Sleep apnea is a common disorder that causes your breathing to stop or get very shallow. Breathing ... an hour. The most common type is obstructive sleep apnea. It causes your airway to collapse or ...
Zhang, Quan; Wang, Dawei; Qin, Wen; Li, Qiong; Chen, Baoyuan; Zhang, Yunting; Yu, Chunshui
Study Objectives: Structural and functional brain changes may contribute to neural dysfunction in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, the effect of OSA on resting-state brain activity has not been established. The objective of this study was to investigate alterations in resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the common brain networks in patients with OSA and their relationships with changes in gray matter volume (GMV) in the corresponding brain regions. Designs: Resting-state functional and structural MRI data were acquired from patients with OSA and healthy controls. Seven brain networks were identified by independent component analysis. The rsFC in each network was compared between groups and the GMV of brain regions with significant differences in rsFC was also compared. Setting: University hospital. Patients and Participants: Twenty-four male patients with untreated OSA and 21 matched healthy controls. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: OSA specifically affected the cognitive and sensorimotor-related brain networks but not the visual and auditory networks. The medial prefrontal cortex and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) showed decreased rsFC and GMV in patients with OSA, suggesting structural and functional deficits. The right DLPFC and left precentral gyrus showed decreased rsFC and unchanged GMV, suggesting a functional deficit. The right posterior cingulate cortex demonstrated increased rsFC and unchanged GMV, suggesting functional compensation. In patients with OSA, the rsFC of the right DLPFC was negatively correlated with the apnea-hypopnea index. Conclusions: OSA specifically affects resting-state functional connectivity in cognitive and sensorimotor-related brain networks, which may be related to the impaired cognitive and motor functions in these patients. Citation: Zhang Q; Wang D; Qin W; Li Q; Chen B; Zhang Y; Yu C. Altered resting-state brain activity in obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2013
... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Obstructive Sleep Apnea KidsHealth > For Parents > Obstructive Sleep Apnea Print ... kids and teens can develop it, too. About Sleep Apnea Sleep apnea happens when a person stops ...
Sleep apnea - obstructive - adults; Apnea - obstructive sleep apnea syndrome - adults; Sleep-disordered breathing - adults; OSA - adults ... When you sleep, all of the muscles in your body become more relaxed. This includes the muscles that help keep your ...
Sleep apnea - pediatric; Apnea - pediatric sleep apnea syndrome; Sleep-disordered breathing - pediatric ... During sleep, all of the muscles in the body become more relaxed. This includes the muscles that help keep ...
... of other risk factors linked to a higher risk of heart disease. The conditions that make up metabolic syndrome include high blood pressure, abnormal cholesterol, high blood sugar and an increased waist circumference. Complications with medications and surgery. Obstructive sleep apnea ...
American Sleep Apnea Association Learn About the CPAP Assistance Program About ASAA News about ASAA Who we are Leadership Team Supporting the ASAA Financials Learn Healthy sleep Sleep apnea Other sleep disorders Personal stories Treat Test Yourself ...
Hakim, Fahed; Gozal, David; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila
Sleep is involved in the regulation of major organ functions in the human body, and disruption of sleep potentially can elicit organ dysfunction. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most prevalent sleep disorder of breathing in adults and children, and its manifestations reflect the interactions between intermittent hypoxia, intermittent hypercapnia, increased intra-thoracic pressure swings, and sleep fragmentation, as elicited by the episodic changes in upper airway resistance during sleep. The sympathetic nervous system is an important modulator of the cardiovascular, immune, endocrine and metabolic systems, and alterations in autonomic activity may lead to metabolic imbalance and organ dysfunction. Here we review how OSA and its constitutive components can lead to perturbation of the autonomic nervous system in general, and to altered regulation of catecholamines, both of which then playing an important role in some of the mechanisms underlying OSA-induced morbidities. PMID:22319509
Bayon, V; Léger, D
The presence of insomnia in patients with sleep apnea seems paradoxical as excessive sleepiness is one of the major symptoms of sleep apnea. However, recent research has shown that about half of patients with sleep disorder breathing experience insomnia. Moreover, patients complaining of insomnia or non-restorative sleep may also present with moderate to severe sleep apnea syndromes. Thus, in recent years, clinicians have become more aware of the possible association between insomnia and sleep apnea. This article reviews data published on different aspects of this co-occurrence.
... as while talking on the phone or driving. Risk factors for sleep apnea include being overweight and having a large neck. Losing even 10 percent of body weight can help reduce the ... be at increased risk for sleep apnea. Smoking and alcohol use increase ...
Snoring and excessive sleepiness are the hallmarks of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome but other clinical manifestations are present and a precise assessment of the disease involves clear definitions of the various kinds of apnea. Several pathogenetic factors (functional, anatomical, neurological, genetical) are still being discussed. However new insights of the pathophysiology of apneas allow more reliable treatments. Central nervous and cardiovascular complications as well as the traumatic morbidity, associated with excessive daytime sleepiness, make it a major public health problem.
... Read More Encephalitis Obstructive sleep apnea - adults Stroke Review Date 8/4/2015 Updated by: Allen J. ... Rutger's New Jersey Medical School, East Orange, NJ. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by ...
... Because OSA makes it hard to get a good night's sleep, kids might have a hard time waking in the morning, be tired throughout the day, and have attention or other behavior problems. As a result, sleep apnea can hurt school performance. Teachers and others may think a child has attention ...
... During the study, medical staff will watch your child sleep. Several sensors will be attached to your child ... your family. Last Updated 11/21/2015 Source Sleep Apnea and Your Child (Copyright © 2003 American Academy of Pediatrics) Updated 10/ ...
Davis, Eric M; O'Donnell, Christopher P
Rodent models of sleep apnea have long been used to provide novel insight into the generation and predisposition to apneas as well as to characterize the impact of sleep apnea on cardiovascular, metabolic, and psychological health in humans. Given the significant body of work utilizing rodent models in the field of sleep apnea, the aims of this review are three-fold: first, to review the use of rodents as natural models of sleep apnea; second, to provide an overview of the experimental interventions employed in rodents to simulate sleep apnea; third, to discuss the refinement of rodent models to further our understanding of breathing abnormalities that occur during sleep. Given mounting evidence that sleep apnea impairs cognitive function, reduces quality of life, and exacerbates the course of multiple chronic diseases, rodent models will remain a high priority as a tool to interrogate both the pathophysiology and sequelae of breathing related abnormalities during sleep and to improve approaches to diagnosis and therapy.
Alvarez-Sala Walther, José Luis
The obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is caused by an intermittent and repetitive obstruction of the upper respiratory tract during sleep, which leads to a complete (apnea) or partial (hypopnea) block of air flow. It is quite prevalent, being seen in 4-6% of males and 2% of females. Structural abnormalities present in the upper respiratory tract and obesity are the fundamental etiological factors. Clinical manifestations are due to sleep fragmentation and oxygen desaturation which cause the apnea. Day hypersomnia, snoring and episodes of apnea described by the spouse are the three basic symptoms. The diagnosis is based on polysomnography, which can be substituted for a night cardiorespiratory polygraphy. It has an important morbimortality rate, mainly due to traffic and labor accidents, ischemic heart disease and chronic respiratory failure. The treatment is multifactorial. First, eliminating alcohol and hypnotic drugs. Obesity, which is almost always present, must also be corrected. Structural abnormalities of the upper respiratory tract may require a surgical solution. The treatment preferred nowadays is the application of a nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) while the patient is asleep. It should be considered for those symptomatic patients with an apnea-hypopnea index over 30, or if the index is below 30, than when a respiratory insufficiency or cardiovascular risk factors are present. In some cases surgical procedures may be considered, such as uvulopalatopharyngoplasty.
Ho, Matthew L.; Brass, Steven D.
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects millions of Americans and is estimated to be as prevalent as asthma and diabetes. Given the fact that obesity is a major risk factor for OSA, and given the current global rise in obesity, the prevalence of OSA will increase in the future. Individuals with sleep apnea are often unaware of their sleep disorder. It is usually first recognized as a problem by family members who witness the apneic episodes or is suspected by their primary care doctor because of the individual's risk factors and symptoms. The vast majority remain undiagnosed and untreated, despite the fact that this serious disorder can have significant consequences. Individuals with untreated OSA can stop breathing hundreds of times a night during their sleep. These apneic events can lead to fragmented sleep that is of poor quality, as the brain arouses briefly in order for the body to resume breathing. Untreated, sleep apnea can have dire health consequences and can increase the risk of hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, and heart failure. OSA management has also become important in a number of comorbid neurological conditions, including epilepsy, stroke, multiple sclerosis, and headache. Diagnosis typically involves use of screening questionnaires, physical exam, and an overnight polysomnography or a portable home study. Treatment options include changes in lifestyle, positive airway pressure, surgery, and dental appliances. PMID:22368774
Ho, Matthew L; Brass, Steven D
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects millions of Americans and is estimated to be as prevalent as asthma and diabetes. Given the fact that obesity is a major risk factor for OSA, and given the current global rise in obesity, the prevalence of OSA will increase in the future. Individuals with sleep apnea are often unaware of their sleep disorder. It is usually first recognized as a problem by family members who witness the apneic episodes or is suspected by their primary care doctor because of the individual's risk factors and symptoms. The vast majority remain undiagnosed and untreated, despite the fact that this serious disorder can have significant consequences. Individuals with untreated OSA can stop breathing hundreds of times a night during their sleep. These apneic events can lead to fragmented sleep that is of poor quality, as the brain arouses briefly in order for the body to resume breathing. Untreated, sleep apnea can have dire health consequences and can increase the risk of hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, and heart failure. OSA management has also become important in a number of comorbid neurological conditions, including epilepsy, stroke, multiple sclerosis, and headache. Diagnosis typically involves use of screening questionnaires, physical exam, and an overnight polysomnography or a portable home study. Treatment options include changes in lifestyle, positive airway pressure, surgery, and dental appliances.
Ievers-Landis, Carolyn E.; Redline, Susan
Over the last 30 years, the prevalence of overweight across all pediatric age groups and ethnicities has increased substantially, with the current prevalence of overweight among adolescents estimated to be approximately 30%. Current evidence suggests that overweight is modestly associated with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) among young children, but strongly associated with OSAS in older children and adolescents. The rising incidence of pediatric overweight likely will impact the prevalence, presentation, and treatment of childhood OSAS. The subgroup of children who may be especially susceptible include ethnic minorities and those from households with caregivers from low socioeconomic groups. OSAS, by exposing children to recurrent intermittent hypoxemia or oxidative stress, may amplify the adverse effects of adiposity on systemic inflammation and metabolic perturbations associated with vascular disease and diabetes. When these conditions manifest early in life, they have the potential to alter physiology at critical developmental stages, or, if persistent, provide cumulative exposures that may powerfully alter long-term health profiles. An increased prevalence of overweight also may impact the response to adenotonsillectomy as a primary treatment for childhood OSAS. The high and anticipated increased prevalence of pediatric OSAS mandates assessment of optimal approaches for preventing and treating both OSAS and overweight across the pediatric age range. In this Pulmonary Perspective, the interrelationships between pediatric OSAS and overweight are reviewed, and the implications of the overweight epidemic on childhood OSAS are discussed. PMID:17158283
Veasey, Sigrid C.; Morgan, Barbara J.; O'Donnell, Christopher P.
Sleep-induced apnea and disordered breathing refers to intermittent, cyclical cessations or reductions of airflow, with or without obstructions of the upper airway (OSA). In the presence of an anatomically compromised, collapsible airway, the sleep-induced loss of compensatory tonic input to the upper airway dilator muscle motor neurons leads to collapse of the pharyngeal airway. In turn, the ability of the sleeping subject to compensate for this airway obstruction will determine the degree of cycling of these events. Several of the classic neurotransmitters and a growing list of neuromodulators have now been identified that contribute to neurochemical regulation of pharyngeal motor neuron activity and airway patency. Limited progress has been made in developing pharmacotherapies with acceptable specificity for the treatment of sleep-induced airway obstruction. We review three types of major long-term sequelae to severe OSA that have been assessed in humans through use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment and in animal models via long-term intermittent hypoxemia (IH): 1) cardiovascular. The evidence is strongest to support daytime systemic hypertension as a consequence of severe OSA, with less conclusive effects on pulmonary hypertension, stroke, coronary artery disease, and cardiac arrhythmias. The underlying mechanisms mediating hypertension include enhanced chemoreceptor sensitivity causing excessive daytime sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity, combined with overproduction of superoxide ion and inflammatory effects on resistance vessels. 2) Insulin sensitivity and homeostasis of glucose regulation are negatively impacted by both intermittent hypoxemia and sleep disruption, but whether these influences of OSA are sufficient, independent of obesity, to contribute significantly to the “metabolic syndrome” remains unsettled. 3) Neurocognitive effects include daytime sleepiness and impaired memory and concentration. These effects reflect
The evaluation of sleep apnea syndrome is based on polysomnography. Different sensor and recording techniques are reported. Some widely used neurophysiological and cardiorespiratory analysis criteria are proposed. Many sleep laboratories develop ambulatory and automatized methods for screening breathing disorders associated with sleep. The main principles of these approaches are briefly reviewed.
Amin, Zulkifli; Amin, Hilman Z; Amin, Lukman Z
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a sleep respiratory disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of complete or partial airway obstruction, resulting in apneas or hypopneas. OSA could contribute to atherosclerosis through direct and indirect mechanisms. Endothelial dysfunction, sympathetic stimulation, and proinflammatory cytokine modulation caused by OSA play significant role to an atherosclesrotic event. Other risk factors of atherosclerosis like hypertension and diabetes mellitus also associated with OSA. Animal and clinical studies recently showed promising data to prove association between OSA, atherosclerosis, and its risk factors. However, provided data has not showed consistent result. In the future, demand of further research both basic and clinical sciences need to be fulfilled.
Bhadriraju, Satish; Kemp, Carlton R; Cheruvu, Mani; Bhadriraju, Srinivas
Global risk assessment is the standard of care for coronary artery disease management. In this setting, sleep apnea syndrome, which includes obstructive sleep apnea and central sleep apnea, is being increasingly recognized as a potentially modifiable risk factor for coronary artery disease. Emerging evidence points toward a cause and effect relationship between sleep apnea syndrome and medical conditions like insulin resistance, hypertension, heart failure, and myocardial ischemia. The effects of sleep apnea on coronary artery disease can be independent of many traditional risk factors. Continuous positive airway pressure has been shown to decrease inflammatory markers that are elevated in sleep apnea syndrome. Well-designed randomized controlled clinical trials are needed to better establish the role of sleep apnea in the genesis and progression of coronary artery disease.
Salles, Cristina; Terse-Ramos, Regina; Souza-Machado, Adelmir; Cruz, Álvaro A
Symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing, especially obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), are common in asthma patients and have been associated with asthma severity. It is known that asthma symptoms tend to be more severe at night and that asthma-related deaths are most likely to occur during the night or early morning. Nocturnal symptoms occur in 60-74% of asthma patients and are markers of inadequate control of the disease. Various pathophysiological mechanisms are related to the worsening of asthma symptoms, OSAS being one of the most important factors. In patients with asthma, OSAS should be investigated whenever there is inadequate control of symptoms of nocturnal asthma despite the treatment recommended by guidelines having been administered. There is evidence in the literature that the use of continuous positive airway pressure contributes to asthma control in asthma patients with obstructive sleep apnea and uncontrolled asthma. PMID:24310634
Raskin, S; Limme, M; Poirrier, R; Lacroix, A; Bonnet, S; Jeusette, M; Lecloux, G; Lahaye, T
This study details the role that the orthodontist can play, when faced with sleeping obstructive apneas and snoring phénomena. Of special importance are knowledge of cranio-facial growth, radiographic exam and cephalometric analysis: they mainly help to understand all the aspects of this specific syndrome, and reveal the interest for a neuro-orthodontic or a neuro-surgical orthodontic approach.
Hohl, Mathias; Linz, Benedikt; Böhm, Michael; Linz, Dominik
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia and is associated with relevant morbidity and mortality. Besides hypertension, valvular disease and cardiomyopathy, mainly ischemic and dilated, also other conditions like obesity, alcohol abusus, genetic factors and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are discussed to contribute to the progression from paroxysmal to persistent AF. The prevalence of OSA among patients with AF is 40-50%. OSA is characterized by periodic or complete cessation of effective breathing during sleep due to obstruction of the upper airways. Obstructive respiratory events result in acute intrathoracic pressure swings and profound changes in blood gases together leading to atrial stretch and acute sympatho-vagal dysbalance resulting in acute apnea related to electrophysiological and hemodynamic alterations. Additionally, repetitive obstructive events in patients with OSA may lead to sympathetic and neurohumoral activation and subsequent structural and functional changes in the atrium creating an arrhythmogenic substrate for AF in the long run. This review focuses on the acute and chronic effects of negative thoracic pressure swings, changes in blood pressure and sympatho-vagal dysbalance induced by obstructive respiratory events on atrial electrophysiology and atrial structure in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. PMID:25004989
Gagnon, K; Baril, A-A; Gagnon, J-F; Fortin, M; Décary, A; Lafond, C; Desautels, A; Montplaisir, J; Gosselin, N
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterised by repetitive cessation or reduction of airflow due to upper airway obstructions. These respiratory events lead to chronic sleep fragmentation and intermittent hypoxemia. Several studies have shown that OSA is associated with daytime sleepiness and cognitive dysfunctions, characterized by impairments of attention, episodic memory, working memory, and executive functions. This paper reviews the cognitive profile of adults with OSA and discusses the relative role of altered sleep and hypoxemia in the aetiology of these cognitive deficits. Markers of cognitive dysfunctions such as those measured with waking electroencephalography and neuroimaging are also presented. The effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on cognitive functioning and the possibility of permanent brain damage associated with OSA are also discussed. Finally, this paper reviews the evidence suggesting that OSA is a risk factor for developing mild cognitive impairment and dementia in the aging population and stresses the importance of its early diagnosis and treatment.
Iriarte, Jorge; Murie-Fernandez, Manuel; Toledo, Estefania; Urrestarazu, Elena; Alegre, Manuel; Viteri, Cesar; Salvador, Javier; Baptista, Peter; Alcaide, Belen; Artieda, Julio
Periodic limb movements (PLM) and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) are two frequent sleep disorders which often occur in the same patient. The goal of this study was to know the influence of the presence of PLM in the sleep architecture in patients with and without OSAS. Two hundred twenty consecutive patients (69 women and 151 men) participated in this transversal study. They were patients with clinical suspicion of dysomnia, including snoring, OSAS, and PLM. All of them underwent a full polysomnography and were interviewed using questionnaires about the sleep quality. The sleep parameters (percentage of sleep stages, rapid eye movement latency, sleep efficiency, awakenings, PLM presence, apnea-hypopnea index) were calculated and compared between groups. Descriptive statistics and nonparametric distribution techniques were used for the analysis. Patients with PLM when compared with patients with OSAS had lower sleep efficiency and less rapid eye movement percentage. The presence of PLM in patients with sleep apnea was less relevant being responsible only for an increase in the rapid eye movement latency and a decrease in the duration of the three to four sleep stages. However, the presence of OSAS was related to a better sleep efficiency (patients with PLM plus OSAS had a better sleep efficiency than patients with only PLM). PLM alters the structure of sleep. In patients with sleep apnea, the presence of PLM is less relevant.
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may manifest in a number of ways from subtle intrusion into daily life to profound sleepiness, snoring, witnessed apneas and other classic symptoms. Although there is increasing evidence suggesting OSA can adversely affect health in a variety of ways, this disorder remains underdiagnosed. The most well-escribed health consequences of OSA relate to the cardiovascular system. Hypertension and arrhythmias have a strong association with OSA, and evidence suggests that treatment of OSA in patients with refractory hypertension and in patients planning cardioversion for atrial fibrillation may be of particularly importance. Significant associations between heart failure and OSA as well as complex sleep apnea have also been well-described. Cerebrovascular insult, impaired neurocognition, and poorly controlled mood disorder are also associated with in OSA. Therapy for OSA may ameliorate atherosclerotic progression and improve outcomes post-cerebrovascular accident (CVA). OSA should be considered in patients complaining of poor concentration at work, actual or near-miss motor vehicle accidents, and patients with severe sleepiness as a component of their co-morbid mood disorders. The metabolic impact of OSA has also been studied, particularly in relation to glucose homeostasis. Also of interest is the potential impact OSA has on lipid metabolism. The adverse effect untreated OSA has on glucose tolerance and lipid levels has led to the suggestion that OSA is yet another constituent of the metabolic syndrome. Some of these metabolic derangements may be related to the adverse effects untreated OSA has on hepatic health. The cardiovascular, neurocognitive, and metabolic manifestations of OSA can have a significant impact on patient health and quality of life. In many instances, evidence exists that therapy not only improves outcomes in general, but also modifies the severity of co-morbid disease. To mitigate the long-term sequela of this disease
Stansbury, Robert C; Strollo, Patrick J
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may manifest in a number of ways from subtle intrusion into daily life to profound sleepiness, snoring, witnessed apneas and other classic symptoms. Although there is increasing evidence suggesting OSA can adversely affect health in a variety of ways, this disorder remains underdiagnosed. The most well-escribed health consequences of OSA relate to the cardiovascular system. Hypertension and arrhythmias have a strong association with OSA, and evidence suggests that treatment of OSA in patients with refractory hypertension and in patients planning cardioversion for atrial fibrillation may be of particularly importance. Significant associations between heart failure and OSA as well as complex sleep apnea have also been well-described. Cerebrovascular insult, impaired neurocognition, and poorly controlled mood disorder are also associated with in OSA. Therapy for OSA may ameliorate atherosclerotic progression and improve outcomes post-cerebrovascular accident (CVA). OSA should be considered in patients complaining of poor concentration at work, actual or near-miss motor vehicle accidents, and patients with severe sleepiness as a component of their co-morbid mood disorders. The metabolic impact of OSA has also been studied, particularly in relation to glucose homeostasis. Also of interest is the potential impact OSA has on lipid metabolism. The adverse effect untreated OSA has on glucose tolerance and lipid levels has led to the suggestion that OSA is yet another constituent of the metabolic syndrome. Some of these metabolic derangements may be related to the adverse effects untreated OSA has on hepatic health. The cardiovascular, neurocognitive, and metabolic manifestations of OSA can have a significant impact on patient health and quality of life. In many instances, evidence exists that therapy not only improves outcomes in general, but also modifies the severity of co-morbid disease. To mitigate the long-term sequela of this disease
Schwartz, Alan R.
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a major source of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and represents an increasing burden on health care resources. Understanding underlying pathogenic mechanisms of OSA will ultimately allow for the development of rational therapeutic strategies. In this article, we review current concepts about the pathogenesis of OSA. Specifically, we consider the evidence that the upper airway plays a primary role in OSA pathogenesis and provide a framework for modelling its biomechanical properties and propensity to collapse during sleep. Anatomical and neuromuscular factors that modulate upper airway obstruction are also discussed. Finally, we consider models of periodic breathing, and elaborate generalizable mechanisms by which upper airway obstruction destabilizes respiratory patterns during sleep. In our model, upper airway obstruction triggers a mismatch between ventilatory supply and demand. In this model, trade-offs between maintaining sleep stability or ventilation can account for a full range of OSA disease severity and expression. Recurrent arousals and transient increases in airway patency may restore ventilation between periods of sleep, while alterations in neuromuscular and arousal responses to upper airway obstruction may improve sleep stability at still suboptimal levels of ventilation. PMID:26380762
Tasali, Esra; Van Cauter, Eve; Ehrmann, David A.
Synopsis Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrine disorder of pre-menopausal women, is characterized by chronic hyperandrogenism, oligoanovulation, obesity and insulin resistance. Importantly, PCOS women are at increased risk for glucose intolerance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. Recent reports indicate an unexpectedly high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in PCOS. Alterations in sex steroids (i.e. high androgen and low estrogen levels) and increased visceral adiposity in PCOS could potentially contribute to the increased prevalence of OSA in this disorder. There is some evidence to suggest that there may be strong associations between the presence and severity of OSA and the metabolic disturbances that characterize PCOS. Causal mechanisms in the link between PCOS and OSA remain to be elucidated. Clinicians who manage PCOS patients should be aware of the high prevalence of OSA in these patients and systematically evaluate these women for sleep disturbances. PMID:19255602
... Aortic Aneurysm More Sleep Apnea and Heart Disease, Stroke Updated:Mar 14,2017 Plain old snoring can ... and is associated with high blood pressure , arrhythmia , stroke and heart failure . Heart disease is the leading ...
Calik, Michael W.
Objective To review the efficacy of current treatment options for adults with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods Review of the literature. Results OSA, characterized by repetitive ≥ 10-second interruptions (apnea) or reductions (hypopnea) in airflow, is initiated by partial or complete collapse in the upper airway despite respiratory effort. When left untreated, OSA is associated with comorbid conditions, such as cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. The current “gold standard” treatment for OSA is continuous positive air pressure (CPAP), which pneumatically stabilizes the upper airways. CPAP has proven efficacy and potential cost savings via decreases in health comorbidities and/or motor-vehicle crashes. However, CPAP treatment is not well-tolerated due to various side effects, and adherence among OSA subjects can be as low as 50% in certain populations. Other treatment options for OSA include improving CPAP tolerability, increasing CPAP adherence through patient interventions, weight loss/exercise, positional therapy, nasal expiratory positive airway pressure, oral pressure therapy, oral appliances, surgery, hypoglossal nerve stimulation, drug treatment, and combining 2 or more of the aforementioned treatments. Despite the many options available to treat OSA, none of them are as efficacious as CPAP. However, many of these treatments are tolerable, and adherence rates are higher than those of the CPAP, making them a more viable treatment option for long-term use. Conclusion Patients need to weigh the benefits and risks of available treatments for OSA. More large randomized controlled studies on treatments or combination of treatments for OSA are needed that measure parameters such as treatment adherence, apnea-hypopnea index, oxygen desaturation, subjective sleepiness, quality of life, and adverse events. PMID:27134515
Mutlu, Murad; Vuralkan, Erkan; Akin, Istemihan; Firat, Hikmet; Ardic, Sadik; Akaydin, Sevgi; Miser, Ece
The aim of the current study was to compare the changes in polysomnographic indices and serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), cystatin C, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) who were treated surgically via a uvulopalatal flap (UPF) technique. Twenty-five patients (14 men, 11 women), average age 46.2 ± 9.3 years, who underwent UPF surgery were included in this study. Serum biochemical analyses and polysomnographic examinations were performed before and 6 months after the surgery. Pre- and postoperative values of apnea hypopnea index (AHI), oxygen desaturation index (ODI), and minimum oxygen concentrations, as well as serum levels of CRP, cystatin C, TNF-α, and ICAM-1 were compared. Comparison of variables before and after UPF surgery demonstrated that AHI (p = 0.001), ODI (p < 0.001) and oxygen saturation (p < 0.001) were significantly improved. In addition, serum levels of CRP (p = 0.036), cystatin C (p = 0.005), TNF-α (p < 0.001), and ICAM-1 (p < 0.001) were significantly reduced 6 months after surgery. Our results suggest that UPF is an effective surgical method that alleviates the severity of OSA. Moreover, it may have the potential to prevent the development of atherosclerosis by attenuating the inflammatory process induced by activation of inflammatory mediators such as CRP, TNF-α, ICAM-1, and cystatin C.
Jehan, Shazia; Auguste, Evan; Zizi, Ferdinand; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R.; Gupta, Ravi; Attarian, Hrayr; Jean-Louis, Giradin; McFarlane, Samy I.
The main characteristics of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) are airflow limitation, chronic intermittent hypoxia, or apnea; which may lead to tissue hypoperfusion and recurrent arousal from sleep. These episodes of hypoxia or apnea can lead to tissue inflammation, and are causal factors of disturbed sleep in both men and women. Several lines of evidence suggest that sleep patterns differ along the lifespan in both male and female subjects, and this may result from the influence of female gonadotropic hormones on sleep. Compared to men, women have more sleep complaints, as women’s sleep is not only influenced by gonadotropins, but also by conditions related to these hormones, such as pregnancy. It is therefore not surprising that sleep disturbances are seen during menopause, too. Factors that may play a role in this type of SDB in women include vasomotor symptoms, changing reproductive hormone levels, circadian rhythm abnormalities, mood disorders, coexistent medical conditions, and lifestyle factors. PMID:28239685
McEntire, Dan M; Kirkpatrick, Daniel R; Kerfeld, Mitchell J; Hambsch, Zakary J; Reisbig, Mark D; Agrawal, Devendra K; Youngblood, Charles F
The perioperative care of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients is currently receiving much attention due to an increased risk for complications. It is established that postoperative changes in sleep architecture occur and this may have pathophysiological implications for OSA patients. Upper airway muscle activity decreases during rapid eye movement sleep (REMS). Severe OSA patients exhibit exaggerated chemoreceptor-driven ventilation during non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS), which leads to central and obstructive apnea. This article critically reviewed the literature relevant to preoperative screening for OSA, prevalence of OSA in surgical populations and changes in postoperative sleep architecture relevant to OSA patients. In particular, we addressed three questions in regard to the effects of sedative-hypnotics, anesthetics and analgesics on sleep architecture, the underlying mechanisms and the relevance to OSA. Indeed, these classes of drugs alter sleep architecture, which likely significantly contributes to abnormal postoperative sleep architecture, exacerbation of OSA and postoperative complications.
Harner, Holly M.; Budescu, Mia
Background Little is known about characteristics of women's sleep during incarceration. Objectives The study objectives were to: describe incarcerated women's sleep quality; document incarcerated women's risk for sleep apnea; and identify other factors that contribute to poor sleep quality during incarceration. Methods This cross-sectional descriptive exploratory investigation was conducted in a maximum security women's prison in the United States. Incarcerated women's sleep quality and their risk for sleep apnea was assessed by using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Multivariable Apnea Prediction Score (MAPS), respectively. Results Four hundred thirty-eight incarcerated women participated in this investigation. Results indicate that 72% of the sample met the PSQI criteria for “poor sleepers.” Poor sleepers were significantly more likely to report sleep disturbances, and scored significantly higher on the risk for sleep apnea scale compared to women who did not meet the poor sleep threshold. Approximately 10% of the sample had a probability for sleep apnea higher than .50. Factors that contributed to poor sleep included: (a) “racing thoughts/worry/thinking about things”; (b) environmental noise and other factors; (c) physical health conditions/pain; (d) nightmares and flashbacks; and (e) not taking sleep medication. Discussion Most participants reported poor sleep quality during incarceration. Poor sleep might exacerbate existing health conditions and contribute to the development of new health problems for incarcerated women. Furthermore, poor sleep quality may reduce a woman's ability to fully participate in beneficial prison programming. This investigation provides a first look at how women sleep in prison and offers recommendations for future research. PMID:24785244
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Proposed Recommendations on Obstructive Sleep Apnea AGENCY... withdrawing its proposed regulatory guidance for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and request for comment...
Cambron, L; Roelants, F; Deflandre, E; Raskin, S; Poirrier, R
Since two decades, sleep breathing disorders are more wisely recognized by the Belgian medical community. Among these, the Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSA) is the best known but its frontiers with others syndromes such as the Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome (UARS), the Central Sleep Apnea Syndrome (CSAS) or the Overlap Syndrome are still matter of discussion. Its causes are plurifactorial, and many recent publications draw the attention to its long term effects in the cardiovascular and neuropsychiatric fields. This article summarizes the present definitions and features associated with OSA, from clinical and neurophysiological perspectives, and the different consequences to which untreated or underdiagnosed patients are exposed.
Gottlieb, Daniel J; Craig, Sonya E; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Heeley, Emma; Redline, Susan; McEvoy, R Doug; Durán-Cantolla, Joaquín
Sleep apnea is a common chronic disease that is associated with coronary heart disease, stroke, heart failure and mortality, although the ability of sleep apnea treatment to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has not been demonstrated. In contrast to patients seeking treatment in sleep disorders centers, as many as half of individuals with moderate to severe sleep apnea in the general population do not report excessive sleepiness; however, if treatment of sleep apnea were shown to reduce cardiovascular disease risk, this would provide a strong rationale for treatment of sleep apnea even in the absence of daytime sleepiness. This article summarizes the status of clinical trials evaluating the potential cardiovascular benefits of sleep apnea treatment and discusses the challenges of conducting such trials, and introduces the International Collaboration of Sleep Apnea Cardiovascular Trialists (INCOSACT), a clinical research collaboration formed to foster cardiovascular sleep research.
de Carlos, Félix; Cobo, Juan; Macías, Emilio; Feito, Jorge; González, Mónica; Cobo, Teresa; Fernández-Mondragón, María P; García-Suárez, Olivia; Vega, José A
Obstructive sleep apnea is a disease characterized by repetitive breathing during sleep that lead to reduced oxygen saturation and sleep disturbance among other symptoms. Obstructive sleep apnea is caused by blockade of the upper respiratory airway, although the pathogenic mechanism underlying this occlusion remains unknown. In these studies we explored the hypothesis that alterations in the innervation, especially mechanosensory innervation, of the pharynx may contribute to obstructive sleep apnea. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing the innervation of the human pharynx in normal individuals and in subjects clinically diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea. Using immunohistochemistry for axon and Schwann cells, as well as for two putative mechanoproteins (ASIC2 and TRPV4), we observed a significant reduction in the density of nerve fibers in the submucosa of patients with obstructive sleep apnea as well as morphological abnormalities in mechanosensory corpuscles. Importantly, while ASIC2 and TRPV4 expression was regularly found in the axons of mechanosensory corpuscles distributed throughout the muscular layer in the control subjects, it was absent in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. These findings support that neurological alterations are important contributors to the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea.
Sériès, F; Cormier, Y; Lampron, N; La Forge, J
We describe the reversal of obstructive sleep apnea with a 0.5 L increase in the functional residual capacity (FRC) in a patient with sleep apnea syndrome. The patient had been treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate for 8 months. The increase in FRC was obtained by applying a constant negative extrathoracic pressure (NEP) with a poncho-type respirator. With pulmonary inflation, there was a dramatic decrease in the apnea index and the percent apnea time, and an improvement in sleep architecture. At all sleep stages, the desaturation duration was shorter with NEP. The exact mechanisms by which pulmonary expansion improved sleep apnea in this patient remain unclear; lung volume dependence of upper airway patency and the improvements in apnea-induced desaturation may be contributing factors. Our observation illustrates that lung volumes may be an important factor in the pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnea, especially in the apnea onset and in the apneic-induced desaturation.
... Topics CPAP High Blood Pressure Overweight and Obesity Sleep Deprivation and Deficiency Sleep Studies Send a link to ... For more information, go to the Health Topics Sleep Deprivation and Deficiency article.) If treatment and enough sleep ...
Dimsdale, J E; Coy, T; Ziegler, M G; Ancoli-Israel, S; Clausen, J
Numerous studies have suggested an alteration of sympathetic nervous system functioning in sleep apnea. However, most of these studies did not control for confounding factors such as diet, obesity, hypertension and anti-hypertensive medications. We examined plasma and urinary catecholamines in 43 patients, including hypertensive and normotensive individuals with and without sleep apnea. Hypertensive patients were studied at least 3 weeks following tapering of anti-hypertensive medication. All patients consumed similar diets and were of similar age and level of obesity. Twenty-four-hour urinary norepinephrine levels were significantly higher in apneics (58.2 ng vs. 40.2 ng in nonapneics, p < 0.002). Urinary norepinephrine in apneics was increased during both day and night. Plasma norepinephrine levels were not significantly elevated in apneic patients but were elevated in hypertensive patients both during sleep and in the morning (p < 0.05).
Johnston, Thomas P.; Tam-Williams, Jade; Schmandt, Margaret; Patel, Anand C.; Cleveland, Claudia; Coste, Ferdinand; Kemp, James S.
Behavioral hyperventilation is a rarely recognized cause of central sleep apnea (CSA) among children. We report two pediatric patients who presented with prolonged central sleep apnea secondary to behavioral hyperventilation. One patient also had a prolonged corrected QT (QTC) interval resulting from hyperventilation. Citation: Johnston TP, Tam-Williams J, Schmandt M, Patel AC, Cleveland C, Coste F, Kemp JS. Behavioral hyperventilation and central sleep apnea in two children. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(4):487–489. PMID:26106657
Selva-O'Callaghan, Albert; Sampol, Gabriel; Romero, Odile; Lloberes, Patricia; Trallero-Araguás, Ernesto; Vilardell-Tarrés, Miquel
The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of obstructive sleep apnea in patients with inflammatory myopathy. An observational and prospective study was performed on a cohort of adult patients with inflammatory myopathy followed at a specialized outpatient clinic. Sixteen consecutive adult patients were evaluated by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and by complete polysomnography study. Disease activity and severity were assessed using the Myositis Disease Activity Assessment Tool (MDAAT) and Myositis Damage Index (MDI), respectively. Associations between sleep parameters and other factors were calculated using the chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, Mann-Whitney U-test, and Wilcoxon's test. A serum autoantibody profile was determined for all patients. The mean apnea-hypopnea index was 28.7 (23.8), and 14 patients (87%) had an apnea-hypopnea index >5. The mean frequency of respiratory arousals was 20.1 (12.5). Eleven (68%) patients reported frequently-always snoring, and 3 (19%) had excessive daytime sleepiness (ESS >10). Seven patients were offered continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy; 4 tolerated the procedure well and reported a clear improvement in daytime sleepiness and/or sleep quality. No significant association was observed between the apnea-hypopnea index and clinical or immunological groups. Dysphagia, disease activity, and disease severity were not significantly associated with any sleep parameters. The frequency of obstructive sleep apnea in adult patients with inflammatory myopathy is high. The possibility that these alterations play a role in persistent fatigue in these patients cannot be ruled out.
Bruwier, A; Albert, A; Beckers, A; Limme, M; Poirrier, R
Lateral teleradiography is a standard and quick examination. It has enabled us to define differences as regards to the craniofacial morphology between 20 acromegalic patients and 20 control subjects. The height of the mandibular ramus (from the posterior condyle point to the gonion point) increases significantly with the acromegalic patient and the cranial base angle (basion-superior tuberculum sellae-M point) is more extended. As acromegalic patients are more subject to sleep apnea (30% prevailing), the relationship between the amount of sleep apnea and hypopnea (AHI) in an acromegalic patient and his bone, tissue and hormone factors has been researched, in order to act on the causes of sleep apnea. It has emerged that confronting craniofacial bones and soft tissues factors enables a good prediction of the apnea and hypopnea index. Of course, we can find again the potential action of growth hormone (GH) but only in fifth place in importance order. The tongue, which increases in volume with the GH impact, is in a too short "lingual enclosure" (reduced length of the mandibular horizontal branch).
Strongly linked to the presence of obesity, the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is an independent risk factor for abnormalities of glucose metabolism ranging from simple impaired glucose tolerance to type 2 diabetes. It is also a risk factor for dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The pathological mechanisms underlying these associations remain to be precisely discovered, but intermittent hypoxia is probably one of the major factors. The place of obstructive apnea treatment in the management of metabolic conditions remains unclear.
Gutierrez, Guillermo; Williams, Jeffrey; Alrehaili, Ghadah A; McLean, Anna; Pirouz, Ramin; Amdur, Richard; Jain, Vivek; Ahari, Jalil; Bawa, Amandeep; Kimbro, Shawn
Characterizing respiratory rate variability (RRV) in humans during sleep is challenging, since it requires the analysis of respiratory signals over a period of several hours. These signals are easily distorted by movement and volitional inputs. We applied the method of spectral analysis to the nasal pressure transducer signal in 38 adults with no obstructive sleep apnea, defined by an apnea-hypopnea index <5, who underwent all-night polysomnography (PSG). Our aim was to detect and quantitate RRV during the various sleep stages, including wakefulness. The nasal pressure transducer signal was acquired at 100 Hz and consecutive frequency spectra were generated for the length of the PSG with the Fast Fourier Transform. For each spectrum, we computed the amplitude ratio of the first harmonic peak to the zero frequency peak (H1/DC), and defined as RRV as (100 - H1/DC) %. RRV was greater during wakefulness compared to any sleep stage, including rapid-eye-movement. Furthermore, RRV correlated with the depth of sleep, being lowest during N3. Patients spent most their sleep time supine, but we found no correlation between RRV and body position. There was a correlation between respiratory rate and sleep stage, being greater in wakefulness than in any sleep stage. We conclude that RRV varies according to sleep stage. Moreover, spectral analysis of nasal pressure signal appears to provide a valid measure of RRV during sleep. It remains to be seen if the method can differentiate normal from pathological sleep patterns.
Domany, Keren Armoni; Dana, Elad; Tauman, Riva; Gut, Guy; Greenfeld, Michal; Yakir, Bat-El; Sivan, Yakov
Study Objective: Adenotonsillectomy is the recommended treatment for children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Since adenoidectomy alone may be associated with significantly lower morbidity, mortality, and cost, we aimed to investigate whether adenoidectomy alone is a reasonable and appropriate treatment for children with OSA. Methods: Five-hundred fifteen consecutive children diagnosed with moderate-to-severe OSA (apnea-hypopnea index > 5) based on polysomnography and who underwent adenoidectomy or adenotonsillectomy were reevaluated after 17–73 months (mean 41) for residual or recurrent OSA using a validated questionnaire (Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire, PSQ). Failure of OSA resolution was defined as a positive mean PSQ score ≥ 0.33. Contribution of age, obesity, tonsil size, and OSA severity at baseline to adenoidectomy or adenotonsillectomy failure was examined. Results: Positive PSQ score occurred in 15% of the entire sample and was not influenced by age or gender. No difference in failure rate was observed between adenoidectomy and adenotonsillectomy for children who were not obese with apnea-hypopnea index < 10 and had small tonsils (< 3). Children with apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 10 and/or tonsil size ≥ 3 showed a higher failure rate after adenoidectomy compared to adenotonsillectomy (20% versus 9.8%, p = 0.028). Conclusions: We suggest that subjective, long term outcomes of adenoidectomy are comparable to those of adenotonsillectomy in non-obese children under 7 years old with moderately OSA and small tonsils. Hence, adenoidectomy alone is a reasonable option in some children. Future prospective randomized studies are warranted to define children who may benefit from adenoidectomy alone and those children in whom adenoidectomy alone is unlikely to succeed. Citation: Domany KA, Dana E, Tauman R, Gut G, Greenfeld M, Yakir BE, Sivan Y. Adenoidectomy for obstructive sleep apnea in children. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(9):1285–1291. PMID:27448429
Corrêa, Camila de Castro; Blasca, Wanderléia Quinhoneiro; Berretin-Felix, Giédre
Introduction Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), which is commonly underdiagnosed, has a high occurrence in the world population. Health education concerning sleep disorders and OSAS should be implemented. Objectives The objective was to identify studies related to preventive actions on sleep disorders, with emphasis on OSAS. Data Synthesis A literature review was conducted using Lilacs, Medline, PubMed, and Scopus by combining the following keywords: “Health Promotion,” “Sleep Disorders,” “Primary Prevention,” “Health Education,” and “Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndromes.” Initially, 1,055 papers, from 1968 to 2013, were located, with the majority from the Scopus database. The inclusion criteria were applied, and four articles published between 2006 and 2012 were included in the present study. Conclusions The studies on preventive actions in sleep disorders, with emphasis on OSAS, involved the general population and professionals and students in the health field and led to increased knowledge on sleep disorders and more appropriate practices. PMID:25992174
Guimarães, Gleison Marinho
Although obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is a common disease, it often goes undiagnosed. The signs and symptoms of the syndrome are mostly subjective. Therefore, snoring, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, dejection and mood changes should raise the suspicion of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Scales and tables that have good sensitivity and include the most relevant clinical symptoms and physical examination results can suggest a diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. The diagnosis is confirmed by polysomnography, which is considered the gold standard method.
Oh, Sechang; Kwon, Hyeokjun; Varadan, Vijay K.
Sleep plays the important role of rejuvenating the body, especially the central nervous system. However, more than thirty million people suffer from sleep disorders and sleep deprivation. That can cause serious health consequences by increasing the risk of hypertension, diabetes, heart attack and so on. Apart from the physical health risk, sleep disorders can lead to social problems when sleep disorders are not diagnosed and treated. Currently, sleep disorders are diagnosed through sleep study in a sleep laboratory overnight. This involves large expenses in addition to the inconvenience of overnight hospitalization and disruption of daily life activities. Although some systems provide home based diagnosis, most of systems record the sleep data in a memory card, the patient has to face the inconvenience of sending the memory card to a doctor for diagnosis. To solve the problem, we propose a wireless sensor system for sleep apnea, which enables remote monitoring while the patient is at home. The system has 5 channels to measure ECG, Nasal airflow, body position, abdominal/chest efforts and oxygen saturation. A wireless transmitter unit transmits signals with Zigbee and a receiver unit which has two RF modules, Zigbee and Wi-Fi, receives signals from the transmitter unit and retransmits signals to the remote monitoring system with Zigbee and Wi-Fi, respectively. By using both Zigbee and Wi-Fi, the wireless sensor system can achieve a low power consumption and wide range coverage. The system's features are presented, as well as continuous monitoring results of vital signals.
Martínez-García, Miguel Ángel; Campos-Rodríguez, Francisco; Almendros, Isaac; Farré, Ramón
In the light of relationships reported between hypoxemia (tissue hypoxia) and cancer, Abrams et al. concluded in 2008 that sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) and its main consequence, intermittent hypoxia, could be related with increased susceptibility to cancer or poorer prognosis of a pre-existing tumor. This pathophysiological association was confirmed in animal studies. Two large independent historical cohort studies subsequently found that the degree of nocturnal hypoxia in patients with SAHS was associated with higher cancer incidence and mortality. This finding has been confirmed in almost all subsequent studies, although the retrospective nature of some requires that they be considered as hypothesis-generating only. The relationship between sleep apnea and cancer, and the pathophysiological mechanisms governing it, could be clarified in the near future in a currently on-going study in a large group of melanoma patients.
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is highly prevalent in school-aged children. Tonsillar and/or adenoids hypertrophy is the most common etiology of OSA in children. OSA has been associated with sleep quality disturbance (frequent arousals) and nocturnal gas-exchange abnormalities (hypoxemia and sometimes hypercapnia), complicated with a large array of negative health outcomes. The clinical symptoms are not able to distinguish primary snoring from OSA. Polysomnography remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of sleep disordered breathing, but the demand is increasing for this highly technical sleep test. So, some other simpler diagnostic methods are available, as respiratory polygraphy, but need to be validated in children. Treatment of OSA in children must be based on a mutlidisciplinary approach with pediatricians, ENT surgeons and orthodontists.
Obstructive sleep apnea is a relatively common disorder which is being recognized and diagnosed with increasing frequency. Patients with this disorder are frequently overweight and usually present with longstanding history of heroic snoring and excessive daytime sleepiness. The diagnosis is established with an overnight sleep study, although the decision as to who should be sent to a sleep laboratory must be made on an individual basis, particularly for those whose main complaint is snoring. The major factor in the pathogenesis of this disorder is a narrow and floppy pharyngeal airway. Of the several treatment modalities available at the present time, the most successful is application of continuous positive airway pressure during sleep. PMID:21263879
Ferraz, Otávio; Guimarães, Thais M; Rossi, Rowdley R; Cunali, Paulo A; Fabbro, Cibele Dal; Chaves, Cauby M; Maluly, Milton; Bittencourt, Lia; Tufik, Sergio
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by episodes of pharyngeal collapse during sleep. Craniofacial alterations such as retrognathia are often found in OSA patients. Maxillomandibular advancement (MMA) surgeries increase the pharyngeal space and are a treatment option for OSA. The aim of this study was to present a successful case of MMA surgery in the treatment of OSA. A patient with moderate OSA (apnea-hypopnea index (AHI)=25.2) and mandibular retrognathism and Maxillomandibular asymmetry underwent MMA surgery. The apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) were considerably improved after six months (IAH =6.7) and one year of treatment (IAH=0.2).
Levitzky, Michael G.
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder of upper airway obstruction during sleep. The effects of intermittent upper airway obstruction include alveolar hypoventilation, altered arterial blood gases and acid-base status, and stimulation of the arterial chemoreceptors, which leads to frequent arousals. These arousals disturb sleep…
Tapia, Ignacio E; Marcus, Carole L
The obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is common and its prevalence is expected to increase with the current obesity epidemic. If left untreated, it is associated with important morbidity such as growth failure, neurocognitive impairment, systemic and pulmonary hypertension, and endothelial dysfunction. Recent research has shown that many children, especially the obese or those with other underlying medical conditions, have residual obstructive sleep apnea after adenotonsillectomy (the primary treatment for childhood obstructive sleep apnea). These children could be effectively treated with continuous positive airway pressure but poor adherence is a significant limitation of this therapy. Therefore, new treatment modalities for the pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome are needed. Current research has focused on newer therapies for pediatric obstructive sleep apnea, such as anti-inflammatories, dental treatments, high-flow nasal cannula, and weight loss. However, there are few randomized controlled trials assessing the effectiveness of these therapies. Further research is warranted.
Zhang, Yuqing; Peloquin, Christine E.; Dubreuil, Maureen; Roddy, Edward; Lu, Na; Neogi, Tuhina; Choi, Hyon K.
Objective Sleep apnea is associated with hyperuricemia owing to hypoxia-induced nucleotide turnover. We undertook this study to assess the relationship between incident sleep apnea and the risk of incident gout. Methods Using data from The Health Improvement Network in the UK, we identified individuals with a first-ever physician diagnosis of sleep apnea. For each patient with sleep apnea, up to 5 individuals without sleep apnea were matched by sex, age, birth year, and body mass index (within ±0.5 kg/m2). We estimated the incidence rates of gout and examined the relationship between sleep apnea and the risk of incident gout using a Cox proportional hazards model, adjusting for potential confounders. In addition, we assessed the rate difference in gout due to sleep apnea using an additive hazard model. Results Among 9,865 patients with newly diagnosed sleep apnea and 43,598 matched individuals without sleep apnea, we identified 270 incident cases of gout over 1 year of followup, resulting in incidence rates of 8.4 per 1,000 person-years and 4.8 per 1,000 person-years, respectively. The crude and multivariable rate ratios of incident gout in patients with sleep apnea were 1.7 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.3, 2.2) and 1.5 (95% CI 1.1, 2.1), respectively. The corresponding rate differences between patients with sleep apnea and the comparison cohort were 3.6 (95% CI 1.6, 5.6) and 2.8 (95% CI 0.7, 4.9) per 1,000 person-years. The effect of sleep apnea persisted across subgroups. Conclusion This general population–based study indicates that sleep apnea is independently associated with an increased risk of incident gout. Future research should examine the potential benefits of correcting sleep apnea–induced hypoxia on the risk of hyperuricemia and gout flares. PMID:26477891
Ceccato, F; Bernkopf, E; Scaroni, C
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a chronic condition with a high prevalence (up to 7 % of the general population) characterized by frequent episodes of upper airway collapse while sleeping. Left untreated, OSAS can cause severe complications, including systemic hypertension, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and abnormal glucose metabolism. This review aims to summarize the close links between OSAS, endocrinology, and metabolism. In patients with metabolic syndrome, OSAS is an independent risk factor for the onset of type 2 diabetes and a worsening glycemic control. The accumulation of adipose tissue in the neck and limited chest wall dynamics, hypoxia, and local micro-inflammation link visceral obesity closely with OSAS. There is now an abundance of convincing data indicating that promoting lifestyle changes, improving sleep hygiene, and adjusting diet can ameliorate both metabolic syndrome and OSAS, especially in obese patients. The incidence of OSAS in acromegaly is high, though GH treatments seem to be unrelated to the onset of apnea in GH-deficient individuals. Prospective studies have suggested an association between hypertension and OSAS because intermittent nocturnal hypoxia prompts an increase in sympathetic tone, endothelial dysfunction, and vascular inflammation: aldosterone excess may have a pathophysiological role, and some authors have reported that treating OSAS leads to a modest, but significant, reduction in blood pressure.
Baraglia, David P.; Berryman, Matthew J.; Coussens, Scott W.; Pamula, Yvonne; Kennedy, Declan; Martin, A. James; Abbott, Derek
This paper investigates the automated detection of a patient's breathing rate and heart rate from their skin conductivity as well as sleep stage scoring and breathing event detection from their EEG. The software developed for these tasks is tested on data sets obtained from the sleep disorders unit at the Adelaide Women's and Children's Hospital. The sleep scoring and breathing event detection tasks used neural networks to achieve signal classification. The Fourier transform and the Higuchi fractal dimension were used to extract features for input to the neural network. The filtered skin conductivity appeared visually to bear a similarity to the breathing and heart rate signal, but a more detailed evaluation showed the relation was not consistent. Sleep stage classification was achieved with and accuracy of around 65% with some stages being accurately scored and others poorly scored. The two breathing events hypopnea and apnea were scored with varying degrees of accuracy with the highest scores being around 75% and 30%.
Javaheri, Shahrokh; Germany, Robin; Greer, John J
Neurophysiologically, central apnea is due to a temporary cessation of respiratory rhythmogenesis in medullary respiratory networks. Central apneas occur in several disorders and result in pathophysiological consequences, including arousals and desaturation. The 2 most common causes in adults are congestive heart failure and chronic use of opioids to treat pain. Under such circumstances, diagnosis and treatment of central sleep apnea may improve quality of life, morbidity, and mortality. This article discusses recent developments in the treatment of central sleep apnea in heart failure and opioids use.
Slaats, Monique A; Van Hoorenbeeck, Kim; Van Eyck, Annelies; Vos, Wim G; De Backer, Jan W; Boudewyns, An; De Backer, Wilfried; Verhulst, Stijn L
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in children is a manifestation of sleep-disordered breathing and associated with a number of complications. Structural narrowing of the upper airway in combination with inadequate compensation for a decrease in neuromuscular tone is an important factor in the pathogenesis. Adenotonsillar hypertrophy is the most important predisposing factor. However, many other causes of craniofacial defects may coexist. Additionally, the pathogenesis of narrowing is more complex in certain subgroups such as children with obesity, craniofacial malformations, Down syndrome or neuromuscular disorders. The diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea is based on an overnight polysomnography. This investigation is expensive, time consuming and not widely available. In view of the major role of structural narrowing, upper airway imaging could be a useful tool for investigating obstructive sleep apnea and in establishing the site(s) of obstruction. Several radiological techniques (lateral neck radiography, cephalometry, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and post-processing of these images using computational fluid dynamics) have been used to investigate the role of structural alterations in the pathogenesis. We reviewed the literature to examine if upper airway imaging could replace polysomnography in making the diagnosis and if imaging could predict the effect of treatment with a focus on adenotonsillectomy. There is a limited number of high quality studies of imaging predicting the effect of treatment. To avoid unnecessary risks and ineffective surgeries, it seems crucial to couple the exact individual anatomical risk factor with the most appropriate treatment. We conclude that imaging could be a non-invasive tool that could assist in selection of treatment.
Blesch, Lauri; Breese McCoy, Sarah J
Attention deficit and hyperactivity are known possible symptoms or correlates of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, these associations may be missed in children, because children often fail to report excessive daytime sleepiness, and attention deficit disorder (ADD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are common primary diagnoses in themselves. We report on a 17-year-old, slender, non-snoring male who presented to his pediatrician with a prolonged history of four complaints: inattention, fidgeting, frequent sinusitis, and somnolence. He was diagnosed with ADHD, while the somnolence, which often abated somewhat upon use of antibiotics for sinusitis, was attributed to the sinus infections. A later sleep study revealed OSA, and thorough additional testing proved that the original ADHD diagnosis was in error. All four conditions were allayed with proper use of a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) machine.
Marmouch, Hela; Arfa, Sondes; Graja, Sameh; Slim, Tensim; Khochtali, Ines
A 52-year-old female with a history of poorly controlled resistant hypertension was admitted to our hospital with severe hypertension. She had a history of fatigue and intermittent episodes of palpitations. Laboratory evaluation was significant for elevated 24-h urinary catecholamine levels (3,5 times the upper normal levels). This case was presenting with a clinical and biochemical picture indistinguishable from that of pheochromocytoma. However, neither computed tomography nor meta-iodo-benzyl-guanidine scintigraphy detected any catecholamine-producing tumor in or outside the adrenal glands. Our patient was screened with full polysomnography because of heavy snoring, daytime somnolence and obesity. It revealed severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. After three months of continuous positive airway pressure therapy, the patient experienced resolution of his presenting symptoms, improved blood pressure control and normalization of his urinary catecholamine levels. This case highlights sleep disordered breathing as a potentially reversible cause of pseudo-pheochromocytoma. PMID:27217898
Liguori, Claudio; Palmieri, Maria Giuseppina; Pierantozzi, Mariangela; Cesareo, Massimo; Romigi, Andrea; Izzi, Francesca; Marciani, Maria Grazia; Oliva, Corrado; Mercuri, Nicola Biagio; Placidi, Fabio
Study Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the integrity of the visual system in patients affected by obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) by means of electroretinogram (ERG) and visual evoked potential (VEP). Methods: We performed electrophysiological study of the visual system in a population of severe OSA (apnea-hypopnea events/time in bed ≥ 30/h) patients without medical comorbidities compared to a group of healthy controls similar for age, sex, and body mass index. Patients and controls did not have visual impairment or systemic disorders with known influence on the visual system. ERG and VEP were elicited by a reversal pattern generated on a television monitor at low (55') and high (15') spatial frequencies stimulation. Daytime sleepiness was assessed using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) in both patients and controls. Results: In comparison with healthy controls (n = 27), patients with OSA (n = 27) showed a significant latency delay coupled with a significant amplitude reduction of P100 wave of VEP at all spatial frequencies in both eyes. No significant differences between groups were detected as concerning ERG components. No correlations were found between polygraphic parameters, ESS scores, or VEP and ERG components in OSA patients. Conclusions: This study documented that patients with OSA, without medical comorbidities, present VEP alteration as documented by lower amplitude and longer latency of the P100 component than healthy controls. These altered electrophysiological findings may be the expression of optic nerve dysfunction provoked by hypoxia, acidosis, hypercarbia and airway obstruction, frequently observed in patients with OSA. Hence, we hypothesize that OSA per se may impair optic nerve function. Citation: Liguori C, Palmieri MG, Pierantozzi M, Cesareo M, Romigi A, Izzi F, Marciani MG, Oliva C, Mercuri NB, Placidi F. Optic nerve dysfunction in obstructive sleep apnea: an electrophysiological study. SLEEP 2016;39(1):19–23. PMID
Capistrano, Anderson; Cordeiro, Aldir; Capelozza, Leopoldino; Almeida, Veridiana Correia; Silva, Priscila Izabela de Castro e; Martinez, Sandra; de Almeida-Pedrin, Renata Rodrigues
Objective: This study aimed at assessing the relationship between facial morphological patterns (I, II, III, Long Face and Short Face) as well as facial types (brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients attending a center specialized in sleep disorders. Methods: Frontal, lateral and smile photographs of 252 patients (157 men and 95 women), randomly selected from a polysomnography clinic, with mean age of 40.62 years, were evaluated. In order to obtain diagnosis of facial morphology, the sample was sent to three professors of Orthodontics trained to classify patients' face according to five patterns, as follows: 1) Pattern I; 2) Pattern II; 3) Pattern III; 4) Long facial pattern; 5) Short facial pattern. Intraexaminer agreement was assessed by means of Kappa index. The professors ranked patients' facial type based on a facial index that considers the proportion between facial width and height. Results: The multiple linear regression model evinced that, when compared to Pattern I, Pattern II had the apnea and hypopnea index (AHI) worsened in 6.98 episodes. However, when Pattern II was compared to Pattern III patients, the index for the latter was 11.45 episodes lower. As for the facial type, brachyfacial patients had a mean AHI of 22.34, while dolichofacial patients had a significantly statistical lower index of 10.52. Conclusion: Patients' facial morphology influences OSA. Pattern II and brachyfacial patients had greater AHI, while Pattern III patients showed a lower index. PMID:26691971
Arısoy, Ahmet; Sertoğullarından, Bunyamin; Ekin, Selami; Özgökçe, Mesut; Bulut, Mehmet Deniz; Huyut, Mehmet Tahir; Ölmez, Şehmus; Turan, Mahfuz
Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep-related breathing disorder characterized by intermittent hypoxia. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between OSA and fatty liver. Material/Methods We enrolled 176 subjects to this study who underwent polysomnography (PSG) for suspected OSA. The control group included 42 simple snoring subjects. PSG, biochemical tests, and ultrasonographic examination were performed all subjects. Results The simple snoring and mild, moderate, and severe OSA groups included 18/42 (42.86%), 33/52 (63.5%), 27/34 (79.4%), and 28/48 (79.2%) subjects with hepatosteatosis, respectively. There were significant differences in hepatosteatosis and hepatosteatosis grade between the simple snoring and the moderate and severe OSA groups. Logistic regression analysis showed that BMI and average desaturation were independently and significantly related to hepatic steatosis. Conclusions Our study shows that BMI and the average desaturation contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver in subjects with OSA. In this regard, sleep apnea may trigger metabolic mitochondrial energy associated processes thereby altering lipid metabolism and obesity as well. PMID:26993969
Pressman, M R; Meyer, T J; Kendrick-Mohamed, J; Figueroa, W G; Greenspon, L W; Peterson, D D
Parasomnias are generally described as disorders of arousal that arise out of stage 3 and 4 nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep without identifiable cause. We present a case of a 35-year-old man who during nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) treatment for severe obstructive sleep apnea experienced an intense night terror triggered by a residual obstructive apnea during rebound deep sleep. The role of rebound deep sleep was thought to be essential in creating a state of sleep with a high arousal threshold hypothesized to be important for the occurrence of parasomnias. This case supports the clinical wisdom that identifiable sources of arousal can trigger parasomnias.
Waldemark, Karina E.; Agehed, Kenneth I.; Lindblad, Thomas
Sleep apnea is characterized by frequent prolonged interruptions of breathing during sleep. This syndrome causes severe sleep disorders and is often responsible for development of other diseases such as heart problems, high blood pressure and daytime fatigue, etc. After diagnosis, sleep apnea is often successfully treated by applying positive air pressure (CPAP) to the mouth and nose. Although effective, the (CPAP) equipment takes up a lot of space and the connected mask causes a lot of inconvenience for the patients. This raised interest in developing new techniques for treatment of sleep apnea syndrome. Several studies indicated that electrical stimulation of the hypoglossal nerve and muscle in the tongue may be a useful method for treating patients with severe sleep apnea. In order to be able to successfully prevent the occurrence of apnea it is necessary to have some technique for early and fast on-line detection or prediction of the apnea events. This paper suggests using measurements of respiratory airflow (mouth temperature). The signal processing for this task includes the use of a window short-FFT technique and uses an artificial back propagation neural net to model or predict the occurrence of apneas. The results show that early detection of respiratory interruption is possible and that the delay time for this is small.
Herlihy, J.P.; Whitlock, W.L.; Dietrich, R.A.; Shaw, T. )
After irradiation of the neck for a squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsillar pillar and vocal cord, a 71-year-old man presented with a rapidly progressive sleep apnea syndrome. Previous reports describe the condition of patients with obstructive sleep apnea that developed after neck irradiation and secondary to supraglottic edema. Our patient had an obstructive component to his apnea similar to that described in previous cases, but, in addition, he had hypothyroidism. Myxedema is a well-described cause of both obstructive and central apnea. We believe both contributed to his condition. He was successfully treated by placement of a tracheostomy and by thyroid supplementation. In patients who present with sleep apnea after neck irradiation, especially with acute or severe symptoms, the differential diagnosis should include both a central cause from hypothyroidism as well as a peripheral obstructive cause from laryngeal edema.
Urbano, Fred; Roux, Francoise; Schindler, Joseph; Mohsenin, Vahid
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) increases the risk of stroke independent of known vascular and metabolic risk factors. Although patients with OSA have higher prevalence of hypertension and evidence of hypercoagulability, the mechanism of this increased risk is unknown. Obstructive apnea events are associated with surges in blood pressure, hypercapnia, and fluctuations in cerebral blood flow. These perturbations can adversely affect the cerebral circulation. We hypothesized that patients with OSA have impaired cerebral autoregulation, which may contribute to the increased risk of cerebral ischemia and stroke. We examined cerebral autoregulation in patients with and without OSA by measuring cerebral artery blood flow velocity (CBFV) by using transcranial Doppler ultrasound and arterial blood pressure using finger pulse photoplethysmography during orthostatic hypotension and recovery as well as during 5% CO(2) inhalation. Cerebral vascular conductance and reactivity were determined. Forty-eight subjects, 26 controls (age 41.0+/-2.3 yr) and 22 OSA (age 46.8+/-2.3 yr) free of cerebrovascular and active coronary artery disease participated in this study. OSA patients had a mean apnea-hypopnea index of 78.4+/-7.1 vs. 1.8+/-0.3 events/h in controls. The oxygen saturation during sleep was significantly lower in the OSA group (78+/-2%) vs. 91+/-1% in controls. The dynamic vascular analysis showed mean CBFV was significantly lower in OSA patients compared with controls (48+/-3 vs. 55+/-2 cm/s; P <0.05, respectively). The OSA group had a lower rate of recovery of cerebrovascular conductance for a given drop in blood pressure compared with controls (0.06+/-0.02 vs. 0.20+/-0.06 cm.s(-2).mmHg(-1); P <0.05). There was no difference in cerebrovascular vasodilatation in response to CO(2). The findings showed that patients with OSA have decreased CBFV at baseline and delayed cerebrovascular compensatory response to changes in blood pressure but not to CO(2). These perturbations may
Pinto, José Antonio; Ribeiro, Davi Knoll; Cavallini, Andre Freitas da Silva; Duarte, Caue; Freitas, Gabriel Santos
Introduction Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by partial or complete recurrent upper airway obstruction during sleep. OSA brings many adverse consequences, such as hypertension, obesity, diabetes mellitus, cardiac and encephalic alterations, behavioral, among others, resulting in a significant source of public health care by generating a high financial and social impact. The importance of this assessment proves to be useful, because the incidence of patients with comorbidities associated with AOS has been increasing consistently and presents significant influence in natural disease history. Objective The objective of this study is to assess major comorbidities associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and prevalence in a group of patients diagnosed clinically and polysomnographically with OSA. Methods This is a retrospective study of 100 charts from patients previously diagnosed with OSA in our service between October 2010 and January 2013. Results We evaluated 100 patients with OSA (84 men and 16 women) with a mean age of 50.05 years (range 19–75 years). The prevalence of comorbidities were hypertension (39%), obesity (34%), depression (19%), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) (18%), diabetes mellitus (15%), hypercholesterolemia (10%), asthma (4%), and no comorbidities (33%). Comorbidities occurred in 56.2% patients diagnosed with mild OSA, 67.6% with moderate OSA, and 70% of patients with severe OSA. Conclusion According to the current literature data and the values obtained in our paper, we can correlate through expressive values obesity with OSA and their apnea hypopnea index (AHI) values. However, despite significant prevalence of OSA with other comorbidities, our study could not render expressive significance values able to justify their correlations. PMID:27096019
Weaver, Terri E; Calik, Michael W; Farabi, Sarah S; Fink, Anne M; Galang-Boquiren, Maria T; Kapella, Mary C; Prasad, Bharati; Carley, David W
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects one in five adult males and is associated with significant comorbidity, cognitive impairment, excessive daytime sleepiness, and reduced quality of life. For over 25 years, the primary treatment has been continuous positive airway pressure, which introduces a column of air that serves as a pneumatic splint for the upper airway, preventing the airway collapse that is the physiologic definition of this syndrome. However, issues with patient tolerance and unacceptable levels of treatment adherence motivated the exploration of other potential treatments. With greater understanding of the physiologic mechanisms associated with OSA, novel interventions have emerged in the last 5 years. The purpose of this article is to describe new treatments for OSA and associated complex sleep apnea. New approaches to complex sleep apnea have included adaptive servoventilation. There is increased literature on the contribution of behavioral interventions to improve adherence with continuous positive airway pressure that have proven quite effective. New non-surgical treatments include oral pressure devices, improved mandibular advancement devices, nasal expiratory positive airway pressure, and newer approaches to positional therapy. Recent innovations in surgical interventions have included laser-assisted uvulopalatoplasty, radiofrequency ablation, palatal implants, and electrical stimulation of the upper airway muscles. No drugs have been approved to treat OSA, but potential drug therapies have centered on increasing ventilatory drive, altering the arousal threshold, modifying loop gain (a dimensionless value quantifying the stability of the ventilatory control system), or preventing airway collapse by affecting the surface tension. An emerging approach is the application of cannabinoids to increase upper airway tone.
