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Sample records for slsf experiment p4

  1. SLSF in-reactor local fault safety experiment P4. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D. H.; Holland, J. W.; Braid, T. H.; Ragland, W. A.

    1985-09-01

    The Sodium Loop Safety Facility (SLSF), a major facility in the US fast-reactor safety program, has been used to simulate a variety of sodium-cooled fast reactor accidents. SLSF experiment P4 was conducted to investigate the behavior of a "worse-than-case" local fault configuration. Objectives of this experiment were to eject molten fuel into a 37-pin bundle of full-length Fast-Test-Reactor-type fuel pins form heat-generating fuel canisters, to characterize the severity of any molten fuel-coolant interaction, and to demonstrate that any resulting blockage could either be tolerated during continued power operation or detected by global monitors to prevent fuel failure propagation. The design goal for molten fuel release was 10 to 30 g. Explusion of molten fuel from fuel canisters caused failure of adjacent pins and a partial flow channel blockage in the fuel bundle during full-power operation. Molten fuel and fuel debris also lodged against the inner surface of the test subassembly hex-can wall. The total fuel disruption of 310 g evaluated from posttest examination data was in excellent agreement with results from the SLSF delayed neutron detection system, but exceeded the target molten fuel release by an order of magnitude. This report contains a summary description of the SLSF in-reactor loop and support systems and the experiment operations. results of the detailed macro- and microexamination of disrupted fuel and metal and results from the analysis of the on-line experimental data are described, as are the interpretations and conclusions drawn from the posttest evaluations. 60 refs., 74 figs.

  2. FPIN2 posttest analysis of cylindrical canisters in SLSF Experiment P4

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, T H; Kramer, J M

    1984-12-01

    Results demonstrate that the clad deformation is dominated by the expansion of the fuel when it melts. In our analysis we moved the end space volume and some of the fuel-clad radial gap volume to an artificial central hole. This approximation may affect the details in the early parts of the transient, but clearly did not affect the major cladding deformation. It is also clear that the accuracy of the value of the fuel expansion upon melting is significant as is the dimensional accuracy of the fuel and canisters. The major conclusions from the FPIN2 posttest analysis of the cylindrical canisters in SLSF Experiment P4 are: The maximum melt fractions in the two canisters were about 75%. Both canisters experienced about the same diametral strains of 12% prior to failure. These strains were almost entirely due to the additional volume that must be created inside the canisters to accommodate the expansion of fuel on melting. The mode of cladding failure was plastic instability by necking of the canister walls. The failure time of the 20% CW canister and the nonmechanical failure of the 10% CW canister are consistent with the FPIN2 calculations using the plastic instability failure criteria.

  3. HEDL W-1 SLSF experiment LOPI transient and boiling test results. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, J.M.; Wood, S.A.; Rothrock, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    The W-1 Sodium Loop Safety Facility (SLSF) experiment was designed to study the heat release characteristics of fast reactor fuel pins under Loss-of-Piping-Integrity (LOPI) accident conditions and determine stable sodium boiling initiation and recovery limits in a prototypic fuel pin bundle array. The results of the experiment address major second level of assurance (LOA-2) safety issues and provide increased insight and understanding of phenomena that would inherently terminate hypothesized accidents with only limited core damage. The irradiation phase of the experiment, consisting of thirteen individual transients, was performed between May 27 and July 20, 1979. The final transient produced approximately two seconds of coolant boiling, cladding dryout, and incipient fuel pin failure. The facility and test hardware performed as designed, allowing completion of all planned tests and achievement of all test objectives.

  4. Sodium Loop Safety Facility experiment P4. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Ragland, W.A.; Braid, T.H.; Thompson, D.H.; Wilson, R.E.; Baldwin, R.D.; Kraimer, M.R.; Gilbert, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    SLSF experiment P4 was designed to provide an upper-limit bound on the consequences of local faults. Three of the 37 full-length FTR-type fuel pins in the test subassembly were built with 10-cm-long, sealed fuel canisters as the center sections of the fuel regions. The fuel canisters ejected molten fuel into the bundle geometry, as planned. Each ejection was accompanied by an inlet flow deceleration and persisting flow reduction. There was no evidence of energetic fuel-coolant interactions or failure propagation through the hex duct. After about 90 s of full-power operation, scram occurred on low test subassembly flow due to gas release from fuel pins as a result of elevated inlet temperature and boiling in the blockage wake. During subsequent power operation, blockage reconfiguration and flow reduction occurred 10 minutes after 60% power was reached. The DN signal began to increase from the steady state level three minutes prior to the reconfiguration.

