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Sample records for skin

  1. Skin graft

    MedlinePlus

    ... that need skin grafts to heal Venous ulcers, pressure ulcers , or diabetic ulcers that do not heal Very ... graft; Full thickness skin graft Patient Instructions Preventing pressure ulcers Surgical wound care - open Images Skin graft Skin ...

  2. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Skin Cancer What is Skin Cancer? Skin cancer is the most common type ... of approximately 9,480 Americans in 2013. Can Skin Cancer Be Treated? Most basal cell and squamous ...

  3. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... and dryness. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. ( See "Skin and Sun—Not a Good Mix") . ... person has smoked. Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and Drug ...

  4. Aging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... email address Submit Home > Healthy Aging > Wellness Healthy Aging Aging skin More information on aging skin When it ... treated early. Return to top More information on Aging skin Read more from womenshealth.gov Varicose Veins ...

  5. Skin Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    Your skin is your body's largest organ. It covers and protects your body. Your skin Holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration Keeps harmful ... it Anything that irritates, clogs, or inflames your skin can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, burning, ...

  6. Skin Biomes.

    PubMed

    Fyhrquist, N; Salava, A; Auvinen, P; Lauerma, A

    2016-05-01

    The cutaneous microbiome has been investigated broadly in recent years and some traditional perspectives are beginning to change. A diverse microbiome exists on human skin and has a potential to influence pathogenic microbes and modulate the course of skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis. In addition to the known dysfunctions in barrier function of the skin and immunologic disturbances, evidence is rising that frequent skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis, might be connected to a dysbiosis of the microbial community and changes in the skin microbiome. As a future perspective, examining the skin microbiome could be seen as a potential new diagnostic and therapeutic target in inflammatory skin disorders.

  7. Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the touch may have yellow drainage Of cellulitis: a red, inflamed area on the skin that is tender to the touch may occur in an area of a scratch or cut redness often spreads rapidly over the skin's surface ...

  8. Skin Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out of ... person has smoked. Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and Drug ...

  9. Skin Complications

    MedlinePlus

    ... drugs that can help clear up this condition. Day-to-Day Skin Care See our tips for daily skin ... Better Breakfast Ensure a healthy start to your day with this guide. » « Connect With Us Register for ...

  10. Sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Misery, L; Loser, K; Ständer, S

    2016-02-01

    Sensitive skin is a clinical condition defined by the self-reported facial presence of different sensory perceptions, including tightness, stinging, burning, tingling, pain and pruritus. Sensitive skin may occur in individuals with normal skin, with skin barrier disturbance, or as a part of the symptoms associated with facial dermatoses such as rosacea, atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Although experimental studies are still pending, the symptoms of sensitive skin suggest the involvement of cutaneous nerve fibres and neuronal, as well as epidermal, thermochannels. Many individuals with sensitive skin report worsening symptoms due to environmental factors. It is thought that this might be attributed to the thermochannel TRPV1, as it typically responds to exogenous, endogenous, physical and chemical stimuli. Barrier disruptions and immune mechanisms may also be involved. This review summarizes current knowledge on the epidemiology, potential mechanisms, clinics and therapy of sensitive skin.

  11. Skin aging and dry skin.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Hideo

    2004-08-01

    Skin aging appears to be the result of both scheduled and continuous "wear and tear" processes that damage cellular DNA and proteins. Two types of aging, chronological skin aging and photoaging, have distinct clinical and histological features. Chronological skin aging is a universal and inevitable process characterized primarily by physiologic alterations in skin function. In this case, keratinocytes are unable to properly terminally differentiate to form a functional stratum corneum, and the rate of formation of neutral lipids that contribute to the barrier function slows, causing dry, pale skin with fine wrinkles. In contrast, photoaging results from the UVR of sunlight and the damage thus becomes apparent in sun-exposed skin. Characteristics of this aging type are dry and sallow skin displaying fine wrinkles as well as deep furrows, resulting from the disorganization of epidermal and dermal components associated with elastosis and heliodermatitis. Understanding of the functions of the skin and the basic principles of moisturizer use and application is important for the prevention of skin aging. Successful treatment of dry skin with appropriate skin care products gives the impression of eternal youth.

  12. Skin optics

    SciTech Connect

    van Gemert, M.J.; Jacques, S.L.; Sterenborg, H.J.; Star, W.M.

    1989-12-01

    Quantitative dosimetry in the treatment of skin disorders with (laser) light requires information on propagation of light in the skin related to the optical properties of the individual skin layers. This involves the solution of the integro-differential equation of radiative transfer in a model representing skin geometry, as well as experimental methods to determine the optical properties of each skin layer. These activities are unified under the name skin optics. This paper first reviews the current status of tissue optics, distinguishing between the cases of: dominant absorption, dominant scattering, and scattering about equal to absorption. Then, previously published data as well as some current unpublished data on (human) stratum corneum, epidermis and dermis, have been collected and/or (re)analyzed in terms of absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient, and anisotropy factor of scattering. The results are that the individual skin layers show strongly forward scattering (anisotropy factors between 0.7 and 0.9). The absorption and scattering data show that for all wavelengths considered scattering is much more important than absorption. Under such circumstances, solutions to the transport equation for a multilayer skin model and finite beam laser irradiation are currently not yet available. Hence, any quantitative dosimetry for skin treated with (laser) light is currently lacking.

  13. Skin findings in newborns

    MedlinePlus

    Newborn skin characteristics; Infant skin characteristics; Neonatal care - skin ... the first few weeks of the baby's life. Newborn skin will vary, depending on the length of the pregnancy. Premature infants have thin, transparent skin. The skin of a ...

  14. Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... it can get infected by them. Some common types of skin infections are Bacterial: Cellulitis and impetigo. Staphylococcal infections can also affect the skin. Viral: Shingles, warts, and herpes simplex Fungal: Athlete's foot and yeast infections Parasitic: Body lice, head lice, and scabies ...

  15. Skin Substitutes

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Nicole; Cohen, George

    2014-01-01

    In a relatively short timespan, a wealth of new skin substitutes made of synthetic and biologically derived materials have arisen for the purpose of wound healing of various etiologies. This review article focuses on providing an overview of skin substitutes including their indications, contraindications, benefits, and limitations. The result of this overview was an appreciation of the vast array of options available for clinicians, many of which did not exist a short time ago. Yet, despite the rapid expansion this field has undergone, no ideal skin substitute is currently available. More research in the field of skin substitutes and wound healing is required not only for the development of new products made of increasingly complex biomolecular material, but also to compare the existing skin substitutes. PMID:25371771

  16. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... States. The two most common types are basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer. They usually form on the head, face, ... If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. Treatments ...

  17. Skin abscess

    MedlinePlus

    Abscess - skin; Cutaneous abscess; Subcutaneous abscess; MRSA - abscess; Staph infection - abscess ... have methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or another staph infection, follow instructions for self-care at home.

  18. Your Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... from getting burned by the sun's ultraviolet, or UV, rays. That's why your skin gets tan if ... Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart.com

  19. Skin Pigment

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Professional Version Also of Interest Test your knowledge Impetigo is a bacterial skin infection. The infection ... Learn more about our commitment to Global Medical Knowledge . Merck Manuals About Disclaimer Permissions Privacy Contributors Terms ...

  20. Your Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... wear sunscreen and protective clothing, such as a hat, to prevent painful sunburns. Protecting your skin now ... happens in a split second, without you ever thinking about it. previous continue Dermis = Lots of Blood ...

  1. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... exposure to ultraviolet light, which is found in sunlight and in lights used in tanning salons.What ... the safe-sun guidelines.1. Avoid the sun.Sunlight damages your skin. The sun is strongest during ...

  2. Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the touch may have yellow drainage Of cellulitis: a red, inflamed area on the skin that ... For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Erythema Multiforme Cellulitis Pityriasis Rosea Paronychia Molluscum Contagiosum Abscess Cellulitis Taking ...

  3. Senescent Skin

    PubMed Central

    Kushniruk, William

    1974-01-01

    The cutaneous surface is continually influenced by aging and environmental factors. A longer life span is accompanied by an increase in the frequency of problems associated with aging skin. Although most of these changes and lesions are not life threatening, the premalignant lesions must be recognized and treated. The common aging and actinic skin changes are discussed and appropriate management is described. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:20469067

  4. Learning about Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skin Cancers Spread 2000 News Release Learning About Skin Cancer What are the most common forms of skin ... years. What are the most common forms of skin cancer? Three types of skin cancer are the most ...

  5. Skin lumps

    MedlinePlus

    ... DM. Dermal and subcutaneous tumors. In: James WD, Berger TG, Elston DM, eds. Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical ... Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the ...

  6. Oily skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clean your face with astringent pads if frequent face washing causes irritation. Use only water-based or oil-free cosmetics if you have oily skin. Your health care provider may also recommend or prescribe creams to absorb or limit the production of oil ...

  7. Nanomechanical characterization of skin and skin cream.

    PubMed

    Bhushan, B; Tang, W; Ge, S

    2010-11-01

    The mechanical properties of skin are an important characteristic of its resistance to damage and important indicators of pathological situations. Skin care products are the most common method to improve skin health and create a smooth, soft, and elastic perception by altering the mechanical properties of skin. It is of interest to study how skin cream affects the mechanical properties of skin. It also can help to quantify the effectiveness of cosmetic products. In this study, we present a systematic study of the mechanical properties of virgin skin and cream-treated skin. In nanoscratch measurements, the scratch wear tracks were generated at various loads using an atomic force microscope. Hardness and elastic moduli were measured using a nanoindenter. The in situ tensile properties of virgin skin and cream-treated skin were measured using a custom-built tensile stage that attaches to the atomic force microscope. Compared with virgin skin, cream-treated skin exhibits better scratch resistance up to a normal load of 15 μN. The indentation hardness and elastic modulus of cream-treated skin are lower than that of virgin skin, indicating that the skin cream moistens and softens the skin surface. In the stretching experiments, the elastic modulus is lower and ultimate strain is higher than that of virgin skin, indicating skin cream can improve the tensile response of skin. Mechanisms for the observed trends are discussed. © 2010 The Authors Journal compilation © 2010 The Royal Microscopical Society.

  8. Skin self-exam

    MedlinePlus

    Skin cancer - self-exam; Melanoma - self-exam; Basal cell cancer - self-exam; Squamous cell - self-exam; Skin mole - ... You Need To Know About Melanoma and Other Skin Cancers: How To Check Your Skin. (NIH Publication No. ...

  9. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or ...

  10. Cutaneous skin tag

    MedlinePlus

    Skin tag; Acrochordon; Fibroepithelial polyp ... have diabetes. They are thought to occur from skin rubbing against skin. ... The tag sticks out of the skin and may have a short, narrow stalk connecting it to the surface of the skin. Some skin tags are as long as ...

  11. Skin Keratins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fengrong; Zieman, Abigail; Coulombe, Pierre A.

    2016-01-01

    Keratins comprise the type I and type II intermediate filament-forming proteins and occur primarily in epithelial cells. They are encoded by 54 evolutionarily conserved genes (28 type I, 26 type II) and regulated in a pairwise and tissue type-, differentiation-, and context-dependent manner. Keratins serve multiple homeostatic and stress-enhanced mechanical and nonmechanical functions in epithelia, including the maintenance of cellular integrity, regulation of cell growth and migration, and protection from apoptosis. These functions are tightly regulated by posttranslational modifications as well as keratin-associated proteins. Genetically determined alterations in keratin-coding sequences underlie highly penetrant and rare disorders whose pathophysiology reflects cell fragility and/or altered tissue homeostasis. Moreover, keratin mutation or misregulation represents risk factors or genetic modifiers for several acute and chronic diseases. This chapter focuses on keratins that are expressed in skin epithelia, and details a number of basic protocols and assays that have proven useful for analyses being carried out in skin. PMID:26795476

  12. Skin Keratins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengrong; Zieman, Abigail; Coulombe, Pierre A

    2016-01-01

    Keratins comprise the type I and type II intermediate filament-forming proteins and occur primarily in epithelial cells. They are encoded by 54 evolutionarily conserved genes (28 type I, 26 type II) and regulated in a pairwise and tissue type-, differentiation-, and context-dependent manner. Keratins serve multiple homeostatic and stress-enhanced mechanical and nonmechanical functions in epithelia, including the maintenance of cellular integrity, regulation of cell growth and migration, and protection from apoptosis. These functions are tightly regulated by posttranslational modifications as well as keratin-associated proteins. Genetically determined alterations in keratin-coding sequences underlie highly penetrant and rare disorders whose pathophysiology reflects cell fragility and/or altered tissue homeostasis. Moreover, keratin mutation or misregulation represents risk factors or genetic modifiers for several acute and chronic diseases. This chapter focuses on keratins that are expressed in skin epithelia, and details a number of basic protocols and assays that have proven useful for analyses being carried out in skin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Skin Condition Finder

    MedlinePlus

    SKIN CONDITIONS HEALTH TOPICS FOR PROFESSIONALS SKIN CONDITIONS HOME SKIN CONDITIONS HEALTH TOPICS FOR PROFESSIONALS Rash and Skin Condition Finder ... Toe Toe Webspace Toe Nail CLOSE About the Skin Condition Finder Have a health question or concern? Looking for self-care patient ...

  14. Skin Allergy Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... time. Some common medications that can cause skin allergy include penicillin, sulfa drugs, barbiturates and anticonvulsants just to mention a few. Some of the symptoms from drug allergies might be hives, skin rash, itchy skin or ...

  15. Skin care and incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin problems such as redness, peeling, irritation, and yeast infections likely. Bedsores ( pressure sores ) may also develop ... drying the skin. Incontinence problems can cause a yeast infection on the skin. This is an itchy, ...

  16. Healthy Skin Matters

    MedlinePlus

    ... increases the risk of skin cancer and premature skin aging just like too much sun. In fact, most ... is known to lead to signs of premature aging of the skin such as wrinkling and age spots. UVB rays ...

  17. Neuromodulators for Aging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Choose the Best Skin Care Products Neuromodulators for Aging Skin Treatment Options Learn more about treatment options for ... MD - Los Angeles, California Why choose neuromodulators for aging skin Non-invasive — does not require surgery. Can be ...

  18. Basal cell skin cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur on skin that is regularly exposed to sunlight or other ultraviolet radiation. This type of skin ... skin cancer is to reduce your exposure to sunlight . Always use sunscreen: Apply sunscreen with sun protection ...

  19. Stages of Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer ... carcinoma include the following: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  20. Skin Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer ... carcinoma include the following: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  1. Skin Condition Finder

    MedlinePlus

    ... SKIN CONDITIONS HEALTH TOPICS FOR PROFESSIONALS Rash and Skin Condition Finder 1 Select Age Group Infant Child ... Toe Toe Webspace Toe Nail CLOSE About the Skin Condition Finder Have a health question or concern? ...

  2. Scalded skin syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Ritter disease; Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSS) ... Scalded skin syndrome (SSS) is caused by infection with certain strains of Staphylococcus bacteria. The bacteria produce a toxin that causes the skin ...

  3. Skin lesion biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... confirms the diagnosis, your provider will start a treatment plan. A few of the skin problems that may be diagnosed are: Psoriasis Infection from bacteria or fungus Melanoma Basal cell skin cancer Squamous cell skin cancer Risks Risks of a ...

  4. Skin discoloration - bluish

    MedlinePlus

    Lips - bluish; Fingernails - bluish; Cyanosis; Bluish lips and fingernails; Bluish skin ... color to their skin. This condition is called cyanosis. Depending on the cause, cyanosis may develop suddenly, ...

  5. Skin Color and Pigmentation in Ethnic Skin.

    PubMed

    Visscher, Marty O

    2017-02-01

    Skin coloration is highly diverse, partly due to the presence of pigmentation. Color variation is related to the extent of ultraviolet radiation exposure, as well as other factors. Inherent skin coloration arises from differences in basal epidermal melanin amount and type. Skin color is influenced by both the quantity and distribution of melanocytes. The effectiveness of inherent pigmentation for protecting living cells also varies. This article discusses skin color, pigmentation, and ethnicity in relation to clinical practice. Color perception, skin typing/classification, and quantitation of pigmentation are reviewed in relation to ethnicity, environmental stresses/irritants, and potential treatment effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Skin to skin care:heat balance.

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, H

    1996-01-01

    Skin to skin care has been practised in primitive and high technology cultures for body temperature preservation in neonates. Regional skin temperature and heat flow was measured in moderately hypothermic term neonates to quantitate the heat transfer occurring during one hour of skin to skin care. Nine healthy newborns with a mean rectal temperature of 36.3 degrees C were placed skin to skin on their mothers' chests. The mean (SD) rectal temperature increased by 0.7 (0.4) degrees C to 37.0 degrees C. The heat loss was high (70 Wm-2) from the unprotected skin of the head to the surrounding air. Minute heat losses occurred from covered areas; and heat was initially gained from areas in contact with the mother's skin. The total dry heat loss during skin to skin care corresponded to heat loss during incubator care at 32-32.5 degrees C. The reduced heat loss, and to a minor extent, the initial heat flux from the mothers allowed heat to be conserved, leading to rewarming. PMID:8949698

  7. Skin Care and Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Skin Care and Aging How Aging Affects Skin Your skin changes with age. It becomes thinner, ... if they bother you. See additional resources on aging skin, including information on treatment options, specific conditions, and ...

  8. Skin (Pressure) Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dry Skin Itching Skin Color Changes Pressure Sores Scars and Wounds Treatments and Side Effects Managing Cancer-related Side Effects ... Dry Skin Itching Skin Color Changes Pressure Sores Scars and Wounds More In Treatment & Support Understanding Your Diagnosis Finding and Paying for ...

  9. Acne in ethnic skin.

    PubMed

    Halder, Rebat M; Brooks, Howard L; Callender, Valerie D

    2003-10-01

    Acne is the most common disorder observed in ethnic skin. Clinical presentation is different than in white skin. Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation is a common sequelae of acne in darker skin. The management of acne in ethnic skin is based largely on the prevention and treatment of hyperpigmentation.

  10. Estrogens and aging skin

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, M. Julie

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen deficiency following menopause results in atrophic skin changes and acceleration of skin aging. Estrogens significantly modulate skin physiology, targeting keratinocytes, fibroblasts, melanocytes, hair follicles and sebaceous glands, and improve angiogenesis, wound healing and immune responses. Estrogen insufficiency decreases defense against oxidative stress; skin becomes thinner with less collagen, decreased elasticity, increased wrinkling, increased dryness and reduced vascularity. Its protective function becomes compromised and aging is associated with impaired wound healing, hair loss, pigmentary changes and skin cancer.   Skin aging can be significantly delayed by the administration of estrogen. This paper reviews estrogen effects on human skin and the mechanisms by which estrogens can alleviate the changes due to aging. The relevance of estrogen replacement, selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and phytoestrogens as therapies for diminishing skin aging is highlighted. Understanding estrogen signaling in skin will provide a basis for interventions in aging pathologies. PMID:24194966

  11. Viral Skin Diseases.

    PubMed

    Ramdass, Priya; Mullick, Sahil; Farber, Harold F

    2015-12-01

    In the vast world of skin diseases, viral skin disorders account for a significant percentage. Most viral skin diseases present with an exanthem (skin rash) and, oftentimes, an accompanying enanthem (lesions involving the mucosal membrane). In this article, the various viral skin diseases are explored, including viral childhood exanthems (measles, rubella, erythema infectiosum, and roseola), herpes viruses (herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus, viral zoonotic infections [orf, monkeypox, ebola, smallpox]), and several other viral skin diseases, such as human papilloma virus, hand, foot, and mouth disease, molluscum contagiosum, and Gianotti-Crosti syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Microbiome and skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Zeeuwen, Patrick L J M; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Timmerman, Harro M; Schalkwijk, Joost

    2013-10-01

    This article reviews recent findings on the skin microbiome. It provides an update on the current understanding of the role of microbiota in healthy skin and in inflammatory and allergic skin diseases. Advances in computing and high-throughput sequencing technology have enabled in-depth analysis of microbiota composition and functionality of human skin. Most data generated to date are related to the skin microbiome of healthy volunteers, but recent studies have also addressed the dynamics of the microbiome in diseased and injured skin. Currently, reports are emerging that evaluate the strategies to manipulate the skin microbiome, intending to modulate diseases and/or their symptoms. The microbiome of normal human skin was found to have a high diversity and high interpersonal variation. Microbiota compositions of diseased lesional skin (in atopic dermatitis and psoriasis) showed distinct differences compared with healthy skin. The function of microbial colonization in establishing immune system homeostasis has been reported, whereas host-microbe interactions and genetically determined variation of stratum corneum properties might be linked to skin dysbiosis. Both are relevant for cutaneous disorders with aberrant immune responses and/or disturbed skin barrier function. Modulation of skin microbiota composition to restore host-microbiota homeostasis could be future strategies to treat or prevent disease.

  13. Bacterial Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diseases Take Big Slice Out of America's Health, Economy (News) Health Tip: Use Caution When Applying Hair Dye Additional ... Skin Diseases Take Big Slice Out of America's Health, Economy THURSDAY, March 2, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Skin diseases ...

  14. Aging changes in skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... changes than people with darker, more heavily pigmented skin. AGING CHANGES With aging, the outer skin layer (epidermis) ... melanocytes) decreases. The remaining melanocytes increase in ... looks thinner, paler, and clear (translucent). Large pigmented ...

  15. Bleeding into the skin

    MedlinePlus

    Protect aging skin. Avoid trauma such as bumping or pulling on skin areas. For a cut or scrape, use direct pressure to stop the bleeding. If you have a drug reaction, ask your provider about stopping the drug. Otherwise, follow ...

  16. Squamous cell skin cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur on skin that is regularly exposed to sunlight or other ultraviolet radiation. The earliest form of ... skin cancer is to reduce your exposure to sunlight . Always use sunscreen: Apply sunscreen with sun protection ...

  17. Skin lesion of blastomycosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/000865.htm Skin lesion of blastomycosis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A skin lesion of blastomycosis is a symptom of an infection with the ...

  18. Skin Cancer Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Glossary Information on medications and procedures The 2017 Skin Cancer Foundation Journal The latest in skin cancer prevention, detection and treatment 2017 Champions for Change Gala Purchase tickets Research Grants ...

  19. Examine Your Skin

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Store In Memory Melanoma Info Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding ... video. UPDATED: November 23, 2016 Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding ...

  20. Components of skin

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... skin layers from the outside environment and contains cells that make keratin, a substance that waterproofs and strengthens the skin. The epidermis also has cells that contain melanin, the dark pigment that gives ...

  1. Dry Skin Relief

    MedlinePlus

    ... Previous meetings archive Advocacy News Advocacy priorities Drug pricing and availability CVS dermatologic formulary restrictions Skin cancer ... baths and showers short. Use warm, not hot water, and a mild cleanser. Gently pat the skin ...

  2. Necrotizing Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the touch, and sometimes swollen, and gas bubbles may form under the skin. The person usually ... produce gas (see Gas Gangrene ). The gas creates bubbles under the skin and sometimes in the blisters ...

  3. PPD skin test

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a method used to diagnose silent (latent) tuberculosis (TB) infection. PPD stands for purified protein derivative. ... skin test; Tuberculin skin test; Mantoux test Images Tuberculosis in the kidney Tuberculosis in the lung Positive ...

  4. Skin, Hair, and Nails

    MedlinePlus

    ... thousands of cells and hundreds of sweat glands, oil glands, nerve endings, and blood vessels. Skin is ... empty into hair follicles and pores, produce the oil sebum that lubricates the skin and hair. Sebaceous ...

  5. Fraxel skin resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Collawn, Sherry S

    2007-03-01

    Fractional photothermolysis is a new skin resurfacing laser technology for treating wrinkles, melanocytic pigmentation, scars, and photodamaged skin. Treatment with the Fraxel laser (Reliant Technologies, Inc.) creates microzones of injury in the skin that are surrounded by normal intervening skin that rapidly heals the injured tissue. From June to November of 2005, 70 patients underwent 2 to 6 treatments with the Fraxel laser (Reliant Technologies, Inc.) on the face and/or extremities for abnormal pigmentation, wrinkles, and scars. Treatments were 1 to 3 weeks apart. Clinically, the patient experienced little downtime other than erythema and edema for a few days followed by light skin exfoliation for a few days. After treatment, skin color and texture were more homogeneous with a decrease in the unwanted melanocytic pigmentation. The skin showed a decrease in rhytids. In summary, fractional photothermolysis improved skin color and texture and decreased fine wrinkles and melanocytic pigmentation with minimal downtime for the patient.

  6. Biology of Skin Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcos, Alain

    1983-01-01

    Information from scientific journals on the biology of skin color is discussed. Major areas addressed include: (1) biology of melanin, melanocytes, and melanosomes; (2) melanosome and human diversity; (3) genetics of skin color; and (4) skin color, geography, and natural selection. (JN)

  7. Psychoneuroimmunology and the Skin.

    PubMed

    Honeyman, Juan F

    2016-08-23

    The nervous, immune, endocrine and integumentary systems are closely related and interact in a number of normal and pathological conditions. Nervous system mediators may bring about direct changes to the skin or may induce the release of immunological or hormonal mediators that cause pathological changes to the skin. This article reviews the psychological mechanisms involved in the development of skin diseases.

  8. Biology of Skin Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcos, Alain

    1983-01-01

    Information from scientific journals on the biology of skin color is discussed. Major areas addressed include: (1) biology of melanin, melanocytes, and melanosomes; (2) melanosome and human diversity; (3) genetics of skin color; and (4) skin color, geography, and natural selection. (JN)

  9. Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    No matter if your skin is light, dark, or somewhere in between, everyone is at risk for skin cancer. Learn what skin cancer looks like, how to find it early, and how to lower the chance of skin cancer.

  10. [Skin diseases and obesity].

    PubMed

    Guerra-Segovia, Carolina; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a public health problem worldwide. It predominates in industrialized countries; however, it is prevalent in all nations. It is defined as a condition of excess adipose tissue and is the result of changes in lifestyle, excessive consumption of energy-dense foods with poor nutritional value, physical inactivity and the reduction of open space where one can practice a sport. Although obesity is associated with multiple diseases, it is important to stress that the metabolic changes caused by it affect skin physiology and play a predisposing factor for the development of skin diseases. Very little has been studied on the impact of obesity on the skin. The purpose of this article is to review the most frequently skin diseases in obesity. Some skin pathologies in obesity are caused by changes in skin physiology, others are related to insulin resistance or constitute an exacerbating factor for dermatitis. This article covers the clinical features of obesity related skin disease and its management.

  11. Sensitive skin: an overview.

    PubMed

    Inamadar, Arun C; Palit, Aparna

    2013-01-01

    Sensitive skin is less tolerant to frequent and prolonged use of cosmetics and toiletries. It is self-diagnosed and typically unaccompanied by any obvious physical signs of irritation. With the change in lifestyle and also with increased opportunity to use many new brands of cosmetics and toiletries, there has been an increase in females complaining of unique sensation in their facial skin. Sensitive skin presents as smarting, burning, stinging, itching, and/or tight sensation in their facial skin. The condition is found in more than 50% of women and 40% of men, creating a sizable demand for products designed to minimize skin sensitivity. Good numbers of invasive and non-invasive tests are designed to evaluate and predict the sensitive skin. Management includes guidelines for selecting suitable cosmetics and toiletries in sensitive skin individuals.

  12. Pursuing prosthetic electronic skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chortos, Alex; Liu, Jia; Bao, Zhenan

    2016-09-01

    Skin plays an important role in mediating our interactions with the world. Recreating the properties of skin using electronic devices could have profound implications for prosthetics and medicine. The pursuit of artificial skin has inspired innovations in materials to imitate skin's unique characteristics, including mechanical durability and stretchability, biodegradability, and the ability to measure a diversity of complex sensations over large areas. New materials and fabrication strategies are being developed to make mechanically compliant and multifunctional skin-like electronics, and improve brain/machine interfaces that enable transmission of the skin's signals into the body. This Review will cover materials and devices designed for mimicking the skin's ability to sense and generate biomimetic signals.

  13. Aquaporins in the Skin.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ravi; Kevin Heard, L; Chen, Xunsheng; Bollag, Wendy B

    2017-01-01

    The skin is the largest organ of the body, serving as an important barrier between the internal milieu and the external environment. The skin is also one of the first lines of defense against microbial infection and other hazards, and thus, the skin has important immune functions . This organ is composed of many cell types, including immune-active dendritic cells (epidermal Langerhans cells and dermal dendritic cells), connective tissue-generating dermal fibroblasts and pigment-producing melanocytes. Comprising the outer skin layer are the epidermal keratinocytes, the predominant cell of this layer, the epidermis , which provides both a mechanical barrier and a water -permeability barrier. Recent data suggest that aquaporins, a family of barrel-shaped proteins surrounding internal pores that allow the passage of water and, in some family members, small solutes such as glycerol , play critical roles in regulating various skin parameters. The involvement of different aquaporin family members in skin function is discussed.

  14. Skin disorders of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Errickson, C V; Matus, N R

    1994-02-15

    Skin disorders of pregnancy fall into three major groups: disorders due to physiologic changes, specific skin disorders of pregnancy, and skin tumors. Elevated levels of estrogen and progesterone stimulate melanogenesis, which causes hyperpigmentation, including melasma; high levels of circulating hormones also cause vascular changes and alter hair growth cycles. Specific skin disorders of pregnancy range from pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy and pruritus gravidarum, which are fairly common, to pemphigus gestationis and impetigo herpetiformis, which are rare. Common skin tumors in pregnant women include pyogenic granuloma, which occurs primarily in the gingiva, and molluscum fibrosum gravidarum, or skin tags. While the effect of pregnancy on malignant melanoma continues to be disputed, recent studies indicate that long-term survival is close to that in the general population, although the disease-free interval is reduced.

  15. [Skin diseases of swine].

    PubMed

    von Altrock, A; Höltig, D

    2013-01-01

    Skin alterations can be caused by both environmental conditions and diseases of the organism. Some diseases may only manifest in the skin while others represent signs of a generalized infection. Regarding their origin, skin diseases can be divided into congenital, infectious, and nutritional disorders, and those resulting from housing scarcities. Additionally, there are skin diseases with unknown causes. Skin diseases in a swine herd can result in economic losses through decreased feed efficiency and growth rate and increased mortality. The knowledge of causes and symptoms as well as the selection of appropriate further laboratory investigations provide a valid diagnosis and enable a quick and effective therapy. This description of several skin diseases should provide a background.

  16. Skin protection for hairdressers.

    PubMed

    Skudlik, Christoph; John, Swen Malte

    2007-01-01

    The application of protective creams in the hairdressing trade forms part of a complex concept for the prevention of occupational skin disorders. To date, no comparative controlled intervention studies have been carried out using different skin-protective creams. Previously published skin protection plans concerning barrier creams for the hairdressing trade are fairly general or rudimentary, reflecting our still limited knowledge on the subject. Bioengineering studies have even demonstrated a paradoxical effect of a certain skin-protective foam designed for hairdressers. Regarding other barrier creams, a certain protective effect could however be shown in studies concerning exposure to wetness and detergents. Pre-exposition skin protection seems to be of particular relevance. Thus, in principle, the regular application of adequate skin protection creams can be recommended in the hairdressing trade, although the protective effect should not be overvalued.

  17. The skin microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Grice, Elizabeth A.; Segre, Julia A.

    2012-01-01

    The skin is the human body’s largest organ, colonized by a diverse milieu of microorganisms, most of which are harmless or even beneficial to their host. Colonization is driven by the ecology of the skin surface, which is highly variable depending on topographical location, endogenous host factors and exogenous environmental factors. The cutaneous innate and adaptive immune responses can modulate the skin microbiota, but the microbiota also functions in educating the immune system. The development of molecular methods to identify microorganisms has led to an emerging view of the resident skin bacteria as highly diverse and variable. An enhanced understanding of the skin microbiome is necessary to gain insight into microbial involvement in human skin disorders and to enable novel promicrobial and antimicrobial therapeutic approaches for their treatment. PMID:21407241

  18. Ultrasound skin imaging.

    PubMed

    Alfageme Roldán, F

    2014-12-01

    The interaction of high-frequency ultrasound waves with the skin provides the basis for noninvasive, fast, and accessible diagnostic imaging. This tool is increasingly used in skin cancer and inflammatory conditions as well as in cosmetic dermatology. This article reviews the basic principles of skin ultrasound and its applications in the different areas of dermatology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y AEDV. All rights reserved.

  19. Neuroendocrinology of the skin

    PubMed Central

    Zmijewski, Michal A

    2011-01-01

    The concept on the skin neuro-endocrine has been formulated ten years ago, and recent advances in the field further strengthened this role. Thus, skin forms a bidirectional platform for a signal exchange with other peripheral organs, endocrine and immune systems or brain to enable rapid and selective responses to the environment in order to maintain local and systemic homeostasis. In this context, it is not surprising that the function of the skin is tightly regulated by systemic neuro-endocrine system. Skin cells and skin appendages not only respond to neuropeptides, steroids and other regulatory signals, but also actively synthesis variety of hormones. The stress responses within the skin are tightly regulated by locally synthesized factors and their receptor expression. There is growing evidence for alternative splicing playing an important role in stress signaling. Deregulation of the skin neuro-endocrine signaling can lead or/and be a marker of variety of skin diseases. The major problem in this area relates to their detailed mechanisms of crosstalk between skin and brain and between the local and global endocrine as well as immune systems. PMID:21519402

  20. Surfactants, skin cleansing protagonists.

    PubMed

    Corazza, M; Lauriola, M M; Zappaterra, M; Bianchi, A; Virgili, A

    2010-01-01

    The correct choice of cosmetic products and cleansers is very important to improve skin hydration, to provide moisturizing benefits and to minimize cutaneous damage caused by surfactants. In fact, surfactants may damage protein structures and solubilize lipids. Soaps, defined as the alkali salts of fatty acids, are the oldest surfactants and are quite aggressive. Syndets (synthetic detergents) vary in composition and surfactant types (anionic, cationic, amphotheric, non-ionic). These new skin cleansing products also contain preservatives, fragrances, and sometimes emollients, humectants and skin nutrients. We present a revision of the literature and discuss recent findings regarding skin cleansers.

  1. Physiology of skin.

    PubMed

    Greaves, M W

    1976-07-01

    One of Montagna's greatest contributions to study of the biology of the skin has been his demolition of the artificial walls that traditionally separated the histologist from the physiologist. He has shown that only by relating function with structure can we shed light on the workings of the skin. He has stressed the fallacy of studying a single structural or functional unit in isolation from others. The skin represents an organization of many different functional units, and physiology of skin is the study of this organization. My purpose is to make a personal commentary on the achievements, failures, and prospects of understanding some aspects of the organization of the functional units. Twenty-five years ago, the importance of relating skin to internal organs and systems received much attention. We have long been aware that skin sometimes reacts to internal disease, but only recently has the impact of skin disorders on the circulatory, renal, and gastrointestinal systems been recognized. As a result, our patients are now less likely to suffer from neglect of the whole which follows narrow over-specialized attention to the part. Increased interest in endocrine effects on the skin has revealed that several important physiologic activities of the skin are either partly or wholly regulated by hormones secreted by endocrine glands. Nevertheless, some physiologic activities in skin seems to be independent, their regulation being carried out by local mediating hormones. Other activities involve both central and local regulation. The nature and roles of these two control mechanisms and their interrelation constitute by far the most promising physiologic research in skin.

  2. Appearance benefits of skin moisturization.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Z-X; DeLaCruz, J

    2011-02-01

    Skin hydration is essential for skin health. Moisturized skin is generally regarded as healthy and healthy looking. It is thus speculated that there may be appearance benefits of skin moisturization. This means that there are corresponding changes in the optical properties when skin is moisturized. The appearance of the skin is the result of light reflection, scattering and absorption at various skin layers of the stratum corneum, epidermis, dermis and beyond. The appearance benefits of skin moisturization are likely primarily due to the changes in the optical properties of the stratum corneum. We hypothesize that the major optical effect of skin moisturization is the decrease of light scattering at the skin surface, i.e., the stratum corneum. This decrease of surface scattering corresponds to an increase of light penetration into the deeper layers of the skin. An experiment was conducted to measure the corresponding change in skin spectral reflectance, the skin scattering coefficient and skin translucency with a change in skin hydration. In the experiment, skin hydration was decreased with the topical application of acetone and alcohol and increased with the topical application of known moisturizers and occlusives such as PJ. It was found that both the skin spectral reflectance and the skin scattering coefficient increased when the skin was dehydrated and decreased when the skin was hydrated. Skin translucency increased as the skin became moisturized. The results agree with the hypothesis that there is less light scattering at the skin surface and more light penetration into the deeper skin layers when the skin is moisturized. As a result, the skin appears darker, more pinkish and more translucent. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Dark Skin No Shield from Deadly Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... 166194.html Dark Skin No Shield From Deadly Skin Cancer Death rates from melanoma are higher for people ... deadly melanomas, an expert warns. This type of skin cancer can be affected by genetics and is far ...

  4. Skin cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Kornek, Thomas; Augustin, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    Prevention signifies the avoidance of diseases. It also includes the early detection of diseases and taking measures to avoid worsening of an existing disease. Prevention is divided into primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. The prevention of skin cancer is particularly important due to the rising incidence of skin cancer in recent years. In Germany, 195.000 new cases of skin cancer, including non melanoma skin cancer and melanoma are occurring. Therefore, skin cancer is among the most common cancer diseases. Primary prevention comprises the reduction of skin cancer risk behavior, including education about the danger of UV exposure and the right way of dealing with natural and artificial UV radiation. The implementation of a systematic skin cancer screening in Germany contributes to secondary prevention. First data from the initial project in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany's most northern state, indicate for the first time that the incidence and mortality of melanoma can be reduced by secondary prevention. For tertiary prevention, the national associations recommend a risk-adapted, evidence-based follow-up for all types of skin cancer. From the perspectives of the payers and from the patients, prevention is assessed positively. Prevention can contribute to a reduction of disease burden. © The Authors • Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

  5. Sun on Skin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    Describes sessions in two schools that focused on recent work with 2,857 children in Europe researching the children's perceptions of sun on skin. Investigates children's ideas about skin on different parts of the body, which was most vulnerable to the sun, and different types and colors. (Author/CCM)

  6. Occupational skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Diepgen, Thomas L

    2012-05-01

    Occupational skin diseases are the most commonly reported notifiable occupational diseases. In Germany, 23 596 out of a total of 71 263 reported occupational diseases in 2010 were classified as occupational skin diseases (BK No. 5101: "severe or recurrent skin diseases which have forced the person to discontinue all occupational activities that caused or could cause the development, worsening, or recurrence of the disease"). Contact dermatitis (allergic, irritant) of the hands is the most common skin disease and atopic skin diathesis is often an important co-factor. The number of work-related skin diseases is many times higher than the number of notified occupational dermatoses. This CME article explains the legal framework of occupational diseases, the tasks and obligations of the legal statutory work insurance. Typical allergens and irritants of high risk professions are also presented as are the important steps from diagnosis to compensation. Early prevention of occupational skin diseases is very important to avoid severe chronic hand eczema. Therefore the "dermatologist's report" is crucial. Other occupational dermatoses (outside of BK 5101) are briefly mentioned. In recent years the number of notifications of occupational skin cancer due to occupational UV-irradiation has increased. According to recent epidemiological findings, there is a significant and consistent positive association between occupational UV-irradiation and squamous cell carcinoma. Therefore, an important criterion for a new occupational disease is fulfilled. © The Authors • Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

  7. Biothermomechanics of skin tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, F.; Lu, T. J.; Seffen, K. A.

    Biothermomechanics of skin is highly interdisciplinary involving bioheat transfer, burn damage, biomechanics and neurophysiology. During heating, thermally induced mechanical stress arises due to the thermal denaturation of collagen, resulting in macroscale shrinkage. Thus, the strain, stress, temperature and thermal pain/damage are highly correlated; in other words, the problem is fully coupled. The aim of this study is to develop a computational approach to examine the heat transfer process and the heat-induced mechanical response, so that the differences among the clinically applied heating modalities can be quantified. Exact solutions for temperature, thermal damage and thermal stress for a single-layer skin model were first derived for different boundary conditions. For multilayer models, numerical simulations using the finite difference method (FDM) and finite element method (FEM) were used to analyze the temperature, burn damage and thermal stress distributions in the skin tissue. The results showed that the thermomechanical behavior of skin tissue is very complex: blood perfusion has little effect on thermal damage but large influence on skin temperature distribution, which, in turn, influences significantly the resulting thermal stress field; the stratum corneum layer, although very thin, has a large effect on the thermomechanical behavior of skin, suggesting that it should be properly accounted for in the modeling of skin thermal stresses; the stress caused by non-uniform temperature distribution in the skin may also contribute to the thermal pain sensation.

  8. Postmenopausal skin and estrogen.

    PubMed

    Archer, David F

    2012-10-01

    The aging global population continues to drive increasing demand for cosmaceuticals and cosmetic surgery among older men and women. Since the discovery in the 1990s that estrogen receptors are present in skin cells and decline in number from the onset of menopause in women, researchers have explored a number of ways in which estrogen can improve skin condition. Skin is estrogen responsive, and several studies now exist to support the antiaging properties of estrogen replacement therapies in postmenopausal women. Both systemic and topical estrogens appear to have positive effects on hormonal aging, increasing skin collagen content, thickness, elasticity and hydration. Estrogen therapies may also improve wound healing and reduce the incidence of wound complications. This review explores the potential for targeted estrogen replacement as a therapeutic option for long-term skin management in postmenopausal women.

  9. [Skin and sun exposure].

    PubMed

    Cannavò, Serafinella Patrizia; Borgia, Francesco; Trifirò, Caterina; Aragona, Emanuela

    2013-01-01

    Fisherman commonly experience a significant number of cutaneous problems, related to the exposure to environmental factors due to their working conditions. Among these factors, sun exposure is able to determine both acute and chronic skin damage, mostly linked to the effects of the ultraviolet (UV) radiation on epidermal and dermal structures. In particular, UV-A appears to play a major role in the deterioration of dermal structure leading to the photoaged appearance of the skin, while UV-B is mainly responsible for skin cancers. Peculiar clinical features of skin damage in fishermen include dryness, irregular pigmentation, wrinkling, stellate pseudoscars, elastosis, inelasticity, telangiectasia, comedones and sebaceous hyperplasia. Furtheremore, the high incidence of non-melanoma skin cancers, on sun-exposed areas, confirms the need for occupational health policies focusing on issues such as photoprotection.

  10. Urostomy - stoma and skin care

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000477.htm Urostomy - stoma and skin care To use the sharing features on this ... stoma if it is scraped. Caring for the Skin Around Your Stoma After surgery, the skin around ...

  11. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... AP Photo/Herald-Mail, Kevin G. Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of ...

  12. Archaea on human skin.

    PubMed

    Probst, Alexander J; Auerbach, Anna K; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The recent era of exploring the human microbiome has provided valuable information on microbial inhabitants, beneficials and pathogens. Screening efforts based on DNA sequencing identified thousands of bacterial lineages associated with human skin but provided only incomplete and crude information on Archaea. Here, we report for the first time the quantification and visualization of Archaea from human skin. Based on 16 S rRNA gene copies Archaea comprised up to 4.2% of the prokaryotic skin microbiome. Most of the gene signatures analyzed belonged to the Thaumarchaeota, a group of Archaea we also found in hospitals and clean room facilities. The metabolic potential for ammonia oxidation of the skin-associated Archaea was supported by the successful detection of thaumarchaeal amoA genes in human skin samples. However, the activity and possible interaction with human epithelial cells of these associated Archaea remains an open question. Nevertheless, in this study we provide evidence that Archaea are part of the human skin microbiome and discuss their potential for ammonia turnover on human skin.

  13. Skin and antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Poljsak, Borut; Dahmane, Raja; Godic, Aleksandar

    2013-04-01

    It is estimated that total sun exposure occurs non-intentionally in three quarters of our lifetimes. Our skin is exposed to majority of UV radiation during outdoor activities, e.g. walking, practicing sports, running, hiking, etc. and not when we are intentionally exposed to the sun on the beach. We rarely use sunscreens during those activities, or at least not as much and as regular as we should and are commonly prone to acute and chronic sun damage of the skin. The only protection of our skin is endogenous (synthesis of melanin and enzymatic antioxidants) and exogenous (antioxidants, which we consume from the food, like vitamins A, C, E, etc.). UV-induced photoaging of the skin becomes clinically evident with age, when endogenous antioxidative mechanisms and repair processes are not effective any more and actinic damage to the skin prevails. At this point it would be reasonable to ingest additional antioxidants and/or to apply them on the skin in topical preparations. We review endogenous and exogenous skin protection with antioxidants.

  14. Sensitive skin: an overview.

    PubMed

    Berardesca, E; Farage, M; Maibach, H

    2013-02-01

    Sensitive skin is a condition of subjective cutaneous hyper-reactivity to environmental factors. Subjects experiencing this condition report exaggerated reactions when their skin is in contact with cosmetics, soaps and sun screens, and they often report worsening after exposure to dry and cold climate. Although no sign of irritation is commonly detected, itching, burning, stinging and a tight sensation are constantly present. Generally substances that are not commonly considered irritants are involved in this abnormal response.Sensitive skin and subjective irritation are widespread but still far from being completely defined and understood. A correlation between sensitive skin and constitutional anomalies and/or other triggering factors such as occupational skin diseases or chronic exposure to irritants has been hypothesized. Recent findings suggest that higher sensitivity can be due to different mechanisms. Hyper-reactors may have a thinner stratum corneum with a reduced corneocyte area causing a higher transcutaneous penetration of water-soluble chemicals. Alterations in vanilloid receptors and changes in neuronal transmission have been described. Monitoring skin parameters such as barrier function, proclivity to irritation, corneocyte size and sensorial transmission can also be useful to identify regional differences in skin sensitivity.

  15. Archaea on Human Skin

    PubMed Central

    Probst, Alexander J.; Auerbach, Anna K.; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The recent era of exploring the human microbiome has provided valuable information on microbial inhabitants, beneficials and pathogens. Screening efforts based on DNA sequencing identified thousands of bacterial lineages associated with human skin but provided only incomplete and crude information on Archaea. Here, we report for the first time the quantification and visualization of Archaea from human skin. Based on 16 S rRNA gene copies Archaea comprised up to 4.2% of the prokaryotic skin microbiome. Most of the gene signatures analyzed belonged to the Thaumarchaeota, a group of Archaea we also found in hospitals and clean room facilities. The metabolic potential for ammonia oxidation of the skin-associated Archaea was supported by the successful detection of thaumarchaeal amoA genes in human skin samples. However, the activity and possible interaction with human epithelial cells of these associated Archaea remains an open question. Nevertheless, in this study we provide evidence that Archaea are part of the human skin microbiome and discuss their potential for ammonia turnover on human skin. PMID:23776475

  16. The Ontogeny of Skin

    PubMed Central

    Visscher, Marty; Narendran, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Significance: During gestation, fetal skin progresses from a single layer derived from ectoderm to a complex, multi-layer tissue with the stratum corneum (SC) as the outermost layer. Innate immunity is a conferred complex process involving a balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, structural proteins, and specific antigen-presenting cells. The SC is a part of the innate immune system as an impermeable physical barrier containing anti-microbial lipids and host defense proteins. Postnatally, the epidermis continually replenishes itself, provides a protective barrier, and repairs injuries. Recent Advances: Vernix caseosa protects the fetus during gestation and facilitates development of the SC in the aqueous uterine environment. The anti-infective, hydrating, acidification, and wound-healing properties post birth provide insights for the development of strategies that facilitate SC maturation and repair in the premature infant. Critical Issues: Reduction of infant mortality is a global health priority. Premature infants have an incompetent skin barrier putting them at risk for irritant exposure, skin compromise and life-threatening infections. Effective interventions to accelerate skin barrier maturation are compelling. Future Directions: Investigations to determine the ontogeny of barrier maturation, that is, SC structure, composition, cohesiveness, permeability, susceptibility to injury, and microflora, as a function of gestational age are essential. Clinicians need to know when the premature skin barrier becomes fully competent and comparable to healthy newborn skin. This will guide the development of innovative strategies for optimizing skin barrier development. PMID:24761361

  17. Wound Healing and Skin Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Takeo, Makoto; Lee, Wendy; Ito, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    The skin is a complex organ consisting of the epidermis, dermis, and skin appendages, including the hair follicle and sebaceous gland. Wound healing in adult mammals results in scar formation without any skin appendages. Studies have reported remarkable examples of scarless healing in fetal skin and appendage regeneration in adult skin following the infliction of large wounds. The models used in these studies have offered a new platform for investigations of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying wound healing and skin regeneration in mammals. In this article, we will focus on the contribution of skin appendages to wound healing and, conversely, skin appendage regeneration following injuries. PMID:25561722

  18. Environment and the skin

    PubMed Central

    Suskind, Raymond R.