Weaver, Terri E; Calik, Michael W; Farabi, Sarah S; Fink, Anne M; Galang-Boquiren, Maria T; Kapella, Mary C; Prasad, Bharati; Carley, David W
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects one in five adult males and is associated with significant comorbidity, cognitive impairment, excessive daytime sleepiness, and reduced quality of life. For over 25 years, the primary treatment has been continuous positive airway pressure, which introduces a column of air that serves as a pneumatic splint for the upper airway, preventing the airway collapse that is the physiologic definition of this syndrome. However, issues with patient tolerance and unacceptable levels of treatment adherence motivated the exploration of other potential treatments. With greater understanding of the physiologic mechanisms associated with OSA, novel interventions have emerged in the last 5 years. The purpose of this article is to describe new treatments for OSA and associated complex sleep apnea. New approaches to complex sleep apnea have included adaptive servoventilation. There is increased literature on the contribution of behavioral interventions to improve adherence with continuous positive airway pressure that have proven quite effective. New non-surgical treatments include oral pressure devices, improved mandibular advancement devices, nasal expiratory positive airway pressure, and newer approaches to positional therapy. Recent innovations in surgical interventions have included laser-assisted uvulopalatoplasty, radiofrequency ablation, palatal implants, and electrical stimulation of the upper airway muscles. No drugs have been approved to treat OSA, but potential drug therapies have centered on increasing ventilatory drive, altering the arousal threshold, modifying loop gain (a dimensionless value quantifying the stability of the ventilatory control system), or preventing airway collapse by affecting the surface tension. An emerging approach is the application of cannabinoids to increase upper airway tone. PMID:25429246
Grillet, Yves; Richard, Philippe; Stach, Bruno; Vivodtzev, Isabelle; Timsit, Jean-Francois; Lévy, Patrick; Tamisier, Renaud; Pépin, Jean-Louis
Background The classification of obstructive sleep apnea is on the basis of sleep study criteria that may not adequately capture disease heterogeneity. Improved phenotyping may improve prognosis prediction and help select therapeutic strategies. Objectives: This study used cluster analysis to investigate the clinical clusters of obstructive sleep apnea. Methods An ascending hierarchical cluster analysis was performed on baseline symptoms, physical examination, risk factor exposure and co-morbidities from 18,263 participants in the OSFP (French national registry of sleep apnea). The probability for criteria to be associated with a given cluster was assessed using odds ratios, determined by univariate logistic regression. Results: Six clusters were identified, in which patients varied considerably in age, sex, symptoms, obesity, co-morbidities and environmental risk factors. The main significant differences between clusters were minimally symptomatic versus sleepy obstructive sleep apnea patients, lean versus obese, and among obese patients different combinations of co-morbidities and environmental risk factors. Conclusions Our cluster analysis identified six distinct clusters of obstructive sleep apnea. Our findings underscore the high degree of heterogeneity that exists within obstructive sleep apnea patients regarding clinical presentation, risk factors and consequences. This may help in both research and clinical practice for validating new prevention programs, in diagnosis and in decisions regarding therapeutic strategies. PMID:27314230
Imadojemu, Virginia A.; Gleeson, Kevin; Gray, Kristen S.; Sinoway, Lawrence I.; Leuenberger, Urs A.
Obstructive apnea during sleep is associated with a substantial transient blood pressure elevation. The mechanism of this pressor response is unclear. In this study we measured muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), mean arterial pressure (Psa), and mean limb blood velocity as an index of blood flow (MBV, Doppler) and calculated changes in limb vascular resistance during and after apneas during both wakefulness and sleep in patients with the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Immediately postapnea during sleep Psa increased significantly compared with the earlier stages of apnea and this was preceded by a rise of MSNA (n = 5). In contrast to blood pressure, MBV remained unchanged. Because resistance = blood pressure/blood flow, limb vascular resistance increased by 29 +/- 8% from late apnea to postapnea (n = 7, p < 0.002). Voluntary breathhold maneuvers during room air exposure evoked similar responses (n = 10). Supplemental oxygen administered via nonrebreather face mask attenuated the MSNA and vasoconstrictor responses to obstructive (n = 2) and voluntary apneas (n = 10). Our data suggest that obstructive apneas in patients with the obstructive apnea syndrome are accompanied by transient limb vasoconstriction. This vasoconstrictor response appears to be, at least in part, mediated by the sympathetic nervous system and may be linked to hypoxia.
Bohlman, M.E.; Haponik, E.F.; Smith, P.L.; Allen, R.P.; Bleecker, E.R.; Goldman, S.M.
Sleep apnea is a major cause of daytime hypersomnolence. Among the proposed etiologies, focal obstruction of the airways at the level of the pharynx has been suggested but not proven. Using computed tomography, the cross-sectional area of the airway can be readily assessed. Thirty-three adults with clinically proven sleep apnea and 12 normal adults underwent systematic computed tomography of the neck. Significant airway narrowing was demonstrated in all the patients with obstructive sleep apnea, whereas no such narrowing was seen in the controls. In 11, the narrowing was at a single level, whereas in 22 patients two or more levels were affected. This study has shown that a structurally abnormal airway may serve as an anatomic substrate for the development of sleep apnea. On the basis of this evidence, uvulopalatopharyngoplasty has been performed in two patients with relief of symptoms in one.
Kitamura, Takuro; Miyazaki, Soichiro; Kadotani, Hiroshi; Kanemura, Takashi; Okawa, Masako; Tanaka, Toshihiko; Komada, Ichiro; Hatano, Taketo; Suzuki, Hideaki
Sleep apnea is a rare but a well-known clinical feature of type I Chiari malformation. It may be obstructive or central in nature. Sleep apnea in patients with type I Chiari malformation rarely presents without accompanying neurological signs or symptoms. We here report a case of a 10-year-old girl who presented with central sleep apnea without any other neurological signs but was ultimately diagnosed with type I Chiari malformation. The patient initially showed mild improvement in symptoms after administration of an acetazolamide. Finally, posterior fossa decompression dramatically improved her respiratory status during sleep, both clinically and on polysomnography. This case suggests that type I Chiari malformation should be considered in the differential diagnoses of central apneas in children, even if there are no other neurological signs and symptoms. Furthermore, sagittal craniocervical magnetic resonance imaging may be necessary for a definitive diagnosis.
Lam, Karen K.; Kunder, Samuel; Wong, Jean; Doufas, Anthony G.; Chung, Frances
Purpose of review Perioperative opioid-based pain management of patients suffering from obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may present challenges because of concerns over severe ventilatory compromise. The interaction between intermittent hypoxia, sleep fragmentation, pain, and opioid responses in OSA, is complex and warrants a special focus of perioperative outcomes research. Recent findings Life-threatening opioid-related respiratory events are rare. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that OSA together with other serious renal and heart disease, is among those conditions predisposing patients for opioid-induced ventilatory impairment (OIVI) in the postoperative period. Both intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation, two distinct components of OSA, enhance pain. Intermittent hypoxia may also potentiate opioid analgesic effects. Activation of major inflammatory pathways may be responsible for the effects of sleep disruption and intermittent hypoxia on pain and opioid analgesia. Recent experimental evidence supports that these, seemingly contrasting, phenotypes of pain-increasing and opioid-enhancing effects of intermittent hypoxia, are not mutually exclusive. Although the effect of intermittent hypoxia on OIVI has not been elucidated, opioids worsen postoperative sleep-disordered breathing in OSA patients. A subset of these patients, characterized by decreased chemoreflex responsiveness and high arousal thresholds, might be at higher risk for OIVI. Summary OSA may complicate opioid-based perioperative management of pain by altering both pain processing and sensitivity to opioid effect. PMID:26545144
Veenstra, Amy; Untalan, Emylene
Surgical patients with known or unknown obstructive sleep apnea are at increased risk for postoperative complications. By implementing evidence-based practices and a validated screening tool, the postoperative surgical patients at the authors' hospital have a decreased risk of postoperative complications, specifically oversedation. This article discusses the pathophysiology, prevalence, risk factors, care of the postsurgical patient, and use of the validated STOP-Bang questionnaire with obstructive sleep apnea as the focus.
Roberge, R J; Kimball, E T; Rossi, J; Warren, J
A patient with sleep apnea syndrome, concurrently taking clonidine as an antihypertensive, presented with severe respiratory acidosis, hypotension, and associated central nervous system depression. Acidosis was improved by mechanical ventilation, and central nervous system (CNS) depression and hypotension were reversed with yohimbine. Clonidine may have an additive CNS depressive effect in sleep apnea syndrome and should be used with caution in such patients. Yohimbine's sympathetic-enhancing effects may be useful in clonidine toxic states.
Garvey, John F; Pengo, Martino F; Drakatos, Panagis; Kent, Brian D
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is probably the most common respiratory disorder, with recent data from the United States and Europe suggesting that between 14% and 49% of middle-aged men have clinically significant OSA. The intimate relationship between OSA and obesity means that its prevalence will only increase as the global obesity epidemic evolves. At an individual level, OSA leads to a significant decrease in quality of life (QOL) and functional capacity, alongside a markedly increased risk of cardiovascular disease and death. Emerging data also suggest that the presence and severity of OSA and associated nocturnal hypoxemia are associated with an increased risk of diabetes and cancer. At a societal level, OSA not only leads to reduced economic productivity, but also constitutes a major treatable risk factor for hypertension, coronary artery disease (CAD) and stroke. This article addresses OSA from an epidemiological perspective, from prevalence studies to economic aspects to co-morbidity.
The detection, correction or withdrawal of any cause or associated factor including obesity, drugs or alcohol is essential in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Treatment is mainly mechanical or surgical, but not medical. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) has now largely replaced tracheostomy and successful long-term domestic use of this method has been reported on many occasions. Oropharyngeal surgery can solve a large part of social snoring problems. However criteria for procedure selection and evaluation of results are still needed to clarify the indication of this operation in patients with full clinical expression of the syndrome. In this regard, a comprehensive preoperative evaluation and a logical approach to the reconstruction of the upper-airway has recently led to the association of palatopharyngoplasty and maxillo-mandibular surgery, with an excellent long-term success rate.
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disease, often present in "cardiovascular or metabolic patients". OSA favours the occurrence of arterial lesions, all the more if severe. There is a strong relationship between OSA and acute aortic syndromes (AAS). This relationship is in part explained by aortic dilatation linked to OSA. The presence of repeated episodes of sudden variation of transmural pressure applied on aortic wall seems to play a major role in this dilatation. All OSA patients should have a search of aortic dilatation by ultrasound (at a thoracic and abdominal level). Also, screening of OSA should be systematically performed in patients with aortic disease. The effect of continuous positive airway pressure in apneic patients with AAS has not been studied.
Unruh, Mark L
Sleep apnea has been linked to excessive daytime sleepiness, depressed mood, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease in the general population. The prevalence of severe sleep apnea in the conventional thrice-weekly hemodialysis population has been estimated to be more than 50%. Sleep apnea leads to repetitive episodes of hypoxemia, hypercapnia, sleep disruption, and activation of the sympathetic nervous system. The hypoxemia, arousals, and intrathoracic pressure changes associated with sleep apnea lead to sympathetic activation, endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Because sleep apnea has been shown to be widespread in the conventional dialysis population, it may be that sleep apnea contributes substantially to the sleepiness, poor quality of life, and cardiovascular disease found in this population. The causal links between conventional dialysis and sleep apnea remain speculative, but there are likely multiple factors related to volume status and azotemia that contribute to the high rate of severe sleep apnea in dialysis patients. Both nocturnal automated peritoneal dialysis and nocturnal hemodialysis have been associated with reduced severity of sleep apnea. Nocturnal dialysis modalities may provide tools to increase our understanding of the uremic sleep apnea and may also provide therapeutic alternatives for end-stage renal disease patients with severe sleep apnea. In conclusion, sleep apnea is an important, but overlooked, public health problem for the dialysis population. The impact of sleep apnea treatment in this high-risk population may include reduced sleepiness, better mood and blood pressure, and lowered risk of cardiovascular disease.
Kezirian, Eric J; Goding, George S; Malhotra, Atul; O'Donoghue, Fergal J; Zammit, Gary; Wheatley, John R; Catcheside, Peter G; Smith, Philip L; Schwartz, Alan R; Walsh, Jennifer H; Maddison, Kathleen J; Claman, David M; Huntley, Tod; Park, Steven Y; Campbell, Matthew C; Palme, Carsten E; Iber, Conrad; Eastwood, Peter R; Hillman, David R; Barnes, Maree
Reduced upper airway muscle activity during sleep is a key contributor to obstructive sleep apnea pathogenesis. Hypoglossal nerve stimulation activates upper airway dilator muscles, including the genioglossus, and has the potential to reduce obstructive sleep apnea severity. The objective of this study was to examine the safety, feasibility and efficacy of a novel hypoglossal nerve stimulation system (HGNS; Apnex Medical, St Paul, MN, USA) in treating obstructive sleep apnea at 12 months following implantation. Thirty-one subjects (35% female, age 52.4 ± 9.4 years) with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea and unable to tolerate positive airway pressure underwent surgical implantation and activation of the hypoglossal nerve stimulation system in a prospective single-arm interventional trial. Primary outcomes were changes in obstructive sleep apnea severity (apnea-hypopnea index, from in-laboratory polysomnogram) and sleep-related quality of life [Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ)]. Hypoglossal nerve stimulation was used on 86 ± 16% of nights for 5.4 ± 1.4 h per night. There was a significant improvement (P < 0.001) from baseline to 12 months in apnea-hypopnea index (45.4 ± 17.5 to 25.3 ± 20.6 events h(-1) ) and Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire score (14.2 ± 2.0 to 17.0 ± 2.4), as well as other polysomnogram and symptom measures. Outcomes were stable compared with 6 months following implantation. Three serious device-related adverse events occurred: an infection requiring device removal; and two stimulation lead cuff dislodgements requiring replacement. There were no significant adverse events with onset later than 6 months following implantation. Hypoglossal nerve stimulation demonstrated favourable safety, feasibility and efficacy.
Egeberg, Alexander; Khalid, Usman; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar; Mallbris, Lotus; Skov, Lone; Hansen, Peter Riis
Study Objectives: Psoriasis and sleep apnea are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although both diseases have been linked with systemic inflammation, studies on their potential bidirectional association are lacking. We investigate the potential association between psoriasis and sleep apnea. Methods: All Danish citizens age 18 y or older between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 2011 (n = 5,522,190) were linked at individual level in nationwide registries. Incidence rates (IRs) per 10,000 person-years were calculated and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, smoking history, alcohol abuse, medication, and comorbidity were estimated by Poisson regression. Results: There were 53,290, 6,885, 6,348, and 39,908 incident cases of mild psoriasis, severe psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and sleep apnea, respectively. IRRs (95% confidence interval) for sleep apnea were 1.30 (1.17–1.44), 1.65 (1.23–2.22), and 1.75 (1.35–2.26) in subjects with mild and severe psoriasis, and psoriatic arthritis, and IRRs for mild and severe psoriasis, and psoriatic arthritis in sleep apnea without continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy were 1.62 (1.41–1.86), 2.04 (1.47–2.82), and 1.94 (1.34–2.79), respectively. In patients with sleep apnea and CPAP therapy (i.e., severe sleep apnea) the IRRs were 1.82 (1.43–2.33), 3.27 (2.03–5.27), and 5.59 (3.74–8.37), respectively. Conclusions: Psoriasis was associated with increased risk of sleep apnea, and sleep apnea was associated with increased risk of psoriasis. The clinical significance of this bidirectional relationship warrants further study. Citation: Egeberg A, Khalid U, Gislason GH, Mallbris L, Skov L, Hansen PR. Psoriasis and sleep apnea: a Danish nationwide cohort study. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(5):663–671. PMID:26715401
Pıhtılı, Aylin; Bingöl, Züleyha; Kıyan, Esen
Background: As obesity increases, the frequency of obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome increases also. However, obesity hypoventilation syndrome frequency is not known, as capnography and arterial blood gas analysis are not routinely performed in sleep laboratories. Aims: To investigate the frequency and predictors of obesity hypoventilation syndrome in obese subjects. Study Design: Retrospective clinical study. Methods: Obese subjects who had arterial blood gas analysis admitted to the sleep laboratory and polysomnography were retrospectively analyzed. Subjects with restrictive (except obesity) and obstructive pulmonary pathologies were excluded. Demographics, Epworth-Sleepiness-Scale scores, polysomnographic data, arterial blood gas analysis, and spirometric measurements were recorded. Results: Of the 419 subjects, 45.1% had obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Apnea hypopnea index (p<0.001), oxygen desaturation index (p<0.001) and sleep time with SpO2<90% (p<0.001) were statistically higher in subjects with obesity hypoventilation syndrome compared to subjects with eucapnic obstructive sleep apnea. The nocturnal mean SpO2 (p<0.001) and lowest SpO2 (p<0.001) were also statistically lower in subjects with obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Logistic regression analysis showed that the lowest SpO2, oxygen desaturation index, apnea hypopnea index and sleep time with SpO2 <90% were related factors for obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Conclusion: Obesity hypoventilation syndrome should be considered when oxygen desaturation index, apnea hypopnea index and sleep time with SpO2 <90% are high. PMID:28251022
Zamarrón, C; Gude, F; Otero, Y; Alvarez Dobaño, J M; Golpe, A; Rodríguez Suárez, J R
The aim of this study was to determine the clinical features of patients with sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) in the general population. One hundred ten individuals were selected randomly from the census and given hospital appointments. Case histories were taken and complete physical examinations were made. Nighttime respiratory polysomnograms were performed. Twenty-two (20%) of the 110 subjects presented SAS. In the SAS group, 59.1% were habitual snorers and 22.7% reported daytime hypersomnolence. The SAS patients has a mean age of 59.6 +/- 8.8 years and 45.4% showed alterations of the pharynx. No differences in spirometric variables were observed. Only age and daytime hypersomnolence predicted SAS in the multivariate analysis. We conclude that the prevalence of snoring, daytime hypersomnolence, pharyngeal alterations are higher in patients with SAS. The patients are also older. Only age and daytime hypersomnolence predicted of SAS.
Annapurna, K; Suganya, S; Vasanth, R; Kumar, P Ranjith
Sleep disordered breathing represents a continuum, ranging from simple snoring sans sleepiness, upper-airway resistance syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome, to hypercapnic respiratory failure. Fifty seven articles formed the initial database and a final total of 50 articles were selected to form this review report. Four months were spent on the collection and retrieval of the articles. Articles were selected based on accuracy and evidence in the scientific literature. Oral appliances (OAs) are indicated for use in patients with mild to moderate OSA who prefer them to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, or for those who do not respond to, are not appropriate candidates for, or for those who have failed treatment attempts with CPAP. OAs protrude the mandible and hold it in a forward and downward position. As a consequence, the upper airway enlarges antero-posteriorly and laterally, improving its stability. Although OA are effective in some patients with OSA, they are not universally suitable. Compliance with OAs depends mainly on the balance between the perception of benefit and the side effects. In conclusion, marked variability is illustrated in the individual response to OA therapy and hence the treatment outcome is subjective. PMID:25221691
Obstructive sleep apnea is a common disorder associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and premature mortality. Although there is strong clinical and epidemiologic evidence supporting the importance of genetic factors in influencing obstructive sleep apnea, its genetic bas...
Tasali, Esra; Mokhlesi, Babak; Van Cauter, Eve
Type 2 diabetes is a major public health concern with high morbidity, mortality, and health-care costs. Recent reports have indicated that the majority of patients with type 2 diabetes also have obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). There is compelling evidence that OSA is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality. Rapidly accumulating data from both epidemiologic and clinical studies suggest that OSA is also independently associated with alterations in glucose metabolism and places patients at an increased risk of the development of type 2 diabetes. Experimental studies in humans and animals have demonstrated that intermittent hypoxia and reduced sleep duration due to sleep fragmentation, as occur in OSA, exert adverse effects on glucose metabolism. Based on the current evidence, clinicians need to address the risk of OSA in patients with type 2 diabetes and, conversely, evaluate the presence of type 2 diabetes in patients with OSA. Clearly, there is a need for further research, using well-designed studies and long-term follow-up, to fully demonstrate a causal role for OSA in the development and severity of type 2 diabetes. In particular, future studies must carefully consider the confounding effects of central obesity in examining the link between OSA and alterations in glucose metabolism. The interactions among the rising epidemics of obesity, OSA, and type 2 diabetes are likely to be complex and involve multiple pathways. A better understanding of the relationship between OSA and type 2 diabetes may have important public health implications.
Hammoud, Ahmad O; Carrell, Douglas T; Gibson, Mark; Matthew Peterson, C; Wayne Meikle, A
Obesity has a negative effect on male reproductive function. It is associated with low testosterone levels and alteration in gonadotropin secretion. Male obesity has been linked to reduced male fertility. Data regarding the relation of obesity to sperm parameters are conflicting in terms of the nature and magnitude of the effect. New areas of interest are emerging that can help explain the variation in study results, such as genetic polymorphism and sleep apnea. Sleep disorders have been linked to altered testosterone production and hypogonadism in men. It was also correlated to erectile dysfunction. The relation of sleep disorders to male fertility and sperm parameters remains to be investigated. Men with hypogonadism and infertility should be screened for sleep apnea. Treatment of obesity and sleep apnea improves testosterone levels and erectile function. PMID:22138900
Sundqvist, Martin; Sandström, Herbert; Sahlin, Carin; Rohani, Morteza; Al-Khalili, Faris; Hörnsten, Rolf; Blomberg, Anders; Wester, Per; Rosenqvist, Mårten; Franklin, Karl A.
Study objectives Obstructive sleep apnea is common among patients with atrial fibrillation, but the prevalence and risk factors for atrial fibrillation among patients who are being investigated on suspicion of sleep apnea are not well known. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of atrial fibrillation among patients investigated for suspected obstructive sleep apnea and to identify risk factors for atrial fibrillation among them. Methods The prevalence of atrial fibrillation was investigated among 201 patients referred for suspected obstructive sleep apnea. Patients without known atrial fibrillation were investigated with a standard 12-lead ECG at hospital and short intermittent handheld ECG recordings at home, during 14 days. Results Atrial fibrillation occurred in 13 of 201 subjects (6.5%), and in 12 of 61 men aged 60 years and older (20%). The prevalence of atrial fibrillation increased with sleep apnea severity (p = 0.038). All patients with atrial fibrillation were men and all had sleep apnea. Age 60 or older, the occurrence of central sleep apnea and diabetes mellitus were independent risk factors for atrial fibrillation after adjustments for body mass index, gender, sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease. Conclusions Atrial fibrillation is common among subjects referred for sleep apnea investigation and the prevalence of atrial fibrillation increases with sleep apnea severity. Independent risk factors for atrial fibrillation among patients investigated for suspected obstructive sleep apnea include the occurrence of coexisting central sleep apnea, age 60 years or older and diabetes mellitus. PMID:28178304
Peng, De-Chang; Dai, Xi-Jian; Gong, Hong-Han; Li, Hai-Jun; Nie, Xiao; Zhang, Wei
Background Previous studies have demonstrated that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with abnormal brain structural deficits. However, little is known about the changes in local synchronization of spontaneous activity in patients with OSA. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate spontaneous brain activity in patients with OSA compared with good sleepers (GSs) using regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis based on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods Twenty-five untreated male patients with severe OSA and 25 male GSs matched for age and years of education were included in this study. The ReHo method was calculated to assess the strength of local signal synchrony and was compared between the two groups. The observed mean ReHo values were entered into Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software to assess their correlation with behavioral performance. Results Compared with GSs, patients with OSA showed significantly lower ReHo in the right medial frontal gyrus (BA11), right superior frontal gyrus (BA10), right cluster of the precuneus and angular gyrus (BA39), and left superior parietal lobule (BA7), and higher ReHo in the right posterior lobe of the cerebellum, right cingulate gyrus (BA23), and bilateral cluster covering the lentiform nucleus, putamen, and insula (BA13). The lower mean ReHo value in the right cluster of the precuneus and angular gyrus had a significant negative correlation with sleep time (r=−0.430, P=0.032), and higher ReHo in the right posterior lobe of the cerebellum showed a significant positive correlation with stage 3 sleep (r=0.458, P=0.021) and in the right cingulate gyrus showed a significant positive correlation with percent rapid eye movement sleep (r=0.405, P=0.045). Conclusion Patients with OSA showed significant regional spontaneous activity deficits in default mode network areas. The ReHo method is a useful noninvasive imaging tool for detection of early changes in cerebral
Chopra, Swati; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y.
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder that describes recurrent collapse of the upper airway during sleep. Animal models have been pivotal to the understanding of OSA pathogenesis, consequences, and treatment. In this review, we highlight the history of OSA research in animals and include the discovery of animals with spontaneous OSA, the induction of OSA in animals, and the emulation of OSA using exposures to intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation. PMID:26448201
Karkinski, Dimitar; Georgievski, Oliver; Dzekova-Vidimliski, Pavlina; Milenkovic, Tatjana; Dokic, Dejan
BACKGROUND: There has been a great interest in the interaction between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and metabolic dysfunction, but there is no consistent data suggesting that OSA is a risk factor for dyslipidemia. AIM: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the prevalence of lipid abnormalities in patients suspected of OSA, referred to our sleep laboratory for polysomnography. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two hundred patients referred to our hospital with suspected OSA, and all of them underwent for standard polysomnography. All patients with respiratory disturbance index (RDI) above 15 were diagnosed with OSA. In the morning after 12 hours fasting, the blood sample was collected from all patients. Blood levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), were determined in all study patients. In the study, both OSA positive and OSA negative patients were divided according to the body mass index (BMI) in two groups. The first group with BMI ≤ 30 kg/m^2 and the second group with BMI > 30 kg/m^2. RESULTS: OSA positive patients with BMI ≤ 30 kg/m^2 had statistically significant higher levels of triglycerides and total cholesterol, and statistically significant lower level of HDL compared to OSA negative patients with BMI ≤ 30. There were no statistically significant differences in age and LDL levels between these groups. OSA positive patients with BMI > 30 kg/m^2 had higher levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL and lower levels of HDL versus OSA negative patients with BMI > 30 kg/m^2, but without statistically significant differences. CONCLUSION: OSA and obesity are potent risk factors for dyslipidemias. OSA could play a significant role in worsening of lipid metabolism in non-obese patients. But in obese patients, the extra weight makes the metabolic changes of lipid metabolism, and the role of OSA is not that very important like in non-obese patients. PMID
Goyal, Sandeep K; Sharma, Abhishek
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common arrhythmia with rising incidence. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is prevalent among patients with AF. This observation has prompted significant research in understanding the relationship between OSA and AF. Multiple studies support a role of OSA in the initiation and progression of AF. This association has been independent of obesity, body mass index and hypertension. Instability of autonomic tone and wide swings in intrathoracic pressure are seen in OSA. These have been mechanistically linked to initiation of AF in OSA patients by lowering atrial effective refractory period, promoting pulmonary vein discharges and atrial dilation. OSA not only promotes initiation of AF but also makes management of AF difficult. Drug therapy and electrical cardioversion for AF are less successful in presence of OSA. There has been higher rate of early and overall recurrence after catheter ablation of AF in patients with OSA. Treatment of OSA with continuous positive airway pressure has been shown to improve control of AF. However, additional studies are needed to establish a stronger relationship between OSA treatment and success of AF therapies. There should be heightened suspicion of OSA in patients with AF. There is a need for guidelines to screen for OSA as a part of AF management. PMID:23802045
Kashefi, Feraydune; Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Liu, Hanli
This study aimed at determining cerebral hemodynamic parameters in human subjects during breath holding using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Breath holding serves as a method of simulation OSA (Obstructive Sleep Apnea). Data was acquired non-invasively from 40 subjects, twenty OSA sufferers (10 females, 10 males, age 20-70 years), and twenty normal volunteers (10 females, 10 males, age 20-65 years). Measurements were conducted using a LED Imager (LEDI) during breath holding. In comparing OSA subjects with controls during breath holding, a consistent increase or even a decrease in oxy- ([O IIHb]), deoxy- ([HHb]), total hemoglobin ([tHb]) concentrations, and tissue hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO II) in the regional brain tissue were observed. The LEDI probe consists of 4 sources and 10 detectors serving as 4 sets of 1 source and 4 detectors each. A three wavelength (730, 805, and 850 nm) LED was used and the wavelengths were switched sequentially. The distance between sources and the source-detector separation were 2.5 cm. Data acquisition consisted of three segments, baseline for one minute, followed by a period of breath holding, and then 2 minutes of recovery time. The duration of the breath holding was subject-dependent. Our investigation proves that NIR spectroscopy could be used as a tool for detecting cerebral hemodynamics and also serves as a method of screening patients with OSA.
Lin, Christine M.; Davidson, Terence M.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia
Obstructive sleep apnea is a common cause of daytime sleepiness for millions of Americans. It is also a disease associated with an increased likelihood of hypertension, cardiovascular disease, stroke, daytime sleepiness, motor vehicle accidents, and diminished quality of life. A number of population based studies have shown that obstructive sleep apnea is more common in men than in women and this discrepancy is often evident in the clinical setting. There are a number of pathophysiological differences to suggest why men are more prone to the disease than women. Although the exact mechanisms are unknown, differences in obesity, upper airway anatomy, breathing control, hormones, and aging are all thought to play a role. The purpose of this review was to examine the literature on gender differences in obstructive sleep apnea and to analyze whether or not these differences in pathogenic mechanisms affect diagnosis or treatment. PMID:18951050
Nagai, Takashi; Imamura, Makoto; Iwasaki, Yasuki; Mori, Masatomo
A 66-year-old man with diabetes mellitus was hospitalized with sleeping and dyspnea. Polysomnography determined an apnea hypopneas index (AHI) of 56/hr and that the events occurred in association with continued diaphragm electromyogram activity and thoraco-abdominal wall movement. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome was then diagnosed and nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) (11cmH2O) was set. AHI subsequently became 21/hr. Six months' later, uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) for the narrowing middle pharynx was performed and the AHI became 7/hr. After starting nCPAP and UPPP, body weight and insulin resistance had decreased. Treatment for sleep apnea may improve insulin resistance in diabetes mellitus.
Balakrishnan, Karthik; James, Kathryn T.; Weaver, Edward M.
Study Objectives: Measures of baseline sleep apnea disease burden (apnea-hypopnea index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale) predict continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) adherence, but composite indices of sleep apnea severity (Sleep Apnea Severity Index, Modified Sleep Apnea Severity Index) may be more robust measures of disease burden. We tested the relative prognostic ability of each measure of sleep apnea disease burden to predict subsequent CPAP adherence and subjective sleep outcomes. Methods: Prospective cohort study at a tertiary academic sleep center. Patients (n = 323) underwent initial diagnostic polysomnography for suspected obstructive sleep apnea and 6 mo of subsequent CPAP therapy Results: Baseline apnea-hypopnea index and both composite indices predicted adherence to CPAP therapy at 6 mo in multivariate analyses (all p ≤ 0.001). Baseline Epworth Sleepiness Scale did not predict CPAP adherence (p = 0.22). Both composite indices were statistically stronger predictors of CPAP adherence at 6 mo than apnea-hypopnea index (p < 0.001). In multivariate analyses, baseline apnea-hypopnea index (p < 0.05) and both composite indices (both p < 0.04) predicted change in Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, whereas only the composite indices predicted changes in Sleep Apnea Quality of Life Index (both p < 0.001). Adjustment for treatment adherence did not affect the relationship of the composite indices with change in Sleep Apnea Quality of Life Index (both p ≤ 0.005). Conclusions: Composite indices of baseline sleep apnea severity better predict objective CPAP adherence and subjective treatment outcomes than baseline apnea-hypopnea index and baseline Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Citation: Balakrishnan K, James KT, Weaver EM. Predicting CPAP use and treatment outcomes using composite indices of sleep apnea severity. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(6):849–854. PMID:26857052
Hartley, Sarah; Quera-Salva, Maria-Antonia; Machou, Mourad
Sodium oxybate (GHB, Xyrem, Jazz Pharmaceuticals) is used to treat cataplexy in patients with narcolepsy. We report the case of a middle aged, normo-ponderal narcoleptic woman without risk factors who developed reversible sleep apnea and objective sleepiness when treated by sodium oxybate, with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of 19.7 on sodium oxybate and AHI 4.8 without treatment. Despite a subjective improvement in vigilance, mean sleep latency on MWT decreased from 21 minutes to 8 minutes on sodium oxybate.
Veney, Amy J
Orthopaedic patients with obstructive sleep apnea are at risk for postoperative complications related to administration of pain medications, anxiolytics, and antiemetics. They are more likely to experience respiratory and cardiac complications, be transferred to an intensive care unit, or have an increased length of stay in the hospital. This informational article is for nurses who care for postoperative orthopaedic patients with obstructive sleep apnea. The focus is on promoting patient safety through communication, vigilant postoperative sedation assessment, and nursing interventions that include appropriate patient positioning, patient education, and involving patients and their families in care.
Xu, Limei; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Chen, Zhi; Hu, Kun; Paydarfar, David; Stanley, H. Eugene
Findings indicate a dynamical coupling between respiratory and cardiac function. However, the nature of this nonlinear interaction remains not well understood. We investigate transient patterns in the cardio-pulmonary interaction under healthy conditions by means of cross-correlation and nonlinear synchronization techniques, and we compare how these patterns change under pathologic conditions such as obstructive sleep apnea --- a periodic cessation of breathing during sleep. We find that during apnea episodes the nonlinear features of cardio-pulmonary interaction change intermittently, and can exhibit variations characterized by different time delays in the phase synchronization between breathing and heartbeat dynamics.
Kazemzadeh, Gholam Hosein; Bameshki, Ali Reza; Navvabi, Iman; Ahmadi Hoseini, Seyed Hosein; Taghavi Gilani, Mehryar
In this study we evaluated the incidence and severity of obstructive sleep apnea and Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in patients with thromboangiitis obliterans for reduction of crisis. In 40 patients with Buerger's disease daily sleepiness and risk of Obstructive sleep apnea were evaluated using the Epworth sleeping scale (ESS) and the Stop-Bang score. An Apnea-link device was used for evaluation of chest motion, peripheral oxygenation, and nasal airflow during night-time sleep. The apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) and respiratory disurbance index were used for Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome diagnosis. All subjects were cigarette smokers and 80% were opium addicted. The prevalence of Obstructive sleep apnea (AHI>5) was 80%, but incidence of Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (AHI>5 + ESS≥10) was 5% (2/40). There was no association between duration or frequency of hospitalization and Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (P=0.74 and 0.86, respectively). In addition, no correlation between ESS and Stop-Bang scores and AHI was observed (P=0.58 and 0.41, respectively). There was an inverse correlation between smoking rate and AHI (P=0.032, r = -0.48). We did not find an association between Buerger's disease and Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Although the AHI was high (80%) and daily sleepiness was low. The negative correlation of smoking with AHI and on the other hand daily napping in addiction may be caused by the absence of a clear relationship between Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and Buerger's disease.
Chakhtoura, Marlene; Nasrallah, Mona; Chami, Hassan
Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep-related respiratory disorder. It is associated with many endocrinopathies including hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, hypercortisolism, and glucose intolerance that may lead to bone loss with secondary osteoporosis. Methods: We report the case of a 41-year-old man who presented with bilateral 9th rib fractures and was found to have obstructive sleep apnea and osteoporosis. We also present a literature review on this topic. Results: OSA can lead to bone loss through various mechanisms. Some are shared with obesity, including hypogonadism, altered adrenergic tone, inflammation, oxidative stress, vitamin D deficiency and diabetes mellitus; others are specific to OSA, such as hypoxia and altered glucocorticoids regulation. Conclusion: There are no guidelines on screening for osteoporosis in OSA. Further research is needed to assess the incidence of bone loss and fractures in OSA. Citation: Chakhtoura M, Nasrallah M, Chami H. Bone loss in obesity and obstructive sleep apnea: a review of literature. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(5):575–580. PMID:25580607
Lal, Chitra; Strange, Charlie; Bachman, David
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common disorder with far-reaching health implications. One of the major consequences of OSAS is an impact on neurocognitive functioning. Several studies have shown that OSAS has an adverse effect on inductive and deductive reasoning, attention, vigilance, learning, and memory. Neurocognitive impairment can be measured objectively with tests such as the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, the Psychomotor Vigilance Task, the Steer Clear Performance Test, and tests of repetitive finger tapping. In children, OSAS may cause attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in addition to behavioral problems and learning disabilities. Risk factors for cognitive impairment include increasing age, male sex, apolipoprotein E ε4 allele positivity, current cigarette smoking, obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, Down syndrome, hypothyroidism, significant alcohol consumption, stroke, and the use of psychoactive medications. At a cellular level, OSAS likely causes cognitive impairment through intermittent hypoxia, hormonal imbalance, and/or systemic inflammation, either independently or via the resultant endothelial dysfunction that occurs. Excessive daytime sleepiness should be measured and minimized in all studies of neurocognitive impairment. Recent studies have used functional and structural neuroimaging to delineate the brain areas affected in patients with OSAS with neurocognitive dysfunction. A common finding in several of these studies is decreased hippocampal volume. Other affected brain areas include the frontal and parietal lobes of the brain, which show focal reductions in gray matter. These changes can be reversed at least partially with the use of CPAP, which highlights the importance of early recognition and treatment of OSAS. The currently available data in this field are quite limited, and more research is needed.
BRODIE, FRANK L.; CHARLSON, EMILY S.; ALEMAN, TOMAS S.; SALVO, REBECCA T.; GEWAILY, DINA Y.; LAU, MARISA K.; FARREN, NEIL D.; ENGELHARD, STEPHANIE B.; PISTILLI, MAXWELL; BRUCKER, ALEXANDER J.
Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine if there is an association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR). Methods Patients with CSCR without a history of steroid use or secondary retinal disease were matched based on age/gender/body mass index with control patients and administered the Berlin Questionnaire to assess for OSA risk. Patients were scored “OSA+” if they were at “high risk” on the Berlin Questionnaire or reported a previous OSA diagnosis. Rates of OSA+ were compared between the 2 groups, odds ratio and its 95% confidence interval was calculated using exact conditional logistic regression. Results Forty-eight qualifying patients with CSCR were identified. There were no statistically significant differences between the CSCR and control groups by age (mean = 55 years), gender (79% male), body mass index (mean = 28.2), history of diabetes, or hypertension. Within the CSCR group, 22 patients (45.8%) were OSA+ versus 21 control patients (43.8%) (difference = 2.1%; 95% confidence interval, −18.2% to 22.2%; exact odds ratio = 1.08, 95% confidence interval, 0.47–2.49; P = 1.00). Conclusion When compared with matched controls, patients with CSCR did not have statistically significant higher rates of OSA risk or previous diagnosis. This finding contrasts with previous work showing a strong association between the diseases. The divergence is likely due to our matching controls for body mass index, a significant risk factor for OSA. PMID:25127049
Nigro, Carlos A; Serrano, Fernando; Aimaretti, Silvia; González, Sergio; Codinardo, Carlos; Rhodius, Edgardo
Portable sleep studies may play an important role to take decisions on patients referred for suspicion of Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome (SAHS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of automated analysis of ApneaLink in patients with suspicion of SAHS. All participants (75) performed the ApneaLink and polysomnography (PSG) simultaneously in the sleep laboratory. The two recordings were interpreted blindly. The ApneaLink software calculated: (1) risk indicator (RI)-a combination of apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) plus inspiratory flow limitation events and (2) the AHI. ApneaLink and SAHS were defined in three ways: AHI or respiratory disturbance index (RDI) >or= 5, 10 and 15 respectively. ROC curves analysis was performed. The sensitivity (S), specificity (E) and positive and negative likelihood ratio (LR+, LR-) for the different thresholds for RI or AHI were calculated; 66 patients were included (47 men, mean age 51, median RDI 10.6, mean BMI 29.3 kg/m2). The best cut off points of RI were: SAHS = RDI >or= 5: RI > 9 (S 80%, E 100%, LR- 0.20); SAHS =RDI >or= 10: RI > 13 (S 92%, E 93%, LR+ 13.7 LR- 0.089); SAHS = RDI >or= 15 =: RI > 16 (S 93.5%, E 91%, LR+10.9, LR- 0.071). The AHI had a similar diagnostic accuracy to RI for the different definitions of SAHS. The RI and AHI obtained from automated analysis of ApneaLink were highly sensitive and specific to diagnose moderate to severe SAHS.
Eiseman, Nathaniel A.; Westover, M. Brandon; Mietus, Joseph E.; Thomas, Robert J.; Bianchi, Matt T.
SUMMARY Identifying predictors of subjective sleepiness and severity of sleep apnea are important yet challenging goals in sleep medicine. Classification algorithms may provide insights, especially when large data sets are available. We analyzed polysomnography and clinical features available from the Sleep Heart Health Study. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the apnea–hypopnea index were the targets of three classifiers: k-nearest neighbor, naive Bayes and support vector machine algorithms. Classification was based on up to 26 features including demographics, polysomnogram, and electrocardiogram (spectrogram). Naive Bayes was best for predicting abnormal Epworth class (0–10 versus 11–24), although prediction was weak: polysomnogram features had 16.7% sensitivity and 88.8% specificity; spectrogram features had 5.3% sensitivity and 96.5% specificity. The support vector machine performed similarly to naive Bayes for predicting sleep apnea class (0–5 versus >5): 59.0% sensitivity and 74.5% specificity using clinical features and 43.4% sensitivity and 83.5% specificity using spectrographic features compared with the naive Bayes classifier, which had 57.5% sensitivity and 73.7% specificity (clinical), and 39.0% sensitivity and 82.7% specificity (spectrogram). Mutual information analysis confirmed the minimal dependency of the Epworth score on any feature, while the apnea–hypopnea index showed modest dependency on body mass index, arousal index, oxygenation and spectrogram features. Apnea classification was modestly accurate, using either clinical or spectrogram features, and showed lower sensitivity and higher specificity than common sleep apnea screening tools. Thus, clinical prediction of sleep apnea may be feasible with easily obtained demographic and electrocardiographic analysis, but the utility of the Epworth is questioned by its minimal relation to clinical, electrocardiographic, or polysomnographic features. PMID:21752133
Espinoza, H; Antic, R; Thornton, A T; McEvoy, R D
The methylxanthine derivatives are known to have respiratory stimulant properties. To determine whether these drugs would improve obstructive sleep apnea, 10 male patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) (Apnea Index greater than 15/h) were given infusions of aminophylline and a saline placebo on 2 separate nights a week apart, using a randomized crossover design. There was a significant decrease during aminophylline infusion in the frequency of those apneas, which contained periods of complete respiratory inactivity (central and mixed apneas; placebo, 4.3 +/- 1.8/h; aminophylline, 0.7 +/- 0.5/h; p less than 0.05). There was no change in either the frequency (placebo, 31.8 +/- 5.9/h; aminophylline, 28.7 +/- 8.7/h; NS) or duration of obstructive apneas. Mean and minimal arterial oxygen saturation values were also unchanged. Sleep architecture was markedly disturbed by aminophylline. There was a reduction in sleep efficiency (placebo, 84.8 +/- 2.0%; aminophylline, 60.2 +/- 5.0%; p less than 0.005), an increase in sleep fragmentation (sleep stage shifts/h: placebo, 11.6 +/- 1.3: aminophylline, 21.0 +/- 2.9; p less than 0.05) and less Stage 2 and more Stage 1 non-REM sleep. We conclude that aminophylline reduces central apnea and the central component of mixed apneas but has no effect on obstructive apnea. Theophylline is therefore unlikely to be therapeutically useful in patients with OSA, and because it leads to marked sleep disruption, its long-term use could conceivably increase the propensity to upper airway occlusion during sleep.
González-Pliego, José Angel; González-Marines, David; Guzmán-Sánchez, César Manuel; Odusola-Vázquez, Samuel O
The purpose of this review is to analyze the relation between obstructive sleep apnea and hypertension. We present epidemiological data of the respiratory disorder and its association with high blood pressure, as well as physiopathological interactions between both conditions, the diagnostic methods, and the impact of treatment on pathophysiology and prognosis.
Khayat, Rami N; Abraham, William T
Central sleep apnea (CSA) is one of the most common comorbidities in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and is associated with negative consequences. Despite several recent advances, there are currently no widely accepted therapies for CSA. In this review we will discuss available therapies for CSA and review the published trials addressing treatment of CSA in HFrEF patients.
Fujita, Kazumi; Wada, Yuka; Aono, Takuya; Sugi, Gosuke; Ohta, Noriaki; Sueda, Shozo; Nomoto, Takahiko; Oshita, Akira
We examined the incidence of sleep-apnea syndrome (SAS; 5 or more episodes of apnea/hypopnea in 1 hour) in 213 patients (152 male, 67.8 +/- 10.9 years) with various cardiac diseases by a modified sleep polygraph (morpheus; Teijin Pharma, Tokyo) from July 2005 to April 2007. Mild sleep disturbance was defined as 5< or = AHI<20, moderate sleep disturbance as 20< or = AHI<40, and severe sleep disturbance as 40< or = AHI. SAS was seen in 87.3% of the patients. This high incidence sharply contrasts with 7.5% reported in factory workers in Japan. Body mass index, though significant, was scarcely correlated with the severity of SAS (p<0.01). As sleep disturbance became severe, the proportion of an obstructive, central, and eventually mixed obstructive-central SAS increased. Although the overall severity was not different between different categories of cardiac diseases, obstructive-central SAS was seen far more frequent in congestive heart failure. Hypertension was closely associated with apnea/hypopnea. A tight correlation between SAS and various cardiac diseases was suggested.
Foldvary-Schaefer, Nancy; Stephenson, Lisa; Bingaman, William
Recent studies suggest a higher than expected prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients with refractory epilepsy. In some cases, treatment of OSA improves seizure control. We report a case in which clinically significant OSA disappeared after left frontal lobe resection that produced a near seizure free state. This occurred in the absence of the usual factors, such as weight or medication change or variation in polysomnography (PSG) recording methodology, that often confound the comparison of sequential PSGs over time. Our patient underwent PSG with 18-channel EEG recording pre- and postoperatively using standardized scoring techniques. Baseline testing revealed an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of 24 with severe oxygen desaturations reaching a nadir of 62%. Postoperative testing found both the AHI and oxygen saturation normalized as well as a marked reduction in spike rate. We hypothesize that the pathophysiology of OSA in patients with epilepsy may be impacted by frequent, extensive interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) and/or seizures altering upper airway control during sleep.
Objective: This review aims to impart information regarding recognition of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and associated excessive sleepiness (ES) in the primary care setting in order to provide optimal care to patients with this common but serious condition. This review will also discuss the prevalence and treatment of depression in patients with OSA. Data Sources: A MEDLINE search of articles published between 1990 and 2008 was conducted using the search terms obstructive sleep apnea AND excessive sleepiness, obstructive sleep apnea AND depression, and obstructive sleep apnea AND primary care. Searches were limited to articles in English concerned with adult patients. Study Selection: In total, 239 articles were identified. Articles concerning other sleep disorders and forms of apnea were excluded. The reference lists of identified articles were searched manually to find additional articles of interest. Data Synthesis: Primary care physicians can aid in the diagnosis of OSA and associated ES by being vigilant for lifestyle and physical risk factors associated with this condition. In addition, primary care physicians should maintain a high level of clinical suspicion when presented with illnesses that are commonly comorbid with OSA, such as psychiatric disorders and depression, in particular. Conversely, assessment of patients with OSA for common comorbidities may also improve a patient's prognosis and quality of life. Conclusions: Primary care physicians play a vital role in recognizing OSA and ES. These clinicians are crucial in supporting their patients during treatment by ensuring that they have clear, concise information regarding available therapies and the correct application and maintenance of prescribed devices. PMID:20098525
Huang, Yu-Shu; Guilleminault, Christian; Hwang, Fang-Ming; Cheng, Chuan; Lin, Cheng-Hui; Li, Hsueh-Yu; Lee, Li-Ang
Abstract Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with chronic systemic inflammation and with cognitive impairments. This study aimed to investigate the status of proinflammatory cytokines, particularly interleukin 17 (IL-17) and interleukin 23 (IL-23) and cognition in pediatric OSA. Controls and OSA children participated in the study. Exclusion criteria were adenotonsillectomy, heart, neurological and severe psychiatric diseases, craniofacial syndromes, and obesity. Polysomnogram was followed by serum testing for inflammatory markers and neurocognitive tests such as continuous performance task (CPT) and Wisconsin card sorting test, questionnaires, analyses of plasma high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (HS-CRP), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 (IL-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-17, and IL-23. Seventy-nine, 4 to 12-year-old subjects in 2 groups ended the study: 47 nonobese OSA children (mean age = 7.84 ± 0.56 years, body mass index [BMI] = 16.95 ± 0.47 kg/m2, BMI z-score = 0.15 ± 0.21, and mean apnea–hypopnea index [AHI] = 9.13 ± 1.67 events/h) and 32 healthy control children (mean age = 7.02 ± 0.65 years, with BMI = 16.55 ± 0.58 kg/m2, BMI z-score = −0.12 ± 0.27, and mean AHI = 0.41 ± 0.07 event/h) were enrolled. Serum cytokine analyses showed significantly higher levels of HS-CRP, IL-17, and IL-23 in OSA children (P = 0.002, P = 0.024, and P = 0.047). Regression test showed significant influence of HS-CRP, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17, and specifically IL-23, with the continuous performance test and Wisconsin card sorting test. OSA children have abnormal levels of IL-17, an interleukin related to T helper 17 cells, a T helper cell involved in development of autoimmunity and inflammation. This high expression level may contribute to the complications of pediatric OSA; we also found a significant influence of inflammatory cytokines, particularly IL-23, on abnormal neurocognitive testing. PMID
Panossian, Lori A; Veasey, Sigrid C
Increasing numbers of overweight children and adults are presenting to sleep medicine clinics for evaluation and treatment of sleepiness. Sleepiness negatively affects quality of life, mental health, productivity, and safety. Thus, it is essential to comprehensively address all potential causes of sleepiness. While many obese individuals presenting with hypersomnolence will be diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea and their sleepiness will improve with effective therapy for sleep apnea, a significant proportion of patients will continue to have hypersomnolence. Clinical studies demonstrate that obesity without sleep apnea is also associated with a higher prevalence of hypersomnolence and that bariatric surgery can markedly improve hypersomnolence before resolution of obstructive sleep apnea. High fat diet in both humans and animals is associated with hypersomnolence. This review critically examines the relationships between sleepiness, feeding, obesity, and sleep apnea and then discusses the hormonal, metabolic, and inflammatory mechanisms potentially contributing to hypersomnolence in obesity, independent of sleep apnea and other established causes of excessive daytime sleepiness.
Younes, Magdy; Hanly, Patrick J
Arousability from sleep is increasingly recognized as an important determinant of the clinical spectrum of sleep disordered breathing (SDB). Patients with SDB display a wide range of arousability. The reason for these differences is not known. We hypothesized that differences in the speed with which sleep deepens following arousals/awakenings (postarousal sleep dynamics) is a major determinant of these differences in arousability in patients with SDB. We analyzed 40 preexisting clinical polysomnography records from patients with a range of SDB severity (apnea-hypopnea index 5-135/h). Sleep depth was determined every 3 s using the odds ratio product (ORP) method, a continuous index of sleep depth (0 = deep sleep, 2.5 = full wakefulness) that correlates strongly (r = 0.98) with arousability (Younes M, Ostrowski M, Soiferman M, Younes H, Younes M, Raneri J, and Hanly P. Sleep 38: 641-654, 2015). Time course of ORP was determined from end of arousal until the next arousal. All arousals were analyzed (142 ± 65/polysomnogram). ORP increased from 0.58 ± 0.32 during sleep to 1.67 ± 0.35 during arousals. ORP immediately (first 9 s) following arousals/awakenings (ORP-9) ranged from 0.21(very deep sleep) to 1.71 (highly arousable state) in different patients. In patients with high ORP-9, sleep deepened slowly (over minutes) beyond 9 s but only if no arousals/awakenings recurred. ORP-9 correlated strongly with average non-rapid eye movement sleep depth (r = 0.87, P < 2E-13), the arousal/awakening index (r = 0.68, P < 5E-6), and with the apnea-hypopnea index (r = 0.60, P < 0.001). ORP-9 was consistent within each patient and did not change on continuous positive airway pressure despite marked improvement in sleep architecture. We conclude that postarousal sleep dynamics are highly variable among patients with sleep-disordered breathing and largely determine average sleep depth and continuity.
Abad, Jorge; Muñoz-Ferrer, Aida; Cervantes, Miguel Ángel; Esquinas, Cristina; Marin, Alicia; Martínez, Carlos; Morera, Josep; Ruiz, Juan
Study Objectives: We investigated the diagnostic accuracy for the identification of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and its severity of a noninvasive technology based on image processing (SleepWise). Methods: This is an observational, prospective study to evaluate the degree of agreement between polysomnography (PSG) and SleepWise. We recruited 56 consecutive subjects with suspected OSA who were referred as outpatients to the Sleep Unit of the Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol (HUGTiP) from January 2013 to January 2014. All patients underwent laboratory PSG and image processing with SleepWise simultaneously the same night. Both PSG and SleepWise analyses were carried independently and blindly. Results: We analyzed 50 of the 56 patients recruited. OSA was diagnosed through PSG in a total of 44 patients (88%) with a median apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of 25.35 (24.9). According to SleepWise, 45 patients (90%) met the criteria for a diagnosis of OSA, with a median AHI of 22.8 (22.03). An analysis of the ability of PSG and SleepWise to classify patients by severity on the basis of their AHI shows that the two diagnostic systems distribute the different groups similarly. According to PSG, 23 patients (46%) had a diagnosis of severe OSA, 11 patients (22%) moderate OSA, and 10 patients (20%) mild OSA. According to SleepWise, 20, 13, and 12 patients (40%, 26%, and 24%, respectively) had a diagnosis of severe, moderate, and mild OSA respectively. For OSA diagnosis, SleepWise was found to have sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 83% in relation to PSG. The positive predictive value was 97% and the negative predictive value was 100%. The Bland-Altman plot comparing the mean AHI values obtained through PSG and SleepWise shows very good agreement between the two diagnostic techniques, with a bias of −3.85, a standard error of 12.18, and a confidence interval of −0.39 to −7.31. Conclusions: SleepWise was reasonably accurate for noninvasive and automatic diagnosis
Varghese, Ranji; Adams, Nathan G.; Slocumb, Nancy L.; Viozzi, Christopher F.; Ramar, Kannan; Olson, Eric J.
Maxillomandibular advancement (MMA) is a surgical option for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). MMA involves forward-fixing the maxilla and mandible approximately 10 mm via Le Fort I maxillary and sagittal split mandibular osteotomies. We retrospectively reviewed outcomes from 24 consecutive OSA patients who underwent MMA at our institution. MMA resulted in an 83% reduction in the group mean apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) per polysomnography an average of 6.7 months after surgery. Forty-two percent of patients achieved a post-MMA AHI of less than 5 events/hour sleep and 71% achieved an AHI less than or equal to 10 events/hour sleep. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale score decreased by an average of 5 post-surgery. No parameters predictive of cure for OSA by MMA were identified. PMID:22518154
Mieczkowski, Brian; Ezzie, Michael E
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common and preventable lung disease that affects millions of people in the United States. Sleep disorders including obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are also common. It is not surprising that many people with COPD also suffer from OSA. This relationship, however, puts people at risk for more nocturnal desaturations and potential complications related to this, including pulmonary hypertension and heart rhythm disturbances. This update focuses on the physiology of sleep disturbances in COPD as well as the clinical implications of OSA in COPD. PMID:24748786
Park, John G; Ramar, Kannan; Olson, Eric J
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a breathing disorder during sleep that has implications beyond disrupted sleep. It is increasingly recognized as an independent risk factor for cardiac, neurologic, and perioperative morbidities. Yet this disorder remains undiagnosed in a substantial portion of our population. It is imperative for all physicians to remain vigilant in identifying patients with signs and symptoms consistent with OSA. This review focuses on updates in the areas of terminology and testing, complications of untreated OSA, perioperative considerations, treatment options, and new developments in this field.
Park, John G.; Ramar, Kannan; Olson, Eric J.
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a breathing disorder during sleep that has implications beyond disrupted sleep. It is increasingly recognized as an independent risk factor for cardiac, neurologic, and perioperative morbidities. Yet this disorder remains undiagnosed in a substantial portion of our population. It is imperative for all physicians to remain vigilant in identifying patients with signs and symptoms consistent with OSA. This review focuses on updates in the areas of terminology and testing, complications of untreated OSA, perioperative considerations, treatment options, and new developments in this field. PMID:21628617
Xu, Huajun; Zheng, Xiaojiao; Qian, Yingjun; Guan, Jian; Yi, Hongliang; Zou, Jianyin; Wang, Yuyu; Meng, Lili; Zhao, Aihua; Yin, Shankai; Jia, Wei
Few clinical studies have explored altered urinary metabolite levels in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Thus, we applied a metabolomics approach to analyze urinary metabolites in three groups of participants: patients with polysomnography (PSG)-confirmed OSA, simple snorers (SS), and normal subjects. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry were used. A total of 21 and 31 metabolites were differentially expressed in the SS and OSA groups, respectively. Patients with OSA had 18 metabolites different from those with SS. Of the 56 metabolites detected among the 3 groups, 24 were consistently higher or lower. A receiver operator curve analysis revealed that the combination of 4-hydroxypentenoic acid, arabinose, glycochenodeoxycholate-3-sulfate, isoleucine, serine, and xanthine produced a moderate diagnostic score with a sensitivity (specificity) of 75% (78%) for distinguishing OSA from those without OSA. The combination of 4-hydroxypentenoic acid, 5-dihydrotestosterone sulfate, serine, spermine, and xanthine distinguished OSA from SS with a sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 80%. Multiple metabolites and metabolic pathways associated with SS and OSA were identified using the metabolomics approach, and the altered metabolite signatures could potentially serve as an alternative diagnostic method to PSG. PMID:27480913
Namtvedt, Silje K; Randby, Anna; Einvik, Gunnar; Hrubos-Strøm, Harald; Somers, Virend K; Røsjø, Helge; Omland, Torbjørn
Increased prevalence of cardiac arrhythmias has been reported in patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), but this may not be generalizable to patients from the general population with a milder form of the condition. The aim of this study was to assess the association between cardiac arrhythmias and OSA of mainly mild and moderate severity. In total, 486 subjects (mean age 49 years, 55% men) recruited from a population-based study in Norway underwent polysomnography for OSA assessment and Holter recordings for arrhythmia assessment. Of these, 271 patients were diagnosed with OSA (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥5, median AHI 16.8, quartiles 1 to 3 8.9 to 32.6). Mean nadir oxygen saturations were 82% and 89% in patients with and without OSA, respectively. Ventricular premature complexes (≥5/hour) were more prevalent in subjects with OSA compared to subjects without OSA (median AHI 1.4, quartiles 1 to 3 0.5 to 3.0) during the night (12.2% vs 4.7%, p = 0.005) and day (14% vs 5.1%, p = 0.002). In multivariate analysis after adjusting for relevant confounders, AHI was independently associated with an increased prevalence of ventricular premature complexes at night (odds ratio per 1-U increase of log-transformed AHI 1.5, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 2.0, p = 0.008) and during the day (odds ratio 1.37, 95% confidence interval 1.0 to 1.8, p = 0.035). In conclusion, the prevalence of ventricular premature complexes is increased in middle-aged patients with mainly mild or moderate OSA, suggesting an association between OSA and ventricular arrhythmias even in mild OSA.
Launois, Claire; Attali, Valérie; Georges, Marjolaine; Raux, Mathieu; Morawiec, Elise; Rivals, Isabelle; Arnulf, Isabelle; Similowski, Thomas
Study Objectives: The obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) involves recurrent sleep-related upper airways (UA) collapse. UA mechanical properties and neural control are altered, imposing a mechanical load on inspiration. UA collapse does not occur during wakefulness, hence arousal-dependent compensation. Experimental inspiratory loading in normal subjects elicits respiratory-related cortical activity. The objective of this study was to test whether awake OSAS patients would exhibit a similar cortical activity. Design: Descriptive physiology study. Setting: Sleep laboratory in a large university affiliated tertiary hospital. Patients: 26 patients with moderate OSAS according to polysomnography (5 < apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≤ 30, n = 14) or severe OSAS (AHI > 30, n = 12); 13 non-OSAS patients for comparison. Interventions: None. Measurements: Respiratory time-locked electroencephalographic segments ensemble averaged and analyzed for slow premotor potentials preceding inspiration (“pre-inspiratory potentials” [PIPs]). Results: PIPs were present in 1/13 controls and 11/26 patients (P = 0.0336; 4/14 “moderate” and 7/12 “severe” patients). Awake OSAS patients therefore exhibit respiratory-related cortical activity during quiet breathing significantly more frequently than non-OSAS individuals. The corresponding PIPs resemble those observed during prepared voluntary inspirations and in response to experimental inspiratory loads in normal subjects, which involve a cortical network comprising the supplementary motor area. Conclusions: A respiratory-related cortical activity could contribute to the increased neural drive to upper airway and to inspiratory muscles that has previously been described in obstructive sleep apnea, and could therefore contribute to the arousal-dependent compensation of upper airway abnormalities. Whether or not such cortical compensatory mechanisms have cognitive consequences remains to be determined. Citation: Launois C, Attali V
Udwadia, Z.F.; Athale, S.; Misra, V.P.; Wadia, N.H.
A patient operated upon for a midline cerebellar hemangioblastoma developed failure of automatic respiration during sleep, together with central sleep apnea syndrome, approximately two years after receiving radiation therapy to the brain. Clinical and CT scan findings were compatible with a diagnosis of radiation necrosis as the cause of his abnormal respiratory control.
Skolarus, Lesli E.; Lisabeth, Lynda D.; Morgenstern, Lewis B.; Burgin, William; Brown, Devin L.
Background and purpose Sleep apnea is a modifiable independent stroke risk factor and is associated with poor stroke outcomes. Mexican Americans have a higher incidence of stroke than non-Hispanic whites. In a biethnic community, we sought to determine the frequency of screening, testing and treatment of sleep apnea among stroke survivors, and to compare self-perceived risk of sleep apnea with actual risk. Methods A survey was mailed to ischemic stroke survivors in the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) project. The survey included the validated sleep apnea screening tool, the Berlin questionnaire, and queried the frequency of sleep apnea screening by symptoms, formal sleep testing, and treatment. Self-perceived risk and actual high risk of sleep apnea were compared using McNemar’s test. Results Of the 193 respondents (49% response rate), 54% were Mexican American. Forty-eight percent of respondents had a high risk of sleep apnea based on the Berlin questionnaire, while only 19% thought they were likely to have sleep apnea (p<0.01). There was no difference in proportion of respondents at high risk of sleep apnea between Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites (48% vs. 51%, p=0.73). Less than 20% of respondents had undergone sleep apnea screening, testing or treatment. Conclusions Stroke survivors perceive their risk of sleep apnea to be lower than their actual risk. Despite a significant proportion of both Mexican American and non-Hispanic white stroke survivors at high risk of sleep apnea, few undergo symptom screening, testing or treatment. Both stroke survivors and physicians may benefit from educational interventions. PMID:22156693
Kryger, M H
Although the relationship between breathing and sleep has only recently been "discovered" by the medical community, excellent literary descriptions of what we know to be the sleep apnea syndrome were made long ago. Although ancient Greek writings described probable sleep apnea, the most important literary contributions in this area are by Charles Dickens. His description of Joe the fat boy in the Pickwick Papers is an example of his brilliant skills of observation and description. It was not until about 140 years after Pickwick Papers was published that we understood what he was describing.
Moro, Marilyn; Westover, M. Brandon; Kelly, Jessica; Bianchi, Matt T.
Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, and treatment with positive airway pressure (PAP) is cost-effective. However, the optimal diagnostic strategy remains a subject of debate. Prior modeling studies have not consistently supported the widely held assumption that home sleep testing (HST) is cost-effective. Methods: We modeled four strategies: (1) treat no one; (2) treat everyone empirically; (3) treat those testing positive during in-laboratory polysomnography (PSG) via in-laboratory titration; and (4) treat those testing positive during HST with auto-PAP. The population was assumed to lack independent reasons for in-laboratory PSG (such as insomnia, periodic limb movements in sleep, complex apnea). We considered the third-party payer perspective, via both standard (quality-adjusted) and pure cost methods. Results: The preferred strategy depended on three key factors: pretest probability of OSA, cost of untreated OSA, and time horizon. At low prevalence and low cost of untreated OSA, the treat no one strategy was favored, whereas empiric treatment was favored for high prevalence and high cost of untreated OSA. In-laboratory backup for failures in the at-home strategy increased the preference for the at-home strategy. Without laboratory backup in the at-home arm, the in-laboratory strategy was increasingly preferred at longer time horizons. Conclusion: Using a model framework that captures a broad range of clinical possibilities, the optimal diagnostic approach to uncomplicated OSA depends on pretest probability, cost of untreated OSA, and time horizon. Estimating each of these critical factors remains a challenge warranting further investigation. Citation: Moro M, Westover MB, Kelly J, Bianchi MT. Decision modeling in sleep apnea: the critical roles of pretest probability, cost of untreated obstructive sleep apnea, and time horizon. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(3):409–418. PMID:26518699
The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) defined at an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥5 was a mean of 22% (range, 9-37%) in men and 17% (range, 4-50%) in women in eleven published epidemiological studies published between 1993 and 2013. OSA with excessive daytime sleepiness occurred in 6% (range, 3-18%) of men and in 4% (range, 1-17%) of women. The prevalence increased with time and OSA was reported in 37% of men and in 50% of women in studies from 2008 and 2013 respectively. OSA is more prevalent in men than in women and increases with age and obesity. Smoking and alcohol consumption are also suggested as risk factors, but the results are conflicting. Excessive daytime sleepiness is suggested as the most important symptom of OSA, but only a fraction of subjects with AHI >5 report daytime sleepiness and one study did not find any relationship between daytime sleepiness and sleep apnea in women. Stroke and hypertension and coronary artery disease are associated with sleep apnea. Cross-sectional studies indicate an association between OSA and diabetes mellitus. Patients younger than 70 years run an increased risk of early death if they suffer from OSA. It is concluded that OSA is highly prevalent in the population. It is related to age and obesity. Only a part of subjects with OSA in the population have symptoms of daytime sleepiness. The prevalence of OSA has increased in epidemiological studies over time. Differences and the increase in prevalence of sleep apnea are probably due to different diagnostic equipment, definitions, study design and characteristics of included subjects including effects of the obesity epidemic. Cardiovascular disease, especially stroke is related to OSA, and subjects under the age of 70 run an increased risk of early death if they suffer from OSA. PMID:26380759
Costes, F; Court-Fortune, I; Fournel, P; Vergnon, J M; Emonot, A; Geyssant, A
We performed polysomnography and measured hypoxic ventilatory (HVR), hypercapnic ventilatory responses (HCVR) in 42 patients (60 +/- 11 years) with obesity and a clinical suspicion of sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) in order to determine whether an altered chemosensitivity was associated with SAS. The apnea/hypopnea index was 38 +/- 20 events per hour of sleep in 28 patients (SAS+ group) and less than 10 in the 14 others (SAS- group). The 2 groups differed only by a lower waking PaO2 in SAS+ as compared to SAS- (71.0 +/- 9 vs 77.4 +/- 8 mmHg, p < 0.05). HVR and HCVR were not significantly different in the 2 groups (0.82 +/- 0.58 vs 0.86 +/- 0.37 l.min-1.%-1; 1.41 +/- 0.81 vs 1.40 +/- 0.67 l.min-1.mmHg-1, respectively). In SAS+ group, HVR or HCVR did not change 3 or 12 months after continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy while both polysomnography and PaO2 returned to normal. We conclude that in patients with mild obesity and SAS there is no difference in chemosensitivity due to the presence of sleep apnea and that CPAP therapy does not alter these measurements. These results suggest no direct effect of SAS on chemosensitivity in the population studied.