  5. Assessing performance enhancing tools: experiences with the open performance review and appraisal system (OPRAS) and expectations towards payment for performance (P4P) in the public health sector in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Health workers’ motivation is a key determinant of the quality of health services, and poor motivation has been found to be an obstacle to service delivery in many low-income countries. In order to increase the quality of service delivery in the public sector in Tanzania, the Open Performance Review and Appraisal System (OPRAS) has been implemented, and a new results-based payment system, Payment for performance (P4P) is introduced in the health sector. This article addresses health workers’ experiences with OPRAS, expectations towards P4P and how lessons learned from OPRAS can assist in the implementation of P4P. The broader aim is to generate knowledge on health workers’ motivation in low-income contexts. Methods A qualitative study design has been employed to elicit data on health worker motivation at a general level and in relation to OPRAS and P4P in particular. Focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews (IDIs) have been conducted with nursing staff, clinicians and administrators in the public health sector in a rural district in Tanzania. The study has an ethnographic backdrop based on earlier long-term fieldwork in Tanzania. Results Health workers evaluated OPRAS and P4P in terms of the benefits experienced or expected from complying with the tools. The study found a general reluctance towards OPRAS as health workers did not see OPRAS as leading to financial gains nor did it provide feedback on performance. Great expectations were expressed towards P4P due to its prospects of topping up salaries, but the links between the two performance enhancing tools were unclear. Conclusions Health workers respond to performance enhancing tools based on whether the tools are found appropriate or yield any tangible benefits. The importance placed on salary and allowances forms the setting in which OPRAS operates. The expected addition to the salary through P4P has created a vigorous discourse among health workers attesting to the importance of

  6. W-1 SLSF post-test data analysis. Part 1. Thermal hydraulic analysis. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, D.D.

    1980-10-01

    Four types of tests were performed: (1) a decay heat transient test, (2) Loss-of-Piping-Integrity (LOPI) tests, (3) Boiling Window Tests (BWT), and (4) a fuel pin dryout and failure test. In addition, preliminary tests were run to check systems performance, instrumentation performance and test section heat balance. The objective of the decay heat test was to determine the decay heat transfer characteristics of fresh fuel pins with subcooled sodium. The objective of the LOPI experiments was to test the thermal behavior of fuel pins with four different fuel conditions subjected to the same transient. The transient was designed to simulate a rapid flow decrease as a result of pipe rupture followed by a reactor scram. The objective of the Boiling Window Tests was to study boiling initiation and progression of boiling within the fuel pin bundle.

  7. Poly(4-hydroxybutyrate) (P4HB) production in recombinant Escherichia coli: P4HB synthesis is uncoupled with cell growth

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Poly(4-hydroxybutyrate) (P4HB), belonging to the family of bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), is a strong, flexible and absorbable material which has a large variety of medical applications like tissue engineering and drug delivery. For efficient production of P4HB recombinant Escherichia coli has been employed. It was previously found that the P4HB synthesis is co-related with the cell growth. In this study, we aimed to investigate the physiology of P4HB synthesis, and to reduce the total production cost by using cheap and widely available xylose as the growth substrate and sodium 4-hydroxybutyrate (Na-4HB) as the precursor for P4HB synthesis. Results Six different E. coli strains which are able to utilize xylose as carbon source were compared for their ability to accumulate P4HB. E. coli JM109 was found to be the best strain regarding the specific growth rate and the P4HB content. The effect of growth conditions such as temperature and physiological stage of Na-4HB addition on P4HB synthesis was also studied in E. coli JM109 recombinant in batch culture. Under the tested conditions, a cellular P4HB content in the range of 58 to 70% (w w-1) and P4HB concentrations in the range of 2.76 to 4.33 g L-1 were obtained with a conversion yield (YP4HB/Na-4HB) of 92% w w-1 in single stage batch cultures. Interestingly, three phases were identified during P4HB production: the “growth phase”, in which the cells grew exponentially, the “accumulation phase”, in which the exponential cell growth stopped while P4HB was accumulated exponentially, and the “stagnation phase”, in which the P4HB accumulation stopped and the total biomass remained constant. Conclusions P4HB synthesis was found to be separated from the cell growth, i.e. P4HB synthesis mainly took place after the end of the exponential cell growth. High conversion rate and P4HB contents from xylose and precursor were achieved here by simple batch culture, which was only possible previously

  8. Progress in operating permit flexibility: Beyond EPA's project XL and P4

    SciTech Connect

    Metzger, J.F.