    1977-01-01

    The skin is an important interface between man and his environment; it is an important portal of entry for hazardous agents and a vulnerable target tissue as well. It is a uniquely accessible model system for detecting hazards and for studying mechanisms of a wide variety of biologic funcitons. Environmental causes of skin reactions comprise a vast array of physical, chemical and biological agents. To appreciate the role of the skin as an interface with man's environment, it is necessary to understand the multiple adaptive mechanisms, and the defenses of the skin against the environmental stresses. The skin is endowed with a versatile group of defenses against penetration, fluid loss from the body, thermal stress, solar radiation, physical trauma and microbial agents. Patterns of adverse response range in quality and intensity from uncomplicated itching to metastatic neoplasia. Environmental problems comprise a large segment of disabling skin disease. Although critical epidemiologic data is limited, cutaneous illnesses comprise a significant segment of occupational disease. This represents a significant loss in productivity and a major cause of disability. The most serious research needs include the development of surveillance systems for identifying skin hazards and determining frequency of environmental skin disease; the development of new models for studying cutaneous penetration; the elucidation of the mechanisms of nonallergic inflammatory reactions (primary irritation) and of the accommodation phenomenon; the development of more sensitive models for predicting adverse responses to marginal irritants; the utilization of modern skills of immunobiology and immunochemistry to elucidate mechanisms of allergic responses; the launching of epidemiologic studies to determine the long term effects of PCBs and associated compounds such as dioxins; and the expansion of research in the mechanisms of skin cancer in relation to susceptibility, genetic and metabolic

  19. Thermal Skin fabrication technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milam, T. B.

    1972-01-01

    Advanced fabrication techniques applicable to Thermal Skin structures were investigated, including: (1) chemical machining; (2) braze bonding; (3) diffusion bonding; and (4) electron beam welding. Materials investigated were nickel and nickel alloys. Sample Thermal Skin panels were manufactured using the advanced fabrication techniques studied and were structurally tested. Results of the program included: (1) development of improved chemical machining processes for nickel and several nickel alloys; (2) identification of design geometry limits; (3) identification of diffusion bonding requirements; (4) development of a unique diffusion bonding tool; (5) identification of electron beam welding limits; and (6) identification of structural properties of Thermal Skin material.

  20. Eicosanoids in skin inflammation.

    PubMed

    Nicolaou, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Eicosanoids play an integral part in homeostatic mechanisms related to skin health and structural integrity. They also mediate inflammatory events developed in response to environmental factors, such as exposure to ultraviolet radiation, and inflammatory and allergic disorders, including psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. This review article discusses biochemical aspects related to cutaneous eicosanoid metabolism, the contribution of these potent autacoids to skin inflammation and related conditions, and considers the importance of nutritional supplementation with bioactives such as omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and plant-derived antioxidants as means of addressing skin health issues.

  1. Skin Bacteria and Skin Disinfection Reconsidered

    PubMed Central

    Selwyn, Sydney; Ellis, Harold

    1972-01-01

    Large discrepancies in the available data on skin microbiology stimulated investigations of the number, interactions, and location of commensals and the true efficiency of disinfection by using skin biopsy, culture of frozen sections, and other methods. Most current procedures were less than 0·5% as sensitive as the biopsy method described. This gave mean bacterial counts ranging from 4,400/cm2 on the breast to 400,000/cm2 in the axillae. An iodine preparation removed 95% of accessible organisms, but about 20% of bacteria were protected by follicles, crevices, and lipids. Commensals in over 20% of people produced antibiotics against a wide range of pathogens. Conversely, “satellitism” was demonstrable in 12% of people. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:5007838

  2. Genetics and skin aging

    PubMed Central

    Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Bekou, Vassiliki; Zouboulis, Christos C.

    2012-01-01

    Skin aging is a complex process and underlies multiple influences with the probable involvement of heritable and various environmental factors. Several theories have been conducted regarding the pathomechanisms of aged skin, however fundamental mechanisms still remain poorly understood. This article addresses the influence of genetics on skin aging and in particular deals with the differences observed in ethnic populations and between both genders. Recent studies indicate that male and female aged skin differs as far as the type, the consistency and the sensitivity to external factors is concerned. The same has been also documented between elderly people of different origin. Consequently, the aging process taking place in both genders and in diverse ethnic groups should be examined separately and products specialized to each population should be developed in order to satisfy the special needs. PMID:23467395

  3. Allergy Skin Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic rhinitis) Allergic asthma Dermatitis (eczema) Food allergies Penicillin allergy Bee venom allergy Latex allergy Skin tests are ... may recommend this test to check for an allergy to insect venom or penicillin. Patch test Patch testing is generally done to ...

  4. Fungal Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Professional Version Also of Interest Test your knowledge Impetigo is a bacterial skin infection. The infection ... Learn more about our commitment to Global Medical Knowledge . Merck Manuals About Disclaimer Permissions Privacy Contributors Terms ...

  5. An elastic second skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Betty; Kang, Soo-Young; Akthakul, Ariya; Ramadurai, Nithin; Pilkenton, Morgan; Patel, Alpesh; Nashat, Amir; Anderson, Daniel G.; Sakamoto, Fernanda H.; Gilchrest, Barbara A.; Anderson, R. Rox; Langer, Robert

    2016-08-01

    We report the synthesis and application of an elastic, wearable crosslinked polymer layer (XPL) that mimics the properties of normal, youthful skin. XPL is made of a tunable polysiloxane-based material that can be engineered with specific elasticity, contractility, adhesion, tensile strength and occlusivity. XPL can be topically applied, rapidly curing at the skin interface without the need for heat- or light-mediated activation. In a pilot human study, we examined the performance of a prototype XPL that has a tensile modulus matching normal skin responses at low strain (<40%), and that withstands elongations exceeding 250%, elastically recoiling with minimal strain-energy loss on repeated deformation. The application of XPL to the herniated lower eyelid fat pads of 12 subjects resulted in an average 2-grade decrease in herniation appearance in a 5-point severity scale. The XPL platform may offer advanced solutions to compromised skin barrier function, pharmaceutical delivery and wound dressings.

  6. Skin picking disorder.

    PubMed

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Keuthen, Nancy J; Lochner, Christine; Stein, Dan J

    2012-11-01

    Although skin picking has been documented in the medical literature since the 19th century, only now is it receiving serious consideration as a DSM psychiatric disorder in discussions for DSM-5. Recent community prevalence studies suggest that skin picking disorder appears to be as common as many other psychiatric disorders, with reported prevalences ranging from 1.4% to 5.4%. Clinical evaluation of patients with skin picking disorder entails a broad physical and psychiatric examination, encouraging an interdisciplinary approach to evaluation and treatment. Approaches to treatment should include cognitive-behavioral therapy (including habit reversal or acceptance-enhanced behavior therapy) and medication (serotonin reuptake inhibitors, N-acetylcysteine, or naltrexone). Based on clinical experience and research findings, the authors recommend several management approaches to skin picking disorder.

  7. Skin lesion removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hair Small blood vessels in the skin Tattoos CRYOTHERAPY Cryotherapy is a method of super-freezing tissue in ... warts, actinic keratoses, solar keratoses, and molluscum contagiosum. Cryotherapy is done using a cotton swab that has ...

  8. Radiation therapy -- skin care

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000735.htm Radiation therapy - skin care To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. When you have radiation treatment for cancer, you may have some changes ...

  9. Skin Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... the body’s largest organ . It protects against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection . Skin also helps control body ... it is most common in areas exposed to sunlight, such as the face, neck, hands, and arms. ...

  10. Skin Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... the body's largest organ . It protects against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection . Skin also helps control body ... cancer risk factors include: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  11. Skin graft - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/presentations/100100.htm Skin graft - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... 2017 Updated by: Debra G. Wechter, MD, FACS, general surgery practice specializing in breast cancer, Virginia Mason ...

  12. Skin lesion KOH exam

    MedlinePlus

    ... is present. The fungus may be related to ringworm , athlete's foot , jock itch , or another fungal infection. ... foot Candida infection of the skin Jock itch Ringworm Ringworm of the body Review Date 4/14/ ...

  13. Tuberculin Skin Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... perpendicular to the long axis). How Are TST Reactions Interpreted? Skin test interpretation depends on two factors: ... among high-risk groups. What Are False-Positive Reactions? Some persons may react to the TST even ...

  14. Skin or nail culture

    MedlinePlus

    Mucosal culture; Culture - skin; Culture - mucosal; Nail culture; Culture - fingernail; Fingernail culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria, ...

  15. Impairments in Skin Integrity.

    PubMed

    Murphree, Rose W

    2017-09-01

    Altered skin integrity increases the chance of infection, impaired mobility, and decreased function and may result in the loss of limb or, sometimes, life. Skin is affected by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Intrinsic factors can include altered nutritional status, vascular disease issues, and diabetes. Extrinsic factors include falls, accidents, pressure, immobility, and surgical procedures. Ensuring skin integrity in the elderly requires a team approach and includes the individual, caregivers, and clinicians. The twenty-first century clinician has several online, evidence-based tools to assist with optimal treatment plans. Understanding best practices in addressing skin integrity issues can promote positive outcomes with the elderly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Skin-picking disorder].

    PubMed

    Niemeier, V; Peters, E; Gieler, U

    2015-10-01

    The disorder is characterized by compulsive repetitive skin-picking (SP), resulting in skin lesions. The patients must have undertaken several attempts to reduce or stop SP. The disorder must have led to clinically significant limitations in social, professional, or other important areas of life. The symptoms cannot be better explained by another emotional disorder or any other dermatological disease. In the new DSM-V, skin-picking disorder has been included in the diagnostic system as an independent disorder and describes the self-injury of the skin by picking or scratching with an underlying emotional disorder. SP is classified among the impulse-control disorders and is, thus, differentiated from compulsive disorders as such. There are often emotional comorbidities. In cases of pronounced psychosocial limitation, interdisciplinary cooperation with a psychotherapist and/or psychiatrist is indicated.

  17. Skin lesions in psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Goodfield, M

    1994-05-01

    Psoriatic skin disease is common; it occurs at all ages and co-exists with joint disease in approximately 10% of cases. All areas of skin, scalp and nails may be involved. In the typical case, the skin lesions are easy to recognize. Atypical forms of skin involvement and lesions at unusual sites are less easily diagnosed by non-specialists. The cause is unknown, but there is a clear genetic element, with external factors being important in precipitation and exacerbations of the condition. Topical treatment is successful in most patients, but in resistant cases combinations of systemic therapy and ultraviolet radiation usually give good control. Although there is no cure, the majority of sufferers live normal lives and, with the exception of severe erythrodermic or generalized pustular psoriasis, there is no mortality. Morbidity, particularly social and occupational, is more of a problem than is often acknowledged.

  18. Skin tumors on squirrels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Reilly, J.R.

    1955-01-01

    Skin tumors having the gross appearance of previously reported fibromas are reported on gray squirrels from N. Y., Md., Va., N. C., and W. Va. and from a fox squirrel from W. Va. and a porcupine from Pa.

  19. Scaly-skinned Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-12-20

    The style of erosion along the highlands-lowlands boundary of southern Elysium Planitia has produced a strange pattern of troughs that look like the skin of a reptile, as seen in this image from NASA Mars Odyssey spacecraft.

  20. Skin Reactions to Cold

    PubMed Central

    Talpash, Orest

    1976-01-01

    Although skin reactions to cold are seen surprisingly infrequently in Canada, it is important to manage them correctly when they do occur. Frostbite, cold urticarias, Raynaud's disease and phenomenon, and several miscellaneous changes are discussed. PMID:21308019

  1. Allergy testing - skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... may order allergy skin tests if you have: Hay fever ( allergic rhinitis ) and asthma symptoms that are not ... team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Allergy Food Allergy Hay Fever Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  2. Acral peeling skin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, K; Hamzavi, I; Tanaka, K; Shwayder, T

    2000-12-01

    Peeling skin syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by widespread painless peeling of the skin in superficial sheets. We describe a 34-year-old man with a lifelong history of spontaneous asymptomatic peeling skin limited to the acral surfaces. This patient probably represents a localized variant of peeling skin syndrome, which has previously been described as a generalized condition. Light and electron microscopic studies of biopsy specimens taken before and after immersion in water were performed. It was concluded that this patient has abnormal keratohyalin granules and inadequate aggregation of keratin filaments that caused the separation of the epidermis in the stratum corneum through the clear zone. Alternatively, unknown keratin species expressed in the clear zone may also cause the abnormality. (J Am Acad Dermatol 2000;43:1112-9.).

  3. Chromophores in human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Antony R.

    1997-05-01

    Human skin, especially the epidermis, contains several major solar ultraviolet-radiation- (UVR-) absorbing endogenous chromophores including DNA, urocanic acid, amino acids, melanins and their precursors and metabolites. The lack of solubility of melanins prevents their absorption spectra being defined by routine techniques. Indirect spectroscopic methods show that their spectral properties depend on the stimulus for melanogenesis. The photochemical consequences of UVR absorption by some epidermal chromophores are relatively well understood whereas we lack a detailed understanding of the consequent photobiological and clinical responses. Skin action spectroscopy is not a reliable way of relating a photobiological outcome to a specific chromophore but is important for UVR hazard assessment. Exogenous chromophores may be administered to the skin in combination with UVR exposure for therapeutic benefit, or as sunscreens for the prevention of sunburn and possibly skin cancer.

  4. Skin blotting: a noninvasive technique for evaluating physiological skin status.

    PubMed

    Minematsu, Takeo; Horii, Motoko; Oe, Makoto; Sugama, Junko; Mugita, Yuko; Huang, Lijuan; Nakagami, Gojiro; Sanada, Hiromi

    2014-06-01

    The skin performs important structural and physiological functions, and skin assessment represents an important step in identifying skin problems. Although noninvasive techniques for assessing skin status exist, no such techniques for monitoring its physiological status are available. This study aimed to develop a novel skin-assessment technique known as skin blotting, based on the leakage of secreted proteins from inside the skin following overhydration in mice. The applicability of this technique was further investigated in a clinical setting. Skin blotting involves 2 steps: collecting proteins by attaching a damp nitrocellulose membrane to the surface of the skin, and immunostaining the collected proteins. The authors implanted fluorescein-conjugated dextran (F-DEX)-containing agarose gels into mice and detected the tissue distribution of F-DEX under different blotting conditions. They also analyzed the correlations between inflammatory cytokine secretion and leakage following ultraviolet irradiation in mice and in relation to body mass index in humans. The F-DEX in mice was distributed in the deeper and shallower layers of skin and leaked through the transfollicular and transepidermal routes, respectively. Ultraviolet irradiation induced tumor necrosis factor secretion in the epidermis in mice, which was detected by skin blotting, whereas follicular tumor necrosis factor was associated with body mass index in obese human subjects. These results support the applicability of skin blotting for skin assessment. Skin blotting represents a noninvasive technique for assessing skin physiology and has potential as a predictive and diagnostic tool for skin disorders.

  5. Skin Diseases: Cross-section of human skin

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Cross-section of human skin Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Logical Images, Inc. I n the areas of skin health and skin diseases, the NIH's National Institute ...

  6. Skin Cancer - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Expand Section Skin Cancer: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Cáncer de piel: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español (Spanish) National Library of Medicine Ukrainian (українська ) Expand Section Skin Cancer - українська (Ukrainian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Characters ...

  7. Nicotinamide and the skin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Andrew C; Damian, Diona L

    2014-08-01

    Nicotinamide, an amide form of vitamin B3, boosts cellular energy and regulates poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase 1, an enzyme with important roles in DNA repair and the expression of inflammatory cytokines. Nicotinamide shows promise for the treatment of a wide range of dermatological conditions, including autoimmune blistering disorders, acne, rosacea, ageing skin and atopic dermatitis. In particular, recent studies have also shown it to be a potential agent for reducing actinic keratoses and preventing skin cancers.

  8. Leishmania Skin Test

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Ninhydrin ), SDS-PAGE and non-viability testing . See Table 3 below: Table 3: Drug Substance Specifications Test Method Specification SDS-PAGE...AD_________________ Award Number: DAMD17-00-C-0030 TITLE: Leishmania Skin Test PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Nielsen, H.S., Jr...TYPE FINAL, PHASE II ADDENDUM 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 1 APR 2009 - 28 FEB 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Leishmania Skin Test 5a

  9. Rheumatologic Skin Disease.

    PubMed

    Kalus, Andrea

    2015-11-01

    In common rheumatologic diseases skin findings are an important diagnostic clue for astute clinicians. Skin manifestations can help identify systemic disease or may require therapy uniquely targeted at the cutaneous problem. This article discusses 3 common rheumatologic conditions seen in adults by dermatologists: cutaneous lupus, dermatomyositis, and morphea. The focus is on the cutaneous findings and clinical presentation. Some approaches to treatment are explored. Clues to help identify systemic disease are also highlighted.

  10. [Photoaging of a skin].

    PubMed

    Galus, Ryszard; Zandecki, Łukasz; Antiszko, Marek; Borowska, Katarzyna; Zabielski, Stanisław

    2007-06-01

    Photoaging is a skin aging caused by long-term exposure to the ultraviolet radiations of the sun. Ultraviolet activates activating protein-1 and generate reactive oxygen species which play a substantial role in collagen degradation. Clinically, photoaged skin appears as a coarse with deep wrinkles. Presently there are available several agents to reverse the photodamage. There is conclusive evidence that synthetic vitamin A derivatives are the most effective in the treatment of photoaging. Erythema and scaling may be experienced initially.

  11. Common Skin Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Vincent C.

    1992-01-01

    Melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma are the three most common forms of skin cancer. The incidence of skin cancer is increasing at an alarming rate. Early detection is the key to successful management. In this article, the salient clinical features and diagnostic clues for these tumors and their precursor lesions are presented. Current management guidelines are also discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figures 2-3Figures 4-6Figures 7-9 PMID:21221380

  12. Zinc and skin biology.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Youichi; Kawamura, Tatsuyoshi; Shimada, Shinji

    2016-12-01

    Of all tissues, the skin has the third highest abundance of zinc in the body. In the skin, the zinc concentration is higher in the epidermis than in the dermis, owing to a zinc requirement for the active proliferation and differentiation of epidermal keratinocytes. Here we review the dynamics and functions of zinc in the skin as well as skin disorders associated with zinc deficiency, zinc finger domain-containing proteins, and zinc transporters. Among skin disorders associated with zinc deficiency, acrodermatitis enteropathica is a disorder caused by mutations in the ZIP4 transporter and subsequent zinc deficiency. The triad acrodermatitis enteropathica is characterized by alopecia, diarrhea, and skin lesions in acral, periorificial, and anogenital areas. We highlight the underlying mechanism of the development of acrodermatitis because of zinc deficiency by describing our new findings. We also discuss the accumulating evidence on zinc deficiency in alopecia and necrolytic migratory erythema, which is typically associated with glucagonomas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ultraflexible organic photonic skin

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Tomoyuki; Zalar, Peter; Kaltenbrunner, Martin; Jinno, Hiroaki; Matsuhisa, Naoji; Kitanosako, Hiroki; Tachibana, Yutaro; Yukita, Wakako; Koizumi, Mari; Someya, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Thin-film electronics intimately laminated onto the skin imperceptibly equip the human body with electronic components for health-monitoring and information technologies. When electronic devices are worn, the mechanical flexibility and/or stretchability of thin-film devices helps to minimize the stress and discomfort associated with wear because of their conformability and softness. For industrial applications, it is important to fabricate wearable devices using processing methods that maximize throughput and minimize cost. We demonstrate ultraflexible and conformable three-color, highly efficient polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) and organic photodetectors (OPDs) to realize optoelectronic skins (oe-skins) that introduce multiple electronic functionalities such as sensing and displays on the surface of human skin. The total thickness of the devices, including the substrate and encapsulation layer, is only 3 μm, which is one order of magnitude thinner than the epidermal layer of human skin. By integrating green and red PLEDs with OPDs, we fabricate an ultraflexible reflective pulse oximeter. The device unobtrusively measures the oxygen concentration of blood when laminated on a finger. On-skin seven-segment digital displays and color indicators can visualize data directly on the body. PMID:27152354

  14. Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone

    MedlinePlus

    ... 690; deaths: 9,480. Read More "Skin Cancer" Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & ... and Sun – Safety First / Quiz: Test Your Skin Cancer IQ Summer 2013 Issue: Volume 8 Number ... Us | Viewers & Players Friends of the National Library of Medicine (FNLM)

  15. Skin and Sun -- Safety First

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/cancertopics/types/melanoma Read More "Skin Cancer" Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & ... and Sun – Safety First / Quiz: Test Your Skin Cancer IQ Summer 2013 Issue: Volume 8 Number ... Us | Viewers & Players Friends of the National Library of Medicine (FNLM)

  16. Skin flaps and grafts - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Free flap - self-care; Skin autografting - self-care; Pressure ulcer skin flap self-care; Burns skin flap self- ... skin infection Surgery for skin cancer Venous ulcers , pressure ulcers , or diabetic ulcers that DO NOT heal After ...

  17. [Environmental pollution and skin aging].

    PubMed

    Vierkötter, A

    2011-08-01

    Extrinsic skin aging is the skin aging process induced by environmental factors. The most prominent environmental factor leading to extrinsic skin aging is the sun; therefore extrinsic skin aging is also known as photoaging. However, numerous studies in recent years have shown that smoking leads to extrinsic skin aging. Further, very recently it has been shown, that environmental pollution by traffic is also associated with the occurrence of signs of extrinsic skin aging. Thus, in preventive skin aging strategies the long-term exposure towards air pollution by traffic must also be considered.

  18. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders

    PubMed Central

    Shenefelt, Philip D; Shenefelt, Debrah A

    2014-01-01

    Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, “goose bumps”, redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. PMID:25120377

  19. [Autoimmune bullous skin disorders].

    PubMed

    Hertl, Michael; Niedermeier, Andrea; Borradori, Luca

    2010-09-01

    Autoimmune bullous skin disorders are rare, potentially fatal disorders of skin and mucous membranes which are associated with IgG or IgA autoantibodies against distinct adhesion molecules of the epidermis and dermal epidermal basement membrane zone, respectively. These autoantibodies lead to a loss of skin adhesion which shows up clinically as the formation of blisters or erosions. In pemphigus, loss of adhesion occurs within the epidermis while in the pemphigoids, linear IgA dermatosis, epidermolysis bullosa acquisita and dermatitis herpetiformis, loss of adhesion takes place within or underneath the basement membrane zone. The autoantigens of these disorders are largely identified and characterized. Making the diagnosis of autoimmune bullous skin diseases is based on histology and direct immunofluorescence of perilesional skin and the serological detection of autoantibodides by indirect immunofluorescence and recombinant autoantigens. Therapeutically, systemic treatment with glucocorticoids is combined with immunosuppressive adjuvants which allow for the fast reduction of systemic steroids. A prospective trial in pemphigus showed that adjuvant treatment with azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil and cyclophosphamide, respectively, led to a significant reduction of the cummulative dose of systemic steroids until complete clinical remission was achieved. In bullous pemphigoid, topical treatment with clobetasol led to complete clinical remissions without major side effects seen when glucocorticoids were applied systemically. Therapeutic depletion of B cells by rituximab as a second line therapy has significantly improved the overall prognosis of pemphigus. Comparable controlled therapeutic trials have not yet been performed in dermatitis herpetiformis and epidermolysis bullosa acquisita.

  20. Skin cleansing in children.

    PubMed

    Gelmetti, C

    2001-09-01

    The problems of skin cleansing in infants have been re-evaluated in recent years on the basis of current understanding of cosmetology and skin physiology. The anatomical and functional peculiarities of infant's skin have been elucidated and, although it is known that the barrier function is established at birth in normal babies, it remains the case that children's skin is more delicate and therefore more prone to irritant and allergic contact dermatitis. These factors determine the choice of cleansing agents during infancy. The products available on the market differ markedly. Indeed detergents, bath oils, bath powders, due to their distinctive properties, have different indications and different benefits. The method of cleansing the skin, i.e. bathing or showering, is also important. The frequency of cleansing should take into account the age and the degree of exposure to pollutants. For special purposes, e.g. impetiginized dermatoses, antiseptics such as potassium permanganate or chlorhexidine can be added to the water in appropriate concentrations. The ideal paediatric detergent should be very mild to avoid irritant dermatitis, and very simple to avoid allergic dermatitis.

  1. Smoking and skin disease.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, S F; Sørensen, L T

    2010-06-01

    Tobacco smoking is a serious and preventable health hazard that can cause or exacerbate a number of diseases and shorten life expectancy, but the role of smoking as an etiologic factor in the development of skin disease is largely unknown. Although epidemiological evidence is sparse, findings suggest that tobacco smoking is a contributing factor in systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, palmoplantar pustulosis, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, hidradenitis suppurativa, and genital warts. In contrast, smoking may confer some protective effects and mitigate other skin diseases, notably pemphigus vulgaris, pyoderma gangrenosum, aphthous ulcers, and Behçet's disease. Various degenerative dermatologic conditions are also impacted by smoking, such as skin wrinkling and dysregulated wound healing, which can result in post-surgical complications and delayed or even arrested healing of chronic wounds. Most likely, alteration of inflammatory cell function and extracellular matrix turnover caused by smoking-induced oxidative stress are involved in the pathophysiologic mechanisms.

  2. Sprayed skin turbine component

    DOEpatents

    Allen, David B

    2013-06-04

    Fabricating a turbine component (50) by casting a core structure (30), forming an array of pits (24) in an outer surface (32) of the core structure, depositing a transient liquid phase (TLP) material (40) on the outer surface of the core structure, the TLP containing a melting-point depressant, depositing a skin (42) on the outer surface of the core structure over the TLP material, and heating the assembly, thus forming both a diffusion bond and a mechanical interlock between the skin and the core structure. The heating diffuses the melting-point depressant away from the interface. Subsurface cooling channels (35) may be formed by forming grooves (34) in the outer surface of the core structure, filling the grooves with a fugitive filler (36), depositing and bonding the skin (42), then removing the fugitive material.

  3. Skin friction balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ping, Tcheng (Inventor); Supplee, Frank H., Jr. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A skin friction balance uses a parallel linkage mechanism to avoid inaccuracies in skin friction measurement attributable to off-center normal forces. The parallel linkage mechanism includes a stationary plate mounted in a cage, and an upper and lower movable plate which are linked to each other and to the stationary plate throught three vertical links. Flexure pivots are provided for pivotally connecting the links and the plates. A sensing element connected to the upper plate moves in response to skin friction, and the lower plate moves in the opposite direction of the upper plate. A force motor maintains a null position of the sensing element by exerting a restoring force in response to a signal generated by a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT).

  4. Update on skin allergy.

    PubMed

    Schlapbach, C; Simon, D

    2014-12-01

    Skin diseases with an allergic background such as atopic dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, and urticaria are very common. Moreover, diseases arising from a dysfunction of immune cells and/or their products often manifest with skin symptoms. This review aims to summarize recently published articles in order to highlight novel research findings, clinical trial results, and current guidelines on disease management. In recent years, an immense progress has been made in understanding the link between skin barrier dysfunction and allergic sensitization initiating the atopic march. In consequence, new strategies for treatment and prevention have been developed. Novel pathogenic insights, for example, into urticaria, angioedema, mastocytosis, led to the development of new therapeutic approaches and their implementation in daily patient care. By understanding distinct pathomechanisms, for example, the role of IL-1, novel entities such as autoinflammatory diseases have been described. Considerable effort has been made to improve and harmonize patient management as documented in several guidelines and position papers.

  5. Environment and the skin

    SciTech Connect

    Suskind, R.R. )

    1990-03-01

    The skin is an important organ of defense adaptation and a portal of entry for xenobiotics. It is vulnerable to physical, chemical, and biologic agents and capable of expressing responses to these agents in a variety of pathologic patterns. These patterns are characterized by morphologic and functional features which are elicited by careful examination and test procedures. Cutaneous cancer may result from exposure to nonionizing as well as ionizing radiation, to specific identifiable chemical hazards, and may be enhanced by trauma. Cutaneous hazards of chemical sources are largely found in the workplace and among consumer products, including drugs and toilet goods. Environmental skin diseases and injuries are preventable. Prior to use assessment for safety and for possible risks from exposure to an agent, product, or process is of primary importance in the prevention and control of environmental skin disease and injury.

  6. Cosmeceuticals in skin of color.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Leslie

    2016-12-01

    Patients with skin of color have similar skin care needs as lighter-skin patients. However, they are less likely to use sun protection on a daily basis, which leads to an increased risk of dyschromia, skin cancer, and other disorders. This article discusses the importance of a correct and consistent skin care regimen and the various cutaneous issues that should be considered when prescribing a skin care regimen for patients with darker skin types. Adopting a standardized methodology to identify affordable, efficacious products and to streamline the process of skin-type diagnosis, skin care regimen prescribing, patient communication, and staff education will result in improved patient outcomes and increased patient satisfaction. ©2016 Frontline Medical Communications.

  7. [The skin and alopecia].

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Kazuyuki

    2003-06-01

    Adverse skin reactions to anti-tumor agents, can be classified either as general symptoms or as local symptoms. The former type of symptom can manifest as intoxication dermatosis; however, while its occurrence is rare, the symptom that requires the closest attention is toxic epidermal necrolysis, the outcome of which is death in most patients. The latter type of symptom includes extravasation of anti-tumor agents and alopecia. Treatment of extravasation induced skin disorders includes prompt and repeated local injections of steroids, while treatment of alopecia includes scalp cooling and external therapies.

  8. Study of surfactant-skin interactions by skin impedance measurements.

    PubMed

    Lu, Guojin; Moore, David J

    2012-02-01

    The stratum corneum (SC) plays a very critical physiological role as skin barrier in regulating water loss through the skin and protects the body from a wide range of physical and chemical exogenous insults. Surfactant-containing formulations can induce skin damage and irritation owing to surfactant absorption and penetration. It is generally accepted that reduction in skin barrier properties occurs only after surfactants have penetrated/permeated into the skin barrier. To mitigate the harshness of surfactant-based cleansing products, penetration/permeation of surfactants should be reduced. Skin impedance measurements have been taken in vitro on porcine skin using vertical Franz diffusion cells to investigate the impact of surfactants, temperature and pH on skin barrier integrity. These skin impedance results demonstrate excellent correlation with other published methods for assessing skin damage and irritation from different surfactant chemistry, concentration, pH, time of exposure and temperature. This study demonstrates that skin impedance can be utilized as a routine approach to screen surfactant-containing formulations for their propensity to compromise the skin barrier and hence likely lead to skin irritation.

  9. The relationship between skin maturation and electrical skin impedance.

    PubMed

    Emery, M M; Hebert, A A; Aguirre Vila-Coro, A; Prager, T C

    1991-09-01

    When performing electrophysiological testing, high electrical impedance values are sometimes found in neonates. Since excessive impedance can invalidate test results, a study was conducted to delineate the relationship between skin maturation and electrical skin impedance. This study investigated the skin impedance in 72 infants ranging from 196 to 640 days of age from conception. Regression analyses demonstrated a significant relationship between impedance and age, with the highest impedance centered around full-term gestation with values falling precipitously at time points on either side. Clinically, impedance values fall to normal levels at approximately four months following full-term gestation. Skin impedance values are low in premature infants, but rapidly increase as the age approaches that of full-term neonates. Low impedance values in premature infants are attributed to greater skin hydration which results from immature skin conditions such as 1) thinner epidermal layers particularly at the transitional and cornified layers; 2) more blood flow to the skin; and 3) higher percentage of water composition. These factors facilitate the diffusion of water vapor through the skin. As the physical barrier to skin water loss matures with gestational age, the skin impedance reaches a maximum value at full term neonatal age. After this peak, a statistically significant inverse relationship exists between electrical skin impedance and age in the first year of life. This drop in skin impedance is attributed to an increase in skin hydration as a result of the greater functional maturity of eccrine sweat glands.

  10. Measuring skin conductance over clothes.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ki Hwan; Lee, Seung Min; Lim, Yong Gyu; Park, Kwang Suk

    2012-11-01

    We propose a new method that measures skin conductance over clothes to nonintrusively monitor the changes in physiological conditions affecting skin conductance during daily activities. We selected the thigh-to-thigh current path and used an indirectly coupled 5-kHz AC current for the measurement. While varying the skin conductance by the Valsalva maneuver method, the results were compared with the traditional galvanic skin response (GSR) measured directly from the fingers. Skin conductance measured using a 5-kHz current displayed a highly negative correlation with the traditional GSR and the current measured over clothes reflected the rate of change of the conductance of the skin beneath.

  11. About Skin-to-Skin Care (Kangaroo Care)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Preemie > About Skin-to-Skin Care Ages & ...

  12. Skin Diseases: Skin and Sun—Not a good mix

    MedlinePlus

    ... higher. A higher number means longer, stronger protection. Buy products with an SPF of 15 or higher. ... protection, too . The incidence of skin cancer in African Americans and other dark-skinned people is much lower ...

  13. Monitoring pigmented skin lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Vincent P.; Bamber, Jeffery C.; Ott, Robert J.; Crawford, Diane C.; Mortimer, Peter S.

    2002-06-01

    The rising incidence of skin cancer has led to an increase in the number of patients with skin lesions that require diagnosis, mostly using subjective visual examination. Successful treatment depends on early diagnosis. Unfortunately diagnostic accuracy, even by experts, can be as low as 56%; therefore, an accurate, objective diagnostic aid is greatly needed. Reflectance characteristics of pigmented skin lesions were documented to evaluate their diagnostic potential. Reflectance spectra in the wavelength range 320-1100nm were obtained from 260 lesions. Differences between spectra from benign and malignant lesions were utilized by extracting features with the best discriminating power. Discrimination was evaluated using two techniques: multivariate statistical analysis and artificial neural networks, using histology as the standard. Each technique was tested in a blind study and assessed in terms of its ability to diagnose new cases and compared to the clinical diagnosis. The artificial neural network achieved the best diagnostic performance for discriminating between malignant melanoma and benign nevi, having a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 65%. Utilization of visible and infrared techniques for monitoring skin lesions has lead to improvements in diagnostic accuracy. We conclude that these techniques are worthy of further development and evaluation in clinical practice as a screening tool.

  14. Immunity and skin cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, E.B.; Brysk, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    Observations in humans and animal studies support the theory that immunologic surveillance plays an important role in limiting the development of skin malignancies. These immune responses undergo progressive diminution with age. In addition, other factors, such as bereavement, poor nutrition, and acute and chronic exposure to ultraviolet light, can further diminish immune mechanisms.

  15. Skin-reducing mastectomy.

    PubMed

    Nava, Maurizio B; Cortinovis, Umberto; Ottolenghi, Joseph; Riggio, Egidio; Pennati, Angela; Catanuto, Giuseppe; Greco, Marco; Rovere, Guidubaldo Querci Della

    2006-09-01

    The authors propose a combined flap technique to reconstruct large and medium-sized ptotic breasts in a single-stage operation by use of anatomical permanent implants. The authors enrolled 28 patients fulfilling criteria for skin-sparing mastectomy and presenting with ptotic breasts whose areola-to-inframammary fold distance was more than 8 cm. All reconstructions were performed as a single-stage procedure. After preoperative planning, a large area in the lower half of the breast was deepithelialized according to the conventional Wise pattern. Mastectomy was then carried out. To perform reconstructions, the inferomedial fibers of the pectoralis major muscle were dissected and sutured to the superior border of the inferior dermal flap. An anatomical implant was then inserted into the pouch, which was closed laterally with the previously harvested serratus anterior fascia. Skin flaps were finally closed down to the inframammary fold. The authors performed 30 procedures on 28 patients. The medium size anatomical implants was 433 cc. Twelve women achieved symmetrization in a single stage ending in a symmetric inverted-T scar. The overall complication rate was 20 percent, with four cases (13 percent) complicated by severe, extensive necrosis of the skin flaps requiring implant removal. Breast cancer treatment must nowadays optimize cosmetic results. This can be accomplished in selected cases by means of a single-stage operation that the authors call "skin-reducing mastectomy." The final scars imitate those of cosmetic surgery. Careful patient selection and improvement in the learning curve may reduce the complication rate.

  16. Noninvasive Skin Tightening Treatment.

    PubMed

    Gold, Michael H

    2015-06-01

    Noninvasive skin tightening has become one of the most common cosmetic aesthetic procedures being performed today. The use of radiofrequency devices for these procedures has been at the forefront of this trend for the past several years. Newer and more sophisticated radiofrequency devices are being brought to the market and presented here are the Venus Freeze and Venus Legacy.

  17. Noninvasive Skin Tightening Treatment

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive skin tightening has become one of the most common cosmetic aesthetic procedures being performed today. The use of radiofrequency devices for these procedures has been at the forefront of this trend for the past several years. Newer and more sophisticated radiofrequency devices are being brought to the market and presented here are the Venus Freeze and Venus Legacy. PMID:26155322

  18. Shark skin laceration.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Sean D; Rosen, Ted

    2006-10-31

    We present a case of multiple lacerations occurring from an encounter with a bull shark in which violent contact was made with the animal's rough skin. Conservative treatment of the injury resulted in good clinical outcome without any complications. Such events are only rarely reported in the medical literature.

  19. CSD skin test

    MedlinePlus

    ... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The cat scratch disease (CSD) skin test was once used to help ... Slater LN, Welch DF, Koehler JE. Bartonella, including cat-scratch disease. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. ...

  20. Skin Conditions during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... appear on the skin during pregnancy? • What are stretch marks? • Is acne common during pregnancy? • How can I ... runs from the navel to the pubic hair • Stretch marks •Acne • Spider veins • Varicose veins • Changes in nail ...

  1. [Main parasitic skin disorders].

    PubMed

    Bernigaud, C; Monsel, G; Delaunay, P; Do-Pham, G; Foulet, F; Botterel, F; Chosidow, O

    2017-01-01

    Cutaneous parasitic skin diseases are frequent in human pathology. There are few reliable epidemiological data on the prevalence and/or incidence of such diseases. Skin parasites are cosmopolitan but their global distribution is heterogenous; prevalence is especially high in subtropical and tropical countries. They are mainly due to arthropods (insects and mites). Many species of parasites are involved, explaining the diversity of their clinical signs. The most common are caused by ectoparasites such as scabies or pediculosis (head lice, body lice and pubic lice). Clinical signs may be related to the penetration of the parasite under the skin, its development, the inoculation of venom or allergic symptoms. Diagnosis can be easy when clinical signs are pathognomonic (e.g. burrows in the interdigital web spaces in scabies) or sometimes more difficult. Some epidemiological characteristics (diurnal or nocturnal bite, seasonality) and specific clinical presentation (single or multiple bites, linear or grouped lesions) can be a great diagnostic help. Modern non-invasive tools (dermoscopy or confocal microscopy) will play an important role in the future but the eye and experience of the specialist (dermatologist, parasitologist, infectious disease specialist or entomologist) remains for the time the best way to guide or establish a diagnosis. For most skin parasites, therapeutic proposals are rarely based on studies of high level of evidence or randomized trials but more on expert recommendations or personal experience.

  2. Chemokines and skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Sugaya, Makoto

    2015-04-01

    Chemokines are small molecules that induce chemotaxis and activation of certain subsets of leukocytes. The expression patterns of chemokines and chemokine receptors are specific to certain organs and cells. Therefore, chemokines are important to elucidate the mechanism of organ-specific human diseases. CCL17 expressed by Langerhans cells, blood endothelial cells, and fibroblasts plays a key role in attracting Th2 cells and tumor cells of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and mycosis fungoides/Sézary syndrome into the skin, developing various Th2-type inflammatory skin diseases as well as cutaneous lymphoma. CCL11 and CCL26 expressed by skin-resident cells, such as fibroblasts, blood endothelial cells, and keratinocytes, induce infiltration of CCR3-expressing cells such as Th2 cells and eosinophils. CCL11 may also serve as an autocrine as well as a paracrine in anaplastic large cell lymphoma. CX3CL1 expressed on blood endothelial cells leads to infiltration of CX3CR1(+) immune cells, such as mast cells, neutrophils, and macrophages, playing important roles in wound healing, tumor immunity, and vasculitis. Biologics targeting chemokines and their receptors are promising strategies for various skin diseases that are resistant to the current therapy.

  3. Cytokines and the skin barrier.

    PubMed

    Hänel, Kai H; Cornelissen, Christian; Lüscher, Bernhard; Baron, Jens Malte

    2013-03-26

    The skin is the largest organ of the human body and builds a barrier to protect us from the harmful environment and also from unregulated loss of water. Keratinocytes form the skin barrier by undergoing a highly complex differentiation process that involves changing their morphology and structural integrity, a process referred to as cornification. Alterations in the epidermal cornification process affect the formation of the skin barrier. Typically, this results in a disturbed barrier, which allows the entry of substances into the skin that are immunologically reactive. This contributes to and promotes inflammatory processes in the skin but also affects other organs. In many common skin diseases, including atopic dermatitis and psoriasis, a defect in the formation of the skin barrier is observed. In these diseases the cytokine composition within the skin is different compared to normal human skin. This is the result of resident skin cells that produce cytokines, but also because additional immune cells are recruited. Many of the cytokines found in defective skin are able to influence various processes of differentiation and cornification. Here we summarize the current knowledge on cytokines and their functions in healthy skin and their contributions to inflammatory skin diseases.

  4. Cytokines and the Skin Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Hänel, Kai H.; Cornelissen, Christian; Lüscher, Bernhard; Baron, Jens Malte

    2013-01-01

    The skin is the largest organ of the human body and builds a barrier to protect us from the harmful environment and also from unregulated loss of water. Keratinocytes form the skin barrier by undergoing a highly complex differentiation process that involves changing their morphology and structural integrity, a process referred to as cornification. Alterations in the epidermal cornification process affect the formation of the skin barrier. Typically, this results in a disturbed barrier, which allows the entry of substances into the skin that are immunologically reactive. This contributes to and promotes inflammatory processes in the skin but also affects other organs. In many common skin diseases, including atopic dermatitis and psoriasis, a defect in the formation of the skin barrier is observed. In these diseases the cytokine composition within the skin is different compared to normal human skin. This is the result of resident skin cells that produce cytokines, but also because additional immune cells are recruited. Many of the cytokines found in defective skin are able to influence various processes of differentiation and cornification. Here we summarize the current knowledge on cytokines and their functions in healthy skin and their contributions to inflammatory skin diseases. PMID:23531535

  5. The Role of the Skin Barrier in Occupational Skin Diseases.

    PubMed

    Kasemsarn, Pranee; Bosco, Joanna; Nixon, Rosemary L

    2016-01-01

    Occupational skin diseases (OSDs) are the second most common occupational diseases worldwide. Occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) is the most frequent OSD, and comprises irritant contact dermatitis (ICD), allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), contact urticaria and protein contact dermatitis. There are many endogenous and exogenous factors which affect the development of OCD, including age, sex, ethnicity, atopic skin diathesis, certain occupations and environmental factors. One of the most important contributing causes is skin barrier dysfunction. The skin provides a first-line defense from environmental assaults and incorporates physical, chemical and biological protection. Skin barrier disturbance plays a crucial role in various skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis (AD), ichthyosis, ICD and ACD. Genetic factors, such as filaggrin gene (FLG) mutations, and external factors, such as skin irritants interfering with stratum corneum structure and composition, may lead to abnormalities in skin barrier function and increased vulnerability to skin diseases. FLG encodes the cornified envelope protein, filaggrin, which is involved in skin barrier function. FLG mutation is associated with the development of OCD. High-risk occupations for OCD include health care workers, hairdressers and construction workers. There are often multiple contributing causes to OCD, as workers are exposed to both irritants and allergens. AD is also associated with skin barrier disruption and plays an important role in OCD. ICD often precedes and facilitates the development of ACD, with impairment of the skin barrier contributing to the concurrence of ICD and ACD in many workers with OCD.

  6. Skin tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Mansbridge, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    The major applications of tissue-engineered skin substitutes are in promoting the healing of acute and chronic wounds. Several approaches have been taken by commercial companies to develop products to address these conditions. Skin substitutes include both acellular and cellular devices. While acellular skin substitutes act as a template for dermal formation, this discussion mainly covers cellular devices. In addressing therapeutic applications in tissue engineering generally, a valuable precursor is an understanding of the mechanism of the underlying pathology. While this is straightforward in many cases, it has not been available for wound healing. Investigation of the mode of action of the tissue-engineered skin substitutes has led to considerable insight into the mechanism of formation, maintenance and treatment of chronic wounds. Four aspects mediating healing are considered here for their mechanism of action: (i) colonization of the wound bed by live fibroblasts in the implant, (ii) the secretion of growth factors, (iii) provision of a suitable substrate for cell migration, particularly keratinocytes and immune cells, and (iv) modification of the immune system by secretion of neutrophil recruiting chemokines. An early event in acute wound healing is an influx of neutrophils that destroy planktonic bacteria. However, if the bacteria are able to form biofilm, they become resistant to neutrophil action and prevent reepithelialization. In this situation the wound becomes chronic. In chronic wounds, fibroblasts show a senescence-like phenotype with decreased secretion of neutrophil chemoattractants that make it more likely that biofilms become established. Treatment of the chronic wounds involves debridement to eliminate biofilm, and the use of antimicrobials. A role of skin substitutes is to provide non-senescent fibroblasts that attract and activate neutrophils to prevent biofilm re-establishment. The emphasis of the conclusion is the importance of preventing

  7. Candida infection of the skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000880.htm Candida infection of the skin To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Candida infection of the skin is a yeast infection ...

  8. Tissue Engineered Human Skin Equivalents

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zheng; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena B.

    2012-01-01

    Human skin not only serves as an important barrier against the penetration of exogenous substances into the body, but also provides a potential avenue for the transport of functional active drugs/reagents/ingredients into the skin (topical delivery) and/or the body (transdermal delivery). In the past three decades, research and development in human skin equivalents have advanced in parallel with those in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The human skin equivalents are used commercially as clinical skin substitutes and as models for permeation and toxicity screening. Several academic laboratories have developed their own human skin equivalent models and applied these models for studying skin permeation, corrosivity and irritation, compound toxicity, biochemistry, metabolism and cellular pharmacology. Various aspects of the state of the art of human skin equivalents are reviewed and discussed. PMID:24300178

  9. Skin - abnormally dark or light

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/article/003242.htm Skin - abnormally dark or light To use the sharing features on this page, ... the hands. The bronze color can range from light to dark (in fair-skinned people) with the ...

  10. Methodologies in Creating Skin Substitutes

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, Mathew N; Jeschke, Marc G; Amini-Nik, Saeid

    2016-01-01

    The creation of skin substitutes has significantly decreased morbidity and mortality of skin wounds. Although there are still a number of disadvantages of currently available skin substitutes, there has been a significant decline in research advances over the past several years in improving these skin substitutes. Clinically most skin substitutes used are acellular and do not use growth factors to assist wound healing, key areas of potential in this field of research. This article discusses the five necessary attributes of an ideal skin substitute. It comprehensively discusses the three major basic components of currently available skin substitutes: scaffold materials, growth factors, and cells, comparing and contrasting what has been used so far. It then examines a variety of techniques in how to incorporate these basic components together to act as a guide for further research in the field to create cellular skin substitutes with clinically better results. PMID:27154041

  11. Radiation Therapy for Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... than in African-Americans. TYPES OF SKIN CANCER Basal cell carcinoma: This is the most common form of skin ... epidermis ). Radiation therapy is very effective for treating basal cell cancers that have not spread elsewhere. Other common treatments ...