Mihalj, Mario; Lušić, Linda; Đogaš, Zoran
It is unknown to what extent chronic intermittent hypoxaemia in obstructive sleep apnea causes damage to the motor and sensory peripheral nerves. It was hypothesized that patients with obstructive sleep apnea would have bilaterally significantly impaired amplitudes of both motor and sensory peripheral nerve-evoked potentials of both lower and upper limbs. An observational study was conducted on 43 patients with obstructive sleep apnea confirmed by the whole-night polysomnography, and 40 controls to assess the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and peripheral neuropathy. All obstructive sleep apnea subjects underwent standardized electroneurographic testing, with full assessment of amplitudes of evoked compound muscle action potentials, sensory neural action potentials, motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities, and distal motor and sensory latencies of the median, ulnar, peroneal and sural nerves, bilaterally. All nerve measurements were compared with reference values, as well as between the untreated patients with obstructive sleep apnea and control subjects. Averaged compound muscle action potential and sensory nerve action potential amplitudes were significantly reduced in the nerves of both upper and lower limbs in patients with obstructive sleep apnea compared with controls (P < 0.001). These results confirmed that patients with obstructive sleep apnea had significantly lower amplitudes of evoked action potentials of both motor and sensory peripheral nerves. Clinical/subclinical axonal damage exists in patients with obstructive sleep apnea to a greater extent than previously thought.
Singhal, Pawan; Gupta, Ravi; Sharma, Rajanish; Mishra, Prakash
The study was conducted to find out the association of various naso-oro-pharyngeal structures with sleep macro-architecture in suspected obstructive sleep apnea subjects. Study included 51 subjects with suspected obstructive sleep apnea. Subjects with possible central apnea and those consuming any substance that can affect sleep architecture were excluded. Level I polysomnography was performed after thorough physical examination. Overnight study was scored in 30 s epochs to find out the polysomnographic variables. Surgical treatment was offered wherever indicated. Subjects with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea were manually titrated on CPAP with the polysomnogram. SPSS v 17.0 was used for statistical analysis. We did not find any difference in the sleep architecture between genders. Sleep Efficiency was better in subjects with dental overjet, dental attrition, high tongue base, macroglossia, lesser oral cavity volume, edematous uvula, increased submental fat, hypertrophied facial muscles and Mallampatti grade III-IV. Shorter Sleep Latency was seen in subjects with tender TMJ and Mallampatti Gr III-IV. REM latency was shorter in subjects with high tongue base, macroglossia and hypertrophied muscles of mastication. Increased REM was observed in subjects with high tongue base, edematous uvula and tender TMJ. Enlarged tonsils had reversed effect with poor sleep efficiency, increased REM latency and decreased REM. CPAP therapy (N = 20) lessened awake time, decreased N2 and increased REM. Oro-pharyngeal structures affect the sleep architecture in suspected OSA subjects. Nasal structures do not affect the sleep architecture in these subjects and enlarged tonsils have opposite effect. Sleep architecture changes on the titration night with CPAP.
Zhang, J.; Yang, X. C.; Luo, L.; Shao, J.; Zhang, C.; Ma, J.; Wang, G. F.; Liu, Y.; Peng, C.-K.; Fang, J.
Different sleep stages are associated with distinct dynamical patterns in EEG signals. In this article, we explored the relationship between the sleep architecture and fractal dimension (FD) of sleep EEG. In particular, we applied the FD analysis to the sleep EEG of patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS), which is characterized by recurrent oxyhemoglobin desaturation and arousals from sleep, a disease which received increasing public attention due to its significant potential impact on health. We showed that the variation of FD reflects the macrostructure of sleep. Furthermore, the fast fluctuation of FD, as measured by the zero-crossing rate of detrended FD (zDFD), is a useful indicator of sleep disturbance, and therefore, correlates with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), and hourly number of blood oxygen saturation (SpO 2) decreases greater than 4%, as obstructive apnea/hypopnea disturbs sleep architecture. For practical purpose, a modified index combining zDFD of EEG and body mass index (BMI) may be useful for evaluating the severity of OSAHS symptoms.
Friedman, Bat-Chen; Goldman, Ran D.
Abstract Question A 4-year-old child was diagnosed by polysomnography as experiencing mild obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Despite the child being inattentive and distracted during the day at school, his parents prefer to avoid surgical treatment (adenotonsillectomy). Are there any non-surgical treatments for mild OSA in young children? Answer Obstructive sleep apnea in children is caused mainly by adenotonsillar hypertrophy and can lead to considerable morbidities, including neurocognitive and behavioural disturbances. Surgical removal of the tonsils and adenoids is the treatment of choice. In recent years, however, a new understanding of the inflammatory components of OSA has led to the assumption that anti-inflammatory treatment can reduce adenotonsillar size and improve OSA symptoms. Evidence from a few studies suggests that intranasal steroids and oral leukotriene receptor antagonists have beneficial effects, but data from randomized controlled trials are still lacking. PMID:21841108
González Mangado, Nicolás; Troncoso Acevedo, María Fernanda; Gómez García, Teresa
Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea is a highly prevalent disease that is often underdiagnosed at present. It has a significant economic and social welfare impact, accounting for a large part of the resources assigned to home respiratory therapies. As part of the 2014 SEPAR Year of the Chronic Patient and Domiciliary Respiratory Care sponsored by the Spanish Society of Pulmonology and Thoracic Surgery, this article reviews the most recent publications on the indications and controversial issues in the treatment of sleep apnea, the latest evidence for indication of various positive pressure devices, and adjustment modes, ranging from the use of empirical formulae or mathematical estimations to modern auto-CPAP equipment, while not forgetting the gold standard of manual titration. Emphasis is placed on the need for monitoring required by patients to ensure treatment adherence and compliance. Finally, other therapies that are not the object of this article are briefly reviewed.
Sotos, John G
As President of the United States from 1909 to 1913, William Howard Taft's minimum body mass index was 42 kg/m(2). This article presents evidence that he suffered from obstructive sleep apnea, manifested by excessive daytime somnolence, snoring, systemic hypertension and, perhaps, cognitive and psychosocial impairment. As president, Taft's hypersomnolence was severe and obvious, but never prompted official discussion of his fitness to govern. Within 12 months of leaving office, Taft permanently lost over 60 pounds. His somnolence resolved. As Chief Justice of the United States from 1921 to 1930, he was not somnolent. President Taft's case illuminates historical puzzles of his performance as President, raises public awareness of sleep apnea, and informs discussions of presidential disability and the 25th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States.
McKay, Mary Pat
This special report describes the findings of the National Transportation Safety Board’s investigation into the probable cause of the derailment of a Metro-North passenger train in the Bronx, New York on December 1, 2013, that resulted in 4 deaths and injuries to 59 additional persons. A key finding in the medical investigation was the engineer’s post-accident diagnosis of severe, obstructive sleep apnea, and the probable cause of the accident was determined to be the result of the engineer having fallen asleep while operating the train. This accident highlights the importance of screening, evaluating, and ensuring adequate treatment of obstructive sleep apnea, particularly among patients working in positions where impairment of physical or cognitive function or sudden incapacitation may result in serious harm to the public. PMID:26553898
Peng, Ying-Jie; Zhang, Xiuli; Gridina, Anna; Chupikova, Irina; McCormick, David L; Thomas, Robert J; Scammell, Thomas E; Kim, Gene; Vasavda, Chirag; Nanduri, Jayasri; Kumar, Ganesh K; Semenza, Gregg L; Snyder, Solomon H; Prabhakar, Nanduri R
Sleep apnea, which is the periodic cessation of breathing during sleep, is a major health problem affecting over 10 million people in the United States and is associated with several sequelae, including hypertension and stroke. Clinical studies suggest that abnormal carotid body (CB) activity may be a driver of sleep apnea. Because gaseous molecules are important determinants of CB activity, aberrations in their signaling could lead to sleep apnea. Here, we report that mice deficient in heme oxygenase-2 (HO-2), which generates the gaseous molecule carbon monoxide (CO), exhibit sleep apnea characterized by high apnea and hypopnea indices during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Similar high apnea and hypopnea indices were also noted in prehypertensive spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats, which are known to exhibit CB hyperactivity. We identified the gaseous molecule hydrogen sulfide (H2S) as the major effector molecule driving apneas. Genetic ablation of the H2S-synthesizing enzyme cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) normalized breathing in HO-2(-/-) mice. Pharmacologic inhibition of CSE with l-propargyl glycine prevented apneas in both HO-2(-/-) mice and SH rats. These observations demonstrate that dysregulated CO and H2S signaling in the CB leads to apneas and suggest that CSE inhibition may be a useful therapeutic intervention for preventing CB-driven sleep apnea.
Chasens, Eileen R.; Korytkowski, Mary; Sereika, Susan M.; Burke, Lora E.; Drumheller, Oliver J.; Strollo, Patrick J.
This study in participants with type 2 diabetes and obstructive sleep apnea evaluated changes in activity, sleep quality and daytime sleepiness after 4 weeks of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). This pilot study was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Sleep apnea was quantified with an overnight sleep study. Sleep quality was measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, daytime sleepiness by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, vigor and fatigue with the Profiles of Mood States, subjective activity with the Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire, and objective activity with the Bodymedia SenseWear Armband™. Subjects were randomized to either continuous positive airway pressure (n=12) or a sham-devices (n=11). The intervention group had reduced apneas and hypopneas, daytime sleepiness and fatigue; they also had improved sleep quality, increased objective activity, and vigor. The study suggested that treatment of obstructive sleep apnea results in a modest improvement of activity in persons with type 2 diabetes. PMID:23976778
Bruyneel, M; Haumont, S; Devuyst, F
Acromegaly is a rare hormonal disease related to excessive growth hormone secretion. It can result in a range of complications, including cardiovascular, respiratory, metabolic, articular and neoplastic disorders. Among patients with the condition, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome occurs frequently and the effect of treatment is inconstant: improvement, statu quo or deterioration can be observed. We here report three clinical cases, which illustrate the unpredictable evolution of this condition.
Huet, A P; Paulus, C
The obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) may affect children, especially those with dentofacial disharmonies. Dentofacial orthopedic (DFO) treatments carried out in those patients must take this condition into account and can, in selected cases, improve or even treat the OSAS. The goal of our work was to report our experience about DFO treatments of children affected by OSAS in the department of maxillofacial surgery of Femme-Mère-Enfant hospital of university hospitals of Lyon, France.
Lancaster, Lisa H.; Mason, Wendi R.; Parnell, James A.; Rice, Todd W.; Loyd, James E.; Milstone, Aaron P.; Collard, Harold R.; Malow, Beth A.
Background: From 1984 to 2006, studies of sleep in patients with interstitial lung disease revealed disturbed sleep, frequent nocturnal desaturations, nocturnal cough, and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Our goal was to analyze OSA in an outpatient population of stable patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Methods: Patients with IPF who had been followed up in the Vanderbilt Pulmonary Clinic were asked to participate. All patients were given a diagnosis of IPF by the 2000 American Thoracic Society consensus statement criteria. Subjects completed an Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) questionnaire and a sleep apnea scale of sleep disorders questionnaire (SA-SDQ) before undergoing nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG). OSA was defined as an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of > 5 events per hour. Results: Fifty subjects enrolled and completed a NPSG. The mean age was 64.9 years, and the mean BMI was 32.3. OSA was diagnosed in 88% of subjects. Ten subjects (20%) had mild OSA (AHI, 5 to 15 events per hour), and 34 subjects (68%) had moderate-to-severe OSA (AHI, > 15 events per hour). Only 6 subjects (12%) had a normal AHI. One patient was asymptomatic as determined by ESS and SA-SDQ, but had an AHI of 24 events per hour. The sensitivity of the ESS was 75% with a specificity of 15%, whereas the SA-SDQ had a sensitivity of 88% with a specificity of 50%. BMI did not correlate strongly with AHI (r = 0.30; p = 0.05). Conclusions: OSA is prevalent in patients with IPF and may be underrecognized by primary care providers and specialists. Neither ESS nor SA-SDQ alone or in combination was a strong screening tool. Given the high prevalence found in our sample, formal sleep evaluation and polysomnography should be considered in patients with IPF. PMID:19567497
Kinugawa, K; Nguyen-Michel, V H; Mariani, J
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is a chronic disease characterized by repeated upper airway obstructions during sleep, resulting in fragmented sleep with arousals, nocturnal intermittent hypoxemia and diurnal dysfunctions. Despite its high prevalence in elderly, sleep apnea syndrome seems to be underestimated and difficult to be recognized because of the lack of clinical symptoms specificity in this population. Among the numerous consequences of the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, cognitive impairment prevails on the attention, executive functions and memory. Neuroimaging studies in human and experimental models allowed to highlight neural correlates of these cognitive dysfunctions in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. The obstructive sleep apnea syndrome with cognitive impairment shares some features with Alzheimer's disease, involving genetic predisposition ApoE4, hippocampus and synaptic plasticity abnormalities. In this context, the question arises whether obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is a possible etiological or aggravating factor of cognitive decline in elderly with mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's disease. Although there are conflicting results in studies evaluating therapeutic efficiency of continuous positive air pressure, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome seems nevertheless as a correctable factor, at least for its impact on some cognitive consequences. Looking for sleep apnea syndrome in elderly with cognitive decline should be considered in a global, diagnosis and therapeutic management.
Ng, Andrew Keong; Guan, Cuntai
Patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) experience fragmented sleep and exhibit different sleep architectures. While polysomnographic metrics for quantifying sleep architecture are studied, there is little information about the impact of OSA on the ratio of different sleep-wake stages (wake, W; rapid eye movement, REM; non-REM stages 1 to 3, N1 to N3). This study, therefore, aims to investigate the relationship between apnea-hypopnea index (AHI, a measure of OSA severity) and all possible ratios of sleep-wake stages. Sleep architectures of 24 adult subjects with suspected OSA were constructed according to the American Academy of Sleep Medicine scoring manual, and subsequently analyzed through various correlation (Pearson, Spearman, and Kendall) and regression (linear, logarithmic, exponential, and power-law) approaches. Results show a statistically significant positive, linear and monotonic correlation between AHI and REM/N3, as well as between AHI and N1/W (p-values < 0.05). These findings imply that patients with increased severity of OSA may spend more time in REM than deep sleep, and in light sleep than wake (or less time in deep sleep than REM, and in wake than light sleep). A power-law regression model may possibly explain the relationships of AHI-REM/N3 and AHI-N1/W, and predict the value of AHI using REM/N3 or N1/W.
Levitzky, Michael G
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder of upper airway obstruction during sleep. The effects of intermittent upper airway obstruction include alveolar hypoventilation, altered arterial blood gases and acid-base status, and stimulation of the arterial chemoreceptors, which leads to frequent arousals. These arousals disturb sleep architecture and cause hypersomnolence. Chronic intermittent alveolar and systemic arterial hypoxia-hypercapnia can cause pulmonary and systemic hypertension, with effects on the right and left ventricles, and even the renal system. The pathophysiology of OSA can therefore be used to review and integrate many topics in pulmonary and cardiovascular physiology in the context of problem-based learning, a guided discussion, or a formal lecture. The discussion begins with a case scenario, followed by a definition of the disorder, the common symptoms and signs of OSA, and a description of an apneic event. These are related to the physiology of the upper airway in OSA, normal alterations in the respiratory system during sleep, the effects of apnea on gas exchange and arterial blood gases, and the cardiovascular consequences of alterations in alveolar and systemic arterial PO(2) and PCO(2). The treatment of OSA, particularly how the use of continuous positive airway pressure relates to the pathophysiology of the disorder, is discussed briefly.
Lack, Leon; Sweetman, Alexander
Insomnia is often comorbid with obstructive sleep apnea. It reduces positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy acceptance and adherence. Comorbid patients show greater daytime impairments and poorer health outcomes. The insomnia often goes undiagnosed, undertreated, or untreated. Pharmacotherapy is not recommended for long-term treatment. Although care should be taken administering behavioral therapies to patients with elevated sleepiness, cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia (CBTi) is an effective and durable nondrug therapy that reduces symptoms and may increase the effectiveness of PAP therapy. Sleep clinics should be alert to comorbid insomnia and provide adequate diagnostic tools and clinicians with CBTi expertise.
Karaloğlu, Furkan; Kemaloğlu, Yusuf K; Yilmaz, Metin; Ulukavak Çiftçi, Tansu; Çiftçi, Bülent; Bakkal, Faruk K
The localization of the obstruction is crucial in determining the appropriate surgical treatment for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS); ApneaGraph has been introduced for diagnosis of OSAS and localization of airway obstruction level. This study aims to evaluate the diagnostic value of ApneaGraph for both clinical staging and site of obstruction. Thirty male OSAS patients were prospectively enrolled in this clinical trial. The following parameter were included to the study: Body mass indexes and neck circumferences of the subjects, Epworth sleepiness scale, site of obstruction detected by flexible endoscopy and ApneaGraph, apnea hypopnea index (AHI), apnea index, hypopnea index, maximal oxygen desaturation and average oxygen saturation which were detected by both polysomnography (PSG) and ApneaGraph devices. Our data presented that, although AHI measured by ApneaGraph and PSG were significantly correlated; severity stages of the subjects were different in 44 % of the subjects when based on AHI of ApneaGraph, compared to PSG. Majority of the changes were from severe OSAS to mild or moderate levels. Similar dominant collapse levels were detected in 64 % of the subjects by both devices. It was seen that transpalatal obstruction was better correlated between ApneaGraph and flexible endoscopy. As a conclusion, we might assume that ApneaGraph can be used as a screener for OSAS and it appears to be a more reliable device to confirm dominancy of palatal level obstruction.
Sankari, Abdulghani; Bascom, Amy T; Chowdhuri, Susmita; Badr, M Safwan
Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is highly prevalent in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI); the exact mechanism(s) or the predictors of disease are unknown. We hypothesized that patients with cervical SCI (C-SCI) are more susceptible to central apnea than patients with thoracic SCI (T-SCI) or able-bodied controls. Sixteen patients with chronic SCI, level T6 or above (8 C-SCI, 8 T-SCI; age 42.5 ± 15.5 years; body mass index 25.9 ± 4.9 kg/m(2)) and 16 matched controls were studied. The hypocapnic apneic threshold and CO2 reserve were determined using noninvasive ventilation. For participants with spontaneous central apnea, CO2 was administered until central apnea was abolished, and CO2 reserve was measured as the difference in end-tidal CO2 (PetCO2) before and after. Steady-state plant gain (PG) was calculated from PetCO2 and VE ratio during stable sleep. Controller gain (CG) was defined as the ratio of change in VE between control and hypopnea or apnea to the ΔPetCO2. Central SDB was more common in C-SCI than T-SCI (63% vs. 13%, respectively; P < 0.05). Mean CO2 reserve for all participants was narrower in C-SCI than in T-SCI or control group (-0.4 ± 2.9 vs.-2.9 ± 3.3 vs. -3.0 ± 1.2 l·min(-1)·mmHg(-1), respectively; P < 0.05). PG was higher in C-SCI than in T-SCI or control groups (10.5 ± 2.4 vs. 5.9 ± 2.4 vs. 6.3 ± 1.6 mmHg·l(-1)·min(-1), respectively; P < 0.05) and CG was not significantly different. The CO2 reserve was an independent predictor of apnea-hypopnea index. In conclusion, C-SCI had higher rates of central SDB, indicating that tetraplegia is a risk factor for central sleep apnea. Sleep-related hypoventilation may play a significant role in the mechanism of SDB in higher SCI levels.
Filiatrault, Marie-Lou; Chauny, Jean-Marc; Daoust, Raoul; Roy, Marie-Pier; Denis, Ronald; Lavigne, Gilles
Study Objective: Opioids are associated with higher risk for ataxic breathing and sleep apnea. We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to assess the influence of long-term opioid use on the apnea-hypopnea and central apnea indices (AHI and CAI, respectively). Methods: A systematic review protocol (Cochrane Handbook guidelines) was developed for the search and analysis. We searched Embase, Medline, ACP Journal Club, and Cochrane Database up to November 2014 for three topics: (1) narcotics, (2) sleep apnea, and (3) apnea-hypopnea index. The outcome of interest was the variation in AHI and CAI in opioid users versus non-users. Two reviewers performed the data search and extraction, and disagreements were resolved by discussion. Results were combined by standardized mean difference using a random effect model, and heterogeneity was tested by χ2 and presented as I2 statistics. Results: Seven studies met the inclusion criteria, for a total of 803 patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We compared 2 outcomes: AHI (320 opioid users and 483 non-users) and 790 patients with CAI (315 opioid users and 475 non-users). The absolute effect size for opioid use was a small increased in apnea measured by AHI = 0.25 (95% CI: 0.02–0.49) and a medium for CAI = 0.45 (95% CI: 0.27–0.63). Effect consistency across studies was calculated, showing moderate heterogeneity at I2 = 59% and 29% for AHI and CAI, respectively. Conclusions: The meta-analysis results suggest that long-term opioid use in OSA patients has a medium effect on central sleep apnea. Citation: Filiatrault ML, Chauny JM, Daoust R, Roy MP, Denis R, Lavigne G. Medium increased risk for central sleep apnea but not obstructive sleep apnea in long-term opioid users: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(4):617–625. PMID:26943709
Peiser, J; Lavie, P; Ovnat, A; Charuzi, I
Fifteen morbidly obese patients with Sleep Apnea Syndrome (SAS) were studied during nocturnal sleep before and between 2 to 4 months after a weight reduction surgery. Six patients were also recorded between 4 to 8 months after surgery. Postoperative recordings revealed a dramatic reduction in the sleep apnea index and an improvement in sleep motility and daytime vigilance levels. A further decrease in apneas and sleep motility was seen in the late post-treatment recording. These results indicate that weight reduction surgery is an effective definitive treatment for obesity associated SAS. PMID:6691724
Le, Trung Q; Bukkapatnam, Satish T S
Recent advances in sensor technologies and predictive analytics are fueling the growth in point-of-care (POC) therapies for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and other sleep disorders. The effectiveness of POC therapies can be enhanced by providing personalized and real-time prediction of OSA episode onsets. Previous attempts at OSA prediction are limited to capturing the nonlinear, nonstationary dynamics of the underlying physiological processes. This paper reports an investigation into heart rate dynamics aiming to predict in real time the onsets of OSA episode before the clinical symptoms appear. A prognosis method based on a nonparametric statistical Dirichlet-Process Mixture-Gaussian-Process (DPMG) model to estimate the transition from normal states to an anomalous (apnea) state is utilized to estimate the remaining time until the onset of an impending OSA episode. The approach was tested using three datasets including (1) 20 records from 14 OSA subjects in benchmark ECG apnea databases (Physionet.org), (2) records of 10 OSA patients from the University of Dublin OSA database and (3) records of eight subjects from previous work. Validation tests suggest that the model can be used to track the time until the onset of an OSA episode with the likelihood of correctly predicting apnea onset in 1 min to 5 mins ahead is 83.6 ± 9.3%, 80 ± 8.1%, 76.2 ± 13.3%, 66.9 ± 15.4%, and 61.1 ± 16.7%, respectively. The present prognosis approach can be integrated with wearable devices, enhancing proactive treatment of OSA and real-time wearable sensor-based of sleep disorders.
Bukkapatnam, Satish T. S.
Recent advances in sensor technologies and predictive analytics are fueling the growth in point-of-care (POC) therapies for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and other sleep disorders. The effectiveness of POC therapies can be enhanced by providing personalized and real-time prediction of OSA episode onsets. Previous attempts at OSA prediction are limited to capturing the nonlinear, nonstationary dynamics of the underlying physiological processes. This paper reports an investigation into heart rate dynamics aiming to predict in real time the onsets of OSA episode before the clinical symptoms appear. A prognosis method based on a nonparametric statistical Dirichlet-Process Mixture-Gaussian-Process (DPMG) model to estimate the transition from normal states to an anomalous (apnea) state is utilized to estimate the remaining time until the onset of an impending OSA episode. The approach was tested using three datasets including (1) 20 records from 14 OSA subjects in benchmark ECG apnea databases (Physionet.org), (2) records of 10 OSA patients from the University of Dublin OSA database and (3) records of eight subjects from previous work. Validation tests suggest that the model can be used to track the time until the onset of an OSA episode with the likelihood of correctly predicting apnea onset in 1 min to 5 mins ahead is 83.6 ± 9.3%, 80 ± 8.1%, 76.2 ± 13.3%, 66.9 ± 15.4%, and 61.1 ± 16.7%, respectively. The present prognosis approach can be integrated with wearable devices, enhancing proactive treatment of OSA and real-time wearable sensor-based of sleep disorders. PMID:27835632
Braley, Tiffany J.; Segal, Benjamin M.; Chervin, Ronald D.
Study Objectives: The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) remains unknown, and little information exists regarding the relative contributions of OSA to symptoms of MS-related fatigue in the presence of other clinical and sleep-related confounders. The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence of diagnosed OSA and OSA risk among MS patients, and to assess relationships between fatigue severity, OSA, OSA risk, and sleep quality among persons with MS. Methods: N = 195 MS patients completed a questionnaire comprised of items regarding OSA diagnosis, sleep quality and quantity, daytime symptoms, and 4 validated scales: the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Fatigue Severity Scale, Insomnia Severity Index, and STOP-Bang questionnaire. Medical records were also accessed to examine clinical characteristics that may predict fatigue or OSA risk. Results: N = 41 patients (21%) carried a formal diagnosis of OSA. N = 110 (56%) of all patients, and 38 (93%) of those with diagnosed OSA had STOP-Bang scores ≥ 3, indicating an elevated OSA risk. In regression models, the most significant predictors of higher FSS scores were higher STOP-Bang scores (p = 0.01), higher number of nocturnal symptoms (p < 0.0001), and higher disability level (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Sleep disturbances, and OSA in particular, may be highly prevalent yet underrecognized contributors to fatigue in persons with MS. Citation: Braley TJ; Segal BM; Chervin RD. Obstructive sleep apnea and fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(2):155-162. PMID:24532998
Quan, Stuart F.; Chan, Cynthia S.; Dement, William C.; Gevins, Alan; Goodwin, James L.; Gottlieb, Daniel J.; Green, Sylvan; Guilleminault, Christian; Hirshkowitz, Max; Hyde, Pamela R.; Kay, Gary G.; Leary, Eileen B.; Nichols, Deborah A.; Schweitzer, Paula K.; Simon, Richard D.; Walsh, James K.; Kushida, Clete A.
Study Objectives: To determine associations between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and neurocognitive performance in a large cohort of adults. Study Design: Cross-sectional analyses of polysomnographic and neurocognitive data from 1204 adult participants with a clinical diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in the Apnea Positive Pressure Long-term Efficacy Study (APPLES), assessed at baseline before randomization to either continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or sham CPAP. Measurements: Sleep and respiratory indices obtained by laboratory polysomnography and several measures of neurocognitive performance. Results: Weak correlations were found for both the apnea hypopnea index (AHI) and several indices of oxygen desaturation and neurocognitive performance in unadjusted analyses. After adjustment for level of education, ethnicity, and gender, there was no association between the AHI and neurocognitive performance. However, severity of oxygen desaturation was weakly associated with worse neurocognitive performance on some measures of intelligence, attention, and processing speed. Conclusions: The impact of OSA on neurocognitive performance is small for many individuals with this condition and is most related to the severity of hypoxemia. Citation: Quan SF; Chan CS; Dement WC; Gevins A; Goodwin JL; Gottlieb DJ; Green S; Guilleminault C; Hirshkowitz M; Hype PR; Kay GG; Leary EB; Nichols DA; Schweitzer PK; Simon RD; Walsh JK; Kushida CA. The association between obstructive sleep apnea and neurocognitive performance—the Apnea Positive Pressure Long-term Efficacy Study (APPLES). SLEEP 2011;34(3):303-314. PMID:21358847
Woehrle, Holger; Ketheeswaran, Sahisha; Ramanan, Dinesh; Armitstead, Jeffery
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has traditionally been seen as a male disease. However, the importance of OSA in women is increasingly being recognized, along with a number of significant gender-related differences in the symptoms, diagnosis, consequences, and treatment of OSA. Women tend to have less severe OSA than males, with a lower apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and shorter apneas and hypopneas. Episodes of upper airway resistance that do not meet the criteria for apneas are more common in women. Prevalence rates are lower in women, and proportionally fewer women receive a correct diagnosis. Research has also documented sex differences in the upper airway, fat distribution, and respiratory stability in OSA. Hormones are implicated in some gender-related variations, with differences between men and women in the prevalence of OSA decreasing as age increases. The limited data available suggest that although the prevalence and severity of OSA may be lower in women than in men, the consequences of the disease are at least the same, if not worse for comparable degrees of severity. Few studies have investigated gender differences in the effects of OSA treatment. However, given the differences in physiology and presentation, it is possible that personalized therapy may provide more optimal care. PMID:27699167
Eyigor, Hulya; Selcuk, Omer Tarik; Osma, Ustun; Koca, Rahime; Yilmaz, Mustafa Deniz
Uncertain etiology of cervical osteophytes, in particular emerging in geriatric population, is a rare skeletal system disease. Often, the cases are asymptomatic and may lead to symptoms such as dysphagia, cough, dyspnea, and dysphonia. We present a patient who had anterior osteophytes causing symptoms of severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and literature on etiology of OSA has been reviewed. A 57-year-old male patient with complaints of snoring and cessation of breathing during sleep was referred to the ear nose throat clinic. Cervical radiograph and computed tomography showed the osteophytes in the anterior of the vertebral corpus at the level C1-2. In addition, bridging osteophyte was observed between C6 and C7 vertebrae. The patient's neck circumference was 41 cm, body mass index was 29 kg/m2, Epworth Sleepiness Scale score was 11, and apnea hypopnea index was 62. Surgery was recommended, but the patient refused. Continuous positive airway pressure titration was applied with 12.6 cm H2O pressure; apnea control was attained with an AHI of 2.7. One of the rare causes of OSA, a case of cervical vertebral osteophyte, was presented, and we would like to draw attention to the importance of ear nose throat examination in the diagnosis of OSA.
Jaiswal, Madhu; Srivastava, Govind Narayan; Pratap, Chandra Bhanu; Sharma, Vipul Kumar; Chaturvedi, Thakur Prasad
To analyze therapeutic and clinical efficacy of mandibular advancement device (MAD) on snoring and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Thirty patients with OSA were recruited on the basis ofpolysomnography with an Apnea and Hypopnea Index (AHI) greater than 5 but less than 30. Repeat polysomnography was performed in follow up with the appliance in place. MAD used in the study is Medical Dental Sleep Appliance (MDSA). It is a titratable appliance. With the appliance in position, the mandible was advanced to an extent that did not exceed 70% of maximum protrusion capacity; Vertical opening did not exceed on an average 3-4 mm beyond freeway space. Comparison of pre AHI scores (diagnostic PSG) with post AHI scores (PSG with OA in-situ) showed a decrease from Mean +/- SD 26.2367 +/- 6.53 to 13.7111 +/- 627. A highly significant (p < 0.001) improvement in AHI was observed. Pre and post ESS score showed a mean decrease from 14.2333 +/- 5.00 to 6.1481 +/- 2.46 MDSA is effective in reducing apnea hypopnea index scores and improving oxygen saturation level.
Sanders, A.E.; Essick, G.K.; Fillingim, R.; Knott, C.; Ohrbach, R.; Greenspan, J.D.; Diatchenko, L.; Maixner, W.; Dubner, R.; Bair, E.; Miller, V.E.; Slade, G.D.
The authors tested the hypothesis that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) signs/symptoms are associated with the occurrence of temporomandibular disorder (TMD), using the OPPERA prospective cohort study of adults aged 18 to 44 years at enrollment (n = 2,604) and the OPPERA case-control study of chronic TMD (n = 1,716). In both the OPPERA cohort and case-control studies, TMD was examiner determined according to established research diagnostic criteria. People were considered to have high likelihood of OSA if they reported a history of sleep apnea or ≥ 2 hallmarks of OSA: loud snoring, daytime sleepiness, witnessed apnea, and hypertension. Cox proportional hazards regression estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence limits (CL) for first-onset TMD. Logistic regression estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% CL for chronic TMD. In the cohort, 248 individuals developed first-onset TMD during the median 2.8-year follow-up. High likelihood of OSA was associated with greater incidence of first-onset TMD (adjusted HR = 1.73; 95% CL, 1.14, 2.62). In the case-control study, high likelihood of OSA was associated with higher odds of chronic TMD (adjusted OR = 3.63; 95% CL, 2.03, 6.52). Both studies supported a significant association of OSA symptoms and TMD, with prospective cohort evidence finding that OSA symptoms preceded first-onset TMD. PMID:23690360
Stuck, Boris A; Maurer, Joachim T
As the interest in sleep-disordered breathing has increased, various attempts have been made to assess upper airway anatomy in patients with this relatively frequent disorder. The aim is not only to reveal potential differences in upper airway anatomy to better understand origin and pathophysiology of the disease but also to improve patient management and treatment success. The present review is based on a systematic literature search with regard to upper airway evaluation in sleep-disordered breathing; the articles were selected and discussed in light of our clinical experiences. Based on clinical assessment including endoscopy during wakefulness, the value of the Mueller Maneuver, static radiologic imaging techniques (X-ray cephalometry, computed tomography (CT) scanning and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)), dynamic scanning protocols (e.g. ultrafast CT or cine MRI), upper airway endoscopy during sleep and sedated sleep, pressure measurements and the assessment of the critical closing pressure are discussed. Each technique itself and its history in the field of sleep medicine are briefly reviewed and problems of standardization and interpretation are discussed when appropriate. Insights into the pathophysiology of the disease gained with the help of the investigational techniques are presented and the impact of the techniques on patient management is reported. Although all these additional techniques for upper airway assessment have substantially improved our understanding of sleep-disordered breathing, their significance in daily practice is limited. In contrast to the widespread use of the Mueller maneuver and sedated endoscopy, convincing data supporting their use in terms of treatment outcome are lacking. So far, there is only very limited evidence that selected techniques improve treatment outcome for selected indications. In general, there is not enough evidence that these techniques are superior to the routine clinical assessment.
Planjar-Prvan, Miljenka; Krmpotić, Pavao; Jergović, Ilija; Bielen, Ivan
Ondine's curse syndrome primarily refers to cases with congenital central alveolar hypoventilation, but the term can also be used for acquired cases and implies central sleep apnea that occurs as a manifestation or complication of focal lesion in the area of the dorsolateral segment of medulla oblongata. It occurs rarely, but can lead to fatal outcome. Based on our own case report, the aim of this article is to review its clinical symptoms, and appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. We present a patient who had symptoms of vascular lesion of the dorsolateral segment of the medulla, which was verified by magnetic resonance imaging. On day 12 of his hospital stay, in the early morning, rapid development of coma was observed, which was an expression of serious respiratory failure with dominant hypercapnia. In the beginning, urgent intubation and mechanical ventilation were necessary, while in the later course of the disease breathing was assisted by noninvasive methods of Bilevel Positive Airway Pressure (BiPAP) and Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP). Throughout the night, polygraph recording confirmed the diagnosis of the central sleep apnea syndrome. The course of the disease was favorable, with a very slow but constant improvement of respiratory function. According to literature data, the disease course is not always favorable. There are published cases where it was concluded that ventilatory support was no longer needed but after a long period of normal breathing hypoventilation and death occurred suddenly during sleep. The treatment of central hypoventilation consists of ventilatory support, but there were also attempts of medicamentous treatment with the common aim of raising alertness and reactibility of the automatic breathing center. It is important to emphasize that patients with the risk of central sleep apnea should not be supplied with oxygen without arterial blood gas monitoring because of the possibility of delaying the right
Arnardottir, Erna S.; Mackiewicz, Miroslaw; Gislason, Thorarinn; Teff, Karen L.; Pack, Allan I.
The consequences of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are largely mediated by chronic intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation. The primary molecular domains affected are sympathetic activity, oxidative stress and inflammation. Other affected domains include adipokines, adhesion molecules and molecules that respond to endoplasmic reticulum stress. Changes in molecular domains affected by OSA, assessed in blood and/or urine, can provide a molecular signature for OSA that could potentially be used diagnostically and to predict who is likely to develop different OSA-related comorbidities. High-throughput discovery strategies such as microarrays, assessing changes in gene expression in circulating blood cells, have the potential to find new candidates and pathways thereby expanding the molecular signatures for OSA. More research is needed to fully understand the pathophysiological significance of these molecular signatures and their relationship with OSA comorbidities. Many OSA subjects are obese, and obesity is an independent risk factor for many comorbidities associated with OSA. Moreover, obesity affects the same molecular pathways as OSA. Thus, a challenge to establishing a molecular signature for OSA is to separate the effects of OSA from obesity. We propose that the optimal strategy is to evaluate the temporal changes in relevant molecular pathways during sleep and, in particular, the alterations from before to after sleep when assessed in blood and/or urine. Such changes will be at least partly a consequence of chronic intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation that occurs during sleep. Citation: Arnardottir ES; Mackiewicz M; Gislason T; Teff KL; Pack AI. Molecular signatures of obstructive sleep apnea in adults: A review and perspective. SLEEP 2009;32(4):447–470. PMID:19413140
do Vale, Jorge Marques; Silva, Eloísa; Pereira, Isabel Gil; Marques, Catarina; Sanchez-Serrano, Amparo; Torres, António Simões
The Chiari malformation type I (CM-I) has been associated with sleep-disordered breathing, especially central sleep apnea syndrome. We report the case of a 44-year-old female with CM-I who was referred to our sleep laboratory for suspected sleep apnea. The patient had undergone decompressive surgery 3 years prior. An arterial blood gas analysis showed hypercapnia. Polysomnography showed a respiratory disturbance index of 108 events/h, and all were central apnea events. Treatment with adaptive servo-ventilation was initiated, and central apnea was resolved. This report demonstrates the efficacy of servo-ventilation in the treatment of central sleep apnea syndrome associated with alveolar hypoventilation in a CM-I patient with a history of decompressive surgery. PMID:25410846
Naismith, S; Winter, V; Gotsopoulos, H; Hickie, I; Cistulli, P
This study evaluated the relationship between neuropsychological and affective functioning, subjective sleepiness and sleep-disordered breathing in 100 patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Using principal components analysis, three indices of sleep-disordered breathing were identified from polysomnography: sleep disturbance, extent of nocturnal hypoxemia, and sleep quality. Poorer sleep quality was related to slower processing speed, somatic symptomatology and tension-anxiety levels. Nocturnal hypoxemia was related to visuconstructional abilities, processing speed and mental flexibility. Patients who had high levels of subjective sleepiness had poorer performances on a complex task of executive functioning and higher levels of tension-anxiety. These results imply a differential effect of sleep-disordered breathing on domains of neuropsychological functioning. Additionally, they suggest that a patient's subjective level of sleepiness is a good predictor of certain aspects of neurobehavioral functioning.
... step is to discuss your suspicions with your primary care physician. If you don’t have a primary care physician, you can go directly to a clinician ... first. Some policies require you to see a primary care physician first, and some policies limit the sleep ...
Mercanti, Luiz Bittencourt; Bezerra, Marcio L de S; Fernandes Filho, José; Struchiner, Claudio José
Obesity is the main risk factor for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and genetic patterns can modulate the pathogenesis of the disease. The aim of this study is to describe the anthropometrics and dermatoglyphics features among OSAS carriers. We collected information on Body Mass Index (BMI), Conicity Index (CI), Body Fat Mass (BFM), somatotype and fingerprints. Thirty-one cases of OSAS were compared to an equal number of controls. Membership to the obese category is based on observed BMI and BFM. The CI distribution among cases shows a strong central obesity component. The endomorph-mesomorph somatotype category predominates among cases showing high adiposity and relative muscle-skeletic development, such as relative linearity of great mass per unit of height. Increased morbidity, as given by more serious indices of apnea, correlates positively with higher mesomorphic predominance in the body composition. Analysis of dermatoglyphic data does not show significant statistical differences between OSAS--patients and controls.
Background Obstructive sleep apnea is a common sleep disorder that can cause excessive daytime sleepiness and impairment of cognition. These symptoms may lead to the occurrence of occupational accidents in workers with obstructive sleep apnea. Case presentation A 36-year-old man who worked as a dimensional control surveyor caused a vehicle accident while he was driving at the work site. Although he experienced loss of consciousness at the time of the accident, he had no other symptoms. His brain computed tomography and laboratory test did not show any specific findings. Medical tests were conducted to evaluate his fitness for work. Decreased sleep latency was observed on the electroencephalography image, which is suggestive of a sleep disorder. He frequently experienced daytime sleepiness and his Epworth sleepiness score was 13. The polysomnography showed a markedly increased apnea-hypopnea index of 84.3, which led to a diagnosis of severe obstructive sleep apnea. The patient was advised to return to work only when his obstructive sleep apnea improved through proper treatment. Conclusion Proper screening for obstructive sleep apnea among workers is important for preventing workplace accidents caused by this disorder, but screening guidelines have not yet been established in Korea. An effort toward preparing practical guidelines for obstructive sleep apnea is needed. PMID:24822091
Soca, Rodolfo; Keenan, Joseph C.; Schenck, Carlos H.
Sleep-related abnormal sexual behaviors (sexsomnia) are classified as a subtype of NREM sleep parasomnias. Sexsomnia has been reported as part of parasomnia overlap disorder (POD) in two other patients. We present the case of a 42-year-old male patient with video-polysomnography (vPSG) documented POD. The patient had sleepwalking, sleep-related eating, confusional arousals, sexsomnia, sleeptalking, and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Confusional arousals and RBD were documented during the vPSG. This case had the added complexity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) playing a role in sleepwalking and sleep related eating, with good response to nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP). The sexsomnia did not respond to nCPAP but responded substantially to bedtime clonazepam therapy. Citation: Soca R, Keenan JC, Schenck CH. Parasomnia overlap disorder with sexual behaviors during sleep in a patient with obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(8):1189–1191. PMID:27166304
Philby, Mona; Aydinoz, Secil; Gozal, David; Kilic, Selim; Bhattacharjee, Rakesh; Bandla, Hari P.; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila
Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) leads to intermittent hypoxia, activation of the sympathetic nervous system, and eventually cardiovascular morbidity. Alterations in autonomic nervous system (ANS) tone and reflexes are likely to play major roles in OSA-associated morbidities, and have been identified in a subset of children with OSA. Objectives To evaluate whether pupillometry, a noninvasive and rapid bedside test for the assessment of autonomic nervous system dysfunction (ANS), would detect abnormal ANS function in children with OSA. Methods Children ages 2-12 years underwent polysomnography (PSG), and were divided based on PSG findings into two groups; Habitual Snorers (HS; AHI <1 h/TST, n=17) and OSA (AHI>1 h/TST, n=49), the latter then sub-divided into AHI severity categories (>1 but <5, >5 but <10, and >10 h/TST). Pupillometric measurements were performed during the clinic visit in a dark room using an automated pupillometer device. Results A total of 66 subjects with a mean age of 7.3 ±2.6 years were recruited. There were no statistically significant differences between any of the groups, even when comparing severe OSA (n=15) and HS in any of the measures related to pupillary reflexes. However, mild, yet significant increases in systolic blood pressure and morning plasma norepinephrine levels were detected in the severe OSA group. Conclusion Although ANS perturbation are clearly present in a proportion of children with OSA, particularly those with severe disease, pupillary responses do not appear to provide a sensitive method for the detection of ANS dysfunction in OSA children. PMID:26429743
Gozal, David; Hakim, Fahed; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is highly prevalent sleep disorder of breathing in both adults and children that is fraught with substantial cardiovascular morbidities, the latter being attributable to a complex interplay between intermittent hypoxia (IH), episodic hypercapnia, recurrent large intra-thoracic pressure swings, and sleep disruption. Alterations in autonomic nervous system function could underlie the perturbations in cardiovascular, neurocognitive, immune, endocrine and metabolic functions that affect many of the patients suffering from OSA. Although these issues have received substantial attention in adults, the same has thus far failed to occur in children, creating a quasi misperception that children are protected. Here, we provide a critical overview of the evidence supporting the presence of autonomic nervous system (ANS) perturbations in children with OSA, draw some parallel assessments to known mechanisms in rodents and adult humans, particularly, peripheral and central chemoreceptor and baroreceptor pathways, and suggest future research directions. PMID:22954503
Ayas, Najib; Skomro, Robert; Blackman, Adam; Curren, Kristen; Fitzpatrick, Michael; Fleetham, John; George, Charles; Hakemi, Tom; Hanly, Patrick; Li, Christopher; Morrison, Debra; Series, Frédéric
Untreated patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are at increased risk for motor vehicle collisions; however, it is unclear how this should be translated into fitness-to-drive recommendations. Accordingly, the Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS) Sleep Disordered Breathing Clinical Assembly and the Canadian Sleep Society (CSS) assembled a CTS-CSS working group to propose recommendations with regard to driving in patients with OSA. Recommendations for assessing fitness to drive in noncommercial drivers: 1. Severity of OSA alone is not a reliable predictor of collision risk and, therefore, should not be used in isolation to assess fitness to drive; 2. The severity of sleep apnea should be considered in the context of other factors to assess fitness to drive; 3. The decision to restrict driving is ultimately made by the motor vehicle licensing authority; however, they should take into account the information and recommendations provided by the sleep medicine physician and should follow provincial guidelines; 4. For patients prescribed continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, objective CPAP compliance should be documented. Efficacy should also be documented in terms of reversing the symptoms and improvement in sleep apnea based on physiological monitoring; 5. For patients treated with surgery or an oral appliance, verification of adequate sleep apnea treatment should be obtained; and 6. A driver diagnosed with OSA may be recertified as fit to drive based on assessment of symptoms and demonstrating compliance with treatment. The assessment should be aligned with the provincial driver's license renewal period. Commercial vehicles: Assessment of fitness to drive should be more stringent for patients operating commercial vehicles. In general, the CTS-CSS working group was in agreement with the Medical Expert Panel recommendations to the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration in the United States; these recommendations were adapted for Canadian practitioners.
Forni Ogna, Valentina; Mihalache, Alexandra; Pruijm, Menno; Halabi, Georges; Phan, Olivier; Cornette, Françoise; Bassi, Isabelle; Haba Rubio, José; Burnier, Michel; Heinzer, Raphaël
Background and objectives Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with significantly increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Fluid overload may promote obstructive sleep apnea in patients with ESRD through an overnight fluid shift from the legs to the neck soft tissues. Body fluid shift and severity of obstructive sleep apnea before and after hemodialysis were compared in patients with ESRD. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Seventeen patients with hemodialysis and moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea were included. Polysomnographies were performed the night before and after hemodialysis to assess obstructive sleep apnea, and bioimpedance was used to measure fluid overload and leg fluid volume. Results The mean overnight rostral fluid shift was 1.27±0.41 L prehemodialysis; it correlated positively with fluid overload volume (r=0.39; P=0.02) and was significantly lower posthemodialysis (0.78±0.38 L; P<0.001). There was no significant difference in the mean obstructive apnea-hypopnea index before and after hemodialysis (46.8±22.0 versus 42.1±18.6 per hour; P=0.21), but obstructive apnea-hypopnea index was significantly lower posthemodialysis (−10.1±10.8 per hour) in the group of 12 patients, with a concomitant reduction of fluid overload compared with participants without change in fluid overload (obstructive apnea-hypopnea index +8.2±16.1 per hour; P<0.01). A lower fluid overload after hemodialysis was significantly correlated (r=0.49; P=0.04) with a lower obstructive apnea-hypopnea index. Fluid overload—assessed by bioimpedance—was the best predictor of the change in obstructive apnea-hypopnea index observed after hemodialysis (standardized r=−0.68; P=0.01) in multivariate regression analysis. Conclusions Fluid overload influences overnight rostral fluid shift and obstructive sleep apnea severity in patients with ESRD undergoing intermittent hemodialysis. Although no benefit of hemodialysis on obstructive sleep apnea severity
Davis, Eric M; Locke, Landon W; McDowell, Angela L; Strollo, Patrick J; O'Donnell, Christopher P
Obesity is a primary risk factor for the development of obstructive sleep apnea in humans, but the impact of obesity on central sleep apnea is less clear. Given the comorbidities associated with obesity in humans, we developed techniques for long-term recording of diaphragmatic EMG activity and polysomnography in obese mice to assess breathing patterns during sleep and to determine the effect of obesity on apnea generation. We hypothesized that genetically obese ob/ob mice would exhibit less variability in breathing across the 24-h circadian cycle, be more prone to central apneas, and be more likely to exhibit patterns of increased diaphragm muscle activity consistent with obstructive apneas compared with lean mice. Unexpectedly, we found that obese mice exhibited a greater circadian impact on respiratory rate and diaphragmatic burst amplitude than lean mice, particularly during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Central apneas were more common in REM sleep (42 ± 17 h(-1)) than non-REM (NREM) sleep (14 ± 5 h(-1)) in obese mice (P < 0.05), but rates were not different between lean and obese mice in either sleep state. Even after experimentally enhancing central apnea generation by acute withdrawal of hypoxic chemoreceptor activation during sleep, central apnea rates remained comparable between lean and obese mice. Last, we were unable to detect patterns of diaphragmatic burst activity suggestive of obstructive apnea events in obese mice. In summary, obesity does not predispose mice to increased occurrence of central or obstructive apneas during sleep, but does lead to a more pronounced circadian variability in respiration.
Feliciano, Amélia; Torres, Vukosava Milic; Vaz, Fátima; Carvalho, Ana Sofia; Matthiesen, Rune; Pinto, Paula; Malhotra, Atul; Bárbara, Cristina; Penque, Deborah
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an underdiagnosed common public health concern causing deleterious effects on metabolic and cardiovascular health. Although much has been learned regarding the pathophysiology and consequences of OSA in the past decades, the molecular mechanisms associated with such processes remain poorly defined. The advanced high-throughput proteomics-based technologies have become a fundamental approach for identifying novel disease mediators as potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets for many diseases, including OSA. Here, we briefly review OSA pathophysiology and the technological advances in proteomics and the first results of its application to address critical issues in the OSA field. PMID:25770042
Vranish, Jennifer R.; Bailey, E. Fiona
Study Objectives: New and effective strategies are needed to manage the autonomic and cardiovascular sequelae of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We assessed the effect of daily inspiratory muscle strength training (IMT) on sleep and cardiovascular function in adults unable to use continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. Methods: This is a placebo-controlled, single-blind study conducted in twenty four adults with mild, moderate, and severe OSA. Subjects were randomly assigned to placebo or inspiratory muscle strength training. Subjects in each group performed 5 min of training each day for 6 w. All subjects underwent overnight polysomnography at intake and again at study close. Results: We evaluated the effects of placebo training or IMT on sleep, blood pressure, and plasma catecholamines. Relative to placebo-trained subjects with OSA, subjects with OSA who performed IMT manifested reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressures (−12.3 ± 1.6 SBP and −5.0 ± 1.3 DBP mmHg; P < 0.01); plasma norepinephrine levels (536.3 ± 56.6 versus 380.6 ± 41.2 pg/mL; P = 0.01); and registered fewer nighttime arousals and reported improved sleep (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores: 9.1 ± 0.9 versus 5.1 ± 0.7; P = 0.001). These favorable outcomes were achieved without affecting apneahypopnea index. Conclusions: The results are consistent with our previously published findings in normotensive adults but further indicate that IMT can modulate blood pressure and plasma catecholamines in subjects with ongoing nighttime apnea and hypoxemia. Accordingly, we suggest IMT offers a low cost, nonpharmacologic means of improving sleep and blood pressure in patients who are intolerant of CPAP. Citation: Vranish JR, Bailey EF. Inspiratory muscle training improves sleep and mitigates cardiovascular dysfunction in obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2016;39(6):1179–1185. PMID:27091540
Baril, Andrée-Ann; Gagnon, Katia; Arbour, Caroline; Soucy, Jean-Paul; Montplaisir, Jacques; Gagnon, Jean-François; Gosselin, Nadia
Objectives: To evaluate changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during wakeful rest in older subjects with mild to severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and healthy controls, and to identify markers of OSA severity that predict altered rCBF. Design: High-resolution 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT imaging during wakeful rest. Setting: Research sleep laboratory affiliated with a University hospital. Participants: Fifty untreated OSA patients aged between 55 and 85 years, divided into mild, moderate, and severe OSA, and 20 age-matched healthy controls. Interventions: N/A. Measurements: Using statistical parametric mapping, rCBF was compared between groups and correlated with clinical, respiratory, and sleep variables. Results: Whereas no rCBF change was observed in mild and moderate groups, participants with severe OSA had reduced rCBF compared to controls in the left parietal lobules, left precentral gyrus, bilateral postcentral gyri, and right precuneus. Reduced rCBF in these regions and in areas of the bilateral frontal and left temporal cortex was associated with more hypopneas, snoring, hypoxemia, and sleepiness. Higher apnea, microarousal, and body mass indexes were correlated to increased rCBF in the basal ganglia, insula, and limbic system. Conclusions: While older individuals with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) had hypoperfusion in the sensorimotor and parietal areas, respiratory variables and subjective sleepiness were correlated with extended regions of hypoperfusion in the lateral cortex. Interestingly, OSA severity, sleep fragmentation, and obesity correlated with increased perfusion in subcortical and medial cortical regions. Anomalies with such a distribution could result in cognitive deficits and reflect impaired vascular regulation, altered neuronal integrity, and/or undergoing neurodegenerative processes. Citation: Baril AA, Gagnon K, Arbour C, Soucy JP, Montplaisir J, Gagnon JF, Gosselin N. Regional cerebral blood flow during wakeful rest in older
Scharf, Steven M; DeMore, Jennifer; Landau, Talia; Smale, Patricia
We wished to determine if being treated for sleep apnea by a sleep specialist increased patient awareness or long-term continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) compliance. We performed a retrospective telephone survey and laboratory chart review in patients with a diagnosis of sleep apnea evaluated either at a laboratory in which only sleep specialists can order polysomnography (University Specialty Hospital, noted as USH) or at a laboratory serving the medical community at large (Kernan Hospital, noted as K). Both laboratories are under the same medical director, use the same policies and procedures, equipment, and technician pool. One hundred three patients participated in the survey (approximately 37% of those contacted), 59 from USH and 44 from K. The groups were comparable in terms of demographics, presenting complaints, and apnea severity. In patients treated by sleep specialists, awareness of the disease process was greater and the evaluation was timelier than in patients treated by generalists. However, there was no difference between the groups' long-term self-reported CPAP acceptance or compliance. The most robust predictor of continued CPAP use was the patient's self-report of feeling better.
Zhao, Ying Y.; Blackwell, Terri; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Stone, Katie L.; Omachi, Theodore A.; Redline, Susan
Study Objectives: To evaluate the association between obstructive airway disease (OAD) and sleep apnea in older men. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study of 853 community-dwelling older men (mean age 80.7 ± 4.1 years [range 73 to 90]) across 6 centers in the United States from the Outcomes of Sleep Disorders in Older Men Study. Sleep was objectively measured using full in-home polysomnography and lung function was objectively measured using spirometry. The association of OAD (pre-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio < 0.7 and FEV1 < 80% predicted) and sleep apnea (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 15 events/hour) was assessed using logistic regression. Results: OAD and sleep apnea were identified in 111 (13.0%) and 247 (29.0%) men, respectively. In univariate analysis, participants with OAD had a lower AHI (mean ± SD; 8.7 ± 11.7 vs. 12.7 ± 13.8, P = 0.0009) and a lower prevalence of sleep apnea (14.4 vs. 31.1%, P = 0.0003) compared to participants without OAD. OAD remained independently associated with a lower odds of sleep apnea (odds ratio 0.30, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.55, P = 0.0001) after adjustment for demographics, body composition, smoking, and potential mediators (arousal index, time spent in rapid eye movement sleep). Individuals with OAD and sleep apnea (n = 16) had an increased arousal index and lower oxygen saturation level as compared to individuals with OAD alone (P values < 0.05). Conclusions: Obstructive airway disease was associated with a lower prevalence of sleep apnea in a cohort of community-dwelling elderly men, and unexplained by differences in adiposity or sleep architecture. Although uncommon in this cohort, coexisting sleep apnea and OAD was associated with increased sleep fragmentation and nocturnal oxygen desaturation compared to OAD alone. Citation: Zhao YY, Blackwell T, Ensrud KE, Stone KL, Omachi TA, Redline S, Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study Group. Sleep apnea and obstructive airway disease in older men: outcomes of sleep
Chamberlin, Nancy L.
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disorder of repetitive sleep disruption caused by reduced or blocked respiratory airflow. Although an anatomically compromised airway accounts for the major predisposition to OSA, a patient's arousal threshold and factors related to the central control of breathing (ventilatory control stability) are also important. Arousal from sleep (defined by EEG desynchronization) may be the only mechanism that allows airway re-opening following an obstructive event. However, in many cases arousal is unnecessary and even worsens the severity of OSA. Mechanisms for arousal are poorly understood. However, accumulating data are elucidating the relevant neural pathways and neurotransmitters. For example, serotonin is critically required, but its site of action is unknown. Important neural substrates for arousal have been recently identified in the parabrachial complex (PB), a visceral sensory nucleus in the rostral pons. Moreover, glutamatergic signaling from the PB contributes to arousal caused by hypercapnia, one of the arousal-promoting stimuli in OSA. A major current focus of OSA research is to find means to maintain airway patency during sleep, without sleep interruption. PMID:23810448
... devices for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea. 872.5570 Section 872.5570 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Devices § 872.5570 Intraoral devices for snoring and intraoral devices for snoring and obstructive sleep... obstructive sleep apnea are devices that are worn during sleep to reduce the incidence of snoring and to...
... devices for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea. 872.5570 Section 872.5570 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Devices § 872.5570 Intraoral devices for snoring and intraoral devices for snoring and obstructive sleep... obstructive sleep apnea are devices that are worn during sleep to reduce the incidence of snoring and to...
... devices for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea. 872.5570 Section 872.5570 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Devices § 872.5570 Intraoral devices for snoring and intraoral devices for snoring and obstructive sleep... obstructive sleep apnea are devices that are worn during sleep to reduce the incidence of snoring and to...
Nino, Gustavo; Singareddy, Ravi
Untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can lead to important neurobehavioral consequences including cognitive deficits, hyperactivity/inattention, daytime sleepiness, and mood disturbances. Interestingly, the potential role of OSA in the pathogenesis of impulse-control disorders such as nail biting (onychophagia) is currently unknown. We present a case of a man with severe onychophagia and biting-induced finger mutilation that was completely resolved after diagnosis and treatment of severe OSA. Accordingly, this report represents an important clinical observation that suggests a connection between sleep physiology and the neurobiological circuits implicated in the regulation of impulse-control behaviors. Further research in this area may improve our current understanding of the neurobehavioral consequences of untreated OSA.
Fields, Barry G.; Behari, Pratima Pathak; McCloskey, Susan; True, Gala; Richardson, Diane; Thomasson, Arwin; Korom-Djakovic, Danijela; Davies, Keith; Kuna, Samuel T.
Study Objectives: Despite significant medical sequelae of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), the condition remains undiagnosed and untreated in many affected individuals. We explored the feasibility of a comprehensive, telemedicine-based OSA management pathway in a community-based Veteran cohort. Methods: This prospective, parallel-group randomized pilot study assessed feasibility of a telemedicine-based pathway for OSA evaluation and management in comparison to a more traditional, in-person care model. The study included 60 Veterans at the Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center and two affiliated community-based outpatient clinics. Telemedicine pathway feasibility, acceptability, and outcomes were assessed through a variety of quantitative (Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire, dropout rates, positive airway pressure [PAP] adherence rates, participant satisfaction ratings) and qualitative (verbal feedback) metrics. Results: There was no significant difference in functional outcome changes, patient satisfaction, dropout rates, or objectively measured PAP adherence between groups after 3 months of treatment. Telemedicine participants showed greater improvement in mental health scores, and their feedback was overwhelmingly positive. Conclusions: Our pilot study suggests that telemedicine-based management of OSA patients is feasible in terms of patient functional outcomes and overall satisfaction with care. Future studies should include larger populations to further elucidate these findings while assessing provider- and patient-related cost effectiveness. Citation: Fields BG, Behari PP, McCloskey S, True G, Richardson D, Thomasson A, Korom-Djakovic D, Davies K, Kuna ST. Remote ambulatory management of veterans with obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2016;39(3):501–509. PMID:26446115
Azuma, Masanori; Murase, Kimihiko; Tachikawa, Ryo; Hamada, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Takeshi; Minami, Takuma; Inouchi, Morito; Tanizawa, Kiminobu; Handa, Tomohiro; Oga, Toru; Mishima, Michiaki; Chin, Kazuo
Endogenous carbon monoxide (CO) levels are recognized as a surrogate marker for activity of heme oxygenase-1, which is induced by various factors, including hypoxia and oxidative stress. Few reports have evaluated endogenous CO in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Whether OSA more greatly affects exhaled or blood CO is not known. Sixty-nine patients with suspected OSA were prospectively included in this study. Exhaled and blood CO were evaluated at night and morning. Blood and exhaled CO levels were well correlated both at night and morning (r = 0.52, P < 0.0001 and r = 0.61, P < 0.0001, respectively). Although exhaled CO levels both at night and morning significantly correlated with total sleep time with arterial oxygen saturation < 90% (ρ = 0.41, P = 0.0005 and ρ = 0.27, P = 0.024, respectively), blood CO levels did not correlate with any sleep parameter. Seventeen patients with an apnea and hypopnea index (AHI) < 15 (control group) were compared with 52 patients with AHI ≥ 15 (OSA group). Exhaled CO levels at night in the OSA group were significantly higher than in the control group (3.64 ± 1.2 vs. 2.99 ± 0.70 ppm, P < 0.05). Exhaled CO levels at night decreased after 3 mo of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in OSA patients (n = 36; P = 0.016) to become nearly the same level as in the control group (P = 0.21). Blood CO levels did not significantly change after CPAP therapy. Exhaled CO was positively related to hypoxia during sleep in OSA patients, but blood CO was not. Exhaled CO might better correlate with oxidative stress associated with OSA than blood CO.
Wolfe, Robert M; Pomerantz, Jonathan; Miller, Deborah E; Weiss-Coleman, Rebecca; Solomonides, Tony
The incidence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has reached epidemic proportions, and it is an often unrecognized cause of perioperative morbidity and mortality. Profound hypoxic injury from apnea during the postoperative period is often misdiagnosed as cardiac arrest due to other causes. Almost a quarter of patients entering a hospital for elective surgery have OSA, and >80% of these cases are undiagnosed at the time of surgery. The perioperative period puts patients at high risk of apneic episodes because of drug effects from sedatives, narcotics, and general anesthesia, as well as from the effects of postoperative rapid eye movement sleep changes and postoperative positioning in the hospital bed. For adults, preoperative screening using the STOP or STOP-Bang questionnaires can help to identify adult patients at increased risk of OSA. In the pediatric setting, a question about snoring should be part of every preoperative examination. For patients with known OSA, continuous positive airway pressure should be continued postoperatively. Continuous pulse oximetry monitoring with an alarm system can help to prevent apneic catastrophes caused by OSA in the postoperative period.
Tal, A.; Leiberman, A.; Margulis, G.; Sofer, S.
Ventricular function was evaluated using radionuclide ventriculography in 27 children with oropharyngeal obstruction and clinical features of obstructive sleep apnea. Their mean age was 3.5 years (9 months to 7.5 years). Conventional clinical assessment did not detect cardiac involvement in 25 of 27 children; however, reduced right ventricular ejection fraction (less than 35%) was found in 10 (37%) patients (mean: 19.5 +/- 2.3% SE, range: 8-28%). In 18 patients wall motion abnormality was detected. In 11 children in whom radionuclide ventriculography was performed before and after adenotonsillectomy, right ventricular ejection fraction rose from 24.4 +/- 3.6% to 46.7 +/- 3.4% (P less than 0.005), and in all cases wall motion showed a definite improvement. In five children, left ventricular ejection fraction rose greater than 10% after removal of oropharyngeal obstruction. It is concluded that right ventricular function may be compromised in children with obstructive sleep apnea secondary to adenotonsillar hypertrophy, even before clinical signs of cardiac involvement are present.
Uribe Echevarría, E M; Alvarez, D; Giobellina, R; Uribe Echevarría, A M
Hypersomnia is one of the most consulted symptoms among patients evaluated at sleep disorder centers and it is frequently related to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Our hypothesis is that Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) is the parameter with the greatest predictive value in the OSAS diagnosis. We compared patients with OSAS diagnosis to a control group. In both groups we compared ESS with body mass index (BMI), neck circumference (NC), waist perimeter (WP). Anthropometric index (BMI, NC and WC), were similar in both groups (p < 0.10). When we analyzed ESS, a score greater than 10 was observed in the OSAS group, with a significant difference between groups (p < 0.001). Epworth sleepiness scale yielded 60% of sensibility, 82% of specificity and a positive predictive value of 85%. The negative predictive value was 52%. Confidence index was 70%. The relationship between OSAS and ESS scale was significant (Pearson Chi-Square value 7.5). Odds Ratio for apneas was 15 and its confidence interval was lower than 1.5 and upper than 141. We conclude that with ESS score exceeding 10 points OSAS should be suspected.
Surani, Salim R
Obesity, sleep apnea, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases are some of the most common diseases encountered by the worldwide population, with high social and economic burdens. Significant emphasis has been placed on obtaining blood pressure, body mass index, and placing importance on screening for signs and symptoms pointing towards cardiovascular disease. Symptoms related to sleep, or screening for sleep apnea has been overlooked by cardiac, diabetic, pulmonary and general medicine clinics despite recommendations for screening by several societies. In recent years, there is mounting data where obesity and obstructive sleep apnea sit at the epicenter and its control can lead to improvement and prevention of diabetes and cardiovascular complications. This editorial raises questions as to why obstructive sleep apnea screening should be included as yet another vital sign during patient initial inpatient or outpatient visit. PMID:24936259
Szaboova, E; Holoubek, D; Tomori, Z; Szabo, P; Donic, V; Stancak, B
Various cardiac arrhythmias frequently occur in patients with sleep apnea, but complex analysis of the relationship between their severity and the probable arrhythmogenic risk factors is conflicting. The question is what cardiovascular risk factors and how strongly they are associated with the severity of cardiac arrhythmias in sleep apnea. Adult males (33 with and 16 without sleep apnea), matched for cardiovascular co-morbidity were studied by polysomnography with simultaneous ECG monitoring. Arrhythmia severity was evaluated for each subject by a special 7-degree scoring system. Laboratory, clinical, echocardiographic, carotid ultrasonographic, ambulatory blood pressure, and baroreflex sensitivity values were also assessed. Moderate sleep apnea patients had benign, but more exaggerated cardiac arrhythmias than control subjects (2.53 ± 2.49 vs. 1.13 ± 1.64 degrees of cumulative severity, p < 0.05). We confirmed strong correlations between the arrhythmia severity and known arrhythmogenic risk factors (left ventricular ejection fraction and dimensions, right ventricular diameter, baroreflex sensitivity, carotid intima-media thickness, age, previous myocardial infarction, and also apnea-hypopnea index). In multivariate modelling only the apnea-hypopnea index indicating the sleep apnea intensity remained highly significantly correlated with the cumulative arrhythmia severity (beta = 0.548, p < 0.005). In conclusion, sleep apnea modifying cardiovascular risk factors and structures or functions provoked various nocturnal arrhythmias. The proposed scoring system allowed a complex analysis of the contribution of various triggers to arrhythmogenesis and confirmed the apnea-hypopnea index as an independent risk for nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia severity in sleep apnea.