    1999-07-01

    Progress in flexible permitting continues to be made, including through recent contributions by projects performed by Imation Corp. under the regulatory reinvention programs Project XL and P4 (Pollution Prevention in Permitting Pilot). This paper examines regulatory mechanisms that were used in a flexible Title V operating permit written under the P4 program and the potential for similar mechanisms to be used elsewhere, most particularly in a Project XL-based regulatory experiment. While additional regulatory experiments in this area are needed, progress is being made toward greater manufacturing flexibility within operating permits written within the context of or beyond the tenure of either of the reinvention programs Project XL and P4.

  9. Crystallization of recombinant Haemophilus influenzaee (P4) acid phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Ou, Zhonghui; Felts, Richard L.; Reilly, Thomas J.; Nix, Jay C.; Tanner, John J.

    2006-05-01

    Lipoprotein e (P4) is a class C acid phosphatase and a potential vaccine candidate for nontypeable H. influenzae infections. This paper reports the crystallization of recombinant e (P4) and the acquisition of a 1.7 Å resolution native X-ray diffraction data set. Haemophilus influenzae infects the upper respiratory tract of humans and can cause infections of the middle ear, sinuses and bronchi. The virulence of the pathogen is thought to involve a group of surface-localized macromolecular components that mediate interactions at the host–pathogen interface. One of these components is lipoprotein e (P4), which is a class C acid phosphatase and a potential vaccine candidate for nontypeable H. influenzae infections. This paper reports the crystallization of recombinant e (P4) and the acquisition of a 1.7 Å resolution native X-ray diffraction data set. The space group is P4{sub 2}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 65.6, c = 101.4 Å, one protein molecule per asymmetric unit and 37% solvent content. This is the first report of the crystallization of a class C acid phosphatase.

  10. The History of GalaFLEX P4HB Scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Simon F.; Martin, David P.; Moses, Arikha C.

    2016-01-01

    The GalaFLEX Scaffold (Galatea Surgical, Inc., Lexington, MA) for plastic and reconstructive surgery belongs to a new generation of products for soft tissue reinforcement made from poly-4-hydroxybutyrate (P4HB). Other members of this new family of products include MonoMax Suture (Aesculap AG, Tuttlingen, Germany) for soft tissue approximation, BioFiber Scaffold (Tornier, Inc., Edina, MN) for tendon repair, and Phasix Mesh (C.R. Bard, Inc., Murray Hill, NJ) for hernia repair. Each of these fully resorbable products provides prolonged strength retention, typically 50% to 70% strength retention at 12 weeks, and facilitates remodeling in vivo to provide a strong, lasting repair. P4HB belongs to a naturally occurring class of biopolymers and fibers made from it are uniquely strong, flexible, and biocompatible. GalaFLEX Scaffold is comprised of high-strength, resorbable P4HB monofilament fibers. It is a knitted macroporous scaffold intended to elevate, reinforce, and repair soft tissue. The scaffold acts as a lattice for new tissue growth, which is rapidly vascularized and becomes fully integrated with adjacent tissue as the fibers resorb. In this review, we describe the development of P4HB, its production, properties, safety, and biocompatibility of devices made from P4HB. Early clinical results and current clinical applications of products made from P4HB are also discussed. The results of post-market clinical studies evaluating the GalaFLEX Scaffold in rhytidectomy and cosmetic breast surgery demonstrate that the scaffold can reinforce lifted soft tissue, resulting in persistent surgical results in the face and neck at one year, and provide lower pole stability after breast lift at one year. PMID:27697885

  11. [Pay for performance (P4P). Long-term effects and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Schrappe, M; Gültekin, N