  12. Wound healing and skin regeneration.

    PubMed

    Takeo, Makoto; Lee, Wendy; Ito, Mayumi

    2015-01-05

    The skin is a complex organ consisting of the epidermis, dermis, and skin appendages, including the hair follicle and sebaceous gland. Wound healing in adult mammals results in scar formation without any skin appendages. Studies have reported remarkable examples of scarless healing in fetal skin and appendage regeneration in adult skin following the infliction of large wounds. The models used in these studies have offered a new platform for investigations of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying wound healing and skin regeneration in mammals. In this article, we will focus on the contribution of skin appendages to wound healing and, conversely, skin appendage regeneration following injuries. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  13. Staining of skin with dihydroxyacetone.

    PubMed

    WITTGENSTEIN, E; BERRY, H K

    1960-09-30

    The reaction of skin with dihydroxyacetone to produce a brown "artificial tan" appears to proceed through combination with free amino groups in skin proteins, and particularly by combination of dihydroxyacetone with the free guanido group in arginine.

  14. Nicotinamide for skin cancer chemoprevention.

    PubMed

    Damian, Diona L

    2017-03-20

    Nicotinamide (vitamin B3 ) has a range of photoprotective effects in vitro and in vivo; it enhances DNA repair, reduces UV radiation-induced suppression of skin immune responses, modulates inflammatory cytokine production and skin barrier function and restores cellular energy levels after UV exposure. Pharmacological doses of nicotinamide have been shown to reduce actinic keratoses and nonmelanoma skin cancer incidence in high-risk individuals, making this a nontoxic and accessible option for skin cancer chemoprevention in this population.

  15. Brain-Skin Connection: Stress, Inflammation and Skin Aging

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Lyga, John

    2014-01-01

    The intricate relationship between stress and skin conditions has been documented since ancient times. Recent clinical observations also link psychological stress to the onset or aggravation of multiple skin diseases. However, the exact underlying mechanisms have only been studied and partially revealed in the past 20 years or so. In this review, the authors will discuss the recent discoveries in the field of “Brain-Skin Connection”, summarizing findings from the overlapping fields of psychology, endocrinology, skin neurobiology, skin inflammation, immunology, and pharmacology. PMID:24853682

  16. Polyamines and nonmelanoma skin cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmour, Susan K.

    2007-11-01

    Elevated levels of polyamines have long been associated with skin tumorigenesis. Tightly regulated metabolism of polyamines is critical for cell survival and normal skin homeostasis, and these controls are dysregulated in skin tumorigenesis. A key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is upregulated in skin tumors compared to normal skin. Use of transgenic mouse models has demonstrated that polyamines play an essential role in the early promotional phase of skin tumorigenesis. The formation of skin tumors in these transgenic mice is dependent upon polyamine biosynthesis, especially putrescine, since treatment with inhibitors of ODC activity blocks the formation of skin tumors and causes the rapid regression of existing tumors. Although the mechanism by which polyamines promote skin tumorigenesis are not well understood, elevated levels of polyamines have been shown to stimulate epidermal proliferation, alter keratinocyte differentiation status, increase neovascularization, and increase synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins in a manner similar to that seen in wound healing. It is becoming increasingly apparent that elevated polyamine levels activate not only epidermal cells but also underlying stromal cells in the skin to promote the development and progression of skin tumors. The inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis has potential to be an effective chemoprevention strategy for nonmelanoma skin cancer.

  17. [Methods for measuring skin aging].

    PubMed

    Zieger, M; Kaatz, M

    2016-02-01

    Aging affects human skin and is becoming increasingly important with regard to medical, social and aesthetic issues. Detection of intrinsic and extrinsic components of skin aging requires reliable measurement methods. Modern techniques, e.g., based on direct imaging, spectroscopy or skin physiological measurements, provide a broad spectrum of parameters for different applications.

  18. Skin Pedagogies and Abject Bodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenway, Jane; Bullen, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    How does the beauty industry "narrate the skin"? What does it teach women from different cultural groups about the female body? How does skin function as a site where female subjection and abjection are produced and reproduced? In this paper we examine the skin industry pointing to its extreme commodification of the female body and to the…

  19. Skin Pedagogies and Abject Bodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenway, Jane; Bullen, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    How does the beauty industry "narrate the skin"? What does it teach women from different cultural groups about the female body? How does skin function as a site where female subjection and abjection are produced and reproduced? In this paper we examine the skin industry pointing to its extreme commodification of the female body and to the…

  20. Skin cancer: Etiology and management.

    PubMed

    Qadir, Muhammad Imran

    2016-05-01

    Nowadays, occurrence of skin cancer is very common in humans. It is reported that the most common cause of the skin cancer is excessive exposure to sunlight as it contains harmful radiations; the ultra violet rays. Different management strategies are used for different types of skin cancers, which are chemotherapy, radiation therapy.

  1. Skin contamination dosimeter

    DOEpatents

    Hamby, David M.; Farsoni, Abdollah T.; Cazalas, Edward

    2011-06-21

    A technique and device provides absolute skin dosimetry in real time at multiple tissue depths simultaneously. The device uses a phoswich detector which has multiple scintillators embedded at different depths within a non-scintillating material. A digital pulse processor connected to the phoswich detector measures a differential distribution (dN/dH) of count rate N as function of pulse height H for signals from each of the multiple scintillators. A digital processor computes in real time from the differential count-rate distribution for each of multiple scintillators an estimate of an ionizing radiation dose delivered to each of multiple depths of skin tissue corresponding to the multiple scintillators embedded at multiple corresponding depths within the non-scintillating material.

  2. Adenolipoma of the skin.

    PubMed

    Del Agua, C; Felipo, F

    2004-10-15

    Adenolipoma of the skin is an unusual variant of lipoma recently described by Hitchcock et al. and characterized by the presence of normal eccrine sweat glands within a lipoma. We report a case and review the literature. A 45-year-old woman presented with a slow-growing, painless nodule on the thigh, clinically considered to be lipoma. Microscopically it comprised an adipose-tissue proliferation with a single eccrine secretory coil and associated duct in the periphery and in the center of the nodule. This benign lesion has been termed adenolipoma because of the presence of adipose tissue and eccrine glands. It probably represents only a histological curiosity in which the eccrine glands are entrapped by the adipose proliferation. Adenolipoma of the skin is a distinct lesion that can occur in the dermis or subcutaneous tissue.

  3. Newborn skin care.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Jonathan A

    2013-02-01

    Many organ systems undergo significant and rapid changes during the transition from an intrauterine to an extrauterine environment, especially those which serve as interfaces between the infant and the external environment. Historically the skin care methods employed during and after this period of rapid physiologic change have been derived from individual anecdotal experience or cultural tradition, rather than evidence-based or pathomechanistically derived data. While research in this area has historically been limited, it is increasing in scope and volume, and recent work has shed light on the changes experienced by the cutaneous organ during this period of transition. This increased understanding has driven new recommendations in skin care protocols for newborn infants and neonates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Ablative skin resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Nidhi; Smith, Greg; Heffelfinger, Ryan

    2014-02-01

    Ablative laser resurfacing has evolved as a safe and effective treatment for skin rejuvenation. Although traditional lasers were associated with significant thermal damage and lengthy recovery, advances in laser technology have improved safety profiles and reduced social downtime. CO2 lasers remain the gold standard of treatment, and fractional ablative devices capable of achieving remarkable clinical improvement with fewer side effects and shorter recovery times have made it a more practical option for patients. Although ablative resurfacing has become safer, careful patient selection and choice of suitable laser parameters are essential to minimize complications and optimize outcomes. This article describes the current modalities used in ablative laser skin resurfacing and examines their efficacy, indications, and possible side effects.

  5. Skin barrier in rosacea.

    PubMed

    Addor, Flavia Alvim Sant'Anna

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies about the cutaneous barrier demonstrated consistent evidence that the stratum corneum is a metabolically active structure and also has adaptive functions, may play a regulatory role in the inflammatory response with activation of keratinocytes, angiogenesis and fibroplasia, whose intensity depends primarily on the intensity the stimulus. There are few studies investigating the abnormalities of the skin barrier in rosacea, but the existing data already show that there are changes resulting from inflammation, which can generate a vicious circle caused a prolongation of flare-ups and worsening of symptoms. This article aims to gather the most relevant literature data about the characteristics and effects of the state of the skin barrier in rosacea.

  6. Skin barrier in rosacea*

    PubMed Central

    Addor, Flavia Alvim Sant'Anna

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies about the cutaneous barrier demonstrated consistent evidence that the stratum corneum is a metabolically active structure and also has adaptive functions, may play a regulatory role in the inflammatory response with activation of keratinocytes, angiogenesis and fibroplasia, whose intensity depends primarily on the intensity the stimulus. There are few studies investigating the abnormalities of the skin barrier in rosacea, but the existing data already show that there are changes resulting from inflammation, which can generate a vicious circle caused a prolongation of flare-ups and worsening of symptoms. This article aims to gather the most relevant literature data about the characteristics and effects of the state of the skin barrier in rosacea. PMID:26982780

  7. Echo: skin stress test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1960-01-01

    Skin Stress Test of the 12-foot satellite built as a prototype of the full-scale Echo satellite. The 12-foot diameter of the sphere was chosen because that was the ceiling height in the Langley model shop. The proposal to build the 12-foot satellite was made in November 1957. - Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, pp. 170-171.

  8. Skin toxicity of propranolol in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, I; Hosaka, K; Maruo, H; Saeki, Y; Kamiyama, M; Konno, C; Gemba, M

    1999-05-01

    The skin toxicities of propranolol were studied in guinea pigs. In the primary and cumulative skin irritation studies, the skin reactions and the histopathological changes were observed in all animals treated with propranolol, and those tended to increase with the increase of propranolol dosage. The skin reactions increased with the application times of propranolol up to 7 days in the cumulative skin irritation study. In the skin sensitization, the phototoxicity and the skin photosensitization studies, no skin reactions were observed in any animals used in the studies. These results indicate that propranolol caused skin irritation, but was negative for skin sensitization, phototoxicity and skin photosensitization in guinea pigs.

  9. Research on Skin Diseases - USSR -

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1960-09-28

    0T3: 60-31,799 M K\\& £^§ JPRS: 3995 28 September I960 RESEARCH ON SKIN DISEASES USSR - by G. Ya. Travin and D. N. Plishkin L \\s i- £ is...departments» JPRS: 3995 CSO: Ii22k-D RESEARCH ON SKIN DISEASES - USSR - Table of Contents ÜäS£ Ths Incidence of Skin Diseases in Leningrad, USSR...1 The Characteristics of Skin Disease Morbidity in 19$7 at Sverdlovsk, USSR 7 - a - TIE INCIDENCE OF SKIN DISEASES IN LENINGRAD, USSR /Following

  10. [Skin reactions to bradykinin].

    PubMed

    Rihoux, J P; Ramboer, I; Fadel, R

    1995-10-01

    A large series of experiments carried out in animals and humans suggest that histamine release is not involved in the leakage phenomenon induced by bradykinin (BK) challenge. These experiments comprise in vitro studies on skin and bronchial human mast cells and in vivo studies on guinea pig airways and human skin using mepyramine, chlorpheniramine and terfenadine as reference H1-anti-histamines. Nevertheless, it has been shown recently that the H1 antagonist cetirizine 10 mg p.o. markedly inhibits skin reactions induced by BK challenge (intradermal injection of 212 micrograms BK in 10 microL saline and prick test with a solution of 21.2 micrograms/microL). In a guinea pig model, this drug also inhibited the bronchospasm induced by increasing concentrations of BK given by iv route (0.25 to 2 micrograms/Kg) and aerosol (3 to 300 micrograms/Kg). This inhibition was similar to the one obtained with the specific BK antagonist HOE 140 (15 pM/Kg). New data in the literature suggest the existence of various pharmacological mediators possibly involved in the BK-induced reaction: neuromediators, nitric oxyde and PAF. They also suggest that this reaction presents itself as a well defined sequence of pharmacological events. Since we could show that there is no binding of cetirizine to a human recombinant B2 receptor in vitro, some hypotheses are raised in order to explain this unexpected inhibiting effect of cetirizine.

  11. Fat in the skin

    PubMed Central

    Radner, Franz PW; Grond, Susanne; Haemmerle, Guenter; Lass, Achim

    2011-01-01

    Keratinocyte differentiation is essential for skin development and the formation of the skin permeability barrier. This process involves an orchestrated remodeling of lipids. The cleavage of precursor lipids from lamellar bodies by β-glucocerebrosidase, sphingomyelinase, phospholipases and sterol sulfatase generates ceramides, non-esterified fatty acids and cholesterol for the lipid-containing extracellular matrix, the lamellar membranes in the stratum corneum. The importance of triacylglycerol (TAG) hydrolysis for the formation of a functional permeability barrier was only recently appreciated. Mice with defects in TAG synthesis (acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase-2-knock-out) or TAG catabolism (comparative gene identification-58, -CGI-58-knock-out) develop severe permeability barrier defects and die soon after birth because of desiccation. In humans, mutations in the CGI-58 gene also cause (non-lethal) neutral lipid storage disease with ichthyosis. As a result of defective TAG synthesis or catabolism, humans and mice lack ω-(O)-acylceramides, which are essential lipid precursors for the formation of the corneocyte lipid envelope. This structure plays an important role in linking the lipid-enriched lamellar membranes to highly cross-linked corneocyte proteins. This review focuses on the current knowledge of biochemical mechanisms that are essential for epidermal neutral lipid metabolism and the formation of a functional skin permeability barrier. PMID:21695016

  12. Nanobubble Skin Supersolidity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi; Liu, Xinjuan; Zhong, Yuan; Zhou, Zhaofeng; Huang, Yongli; Sun, Chang Q

    2016-11-01

    Water nanobubbles manifest fascinatingly higher mechanical strength, higher thermal stability, and longer lifetime than macroscopic bubbles; thus, they provide an important impact in applications in the biomedical and chemical industries. However, a detailed understanding of the mechanism behind these mysteries of nanobubbles remains a challenge. Consistency between quantum computations and Raman spectrometric measurements confirmed our predictions that a nanobubble skin shares the same supersolidity with molecular clusters, skins of bulk water, and water droplets because of molecular undercoordination (fewer than four nearest molecular neighbors). Molecular undercoordination (coordination number Zcluster < Zsurface < Zbubble < Zbulk = 4) shortens/extends the H-O/O:H bond and stiffens/softens its corresponding stretching phonons, whose frequency shift is proportional to the square root of the cohesive energy and inversely proportional to the segmental length. The strongly polarized O:H-O bond slows the molecular dynamics and increases the viscosity. The freezing temperature is lowered by the softened O:H bond, and the melting temperature is enhanced by the stiffened H-O bond. Therefore, the supersolid skin makes the nanobubbles thermally more stable, less dense, and stiffer and slows the dynamics of their molecular motion.

  13. Ultraviolet radiation and skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Deevya L; Saladi, Rao N; Fox, Joshua L

    2010-09-01

    Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer in fair-skinned populations in many parts of the world. The incidence, morbidity and mortality rates of skin cancers are increasing and, therefore, pose a significant public health concern. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is the major etiologic agent in the development of skin cancers. UVR causes DNA damage and genetic mutations, which subsequently lead to skin cancer. A clearer understanding of UVR is crucial in the prevention of skin cancer. This article reviews UVR, its damaging effects on the skin and its relationship to UV immunosuppression and skin cancer. Several factors influence the amount of UVR reaching the earth's surface, including ozone depletion, UV light elevation, latitude, altitude, and weather conditions. The current treatment modalities utilizing UVR (i.e. phototherapy) can also predispose to skin cancers. Unnecessary exposure to the sun and artificial UVR (tanning lamps) are important personal attributable risks. This article aims to provide a comprehensive overview of skin cancer with an emphasis on carefully evaluated statistics, the epidemiology of UVR-induced skin cancers, incidence rates, risk factors, and preventative behaviors & strategies, including personal behavioral modifications and public educational initiatives. © 2010 The International Society of Dermatology.

  14. "Skin facts" to optimize aesthetic outcomes.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Connie

    2015-01-01

    Aesthetic providers need to be well versed in the anatomy and intricacies of the skin. This foundational skin knowledge is critical in assessing clients' aged skin during the aesthetic consultation. A sound understanding of the skin is also a prerequisite to any facial rejuvenation procedure. This article provides the aesthetic provider with the basics of skin anatomy and how the skin changes over time.

  15. Skin moisturization mechanisms: new data.

    PubMed

    Bonté, F

    2011-05-01

    The main function of the skin is to protect the body against exogenous substances and excessive water loss. The skin barrier is located in the outermost layer of the skin, called the stratum corneum, which is composed of corneocytes, originating from the keratinocytes differentiation process, embedded in organized complex lipid domains. Moisturizing of the skin is recognized as the first anti-aging skin care. Skin moisturization is essential for its appearance, protection, complexion, softness and the reinforcement of its barrier properties against deleterious and exogenous environmental factors. The intrinsic water binding capacity of skin is not only due to the complex natural moisturizing factor present in corneocytes, but also to hyaluronic acid and a regulated water transport within the skin. Recent data shows that the water movements between the cells at the different levels of the epidermis are due to dedicated water and glycerol transport proteins named aquaporins. Their role in the skin moisturization is completed by corneodesmosomes and tight junctions. Water and pH are now shown to be of prime importance in the regulation of the epidermal enzymes linked to corneocytes desquamation and lipid synthesis. Furthermore, the level of moisturization of the skin is important in its protection against repeated exposure to various irritant agents or phenomena such as very frequent washing with strong tensioactive materials.

  16. Compensation for occupational skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Song, Han-Soo; Ryou, Hyun-chul

    2014-06-01

    The Korean list of occupational skin diseases was amended in July 2013. The past list was constructed according to the causative agent and the target organ, and the items of that list had not been reviewed for a long period. The revised list was reconstructed to include diseases classified by the International Classification of Diseases (10th version). Therefore, the items of compensable occupational skin diseases in the amended list in Korea comprise contact dermatitis; chemical burns; Stevens-Johnson syndrome; tar-related skin diseases; infectious skin diseases; skin injury-induced cellulitis; and skin conditions resulting from physical factors such as heat, cold, sun exposure, and ionized radiation. This list will be more practical and convenient for physicians and workers because it follows a disease-based approach. The revised list is in accordance with the International Labor Organization list and is refined according to Korean worker's compensation and the actual occurrence of occupational skin diseases. However, this revised list does not perfectly reflect the actual status of skin diseases because of the few cases of occupational skin diseases, incomplete statistics of skin diseases, and insufficient scientific evidence. Thus, the list of occupational diseases should be modified periodically on the basis of recent evidence and statistics.

  17. Epidemiology of skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Leiter, Ulrike; Eigentler, Thomas; Garbe, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) are now the most common types of cancer in white populations. Both tumor entities show an increasing incidence rate worldwide but a stable or decreasing mortality rate. NMSC is the most common cancer in white-skinned individuals with a worldwide increasing incidence. NMSC is an increasing problem for health care services worldwide which causes significant morbidity. The rising incidence rates of NMSC are probably caused by a combination of increased exposure to ultraviolet (UV) or sun light, increased outdoor activities, changes in clothing style, increased longevity, ozone depletion, genetics and in some cases, immune suppression. An intensive UV exposure in childhood and adolescence was causative for the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) whereas for the etiology of SCC a chronic UV exposure in the earlier decades was accused. Cutaneous melanoma is the most rapidly increasing cancer in white populations, in the last 3 decades incidence rates have risen up to 5-fold. In 2008 melanoma was on place 5 in women and on place 8 in men of the most common solid tumor entities in Germany. The frequency of its occurrence is closely associated with the constitutive color of the skin, and the geographical zone. Changes in outdoor activities and exposure to sunlight during the past 50 years are an important factor for the increasing incidence of melanoma. Mortality rates of melanoma show a stabilization in the USA, Australia and also in European countries. In contrast to SCC, melanoma risk seems to be associated with an intermittent exposure to sunlight. Prevention campaigns aim on reducing incidence and achieving earlier diagnosis, which resulted in an ongoing trend toward thin melanoma since the last two decades. However, the impact of primary prevention measures on incidence rates of melanoma is unlikely to be seen in the near future, rather increasing incidence rates to 40-50/100,000 inhabitants/year should be expected in

  18. Climate change and skin.

    PubMed

    Balato, N; Ayala, F; Megna, M; Balato, A; Patruno, C

    2013-02-01

    Global climate appears to be changing at an unprecedented rate. Climate change can be caused by several factors that include variations in solar radiation received by earth, oceanic processes (such as oceanic circulation), plate tectonics, and volcanic eruptions, as well as human-induced alterations of the natural world. Many human activities, such as the use of fossil fuel and the consequent accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, land consumption, deforestation, industrial processes, as well as some agriculture practices are contributing to global climate change. Indeed, many authors have reported on the current trend towards global warming (average surface temperature has augmented by 0.6 °C over the past 100 years), decreased precipitation, atmospheric humidity changes, and global rise in extreme climatic events. The magnitude and cause of these changes and their impact on human activity have become important matters of debate worldwide, representing climate change as one of the greatest challenges of the modern age. Although many articles have been written based on observations and various predictive models of how climate change could affect social, economic and health systems, only few studies exist about the effects of this change on skin physiology and diseases. However, the skin is the most exposed organ to environment; therefore, cutaneous diseases are inclined to have a high sensitivity to climate. For example, global warming, deforestation and changes in precipitation have been linked to variations in the geographical distribution of vectors of some infectious diseases (leishmaniasis, lyme disease, etc) by changing their spread, whereas warm and humid environment can also encourage the colonization of the skin by bacteria and fungi. The present review focuses on the wide and complex relationship between climate change and dermatology, showing the numerous factors that are contributing to modify the incidence and the clinical pattern of many

  19. Low temperature skin treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klipping, G.; Krishna, A.; Ruppert, U.; Srinivasan, R.; Walter, H.

    Although freezing has been a successful method of curing various kinds of skin lesions for at least 80 years, little progress has been made regarding the techniques and instruments available to the dermatoligist for applying cold. The attempts to improve this technique are reviewed, and the requirements is for successful cryotreatment are discussed taking warts as an example. With these requirements in mind, a simple and effective cryoprobe has been developed by the authors. Its design is described, and the experiences from a year's routine application of the probe to the treatment of warts are discussed.

  20. Cannabis and skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Tennstedt, Dominique; Saint-Remy, Anaïs

    2011-01-01

    From time out of mind, man has grown hemp for both "industrial" and "recreational" use (it is then referred to as cannabis). Of course, cannabis has strong psychoactive properties and is one of the most commonly used "soft drugs" in the world. Clinicians should know the adverse effects on mucous membranes and on skin, which may sometimes entail an absolutely necessary stopping of consumption. Raynaud's phenomenon, as well as arteritis due to cannabis consumption may be extremely severe and result in worrying situations for both clinicians and patients.

  1. Improved Skin Friction Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphal, R. V.; Bachalo, W. D.; Houser, M. H.

    1986-01-01

    An improved system for measuring aerodynamic skin friction which uses a dual-laser-beam oil-film interferometer was developed. Improvements in the optical hardware provided equal signal characteristics for each beam and reduced the cost and complexity of the system by replacing polarization rotation by a mirrored prism for separation of the two signals. An automated, objective, data-reduction procedure was implemented to eliminate tedious manual manipulation of the interferometry data records. The present system was intended for use in two-dimensional, incompressible flows over a smooth, level surface without pressure gradient, but the improvements discussed are not limited to this application.

  2. Nonmelanoma skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Dubas, Lauren E; Ingraffea, Adam

    2013-02-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common form of malignancy in humans. The incidence of NMSC continues to increase despite increased awareness and sun-protective measures. If neglected or mismanaged, NMSC can cause significant morbidity and even death. The most common forms of NMSC on the head and neck include basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, sebaceous carcinoma, eccrine porocarcinoma, Merkel cell carcinoma, atypical fibroxanthoma, and microcystic adnexal carcinoma. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment (standard excision, Mohs micrographic surgery, curettage); however, other modalities exist, including radiation, topical immunomodulators, photodynamic therapy, and new systemic medications.

  3. Is skin penetration a determining factor in skin sensitization ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Summary:Background. It is widely accepted that substances that cannot penetrate through the skin will not be sensitisers. Thresholds based on relevant physicochemical parameters such as a LogKow > 1 and a MW 1 is a true requirement for sensitisation.Methods. A large dataset of substances that had been evaluated for their skin sensitisation potential, together with measured LogKow values was compiled from the REACH database. The incidence of skin sensitisers relative to non-skin sensitisers below and above the LogKow = 1 threshold was evaluated. Results. 1482 substances with associated skin sensitisation outcomes and measured LogKow values were identified. 305 substances had a measured LogKow < 0 and of those, 38 were sensitisers.Conclusions. There was no significant difference in the incidence of skin sensitisation above and below the LogKow = 1 threshold. Reaction chemistry considerations could explain the skin sensitisation observed for the 38 sensitisers with a LogKow < 0. The LogKow threshold is a self-evident truth borne out from the widespread misconception that the ability to efficiently penetrate the stratum corneum is a key determinant of skin sensitisation potential and potency. Using the REACH data extracted to test out the validity of common assumptions in the skin sensitization AOP. Builds on trying to develop a proof of concept IATA

  4. Is skin penetration a determining factor in skin sensitization ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Summary:Background. It is widely accepted that substances that cannot penetrate through the skin will not be sensitisers. Thresholds based on relevant physicochemical parameters such as a LogKow > 1 and a MW 1 is a true requirement for sensitisation.Methods. A large dataset of substances that had been evaluated for their skin sensitisation potential, together with measured LogKow values was compiled from the REACH database. The incidence of skin sensitisers relative to non-skin sensitisers below and above the LogKow = 1 threshold was evaluated. Results. 1482 substances with associated skin sensitisation outcomes and measured LogKow values were identified. 305 substances had a measured LogKow < 0 and of those, 38 were sensitisers.Conclusions. There was no significant difference in the incidence of skin sensitisation above and below the LogKow = 1 threshold. Reaction chemistry considerations could explain the skin sensitisation observed for the 38 sensitisers with a LogKow < 0. The LogKow threshold is a self-evident truth borne out from the widespread misconception that the ability to efficiently penetrate the stratum corneum is a key determinant of skin sensitisation potential and potency. Using the REACH data extracted to test out the validity of common assumptions in the skin sensitization AOP. Builds on trying to develop a proof of concept IATA

  5. Feasibility of skin surface elastography by tracking skin surface topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutts, Louise V.; Miller, Naomi R.; Harland, Christopher C.; Bamber, Jeffrey C.

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances have led to a multitude of image modalities being used for visualization of tissue stiffness. High-resolution images of tissue stiffness are desirable, as they have the potential to provide useful diagnostic information. A noncontact optical imaging method has the attractions of low cost, simplicity, and utility when skin contact is undesirable. However, previous optical techniques have required the application of paint or ink to the surface of the skin and so have required contact. Therefore, the present study assessed the feasibility of tracking skin surface topography to produce elastograms. The study showed, by analyzing a variety of silicone skin surface replicas from various body sites of subjects of different ages, that skin surface elastography by tracking surface topography would be feasible. The study further showed that the quality of the strain images can be optimized by measuring skin line pattern frequency. Skin samples with high skin line frequency will achieve best spatial resolution, in the order of 1 mm, comparable to contact techniques reported previously. A mechanically inhomogeneous silicone replica was then imaged, illustrating the technique's ability to detect strain contrast. Finally, the feasibility of implementing the technique in vivo was illustrated using a single pigmented skin lesion.

  6. Skin connective tissue and ageing.

    PubMed

    Calleja-Agius, Jean; Brincat, Mark; Borg, Marika

    2013-10-01

    Collagen atrophy is a major factor in skin ageing. A strong correlation exists between skin collagen loss and oestrogen deficiency caused by the menopause. Skin ageing is associated with a progressive increase in extensibility and a reduction in elasticity. With increasing age, the skin also becomes more fragile and susceptible to trauma, leading to more lacerations and bruising. Furthermore, wound healing is impaired in older women. Oestrogen use after the menopause increases collagen content, dermal thickness and elasticity, and it decreases the likelihood of senile dry skin. Large-scale clinical trials are necessary to help make informed recommendations about postmenopausal oestrogen use and its role in preventing skin ageing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Sensitive skin: a complex syndrome].

    PubMed

    Escalas-Taberner, J; González-Guerra, E; Guerra-Tapia, A

    2011-10-01

    Epidemiologic studies indicate that ever larger numbers of people report having sensitive skin, for which a European prevalence of 50% is estimated. Sensitive skin is characterized by hyperreactivity, with manifestations varying in relation to many factors. The pathogenesis of this disorder is poorly understood, although studies point to a biophysical mechanism. Objective diagnosis of sensitive skin is difficult, as information comes mainly from the patient's report of symptoms in the absence of effective, strongly predictive tests because of great interindividual variability in skin sensitivity. Substances that trigger a reaction in hypersensitive skin also vary greatly. The impact of this syndrome on quality of life is considerable and patients often present psychiatric symptoms; therefore, dermatologists should explore this possibility when taking a patient's history. Patient cooperation and physician persistence are both essential for treating sensitive skin.

  8. Advanced therapies of skin injuries.

    PubMed

    Maver, Tina; Maver, Uroš; Kleinschek, Karin Stana; Raščan, Irena Mlinarič; Smrke, Dragica Maja

    2015-12-01

    The loss of tissue is still one of the most challenging problems in healthcare. Efficient laboratory expansion of skin tissue to reproduce the skins barrier function can make the difference between life and death for patients with extensive full-thickness burns, chronic wounds, or genetic disorders such as bullous conditions. This engineering has been initiated based on the acute need in the 1980s and today, tissue-engineered skin is the reality. The human skin equivalents are available not only as models for permeation and toxicity screening, but are frequently applied in vivo as clinical skin substitutes. This review aims to introduce the most important recent development in the extensive field of tissue engineering and to describe already approved, commercially available skin substitutes in clinical use.

  9. Pathophysiological Study of Sensitive Skin.

    PubMed

    Buhé, Virginie; Vié, Katell; Guéré, Christelle; Natalizio, Audrey; Lhéritier, Céline; Le Gall-Ianotto, Christelle; Huet, Flavien; Talagas, Matthieu; Lebonvallet, Nicolas; Marcorelles, Pascale; Carré, Jean-Luc; Misery, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    Sensitive skin is a clinical syndrome characterized by the occurrence of unpleasant sensations, such as pruritus, burning or pain, in response to various factors, including skincare products, water, cold, heat, or other physical and/or chemical factors. Although these symptoms suggest inflammation and the activation of peripheral innervation, the pathophysiogeny of sensitive skin remains unknown. We systematically analysed cutaneous biopsies from 50 healthy women with non-sensitive or sensitive skin and demonstrated that the intraepidermal nerve fibre density, especially that of peptidergic C-fibres, was lower in the sensitive skin group. These fibres are involved in pain, itching and temperature perception, and their degeneration may promote allodynia and similar symptoms. These results suggest that the pathophysiology of skin sensitivity resembles that of neuropathic pruritus within the context of small fibre neuropathy, and that environmental factors may alter skin innervation.

  10. [Youth Healthcare guideline 'Skin disorders'].

    PubMed

    Deurloo, Jacqueline A; van Gameren-Oosterom, Helma B M; Kamphuis, Mascha

    2012-01-01

    There is a high incidence of skin disorders; these are also frequently encountered within Youth Healthcare (YHC). Some skin disorders are caused by an underlying disease, syndrome or child abuse. Therefore, detection of these causes in an early stage is important. Skin disorders can have a huge psychosocial impact on both child and parents. This is one of the reasons why prevention, detection, diagnosis, treatment, referral, and uniform advice and guidance are of great importance. The YHC Guideline examines counselling and advice, criteria for referral to primary or secondary healthcare, and skincare in general. It also describes the disorders that should be actively detected. The Guideline also looks at specific aspects of dark skins and ethnic diversity, and the impact of skin disorders on general wellbeing. The accompanying web-based tool includes argumentation and opinions from experts on more than 75 skin disorders, including illustrations and decision trees, to aid the drawing up of a treatment plan.

  11. Cumulative skin irritation test of sanitary pads in sensitive skin and normal skin population.

    PubMed

    Farage, Miranda A; Maibach, Howard

    2007-01-01

    We performed a randomized, paired, double-blind trial involving 14 participants with self-declared normal skin and 15 participants with self-declared sensitive skin to test the cutaneous compatibility of materials of low irritation potential for skin irritation (sanitary pads) elicited by repetitive topical application. Two test products patches and two control substance patches were applied to the lateral aspect of the upper arm once daily under fully occlusive conditions for 4 days. The positive control patch was moistened with sodium lauryl sulphate (0.1% w/v) and the negative control patch was moistened with 0.9% sodium chloride, as were the two test material patches. The patches were removed, skin irritation (erythema) graded, and new patches applied after each 24-hour period. There was no significant difference in skin irritation from the test patches between the sensitive and normal skin groups. The two test patches and the negative control patch were significantly less irritating than the positive control in both test groups. Both test patches were comparable to the negative control patch in the normal and sensitive skin groups. The test materials produced similar degrees of skin irritation among both groups. Overall, there was no statistically significant difference in skin compatibility when the two feminine hygiene product test patches were worn by self-declared normal and sensitive skin groups.

  12. Skin Bioengineering: Noninvasive Transdermal Monitoring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Drug Del. Rev. 9:201-237 (1992). SViable skin 3. G. B. Kasting, R. L. Smith, and E. G. Cooper. Effect of lipid V’. (a) solubility and molecular size on...AD Award Number: DAMD17-02-1-0712 TITLE: Skin Bioengineering: Noninvasive Transdermal Monitoring PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Richard H. Guy, Ph.D...COVERED (Leave blank) January 2005 Final (1 Jan 2003 - 31 Dec 2004) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS DAMD17-02-1-0712 Skin Bioengineering

  13. [Thermal lasers and skin cicatrization].

    PubMed

    Mordon, Serge; Capon, Alexandre; Fournier, Nathalie; Iarmarcovai, Gwen

    2010-01-01

    Any cutaneous damage triggers a cascade of biological effects in the skin responsible for re-establishing skin integrity. Wound healing is a complex biological process inducing dermal remodelling leading at least to a visible scar, and sometimes to hypertrophic or keloid scars. Recent studies suggest that using a laser generates a precisely defined thermal effect in the skin, improving the wound healing process and potentially opening the door to scarless healing.

  14. Neuroendocrine System of the Skin

    PubMed Central

    Slominski, Andrzej

    2005-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that the skin can serve as a peripheral neuroendocrine organ. The skin neuroendocrine activities are predominantly independent of regulation from the central level (which controls classical hormone secretion) but are rather regulated by local cutaneous factors. These endocrine factors would represent an exquisite regulatory layer addressed at restricting maximally the effect of noxious agents in the skin to preserve local and consequently global homeostasis. PMID:16205064

  15. Microfocused Ultrasound for Skin Tightening.

    PubMed

    Gutowski, Karol A

    2016-07-01

    Microfocused ultrasound (MFU) generates tissue heating, which can be used for facial skin tightening as well as other areas of skin laxity. Unlike radiofrequency energy, MFU can penetrate deep into tissue without heating the superficial skin structures, allowing for higher treatment temperatures. Depending on patient factors and treatment protocols, 60% to 90% of patients can expect to see facial improvement 6 months after treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Itchy lesions in pigmented skin

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Rachel; Ahmeen, Mahreen; Fleming, Ann; Hoque, Shamali

    2013-01-01

    A 37-year-old woman with type VI skin presented with 1-year history of pruritic lesions affecting her arms, chest and legs. The lesions were approximately 5 mm in diameter, annular and with a raised border. A skin biopsy was performed which showed a diagnosis of disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis. Porokeratosis is an unusual presentation in pigmented skin and there are very limited reports of this occurrence in the literature. PMID:24114602

  17. [Radiotherapy of skin cancers].

    PubMed

    Hennequin, C; Rio, E; Mahé, M-A

    2016-09-01

    The indications of radiotherapy for skin cancers are not clearly defined because of the lack of randomised trials or prospective studies. For basal cell carcinomas, radiotherapy frequently offers a good local control, but a randomized trial showed that surgery is more efficient and less toxic. Indications of radiotherapy are contra-indications of surgery for patients older than 60, non-sclerodermiform histology and occurring in non-sensitive areas. Adjuvant radiotherapy could be proposed to squamous cell carcinomas, in case of poor prognostic factors. Dose of 60 to 70Gy are usually required, and must be modulated to the size of the lesions. Adjuvant radiotherapy seems beneficial for desmoplastic melanomas but not for the other histological types. Prophylactic nodal irradiation (45 to 50Gy), for locally advanced tumours (massive nodal involvement), decreases the locoregional failure rate but do not increase survival. Adjuvant radiotherapy (50 to 56Gy) for Merckel cell carcinomas increases also the local control rate, as demonstrated by meta-analysis and a large epidemiological study. Nodal areas must be included, if there is no surgical exploration (sentinel lymph node dissection). Kaposi sarcomas are radiosensitive and could be treated with relatively low doses (24 to 30Gy). Also, cutaneous lymphomas are good indications for radiotherapy: B lymphomas are electively treated with limited fields. The role of total skin electron therapy for T-lymphomas is still discussed; but palliative radiotherapy is very efficient in case of cutaneous nodules.

  18. Fractional laser skin resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Alexiades-Armenakas, Macrene R; Dover, Jeffrey S; Arndt, Kenneth A

    2012-11-01

    Laser skin resurfacing (LSR) has evolved over the past 2 decades from traditional ablative to fractional nonablative and fractional ablative resurfacing. Traditional ablative LSR was highly effective in reducing rhytides, photoaging, and acne scarring but was associated with significant side effects and complications. In contrast, nonablative LSR was very safe but failed to deliver consistent clinical improvement. Fractional LSR has achieved the middle ground; it combined the efficacy of traditional LSR with the safety of nonablative modalities. The first fractional laser was a nonablative erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser that produced microscopic columns of thermal injury in the epidermis and upper dermis. Heralding an entirely new concept of laser energy delivery, it delivered the laser beam in microarrays. It resulted in microscopic columns of treated tissue and intervening areas of untreated skin, which yielded rapid reepithelialization. Fractional delivery was quickly applied to ablative wavelengths such as carbon dioxide, Er:YAG, and yttrium scandium gallium garnet (2,790 nm), providing more significant clinical outcomes. Adjustable laser parameters, including power, pitch, dwell time, and spot density, allowed for precise determination of percent surface area, affected penetration depth, and clinical recovery time and efficacy. Fractional LSR has been a significant advance to the laser field, striking the balance between safety and efficacy.

  19. Skin hydration, microrelief and greasiness of normal skin in Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Tsankov, N; Mateev, D; Darlenski, R

    2017-07-27

    The skin is the primary defence of the human body against external factors from physical, chemical, mechanical and biologic origin. Climatic factors together with low temperature and sun radiation affect the skin. The effect of climatic conditions in Antarctica on healthy skin has not been previously addressed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in the skin hydration, greasiness and microrelief due to the extreme climatic environmental factors during the stay of the members of the Bulgarian Antarctic expedition. Fifty-nine Caucasian healthy subjects, 42 men and 17 women with mean age 50.9 years (27-68), were enrolled. The study was performed in five consecutive years from 2011 to 2016 at the Bulgarian Antarctic base camp at Livingston Island. The study protocol consisted of two parts: study A: duration of 15 days with measurement of skin physiology parameters on a daily basis, and study B: five measurements at baseline and at days 14, 30, 45 and 50 upon arrival in Antarctica. We measured three biophysical parameters related to skin physiology at cheek skin by an impedance measuring device. No statistically significant difference between parameters at the different measurement points. There is a variation in skin hydration reaching its lower point at day 11 and then returning to values similar to baseline. Initially, an increase in skin greasiness was witnessed with a sharp depression at day 11 and final values at day 15 resembling the ones at baseline. An increase, although not statistically significant, in skin roughness was observed in the first 15 days of the study. Study B showed no statistically significant variances between values of the three parameters. Our studies show the pioneer results of the effect of Antarctic climate on human skin physiology. © 2017 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  20. The future of skin metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Alban; Vogel, Timothy M; Simonet, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Metagenomics, the direct exploitation of environmental microbial DNA, is complementary to traditional culture-based approaches for deciphering taxonomic and functional microbial diversity in a plethora of ecosystems, including those related to the human body such as the mouth, saliva, teeth, gut or skin. DNA extracted from human skin analyzed by sequencing the PCR-amplified rrs gene has already revealed the taxonomic diversity of microbial communities colonizing the human skin ("skin microbiome"). Each individual possesses his/her own skin microbial community structure, with marked taxonomic differences between different parts of the body and temporal evolution depending on physical and chemical conditions (sweat, washing etc.). However, technical limitations due to the low bacterial density at the surface of the human skin or contamination by human DNA still has inhibited extended use of the metagenomic approach for investigating the skin microbiome at a functional level. These difficulties have been overcome in part by the new generation of sequencing platforms that now provide sequences describing the genes and functions carried out by skin bacteria. These methodological advances should help us understand the mechanisms by which these microorganisms adapt to the specific chemical composition of each skin and thereby lead to a better understanding of bacteria/human host interdependence. This knowledge will pave the way for more systemic and individualized pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. Copyright © 2013 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Skin flaps in reconstructive surgery.

    PubMed

    Pavletic, M M

    1990-01-01

    A skin flap (pedicle graft) is a partially detached segment of skin and subcutaneous tissue that includes a blood supply essential to its survival. As a result, skin flaps are capable of closing a variety of defects, including poorly vascularized wound beds that are incapable of maintaining free grafts. In many cases, skin flaps can bypass economically many of the potential problems associated with healing by second intention. This article presents an overview of pedicle grafts, with emphasis on the clinical use of local flap techniques.

  2. Travel-associated skin disease.

    PubMed

    Morris-Jones, Rachael; Morris-Jones, Stephen

    2012-09-01

    Travel associated skin disease is extremely common and a frequent cause of the returning traveller seeking medical attention. Widespread cutaneous eruptions usually represent reactive rashes, indicating an underlying systemic infection or allergic reaction. Patients with disseminated or spreading rashes following travel often present with fever and malaise. In contrast, those presenting with localised skin disease such as a blister, nodule, plaque, ulcer etc are usually well in themselves but have sustained a bite/sting/penetrating injury or introduction of infection directly into the skin at the affected site. As a general rule widespread rashes are investigated with blood tests/serology and localised lesions with a skin biopsy for culture and histology.

  3. Lipid oxidation in the skin.

    PubMed

    Niki, Etsuo

    2015-01-01

    Skin is the largest organ of the body and exerts several physiological functions such as a protective barrier against moisture loss and noxious agents including ultraviolet irradiation. Oxidation of skin may impair such functions and induce skin disorders including photoaging and skin cancer. Skin surface lipids, a mixture of sebaceous and epidermal lipids, have unique species and fatty acid profile. The major unsaturated lipids are squalene, sebaleic aicd, linoleic acid, and cholesterol. Singlet oxygen and ozone as well as free radicals and enzymes are important oxidants for skin lipids. Squalene is the major target for singlet oxygen, giving rise to twelve regio-isomeric squalene hydroperoxides. Ultraviolet radiation activates lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase, inducing specific enzymatic oxidation of lipids. Free radical mediated lipid peroxidation gives multiple oxidation products. Lipid oxidation products produced by these mechanisms are observed in human skin and induce various skin diseases, but in contrast to plasma and other tissues, identification and quantitative measurement of lipid oxidation products in skin are scarce and should be the subjects of future studies.

  4. Treatments Improving Skin Barrier Function.

    PubMed

    Lodén, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Moisturizers affect the stratum corneum architecture and barrier homeostasis, i.e. topically applied ingredients are not as inert to the skin as one might expect. A number of different mechanisms behind the barrier-influencing effects of moisturizers have been suggested, such as simple deposition of lipid material outside the skin. Ingredients in the moisturizers may also change the lamellar organization and the packing of the lipid matrix and thereby skin permeability. Topically applied substances may also penetrate deeper into the skin and interfere with the production of barrier lipids and the maturation of corneocytes. Furthermore, moisturizing creams may influence the desquamatory proteases and alter the thickness of the stratum corneum.

  5. Skin decontamination: principles and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Chan, Heidi P; Zhai, Hongbo; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard I

    2013-11-01

    Skin decontamination is the primary intervention needed in chemical, biological and radiological exposures, involving immediate removal of the contaminant from the skin performed in the most efficient way. The most readily available decontamination system on a practical basis is washing with soap and water or water only. Timely use of flushing with copious amounts of water may physically remove the contaminant. However, this traditional method may not be completely effective, and contaminants left on the skin after traditional washing procedures can have toxic consequences. This article focuses on the principles and practices of skin decontamination.

  6. [Caring for perilesional skin or skin having a lesion risk].

    PubMed

    Segovia, Gómez T; Javares, Curto T; Barahona, M; Verdú, Soriano J

    2007-10-01

    In order to increase the clinical and scientific evidence of the Hyperoxygenated Fatty Acids (HFA) in emulsion preparation for skin care, this study considers to evaluate prospectively how it influences in the state of the periwound skin (when there are active lesions) or in which it presents a high risk of lesion production.

  7. Characteristics of the Aging Skin

    PubMed Central

    Farage, Miranda A.; Miller, Kenneth W.; Elsner, Peter; Maibach, Howard I.

    2013-01-01

    Significance Although most researches into the changes in skin with age focus on the unwelcome aesthetic aspects of the aging skin, skin deterioration with age is more than a merely cosmetic problem. Although mortality from skin disease is primarily restricted to melanoma, dermatological disorders are ubiquitous in older people with a significant impact on quality of life. The structural and functional deterioration of the skin that occurs with age has numerous clinical presentations, ranging from benign but potentially excruciating disorders like pruritus to the more threatening carcinomas and melanomas. Recent Advances The degenerative changes that occur in the aging skin are increasingly understood at both the molecular and cellular level, facilitating a deeper understanding of the structural and functional deterioration that these changes produce. Critical Issues A loss of both function and structural stability in skin proceeds unavoidably as individuals age, which is the result of both intrinsic and extrinsic processes, which contribute simultaneously to a progressive loss of skin integrity. Intrinsic aging proceeds at a genetically determined pace, primarily caused by the buildup of damaging products of cellular metabolism as well as an increasing biological aging of the cells. Estrogen levels strongly influence skin integrity in women as well; falling levels in midlife, therefore, produce premature aging as compared with similarly aged men. Extrinsic insults from the environment add to the dermatological signs of aging. Future Directions A deeper understanding of the physiological basis of skin aging will facilitate progress in the treatment of the unwelcome sequelae of aging skin, both cosmetic and pathogenic. PMID:24527317

  8. [Bovine udder skin (BUS): testing of skin compatibility and skin protection].

    PubMed

    Pittermann, Wolfgang F; Kietzmann, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    New concepts of the horny layer as a metabolically active part of the epidermal permeability barrier elicited a re-evaluation of conventional mechanisms of occupational skin protection. Both skin protection products and noxae must penetrate the horny layer of the skin to be effective. The isolated perfused bovine udder skin (BUS) model reflects the natural penetration pattern; hence skin irritation, penetration and absorption can be investigated simultaneously. Using whole skin biopsies the degree of irritation in untreated (control), treated and pre-treated skin is measured by assessing the irritancy (PGE2-concentration) and cytotoxicity (MTT assay) after the exposure period of 0.5 h, 1.0 h and 5.0 h. Two types of skin protection studies were reported. One was a laboratory study using the water-soluble sodiumlaurylsulphate (10%, 15%) as noxa. The other study was initiated by a severely skin irritating water-soluble coolant (approx. 5%). This well documented case occurred in a metal working plant. In both studies different degrees of protective potential against the model noxae SLS and the coolant could be observed.