Zaremba, Sebastian; Mojica, James E.; Eikermann, Matthias
Depending on the subpopulation, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can affect more than 75% of surgical patients. An increasing body of evidence supports the association between OSA and perioperative complications, but some data indicate important perioperative outcomes do not differ between patients with and without OSA. In this review we will provide an overview of the pathophysiology of sleep apnea and the risk factors for perioperative complications related to sleep apnea. We also discuss a clinical algorithm for the identification and management of OSA patients facing surgery. PMID:27006758
Qaddoura, Amro; Baranchuk, Adrian
In this chapter, we start by discussing coronary artery bypass grafting and the most common complication after surgery post coronary artery bypass grafting atrial fibrillation (PCAF). We then discuss the major risk factors for PCAF, and subsequently conduct an in-depth discussion of obstructive sleep apnea as a risk factor. In this endeavor, we outline how obstructive sleep apnea is diagnosed, its pathophysiological relationship to PCAF, and recent clinical studies investigating the association between obstructive sleep apnea and PCAF. We conclude with prevention and treatment strategies for PCAF, and a discussion of future research recommendations.
Obstructive sleep apnea has been a concern for commercial vehicle drivers for several decades. An increasing body of knowledge supports the idea that insufficient sleep can affect drivers' abilities to react efficiently and expediently, leading to motor vehicle accidents. Insufficient sleep can be described as short sleep periods, prolonged driving time, and dysfunctional sleep breathing. Commercial motor vehicle drivers are required to undergo physical examinations at least once every 2 years to maintain certification. Medical examiners are encouraged to screen for obstructive sleep apnea during these biannual examinations. Current literature identifies four frequently used screening tools for obstructive sleep apnea: STOP Questionnaire, STOP-Bang Questionnaire, Berlin Questionnaire, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Medical examiners must determine which screening method is valid, reliable, and has sufficient evidence to support its use.
Kim, Bomi; Lee, Eun Mi; Chung, Yoo-Sam; Kim, Woo-Sung
Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of three screening questionnaires in identifying Korean patients at high risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in a sleep clinic setting in Korea. Materials and Methods Data were collected from 592 adult patients with suspected OSA who visited a sleep center. All patients completed the Sleep Apnea of Sleep Disorder Questionnaire (SA-SDQ), the Berlin questionnaire, and the STOP-Bang questionnaire. Estimated OSA risk was compared to a diagnosis of OSA. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were calculated for each questionnaire. Results The prevalence of OSA was 83.6% using an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥5/h and 58.4% for an AHI ≥15/h. The STOP-Bang questionnaire had a high sensitivity (97% for AHI ≥5/h, 98% for AHI ≥15/h), but the specificity was low (19% and 11%, respectively). In contrast, the sensitivity of the SA-SDQ was not high enough (68% for AHI ≥5/h, 74% for AHI ≥15/h) to be useful in a clinical setting, whereas the specificity was relatively good (66% and 61%, respectively). The sensitivity and specificity values of the Berlin questionnaire fell between those of the STOP-Bang questionnaire and the SA-SDQ. Conclusion The STOP-Bang questionnaire may be useful for screening OSA in a sleep clinic setting, but its specificity is lower than the acceptable level for this purpose. A new screening questionnaire with a high sensitivity and acceptable specificity is therefore needed in a sleep clinic setting. PMID:25837173
Chwieśko-Minarowska, Sylwia; Minarowski, Łukasz; Kuryliszyn-Moskal, Anna; Chwieśko, Jan; Chyczewska, Elżbieta
The current treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) focuses on alleviation of symptoms by increasing airway patency during sleep through positive airway pressure, oral appliances, changes in sleep position, weight loss, or surgical treatment. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is currently the treatment of choice and prevents upper airway obstruction, resulting in improved sleep architecture and daytime symptoms. Despite proven efficacy, adherence to CPAP treatment is still not efficient. The new methods of rehabilitation (exercise training programs, hypoglossal nerve stimulation) for patients with OSAS are currently modified. The aim of the present study was to present recent developments in the field of selected aspects of rehabilitation in patients with OSAS. Database search was focused on exercise training programs and electrostimulation of genioglossus muscle. The search for articles on the rehabilitation interventions for OSAS was performed using the PubMed database from 1966 to 2013. Most of the findings have shown beneficial effects of rehabilitation. In detail, we describe the recent developments and potential adverse effects of electrostimulation and physical exercises. According to the results of studies presented, the above therapy might support conventional treatment or may be an alternative for patients with poor compliance to CPAP therapy, mandibular advancement devices, or ineffective results of surgical procedures as well.
Shoda, Naoki; Seichi, Atsushi; Takeshita, Katsushi; Chikuda, Hirotaka; Ono, Takashi; Oka, Hiroyuki; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Kozo
Since sleep apnea is a risk factor for high mortality of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, this study examined the prevalence in RA patients with occipitocervical lesions, and the associated radiographic features. Twenty-nine RA patients requiring surgery for progressive myelopathy due to occipitocervical lesions (3 males, 26 females, average age 65 years) were preoperatively evaluated. Twenty-three (79%) had sleep apnea defined as apnea-hypopnea index >5 events per hour measured by a portable monitoring device, and all of them were classified as the obstructive type. Among gender, age, bone mass index (BMI), and radiographic parameters related to occipitocervical lesions: atlantodental interval (ADI), cervical angles (O/C1, C1/2, and C2/6), and cervical lengths (O-C2 and O-C6), the ADI and cervical lengths were shown to be significantly associated with the presence of sleep apnea by parametric statistical analysis. Since there were positive correlations between the ADI and cervical lengths by Pearson's test, we performed a multivariate logistic regression analysis after adjustment for confounding factors and found that small ADI was the principle parameter associated with sleep apnea. We therefore conclude that the prevalence of sleep apnea is higher than that in a general RA population that was reported previously, and believe that occipitocervical lesions are an independent risk factor for this condition. Small ADI and short neck, secondary to the vertical translocation by RA, may cause obstructive sleep apnea, probably through mechanical or neurological collapse of the upper airway.
Raskin, S; Limme, M; Poirrier, R
The aim of this preliminary work is to determine an easy method to diagnose "buccal breather" children and "nasal breather" children. Then, to establish a possible connection with the syndrome of obstructive sleep apnea. 22 children agreed to participate. Clinical, orthophonic, orthodontic, postural and polysomnographical exams have been carried out. The proposed clinical exam turns out to be a good means of diagnosing between buccal breathers and nasal breathers. The aerophonoscope reveals velar inadequacies in buccal breathers. The latter also present osseous discrepancies mainly in the mandible. The polysomnography reveals a higher apnea/hypopnea index and more agitated sleep in buccal breathers. Mandibular lowering movements are more frequent and similar to those of adults suffering from apnea. These elements similar to those encountered in adults suffering from apnea make us think that buccal breathing could be the origin of obstructive sleep apnea, several decades later.
Burgess, Keith R.; Lucas, Samuel J.E.; Shepherd, Kelly; Dawson, Andrew; Swart, Marianne; Thomas, Kate N.; Lucas, Rebekah A.I.; Donnelly, Joseph; Peebles, Karen C.; Basnyat, Rishi; Ainslie, Philip N.
Study Objectives: To further our understanding of central sleep apnea (CSA) at high altitude during acclimatization, we tested the hypothesis that pharmacologically altering cerebral blood flow (CBF) would alter the severity of CSA at high altitude. Design: The study was a randomized, placebo-controlled single-blind study. Setting: A field study at 5,050 m in Nepal. Patients or Participants: We studied 12 normal volunteers. Interventions: Between days 5 to10 at high altitude, CBF velocity (CBFv) was increased by intravenous (IV) acetazolamide (10 mg/kg) and reduced by oral indomethacin (100 mg). Measurements and Results: Arterial blood gases, hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory responses, and CBFv and its reactivity to carbon dioxide were measured awake. Overnight polysomnography was performed. The central apnea-hypopnea index was elevated following administration of indomethacin (89.2 ± 43.7 to 112.5 ± 32.9 events/h; mean ± standard deviation; P < 0.05) and was reduced following IV acetazolamide (89.2 ± 43.7 to 47.1 ± 48.1 events/h; P < 0.001). Intravenous acetazolamide elevated CBFv at high altitude by 28% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 22-34%) but did not affect ventilatory responses. The elevation in CBFv was partly mediated via a selective rise in partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) (28 ± 4 to 31 ± 3 mm Hg) and an associated fall in pH (P < 0.01). Oral indomethacin reduced CBFv by 23% (95% CI: 16-30%), blunted CBFv reactivity, and increased the hypercapnic ventilatory response by 66% (95% CI: 30-102%) but had no effect on PaCO2 or pH. Conclusion: Our findings indicate an important role for cerebral blood flow regulation in the pathophysiology of central sleep apnea at high altitude. Citation: Burgess KR, Lucas SJE, Shepherd K, Dawson A, Swart M, Thomas KN, Lucas RAI, Donnelly J, Peebles KC, Basnyat R, Ainslie PN. Influence of cerebral blood flow on central sleep apnea at high altitude. SLEEP 2014;37(10):1679-1687. PMID:25197804
Harvin, Glenn; Ali, Eslam; Raina, Amit; Leland, William; Abid, Sabeen; Vahora, Zahid; Movahed, Hossein; Kachru, Sumyra; Tee, Rick
Background This pilot study examined airway characteristics during upper endoscopy to determine who is at high risk for obstructive sleep apnea. Methods Patients undergoing routine upper endoscopy were divided into 2 groups according to the Berlin Questionnaire (high and low risk for sleep disordered breathing). Patients underwent routine upper endoscopy using propofol sedation. The airway was then evaluated for no, partial, or complete collapse at the levels of the palate/uvula/tonsils, the tongue base, the hypopharynx, and the larynx. They were given a score of 0 for no collapse, 1 for partial collapse, and 2 for complete collapse. The score for each of these levels was added to give a total score or severity index. The larynx was also evaluated for lateral pharyngeal collapse (minimal, up to 50%, >50%, or 100%). Results We found that patients with a partial obstruction at the level of the palate/uvula/tonsils, tongue base, hypopharynx, or larynx, or complete obstruction at any level more often had a positive Berlin questionnaire. Patients with a positive Berlin questionnaire were more often of increased weight (mean 197 vs 175 lbs, P=0.19), increased body mass index (31.2 vs 27.42 kg/m2, P=0.11), increased neck circumference (36.7 vs 34.7 cm, P=0.23), and had a higher total airway score (2.61 vs 1.67, P=0.09). Conclusions The results of our pilot study represent preliminary data regarding the use of upper endoscopy as a potential tool to evaluate patients for obstructive sleep apnea. PMID:27708514
Gozal, David; Ham, Sandra A.; Mokhlesi, Babak
Study Objectives: Epidemiological evidence from relatively small cohorts suggests that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with higher cancer incidence and mortality. Here we aimed to determine whether cancer incidence for major cancer types and risk of metastases or mortality from cancer are increased in the presence of OSA. Methods: All OSA diagnoses included in an employee-sponsored health insurance database spanning the years 2003–2012 were identified and 1:1 matched demographically based on age, gender, and state of residence, or alternatively matched by comorbidities. The incidence of 12 types of cancer was assessed. In addition, another cohort of patients with a primary diagnosis of cancer was retrieved, and the risk of metastatic disease or cancer mortality was determined as a function of the presence or absence of OSA. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were fitted to assess the independent associations between OSA and outcomes of interest. Results: Based on a cohort of ∼5.6 million individuals, the incidence of all cancer diagnoses combined was similar in OSA and retrospectively matched cases. However, the adjusted risk of pancreatic and kidney cancer and melanoma were significantly higher in patients with OSA, while the risk of colorectal, breast, and prostate cancers appeared to be lower. Among individuals with a diagnosis of cancer, the presence of OSA was not associated with an increased risk for metastasis or death. Conclusions: In a large nationally representative health insurance database, OSA appears to increase the risk for only a very selective number of cancer types, and does not appear to be associated with an increased risk of metastatic cancer or cancer-related deaths. Citation: Gozal D, Ham SA, Mokhlesi B. Sleep apnea and cancer: analysis of a nationwide population sample. SLEEP 2016;39(8):1493–1500. PMID:27166241
Chang, Chih-Ping; Li, Tsai-Chung; Hang, Liang-Wen; Liang, Shinn-Jye; Lin, Jen-Jyn; Chou, Che-Yi; Tsai, Jeffrey J P; Ko, Po-Yen; Chang, Chiz-Tzung
Hypertension, blood pressure variation, and resistant hypertension have close relations to sleep apnea, which lead to target organ damage, including the kidney. The complex relationships between sleep apnea and blood pressure cause their interactions with chronic kidney disease ambiguous. The aim of the study was to elucidate the separate and joint effects of sleep apnea, hypertension, and resistant hypertension on chronic kidney disease. A cross-sectional study was done to see the associations of sleep apnea, hypertension, and resistant hypertension with chronic kidney disease in 998 subjects underwent overnight polysomnography without device-therapy or surgery for their sleep-disordered breathing. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the severity of SA, hypertension stage, resistant hypertension, and their joint effects on CKD. The multivariable relative odds (95% CI) of chronic kidney disease for the aged (age ≥65 years), severe sleep apnea, stage III hypertension, and resistant hypertension were 3.96 (2.57-6.09) (P < 0.001), 2.28 (1.13-4.58) (P < 0.05), 3.55 (1.70-7.42) (P < 0.001), and 9.42 (4.22-21.02) (P < 0.001), respectively. In subgroups analysis, the multivariable relative odds ratio of chronic kidney disease was highest in patients with both resistant hypertension and severe sleep apnea [13.42 (4.74-38.03)] (P < 0.001). Severe sleep apnea, stage III hypertension, and resistant hypertension are independent risk factors for chronic kidney disease. Patients with both severe sleep apnea and resistant hypertension have the highest risks.
Hrnčić, Dragan; Grubač, Željko; Rašić-Marković, Aleksandra; Šutulović, Nikola; Šušić, Veselinka; Bjekić-Macut, Jelica; Stanojlović, Olivera
Sleep disruption accompanies sleep apnea as one of its major symptoms. Obstructive sleep apnea is particularly common in patients with refractory epilepsy, but causing factors underlying this are far from being resolved. Therefore, translational studies regarding this issue are important. Our aim was to investigate the effects of sleep disruption on seizure susceptibility of rats using experimental model of lindane-induced refractory seizures. Sleep disruption in male Wistar rats with implanted EEG electrodes was achieved by treadmill method (belt speed set on 0.02 m/s for working and 0.00 m/s for stop mode, respectively). Animals were assigned to experimental conditions lasting 6h: 1) sleep disruption (sleep interrupted, SI; 30s working and 90 s stop mode every 2 min; 180 cycles in total); 2) activity control (AC, 10 min working and 30 min stop mode, 9 cycles in total); 3) treadmill chamber control (TC, only stop mode). Afterwards, the animals were intraperitoneally treated with lindane (L, 4 mg/kg, SI+L, AC+L and TC+L groups) or dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO, SIc, ACc and TCc groups). Convulsive behavior was assessed by seizure incidence, latency time to first seizure, and its severity during 30 min after drug administration. Number and duration of ictal periods were determined in recorded EEGs. Incidence and severity of lindane-induced seizures were significantly increased, latency time significantly decreased in animals undergoing sleep disruption (SI+L group) compared with the animals from TC+L. Seizure latency was also significantly decreased in SI+L compared to AC+L groups. Number of ictal periods were increased and duration of it presented tendency to increase in SI+L comparing to AC+L. No convulsive signs were observed in TCc, ACc and SIc groups, as well as no ictal periods in EEG. These results indicate sleep disruption facilitates induction of epileptic activity in rodent model of lindane-epilepsy enabling translational research of this phenomenon.
Ahn, Sang Hyeon; Kim, Jinna; Min, Hyun Jin; Chung, Hyo Jin; Hong, Jae Min; Lee, Jeung-Gweon; Kim, Chang-Hoon; Cho, Hyung-Ju
Objectives The aim of this study was to identify correlations between sleep apnea severity and tongue volume or posterior airway space measured via three-dimensional reconstruction of volumetric computerized tomography (CT) images in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) for use in predicting OSA severity and in surgical treatment. We also assessed associations between tongue volume and Mallampati score. Methods Snoring/OSA male patients (n = 64) who underwent polysomnography, cephalometry, and CT scans were enrolled in this retrospective study. OSA was diagnosed when the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was greater than 5 (mild 5–14; moderate 15–29; severe>30). The patients were also categorized into the normal-mild group (n = 22) and the moderate-severe group (n = 42). Using volumetric CT images with the three-dimensional reconstruction technique, the volume of the tongue, posterior airway space volume, and intra-mandibular space were measured. The volumes, polysomnographic parameters, and physical examination findings were compared, and independent factors that are related to OSA were analysed. Results No associations between tongue volume or posterior airway space and the AHI were observed. However, multivariate linear analyses showed that tongue volume had significantly negative association with lowest O2 saturation (r = 0.365, p = 0.027). High BMI was related to an increase in tongue volume. Modified Mallampati scores showed borderline significant positive correlations with absolute tongue volume (r = 0.251, p = 0.046) and standardized tongue volume (absolute tongue volume / intramandibular area; r = 0.266, p = 0.034). Between the normal-mild and moderate-severe groups, absolute tongue volumes were not different, although the standardized tongue volume in the moderate-severe group was significantly higher. Conclusion Absolute tongue volume showed stronger associations with lowest O2 saturation during sleep than with the severity of AHI. We also found that
Martinot, Jean-Benoît; Senny, Fréderic; Denison, Stéphane; Cuthbert, Valérie; Gueulette, Emmanuelle; Guénard, Hervé; Pépin, Jean-Louis
Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea (OAH) diagnosis in children is based on the quantification of flow and respiratory effort (RE). Pulse transit time (PTT) is one validated tool to recognize RE. Pattern analysis of mandibular movements (MM) might be an alternative method to detect RE. We compared several patterns of MM to concomittant changes in PTT during OAH in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy. Methods: Participants: 33 consecutive children with snoring and symptoms/signs of OAH. Measurements: MMs were measured during polysomnography with a magnetometer device (Brizzy Nomics, Liege, Belgium) placed on the chin and forehead. Patterns of MM were evaluated representing peak to peak fluctuations > 0.3 mm in mandibular excursion (MML), mandibular opening (MMO), and sharp MM (MMS), which closed the mouth on cortical arousal (CAr). Results: The median (95% CI) hourly rate of at least 1 MM (MML, or MMO, or MMS) was 18.1 (13.2–36.3) and strongly correlated with OAHI (p = 0.003) but not with central apnea-hypopnea index (CAHI; p = 0.292). The durations when the MM amplitude was > 0.4 mm and PTT > 15 ms were strongly correlated (p < 0.001). The mean (SD) of MM peak to peak amplitude was larger during OAH than CAH (0.9 ± 0.7 mm and 0.2 ± 0.3 mm; p < 0.001, respectively). MMS at the termination of OAH had larger amplitude compared to MMS with CAH (1.5 ± 0.9 mm and 0.5 ± 0.7 mm, respectively, p < 0.001). Conclusions: MM > 0.4 mm occurred frequently during periods of OAH and were frequently terminated by MMS corresponding to mouth closure on CAr. The MM findings strongly correlated with changes in PTT. MM analysis could be a simple and accurate promising tool for RE characterization and optimization of OAH diagnosis in children. Citation: Martinot JB, Senny F, Denison S, Cuthbert V, Gueulette E, Guénard H, Pépin JL. Mandibular movements identify respiratory effort in pediatric obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(5):567–574. PMID
... html Jury Still Out on Whether to Screen All Adults for Sleep Apnea Not enough data to ... Jan. 24, 2017 HealthDay Copyright (c) 2017 HealthDay . All rights reserved. News stories are written and provided ...
Narayanan, Anila; Faizal, Bini
Objective. To study the correlation between lateral cephalogram, flexible laryngoscopy, and sleep study in patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Background. Screening tools should be devised for predicting OSA which could be performed on an outpatient basis. With this aim we studied the skeletal and soft tissue characteristics of proven OSA patients. Methods. A prospective study was performed in patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea by sleep study. They were evaluated clinically and subjected to lateral cephalometry and nasopharyngolaryngoscopy. The findings were matched to see if they corresponded to AHI of sleep study in severity. An attempt was made to see whether the data predicted the patients who would benefit from oral appliance or surgery as the definitive treatment in indicated cases. Results. A retropalatal collapse seen on endoscopy could be equated to the distance from mandibular plane to hyoid (MP-H) of lateral cephalometry and both corresponded to severity of AHI. At the retroglossal region, there was a significant correlation with MP-H, length of the soft palate, and AHI. Conclusion. There is significant correlation of lateral cephalogram and awake flexible nasopharyngolaryngoscopy with AHI in OSA. In unison they form an excellent screening tool for snorers. PMID:26689652
Swanson, Christine M.; Shea, Steven A.; Stone, Katie L.; Cauley, Jane A.; Rosen, Clifford J.; Redline, Susan; Karsenty, Gerard; Orwoll, Eric S.
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and low bone mass are two prevalent conditions, particularly among older adults, a section of the U.S. population that is expected to grow dramatically over the coming years. OSA, the most common form of sleep disordered breathing, has been linked to multiple cardiovascular, metabolic, hormonal and inflammatory derangements and may have adverse effects on bone. However, little is known about how OSA (including the associated hypoxia and sleep loss) affects bone metabolism. In order to gain insight into the relationship between sleep and bone, we review the growing information on OSA and metabolic bone disease and discuss the pathophysiological mechanisms by which OSA may affect bone metabolism/architecture. PMID:25639209
Stadelmann, Katrin; Latshang, Tsogyal D.; Nussbaumer-Ochsner, Yvonne; Tarokh, Leila; Ulrich, Silvia; Kohler, Malcolm; Bloch, Konrad E.; Achermann, Peter
Study Objectives 1) To investigate the impact of acetazolamide, a drug commonly prescribed for altitude sickness, on cortical oscillations in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). 2) To examine alterations in the sleep EEG after short-term discontinuation of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. Design Data from two double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized cross-over design studies were analyzed. Setting Polysomnographic recordings in sleep laboratory at 490 m and at moderate altitudes in the Swiss Alps: 1630 or 1860 m and 2590 m. Patients Study 1: 39 OSAS patients. Study 2: 41 OSAS patients. Interventions Study 1: OSAS patients withdrawn from treatment with CPAP. Study 2: OSAS patients treated with autoCPAP. Treatment with acetazolamide (500–750 mg) or placebo at moderate altitudes. Measurements and Results An evening dose of 500 mg acetazolamide reduced slow-wave activity (SWA; approximately 10%) and increased spindle activity (approximately 10%) during non-REM sleep. In addition, alpha activity during wake after lights out was increased. An evening dose of 250 mg did not affect these cortical oscillations. Discontinuation of CPAP therapy revealed a reduction in SWA (5–10%) and increase in beta activity (approximately 25%). Conclusions The higher evening dose of 500 mg acetazolamide showed the “spectral fingerprint” of Benzodiazepines, while 250 mg acetazolamide had no impact on cortical oscillations. However, both doses had beneficial effects on oxygen saturation and sleep quality. PMID:24710341
Głebocka, A; Kossowska, A; Bednarek, M
Patients suffering from obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are unaware of clinical symptoms, such as cessation of breathing during sleep, decrease in blood oxygen levels, severe sleep fragmentation, and excessive daytime sleepiness. Equally worrying is a low level of knowledge among physicians, psychiatrists, and psychologists of the intellectual and emotional impact of OSA. The illness may lead to anxiety, depression, psychosis, and other pathological symptoms. The aim of the present study was to evaluate relationships among OSA, quality of life, and psychological performance. STAI, UMACL, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Framingham Type A Scale, the Courtauld Emotional Control Scale (CECS), the Life Orientation Test - Revised (LOT-R), and the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) were applied. The tests were used to describe the well-being and pathological symptoms, such as depression or anxiety, in a clinical group (newly-diagnosed, untreated OSA patients) in comparison with a control group (healthy volunteers). The results of the tests failed to substantiate the presence of significant differences between the clinical and control groups. We put forward a hypothesis that the rather unexpected lack of psychological differences might stem from a rapid mood improvement in OSA patients on anticipation of being diagnosed and taken care of in the hospital setting. Followed-up studies in the same patients are required to confirm this hypothesis.
Baltzan, M.; Pavilanis, A.; Tran, D.-L.; Conrod, K.
Untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has numerous negative health-related consequences. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is generally considered the treatment of choice for OSA, but rates of nonadherence are high. It is believed that OSA is more prevalent among men; therefore understanding how OSA presents among women is limited and treatment adherence has received little research attention. For this study, 29 women were recruited from primary care offices. They completed a questionnaire battery and underwent a night of nocturnal polysomnography (PSG) followed by a visit with a sleep specialist. Women diagnosed with OSA were prescribed CPAP; 2 years later CPAP adherence was evaluated. Results show that approximately half the sample was adherent. There were no significant differences between adherent and nonadherent women on OSA severity; however CPAP adherent women had worse nocturnal and daytime functioning scores at the time of diagnosis. Moreover, when the seven nocturnal and daytime variables were used as predictors in a discriminant analysis, they could predict 87% of adherent and 93% of the nonadherent women. The single most important predictor was nonrefreshing sleep. We discuss the implications of the findings for identifying women in primary care with potential OSA and offer suggestions for enhancing treatment adherence. PMID:28352476
Kimoff, R J; Cosio, M G; McGregor, M
OBJECTIVE: To review the clinical features and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). DATA SOURCE AND SELECTION: All articles on OSA published in French and English between 1970 and 1990 and indexed in Index Medicus were reviewed. Studies addressing the epidemiologic features and clinical aspects of OSA were selected, and special emphasis was given to articles reporting the effects of treatment on morbidity and mortality rates. MAIN RESULTS: OSA is characterized by episodes of upper airway obstruction during sleep that result in repetitive hypoxemia and sleep disruption. OSA leads to various neuropsychologic and cardiovascular complications, including daytime hypersomnolence, cognitive impairment, systemic and pulmonary hypertension and cardiac arrhythmias. There is suggestive evidence that the death rate among affected people is increased. The true incidence of OSA is unknown, but estimates have varied from 1% upwards among men. The current treatment with the greatest overall effectiveness and acceptability is nasal continuous positive airway pressure. CONCLUSION: This common, readily treatable disorder is associated with serious complications and therefore must be widely recognized by health professionals. PMID:1998928
Libman, E; Bailes, S; Fichten, C S; Rizzo, D; Creti, L; Baltzan, M; Grad, R; Pavilanis, A; Tran, D-L; Conrod, K; Amsel, R
Untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has numerous negative health-related consequences. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is generally considered the treatment of choice for OSA, but rates of nonadherence are high. It is believed that OSA is more prevalent among men; therefore understanding how OSA presents among women is limited and treatment adherence has received little research attention. For this study, 29 women were recruited from primary care offices. They completed a questionnaire battery and underwent a night of nocturnal polysomnography (PSG) followed by a visit with a sleep specialist. Women diagnosed with OSA were prescribed CPAP; 2 years later CPAP adherence was evaluated. Results show that approximately half the sample was adherent. There were no significant differences between adherent and nonadherent women on OSA severity; however CPAP adherent women had worse nocturnal and daytime functioning scores at the time of diagnosis. Moreover, when the seven nocturnal and daytime variables were used as predictors in a discriminant analysis, they could predict 87% of adherent and 93% of the nonadherent women. The single most important predictor was nonrefreshing sleep. We discuss the implications of the findings for identifying women in primary care with potential OSA and offer suggestions for enhancing treatment adherence.
Marrone, Oreste; Battaglia, Salvatore; Steiropoulos, Paschalis; Basoglu, Ozen K; Kvamme, John A; Ryan, Silke; Pepin, Jean-Louis; Verbraecken, Johan; Grote, Ludger; Hedner, Jan; Bonsignore, Maria R
The cross-sectional relationship of obstructive sleep apnea with moderate to severe chronic kidney disease, defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL min(-1) ∙1.73 m(-2) , was investigated in a large cohort of patients with suspected obstructive sleep apnea studied by nocturnal polysomnography or cardiorespiratory polygraphy. Data were obtained from the European Sleep Apnea Database, where information from unselected adult patients with suspected obstructive sleep apnea afferent to 26 European sleep centres had been prospectively collected. Both the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease and the Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration equations were used for the assessment of estimated glomerular filtration rate. The analysed sample included 7700 subjects, 71% male, aged 51.9 ± 12.5 years. Severe obstructive sleep apnea (apnea-hypopnea index ≥30) was found in 34% of subjects. The lowest nocturnal oxygen saturation was 81 ± 10.2%. Chronic kidney disease prevalence in the whole sample was 8.7% or 6.1%, according to the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease or the Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration equations, respectively. Subjects with lower estimated glomerular filtration rate were older, more obese, more often female, had worse obstructive sleep apnea and more co-morbidities (P < 0.001, each). With both equations, independent predictors of estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 were: chronic heart failure; female gender; systemic hypertension; older age; higher body mass index; and worse lowest nocturnal oxygen saturation. It was concluded that in obstructive sleep apnea, chronic kidney disease is largely predicted by co-morbidities and anthropometric characteristics. In addition, severe nocturnal hypoxaemia, even for only a small part of the night, may play an important role as a risk factor for kidney dysfunction.
Foster, Gary D.; Sanders, Mark H.; Millman, Richard; Zammit, Gary; Borradaile, Kelley E.; Newman, Anne B.; Wadden, Thomas A.; Kelley, David; Wing, Rena R.; Pi Sunyer, F. Xavier; Darcey, Valerie; Kuna, Samuel T.
OBJECTIVE To assess the risk factors for the presence and severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) among obese patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Unattended polysomnography was performed in 306 participants. RESULTS Over 86% of participants had OSA with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥5 events/h. The mean AHI was 20.5 ± 16.8 events/h. A total of 30.5% of the participants had moderate OSA (15 ≤ AHI <30), and 22.6% had severe OSA (AHI ≥30). Waist circumference (odds ratio 1.1; 95% CI 1.0–1.1; P = 0.03) was significantly related to the presence of OSA. Severe OSA was most likely in individuals with a higher BMI (odds ratio 1.1; 95% CI 1.0–1.2; P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS Physicians should be particularly cognizant of the likelihood of OSA in obese patients with type 2 diabetes, especially among individuals with higher waist circumference and BMI. PMID:19279303
Zhang, Puhong; Zhang, Rui; Zhao, Fang; Heeley, Emma; Chai-Coetzer, Ching L; Liu, Jing; Jing, Bo; Han, Ping; Li, Qifu; Sun, Liao; Li, Yufeng; Dong, Shengying; Jiang, Xiaozhen; Zhang, Chunhua; Lu, Jinhui; Guo, Xingduan; Guo, Lixin; Mcevoy, R Doug; Ji, Linong
Data on the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus in China is scarce. We conducted a multi-centre, cross-sectional study involving 12 hospitals from six regional cities to investigate the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea in hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and to explore the association between obstructive sleep apnea and related risk factors, diabetic complications and comorbidities in China. Each hospital recruited at least 70 consecutive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were admitted to the endocrinology ward. A total of 880 participants were enrolled and administered overnight sleep monitoring with a portable monitor (ApneaLink™, ResMed, San Diego, CA, USA); other information was collected from medical charts and a standardized questionnaire. In this study, 60.0% (95% confidence interval: 56.8%, 63.2%) of hospitalized patients in China with type 2 diabetes mellitus had comorbid obstructive sleep apnea (apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 5). Only 1.5% (eight of 528) of the patients with both conditions had been diagnosed previously with obstructive sleep apnea. The prevalence of moderate-severe (apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 15) and severe obstructive sleep apnea (apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 30) was estimated to be 25.6% (22.7, 28.5%) and 10.3% (8.3, 12.4%), respectively. Age, sex, body mass index, snoring, reported breath-holding in sleep or gasping or choking arousal, sleepiness, diabetes duration, hypertension, diabetic nephropathy and cardiovascular diseases history were correlated significantly with the severity of obstructive sleep apnea. In China, the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea in hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus is high. Routine screening for and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea is an important, but often neglected, part of the management of diabetes.
Vasu, Tajender S.; Grewal, Ritu; Doghramji, Karl
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common sleep related breathing disorder. Its prevalence is estimated to be between 2% and 25% in the general population. However, the prevalence of sleep apnea is much higher in patients undergoing elective surgery. Sedation and anesthesia have been shown to increase the upper airway collapsibility and therefore increasing the risk of having postoperative complications in these patients. Furthermore, the majority of patients with sleep apnea are undiagnosed and therefore are at risk during the perioperative period. It is important to identify these patients so that appropriate actions can be taken in a timely fashion. In this review article, we will discuss the epidemiology of sleep apnea in the surgical population. We will also discuss why these patients are at a higher risk of having postoperative complications, with the special emphasis on the role of anesthesia, opioids, sedation, and the phenomenon of REM sleep rebound. We will also review how to identify these patients preoperatively and the steps that can be taken for their perioperative management. Citation: Vasu TS; Grewal R; Doghramji K. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and perioperative complications: a systematic review of the literature. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(2):199-207. PMID:22505868
KALES, Stefanos N.; STRAUBEL, Madeleine G.
The most common medical cause of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Specifically, among an estimated 14 million US commercial drivers, 17–28% or 2.4 to 3.9 million are expected to have OSA. Based on existing epidemiologic evidence, most of these drivers are undiagnosed and not adequately treated. Untreated OSA increases the risk of vehicular crashes as documented in multiple independent studies and by meta-analysis. Therefore, identifying commercial drivers with OSA and having them effectively treated should decrease crash-related fatalities and injuries. Several strategies are available for screening and identifying drivers with OSA. The simplest and most effective objective strategies use body mass index (BMI) cutoffs for obesity. Functional screens are promising adjuncts to other objective tests. The most effective approach will likely be a combination of a good questionnaire; BMI measures; and a careful physician-obtained history complemented by a functional screen. PMID:24317450
Patel, Alpen B; Hinni, Michael L
Chronic retropharyngeal abscess (RPA) caused by tuberculosis is an uncommon manifestation of extrapulmonary tuberculosis within the head and neck. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in adults is a common condition with many etiologies that have been well described. Here, we present a case of retropharyngeal abscess caused by chronic tuberculosis with an unusual and interesting presenting symptom in an adult that has not been mentioned in literature, new-onset and worsening stertor or snoring, with signs and symptoms of OSA. The purpose of this manuscript is to present our experience with this case, as well as to emphasize the diagnosis, clinical course, and management of tuberculous retropharyngeal abscess in adults, while also signifying the need to include retropharyngeal abscess in the differential diagnosis for symptoms presenting as new-onset stertor and airway obstruction.
Nevin, Mary A
The prevalence of obesity in the pediatric population has dramatically increased in the last 30 years. While the adverse health effects of obesity have long been recognized in adults, many of these complications are now understood to begin in early childhood. Obese children and adolescents are significantly more likely than their peers of healthy weight to suffer from obstructive sleep apnea and metabolic syndrome. In turn, affected individuals may experience myriad serious clinical sequelae; neuro-cognitive, psychiatric, cardiovascular, and endocrinologic complications have each been extensively documented. Thus, the spectrum of obesity-related disease represents a serious but preventable threat to personal and family wellness; additionally, it is a source of considerable health care expenditure and represents a national and international health crisis. The optimal care of these patients will be best achieved through the pediatric health care provider's timely recognition of these clinical problems and knowledge of appropriate intervention strategies.
Kales, Stefanos N; Straubel, Madeleine G
The most common medical cause of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Specifically, among an estimated 14 million US commercial drivers, 17-28% or 2.4 to 3.9 million are expected to have OSA. Based on existing epidemiologic evidence, most of these drivers are undiagnosed and not adequately treated. Untreated OSA increases the risk of vehicular crashes as documented in multiple independent studies and by meta-analysis. Therefore, identifying commercial drivers with OSA and having them effectively treated should decrease crash-related fatalities and injuries. Several strategies are available for screening and identifying drivers with OSA. The simplest and most effective objective strategies use body mass index (BMI) cutoffs for obesity. Functional screens are promising adjuncts to other objective tests. The most effective approach will likely be a combination of a good questionnaire; BMI measures; and a careful physician-obtained history complemented by a functional screen.
Hooper, Robert G
Study objectives The relationship between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and body weight is not clearly established. In order to describe the relationship of weight and OSA severity seen in a suburban sleep center, an observational review was performed of initial diagnostic polysomnograms (PSGs) ordered on patients with American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) symptomatic indications. Methodology/principle findings Initial, full-night diagnostic or initial split-night (diagnostic portion) PSGs performed for any indication on patients >18 years old were retrospectively reviewed for a two year period. All studies were performed following AASM guidelines. PSG data were reviewed for the presence and severity of apnea (no OSA – apnea hypopnea index (AHI) <5, mild – AHI 5–14, moderate – AHI 15–29, severe – AHI 30–59, and very severe – AHI >60). Data were reviewed from 629 PSGs (37% females and 63% males) of which 450 met the criteria for apnea. Studies were classified by apnea severity (196 mild, 103 moderate, 91 severe apnea and 60 with very severe apnea) and weight (body mass index (BMI)). Of those with apnea, and BMIs <25, severe or very severe apnea occurred in 22% (10/45). Three individuals with BMIs <20 had apnea, one severe. Of those with BMIs ≥40, one (1.6%) did not have apnea and 52% (31/60) had AHI >30. Conclusion/significance The profile of this nonrandom series, tested because they were suspected of having a disorder of sleep, provides guidelines for physicians in their approach to symptomatic patients. Individuals with a normal BMI can have apnea, including severe apnea. Severe obesity (BMI >40) is almost always associated with apnea when symptoms are present. Obesity increases the severity of the diagnosed apnea. Excessive weight should be an indication for testing, but normal weight should not exclude individuals with appropriate symptoms. Obesity, while a major contributing factor to severity, is not the etiological cause of OSA in the
Donovan, Lucas M.; Kapur, Vishesh K.
Study Objectives: Determine the prevalence of central sleep apnea (CSA) in a large community-based cohort using current definitions and contrast the clinical characteristics of subjects with CSA to those with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and no sleep apnea. Methods: A cross sectional analysis of baseline data from 5,804 participants of the Sleep Heart Health study was performed. Subjects meeting contemporary diagnostic criteria for CSA and Cheyne Stokes respiration (CSR) were compared to those without sleep apnea and those with OSA. Demographic data, medical comorbidities, medication use, and sleep related symptoms were compared between the groups Results: The prevalences of CSA and Cheyne Stokes respiration (CSR) in this sample were 0.9 (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.7–1.2)% and 0.4 (95% CI: 0.3–0.6)%, respectively. Individuals with CSA were older, had lower body mass indexes (BMI), lower Epworth Sleepiness Scale scores, and were more likely to be male than individuals with obstructive sleep apnea OSA. Among those with self-reported heart failure (HF), OSA was much more common at 55.1% (95% CI: 45.6–64.6) than CSA 4.1% (95% CI: 0.3–7.9). Conclusions: This is the largest community-based study of the prevalence and characteristics of CSA to date and demonstrates a prevalence of CSA that is intermediate to those previously noted. Contrary to prior data from clinic based samples, individuals with heart failure were much more likely to have OSA than CSA. Citation: Donovan LM, Kapur VK. Prevalence and characteristics of central compared to obstructive sleep apnea: analyses from the sleep heart health study cohort. SLEEP 2016;39(7):1353–1359. PMID:27166235
Watson, Nathaniel F.
Two new white papers commissioned by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) provide an in-depth, detailed analysis of the vast economic burden associated with undiagnosed and untreated obstructive sleep apnea among adults in the United States. While the individual health benefits of treating OSA are well established, these papers emphasize the value of comprehensive OSA testing and treatment, which can provide dramatic health care savings for payors and large employers. Citation: Watson NF. Health care savings: the economic value of diagnostic and therapeutic care for obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(8):1075–1077. PMID:27448424
Piccin, Chaiane Facco; Pozzebon, Daniela; Scapini, Fabricio; Corrêa, Eliane Castilhos Rodrigues
Introduction Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is characterized by repeated episodes of upper airway obstruction during sleep. Objective The objective of this study is to verify the craniofacial characteristics and craniocervical posture of OSA and healthy subjects, determining possible relationships with the apnea/hypopnea index (AHI). Methods This case-control study evaluated 21 subjects with OSA, who comprised the OSA group (OSAG), and 21 healthy subjects, who constituted the control group (CG). Cephalometry analyzed head posture measurements, craniofacial measurements, and air space. Head posture was also assessed by means of photogrammetry. Results The groups were homogeneous regarding gender (12 men and 9 women in each group), age (OSAG = 41.86 ± 11.26 years; GC = 41.19 ± 11.20 years), and body mass index (OSAG = 25.65 ± 2.46 kg/m2; CG = 24.72 ± 3.01 kg/m2). We found significant differences between the groups, with lower average pharyngeal space and greater distance between the hyoid bone and the mandibular plane in OSAG, when compared with CG. A positive correlation was found between higher head hyperextension and head anteriorization, with greater severity of OSA as assessed by AHI. Conclusion OSAG subjects showed changes in craniofacial morphology, with lower average pharyngeal space and greater distance from the hyoid bone to the mandibular plane, as compared with healthy subjects. Moreover, in OSA subjects, the greater the severity of OSA, the greater the head hyperextension and anteriorization. PMID:27413397
Barreiro, Bienvenido; Garcia, Luis; Lozano, Lourdes; Almagro, Pere; Quintana, Salvador; Alsina, Monserrat; Heredia, Jose Luis
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a clinical picture characterized by repeated episodes of obstruction of the upper airway. OSA is associated with cardiovascular risk factors, some of which are components of metabolic syndrome (MS). Objectives: First, determine the prevalence of MS in patients with OSA visited in sleep clinic. Second, evaluate whether there is an independent association between MS components and the severity of OSA. Methods: Patients with clinical suspicion of OSA were evaluated by polysomnography. Three groups were defined according to apnea hypoapnea index (AHI): no OSA (AHI <5), mild-moderate (AHI≥ 5 ≤30), and severe (AHI> 30). All patients were determined in fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and insulin. MS was defined according to criteria of National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP). Results: A total of 141 patients (mean age 54 ± 11 years) were evaluated. According to AIH, 25 subjects had no OSA and 116 had OSA (41mild-moderate and 75 severe). MS prevalence ranged from 43-81% in OSA group. Also, a significant increase in waist circumference, triglycerides, glucose, blood pressure levels, and a decrease in HDL cholesterol levels was observed in more severe OSA patients. All polysomnographic parameters correlated significantly with metabolic abnormalities. After a multiple regression analysis, abdominal obesity (p <0.02), glucose (p <0.01) and HDL cholesterol (p <0.001) were independently associated with OSA. Conclusions: Our findings show high prevalence of MS in OSA, especially in severe group. A significant association between OSA and some of the components of MS was found in Spanish population. PMID:24222804
Priou, Pascaline; Le Vaillant, Marc; Meslier, Nicole; Chollet, Sylvaine; Pigeanne, Thierry; Masson, Philippe; Bizieux-Thaminy, Acya; Humeau, Marie-Pierre; Goupil, François; Ducluzeau, Pierre-Henri; Gagnadoux, Frédéric
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the association between obstructive sleep apnea severity and glucose control differs between patients with newly diagnosed and untreated type 2 diabetes, and patients with known and treated type 2 diabetes. This multicentre cross-sectional study included 762 patients investigated by sleep recording for suspected obstructive sleep apnea, 497 of whom were previously diagnosed and treated for type 2 diabetes (treated diabetic patients), while 265 had no medical history of diabetes but had fasting blood glucose ≥126 mg dL(-1) and/or glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c ) ≥6.5% consistent with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (untreated diabetic patients). Multivariate regression analyses were performed to evaluate the independent association between HbA1c and obstructive sleep apnea severity in treated and untreated patients with diabetes. In untreated diabetic patients, HbA1c was positively associated with apnea-hypopnea index (P = 0.0007) and 3% oxygen desaturation index (P = 0.0016) after adjustment for age, gender, body mass index, alcohol habits, metabolic dyslipidaemia, hypertension, statin use and study site. The adjusted mean value of HbA1c increased from 6.68% in the lowest quartile of the apnea-hypopnea index (<17) to 7.20% in the highest quartile of the apnea-hypopnea index (>61; P = 0.033 for linear trend). In treated patients with diabetes, HbA1c was associated with non-sleep variables, including age, metabolic dyslipidaemia and insulin use, but not with obstructive sleep apnea severity. Obstructive sleep apnea may adversely affect glucose control in patients with newly diagnosed and untreated type 2 diabetes, but may have a limited impact in patients with overt type 2 diabetes receiving anti-diabetic medications.
Charbonneau, M; Falcone, T; Cosio, M G; Levy, R D
A 32 yr-old woman in her last trimester of pregnancy was found to have severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The overnight polysomnogram demonstrated an apnea plus hypopnea index of 159 events per hour. Apneas were associated with severe oxygen desaturation to 40% during rapid eye movement sleep, maternal bradycardia, and second degree heart block. External cardiotocography showed normal fetal heart rate reactivity to fetal movements, even during the apneas and episodes of oxygen desaturation. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure at a level of 15 cm H2O effectively treated the apneas and desaturation and had no effect on the fetal heart rate. The patient was induced electively during the 39th wk of pregnancy and gave birth to a newborn with growth retardation. Early recognition and treatment of OSA in pregnancy might prevent problems with fetal development.
Chaitanya, Aditya; Pai, Vijaya H.; Mohapatra, Aswini Kumar; Ve, Ramesh S.
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is one of the systemic risk factors for glaucoma which causes irreversible visual field (VF) damage. We reviewed the published data of all types of studies on the association between these two conditions and papers regarding functional and structural changes related to glaucomatous damage using Scopus, web of science, and PubMed databases. There is evidence that the prevalence of glaucoma is higher in OSA patients, which independent of intraocular pressure (IOP). Studies have reported thinning of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), alteration of optic nerve head, choroidal and macular thickness, and reduced VF sensitivity in patients of OSA with no history glaucoma. A negative correlation of apnea-hypopnea index with RNFL and VF indices has been described in some studies. Raised IOP was noted which is possibly related to obesity, supine position during sleep, and raised intracranial pressure. Diurnal fluctuations of IOP show more variations in OSA patients before and after continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy when compared with the normal cases. The vascular factors behind the pathogenesis include recurrent hypoxia with increased vascular resistance, oxidative stress damage to the optic nerve. In conclusion, comprehensive glaucoma evaluation should be recommended in patients with OSA and should also periodically monitor IOP during CPAP treatment which may trigger the progression of glaucomatous damage. PMID:27843225
de Andrade, Flávio Maciel Dias; Pedrosa, Rodrigo Pinto
ABSTRACT Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common clinical condition, with a variable and underestimated prevalence. OSA is the main condition associated with secondary systemic arterial hypertension, as well as with atrial fibrillation, stroke, and coronary artery disease, greatly increasing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Treatment with continuous positive airway pressure is not tolerated by all OSA patients and is often not suitable in cases of mild OSA. Hence, alternative methods to treat OSA and its cardiovascular consequences are needed. In OSA patients, regular physical exercise has beneficial effects other than weight loss, although the mechanisms of those effects remain unclear. In this population, physiological adaptations due to physical exercise include increases in upper airway dilator muscle tone and in slow-wave sleep time; and decreases in fluid accumulation in the neck, systemic inflammatory response, and body weight. The major benefits of exercise programs for OSA patients include reducing the severity of the condition and daytime sleepiness, as well as increasing sleep efficiency and maximum oxygen consumption. There are few studies that evaluated the role of physical exercise alone for OSA treatment, and their protocols are quite diverse. However, aerobic exercise, alone or combined with resistance training, is a common point among the studies. In this review, the major studies and mechanisms involved in OSA treatment by means of physical exercise are presented. In addition to systemic clinical benefits provided by physical exercise, OSA patients involved in a regular, predominantly aerobic, exercise program have shown a reduction in disease severity and in daytime sleepiness, as well as an increase in sleep efficiency and in peak oxygen consumption, regardless of weight loss. PMID:28117479
Celle, Sébastien; Delon-Martin, Chantal; Roche, Frédéric; Barthélémy, Jean-Claude; Pépin, Jean-Louis; Dojat, Michel
Cognitive impairment related to obstructive sleep apnea might be explained by subtle changes in brain anatomy. This has been mainly investigated using magnetic resonance brain scans coupled with a voxel-based morphometry analysis. However, this approach is prone to several methodological pitfalls that may explain the large discrepancy in the results reported in the literature. We critically reviewed twelve papers addressing grey matter volume modifications in association with obstructive sleep apnea. Finally, based on strict methodological criteria, only three studies reported robust, but conflicting, results. No clear evidence has emerged and exploring brain alteration due to obstructive sleep apnea should thus be considered as an open field. We provide recommendations for designing additional robust voxel-based morphometry studies, notably the use of larger cohorts, which is the only way to solve the underpowered issue and the underestimated role of confounders in neuroimaging studies.
Priou, Pascaline; Le Vaillant, Marc; Meslier, Nicole; Paris, Audrey; Pigeanne, Thierry; Nguyen, Xuan-Lan; Alizon, Claire; Bizieux-Thaminy, Acya; Leclair-Visonneau, Laurene; Humeau, Marie-Pierre; Gagnadoux, Frédéric
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and short sleep duration are individually associated with an increased risk for hypertension (HTN). The aim of this multicenter cross-sectional study was to test the hypothesis of a cumulative association of OSA severity and short sleep duration with the risk for prevalent HTN. Among 1,499 patients undergoing polysomnography for suspected OSA, 410 (27.3%) previously diagnosed as hypertensive and taking antihypertensive medication were considered as having HTN. Patients with total sleep time (TST) <6 h were considered to be short sleepers. Logistic regression procedures were performed to determine the independent association of HTN with OSA and sleep duration. Considering normal sleepers (TST ≥6 h) without OSA as the reference group, the odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence intervals) for having HTN was 2.51 (1.35–4.68) in normal sleepers with OSA and 4.37 (2.18–8.78) in short sleepers with OSA after adjustment for age, gender, obesity, diabetes, depression, current smoking, use of thyroid hormones, daytime sleepiness, poor sleep complaint, time in bed, sleep architecture and fragmentation, and study site. The risk for HTN appeared to present a cumulative association with OSA severity and short sleep duration (p<0.0001 for linear trend). The higher risk for HTN was observed in short sleepers with severe OSA (AHI ≥30) (OR, 4.29 [2.03–9.07]). In patients investigated for suspected OSA, sleep-disordered breathing severity and short sleep duration have a cumulative association with the risk for prevalent HTN. Further studies are required to determine whether interventions to optimize sleep may contribute to lower BP in patients with OSA. PMID:25531468
Edwards, Bradley A.; Wellman, Andrew; Sands, Scott A.; Owens, Robert L.; Eckert, Danny J.; White, David P.; Malhotra, Atul
Study Objectives: Current evidence suggests that the pathological mechanisms underlying obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are altered with age. However, previous studies examining individual physiological traits known to contribute to OSA pathogenesis have been assessed in isolation, primarily in healthy individuals. Design: We assessed the four physiological traits responsible for OSA in a group of young and old patients with OSA. Setting: Sleep research laboratory. Participants: Ten young (20-40 y) and old (60 y and older) patients with OSA matched by body mass index and sex. Measurements and Results: Pharyngeal anatomy/collapsibility, loop gain (LG), upper airway muscle responsiveness/gain (UAG) and the respiratory arousal threshold were determined using multiple 2- to 3-min decreases or drops in continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Passive pharyngeal anatomy/collapsibility was quantified as the ventilation at CPAP = 0 cmH2O immediately after the CPAP drop. LG was defined as the ratio of the ventilatory overshoot to the preceding reduction in ventilation. UAG was taken as the ratio of the increase in ventilation to the increase in ventilatory drive across the pressure drop. Arousal threshold was estimated as the ventilatory drive that caused arousal. Veupnea was quantified as the mean ventilation prior to the pressure drop. In comparison with younger patients with OSA, older patients had a more collapsible airway (ventilation at 0 cmH2O = 3.4 ± 0.9 versus 1.5 ± 0.7 L/min; P = 0.05) but lower Veupnea (8.2 ± 0.5 versus 6.1 ± 0.4 L/min; P < 0.01) and a lower LG (5.0 ± 0.7 versus 2.9 ± 0.5; P < 0.05). The remaining traits were similar between groups. Conclusions: Our data suggest that airway anatomy/collapsibility plays a relatively greater pathogenic role in older adults, whereas a sensitive ventilatory control system is a more prominent trait in younger adults with obstructive sleep apnea. Citation: Edwards BA, Wellman A, Sands SA, Owens RL, Eckert DJ
Hutchison, Kimberly N.; Song, Yanna; Wang, Lily; Malow, Beth A.
Background: Polysomnography is associated with changes in sleep architecture called the first-night effect. This effect is believed to result from sleeping in an unusual environment and the technical equipment used to study sleep. Sleep experts hope to decrease this variable by providing a more familiar, comfortable atmosphere for sleep testing through hotel-based sleep centers. In this study, we compared the sleep parameters of patients studied in our hotel-based and hospital-based sleep laboratories. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed polysomnograms completed in our hotel-based and hospital-based sleep laboratories from August 2003 to July 2005. All patients were undergoing evaluation for obstructive sleep apnea. Hospital-based patients were matched for age and apnea-hypopnea index with hotel-based patients. We compared the sleep architecture changes associated with the first-night effect in the two groups. The associated conditions and symptoms listed on the polysomnography referral forms are also compared. Results: No significant differences were detected between the two groups in sleep onset latency, sleep efficiency, REM sleep latency, total amount of slow wave sleep (NREM stages 3 and 4), arousal index, and total stage 1 sleep. Conclusions: This pilot study failed to show a difference in sleep parameters associated with the first-night effect in patients undergoing sleep studies in our hotel and hospital-based sleep laboratories. Future studies need to compare the first-night effect in different sleep disorders, preferably in multi-night recordings. Citation: Hutchison KN; Song Y; Wang L; Malow BA. Analysis of sleep parameters in patients with obstructive sleep apnea studied in a hospital vs. A hotel-based sleep center. J Clin Sleep Med 2008;4(2):119–122. PMID:18468309
EVLİCE, Ahmet; UĞUREL, Burcu; BAKLAN, Barış; ÖZTURA, İbrahim
Introduction The aim of our study is to search for the existence of neuropathy, dysautonomia and to identify the correlations of sickness level of patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS). Methods The research is based on the real cases at Dokuz Eylul University of Medicine Sleep and Epilepsy Center, observed during September 2008–May 2009. The patients were selected by polysomnography samples based on 20 persons at same ages with following criteria; high leveled OSAS (AHİ≥30), low OSAS (5≤AHİ<30) and healthy participants. Classical ENMG protocol, symphatic skin response and R-R interval variation test were performed on these samples. Results High and low leveled OSAS patients had a statistically significant (p<0.05) decrease in the average velocity of motor conduction in right tibialis posterior when compared to the control group. Besides we observed an statistically significant (p<0.05) increase in the average amplitud of symphatic skin responses in high leveled OSAS patients than control group. Conclusion OSAS indicates a risk of possible peripheral neuropathy and autonomic dysfunction risk increases in positive correlation with level of OSAS.
Neikrug, Ariel B.; Liu, Lianqi; Avanzino, Julie A.; Maglione, Jeanne E.; Natarajan, Loki; Bradley, Lenette; Maugeri, Alex; Corey-Bloom, Jody; Palmer, Barton W.; Loredo, Jose S.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia
Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), common in Parkinson disease (PD), contributes to sleep disturbances and daytime sleepiness. We assessed the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on OSA, sleep, and daytime sleepiness in patients with PD. Design: This was a randomized placebo-controlled, crossover design. Patients with PD and OSA were randomized into 6 w of therapeutic treatment or 3 w of placebo followed by 3 w of therapeutic treatment. Patients were evaluated by polysomnography (PSG) and multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) pretreatment (baseline), after 3 w, and after 6 w of CPAP treatment. Analyses included mixed models, paired analysis, and within-group analyses comparing 3 w to 6 w of treatment. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Participants: Thirty-eight patients with PD (mean age = 67.2 ± 9.2 y; 12 females). Intervention: Continuous positive airway pressure. Measurements: PSG outcome measures: sleep efficiency, %sleep stages (N1, N2, N3, R), arousal index, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), and % time oxygen saturation < 90% (%time SaO2 < 90%). MSLT outcome measures: mean sleep-onset latency (MSL). Results: There were significant group-by-time interactions for AHI (P < 0.001), % time SaO2 < 90% (P = 0.02), %N2 (P = 0.015) and %N3 (P = 0.014). Subjects receiving therapeutic CPAP showed significant decrease in AHI, %time SaO2 < 90%, %N2, and significant increase in %N3 indicating effectiveness of CPAP in the treatment of OSA, improvement in nighttime oxygenation, and in deepening sleep. The paired sample analyses revealed that 3 w of therapeutic treatment resulted in significant decreases in arousal index (t = 3.4, P = 0.002). All improvements after 3 w were maintained at 6 w. Finally, 3 w of therapeutic CPAP also resulted in overall decreases in daytime sleepiness (P = 0.011). Conclusions: Therapeutic continuous positive airway pressure versus placebo was effective in reducing apnea events, improving oxygen saturation, and deepening sleep in
Brown, Devin L.; Mowla, Ashkan; McDermott, Mollie; Morgenstern, Lewis B.; Hegeman, Garnett; Smith, Melinda A.; Garcia, Nelda M.; Chervin, Ronald D.; Lisabeth, Lynda D.
Goal Little is known about the prevalence of sleep apnea (SA) across ischemic stroke subtypes. Given the important implications for SA screening, we tested the association between SA and ischemic stroke subtype in a population-based study. Methods Within the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi Project, ischemic stroke patients were offered SA screening with the ApneaLink Plus™ (n=355). A neurologist assigned TOAST subtype (with an additional category for nonlacunar infarctions of unknown etiology) using hospital records. Unadjusted and adjusted (demographics, BMI, NIHSS, diabetes, history of stroke/TIA) logistic and linear regression models were used to test the association between subtype and SA or apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Findings Median age was 65 and 55% were male; 59% were Mexican American. Median time from stroke onset to SA screen was 13 days (IQR: 6, 21). Overall, 215 (61%) had SA (AHI ≥ 10). Median AHI was 13 (IQR: 6, 27). Prevalence of SA by subtype was: cardioembolism, 66%; large artery atherosclerosis, 57%; small vessel occlusion, 68%; other determined, 50%; undetermined etiology, 58%; and nonlacunar stroke of unknown etiology, 63%. Ischemic stroke subtype was not associated with SA in unadjusted (p=0.72) or adjusted models (p=0.91) models. Ischemic stroke subtype was not associated with AHI in unadjusted (p=0.41) or adjusted models (p=0.62). Conclusion In this population-based stroke surveillance study, ischemic stroke subtype was not associated with the presence or severity of SA. Sleep apnea is likely to be present after ischemic stroke, and the subtype should not influence decisions about SA screening. PMID:25497720
Joosten, Simon A.; Edwards, Bradley A.; Wellman, Andrew; Turton, Anthony; Skuza, Elizabeth M.; Berger, Philip J.; Hamilton, Garun S.
Study objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) resolves in lateral sleep in 20% of patients. However, the effect of lateral positioning on factors contributing to OSA has not been studied. We aimed to measure the effect of lateral positioning on the key pathophysiological contributors to OSA including lung volume, passive airway anatomy/collapsibility, the ability of the airway to stiffen and dilate, ventilatory control instability (loop gain), and arousal threshold. Design: Non-randomized single arm observational study. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Patients/participants: 20 (15M, 5F) continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)-treated severe OSA patients. Interventions: Supine vs. lateral position. Measurements: CPAP dial-downs performed during sleep to measure: (i) Veupnea: asleep ventilatory requirement, (ii) passive V0: ventilation off CPAP when airway dilator muscles are quiescent, (iii) Varousal: ventilation at which respiratory arousals occur, (iv) active V0: ventilation off CPAP when airway dilator muscles are activated during sleep, (v) loop gain: the ratio of the ventilatory drive response to a disturbance in ventilation, (vi) arousal threshold: level of ventilatory drive which leads to arousal, (vii) upper airway gain (UAG): ability of airway muscles to restore ventilation in response to increases in ventilatory drive, and (viii) pharyngeal critical closing pressure (Pcrit). Awake functional residual capacity (FRC) was also recorded. Results: Lateral positioning significantly increased passive V0 (0.33 ± 0.76L/min vs. 3.56 ± 2.94L/min, P < 0.001), active V0 (1.10 ± 1.97L/min vs. 4.71 ± 3.08L/min, P < 0.001), and FRC (1.31 ± 0.56 L vs. 1.42 ± 0.62 L, P = 0.046), and significantly decreased Pcrit (2.02 ± 2.55 cm H2O vs. −1.92 ± 3.87 cm H2O, P < 0.001). Loop gain, arousal threshold, Varousal, and UAG were not significantly altered. Conclusions: Lateral positioning significantly improves passive airway anatomy/collapsibility (passive V0, pharyngeal
de Godoy, Luciana Balester Mello; Luz, Gabriela Pontes; Palombini, Luciana Oliveira; e Silva, Luciana Oliveira; Hoshino, Wilson; Guimarães, Thaís Moura; Tufik, Sergio; Bittencourt, Lia; Togeiro, Sonia Maria
Purpose To compare sleep quality and sustained attention of patients with Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome (UARS), mild Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) and normal individuals. Methods UARS criteria were presence of excessive daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale—ESS—≥ 10) and/or fatigue (Modified Fatigue Impact Scale—MFIS—≥ 38) associated to Apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) ≤ 5 and Respiratory Disturbance Index (RDI) > 5 events/hour of sleep or more than 30% of total sleep time with flow limitation. Mild OSA was considered if the presence of excessive daytime sleepiness (ESS ≥ 10) and/or fatigue (MFIS ≥ 38) associated to AHI ≥ 5 and ≤ 15 events/hour. “Control group” criteria were AHI < 5 events/hour and RDI ≤ 5 events/hour and ESS ≤ 9, without any sleep, clinical, neurological or psychiatric disorder. 115 individuals (34 UARS and 47 mild OSA patients and 34 individuals in “control group”), adjusted for age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and schooling years, performed sleep questionnaires and sustained attention evaluation. Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) was performed five times (each two hours) from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. Results UARS patients had worse sleep quality (Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire—FOSQ—and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index—PSQI: p < 0.05) and more fatigue than mild OSA patients (p = 0.003) and scored significantly higher in both Beck inventories than “control group” (p < 0.02). UARS patients had more lapses early in the morning (in time 1) compared to the results in the afternoon (time 5) than mild OSA (p = 0.02). Mild OSA patients had more lapses in times 2 than in time 5 compared to “control group” (p = 0.04). Conclusions UARS patients have a worse sleep quality, more fatigue and a worse early morning sustained attention compared to mild OSA. These last had a worse sustained attention than controls. PMID:27228081
Eijsvogel, Michiel M.; Ubbink, Rinse; Dekker, Janita; Oppersma, Eline; de Jongh, Frans H.; van der Palen, Job; Brusse-Keizer, Marjolein G.
Study Objective: Positional therapy (PT) is an effective therapy in positional obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (POSAS) when used, but the compliance of PT is low. The objective of this study was to investigate whether a new kind of PT is effective and can improve compliance. Methods: 29 patients were treated with the sleep position trainer (SPT), 26 patients with the tennis ball technique (TBT). At baseline and 1 month polysomnography, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and the Quebec Sleep Questionnaire (QSQ) were taken. Daily compliance was objectively measured in both groups. Results: Both therapies prevent supine sleep position to a median of 0% (min-max: SPT 0.0% to 67%, TBT 0.0% to 38.9%), resulting in a treatment success (AHI < 5) in 68.0% of the SPT and 42.9% of the TBT patients. The ESS at baseline was < 10 in both groups. Sleep quality parameters, such as wake after sleep onset (WASO; p = 0.001) and awakenings (p = 0.006), improved more in the SPT group. Total QSQ scores (0.4 ± 0.2, p = 0.03), the QSQ domains nocturnal symptoms (0.7 ± 0.2, p = 0.01), and social interactions (0.8 ± 0.3, p = 0.02) changed in favor of the SPT group. Effective compliance (≥ 4 h/night + ≥ 5 days/week) was 75.9% for the SPT and 42.3% for the TBT users (p = 0.01). Conclusion: In mild POSAS with normal EES the new SPT device and the standard TBT are equally effective in reducing respiratory indices. However, compared to the TBT, sleep quality, quality of life, and compliance improved significantly more in the SPT group. Citation: Eijsvogel MM, Ubbink R, Dekker J, Oppersma E, de Jongh FH, van der Palen J, Brusse-Keizer MG. Sleep position trainer versus tennis ball technique in positional obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(2):139–147. PMID:25515276
Daurat, Agnès; Sarhane, Majdouline; Tiberge, Michel
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a sleep-related breathing disorder characterized by repetitive episodes of airflow cessation, resulting in brief arousals and intermittent hypoxemia. OSAS is associated with a number of adverse health consequences, and cognitive difficulties. The overall pattern of cognitive impairment in OSAS is complex, and research in this field is mixed. On balance, OSAS have negative effects on cognition, most likely in the domain of attention/vigilance, verbal and visual delayed long-term memory, and executive functions. A still unanswered question is whether these deficits are primarily a consequence of sleep fragmentation and/or hypoxemia, or whether they coexist independently from OSAS. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the most effective and widely used treatment of OSAS. No consistent effect of CPAP use on cognitive performance was evident. This may be due, in part, to variability in study design and sampling methodology across studies. Structural changes have been reported in different brain regions, particularly in hippocampus and frontal cortex. Recent evidence suggests that the OSAS-related structural changes may improve with CPAP treatment. However, one of the challenges is to interpret the findings in light of comorbid conditions that also cause neural lesions. Animal models will be specifically useful to disentangle the different potential contributors to cognitive impairment in OSAS. The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the literature on cognition and neuroimaging in OSAS patients before and after CPAP treatment. We also discuss the mechanisms that have been proposed to explain cognitive deficits in OSAS patients.
Saunamäki, Tiia; Huupponen, Eero; Loponen, Juho
Objective. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) decreases sleep spindle density and frequency. We evaluated the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on different features of sleep spindles. Methods. Twenty OSA patients underwent two night polysomnographies in a diagnostic phase and one night polysomnography after 6 months of CPAP treatment. The control group comprised 20 healthy controls. Sleep spindles were analyzed by a previously developed automated method. Unilateral and bilateral spindles were identified in central and frontopolar brain locations. Spindle density and frequency were determined for the first and last half of the NREM time. Results. The density of bilateral central spindles, which did not change in the untreated OSA patients, increased towards the morning hours during CPAP treatment and in the controls. Central spindles did not become faster with sleep in OSA patients and the central spindles remained slow in the left hemisphere even with CPAP. Conclusion. CPAP treatment normalized spindle features only partially. The changes may be associated with deficits in thalamocortical spindle generating loops. Significance. This study shows that some sleep spindle changes persist after CPAP treatment in OSA patients. The association of these changes to daytime symptoms in OSA patients needs to be further evaluated. PMID:28261503
Khatwa, Umakanth; Ramgopal, Sriram; Mylavarapu, Alexander; Prabhu, Sanjay P; Smith, Edward; Proctor, Mark; Scott, Michael; Pai, Vidya; Zarowski, Marcin; Kothare, Sanjeev V
Chiari I malformation is characterized by downward herniation of the cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum. Scant data are available on the clinical course, relationship to the extent of herniation on magnetic resonance imaging in Chiari I malformation and the presence of sleep-disordered breathing on polysomnography. Retrospective analysis was performed looking at polysomnographic findings of children diagnosed with Chiari I malformation. Details on how Chiari I malformation was diagnosed, brainstem magnetic resonance imaging findings, and indications for obtaining the polysomnogram in these patients were reviewed. We also reviewed available data on children who had decompression surgery followed by postoperative polysomnography findings. Twenty-two children were identified in our study (11 males, median age 10 years, range 1 to 18). Three had central sleep apnea, five had obstructive sleep apnea, and one had both obstructive and central sleep apnea. Children with sleep-disordered breathing had excessive crowding of the brainstem structures at the foramen magnum and were more likely to have a greater length of herniation compared with those children without sleep-disordered breathing (P = 0.046). Patients with central sleep apneas received surgical decompression, and their conditions were significantly improved on follow-up polysomnography. These data suggest that imaging parameters may correlate with the presence of sleep-disordered breathing in children with Chiari I malformation.