    2011-02-01

    After 10 years of experience and research, a wide array of results on evaluation and long-term effects of pay for performance (P4P) programs have been published. These data do not only give insight into most of the problems of implementation, but also into aspects which, in part, may attenuate the high expectations at the beginning of the discussion. P4P programs exhibit a ceiling effect, some improvements are reversed after incentives are cancelled, and improvements show opportunity costs as absent improvements for indicators, which are not object to financial incentives (in some cases for the same disease). These observations can be explained by the hypothesis that P4P programs have characteristics of fee-for-service reimbursement, if symmetric information is available for insurance and provider. P4P programs are local instruments. While integration of healthcare is considered as an important issue, they should be combined with programs and incentives which foster further vertical and horizontal integration. For Germany, further research in the implementation and effects of P4P programs is necessary.

  12. Tc with AsqTad and p4rhmc

    SciTech Connect

    Soltz, R; Vranas, P; Gupta, R

    2007-06-20

    We present the ongoing analysis of Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics runs on the LLNL BG/L supercomputer. This installment includes the analysis of 12,000 trajectories from the MILC AsqTad code on a 32{sup 3} x 8 lattice and the time histories from the plaquette and {psi} - bar{psi} trajectories from the p4rhmc code.

  13. Payment for performance (P4P): any future in Italy?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pay for Performance (P4P) programs, based on provision of financial incentives for service quality, have been widely adopted to enhance quality of care and to promote a more efficient use of health care resources whilst improving patient outcomes. In Italy, as in other countries, the growing concern over the quality of health services provided and the scarcity of resources would make P4P programs a useful means of improving their performance. The aim of this paper is to evaluate whether it is possible to implement P4P programs in the Lombardy Region, in Italy, based on the existing data set. Methods Thirteen quality measures were identified regarding four clinical conditions (acute myocardial infarction (AMI), heart failure (HF), ischemic stroke and hip and knee replacement) on the basis of an international literature review. Data was collected using the database of three institutions, which included hospital discharge records (Scheda di Dimissione ospedaliera-SDO-) and letters of discharge. The study population was identified using both the Principal ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes and the discharge date. A Statistical Analysis System (SAS) program was used for the text analysis. Results It was possible to calculate almost all the parameters pertaining to the three hospitals as all the data required was available with the exception of inpatient mortality in two hospitals and smoking cessation advice/counseling in one hospital. Conclusions On the ground of this analysis, we believe that it is possible to implement a P4P program in the Lombardy Region. However, for this program to be initiated, all necessary data must be available in electronic format and uniformly collected. Moreover, several other factors must be assessed: which clinical conditions should be included, the threshold for each quality parameter, the amount of financial incentives offered and how they will be provided. PMID:21605472

  14. Systems biology and p4 medicine: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Hood, Leroy

    2013-04-01

    Studying complex biological systems in a holistic rather than a "one gene or one protein" at a time approach requires the concerted effort of scientists from a wide variety of disciplines. The Institute for Systems Biology (ISB) has seamlessly integrated these disparate fields to create a cross-disciplinary platform and culture in which "biology drives technology drives computation." To achieve this platform/culture, it has been necessary for cross-disciplinary ISB scientists to learn one another's languages and work together effectively in teams. The focus of this "systems" approach on disease has led to a discipline denoted systems medicine. The advent of technological breakthroughs in the fields of genomics, proteomics, and, indeed, the other "omics" is catalyzing striking advances in systems medicine that have and are transforming diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Systems medicine has united genomics and genetics through family genomics to more readily identify disease genes. It has made blood a window into health and disease. It is leading to the stratification of diseases (division into discrete subtypes) for proper impedance match against drugs and the stratification of patients into subgroups that respond to environmental challenges in a similar manner (e.g. response to drugs, response to toxins, etc.). The convergence of patient-activated social networks, big data and their analytics, and systems medicine has led to a P4 medicine that is predictive, preventive, personalized, and participatory. Medicine will focus on each individual. It will become proactive in nature. It will increasingly focus on wellness rather than disease. For example, in 10 years each patient will be surrounded by a virtual cloud of billions of data points, and we will have the tools to reduce this enormous data dimensionality into simple hypotheses about how to optimize wellness and avoid disease for each individual. P4 medicine will be able to detect and treat perturbations in