  9. Skin equivalents: skin from reconstructions as models to study skin development and diseases.

    PubMed

    Ali, N; Hosseini, M; Vainio, S; Taïeb, A; Cario-André, M; Rezvani, H R

    2015-08-01

    While skin is readily available for sampling and direct studies of its constituents, an important intermediate step is to design in vitro and/or in vivo models to address scientific or medical questions in dermatology and skin biology. Pioneered more than 30 years ago, human skin equivalents (HSEs) have been refined with better cell culture techniques and media, together with sophisticated cell biology tools including genetic engineering and cell reprogramming. HSEs mimic key elements of human skin biology and have been instrumental in demonstrating the importance of cell-cell interactions in skin homeostasis and the role of a complex cellular microenvironment to coordinate epidermal proliferation, differentiation and pigmentation. HSEs have a wide field of applications from cell biology to dermocosmetics, modelling diseases, drug development, skin ageing, pathophysiology and regenerative medicine. In this article we critically review the major current approaches used to reconstruct organotypic skin models and their application with a particular emphasis on skin biology and pathophysiology of skin disorders. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  10. Monogenic human skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Lemke, Johannes R; Kernland-Lang, Kristin; Hörtnagel, Konstanze; Itin, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Human genodermatoses represent a broad and partly confusing spectrum of countless rare diseases with confluent and overlapping phenotypes often impeding a precise diagnosis in an affected individual. High-throughput sequencing techniques have expedited the identification of novel genes and have dramatically simplified the establishment of genetic diagnoses in such heterogeneous disorders. The precise genetic diagnosis of a skin disorder is crucial for the appropriate counselling of patients and their relatives regarding the course of the disease, prognosis and recurrence risks. Understanding the underlying pathophysiology is a prerequisite to understanding the disease and developing specific, targeted or individualized therapeutic approaches. We aimed to create a comprehensive overview of human genodermatoses and their respective genetic aetiology known to date. We hope this may represent a useful tool in guiding dermatologists towards genetic diagnoses, providing patients with individual knowledge on the respective disorder and applying novel research findings to clinical practice.

  11. Keratins and skin disease.

    PubMed

    Knöbel, Maria; O'Toole, Edel A; Smith, Frances J D

    2015-06-01

    Mutations in keratin genes cause a diverse spectrum of skin, hair and mucosal disorders. Cutaneous disorders include epidermolysis bullosa simplex, palmoplantar keratoderma, epidermolytic ichthyosis and pachyonychia congenita. Both clinical and laboratory observations confirm a major role for keratins in maintaining epidermal cell-cell adhesion. When normal tissue homeostasis is disturbed, for example, during wound healing and cancer, keratins play an important non-mechanical role. Post-translational modifications including glycosylation and phosphorylation of keratins play an important role in protection of epithelial cells from injury. Keratins also play a role in modulation of the immune response. A current focus in the area of keratins and disease is the development of new treatments including small inhibitory RNA (siRNA) to mutant keratins and small molecules to modulate keratin expression.

  12. The peeling skin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Levy, S B; Goldsmith, L A

    1982-11-01

    A unique form of congenital ichthyosis in two unrelated patients is described and characterized histologically by separation of the epidermis between the stratum corneum and the stratum granulosum. The clinical history, genetics, serially performed skin biopsies, and biochemical studies are reviewed. This form of ichthyosis is different from previously described entities. Lifelong peeling of the general body epidermis, pruritus, short stature, easily removed anagen hairs, and the ability to easily mechanically separate stratum corneum from the rest of the epidermis characterize the syndrome. In two families with this disorder, autosomal recessive inheritance is suggested. A low plasma tryptophan level as present in two patients with this disease. This inherited disorder of the epidermis was first described in 1924 before the genetics and histology of ichthyosis were extensively studied and is a distinct genetic and clinical entity to be considered in unusual cases of ichthyosis.

  13. Ablative skin resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Chwalek, Jennifer; Goldberg, David J

    2011-01-01

    Ablative skin resurfacing has remained the gold standard for treating photodamage and acne scars since the development of the first CO(2) lasers. CO(2) and Er:YAG lasers emit infrared light, which targets water resulting in tissue contraction and collagen formation. The first ablative laser systems created significant thermal damage resulting in unacceptably high rates of scarring and prolonged healing. Newer devices, such as high-energy pulsed lasers and fractional ablative lasers, are capable of achieving significant improvements with fewer side effects and shorter recovery times. While ablative resurfacing has become safer, careful patient selection is still important to avoid post-treatment scarring, dyspigmentation, and infections. Clinicians utilizing ablative devices need to be aware of possible side effects in order to maximize results and patient satisfaction. This chapter reviews the background of ablative lasers including the types of ablative lasers, mechanism of action, indications for ablative resurfacing, and possible side effects.

  14. The Sensitive Skin Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lev-Tov, Hadar; Maibach, Howard I

    2012-01-01

    Sensitive skin syndrome (SSS) is a common and challenging condition, yet little is known about its underlying pathophysiology. Patients with SSS often present with subjective complaints of severe facial irritation, burning, and/or stinging after application of cosmetic products. These complaints are out of proportion to the objective clinical findings. Defined as a self-diagnosed condition lacking any specific objective findings, SSS is by definition difficult to quantify and, therefore, the scientific community has yet to identify an acceptable objective screening test. In this overview we review recent epidemiological studies, present current thinking on the pathophysiology leading to SSS, discuss the challenges SSS presents, and recommend a commonsense approach to management. PMID:23248357

  15. Moisturizing Different Racial Skin Types

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Victor W.; Longaker, Michael T.; Yang, George P.

    2014-01-01

    The skin is a complex organ involved in thermoregulation, gas exchange, protection against pathogens, and barrier function to maintain proper hydration. When dry, the ability for skin to execute these tasks becomes impaired. Dry skin affects almost everyone as we age, but it is also dependent on external factors, such as dry climate, colder temperatures, and repeated washing. In addition, increasing evidence has shown racial variability in the physiological properties of skin, which directly impacts water content of the stratum corneum and sensitivity to exogenously applied agents. A multitude of products have been developed to treat dry skin, and as a group, moisturizers have been designed to either impart or restore hydration in the stratum corneum. Given the large number of moisturizers presently available, depending on individual components, several different mechanisms may be employed to promote skin hydration. As there exists dramatic racial variability in skin properties, certain moisturizers may thus be more effective in some and less effective in others to treat the common condition of dry skin. PMID:25013536

  16. Aging Differences in Ethnic Skin

    PubMed Central

    Buainain De Castro Maymone, Mayra; Kundu, Roopal V.

    2016-01-01

    Aging is an inevitable and complex process that can be described clinically as features of wrinkles, sunspots, uneven skin color, and sagging skin. These cutaneous effects are influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors and often are varied based on ethnic origin given underlying structural and functional differences. The authors sought to provide updated information on facets of aging and how it relates to ethnic variation given innate differences in skin structure and function. Publications describing structural and functional principles of ethnic and aging skin were primarily found through a PubMed literature search and supplemented with a review of textbook chapters. The most common signs of skin aging despite skin type are dark spots, loss of elasticity, loss of volume, and rhytides. Skin of color has many characteristics that make its aging process unique. Those of Asian, Hispanic, and African American descent have distinct facial structures. Differences in the concentration of epidermal melanin makes darkly pigmented persons more vulnerable to dyspigmentation, while a thicker and more compact dermis makes facial lines less noticeable. Ethnic skin comprises a large portion of the world population. Therefore, it is important to understand the unique structural and functional differences among ethnicities to adequately treat the signs of aging. PMID:26962390

  17. Skin cancer after pancreas transplantation.

    PubMed

    Spanogle, Joshua P; Kudva, Yogish C; Dierkhising, Ross A; Kremers, Walter K; Roenigk, Randall K; Brewer, Jerry D; Prieto, Mikel; Otley, Clark C

    2012-10-01

    Skin cancer in patients who have undergone pancreas transplantation (PT) has not been extensively characterized. We sought to describe the incidence, tumor burden, and risk factors for skin cancer in PT recipients at Mayo Clinic from 1998 through 2006. A retrospective study was performed by analyzing outcomes among a cohort of pancreas allograft recipients at Mayo Clinic between 1998 and 2006. Among 216 allogeneic PT recipients at 2, 5, and 10 years posttransplantation, the cumulative incidence of any skin cancer was 4.7%, 12.7%, and 19.6%; the cumulative incidence of squamous cell carcinoma was 2.8%, 10.3%, and 16.7%; and the cumulative incidence of basal cell carcinoma was 2.4%, 7.8%, and 17.4%, respectively. The cumulative incidence of a second squamous cell carcinoma developing was 56% at 2 years; the cumulative incidence of a second basal cell carcinoma developing was 36% at 2 years. Of the risk factors examined, only age and having a skin cancer before transplantation were predictive of skin cancer development. This was a retrospective study. Results from a large tertiary center may not be generalizable. Nonmelanoma skin cancers commonly occur in recipients of PT, and those patients who have a history of nonmelanoma skin cancer have a very high likelihood of further skin cancer development. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Serotoninergic system in hamster skin.

    PubMed

    Slominski, Andrzej; Pisarchik, Alexander; Semak, Igor; Sweatman, Trevor; Szczesniewski, Andre; Wortsman, Jacobo

    2002-10-01

    We have cloned the tryptophan hydroxylase cDNA from hamster pituitary and demonstrated its expression in the skin, melanotic and amelanotic melanomas, spleen, heart, and the eye. We further demonstrated that skin, melanomas, spleen, pituitary, and eye but not heart expressed arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase mRNA. The cutaneous expression of the arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase gene was accompanied by enzymatic activity for the conversion of serotonin and tryptamine to N-acetylserotonin and N-acetyltryptamine, respectively. There was marked regional variation in the serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity, which was higher in ear skin than in corpus skin, and was lower in melanomas than in normal skin. Serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity was significantly inhibited by Cole bisubstrate at low concentration (skin. We also documented both the in vitro transformation of serotonin to N-acetylserotonin using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and the generation/storage of N-acetylserotonin in cultured melanoma cells. Thus, we have uncovered a cutaneous pathway displaying capabilities for serotonin biosynthesis and/or its metabolism to N-acetylserotonin in rodent skin. As serotonin has powerful vasodilator, immunomodulator, and growth factor actions, this pathway could be involved in skin physiology and/or pathology.

  19. Ingested hyaluronan moisturizes dry skin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is present in many tissues of the body and is essential to maintain moistness in the skin tissues, which contain approximately half the body’s HA mass. Due to its viscosity and moisturizing effect, HA is widely distributed as a medicine, cosmetic, food, and, recently marketed in Japan as a popular dietary supplement to promote skin moisture. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study it was found that ingested HA increased skin moisture and improved treatment outcomes for patients with dry skin. HA is also reported to be absorbed by the body distributed, in part, to the skin. Ingested HA contributes to the increased synthesis of HA and promotes cell proliferation in fibroblasts. These effects show that ingestion of HA moisturizes the skin and is expected to improve the quality of life for people who suffer from dry skin. This review examines the moisturizing effects of dry skin by ingested HA and summarizes the series of mechanisms from absorption to pharmacological action. PMID:25014997

  20. Recent Progress in Electronic Skin

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiandi; Dong, Lin; Zhang, Hanlu; Yu, Ruomeng; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-01-01

    The skin is the largest organ of the human body and can sense pressure, temperature, and other complex environmental stimuli or conditions. The mimicry of human skin's sensory ability via electronics is a topic of innovative research that could find broad applications in robotics, artificial intelligence, and human–machine interfaces, all of which promote the development of electronic skin (e‐skin). To imitate tactile sensing via e‐skins, flexible and stretchable pressure sensor arrays are constructed based on different transduction mechanisms and structural designs. These arrays can map pressure with high resolution and rapid response beyond that of human perception. Multi‐modal force sensing, temperature, and humidity detection, as well as self‐healing abilities are also exploited for multi‐functional e‐skins. Other recent progress in this field includes the integration with high‐density flexible circuits for signal processing, the combination with wireless technology for convenient sensing and energy/data transfer, and the development of self‐powered e‐skins. Future opportunities lie in the fabrication of highly intelligent e‐skins that can sense and respond to variations in the external environment. The rapidly increasing innovations in this area will be important to the scientific community and to the future of human life. PMID:27980911

  1. Occupational Skin Diseases in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Gi

    2010-01-01

    Skin disease is the most common occupational disease, but the reported number is small in Korea due to a difficulty of detection and diagnosis in time. We described various official statistics and data from occupational skin disease surveillance system, epidemiological surveys and cases published in scientific journals. Until 1981, 2,222 cases of occupational skin disease were reported by Korean employee's regular medical check-up, accounting for 4.9% of the total occupational diseases. There was no subsequent official statistics to figure out occupational skin diseases till 1998. From 1999, the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency (KOSHA) published the number of occupational skin diseases through the statistics of Cause Investigation for Industrial Accidents. A total of 301 cases were reported from 1999 to 2007. Recent one study showed the figures of compensated occupational skin diseases. Many of them belonged to daily-paid workers in the public service, especially forestry workers. Also, it described the interesting cases such as vitiligo and trichloroethylene-induced Stevens-Johnson Syndrome. Skin diseases are still important though the number of cases has decreased, and therefore it is recommended to grasp the status of occupational skin diseases through continuous surveillance system and to make policy protecting high-risk group. PMID:21258591

  2. Pain-induced skin autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Odoardi, Francesca; Neuhuber, Winfried; Flügel, Alexander

    2014-09-01

    A recent paper published in Nature reports sensory nerve fibers in the skin that give local immune cells important instructions for the organization of an immune response; in this particular case the cooperation between the nervous and immune systems had disastrous consequences, namely an auto-destruction of the skin.

  3. Skin Diseases in the Tropics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahe, Antoine; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Common skin diseases are prevalent in tropical countries because of extreme weather conditions, mediocre hygiene, and lack of adequate treatment of infectious dermatoses. This guide describes the major endemic skin diseases and their signs for the purpose of helping unspecialized health agents train themselves and determine when a patient should…

  4. Recent Progress in Electronic Skin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiandi; Dong, Lin; Zhang, Hanlu; Yu, Ruomeng; Pan, Caofeng; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-10-01

    The skin is the largest organ of the human body and can sense pressure, temperature, and other complex environmental stimuli or conditions. The mimicry of human skin's sensory ability via electronics is a topic of innovative research that could find broad applications in robotics, artificial intelligence, and human-machine interfaces, all of which promote the development of electronic skin (e-skin). To imitate tactile sensing via e-skins, flexible and stretchable pressure sensor arrays are constructed based on different transduction mechanisms and structural designs. These arrays can map pressure with high resolution and rapid response beyond that of human perception. Multi-modal force sensing, temperature, and humidity detection, as well as self-healing abilities are also exploited for multi-functional e-skins. Other recent progress in this field includes the integration with high-density flexible circuits for signal processing, the combination with wireless technology for convenient sensing and energy/data transfer, and the development of self-powered e-skins. Future opportunities lie in the fabrication of highly intelligent e-skins that can sense and respond to variations in the external environment. The rapidly increasing innovations in this area will be important to the scientific community and to the future of human life.

  5. TOXIC RESPONSES OF THE SKIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The importance of fish skin is realized when one considers it is the interface between the external and intrnal environment of the animal. As will be pointed out in this chapter, fish skin has a number of vital functions many of which could be life threatening if perturbed beyond...

  6. Sensitive skin: mechanisms and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Primavera, G; Berardesca, E

    2005-02-01

    Sensitive skin is a condition of subjective cutaneous hyperreactivity to environmental factors. Subjects experiencing this condition report exaggerated reactions when their skin is in contact with cosmetics, soaps and sunscreens, and they often report worsening after exposure to dry and cold climate. Although no sign of irritation is commonly detected, itching, burning, stinging and a tight sensation are constantly present. Generally substances that are not commonly considered irritants are involved in this abnormal response. They include many ingredients of cosmetics such as: dimethyl sulfoxide, benzoyl peroxide preparations, salicylic acid, propylene glycol, amyldimethylaminobenzoic acid and 2-ethoxyethyl methoxycinnamate. Sensitive skin and subjective irritation are widespread but still far from being completely defined and understood. The aim of this paper is to summarize the relevant literature in order to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of sensitive skin and the best testing methodologies for investigation of sensitive skin.

  7. Common skin conditions during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Tunzi, Marc; Gray, Gary R

    2007-01-15

    Common skin conditions during pregnancy generally can be separated into three categories: hormone-related, preexisting, and pregnancy-specific. Normal hormone changes during pregnancy may cause benign skin conditions including striae gravidarum (stretch marks); hyperpigmentation (e.g., melasma); and hair, nail, and vascular changes. Preexisting skin conditions (e.g., atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, fungal infections, cutaneous tumors) may change during pregnancy. Pregnancy-specific skin conditions include pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy, prurigo of pregnancy, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, pemphigoid gestationis, impetigo herpetiformis, and pruritic folliculitis of pregnancy. Pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy are the most common of these disorders. Most skin conditions resolve postpartum and only require symptomatic treatment. However, there are specific treatments for some conditions (e.g., melasma, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, impetigo herpetiformis, pruritic folliculitis of pregnancy). Antepartum surveillance is recommended for patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, impetigo herpetiformis, and pemphigoid gestationis.

  8. Conservative procedures in skin reconstitution

    PubMed Central

    Wollina, Uwe

    2005-01-01

    Skin exerts a number of essential protective functions ensuring homeostasis of the whole body. In the present review barrier function of skin and its expression of antimicrobial peptides are discussed. Barrier function is provided by the dynamic stratum corneum structure composed of lipids and corneocytes. Stratum corneum is a conditio sine qua non for terrestrial life. Impairment of barrier function can be due to injury and inflammatory skin diseases. Therapeutic options are discussed with special emphasis of radiodermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis in patients with hearing device. The use of antimicrobial peptides is illustrated by facial inflammatory skin diseases. In wound healing new developments include biotechnological developments of matrix- and growth factors and tissue-engineered skin substitutes. In everyday wound care of chronic wounds the concept of wound bed preparation (TIME) constitutes the base of successful treatment. PMID:22073065

  9. [Early diagnosis of skin cancer].

    PubMed

    Kolm, Isabell; Hofbauer, Günther; Braun, Ralph P

    2010-09-01

    The skin is the most affected organ by cancer. The incidence rates of skin cancer are steadily increasing, both for melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers (squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma). Over 90 % of the death cases from skin cancers attribute to melanoma. Survival from melanoma is strongly related to tumour thickness. Therefore early detection is the most important step to improve prognosis. In the last years a number of new non invasive techniques for the early diagnosis of melanoma have been developed which are superior to the naked eye examination. In this overview article we present some non-invasive diagnostic techniques like total body photography, digital dermoscopy and confocal microscopy which in addition to dermoscopy assist the dermatologist in differentiating nevi from early melanomas.Non-melanoma skin cancer can be prevented by accurate sun protection. Early squamous cell carcinomas and basal cell carcinomas can be treated either invasively or non-invasively with excellent prognosis.

  10. Non-thermic skin affections.

    PubMed

    Broz, L; Kripner, J

    2000-01-01

    The Centre for Burns can help by its means (material, technical and personal) in the treatment of burns with extensive and deep losses of the skin cover and other tissue structures and in some affections with a different etiology (non-thermic affections). Indicated for admission are, in particular, extensive exfoliative affections--Stevens-Johnson's syndrome (SJS), Lyell's syndrome--toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) and staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS), deep skin and tissue affections associated with fulminant purpura (PF), possibly other affections (epidermolysis bullosa, posttraumatic avulsions etc.). The similarity with burn injuries with loss of the skin cover grade II is typical, in particular in exfoliative affections with a need for adequate fluid replacement in the acute stage and aseptic surgical treatment of the affected area from the onset of the disease. In conditions leading to full thickness skin loss, in addition to general treatment rapid plastic surgical interventions dominate.

  11. Skin protection in the prevention of skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Elsner, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Occupational skin diseases comprise a wide spectrum of conditions. Under epidemiological aspects, occupational contact dermatitis that is usually manifested on the hands is the most frequent occupational skin disease with an estimated average incidence rate of 0.7-1.5 cases per 1,000 workers per year. Irritant dermatitis is due to individual susceptibility and the exposure to irritants such as wet work combined with detergents or other hydrophilic irritants or solvents at the workplace. Chronic irritant dermatitis is a risk factor for delayed-type sensitization and subsequently allergic contact dermatitis. It is therefore the prevention of chronic or cumulative irritant dermatitis that is the decisive factor in the prevention of occupational skin disease. Within prevention programs at the workplace, skin protection plays an important, but limited role. Others are technical and organizational means to avoid or reduce skin exposure to irritants and allergens. Educational measures to increase the awareness of workers for workplace hazards and to motivate them to use skin protection measures appropriately are just as important as the careful selection of skin protection materials.

  12. Laser speckle and skin cancer: skin roughness assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tim K.; Tchvialeva, Lioudmila; Zeng, Haishan; McLean, David I.; Lui, Harvey

    2009-10-01

    Incidence of skin cancer has been increasing rapidly since the last few decades. Non-invasive optical diagnostic tools may improve the diagnostic accuracy. In this paper, skin structure, skin cancer statistics and subtypes of skin cancer are briefly reviewed. Among the subtypes, malignant melanoma is the most aggressive and dangerous; early detection dramatically improves the prognosis. Therefore, a non-invasive diagnostic tool for malignant melanoma is especially needed. In addition, in order for the diagnostic tool to be useful, it must be able to differentiate melanoma from common skin conditions such as seborrheic keratosis, a benign skin disease that resembles melanoma according to the well known clinical-assessment ABCD rule. The key diagnostic feature between these two diseases is surface roughness. Based on laser speckle contrast, our research team has recently developed a portable, optical, non-invasive, in-vivo diagnostic device for quantifying skin surface roughness. The methodology of our technique is described in details. Examining the preliminary data collected in a pilot clinical study for the prototype, we found that there was a difference in roughness between melanoma and seborrheic keratosis. In fact, there was a perfect cutoff value for the two diseases based on our initial data.

  13. Matching the skin barrier to the skin type.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Hyacinth; North, Jacqui; Davenport, Rebecca; Williams, Julia

    Peristomal skin problems are thought to be common (Herlufsson et al, 2006; Williams et al, 2010), and can interfere with the security of stoma products. Stoma patients are reliant on the integrity of their peristomal skin to maintain a normal lifestyle. Bekkers et al (1996) highlighted that, if the peristomal skin becomes damaged, it not only affects the person physically, but also psychologically, ultimately prolonging rehabilitation and adaptation to the stoma. Therefore, it can be concluded that maintaining skin integrity is a basic and essential skill in ensuring good stoma management. This article explores the assessment of four stoma patients, highlighting the importance of matching their skin type with their skin barrier for optimum skin protection. The patients have kindly agreed for their case studies to be published as a means of informing others. All names have been changed in line with Nursing and Midwifery Council (2010) guidelines to maintain patient confidentiality. This article was originally presented at the World Council of Enterostomal Therapists' (WCET) annual conference in 2010, receiving first prize at poster presentations.

  14. Survey of skin pigmentation of yellow-skinned broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Sirri, F; Petracci, M; Bianchi, M; Meluzzi, A

    2010-07-01

    The appearance of whole carcass and skin-on cut-up products is an important attribute that deeply affects the consumer's choice. Skin pigmentation is affected mainly by genetics, concentration and dietary source of pigments, health status of the birds, and scalding-plucking conditions during slaughtering, although other factors might play an important role. Retailers request batches of broiler chicken carcasses characterized by uniform skin pigmentation to be sold as whole carcass or parts. The aim of this study was to evaluate the variability of skin color of yellow-skinned broilers reared under intensive conditions. For the study, a total of 2,300 medium size broiler chickens (2,300 to 2,500 g of live weight) from 23 flocks (100 birds/flock; n = 12 flocks of males and n = 11 flocks of females; n = 12 flocks of Ross 508 and n = 11 flocks of Ross 308) were randomly selected in a single slaughterhouse. The color measurements were carried out on both breast and thigh pterylae as well as on shank skin adopting the L* a* b* system and using a Minolta colorimeter CR 300. The overall range in measured yellowness (b*) was fairly large for all skin color measurement positions. For breast, a mean value of 22.77 (SD = 5.12) was observed, with values ranging from 7.45 to 39.12. Average values of thigh and shank were 20.23 (SD = 5.02; range 1.99 to 37.82) and 53.99 (SD = 8.13; range 24.22 to 78.65), respectively. A higher skin yellowness was observed in females in all body parts as well as in Ross 308. Yellowness values of breast and thigh were significantly correlated (r = 0.85; P < 0.01), suggesting that the color evaluation may be carried out only on one measurement position of the skin.

  15. 75 FR 52755 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections: Developing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin... guidance for industry entitled ``Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections: Developing Drugs for... the development of antimicrobial drugs for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure...

  16. Treatment Options for Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer ... carcinoma include the following: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  17. Skin hygiene practices, emollient therapy and skin vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Voegeli, David

    The promotion and maintenance of skin integrity is one of the most common challenges for nurses in every sphere of practice, but particularly for those caring for patients with chronic inflammation of the skin (such as in eczema and psoriasis), and to those at risk of skin breakdown due to immobility, circulatory disease, or incontinence. A significant amount of nursing time is spent washing patients, or assisting them to wash. However, little attention has been given to a scientific appraisal or evidence of the effectiveness of these activities.

  18. Conditioning in laser skin resurfacing - betulin emulsion and skin recovery.

    PubMed

    Metelmann, Hans-Robert; Podmelle, Fred; Waite, Peter D; Müller-Debus, Charlotte Friederieke; Hammes, Stefan; Funk, Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    Laser skin resurfacing of the face by CO₂-laser ablation is causing superficial wounds that need rapid recovery to reduce the risk of infection, the risk of chronification and as a result the risk of unaesthetic scars. The question being addressed by this study is to demonstrate benefit of betulin emulsion skin care after CO₂-laser wounds. The outcome of this aesthetic comparison between betulin emulsion, moist wound dressing and gauze covering in promoting the recovery process in laser skin ablation is to demonstrate improved aesthetic benefit for the patient.

  19. Ultraviolet Light and Skin Cancer in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Shannon C.; Bergfeld, Wilma F.

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers is increasing worldwide. Ultraviolet light exposure is the most important risk factor for cutaneous melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. Nonmelanoma skin cancer includes basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Constitutive skin color and genetic factors, as well as immunological factors, play a role in the development of skin cancer. Ultraviolet light also causes sunburn and photoaging damage to the skin. PMID:23015891

  20. Electrodermal responses to discrete stimuli measured by skin conductance, skin potential, and skin susceptance.

    PubMed

    Bari, D S; Aldosky, H Y Y; Tronstad, C; Kalvøy, H; Martinsen, Ø G

    2017-08-04

    Presently, electrodermal activity (EDA) is the preferred term for changes in electrical properties of the skin. Change in the skin conductance responses (SCRs) and skin potential responses (SPRs) due to external stimuli have previously been investigated in a number of studies, but very little for skin susceptance responses (SSRs) recorded simultaneously at the same skin site. This study aimed to investigate the association between the three parameters of EDA, skin conductance (SC), skin potential (SP), and skin susceptance (SS) responses generated by different types of psychological stimuli. SCRs, SPRs, and SSRs were recorded from 20 healthy test subjects simultaneously at the same skin area. EDA responses were induced by five different external stimuli, which were shown in the form of PowerPoint slides on a PC monitor that situated in front of participants. All stimuli evoked EDA responses, but with significantly different magnitudes, dependent on stimulus type. Both SC and SP waveforms yielded positive responses with respect to the stimuli; however, SS showed negative response and its role was found to be significant at low frequency (20 Hz). This study illustrated that different discrete stimuli showed different passive and active electrodermal responses at the same skin site. SCRs, SPRs, and SSRs were dependent on the stimulus type, and the highest response was associated with the sound stimulus, which can be attributed to orienting response or startle reflex. In addition, it was found that the SSRs have a significant contribution at 20 Hz. In spite of a high correlation found between average amplitude values of SCRs and SSRs, no significant association was seen between average amplitudes values of SPRs and SSRs, and between SCRs and SPRs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Leukotrienes orchestrating allergic skin inflammation.

    PubMed

    Sadik, Christian D; Sezin, Tanya; Kim, Nancy D

    2013-11-01

    Leukotrienes constitute a group of lipid mediators, which may be subdivided into two groups, with leukotriene B4 on the one hand and cysteinyl leukotrienes on the other. Although leukotrienes are abundantly expressed in skin affected by diverse chronic inflammatory diseases, including atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, pemphigus vulgaris and bullous pemphigoid, their pathological roles in these diseases have remained elusive. Recent data now reveal that both leukotriene B4 and cysteinyl leukotrienes are indispensable in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis, with leukotriene B4 initiating the recruitment of inflammatory cells, particularly neutrophils and TH 2 cells into the skin, and cysteinyl leukotrienes later inducing characteristic structural alterations of chronically affected skin, specifically skin fibrosis and keratinocyte proliferation. Thus, these results reveal a sequential cooperation of LTB4 and cysteinyl leukotrienes to initiate and perpetuate allergic skin inflammation. These new insights highlight leukotrienes as promising therapeutic targets in allergic skin inflammation and should encourage more research into the role of leukotrienes in other inflammatory skin diseases.

  2. [Normal and abnormal skin color].

    PubMed

    Ortonne, J-P

    2012-11-01

    The varieties of normal skin color in humans range from people of "no color" (pale white) to "people of color" (light brown, dark brown, and black). Skin color is a blend resulting from the skin chromophores red (oxyhaemoglobin), blue (deoxygenated haemoglobin), yellow-orange (carotene, an exogenous pigment), and brown (melanin). Melanin, however, is the major component of skin color ; it is the presence or absence of melanin in the melanosomes in melanocytes and melanin in keratinocytes that is responsible for epidermal pigmentation, and the presence of melanin in macrophages or melanocytes in the dermis that is responsible for dermal pigmentation. Two groups of pigmentary disorders are commonly distinguished: the disorders of the quantitative and qualitative distribution of normal pigment and the abnormal presence of exogenous or endogenous pigments in the skin. The first group includes hyperpigmentations, which clinically manifest by darkening of the skin color, and leukodermia, which is characterized by lightening of the skin. Hypermelanosis corresponds to an overload of melanin or an abnormal distribution of melanin in the skin. Depending on the color, melanodermia (brown/black) and ceruloderma (blue/grey) are distinguished. Melanodermia correspond to epidermal hypermelanocytosis (an increased number of melanocytes) or epidermal hypermelanosis (an increase in the quantity of melanin in the epidermis with no modification of the number of melanocytes). Ceruloderma correspond to dermal hypermelanocytosis (abnormal presence in the dermis of cells synthesizing melanins) ; leakage in the dermis of epidermal melanin also exists, a form of dermal hypermelanosis called pigmentary incontinence. Finally, dyschromia can be related to the abnormal presence in the skin of a pigment of exogenous or endogenous origin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Filaggrin and Skin Barrier Function.

    PubMed

    Kezic, Sanja; Jakasa, Ivone

    2016-01-01

    The skin barrier function is greatly dependent on the structure and composition of the uppermost layer of the epidermis, the stratum corneum (SC), which is made up of flattened anucleated cells surrounded by highly organized and continuous lipid matrix. The interior of the corneocytes consists mainly of keratin filaments aggregated by filaggrin (FLG) protein. Next, together with several other proteins, FLG is cross-linked into a mechanically robust cornified cell envelope providing a scaffold for the extracellular lipid matrix. In addition to its role for the SC structural and mechanical integrity, FLG degradation products account in part for the water-holding capacity and maintenance of acidic pH of the SC, both crucial for the epidermal barrier homoeostasis by regulating activity of multiple enzymes that control desquamation, lipid synthesis and inflammation. The major determinant of FLG expression in the skin are loss-of-function mutations in FLG, the strongest genetic risk factor for atopic dermatitis (AD), an inflammatory skin disease characterized by a reduced skin barrier function. The prevalence of FLG mutations varies greatly among different populations and ranges from about 10% in Northern Europeans to less than 1% in the African populations. An impaired skin barrier facilitates absorption of potentially hazardous chemicals, which might cause adverse effects in the skin, such as contact dermatitis, or systemic toxicity after their passage into blood. In another direction, a leaky epidermal barrier will lead to enhanced loss of water from the skin. A recent study has shown that even subtle increase in epidermal water loss in newborns increases the risk for AD. Although there are multiple modes of action by which FLG might affect skin barrier it is still unclear whether and how FLG deficiency leads to the reduced skin barrier function. This chapter summarizes the current knowledge in this field obtained from clinical studies, and animal and in vitro models

  4. Skin-sparing mastectomy

    PubMed Central

    Rancati, Alberto O.

    2015-01-01

    The surgical treatment of breast cancer has evolved rapidly in recent decades. Conservative treatment was adopted in the late 1970s, with rates above 70%, and this was followed by a period during which the indications for surgical intervention were expanded to those patients at high risk for BRCA1, BRCA2 mutations, and also due to new staging standards and use of nuclear magnetic resonance. This increase in the indications for mastectomy coincided with the availability of immediate breast reconstruction as an oncologically safe and important surgical procedure for prevention of sequelae. Immediate reconstruction was first aimed at correcting the consequences of treatment, and almost immediately, the challenge of the technique became the achievement of a satisfactory breast appearance and shape, as well as normal consistency. The skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) in conservation first and nipple-areola complex (NAC) later was a result of this shift that occurred from the early 1990s to the present. The objective of this review is to present all these developments specifically in relation to SSM and analyze our personal experience as well as the experience of surgeons worldwide with an emphasis on the fundamental aspects, indications, surgical technique, complications, oncological safety, and cosmetic results of this procedure. PMID:26645008

  5. Development of prosthetic skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilaru, Rohit

    The objective of this research was to embed tactile sensors in polyimides. This novel method could be utilized to realize prosthetic skin for sensing different kinds of mechanical stimuli. Tactile sensors have an increasing demand in medical sectors: upper and lower-limb prosthetics and in the industrial sectors: robot end-effectors, grippers and manipulators. The sensors developed are targeted for prosthetic arm tactile sensing applications. Current work presents piezoresistive differential pressure sensors fabricated on flexible polyimide film or substrate. A unique technique to bond a flexible superstrate polyimide layer to a MEMS tactile sensor array is presented in this thesis. The sensor is made of aluminium oxide membrane layer with nichrome piezoresistors as the half-Wheatstone bridge elements. Four different types of sensor designs have been characterized to obtain gauge factor of thin film nichrome. The sensor arrays with and without the superstrate film were simulated for obtaining the maximum stress, average strain and deflection of the membrane. The maximum change in output voltage was 0.8 mV. The gauge factors calculated for tactile sensor with superstrate range between 2.2 to 7.8 and without superstrate range 1.5 to 5.7.

  6. Lyme Borreliosis and Skin

    PubMed Central

    Vasudevan, Biju; Chatterjee, Manas

    2013-01-01

    Lyme disease is a multisystem illness which is caused by the strains of spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and transmitted by the tick, Ixodes. Though very commonly reported from the temperate regions of the world, the incidence has increased worldwide due to increasing travel and changing habitats of the vector. Few cases have been reported from the Indian subcontinent too. Skin manifestations are the earliest to occur, and diagnosing these lesions followed by appropriate treatment, can prevent complications of the disease, which are mainly neurological. The three main dermatological manifestations are erythema chronicum migrans, borrelial lymphocytoma and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. Many other dermatological conditions including morphea, lichen sclerosus and lately B cell lymphoma, have been attributed to the disease. Immunofluorescence and polymerase reaction tests have been developed to overcome the problems for diagnosis. Culture methods are also used for diagnosis. Treatment with Doxycycline is the mainstay of management, though prevention is of utmost importance. Vaccines against the condition are still not very successful. Hence, the importance of recognising the cutaneous manifestations early, to prevent systemic complications which can occur if left untreated, can be understood. This review highlights the cutaneous manifestations of Lyme borreliosis and its management. PMID:23723463

  7. Sun exposed skin disease.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Percy

    2011-01-01

    A wide variety of dermatoses may arise in exposed areas and are at the same time induced or exacerbated by irradiation from the sun. The spectrum may range from acute sunburn to chronic effects of sun damage, including elastosis and ultraviolet-induced skin cancer. Inflammatory ultraviolet-induced dermatoses have a confusing nomenclature and classification that often leads to difficulties in the differential diagnosis. Modern nosology differentiates primary from secondary photodermatoses. Primary photodermatoses are believed to be mainly irradiation-induced and immunologically mediated. If the pathophysiology is not clearly defined, they are also called idiopathic. In cases of a known photosensitizer, local and systemic phototoxic or photoallergic reactions can be differentiated. Secondary photodermatoses have an established pathophysiology; for example, an enzyme defect such as occurs in the porphyrias or xeroderma pigmentosum, which leads to the abnormal sun sensitivity. Finally, preexisting dermatoses may be exacerbated by irradiation from the sun, as in systemic lupus erythematosus or Darier disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Skin fungal biocontamination and the skin hydrogel pad test.

    PubMed

    Paquet, P; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Piérard, G E; Quatresooz, P

    2008-04-01

    Previous observations have revealed that environmental nondermatophyte molds (NDM) can grow inside specific hydrogel pads (LaserAid). Some of these NDM might be responsible for superficial and invasive mycoses as well as for allergic respiratory and cutaneous disorders. The load of NDM propagules in the environment is considered to be an important risk factor for all these diseases. It is postulated that the quantification of the responsible fungi deposited at the skin surface may be an indicator of a recent exposure to environmental fungi. The aim of the present study was to assess using the LaserAid hydrogel pads, the density of living NDM adhering to the skin surface of healthy subjects. Sterile hydrogel pads were applied in a repeat procedure onto the normal-looking skin of the palms and face of 35 healthcare workers who were active in low exposure areas. Similar samplings were performed after washing the skin with a regular skin cleanser, or after applying an alcohol solution or a povidone iodine solution. As controls, 20 sterile pads were exposed for a few minutes to ambient air of the laboratory without any contact with the skin. Each of these samples was stored for 2 weeks at room temperature in a clean protected environment. After that period, visual inspection of the pads was followed by microscopic examination of PAS-stained 6 microm-thick sections. In addition, mycological cultures were performed from pieces of the pads deposited onto Sabouraud agar plates. While 19/20 air-exposed samples were not contaminated by environmental air-borne fungi, 61/70 of the initial skin samplings and 6/70 of the repeat skin samplings showed foci of fungal colonization confirmed by microscopic examination. No specific differences were disclosed between the face and palm samplings. Cultures revealed the presence of NDM in the majority (64/67) of the colonized pads, and a few Candida albicans contaminations (3/67) were also disclosed. The cleansing with a non

  9. [Skin signs in child abuse].

    PubMed

    Pau-Charles, I; Darwich-Soliva, E; Grimalt, R

    2012-03-01

    Child abuse is far more prevalent today than is generally recognized. Up to 90% of victims suffer physical abuse that can be observed in signs on the skin. Dermatologists are particularly qualified to identify these signs and distinguish them from other conditions that can mimic abuse. This review covers the signs of child abuse that can be observed on the skin. We discuss clues that can help differentiate between lesions caused by abuse and those that are accidental, and we describe the skin conditions that mimic physical abuse.

  10. Dermoscopy of pigmented skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Soyer, H P; Argenziano, G; Chimenti, S; Ruocco, V

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the basic concepts of dermoscopy, the various dermoscopic equipments and the standard criteria for diagnosing pigmented skin lesions. In assessing dermoscopic images, both global and local features can be recognized. These features will be systematically described and illustrated in Part I of this article. First, we will focus on 8 morphologically rather distinctive global features that allow a quick, preliminary categorization of a given pigmented skin lesion. Second, we will describe various local features representing the letters of the dermoscopic alphabet. The local features permit a more detailed assessment of pigmented skin lesions.

  11. Neutron skins and neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Piekarewicz, J.

    2013-11-07

    The neutron-skin thickness of heavy nuclei provides a fundamental link to the equation of state of neutron-rich matter, and hence to the properties of neutron stars. The Lead Radius Experiment ('PREX') at Jefferson Laboratory has recently provided the first model-independence evidence on the existence of a neutron-rich skin in {sup 208}Pb. In this contribution we examine how the increased accuracy in the determination of neutron skins expected from the commissioning of intense polarized electron beams may impact the physics of neutron stars.

  12. [Non-irritating skin protector].

    PubMed

    Gago Fornells, Manuel; García González, R Fernando; Gaztelu Valdés, Victoriana

    2002-05-01

    In this article, the authors describe the multiple uses a non irritating cutaneous protector has as an effective tool against the aggressions which peri-lesion skin and other at risk skins suffer when they are subject to constant and direct contact with secretions and liquids resulting from the use of dressings based on wet cures, or systems of continence related to ostomias, or in those patients who suffer mixed incontinence where diaper rash makes it difficult to maintain and care for the skin.

  13. Interaction of dermatologically relevant nanoparticles with skin cells and skin.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Annika; Rancan, Fiorenza; Ahlberg, Sebastian; Nazemi, Berouz; Choe, Chun Sik; Darvin, Maxim E; Hadam, Sabrina; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Loza, Kateryna; Diendorf, Jörg; Epple, Matthias; Graf, Christina; Rühl, Eckart; Meinke, Martina C; Lademann, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The investigation of nanoparticle interactions with tissues is complex. High levels of standardization, ideally testing of different material types in the same biological model, and combinations of sensitive imaging and detection methods are required. Here, we present our studies on nanoparticle interactions with skin, skin cells, and biological media. Silica, titanium dioxide and silver particles were chosen as representative examples for different types of skin exposure to nanomaterials, e.g., unintended environmental exposure (silica) versus intended exposure through application of sunscreen (titanium dioxide) or antiseptics (silver). Because each particle type exhibits specific physicochemical properties, we were able to apply different combinations of methods to examine skin penetration and cellular uptake, including optical microscopy, electron microscopy, X-ray microscopy on cells and tissue sections, flow cytometry of isolated skin cells as well as Raman microscopy on whole tissue blocks. In order to assess the biological relevance of such findings, cell viability and free radical production were monitored on cells and in whole tissue samples. The combination of technologies and the joint discussion of results enabled us to look at nanoparticle-skin interactions and the biological relevance of our findings from different angles.

  14. Interaction of dermatologically relevant nanoparticles with skin cells and skin

    PubMed Central

    Rancan, Fiorenza; Ahlberg, Sebastian; Nazemi, Berouz; Choe, Chun Sik; Darvin, Maxim E; Hadam, Sabrina; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Loza, Kateryna; Diendorf, Jörg; Epple, Matthias; Graf, Christina; Rühl, Eckart; Meinke, Martina C; Lademann, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Summary The investigation of nanoparticle interactions with tissues is complex. High levels of standardization, ideally testing of different material types in the same biological model, and combinations of sensitive imaging and detection methods are required. Here, we present our studies on nanoparticle interactions with skin, skin cells, and biological media. Silica, titanium dioxide and silver particles were chosen as representative examples for different types of skin exposure to nanomaterials, e.g., unintended environmental exposure (silica) versus intended exposure through application of sunscreen (titanium dioxide) or antiseptics (silver). Because each particle type exhibits specific physicochemical properties, we were able to apply different combinations of methods to examine skin penetration and cellular uptake, including optical microscopy, electron microscopy, X-ray microscopy on cells and tissue sections, flow cytometry of isolated skin cells as well as Raman microscopy on whole tissue blocks. In order to assess the biological relevance of such findings, cell viability and free radical production were monitored on cells and in whole tissue samples. The combination of technologies and the joint discussion of results enabled us to look at nanoparticle–skin interactions and the biological relevance of our findings from different angles. PMID:25551064

  15. Skin microbiome and skin disease: the example of rosacea.

    PubMed

    Picardo, Mauro; Ottaviani, Monica

    2014-01-01

    The imbalance and/or the perturbation of the microbial populations that colonize the skin and that contribute to its defense may represent one of the causes of the development of noninfectious skin diseases. Atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, acne, and rosacea can be listed among these kinds of pathologies. In particular, considering that microbes have been long addressed as having a role in rosacea, this common dermatosis can be an interesting model to evaluate the correlation between microbiome alterations and the occurrence of clinical manifestations. Different microorganisms have been suggested to have a role in rosacea, but no direct correlation with the incidence of the pathology has been clearly defined. Skin microbiome composition is crucial for the correct skin immune functions and recent findings indicate an abnormal activation of innate immune system associated with the rosacea. The enhanced expression of toll-like receptor 2 in the epidermis of rosacea patients can represent a possible explanation for the amplified inflammatory response to external stimuli observed during the disease. In addition, significantly higher small intestinal bacterial overgrowth prevalence in rosacea subjects has been found and its eradication has been associated with a regression of the skin lesions. In conclusion, both skin and gut microbiome seem to have a role, even if synergistic with other factors, in the pathogenesis of rosacea. A deeper knowledge of human microbiome composition and microbe-host interactions will contribute to clarify the mechanism of development of rosacea and possibly will provide innovative therapeutic approaches.

  16. Regulated Proenkephalin Expression in Human Skin and Cultured Skin Cells

    PubMed Central

    Slominski, Andrzej T.; Zmijewski, Michal A.; Zbytek, Blazej; Brozyna, Anna A.; Granese, Jackie; Pisarchik, Alexander; Szczesniewski, Andre; Tobin, Desmond J.

    2011-01-01

    Skin responds to environmental stressors via coordinated actions of the local neuroimmunoendocrine system. Although some of these responses involve opioid receptors, little is known about cutaneous proenkephalin expression, its environmental regulation, and alterations in pathology. The objective of this study was to assess regulated expression of proenkephalin in normal and pathological skin and in isolated melanocytes, keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and melanoma cells. The proenkephalin gene and protein were expressed in skin and cultured cells, with significant expression in fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Mass spectroscopy confirmed Leu- and Met-enkephalin in skin. UVR, Toll-like receptor (TLR)4, and TLR2 agonists stimulated proenkephalin gene expression in melanocytes and keratinocytes in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In situ Met/Leu-enkephalin peptides were expressed in differentiating keratinocytes of the epidermis in the outer root sheath of the hair follicle, in myoepithelial cells of the eccrine gland, and in the basement membrane/basal lamina separating epithelial and mesenchymal components. Met/Leu-enkephalin expression was altered in pathological skin, increasing in psoriasis and decreasing in melanocytic tumors. Not only does human skin express proenkephalin, but this expression is upregulated by stressful stimuli and can be altered by pathological conditions. PMID:21191404

  17. Gram stain of skin lesion

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names Skin lesion gram stain Images Viral lesion culture References Hall GS, Woods GL. Medical bacteriology. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  18. Moisturizers: Options for Softer Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... producing glands become less active. To keep your skin soft and well-hydrated, choose an oil-based moisturizer that contains petrolatum as the base, along with antioxidants or alpha hydroxy acids to combat wrinkles. These ...

  19. Radiation Therapy for Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... make sure they are safe to use during radiation therapy. • Eat a balanced diet. If food tastes ... your fluid intake. • Treat the skin exposed to radiation with special care. Stay out of the sun, ...

  20. Epidemiological trends in skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Apalla, Zoe; Lallas, Aimilios; Sotiriou, Elena; Lazaridou, Elizabeth; Ioannides, Demetrios

    2017-04-01

    Skin cancer, including melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), represents the most common type of malignancy in the white population. The incidence rate of melanoma is increasing worldwide, while the associated mortality remains stable, or is slightly decreasing. On the other hand, the incidence for NMSC varies widely, with the highest rates reported in Australia. In the current review, we highlight recent global trends in epidemiology of skin cancer. We discuss controversial issues raised in current epidemiological data, we analyze the most important risk factors associated with the development of melanoma and NMSC and the impact of skin cancer on health care services. Furthermore, we underline the pressing need for improved registration policies, especially for NMSC, and lastly, we refer to the ongoing primary and secondary prevention strategies and their outcomes so far.

  1. TRP channels in the skin.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Balázs I; Oláh, Attila; Szöllősi, Attila Gábor; Bíró, Tamás

    2014-05-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels not only act as 'polymodal cellular sensors' on sensory neurons but are also functionally expressed by a multitude of non-neuronal cell types. This is especially true in the skin, one of the largest organs of the body, where they appear to be critically involved in regulating various cutaneous functions both under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. In this review, we focus on introducing the roles of several cutaneous TRP channels in the regulation of the skin barrier, skin cell proliferation and differentiation, and immune functions. Moreover, we also describe the putative involvement of several TRP channels in the development of certain skin diseases and identify future TRP channel-targeted therapeutic opportunities.

