position. This anisotropy is believed to be caused by the preferential orientation of collagen fibres in the dermis, as described by Langer's skin tension lines. Monte Carlo simulations that examine the effect of partial collagen fibre orientation support this hypothesis. The observation has consequences for non-invasive diagnostic methods relying on skin optical properties, and it could be used non-invasively to determine the direction of lines of cleavage in order to minimize scars due to surgical incisions.

  10. Stretchable silicon nanoribbon electronics for skin prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaemin; Lee, Mincheol; Shim, Hyung Joon; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Cho, Hye Rim; Son, Donghee; Jung, Yei Hwan; Soh, Min; Choi, Changsoon; Jung, Sungmook; Chu, Kon; Jeon, Daejong; Lee, Soon-Tae; Kim, Ji Hoon; Choi, Seung Hong; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2014-01-01

    Sensory receptors in human skin transmit a wealth of tactile and thermal signals from external environments to the brain. Despite advances in our understanding of mechano- and thermosensation, replication of these unique sensory characteristics in artificial skin and prosthetics remains challenging. Recent efforts to develop smart prosthetics, which exploit rigid and/or semi-flexible pressure, strain and temperature sensors, provide promising routes for sensor-laden bionic systems, but with limited stretchability, detection range and spatio-temporal resolution. Here we demonstrate smart prosthetic skin instrumented with ultrathin, single crystalline silicon nanoribbon strain, pressure and temperature sensor arrays as well as associated humidity sensors, electroresistive heaters and stretchable multi-electrode arrays for nerve stimulation. This collection of stretchable sensors and actuators facilitate highly localized mechanical and thermal skin-like perception in response to external stimuli, thus providing unique opportunities for emerging classes of prostheses and peripheral nervous system interface technologies. PMID:25490072

  11. For Better Skin Cancer Checks, Partner Up

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159632.html For Better Skin Cancer Checks, Partner Up Melanoma survivors benefited when they and a loved ... the researchers explained. During two years of follow-up, 66 of the patients did go on to ...

  12. Tick imbedded in the skin (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This is a close-up photograph of a tick embedded in the skin. Ticks are important because they can carry diseases such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tularemia, Colorado tick fever, Lyme disease, and others.

  13. Skin temperatures generated following plaster splint application.

    PubMed

    Lindeque, Bennie G P; Shuler, Franklin D; Bates, Christopher M

    2013-05-01

    Heat is generated during the exothermic reaction associated with plaster splint application. The amount of heat generated is affected by the plaster thickness, dipping water temperature, and extremity elevation method. The authors assessed the effect of these variables on skin and plaster temperatures. Short-leg posterior splints were applied to noninjured extremities on a volunteer using 2 protocols. Following splint application, the splinted leg was elevated in 4 ways: on plastic-covered urethane pillows in cotton pillowcases, on cotton blankets, on ice packs (short-term cryotherapy) placed on top of cotton blankets, or with heel elevation to promote free air circulation. Skin and plaster temperatures were monitored at 1-minute intervals. The maximum skin temperature generated and the average time that skin temperature was 40 °C or higher were recorded. PMID:23672893

  14. Complications of surgery for radiotherapy skin damage

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolph, R.

    1982-08-01

    Complications of modern surgery for radiotherapy skin damage reviewed in 28 patients who had 42 operations. Thin split-thickness skin grafts for ulcer treatment had a 100 percent complication rate, defined as the need for further surgery. Local flaps, whether delayed or not, also had a high rate of complications. Myocutaneous flaps for ulcers had a 43 percent complication rate, with viable flaps lifting off radiated wound beds. Only myocutaneous flaps for breast reconstruction and omental flaps with skin grafts and Marlex mesh had no complications. The deeper tissue penetration of modern radiotherapy techniques may make skin grafts and flaps less useful. In reconstruction of radiation ulcers, omental flaps and myocutaneous flaps are especially useful, particularly if the radiation damage can be fully excised. The pull of gravity appears detrimental to myocutaneous flap healing and, if possible, should be avoided by flap design.

  15. Antimicrobial Peptides, Infections and the Skin Barrier.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Maja-Lisa; Agner, Tove

    2016-01-01

    The skin serves as a strong barrier protecting us from invading pathogens and harmful organisms. An important part of this barrier comes from antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which are small peptides expressed abundantly in the skin. AMPs are produced in the deeper layers of the epidermis and transported to the stratum corneum, where they play a vital role in the first line of defense against potential pathogens. Numerous AMPs exist, and they have a broad antibiotic-like activity against bacteria, fungi and viruses. They also act as multifunctional effector molecules, linking innate and adaptive immune responses. AMPs play an essential part in maintaining an optimal and functional skin barrier - not only by direct killing of pathogens, but also by balancing immune responses and interfering in wound healing, cell differentiation, reepithelialization and their synergistic interplay with the skin microflora. PMID:26844896