Lu, Dongmei; Li, Nanfang; Yao, Xiaoguang; Zhou, Ling
Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is a complex chronic inflammatory respiratory disease with multiple pathogenic factors and high morbidity and mortality. Serum levels of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α), and surfactant protein D (SPD) were investigated in OSAHS patients, to determine their clinical significance and correlation with the pathogenesis. Patients were classified into a mild and moderate OSAHS group (n = 25) and severe OSAHS group (n = 33). Twenty healthy patients served as a control group. Peripheral blood levels of NF-κB, HIF-1α, and SPD were determined by Western blot, and a correlation analysis was performed. Severe OSAHS patients received nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) therapy and were followed up after 2 months. NF-κB p65, HIF-1α, and SPD expression levels were determined after valid nCPAP therapy. NF-κB p65 and HIF-1α expression was significantly higher in severe OSAHS group than in the other two groups (p < 0.01), and was positively correlated with the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) (r = 0.696, p < 0.001; r = 0.634, p < 0.001). SPD expression was significantly lower in severe OSAHS group than in the control group (p < 0.01) and mild and moderate OSAHS group (p < 0.01), and was negatively correlated with AHI (r = −0.569, p < 0.001). OSAHS pathogenesis was associated with changes in NF-κB, HIF-1α, and SPD protein expression levels. nCPAP therapy could improve the clinical characteristics of the patients, lower serum NF-κB and HIF-1α levels, and increase serum SPD levels. We conclude that OSAHS is related to the expression of NF-κB, HIF-1, and SPD. PMID:27754829
Zorlu, Mehmet; Akkoyunlu, Muhammed Emin; Kilic, Elif; Karatoprak, Cumali; Cakirca, Mustafa; Yavuz, Erdinc; Ardic, Cuneyt; Camli, Ahmet Adil; Cikrikcioglu, Mehmetali; Kart, Levent
Background Vaspin and lipocalin-2 are less-known recent members of adipocytokine family. There are ongoing studies investigating the role of vaspin ve lipocalin-2 in metabolic syndrome (MS). Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is independently associated with an increased prevalence of MS. We aimed to measure the levels of vaspin and lipocalin-2 which are secreted from adipocytes in patients with severe OSAS and examine the relationship between these two adipocytokines and OSAS. Methods The study consisted of two groups: severe OSAS patients with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of >30/h (OSAS group, 34 subjects) and age-matched healthy volunteers with a AHI <5/h (control group, 25 subjects) Serum levels of vaspin and lipocalin-2 in these two groups were compared. Results Serum levels of vaspin were significantly lower in OSAS group; patients with severe OSAS compared with control group; healthy volunteers (OSAS group: 0.69±0.5 vs. control group: 1.24±1.13; P=0.034). The difference between the two groups in terms of serum levels of lipocalin-2 has not reached statistical significance (OSAS group: 61.6±18.2 vs. control group: 68.5±20.1; P=0.17). Conclusions We found that serum vaspin levels were significantly lower in patients with severe OSAS compared with healthy controls. Lipocalin-2 levels were similar. The decrease in serum vaspin levels in severe OSAS patients may be important in diagnosis and follow-up of these patients. PMID:24976995
Conwell, Walter D; Tsai, Sheila C
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with numerous comorbid medical conditions. Symptoms of OSA may mimic those of comorbid conditions. The presence of OSA may worsen outcomes from the primary condition. Conversely, OSA treatment may benefit both sleep symptomatology and comorbid illness. Because of potential significant benefit, it is important to screen for sleep apnea symptoms, to have a low threshold to perform diagnostic testing, to treat OSA if present, and to closely monitor symptoms. OSA management does not necessarily replace, but rather, should be performed in conjunction with primary therapy for comorbid conditions.
Eckert, Danny J.; Malhotra, Atul; Wellman, Andrew; White, David P.
Study Objectives: The effect of common sedatives on upper airway physiology and breathing during sleep in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been minimally studied. Conceptually, certain sedatives may worsen OSA in some patients. However, sleep and breathing could improve with certain sedatives in patients with OSA with a low respiratory arousal threshold. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that trazodone increases the respiratory arousal threshold in patients with OSA and a low arousal threshold. Secondary aims were to examine the effects of trazodone on upper airway dilator muscle activity, upper airway collapsibility, and breathing during sleep. Design: Patients were studied on 4 separate nights according to a within-subjects cross-over design. Setting: Sleep physiology laboratory. Patients: Seven patients with OSA and a low respiratory arousal threshold. Interventions: In-laboratory polysomnograms were obtained at baseline and after 100 mg of trazodone was administered, followed by detailed overnight physiology experiments under the same conditions. During physiology studies, continuous positive airway pressure was transiently lowered to measure arousal threshold (negative epiglottic pressure prior to arousal), dilator muscle activity (genioglossus and tensor palatini), and upper airway collapsibility (Pcrit). Measurements and Results: Trazodone increased the respiratory arousal threshold by 32 ± 6% (-11.5 ± 1.4 versus -15.3 ± 2.2 cmH2O, P < 0.01) but did not alter the apnea-hypopnea index (39 ± 12 versus 39 ± 11 events/h sleep, P = 0.94). Dilator muscle activity and Pcrit also did not systematically change with trazodone. Conclusions: Trazodone increases the respiratory arousal threshold in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and a low arousal threshold without major impairment in dilator muscle activity or upper airway collapsibility. However, the magnitude of change in arousal threshold was insufficient to overcome the compromised upper airway
Zhou, Jing; Wu, Xiao-ming; Zeng, Wei-jie
Sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) is prevalent in individuals and recently, there are many studies focus on using simple and efficient methods for SAS detection instead of polysomnography. However, not much work has been done on using nonlinear behavior of the electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. The purpose of this study is to find a novel and simpler method for detecting apnea patients and to quantify nonlinear characteristics of the sleep apnea. 30 min EEG scaling exponents that quantify power-law correlations were computed using detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and compared between six SAS and six healthy subjects during sleep. The mean scaling exponents were calculated every 30 s and 360 control values and 360 apnea values were obtained. These values were compared between the two groups and support vector machine (SVM) was used to classify apnea patients. Significant difference was found between EEG scaling exponents of the two groups (p < 0.001). SVM was used and obtained high and consistent recognition rate: average classification accuracy reached 95.1% corresponding to the sensitivity 93.2% and specificity 98.6%. DFA of EEG is an efficient and practicable method and is helpful clinically in diagnosis of sleep apnea.
Alencar, Adriano M.; da Silva, Diego Greatti Vaz; Oliveira, Carolina Beatriz; Vieira, André P.; Moriya, Henrique T.; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo
Snoring is extremely common in the general population and when irregular may indicate the presence of obstructive sleep apnea. We analyze the overnight sequence of wave packets - the snore sound - recorded during full polysomnography in patients referred to the Sleep Laboratory due to suspected obstructive sleep apnea. We hypothesize that irregular snore, with duration in the range between 10 and 100 s, correlates with respiratory obstructive events. We find that the number of irregular snores - easily accessible, and quantified by what we call the snore time interval index (STII) - is in good agreement with the well-known apnea-hypopnea index, which expresses the severity of obstructive sleep apnea and is extracted only from polysomnography. In addition, the Hurst analysis of the snore sound itself, which calculates the fluctuations in the signal as a function of time interval, is used to build a classifier that is able to distinguish between patients with no or mild apnea and patients with moderate or severe apnea.
Izumi, Suelem; Ribeiro-Filho, Fernando F.; Carneiro, Gláucia; Togeiro, Sônia M.; Tufik, Sérgio; Zanella, Maria T.
Study Objectives: This study examined insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) production and its association with the metabolic syndrome (MS) in men with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods: In total, 47 overweight and obese men who had been referred for suspected OSA underwent polysomnography and were classified based on the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) into three groups: no OSA, < 5 events/h (n = 11); mild OSA, ≥ 5 to < 15 events/h (n = 8); and moderate-severe OSA, ≥ 15 events/h (n = 28). The assessment of the somatotropic axis function included IGF-1 measurement. MS was diagnosed according to the National Cholesterol Education Program guidelines. Results: IGF-1 level in the moderate-severe OSA group was lower than in the no-OSA group (156.8 ± 54.3 μg/L versus 225.5 ± 80.5 μg/L; p = 0.013). IGF-1 level was negatively correlated with body mass index, waist circumference (WC), AHI, and sleep duration with oxygen (O2) saturation < 90% and positively correlated with the average and minimum O2 saturation (p = 0.027). In a multivariable linear regression, considering WC and minimum O2 saturation as independent variables, only the minimum O2 saturation was a predictor of low IGF-1 levels. The proportions of patients with MS were different between the three groups (18.2% in no OSA; 25% in mild OSA, and 57.1% in moderate-severe OSA; p = 0.047). Furthermore, in the lowest tertile of IGF-1 value, 66.7% of patients were affected by MS (p = 0.049). Hemoglobin (Hb)A1c correlated negatively with the minimum O2 saturation and IGF-1 levels. However, in multivariable linear regression only IGF-1 levels were a predictor of HbA1c levels. Conclusion: The occurrence of OSA is associated with a reduction in IGF-1 levels. IGF-1 alterations in OSA also seem to be associated with a higher prevalence of MS. Citation: Izumi S, Ribeiro-Filho FF, Carneiro G, Togeiro SM, Tufik S, Zanella MT. IGF-1 levels are inversely associated with metabolic syndrome in obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin
Meltzer, Lisa J.; Roberts, Robin S.; Traylor, Joel; Dix, Joanne; D’ilario, Judy; Asztalos, Elizabeth; Opie, Gillian; Doyle, Lex W.; Biggs, Sarah N.; Nixon, Gillian M.; Narang, Indra; Bhattacharjee, Rakesh; Davey, Margot; Horne, Rosemary S. C.; Cheshire, Maureen; Gibbons, Jeremy; Costantini, Lorrie; Bradford, Ruth; Schmidt, Barbara
Rationale: Apnea of prematurity is a common condition that is usually treated with caffeine, an adenosine receptor blocker that has powerful influences on the central nervous system. However, little is known about the long-term effects of caffeine on sleep in the developing brain. Objectives: We hypothesized that neonatal caffeine use resulted in long-term abnormalities in sleep architecture and breathing during sleep. Methods: A total of 201 ex-preterm children aged 5–12 years who participated as neonates in a double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial of caffeine versus placebo underwent actigraphy, polysomnography, and parental sleep questionnaires. Coprimary outcomes were total sleep time on actigraphy and apnea–hypopnea index on polysomnography. Measurements and Main Results: There were no significant differences in primary outcomes between the caffeine group and the placebo (adjusted mean difference of −6.7 [95% confidence interval (CI) = −15.3 to 2.0 min]; P = 0.13 for actigraphic total sleep time; and adjusted rate ratio [caffeine/placebo] for apnea–hypopnea index of 0.89 [95% CI = 0.55–1.43]; P = 0.63). Polysomnographic total recording time and total sleep time were longer in the caffeine group, but there was no difference in sleep efficiency between groups. The percentage of children with obstructive sleep apnea (8.2% of caffeine group versus 11.0% of placebo; P = 0.22) or elevated periodic limb movements of sleep (17.5% in caffeine group versus 11% in placebo group) was high, but did not differ significantly between groups. Conclusions: Therapeutic neonatal caffeine administration has no long-term effects on sleep duration or sleep apnea during childhood. Ex-preterm infants, regardless of caffeine status, are at risk for obstructive sleep apnea and periodic limb movements in later childhood. PMID:25171195
Chiner, Eusebi; Llombart, Mónica; Valls, Joan; Pastor, Esther; Sancho-Chust, José N.; Andreu, Ada Luz; Sánchez-de-la-Torre, Manuel; Barbé, Ferran
Background We hypothesized that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can predispose individuals to lower airway infections and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) due to upper airway microaspiration. This study evaluated the association between OSA and CAP. Methods We performed a case-control study that included 82 patients with CAP and 41 patients with other infections (control group). The controls were matched according to age, sex and body mass index (BMI). A respiratory polygraph (RP) was performed upon admission for patients in both groups. The severity of pneumonia was assessed according to the Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI). The associations between CAP and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), OSA, OSA severity and other sleep-related variables were evaluated using logistic regression models. The associations between OSA, OSA severity with CAP severity were evaluated with linear regression models and non-parametric tests. Findings No significant differences were found between CAP and control patients regarding anthropometric variables, toxic habits and risk factors for CAP. Patients with OSA, defined as individuals with an Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI) ≥10, showed an increased risk of CAP (OR = 2·86, 95%CI 1·29–6·44, p = 0·01). Patients with severe OSA (AHI≥30) also had a higher risk of CAP (OR = 3·18, 95%CI 1·11–11·56, p = 0·047). In addition, OSA severity, defined according to the AHI quartile, was also significantly associated with CAP (p = 0·007). Furthermore, OSA was significantly associated with CAP severity (p = 0·0002), and OSA severity was also associated with CAP severity (p = 0·0006). Conclusions OSA and OSA severity are associated with CAP when compared to patients admitted to the hospital for non-respiratory infections. In addition, OSA and OSA severity are associated with CAP severity. These results support the potential role of OSA in the pathogenesis of CAP and could have clinical implications. This link between OSA and infection risk
Edwards, Bradley A.; Deyoung, Pam N.; McSharry, David G.; Wellman, Andrew; Velasquez, Adrian; Owens, Robert; Orr, Jeremy E.; Malhotra, Atul
Rationale: A low respiratory arousal threshold is a physiological trait involved in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) pathogenesis. Trazodone may increase arousal threshold without compromising upper airway muscles, which should improve OSA. Objectives: We aimed to examine how trazodone alters OSA severity and arousal threshold. We hypothesized that trazodone would increase the arousal threshold and improve the apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) in selected patients with OSA. Methods: Subjects were studied on two separate nights in a randomized crossover design. Fifteen unselected subjects with OSA (AHI ≥ 10/h) underwent a standard polysomnogram plus an epiglottic catheter to measure the arousal threshold. Subjects were studied after receiving trazodone (100 mg) and placebo, with 1 week between conditions. The arousal threshold was calculated as the nadir pressure before electrocortical arousal from approximately 20 spontaneous respiratory events selected randomly. Measurements and Main Results: Compared with placebo, trazodone resulted in a significant reduction in AHI (38.7 vs. 28.5 events/h, P = 0.041), without worsening oxygen saturation or respiratory event duration. Trazodone was not associated with a significant change in the non-REM arousal threshold (−20.3 vs. −19.3 cm H2O, P = 0.51) compared with placebo. In subgroup analysis, responders to trazodone spent less time in N1 sleep (20.1% placebo vs. 9.0% trazodone, P = 0.052) and had an accompanying reduction in arousal index, whereas nonresponders were not observed to have a change in sleep parameters. Conclusions: These findings suggest that trazodone could be effective therapy for patients with OSA without worsening hypoxemia. Future studies should focus on underlying mechanisms and combination therapies to eliminate OSA. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 01817907). PMID:25719754
Brown, Devin L.; Chervin, Ronald D.; Hegeman, Garnett; Smith, Melinda A.; Garcia, Nelda M.; Morgenstern, Lewis B.; Lisabeth, Lynda D.
Study Objectives: As the importance of portable monitors for detection of sleep apnea increases, efficient and cost-minimizing methods for data interpretation are needed. We sought to compare in stroke patients, for whom portable studies often have particular advantages, results from a cardiopulmonary monitoring device with and without manual edits by a polysomnographic technologist. Methods: Participants in an ongoing stroke surveillance study in Corpus Christi, Texas, underwent sleep apnea assessments with the ApneaLink Plus device within 45 days of stroke onset. Recordings were analyzed by the device's software unedited, and again after edits were made to the raw data by a registered polysomnographic technologist. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated, with the edited data as the reference standard. Sleep apnea was defined by 3 different apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) thresholds: ≥ 5, ≥ 10, and ≥ 15. Results: Among 327 subjects, 54% were male, 59% were Hispanic, and the median age was 65 years (interquartile range: 57, 77). The median AHI for the unedited data was 9 (4, 22), and for the edited data was 13 (6, 27) (p < 0.01). Specificity was above 98% for each AHI cutoff, while sensitivity was 81% to 82%. For each cutoff threshold, the edited data yielded a higher proportion of positive sleep apnea screens (p < 0.01) by approximately 10% in each group. Conclusions: For stroke patients assessed with a cardiopulmonary monitoring device, manual editing by a technologist appears likely to improve sensitivity, whereas specificity of unedited data is already excellent. Citation: Brown DL; Chervin RD; Hegeman G; Smith MA; Garcia NM; Morgenstern LB; Lisabeth LD. Is technologist review of raw data necessary after home studies for sleep apnea? J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(4):371-375. PMID:24733981
Agha, Bahn; Johal, Ama
This systematic review and meta-analysis explores the association between facial phenotype and obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome in adults. A comprehensive electronic (Medline via Ovid, Scopus, and Embase) database and reference search were undertaken in relation to imaging modalities for surface craniofacial assessments in subjects with sleep apnea. The outcome measures were surface facial dimensions, morphology and profile. The quality of studies was assessed and a meta-analysis conducted. The studies were weighted using the inverse variance method, and the random effects model was used to analyse data. This systematic review identified eight case-control studies. In five studies (906 participants), adults with sleep apnea showed increased weighted mean differences in neck circumference by 1.26 mm (P = 0.0001) with extensive heterogeneity between studies (I² = 93%). Only two studies (467 participants) shared the following outcomes: mandible length, lower facial height, mandible width and anterior mandible height parameters. The pooled results demonstrated obstructive sleep apnea syndrome was associated with larger parameters than controls. In conclusion, the surface facial assessment was able to demonstrate some characteristic morphological features, facilitating a meta-analysis, in adults with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome. The strength of these findings, however, was limited by the heterogeneity of the studies precluding the identification of a clear phenotype.
Church, Gwynne D
Obstructive sleep apnea in children is associated with serious neurocognitive and cardiovascular morbidity, systemic inflammation, and increased health care use, yet remains underdiagnosed. Although the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea is 1-3% in the pediatric population, the prevalence of primary snoring (PS) is estimated to be 3-12%. The challenge for pediatricians is to differentiate PS from obstructive sleep apnea in a cost-effective, reliable, and accurate manner before recommending invasive or intrusive therapies, such as surgery or continuous positive airway pressure. The validity of polysomnography as the gold standard for diagnosing obstructive sleep apnea has been challenged, primarily related to concerns that abnormalities on polysomnography do not correlate well with adverse outcomes, that those abnormalities have statistical more than clinical significance, and that performing polysomnograms on all children who snore is a practical impossibility. The aim of this article is to review the clinical utility of diagnostic tests other than polysomnography to diagnose obstructive sleep apnea, to highlight the limitations and strengths of polysomnography, to underscore the threshold levels of abnormalities detected on polysomnography that correlate with morbidity, and to discuss what the practical implications are for treatment.
Kagawa, Masayuki; Ueki, Katsuhiko; Kurita, Akira; Tojima, Hirokazu; Matsui, Takemi
There are two key problems in applying Doppler radar to a diagnosis system for sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome. The first is noise associated with body movement and the second is the body position in bed and the change of the sleeping posture. We propose a new automatic gain control and a real-time radar-output channel selection method which is based on a spectrum shape analysis. There are three types of sleep apnea: central sleep apnea, obstructive sleep apnea and mixed sleep apnea. In this paper we paid attention to the obstructive sleep apnea and attempted to detect the disorder of corrugated shape compared with usual breathing or the paradoxical movement of the reversed phase with chest and abdominal radar signals. A prototype of the system was set up at a sleep disorder center in a hospital and field tests were carried out with eight subjects. Despite the subjects engaging in frequent body movements while sleeping, the system was quite effective in the diagnosis of sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (r=0.98).
Takemura, Yasuhiro; Sato, Jun-Ya; Nakajima, Masato
A non-restrictive and non-contact respiratory movement monitoring system that finds the boundary between chest and abdomen automatically and detects the vertical movement of each part of the body separately is proposed. The system uses a fiber-grating vision sensor technique and the boundary position detection is carried out by calculating the centers of gravity of upward moving and downward moving sampling points, respectively. In the experiment to evaluate the ability to detect the respiratory movement signals of each part and to discriminate between obstructive and central apneas, detected signals of the two parts and their total clearly showed the peculiarities of obstructive and central apnea. The cross talk between the two categories classified automatically according to several rules that reflect the peculiarities was ≤ 15%. This result is sufficient for discriminating central sleep apnea syndrome from obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and indicates that the system is promising as screening equipment. Society of Japan
Pallayova, Maria; Donic, Viliam; Tomori, Zoltan
Given the consequences of sleep apnea and coexisting diabetes, satisfactory treatment of both diseases is required. Our results of continuous glucose monitoring in severe sleep apnea diabetic patients before and during continuous positive airway pressure/CPAP therapy showed significant reduction of nocturnal glucose variability and improved overnight glucose control on CPAP.
Dudley, Katherine A.; Patel, Sanjay R.
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an increasingly prevalent condition. A growing body of literature supports substantial racial disparities in the prevalence, risk factors, presentation, diagnosis and treatment of this disease. Craniofacial structure among Asians appears to confer an elevated risk of OSA despite lower rates of obesity. Among African Americans, Native Americans, and Hispanics, OSA prevalence is increased, likely due in part to obesity. Burden of symptoms, particularly excessive daytime sleepiness, is higher among African Americans, though Hispanics more often report snoring. Limited data suggest African Americans may be more susceptible to hypertension in the setting of OSA. While differences in genetic risk factors may explain disparities in OSA burden, no definitive genetic differences have yet been identified. In addition to disparities in OSA development, disparities in OSA diagnosis and treatment have also been identified. Increased severity of disease at diagnosis among African Americans suggests a delay in diagnosis. Treatment outcomes are also suboptimal among African Americans. In children, tonsillectomy is less likely to cure OSA and more commonly associated with complications in this group. Among adults, adherence to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is substantially lower in African Americans. The reasons for these disparities, particularly in outcomes, are not well understood and should be a research priority. PMID:26428843
Purpose To evaluate changes in nocturia after surgical correction of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods A total of 66 patients were included in the present study. All had been diagnosed with OSA syndrome by polysomnography and underwent uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP). Preoperative and postoperative lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), quality of life (QoL), and nocturia episodes were evaluated using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and overactive bladder symptom score (OABSS) questionnaires. Three months postoperatively, telephone interviews were performed to determine the success of surgery, current LUTS, and nocturia episodes. Patients were divided into surgical success and failure groups. Surgical success was defined as snoring decrease more than 50% based on the patient’s subjective judgment. Results The response rate was 56% and success rate was 73%. In all patients, nocturia episodes significantly decreased from 1.7±1.1 to 0.8±1.2 (P=0.002). Mean IPSS score, OABSS score, and QoL scores were also significantly improved. The success group showed a significant decrease in nocturia episodes, and total IPSS, OABSS, and QoL scores. However, the failure group did not show significant changes in all parameters. Conclusions OSA correction improved nocturia as well as other LUTS. These improvements were not observed in the failure group. This study shows that OSA is a cause of nocturia and that other LUTS and nocturia can be improved by surgical correction of OSA. PMID:28043111
Rabelo Guimarães, Maria De Lourdes; Hermont, Ana Paula
Background: Dental practitioners have a key role in the quality of life and prevention of occupational accidents of workers with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS). Aim: The aim of this study was to review the impact of OSAS, the Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) therapy, and the evidence regarding the use of oral appliances (OA) on the health and safety of workers. Materials and Methods: Searches were conducted in MEDLINE (PubMed), Lilacs and Sci ELO. Articles published from January 1980 to June 2014 were included. Results: The research retrieved 2188 articles and 99 met the inclusion criteria. An increase in occupational accidents due to reduced vigilance and attention in snorers and patients with OSAS was observed. Such involvements were related to excessive daytime sleepiness and neurocognitive function impairments. The use of OA are less effective when compared with CPAP, but the results related to excessive sleepiness and cognitive performance showed improvements similar to CPAP. Treatments with OA showed greater patient compliance than the CPAP therapy. Conclusion: OSAS is a prevalent disorder among workers, leads to increased risk of occupational accidents, and has a significant impact on the economy. The CPAP therapy reduces the risk of occupational accidents. The OA can improve the work performance; but there is no scientific evidence associating its use with occupational accidents reduction. Future research should focus on determining the cost-effectiveness of OA as well as its influence and efficacy in preventing occupational accidents. PMID:25568596
Heck, Taryn; Zolezzi, Monica
Psychiatric disorders and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are often comorbid. However, there is limited information on the impact of psychotropic medications on OSA symptoms, on how to manage psychiatric pharmacotherapy in patients presenting with OSA, or on the effectiveness and challenges of OSA treatments in patients with comorbid mental illness. As such, the objective of this article is to provide an overview of some epidemiological aspects of OSA and treatment considerations in the management of OSA in individuals with comorbid psychiatric disorders. Predefined keywords were used to search for relevant literature in electronic databases. Data show that OSA is particularly prevalent in patients with psychiatric disorders. The medical care that patients with these comorbidities require can be challenging, as some of the psychiatric medications used by these patients may exacerbate OSA symptoms. As such, continuous positive airway pressure continues to be the first-line treatment, even in patients with psychiatric comorbidity. However, more controlled studies are required, particularly to determine continuous positive airway pressure compliance in patients with mental illness, the impact of treating OSA on psychiatric symptoms, and the impact of the use of psychotropic medications on OSA symptoms. PMID:26508864
Pak, Victoria M; Grandner, Michael A; Pack, Allan I
Over 20 years of evidence indicates a strong association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and cardiovascular disease. Although inflammatory processes have been heavily implicated as an important link between the two, the mechanism for this has not been conclusively established. Atherosclerosis may be one of the mechanisms linking OSA to cardiovascular morbidity. This review addresses the role of circulating adhesion molecules in patients with OSA, and how these may be part of the link between cardiovascular disease and OSA. There is evidence for the role of adhesion molecules in cardiovascular disease risk. Some studies, albeit with small sample sizes, also show higher levels of adhesion molecules in patients with OSA compared to controls. There are also studies that show that levels of adhesion molecules diminish with continuous positive airway pressure therapy. Limitations of these studies include small sample sizes, cross-sectional sampling, and inconsistent control for confounding variables known to influence adhesion molecule levels. There are potential novel therapies to reduce circulating adhesion molecules in patients with OSA to diminish cardiovascular disease. Understanding the role of cell adhesion molecules generated in OSA will help elucidate one mechanistic link to cardiovascular disease in patients with OSA.
Dudley, Katherine A; Patel, Sanjay R
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an increasingly prevalent condition. A growing body of literature supports substantial racial disparities in the prevalence, risk factors, presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of this disease. Craniofacial structure among Asians appears to confer an elevated risk of OSA despite lower rates of obesity. Among African Americans, Native Americans, and Hispanics, OSA prevalence is increased, likely due in part to obesity. The burden of symptoms, particularly excessive daytime sleepiness, is higher among African Americans, although Hispanics more often report snoring. Limited data suggest that African Americans may be more susceptible to hypertension in the setting of OSA. While differences in genetic risk factors may explain disparities in OSA burden, no definitive genetic differences have yet been identified. In addition to disparities in OSA development, disparities in OSA diagnosis and treatment have also been identified. Increased severity of disease at diagnosis among African Americans suggests a delay in diagnosis. Treatment outcomes are also suboptimal among African Americans. In children, tonsillectomy is less likely to cure OSA and more commonly associated with complications in this group. Among adults, adherence to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is substantially lower in African Americans. The reasons for these disparities, particularly in outcomes, are not well understood and should be a research priority.
Camacho, Macario; Zaghi, Soroush; Chang, Edward T.; Song, Sungjin A.; Szelestey, Blake; Certal, Victor
Objective. To search for articles evaluating the use of tracheostomies (either permanent stomas or tracheostomy tubes) in adult obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients and to evaluate the potential for the use of mini tracheostomies as treatment for OSA. Study Design. Systematic review. Methods. Nine databases were searched from inception through July 21, 2015. Results. The overall tracheostomy search yielded 516 articles, of which eighteen studies provided polysomnographic data. No study was identified (empty review) for the use of mini tracheostomies for treating OSA. The mini tracheostomy search yielded ninety-five articles which describe findings for either mini tracheostomy kits (inner cannula diameter of 4 mm) or the performance of mini tracheotomies. Six articles described the use of mini tracheostomies as a temporary procedure to relieve acute upper airway obstruction and none described the use for OSA. For tracheostomy stomal sites, suturing the skin directly to the tracheal rings with defatting can minimize stomal site collapse. The smallest tracheostomy stomal size that can successfully treat OSA has not been described. Conclusion. Mini tracheostomies as small as 4 mm have been successfully used in the short term to relieve upper airway obstruction. Given that polysomnography data are lacking, additional research is needed. PMID:26925105
Vanderveken, Olivier M; Boudewyns, An; Ni, Quan; Kashyap, Bhavani; Verbraecken, Johan; De Backer, Wilfried; Van de Heyning, Paul
Epidemiological studies provide strong evidence that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with cardiovascular complications such as systemic hypertension, congestive heart failure, and atrial fibrillation. Successful OSA treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has resulted in coincident reductions in systemic hypertension, improvements in left ventricular systolic function, and reductions in sympathetic nervous activity. These data suggest that successful treatment of OSA may reduce cardiovascular morbidity in such patients. Although CPAP is the more successful treatment for OSA when used properly and consistently, its clinical success is often limited by poor patient and partner acceptance, which leads to suboptimal compliance. Oral appliances or upper airway surgeries are considered a second line of treatment for patients with mild to moderate OSA who do not comply with or refuse long-term CPAP treatment. Oral devices such as mandibular repositioning appliances were recently shown to improve arterial hypertension in OSA patients. Electrical stimulation of the hypoglossal nerve is a new investigational therapy for patients with moderate to severe OSA. This new treatment option, if proven effective, may provide cardiovascular benefits secondary to treating OSA.
Goldman, Julie L.
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is more common in surgical candidates than in the general population and may increase susceptibility to perioperative complications that range from transient desaturation to catastrophic injuries. Understanding the potential impact of OSA on patients’ surgical risk profile is of particular interest to otolaryngologists, who routinely perform airway procedures—including surgical procedures for treatment of OSA. Whereas the effects of OSA on long-term health outcomes are well documented, the relationship between OSA and surgical risk is not collinear, and clear consensus on the nature of the association is lacking. Better guidelines for optimization of pain control, perioperative monitoring, and surgical decision making are potential areas for quality improvement efforts. Many interventions have been suggested to mitigate the risk of adverse events in surgical patients with OSA, but wide variations in clinical practice remain. We review the current literature, emphasizing recent progress in understanding the complex pathophysiologic interactions noted in OSA patients undergoing surgery and outlining potential strategies to decrease perioperative risks. PMID:25013745
Kukwa, A; Gromysz, H; Jernajczyk, U; Karczewski, W A
Several observations indicate that the mylohyoid nerve (NV) may play a crucial part in the mechanisms of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The activity of this nerve normally counteracts the collapse of the upper airways during inspiration. Any reduction in this activity may thus facilitate the occurrence of apnoeic spells. We have studied the effects of ethanol and lung inflations on the activity of NV recorded along with the activities of phrenic and facial nerve in rabbits anaesthetised with chloralose-urethan, paralyzed with curare and artificially ventilated. Under the control conditions the NV exhibited phasic expiratory activity; after vagotomy and additional, inspiratory component was observed. Lung inflation strongly enhanced the expiratory activity of NV whereas both the phrenic and facial nerve activities (both phasic-inspiratory) were typically inhibited. An injection of 5 ml of 20% ethanol very strongly inhibited the NV activity. The results may confirm the importance of NV in the mechanism of OSA. The well-known fact that OSA patients are particularly sensitive to alcohol finds support in the response of NV activity to ethanol injection. The analysis of the patterns of discharges of the three outputs from the respiratory controller may additionally suggest that the Vth nerve nucleus is involved in the control of respiratory pattern.
Gapelyuk, Andrej; Riedl, Maik; Suhrbier, Alexander; Kraemer, Jan F; Bretthauer, Georg; Malberg, Hagen; Kurths, Jürgen; Penzel, Thomas; Wessel, Niels
Heart rate and blood pressure variability analysis as well as baroreflex sensitivity have been proven to be powerful tools for the assessment of autonomic control in clinical practice. Their ability to detect systematic changes caused by different states, diseases and treatments shall be shown for sleep disorders. Therefore, we consider 18 normotensive and 10 hypertensive patients suffering from obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) before and after a three-month continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. Additionally, an age and sex matched control group of 10 healthy subjects is examined. Linear and nonlinear parameters of heart rate and blood pressure fluctuation as well as the baroreflex sensitivity are used to answer the question whether there are differences in cardiovascular regulation between the different sleep stages and groups. Moreover, the therapeutic effect of CPAP therapy in OSAS patients shall be investigated. Kruskal-Wallis tests between the sleep stages for each group show significant differences in the very low spectral component of heart rate (VLF/P: 0.0033-0.04 Hz, p<0.01) which indicates differences in metabolic activity during the night. Furthermore, the decrease of Shannon entropy of word distribution as a parameter of systolic blood pressure during non-REM sleep reflects the local dominance of the vagal system (p<0.05). The increased sympathetic activation of the patients leads to clear differences of cardiovascular regulation in different sleep stages between controls and patients. We found a significant reduction of baroreflex sensitivity in slow wave sleep in the OSAS patients (Mann-Whitney test, p<0.05) compared to controls, which disappeared after three months of CPAP therapy. Hence, our results demonstrate the ability of cardiovascular analyzes to separate between healthy and pathological regulation as well as between different severities of OSAS in this retrospective study.
Lin, Yin-Yan; Wu, Hau-Tieng; Hsu, Chi-An; Huang, Po-Chiun; Huang, Yuan-Hao; Lo, Yu-Lun
Physiologically, the thoracic (THO) and abdominal (ABD) movement signals, captured using wearable piezo-electric bands, provide information about various types of apnea, including central sleep apnea (CSA) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, the use of piezo-electric wearables in detecting sleep apnea events has been seldom explored in the literature. This study explored the possibility of identifying sleep apnea events, including OSA and CSA, by solely analyzing one or both the THO and ABD signals. An adaptive non-harmonic model was introduced to model the THO and ABD signals, which allows us to design features for sleep apnea events. To confirm the suitability of the extracted features, a support vector machine was applied to classify three categories - normal and hypopnea, OSA, and CSA. According to a database of 34 subjects, the overall classification accuracies were on average 75.9%±11.7% and 73.8%±4.4%, respectively, based on the cross validation. When the features determined from the THO and ABD signals were combined, the overall classification accuracy became 81.8%±9.4%. These features were applied for designing a state machine for online apnea event detection. Two event-byevent accuracy indices, S and I, were proposed for evaluating the performance of the state machine. For the same database, the S index was 84.01%±9.06%, and the I index was 77.21%±19.01%. The results indicate the considerable potential of applying the proposed algorithm to clinical examinations for both screening and homecare purposes.
Ivanoff, Chris S; Hottel, Timothy L; Pancratz, Frank
The widespread prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea and apneic snoring is both alarming and well documented. Sleep disorders affect one out of five Americans. Yet, during an attempt to study the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea and snoring among patients at the University of Tennessee Health Science Center College of Dentistry, a search through the entire school's database for the terms "sleep apnea" and "snoring" found only ninety-two patients who admitted to snoring. Currently, the condition "sleep apnea" is not even on the school's list of health/medical questions. These figures not only are inconsistent with national statistics, but confirm that more needs to be done to make dental students aware of these disorders, include them in patient medical histories, and ultimately educate patients about therapies that can help. Considering the health concerns related to this sleep disorder, the economic impact of insomnia and daytime sleepiness, as well as the fact that the dentist is well poised to reduce symptoms and increase the quality of life among sufferers, mandibular advancement devices should become an educational standard in the predoctoral clinical curriculum of dental schools. Predoctoral clinical curricula need to reflect this current health trend and train dentists to care for these patients comprehensively.
Smith, David F.; Dalesio, Nicholas M.; Benke, James R.; Petrone, John A.; Vigilar, Veronica; Cohen, Aliza P.; Ishman, Stacey L.
AP, Ishman SL. Anthropometric and dental measurements in children with obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(9):1279–1284. PMID:27448427
Wang, David; Eckert, Danny J; Grunstein, Ronald R
Understanding the inter-relationship between pharmacological agents, ventilatory control, upper airway physiology and their consequent effects on sleep-disordered breathing may provide new directions for targeted drug therapy. Where available, this review focuses on human studies that contain both drug effects on sleep-disordered breathing and measures of ventilatory control or upper airway physiology. Many of the existing studies are limited in sample size or comprehensive methodology. At times, the presence of paradoxical findings highlights the complexity of drug therapy for OSA. The existing studies also highlight the importance of considering inter-individual pharmacokinetics and underlying causes of sleep apnea in interpreting drug effects on sleep-disordered breathing. Practical ways to assess an individual's ventilatory control and how it interacts with upper airway physiology is required for future targeted pharmacotherapy in sleep apnea.
Redline, Susan; Baker-Goodwin, Si; Bakker, Jessie P.; Epstein, Matthew; Hanes, Sherry; Hanson, Mark; Harrington, Zinta; Johnston, James C.; Kapur, Vishesh K.; Keepnews, David; Kontos, Emily; Lowe, Andy; Owens, Judith; Page, Kathy; Rothstein, Nancy
Due to an ongoing recent evolution in practice, sleep medicine as a discipline has been compelled to respond to the converging pressures to reduce costs, improve outcomes, and demonstrate value. Patient “researchers” are uniquely placed to participate in initiatives that address the specific needs and priorities of patients and facilitate the identification of interventions with high likelihood of acceptance by the “customer.” To date, however, the “patient voice” largely has been lacking in processes affecting relevant policies and practice guidelines. In this Special Report, patient and research leaders of the Sleep Apnea Patient-Centered Outcomes Network (SAPCON), a national collaborative group of patients, researchers and clinicians working together to promote patient-centered comparative effectiveness research, discuss these interrelated challenges in the context of sleep apnea, and the role patients and patient-centered networks may play in informing evidence-based research designed to meet patient's needs. We first briefly discuss the challenges facing sleep medicine associated with costs, outcomes, and value. We then discuss the key role patients and patient-centered networks can play in efforts to design research to guide better sleep health care, and national support for such initiatives. Finally, we summarize some of the challenges in moving to a new paradigm of patient-researcher-clinician partnerships. By forging strong partnerships among patients, clinicians and researchers, networks such as SAPCON can serve as a living demonstration of how to achieve value in health care. Citation: Redline S, Baker-Goodwin S, Bakker JP, Epstein M, Hanes S, Hanson M, Harrington Z, Johnston JC, Kapur VK, Keepnews D, Kontos E, Lowe A, Owens J, Page K, Rothstein N, Sleep Apnea Patient-Centered Outcomes Network. Patient partnerships transforming sleep medicine research and clinical care: perspectives from the Sleep Apnea Patient-Centered Outcomes Network. J
Korcarz, Claudia E.; Peppard, Paul E.; Young, Terry B.; Chapman, Carrie B.; Hla, K. Mae; Barnet, Jodi H.; Hagen, Erika; Stein, James H.
Study Objectives: To characterize the prospective associations of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with future echocardiographic measures of adverse cardiac remodeling Methods: This was a prospective long-term observational study. Participants had overnight polysomnography followed by transthoracic echocardiography a mean (standard deviation) of 18.0 (3.7) y later. OSA was characterized by the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI, events/hour). Echocardiography was used to assess left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function and mass, left atrial volume and pressure, cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, and right ventricular (RV) systolic function, size, and hemodynamics. Multivariate regression models estimated associations between log10(AHI+1) and future echocardiographic findings. A secondary analysis looked at oxygen desaturation indices and future echocardiographic findings. Results: At entry, the 601 participants were mean (standard deviation) 47 (8) y old (47% female). After adjustment for age, sex, and body mass index, baseline log10(AHI+1) was associated significantly with future reduced LV ejection fraction and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) ≤ 15 mm. After further adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, participants with higher baseline log10(AHI+1) had lower future LV ejection fraction (β = −1.35 [standard error = 0.6]/log10(AHI+1), P = 0.03) and higher odds of TAPSE ≤ 15 mm (odds ratio = 6.3/log10(AHI+1), 95% confidence interval = 1.3–30.5, P = 0.02). SaO2 desaturation indices were associated independently with LV mass, LV wall thickness, and RV area (all P < 0.03) Conclusions: OSA is associated independently with decreasing LV systolic function and with reduced RV function. Echocardiographic measures of adverse cardiac remodeling are strongly associated with OSA but are confounded by obesity. Hypoxia may be a stimulus for hypertrophy in individuals with OSA. Citation: Korcarz CE, Peppard PE, Young TB, Chapman CB, Hla
Li, Hsueh-Yu; Lo, Yu-Lun; Wang, Chao-Jan; Hsin, Li-Jen; Lin, Wan-Ni; Fang, Tuan-Jen; Lee, Li-Ang
Surgical success for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) depends on identifying sites of obstruction in the upper airway. In this study, we investigated sites of obstruction by evaluating dynamic changes in the upper airway using drug-induced sleep computed tomography (DI-SCT) in patients with OSA. Thirty-five adult patients with OSA were prospectively enrolled. Sleep was induced with propofol under light sedation (bispectral index 70–75), and low-dose 320-detector row CT was performed for 10 seconds over a span of 2–3 respiratory cycles with supporting a continuous positive airway pressure model. Most (89%) of the patients had multi-level obstructions. Total obstruction most commonly occurred in the velum (86%), followed by the tongue (57%), oropharyngeal lateral wall (49%), and epiglottis (26%). There were two types of anterior-posterior obstruction of the soft palate, uvular (94%) and velar (6%), and three types of tongue obstruction, upper (30%), lower (37%), and upper plus lower obstruction (33%). DI-SCT is a fast and safe tool to identify simulated sleep airway obstruction in patients with OSA. It provides data on dynamic airway movement in the sagittal view which can be used to differentiate palate and tongue obstructions, and this can be helpful when planning surgery for patients with OSA. PMID:27762308
Pallayova, Maria; Steele, Kimberley E.; Magnuson, Thomas H.; Schweitzer, Michael A.; Smith, Philip L.; Patil, Susheel P.; Bevans-Fonti, Shannon; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y.
Background The effects of surgical weight loss (WL) on inflammatory biomarkers associated with sleep apnea remain unknown. We sought to determine if any bio-markers can predict amelioration of sleep apnea achieved by bariatric surgery. We hypothesized that surgical WL would substantially reduce severity of sleep apnea and levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Methods Twenty-three morbidly obese adults underwent anthropometric measurements, polysomnography, and serum biomarker profiling prior to and 1 year following bariatric surgery. We examined the effect of WL and amelioration of sleep apnea on metabolic and inflammatory markers. Results Surgical WL resulted in significant decreases in BMI (16.7±5.97 kg/m2/median 365 days), apnea–hypopnea index (AHI), CRP, IL-6, sTNFαR1, sTNFαR2, and leptin levels, while ghrelin, adiponectin, and soluble leptin receptor concentrations increased significantly. Utilizing an AHI cutoff of 15 events/h, we found significantly elevated levels of baseline sTNFαR2 and greater post-WL sTNFαR2 decreases in subjects with baseline AHI ≥15 events/h compared to those with AHI <15 events/h despite no significant differences in baseline BMI, age, and ΔBMI. In a multivariable linear regression model adjusting for sex, age, impaired glucose metabolism, ΔBMI, and follow-up period, the post-WL decreases in AHI were an independent predictor of the decreases in sTNFαR2 and altogether accounted for 46% of the variance of ΔsTNFαR2 (P=0.011) in the entire cohort. Conclusions Of all the biomarkers, the decrease in sTNFαR2 was independently determined by the amelioration of sleep apnea achieved by bariatric surgery. The results suggest that sTNFαR2 may be a specific sleep apnea biomarker across a wide range of body weight. PMID:21298510
Wu, Meng-Ni; Lai, Chiou-Lian; Liu, Ching-Kuan; Yen, Chen-Wen; Liou, Li-Min; Hsieh, Cheng-Fang; Tsai, Ming-Ju; Chen, Sharon C-J; Hsu, Chung-Yao
Because the impact of periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS) is controversial, no consensus has been reached on the therapeutic strategy for PLMS in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). To verify the hypothesis that PLMS is related to a negative impact on the cardiovascular system in OSA patients, this study investigated the basal autonomic regulation by heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. Sixty patients with mild-to-moderate OSA who underwent polysomnography (PSG) and completed sleep questionnaires were analysed retrospectively and divided into the PLMS group (n = 30) and the non-PLMS group (n = 30). Epochs without any sleep events or continuous effects were evaluated using HRV analysis. No significant difference was observed in the demographic data, PSG parameters or sleep questionnaires between the PLMS and non-PLMS groups, except for age. Patients in the PLMS group had significantly lower normalized high frequency (n-HF), high frequency (HF), square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of difference between adjacent NN intervals (RMSSD) and standard deviation of all normal to normal intervals index (SDNN-I), but had a higher normalized low frequency (n-LF) and LF/HF ratio. There was no significant difference in the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Short-Form 36 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale between the two groups. After adjustment for confounding variables, PLMS remained an independent predictor of n-LF (β = 0.0901, P = 0.0081), LF/HF ratio (β = 0.5351, P = 0.0361), RMSSD (β = -20.1620, P = 0.0455) and n-HF (β = -0.0886, P = 0.0134). In conclusion, PLMS is related independently to basal sympathetic predominance and has a potentially negative impact on the cardiovascular system of OSA patients.
Galluzzi, Francesca; Pignataro, Lorenzo; Gaini, Renato Maria; Garavello, Werner
Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy (T&A) is currently recommended in children with Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). However, the condition persists after surgery in about one third of cases. It has been suggested that Drug Induced Sleep Endoscopy (DISE) may be of help for planning a more targeted and effective surgical treatment but evidence is yet weak. The aim of this review is to draw recommendation on the use of DISE in children with OSA. More specifically, we aimed at determine the proportion of cases whose treatment may be influenced by DISE findings. A comprehensive search of articles published from February 1983 to January 2014 listed in the PubMed/MEDLINE databases was performed. The search terms used were: "endoscopy" or "nasoendoscopy" or "DISE" and "obstructive sleep apnea" and "children" or "child" or "pediatric." The main outcome was the rate of naive children with hypertrophic tonsils and/or adenoids. The assumptions are that clinical diagnosis of hypertrophic tonsils and/or adenoids is reliable and does not require DISE, and that exclusive T&A may solve OSA in the vast majority of cases even in the presence of other concomitant sites of obstruction. Five studies were ultimately selected and all were case series. The median (range) number of studied children was 39 (15-82). Mean age varied from 3.2 to 7.8 years. The combined estimate rate of OSA consequent to hypertrophic tonsils and/or adenoids was 71% (95%CI: 64-77%). In children with Down Syndrome, the combined estimated rate of hypertrophic tonsils and/or adenoids was 62% (95%CI: 44-79%). Our findings show that DISE may be of benefit in a minority of children with OSA since up to two thirds of naive cases presents with hypertrophic tonsils and/or adenoids. Its use should be limited to those whose clinical evaluation is unremarkable or when OSA persists after T&A.
Leppänen, Timo; Töyräs, Juha; Muraja-Murro, Anu; Kupari, Salla; Tiihonen, Pekka; Mervaala, Esa; Kulkas, Antti
Positional obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common among OSA patients. In severe OSA, the obstruction events are longer in supine compared to nonsupine positions. Corresponding scientific information on mild and moderate OSA is lacking. We studied whether individual obstruction and desaturation event severity is increased in supine position in all OSA severity categories and whether the severity of individual events is linked to OSA severity categories. Polygraphic recordings of 2026 patients were retrospectively analyzed. The individual apnea, and hypopnea durations and desaturation event depth, duration, and area of 526 included patients were compared between supine and nonsupine positions in different OSA severity categories. Apnea events were 6.3%, 12.5%, and 11.1% longer (p < 0.001) in supine compared to nonsupine position in mild, moderate, and severe OSA categories, respectively. In moderate and severe OSA categories desaturation areas were 5.7% and 25.5% larger (p < 0.001) in supine position. In both positions the individual event severity was elevated along increasing OSA severity category (p < 0.05). Supine position elevates apnea duration in all and desaturation area in moderate and severe OSA severity categories. This might be more hazardous for supine OSA patients and therefore, estimation of clinical severity of OSA should incorporate also information about individual event characteristics besides AHI.
Schredl, Michael; Schmitt, Judith; Hein, Gerhard; Schmoll, Tina; Eller, Sabine; Haaf, Janina
In the 19th century, several authors held the view that nightmares are caused by oxygen shortage. The present study was designed to study nightmare frequency in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and its relationship to respiratory parameters. A brief questionnaire was administered to 323 patients with sleep apnea syndrome before their first laboratory night. The reduction in nightmare frequency in the sleep apnea group was explained by the reduced dream recall frequency. Despite some illustrative examples of a correlation between oxygen desaturation and dream content, the respiratory parameters as measures of sleep apnea syndrome severity did not correlate substantially with nightmare frequency. Psychiatric comorbidity and an intake of psychotropic medication were associated with heightened nightmare frequency in this sample. It must be concluded that the oxygen hypothesis did not play a major role in explaining the occurrence of nightmares. As this might be partly explained by adaptation to the nightly desaturation periods, it will be fruitful to apply experimental procedures that interrupt airflow during (rapid eye movement) REM sleep for short periods in a systematic way without the knowledge of the sleeper and to then study their effects on dream content. Some patients reported a correlation between daytime stressors and nightmares, which is in line with modern etiological models of nightmares.
Gungor, Ahmet Yalcin; Turkkahraman, Hakan; Yilmaz, H. Huseyin; Yariktas, Murat
Objective: This study aimed to compare the cephalometric characteristics of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients with those of healthy subjects and to determine possible relationships between cephalometric measurements of OSA patients and control subjects. Methods: Standardized lateral cephalograms of 16 OSA patients and 16 healthy controls were obtained. Airway dimensions and dentofacial parameters were measured using a cephalometric analysis program (Dolphin Imaging Cephalometric and Tracing Software, Chatsworth, CA, USA). All statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS version 17.0.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Descriptive statistics were calculated for all measurements, and the Mann–Whitney U test was used to evaluate intergroup differences. Results: Midface length was significantly shorter and upper lip E-plane length was significantly longer in the OSA group than in the controls (P<.05). SNA, SNB, and mandibular plane angles (GoGn-SN), anterior and posterior facial heights, and posteroanterior face height ratio were similar in both groups. Maxillary length was slightly longer in the OSA group, whereas the mandibular length showed a slight increase in the control group (P<.05). The axial inclination of the lower incisor to its respective plane was normal, whereas the upper incisor was significantly protrusive (P<.05) in the OSA group. Distance between the hyoid and mandible was significantly greater in the OSA group than in the controls, indicating that the hyoid bone was positioned more downward in the OSA group (P<.05). Conclusions: In this study, the patients with OSA demonstrated significant differences in several craniofacial measurements. OSA patients showed reduced midface length and inferiorly placed hyoid bone and tended to have smaller airway dimensions. PMID:23408768
Schindler, Antonio; Mozzanica, Francesco; Sonzini, Giulia; Plebani, Daniela; Urbani, Emanuele; Pecis, Marica; Montano, Nicola
Although previous studies demonstrated that patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) may present subclinical manifestations of dysphagia, in not one were different textures and volumes systematically studied. The aim of this study was to analyze the signs and symptoms of oropharyngeal dysphagia using fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) with boluses of different textures and volumes in a large cohort of patients with OSAS. A total of 72 OSAS patients without symptoms of dysphagia were enrolled. The cohort was divided in two groups: 30 patients with moderate OSAS and 42 patients with severe OSAS. Each patient underwent a FEES examination using 5, 10 and 20 ml of liquids and semisolids, and solids. Spillage, penetration, aspiration, retention, and piecemeal deglutition were considered. The penetration-aspiration scale (PAS), pooling score (PS), and dysphagia outcome and severity scale (DOSS) were used for quantitative analysis. Each patient completed the SWAL-QOL questionnaire. Forty-six patients (64 %) presented spillage, 20 (28 %) piecemeal deglutition, 26 (36 %) penetration, and 30 (44 %) retention. No differences were found in the PAS, PS, and DOSS scores between patients with moderate and severe OSAS. Patients with severe OSAS scored higher General Burden and Food selection subscales of the SWAL-QOL. Depending on the DOSS score, the cohort of patients was divided into those with and those without signs of dysphagia. Patients with signs of dysphagia scored lower in the General Burden and Symptoms subscales of the SWAL-QOL. OSAS patients show signs of swallowing impairment in about half of the population; clinicians involved in the management of these patients should include questions on swallowing when taking the medical history.
Ahn, Sang Hyeon; Kim, Chang-Hoon; Yoon, Joo-Heon; Lee, Jeung-Gweon; Cho, Hyung-Ju
Introduction We hypothesized that the size of the hyoid bone itself may affect the severity of sleep apnea. The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between hyoid bone dimensions and the severity of sleep apnea using computerized tomography (CT) axial images. Methods We retrospectively measured the hyoid bone in axial images of neck CTs and correlated these measurements with results of polysomnography in a total of 106 male patients. The new hyoid bone parameters studied in this study were as follows: distance between bilateral lesser horns (LH-d), distance between bilateral greater horns (GH-d), distance from the most anterior end of the hyoid arch to GH-d (AP), distance from the greater to the lesser horn on right and left sides (GH-LH), and the anterior angle between bilateral extensive lines from the greater to the lesser horn (H-angle). Data was analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression, and Pearson correlation tests. Results We found a significant inverse correlation between the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and GH-d or AP. Neither the LH-d, GH-LH, nor H-angle were associated with the AHI. The patient group that met the criteria of both GH-d<45.4 and AP<33.4 demonstrated the most severe AHI. Conclusion The lateral width or antero-posterior length of hyoid bone was associated with AHI and predicted the severity of sleep apnea in male patients. This finding supports the role of expansion hyoidplasty for treatment of sleep apnea. Pre-operative consideration of these parameters may improve surgical outcomes in male patients with sleep apnea. PMID:24312562
Brown, Marishka K; Chan, May T; Zimmerman, John E; Pack, Allan I; Jackson, Nicholas E; Naidoo, Nirinjini
Alterations in the quality, quantity, and architecture of baseline and recovery sleep have been shown to occur during aging. Sleep deprivation induces endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress and upregulates a protective signaling pathway termed the unfolded protein response. The effectiveness of the adaptive unfolded protein response is diminished by age. Previously, we showed that endogenous chaperone levels altered recovery sleep in Drosophila melanogaster. We now report that acute administration of the chemical chaperone sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA) reduces ER stress and ameliorates age-associated sleep changes in Drosophila. PBA consolidates both baseline and recovery sleep in aging flies. The behavioral modifications of PBA are linked to its suppression of ER stress. PBA decreased splicing of X-box binding protein 1 and upregulation of phosphorylated elongation initiation factor 2 α, in flies that were subjected to sleep deprivation. We also demonstrate that directly activating ER stress in young flies fragments baseline sleep and alters recovery sleep. Alleviating prolonged or sustained ER stress during aging contributes to sleep consolidation and improves recovery sleep or sleep debt discharge.
da Cunha Viana, Alonço; Mendes, Daniella Leitão; de Andrade Lemes, Lucas Neves; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos; Neves, Denise Duprat; de Araújo-Melo, Maria Helena
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by recurrent episodes of partial or complete collapse of the pharynx that result in a decrease in oxyhemoglobin saturation. Nasofibrolaryngoscopy under induced sleep is a promising alternative for identifying sites of upper airway obstruction in patients with OSA. This study aimed to compare the obstruction sites screened by drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) using the Nose oropharynx hypopharynx and larynx (NOHL) and Velum oropharynx tongue base epiglottis (VOTE) classifications. We also determined the relationship between OSA severity and the number of obstruction sites and compared the minimum SaO2 levels between DISE and polysomnography (PSG). This was a prospective study in 45 patients with moderate and severe OSA using DISE with target-controlled infusion of propofol bispectral index (BIS) monitoring. The retropalatal region was the most frequent obstruction site, followed by the retrolingual region. Forty-two percent of patients had obstruction in the epiglottis. Concentrically shaped obstructions were more prevalent in both ratings. The relationship between OSA severity and number of obstruction sites was significant for the VOTE classification. Similar minimum SaO2 values were observed in DISE and PSG. The VOTE classification was more comprehensive in the analysis of the epiglottis and pharynx by DISE and the relationship between OSA severity and number of affected sites was also established by VOTE. The use of BIS associated with DISE is a reliable tool for the assessment of OSA patients.
Aktas, Ozturk; Erdur, Omer; Cirik, Ahmet Adnan; Kayhan, Fatma Tulin
This study investigated the role of drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) in the surgical treatment planning of patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). This study was conducted using patients diagnosed with OSAS between January 2007 and March 2009, who were scheduled for surgical treatment. DISE was performed using propofol in patients considered to have upper respiratory tract obstruction as indicated by Muller's maneuver. After completing the sleep endoscopy, the patient was intubated and surgery was performed (tonsillectomy and uvulopalatopharyngoplasty). A successful operation was defined as a decrease in the respiratory disturbance index to below 5 or a decrease of ≥50 % following the operation. The study included 20 patients (4 female and 16 male) aged 19-57 years. No statistically significant correlation between modified Mallampati class and operation success or between the polysomnographic stage of disease and operation success was identified. A significantly high operation success rate was found in the group with obstruction of the upper airway according to DISE (p < 0.05), whereas a significantly low operation success rate was found in the group with obstruction of the lower airway according to DISE (p < 0.01). DISE may be used to identify the localization of obstruction for diagnostic purposes, and it can be helpful in selecting the treatment method.
Virtanen, Jaakko; Noponen, Tommi; Salmi, Tapani; Toppila, Jussi; Meriläinen, Pekka
Medical near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can be used to estimate cerebral haemodynamic changes non-invasively. Sleep apnea is a common sleep disorder where repetitive pauses in breathing decrease the quality of sleep and exposes the individual to various health problems. We have measured oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin concentration changes during apneic events in sleep from the forehead of one subject using NIRS and used principal component analysis to extract extracerebral and cortical haemodynamic changes from NIRS signals. Comparison of NIRS signals with EEG, bioimpedance, and pulse oximetry data suggests that termination of apnea leads to decreases in cerebral blood volume and flow that may be related to neurological arousal via neurovascular coupling.
Bruwier, A; Poirrier, A L; Limme, M; Poirrier, R
The progress of medical imaging over the last decades has led to a better understanding of the upper airway structure in sleep-disordered patients. The Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSA) is attributed to a functional narrowing of the upper airway, particularly of the oropharynx, during sleep. This narrowing is multifactorial. We have shown that in 60% cases, the maxilla (nasal pyramid) seems too narrow. A mandible retroposition may also play a dominant role in 30% of the cases. Both scenarios can be combined. Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) is a new medical imaging technique that permits to visualize the upper airway with less ionizing radiation than the conventional scanner. To date, only five authors have performed an upper airway's 3D analysis of sleep apnea patients with cone beam. A better understanding of the affected segment of the upper airway should help refine treatment options.
Durgan, David J.; Ganesh, Bhanu P.; Cope, Julia L.; Ajami, Nadim J.; Phillips, Sharon C.; Petrosino, Joseph F.; Hollister, Emily B.; Bryan, Robert M.
Individuals suffering from obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are at increased risk for systemic hypertension. The importance of a healthy gut microbiota, and detriment of a dysbiotic microbiota, on host physiology is becoming increasingly evident. We tested the hypothesis that gut dysbiosis contributes to hypertension observed with OSA. OSA was modeled in rats by inflating a tracheal balloon during the sleep cycle (10 sec inflations, 60/hour). On normal chow diet, OSA had no effect on blood pressure; however, in rats fed a high fat diet, blood pressure increased 24 and 29mmHg after 7 and 14 days of OSA, respectively (p<0.05 each). Bacterial community characterization was performed on fecal pellets isolated before and after 14 days of OSA in chow and high fat fed rats. High fat diet and OSA led to significant alterations of the gut microbiota including decreases in bacterial taxa known to produce the short chain fatty acid butyrate (p<0.05). Finally, transplant of dysbiotic cecal contents from hypertensive OSA rats on high fat diet into OSA recipient rats on normal chow diet (shown to be normotensive) resulted in hypertension similar to that of the donor (increased 14 and 32mm Hg after 7 and 14 days of OSA, respectively; p<0.05). These studies demonstrate a causal relationship between gut dysbiosis and hypertension, and suggest that manipulation of the microbiota may be a viable treatment for OSA-induced, and possibly other forms of, hypertension. PMID:26711739
Sforza, Emilia; Roche, Fréderic
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a prevalent sleep disorder considered as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular consequences, such as systemic arterial hypertension, ischemic heart disease, cardiac arrhythmias, metabolic disorders, and cognitive dysfunction. The pathogenesis of OSA-related consequence is assumed to be chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH) inducing alterations at the molecular level, oxidative stress, persistent systemic inflammation, oxygen sensor activation, and increase of sympathetic activity. Overall, these mechanisms have an effect on vessel permeability and are considered to be important factors for explaining vascular, metabolic, and cognitive OSA-related consequences. The present review attempts to examine together the research paradigms and clinical studies on the effect of acute and chronic IH and the potential link with OSA. We firstly describe the literature data on the mechanisms activated by acute and chronic IH at the experimental level, which are very helpful and beneficial to explaining OSA consequences. Then, we describe in detail the effect of IH in patients with OSA that we can consider “the human model” of chronic IH. In this way, we can better understand the specific pathophysiological mechanisms proposed to explain the consequences of IH in OSA. PMID:27800512
Durgan, David J; Ganesh, Bhanu P; Cope, Julia L; Ajami, Nadim J; Phillips, Sharon C; Petrosino, Joseph F; Hollister, Emily B; Bryan, Robert M
Individuals suffering from obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are at increased risk for systemic hypertension. The importance of a healthy gut microbiota, and detriment of a dysbiotic microbiota, on host physiology is becoming increasingly evident. We tested the hypothesis that gut dysbiosis contributes to hypertension observed with OSA. OSA was modeled in rats by inflating a tracheal balloon during the sleep cycle (10-s inflations, 60 per hour). On normal chow diet, OSA had no effect on blood pressure; however, in rats fed a high-fat diet, blood pressure increased 24 and 29 mm Hg after 7 and 14 days of OSA, respectively (P<0.05 each). Bacterial community characterization was performed on fecal pellets isolated before and after 14 days of OSA in chow and high-fat fed rats. High-fat diet and OSA led to significant alterations of the gut microbiota, including decreases in bacterial taxa known to produce the short chain fatty acid butyrate (P<0.05). Finally, transplant of dysbiotic cecal contents from hypertensive OSA rats on high-fat diet into OSA recipient rats on normal chow diet (shown to be normotensive) resulted in hypertension similar to that of the donor (increased 14 and 32 mm Hg after 7 and 14 days of OSA, respectively; P<0.05). These studies demonstrate a causal relationship between gut dysbiosis and hypertension, and suggest that manipulation of the microbiota may be a viable treatment for OSA-induced, and possibly other forms of, hypertension.
Ahmad, Shahbaj; Gupta, Manan; Gupta, Ravi; Dhyani, Mohan
Background: Poor sleep quality, insomnia, and restless legs syndrome (RLS) and sleep apnea are common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Clinical correlates of these problems are poorly understood. Aims: This study was to find out the prevalence and correlates of insomnia and subjects with ‘high risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)’ in adults with chronic kidney disease. Materials and Methods: One hundred and four adults with CKD were included. Their demographic data, details regarding kidney disease and hemodialysis (HD) were recorded. Presence of insomnia and its severity was assessed. They were screened for sleep apnea using a validated questionnaire. Results: Average age was 54.17 (± 12.96) years. 89.4% had stage 5 nephropathy and 78.8% subjects were on regular HD. Males outnumbered females. Insomnia was reported by 35.5%. Among these, 50% had chronic insomnia. Insomnia subjects had higher prevalence of diabetes (P = 0.01) and depression (P < 0.001). Fifty-one percent subjects were at “high risk for sleep apnea”. They had higher prevalence of diabetes (P < 0.001), coronary disease (P = 0.02), insomnia (P = 0.008), and experienced daytime symptoms of insomnia (P < 0.001). However, in the logistic regression, only male gender (odds ratio, OR = 13.59) and daytime symptoms of insomnia (OR = 7.34) were found to be associated with “higher risk for sleep apnea”. Conclusion: Insomnia was prevalent in CKD. Nearly half of these patients are at high risk for sleep apnea and a third of them suffer from insomnia. Hence, these patients should be screened for sleep disorders. PMID:24404542
Yonekura, Arata; Kawakatsu, Kenji; Suzuki, Kenji; Nishimura, Tadao
Preservation treatments for sleep respiratory disorders, such as the use of a dental device and the technique of nasal continuous positive air pressure, cause discomfort to the patient and are not radical treatments. Therefore, we performed operative therapy instead. Laser midline glossectomy was performed to treat constriction at the root of the tongue in 16 patients diagnosed with sleep apnea syndrome. We also tried lingual tonsil excision using the Harmonic Scalpel in three patients with stenosis at the base of the tongue.
Gilon, Yves; Raskin, Sylviane; Heymans, Olivier; Poirrier, Robert
One of the most common symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is daytime drowsiness. It is associated with a high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and an elevated incidence of car crashes. In general, young patients don't want conservative treatment because symptomatic and to prevent secondary effects. In this article, we briefly define sleep disorders and the interest of cephalometric examination. We describe the different treatment possibilities and stress the important role of orthognathic surgery in this syndrome.
Chen, Yunn-Jy; Shih, Tiffany Ting-Fang; Chang, Yi-Chung; Hsu, Ying-Chieh; Huon, Leh-Kiong; Lo, Men-Tzung; Pham, Van-Truong; Lin, Chen; Wang, Pa-Chun
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is caused by multi-level upper airway obstruction. Anatomic changes at the sites of obstruction may modify the physical or acoustic properties of snores. The surgical success of OSA depends upon precise localization of obstructed levels. We present a case of OSAS who received simultaneous dynamic MRI and snore acoustic recordings. The synchronized image and acoustic information successfully characterize the sites of temporal obstruction during sleep-disordered breathing events.
Dixon-Williams, Sherrie; Thornton, J. Daryl
Smoking and OSA are widely prevalent and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. It has been hypothesized that each of these conditions adversely affects the other, leading to increased comorbidity while altering the efficacy of existing therapies. However, while the association between smoking and OSA is plausible, the evidence is less than conclusive. Cigarette smoking may increase the severity of OSA through alterations in sleep architecture, upper airway neuromuscular function, arousal mechanisms, and upper airway inflammation. Conversely, some evidence links untreated OSA with smoking addiction. Smoking cessation should improve OSA, but the evidence to support this is also limited. This article reviews the current evidence linking both conditions and the efficacy of various treatments. Limitations of the current evidence and areas in need of future investigation are also addressed. PMID:25451354
Brown, Devin L.; McDermott, Mollie; Mowla, Ashkan; De Lott, Lindsey; Morgenstern, Lewis B.; Kerber, Kevin A.; Hegeman, Garnett; Smith, Melinda A.; Garcia, Nelda M.; Chervin, Ronald D.; Lisabeth, Lynda D.