  2. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... the body's largest organ . It protects against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection . Skin also helps control body ... cancer risk factors include: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  3. [Vitamin D and the skin].

    PubMed

    Libon, F; Cavalier, E; Nikkels, A F

    2013-09-01

    Vitamin D is well known for its beneficial effects on phosphocalcic homeostasis. The discovery of the role of vitamin D in cancers, infections, cardiovascular or autoimmune pathologies have promoted interest for this molecule. Skin and vitamin D are closely related. The skin is not only the site of vitamin D synthesis, but also a target organ as calcitriol plays an important hormonal and regulatory role, acting on cell proliferation, differentiation and immunomodulation. Furthermore, vitamin D influences the incidence and therapeutic response of certain dermatoses. In addition, many medical situations, mainly dermatological, require strict photoprotection and may therefore indirectly be responsible for a vitamin D deficiency in patients. The current role of vitamin D in skin cancers, inflammatory and autoimmune skin diseases is summarized.

  4. Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for skin cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  5. Skin smoothing surgery - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Dermabrasion may be offered to patients with: Facial scars from acne, accidents, and previous surgery Fine facial ... is used to gently and carefully "sand" the scar tissue off down to normal, healthy skin. The ...

  6. Tips for Relieving Dry Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Previous meetings archive Advocacy News Advocacy priorities Drug pricing and availability CVS dermatologic formulary restrictions Skin cancer ... or 10 minutes Use warm rather than hot water Wash with a gentle, fragrance-free cleanser Apply ...

  7. Dry skin - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... frequently Washing your hands often Some soaps and detergents Skin conditions, such as eczema and psoriasis Certain ... Avoid rough fabrics like wool. Wash clothes with detergents that are free of dyes or fragrances. Drink ...

  8. Skin Diseases and the Adolescent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Marjorie

    1970-01-01

    Discusses such concerns as acne, syphilis, drug abuse, and tatoos. Indicates need for physician not only to treat skin diseases but to help adolescents to accept themselves and find constructive directions. (CJ)

  9. Insulin resistance and skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Napolitano, Maddalena; Megna, Matteo; Monfrecola, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    In medical practice, almost every clinician may encounter patients with skin disease. However, it is not always easy for physicians of all specialties to face the daily task of determining the nature and clinical implication of dermatologic manifestations. Are they confined to the skin, representing a pure dermatologic event? Or are they also markers of internal conditions relating to the patient's overall health? In this review, we will discuss the principal cutaneous conditions which have been linked to metabolic alterations. Particularly, since insulin has an important role in homeostasis and physiology of the skin, we will focus on the relationships between insulin resistance (IR) and skin diseases, analyzing strongly IR-associated conditions such as acanthosis nigricans, acne, and psoriasis, without neglecting emerging and potential scenarios as the ones represented by hidradenitis suppurativa, androgenetic alopecia, and hirsutism.

  10. Skin Diseases and the Adolescent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Marjorie

    1970-01-01

    Discusses such concerns as acne, syphilis, drug abuse, and tatoos. Indicates need for physician not only to treat skin diseases but to help adolescents to accept themselves and find constructive directions. (CJ)

  11. Discovery – Preventing Skin Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer research includes stopping cancer before it spreads. NCI funded the development of the Melanoma Risk Assessment Tool and the ABC method. Both help to diagnose high-risk patients and prevent melanoma earlier in the fight against skin cancer.

  12. Insulin Resistance and Skin Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Napolitano, Maddalena; Megna, Matteo; Monfrecola, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    In medical practice, almost every clinician may encounter patients with skin disease. However, it is not always easy for physicians of all specialties to face the daily task of determining the nature and clinical implication of dermatologic manifestations. Are they confined to the skin, representing a pure dermatologic event? Or are they also markers of internal conditions relating to the patient's overall health? In this review, we will discuss the principal cutaneous conditions which have been linked to metabolic alterations. Particularly, since insulin has an important role in homeostasis and physiology of the skin, we will focus on the relationships between insulin resistance (IR) and skin diseases, analyzing strongly IR-associated conditions such as acanthosis nigricans, acne, and psoriasis, without neglecting emerging and potential scenarios as the ones represented by hidradenitis suppurativa, androgenetic alopecia, and hirsutism. PMID:25977937

  13. Scaly-skinned Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The style of erosion along the highlands-lowlands boundary of southern Elysium Planitia has produced a strange pattern of troughs that look like the skin of a reptile. In reality, a very clear process of landscape degradation is evident in this image. Some process has produced polygon-shaped troughs that create zones of weakness in the uppermost crust. It is likely that wind-blown particles deepen and widen the troughs, producing isolated knobs and mesas. Ultimately, the erosional reworking of the landscape is so complete that all signs of the upper layer are removed, leaving the smooth lowland surface to the north.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  14. Scaly-skinned Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The style of erosion along the highlands-lowlands boundary of southern Elysium Planitia has produced a strange pattern of troughs that look like the skin of a reptile. In reality, a very clear process of landscape degradation is evident in this image. Some process has produced polygon-shaped troughs that create zones of weakness in the uppermost crust. It is likely that wind-blown particles deepen and widen the troughs, producing isolated knobs and mesas. Ultimately, the erosional reworking of the landscape is so complete that all signs of the upper layer are removed, leaving the smooth lowland surface to the north.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  15. Skin flora: implications for nursing.

    PubMed

    Gould, Dinah

    Many patients receiving inpatient care or admitted as day cases undergo invasive procedures that place them at potential risk of healthcare-associated infection. Human skin is populated with microorganisms most of which are harmless, however some have pathogenic potential. This article outlines the protective function of intact skin and describes its resident and transient microbial flora. The role and limitations of antiseptics in reducing the risk of infection are discussed.

  16. Laser surgery of the skin.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, D J

    1989-11-01

    The carbon dioxide laser, the argon laser and the pulse-dye laser are used to remove a variety of skin lesions. Advantages of laser surgery include a relatively bloodless operating field and minimal postoperative discomfort and swelling. Warts, tattoos, actinic cheilitis, skin cancer, xanthelasma, ingrown toenails, keloids and port-wine stains are among the lesions that can be removed with laser surgery. The tunable pulse-dye laser is particularly useful in the treatment of vascular lesions.

  17. Sexual hormones in human skin.

    PubMed

    Zouboulis, C C; Chen, W-C; Thornton, M J; Qin, K; Rosenfield, R

    2007-02-01

    The skin locally synthesizes significant amounts of sexual hormones with intracrine or paracrine actions. The local level of each sexual steroid depends upon the expression of each of the androgen- and estrogen-synthesizing enzymes in each cell type, with sebaceous glands and sweat glands being the major contributors. Sebocytes express very little of the key enzyme, cytochrome P450c17, necessary for synthesis of the androgenic prohormones dehydroepiandrosterone and androstenedione, however, these prohormones can be converted by sebocytes and sweat glands, and probably also by dermal papilla cells, into more potent androgens like testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. Five major enzymes are involved in the activation and deactivation of androgens in skin. Androgens affect several functions of human skin, such as sebaceous gland growth and differentiation, hair growth, epidermal barrier homeostasis and wound healing. Their effects are mediated by binding to the nuclear androgen receptor. Changes of isoenzyme and/or androgen receptor levels may have important implications in the development of hyperandrogenism and the associated skin diseases such as acne, seborrhoea, hirsutism and androgenetic alopecia. On the other hand, estrogens have been implicated in skin aging, pigmentation, hair growth, sebum production and skin cancer. Estrogens exert their actions through intracellular receptors or via cell surface receptors, which activate specific second messenger signaling pathways. Recent studies suggest specific site-related distribution of ERalpha and ERbeta in human skin. In contrast, progestins play no role in the pathogenesis of skin disorders. However, they play a major role in the treatment of hirsutism and acne vulgaris, where they are prescribed as components of estrogen-progestin combination pills and as anti-androgens. These combinations enhance gonadotropin suppression of ovarian androgen production. Estrogen-progestin treatment can reduce the need for shaving

  18. 19 CFR 12.63 - Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. 12.63 Section... OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.63 Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste composed of small pieces not large enough to be...

  19. 19 CFR 12.63 - Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. 12.63 Section... OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.63 Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste composed of small pieces not large enough to be...

  20. 19 CFR 12.63 - Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. 12.63 Section... OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.63 Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste composed of small pieces not large enough to be...

  1. 19 CFR 12.63 - Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. 12.63 Section... OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.63 Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste composed of small pieces not large enough to be...

  2. 19 CFR 12.63 - Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. 12.63 Section... OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.63 Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste composed of small pieces not large enough to...

  3. Protective Skins for Composite Airliners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Vicki S.; Boone, Richard L.; Jones, Shannon; Pendse, Vandana; Hayward, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Traditional composite aircraft structures are designed for load bearing and then overdesigned for impact damage and hot humid environments. Seeking revolutionary improvement in the performance and weight of composite structures, Cessna Aircraft Company, with sponsorship from the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program/Subsonic Fixed Wing Project, has developed and tested a protective skin concept which would allow the primary composite structure to carry only load and would meet the impact, hot and humid, and other requirements through protective skins. A key requirement for the protective skins is to make any impact damage requiring repair visible. Testing from the first generation of skins helped identify the most promising materials which were used in a second generation of test articles. This report summarizes lessons learned from the first generation of protective skins, the design and construction of the second-generation test articles, test results from the second generation for impact, electromagnetic effects, aesthetics and smoothing, thermal, and acoustic (for the first time), and an assessment of the feasibility of the protective skin concept.

  4. Tight junctions in skin inflammation.

    PubMed

    Bäsler, Katja; Brandner, Johanna M

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation of the skin is found after various external stimuli, e.g., UV radiation, allergen uptake, microbial challenge, or contact with irritants, as well as due to intrinsic, not always well-defined, stimuli, e.g., in autoimmune responses. Often, it is also triggered by a combination of both. The specific processes, which mean the kind of cytokines and immune cells involved and the extent of the reaction, depend not only on the trigger but also on the predisposition of the individual. Tight junctions (TJs) in the skin have been shown to form a barrier in the granular cell layer of the epidermis. Furthermore, TJ proteins were found in several additional epidermal layers. Besides barrier function, TJ proteins have been shown to be involved in proliferation, differentiation, cell-cell adhesion, and apoptosis in keratinocytes. In inflamed skin, TJ proteins are often affected. We summarize here the impact of skin inflammation on TJs, e.g., in various forms of dermatitis including atopic dermatitis, in skin infection, and in UV-irradiated skin, and discuss the role of TJs in these inflammatory processes.

  5. [Skin cancer incidence in Zacatecas].

    PubMed

    Pinedo-Vega, José Luis; Castañeda-López, Rosalba; Dávila-Rangel, J Ignacio; Mireles-García, Fernando; Ríos-Martínez, Carlos; López-Saucedo, Adrián

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most frequent cancer related to ultraviolet radiation. The aim was to estimate the incidence of skin cancer type, melanoma and non-melanoma in Zacatecas, Mexico. An epidemiological study was carried out during the period from 2008 to 2012. The data were obtained from the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado (ISSSTE), Secretaría de Salud de Zacatecas (SSZ) and a private source, the Centro Médico Alameda. The incidence and the global prevalence were estimated. We studied 958 skin cancer cases, histopathologically confirmed. The cases were distributed as: 63.6 % basal cell carcinomas, 25.8 % squamous cell carcinomas, and 10.6 % melanoma. Significantly higher proportions were observed in women in the basal cell carcinomas (60.4 %) and squamous cell carcinomas (53.4 %). However, in the case of melanoma, the major proportion was observed in men (55.9 %). The more frequent skin cancer location was the face and for basal cell carcinoma was the nose (53 %); for squamous cell carcinomas were the lips (36 %), and for melanoma it was also the nose (40 %). The skin cancer incidence was estimated in 20 cases for each 100 000 inhabitants. Linear regression analysis showed that the skin cancer is increasing at an annual rate of 10.5 %. The anatomical location indicates that solar UV radiation is a risk factor, since the face is the zone with major exposure to solar radiation.

  6. Systemic antioxidants and skin health.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Gloria; Torres, Abel

    2012-09-01

    Most dermatologists agree that antioxidants help fight free radical damage and can help maintain healthy skin. They do so by affecting intracellular signaling pathways involved in skin damage and protecting against photodamage, as well as preventing wrinkles and inflammation. In today's modern world of the rising nutraceutical industry, many people, in addition to applying topical skin care products, turn to supplementation of the nutrients missing in their diets by taking multivitamins or isolated, man-made nutraceuticals, in what is known as the Inside-Out approach to skin care. However, ingestion of large quantities of isolated, fragmented nutrients can be harmful and is a poor representation of the kind of nutrition that can be obtained from whole food sources. In this comprehensive review, it was found that few studies on oral antioxidants benefiting the skin have been done using whole foods, and that the vast majority of current research is focused on the study of compounds in isolation. However, the public stands to benefit greatly if more research were to be devoted toward the impact that physiologic doses of antioxidants (obtained from fruits, vegetables, and whole grains) can have on skin health, and on health in general.

  7. UV Radiation and the Skin

    PubMed Central

    D’Orazio, John; Jarrett, Stuart; Amaro-Ortiz, Alexandra; Scott, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    UV radiation (UV) is classified as a “complete carcinogen” because it is both a mutagen and a non-specific damaging agent and has properties of both a tumor initiator and a tumor promoter. In environmental abundance, UV is the most important modifiable risk factor for skin cancer and many other environmentally-influenced skin disorders. However, UV also benefits human health by mediating natural synthesis of vitamin D and endorphins in the skin, therefore UV has complex and mixed effects on human health. Nonetheless, excessive exposure to UV carries profound health risks, including atrophy, pigmentary changes, wrinkling and malignancy. UV is epidemiologically and molecularly linked to the three most common types of skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, which together affect more than a million Americans annually. Genetic factors also influence risk of UV-mediated skin disease. Polymorphisms of the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene, in particular, correlate with fairness of skin, UV sensitivity, and enhanced cancer risk. We are interested in developing UV-protective approaches based on a detailed understanding of molecular events that occur after UV exposure, focusing particularly on epidermal melanization and the role of the MC1R in genome maintenance. PMID:23749111

  8. Pickering emulsions for skin decontamination.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Alicia; Bolzinger, Marie-Alexandrine; Rolland, Pauline; Chevalier, Yves; Josse, Denis; Briançon, Stéphanie

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed at developing innovative systems for skin decontamination. Pickering emulsions, i.e. solid-stabilized emulsions, containing silica (S-PE) or Fuller's earth (FE-PE) were formulated. Their efficiency for skin decontamination was evaluated, in vitro, 45min after an exposure to VX, one of the most highly toxic chemical warfare agents. Pickering emulsions were compared to FE (FE-W) and silica (S-W) aqueous suspensions. PE containing an oil with a similar hydrophobicity to VX should promote its extraction. All the formulations reduced significantly the amount of VX quantified on and into the skin compared to the control. Wiping the skin surface with a pad already allowed removing more than half of VX. FE-W was the less efficient (85% of VX removed). The other formulations (FE-PE, S-PE and S-W) resulted in more than 90% of the quantity of VX removed. The charge of particles was the most influential factor. The low pH of formulations containing silica favored electrostatic interactions of VX with particles explaining the better elimination from the skin surface. Formulations containing FE had basic pH, and weak interactions with VX did not improve the skin decontamination. However, these low interactions between VX and FE promote the transfer of VX into the oil droplets in the FE-PE.

  9. An effective skin integrity program.

    PubMed

    Banks, K; Jones, E S; Law, M S; MacAvoy, S

    1993-01-01

    Nursing staff development personnel are responsible for increasing the awareness of nursing staff of the problems caused by pressure ulcers and for supplying them with information needed for prevention and treatment. In answer to one hospital's needs, a hospital-wide, nurse-initiated, nurse-managed skin integrity program was developed and instituted. Protocols for treatment were standardized according to the latest concepts in wound healing. Basic components of the program were included in a comprehensive but succinct reference manual available on each nursing unit. Strategies for implementation were carefully planned to include feedback, approval, and support of selected physicians and nurses. Key for an effective, ongoing skin integrity program are the skin integrity clinicians and educated, confident, and enthusiastic staff nurses. Throughout the process of introducing this program, education of various groups of health-care professionals--physicians, staff nurses, skin integrity clinicians--by the Nursing Staff Development Department was pivotal in achieving a relatively smooth implementation of the program. Outcomes have demonstrated the success of this skin integrity program to both patients and staff. Creative planning, diligent research, skillful organization, and credibility of the specialists in the Nursing Staff Development Department were important elements in the development, implementation, and success of this skin integrity program.

  10. [New views about the skin].

    PubMed

    Guimberteau, J-C; Delage, J-P; Wong, J

    2010-08-01

    As the follow up article to "Introduction to the knowledge of subcutaneous sliding system in humans" published in the "Annales de chirurgie plastique" we further investigate the architecture of the skin and comment on the subcutaneous multifibrillar and microvacuolar arrangements that provide form, mobility, adaptability and resistance to force of gravity. The study aimed to highlight the direct link between the skin and subcutaneous environment in dynamic living tissue. Through high resolution endoscopic observations made during live surgery it is revealed how microvacuoles and microspaces can provide dynamic structure and form during movement between the epidermis, dermis and hypodermis. The study reveals intriguing morphodynamics which are necessary to maintain mobility and continuity to neighboring tissues. The polyhedric design of the skin surface directly relates to multifibrillar pillars beneath the skin which dictate their patterning and movement. The concept of tissue continuity is realised by the chaotic and fractal organisation of multifibrils interlaced with cellular components which characteristics alter depending on the state of hydration. Understanding the integral arrangement that provides continuity of all the structures below the skin provides an appreciation to how skin behaves in relation to movement of the rest of the body.

  11. Occupational skin cancer: Systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sena, Jéssica Suellen; Girão, Régio José Santiago; Carvalho, Sionara Melo Figueiredo de; Tavares, Rosielly Melo; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz Affonso; Silva, Patrícia Barros Aquino; Barbosa, Maria Clara Fortes Portela

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the epidemiological profile, risk factors in the workplace environment and prevention methods for professionals at risk of skin cancer. A systematic review of articles on occupational skin cancer, published in the Lilacs, Scielo, Medline and Cochrane Library from January 1st, 2008, to December 31st, 2013, was performed. The search included the following terms: "neoplasias cutâneas" (DeCS), "exposição ocupacional" (DeCS), "epidemiologia" (DeCS) as well as the keyword "prevenção", and their equivalents in English. After analyzing the titles and summaries of articles, the search strategy resulted in 83 references, of which 22 articles met the eligibility criteria. We found that sun exposure is the main occupational risk factor for skin cancer, causing outdoor workers to be the most vulnerable to developing occupational skin cancer. Professionals with low levels of education and European descent are at increased risk of developing this cancer. Outdoor workers are more vulnerable to developing occupational skin cancer, estimating that professionals with low level of education and European descent are at increased risk of developing this cancer. Therefore, companies need to invest more in the health of workers by providing protective equipment and thus preventing occupational skin cancer.

  12. Radiation sterilization of skin allograft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kairiyama, E.; Horak, C.; Spinosa, M.; Pachado, J.; Schwint, O.

    2009-07-01

    In the treatment of burns or accidental loss of skin, cadaveric skin allografts provide an alternative to temporarily cover a wounded area. The skin bank facility is indispensable for burn care. The first human skin bank was established in Argentina in 1989; later, 3 more banks were established. A careful donor selection is carried out according to the national regulation in order to prevent transmissible diseases. As cadaveric human skin is naturally highly contaminated, a final sterilization is necessary to reach a sterility assurance level (SAL) of 10 -6. The sterilization dose for 106 batches of processed human skin was determined on the basis of the Code of Practice for the Radiation Sterilization of Tissue Allografts: Requirements for Validation and Routine Control (2004) and ISO 11137-2 (2006). They ranged from 17.6 to 33.4 kGy for bioburdens of >10-162.700 CFU/100 cm 2. The presence of Gram negative bacteria was checked for each produced batch. From the analysis of the experimental results, it was observed that the bioburden range was very wide and consequently the estimated sterilization doses too. If this is the case, the determination of a tissue-specific dose per production batch is necessary to achieve a specified requirement of SAL. Otherwise if the dose of 25 kGy is preselected, a standardized method for substantiation of this dose should be done to confirm the radiation sterilization process.

  13. [Compression treatment for burned skin].

    PubMed

    Jaafar, Fadhel; Lassoued, Mohamed A; Sahnoun, Mahdi; Sfar, Souad; Cheikhrouhou, Morched

    2012-02-01

    The regularity of a compressive knit is defined as its ability to perform its function in a burnt skin. This property is essential to avoid the phenomenon of rejection of the material or toxicity problems But: Make knits biocompatible with high burnet of human skin. We fabric knits of elastic material. To ensure good adhesion to the skin, we made elastic material, typically a tight loop knitted. The Length of yarn absorbed by stitch and the raw matter are changed with each sample. The physical properties of each sample are measured and compared. Surface modifications are made to these samples by impregnation of microcapsules based on jojoba oil. Knits are compressif, elastic in all directions, light, thin, comfortable, and washable for hygiene issues. In addition, the washing can find their compressive properties. The Jojoba Oil microcapsules hydrated the human burnet skin. This moisturizer is used to the firmness of the wound and it gives flexibility to the skin. Compressive Knits are biocompatible with burnet skin. The mixture of natural and synthetic fibers is irreplaceable in terms comfort and regularity.

  14. Relation between skin micro-topography, roughness, and skin age.

    PubMed

    Trojahn, C; Dobos, G; Schario, M; Ludriksone, L; Blume-Peytavi, U; Kottner, J

    2015-02-01

    The topography of the skin surface consists of lines, wrinkles, and scales. Primary and secondary lines form a network like structure that may be identified as polygons. Skin surface roughness measurements are widely applied in dermatological research and practice but the relation between roughness parameters and their anatomical equivalents are unclear. This study aimed to investigate whether the number of closed polygons (NCP) per measurement field can be used as a reliable parameter to measure skin surface topography. For this purpose, we analysed the relation between skin surface roughness parameters and NCP in different age groups. Images of the volar forearm skin of 38 subjects (14 children, 12 younger, and 12 older adults) were obtained with the VisioScan VC98. The NCP was counted by three independent researchers and selected roughness parameters were measured. Interrater reliability of counting the number of closed polygons and correlations between NCP, roughness parameters, and age were calculated. The mean NCP/mm² in children was 3.1 (SD 1.1), in younger adults 1.0 (SD 0.7), and in older adults 1.0 (SD 0.9). The interrater reliability was 0.9. A negative correlation of NCP/mm² with age was observed, whereas measured roughness parameters were positively associated with age. NCP/mm² was weakly related to skin roughness. The NCP/mm² is a reproducible parameter for characterizing the skin surface topography. It is proposed as an additional parameter in dermatological research and practice because it represents distinct aspects of the cutaneous profile not covered by established roughness parameters. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Quiz: Test Your Skin Cancer IQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... to fight against melanoma. Read More "Skin Cancer" Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & ... and Sun – Safety First / Quiz: Test Your Skin Cancer IQ Summer 2013 Issue: Volume 8 Number ... Us | Viewers & Players Friends of the National Library of Medicine (FNLM)

  16. 7 CFR 51.1549 - Skinning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Skinning. 51.1549 Section 51.1549 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Skinning § 51.1549 Skinning. (a) The following definitions provide a basis for describing lots of potatoes as to the degree of skinning whenever description may...

  17. 7 CFR 51.1549 - Skinning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Skinning. 51.1549 Section 51.1549 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Skinning § 51.1549 Skinning. (a) The following definitions provide a basis for describing lots of potatoes as to the degree of skinning whenever description may...

  18. 7 CFR 51.1549 - Skinning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Skinning. 51.1549 Section 51.1549 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Skinning § 51.1549 Skinning. (a) The following definitions provide a basis for describing lots of potatoes as to the degree of skinning whenever description may be...

  19. Skin Transcriptome Profiles Associated with Skin Color in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianqin; Liu, Fuzhu; Cao, Junting; Liu, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional and medicinal benefits have been attributed to the consumption of tissues from the black-boned chickens in oriental countries. Lueyang black-boned chicken is one of the native chicken breeds. However, some birds may instead have white or lighter skin, which directly causes economic losses every year. Previous studies of pigmentation have focused on a number of genes that may play important roles in coat color regulation. Illumina2000 sequencing technology was used to catalog the global gene expression profiles in the skin of the Lueyang chicken with white versus black skin. A total of 18,608 unigenes were assembled from the reads obtained from the skin of the white and black chickens. A total of 649 known genes were differentially expressed in the black versus white chickens, with 314 genes that were up regulated and 335 genes that were down-regulated, and a total of 162 novel genes were differentially expressed in the black versus white chickens, consisting of 73 genes that were up-regulated (including 4 highly expressed genes that were expressed exclusively in the skin of the black chickens) and 89 genes that were down-regulated. There were also a total of 8 known coat-color genes expressed in previous studies (ASIP, TYR, KIT, TYRP1, OCA2, KITLG, MITF and MC1R). In this study, 4 of which showed greater expression in the black chickens, and several were up-regulated, such as KIT, ASIP, TYR and OCA2. To our surprise, KITLG, MITF and MC1R showed no significant difference in expression between the black- and white-skinned chickens, and the expression of TYRP1 was not detected in either skin color. The expression of ASIP, TYR, KIT, TYRP1, OCA2, KITLG, MITF and MC1R was validated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and the results of the qPCR were consistent with the RNA-seq. This study provides several candidate genes that may be associated with the development of black versus white skin. More importantly, the fact that the MC1R

  20. What's New in Research and Treatment of Melanoma Skin Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Melanoma Skin Cancer About Melanoma Skin Cancer What’s New in Melanoma Skin Cancer Research? Research into the ... Cancer? Key Statistics for Melanoma Skin Cancer What’s New in Melanoma Skin Cancer Research? More In Melanoma ...

  1. Skin interaction with absorbent hygiene products.

    PubMed

    Runeman, Bo

    2008-01-01

    Skin problems due to the use of absorbent hygiene products, such as diapers, incontinence pads, and feminine sanitary articles, are mostly due to climate or chafing discomfort. If these conditions are allowed to prevail, these may develop into an irritant contact dermatitis and eventually superficial skin infections. Skin humidity and aging skin are among the most significant predisposing and aggravating factors for dermatitis development. Improved product design features are believed to explain the decline in observed diaper dermatitis among infants. Where adult incontinence-related skin problems are concerned, it is very important to apply a holistic perspective to understand the influences due to the individual's incontinence level and skin condition, as well as the hygiene and skin care measures provided. Individuals with frail, sensitive skin or with skin diseases may preferably have to use high-quality products, equipped with superabsorbent polymers and water vapor-permeable back sheets, to minimize the risk of skin complications.

  2. Influence of skin penetration enhancers on skin barrier function and skin protease activity.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Diar; Hirata, Kazumasa; Hadgraft, Jonathan; Lane, Majella E

    2014-01-23

    In order to overcome the skin's excellent barrier function formulation scientists often employ skin penetration enhancers (SPEs) in topical and transdermal formulations. The effects of these compounds on skin health is still not well understood at the molecular level. The aim of the present work was to probe the effects of some common SPEs on desquamatory protease activity in healthy skin. The SPEs studied were isopropyl myristate (IPM), propylene glycol, (PG), propylene glycol laurate (PGL) and Transcutol™ (TC). Occluded infinite doses of each SPE were applied to human volunteers for 24 h. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) measurements were taken before and after application of SPEs. Tape strips were collected from the treated sites to determine protein content and the activity of two desquamatory proteases kallikrein 5 (KLK5) and kallikrein 7 (KLK7). TEWL values were also measured after tape stripping. PG was found to elevate both TEWL values and KLK7 activity to a significant extent (p<0.05). No significant effects were observed for the other SPEs. The ability of PG to alter the skin barrier at the macroscopic level and the influence of the molecule on protease activity reported here may have implications for its use in topical formulations used for the management of impaired skin barrier function such as atopic eczema or psoriasis.

  3. Skin findings in Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kozel, Beth A; Bayliss, Susan J; Berk, David R; Waxler, Jessica L; Knutsen, Russell H; Danback, Joshua R; Pober, Barbara R

    2014-09-01

    Previous examination in a small number of individuals with Williams syndrome (also referred to as Williams-Beuren syndrome) has shown subtly softer skin and reduced deposition of elastin, an elastic matrix protein important in tissue recoil. No quantitative information about skin elasticity in individuals with Williams syndrome is available; nor has there been a complete report of dermatologic findings in this population. To fill this knowledge gap, 94 patients with Williams syndrome aged 7-50 years were recruited as part of the skin and vascular elasticity (WS-SAVE) study. They underwent either a clinical dermatologic assessment by trained dermatologists (2010 WSA family meeting) or measurement of biomechanical properties of the skin with the DermaLab™ suction cup (2012 WSA family meeting). Clinical assessment confirmed that soft skin is common in this population (83%), as is premature graying of the hair (80% of those 20 years or older), while wrinkles (92%), and abnormal scarring (33%) were detected in larger than expected proportions. Biomechanical studies detected statistically significant differences in dP (the pressure required to lift the skin), dT (the time required to raise the skin through a prescribed gradient), VE (viscoelasticity), and E (Young's modulus) relative to matched controls. The RT (retraction time) also trended longer but was not significant. The biomechanical differences noted in these patients did not correlate with the presence of vascular defects also attributable to elastin insufficiency (vascular stiffness, hypertension, and arterial stenosis) suggesting the presence of tissue specific modifiers that modulate the impact of elastin insufficiency in each tissue. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Environmental pollutants and skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Baudouin, C; Charveron, M; Tarroux, R; Gall, Y

    2002-01-01

    We are increasingly exposed to environmental pollution. Pollutants can be inhaled, ingested or come into contact with the skin depending on the form in which they occur. On metabolization, activation, or accumulation, pollutants can become extremely toxic for the vital organs and this is often related to a strong genotoxic effect. Since the skin acts as a barrier between the organism and the environment, it is frequently directly exposed to pollution. It is very often degraded by polluting agents and acts as an inlet toward other tissues. Numerous studies in man recognize and demonstrate the carcinogenic power of certain pollutants in the digestive and respiratory tracts. The "pollutants" that react most specifically with the skin are: ultraviolet radiation, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., benzo[a]pyrene), volatile organic compounds (e.g., benzene), heavy metals, and ozone. Ultraviolet radiation, a "physical" pollutant, has been described as being the factor responsible for most skin cancers in man. The genotoxicity of UV light is well documented (type of lesion or mutation, etc.) and its carcinogenic effect is clearly demonstrated in vivo in man. A few epidemiological studies describe the carcinogenicity of certain pollutants such as arsenic or lead on the skin. However, most of the evidence for the role of pollutants in skin cancers comes from in vivo animal studies or from in vitro studies (e.g., PAHs). In this report, different studies are presented to illustrate the research strategies developed to investigate the mechanism of action of "chemical" pollutants and their potential role in human skin pathology. All the study models and the associated techniques of investigation are tools for a better understanding and thus more efficient prevention of the deleterious effects caused by the environment.

  5. [Skin cancer as occupational disease].

    PubMed

    Bauer, A

    2016-11-01

    The incidence of epithelial skin neoplasms, such as squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma is significantly increasing worldwide. Leisure time solar UV exposure is causative in the overwhelming majority of cases in the general population; however, occupational exposure is responsible for a certain percentage of cases. Employees with a relevant exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soot, raw paraffin, coal tar, anthracene, pitch or similar substances, to sunlight in outdoor occupations as well as to arsenic and ionizing radiation have a significantly increased risk to develop occupational skin cancer compared to the general population. In the official occupational disease list in the appendix of the German by-law on occupational diseases, the following occupational diseases concerning skin cancer are listed: BK 5102 "skin cancer and carcinoma in situ caused by soot, raw paraffin, coal tar, anthracene, pitch or similar substances" (e.g. various solid paraffins, asphalt and mazut as well as mineral oils, grease, cylinder and drilling oils), BK 5103 "squamous cell carcinoma or multiple actinic keratosis caused by natural UV radiation", BK 1108 "diseases caused by arsenic and its compounds" and BK 2402 "diseases caused by ionizing radiation". For further occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances and potential occupationally acquired skin tumors, no official lists are currently available. These cancers might be considered under a special opt out paragraph in the German Social Law (§ 9 para 2 SGB VII). Tumors in scars after occupational skin trauma or occupational burns are compensated as consequences of work accidents. The current official list of occupational skin cancers and new developments for expert opinions are described in this article.

  6. Skin Findings in Williams Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kozel, Beth A.; Bayliss, Susan J.; Berk, David R.; Waxler, Jessica L; Knutsen, Russell H.; Danback, Joshua R.; Pober, Barbara R.

    2014-01-01

    Previous examination in a small number of individuals with Williams syndrome (also referred to as Williams-Beuren syndrome) has shown subtly softer skin and reduced deposition of elastin, an elastic matrix protein important in tissue recoil. No quantitative information about skin elasticity in individuals with Williams syndrome is available; nor has there been a complete report of dermatologic findings in this population. To fill this knowledge gap, 94 patients with Williams syndrome aged 7-50 years were recruited as part of the Skin and Vascular Elasticity (WS-SAVE) study. They underwent either a clinical dermatologic assessment by trained dermatologists (2010 WSA family meeting) or measurement of biomechanical properties of the skin with the DermaLab™ suction cup (2012 WSA family meeting). Clinical assessment confirmed that soft skin is common in this population (83%), as is premature graying of the hair (80% of those 20 years or older), while wrinkles (92%) and abnormal scarring (33%) were detected in larger than expected proportions. Biomechanical studies detected statistically significant differences in dP (the pressure required to lift the skin), dT (the time required to raise the skin through a prescribed gradient), VE (viscoelasticity) and E (Young’s modulus) relative to matched controls. The RT (retraction time) also trended longer but was not significant. The biomechanical differences noted in these patients did not correlate with the presence of vascular defects also attributable to elastin insufficiency (vascular stiffness, hypertension, and arterial stenosis) suggesting the presence of tissue specific modifiers that modulate the impact of elastin insufficiency in each tissue. PMID:24920525

  7. Predicting chemically-induced skin reactions. Part II: QSAR models of skin permeability and the relationships between skin permeability and skin sensitization

    SciTech Connect

    Alves, Vinicius M.; Muratov, Eugene; Fourches, Denis; Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Tropsha, Alexander

    2015-04-15

    Skin permeability is widely considered to be mechanistically implicated in chemically-induced skin sensitization. Although many chemicals have been identified as skin sensitizers, there have been very few reports analyzing the relationships between molecular structure and skin permeability of sensitizers and non-sensitizers. The goals of this study were to: (i) compile, curate, and integrate the largest publicly available dataset of chemicals studied for their skin permeability; (ii) develop and rigorously validate QSAR models to predict skin permeability; and (iii) explore the complex relationships between skin sensitization and skin permeability. Based on the largest publicly available dataset compiled in this study, we found no overall correlation between skin permeability and skin sensitization. In addition, cross-species correlation coefficient between human and rodent permeability data was found to be as low as R{sup 2} = 0.44. Human skin permeability models based on the random forest method have been developed and validated using OECD-compliant QSAR modeling workflow. Their external accuracy was high (Q{sup 2}{sub ext} = 0.73 for 63% of external compounds inside the applicability domain). The extended analysis using both experimentally-measured and QSAR-imputed data still confirmed the absence of any overall concordance between skin permeability and skin sensitization. This observation suggests that chemical modifications that affect skin permeability should not be presumed a priori to modulate the sensitization potential of chemicals. The models reported herein as well as those developed in the companion paper on skin sensitization suggest that it may be possible to rationally design compounds with the desired high skin permeability but low sensitization potential. - Highlights: • It was compiled the largest publicly-available skin permeability dataset. • Predictive QSAR models were developed for skin permeability. • No concordance between skin

  8. Removing bonded skin from a substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chartier, E. N.

    1980-01-01

    Metal skin is peeled off like sardine-can cover with key. Method is useful in removing bonded skins from any substrate where substrate is strong enough not to buckle or tear when bonded skin is rolled free. Also, it is useful for removing sections of damaged skin where bladders of other equipment below substrate might be damaged if saw or router were used to cut completely through skin.

  9. Male skin and ingredients relevant to male skin care.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Z D

    2012-03-01

    Male skin care needs are heavily influenced by the need to remove facial hair on a regular basis. Facial skin issues associated with poor hair removal approaches are common and include razor burn and irritation. This paper evaluates current research on shaving technology and how careful ingredient selection can contribute to male skin health. The importance of maintaining hair softness during the shave and restoring facial hydration post-shave is discussed. Data are presented on how post-shave moisturizers containing glycerine and emollients can create an environment for improved barrier function which can be further improved by incorporating specific ingredients such as niacinamide. © 2012 The Author. BJD © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  10. Skin Treatments and Dermatological Procedures to Promote Youthful Skin

    PubMed Central

    Sator, Paul G

    2006-01-01

    The skin, the largest organ of the body, is the organ in which changes associated with aging are most visible. With increasing frequency, patients are requesting information and treatments that improve the appearance of their skin. Corresponding to this trend, there is an increasing number of products and methods available that claim to aid this pursuit. First, a change of the patient's lifestyle (eg, sun behavior, nicotine abuse, and nutrition) must take place. Only then may other methods be used. This article reflects on the following topics: topical retinoids, peels, botulinum neurotoxin, soft tissue fillers, lasers, topical and systemic endocrinological therapies, and phytohormones. A thorough knowledge of the properties (benefits, limitations, and complications) of the expanding array of possibilities for rejuvenation of the skin is essential for any physician treating patients with cosmetic complaints. PMID:18047257

  11. Hyperspectral imaging of bruised skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randeberg, Lise L.; Baarstad, Ivar; Løke, Trond; Kaspersen, Peter; Svaasand, Lars O.

    2006-02-01

    Bruises can be important evidence in legal medicine, for example in cases of child abuse. Optical techniques can be used to discriminate and quantify the chromophores present in bruised skin, and thereby aid dating of an injury. However, spectroscopic techniques provide only average chromophore concentrations for the sampled volume, and contain little information about the spatial chromophore distribution in the bruise. Hyperspectral imaging combines the power of imaging and spectroscopy, and can provide both spectroscopic and spatial information. In this study a hyperspectral imaging system developed by Norsk Elektro Optikk AS was used to measure the temporal development of bruised skin in a human volunteer. The bruises were inflicted by paintball bullets. The wavelength ranges used were 400 - 1000 nm (VNIR) and 900 - 1700 nm (SWIR), and the spectral sampling intervals were 3.7 and 5 nm, respectively. Preliminary results show good spatial discrimination of the bruised areas compared to normal skin. Development of a white spot can be seen in the central zone of the bruises. This central white zone was found to resemble the shape of the object hitting the skin, and is believed to develop in areas where the impact caused vessel damage. These results show that hyperspectral imaging is a promising technique to evaluate the temporal and spatial development of bruises on human skin.

  12. Biological Rhythms in the Skin

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Mary S.; Pelle, Edward; Dong, Kelly; Pernodet, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    Circadian rhythms, ≈24 h oscillations in behavior and physiology, are reflected in all cells of the body and function to optimize cellular functions and meet environmental challenges associated with the solar day. This multi-oscillatory network is entrained by the master pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus, which directs an organism’s rhythmic expression of physiological functions and behavior via a hierarchical system. This system has been highly conserved throughout evolution and uses transcriptional–translational autoregulatory loops. This master clock, following environmental cues, regulates an organism’s sleep pattern, body temperature, cardiac activity and blood pressure, hormone secretion, oxygen consumption and metabolic rate. Mammalian peripheral clocks and clock gene expression have recently been discovered and are present in all nucleated cells in our body. Like other essential organ of the body, the skin also has cycles that are informed by this master regulator. In addition, skin cells have peripheral clocks that can function autonomously. First described in 2000 for skin, this review summarizes some important aspects of a rapidly growing body of research in circadian and ultradian (an oscillation that repeats multiple times during a 24 h period) cutaneous rhythms, including clock mechanisms, functional manifestations, and stimuli that entrain or disrupt normal cycling. Some specific relationships between disrupted clock signaling and consequences to skin health are discussed in more depth in the other invited articles in this IJMS issue on Sleep, Circadian Rhythm and Skin. PMID:27231897

  13. Fuzzy description of skin lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskaris, Nikolaos; Ballerini, Lucia; Fisher, Robert B.; Aldridge, Ben; Rees, Jonathan

    2010-02-01

    We propose a system for describing skin lesions images based on a human perception model. Pigmented skin lesions including melanoma and other types of skin cancer as well as non-malignant lesions are used. Works on classification of skin lesions already exist but they mainly concentrate on melanoma. The novelty of our work is that our system gives to skin lesion images a semantic label in a manner similar to humans. This work consists of two parts: first we capture they way users perceive each lesion, second we train a machine learning system that simulates how people describe images. For the first part, we choose 5 attributes: colour (light to dark), colour uniformity (uniform to non-uniform), symmetry (symmetric to non-symmetric), border (regular to irregular), texture (smooth to rough). Using a web based form we asked people to pick a value of each attribute for each lesion. In the second part, we extract 93 features from each lesions and we trained a machine learning algorithm using such features as input and the values of the human attributes as output. Results are quite promising, especially for the colour related attributes, where our system classifies over 80% of the lesions into the same semantic classes as humans.

  14. Smart Skin Patterns Protect Springtails

    PubMed Central

    Helbig, Ralf; Nickerl, Julia; Neinhuis, Christoph; Werner, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Springtails, arthropods who live in soil, in decaying material, and on plants, have adapted to demanding conditions by evolving extremely effective and robust anti-adhesive skin patterns. However, details of these unique properties and their structural basis are still unknown. Here we demonstrate that collembolan skin can resist wetting by many organic liquids and at elevated pressures. We show that the combination of bristles and a comb-like hexagonal or rhombic mesh of interconnected nanoscopic granules distinguish the skin of springtails from anti-adhesive plant surfaces. Furthermore, the negative overhang in the profile of the ridges and granules were revealed to be a highly effective, but as yet neglected, design principle of collembolan skin. We suggest an explanation for the non-wetting characteristics of surfaces consisting of such profiles irrespective of the chemical composition. Many valuable opportunities arise from the translation of the described comb-like patterns and overhanging profiles of collembolan skin into man-made surfaces that combine stability against wear and friction with superior non-wetting and anti-adhesive characteristics. PMID:21980383

  15. Biological Rhythms in the Skin.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Mary S; Pelle, Edward; Dong, Kelly; Pernodet, Nadine

    2016-05-24

    Circadian rhythms, ≈24 h oscillations in behavior and physiology, are reflected in all cells of the body and function to optimize cellular functions and meet environmental challenges associated with the solar day. This multi-oscillatory network is entrained by the master pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus, which directs an organism's rhythmic expression of physiological functions and behavior via a hierarchical system. This system has been highly conserved throughout evolution and uses transcriptional-translational autoregulatory loops. This master clock, following environmental cues, regulates an organism's sleep pattern, body temperature, cardiac activity and blood pressure, hormone secretion, oxygen consumption and metabolic rate. Mammalian peripheral clocks and clock gene expression have recently been discovered and are present in all nucleated cells in our body. Like other essential organ of the body, the skin also has cycles that are informed by this master regulator. In addition, skin cells have peripheral clocks that can function autonomously. First described in 2000 for skin, this review summarizes some important aspects of a rapidly growing body of research in circadian and ultradian (an oscillation that repeats multiple times during a 24 h period) cutaneous rhythms, including clock mechanisms, functional manifestations, and stimuli that entrain or disrupt normal cycling. Some specific relationships between disrupted clock signaling and consequences to skin health are discussed in more depth in the other invited articles in this IJMS issue on Sleep, Circadian Rhythm and Skin.

  16. Cutaneous HPV and skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Accardi, Rosita; Gheit, Tarik

    2014-12-01

    Papillomaviruses (HPVs) are small non-enveloped icosahedral viruses that infect the keratinocytes of skin and mucosa. The cutaneous HPV types are represented mainly by the beta and gamma genera, which are widely present in the skin of normal individuals. More than 40 beta-HPV types and 50 gamma-HPV types have been isolated, and these numbers are continuously growing. The main cause of non-melanoma skin cancer is exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). However, cutaneous HPVs that belong to the beta genus may act as a co-carcinogen with UVR. The association between beta-HPVs and skin cancer was first reported in patients with epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV), who frequently develop cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) on sun-exposed areas. Isolation of HPVs from the lesions suggested that HPVs might act as a co-carcinogen with UVR in EV patients. Beta-HPVs may also play a role in cutaneous SCC in immunocompromised non-EV and in immunocompetent individuals. Several studies have reported an association of viral DNA and/or antibodies to beta HPV types with SCC. Interestingly, HPV prevalence and viral load decrease during skin carcinogenesis, being significantly higher in actinic keratosis than in SCC, suggesting that the virus may play a role in the early stages of tumour development (the "hit-and-run" hypothesis). Concordantly, in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that E6 and E7 from certain cutaneous HPV types display transforming activities, further confirming their potential role in carcinogenesis.

  17. Chemoprevention of nonmelanoma skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Wright, Tina I; Spencer, James M; Flowers, Franklin P

    2006-06-01

    Skin cancer is the most common cancer in human beings. The increased incidence of skin cancer has brought much attention to the process by which these tumors develop and how they can be prevented. Efforts have been made to educate the public about the importance of protecting skin from excessive ultraviolet light. Despite this work, the incidence of skin cancer continues to increase. Available compounds may be useful in the chemoprevention of skin cancer. Chemoprevention is defined as oral or topical use of dietary or pharmacologic agents to inhibit or reverse the development of cancer. Potential agents included are the retinoids; difluoromethylornithine; T4 endonuclease V; polyphenolic antioxidants, such as (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, found in green tea and grape seed extract; silymarin; isoflavone genestein; nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; curcumin; lycopene; vitamin E; beta-carotene; and selenium. Many of these agents are available over the counter as topical or oral preparations. At the conclusion of this activity, participants should be familiar with the chemopreventive agents and their efficacy, as well as any significant side effects associated with them.

  18. Melatonin and human skin aging

    PubMed Central

    Kleszczynski, Konrad; Fischer, Tobias W.

    2012-01-01

    Like the whole organism, skin follows the process of aging during life-time. Additional to internal factors, several environmental factors, such as solar radiation, considerably contribute to this process. While fundamental mechanisms regarding skin aging are known, new aspects of anti-aging agents such as melatonin are introduced. Melatonin is a hormone produced in the glandula pinealis that follows a circadian light-dependent rhythm of secretion. It has been experimentally implicated in skin functions such as hair cycling and fur pigmentation, and melatonin receptors are expressed in many skin cell types including normal and malignant keratinocytes, melanocytes and fibroblasts. It possesses a wide range of endocrine properties as well as strong antioxidative activity. Regarding UV-induced solar damage, melatonin distinctly counteracts massive generation of reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial and DNA damage. Thus, there is considerable evidence for melatonin to be an effective anti-skin aging compound, and its various properties in this context are described in this review. PMID:23467217

  19. Smart skin patterns protect springtails.

    PubMed

    Helbig, Ralf; Nickerl, Julia; Neinhuis, Christoph; Werner, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Springtails, arthropods who live in soil, in decaying material, and on plants, have adapted to demanding conditions by evolving extremely effective and robust anti-adhesive skin patterns. However, details of these unique properties and their structural basis are still unknown. Here we demonstrate that collembolan skin can resist wetting by many organic liquids and at elevated pressures. We show that the combination of bristles and a comb-like hexagonal or rhombic mesh of interconnected nanoscopic granules distinguish the skin of springtails from anti-adhesive plant surfaces. Furthermore, the negative overhang in the profile of the ridges and granules were revealed to be a highly effective, but as yet neglected, design principle of collembolan skin. We suggest an explanation for the non-wetting characteristics of surfaces consisting of such profiles irrespective of the chemical composition. Many valuable opportunities arise from the translation of the described comb-like patterns and overhanging profiles of collembolan skin into man-made surfaces that combine stability against wear and friction with superior non-wetting and anti-adhesive characteristics.

