Park, Hee-Soo; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Kim, Sun Chang; Yu, Jae-Hyuk
The filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans primarily reproduces by forming asexual spores called conidia, the integrity of which is governed by the NF-κB type velvet regulators VosA and VelB. The VosA-VelB hetero-complex regulates the expression of spore-specific structural and regulatory genes during conidiogenesis. Here, we characterize one of the VosA/VelB-activated developmental genes, called vadA, the expression of which in conidia requires activity of both VosA and VelB. VadA (AN5709) is predicted to be a 532-amino acid length fungal-specific protein with a highly conserved domain of unknown function (DUF) at the N-terminus. This DUF was found to be conserved in many Ascomycota and some Glomeromycota species, suggesting a potential evolutionarily conserved function of this domain in fungi. Deletion studies of vadA indicate that VadA is required for proper downregulation of brlA, fksA, and rodA, and for proper expression of tpsA and orlA during sporogenesis. Moreover, vadA null mutant conidia exhibit decreased trehalose content, but increased β(1,3)-glucan levels, lower viability, and reduced tolerance to oxidative stress. We further demonstrate that the vadA null mutant shows increased production of the mycotoxin sterigmatocystin. In summary, VadA is a dual-function novel regulator that controls development and secondary metabolism, and participates in bridging differentiation and viability of newly formed conidia in A. nidulans.
S -. D - 1BI5A, Ada Joint Program~ Office, AJPO 2C. AeSIRA:1 Cn~u ’ ecz ~ #f,,,cr~j ."y#^ode’mt~ b, block number) Verdix Corporation, VAda-11O-15125-1...larget), 890216W41.10031 P. AIJINOts) 8 CO*!AC OP 0441. hjwMEj(j) Wrl~ g M-Patterson A-B Dayton, OH, USA 9. PEftFOftM1hC OR~iANZATION AhD ADDRESS 10...l" 1473 [D11ION OF NO 6b. 5 OBSO~t1E I JA" 72 S /Si 0102-LI-014-660 UNCLASSIFID Ada Compiler Validation Summary Report: Compiler Name: VAda-110-15125
For high school and adult readers this autobiography of Polingaysi Qoyawayma (Elizabeth Q. White) relates a Hopi Indian woman's struggle to adjust to an alien culture and to develop teaching methods to bridge the gap between Indians and the white world. Information on Hopi legends and ceremonies introduce the reader to the Hopi way of life. Born…
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Programming language, Ada Compiler Validation Summary Report, Ada % Compiler Validation Capability, ACVC, Validation Testing, Ada % Validation Office, AVO , Ada...the direction of the Ada lalJation Facility (AVF), according to Ada Validation Organization ( AVO ) polic ’’* and procedures. The AVF identified 2210 of...the AVF according to policies and procedures established by the Ada Validation Organization ( AVO ). On-site testing was conducted from 12 Jun.e 1987
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Fang, Yi-Bin Zhao, Kai-Jun Wu, Yi-Na Zhou, Yu Li, Qiang Yang, Peng-Fei Huang, Qing-Hai Zhao, Wen-Yuan Xu, Yi Liu, Jian-Min
PurposeThe treatment of ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms (VADAs) continues to be controversial. Our goal was to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and long-term outcomes of internal trapping and stent-assisted coiling (SAC) for ruptured VADAs distal to the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (supra-PICA VADAs), which is the most common subset.MethodsA retrospective review was conducted of 39 consecutive ruptured supra-PICA VADAs treated with internal trapping (n = 20) or with SAC (n = 19) at our institution. The clinical and angiographic data were retrospectively compared.ResultsThe immediate total occlusion rate of the VADAs was 80 % in the trapping group, which improved to 88.9 % at the follow-ups (45 months on average). Unwanted occlusions of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) were detected in three trapped cases. Incomplete obliteration of the VADA or unwanted occlusions of the PICA were detected primarily in the VADAs closest to the PICA. In the stenting group, the immediate total occlusion rate was 47.4 %, which improved to 100 % at the follow-ups (39 months on average). The immediate total occlusion rate of the VADAs was higher in the trapping group (p < 0.05), but the later total occlusion was slightly higher in the stenting group (p > 0.05).ConclusionsOur preliminary results showed that internal trapping and stent-assisted coiling are both technically feasible for treating ruptured supra-PICA VADAs. Although not statistically significant, procedural related complications occurred more frequently in the trapping group. When the VADAs are close to the PICA, we suggest that the lesions should be treated using SAC.