  15. LQCD Phase 1 Runs with P4RHMC

    SciTech Connect

    Soltz, R; Gupta, R

    2007-02-13

    These results represent the first set of runs of 10 {beta} values ranging from 2000-7000 trajectories with the p4rhmc code. This initial run sequence spanned roughly 2-weeks in late January and Early February, 2007. To manage the submission of dependent jobs: subSet.pl--submits a set of dependent jobs for a single run; rmSet.pl--removes a set of dependent jobs in reverse order of submission; and statSet.pl--runs pstat command and prints parsed output along with directory contents. The results of running the statSet.pl command are printed for three different times during the start up the next sequence of runs using the milc code.

  16. Inversion by P4: polarization-picture post-processing.

    PubMed

    Schechner, Yoav Y

    2011-03-12

    Polarization may be sensed by imaging modules. This is done in various engineering systems as well as in biological systems, specifically by insects and some marine species. However, polarization per pixel is usually not the direct variable of interest. Rather, polarization-related data serve as a cue for recovering task-specific scene information. How should polarization-picture post-processing (P(4)) be done for the best scene understanding? Answering this question is not only helpful for advanced engineering (computer vision), but also to prompt hypotheses as to the processing occurring within biological systems. In various important cases, the answer is found by a principled expression of scene recovery as an inverse problem. Such an expression relies directly on a physics-based model of effects in the scene. The model includes analysis that depends on the different polarization components, thus facilitating the use of these components during the inversion, in a proper, even if non-trivial, manner. We describe several examples for this approach. These include automatic removal of path radiance in haze or underwater, overcoming partial semireflections and visual reverberations; three-dimensional recovery and distance-adaptive denoising. The resulting inversion algorithms rely on signal-processing methods, such as independent component analysis, deconvolution and optimization.

  17. Caspase-3 binds diverse P4 residues in peptides as revealed by crystallography and structural modeling.

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Bin; Fu, Guoxing; Agniswamy, Johnson; Harrison, Robert W.; Weber, Irene T.

    2009-03-31

    Caspase-3 recognition of various P4 residues in its numerous protein substrates was investigated by crystallography, kinetics, and calculations on model complexes. Asp is the most frequent P4 residue in peptide substrates, although a wide variety of P4 residues are found in the cellular proteins cleaved by caspase-3. The binding of peptidic inhibitors with hydrophobic P4 residues, or no P4 residue, is illustrated by crystal structures of caspase-3 complexes with Ac-IEPD-Cho, Ac-WEHD-Cho, Ac-YVAD-Cho, and Boc-D(OMe)-Fmk at resolutions of 1.9-2.6 {angstrom}. The P4 residues formed favorable hydrophobic interactions in two separate hydrophobic regions of the binding site. The side chains of P4 Ile and Tyr form hydrophobic interactions with caspase-3 residues Trp206 and Trp214 within a non-polar pocket of the S4 subsite, while P4 Trp interacts with Phe250 and Phe252 that can also form the S5 subsite. These interactions of hydrophobic P4 residues are distinct from those for polar P4 Asp, which indicates the adaptability of caspase-3 for binding diverse P4 residues. The predicted trends in peptide binding from molecular models had high correlation with experimental values for peptide inhibitors. Analysis of structural models for the binding of 20 different amino acids at P4 in the aldehyde peptide Ac-XEVD-Cho suggested that the majority of hydrophilic P4 residues interact with Phe250, while hydrophobic residues interact with Trp206, Phe250, and Trp214. Overall, the S4 pocket of caspase-3 exhibits flexible adaptation for different residues and the new structures and models, especially for hydrophobic P4 residues, will be helpful for the design of caspase-3 based drugs.

  18. The function of phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinase γ (PI5P4Kγ) explored using a specific inhibitor that targets the PI5P-binding site

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Jonathan H.; Giudici, Maria-Luisa; Burke, John E.; Williams, Roger L.; Maloney, David J.; Marugan, Juan; Irvine, Robin F.