  20. Skin Ultrasound in Kaposi Sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Carrascosa, R; Alfageme, F; Roustán, G; Suarez, M D

    2016-05-01

    The use of ultrasound imaging has recently been increasing in numerous dermatologic diseases. This noninvasive technique provides additional details on the structure and vascularization of skin lesions. Kaposi sarcoma is a vascular tumor that typically arises in the skin and mucosas. It can spread to lymph nodes and internal organs. We performed B-mode and color Doppler ultrasound studies in 3 patients with a clinical diagnosis of Kaposi sarcoma confirmed by histological examination. We found differences in the ultrasound pattern between nodular and plaque lesions, in both B-mode and color Doppler. We believe that skin ultrasound imaging could be a useful technique for studying cutaneous Kaposi sarcoma, providing additional information on the structural and vascular characteristics of the lesion.

  1. Warfarin-Induced Skin Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Papanas, Nikolaos; Karadimas, Efthimios; Polychronidis, Alexandros

    2014-01-01

    Warfarin-induced skin necrosis is an infrequent complication occurring in individuals under warfarin treatment who have a thrombophilic history or after administration of large loading doses of warfarin particularly without simultaneous initial use of heparin. A 62-year-old lady developed skin necrosis 4 days after initiating warfarin therapy of 5 mg daily without initial co-administration of heparin. The patient had a normal clotting profile. Skin necrosis progressed to eschar formation after cessation of warfarin and heparinization stopped expanding. Warfarin was reintroduced at 2 mg daily, initially together with low molecular weight heparin. Autolytic debridement of the necrotic tissue was followed by healing of the cutaneous deficit by secondary intention. Prompt diagnosis and discontinuation of warfarin are crucial for the prognosis. PMID:24648693

  2. Skin cancer prevention in Australia.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, C; Foley, P

    2009-11-01

    Australia has one of the highest skin cancer incidence and mortality rates in the world. The reason for these high rates is due in part to the high ambient UV radiation levels, combined with a predominantly susceptible fair-skinned population. To address this problem, since 1980 Australians have been exposed to social marketing campaigns to raise awareness of skin cancer prevention. These campaigns have used mass media alongside interventions in schools, workplaces, and in community and leisure settings to motivate sun protective behaviour. As a result of these interventions it can be demonstrated that social marketing campaigns can be a very effective method to not only motivate behaviour change, reduce sunburn, and increase awareness but more importantly, reduce melanoma rates and bring positive economic returns to government. However long term investment in this area is required otherwise any population gains in behaviour are very likely to be quickly eroded.

  3. Aircraft Skin Restoration and Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yandouzi, M.; Gaydos, S.; Guo, D.; Ghelichi, R.; Jodoin, B.

    2014-12-01

    The recent development of the cold spray technology has made possible the deposition of low porosity and oxide-free coatings with good adhesion and with almost no change in the microstructure of the coated parts. This focuses on the use of low-pressure cold spray process to repair damaged Al-based aircraft skin, aiming at obtaining dense coatings with strong adhesion to the Al2024-T3 alloy. In order to prove the feasibility of using of the cold spray process as a repair process for aircraft skin, series of characterisation/tests including microstructures, microhardness, adhesion strength, three-point bending, surface finish, fatigue test, and corrosion resistance were performed. The obtained results revealed that the low-pressure cold spray process is a suitable for the repair of aircraft skin.

  4. Direct Measurements of Skin Friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhawan, Satish

    1953-01-01

    A device has been developed to measure local skin friction on a flat plate by measuring the force exerted upon a very small movable part of the surface of the flat plate. These forces, which range from about 1 milligram to about 100 milligrams, are measured by means of a reactance device. The apparatus was first applied to measurements in the low-speed range, both for laminar and turbulent boundary layers. The measured skin-friction coefficients show excellent agreement with Blasius' and Von Karman's results. The device was then applied to high-speed subsonic flow and the turbulent-skin-friction coefficients were determined up to a Mach number of about 0.8. A few measurements in supersonic flow were also made. This paper describes the design and construction of the device and the results of the measurements.

  5. Skin care for the newborn.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Rashmi; Basu, Srikanta; Agrawal, R K; Gupta, Piyush

    2010-07-01

    Skin of the newborn differs from that of an adult in several ways. It is more susceptible to trauma and infection and requires special care. Certain principles of skin care have to be emphasized to the mother or caregiver such as gentle cleansing, adequate hydration and moisturization of the skin, preventing friction and maceration in body folds, and protection from irritants and bright sunlight. The initial bath in full term infants can be given once the baby's temperature has stabilized and the infant is hemodynamically stable. All soaps, cleansers, and syndets should be used infrequently during the newborn period and it is better if their use is limited to groins, axillae and napkin areas. The use of emollients on newborns should be limited in warm weather.

  6. Analysis of nonablative skin resurfacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner, Thomas E.; Anvari, Bahman; Keikhanzadeh, Kurosh; Dave, Digant P.; Nelson, J. Stuart; Goodman, Dennis M.; Hennings, David R.; Baumgardner, John; Berry, Michael J.

    1997-05-01

    Nonablative skin resurfacing is a dermatologic procedure utilizing pulsed laser irradiation and dynamic cooling to induce selectively a wound healing response in the papillary and upper reticular dermis. Using temperature measurements of human skin provided by pulsed photothermal radiometry immediately following laser irradiation (lambda equals 1.32 micrometer), spatial distribution of thermal damage is predicted in response to various potential therapeutic laser- cryogen doses. Results of our analysis suggest that appropriate application of pulsed laser irradiation and cryogen spray cooling may be used to protect the epidermis and selectively confine thermal injury to the papillary and upper reticular dermis. Development of nonablative skin resurfacing will require understanding the relationship between the degree of dermal photocoagulation and the cutaneous wound healing response following laser irradiation.

  7. Measurement of facial skin temperature.

    PubMed

    Ariyaratnam, S; Rood, J P

    1990-10-01

    It is essential to know the pattern of facial skin temperatures in normal subjects to be able to objectively assess differences in cases of nerve injury. Thirty healthy adults were selected at random to investigate the pattern of facial temperature using liquid crystal thermography and an electronic thermocouple system. The highest temperature of the face was in the forehead area (c, 34 degrees C) and the lowest (c. 32 degrees C) in the cheek area. If ambient temperature and humidity are controlled in a draught-free environment, symmetry of the facial skin temperature can be maintained. It is concluded that measurements of facial skin temperature may be used to investigate and assess lesions of peripheral branches of cranial nerves supplying the face.

  8. Mechanics of a granular skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, Somnath; Sane, Anit; Bhattacharya, S.; Ghosh, Shankar

    2017-04-01

    Magic sand, a hydrophobic toy granular material, is widely used in popular science instructions because of its nonintuitive mechanical properties. A detailed study of the failure of an underwater column of magic sand shows that these properties can be traced to a single phenomenon: the system self-generates a cohesive skin that encapsulates the material inside. The skin, consisting of pinned air-water-grain interfaces, shows multiscale mechanical properties: they range from contact-line dynamics in the intragrain roughness scale, to plastic flow at the grain scale, all the way to sample-scale mechanical responses. With decreasing rigidity of the skin, the failure mode transforms from brittle to ductile (both of which are collective in nature) to a complete disintegration at the single-grain scale.

  9. Targeting autophagy in skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Yu, Teng; Zuber, Joshua; Li, Jinchao

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a major intracellular degradative process by which cytoplasmic materials are sequestered in double-membraned vesicles and degraded upon fusion with lysosomes. Under normal circumstances, basal autophagy is necessary to maintain cellular homeostasis by scavenging dysfunctional or damaged organelles or proteins. In addition to its vital homeostatic role, this degradation pathway has been implicated in many different cellular processes such as cell apoptosis, inflammation, pathogen clearance, and antigen presentation and thereby has been linked to a variety of human disorders, including metabolic conditions, neurodegenerative diseases, cancers, and infectious diseases. The skin, the largest organ of the body, serves as the first line of defense against many different environmental insults; however, only a few studies have examined the effect of autophagy on the pathogenesis of skin diseases. This review provides an overview of the mechanisms of autophagy and highlights recent findings relevant to the role of autophagy in skin diseases and strategies for therapeutic modulation.

  10. Photosensitivity skin disorders in childhood.

    PubMed

    Kotrulja, Lena; Ozanić-Bulić, Suzana; Sjerobabski-Masnec, Ines; Situm, Mirna; Poduje, Sanja

    2010-04-01

    Photosensitivity in childhood is caused by a diverse group of diseases. A specific sensitivity of a child's skin to ultraviolet light is often the first manifestation or a clinical symptom of photodermatosis. It might indicate a serious underlying systemic disease such as lupus erythematosus or dermatomyositis, or a rare group of genetic skin disorders like Xeroderma pigmentosum, Cockayne syndrome, Trichothyodystrophy, Bloom syndrome, Rothmund-Thomson and Kindler syndrome as well as metabolic disorders and cutaneous porphyria. Photosensitivity secondary to topical or systemic agents may also cause photosensitivity in children. Early recognition and prompt diagnosis may prevent complications associated with unprotected exposure to sunlight and avoid actinic injuries that can lead to malignant skin changes.

  11. UV clothing and skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Tarbuk, Anita; Grancarić, Ana Marija; Situm, Mirna; Martinis, Mladen

    2010-04-01

    Skin cancer incidence in Croatia is steadily increasing in spite of public and governmental permanently measurements. It is clear that will soon become a major public health problem. The primary cause of skin cancer is believed to be a long exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The future designers of UV protective materials should be able to block totally the ultraviolet radiation. The aim of this paper is to present results of measurements concerning UV protecting ability of garments and sun-screening textiles using transmission spectrophotometer Cary 50 Solarscreen (Varian) according to AS/NZS 4399:1996; to show that standard clothing materials are not always adequate to prevent effect of UV radiation to the human skin; and to suggest the possibilities for its improvement for this purpose.

  12. Dry skin, moisturization and corneodesmolysis.

    PubMed

    Harding, C R; Watkinson, A; Rawlings, A V; Scott, I R

    2000-02-01

    The process leading to the loss of corneocytes form the skin surface is termed desquamation. In healthy skin it is an orderly and essentially invisible process whereby individual or small groups of corneocytes detach from neighbouring cells to be lost to the environment and replaced by younger cells from the deeper layers. Desquamation is carefully controlled to ensure that corneum cohesion and integrity, and hence tissue thickness, is maintained. The most important components of the corneocytes contributing towards intercellular cohesion are the corneodesmosomes and lipids. Corneodesmosomes are proteinaceous complexes which effectively rivet corneocytes together. The intercellular lipids, primarily responsible for the water barrier, also provide part of the extracellular cement. In addition, the shape of the corneocyte itself plays a role in stratum corneum cohesion. Through interdigitation along their peripheral edges, adjacent corneocytes become physically locked together, a process which reinforces the integrity of the tissue. For effective desquamation to occur corneodesmosomes must be degraded: a process catalysed by serine proteases present within the intercellular space and facilitated by subtle changes in lipid composition and phase behaviour. Ultimately, it is the availability of free water which controls corneodesmolysis. In healthy skin this proteolytic process leaves relatively few corneodesmosomes intact in the most superficial layers. By contrast, in chronic and acute dry skin conditions, corneodesmosomal degradation and hence the final stages of desquamation are perturbed, leading to the characteristic formation of visible, powdery flakes on the skin surface. The inability to degrade these structures ultimately reflects a decreased hydrolytic activity of the desquamatory enzymes, either through reduced synthesis of the enzymes, inherent loss of activity, leaching from the surface layers of the corneum or changes in the surrounding lipid

  13. Skin diseases of the nose.

    PubMed

    Yigider, Ayse Pelin; Kayhan, Fatma Tulin; Yigit, Ozgur; Kavak, Ayse; Cingi, Cemal

    2016-05-01

    The goal of this study was to review the main lesion types of the nasal skin and appropriate treatment strategies rather than to present a comprehensive list of all diseases that affect the skin that can involve the nose. We reviewed the main nasal skin lesion types and available treatment strategies. Nasal skin lesions were classified as benign, premalignant, or malignant. Benign lesions of the nose include nonmalignant tumoral lesions (i.e., freckles, comedo, adenoma sebaceum [Pringle disease], hydrocystoma, fibrous papules, sebaceous hyperplasia, and rhinophyma), autoimmune and inflammatory conditions (i.e., pemphigus, sarcoidosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, facial eosinophilic granuloma, rosacea, herpes zoster infection, leishmaniasis, and leprosy), and vascular lesions (i.e., telangiectasis, hemangioma, and spider nevus). Premalignant lesions are actinic keratosis and keratoacanthoma; and malignant tumors are melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma. Regardless of whether or not they are malignant, all facial lesions can yield significant cosmetic discomfort that should be evaluated carefully before commencing any curative or corrective intervention. In general, benign lesions are treated with dermabrasive modalities, such as trichloroacetic acid, phenol, salicylate, and laser ablation. Electrocautery, cryosurgery, and surgical excision are also used, although these methods may result in scar formation, which can sometimes be more problematic than the original lesion itself. Any disease that affects the skin, especially those diseases that are triggered by ultraviolet exposure, can involve the face and nose. Cosmetic defects due both to the lesion itself and the intervention must be discussed with the patient, preferably in the presence of a first-degree relative, before commencement of treatment. As a result of heterogeneity of skin lesions of the nose, appropriate education of general practitioners as well as otorhinolaryngologists is

  14. Older people and skin: challenging perceptions.

    PubMed

    Cowdell, Fiona; Garrett, Dawne

    In this article we set out to challenge perceptions about older people and skin. We examine current portrayals of older people and skin, both in the media and in the nursing literature. We describe the ‘normal’ process of skin ageing and highlight the importance of maintaining skin integrity and effective barrier function for health and wellbeing, particularly in older people. One element of maintaining skin integrity is ensuring that personal hygiene and emollient needs are met. Effective skin hygiene and emollient care will reduce the risk of breakdown, with all its burdensome and costly consequences. We therefore offer a summary of the current evidence base for skin-hygiene practice. We make a case for nurses considering skin health from a wider societal and human perspective, and identify opportunities to enhance nursing practice through skin-care advice and health education for all older people.

  15. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and skin manifestations.

    PubMed

    Ju, Qiang; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2016-09-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous compounds that have the ability to disrupt the production and actions of hormones through direct or indirect interaction with hormone receptors, thus acting as agonists or antagonists. Human health is affected after either individual occupation or dietary and environmental exposure to EDCs. On the other hand, skin is one of the largest organs of the body and its main function is protection from noxious substances. EDCs perturb the endocrine system, and they are also carcinogenic, immunotoxic, and hepatotoxic to human skin. In addition, their effects on keratinocytes, melanocytes, sebocytes, inflammatory and immunological cells, and skin stem cells produce inflammatory and allergic skin diseases, chloracne, disorders of skin pigmentation, skin cancer, and skin aging. Mechanisms, which EDCs use to induce these skin disorders are complicated, and involve the interference of endogenous hormones and most importantly the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor signal pathway. Further studies on EDCs and skin diseases are necessary to elucidate these mechanisms.

  16. Seasonal effects on the nasolabial skin condition.

    PubMed

    De Paepe, K; Houben, E; Adam, R; Hachem, J-P; Roseeuw, D; Rogiers, V

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, nasolabial skin condition and the influence of seasonal changes during autumn and winter were studied in 16 healthy female volunteers. Apart from visual scoring of erythema and skin scaliness, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin hydration, apparent skin pH, skin colour and skin desquamation were biophysically measured. The study results showed that nasolabial TEWL was significantly higher during wintertime than in autumn. Also skin colour measurements and squamometry scorings revealed higher values, indicating a more reddish and scaly nasolabial skin during winter compared to autumn. Results from tape stripping and skin surface lipid analysis by high-performance thin-layer chromatography demonstrated significant differences for triglycerides and cholesterol esters, indicating a functionally inferior hydrolipidic layer during the winter season. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. The dynamic anatomy and patterning of skin.

    PubMed

    Wong, Richard; Geyer, Stefan; Weninger, Wolfgang; Guimberteau, Jean-Claude; Wong, Jason K

    2016-02-01

    The skin is often viewed as a static barrier that protects the body from the outside world. Emphasis on studying the skin's architecture and biomechanics in the context of restoring skin movement and function is often ignored. It is fundamentally important that if skin is to be modelled or developed, we do not only focus on the biology of skin but also aim to understand its mechanical properties and structure in living dynamic tissue. In this review, we describe the architecture of skin and patterning seen in skin as viewed from a surgical perspective and highlight aspects of the microanatomy that have never fully been realized and provide evidence or concepts that support the importance of studying living skin's dynamic behaviour. We highlight how the structure of the skin has evolved to allow the body dynamic form and function, and how injury, disease or ageing results in a dramatic changes to the microarchitecture and changes physical characteristics of skin. Therefore, appreciating the dynamic microanatomy of skin from the deep fascia through to the skin surface is vitally important from a dermatological and surgical perspective. This focus provides an alternative perspective and approach to addressing skin pathologies and skin ageing.

  18. Skin anti-aging strategies.

    PubMed

    Ganceviciene, Ruta; Liakou, Aikaterini I; Theodoridis, Athanasios; Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2012-07-01

    Skin aging is a complex biological process influenced by a combination of endogenous or intrinsic and exogenous or extrinsic factors. Because of the fact that skin health and beauty is considered one of the principal factors representing overall "well-being" and the perception of "health" in humans, several anti-aging strategies have been developed during the last years. It is the intention of this article to review the most important anti-aging strategies that dermatologists have nowadays in hand, including including preventive measurements, cosmetological strategies, topical and systemic therapeutic agents and invasive procedures.

  19. Standardized photography for skin surface.

    PubMed

    Khavkin, Jeannie; Ellis, David A F

    2011-05-01

    Photographic documentation is an essential part of facial plastic surgery practice. Standardization of photographic technique is critical to achieve accurate and consistent images to be used for medicolegal, surgical planning, outcome review, research, and teaching purposes. Standardized, high-quality images can be achieved by using proper equipment, lighting, and patient positioning. Standardized photography is especially important for facial resurfacing procedures when fine details, such as pore size, skin texture, pigmentation, and rhytids, need to be captured and accurately assessed. The purpose of this review is to discuss how to obtain standardized, high-quality images of skin surface. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Skin cancer in the elderly

    SciTech Connect

    Pollack, S.V.

    1987-11-01

    Skin cancer is a major concern in geriatric populations. Cumulative exposure to carcinogens and age-related factors both contribute to the high prevalence of cutaneous malignancy in the elderly. Although mortality rates from skin cancer are relatively low, morbidity can be significant, particularly if lesions are neglected. Physicians can have a major impact on the course of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and malignant melanoma by nurturing a high index of suspicion for malignancy when unexplained cutaneous lesions are encountered. 56 references.

  1. Skin anti-aging strategies

    PubMed Central

    Ganceviciene, Ruta; Liakou, Aikaterini I.; Theodoridis, Athanasios; Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Zouboulis, Christos C.

    2012-01-01

    Skin aging is a complex biological process influenced by a combination of endogenous or intrinsic and exogenous or extrinsic factors. Because of the fact that skin health and beauty is considered one of the principal factors representing overall “well-being” and the perception of “health” in humans, several anti-aging strategies have been developed during the last years. It is the intention of this article to review the most important anti-aging strategies that dermatologists have nowadays in hand, including including preventive measurements, cosmetological strategies, topical and systemic therapeutic agents and invasive procedures. PMID:23467476

  2. Peeling skin syndrome: Current status.

    PubMed

    Garg, Kshitij; Singh, Devesh; Mishra, Devesh

    2010-03-15

    Peeling Skin Syndrome (PSS) is a rare genodermatoses characterized by asymptomatic, localized or generalized, continuous exfoliation of the stratum corneum; it may present at birth or in adulthood. We describe a patient having the type A non-inflammatory variant of PSS showing asymptomatic and continuous skin peeling from the neck, trunk, back, and extremities. Friction appeared to be an aggravating factor, but there was no seasonal variation. Histopathology in this condition reveals hyperkeratosis and splitting of the epidermis between the granular layer and the stratum corneum. No treatment for this disorder has been found to be effective so far.

  3. Skin Problems After Ostomy Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Dietz, Katharina

    1978-01-01

    For many years people with colostomies, ileostomies and urinary diversions have had to live in a shadow due to ill-fitting appliances. This has lead to odor problems, skin excoriation, depression, and even withdrawal from society. Dr. Rupert Turnbull from the Cleveland Clinic in Ohio saw the need for an enterostomal therapy service some ten years ago. Patients rehabilitated in self-care by an enterostomal therapist, pre and post-operatively, now rarely have any skin problems. During the last ten years new and better appliances have been developed, and with a well constructed stoma in a suitable site, any ostomate can return to a normal life. PMID:21301501

  4. Antimicrobial therapy for skin infections.

    PubMed

    Hirschmann, Jan V

    2007-06-01

    The most common skin infections are caused by Staphylococcus aureus, group A streptococci (Streptococcus pyogenes), or the normal skin flora. An antistaphylococcal oral antibiotic is the preferred treatment for nonbullous and bullous impetigo, and a therapeutic agent that is effective against both S aureus and streptococci is appropriate for most cases of cellulitis. For furuncles, carbuncles, cutaneous abscesses, and inflamed epidermal cysts, the most important therapy is incision and drainage, and in most cases there is no need for antimicrobial therapy. Patients with venous ulcers and atopic eczema do not benefit from systemic antimicrobial therapy unless obvious infection is present, as indicated by clinical features such as fever, cellulitis, and lymphangitis.

  5. Does the sailfish skin reduce the skin friction like the shark skin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagong, Woong; Choi, Sangho; Kim, Chulkyu; Jeon, Woo-Pyung; Choi, Haecheon

    2007-11-01

    The shape of shark skin - riblet - reduces the skin friction up to 8% in a turbulent boundary layer, as compared to a smooth surface. The sailfish is the fastest sea animal, reaching its maximum speed of 110km/h. On the sailfish skin, we observe a number of V-shaped protrusions pointing downstream. So, we investigate the possibility of skin-friction reduction using this shape. We perform an extensive parametric study by varying the width and height of V-shaped protrusion, the spanwise and streamwise spacings between adjacent ones, and the overall distribution pattern (parallel, staggered and random), respectively. For all the cases considered, drag is either increased or unchanged. Each surface protrusion generates a pair of streamwise vortices, producing low and high shear stresses at the center and side of the protrusion, respectively, but total skin friction is nearly same as or higher than that of a smooth surface. Since this shape is very similar to but opposite in direction to that used in Sirovich & Karlsson (Nature 1997), we perform another experiment on the V-shaped protrusions pointing upstream following their study. Unlike their result, we do not obtain any drag reduction even with random distribution of these V-shaped protrusions.

  6. Xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in human skin and SkinEthic reconstructed human skin models.

    PubMed

    Eilstein, Joan; Léreaux, Guillaume; Arbey, Eric; Daronnat, Edwige; Wilkinson, Simon; Duché, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    Skin metabolism is becoming a major consideration in the development of new cosmetic ingredients, skin being the first organ exposed to them. In order to replace limited samples of Excised human skin (EHS), in vitro engineered human skins have been developed. 3D models are daily used to develop and evaluate new cosmetic ingredients and have to be characterized and compared with EHS in terms of metabolic capabilities. This work presents the determination of apparent catalytic parameters (apparent Vmax, Km and the ratio Vmax/Km) in 3D models compared with EHS for cytochrome P450 dependent monooxygenase isoforms involved in drug metabolism, esterases, alcohol dehydrogenases, aldehyde dehydrogenases, peroxidases, glutathione S-transferases, N-acetyl transferases, uridinyl diphosphate glucuronyl transferases and sulfotransferases. Results show that all these enzymes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics are expressed and functional in the EHS and 3D models. Also, the Vmax/Km ratios (estimating the intrinsic metabolic clearances) show that the metabolic abilities are the most often comparable between the skin models and EHS. These results indicate that the 3D models can substitute themselves for EHS to select cosmetic ingredients on the basis of their metabolism, efficacy or/and safety. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. [Skin-sparing mastectomies: how to avoid skin necrosis?].

    PubMed

    Delbaere, M; Delaporte, T; Toussoun, G; Delay, E

    2008-04-01

    Skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) has emerged as the surgical technique best adapted to the treatment of early breast cancers or breast cancer recurrences after conservative treatment; the technique is particularly appreciated by the patients who had been expecting the development of immediate, high-quality breast reconstruction for over 15 years. SSM preserves anatomical landmarks on the skin surface (notably the under-breast fold and the conical shape of the breast). The procedure must be performed by a skilled surgical team in order to maximize the quality of breast resection and reconstruction, particularly to avoid postoperative complications, notably damage to blood vessels within the skin flap and prosthesis infection. These complications generally affect the cosmetic outcome of the reconstruction, with serious short-term and long-term consequences for the acceptability of the surgical procedure, and may sometimes compromise the delivery of adjuvant treatments (either chemo- or radiotherapy). Based on our previous experience (1000 new cases since 1992), we will compare the advantages and drawbacks of the procedure, discuss its indications, describe the clinical situations encountered and the various specific interventions available, as well as the methods to reduce the risks of tissue damage and skin necrosis.

  8. Pigmentation in African American skin decreases with skin aging.

    PubMed

    Chien, Anna L; Suh, Jean; Cesar, Sabrina Sisto Alessi; Fischer, Alexander H; Cheng, Nancy; Poon, Flora; Rainer, Barbara; Leung, Sherry; Martin, Jo; Okoye, Ginette A; Kang, Sewon

    2016-10-01

    Tristimulus colorimetry, which uses the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage L*a*b* model to quantify color, has previously been used to analyze pigmentation and erythema in human skin; however, colorimetry of African American skin is not well characterized. We sought to analyze skin color patterns in African Americans and compare them with those of Caucasians. Colorimetry readings of the sun-protected buttock and sun-exposed back of forearm were taken from 40 Caucasian and 43 African American participants from March 2011 through August 2015. African American participants also completed a lifestyle questionnaire. Correlation coefficients, paired t tests, and multivariable linear regression analyses were used for statistical comparisons. Forearm skin was lighter in African Americans ages 65 years and older versus 18 to 30 years (P = .02) but darker in Caucasians ages 65 years or older versus 18 to 30 years (P = .03). In African Americans ages 18 to 30 years, the buttock was darker than the forearm (P < .001), whereas in Caucasians the buttock was lighter than the forearm (P < .001). A lighter forearm than buttock was correlated with supplement use, smoking (ages 18-30 years), and less recreational sun exposure (ages ≥65 years) in African Americans. Our study was limited by the sample size and focal geographic source. Pigmentation patterns regarding sun-protected and sun-exposed areas in African Americans may differ from that of Caucasians, suggesting that other factors may contribute to skin pigmentation in African Americans. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Alcohols for Skin Antisepsis at Clinically Relevant Skin Sites▿

    PubMed Central

    Reichel, Mirja; Heisig, Peter; Kohlmann, Thomas; Kampf, Günter

    2009-01-01

    The antiseptic efficacy of ethanol, isopropanol, and n-propanol at 60%, 70%, and 89.5% (all vol/vol) was analyzed after 2, 3, or 4 min of application to the forehead, back, and abdomen of 180 volunteers by the use of a standardized swab sampling method. Results of recolonization by the aerobic skin flora of the upper arms and backs of 20 volunteers were compared 72 h after treatment with 0.5%, 1%, or 2% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) in 89.5% n-propanol. The most effective alcohol at all skin sites was n-propanol, with a mean log10 reduction of 1.82 after 2 min on the forehead. Efficacy against the aerobic flora of the forehead was mainly influenced by the type of alcohol (P < 0.001), followed by the concentration (P < 0.001) and the application time (P = 0.006). Ethanol and isopropanol were significantly less effective (both P < 0.001). Alcohol supplemented with 0.5% or more CHG was significantly more effective than alcohol alone in the suppression of recolonization (P < 0.05). An 89.5% solution of n-propanol was the most effective alcohol for the reduction of populations of aerobic skin flora. Its combination with CHG is appropriate whenever recolonization of the skin must be limited. Further studies are needed to determine the most effective concentration of CHG in n-propanol to provide the best protection against recolonization of the skin, e.g., for catheter site care. PMID:19738017

  10. Alcohols for skin antisepsis at clinically relevant skin sites.

    PubMed

    Reichel, Mirja; Heisig, Peter; Kohlmann, Thomas; Kampf, Günter

    2009-11-01

    The antiseptic efficacy of ethanol, isopropanol, and n-propanol at 60%, 70%, and 89.5% (all vol/vol) was analyzed after 2, 3, or 4 min of application to the forehead, back, and abdomen of 180 volunteers by the use of a standardized swab sampling method. Results of recolonization by the aerobic skin flora of the upper arms and backs of 20 volunteers were compared 72 h after treatment with 0.5%, 1%, or 2% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) in 89.5% n-propanol. The most effective alcohol at all skin sites was n-propanol, with a mean log(10) reduction of 1.82 after 2 min on the forehead. Efficacy against the aerobic flora of the forehead was mainly influenced by the type of alcohol (P < 0.001), followed by the concentration (P < 0.001) and the application time (P = 0.006). Ethanol and isopropanol were significantly less effective (both P < 0.001). Alcohol supplemented with 0.5% or more CHG was significantly more effective than alcohol alone in the suppression of recolonization (P < 0.05). An 89.5% solution of n-propanol was the most effective alcohol for the reduction of populations of aerobic skin flora. Its combination with CHG is appropriate whenever recolonization of the skin must be limited. Further studies are needed to determine the most effective concentration of CHG in n-propanol to provide the best protection against recolonization of the skin, e.g., for catheter site care.

  11. Scar treatment variations by skin type.

    PubMed

    Visscher, Marty O; Bailey, J Kevin; Hom, David B

    2014-08-01

    Patients and clinicians use skin color attributes such as color uniformity, color distribution, and texture to infer physiologic health status. Normalization of skin color, surface texture, and height are important treatment goals in the treatment of scars. Skin color, structure, and response to trauma, vary with ethnicity. The incidence of hypertrophic and keloid scar formation is influenced by these inherent skin attributes. Skin type influences the response to various modalities including laser therapy and surgical intervention, and skin differences must be considered in treatment planning to achieve optimal results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Advanced Skin Care – A Novel Ingredient

    PubMed Central

    Fleck, Cynthia Ann; Newman, Mackenzie

    2014-01-01

    The skin provides the human body with protection and a major barrier to environmental assault. Caring for skin is sometimes an afterthought. In other words, if something isn't broken, don't fix it. However, in the case of the integument, nothing could be further from the truth. Intact skin is paramount to health and well-being. This article will review skin care, specifically, advanced skin care, uncovering novel ingredients, and their importance for prevention and treatment as well as delving into the caring for the skin from the outside in. PMID:26199880

  13. Penetration of nanoparticles into human skin.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiao Wen; Xu, Zhi Ping; Grice, Jeffrey; Zvyagin, Andrei V; Roberts, Michael S; Liu, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Exposure of human skin to nanoparticles (NPs) is increasing with the development of nanotechnology and new applications of NPs in medicine. Safety concerns have sparked debate on the capacity of NPs to penetrate through skin and enter into the body. This article attempts to summarize the recent evidence on whether NPs penetrate human skin and the factors that may affect the penetration. Skin structure and penetration mechanisms are reviewed to provide background information. Size, shape, formulation, surface properties and application methods and their effects on skin penetration are specifically discussed. Finally, the relationship between skin penetration and nanotoxicity is reviewed to further emphasise the importance of the research in this area.

  14. [Experimental models of human skin aging].

    PubMed

    Nikolakis, G; Zoschke, C; Makrantonaki, E; Hausmann, C; Schäfer-Korting, M; Zouboulis, C C

    2016-02-01

    The skin is a representative model for the study of human aging. Despite the high regenerative capacity of the skin, skin physiology changes over the course of life. Medical and cosmetic research is trying to prevent aging, to slow, to stop, or to reverse it. Effects of age-related DNA damage and of changing skin structure on pharmacological parameters are largely unknown. This review article summarizes the state of scientific knowledge in the field of experimental models of human skin aging and shows approaches to improve organotypic skin models, to develop predictive models of aging, and improve aging research.

  15. Tissue engineering of skin for wound coverage.

    PubMed

    Biedermann, Thomas; Boettcher-Haberzeth, Sophie; Reichmann, Ernst

    2013-10-01

    Over the past few decades, important milestones have been reached in the field of skin tissue engineering, bringing the ultimate goal of fabricating an autologous dermoepidermal skin substitute with all its cellular components and skin appendages closer to reality. Yet, scientific progress alone is not enough, clinical demands must be addressed and commercial interests need to be fulfilled. This review gives an overview of commercially available skin substitutes for skin replacement therapies and an insight into the recent development of an autologous full-thickness skin substitute that can readily be transplanted in large quantities onto the patient. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Metabolomic analysis of sun exposed skin.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, Manpreet; Southall, Michael; Samaras, Samantha Tucker

    2013-08-01

    It is very well known that exposure of skin to sun chronically accelerates the mechanism of aging as well as making it more susceptible toward skin cancer. This aspect of aging has been studied very well through genomics and proteomics tools. In this study we have used a metabolomic approach for the first time to determine the differences in the metabolome from full thickness skin biopsies from sun exposed and sun protected sites. We have primarily investigated the energy metabolism and the oxidative pathway in sun exposed skin. Biochemical pathway analysis revealed that energy metabolism in photoexposed skin is predominantly anaerobic. The study also validated the increased oxidative stress in skin.

  17. Psychoneuroimmunologic aspects of skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Lugović-Mihić, Liborija; Ljubesić, Luka; Mihić, Josip; Vuković-Cvetković, Vlasta; Troskot, Nina; Situm, Mirna

    2013-09-01

    As mental and psychological issues are important in the development of many dermatologic diseases, these factors are of special interest in research. Psychoneuroimmunology is the study of interaction between psychological processes and the nervous and immune systems of the human body, and it was comprehensively described for the first time about 30 years ago. Communication between the mind and the skin involves the psycho-immuno-endocrine-cutaneous system, encompassing the activities of the brain, the immune system and the skin, with participation of different neuropeptides, interleukins, and immune system messengers. Many common dermatologic diseases have some form of psychomediated pathogenesis that partially accounts for the development of skin lesions. There is a link between emotional stressors (acute or chronic), psychiatric diseases, and dermatoses (e.g., psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, urticaria, viral warts, herpes simplex, vitiligo, acnes, alopecia, prurigo, etc.) and different cytokines and mediators produced in the skin and involved in their pathogenesis. A prominent role is played by those agents that belong to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

  18. [Skin symptoms in diabetic metabolism].

    PubMed

    Feldmann, R; Prins, C

    1995-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common disease, and the cutaneous manifestations of it are frequently encountered. Some skin diseases have a strong association with diabetes, as necrobiosis lipoidica and diabetic bullae. They can be regarded as a cutaneous marker for diabetes. Other disorders--for example shin spots--also occur in the nondiabetic population. Cutaneous infections may be a sign of poorly controlled diabetes.

  19. Moon Technology for Skin Care

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Estee Lauder uses digital image analyzer and software based on NASA lunar research in evaluation of cosmetic products for skincare. Digital image processing brings out subtleties otherwise undetectable, and allows better determination of product's effectiveness. Technique allows Estee Lauder to quantify changes in skin surface form and structure caused by application of cosmetic preparations.

  20. Chronic Inflammation in Skin Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is linked to the development and progression of multiple cancers, including those of the lung, stomach, liver, colon, breast and skin. Inflammation not only drives the oncogenic transformation of epithelial cells under the stress of chronic infection and autoimmune diseases, but also promotes the growth, progression and metastatic spread of cancers. Tumor-infiltrating inflammatory cells are comprised of a diverse population of myeloid and immune cell types, including monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, T and B cells, and others. Different myeloid and lymphoid cells within tumor microenvironment exert diverse, often contradicting, effects during skin cancer development and progression. The nature of tumor-immune interaction determines the rate of cancer progression and the outcome of cancer treatment. Inflammatory environment within skin tumor also inhibits naturally occurring anti-tumor immunity and limits the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy. In this article we aim to give an overview on the mechanism by which inflammation interferes with the development and therapeutic intervention of cancers, especially those of the skin.

  1. Vitamin D and the skin.

    PubMed

    Shahriari, Mona; Kerr, Philip E; Slade, Karren; Grant-Kels, Jane E

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin D is a fat-soluble nutrient that humans obtain through the diet and by synthesis in the skin upon exposure to ultraviolet B. Vitamin D is then converted by the liver to 25-hydroxyvitamin D, its major circulating form. This form is the best indicator of vitamin D nutritional status and is easily measured. Under the influence of parathyroid hormone, the kidney then converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, the biologically active, hormonal form of the nutrient that is important in the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus and is critical in building and maintaining healthy bones. Many cell types outside of the skeletal system, including various cells in the skin, also express the vitamin D receptor. In addition, many cell types convert circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D for local use. This metabolite has been shown to exert potent effects on cellular differentiation, cellular proliferation, and immune regulation. It is theorized that by these mechanisms vitamin D and its analogues are effective treatment options for psoriasis and other skin diseases. Insufficient vitamin D nutritional status has been associated with a host of other diseases, most notably cancer. There is evidence that supplementation with vitamin D reduces the overall incidence of cancer, although current evidence is insufficient to prove a causative effect. Sunscreen use blocks the ability of the skin to photosynthesize vitamin D, although the effect this has on the vitamin D status of the general population is unclear.

  2. Pygmy resonances and neutron skins

    SciTech Connect

    Piekarewicz, J.

    2011-03-15

    In a study motivated by a recent experiment, the distribution of electric dipole strength in the neutron-rich {sup 68}Ni isotope was computed using a relativistic random-phase approximation with a set of effective interactions that - although well calibrated - predict significantly different values for the neutron-skin thickness in {sup 208}Pb. The emergence of low-energy 'pygmy' strength that exhausts about 5%-8% of the energy-weighted sum rule (EWSR) is clearly identified. In addition to the EWSR, special emphasis is placed on the dipole polarizability. In particular, our results suggest a strong correlation between the dipole polarizability of {sup 68}Ni and the neutron-skin thickness of {sup 208}Pb. Yet we find a correlation just as strong, and an even larger sensitivity, between the neutron-skin thickness of {sup 208}Pb and the fraction of the dipole polarizability exhausted by the pygmy resonance. These findings suggest that dipole polarizability may be used as a proxy for the neutron skin.

  3. TRP channels in the skin

    PubMed Central

    Tóth, Balázs I; Oláh, Attila; Szöllősi, Attila Gábor; Bíró, Tamás

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels not only act as ‘polymodal cellular sensors’ on sensory neurons but are also functionally expressed by a multitude of non-neuronal cell types. This is especially true in the skin, one of the largest organs of the body, where they appear to be critically involved in regulating various cutaneous functions both under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. In this review, we focus on introducing the roles of several cutaneous TRP channels in the regulation of the skin barrier, skin cell proliferation and differentiation, and immune functions. Moreover, we also describe the putative involvement of several TRP channels in the development of certain skin diseases and identify future TRP channel-targeted therapeutic opportunities. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on the pharmacology of TRP channels. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-10 PMID:24372189

  4. Climate change and skin cancer.

    PubMed

    van der Leun, Jan C; de Gruijl, Frank R

    2002-05-01

    Depletion of the ozone layer and climate change by the increasing greenhouse effect are distinctly different processes. It is becoming quite clear, however, that the two global environmental problems are interlinked in several ways [D. L. Albritton, P. J Aucamp, G. Mégie, R. T. Watson, Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion, 1998, World Meteorological Organization, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project, Report No. 44 (WMO, Geneva, 1998)]. In the present analysis we deal with the possibility of such an interlinkage within one effect on human health, namely, skin cancer. The increase in the incidence of skin cancer is one of the most extensively studied effects of increasing ultraviolet radiation by ozone depletion (F. R. de Gruijl, Skin cancer and solar radiation, Eur. J Cancer, 1999, 35, 2003-2009). We wondered if this impact could also be influenced by increasing environmental temperatures. Here we show that it is likely that such an influence will occur. For the same reason, it is likely that the baseline incidence of skin cancer will be augmented by rising temperatures, which may become significant in magnitude.

  5. Skin care in old age.

    PubMed

    Smoker, A

    Older people face many problems in terms of skin care and can suffer from a number of distressing conditions. Annabel Smoker describes the management of the most common chronic conditions and suggests ways that nurses can assist older patients or their carers to alleviate or prevent these conditions.

  6. [Do contusions cause skin dysfunction?].

    PubMed

    Gaszczyk-Ozarowski, Zbigniew; Chowaniec, Czesław

    2009-01-01

    Basing on the acquaintance with anatomy and physiology of the skin, the authors show that the emphasis placed on the functional aspect of human health, introduced by the Penal Code of 6 June 1997, should change the way contusions are subsumed under provisions of the aforementioned code.

  7. Tissue-engineered skin substitutes.

    PubMed

    Mansbridge, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    The last two years have seen new tissue-engineered skin substitutes come onto the market and begin to resolve the various roles to which each is best suited. It is becoming evident that some of the very expensive cell-based products have cost-benefit advantage despite their high price and are valuable within the restricted applications for which they are intended. The use of skin substitutes for testing purposes has extended from epidermal keratinocytes to other integumentary epithelia and into preparations containing multiple cell types in which reactions resulting from paracrine interactions can be examined. Challenges remain in the application of gene therapy techniques to skin substitutes, both the control of transgene expression and in the selection of suitable genes to transfect. A coming challenge is the production of tissue-engineered products without the use of animal products other than human cells. A challenge that may be diminishing is the importance of acute rejection of allogeneic tissue-engineered skin substitutes.

  8. Skin Barrier Function and Allergens.

    PubMed

    Engebretsen, Kristiane Aasen; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan

    2016-01-01

    The skin is an important barrier protecting us from mechanical insults, microorganisms, chemicals and allergens, but, importantly, also reducing water loss. A common hallmark for many dermatoses is a compromised skin barrier function, and one could suspect an elevated risk of contact sensitization (CS) and allergy following increased penetration of potential allergens. However, the relationship between common dermatoses such as psoriasis, atopic dermatitis (AD) and irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) and the development of contact allergy (CA) is complex, and depends on immunologic responses and skin barrier status. Psoriasis has traditionally been regarded a Th1-dominated disease, but the discovery of Th17 cells and IL-17 provides new and interesting information regarding the pathogenesis of the disease. Research suggests an inverse relationship between psoriasis and CA, possibly due to increased levels of Th17 cells and its associated cytokines. As for AD, a positive association to CS has been established in epidemiological studies, but is still unresolved. Experimental studies show, however, an inverse relationship between AD and CS. The opposing and antagonistic influences of Th1 (CS) and Th2 (AD) have been proposed as an explanation. Finally, there is convincing evidence that exposure to irritants increases the risk of CS, and patients with ICD are, therefore, at great risk of developing CA. Skin irritation leads to the release of IL-1 and TNF-α, which affects the function of antigen-presenting cells and promotes their migration to local lymph nodes, thus increasing the probability of CS and ultimately the development of CA.

  9. The skin in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Flint, A

    1977-09-01

    The characteristic oily skin in individuals with parkinsonism has long been observed by clinicians. The oiliness seems to be associated with periods when the disease is most active. This seborrhea has been observed particularly in post-encephalitic parkinsonism, as well as in idiopathic paralysis agitans. It also occurs in phenothiazine-induced parkinsonism.

  10. Food for thought and skin.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Howard A

    2010-01-01

    Free radicals are involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases including inflammation, neurodegenerative conditions, skin and eye disorders, and various forms of cancer. Epidemiologic evidence correlating higher intake of certain foods, typically fruits and vegetables or food components containing antioxidants, with a lower incidence of human disease are documented in the literature. Specific examples of such foods are apples, pears, graapes, wine, and tea.

  11. Cleansing Formulations That Respect Skin Barrier Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Russel M.; Mao, Guangru; Gunn, Euen T.; Hornby, Sidney

    2012-01-01

    Surfactants in skin cleansers interact with the skin in several manners. In addition to the desired benefit of providing skin hygiene, surfactants also extract skin components during cleansing and remain in the stratum corneum (SC) after rinsing. These side effects disrupt SC structure and degrade its barrier properties. Recent applications of vibrational spectroscopy and two-photon microscopy in skin research have provided molecular-level information to facilitate our understanding of the interaction between skin and surfactant. In the arena of commercial skin cleansers, technologies have been developed to produce cleansers that both cleanse and respect skin barrier. The main approach is to minimize surfactant interaction with skin through altering its solution properties. Recently, hydrophobically modified polymers (HMPs) have been introduced to create skin compatible cleansing systems. At the presence of HMP, surfactants assemble into larger, more stable structures. These structures are less likely to penetrate the skin, thereby resulting in less aggressive cleansers and the integrity of the skin barrier is maintained. In this paper, we reviewed our recent findings on surfactant and SC interactions at molecular level and provided an overview of the HM technology for developing cleansers that respect skin barrier. PMID:22927835

  12. Oxidation events and skin aging.

    PubMed

    Kammeyer, A; Luiten, R M

    2015-05-01

    The rate of skin aging, or that of tissue in general, is determined by a variable predominance of tissue degeneration over tissue regeneration. This review discusses the role of oxidative events of tissue degeneration and aging in general, and for the skin in particular. The mechanisms involved in intrinsic and extrinsic (photo-) aging are described. Since photoaging is recognized as an important extrinsic aging factor, we put special emphasize on the effects of UV exposure on aging, and its variable influence according to global location and skin type. We here summarise direct photochemical effects of UV on DNA, RNA, proteins and vitamin D, the factors contributing to UV-induced immunosuppression, which may delay aging, the nature and origin of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) as indirect contributors for aging, and the consequences of oxidative events for extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation, such as that of collagen. We conclude that conflicting data on studies investigating the validity of the free radical damage theory of aging may reflect variations in the level of ROS induction which is difficult to quantify in vivo, and the lack of targeting of experimental ROS to the relevant cellular compartment. Also mitohormesis, an adaptive response, may arise in vivo to moderate ROS levels, further complicating interpretation of in vivo results. We here describes how skin aging is mediated both directly and indirectly by oxidative degeneration.This review indicates that skin aging events are initiated and often propagated by oxidation events, despite recently recognized adaptive responses to oxidative stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Structure and Function of Your Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Structure & Function of Your Skin Share | What It Looks Like . . . ... in the dermis. What It Does . . . The major function of skin is to provide a barrier between ...

  14. Turbine vane with high temperature capable skins

    DOEpatents

    Morrison, Jay A [Oviedo, FL

    2012-07-10

    A turbine vane assembly includes an airfoil extending between an inner shroud and an outer shroud. The airfoil can include a substructure having an outer peripheral surface. At least a portion of the outer peripheral surface is covered by an external skin. The external skin can be made of a high temperature capable material, such as oxide dispersion strengthened alloys, intermetallic alloys, ceramic matrix composites or refractory alloys. The external skin can be formed, and the airfoil can be subsequently bi-cast around or onto the skin. The skin and the substructure can be attached by a plurality of attachment members extending between the skin and the substructure. The skin can be spaced from the outer peripheral surface of the substructure such that a cavity is formed therebetween. Coolant can be supplied to the cavity. Skins can also be applied to the gas path faces of the inner and outer shrouds.

  15. X-ray microanalysis of psoriatic skin

    SciTech Connect

    Grundin, T.G.; Roomans, G.M.; Forslind, B.; Lindberg, M.; Werner, Y.

    1985-10-01

    Electron probe x-ray microanalysis was used to study elemental distribution in uninvolved and involved skin from patients with psoriasis, and in skin from healthy controls. Significant differences were found between the involved and uninvolved psoriatic skin. In the involved skin, the concentrations of Mg, P, and K were higher in the stratum germinativum, spinosum, and granulosum, compared to the corresponding strata in uninvolved skin. Neither involved nor uninvolved psoriatic stratum germinativum differed markedly from nonpsoriatic control stratum germinativum. In uninvolved psoriatic skin only a lower level of K was noted. In comparison to uninvolved psoriatic skin, the elemental composition of the various strata of involved psoriatic skin shows a pattern typical for highly proliferative, nonneoplastic cells.