Ada Compiler Validation Summary Report: Certificate Number: 901129W1. 11094 Verdix Corporation, VADS VAX/VMS=> Intel 386/WITEK 3167, VMS 5.2, VAda- 110-03315, Version 6.0, MicroVAX 3100 (Host) to iSBC 386/116 (Using a WEITEK 3167fpu) (Target)
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Han, Jinsol; Ha, Sung-Kon; Choi, Jong-Il; Jin, Sung-Won; Kim, Se-Hoon
Objective Vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms (VADAs) are rare and many debates are present about treatment options. We review types and efficacy of our endovascular treatments and establish a safe endovascular therapeutic strategy regard to the angio-architecture of VADAs. Materials and Methods Between July 2008 and October 2015, we treated 22 patients with symptomatic VADAs. Fifteen patients presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage from the ruptured VADAs, digital subtraction angiography and magnetic resonance image confirmed the diagnosis and endovascular treatments were followed as their angio-architecture. Results Clinical results were good in 13 patients (86.7%), and there were no technical problems during endovascular procedures. The other 2 patients with poor prognosis showed severe neurological deficits at the initial evaluation. Among the three different endovascular treatments, there were no radiologic cure in one patient with stent insertion alone, but the patient had no significant clinical symptoms either. Conclusion Endovascular treatments are safe and effective treatment option for managing VADAs and can be the first treatment of choice for most patients. To select proper endovascular treatment according to the angio-architecture of VADAs can reduce the risk of the treatment. PMID:27847762
Dracatos, P M; Nansamba, M; Berlin, A; Park, R F; Niks, R E
Barley is a near-nonhost to numerous heterologous (nonadapted) rust pathogens because a small proportion of genotypes are somewhat susceptible. We assessed 66 barley accessions and three mapping populations (Vada × SusPtrit, Cebada Capa × SusPtrit, and SusPtrit × Golden Promise) for response to three Swedish oat stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. avenae) fungal isolates and determined that barley is a near-nonhost to P. graminis f. sp. avenae and that resistance was polygenically inherited. The parental genotypes Vada and Golden Promise were immune to all three isolates, whereas Cebada Capa was immune to two isolates and moderately resistant to the third. Phenotypic data from the Vada × SusPtrit mapping population and the barley accessions tested also demonstrated isolate-specific resistance. In particular, the SusPtrit parent and several other accessions allowed sporulation by isolate Ingeberga but were resistant to isolate Evertsholm. Nine chromosomal regions carried quantitative trait loci (QTL) (Rpgaq1 to Rpgaq9) of varying effect, most of which colocated to previously identified QTL for resistance to other heterologous rust pathogens. Rpgaq1 on chromosome 1H (Vada and Golden Promise) was effective toward all isolates tested. Microscopic examination indicated that resistance was prehaustorial in Vada whereas, in SusPtrit, both pre- and posthaustorial mechanisms play a role.
viscous dissipative flow in the channel plus a nonlinear portion due to the entrance region pressure Sdrop. A general expression for a channel resistance... CORDIS CORPORATION PO BOX 428 AVCO SYSTEMS DIVISION ATTN STEPHEN F. VADAS, K-2 ATTN W. K. CLARK MIAMI, FL 33137 201 LOMLL STREET WILMINGTON, MA 01887
plasticity in the medial and lateral amygdala in vitro. Yoder EJ, Tamir H, Ellisman MH (1996) 5-Hydroxytryptamine2A receptors on cultured rat Schwann ... Theodore and Vada Stanley Foundation is gratefully acknowledged. Editorial and manuscript assistance of Chris Gavin and Harriet Brightman is very much
Song, Ying; Wang, Yang; Li, Chuanhui; Wang, Yanmin; Mu, Shiqing; Yang, Xinjian
Background and purpose The retreatment of recurrent intracranial vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms (VADAs) after stent assisted coiling (SAC) has not yet been studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the strategies and outcomes for retreatment of recurrent VADAs after SAC. Methods Between September 2009 and November 2013, six consecutive patients presenting with recurrent intracranial VADAs after SAC were enrolled in this study. They were all male with age ranging from 29 to 54 years (mean age, 46.2 years). The procedures of treatments and angiographic and clinical follow-up were reviewed retrospectively. Retreatment modalities were selected individually according to the characteristics of recurrence. The outcomes of retreatment were evaluated by angiographic and clinical follow-up. Results Six patients with recurrent intracranial VADAs after SAC were retreated, with second SAC in three patients, coil embolization, double overlapping stents placement and endovascular occlusion with aneurysm trapping in one patient, respectively. Immediate angiographic outcomes of retreatment were: complete occlusion in three patients, nearly complete occlusion in two patients, and contrast medium retention in dissecting aneurysm in one patient. All cases were technically successful. No complications related to endovascular procedures occurred. Angiographic follow-up was available in all five patients treated with second SAC or double overlapping stents, which was complete occlusion in four patients, obliteration of parent artery in one patient, showing no recurrence at 4–11 months (mean: 8.6 months). Clinical follow-up was performed in all six patients at 11–51 months after initial endovascular treatment and at 9–43 months after retreatment. The mRS of last clinical follow-up was excellent in five patients and mild disability in only one patient. Conclusions Endovascular retreatment is feasible and effective for recurrent intracranial VADAs after SAC
Fortes-Lima, Cesar; Brucato, Nicolas; Croze, Myriam; Bellis, Gil; Schiavinato, Stephanie; Massougbodji, Achille; Migot-Nabias, Florence; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel
Ninety-six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and seventeen short tandem repeat (STRs) were investigated on the Y-chromosome of 288 unrelated healthy individuals from populations in Benin (Bariba, Yoruba, and Fon) and the Ivory Coast (Ahizi and Yacouba). We performed a multidimensional scaling analysis based on FST and RST genetic distances using a large extensive database of sub-Saharan African populations. There is more genetic homogeneity in Ivory Coast populations compared with populations from Benin. Notably, the Beninese Yoruba are significantly differentiated from neighbouring groups, but also from the Yoruba from Nigeria (FST>0.05; P<0.01). The Y-chromosome dataset presented here provides new valuable data to understand the complex genetic diversity and human male demographic events in West Africa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hamasaki, Osamu; Ikawa, Fusao; Hidaka, Toshikazu; Kurokawa, Yasuharu; Yonezawa, Ushio