Background Association between cerebral infarction site and post-stroke sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) has important implications for SDB screening and the pathophysiology of post-stroke SDB. Within a large, population-based study, we assessed whether brainstem infarction location is associated with SDB presence and severity. Methods Cross-sectional study of ischemic stroke patients in the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) project. Subjects underwent SDB screening (median 13 days after stroke) with a well-validated cardiopulmonary sleep apnea testing device (n=355). Acute infarction location was determined based on review of radiology reports and dichotomized into brainstem involvement or none. Logistic and linear regression models were used to test the associations between brainstem involvement and SDB or apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) in unadjusted and adjusted models. Results Thirty-eight (11%) had acute infarction involving the brainstem. Of those without brainstem infarction, 59% had significant SDB (AHI≥10); the median AHI was 13 (interquartile range (IQR) 6, 26). Of those with brainstem infarction, 84% had SDB; median AHI was 20 (IQR 11, 38). In unadjusted analysis, brainstem involvement was associated with over three times the odds of SDB (OR 3.71 (95% CI: 1.52, 9.13)). In a multivariable model, adjusted for demographics, BMI, hypertension, diabetes, coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, prior stroke/TIA, and stroke severity, results were similar (OR 3.76 (95% CI: 1.44, 9.81)). Brainstem infarction was also associated with AHI (continuous) in unadjusted (p=0.004) and adjusted models (p=0.004). Conclusions Data from this population-based stroke study show that acute infarction involving the brainstem is associated with both presence and severity of SDB. PMID:24916097
Doshi, Viral; Walia, Reuben; Jones, Kellie; Aston, Christopher E; Awab, Ahmed
The Snoring, Tiredness, Observed apnea, high blood Pressure (STOP)-Body mass index (BMI), Age, Neck circumference, and Gender (BANG) questionnaire is a well validated screening tool for diagnosis of Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) by an in- lab sleep study. However, performance of STOP-BANG as a screening tool for diagnosis of OSA in patients undergoing portable monitoring (PM) sleep study has not been well validated. We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients older than 18 years who had unattended portable monitoring sleep study done at a VA medical center between June 2012 and October 2014. STOP-BANG questionnaire and Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) were routinely done prior to study. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV) various STOP-BANG score thresholds were calculated for diagnosis of OSA defined by Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI) ≥5. Out of 502 unattended portable monitoring sleep studies, there were 465 males and 37 females. STOP-BANG thresholds of ≥2 and 3 have high sensitivity of 99.8 and 98.9 %, respectively, but very low specificity. Higher score thresholds of ≥7 and 8 have high specificity of 95 and 98.3 %, and PPV of 98.1 and 98.5 %, respectively, but very low sensitivity. A threshold of ≥7 in patients with BMI ≥30 was 100 % specific. The false negative rate for unattended portable monitoring sleep study compared to in-lab study was 80 %. STOP-BANG score thresholds of ≥7 and 8 are highly specific and have high PPV and therefore can potentially reduce need of diagnostic sleep studies in selected patients. Score thresholds of ≤2 or 3 are highly sensitive for AHI ≥5 by unattended portable monitoring sleep study but have high false negative rates. Therefore, in-lab sleep study should be performed to rule out OSA.
Folha, Gislaine A; Valera, Fabiana C P; de Felício, Cláudia M
There is no standardized protocol for the clinical evaluation of orofacial components and functions in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. The aim of this study was to examine the validity, reliability, and psychometric properties of the Expanded Protocol of Orofacial Myofunctional Evaluation with Scores (OMES-expanded) in subjects with obstructive sleep apnea. Patients with obstructive sleep apnea and control subjects were evaluated, and the validity of OMES-expanded was tested by construct validity (i.e. the ability to discriminate orofacial status between apneic and control subjects) and criterion validity (i.e. correlation between OMES-expanded and a reference instrument). Construct validity was adequate; the apneic group showed significantly worse orofacial status than did control subjects. Criterion validity of OMES-expanded was good, as was its reliability. The OMES-expanded is valid and reliable for evaluating orofacial myofunctional disorders of patients with obstructive sleep apnea, with adequate psychometric properties. It may be useful to plan a therapeutic strategy and to determine whether the effects of therapy are related to improved muscle and orofacial functions.
Heiser, Clemens; Maurer, Joachim T; Hofauer, Benedikt; Sommer, J Ulrich; Seitz, Annemarie; Steffen, Armin
Objective Selective stimulation of the hypoglossal nerve is a new surgical therapy for obstructive sleep apnea, with proven efficacy in well-designed clinical trials. The aim of the study is to obtain additional safety and efficacy data on the use of selective upper airway stimulation during daily clinical routine. Study Design Prospective single-arm study. Setting Three tertiary hospitals in Germany (Munich, Mannheim, Lübeck). Subjects and Methods A multicenter prospective single-arm study under a common implant and follow-up protocol took place in 3 German centers (Mannheim, Munich, Lübeck). Every patient who received an implant of selective upper airway stimulation was included in this trial (apnea-hypopnea index ≥15/h and ≤65/h and body mass index <35 kg/m(2)). Before and 6 months after surgery, a 2-night home sleep test was performed. Data regarding the safety and efficacy were collected. Results From July 2014 through October 2015, 60 patients were included. Every subject reported improvement in sleep and daytime symptoms. The average usage time of the system was 42.9 ± 11.9 h/wk. The median apnea-hypopnea index was significantly reduced at 6 months from 28.6/h to 8.3/h. No patient required surgical revision of the implanted system. Conclusion Selective upper airway stimulation is a safe and effective therapy for patients with obstructive sleep apnea and represents a powerful option for its surgical treatment.
González-Pliego, José Angel; Hernández-Gordillo, Daniel; Castañeda-Barragán, Edgar; García-Lamas, Leopoldo; Guzmán-Sánchez, César Manuel
The purpose of this review is to analyse the relation between obstructive sleep apnea and coronary disease. We present epidemiological data on the respiratory disorder and its association with ischemic cardiopathy, as well as common cardiovascular risk factors, physiopathological interactions between both conditions, clinical evolution and impact of treatment on prognosis.
Williams, Natasha J; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Ravenell, Joeseph; Seixas, Azizi; Islam, Nadia; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Ogedegbe, Gbenga
Objective Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA); is a leading sleep disorder that is disproportionately more prevalent in minority populations and is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality. OSA is associated with many chronic conditions including hypertension, diabetes, and obesity, all of which disproportionately burden blacks (i.e., peoples of African American, Caribbean, or African descent). Methods This article will review studies conducted in the U.S. that examined sleep screenings and adherence to treatment for obstructive sleep apnea among blacks. In addition, we provide guidelines for implementing a practical framework to increase OSA screening and management among blacks. Results Several studies have documented racial/ethnic disparities in adherence to treatment for obstructive sleep apnea. However, despite its public health significance, there is a paucity of studies addressing these disparities. Further, there is a lack of health programs and policies to increase screening and treatment of OSA among blacks and other minority populations. A practical framework to increase the number of blacks who are screened for OSA and treated appropriately is warranted. Such a framework is timely and is of major importance, as early identification of OSA in this high-risk population could potentially lead to early treatment and prevention of CVD, thereby reducing racial and ethnic disparities in sleep-related CVD morbidity and mortality. PMID:26652238
Smith, Matthew M; Peterson, Ed; Yaremchuk, Kathleen L
Objective To determine if tonsillectomy alone is an effective treatment in improving obstructive sleep apnea in adult subjects with tonsillar hypertrophy and to evaluate the effect of tonsillectomy on patient-reported quality-of-life indices. Study Design Case series with planned data collection. Setting Academic hospital. Subjects and Methods Thirty-four subjects completed enrollment and intervention from January 2011 to January 2016. Subjects completed pre- and postoperative quality-of-life questionnaires, including the Insomnia Severity Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and the Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire-10. Surgical response to treatment was defined by a >50% decrease in the Apnea-Hypopnea Index and a decrease in the overall Apnea-Hypopnea Index to <20. Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank tests were used to test each variable to assess for a change from pre- to postintervention. Subjects were then split into 3 BMI subgroups, with results also evaluated by Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank tests. Results There was a significant difference discovered between the mean preoperative Apnea-Hypopnea Index of 31.57 and the mean postoperative value of 8.12 ( P < .001). All patient-reported outcomes improved significantly following tonsillectomy. After stratifying all outcome variables (Apnea-Hypopnea Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Insomnia Severity Index, and Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire-10) by sex, race, and tonsil size, no statistically significant difference was noted among any of these subgroups. There was a 78% surgical response to treatment. Conclusion Tonsillectomy appears to be an effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea in a select population of adults with tonsillar hypertrophy.
Zwacka, G; Scholle, S
Sleep-apnea in childhood shows a frequency similar to adults but it is caused by many other reasons. Therapeutic effects of nasal CPAP and BIPAP can replace surgical ENT-Therapy in large extent mainly in ages at 2-5 years. But also in older children is it possible to treat obstructive sleep apnea and hypoventilation neuromuscular diseases by BIPAP. Examples for treatment of children by BIPAP who are two years old were given. Other demonstrated cases cover children with stridor congenitus, obstructive sleep apnea, hypoventilation, adenoidal breathing disturbances with primary surgical treated tonsillar hyperplasia and one case of thoracal postobstructive malformation with therapeutic BIPAP options.
Walia, Harneet K.; Chung, Mina K.; Ibrahim, Sally; Mehra, Reena
Accumulating data implicate obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) as a predisposing factor to the development of atrial fibrillation (AF), the latter representing the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia. The postulated mechanisms leading to atrial arrhythmogenesis in OSA include alterations in intrathoracic pressures, intermittent hypoxemia, and autonomic nervous system fluctuations. Although these OSA-related pathophysiologic pathways may result in atrial structural and electrical remodeling, thereby predisposing to AF, there are data to suggest that the immediate influences of respiratory events may trigger arrhythmic events. This case demonstrates an immediate reversal of AF to normal sinus rhythm with optimal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in the background of severe OSA. These findings of immediate benefit of reversal of OSA pathophysiology on cardiac arrhythmia suggest OSA may have acute influences on cardiac electrophysiology. Citation: Walia HK, Chung MK, Ibrahim S, Mehra R. Positive airway pressure-induced conversion of atrial fibrillation to normal sinus rhythm in severe obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(9):1301–1303. PMID:27166298
Sharma, Surendra K.; Katoch, Vishwa Mohan; Mohan, Alladi; Kadhiravan, T.; Elavarasi, A.; Ragesh, R.; Nischal, Neeraj; Sethi, Prayas; Behera, D.; Bhatia, Manvir; Ghoshal, A. G.; Gothi, Dipti; Joshi, Jyotsna; Kanwar, M. S.; Kharbanda, O. P.; Kumar, Suresh; Mohapatra, P. R.; Mallick, B. N.; Mehta, Ravindra; Prasad, Rajendra; Sharma, S. C.; Sikka, Kapil; Aggarwal, Sandeep; Shukla, Garima; Suri, J. C.; Vengamma, B.; Grover, Ashoo; Vijayan, V. K.; Ramakrishnan, N.; Gupta, Rasik
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) are subsets of sleep-disordered breathing. Awareness about OSA and its consequences among the general public as well as the majority of primary care physicians across India is poor. This necessitated the development of the Indian initiative on obstructive sleep apnea (INOSA) guidelines under the auspices of Department of Health Research, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. OSA is the occurrence of an average five or more episodes of obstructive respiratory events per hour of sleep with either sleep-related symptoms or co-morbidities or ≥15 such episodes without any sleep-related symptoms or co-morbidities. OSAS is defined as OSA associated with daytime symptoms, most often excessive sleepiness. Patients undergoing routine health check-up with snoring, daytime sleepiness, obesity, hypertension, motor vehicular accidents, and high-risk cases should undergo a comprehensive sleep evaluation. Medical examiners evaluating drivers, air pilots, railway drivers, and heavy machinery workers should be educated about OSA and should comprehensively evaluate applicants for OSA. Those suspected to have OSA on comprehensive sleep evaluation should be referred for a sleep study. Supervised overnight polysomnography is the “gold standard” for evaluation of OSA. Positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy is the mainstay of treatment of OSA. Oral appliances (OA) are indicated for use in patients with mild to moderate OSA who prefer OA to PAP, or who do not respond to PAP or who fail treatment attempts with PAP or behavioral measures. Surgical treatment is recommended in patients who have failed or are intolerant to PAP therapy. PMID:26180408
Schneider, H; O'Hearn, D J; Leblanc, K; Smith, P L; O'Donnell, C P; Eisele, D W; Peter, J H; Schwartz, A R
To determine the effect of transtracheal insufflation (TTI) on obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), we examined breathing patterns in five tracheostomized patients with OSA at varying TTI flow rates when breathing with a closed tracheostomy. The breathing patterns and polysomnographic responses to air insufflation were studied as TTI was increased from 0 to 15 L/min for brief periods of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep (Experiment 1). The frequency of sleep-disordered breathing episodes remained high at 0 and 5 L/min (87.0 +/- 33.7 and 79.4 +/- 24.4 episodes per hour NREM) and decreased significantly to 41.3 +/- 31.5 and 43.4 +/- 31.4 episodes/h NREM sleep at rates of 10 and 15 L/min, respectively (p = 0.003). At high levels of TTI (10 and 15 L/min), obstructive apneas and hypopneas decreased but periodic laryngeal obstructions were induced during stage 1 NREM sleep. To prevent laryngeal obstructions, a servo-control system was used to briefly interrupt TTI during these events. When this system was implemented for more prolonged periods of sleep (Experiment 2, total sleep time 176.6 +/- 12.5 min), high-flow TTI (hf-TTI, 15 L/min) led to an overall reduction in the combined frequency of obstructive apneas and laryngeal obstructions from 63.8 +/- 21.8 to 10.7 +/- 9.1 (p < 0.03) and was associated with a marked reduction in arousal frequency from 60.0 +/- 26.0 to 8. 3 +/- 5.4/h in NREM sleep, and from 67.5 +/- 3.5 to 0 +/- 0/h in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Our findings demonstrate that hf-TTI stabilized breathing patterns in apneic patients, and was safe and efficacious for prolonged periods of sleep.
Tsui, Wai Kin; Yang, Yanqi; Cheung, Lim Kwong; Leung, Yiu Yan
Abstract Background: To conduct a systematic review to answer the clinical question “What are the effectiveness of mandibular distraction osteogenesis (MDO) and its complications to treat patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS)?”. Methods: A systematic search including a computer search with specific keywords, reference list search, and manual search were done. Relevant articles on MDO were assessed and selected in 3 rounds for final review based on 5 predefined inclusion criteria and followed by a round of critical appraisal. Different types of distraction and their treatment outcomes of OSAS were recorded with standardized form and analyzed. Results: Twelve articles were included in the final review. A total of 256 patients aged 7 days to 60 years were treated with either external or internal MDO, with a mean follow-up period of 6 to 37 months. The average distraction distance of 12 to 29 mm was achieved with various distraction protocols. The success rate for adult patients was 100%, and cure rates were ranged from 82% to 100%. The definition of success or cure for OSAS in children or infants was not defined. Therefore, there were no clearly reported success or cure rates for children/infants in the included studies. However, all studies reported that these patients showed significant improvement in OSAS, with many of them who avoided tracheostomy or had the tracheostomy decannulated. The complication rates were ranged from 0% to 21.4%, with most being from local wound infections or neurosensory disturbances. Conclusion: This systematic review showed that MDO was effective in resolving OSAS in adults with retrognathic mandible. MDO also showed promising results in infants or children with OSAS. From the results of this systematic review, we recommend to define the criteria of success or cure for OSAS surgery in children and infants. We also recommend setting up randomized controlled trials to compare MDO with traditional maxillomandibular
Crowley, Kate E.; Rajaratnam, Shantha M.W.; Shea, Steven A.; Epstein, Lawrence J.; Czeisler, Charles A.; Lockley, Steven W.
Study Objectives: To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of a portable single-channel (intra-nasal pressure) sleep apnea device (ApneaLink) in both the laboratory and at home for assessment of sleep apnea risk in comparison with standard polysomnography (PSG). Methods: Fifty-five participants underwent simultaneous recordings of standard PSG and ApneaLink in the laboratory. Of these, 38 participants also used the ApneaLink device in their own homes for one night. PSG respiratory events were scored using standard criteria. Intra-nasal pressure signals were analyzed using the ApneaLink automated computerized algorithm provided to yield estimates of airflow for detection of apneas and hypopneas. Apnea-hypopnea indices (AHI) were compared. Results: There was high sensitivity and specificity for the ApneaLink AHI when compared to simultaneous PSG at comparable AHI levels (AHI ≥ 15 events/h; sensitivity 100%, specificity 92%; positive and negative predictive values 70% and 100%, respectively). Home-measured ApneaLink AHI sensitivity and specificity were also reliable when compared with PSG (AHI ≥ 5, 81% and 77%, respectively; AHI ≥ 15, 67% and 91%), and improved slightly when two nights' data were used (AHI ≥ 5, 88% and 85%; AHI ≥ 15, 67% and 93%). Conclusions: The ApneaLink demonstrated good sensitivity and specificity in quantifying AHI when compared to PSG in a population with and without confirmed OSA. This simple, easy-to-use device may be useful in de novo large-scale occupational or underserved community OSA diagnostic programs to identify those with unambiguous disease who need immediate treatment or indicate those who may be at increased risk of OSA. Citation: Crowley KE; Rajaratnam SMW; Shea SA; Epstein LJ; Czeisler CA; Lockley SW. Evaluation of a single-channel nasal pressure device to assess obstructive sleep apnea risk in laboratory and home environments. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(2):109–116. PMID:23372462
McEvoy, R Doug; Anderson, Craig S; Antic, Nick A; Chen, Baoyuan; He, Quanying; Heeley, Emma; Huang, Shaoguang; Huang, Yining; Wang, Jiguang; Zhong, Nanshan
THE SLEEP APNEA CARDIOVASCULAR ENDPOINTS (SAVE) STUDY (CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT00738170) is an academic initiated and conducted, multinational, open, blinded endpoint, randomised controlled trial designed to determine whether treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) can reduce the incidence of serious cardiovascular events in patients with established cardiovascular disease. The answer to this question is of major importance to populations undergoing ageing and lifestyle changes all over the world. The SAVE study brings together respiratory, sleep and cardiovascular clinician-scientists in a unique interdisciplinary collaborative effort with industry sponsors to conduct the largest and most ambitious clinical trial yet conducted in the field of sleep apnea, with a global recruitment target of 5000 patients. Following its launch in Australia and China in late 2008, SAVE has now entered a phase of international expansion with new recruitment networks being established in New Zealand, India and Latin America. This article describes the rationale for the SAVE study, the considerations behind its design, and progress thus far in establishing the recruitment network. The report emphasises the important role that Chinese sleep and cardiovascular investigators have played in the start-up phase of this landmark international project.
Gala, Thaddeus R.; Seaman, David R.
Objective This purpose of this case study is to describe a natural method to help in management of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), which is known to be a common and debilitating condition. Clinical Features Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is typically managed with a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device, which the patient wears during sleep to help maintain respiration. This report describes the chiropractic management and resolution of OSAS with dietary modifications in a 55-year-old man who wore a CPAP for 10 years. Intervention and Outcome After adhering to dietary modifications for 3 months, the patient no longer required the use of the CPAP device and continues to have a normal active lifestyle almost 7 years later. Conclusion Dietary modifications may be an effective tool to improve the management of OSAS. PMID:22014867
Gilon, Y; Raskin, S; Heymans, O; Poirrier, R
Maxillomandibular advancement is an integral part of the surgical treatment of patients suffering from obstructive sleep apnea. A number of publications report its efficacy and have attempted to define predictive success criteria. However, few authors have shown an interest in the surgical specificity of this intervention and in the difficulties that can be encountered, which differ from those seen in conventional orthognathic surgery. In this article, a series of patients treated with maxillomandibular osteotomy to correct obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (n = 17) are compared with patients who underwent surgery for the correction of dentofacial disharmonies (n = 33). Observations emphasized the importance of respecting a strict surgical and postsurgical protocol to avoid any technical traps linked to maxillomandibular advancement, both in preoperative simulations and during and after surgery. Results concerning sleep parameters will be the subject of a future publication.
Brown, Devin L.; Anderson, Craig S.; Chervin, Ronald D.; Kushida, Clete A.; Lewin, Daniel S.; Malow, Beth A.; Redline, Susan; Goldman, Edward B.
Scientifically rigorous clinical trials are needed to test continuous positive airway pressure's (CPAP) effect on important clinical endpoints known to be associated with obstructive sleep apnea, such as myocardial infarction, cardiac arrhythmias, stroke, mortality, seizures, and cognitive function. In this “Special Article,” we review the regulatory and ethical issues that surround the design and conduct of CPAP trials, including selection of the appropriate control condition, exclusion criteria, and follow-up duration. Citation: Brown DL; Anderson CS; Chervin RD; Kushida CA; Lewin DS; Malow BA; Redline S; Goldman EB. Ethical issues in the conduct of clinical trials in obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2011;7(1):103-108. PMID:21344041
Suratt, P M; McTier, R F; Findley, L J; Pohl, S L; Wilhoit, S C
The effect of weight loss following dietary restriction on disordered breathing on the pharyngeal airway is controversial in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We therefore prospectively studied eight patients before and after dietary-induced weight loss. Mean weight loss was 20.6 kg +/- 12.8 SD. After weight loss there were significant improvements in PO2 and PCO2 measured during wakefulness, and in the number of desaturation episodes per hour of sleep, average desaturation per episode, and number of movement arousals. The number of apneas and hypopneas significantly decreased in six of eight patients. There was a significant correlation between body mass index and number of disordered breathing events. Nasopharyngeal collapsibility and pulse flow resistance decreased in awake patients after weight loss. We conclude that moderate weight loss in obese patients with OSA improves oxygenation during both sleep and wakefulness, decreases the number of disordered breathing events in many patients, decreases the collapsibility of the nasopharyngeal airway.
Sarma, Manoj K.; Macey, Paul M.; Nagarajan, Rajakumar; Aysola, Ravi; Harper, Ronald M.; Thomas, M. Albert
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) leads to neurocognitive and autonomic deficits that are partially mediated by thalamic and putamen pathology. We examined the underlying neurochemistry of those structures using compressed sensing-based 4D echo-planar J-resolved spectroscopic imaging (JRESI), and quantified values with prior knowledge fitting. Bilaterally increased thalamic mI/Cr, putamen Glx/Cr, and Glu/Cr, and bilaterally decreased thalamic and putamen tCho/Cr and GABA/Cr occurred in OSAS vs healthy subjects (p < 0.05). Increased right thalamic Glx/Cr, Glu/Cr, Gln/Cr, Asc/Cr, and decreased GPC/Cr and decreased left thalamic tNAA/Cr, NAA/Cr were detected. The right putamen showed increased mI/Cr and decreased tCho/Cr, and the left, decreased PE/Cr ratio. ROC curve analyses demonstrated 60–100% sensitivity and specificity for the metabolite ratios in differentiating OSAS vs. controls. Positive correlations were found between: left thalamus mI/Cr and baseline oxygen saturation (SaO2); right putamen tCho/Cr and apnea hypopnea index; right putamen GABA/Cr and baseline SaO2; left putamen PE/Cr and baseline SaO2; and left putamen NAA/Cr and SaO2 nadir (all p < 0.05). Negative correlations were found between left putamen PE/Cr and SaO2 nadir. These findings suggest underlying inflammation or glial activation, with greater alterations accompanying lower oxygen saturation. These metabolite levels may provide biomarkers for future neurochemical interventions by pharmacologic or other means. PMID:27596614
Lutsey, Pamela L.; Bengtson, Lindsay G.S.; Punjabi, Naresh M.; Shahar, Eyal; Mosley, Thomas H.; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Wruck, Lisa M.; MacLehose, Richard F.; Alonso, Alvaro
Study Objectives: Prospective data evaluating abnormal sleep quality and quantity with cognitive decline are limited because most studies used subjective data and/or had short follow-up. We hypothesized that, over 15 y of follow-up, participants with objectively measured obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and other indices of poor sleep quantity and quality would experience greater decline in cognitive functioning than participants with normal sleep patterns. Methods: ARIC participants (n = 966; mean age 61 y, 55% women) with in-home polysomnography (1996–1998) and repeated cognitive testing were followed for 15 y. Three cognitive tests (Delayed Word Recall, Word Fluency, and Digit Symbol Substitution) were administered at two time points (1996–1998 and 2011–2013). Ten additional cognitive tests were administered at the 2011–2013 neurocognitive examination. OSA was modeled using established clinical OSA severity categories. Multivariable linear regression was used to explore associations of OSA and other sleep indices with change in cognitive tests between the two assessments. Results: A median of 14.9 y (max: 17.3) passed between the two cognitive assessments. OSA category and additional indices of sleep (other measures of hypoxemia and disordered breathing, sleep fragmentation, sleep duration) were not associated with change in any cognitive test. Analyses of OSA severity categories and 10 cognitive tests administered only in 2011–2013 also showed little evidence of an association. Conclusions: Overall, abnormal sleep quality and quantity at midlife was not related to cognitive decline and later-life cognition. The effect of adverse sleep quality and quantity on cognitive decline among the elderly remains to be determined. Citation: Lutsey PL, Bengtson LG, Punjabi NM, Shahar E, Mosley TH, Gottesman RF, Wruck LM, MacLehose RF, Alonso A. Obstructive sleep apnea and 15-year cognitive decline: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. SLEEP 2016
Tracheal respiratory sounds analysis has been investigated as a non--invasive method to estimate respiratory flow and upper airway obstruction. However, the flow--sound relationship is highly variable among subjects which makes it challenging to estimate flow in general applications. Therefore, a robust model for acoustical flow estimation in a large group of individuals did not exist before. On the other hand, a major application of acoustical flow estimation is to detect flow limitations in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) during sleep. However, previously the flow--sound relationship was only investigated during wakefulness among healthy individuals. Therefore, it was necessary to examine the flow--sound relationship during sleep in OSA patients. This thesis takes the above challenges and offers innovative solutions. First, a modified linear flow--sound model was proposed to estimate respiratory flow from tracheal sounds. To remove the individual based calibration process, the statistical correlation between the model parameters and anthropometric features of 93 healthy volunteers was investigated. The results show that gender, height and smoking are the most significant factors that affect the model parameters. Hence, a general acoustical flow estimation model was proposed for people with similar height and gender. Second, flow--sound relationship during sleep and wakefulness was studied among 13 OSA patients. The results show that during sleep and wakefulness, flow--sound relation- ship follows a power law, but with different parameters. Therefore, for acoustical flow estimation during sleep, the model parameters should be extracted from sleep data to have small errors. The results confirm reliability of the acoustical flow estimation for investigating flow variations during both sleep and wakefulness. Finally, a new method for sleep apnea detection and monitoring was developed, which only requires recording the tracheal sounds and the blood
Hisanaga, A; Saitoh, O; Fukuda, H; Kurokawa, K; Okabe, A; Tachibana, H; Hagino, H; Mita, T; Yamashita, I; Tsutsumi, M; Kurachi, M; Itoh, T
The following describes a 76-year-old male with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome successfully treated with a Kampo-formula, San'o-shashin-to (Formula medicamentorum tres ad dispellendi cordis). Polysomnography, performed before and after administration of San'o-shashin-to, revealed that the apnea index decreased from 11.1 events/hour to 4.1 events/hour, and that the apnea plus hypopnea index decreased from 18.4 events/hour to 10.7 events/hour. The patient was normo-weight (body mass index: 20.4 kg/m2), and events of sleep apnea and hypopnea were mostly noted during a non-rapid eye movement sleep. It is possible that San'o-shashin-to has some alleviating effects on the upper airway resistance during sleep.
Nicholl, David D. M.; Ahmed, Sofia B.; Loewen, Andrea H. S.; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R.; Sola, Darlene Y.; Beecroft, Jaime M.; Turin, Tanvir C.; Hanly, Patrick J.
Background: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have a high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) that can have significant clinical implications. An accurate clinical screening tool for OSA that identifies patients for further diagnostic testing would assist in the identification of this comorbidity. The Berlin Questionnaire (BQ), Adjusted Neck Circumference (ANC), and STOP-BANG questionnaire are 3 such instruments that have been validated in patients with normal kidney function. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the validity of these screening instruments in patients with CKD and ESRD, using overnight cardiopulmonary monitoring to diagnose OSA. Methods: One hundred seventy-two patients were recruited from nephrology clinics and hemodialysis units (CKD: n = 109; ESRD: n = 63). All patients completed the BQ, ANC, STOP-BANG, and overnight cardiopulmonary monitoring to diagnose OSA (respiratory disturbance index [RDI] ≥ 15). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy were calculated for the BQ, ANC, and STOP-BANG. Results: Obstructive sleep apnea was present in 41 CKD patients (38%) and 32 ESRD patients (51%). All screening instruments had satisfactory sensitivity (56% to 94%) but poor specificity (29% to 77%) and low accuracy (51% to 69%) in both CKD and ESRD patients with RDI ≥ 15. Using an RDI ≥ 30 yielded similar results. Conclusions: Current screening questionnaires do not accurately identify patients at high risk for OSA or rule out the presence of OSA in patients with CKD and ESRD. Consequently, objective monitoring during sleep is required to reliably identify sleep apnea in these patient populations. Citation: Nicholl DDM; Ahmed SB; Loewen AHS; Hemmelgarn BR; Sola DY; Beecroft JM; Turin TC; Hanly PJ. Diagnostic value of screening instruments for identifying obstructive sleep apnea in kidney failure. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(1):31-38. PMID:23319902
Antic, Nick A.; Heeley, Emma; Anderson, Craig S.; Luo, Yuanming; Wang, Jiguang; Neal, Bruce; Grunstein, Ron; Barbe, Ferran; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Huang, Shaoguang; Redline, Susan; Zhong, Nanshan; McEvoy, R. Doug
The Sleep Apnea cardioVascular Endpoints (SAVE) study is an ongoing investigator-initiated and conducted, international, multicenter, open, blinded endpoint, randomized controlled trial that was designed to determine whether treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) can reduce the risk of serious cardiovascular (CV) events in patients with established CV disease (clinical trial registration NCT00738179). The results of this study will have important implications for the provision of health care to patients with sleep apnea around the world. The SAVE study has brought together respiratory, sleep, CV and stroke clinicians-scientists in an interdisciplinary collaboration with industry and government sponsorship to conduct an ambitious clinical trial. Following its launch in Australia and China in late 2008, the recruitment network expanded across 89 sites that included New Zealand, India, Spain, USA, and Brazil for a total of 2,717 patients randomized by December 2013. These patients are being followed until December 2015 so that the average length of follow-up of the cohort will be over 4 y. This article describes the rationale for the SAVE study, considerations given to the design including how various cultural and ethical challenges were addressed, and progress in establishing and maintaining the recruitment network, patient follow-up, and adherence to CPAP and procedures. The assumptions underlying the original trial sample size calculation and why this was revised downward in 2012 are also discussed. Clinical Trials Registration Number: NCT00738179. Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry Number: ACTRN12608000409370. Citation: Antic NA, Heeley E, Anderson CS, Luo Y, Wang J, Neal B, Grunstein R, Barbe F, Lorenzi-Filho G, Huang S, Redline S, Zhong N, McEvoy RD. The sleep apnea cardiovascular endpoints (SAVE) trial: rationale, ethics, design, and progress. SLEEP 2015;38(8):1247–1257. PMID:25669180
Maury, Gisele; Cambron, Laurent; Jamart, Jacques; Marchand, Eric; Senny, Frédéric; Poirrier, Robert
In-laboratory polysomnography is the 'gold standard' for diagnosing obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, but is time consuming and costly, with long waiting lists in many sleep laboratories. Therefore, the search for alternative methods to detect respiratory events is growing. In this prospective study, we compared attended polysomnography with two other methods, with or without mandible movement automated analysis provided by a distance-meter and added to airflow and oxygen saturation analysis for the detection of respiratory events. The mandible movement automated analysis allows for the detection of salient mandible movement, which is a surrogate for arousal. All parameters were recorded simultaneously in 570 consecutive patients (M/F: 381/189; age: 50±14 years; body mass index: 29±7 kg m(-2) ) visiting a sleep laboratory. The most frequent main diagnoses were: obstructive sleep apnea (344; 60%); insomnia/anxiety/depression (75; 13%); and upper airway resistance syndrome (25; 4%). The correlation between polysomnography and the method with mandible movement automated analysis was excellent (r: 0.95; P<0.001). Accuracy characteristics of the methods showed a statistical improvement in sensitivity and negative predictive value with the addition of mandible movement automated analysis. This was true for different diagnostic thresholds of obstructive sleep severity, with an excellent efficiency for moderate to severe index (apnea-hypopnea index ≥15h(-1) ). A Bland & Altman plot corroborated the analysis. The addition of mandible movement automated analysis significantly improves the respiratory index calculation accuracy compared with an airflow and oxygen saturation analysis. This is an attractive method for the screening of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, increasing the ability to detect hypopnea thanks to the salient mandible movement as a marker of arousals.
Varga, Andrew W; Kishi, Akifumi; Mantua, Janna; Lim, Jason; Koushyk, Viachaslau; Leibert, David P; Osorio, Ricardo S; Rapoport, David M; Ayappa, Indu
Hippocampal electrophysiology and behavioral evidence support a role for sleep in spatial navigational memory, but the role of particular sleep stages is less clear. Although rodent models suggest the importance of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in spatial navigational memory, a similar role for REM sleep has never been examined in humans. We recruited subjects with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) who were well treated and adherent with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Restricting CPAP withdrawal to REM through real-time monitoring of the polysomnogram provides a novel way of addressing the role of REM sleep in spatial navigational memory with a physiologically relevant stimulus. Individuals spent two different nights in the laboratory, during which subjects performed timed trials before and after sleep on one of two unique 3D spatial mazes. One night of sleep was normally consolidated with use of therapeutic CPAP throughout, whereas on the other night, CPAP was reduced only in REM sleep, allowing REM OSA to recur. REM disruption via this method caused REM sleep reduction and significantly fragmented any remaining REM sleep without affecting total sleep time, sleep efficiency, or slow-wave sleep. We observed improvements in maze performance after a night of normal sleep that were significantly attenuated after a night of REM disruption without changes in psychomotor vigilance. Furthermore, the improvement in maze completion time significantly positively correlated with the mean REM run duration across both sleep conditions. In conclusion, we demonstrate a novel role for REM sleep in human memory formation and highlight a significant cognitive consequence of OSA.
Andrade, Flávio Maciel Dias de; Pedrosa, Rodrigo Pinto
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common clinical condition, with a variable and underestimated prevalence. OSA is the main condition associated with secondary systemic arterial hypertension, as well as with atrial fibrillation, stroke, and coronary artery disease, greatly increasing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Treatment with continuous positive airway pressure is not tolerated by all OSA patients and is often not suitable in cases of mild OSA. Hence, alternative methods to treat OSA and its cardiovascular consequences are needed. In OSA patients, regular physical exercise has beneficial effects other than weight loss, although the mechanisms of those effects remain unclear. In this population, physiological adaptations due to physical exercise include increases in upper airway dilator muscle tone and in slow-wave sleep time; and decreases in fluid accumulation in the neck, systemic inflammatory response, and body weight. The major benefits of exercise programs for OSA patients include reducing the severity of the condition and daytime sleepiness, as well as increasing sleep efficiency and maximum oxygen consumption. There are few studies that evaluated the role of physical exercise alone for OSA treatment, and their protocols are quite diverse. However, aerobic exercise, alone or combined with resistance training, is a common point among the studies. In this review, the major studies and mechanisms involved in OSA treatment by means of physical exercise are presented. In addition to systemic clinical benefits provided by physical exercise, OSA patients involved in a regular, predominantly aerobic, exercise program have shown a reduction in disease severity and in daytime sleepiness, as well as an increase in sleep efficiency and in peak oxygen consumption, regardless of weight loss. RESUMO A apneia obstrutiva do sono (AOS) é uma condição clínica comum, possuindo prevalência variável e subestimada. Principal condição associada à hipertens
Park, Chong Yoon; Hong, Joon Hyeong; Lee, Jae Heon; Lee, Kyu Eun; Cho, Hyun Sang; Lim, Su Jin; Kwak, Jin Wook; Kim, Kyung Soo; Kim, Hyun Jik
Objective: This study aimed to assess the accuracy and clinical efficacy of a wrist-worn device that is based on peripheral arterial tonometry (watch-PAT) to evaluate the surgical results of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome subjects. Study Design and Method: Thirty-five subjects who were diagnosed with OSA and underwent sleep surgeries such as septoplasty, tonsillectomy, or uvuloplasty to correct their airway collapse, participated in this study; the watch-PAT-derived respiratory disturbance index (RDI), apnea and hypopnea index (AHI), lowest oxygen saturation, and valid sleep time were measured after the sleep surgery. Results: The present study showed that RDI (32.8 ± 10.7 vs 14.8 ± 7.5), AHI (30.3 ± 8.6 vs 13.4 ± 8.2 events/h), lowest oxygen saturation (78.2% ± 8.4% vs 90.5% ± 7.1%), and valid sleep time (329.1 ± 47.2 min and a postoperative value of 389.1 ± 50.1 min) recovered to within a normal range after surgery in 28 subjects. In addition, good agreement was found between watch-PAT-derived factors and visual analogue scales for changes in subjective symptoms, such as snoring, apnea, and daytime somnolence. Seven of the 35 subjects showed no improvement for their subjective symptoms and complained of snoring and apnea after surgery. We found that the RDI and AHI of those 7 subjects were not reduced, and the changes between pre- and postoperative values which were measured with watch-PAT were minimal. Their postoperative lowest oxygen saturation and valid sleep time were not elevated per the watch-PAT. The results support a strong correlation between the findings from watch-PAT and improved symptoms after surgical correction of an airway collapse. Conclusions: Our study provides evidence that the factors measured by the watch-PAT might be reliable indicators of symptomatic changes in OSA subjects after sleep surgery and also shows that the watch-PAT is a highly sensitive portable device for estimating treatment results in OSA. Citation: Park CY
Pataka, Athanasia; Hohenforst-Schmidt, Wolfgang; Tsiouda, Theodora; Tsavlis, Drosos; Kioumis, Ioannis; Papakala, Elene; Karapantzos, Ilias; Karapantzou, Chrysa; Rapti, Aggeliki; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Argyropoulou, Parakevi
Background The diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is essential but polysomnography (PSG) is expensive and time consuming. Oximetry has been used as a less expensive indicator of OSAHS. The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical utility of the combination of oximetry with four different questionnaires: Stop, Stop Bang (S-B), Berlin questionnaire (BQ), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) in order to identify patients at risk for OSAHS compared with in-laboratory PSG. Methods Patients visiting a sleep clinic were prospectively studied. They completed Stop, S-B, BQ and ESS. Home oximetry and in laboratory PSG were performed within 3–20 days. Results A total of 204 patients were included in the study (77.5% males, mean age 51.8±13.8 years, BMI 32.8±6.2 kg/m2, SaO2% awake 95.7±2). S-B had the highest sensitivity (Se) (97.5%) and negative predictive value (NPV) (62.5%) but the lowest specificity (Sp) (9%), whereas ESS had the best Sp (75%) and positive predictive values (PPV) (81.4%). The predictive values of questionnaires improved as the severity of OSAHS worsened. The predictive values of oximetry were high for severe but low for mild and moderate OSAHS. For that oximetry was combined with different sleep questionnaires in different OSAHS severity groups, but with no improvement in the predictive values. Conclusions Oximetry may be used as a tool for identifying severe OSAHS. For mild and moderate disease the combination of questionnaires did not improve the diagnostic accuracy and especially for symptomatic patients with negative results, the need of PSG is essential. PMID:27999777
Carotenuto, Marco; Gimigliano, Francesca; Fiordelisi, Giovanni; Ruberto, Maria; Esposito, Maria
Sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD) are disorders of breathing during sleep characterized by prolonged partial upper airway obstruction, intermittent complete or partial obstruction (obstructive apnea or hypopnea), or both prolonged and intermittent obstruction that disrupts normal ventilation during sleep, normal sleep patterns, or both. Children with OSAS may sleep in unusual positions, such as seated or with neck hyperextended, even if the neck position is not the only unusual posture or the special sleeping positions that is possible to detect in children with SRBD. We have hypothesized that the assumption of unusual posture during sleep, in particular legs retracting or crossing during sleep, could be a way to enlarge the diaphragmatic excursion and promoting the alveolar gas exchanges avoiding the stress of the antero-lumbar and prevertebral muscular chains in SRBD subjects. We have hypothesized that the assumption of unusual posture during sleep, in particular legs retracting or crossing during sleep, could be a way to enlarge the diaphragmatic excursion and promoting the alveolar gas exchanges avoiding the stress of the antero-lumbar and prevertebral muscular chains in SRBD subjects. We can postulate that the prevertebral and antero-lumbar muscular chains could be oversolicited during the apnoic events, and the assumption of abnormal posture could be interpreted as a way to relax or diminish the strain or muscular stress caused by the apneas. The consequence of this hypothesis could be summarized in the concept that a specific rehabilitation or muscular program to improve the tone of this kinetic chain, could be useful to limit the effect nocturnal or diurnal of this so impacting syndrome.
Reeves, Sarah L; Brown, Devin L; Chervin, Ronald D; Morgenstern, Lewis B; Smith, Melinda A; Lisabeth, Lynda D
Background Ascertaining self-reported information about pre-stroke obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) risk in the acute stroke period is challenging as many stroke patients have deficits that hinder communication. We examined agreement between stroke patients without communication limitations and family members (proxy) with respect to pre-stroke risk of OSA. Methods Patient-proxy pairs (n = 42) were interviewed independently as part of the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi Project from May 2010 - April 2011. The Berlin questionnaire was used to measure a high risk of OSA defined as the presence of at least two of the following conditions: 1) snoring behaviors/witnessed apneas, 2) daytime sleepiness, and 3) hypertension or obesity. Patient-proxy agreement was assessed using a kappa coefficient. Results Forty-three percent of patients self-identified as high risk for sleep apnea, and 45% of proxies identified patients as high risk. Patient-proxy agreement for high risk of pre-stroke OSA was fair (kappa = 0.28) with better agreement for spouses and children proxies (kappa = 0.38) than for other family members. Agreement was also fair for most individual questions. Conclusions Spouse and child proxy use of the Berlin questionnaire may be an option to assess a patient's pre-stroke likelihood of sleep apnea. Whereas prospective studies of incident stroke in patients with and without objectively confirmed sleep apnea would require formidable resources, the present results suggest that an alternative strategy may involve proxy use of the Berlin in a retrospective study design. PMID:24238964
Aguilar Cordero, M J; Sánchez López, A M; Mur Villar, N; Sánchez Marenco, A; Guisado Barrilao, R
Recent studies show an alarming increase in the rate of overweight / obesity among the infant - juvenile population. Obesity in childhood is associated with a significant number of complications, such as sleep apnea syndrome, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and some cancers. It is estimated that the prevalence of sleep apnea in children is 2-3% in the general population, while in obese adolescents, varies between 13% and 66%, according to various studies. It is associated with impairment of neurocognitive function, behavior, cardiovascular system, metabolic disorders and growth. Sleep apnea is a serious public health problem that increases when children and adolescents are overweight or obese. We hypothesize that aerobic endurance exercise can be an effective treatment for obesity and apnea at the same time. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of physical activity in children and adolescents with overweight / obesity in sleep apnea. An observational, descriptive, prospective, longitudinal study will be carried out in children with sleep apnea and obesity. The universe will be made up of 60 children and adolescents aged between 10 and 18 years, attending the endocrinology service for suffering of obesity in the Hospital Clinico San Cecilio of Granada during the period September 2012-September 2013. The smple will consist of children and adolescents that meet these characteristics and to whom their parents/tutors have authorized through the informed consent. Sleep apnea in children wil be measured by polysomnography and sleep quality questionnaire. There will also be a nutritional assessment by a food frequency questionnaire and an anthropometric assessment. Among the expected results are the lower overweight and obesity in children through the physical activity program. To reduce apnea and to improve sleep quality.
Kurihara, Yosuke; Watanabe, Kajiro; Kobayashi, Kazuyuki; Tanaka, Tanaka
Sleep disorders disturb the recovery from mental and physical fatigues, one of the functions of the sleep. The majority of those who with the disorders are suffering from Sleep Apnea Syndrome (SAS). Continuous Hypoxia during sleep due to SAS cause Circulatory Disturbances, such as hypertension and ischemic heart disease, and Malfunction of Autonomic Nervous System, and other severe complications, often times bringing the suffers to death. In order to prevent these from happening, it is important to detect the SAS in its early stage by monitoring the daily respirations during sleep, and to provide appropriate treatments at medical institutions. In this paper, the Pneumatic Method to detect the Apnea period during sleep is proposed. Pneumatic method can measure heartbeat and respiration signal. Respiration signal can be considered as noise against heartbeat signal, and the decrease in the respiration signal due to Apnea increases the Average Mutual Information of heartbeat. The result of scaling analysis of the average mutual information is defined as threshold to detect the apnea period. The root mean square error between the lengths of Apnea measured by Strain Gauge using for reference and those measured by using the proposed method was 3.1 seconds. And, error of the number of apnea times judged by doctor and proposal method in OSAS patients was 3.3 times.
Huang, Chien-Jung; Huang, Shao-Ching; White, Susan M.; Mallya, Sanjay M.; Eldredge, Jeff D.
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a medical condition characterized by repetitive partial or complete occlusion of the airway during sleep. The soft tissues in the airway of OSA patients are prone to collapse under the low-pressure loads incurred during breathing. This paper describes efforts toward the development of a numerical tool for simulation of air-tissue interactions in the upper airway of patients with sleep apnea. A procedure by which patient-specific airway geometries are segmented and processed from dental cone-beam CT scans into signed distance fields is presented. A sharp-interface embedded boundary method based on the signed distance field is used on Cartesian grids for resolving the airflow in the airway geometries. For simulation of structure mechanics with large expected displacements, a cut-cell finite element method with nonlinear Green strains is used. The fluid and structure solvers are strongly coupled with a partitioned iterative algorithm. Preliminary results are shown for flow simulation inside the three-dimensional rigid upper airway of patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Two validation cases for the fluid-structure coupling problem are also presented.
Ozcan, Kursat Murat; Ozcan, Muge; Ozdogan, Fatih; Hizli, Omer; Dere, Huseyin; Unal, Adnan
To our knowledge, no studies up to date have investigated the correlation of rapid eye movement (REM) dependent obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and Muller maneuver. The aim of this study is to investigate whether REM-dependent OSAS is predicted by the findings of the Muller maneuver. The study was conducted on 149 patients with witnessed apnea and daytime sleepiness. Muller maneuver was performed to all patients and the obstruction site was determined using a five-point scale. Then, polysomnography of the patient was obtained and the apnea-hypopnea indexes were determined in total sleep time, REM-dependent sleep and non-REM-dependent sleep. The correlations between the Muller maneuver findings and polysomnographic data were analyzed. The ages of the patients included in the study ranged between 25 and 73 years with a mean age of 49.3 ± 10.1 years. Their mean body mass index was 30.8 ± 5.1 kg/m(2) (range 21.9-55.4 kg/m(2)). The patients' mean apnea-hypopnea indexes in total sleep time was 28.1 and ranged between 5.4 and 124.3. REM-dependent OSAS was determined in 49 patients. When the data were analyzed, it was determined that there were no statistically significant correlations between tongue base or lateral pharyngeal band obstruction at the level of hypopharynx and the REM-dependent OSAS. At the level of the soft palate, the obstruction caused by the lateral pharyngeal bands or soft palate and REM dependency did not show any statistically significant correlation (p > 0.05). In conclusion, Muller maneuver does not provide useful data to predict REM dependency of OSAS.
Ong, Jason C; Crawford, Megan R; Kong, Allison; Park, Margaret; Cvengros, Jamie A; Crisostomo, M Isabel; Alexander, Ewa I; Wyatt, James K
The purpose of this study was to examine the process of care in an interdisciplinary sleep clinic for patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and comorbid insomnia. A mixed-methods approach was used to examine clinical and patient-centered measures for 34 patients who received positive-airway pressure for OSA or cognitive-behavior therapy for insomnia. The results revealed baseline-to-follow-up improvements on several self-reported sleep parameters and measures of daytime functioning. Qualitative analyses from patient interviews revealed three themes: conceptual distinctions about each sleep disorder, importance of treating both sleep disorders, and preferences with regard to the sequence of treatment. These findings indicate that patients with OSA and comorbid insomnia encounter unique challenges. A dimensional approach to assessment and treatment is proposed for future research.
Macey, Paul M; Woo, Mary A; Kumar, Rajesh; Cross, Rebecca L; Harper, Ronald M
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) occurs in at least 10% of the population, and leads to higher morbidity and mortality; however, relationships between OSA severity and sleep or psychological symptoms are unclear. Existing studies include samples with wide-ranging comorbidities, so we assessed relationships between severity of OSA and common sleep and psychological disturbances in recently diagnosed OSA patients with minimal co-morbidities. We studied 49 newly diagnosed, untreated OSA patients without major co-morbidities such as mental illness, cardiovascular disease, or stroke; subjects were not using psychoactive medications or tobacco (mean +/- std age: 46.8+/-9.1 years; apnea/hyponea index [AHI]: 32.1+/-20.5 events/hour; female/male: 12/37; weight <125 kg). We evaluated relationships between the AHI and daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale; ESS), sleep quality (Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index; PSQI), depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory-II; BDI), and anxiety symptoms (Beck Anxiety Inventory; BAI), as well as sex and body mass index (BMI). AHI was similar in females and males. Mean levels of all symptoms were above normal thresholds, but AHI was not correlated with age, ESS, PSQI, BDI, or BAI; only BMI was correlated with OSA severity. No differences in mean AHI appeared when subjects were grouped by normal versus elevated values of ESS, PSQI, BDI, or BAI. Consistent with other studies, a strong link between OSA severity and psychological symptoms did not appear in these newly diagnosed patients, suggesting that mechanisms additional to the number and frequency of hypoxic events and arousals occurring with apneas contribute to adverse health effects in OSA. OSA patients presenting with mild or moderate severity, and no major co-morbidities will not necessarily have low levels of sleep or psychological disturbances.
Wilcox, I; Grunstein, R R; Hedner, J A; Doyle, J; Collins, F L; Fletcher, P J; Kelly, D T; Sullivan, C E
Ambulatory blood pressure (BP) was measured noninvasively (Oxford Medilog ABP) at 15-minute intervals for 24 hours before and after 8 weeks of treatment with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) in 19 men with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We included both normotensive and hypertensive patients, but hypertensives were studied after withdrawal of antihypertensive drugs. Ambulatory BP before and after treatment was compared using patients as their own controls. Treatment with nCPAP was successfully established in 14 of the 19 patients (74%). Blood pressure fell significantly in patients who were successfully treated: 24-hour mean BP (systolic/diastolic) decreased from 141 +/- 18/89 +/- 11 mm Hg to 134 +/- 19/85 +/- 13 mm Hg (p < 0.05). The reduction in 24-hour mean systolic BP occurred during both day and night, but a significant fall in mean diastolic BP was only observed during the day. The mean blood pressure fell in both normotensive and hypertensive patients. Patients who were inadequately treated with nCPAP had no reduction in mean 24-hour BP. Effective treatment of sleep apnea with nCPAP was associated with a significant fall in both systolic and diastolic BP independent of changes in body weight or alcohol consumption, suggesting that sleep apnea was an independent factor contributing to elevated nighttime and daytime BP in these patients.
Asghari, Alimohamad; Mohammadi, Fatemeh; Kamrava, Seyed Kamran; Jalessi, Maryam; Farhadi, Mohammad
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder affecting quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of Quality of Life (QOL) in patients with OSA by means of World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) instrument. This study was conducted on adult patients with sleep problems referred to Noor Sleep Lab for an overnight sleep study. Subjects were assessed for QOL using WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. The Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) was also employed to assess excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Baseline characteristics, ESS, and measured QOL are reported and their correlations with QOL were examined. Out of 502 patients included in the study, 62.7 % had moderate to severe OSA. The mean score of QOL in physical domain was significantly lower compared with normative population data. While AHI did not show any correlation with quality of life, mean O(2) was weakly correlated with physical domain. Among the baseline characteristics, BMI and ESS were negatively correlated with physical and mental domains. Findings of this study show the impairment in quality of life related to physical functioning in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Our study further supports the lack of association between AHI and QOL.
Cieślicki, J; Wocial, B; Koziej, M; Pałasiewicz, G; Zieliński, J
The aim of the study was to investigate effects of CPAP treatment on diurnal catecholamine excretion in urine in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). 12 males with severe OSA (mean AHI = 63) were measured in 3 separate 8 hour samples by fluorimetric method. NA levels were higher in OSA patients in all urine samples than in obese, mildly hypertensive males (control group = C). In C group patients NA levels were significantly lower at night than during the day contrary to OSA patients in whom NA levels dropped insignificantly during sleep. In OSA patients NA levels during sleep correlated with severity of apneas (r = 0.42) and night hypoxaemia (r = -0.46). CPAP treatment resulted in significant fall in NA levels during sleep (p < 0.01). A levels did not change after CPAP treatment. We conclude that abnormally high NA level during sleep in OSA patients may be related to sleep fragmentation and hypoxia. CPAP treatment restores normal circadian rhythm of NA excretion.
In this study, we present the surgical treatment of obstructive sleep apnea in a child with Treacher Collins syndrome. A 10-year-old girl with a past history of Treacher Collins syndrome presented to our clinic with her parents for respiratory distress and insomnia. The patient was referred to a sleep laboratory where she was diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea, which was a consequence of her Treacher Collins syndrome. The patient underwent mandibular distraction osteogenesis under general anesthesia. The mandible was expanded by 15 mm using internal bilateral distractors. After distraction osteogenesis, the patient’s respiratory problems resolved, and she was able to sleep comfortably. Distraction osteogenesis was an effective method of advancing the mandible, increasing the upper airway space and ultimately preventing obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in patients with Treacher Collins syndrome. PMID:28053912
Xia, Yunyan; Fu, Yiqun; Xu, Huajun; Guan, Jian; Yi, Hongliang; Yin, Shankai
Cognitive impairment is associated with changes in cerebral metabolites in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Several studies have used magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to detect variations in cerebral metabolites; however, the results have been inconsistent. This meta-analysis summarizes the differences in cerebral metabolites between patients with OSA and controls. Two electronic databases, PubMed and Embase, were searched for articles (published before March 31, 2016) describing studies that used MRS to evaluate the cerebral metabolite changes. The overall effects were measured using the weighted mean difference with a 95% confidence interval. Subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis were used to explore the sources of between-study heterogeneity and the stability of the results. Publication bias was also evaluated. Thirteen studies were ultimately included. In the hippocampus, the N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/creatine ratio was lower in patients with OSA. In the frontal lobe, only the NAA/choline ratio was lower in patients with OSA. Cerebral metabolites are significantly altered in the hippocampus in patients with OSA. Further clinical studies are needed to explore the underlying mechanisms between OSA and the changes in cerebral metabolites in the brain. PMID:27349417
Schendel, Stephen; Powell, Nelson; Jacobson, Richard
Surgical correction of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome involves understanding a number of parameters, of which the 3-dimensional airway anatomy is important. Visualization of the upper airway based on cone beam computed tomography scans and automated computer analysis is an aid in understanding normal and abnormal airway conditions and their response to surgery. The goal of surgical treatment of OSA syndrome is to enlarge the velo-oropharyngeal airway by anterior/lateral displacement of the soft tissues and musculature by maxillary, mandibular, and possibly, genioglossus advancement. Knowledge of the specific airway obstruction and characteristics based on 3-dimensional studies permits a directed surgical treatment plan that can successfully address the area or areas of airway obstruction. The end occlusal result can be improved when orthodontic treatment is combined with the surgical plan. The individual with OSA, though, is more complicated than the usual orthognathic patient, and both the medical condition and treatment length need to be judiciously managed when OSA and associated conditions are present. The perioperative management of the patient with OSA is more complex and the margin for error is reduced, and this needs to be taken into consideration and the care altered as indicated.
Gurubhagavatula, Indira; Nkwuo, Jonathan E; Maislin, Greg; Pack, Allan I
Sleep apnea among commercial drivers may increase the risk of fall-asleep crashes, which incur large expenses. Drivers of passenger cars whose apnea is treated experience lower crash risk. Among community-based holders of commercial driver's licenses, we considered three methods for identifying sleep apnea syndrome: (1) in-lab polysomnography; (2) selective in-lab polysomnography for high-risk drivers, where high risk is first identified by body mass index, age and gender, followed by oximetry in a subset of drivers; (3) not screening. The costs for each of these three programs equaled the sum of the costs of testing, treatment of identified cases, and crashes. Assuming that treatment prevents apnea-related crashes, polysomnography is not cost-effective, because it was more expensive than the cost of crashes when no screening is done. Screening with BMI, age and gender, however, with confirmatory in-lab polysomnography only on high-risk drivers was cost-effective, as long as a high proportion (73.8%) of screened drivers accepts treatment. These findings indicate that strategies that reduce reliance on in-laboratory polysomnography may be more cost-effective than not screening, and that treatment acceptance may need to be a condition of employment for affected drivers.
Yamashiro, S M
A mathematical model of non-obstructive human periodic breathing (Cheyne-Stokes respiration) or central sleep apnea (CSA) is described which focused on explaining recently reported non-linear behavior. Evidence was presented that CHF (chronic heart failure)-CSA and ICSA (idiopathic central sleep apnea) both involved limit cycle oscillations. The validity of applying linear control theory for stabilization must then be re-examined. Critical threshold values and ranges of parameters were predicted which caused a change (bifurcation) from limit cycle periodic breathing to stable breathing. Changes in lung volume were predicted to form a bifurcation during CHF-CSA where stability and instability can involve a lung volume change as small as 0.1 l. CSA therapy based on reducing control loop gain was predicted to be relatively ineffective during stable limit cycle oscillation. The relative ratios of durations of ventilation to apnea (T(v)/T(a)) during periodic breathing were primarily determined by peripheral chemoreceptor dynamics during crescendo, de-crescendo, and apnea phases of CSA.
Hu, Lianggang; Xu, Xiaomei; Gong, Yongsheng; Fan, Xiaofang; Wang, Liangxing; Zhang, Jianhua; Zeng, Yanjun
In this paper, we study the effect of stimulation of the genioglossus with percutaneous biphasic electrical pulses on patients with the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). The experiment was conducted in 22 patients clinically diagnosed with OSAS. The patients were monitored with polysomnography (PSG) in the trial. When the sleep apnea was detected, the genioglossus was stimulated with percutaneous biphasic electrical pulses that were automatically regulated by a microcontroller to achieve the optimal effect. The percutaneous biphasic electrical stimulation caused contraction of the genioglossus, forward movement of the tongue, and relieving of the glossopharyngeal airway obstruction. The SaO2, apnea time, hypoxemia time, and change of respiratory disturbance index (RDI) were compared in patients with treatment and without treatment. With percutaneous biphasic electrical stimulation of the genioglossus, the OSAS patients showed apnea time decreased (P < 0.01), RDI decreased (P < 0.01), and SaO2 increased (P < 0.01). No tissue injury or major discomfort was noticed during the trial. The stimulation of genioglossus with percutaneous biphasic electrical current pulse is an effective method for treating OSAS.
Wons, Annette M.; Rossi, Valentina; Bratton, Daniel J.; Schlatzer, Christian; Schwarz, Esther I.; Camen, Giovanni; Kohler, Malcolm
Background A high P-wave duration and dispersion (Pd) have been reported to be a prognostic factor for the occurrence of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF), a condition linked to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We tested the hypothesis of whether a short-term increase of P-wave duration and Pd can be induced by respiratory manoeuvres simulating OSA in healthy subjects and in patients with PAF. Methods 12-lead-electrocardiography (ECG) was recorded continuously in 24 healthy subjects and 33 patients with PAF, while simulating obstructive apnea (Mueller manoeuvre, MM), obstructive hypopnea (inspiration through a threshold load, ITH), central apnea (AP), and during normal breathing (BL) in randomized order. The P-wave duration and Pd was calculated by using dedicated software for ECG-analysis. Results P-wave duration and Pd significantly increased during MM and ITH compared to BL in all subjects (+13.1ms and +13.8ms during MM; +11.7ms and +12.9ms during ITH; p<0.001 for all comparisons). In MM, the increase was larger in healthy subjects when compared to patients with PAF (p<0.05). Conclusion Intrathoracic pressure swings through simulated obstructive sleep apnea increase P-wave duration and Pd in healthy subjects and in patients with PAF. Our findings imply that intrathoracic pressure swings prolong the intra-atrial and inter-atrial conduction time and therefore may represent an independent trigger factor for the development for PAF. PMID:27071039
El-Chami, Mohamad; Shaheen, David; Ivers, Blake; Syed, Ziauddin; Badr, M Safwan; Lin, Ho-Sheng; Mateika, Jason H
Our investigation was designed to determine whether the time of day affects the carbon dioxide reserve and chemoreflex sensitivity during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Ten healthy men with obstructive sleep apnea completed a constant routine protocol that consisted of sleep sessions in the evening (10 PM to 1 AM), morning (6 AM to 9 AM), and afternoon (2 PM to 5 PM). Between sleep sessions, the participants were awake. During each sleep session, core body temperature, baseline levels of carbon dioxide (PET(CO2)) and minute ventilation, as well as the PET(CO2) that demarcated the apneic threshold and hypocapnic ventilatory response, were measured. The nadir of core body temperature during sleep occurred in the morning and was accompanied by reductions in minute ventilation and PetCO2 compared with the evening and afternoon (minute ventilation: 5.3 ± 0.3 vs. 6.2 ± 0.2 vs. 6.1 ± 0.2 l/min, P < 0.02; PET(CO2): 39.7 ± 0.4 vs. 41.4 ± 0.6 vs. 40.4 ± 0.6 Torr, P < 0.02). The carbon dioxide reserve was reduced, and the hypocapnic ventilatory response increased in the morning compared with the evening and afternoon (carbon dioxide reserve: 2.1 ± 0.3 vs. 3.6 ± 0.5 vs. 3.5 ± 0.3 Torr, P < 0.002; hypocapnic ventilatory response: 2.3 ± 0.3 vs. 1.6 ± 0.2 vs. 1.8 ± 0.2 l·min(-1)·mmHg(-1), P < 0.001). We conclude that time of day affects chemoreflex properties during sleep, which may contribute to increases in breathing instability in the morning compared with other periods throughout the day/night cycle in individuals with sleep apnea.
Costa, Cátia; Santos, Beatriz; Severino, Davide; Cabanelas, Nuno; Peres, Marisa; Monteiro, Isabel; Leal, Margarida
The obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) is a clinical entity characterized by recurring episodes of apnea and/or hypopnea during sleep, due to a total or partial collapse, respectively, of the upper airway. This collapse originates a set of pathophysiological changes that determine the appearance of several cardiovascular complications. OSA contributes for the development of hypertension, heart failure, arrhythmias and coronary heart disease. Nowadays it is recognized to be an important public health problem, taking into account not just its repercussions but also its prevalence, since the main risk factor for the disease is obesity, a growing problem worldwide, both in developed and developing countries. The present review summarizes the current knowledge about OSA, as regards its definition, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, cardiovascular effects and treatment.
Suzuki, Kenji; Kawakatsu, Kenji; Hattori, Chikaya; Hattori, Hirokazu; Nishimura, Yoichi; Yonekura, Arata; Yagisawa, Mikio; Nishimura, Tadao
In sleep apnea syndrome, surgical treatment is applied in obstructive-type cases and some mixed-type cases. If the obstructive part is in the root of the tongue, forward transfer of the tongue, lingual tonsillectomy and laser midline glossectomy are applied. In this study, we demonstrate the surgical technique of lingual tonsillectomy using an ultrasonic coagulating dissector (SonoSurg) with a blade tip shape developed in our department. We conclude that lingual tonsillectomy using SonoSurg, which we have frequently used, should be the first choice of treatment for snoring and sleep apnea caused by hypertrophy of the lingual tonsils from the viewpoints of effectiveness, prevention of hemorrhage, safety and handling.
The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome in the general childhood population is 1-2% and the most common cause is adenotonsillar hypertrophy. However, beyond adenotonsillar hypertrophy, there are other highly prevalent causes of this syndrome in children. The causes are often multifactorial and include muscular hypotonia, dentofacial abnormalities, soft tissue hypertrophy of the airway, and neurological disorders). Collaboration between different specialties involved in the care of these children is essential, given the wide variability of conditions and how frequently different factors are involved in their genesis, as well as the different treatments to be applied. We carried out a wide literature review of other causes of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome in children, beyond adenotonsillar hypertrophy. We organised the prevalence of this syndrome in each pathology and the reasons that cause it, as well as their interactions and management, in a consistent manner.
Nettleton, D; Muñiz, J
In this article, we revise and try to resolve some of the problems inherent in questionnaire screening of sleep apnea cases and apnea diagnosis based on attributes which are relevant and reliable. We present a way of learning information about the relevance of the data, comparing this with the definition of the information by the medical expert. We generate a predictive data model using a data aggregation operator which takes relevance and reliability information about the data into account to produce a diagnosis for each case. We also introduce a grade of membership for each question response which allows the patient to indicate a level of confidence or doubt in their own judgement. The method is tested with data collected from patients in a Sleep Clinic using questionnaires specially designed for the study. Other artificial intelligence predictive modeling algorithms are also tested on the same data and their predictive accuracy compared to that of the aggregation operator.
Joseph, Leon; Goldberg, Shmuel; Shitrit, Michal; Picard, Elie
Introduction: Over the last decade, high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy has become an increasingly important and popular mode of noninvasive respiratory support. HFNC facilitates delivery of humidified and heated oxygen at a high flow rate and generates positive airway pressure. Methods: We present five cases of children with OSA without adenotonsillar hypertrophy who were treated with HFNC. Results: We demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in apnea-hypopnea index and nadir oxygen saturation in this small cohort. Conclusion: We present our successful experience of treating severe OSA with HFNC in the home setting. Further randomized controlled trials are needed to determine whether HFNC could be considered as an established alternative for CPAP in OSA in children Citation: Joseph L, Goldberg S, Shitrit M, Picard E. High-flow nasal cannula therapy for obstructive sleep apnea in children. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(9):1007–1010. PMID:26094930
Rutkowski, Tomasz M
A novel multimodal and bio-inspired approach to biomedical signal processing and classification is presented in the paper. This approach allows for an automatic semantic labeling (interpretation) of sleep apnea events based the proposed data-driven biomedical signal processing and classification. The presented signal processing and classification methods have been already successfully applied to real-time unimodal brainwaves (EEG only) decoding in brain-computer interfaces developed by the author. In the current project the very encouraging results are obtained using multimodal biomedical (brainwaves and peripheral physiological) signals in a unified processing approach allowing for the automatic semantic data description. The results thus support a hypothesis of the data-driven and bio-inspired signal processing approach validity for medical data semantic interpretation based on the sleep apnea events machine-learning-related classification.