  16. Older people, personal hygiene, and skin care.

    PubMed

    Cowdell, Fiona

    2011-01-01

    Skin health is essential for well being in older people. Personal hygiene is fundamental to skin health, but a lack of evidence exists about effective practices. An evidence base, disseminated through nursing education and patient health promotion, must be developed.

  17. [Skin sampling for the general practitioner].

    PubMed

    André, J; Richert, B

    2015-09-01

    Skin samplings are easily performed in general practice. They include skin biopsies, nail clippings, skin scrappings, hair pluckings as well as trichograms. The different types of skin biopsies are curetage, shaving, punch and elliptic biopsies. They are most commonly used for the diagnosis of inflammatory skin conditions and cutaneous tumors. The biopsies are performed under local anesthesia and each has specific indications. Their complications are minimal. In order to obtain as much information as possible the lesion to be biopsied should be judiciously selected, harvested without being harmed and sent to a skin-oriented pathologist. Nail clippings, skin scrapings and hair plucking allow diagnosis of superficial skin mycosis (tinea, pityriasis versicolor) and are mandatory before prescribing systemic treatment. Scrapping of an itch mite burrow may sometimes reveal the sarcopte. Trichogram may be useful in the work up of a hair loss.

  18. Sunscreens, Skin Cancer, and Your Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Terence M.; Wolfe, Dana P.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of sunlight on skin are described. The principal types of sunscreens and their properties are discussed. The three types of skin tumors, their cure rates, and treatment methods are examined. (Author/MT)

  19. Sun’s effect on skin

    MedlinePlus

    The skin uses sunlight to help manufacture vitamin D, which is important for normal bone formation. But sometimes its ultraviolet light can be ... to age prematurely. Suntanning occurs because exposure to sunlight causes the skin to produce more melanin and ...

  20. Bavencio Approved for Rare Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health and Human Services. More Health News on: Cancer Immunotherapy Skin Cancer Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Cancer Immunotherapy Skin Cancer About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer ...

  1. Actinic damage in histopathologically normal skin.

    PubMed

    Bartels, Peter H; Krouse, Robert S; Prasad, Anil R; Yozwiak, Michael; Liu, Yun; Bartels, Hubert G; Alberts, David S

    2008-12-01

    To establish measures of sun damage in histopathologically normal skin. Biopsies were taken from the upper inner arm, representing skin with presumably minimum sun exposure, from skin of the forearm with no visible sun damage, from skin of the forearm with visible sun damage and from normal-appearing skin from the forearm of individuals who had sun exposure that had resulted in actinic keratosis (AK) lesions. In addition, a data set of nuclei from AKs was recorded. In histopathologically normal skin, monotonically increasing damage was observed in individuals with increased exposure to solar radiation. Karyometry can detect and statistically secure changes in skin due to solar exposure at a stage at which the skin is histopathologically determined to be normal.

  2. Skin Cancer: NIH Research to Results

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer NIH Research to Results Past Issues / Summer 2013 ... making a person immune to his or her skin cancer cells. Another method is to train a person's ...

  3. Sunscreens, Skin Cancer, and Your Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Terence M.; Wolfe, Dana P.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of sunlight on skin are described. The principal types of sunscreens and their properties are discussed. The three types of skin tumors, their cure rates, and treatment methods are examined. (Author/MT)

  4. Capacitance imaging of the skin surface.

    PubMed

    Batisse, Dominique; Giron, Franck; Lévêque, Jean Luc

    2006-05-01

    A new device allowing recording capacitance images of the skin surface was recently presented. Parameters, extracted from the gray-level histogram of the images, are tested for a new approach of skin surface hydration measurement in comparison with the classical capacitance method. Illustration of the interest of having both images and parameters for studying the homogeneity and the level of skin surface hydration are presented. Software for selecting a region of interest from an image and measuring the parameters derived from its gray-level histogram was used to characterize skin hydration. There is a very close correlation between a Corneometer and the parameters extracted from the SkinChip measurements. The importance of having capacitance images of skin is demonstrated in case of non-homogeneity of the skin hydration, either because of photoaging or following an inflammation process. Capacitance imaging is a necessary tool for both completely describing and quantifying skin surface hydration.

  5. Assessment, prevention and management of skin tears.

    PubMed

    Benbow, Maureen

    2017-04-28

    Skin tears are common in older people. They are acute wounds that are at high risk of becoming complex, chronic wounds due to the interplay between the physiological changes in the skin and trauma from the external environment. Skin tears have been reported to have prevalence rates equal to, or greater than, those for pressure ulcers. A comprehensive risk assessment should include assessment of the individual's general health (chronic/critical disease, polypharmacy and cognitive, sensory and nutritional status); mobility (history of falls, impaired mobility, dependent activities of daily living, and mechanical trauma); and skin (extremes of age, fragile skin and previous skin tears). A recognised classification system should be used to identify and document skin tears and guide treatment decisions in line with local wound management protocols. Nurses and carers are in a prime position to prevent, assess and manage skin tears.

  6. Antibiotics Improve Treatment of Skin Abscesses

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Human Services. More Health News on Antibiotics Skin Conditions Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Abscess Antibiotics Skin Conditions About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support ...

  7. Chronic actinic damage of facial skin.

    PubMed

    Bilaç, Cemal; Şahin, Mustafa Turhan; Öztürkcan, Serap

    2014-01-01

    Chronic actinic damage of the skin manifests itself as extrinsic skin aging (photoaging) and photocarcinogenesis. During the last decade, substantial progress has been made in understanding cellular and molecular mechanisms of photoaging. DNA photodamage and ultraviolet-generated reactive oxygen species are the initial events that lead to most of the typical histologic and clinical manifestations of chronic photodamage of the skin. Chronic actinic damage affects all layers of the skin. Keratinocytes, melanocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells are altered by ultraviolet radiation and can result in numerous changes in human skin, particularly the skin of fair-skinned individuals. These changes include actinic keratosis, thickening and wrinkling, elastosis, telengiectasia, solar comedones, diffuse or mottled hyperpigmentation, and skin cancers. There are many options in the treatment of changes caused by chronic actinic damage. The most effective measure of prevention of the photoaging and photocarcinogenesis is sun protection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Dermatitis Herpetiformis: Skin Manifestation of Celiac Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... a chronic, intensely itchy, blistering skin manifestation of gluten-sensitive enteropathy, commonly known as celiac disease. DH ... external manifestation of an abnormal immune response to gluten, in which IgA antibodies form against the skin ...

  9. The skin landscape following nonoptical capacitance imaging.

    PubMed

    Xhauflaire-Uhoda, Emmanuelle; Piérard, Gérald E; Quatresooz, Pascale

    2010-01-01

    Skin capacitance is an electrical property measurable at the level of the stratum corneum. Values are related to the moisture content of the tissue. Using the silicon image sensor technology, it has recently become possible to measure capacitance at 50 microm intervals on the skin surface. The resulting nonoptical picture corresponds to skin capacitance imaging. This novel tool for dermatologists highlights with precision the hollow skin surface patterns, including dermatoglyphics, the patterns of the shallow skin lines, and wrinkles. The topographic heterogeneity in skin surface hydration is made visible. In addition, the sweat gland and follicular openings are disclosed. Skin disorders induced by surfactants or presenting as hyperkeratotic areas, including some neoplasms, may show typical aspects. It is concluded that skin capacitance imaging brings added value to the clinical assessment performed by dermatologists.

  10. The Microbiota of the Human Skin.

    PubMed

    Egert, Markus; Simmering, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to sum up important progress in the field of human skin microbiota research that was achieved over the last years.The human skin is one of the largest and most versatile organs of the human body. Owing to its function as a protective interface between the largely sterile interior of the human body and the highly microbially contaminated outer environment, it is densely colonized with a diverse and active microbiota. This skin microbiota is of high importance for human health and well-being. It is implicated in several severe skin diseases and plays a major role in wound infections. Many less severe, but negatively perceived cosmetic skin phenomena are linked with skin microbes, too. In addition, skin microorganisms, in particular on the human hands, are crucial for the field of hygiene research. Notably, apart from being only a potential source of disease and contamination, the skin microbiota also contributes to the protective functions of the human skin in many ways. Finally, the analysis of structure and function of the human skin microbiota is interesting from a basic, evolutionary perspective on human microbe interactions.Key questions in the field of skin microbiota research deal with (a) a deeper understanding of the structure (species inventory) and function (physiology) of the healthy human skin microbiota in space and time, (b) the distinction of resident and transient skin microbiota members, (c) the distinction of beneficial skin microorganisms from microorganisms or communities with an adverse or sickening effect on their hosts, (d) factors shaping the skin microbiota and its functional role in health and disease, (e) strategies to manipulate the skin microbiota for therapeutic reasons.

  11. Pre- and probiotics for human skin.

    PubMed

    Krutmann, Jean

    2009-04-01

    Current research on the complex interplay between the microbiota, the barrier function and the innate immune system of the skin indicates that the skin's microbiota have a beneficial role, much like that of the gut microflora. As a consequence, interest in strategies beyond antibiotica that allow a more selective modulation of the skin microflora is constantly growing. This review will briefly summarize our current understanding of the cutaneous microbiota and summarize existing information on pre- and probiotic strategies for skin.

  12. Skin contact electrodes for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Eggins, B R

    1993-04-01

    Skin contact electrodes require electrolyte gels between the skin and the electrode in order to ensure good electrical contact. The effect of different types of electrolyte gel on skin impedance was studied. The main types of gels used were wet gels, karaya-gum based hydrogels and synthetic copolymer-based hydrogels [2-acrylamide-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid-N,N'-methylenebis(acrylamide) copolymers]. The effect of variation in gel composition on the impedance of the skin was investigated.

  13. Automated screening of pigmentary skin neoplasms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudrin, Konstantin G.; Matorin, Oleg V.; Reshetov, Igor V.

    2015-01-01

    We have analysed the clinical symptoms and the malignization signs of pigmented skin neoplasms. We have estimated the complex of clinical parameters which could be measured for the purpose of skin screening diagnostic via digital image processing. Allowable errors of clinical parameter characterization have been calculated, and the origin of these errors has been discussed. Proposed technique for automated screening of pigmentary skin neoplasms should become an effective tool for early skin diagnostics.

  14. Predicting chemically-induced skin reactions. Part II: QSAR models of skin permeability and the relationships between skin permeability and skin sensitization.

    PubMed

    Alves, Vinicius M; Muratov, Eugene; Fourches, Denis; Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Andrade, Carolina H; Tropsha, Alexander

    2015-04-15

    Skin permeability is widely considered to be mechanistically implicated in chemically-induced skin sensitization. Although many chemicals have been identified as skin sensitizers, there have been very few reports analyzing the relationships between molecular structure and skin permeability of sensitizers and non-sensitizers. The goals of this study were to: (i) compile, curate, and integrate the largest publicly available dataset of chemicals studied for their skin permeability; (ii) develop and rigorously validate QSAR models to predict skin permeability; and (iii) explore the complex relationships between skin sensitization and skin permeability. Based on the largest publicly available dataset compiled in this study, we found no overall correlation between skin permeability and skin sensitization. In addition, cross-species correlation coefficient between human and rodent permeability data was found to be as low as R(2)=0.44. Human skin permeability models based on the random forest method have been developed and validated using OECD-compliant QSAR modeling workflow. Their external accuracy was high (Q(2)ext=0.73 for 63% of external compounds inside the applicability domain). The extended analysis using both experimentally-measured and QSAR-imputed data still confirmed the absence of any overall concordance between skin permeability and skin sensitization. This observation suggests that chemical modifications that affect skin permeability should not be presumed a priori to modulate the sensitization potential of chemicals. The models reported herein as well as those developed in the companion paper on skin sensitization suggest that it may be possible to rationally design compounds with the desired high skin permeability but low sensitization potential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Disposable baby wipes: efficacy and skin mildness.

    PubMed

    Odio, M; Streicher-Scott, J; Hansen, R C

    2001-04-01

    The results of a series of four clinical studies demonstrated that disposable baby wipes were milder to the skin than use of a cotton washcloth and water, recognized as a "gold standard" for skin mildness. Importantly, the baby wipes caused no significant change from the baseline value in any of the skin parameters examined. This observation verified that the test wipes are minimally disruptive to the epidermal barrier and thus suitable for use on intact or compromised, irritated skin.

  16. Skin and skin structure infections: treatment with newer generation fluoroquinolones

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Philip; Weber, Kurt; Gesin, Gail; Kubert, Jason

    2007-01-01

    Skin and skin structure infections (SSSI) are an emerging issue in healthcare. They are responsible for increasing heathcare utilization, both in hospitalizations and intravenous antibiotic use. SSSI are caused by an evolving variety of pathogens, including Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and anaerobic bacteria. In combination with mounting resistance patterns, this diverse range of bacteria mandate empiric broad-spectrum antibiotic coverage. Historically, cephalosporins and penicillins have been the mainstay of treatment, but recent data suggest newer generation fluoroquinolones are being used with increasing frequency. In 2005, moxifloxacin joined gatifloxacin and levofloxacin as newer generation fluoroquionolones with Food and Drug Administration indications for SSSIs. Even within this group there exist subtle differences that impact optimal management. This paper offers the clinician a comparative review of the antimicrobial spectrum, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and clinical efficacy data to support the appropriate use of fluoroquinolones in SSSIs. PMID:18360639

  17. Achieving skin to skin contact in theatre for healthy newborns.

    PubMed

    2015-06-01

    The evidence base is supportive of early skin to skin contact (SSC) for optimal newborn-physiological adaptation, bonding and breastfeeding, and national guidelines encourage SSC as soon as possible, regardless of mode of birth. With an ever-rising caesarean (CS) rate, implementing SSC in theatre stands to benefit an increasing number of mothers and babies. While it may be best practice, in reality there is a lot of variation from trust to trust, and many hospitals do not facilitate it, citing numerous reasons as to why it is not possible. Midwives may feel that they should focus on norma birth, but it is our role to provide holistic care and normalise birth in all settings. This article looks at current evidence and the role of the midwife around facilitating SSC in theatre with an example from practice of how change has been implemented so that mothers and babies get the best start in life.

  18. Electrochemical Skin Conductance Correlates with Skin Nerve Fiber Density

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Electrochemical skin conductance (ESC) using reverse iontophoresis and chronoamperometry has been used to evaluate abnormal function of small fibers. How ESC correlates with loss of small fibers in skin is unclear. Methods: This was a prospective, blinded study. The primary outcome measure was the correlation between ESC at the feet and results of skin biopsies including epidermal nerve fiber density (ENFD) and sweat gland nerve fiber density (SGNFD) at the distal leg. ESC, ENFD, and SGNFD data were normalized by adjusting for weight. The secondary outcome measures were the correlation between ESC and the following variables: quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test (QSART) and symptom scales (neuropathy, pain and autonomic). Results: Eighty-one patients (mean ± sd): age = 53.3 ± 17.3, men/women = 25/56 were enrolled in the study. ESC was reduced in subjects with abnormally low ENFD (ENFD normal/abnormal, ESC = 1.17 ± 0.27/0.87 ± 0.34 μSiemens/kg, p < 0.0008) and abnormally low SGNFD (SGNFD normal/abnormal ESC = 1.09 ± 0.34/0.78 ± 0.3 μSiemens/kg, p < 0.0003). ESC correlated with ENFD (ρ = 0.73, p = 0.0001) and SGNFD (ρ = 0.64, p = 0.0001). ESC did not correlate with symptom scales. Conclusion: ESC is diminished in subjects who have a reduced number of small fibers in the skin and the ESC reduction is proportional to ENFD and SGNFD. ESC can be useful in detecting loss of small nerve fibers. PMID:27605912

  19. Electrochemical Skin Conductance Correlates with Skin Nerve Fiber Density.

    PubMed

    Novak, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical skin conductance (ESC) using reverse iontophoresis and chronoamperometry has been used to evaluate abnormal function of small fibers. How ESC correlates with loss of small fibers in skin is unclear. This was a prospective, blinded study. The primary outcome measure was the correlation between ESC at the feet and results of skin biopsies including epidermal nerve fiber density (ENFD) and sweat gland nerve fiber density (SGNFD) at the distal leg. ESC, ENFD, and SGNFD data were normalized by adjusting for weight. The secondary outcome measures were the correlation between ESC and the following variables: quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test (QSART) and symptom scales (neuropathy, pain and autonomic). Eighty-one patients (mean ± sd): age = 53.3 ± 17.3, men/women = 25/56 were enrolled in the study. ESC was reduced in subjects with abnormally low ENFD (ENFD normal/abnormal, ESC = 1.17 ± 0.27/0.87 ± 0.34 μSiemens/kg, p < 0.0008) and abnormally low SGNFD (SGNFD normal/abnormal ESC = 1.09 ± 0.34/0.78 ± 0.3 μSiemens/kg, p < 0.0003). ESC correlated with ENFD (ρ = 0.73, p = 0.0001) and SGNFD (ρ = 0.64, p = 0.0001). ESC did not correlate with symptom scales. ESC is diminished in subjects who have a reduced number of small fibers in the skin and the ESC reduction is proportional to ENFD and SGNFD. ESC can be useful in detecting loss of small nerve fibers.

  20. 7 CFR 51.1549 - Skinning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Skinning. 51.1549 Section 51.1549 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Skinning § 51.1549 Skinning. (a) The following definitions provide a basis for describing lots of potatoes as to the degree of...

  1. 7 CFR 51.1549 - Skinning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Skinning. 51.1549 Section 51.1549 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Skinning § 51.1549 Skinning. (a) The following definitions provide a basis for describing lots of potatoes as to the degree of...

  2. Protecting Our Children from Skin Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Paul

    1993-01-01

    Skin cancer in the United States is epidemic. About 90% of skin cancers are caused by sun exposure. The age of patients developing melanoma is dropping dramatically. Parents must protect their children from the sun during all outdoor activities year round. The article presents recommendations for preventing skin cancer. (SM)

  3. Protecting Our Children from Skin Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Paul

    1993-01-01

    Skin cancer in the United States is epidemic. About 90% of skin cancers are caused by sun exposure. The age of patients developing melanoma is dropping dramatically. Parents must protect their children from the sun during all outdoor activities year round. The article presents recommendations for preventing skin cancer. (SM)

  4. Models to assess perfume diffusion from skin.

    PubMed

    Schwarzenbach, R; Bertschi, L

    2001-04-01

    Temperature, fragrance concentration on the skin and power of ventilation have been determined as crucial parameters in fragrance diffusion from skin. A tool has been developed to simulate perfume diffusion from skin over time, allowing headspace analysis and fragrance profile assessments in a highly reproducible way.

  5. RGB mapping of hemoglobin distribution in skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakovels, Dainis; Spigulis, Janis; Rogule, Laura

    2011-07-01

    An experimental RGB imaging system based on commercial color camera was constructed, and its potential for mapping of hemoglobin distribution in skin was studied. Two types of LEDs (RGB and white "warm" LEDs) were compared as illuminators for acquiring images of vascular and pigmented skin malformations. A novel approach for studies of skin capillary refill by RGB analysis has been proposed and discussed.

  6. Detecting Skin Burns Induced by Surface Electrodes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    density image were taken, the electrode peeled off the skin, and a photograph taken to complete the post-burn dataset. Finally, the used electrodes were...suggesting the breakdown of the barrier layer capacitance in the skin epidermis . Line monitoring of the skin impedance can predict the onset of the burns

  7. Common conditions in skin of color.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Ali; Elbuluk, Nada

    2016-12-01

    The skin of color population is rapidly growing in the United States. This population has numerous unique and more commonly occurring dermatologic conditions. Additionally, certain cutaneous conditions can present differently in darker versus lighter skin types. This paper provides an up-to-date overview of common conditions that occur in skin of color, including their clinical presentations, pathogenesis, differential diagnoses, and treatments.

  8. Dermatology of the head and neck: skin cancer and benign skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Halem, Monica; Karimkhani, Chanté

    2012-10-01

    Skin lesions are extremely common, and early detection of dangerous lesions makes skin cancer one of the most highly curable malignancies. By simply becoming aware of common lesions and their phenotypic presentation, dental professionals are empowered to detect suspicious dermatologic lesions in unaware patients. This article serves as an introduction to skin cancer and benign skin lesions for dental professionals.

  9. Stimulation of PPARα normalizes the skin lipid ratio and improves the skin barrier of normal and filaggrin deficient reconstructed skin.

    PubMed

    Wallmeyer, Leonie; Lehnen, Dominika; Eger, Natascha; Sochorová, Michaela; Opálka, Lukáš; Kováčik, Andrej; Vávrová, Kateřina; Hedtrich, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    Therapeutic options for atopic dermatitis mostly address the symptoms but causal therapies are still missing. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) agonists exert beneficial effects in patients suffering this disease, whereas the stimulation of PPARα and γ seemed most promising. To elucidate the effects of the PPARα specific agonist WY14643, the PPARγ agonist ciglitazone, and the dual PPARα+γ agonist docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the homeostasis and barrier function of filaggrin deficient skin. The effects of the PPAR agonists on skin differentiation were evaluated via qPCR, Western blot, histological or immunofluorescence staining. Skin lipid organization was determined by ATR-FTIR and lipid composition was analyzed by HPTLC. Ultimately, the skin barrier function was assessed by skin absorption studies using the radioactively labeled compound testosterone. Significant upregulation of filaggrin after DHA and WY14643 supplementation, but no effect of ciglitazone, on protein and mRNA level was detected. DHA and WY14643, but not ciglitazone, normalized the molar ratio of the main skin barrier lipids to 1:1:1 (free fatty acids:ceramides:cholesterol). Furthermore, DHA and WY14643 supplementation normalized the skin lipid profile in filaggrin deficient skin, but only WY14643 significantly improved the skin barrier function. Supplementation particularly with the PPARα agonist WY14643 improved the homeostasis and barrier function of filaggrin deficient skin models by normalization of the free fatty acid profile underlining the potential of PPAR agonists for the treatment of filaggrin-associated skin diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Skin banking: treatment option for native skin necrosis following skin-sparing mastectomy and previous breast irradiation.

    PubMed

    Reichl, Heike; Hladik, Michaela; Wechselberger, Gottfried

    2011-05-01

    Skin flap necrosis, as well as positive resection margins in the context of skin-sparing mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction, may require reoperation, potentially associated with tissue loss, and thereby impair the aesthetic result. Skin banking has recently been described as a method for handling skin flaps of uncertain viability. Here, we describe the advantages of skin banking in previously irradiated patients with breast cancer recurrence, which underwent skin-sparing mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction. Aside from its utility in the management of skin necrosis, we present this method as an option to conserve the native breast shape in patients with questionable total resection during surgery. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. A strategy for skin irritation testing.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Michael K; Perkins, Mary A

    2002-03-01

    Skin irritation safety testing and risk assessment for new products, and the ingredients they contain, is a critical requirement before market introduction. In the past, much of this skin testing required the use of experimental animals. However, new current best approaches for skin corrosion and skin irritation testing and risk assessment are being defined, obviating the need for animal test methods. Several in vitro skin corrosion test methods have been endorsed after successful validation and are gaining acceptance by regulatory authorities. In vitro test methods for acute, cumulative (repeat exposure), and chronic (prolonged exposure) skin irritation are under development. Though not yet validated, many are being used successfully for testing and risk assessment purposes as documented through an expanding literature. Likewise, a novel acute irritation patch test in human subjects is providing a valid and ethical alternative to animal testing for prediction of chemical skin irritation potential. An array of other human test methods also have been developed and used for the prediction of cumulative/chronic skin irritation and the general skin compatibility of finished products. The development of instrumental methods (e.g., transepidermal water loss, capacitance, and so on) has provided the means for analyzing various biophysical properties of human skin and changes in these properties caused by exposure to irritants. However, these methods do not directly measure skin inflammation. A recently introduced skin surface tape sampling procedure has been shown to detect changes in skin surface cytokine recovery that correlate with inflammatory skin changes associated with chemical irritant exposures or existing dermatitis. It holds promise for more objective quantification of skin irritation events, including subclinical (sensory) irritation, in the future.

  12. Tissue engineering of cultured skin substitutes.

    PubMed

    Horch, Raymund E; Kopp, Jürgen; Kneser, Ulrich; Beier, Justus; Bach, Alexander D

    2005-01-01

    Skin replacement has been a challenging task for surgeons ever since the introduction of skin grafts by Reverdin in 1871. Recently, skin grafting has evolved from the initial autograft and allograft preparations to biosynthetic and tissue-engineered living skin replacements. This has been fostered by the dramatically improved survival rates of major burns where the availability of autologous normal skin for grafting has become one of the limiting factors. The ideal properties of a temporary and a permanent skin substitute have been well defined. Tissue-engineered skin replacements: cultured autologous keratinocyte grafts, cultured allogeneic keratinocyte grafts, autologous/allogeneic composites, acellular biological matrices, and cellular matrices including such biological substances as fibrin sealant and various types of collagen, hyaluronic acid etc. have opened new horizons to deal with such massive skin loss. In extensive burns it has been shown that skin substitution with cultured grafts can be a life-saving measure where few alternatives exist. Future research will aim to create skin substitutes with cultured epidermis that under appropriate circumstances may provide a wound cover that could be just as durable and esthetically acceptable as conventional split-thickness skin grafts. Genetic manipulation may in addition enhance the performance of such cultured skin substitutes. If cell science, molecular biology, genetic engineering, material science and clinical expertise join their efforts to develop optimized cell culture techniques and synthetic or biological matrices then further technical advances might well lead to the production of almost skin like new tissue-engineered human skin products resembling natural human skin.

  13. Fish skin provides invisibility in open ocean (image 11)

    NSF Multimedia

    2017-02-10

    Skin preparation from fish shows birefringence under cross polarization microscopy Skin preparation from fish shows birefringence under cross polarization microscopySkin preparation from fish shows birefringence under cross polarization microscopy Skin pr

  14. Skin melanocytes: biology and development

    PubMed Central

    Wachulska, Małgorzata; Stasiewicz, Aneta; Tymińska, Agata

    2013-01-01

    In the human skin, melanocytes are present in the epidermis and hair follicles. The basic features of these cells are the ability to melanin production and the origin from neural crest cells. This last element is important because there are other cells able to produce melanin but of different embryonic origin (pigmented epithelium of retina, some neurons, adipocytes). The life cycle of melanocyte consists of several steps including differentiation of melanocyte lineage/s from neural crest, migration and proliferation of melanoblasts, differentiation of melanoblasts into melanocytes, proliferation and maturation of melanocytes at the target places (activity of melanogenic enzymes, melanosome formation and transport to keratinocytes) and eventual cell death (hair melanocytes). Melanocytes of the epidermis and hair are cells sharing some common features but in general they form biologically different populations living in unique niches of the skin. PMID:24278043

  15. High temperature skin friction measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tcheng, Ping; Holmes, Harlan K.; Supplee, Frank H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Skin friction measurement in the NASA Langley hypersonic propulsion facility is described. The sensor configuration utilized an existing balance, modified to provide thermal isolation and an increased standoff distance. For test run times of about 20 sec and ambient-air cooling of the test section and balance, the modified balance performed satisfactorily, even when it was subjected to acoustic and structural vibration. The balance is an inertially balanced closed-loop servo system where the current to a moving-coil motor needed to restore or null the output from the position sensor is a measure of the force or skin friction tending to displace the moving element. The accuracy of the sensor is directly affected by the position sensor in the feedback loop, in this case a linear-variable differential transformer which has proven to be influenced by temperature gradients.

  16. Outdoor sports and skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Moehrle, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation is estimated to be one of the most important risk factors for nonmelanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Athletes practicing outdoor sports receive considerable UV doses because of training and competition schedules with high sun exposure, and in alpine sports, by altitude-related increase of UV radiation and reflection from snow- and ice-covered surfaces. Extreme UV exposure in outdoor sports such as skiing, mountaineering, cycling, or triathlon has been documented in a series of dosimetric studies. Sweating because of physical exercise may contribute to UV-related skin damage as it increases the individual photosensitivity of the skin, facilitating the risk of sunburns. Large epidemiological studies showed that recreational activities such as sun exposure on the beach or during water sports were associated with an increased risk of basal cell carcinoma, whereas skiing has been shown to be at increased risk for squamous cell carcinoma. Risk factors of cutaneous melanoma such as the number of melanocytic nevi and solar lentigines have been found to be more frequent in subjects practicing endurance outdoor sports. An increased risk for cutaneous melanoma may be assumed for these athletes. In addition to the important sun exposure, exercise-induced immunosuppression may increase the risk for nonmelanoma skin cancer and cutaneous melanoma in athletes. Frequently, athletes seem to know little about the risk of sun exposure. Protective means such as avoiding training and competition with considerable sun exposure, choosing adequate clothing, and applying water-resistant sunscreen still need to be propagated in the community of outdoor sportsmen.

  17. Gene Therapy for Skin Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gorell, Emily; Nguyen, Ngon; Lane, Alfred; Siprashvili, Zurab

    2014-01-01

    The skin possesses qualities that make it desirable for gene therapy, and studies have focused on gene therapy for multiple cutaneous diseases. Gene therapy uses a vector to introduce genetic material into cells to alter gene expression, negating a pathological process. This can be accomplished with a variety of viral vectors or nonviral administrations. Although results are promising, there are several potential pitfalls that must be addressed to improve the safety profile to make gene therapy widely available clinically. PMID:24692191

  18. Skin to serosa: scar endometrioma.

    PubMed

    Menon, Maya; T A, Sridevi; P N, Chandrika; Selvakumar A, Sathish

    2014-10-01

    Extra pelvic endometriosis, an underappreciated and misdiagnosed gynaecological problem has been reported here for its rare location. Patient presented with swelling and cyclical pain over vertical scar (caesarean). Diagnosis was made on high index of clinical suspicion which was complimented by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Scar endometrioma extended from the skin upto the uterine serosa which is extremely rare. Wide excision of endometrioma followed by mesh repair was done. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis.

  19. [Skin ageing and its prevention].

    PubMed

    Passeron, Thierry; Ortonne, Jean-Paul

    2003-09-27

    INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC FACTORS: Skin ageing is due to the conjunction of intrinsic (chronological ageing) and extrinsic factors (fundamentally photo-ageing). The physiopathological mechanisms of intrinsic ageing rejoin those of the ageing of all the other organs. Among the intrinsic causes, tobacco and above all ultra-violet radiation, UVB and also UVA, play a preponderant role. Photo-ageing is secondary to complex mechanisms that are increasingly known. The UVB directly interact with the DNA of the cutaneous cells. The deleterious effects of UVA are principally due to the formation of free radical oxygen, which result in an alteration in the nuclear and also mitochondrial DNA, but also an activation of the enzymes, metalloproteinase, capable of damaging the extra-cellular matrix. DELETERIOUS CONSEQUENCES: The phenomena of ageing provoke the decline in defence, healing and perception mechanisms and in the thermoregulation of the skin tissue. There are numerous and often unsightly clinical manifestations. Photo-ageing can be considered as a marker of risk of photo-carcinogenesis requiring increased clinical surveillance. PREVENTIVE AND CURATIVE MEASURES: The prevention of skin ageing must be based on the use of sunscreens protecting against both UVB and UVA, but, in order for them to be effective, they require a change in general life style. There are many efficient therapeutic means, but the possible side effects must be known and explained to the patient. Retinoids, in view of their innocuousness and efficacy not only in prevention but also treatment of skin ageing, should be considered as a therapeutic option of choice.

  20. Photosensitivity skin disorders in childhood.

    PubMed

    Horkay, Irene; Emri, Gabriella; Varga, Viktoria; Simics, Eniko; Remenyik, Eva

    2008-04-01

    Photosensitivity in childhood is caused by a diverse group of diseases. It usually indicates idiopathic photodermatoses, first of all polymorphic light eruption. It may be an early symptom of genetic disorders such as porphyria or very rare genophotodermatoses. Photosensitivity secondary to topical or systemic external agents as well as photoexacerbated dermatoses is not so frequent in childhood. Here we present our experience with childhood photosensitivity skin diseases collected over a 40-year period.

  1. Skin Temperature Recording with Phosphors

    PubMed Central

    Derse, Philip H.; Alt, Leslie L.

    1966-01-01

    In a previous communication in this journal, a method was described for converting invisible thermal patterns of the human skin into a detailed visible picture. At that time, the question of possible toxicity of the thermographic phosphor was raised. Toxicity studies conducted on laboratory animals indicate that the probability of toxic side reactions resulting from the use of zinc-cadmium sulfide phosphor spray is very low. PMID:5943198

  2. Diabetes mellitus and the skin*

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Adriana Lucia; Miot, Helio Amante; Haddad Junior, Vidal

    2017-01-01

    Several dermatoses are routinely associated with diabetes mellitus, especially in patients with chronic disease. This relationship can be easily proven in some skin disorders, but it is not so clear in others. Dermatoses such necrobiosis lipoidica, granuloma annulare, acanthosis nigricans and others are discussed in this text, with an emphasis on proven link with the diabetes or not, disease identification and treatment strategy used to control those dermatoses and diabetes. PMID:28225950

  3. Irritants and Skin Barrier Function.

    PubMed

    Angelova-Fischer, Irena

    2016-01-01

    The barrier response to irritant challenge involves complex biologic events and can be modulated by various environmental, exposure and host-related factors. Irritant damage to the epidermal barrier elicits a cascade of homeostatic or pathologic responses that could be investigated by both in vitro and in vivo methods providing different information at biochemical and functional level. The present chapter summarizes the changes in key barrier function parameters following irritant exposure with focus on experimental controlled in vivo human skin studies.

  4. [E-health: the Skin House].

    PubMed

    Hennekam, Michèle; Totté, Joan E E; Pasmans, Suzanne G M A

    2014-01-01

    The Dutch Skin House (www.huidhuis.nl) is an innovative and interactive online platform for patients with skin conditions and others involved, including health care professionals. Currently the platform is primarily aimed at skin disease in children and adolescents. It offers reliable and specialist information about everything from diagnosis to treatment. Patients can also create their own online protected, personal health record in which they can start a diagnostic or treatment plan. The aim of the Skin House is to create transmural continuation of care which is centred upon the patient. Additionally, the Skin House is focusing on scientific research by means of fellow platform the Research House.

  5. [Problems of skin protection in clean rooms].

    PubMed

    Bieser, L U

    1986-01-01

    The high standard of quality of microelectronic products can be achieved only under clean room conditions. With people working in clean rooms - protective clothing notwithstanding - the incidence of skin flaking is high, and this can cause electronic faults. Even components of normal skin-care agents can be the cause of electronic short circuits. Common skin-care agents have been investigated by emission spectral analysis. Two products virtually free from inorganic substances (and hence ions) were tested in the clean rooms. Use of these skin cosmetics can lead to a considerable reduction in skin flaking.

  6. Back to Basics: Surgical Skin Antisepsis.

    PubMed

    Spruce, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    The fundamental basis for preventing surgical site infections is the antiseptic preparation of the skin at the surgical site. All perioperative nurses must learn this skill. The goal of surgical skin antisepsis, frequently referred to as prepping the skin, is to remove soil and transient (ie, temporary) microorganisms living on the skin that could pose a risk for surgical site infections. This Back to Basics article examines the origin of surgical skin antisepsis and the steps perioperative nurses should take to provide the patient with an aseptic surgical site before any surgical or other invasive procedure.

  7. Optimization of the use of skin expanders.

    PubMed

    Pamplona, D C; Weber, H I; Leta, F R

    2014-11-01

    Skin expansion is a physiological process that is defined as the ability of the human skin to increase its superficial area in response to stress or to a given deformation. Skin expanders are silicon bags that are implanted underneath the skin. Because the skin presents creep or relaxation, the resulting stress decreases after a time due to the imposed deformation. Skin expansions are used to reconstruct burned areas and breasts after a mastectomy or to hide scars. The question that constantly arises during skin expansion is whether it creates a sufficient amount of skin or, in other words, whether the achieved expansion is sufficient to resurface the defect. These questions are answered with information about how much new tissue is required to achieve the reconstruction in a given context and calculating the required tissue (surface area) in relationship with the volume infiltrated. Surface formulas for round and rectangular, and finite elements method for crescent skin expanders are used to calculate the relation between infiltrated volume and surface area. Those results were corrected or validated by an experimental work using 3D scanners to calculate the relation between surface area and internal volumes for the three types of expanders in question. The research provides information to determine the type, number, and volume of skin expanders necessary to obtain an extra amount of skin to repair a specific medical condition and to determine the amount of skin obtained even in cases when the expansion does not come to term. fci, Correcting factor, which corrects the mathematical formulas using the experimental results, for i skin expander; i, geometry of the expander, round (c), rectangular (r), or crescent (cresc/cr); Sd , surface of the defect; Sds , surface area of the donor site; Sfi, surface area obtained using a mathematical calculation for the i skin expander; S¯fi, surface area obtained experimentally for the i skin expander; Sfi∗, corrected surface

  8. Health effects of probiotics on the skin.

    PubMed

    Roudsari, M Rahmati; Karimi, R; Sohrabvandi, S; Mortazavian, A M

    2015-01-01

    Skin is the largest organ of the body and is constantly exposed to physical, chemical, bacterial, and fungal challenges. It is well known that probiotics are helpful for specific disorders and different clinical studies have indicated that probiotics have special effects in cutaneous apparatus directly or indirectly that can be considerable from versatile aspects. Probiotic bacteriotherapy can have great potential in preventing and treating the skin diseases including eczema, atopic dermatitis, acne, and allergic inflammation or in skin hypersensitivity, UV-induced skin damage, wound protection, and as a cosmetic product. The current paper comprehensively reviews the different health effects of probiotics on the skin.

  9. Essentials of skin laceration repair.

    PubMed

    Forsch, Randall T

    2008-10-15

    Skin laceration repair is an important skill in family medicine. Sutures, tissue adhesives, staples, and skin-closure tapes are options in the outpatient setting. Physicians should be familiar with various suturing techniques, including simple, running, and half-buried mattress (corner) sutures. Although suturing is the preferred method for laceration repair, tissue adhesives are similar in patient satisfaction, infection rates, and scarring risk in low skin-tension areas and may be more cost-effective. The tissue adhesive hair apposition technique also is effective in repairing scalp lacerations. The sting of local anesthesia injections can be lessened by using smaller gauge needles, administering the injection slowly, and warming or buffering the solution. Studies have shown that tap water is safe to use for irrigation, that white petrolatum ointment is as effective as antibiotic ointment in postprocedure care, and that wetting the wound as early as 12 hours after repair does not increase the risk of infection. Patient education and appropriate procedural coding are important after the repair.

  10. Hand hygiene and skin health.

    PubMed

    Kownatzki, E

    2003-12-01

    The high rate of hand problems associated with the hand hygiene of medical professions is due to a combination of damaging factors: (1) the removal of barrier lipids by detergent cleaning and alcohol antisepsis followed by a loss of moisturizers and stratum corneum water and (2) the overhydration of the stratum corneum by sweat trapped within gloves. Together the facilitate the invasion of irritants and allergens which elicit inflammatory responses in the dermis. Among the lipids and water-soluble substances removed are natural antibacterials. Their loss leads to increased growth of transient and pathogenic micro-organisms which jeapordizes the very intention of skin hygiene. The kinetics of damage and its repair, and epidemiological evidence suggest that modern synthetic detergents as used in foaming liquid cleansers are the major offender. Conversely, the replacement of detergents with non-detergent emulsion cleansers has been shown to be effective in reducing the prevalence of hand problems among hospital staff. Presently recommended hand antisepsis reduces the risks to patients, but puts the burden on the health care provider. Rather than fighting micro-organisms at the expense of the skin's health, the skin and its own defences should be considered a collaborator in combating infectious diseases.

  11. Human papillomaviruses and skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Smola, Sigrun

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) infect squamous epithelia and can induce hyperproliferative lesions. More than 120 different HPV types have been characterized and classified into five different genera. While mucosal high-risk HPVs have a well-established causal role in anogenital carcinogenesis, the biology of cutaneous HPVs is less well understood. The clinical relevance of genus beta-PV infection has clearly been demonstrated in patients suffering from epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV), a rare inherited disease associated with ahigh rate of skin cancer. In the normal population genus beta-PV are suspected to have an etiologic role in skin carcinogenesis as well but this is still controversially discussed. Their oncogenic potency has been investigated in mouse models and in vitro. In 2009, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified the genus beta HPV types 5 and 8 as "possible carcinogenic" biological agents (group 2B) in EV disease. This chapter will give an overview on the knowns and unknowns of infections with genus beta-PV and discuss their potential impact on skin carcinogenesis in the general population.

  12. Febrile Illness with Skin Rashes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Skin rashes that appear during febrile illnesses are in fact caused by various infectious diseases. Since infectious exanthematous diseases range from mild infections that disappear naturally to severe infectious diseases, focus on and basic knowledge of these diseases is very important. But, these include non-infectious diseases, so that comprehensive knowledge of these other diseases is required. Usually, early diagnostic testing for a febrile illness with a rash is inefficient. For clinical diagnosis of diseases accompanied by skin rash and fever, a complete history must be taken, including recent travel, contact with animals, medications, and exposure to forests and other natural environments. In addition, time of onset of symptoms and the characteristics of the rash itself (morphology, location, distribution) could be helpful in the clinical diagnosis. It is also critical to understand the patient's history of specific underlying diseases. However, diagnostic basic tests could be helpful in diagnosis if they are repeated and the clinical course is monitored. Generally, skin rashes are nonspecific and self-limited. Therefore, it could be clinically meaningful as a characteristic diagnostic finding in a very small subset of specific diseases. PMID:26483989

  13. Approach to infected skin ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Christopher; Bayoumi, Imaan; Westendorp, Claire

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the diagnosis and management of infected chronic skin ulcers. SOURCES OF INFORMATION Cochrane database, MEDLINE, and Google were searched for clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for wound care. Most recommendations found in the CPGs had level II or III evidence. Expert and consensus opinion from the Canadian Chronic Wound Advisory Board and the International Wound Bed Preparation Advisory Board were also used. MAIN MESSAGE Bacteria in skin ulcers act along a continuum from contamination through colonization and critical colonization to infection. Critical colonization is not always associated with overt signs of infection but can result in failure to heal, poor-quality granulation tissue, increased wound friability, and increased drainage. Good-quality swab samples should be an adjunct to clinical acumen, not a primary strategy for diagnosis. Iodine and silver-based dressings, topical antibiotics, and systemic antibiotics can be helpful. CONCLUSION Diagnosis of chronic wound infection is based on clinical signs and a holistic approach to patients. More research into assessment and treatment of skin ulcer infection is needed. PMID:16250422

  14. Border preserving skin lesion segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamali, Mostafa; Samei, Golnoosh

    2008-03-01

    Melanoma is a fatal cancer with a growing incident rate. However it could be cured if diagnosed in early stages. The first step in detecting melanoma is the separation of skin lesion from healthy skin. There are particular features associated with a malignant lesion whose successful detection relies upon accurately extracted borders. We propose a two step approach. First, we apply K-means clustering method (to 3D RGB space) that extracts relatively accurate borders. In the second step we perform an extra refining step for detecting the fading area around some lesions as accurately as possible. Our method has a number of novelties. Firstly as the clustering method is directly applied to the 3D color space, we do not overlook the dependencies between different color channels. In addition, it is capable of extracting fine lesion borders up to pixel level in spite of the difficulties associated with fading areas around the lesion. Performing clustering in different color spaces reveals that 3D RGB color space is preferred. The application of the proposed algorithm to an extensive data-base of skin lesions shows that its performance is superior to that of existing methods both in terms of accuracy and computational complexity.

  15. Skin Characteristics after Fractional Photothermolysis

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Byung Ho; Hwang, Young Ji; Choe, Yong Beom; Ahn, Kyu Joong

    2011-01-01

    Background Fractional photothermolysis makes thousands of minute areas called microthermal treatment zones on the skin surface and transmits thermal injury to facilitate heat shock protein formation around the dermis. Potential side effects include acneiform eruption, herpes simplex virus outbreak, erythema, and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Objective To investigate and compare the changes in the skin of Asian patients after two different fractional photothermolysis systems (FPS) on a split face. Methods A half-split face study was performed with 10,600 nm carbon dioxide FPS on the left and 1,550 nm erbium-doped FPS on the right side of the face. Only one session of laser irradiation and several biophysical measurements were done. Results Although both FPS proved to be effective in treating acne scar and wrinkle patients, a slightly higher satisfaction rating was seen with the 10,600 nm FPS treatment. Both types of FPS showed a significant increase in transepidermal water loss which decreased gradually after treatment and returned to pre-treatment level after 1 week. A decreased reviscometer score was sustained for a longer period in wrinkle areas treated with 10,600 nm FPS. Conclusion Even though the changes in skin varied according to different FPS wave-length, adverse outcomes, such as increased erythema and TEWL were entirely subdued within 3 months of treatment. PMID:22148011

  16. Skin-to-Skin Contact Analgesia for Preterm Infant Heel Stick.

    PubMed Central

    Ludington-Hoe, Susan M.; Hosseini, Robert B.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of the study was to compare a heel stick conducted during skin-to-skin contact with the mother to a heel stick in an incubator in reducing premature infant physiologic and behavioral pain responses. Study Design 24 premature infants in a University-based NICU were recruited and randomized to two sequences: Sequence A group received three hours of skin-to-skin contact with a heel stick in skin-to-skin followed by three hours in an incubator with a heel stick in the incubator. Sequence B group had incubator care and heel stick before skin contact care and heel stick. Heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, crying time and behavioral state were measured before, during, and after heel stick. Repeated measures ANOVA and Mann Whitney U statistics were performed. Results Heart rate and crying responses to pain were significantly reduced during the skin-to-skin contact and skin contact heel stick as compared to incubator care and incubator heel stick. Three infants did not cry at all during the skin contact heel stick. Infants slept more during skin-to-skin contact than in the incubator. Conclusion Skin-to-skin positioning before and during a heel stick is a simple and inexpensive intervention to ameliorate pain in medically stable premature infants. PMID:16082239

  17. Near real-time skin deformation mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacenjar, Steve; Chen, Suzie; Jafri, Madiha; Wall, Brian; Pedersen, Richard; Bezozo, Richard

    2013-02-01

    A novel in vivo approach is described that provides large area mapping of the mechanical properties of the skin in human patients. Such information is important in the understanding of skin health, cosmetic surgery[1], aging, and impacts of sun exposure. Currently, several methods have been developed to estimate the local biomechanical properties of the skin, including the use of a physical biopsy of local areas of the skin (in vitro methods) [2, 3, and 4], and also the use of non-invasive methods (in vivo) [5, 6, and 7]. All such methods examine localized areas of the skin. Our approach examines the local elastic properties via the generation of field displacement maps of the skin created using time-sequence imaging [9] with 2D digital imaging correlation (DIC) [10]. In this approach, large areas of the skin are reviewed rapidly, and skin displacement maps are generated showing the contour maps of skin deformation. These maps are then used to precisely register skin images for purposes of diagnostic comparison. This paper reports on our mapping and registration approach, and demonstrates its ability to accurately measure the skin deformation through a described nulling interpolation process. The result of local translational DIC alignment is compared using this interpolation process. The effectiveness of the approach is reported in terms of residual RMS, image entropy measures, and differential segmented regional errors.