Summary We evaluated the outcomes of endovascular or surgical treatment of ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms (VADAs), and investigated the relations between treatment complications and the development and location of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA). We treated 14 patients (12 men, two women; mean age, 56.2 years) with ruptured VADAs between March 1999 and June 2012 at our hospital. Six and eight patients had Hunt and Hess grades 1-3 and 4-5, respectively. Twelve patients underwent internal endovascular trapping, one underwent proximal endovascular occlusion alone, and one underwent proximal endovascular occlusion in the acute stage and occipital artery (OA)-PICA anastomosis and surgical trapping in the chronic stage. The types of VADA based on their location relative to the ipsilateral PICA were distal, PICA-involved, and non-PICA in nine, two, and three patients, respectively. The types of PICA based on their development and location were bilateral anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA)-PICA, ipsilateral AICA-PICA, extradural, and intradural type in one, two, two, and nine patients, respectively. Two patients with high anatomical risk developed medullary infarction, but their midterm outcomes were better than in previous reports. The modified Rankin scale indicated grades 0-2, 3-5, and 6 in eight, three, and three patients, respectively. A good outcome is often obtained in the treatment of ruptured VADA using internal endovascular trapping, except in the PICA-involved type, even with high-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage. Treatment of the PICA-involved type is controversial. The anatomical location and development of PICA may be predicted by complications with postoperative medullary infarction. PMID:24976093
Observation and modeling of tsunami -generated gravity waves in the earth’s upper atmosphere 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR...ABSTRACT Build a compatible set of models which 1) calculate the atmospheric gravity waves (GWs) excited by a tsunami , 2) propagate these GWs into...modeling of tsunami -generated gravity waves in the earth’s upper atmosphere Sharon L. Vadas NWRA/CoRA 3380 S. Mitchell Lane Boulder, CO 80301, USA phone
Gölitz, Philipp; Struffert, Tobias; Hoelter, Philip; Eyüpoglu, Ilker; Knossalla, Frauke; Doerfler, Arnd
Our study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of flow-diverting stents (FDS) in treating unruptured, intradural dissecting aneurysms of the vertebral artery (VADAs). Additionally, the effect of FDS on the aneurysmal flow pattern was investigated by performing in vivo flow analysis using parametric color coding (PCC). We evaluated 11 patients with unruptured, intradural VADAs, treated with FDS. Pre- and postinterventional DSA-series were postprocessed by PCC, and time-density curves were calculated. The parameters aneurysmal inflow-velocity, outflow-velocity and relative time-to-peak (rTTP) were calculated. Pre- and postinterventional values were compared and correlated with the occlusion rate after six months. Follow-up DSA detected 10 aneurysms occluded, meaning an occlusion rate of 91%. No procedure-related morbidity and mortality was found. Flow analyses revealed a significant reduction of aneurysmal inflow- velocity and prolongation of rTTP after FDS deployment. Concerning aneurysm occlusion, the postinterventional outflow-velocity turned out to be a marginally statistically significant predictor. A definite threshold value (-0.7 density change/s) could be determined for the outflow-velocity that allows prediction of complete aneurysm occlusion with high sensitivity and specificity (100%). Using FDS can be considered an efficient and safe therapy option in treating unruptured, intradural VADA. From in vivo flow analyses the postinterventional aneurysmal outflow-velocity turned out to be a potential predictor for later complete aneurysm occlusion. Here, it might be possible to determine a threshold value that allows prediction of aneurysm occlusion with high specificity and sensitivity. As fast, applicable and easy-to-handle tool, PCC could be used for procedural monitoring and might contribute to further treatment optimization. © The Author(s) 2015.
Struffert, Tobias; Hoelter, Philip; Eyüpoglu, Ilker; Knossalla, Frauke; Doerfler, Arnd
Object Our study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of flow-diverting stents (FDS) in treating unruptured, intradural dissecting aneurysms of the vertebral artery (VADAs). Additionally, the effect of FDS on the aneurysmal flow pattern was investigated by performing in vivo flow analysis using parametric color coding (PCC). Methods We evaluated 11 patients with unruptured, intradural VADAs, treated with FDS. Pre- and postinterventional DSA-series were postprocessed by PCC, and time-density curves were calculated. The parameters aneurysmal inflow-velocity, outflow-velocity and relative time-to-peak (rTTP) were calculated. Pre- and postinterventional values were compared and correlated with the occlusion rate after six months. Results Follow-up DSA detected 10 aneurysms occluded, meaning an occlusion rate of 91%. No procedure-related morbidity and mortality was found. Flow analyses revealed a significant reduction of aneurysmal inflow- velocity and prolongation of rTTP after FDS deployment. Concerning aneurysm occlusion, the postinterventional outflow-velocity turned out to be a marginally statistically significant predictor. A definite threshold value (–0.7 density change/s) could be determined for the outflow-velocity that allows prediction of complete aneurysm occlusion with high sensitivity and specificity (100%). Conclusions Using FDS can be considered an efficient and safe therapy option in treating unruptured, intradural VADA. From in vivo flow analyses the postinterventional aneurysmal outflow-velocity turned out to be a potential predictor for later complete aneurysm occlusion. Here, it might be possible to determine a threshold value that allows prediction of aneurysm occlusion with high specificity and sensitivity. As fast, applicable and easy-to-handle tool, PCC could be used for procedural monitoring and might contribute to further treatment optimization. PMID:26515700
Gupta, K L Virupaksha; Chinta, Sridurga; Reddy, K R C
Rasa Săstra is an important branch of Ayurvĕda developed for achieving therapeutic benefits from mineral materials. Ananda kanda is one of this subject text which gives an elaborate description of this subject. Dĕhavada concept of Rasa Săstra has been described elaborately along with Lŏha vada in this text. This book serves an important reference text. This book serves an important reference text for students and scholars of Rasa Săstra for teaching and training practical purposes.