Aytekin, Ebru; Demir, Saliha Eroglu; Komut, Ece Akyol; Okur, Sibel Caglar; Burnaz, Ozer; Caglar, Nil Sayiner; Demiryontar, Dilay Yilmaz
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and to assess the relationship between sleep disorder and pain, quality of life, and disability. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy-four patients were included in the study and classified as having mild, moderate, or severe obstructive sleep apnea. Chronic widespread pain, quality of life, and disability were evaluated. [Results] Forty-one patients (55.4%) had chronic widespread pain. Female patients had a higher incidence of chronic pain, and female patients with chronic pain had higher body mass indexes, pain levels, and disability scores than did male patients. Physical component scores of female patients with chronic pain were lower than those of male patients. No correlation was observed between the degree of sleep disorder and severity of pain, pain duration, disability, or quality of life in obstructive sleep apnea patients with pain. [Conclusion] This study showed a 55.4% prevalence of chronic widespread pain in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and a greater risk of chronic pain in female than in male patients. Female patients with obstructive sleep apnea and chronic pain have higher pain and disability levels and a lower quality of life. PMID:26504332
Kuyrukluyıldız, Ufuk; Binici, Orhan; Onk, Didem; Ayhan Celik, Serap; Torun, Mumtaz Taner; Unver, Edhem; Ozcicek, Adalet; Alagol, Aysin
Backround: Surgical operations are alternative treatments in persons with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome who cannot tolerate continuous positive airway pressure therapy. Drug-Induced Sleep Endoscopy is a method with which somnolence is pharmacologically induced and collapse is evaluated through nasal endoscopy in patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome. Aims: We aimed to evaluate efficiency of dexmedetomidine or propofol used for sedation in patients undergoing drug-induced sleep endoscopy. Methods: A total of 40 patients aged between 18 and 65 years old in the ASA STATUS I-II group were included in the study. After premedicatıon wıth midazolam 0.05 mg/kg intravenously, patients were randomly divided into two groups and administered intravenous (iv) propofol with the loading dose of 0.7 mg/kg for 10 minutes, followed 0.5 mg/kg/h infusion (Group P); or dexmedetomidine with the loading dose of 1 mcg/kg for 10 minutes, followed by 0.3 mcg/kg/h infusion (Group D). Haemodynamic and respiratuary parameters, Bispectral index score, Ramsey sedation score, time to achieve sufficient sedation, surgeon’s and patients’ satisfaction, postoperative Aldrete score and side effects were recorded. Results: Time to achieve sufficient sedation, Bispectral index scores at 5, 10 and 15th. minutes intraoperatively, first Aldrete score in the recovery room, SpO2 values and respiratory rates all over the surgical procedure and in the recovery room were found lower in Group P (P<0.05). Bispectral index scores, mean arterial pressure and heart rate in the recovery room were significantly lower in Group D (P<0.05). Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine may be preferred as a safer agent with respecting to respiratory function compared with propofol in obstructive sleep apnea patients who known to be susceptible to hypoxia and hypercarbia. PMID:26131153
Coma-del-Corral, María Jesús; Alonso-Álvarez, María Luz; Allende, Marta; Cordero, José; Ordax, Estrella; Masa, Fernando
Abstract Background: Advances in information technology and telecommunications have provided the option of making it easier to diagnose and treat obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) using telemedicine techniques. This study assessed the feasibility and reliability of respiratory polygraphy and prescription of treatment by pressure adjustment with auto-continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) systems, both being transmitted telematically to the Sleep Unit, with teleconsultation as a support method. Subjects and Methods: Forty patients were studied from a population 80 km from the Sleep Unit using respiratory polygraphy transmitted in real time. They were divided into two groups: one was seen by conventional consultation, and the other was seen using teleconsultation. We also estimated satisfaction with this system and its costs. Results: The mean patient age was 53±10.3 years, with a body mass index of 31±6.2 kg/m2 and an Epworth score of 12±5.3. In total, 35 patients were diagnosed with OSAS, with an Apnea-Hypopnea Index of ≥10, and CPAP treatment was started in 16 of them. The agreement in the Apnea-Hypopnea Index, total apneas and hypopneas, mean oxygen saturation, and time with an oxygen saturation <90% was greater than 90% between the studies transmitted in real time and those stored in the polygraph. The level of compliance with CPAP treatment was 85% for the patients who were seen in a conventional clinic and 75% in those seen by teleconsultation. Conclusions: The use of telematic techniques is useful to establish a diagnostic and therapeutic strategy for OSAS with the creation of a Wide Core Sleep Laboratory as a process controller. PMID:23186084
Heinzer, Raphael C.; Stanchina, Michael L.; Malhotra, Atul; Fogel, Robert B.; Patel, Sanjay R.; Jordan, Amy S.; Schory, Karen; White, David P.
Previous studies have demonstrated that lung volume during wakefulness influences upper airway size and resistance, particularly in patients with sleep apnea. We sought to determine the influence of lung volume on the level of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) required to prevent flow limitation during non-REM sleep in subjects with sleep apnea. Seventeen subjects (apnea–hypopnea index, 42.6 ± 6.2 [SEM]) were studied during stable non-REM sleep in a rigid head-out shell equipped with a positive/negative pressure attachment for manipulation of extrathoracic pressure. An epiglottic pressure catheter plus a mask/pneumotachometer were used to assess flow limitation. When lung volume was increased by 1,035 ± 22 ml, the CPAP level could be decreased from 11.9 ± 0.7 to 4.8 ± 0.7 cm H2O (p < 0.001) without flow limitation. The decreased CPAP at the same negative extrathoracic pressure yielded a final lung volume increase of 421 ± 36 ml above the initial value. Conversely, when lung volume was reduced by 732 ± 74 ml (n = 8), the CPAP level had to be increased from 11.9 ± 0.7 to 17.1 ± 1.0 cm H2O (p < 0.001) to prevent flow limitation, with a final lung volume decrease of 567 ± 78 ml. These results demonstrate that relatively small changes in lung volume have an important effect on the upper airway in subjects with sleep apnea during non-REM sleep. PMID:15817803
Janovsky, Carolina Castro Porto Silva; Rolim, Luiz Clemente de Souza Pereira; de Sá, João Roberto; Poyares, Dalva; Tufik, Sergio; Silva, Ademir Baptista; Dib, Sergio Atala
Knowledge about association between sleep apnea and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) might give some insight into the pathogenesis of this condition in these patients. In obese patients, excessive central adiposity, including a large neck circumference, can contribute to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Its presence in non-obese patients, however, indicates that it could be correlated with autonomic neuropathy. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of OSA in young and lean T1DM patients with and without CAN. We studied 20 adult, non-obese, T1DM patients who were divided into two groups according to the results of the cardiovascular autonomic reflex tests (CARTs). These two groups (9 with CAN and 11 without CAN) were compared to a control group of 22 healthy individuals, who were matched by age and BMI. A polysomnography was performed and sleep was analyzed. The CAN+ group had a significantly higher prevalence of sleep apnea compared to the other groups (67% CAN+; 23% CAN-; 4.5% controls: CAN+ vs. Control; p = 0.006 and CAN+ vs. CAN-; p = 0.02). The CAN- group had higher sleep efficiency compared to the CAN+ group, demonstrating impaired sleep architecture in diabetics with this chronic complication. In conclusion, OSA may be related to the presence of CAN in young and lean T1DM patients. It could contribute to worse the prognosis and reducing the quality of life of these patients without specific treatment of these conditions.
Patel, Kamal; Moorthy, Denish; Chan, Jeffrey A.; Concannon, Thomas W.; Ratichek, Sara J.; Chung, Mei; Balk, Ethan M.
Study Objectives: To identify and prioritize future research needs (FRN) topics for diagnosis and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods: Twenty-one panel members represented six stake-holder categories: patients and the public, providers; purchasers of health care, payers, policymakers, and principal investigators. Building on a recently completed comparative effectiveness review, stakeholders nominated and discussed potential FRN topics. Stakeholders then nominated their top priority FRN topics based on the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Effective Health Care Program Selection Criteria. From these nominations, the highest priority FRN topics were determined and were elaborated upon to include possible study designs to address the topics. Results: Thirty-seven topics were discussed and prioritized. The nine highest priority FRN topics included: cost-effectiveness of management strategies, defining age- and sex-specific criteria for OSA, evaluating routine preoperative screening for OSA, evaluating involvement of a sleep medicine specialist in diagnosis of OSA, evaluating clinical prediction rules, assessing the effect of treating sleep disordered breathing and long-term clinical outcomes, comparing treatments for patients who do not tolerate positive airway pressure, evaluating strategies to improve treatment compliance, and evaluating the association between sleep apnea severity and long-term clinical outcomes. Conclusions: While there are numerous specific research questions with low or insufficient strength of evidence for OSA management, OSA patients, their healthcare providers, and society at large would benefit from refocusing research efforts into the prioritized research questions and away from simple comparisons of short-term outcomes between specific interventions. Citation: Patel K; Moorthy D; Chan JA; Concannon TW. High priority future research needs for obstructive sleep apnea diagnosis and treatment. J Clin Sleep Med 2013
Durán-Cantolla, Joaquín; Alkhraisat, Mohammad Hamdan; Martínez-Null, Cristina; Aguirre, Jose Javier; Guinea, Elena Rubio; Anitua, Eduardo
Study Objectives: To estimate the frequency of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in dental patients with tooth wear, and to assess the role of dentists in the identification of patients at risk of OSAS. Methods: Dental patients with tooth wear and treated with occlusal splint were prospectively recruited to perform sleep study. The severity of tooth wear was established by the treating dentist before patient referral to sleep disorders unit. Sleep questionnaires, anthropometric measurements, and validated respiratory polygraphy were performed. Results: All patients with dental wear were offered a sleepiness analysis. Of 31 recruited patients, 30 (77% males) participated in this study. Patients' mean age was 58.5 ± 10.7 years (range: 35–90 years) and the body mass index was 27.9 ± 3.4 kg/m2. Tooth wear was mild in 13 patients, moderate in 8 and severe in 9. The mean apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was 32.4 ± 24.9. AHI < 5 was reported in 2 patients, AHI of 5–29 in 17, and AHI ≥ 30 in 11. A statistically significant association was found between AHI severity and tooth wear severity (Spearman R = 0.505; p = 0.004). Conclusions: Tooth wear could be a tool to identify those patients at risk of having OSAS. This highlights the importance of dental professionals to identify and refer patients with OSAS. Citation: Durán-Cantolla J, Alkhraisat MH, Martínez-Null C, Aguirre JJ, Guinea ER, Anitua E. Frequency of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in dental patients with tooth wear. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(4):445–450. PMID:25665693
Aaronson, Justine A.; van Bennekom, Coen A.M.; Hofman, Winni F.; van Bezeij, Tijs; van den Aardweg, Joost G.; Groet, Erny; Kylstra, Wytske A.; Schmand, Ben
Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder in stroke patients and is associated with prolonged hospitalization, decreased functional outcome, and recurrent stroke. Research on the effect of OSA on cognitive functioning following stroke is scarce. The primary objective of this study was to compare stroke patients with and without OSA on cognitive and functional status upon admission to inpatient rehabilitation. Design: Case-control study. Setting and Patients: 147 stroke patients admitted to a neurorehabilitation unit. Interventions: N/A. Measurements: All patients underwent sleep examination for diagnosis of OSA. We assessed cognitive status by neuropsychological examination and functional status by two neurological scales and a measure of functional independence. Results: We included 80 stroke patients with OSA and 67 stroke patients without OSA. OSA patients were older and had a higher body mass index than patients without OSA. OSA patients performed worse on tests of attention, executive functioning, visuoperception, psychomotor ability, and intelligence than those without OSA. No differences were found for vigilance, memory, and language. OSA patients had a worse neurological status, lower functional independence scores, and a longer period of hospitalization in the neurorehabilitation unit than the patients without OSA. OSA status was not associated with stroke type or classification. Conclusions: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with a lower cognitive and functional status in patients admitted for stroke rehabilitation. This underlines the importance of OSA as a probable prognostic factor, and calls for well-designed randomized controlled trials to study its treatability. Citation: Aaronson JA, van Bennekom CA, Hofman WF, van Bezeij T, van den Aardweg JG, Groet E, Kylstra WA, Schmand B. Obstructive sleep apnea is related to impaired cognitive and functional status after stroke. SLEEP 2015;38(9):1431–1437. PMID
Darakjian, Ara; Darakjian, Ani B.; Chang, Edward T.
Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis (DISH) can cause ossification of ligaments and may affect the spine. We report a case of obstructive sleep apnea in a patient with significant upper airway narrowing secondary to cervical DISH. This patient had an initial apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of 145 events/hour and was treated with uvulopalatopharyngoplasty, genial tubercle advancement, hyoid suspension, septoplasty, inferior turbinoplasties, and radiofrequency ablations to the tongue base which reduced his AHI to 40 events/hour. He redeveloped symptoms, was started on positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy, and later underwent a maxillomandibular advancement which improved his AHI to 16.3 events/hour. A few years later his AHI was 100.4 events/hour. His disease has gradually progressed over time and he was restarted on PAP therapy. Despite PAP titration, years of using PAP therapy, and being 100 percent compliant for the past three months (average daily use of 7.6 hours/night), he has an AHI of 5.1 events/hour and has persistent hypersomnia with an Epworth Sleep Scale questionnaire score of 18/24. At this time he is pending further hypersomnia work-up. DISH patients require prolonged follow-up to monitor the progression of disease, and they may require unconventional measures for adequate treatment of obstructive sleep apnea. PMID:27957370
Wikner, J; Svanborg, E; Wetterberg, L; Röjdmark, S
Melatonin (MT) secretion and excretion were investigated in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Nine men, mean age 55.1 years, mean body mass index 31.2, with a previously confirmed diagnosis of moderate to severe OSAS, were tested on two occasions: immediately before initiation of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment and again after at least 4 weeks of continuous nocturnal use of CPAP. Serum MT concentrations were determined every second hour between 2000 and 0800 hours. Urine was collected between 2200 and 0700 hours for determination of urinary MT excretion. Sleep apnea recordings included ear oximetry, respiration and body movements, body position, and breathing sounds. Nine healthy male controls were tested on one occasion. We found that the MT secretion, as reflected by the area under the curve (AUC), among the OSAS patients did not differ from that found in healthy controls (MT AUC 1.68 vs. 1.92 nmol/l x h). Sleep apnea recordings were normalized during CPAP treatment. Moreover, the excessive daytime sleepiness disappeared in all patients. Neither MT secretion (MT AUC 1.68 vs. 1.56 nmol/l x h) nor urinary excretion of MT (0.122 vs. 0.108 nmol/9 h) changed significantly as a result of the CPAP treatment.
Andrechuk, Carla Renata Silva; Ceolim, Maria Filomena
Objectives: to stratify the risk for obstructive sleep apnea in patients with acute myocardial infarction, treated at a public, tertiary, teaching hospital of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, and to identify related sociodemographic and clinical factors. Method: cross-sectional analytical study with 113 patients (mean age 59.57 years, 70.8% male). A specific questionnaire was used for the sociodemographic and clinical characterization and the Berlin Questionnaire for the stratification of the risk of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Results: the prevalence of high risk was 60.2% and the outcome of clinical worsening during hospitalization was more frequent among these patients. The factors related to high risk were body mass index over 30 kg/m2, arterial hypertension and waist circumference indicative of cardiovascular risk, while older age (60 years and over) constituted a protective factor. Conclusion: considering the high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea and its relation to clinical worsening, it is suggested that nurses should monitor, in their clinical practice, people at high risk for this syndrome, guiding control measures of modifiable factors and aiming to prevent the associated complications, including worsening of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26487128
Malhotra, Atul; Schwartz, Eli
Abstract Ginosar, Yehuda, Atul Malhotra, and Eli Schwartz. High altitude, continuous positive airway pressure, and obstructive sleep apnea: Subjective observations and objective data. High Alt Med Biol 14:186–189, 2013.—We report observations made by one of the authors who ascended to the Thorang La pass (5416 m) in the Nepal Himalaya in October 2010, despite moderate-severe obstructive sleep apnea. We report the first recorded use of nasal CPAP to treat high altitude pulmonary edema (progressively severe dyspnea at rest and severe orthopnea, with tachycardia and tachypnea) that occurred at 4400 meters, when snow and darkness made safe evacuation difficult. We also present objective longitudinal data of the effects of altitude on auto-adjusting CPAP delivered via a portable nasal CPAP device, and on the apnea hypopnea index measured during sleep while using the device. OSA may be a risk factor for the development of high altitude pulmonary edema and we suggest that a nasal CPAP device located in high altitude trekking stations may provide an additional or alternative treatment option for managing high altitude pulmonary edema until evacuation is possible. PMID:23795742
Gildeh, Nadia; Drakatos, Panagis; Higgins, Sean; Rosenzweig, Ivana
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) causes daytime fatigue and sleepiness, and has an established relationship with cardiovascular and metabolic disease. Recent years have seen the emergence of an evidence base linking OSA with an increased risk of degenerative neurological disease and associated cognitive impairment, an accelerated rate of decline in kidney function with an increased risk of clinically significant chronic kidney disease (CKD), and with a significantly higher rate of cancer incidence and death. This review evaluates the evidence base linking OSA with these seemingly unrelated co-morbidities, and explores potential mechanistic links underpinning their development in patients with OSA, including intermittent hypoxia (IH), sleep fragmentation, sympathetic excitation, and immune dysregulation. PMID:27747026
Strollo, Patrick J.; Gillespie, M. Boyd; Soose, Ryan J.; Maurer, Joachim T.; de Vries, Nico; Cornelius, Jason; Hanson, Ronald D.; Padhya, Tapan A.; Steward, David L.; Woodson, B. Tucker; Verbraecken, Johan; Vanderveken, Olivier M.; Goetting, Mark G.; Feldman, Neil; Chabolle, Frédéric; Badr, M. Safwan; Randerath, Winfried; Strohl, Kingman P.
Objective: To determine the stability of improvement in polysomnographic measures of sleep disordered breathing, patient reported outcomes, the durability of hypoglossal nerve recruitment and safety at 18 months in the Stimulation Treatment for Apnea Reduction (STAR) trial participants. Design: Prospective multicenter single group trial with participants serving as their own controls. Setting: Twenty-two community and academic sleep medicine and otolaryngology practices. Measurements: Primary outcome measures were the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and the 4% oxygen desaturation index (ODI). Secondary outcome measures were the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ), and oxygen saturation percent time < 90% during sleep. Stimulation level for each participant was collected at three predefined thresholds during awake testing. Procedure- and/or device-related adverse events were reviewed and coded by the Clinical Events Committee Results: The median AHI was reduced by 67.4% from the baseline of 29.3 to 9.7/h at 18 mo. The median ODI was reduced by 67.5% from 25.4 to 8.6/h at 18 mo. The FOSQ and ESS improved significantly at 18 mo compared to baseline values. The functional threshold was unchanged from baseline at 18 mo. Two participants experienced a serious device-related adverse event requiring neurostimulator repositioning and fixation. No tongue weakness reported at 18 mo. Conclusion: Upper airway stimulation via the hypoglossal nerve maintained a durable effect of improving airway stability during sleep and improved patient reported outcomes (Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire) without an increase of the stimulation thresholds or tongue injury at 18 mo of follow-up. Citation: Strollo PJ, Gillespie MB, Soose RJ, Maurer JT, de Vries N, Cornelius J, Hanson RD, Padhya TA, Steward DL, Woodson BT, Verbraecken J, Vanderveken OM, Goetting MG, Feldman N, Chabolle F, Badr MS, Randerath W
DeMartino, Theresanne; Ghoul, Rawad El; Wang, Lu; Bena, James; Hazen, Stanley L.; Tracy, Russel; Patel, Sanjay R.; Auckley, Dennis; Mehra, Reena
Study Objectives: Data have demonstrated adverse health effects of sleep deprivation. We postulate that oxidative stress and systemic inflammation biomarkers will be elevated in relation to short-term and long-term sleep duration reduction. Methods: We analyzed data from the baseline examination of a randomized controlled trial involving participants with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Baseline polysomnography provided the total sleep time (PSG-TST, primary predictor); self-reported habitual sleep duration (SR-HSD) data was collected. Morning measures of oxidative stress and systemic inflammation included: myeloperoxidase (MPO, pmol/L), oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL, U/L), F2-isoprostane (ng/mg), paraoxonase 1 (PON1, nmol·min−1·mL−1), and aryl esterase (μmol·min−1·mL−1). Linear models adjusted for age, sex, race, body mass index (BMI), cardiovascular disease (CVD), smoking, statin/anti-inflammatory medications, and apnea-hypopnea index were utilized (beta estimates and 95% confidence intervals). Results: One hundred forty-seven participants comprised the final analytic sample; they were overall middle-aged (51.0 ± 11.7 y), obese (BMI = 37.3 ± 8.1 kg/m2), and 17% had CVD. Multivariable models demonstrated a significant inverse association of PSG-TST and MPO (β [95% CI] = −20.28 [−37.48, −3.08], P = 0.021), i.e., 20.3 pmol/L MPO reduction per hour increase PSG-TST. Alternatively, a significant inverse association with ox-LDL and SR-HSD was observed (β [95% CI] = 0.98 [0.96, 0.99], P = 0.027), i.e., 2% ox-LDL reduction per hour increase SR-HSD. Conclusions: Even after consideration of obesity and OSA severity, inverse significant findings were observed such that reduced PSG-TST was associated with elevated MPO levels and SR-HSD with ox-LDL, suggesting differential up-regulation of oxidative stress and pathways of inflammation in acute versus chronic sleep curtailment. Clinical Trial Registration: NIH clinical trials
Tempaku, Priscila Farias; Mazzotti, Diego Robles; Hirotsu, Camila; Andersen, Monica Levy; Xavier, Gabriela; Maurya, Pawan Kumar; Rizzo, Lucas Bortolotto; Brietzke, Elisa; Belangero, Sintia Iole; Bittencourt, Lia; Tufik, Sergio
Aging is associated with an increase in the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) as well as the shortening of telomeres. It is known that OSAS-related factors are stimuli that can contribute to the acceleration of cellular senescence. Thus, the present study aimed to compare the leukocyte telomere length (LTL) between OSAS patients and controls, as well as to verify the correlation between LTL and sleep parameters. We used DNA extracted of 928 individuals from EPISONO to measure the LTL by the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. All individuals were subjected to one full-night polysomnography. LTL was significantly shorter in OSAS patients compared to controls. The results showed negative correlations between LTL and the following variables: apnea-hypopnea index, respiratory disturbance index, desaturation index and wake after sleep onset. LTL was positively correlated with sleep efficiency, total sleep time, basal, minimum and maximum oxygen saturation. Lastly, it was observed that OSAS severity was associated with shorter LTL even after adjusting for sex, age, years of schooling, body mass index, diabetes, stroke and heart attack. In conclusion, our study indicates the presence of an association between LTL and OSAS and a significant impact of severity of OSAS in telomeres shortening.
Tempaku, Priscila Farias; Mazzotti, Diego Robles; Hirotsu, Camila; Andersen, Monica Levy; Xavier, Gabriela; Maurya, Pawan Kumar; Rizzo, Lucas Bortolotto; Brietzke, Elisa; Belangero, Sintia Iole; Bittencourt, Lia; Tufik, Sergio
Aging is associated with an increase in the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) as well as the shortening of telomeres. It is known that OSAS-related factors are stimuli that can contribute to the acceleration of cellular senescence. Thus, the present study aimed to compare the leukocyte telomere length (LTL) between OSAS patients and controls, as well as to verify the correlation between LTL and sleep parameters. We used DNA extracted of 928 individuals from EPISONO to measure the LTL by the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. All individuals were subjected to one full-night polysomnography. LTL was significantly shorter in OSAS patients compared to controls. The results showed negative correlations between LTL and the following variables: apnea-hypopnea index, respiratory disturbance index, desaturation index and wake after sleep onset. LTL was positively correlated with sleep efficiency, total sleep time, basal, minimum and maximum oxygen saturation. Lastly, it was observed that OSAS severity was associated with shorter LTL even after adjusting for sex, age, years of schooling, body mass index, diabetes, stroke and heart attack. In conclusion, our study indicates the presence of an association between LTL and OSAS and a significant impact of severity of OSAS in telomeres shortening. PMID:27690344
Hoffmann, Michal S; Singh, Prachi; Wolk, Robert; Romero-Corral, Abel; Raghavakaimal, Sreekumar; Somers, Virend K
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), the commonest form of sleep-disordered breathing, is characterized by recurrent episodes of intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation. This study evaluated microarray measures of gene transcript levels in OSA subjects compared to age and BMI matched healthy controls. Measurements were obtained before and after: (a) a night of normal sleep in controls; and (b) a night of untreated apnea in OSA patients. All subjects underwent full polysomnography. mRNA from the whole blood samples was analyzed by HG-U133A and B Affymetrix GeneChip arrays using Spotfire 7.2 data analysis platform. After sleep in OSA patients, changes were noted in several genes involved in modulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), including heme oxygenase 1, superoxide dismutase 1 and 2, and catalase. Changes were also observed in genes involved in cell growth, proliferation, and the cell cycle such as cell division cycle 25B, signaling lymphocyte activating molecule (SLAM), calgizzarin S100A11, B-cell translocation gene, Src-like adapter protein (SLAP), and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 2. These overnight changes in OSA patients are suggestive of activation of several mechanisms to modulate, and adapt to, increased ROS developing in response to the frequent episodes of intermittent hypoxia.
Brown, Devin L.; Bapuraj, J. Rajiv; Mukherji, Suresh K.; Chervin, Ronald D.; Concannon, Maryann; Helman, Joseph I.; Lisabeth, Lynda D.
Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common after stroke and associated with poor stroke outcomes. Whether OSA after acute stroke is caused by anatomic, physiologic, or both etiologies has not been studied. We therefore used brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans to assess oropharyngeal anatomy in stroke patients with and without OSA. Methods Patients within 7 days of ischemic stroke underwent nocturnal polysomnography. Sagittal T1-weighted MRI performed for clinical purposes was used to measure retropalatal distance, soft palatal length, soft palatal thickness, retroglossal space, and tongue length. Nasopharyngeal area and high retropharyngeal area were measured from axial T2-weighted images, and lateral pharyngeal wall thickness from coronal T1-weighted images. Results Among 27 subjects, 18 (67%) had OSA (apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) ≥5). Demographics, vascular risk factors, and stroke severity were similar in the two groups. Median retropalatal distance was shorter in subjects with OSA (Wilcoxon rank-sum test, p= 0.03). Shorter retropalatal distance was associated with higher AHI (linear regression, p=0.04). None of the other morphological characteristics differed. Conclusions Anatomic difference between awake acute stroke patients with and without OSA shows that the sleep disorder cannot be attributed solely to sleep, sleeping position, or changes in neuromuscular control that are specific to the sleep state. PMID:20466584
Sanders, Emma; Hill, Catherine Mary; Evans, Hazel Jean; Tuffrey, Catherine
Obstructive sleep apnea is a condition which affects an estimated 50% of children with Down syndrome, particularly in their early years. It can cause serious sequelae in affected children but may not be recognized by parents or health professionals. Routine screening has been recommended in some countries, but is not standard practice. There are no validated questionnaire-based tools available to screen this population of children for this particular sleep-related disorder. Using existing validated sleep questionnaire items, we have developed a questionnaire to screen children with Down syndrome up to 6 years of age for obstructive sleep apnea, which corresponds with the recommendations made in UK national guidelines. This paper describes these first steps in demonstrating content validity for a new questionnaire, which will be subject to further in-depth psychometric analysis. Relevance, clarity, and age appropriateness were rated for 33 items using a content review questionnaire by a group of 18 health professionals with expertise in respiratory pediatrics, neurodevelopmental pediatrics, and sleep physiology. The content validity index was calculated for individual items and contributed to decisions about item inclusion. Scale level content validity index for the modified questionnaire of 14 items was at an accepted level of 0.78. Two parents of children with Down syndrome took part in cognitive interviews after completing the modified questionnaire. We describe the development of this 14 item questionnaire to screen for OSA in children with DS from infancy to 6 years. PMID:26539127
Tal, Joshua Z.; Suh, Sooyeon A.; Dowdle, Claire L.; Nowakowski, Sara
Understanding sleep complaints among menopausal women is an emerging area of clinical and research interest. Several recent reviews have focused on mechanisms of menopausal insomnia and symptoms. In this review, we present a discussion on the most relevant and recent publications on the treatment of sleep disorders for menopausal women, with a focus on menopause-related insomnia, insomnia symptoms, and obstructive sleep apnea. We discuss both nonpharmacological and pharmacological treatments, including cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I), complementary and alternative medicine, hormone replacement therapy, sedative hypnotics, antidepressants, and continuous positive airway pressure. In addition, we briefly discuss methods and considerations of assessment of sleep disorders in menopausal women. PMID:26478725
Meng, Lili; Xu, Huajun; Guan, Jian; Yi, Hongliang; Wu, Hongmin; Yin, Shankai
Overnight polysomnography (PSG) is currently the gold standard for diagnosing obstructive sleep apnea (OSA); however, it is time-consuming, expensive and uncomfortable for the patient. A micromovement sensitive mattress (MSM) sleep-monitoring system was developed as an alternative to PSG, however, there has yet to be a study verifying the accuracy of diagnosing OSA with this device. Therefore, the present study assessed the validity of the MSM sleep-monitoring system. Chinese Han participants who were suspected of having OSA were recruited between June 2013 and June 2014. The MSM sleep-monitoring system and PSG were utilized simultaneously overnight on each subject. The apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was measured by the MSM sleep-monitoring system (AHIMSM) and compared with that determined by PSG (AHIPSG), revealing a significant correlation between the two values (r=0.97, P<0.001). Bland-Altman plots also indicated good agreement (97%) between MSM and PSG. Using an AHIPSG cut-off of ≥5, ≥15 and ≥30 events/h, the sensitivity (specificity) of detecting an AHIMSM of ≥5, ≥15, and ≥30 events/h were 94.9 (100%), 89.9 (96.9%) and 90.3% (94.9%), respectively. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve, which were used to differentiate an AHIPSG of ≥5, ≥15 and ≥30 events/h in clinically diagnosed OSA, were 0.984, 0.982 and 0.980, respectively. Thus, the MSM sleeping system may accurately diagnose OSA in the Chinese Han population. Further community-based studies with larger sample sizes are warranted to confirm the validity of this MSM sleeping system. PMID:27882098
Meng, Lili; Xu, Huajun; Guan, Jian; Yi, Hongliang; Wu, Hongmin; Yin, Shankai
Overnight polysomnography (PSG) is currently the gold standard for diagnosing obstructive sleep apnea (OSA); however, it is time-consuming, expensive and uncomfortable for the patient. A micromovement sensitive mattress (MSM) sleep-monitoring system was developed as an alternative to PSG, however, there has yet to be a study verifying the accuracy of diagnosing OSA with this device. Therefore, the present study assessed the validity of the MSM sleep-monitoring system. Chinese Han participants who were suspected of having OSA were recruited between June 2013 and June 2014. The MSM sleep-monitoring system and PSG were utilized simultaneously overnight on each subject. The apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was measured by the MSM sleep-monitoring system (AHIMSM) and compared with that determined by PSG (AHIPSG), revealing a significant correlation between the two values (r=0.97, P<0.001). Bland-Altman plots also indicated good agreement (97%) between MSM and PSG. Using an AHIPSG cut-off of ≥5, ≥15 and ≥30 events/h, the sensitivity (specificity) of detecting an AHIMSM of ≥5, ≥15, and ≥30 events/h were 94.9 (100%), 89.9 (96.9%) and 90.3% (94.9%), respectively. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve, which were used to differentiate an AHIPSG of ≥5, ≥15 and ≥30 events/h in clinically diagnosed OSA, were 0.984, 0.982 and 0.980, respectively. Thus, the MSM sleeping system may accurately diagnose OSA in the Chinese Han population. Further community-based studies with larger sample sizes are warranted to confirm the validity of this MSM sleeping system.
Farney, Robert J.; Walker, Brandon S.; Farney, Robert M.; Snow, Gregory L.; Walker, James M.
Background: Various models and questionnaires have been developed for screening specific populations for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) as defined by the apnea/hypopnea index (AHI); however, almost every method is based upon dichotomizing a population, and none function ideally. We evaluated the possibility of using the STOP-Bang model (SBM) to classify severity of OSA into 4 categories ranging from none to severe. Methods: Anthropomorphic data and the presence of snoring, tiredness/sleepiness, observed apneas, and hypertension were collected from 1426 patients who underwent diagnostic polysomnography. Questionnaire data for each patient was converted to the STOP-Bang equivalent with an ordinal rating of 0 to 8. Proportional odds logistic regression analysis was conducted to predict severity of sleep apnea based upon the AHI: none (AHI < 5/h), mild (AHI ≥ 5 to < 15/h), moderate (≥ 15 to < 30/h), and severe (AHI ≥ 30/h). Results: Linear, curvilinear, and weighted models (R2 = 0.245, 0.251, and 0.269, respectively) were developed that predicted AHI severity. The linear model showed a progressive increase in the probability of severe (4.4% to 81.9%) and progressive decrease in the probability of none (52.5% to 1.1%). The probability of mild or moderate OSA initially increased from 32.9% and 10.3% respectively (SBM score 0) to 39.3% (SBM score 2) and 31.8% (SBM score 4), after which there was a progressive decrease in probabilities as more patients fell into the severe category. Conclusions: The STOP-Bang model may be useful to categorize OSA severity, triage patients for diagnostic evaluation or exclude from harm. Citation: Farney RJ; Walker BS; Farney RM; Snow GL; Walker JM. The STOP-Bang equivalent model and prediction of severity of obstructive sleep apnea: relation to polysomnographic measurements of the apnea/hypopnea index. J Clin Sleep Med 2011;7(5):459-465. PMID:22003340
Neuzeret, Pierre-Charles; Gormand, Frédéric; Reix, Philippe; Parrot, Sandrine; Sastre, Jean-Pierre; Buda, Colette; Guidon, Gérard; Sakai, Kazuya; Lin, Jian-Sheng
Study Objectives: An improved animal model of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is needed for the development of effective pharmacotherapies. In humans, flexion of the neck and a supine position, two main pathogenic factors during human sleep, are associated with substantially greater OSA severity. We postulated that these two factors might generate OSA in animals. Design: We developed a restraining device for conditioning to investigate the effect of the combination of 2 body positions—prone (P) or supine (S)—and 2 head positions—with the neck flexed at right angles to the body (90°) or in extension in line with the body (180°)—during sleep in 6 cats. Polysomnography was performed twice on each cat in each of the 4 sleeping positions—P180, S180, P90, or S90. The effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment was then investigated in 2 cats under the most pathogenic condition. Setting: NA. Patients or Participants: NA. Interventions: NA. Measurements and Results: Positions P180 and, S90 resulted, respectively, in the lowest and highest apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) (3 ± 1 vs 25 ± 2, P < 0.001), while P90 (18 ± 3, P < 0.001) and S180 (13 ± 5, P < 0.01) gave intermediate values. In position S90, an increase in slow wave sleep stage 1 (28% ± 3% vs 22% ± 3%, P < 0.05) and a decrease in REM sleep (10% ± 2% vs 18% ± 2%, P < 0.001) were also observed. CPAP resulted in a reduction in the AHI (8 ± 1 vs 27 ± 3, P < 0.01), with the added benefit of sleep consolidation. Conclusion: By mimicking human pathogenic sleep conditions, we have developed a new reversible animal model of OSA. Citation: Neuzeret PC; Gormand F; Reix P; Parrot S; Sastre JP; Buda C; Guidon G; Sakai K; Lin JS. A new animal model of obstructive sleep apnea responding to continuous positive airway pressure. SLEEP 2011;34(4):541-548. PMID:21461333
Alonso-Álvarez, María Luz; Cordero-Guevara, José Aurelio; Terán-Santos, Joaquin; Gonzalez-Martinez, Mónica; Jurado-Luque, María José; Corral-Peñafiel, Jaime; Duran-Cantolla, Joaquin; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila; Gozal, David
Introduction: Obesity in children is assumed to serve as a major risk factor in pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). However, the prevalence of OSAS in otherwise healthy obese children from the community is unknown. Aim: To determine the prevalence of OSAS in obese children identified and recruited from primary care centers. Methods: A cross-sectional, prospective, multicenter study. Spanish children ages 3–14 y with a body mass index (BMI) greater than or equal to the 95th percentile for age and sex were randomly selected, and underwent medical history, snoring, and Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ) assessments, as well as physical examination, nasopharyngoscopy, and nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG) recordings. Results: Two hundred forty-eight children (54.4% males) with mean age of 10.8 ± 2.6 y were studied with a BMI of 28.0 ± 4.7 kg/m2 corresponding to 96.8 ± 0.6 percentile when adjusted for age and sex. The mean respiratory disturbance index (RDI), obstructive RDI (ORDI), and obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (OAHI) were 5.58 ± 9.90, 5.06 ± 9.57, and 3.39 ± 8.78/h total sleep time (TST), respectively. Using ≥ 3/h TST as the cutoff for the presence of OSAS, the prevalence of OSAS ranged from 21.5% to 39.5% depending on whether OAHI, ORDI, or RDI were used. Conclusions: The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in obese children from the general population is high. Obese children should be screened for the presence of OSAS. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01322763. Citation: Alonso-Álvarez ML, Cordero-Guevara JA, Terán-Santos J, Gonzalez-Martinez M, Jurado-Luque MJ, Corral-Peñafiel J, Duran-Cantolla J, Kheirandish-Gozal L, Gozal D, for the Spanish Sleep Network. Obstructive sleep apnea in obese community-dwelling children: the NANOS study. SLEEP 2014;37(5):943-949. PMID:24790273
Ladesich, James B.; Pottala, James V.; Romaker, Ann; Harris, William S.
Background: Patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a major component of neural tissues, and supplementation with fish oils improves autonomic tone and reduces risk for CVD. A link between low DHA status and less mature sleep patterns was observed in newborns. Methods: We investigated the relations between red blood cell (RBC) levels of DHA and OSA severity in 350 sequential patients undergoing sleep studies. Severity categories were defined as none/mild, moderate, and severe, based on apnea hypopnea index (AHI) scores of 0 to 14, 15 to 34, and > 34, respectively. Results: After controlling for age, sex, race, smoking, BMI, alcohol intake, fish intake, and omega-3 supplementation, RBC DHA was inversely related with OSA severity. For each 1-SD increase in DHA levels, a patient was about 50% less likely to be classified with severe OSA. The odds ratios (95% CI) were 0.47 (0.28 to 0.80) and 0.55 (0.31 to 0.99) for being in the severe group versus the none/mild or moderate groups, respectively. Conclusion: These findings suggest that disordered membrane fatty acid patterns may play a causal role in OSA and that the assessment of RBC DHA levels might help in the diagnosis of OSA. The effects of DHA supplementation on OSA should be explored. Citation: Ladesich JB; Pottala JV; Romaker A; Harris WS. Membrane level of omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid is associated with severity of obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2011;7(4):391-396. PMID:21897776
Xanthopoulos, Melissa S.; Gallagher, Paul R.; Berkowitz, Robert I.; Radcliffe, Jerilynn; Bradford, Ruth; Marcus, Carole L.
Study Objectives: Children and adults with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) exhibit neurobehavioral abnormalities, but few studies have evaluated the transitional stage of adolescence. Obesity is also associated with neurobehavioral abnormalities, and many patients with OSAS are obese. However, the confounding effect of obesity on neurobehavioral abnormalities in adolescents with OSAS has not been evaluated. We hypothesized that obese adolescents with OSAS would exhibit more neurobehavioral abnormalities than obese and lean adolescents without OSAS. Design: Cross-sectional, case control. Setting: Sleep Center and community. Participants: Obese adolescents with OSAS compared to (1) nonsnoring, obese controls without OSAS, and (2) nonobese, nonsnoring controls. Interventions: Neurobehavioral evaluation. Measurements and Results: Obese adolescents with OSAS had significantly worse executive function and attention compared to both obese (P < 0.001) and lean (P < 0.001) controls, and more depression (P = 0.004) and externalizing symptoms than lean controls (P = 0.008). A higher percentage of participants in the OSAS group scored in the clinically abnormal range on executive functioning, attention, sleepiness, and behavioral functioning than lean controls. Mediation analyses indicated that level of sleep apnea significantly mediated the effect of body mass on executive functioning, attention, and behavior. Conclusions: Obese adolescents with OSAS show impaired executive and behavioral function compared to obese and lean controls, and are more likely to score in the clinically abnormal range on measures of neurobehavioral functioning. These results are especially concerning given that the frontal lobe is still developing during this critical age period. We speculate that untreated OSAS during adolescence may lead to significant neurobehavioral deficits in adulthood. Citation: Xanthopoulos MS, Gallagher PR, Berkowitz RI, Radcliffe J, Bradford R, Marcus CL
Sun, Hong; Palcza, John; Card, Deborah; Gipson, Adrianna; Rosenberg, Russell; Kryger, Meir; Lines, Christopher; Wagner, John A.; Troyer, Matthew D.
Study Objectives: To investigate the respiratory effects of suvorexant, an orexin receptor antagonist for treating insomnia, in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-period (4 days per period), crossover, sleep laboratory study. Twenty-six patients aged 18–65 years with mild (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 5 and < 15) to moderate (AHI ≥ 15 and < 30) OSA were randomized to receive suvorexant 40 mg or placebo in period-1 and then crossed over to the other treatment in period-2. Breathing during sleep was measured by AHI (primary endpoint) and oxygen saturation assessed by pulse oximetry (SpO2, secondary endpoint). The study was powered to rule out a mean increase in AHI between suvorexant and placebo of 5 or greater on Day 4. Results: There was a small increase in mean AHI (2.66) in OSA patients after multiple doses of suvorexant relative to placebo, with the upper 90% CI bound slightly exceeding 5.00 (0.22, 5.09). No increase in mean AHI was observed after a single dose of suvorexant versus placebo (mean difference = −0.47 [−3.20, 2.26]), and there was no treatment effect on mean SpO2 during total sleep time after single or multiple doses (Day 1: mean difference = −0.04 [−0.49, 0.42]; Day 4: mean difference = −0.06 [−0.45, 0.33]). There was inter- and intra-individual variability in suvorexant respiratory effects. Conclusions: Suvorexant 40 mg, twice the 20 mg maximum recommended dose for treating insomnia in the USA and Japan, does not appear to have clinically important respiratory effects during sleep in patients with mild to moderate OSA as assessed by mean AHI and SpO2. Due to inter- and intra-individual variability in respiratory effects, suvorexant should be used with caution in patients with compromised respiratory function, and at the lowest effective dose. Clinical Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01300455. Citation: Sun H, Palcza J, Card D, Gipson A
Sharma, Sunil; Mather, Paul J.; Efird, Jimmy T.; Kahn, Daron; Shiue, Kristin Y.; Cheema, Mohammed; Malloy, Raymond; Quan, Stuart F.
Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an important health problem associated with significant morbidity and mortality. This condition often is underrecognized in hospitalized patients. The aim of this study was to conduct a clinical pathway evaluation (CPE) among obese patients admitted to a tertiary care hospital. We also assessed oxygen desaturation index (ODI, measured by overnight pulse oximetry) as a potential low-cost screening tool for identifying OSA. Methods: This was a prospective study of 754 patients admitted to an academic medical center between February 2013 and February 2014. Consecutive obese patients (body mass index ≥ 30) admitted to the hospital (medical services) were screened and evaluated for OSA with the snoring, tiredness during daytime, observed apnea, high blood pressure (STOP) questionnaire. The admitting team was advised to perform follow-up evaluation, including polysomnography, if the test was positive. Results: A total of 636 patients were classified as high risk and 118 as low risk for OSA. Within 4 w of discharge, 149 patients underwent polysomnography, and of these, 87% (129) were shown to have OSA. An optimal screening cutoff point for OSA (apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 10/h) was determined to be ODI ≥ 10/h [Matthews correlation coefficient = 0.36, 95% confidence interval = 0.24–0.47]. Significantly more hospitalized patients were identified and underwent polysomnography compared with the year prior to introduction of the CPE. Conclusions: Our results indicate that the CPE increased the identification of OSA in this population. Furthermore, ODI derived from overnight pulse oximetry may be a cost-effective strategy to screen for OSA in hospitalized patients. Citation: Sharma S, Mather PJ, Efird JT, Kahn D, Shiue KY, Cheema M, Malloy R, Quan SF. Obstructive sleep apnea in obese hospitalized patients: a single center experience. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(7):717–723. PMID:25766715
Quan, Stuart F.; Budhiraja, Rohit; Clarke, Denise P.; Goodwin, James L.; Gottlieb, Daniel J.; Nichols, Deborah A.; Simon, Richard D.; Smith, Terry W.; Walsh, James K.; Kushida, Clete A.
Study Objective: To determine the impact of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on weight change in persons with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Design, Setting, and Participants: The Apnea Positive Pressure Long-term Efficacy Study (APPLES) was a 6-month, randomized, double-blinded sham-controlled multicenter clinical trial conducted at 5 sites in the United States. Of 1,105 participants with an apnea hypopnea index ≥ 10 events/ hour initially randomized, 812 had body weight measured at baseline and after 6 months of study. Intervention: CPAP or Sham CPAP. Measurements: Body weight, height, hours of CPAP or Sham CPAP use, Epworth Sleepiness Scale score. Results: Participants randomized to CPAP gained 0.35 ± 5.01 kg, whereas those on Sham CPAP lost 0.70 ± 4.03 kg (mean ± SD, p = 0.001). Amount of weight gain with CPAP was related to hours of device adherence, with each hour per night of use predicting a 0.42 kg increase in weight. This association was not noted in the Sham CPAP group. CPAP participants who used their device ≥ 4 h per night on ≥ 70% of nights gained the most weight over 6 months in comparison to non-adherent CPAP participants (1.0 ± 5.3 vs. -0.3 ± 5.0 kg, p = 0.014). Conclusions: OSA patients using CPAP may gain a modest amount of weight with the greatest weight gain found in those most compliant with CPAP. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 995. Citation: Quan SF; Budhiraja R; Clarke DP; Goodwin JL; Gottlieb DJ; Nichols DA; Simon RD; Smith TW; Walsh JK; Kushida CA. Impact of treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on weight in obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(10):989-993. PMID:24127141
Sleep apnea (SA) and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) are common sleep disorders among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). This cross-sectional study, carried out in two dialysis centers in Saudi Arabia, assessed the prevalence of sleep apnea and sleepiness in Saudi patients with ESRD who are on maintenance dialysis with either peritoneal or hemodialysis. We used questionnaires to assess the prevalence of SA and EDS. The association between sleep apnea, EDS, and other sleep disorders, the underlying causes of renal failure, and other demographic data were also examined. Among 227 enrolled patients, the mean patient age was 55.7 years ± 17.2 years; 53.7% were male, and 46.3% were female. The overall prevalence of SA as defined by the Berlin questionnaire (BQ) was 37% in males and 34% in females, which was not a statistically significant difference (P = 0.459). Sleep apnea was significantly associated with age, neck size, afternoon and evening hemodialysis shift, obesity, diabetes, and hypertension (P-values, 0.001, 0.029, < 0.0001, < 0.0001, < 0.008, 0.002, and < 0.001, respectively). Sleep apnea was also significantly associated with other sleep disorders such as restless leg syndrome, insomnia, habitual snoring, and EDS (P-values, < 0.001, < 0.001, < 0.001, and < 0.001, respectively). The prevalence of EDS was 44%, and EDS was significantly more prevalent in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (P < 0.001); it was also associated with older age, diabetes mellitus, and other sleep disorders. SA and EDS are common in dialysis patients and are significantly associated with other sleep disorders.
Traxdorf, Maximilian; Tschaikowsky, Klaus; Scherl, Claudia; Bauer, Judith; Iro, Heinrich; Angerer, Florian
The aim of this study was to establish a standardized protocol for drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) to differentiate obstruction patterns in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Target-controlled infusion (TCI) of the sedative propofol was combined with real-time monitoring of the depth of sedation using bispectral analysis. In an observational study 57 patients (mean age 44.8 years, ± SD 10.5; mean apnea hypopnea Index (AHI) 30.8/hr, ± SD 21.6, mean BMI 28.2 kg/m(2), ± SD 5.3) underwent cardiorespiratory polysomnography followed by DISE with TCI and bispectral analysis. Sleep was induced solely by the intravenous infusion of propofol with a TCI-pump, with an initial target plasma level of 2.0 µg/ml. Under continuous monitoring of the patient's respiration, state of consciousness and value of the bispectral analysis, the target plasma propofol level was raised in steps of 0.2 µg/ml/2 min until the desired depth of sedation was reached. The mean value of the bispectral analysis at the target depth of sedation was determined and the obstruction patterns during DISE-TCI-bispectral analysis then classified according to the VOTE-system. Subsequently the results were analyzed according to polysomnographic and anthropometric data. The occurrence of multilevel obstruction sites across all degrees of severity of OSA clarifies the need for sleep endoscopy prior to upper airway surgery. The advantage of this technique is the reproducibility of the protocol even for heterogeneous groups of patients. In addition, the gradual controlled and standardized increase of the plasma level of propofol with real-time control of the bispectral index leads to a precisely controllable depth of sedation. The DISE-TCI-bispectral analysis procedure is a step towards a required reproducible protocol of sleep endoscopy - capable of standardization. However it is not yet known whether these observed obstruction patterns also correspond to findings in natural sleep.
Roberts, Soleil D.; Kapadia, Hitesh; Greenlee, Geoff; Chen, Maida L.
Study Objectives: Nasal positive airway pressure (nPAP) for treatment of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a widespread therapy that currently lacks longitudinal data describing how mask pressure impacts the developing facial skeleton. This retrospective cohort study compared midfacial growth in pediatric patients with underlying craniofacial conditions diagnosed with OSA who were compliant vs. noncompliant with nPAP therapy, and explored correlations between demographic, medical, and sleep variables with annual rate of facial change. Methods: Records from Seattle Children's Hospital's Craniofacial Center and Sleep Disorders Center were reviewed to identify patients prescribed nPAP for OSA with serial cephalographic images obtained during routine clinical care for concomitant craniofacial diagnosis. Lateral cephalometric analysis was used to determine mean annual change in midfacial structures from T1 (pre-nPAP) to T2 (post-nPAP) in compliant vs. noncompliant subjects. Compliance was indicated by nPAP usage of > 20 h/week for > 6 months. Results: 50 subjects were compliant with nPAP therapy (mean age 10.42 years) for an average of 2.57 years, and 50 subjects were noncompliant (mean age 8.53 years). Compliant subjects experienced negative mean annual change (retrusion) of the midface compared to forward growth seen in noncompliant subjects (SNA: −0.57° vs. 0.56°), counterclockwise rotation of palatal plane (SN-PP: −1.15° vs. 0.09°), and upper incisor flaring (U1-SN: 2.41° vs. −0.51°). Conclusions: Pressure to the midface from compliant nPAP use may alter normal facial growth. Cephalometric findings indicate a greater need for collaboration between sleep medicine physicians and orthodontists to monitor midfacial growth during nPAP treatment. Citation: Roberts SD, Kapadia H, Greenlee G, Chen ML. Midfacial and dental changes associated with nasal positive airway pressure in children with obstructive sleep apnea and craniofacial conditions. J Clin
Bazurto Zapata, Maria Angelica; Dueñas Meza, Elida; Jaramillo, Claudia; Maldonado Gomez, Dario; Torres Duque, Carlos
Purpose To describe the SpO2 in wakefulness, sleep and during the apnea–hypopnea in adults living in Bogotá, located at 2640 m above sea level. Methods Descriptive observational study in adults referred for polysomnogram (PSG). A normal Apnea hypopnea index (AHI) was defined as ≤5 and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) was classified as mild (AHI 5–15), moderate (AHI 15–30), and severe (AHI >30). T-test or ANOVA test for SpO2 differences between groups was used. Results 1799 patients, 33% women. 222 (12.8%) did not have OSA (normal IAH), 268 (14.9%) mild OSA, 315 (17.5%) moderate ,and 993 (55.2%) severe. In all cases a low SpO2 (SpO2<90%) was found. The SpO2 was lower when the AHI was higher, in wakefulness, in non-REM and in REM (p<0.001). For all grades of severity, SpO2 decreased significantly from wakefulness to non-REM sleep and to REM sleep (p<0.001). Patients with severe OSA had higher desaturation during wakefulness (85.2±6.6%), non-REM sleep (83.1±7.7%), REM sleep (78.8±10.2), and during events (75.1±9.1%). Conclusions Patients with OSA at 2640 m have nocturnal desaturation lower than 88%, which decreases with higher severity of OSA. The clinical impact of sleep disorders at this point may be greater than at sea level and should be studied. PMID:26483911
Lacedonia, Donato; Carpagnano, Giovanna Elisiana; Sabato, Roberto; Storto, Maria Maddalena Lo; Palmiotti, Giuseppe Antonio; Capozzi, Vito; Barbaro, Maria Pia Foschino; Gallo, Crescenzio
Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSA) is being identified increasingly as an important health issue. It is typified by repeated episodes of upper airway collapse during sleep leading to occasional hypoxaemia, sleep fragmentation and poor sleep quality. OSA is also being considered as an independent risk factor for hypertension, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, leading to increased multi-morbidity and mortality. Cluster analysis, a powerful statistical set of techniques, may help in investigating and classifying homogeneous groups of patients with similar OSA characteristics. This study aims to investigate the (possible) different groups of patients in an OSA population, and to analyse the relationships among the main clinical variables in each group to better understand the impact of OSA on patients. Starting from a well-characterized OSA population of 198 subjects afferent to our sleep centre, we identified three different communities of OSA patients. The first has a very severe disease [apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) = 65.91 ± 22.47] and sleep disorder has a strong impact on daily life: a low level of diurnal partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2 ) (77.39 ± 11.64 mmHg) and a high prevalence of hypertension (64%); the second, with less severe disease (AHI = 28.88 ± 17.13), in which sleep disorders seem to be less important for diurnal PaO2 and have a minimum impact on comorbidity; and the last with very severe OSA (AHI = 57.26 ± 15.09) but with a low risk of nocturnal hypoxaemia (T90 = 11.58 ± 8.54) and less sleepy (Epworth Sleepiness Scale 10.00 ± 4.77).
Background Lack of adherence to recommended treatment for obstructive sleep apnea remains an ongoing public health challenge. Despite evidence that continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is effective and improves overall quality of life, adherence with the use of CPAP in certain racial/ethnic groups, especially blacks, is suboptimal. Evidence indicates that the incidence and prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea are higher among blacks, relative to whites, and blacks are less likely to adhere to recommended treatment compared with other racial/ethnic groups. Methods Using a two-arm randomized controlled design, this study will evaluate the effectiveness of a culturally and linguistically tailored telephone-delivered intervention to promote adherence to physician-recommended sleep apnea assessment and treatment among blacks with metabolic syndrome, versus an attention-control arm. The intervention is designed to foster adherence to recommended sleep apnea care using the stages-of-change model. The intervention will be delivered entirely over the telephone. Participants in the intervention arm will receive 10 phone calls to address challenges and barriers to recommended care. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline, and at 6- and 12-months post-randomization. Discussion This tailored behavioral intervention will improve adherence to sleep apnea assessment and treatment among blacks with metabolic syndrome. We expect to demonstrate that this intervention modality is feasible in terms of time and cost and can be replicated in populations with similar racial/ethnic backgrounds. Trial registration The study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov NCT01946659 (February 2013) PMID:24925227
The pharyngeal airway obstruction during sleep in the Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) can be improved after treatment by LAUP (Laser Assisted Uvulopalatoplasty). This new technique, performed under local anesthesia, permits the snoring treatment without any hospitalization, or general anesthetic; like an ordinary dental visit. This is done by reducing the amount of tissue in the uvula, the velum, and the upper part of the posterior pillars. Our experience with the LAUP in Sleep Apnea Syndrome is described, from December 1988 to May 1994, in 70 patients. Among 62 patients classified as successful `responders', the respiratory disturbance index was reduced more than 50%. Among all the 70 patients: in 51.4 % of cases (36 patients), there's a healing of snoring and Sleep Apnea Syndrome. In 37.2% of cases (26 patients), there's an improvement reduction of length and number of apneas and a significant improvement in nocturnal oxygen saturation. 11.4% (8 patients), are relative failures, with always decrease of snoring, but still Sleep Apnea Syndrome, (with a higher B.M.I.). There were no important complications reported. Patients withstand it well and there's had a better tolerance of the C.P.A.P. in the cases of OSAS LRPP failures. Popularization of LAUP will require serious training of surgeon and further long-term studies.
Cheng, Changqing; Sangasoongsong, Akkarapol; Wongdhamma, Woranat; Bukkapatnam, Satish T. S.
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder found in 24% of adult men and 9% of adult women. Although continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has emerged as a standard therapy for OSA, a majority of patients are not tolerant to this treatment, largely because of the uncomfortable nasal air delivery during their sleep. Recent advances in wireless communication and advanced (“bigdata”) preditive analytics technologies offer radically new point-of-care treatment approaches for OSA episodes with unprecedented comfort and afforadability. We introduce a Dirichlet process-based mixture Gaussian process (DPMG) model to predict the onset of sleep apnea episodes based on analyzing complex cardiorespiratory signals gathered from a custom-designed wireless wearable multisensory suite. Extensive testing with signals from the multisensory suite as well as PhysioNet's OSA database suggests that the accuracy of offline OSA classification is 88%, and accuracy for predicting an OSA episode 1-min ahead is 83% and 3-min ahead is 77%. Such accurate prediction of an impending OSA episode can be used to adaptively adjust CPAP airflow (toward improving the patient's adherence) or the torso posture (e.g., minor chin adjustments to maintain steady levels of the airflow). PMID:27170854
Le, Trung Q; Cheng, Changqing; Sangasoongsong, Akkarapol; Wongdhamma, Woranat; Bukkapatnam, Satish T S
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder found in 24% of adult men and 9% of adult women. Although continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has emerged as a standard therapy for OSA, a majority of patients are not tolerant to this treatment, largely because of the uncomfortable nasal air delivery during their sleep. Recent advances in wireless communication and advanced ("bigdata") preditive analytics technologies offer radically new point-of-care treatment approaches for OSA episodes with unprecedented comfort and afforadability. We introduce a Dirichlet process-based mixture Gaussian process (DPMG) model to predict the onset of sleep apnea episodes based on analyzing complex cardiorespiratory signals gathered from a custom-designed wireless wearable multisensory suite. Extensive testing with signals from the multisensory suite as well as PhysioNet's OSA database suggests that the accuracy of offline OSA classification is 88%, and accuracy for predicting an OSA episode 1-min ahead is 83% and 3-min ahead is 77%. Such accurate prediction of an impending OSA episode can be used to adaptively adjust CPAP airflow (toward improving the patient's adherence) or the torso posture (e.g., minor chin adjustments to maintain steady levels of the airflow).
Dedhia, Raj C.; Strollo, Patrick J.; Soose, Ryan J.
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an increasingly prevalent clinical problem with significant effects on both personal and public health. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has demonstrated excellent efficacy and low morbidity; long-term adherence rates approach 50%. Although traditional upper airway surgical procedures target the anatomic component of obstruction, upper airway stimulation tackles the twin goals of improving anatomic and neuromuscular pathology. After decades of trials demonstrating proof of concept of hypoglossal nerve stimulation in animal and human subjects, the results of a large multicenter, prospective trial were recently published. The trial demonstrated that hypoglossal nerve stimulation led to significant improvements in objective and subjective measurements of the severity of OSA. This novel approach is the first to combine sleep surgery techniques with a titratable medical device for the treatment of OSA. Further research is required to define optimal patient selection and device performance and to demonstrate long-term effectiveness. Citation: Dedhia RC, Strollo PJ, Soose RJ. Upper airway stimulation for obstructive sleep apnea: past, present, and future. SLEEP 2015;38(6):899– 906. PMID:25409109
Espinoza-Cuadros, Fernando; Fernández-Pozo, Rubén; Toledano, Doroteo T.; Alcázar-Ramírez, José D.; López-Gonzalo, Eduardo; Hernández-Gómez, Luis A.
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder characterized by recurring breathing pauses during sleep caused by a blockage of the upper airway (UA). OSA is generally diagnosed through a costly procedure requiring an overnight stay of the patient at the hospital. This has led to proposing less costly procedures based on the analysis of patients' facial images and voice recordings to help in OSA detection and severity assessment. In this paper we investigate the use of both image and speech processing to estimate the apnea-hypopnea index, AHI (which describes the severity of the condition), over a population of 285 male Spanish subjects suspected to suffer from OSA and referred to a Sleep Disorders Unit. Photographs and voice recordings were collected in a supervised but not highly controlled way trying to test a scenario close to an OSA assessment application running on a mobile device (i.e., smartphones or tablets). Spectral information in speech utterances is modeled by a state-of-the-art low-dimensional acoustic representation, called i-vector. A set of local craniofacial features related to OSA are extracted from images after detecting facial landmarks using Active Appearance Models (AAMs). Support vector regression (SVR) is applied on facial features and i-vectors to estimate the AHI. PMID:26664493
Israel, Lee P.; Benharoch, Daniel; Gopas, Jacob; Goldbart, Aviv D.
Study Objectives: Childhood obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with an elevation of inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP) that correlates with specific morbidities and subsides following intervention. In adults, OSAS is associated with activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB). We explored the mechanisms underlying NF-kB activation, based on the hypothesis that specific NF-kB signaling is activated in children with OSAS. Design: Adenoid and tonsillar tissues from children with OSAS and matched controls were immunostained against NF-kB classical (p65 and p50) and alternative (RelB and p52) pathway subunits, and NF-kB-dependent cytokines: interleukin (IL)- 1α, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and IL-8). Serum CRP levels were measured in all subjects. NF-kB induction was evaluated by a luciferase-NF-kB reporter assay in L428 cells constitutively expressing NF-kB and in Jurkat cells with inducible NF-kB expression. p65 translocation to the nucleus, reflecting NF-kB activation, was measured in cells expressing fluorescent NF-kB-p65-GFP (green fluorescent protein). Setting: Sleep research laboratory. Patients or Participants: Twenty-five children with OSAS and 24 without OSAS. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Higher expression of IL-1α and classical NF-kB subunits p65 and p50 was observed in adenoids and tonsils of children with OSAS. Patient serum induced NF-kB activity, as measured by a luciferase-NF-kB reporter assay and by induction of p65 nuclear translocation in cells permanently transfected with GFP-p65 plasmid. IL-1β showed increased epithelial expression in OSAS tissues. Conclusions: Nuclear factor kappa B is locally and systemically activated in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. This observation may motivate the search for new anti-inflammatory strategies for controlling nuclear factor kappa B activation in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Citation: Israel LP
Fietze, Ingo; Penzel, Thomas; Partinen, Markku; Sauter, Jochen; Küchler, Gert; Suvoro, Alexander; Hein, Holger
An actigraph extended with electroencephalography (EEG), electroocculography (EOG) and electromyography (EMG) was compared to polysomnography in two studies on patients suffering from sleep disordered breathing. Study A with 30 subjects used a single lead EEG, and study B with 20 subjects used EOG and EMG in addition. Sleep was scored according to Rechtschaffen and Kales rules. Total sleep time (TST), sleep period time (SPT), sleep efficiency (SE), sustained sleep efficiency (SSE), sleep-onset latency (SL), and sleep stages were compared. For study A an epoch-by-epoch comparison of sleep stages revealed an overall agreement of 74.2%. Correlations were high for SE (0.98, p < 0.001), SSE (0.98, p < 0.001), TST (0.99, p < 0.001), SPT (0.99, p < 0.001), and SL (0.98, p < 0.001). Regarding the sleep stages, correlations were high for rapid eye movement (REM) (0.83, p < 0.001), light-sleep (0.78, p < 0.001), and deep sleep (0.73, p < 0.001). For study B, results of an epoch-by-epoch comparison of sleep stages showed an overall agreement of 75.5%. Correlations were high for SE (0.98, p < 0.001), SSE (0.98, p < 0.001), TST (0.87, p < 0.001), SL (0.98, p < 0.001), SPT (0.94, p < 0.001), and for rapid eye movement (REM) (0.91, p < 0.001), light-sleep (0.74, p < 0.001), and deep sleep (0.89, p < 0.001). In summary the study revealed high agreement between polysomnography and single lead EEG in sleep apnea patients. Deviations for REM were slightly higher for the single lead EEG compared to single lead EEG plus EOG/EMG. Both simplified systems proved to be reliable for comfortable out-patient sleep recording.
Körkuyu, Emine; Düzlü, Mehmet; Karamert, Recep; Tutar, Hakan; Yılmaz, Metin; Çiftçi, Bülent; Güven, Selma Fırat
Polysomnography is currently considered as the gold standard for the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). But high expense and the backlog of the sleep centers have resulted in a search for an alternative method of diagnosis. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy and reliability of Watch PAT as an alternate option in OSAS diagnosis. The patients have worn a Watch PAT(®) 200 device in the sleep laboratory during a standard polysomnography. The correlation in REM and Non-REM AHI scores, sleep periods and the mean O2 saturation percentage between Watch PAT and PSG sleep studies were assessed. There was a statistically significant very strong correlation between PSG and Watch PAT AHI scores (Spearman's rho = 0.802 p < 0.001). The mean recording time with PSG and Watch PAT was 463.06 ± 37.08 and 469.33 ± 72.81 min, respectively, and there was no statistically significant difference (p = 0.068). However, there was a statistically significant difference between two methods regarding the average sleep time and REM sleep period. No statistically significant difference was revealed in the mean O2 saturation percentage (p < 0.001). Watch PAT is an efficient device and is considered to be an adjunctive diagnostic method for PSG in diagnosis of OSAS.
Norman, Daniel; Bardwell, Wayne A; Loredo, Jose S; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Heaton, Robert K; Dimsdale, Joel E
In healthy individuals, caffeine intake may improve performance on cognitive tests. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disorder that has been associated with impaired cognitive function. In this study, we investigated whether increased caffeine intake in untreated patients with OSA is linked to better cognitive performance. Forty-five untreated OSA patients underwent baseline polysomnography after completing a survey of 24-h caffeine intake. Participants completed a battery of neuropsychological tests, then demographically corrected T scores and a global deficit score (GDS) were calculated on these tests. Partial correlation analysis was performed to compare daily caffeine intake with GDS, after controlling for body mass index (BMI) and sleep apnea severity. Analysis of covariance was done to examine differences in daily caffeine intake between cognitively impaired (GDS >or= 0.5) and non-impaired (GDS < 0.5) individuals. Seven out of the 45 subjects met the criteria (GDS >or= 0.5) for cognitive impairment. There was a significant inverse association between caffeine intake and the GDS, both when controlling for BMI (r =or -0.331, p = 0.04) and when controlling for BMI and apnea severity (r =or-0.500, p = 0.002); those with less impairment consumed more caffeine. Analysis of covariance demonstrated that cognitively impaired individuals consumed one-sixth as much caffeine as non-impaired individuals (p < 0.05). In patients with moderately severe OSA, higher average daily caffeine intake was associated with less cognitive impairment.
Lim, Dae Jun; Kang, Sung-Ho; Kim, Bo-Hyeng; Hong, Seok-Chan; Yu, Myeong Sang; Kim, Young-Hyun; Choi, Jeong-Seok; Jin, Kwang Ho
Radiofrequency surgery was introduced to minimize thermal damage to the tissue. A radiofrequency electrode can be used to make cuts in the free edge of the soft palate like those done in laser-assisted uvulopalatoplasty [radiofrequency-assisted uvulopalatoplasty (RAUP)]. Tonsillectomy can enlarge the lateral diameter of the pharynx. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of RAUP with tonsillectomy in treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Ninety-two patients with obstructive sleep apnea were included in this study. Patients were categorized according to disease severity and Friedman's staging system. Patients were assessed with the preoperative visual analog scale (VAS) for snoring, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) at baseline and repeated at 6 months postoperatively. The intensity of postoperative pain, speech deficits and dysphagia were also recorded. There was a significant improvement in the VAS score for snoring, ESS and AHI before and after surgery. Overall, the results of the present study indicated a surgery success rate (a 50 % decrease in AHI and AHI <20) of 66 % (61 of 92 patients). Postoperative pain, speech deficits and dysphagia were reduced at 2 weeks after surgery. The results of this study suggest that RAUP with tonsillectomy is an effective treatment for patients with OSAS.
Truong, Kimberly K; Lam, Michael T; Grandner, Michael A; Sassoon, Catherine S; Malhotra, Atul
Physiological and cellular functions operate in a 24-hour cyclical pattern orchestrated by an endogenous process known as the circadian rhythm. Circadian rhythms represent intrinsic oscillations of biological functions that allow for adaptation to cyclic environmental changes. Key clock genes that affect the persistence and periodicity of circadian rhythms include BMAL1/CLOCK, Period 1, Period 2, and Cryptochrome. Remarkable progress has been made in our understanding of circadian rhythms and their role in common medical conditions. A critical review of the literature supports the association between circadian misalignment and adverse health consequences in sepsis, obstructive lung disease, obstructive sleep apnea, and malignancy. Circadian misalignment plays an important role in these disease processes and can affect disease severity, treatment response, and survivorship. Normal inflammatory response to acute infections, airway resistance, upper airway collapsibility, and mitosis regulation follows a robust circadian pattern. Disruption of normal circadian rhythm at the molecular level affects severity of inflammation in sepsis, contributes to inflammatory responses in obstructive lung diseases, affects apnea length in obstructive sleep apnea, and increases risk for cancer. Chronotherapy is an underused practice of delivering therapy at optimal times to maximize efficacy and minimize toxicity. This approach has been shown to be advantageous in asthma and cancer management. In asthma, appropriate timing of medication administration improves treatment effectiveness. Properly timed chemotherapy may reduce treatment toxicities and maximize efficacy. Future research should focus on circadian rhythm disorders, role of circadian rhythm in other diseases, and modalities to restore and prevent circadian disruption.
Chi, Luqi; Comyn, Francois-Louis; Keenan, Brendan T.; Cater, Jacqueline; Maislin, Greg; Pack, Allan I.; Schwab, Richard J.