  16. Studying cell biology in the skin

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, Angel; Lechler, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Advances in cell biology have often been driven by studies in diverse organisms and cell types. Although there are technical reasons for why different cell types are used, there are also important physiological reasons. For example, ultrastructural studies of vesicle transport were aided by the use of professional secretory cell types. The use of tissues/primary cells has the advantage not only of using cells that are adapted to the use of certain cell biological machinery, but also of highlighting the physiological roles of this machinery. Here we discuss advantages of the skin as a model system. We discuss both advances in cell biology that used the skin as a driving force and future prospects for use of the skin to understand basic cell biology. A unique combination of characteristics and tools makes the skin a useful in vivo model system for many cell biologists. PMID:26564861

  17. Studying cell biology in the skin.

    PubMed

    Morrow, Angel; Lechler, Terry

    2015-11-15

    Advances in cell biology have often been driven by studies in diverse organisms and cell types. Although there are technical reasons for why different cell types are used, there are also important physiological reasons. For example, ultrastructural studies of vesicle transport were aided by the use of professional secretory cell types. The use of tissues/primary cells has the advantage not only of using cells that are adapted to the use of certain cell biological machinery, but also of highlighting the physiological roles of this machinery. Here we discuss advantages of the skin as a model system. We discuss both advances in cell biology that used the skin as a driving force and future prospects for use of the skin to understand basic cell biology. A unique combination of characteristics and tools makes the skin a useful in vivo model system for many cell biologists.

  18. On the tear resistance of skin

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wen; Sherman, Vincent R.; Gludovatz, Bernd; Schaible, Eric; Stewart, Polite; Ritchie, Robert O.; Meyers, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    Tear resistance is of vital importance in the various functions of skin, especially protection from predatorial attack. Here, we mechanistically quantify the extreme tear resistance of skin and identify the underlying structural features, which lead to its sophisticated failure mechanisms. We explain why it is virtually impossible to propagate a tear in rabbit skin, chosen as a model material for the dermis of vertebrates. We express the deformation in terms of four mechanisms of collagen fibril activity in skin under tensile loading that virtually eliminate the possibility of tearing in pre-notched samples: fibril straightening, fibril reorientation towards the tensile direction, elastic stretching and interfibrillar sliding, all of which contribute to the redistribution of the stresses at the notch tip. PMID:25812485

  19. Simple noninvasive measurement of skin autofluorescence.

    PubMed

    Meerwaldt, Robbert; Links, Thera; Graaff, Reindert; Thorpe, Suzannne R; Baynes, John W; Hartog, Jasper; Gans, Reinold; Smit, Andries

    2005-06-01

    Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic complications of diabetes mellitus and renal failure. Several studies indicate that AGE accumulation in tissue may reflect the cumulative effect of hyperglycemia and oxidative stress over many years. Simple quantitation of AGE accumulation in tissue could provide a tool for assessing the risk of long-term complications. Because several AGEs exhibit autofluorescence, we developed a noninvasive autofluorescence reader (AFR). Skin autofluorescence measured with the AFR correlates with collagen-linked fluorescence and specific skin AGE levels from skin biopsy samples. Furthermore, skin autofluorescence correlates with long-term glycemic control and renal function, and preliminary results show correlations with the presence of long-term complications in diabetes. The AFR may be useful as a clinical tool for rapid assessment of risk for AGE-related long-term complications in diabetes and in other conditions associated with AGE accumulation.

  20. A skin-inspired organic digital mechanoreceptor.

    PubMed

    Tee, Benjamin C-K; Chortos, Alex; Berndt, Andre; Nguyen, Amanda Kim; Tom, Ariane; McGuire, Allister; Lin, Ziliang Carter; Tien, Kevin; Bae, Won-Gyu; Wang, Huiliang; Mei, Ping; Chou, Ho-Hsiu; Cui, Bianxiao; Deisseroth, Karl; Ng, Tse Nga; Bao, Zhenan

    2015-10-16

    Human skin relies on cutaneous receptors that output digital signals for tactile sensing in which the intensity of stimulation is converted to a series of voltage pulses. We present a power-efficient skin-inspired mechanoreceptor with a flexible organic transistor circuit that transduces pressure into digital frequency signals directly. The output frequency ranges between 0 and 200 hertz, with a sublinear response to increasing force stimuli that mimics slow-adapting skin mechanoreceptors. The output of the sensors was further used to stimulate optogenetically engineered mouse somatosensory neurons of mouse cortex in vitro, achieving stimulated pulses in accordance with pressure levels. This work represents a step toward the design and use of large-area organic electronic skins with neural-integrated touch feedback for replacement limbs. PMID:26472906