Primativo, Giuseppina; Ottoni, Claudio; Biondi, Gianfranco; Serafino, Sara; Martínez-Labarga, Cristina; Larmuseau, Maarten H D; Scardi, Michele; Decorte, Ronny; Rickards, Olga
The understanding of the first movements of the ancestral populations within the African continent is still unclear, particularly in West Africa, due to several factors that have shaped the African genetic pool across time. To improve the genetic representativeness of the Beninese population and to better understand the patterns of human settlement inside West Africa and the dynamics of peopling of the Democratic Republic of Benin, we analyzed the maternal genetic variation of 193 Beninese individuals belonging to Bariba, Berba, Dendi, and Fon populations. Results support the oral traditions indicating that the western neighbouring populations have been the ancestors of the first Beninese populations, and the extant genetic structure of the Beninese populations is most likely the result of admixture between populations from neighbouring countries and native people. The present findings highlight how the Beninese populations contributed to the gene pool of the extant populations of some American populations of African ancestry. This strengthens the hypothesis that the Bight of Benin was not only an assembly point for the slave trade during the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade but also an important slave trapping area.
An analysis is given for the accuracy and stability of some perturbation-based time-domain boundary element models (BEMs) with B-spline basis functions, solving hydrodynamic free-surface problems, including forward speed effects. The spatial convergence rate is found as a function of the order of the B-spline basis. It is shown that for all the models examined the mixed implicit-explicit Euler time integration scheme is correct to second order. Stability diagrams are found for models based on B-splines of orders third through to sixth for two different time integration schemes. The stability analysis can be regarded as an extension of the analysis by Vada and Nakos [Vada T, Nakos DE. Time marching schemes for ship motion simulations. In Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Water Waves and Floating Bodies, St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada, 1993; 155-158] to include B-splines of orders higher than three (piecewise quadratic polynomials) and to include finite water depth and a current at an oblique angle to the model grid. Copyright
Focus in this discussion of Benin is on the following: the people; geography; history; government and political conditions; economy; defense; foreign relations; and relations between the US and Benin. The population totaled 3.8 million in 1983 with an annual growth rate of 2.6%. The infant mortality rate is 45/1000 and life expectancy 46.9 years. The population comprises about 20 sociocultural groups. 4 groups -- the Fon, Aja, Bariba, and Yoruba -- account for more than half of the population. The name was changed from Dahomey to the People's Republic of Benin in 1975. 2 years after the military coup d'etat in 1972, Marxism-Leninism was declared the guiding philosophy of the new government. Marxism-Leninism remains the official doctrine, but the government has moved to take account of popular resistance to a radical social transformation, as well as problems encountered in attempting to establish a centrally directed economy. Benin is ranked as 1 of the world's 35 poorest countries. The commercial, industrial, and agricultural sectors are all experiencing severe problems. The government's newest 5 year plan for 1983-88 places a stronger emphasis on developing agriculture. In so doing, the government hopes to assure its own domestic needs and to become a supplier of basic foodstuffs to the region. Benin's Armed Forces number about 3000 personnel. Benin is a member of the Non-Aligned Movement and the Organization of African Unity. Relations with France are important because of historical, cultural, economic, and aid links. After 1972, relations between the US and Benin became strained as Benin moved to strengthen its ties with the Soviet Union and other socialist countries and mounted harsh propaganda attacks on the US.
Levert, Marie-Josée; Lefebvre, Hélène; Gélinas, Isabelle; McKerall, Michelle; Roy, Odette; Proulx, Michelle
This pilot project aims to test and see the relevance of the direct observation method to collect data on the barriers and facilitators to attending public places by seniors with TBI. The study is based on the conceptual framework VADA WHO which focuses on the development of friendly built and technological environments for seniors. Three elderly people participated in the study, recruited from an ongoing project, The Citizen Intervention in Community Living (APIC), in the presence of their personalized attendant. The study shows the feasibility of the method in terms of its acceptability and resources mobilized. It shows its relevance to access additional data that would have been difficult to obtain using others methods (e.g., semi-structured interview), such as the identification of the strategies used by the participants to address the obstacles encountered (avoidance, travel planning, use of physical and preventative support of the personalized attendant).
Hickey, L T; Lawson, W; Platz, G J; Dieters, M; Arief, V N; Germán, S; Fletcher, S; Park, R F; Singh, D; Pereyra, S; Franckowiak, J
A doubled haploid (DH) barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) population of 334 lines (ND24260 × Flagship) genotyped with DArT markers was used to map genes for adult plant resistance (APR) to leaf rust (Puccinia hordei Otth) under field conditions in Australia and Uruguay. The Australian barley cultivar Flagship carries an APR gene (qRphFlag) derived from the cultivar Vada. Association analysis and composite interval mapping identified two genes conferring APR in this DH population. qRphFlag was mapped to the short arm of chromosome 5H (5HS), accounting for 64-85% of the phenotypic variation across four field environments and 56% under controlled environmental conditions (CEC). A second quantitative trait locus (QTL) from ND24260 (qRphND) with smaller effect was mapped to chromosome 6HL. In the absence of qRphFlag, qRphND conferred only a low level of resistance. DH lines displaying the highest level of APR carried both genes. Sequence information for the critical DArT marker bPb-0837 (positioned at 21.2 cM on chromosome 5HS) was used to develop bPb-0837-PCR, a simple PCR-based marker for qRphFlag. The 245 bp fragment for bPb-0837-PCR was detected in a range of barley cultivars known to possess APR, which was consistent with previous tests of allelism, demonstrating that the qRphFlag resistant allele is common in leaf rust resistant cultivars derived from Vada and Emir. qRphFlag has been designated Rph20, the first gene conferring APR to P. hordei to be characterised in barley. The PCR marker will likely be effective in marker-assisted selection for Rph20.