  18. Artificial skin in perspective: concepts and applications.

    PubMed

    Brohem, Carla A; Cardeal, Laura B da Silva; Tiago, Manoela; Soengas, María S; Barros, Silvia B de Moraes; Maria-Engler, Silvya S

    2011-02-01

    Skin, the largest organ of the human body, is organized into an elaborate layered structure consisting mainly of the outermost epidermis and the underlying dermis. A subcutaneous adipose-storing hypodermis layer and various appendages such as hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, nerves, lymphatics, and blood vessels are also present in the skin. These multiple components of the skin ensure survival by carrying out critical functions such as protection, thermoregulation, excretion, absorption, metabolic functions, sensation, evaporation management, and aesthetics. The study of how these biological functions are performed is critical to our understanding of basic skin biology such as regulation of pigmentation and wound repair. Impairment of any of these functions may lead to pathogenic alterations, including skin cancers. Therefore, the development of genetically controlled and well characterized skin models can have important implications, not only for scientists and physicians, but also for manufacturers, consumers, governing regulatory boards and animal welfare organizations. As cells making up human skin tissue grow within an organized three-dimensional (3D) matrix surrounded by neighboring cells, standard monolayer (2D) cell cultures do not recapitulate the physiological architecture of the skin. Several types of human skin recombinants, also called artificial skin, that provide this critical 3D structure have now been reconstructed in vitro. This review contemplates the use of these organotypic skin models in different applications, including substitutes to animal testing. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Artificial Skin in Perspective: Concepts and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Brohem, Carla Abdo; da Silva Cardeal, Laura Beatriz; Tiago, Manoela; Soengas, María S.; de Moraes Barros, Silvia Berlanga; Maria-Engler, Silvya Stuchi

    2010-01-01

    Summary Skin, the largest organ of the human body, is organized into an elaborate layered structure consisting mainly of the outermost epidermis and the underlying dermis. A subcutaneous adipose-storing hypodermis layer and various appendages such as hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, nerves, lymphatics and blood vessels are also present in the skin. These multiple components of the skin ensure survival by providing critical functions in protection, thermoregulation, excretion, absorption, metabolic functions, sensation, evaporation management and aesthetics. The study of how these biological functions are performed is critical in our understanding of basic skin biology, such as regulation of pigmentation and wound repair. Impairment of any of these functions may lead to pathogenic alterations, including skin cancers. Therefore, the development of genetically controlled and well-characterized skin models can have important implications, not only for scientists and physicians, but also for manufacturers, consumers, governing regulatory boards and animal welfare organizations. Since cells making up human skin tissue grow within an organized three dimensional (3D) matrix continually surrounded by neighboring cells, standard monolayer (2D) cell cultures do not recapitulate the physiological architecture of the skin. Several types of human skin recombinants, also called artificial skin, that provide this critical 3-D structure, have now been reconstructed in vitro. This review contemplates the use of these organotypic skin models in different applications, including substitutes to animal testing. PMID:21029393

  20. Proteoglycans in Normal and Healing Skin

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Margaret Mary; Melrose, James

    2015-01-01

    Significance: Proteoglycans have a distinct spatial localization in normal skin and are essential for the correct structural development, organization, hydration, and functional properties of this tissue. The extracellular matrix (ECM) is no longer considered to be just an inert supportive material but is a source of directive, spatial and temporal, contextual information to the cells via components such as the proteoglycans. There is a pressing need to improve our understanding of how these important molecules functionally interact with other matrix structures, cells and cellular mediators in normal skin and during wound healing. Recent Advances: New antibodies to glycosaminoglycan side chain components of skin proteoglycans have facilitated the elucidation of detailed localization patterns within skin. Other studies have revealed important proliferative activities of proteinase-generated fragments of proteoglycans and other ECM components (matricryptins). Knockout mice have further established the functional importance of skin proteoglycans in the assembly and homeostasis of the normal skin ECM. Critical Issues: Our comprehension of the molecular and structural complexity of skin as a complex, dynamic, constantly renewing, layered connective tissue is incomplete. The impact of changes in proteoglycans on skin pathology and the wound healing process is recognized as an important area of pathobiology and is an area of intense investigation. Future Directions: Advanced technology is allowing the development of new artificial skins. Recent knowledge on skin proteoglycans can be used to incorporate these molecules into useful adjunct therapies for wound healing and for maintenance of optimal tissue homeostasis in aging skin. PMID:25785238

  1. Fibroblast heterogeneity: more than skin deep.

    PubMed

    Sorrell, J Michael; Caplan, Arnold I

    2004-02-15

    Dermal fibroblasts are a dynamic and diverse population of cells whose functions in skin in many respects remain unknown. Normal adult human skin contains at least three distinct subpopulations of fibroblasts, which occupy unique niches in the dermis. Fibroblasts from each of these niches exhibit distinctive differences when cultured separately. Specific differences in fibroblast physiology are evident in papillary dermal fibroblasts, which reside in the superficial dermis, and reticular fibroblasts, which reside in the deep dermis. Both of these subpopulations of fibroblasts differ from the fibroblasts that are associated with hair follicles. Fibroblasts engage in fibroblast-epidermal interactions during hair development and in interfollicular regions of skin. They also play an important role in cutaneous wound repair and an ever-increasing role in bioengineering of skin. Bioengineered skin currently performs important roles in providing (1) a basic understanding of skin biology, (2) a vehicle for testing topically applied products and (3) a resource for skin replacement.

  2. Exogenous Factors in Skin Barrier Repair.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Julia; Friedman, Adam J

    2016-11-01

    The stratum corneum (SC) is the skin's outermost layer and serves the primary function of acting as a shield to keep foreign matter out and to essential elements, such as moisture and water, in. Maintenance of this skin barrier is crucial to healthy functioning skin. A damaged or diseased skin barrier is vulnerable to infection, irritants, and allergens. The cornerstone of skin barrier regulation and repair is through the use of moisturizers. While healthcare providers and patients may underestimate the importance of moisturizers due to their lack of active ingredients, the benefit of a well-planned moisturizer regimen for skin barrier regulation should not be discounted. Dermatologists should be comfortable prescribing and educating about over-the-counter moisturizers to patients with skin barrier is- sues. A general understanding of basic moisturizer ingredients and formulations will aid the dermatologist in providing a personalized moisturizer regimen to their patients. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(11):1289-1294..

  3. Preoperative antiseptic skin preparations and reducing SSI.

    PubMed

    Al Maqbali, Mohammed Abdullah

    Surgical site infection (SSI) can affect the quality of care and increase the morbidity and mortality rate in after-surgical procedure. The use of an antiseptic skin preparation agent before the procedure can reduce the pathogens in the skin surface around the incision. Indicating the type of skin antiseptic preparation could prevent the infection and contamination of the wound. The most commonly used types of skin preparations are chlorhexidine and povidone iodine. However, the antiseptic solutions of both agents are strengthened with alcohol to prevent postoperative wound infection. The aim of this paper is to identify the best antiseptic agent in terms of skin preparation by evaluating the evidence in the literature. The factors associated with choosing the antiseptic skin agent, such as patients' allergies, skin condition and environmental risk, are also taken into account. This review suggests that cholorhexdine with alcohol may be the most effective in terms of reducing SSI.

  4. Estimating physiological skin parameters from hyperspectral signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyas, Saurabh; Banerjee, Amit; Burlina, Philippe

    2013-05-01

    We describe an approach for estimating human skin parameters, such as melanosome concentration, collagen concentration, oxygen saturation, and blood volume, using hyperspectral radiometric measurements (signatures) obtained from in vivo skin. We use a computational model based on Kubelka-Munk theory and the Fresnel equations. This model forward maps the skin parameters to a corresponding multiband reflectance spectra. Machine-learning-based regression is used to generate the inverse map, and hence estimate skin parameters from hyperspectral signatures. We test our methods using synthetic and in vivo skin signatures obtained in the visible through the short wave infrared domains from 24 patients of both genders and Caucasian, Asian, and African American ethnicities. Performance validation shows promising results: good agreement with the ground truth and well-established physiological precepts. These methods have potential use in the characterization of skin abnormalities and in minimally-invasive prescreening of malignant skin cancers.

  5. Estimating physiological skin parameters from hyperspectral signatures.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Saurabh; Banerjee, Amit; Burlina, Philippe

    2013-05-01

    We describe an approach for estimating human skin parameters, such as melanosome concentration, collagen concentration, oxygen saturation, and blood volume, using hyperspectral radiometric measurements (signatures) obtained from in vivo skin. We use a computational model based on Kubelka-Munk theory and the Fresnel equations. This model forward maps the skin parameters to a corresponding multiband reflectance spectra. Machine-learning-based regression is used to generate the inverse map, and hence estimate skin parameters from hyperspectral signatures. We test our methods using synthetic and in vivo skin signatures obtained in the visible through the short wave infrared domains from 24 patients of both genders and Caucasian, Asian, and African American ethnicities. Performance validation shows promising results: good agreement with the ground truth and well-established physiological precepts. These methods have potential use in the characterization of skin abnormalities and in minimally-invasive prescreening of malignant skin cancers.

  6. Multimodal device for assessment of skin malformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekina, A.; Garancis, V.; Rubins, U.; Spigulis, J.; Valeine, L.; Berzina, A.

    2013-11-01

    A variety of multi-spectral imaging devices is commercially available and used for skin diagnostics and monitoring; however, an alternative cost-efficient device can provide an advanced spectral analysis of skin. A compact multimodal device for diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions was developed and tested. A polarized LED light source illuminates the skin surface at four different wavelengths - blue (450 nm), green (545 nm), red (660 nm) and infrared (940 nm). Spectra of reflected light from the 25 mm wide skin spot are imaged by a CMOS sensor. Four spectral images are obtained for mapping of the main skin chromophores. The specific chromophore distribution differences between different skin malformations were analyzed and information of subcutaneous structures was consecutively extracted.

  7. Skin surface electrical potential as an indicator of skin condition: observation of surfactant-induced dry skin and middle-aged skin.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Eriko; Kumazawa, Noriyuki; Ozawa, Koichiro; Denda, Mitsuhiro

    2011-09-01

    We previously reported that skin surface electrical potential might be a good parameter of skin pathophysiology. To examine the potential availability of skin surface electrical potential measurement for diagnostic purposes, we measured the change of the potential in surfactant-induced dry skin and we compared the values of the potential in volunteers of different age groups. We also measured trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) in the same groups. The skin surface electrical potential was significantly increased after sodium dodecyl sulphate treatment, and the alteration was much more marked than that of TEWL. Further, a significant difference in skin surface electrical potential was observed between young- and middle-aged volunteers, although there was no significant difference in TEWL between the two groups. These results suggest that skin surface electrical potential may be a good indicator of the pathophysiological state of the living layer of epidermis. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Ceramides and barrier function in healthy skin.

    PubMed

    Mutanu Jungersted, Jakob; Hellgren, Lars I; Høgh, Julie K; Drachmann, T; Jemec, Gregor B E; Agner, Tove

    2010-07-01

    Lipids in the stratum corneum are key components in the barrier function of the skin. Changes in lipid composition related to eczematous diseases are well known, but limited data are available on variations within healthy skin. The objective of the present study was to compare ceramide subgroups and ceramide/cholesterol ratios in young, old, male and female healthy skin. A total of 55 participants with healthy skin was included in the study. Lipid profiles were correlated with transepidermal water loss and with information on dry skin from a questionnaire including 16 people. No statistically significant differences were found between young and old skin for ceramide subgroups or ceramide/cholesterol ratios, and there was no statistically significant correlation between answers about dry skin and ceramide levels. Interestingly, a statistically significant higher ceramide/cholesterol ratio was found for men than for women (p = 0.02).

  9. Advances in Skin Regeneration Using Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Vig, Komal; Chaudhari, Atul; Tripathi, Shweta; Dixit, Saurabh; Sahu, Rajnish; Pillai, Shreekumar; Dennis, Vida A.; Singh, Shree R.

    2017-01-01

    Tissue engineered skin substitutes for wound healing have evolved tremendously over the last couple of years. New advances have been made toward developing skin substitutes made up of artificial and natural materials. Engineered skin substitutes are developed from acellular materials or can be synthesized from autologous, allograft, xenogenic, or synthetic sources. Each of these engineered skin substitutes has their advantages and disadvantages. However, to this date, a complete functional skin substitute is not available, and research is continuing to develop a competent full thickness skin substitute product that can vascularize rapidly. There is also a need to redesign the currently available substitutes to make them user friendly, commercially affordable, and viable with longer shelf life. The present review focuses on providing an overview of advances in the field of tissue engineered skin substitute development, the availability of various types, and their application. PMID:28387714

  10. A custom tailored model to investigate skin penetration in porcine skin and its comparison with human skin.

    PubMed

    Herbig, Michael E; Houdek, Pia; Gorissen, Sascha; Zorn-Kruppa, Michaela; Wladykowski, Ewa; Volksdorf, Thomas; Grzybowski, Stephan; Kolios, Georgios; Willers, Christoph; Mallwitz, Henning; Moll, Ingrid; Brandner, Johanna M

    2015-09-01

    Reliable models for the determination of skin penetration and permeation are important for the development of new drugs and formulations. The intention of our study was to develop a skin penetration model which (1) is viable and well supplied with nutrients during the period of the experiment (2) is mimicking human skin as far as possible, but still is independent from the problems of supply and heterogeneity, (3) can give information about the penetration into different compartments of the skin and (4) considers specific inter-individual differences in skin thickness. In addition, it should be quick and inexpensive (5) and without ethical implications (6). Using a chemically divers set of four topically approved active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), namely diclofenac, metronidazole, tazarotene, and terbinafine, we demonstrated that the model allows reliable determination of drug concentrations in different layers of the viable epidermis and dermis. For APIs susceptible for skin metabolism, the extent of metabolic transformation in epidermis and dermis can be monitored. Furthermore, a high degree of accordance in the ability for discrimination of skin concentrations of the substances in different layers was found in models derived from porcine and human skin. Viability, proliferation, differentiation and markers for skin barrier function were surveyed in the model. This model, which we call 'Hamburg model of skin penetration' is particularly suited to support a rational ranking and selection of dermatological formulations within drug development projects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Does the sailfish skin reduce the skin friction like the shark skin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagong, Woong; Kim, Chulkyu; Choi, Sangho; Jeon, Woo-Pyung; Choi, Haecheon

    2008-10-01

    The sailfish is the fastest sea animal, reaching its maximum speed of 110 km/h. On its skin, a number of V-shaped protrusions pointing downstream exist. Thus, in the present study, the possibility of reducing the skin friction using its shape is investigated in a turbulent boundary layer. We perform a parametric study by varying the height and width of the protrusion, the spanwise and streamwise spacings between adjacent ones, and their overall distribution pattern, respectively. Each protrusion induces a pair of streamwise vortices, producing low and high shear stresses at its center and side locations, respectively. These vortices also interact with those induced from adjacent protrusions. As a result, the drag is either increased or unchanged for most of the cases considered. Some of these cases show that the skin friction itself is reduced but the total drag including the form drag on the protrusion is larger than that of a smooth surface. In a few cases, the drag is decreased only slightly (˜1%) but this amount is within the experimental uncertainty. Since the shape of present protrusions is similar to that used by Sirovich and Karlsson [Nature (London) 388, 753 (1997)] where V-shaped protrusions pointing upstream were considered, we perform another set of experiments following their study. However, we do not obtain any drag reduction even with random distribution of those V-shaped protrusions.

  12. 78 FR 63220 - Guidance for Industry on Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections: Developing Drugs for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin... guidance for industry entitled ``Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections: Developing Drugs for... drugs to treat acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI). This guidance finalizes the...

  13. Skin capacitance in normal and atopic infants, and effects of moisturizers on atopic skin.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Tomoaki; Yuasa, Hiromi; Kai, Rie; Ueda, Hiromi; Ogura, Shunko; Honda, Yoshiko

    2007-07-01

    Skin capacitance depends on the water content of the stratum corneum, and moisturizers have beneficial effects in atopic dermatitis. This study was performed to determine the skin capacitance in normal and atopic infants, and to evaluate the effects of different moisturizers on infantile atopic skin. The skin capacitance in 186 normal infants and 37 atopic infants was measured with a Moisture Checker. Measurements were also made for atopic infants after an application of pure petrolatum or an oil-in-water cream containing a humectant. Age-related decreases in skin capacitance were observed at the majority of dermal sites in normal infants. The skin capacitance was significantly lower in atopic infants compared with normal infants at all body sites. Pure petrolatum and oil-in-water creams containing humectants significantly augmented the capacitance from 2% to 7%. The reference values for skin capacitance may be helpful for delineating normal from atopic skin. Certain moisturizers can increase skin hydration.

  14. Human skin organ culture for assessment of chemically induced skin damage

    PubMed Central

    Varani, James

    2015-01-01

    The move away from animal models for skin safety testing is inevitable. It is a question of when, not if. As skin safety studies move away from traditional animal-based approaches, a number of replacement technologies are becoming available. Human skin in organ culture is one such technology. Organ-cultured skin has several features that distinguish it from other technologies. First and foremost, organ-cultured skin is real skin. Almost by definition, therefore, it approximates the intact skin better than other alternative models. Organ culture is an easy-to-use and relatively inexpensive approach to preclinical safety assessment. Although organ culture is not likely to replace high-throughput enzyme assays or monolayer culture/skin equivalent cultures for initial compound assessment, organ culture should find use when the list of compounds to be evaluated is small and when simpler models have narrowed the dose range. Organ-cultured skin also provides a platform for mechanistic studies. PMID:26989431

  15. The isolated perfused human skin flap model: A missing link in skin penetration studies?

    PubMed

    Ternullo, Selenia; de Weerd, Louis; Flaten, Gøril Eide; Holsæter, Ann Mari; Škalko-Basnet, Nataša

    2017-01-01

    Development of effective (trans)dermal drug delivery systems requires reliable skin models to evaluate skin drug penetration. The isolated perfused human skin flap remains metabolically active tissue for up to 6h during in vitro perfusion. We introduce the isolated perfused human skin flap as a close-to-in vivo skin penetration model. To validate the model's ability to evaluate skin drug penetration the solutions of a hydrophilic (calcein) and a lipophilic (rhodamine) fluorescence marker were applied. The skin flaps were perfused with modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer (pH7.4). Infrared technology was used to monitor perfusion and to select a well-perfused skin area for administration of the markers. Flap perfusion and physiological parameters were maintained constant during the 6h experiments and the amount of markers in the perfusate was determined. Calcein was detected in the perfusate, whereas rhodamine was not detectable. Confocal images of skin cross-sections shoved that calcein was uniformly distributed through the skin, whereas rhodamine accumulated in the stratum corneum. For comparison, the penetration of both markers was evaluated on ex vivo human skin, pig skin and cellophane membrane. The proposed perfused flap model enabled us to distinguish between the penetrations of the two markers and could be a promising close-to-in vivo tool in skin penetration studies and optimization of formulations destined for skin administration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Skin Rounds: A Quality Improvement Approach to Enhance Skin Care in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Nist, Marliese Dion; Rodgers, Elizabeth A; Ruth, Brenda M; Bertoni, C Briana; Bartman, Thomas; Keller, Leah A; Dail, James W; Gardikes-Gingery, Renee; Shepherd, Edward G

    2016-10-01

    Skin injuries are common among neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients and may lead to significant complications. Standardized methods of preventing, detecting, and treating skin injuries are needed. The aim of this project was to standardize the assessment, documentation, and tracking of skin injuries among hospitalized neonatal patients and to determine the incidence of pressure ulcers in this patient population. (1) Creation of an interdisciplinary skin team to identify skin injuries through weekly skin rounds. (2) Assessment of all patients at least twice daily for the presence of skin injuries. Interventions were implemented upon identification of a skin injury. Pressure ulcers of Stage II or more were further assessed by wound/ostomy nurses. A total of 2299 NICU patients were hospitalized and assessed between July 2011 and December 2015. After the initiation of skin rounds, the baseline incidence of pressure ulcers increased from 0.49 per 1000 patient days to 4.6 per 1000 patient days, reflecting an improvement in detection and reporting. The most common skin injuries detected included erythema, skin tears, and ecchymosis; the most common cause of injuries was medical devices. A dedicated skin team can improve the detection and reporting of skin injuries among NICU patients. Determination of the incidence of pressure ulcers in this population is critical to develop targeted interventions. Further research is needed to determine the most effective interventions to prevent and treat skin injuries among hospitalized neonates.

  17. Glycosaminoglycan and proteoglycan in skin aging.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Hun; Oh, Jang-Hee; Chung, Jin Ho

    2016-09-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and proteoglycans (PGs) are abundant structural components of the extracellular matrix in addition to collagen fibers. Hyaluronic acid (HA), one of GAGs, forms proteoglycan aggregates, which are large complexes of HA and HA-binding PGs. Their crosslinking to other matrix proteins such as the collagen network results in the formation of supermolecular structures and functions to increase tissue stiffness. Skin aging can be classified as intrinsic aging and photoaging based on the phenotypes and putative mechanism. While intrinsic aging is characterized by a thinned epidermis and fine wrinkles caused by advancing age, photoaging is characterized by deep wrinkles, skin laxity, telangiectasias, and appearance of lentigines and is mainly caused by chronic sun exposure. The major molecular mechanism governing skin aging processes has been attributed to the loss of mature collagen and increased matrix metalloproteinase expression. However, various strategies focusing on collagen turnover remain unsatisfactory for the reversal or prevention of skin aging. Although the expression of GAGs and PGs in the skin and their regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood, we and others have elucidated various changes in GAGs and PGs in aged skin, suggesting that these molecules are important contributors to skin aging. In this review, we focus on skin-abundant GAGs and PGs and their changes in human skin during the skin aging process. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Adipose stem cells and skin repair.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jae Ho

    2010-06-01

    With the discovery of adipose stem cells (ASCs), 40 years after the identification of bone marrow stem cells, a new era of active stem cell therapy has opened. The abundance of stem cells harvested from adipose tissue enables us to instantly apply primary cells without culture expansion. ASCs are already clinically applied in many other purposes such as cell-enriched lipotransfer, wound healing, skin rejuvenation, scar remodeling and skin tissue engineering. Although cellular mechanism of ASCs is not completely understood, recent researches have disclosed some of their unique functions as mesenchymal stem cells. There have been increasing numbers of scientific reports on the therapeutic effect of ASCs on skin repair, scar remodeling and rejuvenation. Wound healing and scar remodeling are complex, multi-cellular processes that involve coordinated efforts of many cell types and various cytokines. Recent reports showed ASCs as a powerful source of skin regeneration because of their capability to provide not only cellular elements, but also numerous cytokines. Currently, other attractive functions of ASCs in the recovery of extrinsic aging and radiation damage are under active investigation. It seems that autologous ASCs have great promise for applications in repair of skin, rejuvenation of aging skin and aging-related skin lesions. This review will focus on the specific roles of ASCs in skin tissue, especially related with wound healing, radiation injury, scar remodeling, skin rejuvenation and skin engineering.

  19. Principles of skin care in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Surber, C; Brandt, S; Cozzio, A; Kottner, J

    2015-12-01

    With aging, skin undergoes progressive structural and functional degeneration that leaves it prone to a wide variety of bothersome and even serious conditions and diseases. As skin conditions and diseases may affect all ages from cradle to grave, a disproportionate burden will clearly fall on the elderly and may significantly impact on quality of life (QoL). With a reduced ability of the skin to regenerate, the elderly are at an increased risk of skin breakdowns from even the simplest insults. It is therefore vital that skin care in the late adulthood is seen as a priority among both clinicians and caregivers. The scientific literature on diagnosing and assessing age-related skin conditions and diseases is vast; however, when it comes to preventive care and treatment, the scientific data available is less profound, and the recommendations are often based on personal experience, opinions or at best on consensus documents rather than on scientific data retrieved from controlled clinical trials. In addition to the absence of the scientific data, the imprecise terminology to describe the topical products, as well as the lack of understanding the essence of the vehicle, contributes to vague and often unhelpfully product recommendations. This paper aims to elucidate some basic principles of skincare, the choice of skincare products and their regulatory status. The paper discusses adherence to topical therapies, percutaneous absorption in the elderly, and skin surface pH and skin care. Lastly, it also discusses skin care principles in selected age related skin conditions and diseases.

  20. Climate and skin function: an overview.

    PubMed

    Singh, Babu; Maibach, Howard

    2013-08-01

    Climates of the world are diverse and produce changes in skin integrity and functioning. Evidence on skin and its response to severe climates is limited, but information can be inferred from data characterizing skin under controlled climate conditions using noninvasive bioengineering techniques. A literature search was conducted on the effects on major climate conditions on skin integrity and function. Exposure of murine skin to low humidity promotes a hyperproliferative and proinflammatory response, which can be prevented with topical agents or occlusion. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and average skin temperature (Tsk ) is highly sensitive to climate or ambient temperature (Tambient ). High altitudes leave skin more susceptible to UV radiation and even brief exposures cause surface changes. Pollution can result external skin aging and may be a risk factor for exacerbation of dermatoses. Further research is needed to understand skin properties and functioning in harsh climates to provide insight into optimal skin care for individuals living in such conditions. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Basal cell carcinoma in skin of color.

    PubMed

    Ahluwalia, Jesleen; Hadjicharalambous, Elena; Mehregan, Darius

    2012-04-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer most commonly affects Caucasians, and only rarely affects darker-skinned individuals. However, skin cancer in these groups is associated with greater morbidity and mortality. Ultraviolet radiation is the major etiologic factor in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and likely plays a pivotal role in the development of other forms of skin cancer. Yet it is commonly thought among patients as well as physicians that darker pigmentation inherently affords complete protection from skin cancer development. This low index of suspicion results in delayed diagnoses and poorer outcomes. This review follows a detailed computer search that cross-matched the diagnosis of BCC with skin color type in a large commercial dermatopathology facility. The reported skin types, all Fitzpatrick skin types IV, V, and VI, and histories were confirmed. A predominance of pigmented BCCs was found in sun-exposed areas of these older individuals. Although less common in darker-skinned ethnic groups, BCC does occur and can pose significant morbidity. Thus, it is essential that dermatologists are familiar with the epidemiology and clinical presentation of all cutaneous malignancies in darker skin so that these patients are fully aware of risks as well as prevention of the disease.

  2. Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria and Skin Health.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Ji Hye; Lee, Chang Y; Chung, Dae Kyun

    2016-10-25

    Human skin is the first defense barrier against the external environment, especially microbial pathogens and physical stimulation. Many studies on skin health with Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been published for many years, including prevention of skin disease and improvement of skin conditions. LAB, a major group of gram-positive bacteria, are known to be beneficial to human health by acting as probiotics. Recent studies have shown that LAB and their extracts have beneficial effects on maintenance and improvement of skin health. Oral administration of Lactobacillus delbrueckii inhibits the development of atopic disease. In addition, LAB and LAB extracts are known to have beneficial effects on intestinal diseases, with Lactobacillus plantarum having been shown to attenuate IL-10 deficient colitis. In addition to intestinal health, L. plantarum also has beneficial effects on skin. pLTA, which is lipoteichoic acid isolated from L. plantarum, has anti-photoaging effects on human skin cells by regulating the expression matrix meralloprotionase-1 (MMP-1) expression. While several studies have proposed a relationship between diseases of the skin and small intestines, there are currently no published reviews of the effects of LAB for skin health through regulation of intestinal conditions and the immune system. In this review, we discuss recent findings on the effects of LAB on skin health and its potential applications in beauty foods.

  3. Unexpected skin barrier influence from nonionic emulsifiers.

    PubMed

    Bárány, E; Lindberg, M; Lodén, M

    2000-02-15

    Skin disorders are often treated with creams containing various active substances. The creams also contain emulsifiers, which are surface-active ingredients used to stabilize the emulsion. Emulsifiers are potential irritants and in the present study the influence of stearic acid, glyceryl stearate, PEG-2, -9, -40, and -100 stearate, steareth-2, -10 and -21 on normal as well as on irritated skin have been evaluated with non-invasive measurements. Test emulsions were created by incorporating 5% emulsifiers in a water/mineral oil mixture (50:50). The emulsions and their vehicle were then applied to normal skin for 48 h and to sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) damaged skin for 17 h in aluminum chambers. Twenty-four hours after removal of the chambers the test sites were evaluated for degree of irritation. In normal skin, the emulsifiers induced significant differences in TEWL but not in skin blood flow. Five of the emulsifiers increased TEWL. In SLS-damaged skin an aggravation of the irritation was expected. However, no differences regarding skin blood flow was noted from the emulsifiers. Furthermore, three emulsifiers unexpectedly decreased TEWL. These results highlight the possibility of absorption of these emulsifiers into the lipid bilayer, which increase TEWL in normal skin and decrease TEWL in damaged skin.

  4. Preparation of Inactivated Human Skin Using High Hydrostatic Pressurization for Full-Thickness Skin Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Liem, Pham Hieu; Morimoto, Naoki; Mahara, Atsushi; Jinno, Chizuru; Shima, Koji; Ogino, Shuichi; Sakamoto, Michiharu; Kakudo, Natsuko; Inoie, Masukazu; Kusumoto, Kenji; Fujisato, Toshia; Suzuki, Shigehiko; Yamaoka, Tetsuji

    2015-01-01

    We have reported that high-hydrostatic-pressure (HHP) technology is safe and useful for producing various kinds of decellularized tissue. However, the preparation of decellularized or inactivated skin using HHP has not been reported. The objective of this study was thus to prepare inactivated skin from human skin using HHP, and to explore the appropriate conditions of pressurization to inactivate skin that can be used for skin reconstruction. Human skin samples of 8 mm in diameter were packed in bags filled with normal saline solution (NSS) or distilled water (DW), and then pressurized at 0, 100, 150, 200 and 1000 MPa for 10 minutes. The viability of skin after HHP was evaluated using WST-8 assay. Outgrowth cells from pressurized skin and the viability of pressurized skin after cultivation for 14 days were also evaluated. The pressurized skin was subjected to histological evaluation using hematoxylin and eosin staining, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), immunohistochemical staining of type IV collagen for the basement membrane of epidermis and capillaries, and immunohistochemical staining of von Willebrand factor (vWF) for capillaries. Then, human cultured epidermis (CE) was applied on the pressurized skin and implanted into the subcutis of nude mice; specimens were subsequently obtained 14 days after implantation. Skin samples pressurized at more than 200 MPa were inactivated in both NSS and DW. The basement membrane and capillaries remained intact in all groups according to histological and immunohistological evaluations, and collagen fibers showed no apparent damage by SEM. CE took on skin pressurized at 150 and 200 MPa after implantation, whereas it did not take on skin pressurized at 1000 MPa. These results indicate that human skin could be inactivated after pressurization at more than 200 MPa, but skin pressurized at 1000 MPa had some damage to the dermis that prevented the taking of CE. Therefore, pressurization at 200 MPa is optimal for preparing

  5. Penetration of chlorhexidine into human skin.

    PubMed

    Karpanen, T J; Worthington, T; Conway, B R; Hilton, A C; Elliott, T S J; Lambert, P A

    2008-10-01

    This study evaluated a model of skin permeation to determine the depth of delivery of chlorhexidine into full-thickness excised human skin following topical application of 2% (wt/vol) aqueous chlorhexidine digluconate. Skin permeation studies were performed on full-thickness human skin using Franz diffusion cells with exposure to chlorhexidine for 2 min, 30 min, and 24 h. The concentration of chlorhexidine extracted from skin sections was determined to a depth of 1,500 microm following serial sectioning of the skin using a microtome and analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography. Poor penetration of chlorhexidine into skin following 2-min and 30-min exposures to chlorhexidine was observed (0.157 +/- 0.047 and 0.077 +/- 0.015 microg/mg tissue within the top 100 microm), and levels of chlorhexidine were minimal at deeper skin depths (less than 0.002 microg/mg tissue below 300 microm). After 24 h of exposure, there was more chlorhexidine within the upper 100-microm sections (7.88 +/- 1.37 microg/mg tissue); however, the levels remained low (less than 1 microg/mg tissue) at depths below 300 microm. There was no detectable penetration through the full-thickness skin. The model presented in this study can be used to assess the permeation of antiseptic agents through various layers of skin in vitro. Aqueous chlorhexidine demonstrated poor permeation into the deeper layers of the skin, which may restrict the efficacy of skin antisepsis with this agent. This study lays the foundation for further research in adopting alternative strategies for enhanced skin antisepsis in clinical practice.

  6. Skin exposure to isocyanates: reasons for concern.

    PubMed

    Bello, Dhimiter; Herrick, Christina A; Smith, Thomas J; Woskie, Susan R; Streicher, Robert P; Cullen, Mark R; Liu, Youcheng; Redlich, Carrie A

    2007-03-01

    Isocyanates (di- and poly-), important chemicals used worldwide to produce polyurethane products, are a leading cause of occupational asthma. Respiratory exposures have been reduced through improved hygiene controls and the use of less-volatile isocyanates. Yet isocyanate asthma continues to occur, not uncommonly in settings with minimal inhalation exposure but opportunity for skin exposure. In this review we evaluate the potential role of skin exposure in the development of isocyanate asthma. We reviewed the published animal and human literature on isocyanate skin-exposure methods, workplace skin exposure, skin absorption, and the role of skin exposure in isocyanate sensitization and asthma. We selected relevant articles from computerized searches on Medline, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, and Google databases using the keywords "isocyanate," "asthma," "skin," "sensitization," and other synonymous terms, and our own extensive collection of isocyanate publications. Isocyanate production and use continues to increase as the polyurethane industry expands. There is substantial opportunity for isocyanate skin exposure in many work settings, but such exposure is challenging to quantify and continues to be underappreciated. Isocyanate skin exposure can occur at work, even with the use of personal protective equipment, and may also occur with consumer use of certain isocyanate products. In animals, isocyanate skin exposure is an efficient route to induce sensitization, with subsequent inhalation challenge resulting in asthma-like responses. Several lines of evidence support a similar role for human isocyanate skin exposure, namely, that such exposure occurs and can contribute to the development of isocyanate asthma in certain settings, presumably by inducing systemic sensitization. Integrated animal and human research is needed to better understand the role of skin

  7. Ceftaroline in complicated skin and skin-structure infections

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Paul O; Lema, Sergio; Tyring, Stephen K; Mendoza, Natalia

    2012-01-01

    Ceftaroline is an advanced-generation cephalosporin antibiotic recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of complicated skin and skin-structure infections (cSSSIs). This intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotic exerts potent bactericidal activity by inhibiting bacterial cell wall synthesis. A high affinity for the penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) makes the drug especially beneficial to patients with MRSA cSSSIs. Ceftaroline has proved in multiple well-conducted clinical trials to have an excellent safety and efficacy profile. In adjusted doses it is also recommended for patients with renal or hepatic impairment. Furthermore, the clinical effectiveness and high cure rate demonstrated by ceftaroline in cSSSIs, including those caused by MRSA and other multidrug-resistant strains, warrants its consideration as a first-line treatment option for cSSSIs. This article reviews ceftaroline and its pharmacology, efficacy, and safety data to further elucidate its role in the treatment of cSSSIs. PMID:22294860

  8. Moxifloxacin in the treatment of skin and skin structure infections

    PubMed Central

    Guay, David RP

    2006-01-01

    Moxifloxacin is a recent addition to the fluoroquinolone class, differing from ciprofloxacin and other older agents in having much better in vitro activity against Gram-positive aerobes while retaining potent activity against Gram-negative aerobes. It is also active against the pathogens of human and animal bite wounds and those species of atypical mycobacteria associated with dermatologic infections. Its activity against anaerobes is quite variable. Moxifloxacin penetrates well into inflammatory blister fluid and muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissues. Moxifloxacin should thus be a reasonable option for the treatment of skin and skin structure infections (SSSIs). In 3 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), oral moxifloxacin was as effective as cephalexin in the treatment of uncomplicated SSSIs in adults while in 2 RCTs, intravenous/oral moxifloxacin was as effective as intravenous/oral β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor therapy in the treatment of complicated SSSIs in adults. Moxifloxacin does not inhibit cytochrome P450 enzymes and thus interact with warfarin or methylxanthines. However, multivalent cations can reduce its oral bioavailability substantially. Dosage adjustment is not required in the presence of renal or hepatic impairment. The clinical relevance of its electrophysiologic effects (QTc prolongation) remains unresolved. PMID:18360653

  9. The skin: an indispensable barrier.

    PubMed

    Proksch, Ehrhardt; Brandner, Johanna M; Jensen, Jens-Michael

    2008-12-01

    The skin forms an effective barrier between the organism and the environment preventing invasion of pathogens and fending off chemical and physical assaults, as well as the unregulated loss of water and solutes. In this review we provide an overview of several components of the physical barrier, explaining how barrier function is regulated and altered in dermatoses. The physical barrier is mainly localized in the stratum corneum (SC) and consists of protein-enriched cells (corneocytes with cornified envelope and cytoskeletal elements, as well as corneodesmosomes) and lipid-enriched intercellular domains. The nucleated epidermis also contributes to the barrier through tight, gap and adherens junctions, as well as through desmosomes and cytoskeletal elements. During epidermal differentiation lipids are synthesized in the keratinocytes and extruded into the extracellular domains, where they form extracellular lipid-enriched layers. The cornified cell envelope, a tough protein/lipid polymer structure, resides below the cytoplasmic membrane on the exterior of the corneocytes. Ceramides A and B are covalently bound to cornified envelope proteins and form the backbone for the subsequent addition of free ceramides, free fatty acids and cholesterol in the SC. Filaggrin is cross-linked to the cornified envelope and aggregates keratin filaments into macrofibrils. Formation and maintenance of barrier function is influenced by cytokines, 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate and calcium. Changes in epidermal differentiation and lipid composition lead to a disturbed skin barrier, which allows the entry of environmental allergens, immunological reaction and inflammation in atopic dermatitis. A disturbed skin barrier is important for the pathogenesis of contact dermatitis, ichthyosis, psoriasis and atopic dermatitis.

  10. Drug hypersensitivity reactions involving skin.

    PubMed

    Hausmann, Oliver; Schnyder, Benno; Pichler, Werner J

    2010-01-01

    Immune reactions to drugs can cause a variety of diseases involving the skin, liver, kidney, lungs, and other organs. Beside immediate, IgE-mediated reactions of varying degrees (urticaria to anaphylactic shock), many drug hypersensitivity reactions appear delayed, namely hours to days after starting drug treatment, showing a variety of clinical manifestations from solely skin involvement to fulminant systemic diseases which may be fatal. Immunohistochemical and functional studies of drug-specific T cells in patients with delayed reactions confirmed a predominant role for T cells in the onset and maintenance of immune-mediated delayed drug hypersensitivity reactions (type IV reactions). In these reactions, drug-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are stimulated by drugs through their T cell receptors (TCR). Drugs can stimulate T cells in two ways: they can act as haptens and bind covalently to larger protein structures (hapten-carrier model), inducing a specific immune response. In addition, they may accidentally bind in a labile, noncovalent way to a particular TCR of the whole TCR repertoire and possibly also major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-molecules - similar to their pharmacologic action. This seems to be sufficient to reactivate certain, probably in vivo preactivated T cells, if an additional interaction of the drug-stimulated TCR with MHC molecules occurs. The mechanism was named pharmacological interaction of a drug with (immune) receptor and thus termed the p-i concept. This new concept may explain the frequent skin symptoms in drug hypersensitivity to oral or parenteral drugs. Furthermore, the various clinical manifestations of T cell-mediated drug hypersensitivity may be explained by distinct T cell functions leading to different clinical phenotypes. These data allowed a subclassification of the delayed hypersensitivity reactions (type IV) into T cell reactions which, by releasing certain cytokines and chemokines, preferentially activate and recruit

  11. Protective Skins for Aerogel Monoliths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leventis, Nicholas; Johnston, James C.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Meador, Ann B.

    2007-01-01

    A method of imparting relatively hard protective outer skins to aerogel monoliths has been developed. Even more than aerogel beads, aerogel monoliths are attractive as thermal-insulation materials, but the commercial utilization of aerogel monoliths in thermal-insulation panels has been inhibited by their fragility and the consequent difficulty of handling them. Therefore, there is a need to afford sufficient protection to aerogel monoliths to facilitate handling, without compromising the attractive bulk properties (low density, high porosity, low thermal conductivity, high surface area, and low permittivity) of aerogel materials. The present method was devised to satisfy this need. The essence of the present method is to coat an aerogel monolith with an outer polymeric skin, by painting or spraying. Apparently, the reason spraying and painting were not attempted until now is that it is well known in the aerogel industry that aerogels collapse in contact with liquids. In the present method, one prevents such collapse through the proper choice of coating liquid and process conditions: In particular, one uses a viscous polymer precursor liquid and (a) carefully controls the amount of liquid applied and/or (b) causes the liquid to become cured to the desired hard polymeric layer rapidly enough that there is not sufficient time for the liquid to percolate into the aerogel bulk. The method has been demonstrated by use of isocyanates, which, upon exposure to atmospheric moisture, become cured to polyurethane/polyurea-type coats. The method has also been demonstrated by use of commercial epoxy resins. The method could also be implemented by use of a variety of other resins, including polyimide precursors (for forming high-temperature-resistant protective skins) or perfluorinated monomers (for forming coats that impart hydrophobicity and some increase in strength).

  12. The optics of human skin

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.R.; Parrish, J.A.

    1981-07-01

    An integrated review of the transfer of optical radiation into human skin is presented, aimed at developing useful models for photomedicine. The component chromophores of epidermis and stratum corneum in general determine the attenuation of radiation in these layers, moreso than does optical scattering. Epidermal thickness and melanization are important factors for UV wavelengths less than 300 nm, whereas the attenuation of UVA (320-400 nm) and visible radiation is primarily via melanin. The selective penetration of all optical wavelengths into psoriatic skin can be maximized by application of clear lipophilic liquids, which decrease regular reflectance by a refractive-index matching mechanism. Sensitivity to wavelengths less than 320 nm can be enhanced by prolonged aqueous bathing, which extracts urocanic acid and other diffusible epidermal chromophores. Optical properties of the dermis are modelled using the Kubelka-Munk approach, and calculations of scattering and absorption coefficients are presented. This simple approach allows estimates of the penetration of radiation in vivo using noninvasive measurements of cutaneous spectral remittance (diffuse reflectance). Although the blood chromophores Hb, HbO/sup 2/, and bilirubin determine dermal absorption of wavelengths longer than 320 nm, scattering by collagen fibers largely determines the depths to which these wavelengths penetrate the dermis, and profoundly modifies skin colors. An optical ''window'' exists between 600 and 1300 nm, which offers the possibility of treating large tissue volumes with certain long-wavelength photosensitizers. Moreover, whenever photosensitized action spectra extend across the near UV and/or visible spectrum, judicious choice of wavelengths allows some selection of the tissue layers directly affected.

  13. The skin and hypercoagulable states.

    PubMed

    Thornsberry, Laura A; LoSicco, Kristen I; English, Joseph C

    2013-09-01

    Hypercoagulable states (HS) are inherited or acquired conditions that predispose an individual to venous and/or arterial thrombosis. The dermatologist can play a vital role in diagnosing a patient's HS by recognizing the associated cutaneous manifestations, such as purpura, purpura fulminans, livedo reticularis, livedo vasculopathy (atrophie blanche), anetoderma, chronic venous ulcers, and superficial venous thrombosis. The cutaneous manifestations of HS are generally nonspecific, but identification of an abnormal finding can warrant a further workup for an underlying thrombophilic disorder. This review will focus on the basic science of hemostasis, the evaluation of HS, the skin manifestations associated with hypercoagulability, and the use of antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy in dermatology.

  14. Skin manifestations of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Ermertcan, Aylin Turel; Ertan, Pelin

    2010-01-01

    Child abuse is a major public health problem all over the world. There are four major types of abuse: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse and neglect. The most common manifestations of child abuse are cutaneous and their recognition; and differential diagnosis is of great importance. Clinicians, especially dermatologists, should be alert about the skin lesions of child abuse. In the diagnosis and management of child abuse, a multidisciplinary approach with ethical and legal procedures is necessary. In this manuscript, cutaneous manifestations of physical, sexual, emotional abuse and neglect are reviewed and discussed.

  15. Hydrodynamic skin-friction reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Jason C. (Inventor); Bushnell, Dennis M. (Inventor); Weinstein, Leonard M. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A process for reducing skin friction, inhibiting the effects of liquid turbulence, and decreasing heat transfer in a system involving flow of a liquid along a surface of a body includes applying a substantially integral sheet of a gas, e.g., air, immediately adjacent to the surface of the body, e.g., a marine vehicle, which has a longitudinally grooved surface in proximity with the liquid and with a surface material having high contact angle between the liquid and said wall to reduce interaction of the liquid, e.g., water, with the surface of the body, e.g., the hull of the marine vehicle.

  16. Hydrodynamic skin-friction reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Jason C. (Inventor); Bushnell, Dennis M. (Inventor); Weinstein, Leonard M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A process for reducing skin friction, inhibiting the effects of liquid turbulence, and decreasing heat transfer in a system involving flow of a liquid along a surface of a body includes applying a substantially integral sheet of a gas, e.g., air, immediately adjacent to the surface of the body; a marine vehicle, which has a longitudinally grooved surface in proximity with the liquid and with a surface material having high contact angle between the liquid and said wall to reduce interaction of the liquid; water, with the surface of the body; and the hull of the marine vehicle.

  17. Hair bleaching and skin burning

    PubMed Central

    Forster, K.; Lingitz, R.; Prattes, G.; Schneider, G.; Sutter, S.; Schintler, M.; Trop, M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Hairdressing-related burns are preventable and therefore each case is one too many. We report a unique case of a 16-yr-old girl who suffered full-thickness chemical and thermal burns to the nape of her neck and superficial burns to the occiput after her hair had been dyed blond and placed under a dryer to accelerate the highlighting procedure. The wound on the nape of the neck required surgical debridement and skin grafting. The grafted area resulted in subsequent scar formation. PMID:23766754

  18. Evaluation of mild skin cleansers.

    PubMed

    Wortzman, M S

    1991-01-01

    Each person makes the decision of how best to care for his or her own skin. Among the prime concerns, especially for facial skin, is the type of dirt, debris, or make-up to be removed. In most cases, all products do an adequate job in the removal of dirt; if not, the washing techniques can be modified to accomplish the task at hand. What cannot be controlled are the adverse side effects inherent in the use of that product. These adverse properties include damages to the barrier function of the skin; increased susceptibility to environmental sources of irritation and sensitization; frank irritation responses, such as erythema and edema; and reduction of the cosmetic qualities of the skin, such as degree of moisture and smoothness. Part of the problem is that most of these changes are subtle, occurring slowly over time. Often, the association of these problems with the use of a particular facial cleansing regimen is overlooked. The typical woman uses as many as 10 to 15 facial cosmetic and cleansing products each day, making the identification of a problem even more difficult. It is important to identify the risks associated with individual products and with product categories in general. Although the identification of a safe group of products to use for facial cleansing is desirable, the results of this investigation indicate that there are no simple answers. It has been assumed that because moisturizing cream formulations are routinely safe and mild in general use, a cleansing product in the same general form would share these attributes. We can see from the results in Table 2 and Figures 2, 3, 5, 7, and 9 that cleansing creams are not uniformly superior to cleansing bars in the key attributes that are used to evaluate mildness. In each evaluation there were individual cleansing creams that demonstrated statistically weaker performance than did cleansing bars in general. As a group, cleansing creams did well in the cosmetic categories of dryness and texture but

  19. Superficial angiomyxoma of the skin

    PubMed Central

    Abarzúa-Araya, Alvaro; Lallas, Aimillios; Piana, Simonetta; Longo, Caterina; Moscarella, Elvira; Argenziano, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Superficial angiomyxomas (SA) of the skin are rare benign cutaneous tumors of soft tissue composed of prominent myxoid matrix and numerous blood vessels. SA are more common in males [1] and they are usually located on the trunk but can also appear on the lower limbs, head, neck and genitalia [2,3]. Treatment is surgical, the total excision is curative, but local recurrence is possible [4]. Herein we present a 72-year-old patient with a history of melanoma in situ, with a new lesion on the lower back. PMID:27648383

  20. Hair bleaching and skin burning.

    PubMed

    Forster, K; Lingitz, R; Prattes, G; Schneider, G; Sutter, S; Schintler, M; Trop, M

    2012-12-31

    Hairdressing-related burns are preventable and therefore each case is one too many. We report a unique case of a 16-yr-old girl who suffered full-thickness chemical and thermal burns to the nape of her neck and superficial burns to the occiput after her hair had been dyed blond and placed under a dryer to accelerate the highlighting procedure. The wound on the nape of the neck required surgical debridement and skin grafting. The grafted area resulted in subsequent scar formation.