Objectives: Accumulating evidence has shown that there is a genetic contribution to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).The objectives were to use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cephalometry to (1) confirm heritability of craniofacial risk factors for OSA previously shown by cephalometrics; and (2) examine the heritability of new craniofacial structures that are measurable with MRI. Design: A sib pair “quad” design examining apneics, apneic siblings, controls, and control siblings. The study design used exact matching on ethnicity and sex, frequency matching on age, and statistical control for differences in age, sex, ethnicity, height, and weight. Setting: Academic medical center. Patients: We examined 55 apneic probands (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI]: 46.8 ± 33.5 events/h), 55 proband siblings (AHI: 11.1 ± 15.9 events/h), 55 controls (AHI: 2.2 ± 1.7 events/h), and 55 control siblings (AHI: 4.1 ± 4.0 events/h). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Five independent domains reflecting different aspects of the craniofacial structure were examined. We confirmed heritability of sella–nasion–subspinale (38%, P = 0.002), saddle angle (55%, P < 0.0001), mandibular length (24%, P = 0.02) and lower facial height (33%, P = 0.006) previously measured by cephalometry. In addition, the current study added new insights by demonstrating significant heritability of mandibular width (30%, P = 0.005), maxillary width (47%, P < 0.0001), distance from the hyoid bone to the retropogonion (36%, P = 0.0018) and size of the oropharyngeal space (31%, P = 0.004). Finally, our data indicate that heritability of the craniofacial structures is similar in normal patients and those with apnea. Conclusions: The data support our a priori hypothesis that the craniofacial structures that have been associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are heritable. We have demonstrated heritability for several intermediate craniofacial phenotypes for OSA. Thus, we believe that future studies
Boynton, Grace; Vahabzadeh, Arshia; Hammoud, Sami; Ruzicka, Deborah L.; Chervin, Ronald D.
Background The STOP-BANG is a simple obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) screening tool, part questionnaire (STOP) and part demographic or physical measures (BANG), developed for use in preoperative surgical clinics. This study assessed sensitivity and specificity of the instrument among patients referred to a sleep disorders laboratory, and also its performance characteristics when BANG physical measures are patient-reported rather than measured. Methods Adults referred for diagnostic polysomnography completed the STOP questions and answered four yes/no questions (BANG self-reported) about their body mass index (weight and height), age, neck circumference, and gender, which were also assessed by laboratory technologists (BANG-measured). Results Among N=219 subjects (mean age 46.3 ± 13.9 [s.d.] years; 98 [44.8%] males) the sensitivity of the STOP-BANG measured for an apnea/hypopnea index (AHI, events per hour of sleep) >5, >15, and >30 was 82, 93, and 97% respectively. Corresponding negative predictive values were 44, 87, and 96%. Specificities were comparatively low (48, 40, and 33%). The STOP-BANG measured and STOP-BANG self-reported scores showed essentially equivalent test characteristics against polysomnography. Conclusions The STOP-BANG appears to have limited utility in a referred, sleep laboratory setting. Negative results help to identify some individuals as unlikely to have moderate-to-severe apnea, and may thereby prove useful in identification of patients who would benefit more from laboratory studies than home studies. A STOP-BANG in which all information is self-reported may be as effective as the original version, and has potential to facilitate research or community screening where good negative predictive value is required for an effective screening tool. PMID:24800262
Shan, Ying; Havlena, Jeffrey A.; Afifi, Ahmed M.
Background: Maxillomandibular advancement has been shown to be one of the most effective operations for management of severe obstructive sleep apnea, yet pharyngeal surgery is more commonly performed. The goal of this study was to identify socioeconomic factors associated with this phenomenon. Methods: Patients aged 14 or older with a primary hospital diagnosis of sleep apnea were identified using the National Inpatient Sample from 2005 to 2012. ICD9 codes were used to determine whether a pharyngeal or jaw procedure was performed. Patient demographics, comorbidities, and complications were compared. Results: Among 6316 sleep surgeries, 5964 (94.4%) were pharyngeal and 352 (5.6%) were jaw procedures. Women were significantly more likely to receive jaw surgery than men (odds ratio [OR] = 1.68, P = 0.0007). African Americans (OR = 0.19, P < 0.0001), Hispanics (OR = 0.42, P = 0.0009), Asians (OR = 0.41, P = 0.0009), and other non-Caucasians (OR = 0.19, P = 0.0008) had a significantly lower odds of receiving jaw surgery than Caucasians. Patients falling into lower-income brackets (OR = 0.39 and 0.57, P = 0.02 and 0.04) and patients with Medicare compared with private or Health Maintenance Organization insurance (OR = 0.46, P = 0.008) also had significantly decreased odds of undergoing jaw surgery. Comorbidities were similar between surgical groups, and there were no significant differences in bleeding, infection, or cardiopulmonary complications. Conclusions: We identified no significant difference in complication rates between pharyngeal and jaw procedures. Nonetheless, African American, Hispanic, and Asian patients, in addition to lower-income patients and patients with Medicare, had a significantly lower odds of receiving jaw surgery. Awareness of these disparities may help guide efforts to improve patients’ surgical options for sleep apnea. PMID:28293491
Ravelo-García, A. G.; Saavedra-Santana, P.; Juliá-Serdá, G.; Navarro-Mesa, J. L.; Navarro-Esteva, J.; Álvarez-López, X.; Gapelyuk, A.; Penzel, T.; Wessel, N.
Many sleep centres try to perform a reduced portable test in order to decrease the number of overnight polysomnographies that are expensive, time-consuming, and disturbing. With some limitations, heart rate variability (HRV) has been useful in this task. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate if inclusion of symbolic dynamics variables to a logistic regression model integrating clinical and physical variables, can improve the detection of subjects for further polysomnographies. To our knowledge, this is the first contribution that innovates in that strategy. A group of 133 patients has been referred to the sleep center for suspected sleep apnea. Clinical assessment of the patients consisted of a sleep related questionnaire and a physical examination. The clinical variables related to apnea and selected in the statistical model were age (p < 10-3), neck circumference (p < 10-3), score on a questionnaire scale intended to quantify daytime sleepiness (p < 10-3), and intensity of snoring (p < 10-3). The validation of this model demonstrated an increase in classification performance when a variable based on non-linear dynamics of HRV (p < 0.01) was used additionally to the other variables. For diagnostic rule based only on clinical and physical variables, the corresponding area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.907 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.848, 0.967), (sensitivity 87.10% and specificity 80%). For the model including the average of a symbolic dynamic variable, the area under the ROC curve was increased to 0.941 (95% = 0.897, 0.985), (sensitivity 88.71% and specificity 82.86%). In conclusion, symbolic dynamics, coupled with significant clinical and physical variables can help to prioritize polysomnographies in patients with a high probability of apnea. In addition, the processing of the HRV is a well established low cost and robust technique.
Zhang, Chunbai; Berger, Mark; Malhotra, Atul; Kales, Stefanos N
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a syndrome defined by breathing abnormalities during sleep, can lead to fatigue and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) with an increased risk of motor vehicle crashes. Identifying commercial motor vehicle operators with unrecognized OSA is a major public health priority. Portable monitors (PMs) are being actively marketed to trucking firms as potentially lower-cost and more accessible alternatives to the reference standard of in-laboratory polysomnography (PSG) in the diagnosis of OSA among commercial motor vehicle operators. Several factors regarding PMs remain uncertain in this unique patient population: their sensitivity and specificity; the cost-benefit ratio of the PMs versus PSG; potential barriers from human factors; and evolving technologic advancement. Human factors that alter test accuracy are a major concern among commercial drivers motivated to gain/maintain employment. Current available data using PMs as a diagnostic tool among CMV operators indicate relatively high data loss and high loss to follow-up. Loss to follow-up has also been an issue using PSG in commercial motor vehicle operators. Furthermore, PM testing and PM results interpretation protocols may have no sleep specialist oversight, and sometimes minimal physician oversight and involvement. Additional studies comparing unattended and unmonitored PMs directly against full in-laboratory PSG are needed to provide evidence for their efficacy among commercial motor vehicle operators.
Archontogeorgis, Konstantinos; Nena, Evangelia; Papanas, Nikolaos; Steiropoulos, Paschalis
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is characterized by recurrent episodes of upper airway collapse associated with oxygen desaturation and sleep disruption. It is proposed that these periodic changes lead to molecular variations that can be detected by assessing serum biomarkers. Studies have identified inflammatory, oxidative, and metabolic perturbations attributable to sleep-disordered breathing. Given that OSAS is associated with increased cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity, the ideal biomarker should enable timely recognition with the possibility of intervention. There is accumulating data on the utility of serum biomarkers for the evaluation of disease severity, prognosis, and response to treatment. However, current knowledge is limited by data collection techniques, disease complexity, and potential confounding factors. The current paper reviews the literature on the use of serum biomarkers in OSAS. It is concluded that the ideal serum biomarker still needs to be discovered, while caution is needed in the interpretation of hitherto available results.
Automatic CPAP therapy has been developed to constantly adapt the positive pressure level to the required needs. The automatic devices have been used in two different ways, one being to determine the pressure level to be prescribed at home for fixed CPAP therapy, and the other one to replace fixed CPAP as an home treatment. This last application should alleviate the need for a titration study. The benefits reported up to now in the literature vary from one machine to another, but usually these machine are effective in abolishing obstructive breathing disturbances and the consecutive sleep fragmentation. The mean positive pressure level applied during automatic CPAP treatment is usually less than the effective pressure level measured during a conventional titration sleep study. Some results suggest that automatic CPAP therapy may improve compliance to CPAP therapy. There is a need to better define if automatic CPAP therapy may benefit to specific groups of sleep apnea patients.
Powers, David B; Allan, Patrick F; Hayes, Curtis J; Michaelson, Peter G
Obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is a medical condition that has received significant attention within the medical community and mainstream media due to its potentially serious physiological consequences and relatively frequent occurrence within the general population. From the military perspective, the impact on individual readiness for deployment, and the potential degradation of performance in critically important military duties, often results in tremendous expenditures of training resources, time, and expertise to replace the military member with a suitable substitute or release of the individual from active duty. This article reviews common surgical techniques for clinical management of OSAHS patients in a presentation format for primary care and sleep medicine specialists, as well as surgeons interested in the philosophies of surgical management of sleep disordered breathing. Presentation of risks and benefits of surgical treatment are discussed in a manner to facilitate communication between patient and health care provider.
Quante, Mirja; Wang, Rui; Weng, Jia; Rosen, Carol L.; Amin, Raouf; Garetz, Susan L.; Katz, Eliot; Paruthi, Shalini; Arens, Raanan; Muzumdar, Hiren; Marcus, Carole L.; Ellenberg, Susan; Redline, Susan
Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) has been associated with cardiometabolic disease in adults. In children, this association is unclear. We evaluated the effect of early adenotonsillectomy (eAT) for treatment of OSAS on blood pressure, heart rate, lipids, glucose, insulin, and C-reactive protein. We also analyzed whether these parameters at baseline and changes at follow-up correlated with polysomnographic indices. Design: Data collected at baseline and 7-mo follow-up were analyzed from a randomized controlled trial, the Childhood Adenotonsillectomy Trial (CHAT). Setting: Clinical referral setting from multiple centers. Participants: There were 464 children, ages 5 to 9.9 y with OSAS without severe hypoxemia. Interventions: Randomization to eAT or Watchful Waiting with Supportive Care (WWSC). Measurements and Results: There was no significant change of cardiometabolic parameters over the 7-mo interval in the eAT group compared to WWSC group. However, overnight heart rate was incrementally higher in association with baseline OSAS severity (average heart rate increase of 3 beats per minute [bpm] for apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] of 2 versus 10; [standard error = 0.60]). Each 5-unit improvement in AHI and 5 mmHg improvement in peak end-tidal CO2 were estimated to reduce heart rate by 1 and 1.5 bpm, respectively. An increase in N3 sleep also was associated with small reductions in systolic blood pressure percentile. Conclusions: There is little variation in standard cardiometabolic parameters in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) but without severe hypoxemia at baseline or after intervention. Of all measures, overnight heart rate emerged as the most sensitive parameter of pediatric OSAS severity. Clinical Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov (#NCT00560859) Citation: Quante M, Wang R, Weng J, Rosen CL, Amin R, Garetz SL, Katz E, Paruthi S, Arens R, Muzumdar H, Marcus CL, Ellenberg S, Redline S. The effect of adenotonsillectomy
Ghiasi, Farzin; Ahmadpoor, Amin; Amra, Babak
Background: Pulmonary embolism (PE) is the most life-threatening form of venous thrombosis which causes the majority of mortalities in this category. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been indicated as one of the risk factors for thromboembolism because of hemostatic alterations. The present study was designed to seek for the relationship between OSA and 30-day mortality of patients with PE. Materials and Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted among 137 consecutive patients referred to hospital with symptoms of PE and preliminary stable hemodynamic. Confirmation of PE was made by multislice computed tomography pulmonary angiography and in the case of contraindication; V/Q lung scan and Doppler sonography were done. A STOP-Bang Questionnaire was used to determine patients with high- and low-risk of OSA. Patients were followed up for 1-month, and their survivals were recorded. Results: This study showed that there was no relationship between OSA and 30-day mortality (P = 0.389). Chronic kidney disease (P = 0.004), hypertension (P = 0.003), main thrombus (P = 0.004), and segmental thrombus (P = 0.022) were associated with 30-day mortality. In the logistic regression analysis, history of chronic kidney disease was diagnosed as a risk factor for 30-day mortality among the PE patients (P = 0.029, odds ratio = 4.93). Conclusion: Results of this study showed 30-day mortality was not affected by OSA directly. In fact, it was affected by complications of OSA such as hypertension and thrombus. Also, positive history of chronic kidney disease increased the risk of 30-day mortality. PMID:26622255
Li, Jie; Li, Ming-Xian; Liu, Sheng-Nan; Wang, Jing-Hua; Huang, Min; Wang, Min; Wang, Shao
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome is a surprisingly complex and highly individualized disease, with different factors contributing toward the disease process. Many factors can induce OSA disease, such as hypertrophy uvula, adenoidectomy, tonsil caused by mechanical obstruction of the airway, airway obstruction on obesity cause of decubitus, etc.; in addition, abnormal structure and function of the central nervous system (CNS) is also one of the important factors. This paper examines the relationship of the CNS with the onset of OSA. Evidence has shown that dysfunction of the CNS may be related to the occurrence of OSA. Although modification of the behaviors of the motor neurons may offer a potentially interesting means of controlling the airway, human afferent and motor pathways that regulate eupnea are still poorly understood. Combining some clinical phenomena of patients with cerebral hemorrhage or brain trauma at the temporal lobe, it seems that no close relation with OSA has been observed in clinical work and animal experiments; however, CNS damage at the temporal lobe is involved in the pathogenesis of OSA. This article examines the role of the CNS in the pathogenesis of OSA and its mechanisms. We have summarized previous findings of OSA-related brain damage, which were obtained by brain functional MRI, clinical, and animal experiment data to better understand the roles of the CNS in the pathogenesis of OSA. More specifically, this review summarizes how altered activity of the limbic system and its related structures could be associated with the occurrence of OSA. This conclusion may contribute toward our understanding of nosogenesis and the treatment of OSA.
Kumar, Rajesh; Farahvar, Salar; Ogren, Jennifer A; Macey, Paul M; Thompson, Paul M; Woo, Mary A; Yan-Go, Frisca L; Harper, Ronald M
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is accompanied by cognitive, motor, autonomic, learning, and affective abnormalities. The putamen serves several of these functions, especially motor and autonomic behaviors, but whether global and specific sub-regions of that structure are damaged is unclear. We assessed global and regional putamen volumes in 43 recently-diagnosed, treatment-naïve OSA (age, 46.4 ± 8.8 years; 31 male) and 61 control subjects (47.6 ± 8.8 years; 39 male) using high-resolution T1-weighted images collected with a 3.0-Tesla MRI scanner. Global putamen volumes were calculated, and group differences evaluated with independent samples t-tests, as well as with analysis of covariance (covariates; age, gender, and total intracranial volume). Regional differences between groups were visualized with 3D surface morphometry-based group ratio maps. OSA subjects showed significantly higher global putamen volumes, relative to controls. Regional analyses showed putamen areas with increased and decreased tissue volumes in OSA relative to control subjects, including increases in caudal, mid-dorsal, mid-ventral portions, and ventral regions, while areas with decreased volumes appeared in rostral, mid-dorsal, medial-caudal, and mid-ventral sites. Global putamen volumes were significantly higher in the OSA subjects, but local sites showed both higher and lower volumes. The appearance of localized volume alterations points to differential hypoxic or perfusion action on glia and other tissues within the structure, and may reflect a stage in progression of injury in these newly-diagnosed patients toward the overall volume loss found in patients with chronic OSA. The regional changes may underlie some of the specific deficits in motor, autonomic, and neuropsychologic functions in OSA.
Quan, Stuart F.; Budhiraja, Rohit; Batool-Anwar, Salma; Gottlieb, Daniel J.; Eichling, Phillip; Patel, Sanjay; Shen, Wei; Walsh, James K.; Kushida, Clete A.
Background and Objectives Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with sleepiness, depression and reduced quality of life. However, it is unclear whether mild OSA has these negative impacts. Using data from the Apnea Positive Pressure Long-term Efficacy Study (APPLES), this study determined whether participants with mild OSA had greater sleepiness, more depressive symptoms and poorer quality of life in comparison to those without OSA. Methods 239 individuals evaluated for participation in APPLES with a baseline apnea hypopnea index (AHI) < 15 /hour were assigned to 1 of 2 groups: No OSA (N=40, AHI < 5 /hour) or Mild OSA (N=199, 5 to <15 /hour) based on their screening polysomnogram. Scores on their Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS), Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), Profile of Mood States (POMS) and Sleep Apnea Quality of Life Index (SAQLI) were compared between groups. Results There were no significant differences between the No OSA and Mild OSA groups on any of the 5 measures: ESS (No OSA, 9.8 ± 3.5 vs Mild OSA, 10.6 ± 4.3, p=0.26), SSS,(2.8 ± 0.9 vs. 2.9 ± 1.0, p=0.52), HAM-D (4.6 ± 3.0 vs. 4.9 ± 4.7, p=0.27), POMS (33.5 ± 22.3 vs. 28.7 ± 22.0, p=0.70), SAQLI (4.5 ± 0.8 vs. 4.7 ± 0.7, p=0.39). Conclusion Individuals with mild OSA in this cohort do not have worse sleepiness, mood or quality of life in comparison to those without OSA. PMID:25232509
Ozcan, K Murat; Selcuk, Adin; Ozcan, Ibrahim; Ozdas, Talih; Ozdogan, Fatih; Acar, Mustafa; Dere, Huseyin
The aim of this study is to investigate the thyroid functions and its correlation with polysomnography findings in obstructive sleep apnea patients. This study was conducted on 203 patients evaluated with the complaints of snoring, witnessed apnea and daytime sleepiness and established polysomnography (PSG) indication between May 2008 and August 2011. All patients' nocturnal PSG recordings were carried out. The thyroid function was classified as euthyroid, subclinical hypothyroidism and clinical hypothyroidism after analyzing serum TSH and free T4 values. The correlation between the data obtained from PSG records and thyroid function values was statistically compared. Apnea hypopnea index obtained from PSG was in the range of 5.4-132.9/h, and mean value was 32.7/h. The lowest oxygen saturation level was in the range of 20-92 %, and the mean value was 76.4 %. According to PSG results, 55 patients (27.09 %) had mild obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), 48 patients (23.65 %) had moderate OSAS and 100 patients (49.26 %) had severe OSAS. On evaluation of the thyroid function test results, 10.8 % (n = 22) of the patients were defined to have subclinical hypothyroidism and 1.97 % (n = 4) clinical hypothyroidism. We found a total of 12.77 % subclinical and clinical hypothyroidism in patients with OSAS. Though the incidence of hypothyroidism was pretty high in patients with OSA, there was no statistically significant correlation between thyroid functions and polysomnography findings. We suggest that evaluation of the thyroid functions is important and necessary in patients with OSAS. Polysomnography findings do not correlate statistically with thyroid function tests, addressing the need for thyroid screening for all OSAS patients.
Combs, Daniel; Goodwin, James L.; Quan, Stuart F.; Morgan, Wayne J.; Parthasarathy, Sairam
Purpose Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is prevalent in children and diagnostic polysomnography is costly and not readily available in all areas. We developed a pediatric modification of a commonly used adult clinical prediction tool for stratifying the risk of OSA and the need for polysomnography. Methods A total of 312 children (age 9–17 years) from phase 2 of the Tucson Children’s Assessment of Sleep Apnea cohort study, with complete anthropomorphic data, parent questionnaires, and home polysomnograms were included. An adolescent modification of STOP-Bang (teen STOP-Bang) was developed and included snoring, tired, observed apnea, blood pressure ≥ 95th percentile, BMI > 95th percentile, academic problems, neck circumference >95th percentile for age, and male gender. An apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 1.5 events/hour was considered diagnostic of OSA. Results Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves for parent-reported STOP-Bang scores were generated for teenage and pre-teen children. A STOP-Bang score of < 3 in teenagers was associated with a negative predictive value of 0.96. ROC curves were also generated based upon child-reported sexual maturity rating (SMR; n = 291). The ability of teen STOP-Bang to discriminate the presence or absence of OSA as measured by the AUC for children with SMR ≥ 4 (0.83; 95%CI 0.71–0.95) was better than children with SMR < 4 (0.63; 95%CI 0.46–0.81; p = 0.048). Conclusions In community dwelling adolescents, teen STOP-Bang may be useful in stratifying the risk of OSA. PMID:26581088
Mitchell, Ron B.; Parker, Portia D.; Moore, Reneé H.; Rosen, Carol L.; Giordani, Bruno; Muzumdar, Hiren; Paruthi, Shalini; Elden, Lisa; Willging, Paul; Beebe, Dean W.; Marcus, Carole L.; Chervin, Ronald D.; Redline, Susan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Data from a randomized, controlled study of adenotonsillectomy for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) were used to test the hypothesis that children undergoing surgery had greater quality of life (QoL) and symptom improvement than control subjects. The objectives were to compare changes in validated QoL and symptom measurements among children randomized to undergo adenotonsillectomy or watchful waiting; to determine whether race, weight, or baseline OSAS severity influenced changes in QoL and symptoms; and to evaluate associations between changes in QoL or symptoms and OSAS severity. METHODS: Children aged 5 to 9.9 years with OSAS (N = 453) were randomly assigned to undergo adenotonsillectomy or watchful waiting with supportive care. Polysomnography, the Pediatric Quality of Life inventory, the Sleep-Related Breathing Scale of the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire, the 18-item Obstructive Sleep Apnea QoL instrument, and the modified Epworth Sleepiness Scale were completed at baseline and 7 months. Changes in the QoL and symptom surveys were compared between arms. Effect modification according to race and obesity and associations between changes in polysomnographic measures and QoL or symptoms were examined. RESULTS: Greater improvements in most QoL and symptom severity measurements were observed in children randomized to undergo adenotonsillectomy, including the parent-completed Pediatric Quality of Life inventory (effect size [ES]: 0.37), the 18-item Obstructive Sleep Apnea QoL instrument (ES: –0.93), the modified Epworth Sleepiness Scale score (ES: –0.42), and the Sleep-Related Breathing Scale of the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (ES: –1.35). Effect modification was not observed by obesity or baseline severity but was noted for race in some symptom measures. Improvements in OSAS severity explained only a small portion of the observed changes. CONCLUSIONS: Adenotonsillectomy compared with watchful waiting resulted in significantly
Severson, Carl A; Pendharkar, Sachin R; Ronksley, Paul E; Tsai, Willis H
OBJECTIVES: To assess the ability of electronic health data and existing screening tools to identify clinically significant obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), as defined by symptomatic or severe OSA. METHODS: The present retrospective cohort study of 1041 patients referred for sleep diagnostic testing was undertaken at a tertiary sleep centre in Calgary, Alberta. A diagnosis of clinically significant OSA or an alternative sleep diagnosis was assigned to each patient through blinded independent chart review by two sleep physicians. Predictive variables were identified from online questionnaire data, and diagnostic algorithms were developed. The performance of electronically derived algorithms for identifying patients with clinically significant OSA was determined. Diagnostic performance of these algorithms was compared with versions of the STOP-Bang questionnaire and adjusted neck circumference score (ANC) derived from electronic data. RESULTS: Electronic questionnaire data were highly sensitive (>95%) at identifying clinically significant OSA, but not specific. Sleep diagnostic testing-determined respiratory disturbance index was very specific (specificity ≥95%) for clinically relevant disease, but not sensitive (<35%). Derived algorithms had similar accuracy to the STOP-Bang or ANC, but required fewer questions and calculations. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that a two-step process using a small number of clinical variables (maximizing sensitivity) and objective diagnostic testing (maximizing specificity) is required to identify clinically significant OSA. When used in an online setting, simple algorithms can identify clinically relevant OSA with similar performance to existing decision rules such as the STOP-Bang or ANC. PMID:26083542
Maranate, Thaya; Pongpullponsak, Adisak; Ruttanaumpawan, Pimon
Recently, there has been a problem of shortage of sleep laboratories that can accommodate the patients in a timely manner. Delayed diagnosis and treatment may lead to worse outcomes particularly in patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). For this reason, the prioritization in polysomnography (PSG) queueing should be endorsed based on disease severity. To date, there have been conflicting data whether clinical information can predict OSA severity. The 1,042 suspected OSA patients underwent diagnostic PSG study at Siriraj Sleep Center during 2010-2011. A total of 113 variables were obtained from sleep questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. The 19 groups of clinical risk factors consisting of 42 variables were categorized into each OSA severity. This study aimed to array these factors by employing Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process approach based on normalized weight vector. The results revealed that the first rank of clinical risk factors in Severe, Moderate, Mild, and No OSA was nighttime symptoms. The overall sensitivity/specificity of the approach to these groups was 92.32%/91.76%, 89.52%/88.18%, 91.08%/84.58%, and 96.49%/81.23%, respectively. We propose that the urgent PSG appointment should include clinical risk factors of Severe OSA group. In addition, the screening for Mild from No OSA patients in sleep center setting using symptoms during sleep is also recommended (sensitivity = 87.12% and specificity = 72.22%).
Maranate, Thaya; Pongpullponsak, Adisak; Ruttanaumpawan, Pimon
Recently, there has been a problem of shortage of sleep laboratories that can accommodate the patients in a timely manner. Delayed diagnosis and treatment may lead to worse outcomes particularly in patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). For this reason, the prioritization in polysomnography (PSG) queueing should be endorsed based on disease severity. To date, there have been conflicting data whether clinical information can predict OSA severity. The 1,042 suspected OSA patients underwent diagnostic PSG study at Siriraj Sleep Center during 2010-2011. A total of 113 variables were obtained from sleep questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. The 19 groups of clinical risk factors consisting of 42 variables were categorized into each OSA severity. This study aimed to array these factors by employing Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process approach based on normalized weight vector. The results revealed that the first rank of clinical risk factors in Severe, Moderate, Mild, and No OSA was nighttime symptoms. The overall sensitivity/specificity of the approach to these groups was 92.32%/91.76%, 89.52%/88.18%, 91.08%/84.58%, and 96.49%/81.23%, respectively. We propose that the urgent PSG appointment should include clinical risk factors of Severe OSA group. In addition, the screening for Mild from No OSA patients in sleep center setting using symptoms during sleep is also recommended (sensitivity = 87.12% and specificity = 72.22%). PMID:26221183
Nino, Cesar L; Rodriguez-Martinez, Carlos E; Gutierrez, Maria J; Singareddi, Ravi; Nino, Gustavo
The diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) relies on polysomnography (PSG), a multidimensional biosignal recording that is conducted in sleep laboratories. Standard PSG montage involves the use of nasal-oral airflow sensors to visualize cyclic episodes of upper airflow interruption, which are considered diagnostic of sleep apnea. Given the high-cost and discomfort associated with in-laboratory PSG, there is an emergent need for novel technology that simplifies OSA screening and diagnosis with less expensive methods. The main goal of this project was to identify novel OSA signatures based on the spectral analysis of thoraco-abdominal motion channels. Our main hypothesis was that proper spectral analysis can detect OSA cycles in adults using simultaneous recording of oxygen saturation (SaO2) and either, chest or abdominal motion. A sample study on 35 individuals was conducted with statistically significant results that suggest a strong relationship between airflow-independent signals and oxygen saturation. The impact of this new approach is that it may allow the design of more comfortable and reliable portable devices for screening, diagnosis and monitoring of OSA, functioning only with oximetry and airflow-independent (abdominal or chest) breathing sensors.
Archer, Erica L.; Pepin, Susan
Nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) is the most prevalent optic nerve disorder among patients over 50 years of age, characterized by sudden onset, painless visual loss, with an accompanying relative afferent pupillary defect and optic disc edema. Although the pathophysiology of NAION has not been fully elucidated, several risk factors have been considered, including advanced age, systemic hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and certain optic disc morphologies. An association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and NAION has also been recognized. One prospective cohort study indicated that the relative risk of OSA among patients with NAION was 4.9; a later retrospective cohort study demonstrated that patients with OSA not treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) had a 16% increased hazard of developing NAION compared to patients without OSA.The following review will discuss the most recent understanding of the relationship between OSA and NAION, with implications for further research and prevention strategies. Citation: Archer EL; Pepin S. Obstructive sleep apnea and nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy: evidence for an association. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(6):613-618. PMID:23772197
Barnes, Hayley; Edwards, Bradley A; Joosten, Simon A; Naughton, Matthew T; Hamilton, Garun S; Dabscheck, Eli
This review aimed to determine the effectiveness of positional modification techniques in preventing supine sleep, sleep-disordered breathing and other clinically important outcomes in patients with supine obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Randomized controlled trials comparing positional modification techniques with any other therapy or placebo were included. Electronic searches of databases including CENTRAL, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, and Web of Science up to April 2016 were performed. Meta-analysis was undertaken where possible. This comprehensive meta-analysis found benefit for positional modification techniques in those with supine OSA in terms of reduction in apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and time spent supine. Whilst positional modification techniques were effective in terms of a reduction in AHI, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) was more effective than these techniques. A reliable diagnosis of supine OSA should be considered, and further research is required on patient-centred outcomes including comfort, barriers to adherence, cost-analysis, and long term outcomes including the effect on cardiovascular disease, the metabolic syndrome, and insulin resistance.
Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is a frequent, albeit underdiagnosed, problem in children. If left untreated, SDB may lead to substantial morbidities affecting multiple target organs and systems. This review provides a detailed and current description of the current status of our understanding of SDB-associated morbidity in children, and provides recommendations of future research directions necessary for increasing our knowledge and awareness on the short- and long-term consequences of SDB during childhood.
Fatti, L M; Scacchi, M; Pincelli, A I; Lavezzi, E; Cavagnini, F
Respiratory disorders are common and important complications in acromegaly. Patients suffering from acromegaly display a 1.6-3.3 fold increase in mortality rate, which is due to respiratory disorders in 25% of cases. In these patients, mortality for lung disease is 2-3 fold higher than in the general population. Every portion of the respiratory system may be involved. Deformities of facial bones, edema and hypertrophy of the mucosae and pharyngeal and laryngeal cartilages, enlargement of the tongue and inspiratory collapse of the hypopharinx, all may contribute to respiratory alterations. Nasal polyps, "hormonal rhinitis", changes of the voice and snoring are common occurrences. Though rarely, a laryngocele may ensue. Pneumomegaly is frequently observed and, as suggested by functional studies, might be due to an increased number rather than volume of the alveoli. An obstructive respiratory syndrome caused by mucosal thickening of the upper airways and bronchi is observed in 25% of female and 70% of male patients. The sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) affects 60-70% of acromegalic patients. SAS may be of obstructive, central or mixed type. Obstructive SAS is the prevailing form in acromegaly. It is due to intermittent obstruction of upper airways with preserved activity of the respiratory center, as testified by the remarkable thoracic and abdominal respiratory efforts. The pathogenesis of the central type of SAS is more complex. Narrowing of the upper airways may induce reflex inhibition of the respiratory center. Moreover, increased GH levels and, possibly, defects in the somatostatinergic pathways, may increase the ventilatory response of the respiratory center to carbon dioxide, thereby leading to respiratory arrest. In the mixed type of SAS, the phenomena underlying the other two forms coexist. Oxygen desaturation concomitant with the apneic episodes accounts for the frequent nocturnal wakening and diurnal drowsiness. Among the clinical correlates of SAS, arterial
Garg, Natasha; Rolle, Andrew J.; Lee, Todd A.; Prasad, Bharati
Study Objectives: Home-based diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with portable monitoring (PM) is increasingly utilized, but remains understudied in underserved and minority populations. We tested the feasibility of home PM in an urban population at risk for OSA compared to in-laboratory polysomnography (PSG) and examined patient preference with respect to home PM versus PSG. Methods: Randomized crossover study of home PM (WatchPAT200) and in-laboratory simultaneous PSG and PM in 75 urban African Americans with high pre-test probability of OSA, identified with the Berlin questionnaire. Results: Fifty-seven of 75 participants were women, average age 45 ± 11 years (mean ± SD), 35% with ≤ high school education, and 76% with annual household income < $50,000. Technical failure rates were 5.3% for home vs. 3.1% for in-laboratory PM. There was good agreement between apnea hypopnea index on PSG; AHIPSG and AHI on home PM (mean ± 2 SD of the differences = 0.64 ± 46.5 and intraclass correlation coefficient; ICC = 0.73). The areas under the curve for the receiver-operator characteristic curves for home PM were 0.90 for AHIPSG ≥ 5, 0.95 for AHIPSG ≥ 10, and 0.92 for AHIPSG ≥ 15. 62/75 (82%) participants preferred home over in-laboratory testing. Conclusions: Home PM for diagnosis of OSA in a high risk urban population is feasible, accurate, and preferred by patients. As home PM may improve access to care, the cost-effectiveness of this diagnostic strategy for OSA should be examined in underserved urban and rural populations. Clinical Trials Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT01997723 Citation: Garg N, Rolle AJ, Lee TA, Prasad B. Home-based diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea in an urban population. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(8):879-885. PMID:25126034
Hamada, Satoshi; Ikezoe, Kohei; Hirai, Toyohiro; Oguma, Tsuyoshi; Tanizawa, Kiminobu; Inouchi, Morito; Handa, Tomohiro; Oga, Toru; Mishima, Michiaki; Chin, Kazuo
Study Objectives: Clinical studies have investigated whether obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can modulate bone metabolism but data are conflicting. Bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry is the standard technique for quantifying bone strength but has limitations in overweight patients (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 25 kg/m2). The aim of this study was to examine the association between OSA and BMD by examining CT images that allow true volumetric measurements of the bone regardless of BMI. Methods: Lumbar vertebrae BMD was evaluated in 234 persons (180 males and 54 females) by CT scan. The method was calibrated by a phantom containing a known concentration of hydroxyapatite. Results: BMD was lower in male patients with severe OSA (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 30/h) than non OSA (AHI < 5; p < 0.05), while OSA and BMD had no association in females. Linear and multiple regression analyses revealed that age (p < 0.0001, β = −0.52), hypertension (p = 0.0068, β = −0.17), and the alveolar-arterial oxygen pressure difference (A-aDO2) (p = 0.012, β = −0.15) in males were associated with BMD, while only age (p < 0.0001, β = −0.68) was associated with BMD in females. Conclusion: Males with severe OSA had a significantly lower BMD than non OSA participants. Age, hypertension, and elevation of A-aDO2 were significant factors for BMD by CT imaging. The usefulness of measuring BMD in OSA patients by CT scanning should be studied in future. Citation: Hamada S, Ikezoe K, Hirai T, Oguma T, Tanizawa K, Inouchi M, Handa T, Oga T, Mishima M, Chin K. Evaluation of bone mineral density by computed tomography in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(1):25–34. PMID:26235157
Salvaggio, Adriana; Lo Bue, Anna; Isidoro, Serena Iacono; Romano, Salvatore; Marrone, Oreste; Insalaco, Giuseppe
ABSTRACT Objective: To determine whether the use of a gel pillow with side cutouts designed to accommodate a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) mask and reduce head temperature improves the efficacy of and adherence to auto-CPAP therapy. Methods: Twenty-three consecutive CPAP-naïve patients with obstructive sleep apnea were enrolled in the study. Patients were given an auto-CPAP machine with an appropriate CPAP mask and were instructed to use CPAP for 15 nights. They were instructed to sleep with their own pillow (the control pillow) from nights 1 to 5 and with either a foam pillow or a gel pillow, both of which had side cutouts, for 5 consecutive nights each, in random order. After night 15, auto-CPAP machine data were downloaded and patients rated their satisfaction with each pillow on a visual analog scale. Results: Twenty-two patients completed the protocol. The pressures administered, residual apnea-hypopnea index, air leaks, and mean duration of CPAP use did not differ among the periods during which each pillow was used. Patients were significantly more satisfied with the gel pillow than with the control pillow and the foam pillow (p = 0.022 and p = 0.004, respectively), their level of satisfaction with the gel pillow correlating significantly with excessive daytime sleepiness (r2 = 0.19; p = 0.0443). Conclusions: Among obstructive sleep apnea patients treated with nasal CPAP, the use of a gel pillow with side cutouts appears to have no impact on treatment effectiveness. Nevertheless, such patients seem to prefer a gel pillow over other types of pillows. PMID:27812636
Cielo, Christopher M.; Taylor, Jesse A.; Vossough, Arastoo; Radcliffe, Jerilynn; Thomas, Allison; Bradford, Ruth; Lioy, Janet; Tapia, Ignacio E.; Assadsangabi, Reza; Shults, Justine; Marcus, Carole L.
Study Objectives: Children with craniofacial anomalies are a heterogeneous group at high risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, the prevalence and structural predictors of OSA in this population are unknown. We hypothesized that infants with micrognathia would have more significant OSA than those with isolated cleft palate ± cleft lip (ICP), and those with ICP would have more significant OSA than controls. We postulated that OSA severity would correlate with reduced mandibular size, neurodevelopmental scores, and growth. Methods: Prospective cohort study. 15 infants with ICP, 19 with micrognathia, and 9 controls were recruited for polysomnograms, neurodevelopmental testing, cephalometrics (ICP and micrognathia groups) at baseline and a follow-up at 6 mo. Results: Baseline apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) [median (range)] of the micrognathia group [20.1 events/h (0.8, 54.7)] was greater than ICP [3.2 (0.3, 30.7)] or controls [3.1 (0.5, 23.3)] (p = 0.001). Polysomnographic findings were similar between ICP and controls. Controls had a greater AHI than previously reported in the literature. Cephalometric measures of both midface hypoplasia and micrognathia correlated with OSA severity. Neurodevelopment was similar among groups. OSA improved with growth in participants with ICP and postoperatively in infants with micrognathia. Conclusions: Micrognathia, but not ICP, was associated with more significant OSA compared to controls. Both midface and mandibular hypoplasia contribute to OSA in these populations. OSA improved after surgical correction in most infants with micrognathia, and improved without intervention before palate repair in infants with ICP. Citation: Cielo CM, Taylor JA, Vossough A, Radcliffe J, Thomas A, Bradford R, Lioy J, Tapia IE, Assadsangabi R, Shults J, Marcus CL. Evolution of obstructive sleep apnea in infants with cleft palate and micrognathia. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(7):979–987. PMID:27092700
Wheeler, Natalie C.; Wing, Jeffrey J.; O'Brien, Louise M.; Hughes, Rebecca; Jacobs, Teresa; Claflin, Edward; Chervin, Ronald D.; Brown, Devin L.
Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common after stroke and predicts poor outcomes. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treats OSA but is generally poorly tolerated by stroke patients. We assessed whether nasal expiratory positive airway pressure (EPAP), an alternative to CPAP, may be an effective option after acute stroke. Methods: We conducted a randomized, controlled, two-period crossover study in which each acute ischemic stroke patient received 1 night of EPAP and 1 night without EPAP while OSA was monitored with a validated device, the Watch-PAT 200. Linear repeated- measures analyses were conducted. Sample size calculations indicated that 18 subjects would be required to detect a 10-point or larger average reduction in the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI, the primary outcome), with use of EPAP, with power ≥ 80% and α = 0.05. Results: Among the 19 subjects who completed the protocol, nasal EPAP treatment was associated with a nonsignificant absolute difference in AHI of −5.73 events/h in the primary analysis (p = 0.183, 95% confidence interval −14.4, 2.97) and a nonsignificant absolute difference in AHI of −5.43 events/h in the subgroup of patients who used nasal EPAP for ≥ 3 h (p = 0.314, 95% confidence interval −16.6, 5.76). Conclusions: This study suggests that EPAP is not an effective alternative to CPAP in acute stroke patients with OSA. Further work is needed to identify other more effective alternatives. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT01703663 Citation: Wheeler NC, Wing JJ, O'Brien LM, Hughes R, Jacobs T, Claflin E, Chervin RD, Brown DL. Expiratory positive airway pressure for sleep apnea after stroke: a randomized, crossover trial. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(9):1233–1238. PMID:27306393
Björnsdóttir, Erla; Benediktsdóttir, Bryndís; Pack, Allan I.; Arnardottir, Erna Sif; Kuna, Samuel T.; Gíslason, Thorarinn; Keenan, Brendan T.; Maislin, Greg; Sigurdsson, Jón Fridrik
Study Objectives: The aims of this study were: (1) to use a standardized psychiatric interview, conducted by a trained psychologist to assess the prevalence of depression among patients with untreated OSA, and (2) to identify if OSA severity or other comorbid disorders (insomnia, hypertension, and diabetes) are related to depression among patients with untreated OSA. Methods: Participants were newly diagnosed patients with OSA (n = 284) waiting to start positive airway pressure (PAP) treatment. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was used to assess depression. Results: Overall, 15.5% of the sample met the diagnosis for dysthymia. Women had a significantly higher prevalence (29.5% versus 11.7% among men, p < 0.001). The prevalence of major depression was 6% in the overall sample and there was no difference in the prevalence among sexes (5.8% among men versus 6.6 % among women). Obesity, daytime sleepiness, low physical activity, initial and late insomnia, low quality of life, and sleep medication and antidepressant use were all related to depression, whereas OSA severity, as measured by apnea-hypopnea index or oxygen desaturation index, was not. Daytime sleepiness, initial insomnia, and sleep medication use were the strongest predictors of depression in multivariable analyses. Conclusions: Sleep medication use, daytime sleepiness, and symptoms of initial insomnia were independently related to depression but OSA severity was not. Increased awareness of the relationship between depression and OSA and the appropriate use of assessment tools might substantially improve diagnostic accuracy as well as treatment outcome for both disorders. Citation: Björnsdóttir E, Benediktsdóttir B, Pack AI, Arnardottir ES, Kuna ST, Gíslason T, Keenan BT, Maislin G, Sigurdsson JF. The prevalence of depression among untreated obstructive sleep apnea patients using a standardized psychiatric interview. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(1):105–112. PMID:26350608
Ustun, Berk; Westover, M. Brandon; Rudin, Cynthia; Bianchi, Matt T.
Study Objective: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a treatable contributor to morbidity and mortality. However, most patients with OSA remain undiagnosed. We used a new machine learning method known as SLIM (Supersparse Linear Integer Models) to test the hypothesis that a diagnostic screening tool based on routinely available medical information would be superior to one based solely on patient-reported sleep-related symptoms. Methods: We analyzed polysomnography (PSG) and self-reported clinical information from 1,922 patients tested in our clinical sleep laboratory. We used SLIM and 7 state-of-the-art classification methods to produce predictive models for OSA screening using features from: (i) self-reported symptoms; (ii) self-reported medical information that could, in principle, be extracted from electronic health records (demographics, comorbidities), or (iii) both. Results: For diagnosing OSA, we found that model performance using only medical history features was superior to model performance using symptoms alone, and similar to model performance using all features. Performance was similar to that reported for other widely used tools: sensitivity 64.2% and specificity 77%. SLIM accuracy was similar to state-of-the-art classification models applied to this dataset, but with the benefit of full transparency, allowing for hands-on prediction using yes/no answers to a small number of clinical queries. Conclusion: To predict OSA, variables such as age, sex, BMI, and medical history are superior to the symptom variables we examined for predicting OSA. SLIM produces an actionable clinical tool that can be applied to data that is routinely available in modern electronic health records, which may facilitate automated, rather than manual, OSA screening. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 159. Citation: Ustun B, Westover MB, Rudin C, Bianchi MT. Clinical prediction models for sleep apnea: the importance of medical history over symptoms
Kaimakamis, Evangelos; Tsara, Venetia; Bratsas, Charalambos; Sichletidis, Lazaros; Karvounis, Charalambos; Maglaveras, Nikolaos
Introduction Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder requiring the time/money consuming polysomnography for diagnosis. Alternative methods for initial evaluation are sought. Our aim was the prediction of Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI) in patients potentially suffering from OSA based on nonlinear analysis of respiratory biosignals during sleep, a method that is related to the pathophysiology of the disorder. Materials and Methods Patients referred to a Sleep Unit (135) underwent full polysomnography. Three nonlinear indices (Largest Lyapunov Exponent, Detrended Fluctuation Analysis and Approximate Entropy) extracted from two biosignals (airflow from a nasal cannula, thoracic movement) and one linear derived from Oxygen saturation provided input to a data mining application with contemporary classification algorithms for the creation of predictive models for AHI. Results A linear regression model presented a correlation coefficient of 0.77 in predicting AHI. With a cutoff value of AHI = 8, the sensitivity and specificity were 93% and 71.4% in discrimination between patients and normal subjects. The decision tree for the discrimination between patients and normal had sensitivity and specificity of 91% and 60%, respectively. Certain obtained nonlinear values correlated significantly with commonly accepted physiological parameters of people suffering from OSA. Discussion We developed a predictive model for the presence/severity of OSA using a simple linear equation and additional decision trees with nonlinear features extracted from 3 respiratory recordings. The accuracy of the methodology is high and the findings provide insight to the underlying pathophysiology of the syndrome. Conclusions Reliable predictions of OSA are possible using linear and nonlinear indices from only 3 respiratory signals during sleep. The proposed models could lead to a better study of the pathophysiology of OSA and facilitate initial evaluation/follow up of suspected patients OSA
Parthasarathy, Sairam; Wendel, Christopher; Haynes, Patricia L.; Atwood, Charles; Kuna, Samuel
Study Objectives: To evaluate patient ratings of the acceptability of a peer buddy system (PBS). To promote continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy adherence in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). To obtain preliminary data on the effectiveness of PBS on sleep-specific health-related quality of life and CPAP adherence. Design: Prospective, randomized, and controlled study. Setting: Academic Center. Participants: Thirty-nine patients with OSA and 13 patients with OSA who were experienced CPAP users. Interventions: Recently diagnosed patients with OSA were randomly assigned to either the PBS to promote CPAP adherence (intervention group) or usual care (control group). Measurements: Patient satisfaction, Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ), CPAP adherence, vigilance, self-efficacy, and patient activation were measured. Results: Ninety-one percent of the subjects rated the PBS as very satisfactory (68%) or satisfactory (23%). During the 90 days of therapy, weekly CPAP adherence was greater in the intervention than the usual care group (MANOVA; F = 2.29; p = 0.04). Patient satisfaction was positively correlated with CPAP adherence (R2 = 0.14; p = 0.02). We did not find any group differences for FOSQ, vigilance, self-efficacy, or patient activation in this pilot study. Conclusion: Our pilot study suggests that the PBS intervention is feasible and received high patient satisfaction ratings. CPAP adherence may be improved by peer-driven intervention, but a larger, adequately powered study is needed. Clinical Trial Information: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01164683. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 551. Citation: Parthasarathy S; Wendel C; Haynes PL; Atwood C; Kuna S. A pilot study of CPAP adherence promotion by peer buddies with sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(6):543-550. PMID:23772186
Park, Chong Yoon; Hong, Joon Hyeong; Lee, Jae Heon; Lee, Kyu Eun; Cho, Hyun Sang; Lim, Su Jin; Kwak, Jin Wook; Kim, Kyung Soo; Kim, Hyun Jik
Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the hypothesis that relief of nasal obstruction in subjects with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) would lead to reduce OSA severity and to discuss the available evidence on the clinical efficacy of nasal surgery as a treatment modality for OSA. Study Design Twenty-five subjects who had reduced patency of nasal cavity and narrowing of retroglossal or retropalatal airways were diagnosed with OSA and underwent nasal surgery, such as septoplasty or turbinoplasty to correct nasal pathologies. The effect of the surgery on nasal patency was quantified by measuring minimal cross-sectional area (MCA) using acoustic rhinometry. The watch-PAT-derived respiratory disturbance index (RDI), apnea and hypopnea index (AHI), lowest oxygen saturation, and valid sleep time were measured before and after nasal surgery. Results The present study shows that the AHI and RDI decreased significantly and the lowest oxygen saturation and valid sleep time rose after nasal surgery in 25 OSA subjects. In addition, a reduction in subjective symptoms was observed in subjects and mean MCA increased after nasal surgery. Fourteen subjects were classified as responders and 11 subjects as non-responders. Responders showed considerable improvement of their subjective symptoms and the AHI and RDI were significantly lower after surgery. We found that the changes between pre- and post-operative AHI and RDI values were minimal in 11 non-responders. However, daytime somnolence and REM sleep time improved after nasal surgery in non-responders. Conclusions Our study provides evidence that the surgical treatment of nasal pathology improves nasal airway patency and reduces OSA severity in 56% subjects. Furthermore, correction of nasal pathology appears to result in improved sleep quality in both responder and non-responders OSA subjects. PMID:24896824
Landry, Shane; O'Driscoll, Denise M.; Hamilton, Garun S.; Conduit, Russell
Study Objective: To determine the effectiveness of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in alleviating known impairments in the overnight consolidation of motor skill learning in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods: Twenty-five patients with untreated moderate-severe OSA, 13 first-night CPAP users, 17 compliant CPAP users, and 14 healthy control patients were trained on a motor sequence learning task (Sequential Finger Tapping Task, SFTT) and were subsequently tested prior to and after polysomnographic recorded sleep. Measures of subjective sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale) and sustained attention (Psychomotor Vigilance Task) were also completed before and after sleep. Results: Typical analyses of overnight improvement on the SFTT show significantly greater overnight gains in motor task speed in controls (+11.6 ± 4.7%, p = 0.007) and compliant CPAP users (+8.9 ± 4.3%, p = 0.008) compared to patients with OSA (−4.86 ± 4.5%). Additional analyses suggest that these improvements in motor performance occurred prior to the sleep episode, as all groups significantly improved (15% to 22%) over a 10-min presleep rest period. Thereafter, performance in all groups significantly deteriorated over sleep (6% to 16%) with trends toward patients with OSA showing greater losses in performance compared to control patients and compliant CPAP users. No between-group differences in subjective sleepiness and sustained attention were found presleep and postsleep. Conclusions: The current data suggest impairments in overnight motor learning in patients with OSA may be a combination of deficient stabilization of memory over a sleep episode as well as increased vulnerability to time on task fatigue effects. Compliant CPAP usage possibly offsets both of these impediments to learning outcomes by improving both sleep quality and subsequent daytime function. Citation: Landry S, O'Driscoll DM, Hamilton GS, Conduit R. Overnight motor skill learning
Guimarães, Thais Moura; Colen, Sâmia; Cunali, Paulo Afonso; Rossi, Rowdley; Dal-Fabbro, Cibele; Ferraz, Otávio; Tufik, Sergio; Bittencourt, Lia
Treatment with a mandibular advancement device (MAD) is recommended for mild obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), primary snoring and as a secondary option for Continuous Positive Airway Pressure, because it has better adherence and acceptance. However, edentulous patients do not have supports to hold the MAD. This study aimed to present a possible to OSA treatment with MAD in over complete upper and partial lower dentures. The patient, a 38-year-old female with mild OSA, was treated with a MAD. The respiratory parameter, such as apnea–hypopnea index, arousal index and oxyhemoglobin saturation was improved after treatment. PMID:26483952
Rosen, Carol L
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common, under-recognized condition in childhood with significant morbidities if undiagnosed and untreated. The American Academy of Pediatrics recently issued a clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis and management of childhood OSAS. It was accompanied by a comprehensive evidence-based technical report that summarized the available literature supporting the guideline. The current review highlights areas of controversy and uncertainty that limit the development of more definitive standards of practice, updates the reader to several newer publications relevant to diagnosis and treatment of childhood OSAS, and identifies future directions for clinical research.
Upadhyay, Rashmi; Dubey, Abhishek; Kant, Surya; Singh, Balendra Pratap
The use of continuous positive airway pressures (CPAP) is considered standard treatment of moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Treatment of the disease poses a great challenge not only for its diagnostic purpose but also for its treatment part. In about 29-83% of the patients, treatment is difficult because of non-compliance resulting due to high pressures, air leaks and other related issues. In such situations, alternative methods of treatment need to be looked for so as to ascertain better management. Mandibular advancement devices along with CPAP may show better treatment outcome in specific situations. PMID:25814802
Subramani, Yamini; Wong, Jean; Nagappa, Mahesh; Chung, Frances
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a chronic disease affecting millions of people worldwide. Untreated OSA can lead to about a 2-fold increase in medical expenses, mainly because of cardiovascular morbidity. OSA is highly prevalent in the surgical population, with an increased risk of perioperative complications. This article describes the perioperative and long-term social and economic benefits of preoperative screening for OSA. Screening patients to identify high-risk OSA is important to decrease the adverse outcomes and associated health care costs in the perioperative period. Screening for OSA is particularly relevant because most patients are undiagnosed at the time of surgery.
Cepeda, Felipe X.; Toschi-Dias, Edgar; Maki-Nunes, Cristiane; Rondon, Maria Urbana P.B.; Alves, Maria Janieire N.N.; Braga, Ana Maria F.W.; Martinez, Daniel G.; Drager, Luciano F.; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Negrao, Carlos E.; Trombetta, Ivani C.
Study Objectives: The attenuation of heart rate recovery after maximal exercise (ΔHRR) is independently impaired by obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Therefore, we tested the hypotheses: (1) MetS + OSA restrains ΔHRR; and (2) Sympathetic hyperactivation is involved in this impairment. Design: Cross-sectional study. Participants: We studied 60 outpatients in whom MetS had been newly diagnosed (ATP III), divided according to apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥ 15 events/h in MetS + OSA (n = 30, 49 ± 1.7 y) and AHI < 15 events/h in MetS - OSA (n = 30, 46 ± 1.4 y). Normal age-matched healthy control subjects (C) without MetS and OSA were also enrolled (n = 16, 46 ± 1.7 y). Interventions: Polysomnography, microneurography, cardiopulmonary exercise test. Measurements and Results: We evaluated OSA (AHI - polysomnography), muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA - microneurography) and cardiac autonomic activity (LF = low frequency, HF = high frequency, LF/HF = sympathovagal balance) based on spectral analysis of heart rate (HR) variability. ΔHRR was calculated (peak HR minus HR at first, second, and fourth minute of recovery) after cardiopulmonary exercise test. MetS + OSA had higher MSNA and LF, and lower HF than MetS - OSA and C. Similar impairment occurred in MetS - OSA versus C (interaction, P < 0.01). MetS + OSA had attenuated ΔHRR at first, second, and at fourth minute than did C, and attenuated ΔHRR at fourth minute than did MetS - OSA (interaction, P < 0.001). Compared with C, MetS - OSA had attenuated ΔHRR at second and fourth min (interaction, P < 0.001). Further analysis showed association of the ΔHRR (first, second, and fourth minute) and AHI, MSNA, LF and HF components (P < 0.05 for all associations). Conclusions: The attenuation of heart rate recovery after maximal exercise is impaired to a greater degree where metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) than by MetS with no or
Busch, David R.; Lynch, Jennifer M.; Winters, Madeline E.; McCarthy, Ann L.; Newland, John J.; Ko, Tiffany; Cornaglia, Mary Anne; Radcliffe, Jerilynn; McDonough, Joseph M.; Samuel, John; Matthews, Edward; Xiao, Rui; Yodh, Arjun G.; Marcus, Carole L.; Licht, Daniel J.; Tapia, Ignacio E.
Study Objectives: Children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) often experience periods of hypercapnia during sleep, a potent stimulator of cerebral blood flow (CBF). Considering this hypercapnia exposure during sleep, it is possible that children with OSAS have abnormal CBF responses to hypercapnia even during wakefulness. Therefore, we hypothesized that children with OSAS have blunted CBF response to hypercapnia during wakefulness, compared to snorers and controls. Methods: CBF changes during hypercapnic ventilatory response (HCVR) were tested in children with OSAS, snorers, and healthy controls using diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS). Peak CBF changes with respect to pre-hypercapnic baseline were measured for each group. The study was conducted at an academic pediatric sleep center. Results: Twelve children with OSAS (aged 10.1 ± 2.5 [mean ± standard deviation] y, obstructive apnea hypopnea index [AHI] = 9.4 [5.1–15.4] [median, interquartile range] events/hour), eight snorers (11 ± 3 y, 0.5 [0–1.3] events/hour), and 10 controls (11.4 ± 2.6 y, 0.3 [0.2–0.4] events/hour) were studied. The fractional CBF change during hypercapnia, normalized to the change in end-tidal carbon dioxide, was significantly higher in controls (9 ± 1.8 %/mmHg) compared to OSAS (7.1 ± 1.5, P = 0.023) and snorers (6.7 ± 1.9, P = 0.025). Conclusions: Children with OSAS and snorers have blunted CBF response to hypercapnia during wakefulness compared to controls. Noninvasive DCS blood flow measurements of hypercapnic reactivity offer insights into physiopathology of OSAS in children, which could lead to further understanding about the central nervous system complications of OSAS. Citation: Busch DR, Lynch JM, Winters ME, McCarthy AL, Newland JJ, Ko T, Cornaglia MA, Radcliffe J, McDonough JM, Samuel J, Matthews E, Xiao R, Yodh AG, Marcus CL, Licht DJ, Tapia IE. Cerebral blood flow response to hypercapnia in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. SLEEP 2016
Matthews, Les; Fortier, Normand
The present study was designed to investigate body position changes resulting from wearing a Rematee Bumper Belt (Rematee, Canada) during sleep. The majority of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients will experience up to two times as many apneas and hypopneas while supine relative to lateral or prone body positions during sleep. It has been suggested that a positional therapy device could reduce the number of apneas and hypopneas in such patients. The present study was conducted to determine whether the Rematee Bumper Belt positional therapy device could prevent healthy subjects from sleeping in the supine position. Test subjects wore the belt for one to two nights. Each belt was equipped with an accelerometer that was used to measure the orientation of the belt relative to the horizontal plane. The results suggest that the belt creates an exclusion zone approximately 80° wide centred near the supine orientation, where subjects are effectively prevented to enter. Results of the present preliminary study suggests that the Rematee Bumper Belt positional therapy device is effective at limiting healthy subjects from sleeping in a supine position. The device appears to be most effective between 150° and 230°. A device with this capability may provide an inexpensive and potentially effective alternative treatment option for patients with OSA. This device has the capacity for reducing snoring and the apnea-hypopnea index in individuals with positional OSA.
Huynh, Nelly T; Desplats, Eve; Almeida, Fernanda R
A small maxilla and/or mandible may predispose children to sleep-disordered breathing, which is a continuum of severity from snoring to obstructive sleep apnea. Preliminary studies have suggested that orthodontic treatments, such as orthopedic mandibular advancement or rapid maxillary expansion, may be effective treatments. The aim is to investigate the efficacy of orthopedic mandibular advancement and/or rapid maxillary expansion in the treatment of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea. Pubmed, Medline, Embase, and Internet were searched for eligible studies published until April 2014. Articles with adequate data were selected for the meta-analysis; other articles were reported in the qualitative assessment. Data extraction was conducted by two independent authors. A total of 58 studies were identified. Only eight studies were included in the review; of these, six were included in the meta-analysis. The research yielded only a small number of studies. Consequently, any conclusions from the pooled diagnostic parameters and their interpretation should be treated carefully. Although the included studies were limited, these orthodontic treatments may be effective in managing pediatric snoring and obstructive sleep apnea. Other related health outcomes, such as neurocognitive and cardiovascular functions have not yet been systematically addressed. More studies are needed with larger sample size, specific inclusion and exclusion criteria and standardized data reporting to help establish guidelines for the orthodontic treatment of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea.
Chang, Sun Jung
The prevalence of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is approximately 3% in children. Adenotonsillar hypertrophy is the most common cause of OSAS in children, and obesity, hypotonic neuromuscular diseases, and craniofacial anomalies are other major risk factors. Snoring is the most common presenting complaint in children with OSAS, but the clinical presentation varies according to age. Agitated sleep with frequent postural changes, excessive sweating, or abnormal sleep positions such as hyperextension of neck or abnormal prone position may suggest a sleep-disordered breathing. Night terror, sleepwalking, and enuresis are frequently associated, during slow-wave sleep, with sleep-disordered breathing. Excessive daytime sleepiness becomes apparent in older children, whereas hyperactivity or inattention is usually predominant in younger children. Morning headache and poor appetite may also be present. As the cortical arousal threshold is higher in children, arousals are not easily developed and their sleep architectures are usually more conserved than those of adults. Untreated OSAS in children may result in various problems such as cognitive deficits, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, poor academic achievement, and emotional instability. Mild pulmonary hypertension is not uncommon. Rarely, cardiovascular complications such as cor pulmonale, heart failure, and systemic hypertension may develop in untreated cases. Failure to thrive and delayed development are serious problems in younger children with OSAS. Diagnosis of pediatric OSAS should be based on snoring, relevant history of sleep disruption, findings of any narrow or collapsible portions of upper airway, and confirmed by polysomnography. Early diagnosis of pediatric OSAS is critical to prevent complications with appropriate interventions. PMID:21189956
Chang, Sun Jung; Chae, Kyu Young
The prevalence of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is approximately 3% in children. Adenotonsillar hypertrophy is the most common cause of OSAS in children, and obesity, hypotonic neuromuscular diseases, and craniofacial anomalies are other major risk factors. Snoring is the most common presenting complaint in children with OSAS, but the clinical presentation varies according to age. Agitated sleep with frequent postural changes, excessive sweating, or abnormal sleep positions such as hyperextension of neck or abnormal prone position may suggest a sleep-disordered breathing. Night terror, sleepwalking, and enuresis are frequently associated, during slow-wave sleep, with sleep-disordered breathing. Excessive daytime sleepiness becomes apparent in older children, whereas hyperactivity or inattention is usually predominant in younger children. Morning headache and poor appetite may also be present. As the cortical arousal threshold is higher in children, arousals are not easily developed and their sleep architectures are usually more conserved than those of adults. Untreated OSAS in children may result in various problems such as cognitive deficits, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, poor academic achievement, and emotional instability. Mild pulmonary hypertension is not uncommon. Rarely, cardiovascular complications such as cor pulmonale, heart failure, and systemic hypertension may develop in untreated cases. Failure to thrive and delayed development are serious problems in younger children with OSAS. Diagnosis of pediatric OSAS should be based on snoring, relevant history of sleep disruption, findings of any narrow or collapsible portions of upper airway, and confirmed by polysomnography. Early diagnosis of pediatric OSAS is critical to prevent complications with appropriate interventions.
Krishnaswamy, U; Aneja, A; Kumar, R Mohan; Kumar, T Prasanna
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common but underdiagnosed sleep disorder, which is associated with systemic consequences such as hypertension, stroke, metabolic syndrome, and ischemic heart disease. Nocturnal laboratory-based polysomnography (PSG) is the gold standard test for diagnosis of OSA. PSG consists of a simultaneous recording of multiple physiologic parameters related to sleep and wakefulness including electroencephalography (EEG), electrooculography (EOG), surface electromyography (EMG), airflow measurement using thermistor and nasal pressure transducer, pulse oximetry and respiratory effort (thoracic and abdominal). Multiple alternative and simpler methods that record respiratory parameters alone for diagnosing OSA have been developed in the past two decades. These devices are called portable monitors (PMs) and enable performing sleep studies at a lower cost with shorter waiting times. It has been observed and reported that comprehensive sleep evaluation coupled with the use of PMs can fulfill the unmet need for diagnostic testing in various out-of-hospital settings in patients with suspected OSA. This article reviews the available medical literature on PMs in order to justify the utility of PMs in the diagnosis of OSA, especially in resource-poor, high-disease burden settings. The published practice parameters for the use of these devices have also been reviewed with respect to their relevance in the Indian setting. PMID:26440391
Decreased noradrenergic excitation of hypoglossal motoneurons during sleep causing hypotonia of pharyngeal dilator muscles is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a widespread disease for which treatment options are limited. Previous OSA drug candidates targeting various excitatory/inhibitory receptors on hypoglossal motoneurons have proved unviable in reactivating these neurons, particularly during rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep. To identify a viable drug target, we show that the repurposed α2-adrenergic antagonist yohimbine potently reversed the depressant effect of REM sleep on baseline hypoglossal motoneuron activity (a first-line motor defense against OSA) in rats. Remarkably, yohimbine also restored the obstructive apnea–induced long-term facilitation of hypoglossal motoneuron activity (hLTF), a much-neglected form of noradrenergic-dependent neuroplasticity that could provide a second-line motor defense against OSA but was also depressed during REM sleep. Corroborating immunohistologic, optogenetic, and pharmacologic evidence confirmed that yohimbine’s beneficial effects on baseline hypoglossal motoneuron activity and hLTF were mediated mainly through activation of pontine A7 and A5 noradrenergic neurons. Our results suggest a 2-tier (impaired first- and second-line motor defense) mechanism of noradrenergic-dependent pathogenesis of OSA and a promising pharmacotherapy for rescuing both these intrinsic defenses against OSA through disinhibition of A7 and A5 neurons by α2-adrenergic blockade. PMID:28239660
Wu, Wei-Te; Tsai, Su-Shan; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Lin, Ming-Hsiu; Chou, Tzu-Chieh; Ting, Hua; Wu, Trong-Neng; Liou, Saou-Hsing
Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and metabolic markers and whether the elevated risk of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is related to Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). Methods This cross-sectional study recruited 246 male bus drivers from one transportation company in Taiwan. Each participant was evaluated by a polysomnography (PSG) test and by blood lipids examination. Severity of OSA was categorized according to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Results The results showed that a 73.3% prevalence of MetS in OSA (AHI > 15) and a 80.0% prevalence of MetS in severe OSA (AHI > 30) were found. After adjusting for confounding variables, an increased level of Body-Mass Index (BMI) and two non-MetS cardiovascular risk factors, total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio and TG/HDL-C ratio was significantly associated with AHI in subjects with severe OSA. MetS was about three times to be present in subjects with severe OSA, even adjusted for BMI. Conclusions The findings showed a high prevalence of MetS in OSA among professional drivers, especially in the severe group category. BMI was the major contributing factor to OSA. However, the present study did not find a sensitive clinical marker of a detrimental metabolic profile in OSA patients. PMID:26115005
Mizuno, Ju; Nemoto, Mikiko; Sato, Tomoko; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Hanaoka, Kazuo
We should take care of the occurrences of apnea and hypopnea after emergence from general anesthesia in the children with sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) due to an increase in sensitivity to opioid agonists given for previous recurrent hypoxia. Preoperative assessment for SAS with apnea hypopnea index (AHI), oxygen desaturation index (ODI), and minimum artery oxygen saturation by pulse oxymetry (lowest SpO2) obtained from polysomnography (PSG) test could help to predict the postoperative respiratory depression. In perioperative management in the children with SAS who are candidates for adenotonsillectomy, the dose of opioid agonists during anesthesia maintenance for purpose of postoperative analgesia and sedation should be reduced; postoperative respiratory and circulatory management with monitoring of respiratory movement of the thoracoabdominal part, and electrographic (ECG) and SpO2 monitoring should be continued intensively under long-term oxygen administration; and airway management, nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP), and artificial ventilation should be prepared for the occurrence of postoperative respiratory depression.
Rajan, Preethi; Greenberg, Harly
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is independently associated with cardiovascular and cardiometabolic risk in several large epidemiologic studies. OSA leads to several physiologic disturbances such as intermittent hypoxia, sleep fragmentation, and increase in autonomic tone. These disturbances have been associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in animal and human studies. Studies also suggest a bidirectional relationship between OSA and T2DM whereby T2DM itself might contribute to the features of OSA. Moreover, successful treatment of OSA may reduce these risks, although this is controversial. The purpose of this art