Johnston, Paul A; Niks, Rients E; Meiyalaghan, Vijitha; Blanchet, Elise; Pickering, Richard
A resistance gene (Rph22) to barley leaf rust caused by Puccinia hordei was introgressed from the non-host species Hordeum bulbosum into cultivated barley. The H. bulbosum introgression in line '182Q20' was located to chromosome 2HL using genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH). Using molecular markers it was shown to cover approximately 20 % of the genetic length of the chromosome. The introgression confers a very high level of resistance to P. hordei at the seedling stage that is not based on a hypersensitive reaction. The presence of the resistance gene increased the latency period of the leaf rust fungus and strongly reduced the infection frequency relative to the genetic background cultivar 'Golden Promise'. An F2 population of 550 individuals was developed and used to create a genetic map of the introgressed region and to determine the map position of the underlying resistance gene(s). The resistance locus, designated Rph22, was located to the distal portion of the introgression, co-segregating with markers H35_26334 and H35_45139. Flanking markers will be used to reduce the linkage drag, including gene(s) responsible for a yield penalty, around the resistance locus and to transfer the gene into elite barley germplasm. This genetic location is also known to harbour a QTL (Rphq2) for non-hypersensitive leaf rust resistance in the barley cultivar 'Vada'. Comparison of the 'Vada' and H. bulbosum resistances at this locus may lead to a better understanding of the possible association between host and non-host resistance mechanisms.
Eastes, R.; Vadas, S.; Rusch, D. W.; Merkel, A. W.; Burns, A. G.; McClintock, W. E.; Krywonos, A.
Gravity waves are one source of coupling between the Earth's lower atmosphere and thermosphere. Modeling studies have found gravity wave production of large variations in thermospheric temperatures, 50K or more, and densities, as large as 10-25% (Vadas and Liu, 2013), at altitudes of 100 to 300 km. The effects are seen over spatial scales of tens to several hundred kilometers. Additionally, the dissipation of gravity waves creates localized regions of heating and cooling over scales of several hundred km. These effects may be observable by the Global-scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD) mission, a NASA mission of opportunity to be launched in 2017, which will simultaneously image the temperature and composition (O/N2 density ratio) of Earth's thermosphere from geostationary orbit. GOLD images the temperature and composition at 160 km (the signal is dominated by contributions from within one scale height at that altitude), and it will provide the necessary spatial resolution and sensitivity. Therefore, the GOLD mission may make the first measurements of the predicted variations in neutral temperature in this region of the thermosphere. Simulated measurements by the GOLD imager will be presented.
Jafary, Hossein; Albertazzi, Giorgia; Marcel, Thierry C.; Niks, Rients E.
Inheritance studies on the nonhost resistance of plants would normally require interspecific crosses that suffer from sterility and abnormal segregation. Therefore, we developed the barley–Puccinia rust model system to study, using forward genetics, the specificity, number, and diversity of genes involved in nonhost resistance. We developed two mapping populations by crossing the line SusPtrit, with exceptional susceptibility to heterologous rust species, with the immune barley cultivars Vada and Cebada Capa. These two mapping populations along with the Oregon Wolfe Barley population, which showed unexpected segregation for resistance to heterologous rusts, were phenotyped with four heterologous rust fungal species. Positions of QTL conferring nonhost resistance in the three mapping populations were compared using an integrated consensus map. The results confirmed that nonhost resistance in barley to heterologous rust species is controlled by QTL with different and overlapping specificities and by an occasional contribution of an R-gene for hypersensitivity. In each population, different sets of loci were implicated in resistance. Few genes were common between the populations, suggesting a high diversity of genes conferring nonhost resistance to heterologous pathogens. These loci were significantly associated with QTL for partial resistance to the pathogen Puccinia hordei and with defense-related genes. PMID:18430953
Hickey, Lee T; Lawson, Wendy; Platz, Greg J; Dieters, Mark; Franckowiak, Jerome
Rph20 is the only reported, simply inherited gene conferring moderate to high levels of adult plant resistance (APR) to leaf rust (Puccinia hordei Otth) in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Key parental genotypes were examined to determine the origin of Rph20 in two-rowed barley. The Dutch cultivar 'Vada' (released in the 1950s) and parents, 'Hordeum laevigatum' and 'Gull' ('Gold'), along with the related cultivar 'Emir' (a derivative of 'Delta'), were assessed for APR to P. hordei in a disease screening nursery. The marker bPb-0837-PCR, co-located with Rph20 on the short arm of chromosome 5H (5HS), was used to screen genotypes for the resistance allele, Rph20.ai. Results from phenotypic assessment and DNA analysis confirmed that Rph20 originated from the landrace 'H. laevigatum' (i.e., Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare). Tracing back this gene through the pedigrees of two-rowed barley cultivars, indicated that Rph20 has contributed APR to P. hordei for more than 60 years. Although there have been no reports of an Rph20-virulent pathotype, the search for alternative sources of APR should continue to avoid widespread reliance upon a single resistance factor.
Lachej, Nadežda; Dabkevičienė, Daiva; Sasnauskienė, Aušra; Trimonytė, Rūta Marija; Kanopienė, Daiva; Kazbarienė, Birutė; Didžiapetrienė, Janina
Įvadas. Organizmo ląstelėse vykstančius procesus kontroliuoja įvairūs signaliniai keliai. Vienas iš jų yra NOTCH signalinis kelias. Nustatyta, kad dalinis NOTCH funkcijos praradimas arba nenormalus NOTCH signalo aktyvinimas susijęs su įvairiais žmogaus vystymosi sutrikimais ir ligomis. Medžiaga ir metodika. Pagrindinis informacijos šaltinis ieškant duomenų – PubMed duomenų bazė. Rezultatai. Straipsnyje nagrinėjama onkologinių ligų bei NOTCH signalinio kelio dalyvių sąsaja. NOTCH signalas, vystantis vėžiui, gali veikti dvejopai: kaip onkogenas ir kaip naviko augimo slopiklis. Tikslus tokio poveikio mechanizmas dar nėra žinomas. NOTCH signalinio kelio tyrimai svarbūs siekiant atrasti naujus vėžio gydymo būdus, farmakologiniais ir genetiniais metodais valdant NOTCH signalinį kelią. Šioje apžvalgoje daugiausia dėmesio skiriama ginekologiniams piktybiniams navikams, ypač gimdos kūno vėžiui. Išvados. Pastarųjų metų mokslinių tyrimų duomenys rodo, kad NOTCH signalinis kelias yra neabejotinai svarbus formuojantis gimdos kūno vėžiui, todėl jo komponentai gali būti potencialūs prognoziniai biožymenys ir molekuliniai terapiniai taikiniai. Siekiant patikslinti NOTCH signalinio kelio dalyvių reikšmę bei jų sąveiką su kitų signalinių kelių dalyviais, kurie taip pat gali būti svarbūs formuojantis ir progresuojant gimdos kūno vėžiui, reikalingi tolesni šios srities moksliniai tyrimai. PMID:28630591
Žalnierukas, Albinas; Ruzgienė, Birutė; Kalantaitė, Aušra; Valaitienė, Rimanta
Pažangaus vietovės skenavimo lazeriu metodo realus tikslumas ir pritaikymo galimybės miestuose dar nepakankamai ištirta. Pateikiama Lietuvoje pirmą kartą darytų dešimties didžiųjų miestų - apskričių centrų skenavimo lazeriu iš orlaivio (LIDAR) išsami tikslumo analizė. Apibūdinama aparatūra, technologinės ypatybės, taip pat aerofotonuotrauka. Nurodoma, kad erdviniams miestų modeliams sudaryti taikyta pažangi jungtinė technologija: lazerinis skenavimas iš oro GPS-IMU sistema ir skaitmeninė 1:6000 mastelio aerofotonuotrauka. Naudotas skeneris ALTM 3100, skrydžio aukštis - 800 m. Vietovės skenavimo lazeriu tikslumas vertintas remiantis kontrolinių geodezinių ta\\vskų ir referencinių plotų (laukų) matavimų (UAB Aerogeodezijos institutas, UAB InfoERA) bei užsienio autorių LIDAR tikslumo tyrimų duomenimis. Gautieji lazerio impulsų ta\\vskų aukščių standartinių nuokrypių nuo geodezinių reikšmių įverčiai yra 0,05-0,11 m. Didžiausias absoliutusis planimetrinis poslinkis - 0,25 m, t. y. 1/3200 skrydžio aukščio. Daroma išvada, kad pagal tikslumo parametrus lazerinio skenavimo duomenys, sujungti su ortofotografiniu pagrindu, tinka miestų teritorijos paviršiaus, reljefo, pastatų ir kitų antžeminių objektų erdviniams 3D modeliams sukurti pagal stambiojo mastelio topografijos ir GIS poreikius.
Madureira, Sofia; Verdelho, Ana; Ferro, José; Basile, Anna-Maria; Chabriat, Hugues; Erkinjuntti, Timo; Fazekas, Franz; Hennerici, Michael; O'brien, John; Pantoni, Leonardo; Salvadori, Emilia; Scheltens, Philip; Visser, Marieke C; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Waldemar, Gunhild; Wallin, Anders; Inzitari, Domenico
The relationship between age-related white matter changes and cognitive performance in independent elderly people is still not clear. The Leukoaraiosis and Disability in the Elderly study (LADIS) involves 11 European centers. It aims to assess the role of the age-related white matter changes as an independent factor in the transition to disability, and in cognitive performance of an independent elderly population. A comprehensive neuropsychological battery was constructed in order to harmonize the cognitive assessment across countries. Patients were evaluated at baseline and during the 3-year follow-up with the Mini-Mental State Examination, a modified version of the VADAS-Cog (Alzheimer's Dementia Assessment Scale plus tests of Delayed recall, Symbol digit, Digit span, Maze, Digit cancellation and Verbal fluency), Trail making and Stroop test. Six hundred thirty-eight patients (mean age 74 +/- 5 years; mean educational level 10 +/- 4, F/M: 351/287) were included in this study. Neuropsychological data were analyzed test by test and also grouped in three compound measures (executive, memory and speed/motor control domains). Older subjects (>74 years) performed significantly worse than younger subjects on the ADAS-Mod and on the tests of memory (t(631) = 3.25; p = 0.001), executive functions (t(581) = 4.68; p = 0.001) and speed/motor control (t(587) = 4.01; p = 0.001). Participants with higher educational level (>8 years of school) showed better performances on the compound measures for memory (t(631) = 3.25; p = 0.001), executive functions (t(581) = 4.68; p = 0.001) and speed/motor control (t(587) = 4.01; p = 0.001). Using multiple regression analysis models to study the influence of demographic variables on cognitive performance, age and education remained important variables influencing test performance. In the LADIS population baseline data, older age and lower educational levels negatively influence neuropsychological performance.
Heale, Christopher; Snively, Jonathan
Gravity waves play a prominent role in the momentum and energy budget of the Earth's upper atmosphere [e.g. Fritts and Alexander ,Rev. Geophys., 41, 1003, 2003]. Small scale waves with large vertical wavelengths are able to propagate into the thermosphere where they will dissipate and deposit their energy and momentum [e.g. Vadas and Fritts, J. Geoph. Res.,110, D15103, 2005; Yiǧit et al., J. Geophys. Res.-Atmospheres, 114, D07101, 14, 2009; Liu et al., Ann. Geophys., 31, 2013; Heale et al., J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 119, 2014]. However, small scale waves are also prone to refraction, reflection, filtering, and instabilities by the temperature and wind structure of the atmosphere. One of the primary sources of variability on scales relevant to these small-scale waves is other, larger scale waves. The use of multiple instruments and Airglow keograms has begun to uncover the richness of the spectrum in the atmosphere, but interaction and relatively poorly understood [e.g. Fritts et al., J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, 2014; Bossert et al., J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120, 2015; Lu et al., J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120, 2015; Yuan et al., J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 121, 2016]. We use a 2D nonlinear, compressible numerical model to investigate the character of interactions between small-scale and medium-scale gravity waves at varied amplitudes as they approach nonlinearity. We investigate the relative importance of linear and nonlinear interaction processes and their effects on the propagation of multiple wave packets, and the possibility of energy exchanges and the threshold of onset for instability or breaking within the waves. Furthermore, we assess the validity of linear interpretations of observational data where coherent large-amplitude waves are detected at multiple, separated scales.
Backes, G; Madsen, L H; Jaiser, H; Stougaard, J; Herz, M; Mohler, V; Jahoor, A
The aims of this investigation have been to map new (quantitative) resistance genes against powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei L., and leaf rust, caused by Puccinia hordei L., in a cross between the barley ( Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) cultivar "Vada" and the wild barley ( Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) line "1B-87" originating from Israel. The population consisted of 121 recombinant inbred lines. Resistance against leaf rust and powdery mildew was tested on detached leaves. The leaf rust isolate "I-80" and the powdery mildew isolate "Va-4", respectively, were used for the infection in this experiment. Moreover, powdery mildew disease severity was observed in the field at two different epidemic stages. In addition to other DNA markers, the map included 13 RGA (resistance gene analog) loci. The structure of the data demanded a non-parametric QTL-analysis. For each of the four observations, two QTLs with very high significance were localised. QTLs for resistance against powdery mildew were detected on chromosome 1H, 2H, 3H, 4H and 7H. QTLs for resistance against leaf rust were localised on 2H and 6H. Only one QTL was common for two of the powdery mildew related traits. Three of the seven QTLs were localised at the positions of the RGA-loci. Three of the five powdery mildew related QTLs are sharing their chromosomal position with known qualitative resistance genes. All detected QTLs behaved additively. Possible sources of the distorted segregation observed, the differences between the results for the different powdery mildew related traits and the relation between qualitative and quantitative resistance are discussed.
Shimono, Kohei; Fujimoto, Azusa; Tsuyama, Taiichi; Yamamoto-Kochi, Misato; Sato, Motohiko; Hattori, Yukako; Sugimura, Kaoru; Usui, Tadao; Kimura, Ken-ichi; Uemura, Tadashi
Background For the establishment of functional neural circuits that support a wide range of animal behaviors, initial circuits formed in early development have to be reorganized. One way to achieve this is local remodeling of the circuitry hardwiring. To genetically investigate the underlying mechanisms of this remodeling, one model system employs a major group of Drosophila multidendritic sensory neurons - the dendritic arborization (da) neurons - which exhibit dramatic dendritic pruning and subsequent growth during metamorphosis. The 15 da neurons are identified in each larval abdominal hemisegment and are classified into four categories - classes I to IV - in order of increasing size of their receptive fields and/or arbor complexity at the mature larval stage. Our knowledge regarding the anatomy and developmental basis of adult da neurons is still fragmentary. Results We identified multidendritic neurons in the adult Drosophila abdomen, visualized the dendritic arbors of the individual neurons, and traced the origins of those cells back to the larval stage. There were six da neurons in abdominal hemisegment 3 or 4 (A3/4) of the pharate adult and the adult just after eclosion, five of which were persistent larval da neurons. We quantitatively analyzed dendritic arbors of three of the six adult neurons and examined expression in the pharate adult of key transcription factors that result in the larval class-selective dendritic morphologies. The 'baseline design' of A3/4 in the adult was further modified in a segment-dependent and age-dependent manner. One of our notable findings is that a larval class I neuron, ddaE, completed dendritic remodeling in A2 to A4 and then underwent caspase-dependent cell death within 1 week after eclosion, while homologous neurons in A5 and in more posterior segments degenerated at pupal stages. Another finding is that the dendritic arbor of a class IV neuron, v'ada, was immediately reshaped during post-eclosion growth. It exhibited
Shimono, Kohei; Fujimoto, Azusa; Tsuyama, Taiichi; Yamamoto-Kochi, Misato; Sato, Motohiko; Hattori, Yukako; Sugimura, Kaoru; Usui, Tadao; Kimura, Ken-ichi; Uemura, Tadashi
For the establishment of functional neural circuits that support a wide range of animal behaviors, initial circuits formed in early development have to be reorganized. One way to achieve this is local remodeling of the circuitry hardwiring. To genetically investigate the underlying mechanisms of this remodeling, one model system employs a major group of Drosophila multidendritic sensory neurons - the dendritic arborization (da) neurons - which exhibit dramatic dendritic pruning and subsequent growth during metamorphosis. The 15 da neurons are identified in each larval abdominal hemisegment and are classified into four categories - classes I to IV - in order of increasing size of their receptive fields and/or arbor complexity at the mature larval stage. Our knowledge regarding the anatomy and developmental basis of adult da neurons is still fragmentary. We identified multidendritic neurons in the adult Drosophila abdomen, visualized the dendritic arbors of the individual neurons, and traced the origins of those cells back to the larval stage. There were six da neurons in abdominal hemisegment 3 or 4 (A3/4) of the pharate adult and the adult just after eclosion, five of which were persistent larval da neurons. We quantitatively analyzed dendritic arbors of three of the six adult neurons and examined expression in the pharate adult of key transcription factors that result in the larval class-selective dendritic morphologies. The 'baseline design' of A3/4 in the adult was further modified in a segment-dependent and age-dependent manner. One of our notable findings is that a larval class I neuron, ddaE, completed dendritic remodeling in A2 to A4 and then underwent caspase-dependent cell death within 1 week after eclosion, while homologous neurons in A5 and in more posterior segments degenerated at pupal stages. Another finding is that the dendritic arbor of a class IV neuron, v'ada, was immediately reshaped during post-eclosion growth. It exhibited prominent radial
Finger, Robert P; Ayton, Lauren N; Deverell, Lil; O'Hare, Fleur; McSweeney, Shane C; Luu, Chi D; Fenwick, Eva K; Keeffe, Jill E; Guymer, Robyn H; Bentley, Sharon A
This study aimed to determine the feasibility of an assessment of vision-related orientation and mobility (O&M) tasks in persons with severe vision loss. These tasks may be used for future low vision rehabilitation clinical assessments or as outcome measures in vision restoration trials. Forty legally blind persons (mean visual acuity logMAR 2.3, or hand movements) with advanced retinitis pigmentosa participated in the Orientation & Mobility-Very Low Vision (O&M-VLV) subtests from the Low Vision Assessment of Daily Activities (LoVADA) protocol. Four categories of tasks were evaluated: route travel in three indoor hospital environments, a room orientation task (the "cafe"), a visual exploration task (the "gallery"), and a modified version of the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, which assesses re-orientation and route travel. Spatial cognition was assessed using the Stuart Tactile Maps test. Visual acuity and visual fields were measured. A generalized linear regression model showed that a number of measures in the O&M-VLV tasks were related to residual visual function. The percentage of preferred walking speed without an aid on three travel routes was associated with visual field (p < 0.01 for all routes) whereas the number of contacts with obstacles during route travel was associated with acuity (p = 0.001). TUG-LV task time was associated with acuity (p = 0.003), as was the cafe time and distance traveled (p = 0.006 and p < 0.001, respectively). The gallery score was the only measure that was significantly associated with both residual acuity and fields (p < 0.001 and p = 0.001, respectively). The O&M-VLV was designed to capture key elements of O&M performance in persons with severe vision loss, which is a population not often studied previously. Performance on these tasks was associated with both binocular visual acuity and visual field. This new protocol includes assessments of orientation, which may be of benefit in vision restoration clinical trials.
Santangelo, Giuseppe; Accardo, Marina; De Vita, Ferdinando; Del Giudice, Santolo; Gallucci, Federica; Fabozzi, Alessio; De Falco, Massimo
Il mesotelioma peritoneale cistico è un tumore raro. Si tratta di un tumore benigno, che tuttavia va incontro a recidive locali post-chirurgiche in oltre il 50% dei casi. È proprio a seguito di recidive ricorrenti che si possono determinare trasformazioni maligne di questa neoplasia, come descritto in Letteratura. Nel Giugno del 2004 un paziente di 73 anni è giunto presso la nostra struttura con una tumefazione addominale causa di dolore gravativo: si trattava di una massa di 16 cm, la cui struttura, agli esami strumentali (ecografia, TC con m.d.c. e RMN), appariva pluricistica. Attraverso una laparotomia mediana si è provveduto alla sua rimozione e il paziente è stato dimesso in VIII giornata post-operatoria senza complicanze. L’esame istologico, corredato da studio immunoistochimico e di microscopia elettronica, ha consentito di porre diagnosi di mesotelioma peritoneale pluricistico in trasformazione maligna. D’accordo con gli oncologi, in considerazione della scarsa efficacia dei trattamenti adiuvanti e della scarsità dei dati riportati in Letteratura sull’argomento, si è deciso di sottoporre il paziente unicamente ad uno stretto follow-up, con esecuzione di ecografia addominale ogni sei mesi e TC addominale ogni anno. Ad oggi, dieci anni dopo il trattamento, il paziente, di 83 anni, gode di un discreto stato di salute e non si sono verificate riprese o recidive di malattia, né locali, né a distanza. Oltre al fatto di essere risultato maligno alla sua prima manifestazione e non dopo ripetute recidive, il caso presenta altre particolarità: il mesotelioma peritoneale cistico, infatti, solitamente colpisce soggetti di sesso femminile (con un rapporto F:M di 4,5:1) ad un’età media di 60 anni, mentre il caso descritto riguarda un soggetto di sesso maschile di 73 anni. La nostra osservazione dimostra la possibilità che il mesotelioma peritoneale vada incontro a trasformazioni maligne già alla sua prima manifestazione e non esclusivamente dopo