    2014-01-01

    NIH-12848 (NCGC00012848-02), a putative phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinase γ (PI5P4Kγ) inhibitor, was explored as a tool for investigating this enigmatic, low activity, lipid kinase. PI5P4K assays in vitro showed that NIH-12848 inhibited PI5P4Kγ with an IC50 of approximately 1 μM but did not inhibit the α and β PI5P4K isoforms at concentrations up to 100 μM. A lack of inhibition of PI5P4Kγ ATPase activity suggested that NIH-12848 does not interact with the enzyme's ATP-binding site and direct exploration of binding using hydrogen–deuterium exchange (HDX)-MS (HDX-MS) revealed the putative PI5P-binding site of PI5P4Kγ to be the likely region of interaction. This was confirmed by a series of mutation experiments which led to the identification of a single PI5P4Kγ amino acid residue that can be mutated to its PI5P4Ks α and β homologue to render PI5P4Kγ resistant NIH-12848 inhibition. NIH-12848 (10 μM) was applied to cultured mouse principal kidney cortical collecting duct (mpkCCD) cells which, we show, express PI5P4Kγ that increases when the cells grow to confluence and polarize. NIH-12848 inhibited the translocation of Na+/K+-ATPase to the plasma membrane that occurs when mpkCCD cells grow to confluence and also prevented reversibly their forming of ‘domes’ on the culture dish. Both these NIH-12848-induced effects were mimicked by specific RNAi knockdown of PI5P4Kγ, but not that of PI5P4Ks α or β. Overall, the data reveal a probable contribution of PI5P4Kγ to the development and maintenance of epithelial cell functional polarity and show that NIH-12848 is a potentially powerful tool for exploring the cell physiology of PI5P4Ks. PMID:25495341

  19. The Top 10 Things I LOVE about p4c Hawai'i

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikeda, Jolyn

    2012-01-01

    In 2001, Dr. Thomas Jackson, or Dr. J as the author and her colleagues affectionately call him, spoke to the faculty at Waikiki Elementary. He described philosophy for children (p4c) Hawai'i and encouraged them to try P4C if something about it "resonated" with them. In the beginning, Dr. J held a p4t (philosophy for teachers) after-school seminar…

  20. The P4 truss is moved to a workstand in the SSPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, workers oversee the removal of the P4 truss from the truck that transported it from Tulsa, Okla. Part of the 10-truss, girder-like structure that will ultimately extend the length of a football field on the International Space Station, the P4 is the second port truss segment that will attach to the first port truss segment (P1 truss). The P4 is scheduled for mission 12A in September 2002.

  1. Detection and characterization of a human G9P[4] rotavirus strain in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Seiji P; Kaida, Atsushi; Ono, Atsushi; Kubo, Hideyuki; Iritani, Nobuhiro

    2015-08-01

    In a surveillance system in Osaka City, Japan, 48 sporadic rotavirus A (RVA) infections were detected during 2008/2009-2011/2012 seasons. The G/P-genotypes of detected RVAs were G1P[8], G2P[4], G3P[8], G9P[4], and G9P[8]. Although G9P[4] is a rare genotype that had not been reported in Japan, it was the second most prevalent genotype, following G1P[8], and accounted for 35.3% of RVA cases in the 2011/2012 season. Further genotyping revealed that the G9P[4] strain had genotype 2 internal protein genes except for NSP3: G9-P[4]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T1-E2-H2. Among detected RVA strains, G9P[4] and some G9P[8] strains shared high nucleotide identity in VP7 and NSP3 genes. Phylogenetic and BLAST search analyses showed that the G9P[4] strain in Japan shared high nucleotide identity in genotype 2 genes with common G2P[4] strains circulating globally, but was distinct from other G9P[4] strains circulating worldwide. These results suggest that the G9P[4] strain in Japan may have emerged through an independent reassortment between G9P[8] and G2P[4]. Finally, the role of NSP3 protein in the circulating RVA from an amino acid comparison between T1- and T2-type NSP3 is discussed. These findings provide an important insight into less problematic combinations of circulating RVA genes derived from different genotypes.

  2. p-(4-Azipentyl)propofol: a potent photoreactive general anesthetic derivative of propofol.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Deirdre S; Savechenkov, Pavel Y; Dostalova, Zuzana; Chiara, David C; Ge, Rile; Raines, Douglas E; Cohen, Jonathan B; Forman, Stuart A; Bruzik, Karol S; Miller, Keith W

    2011-12-01

    We synthesized 2,6-diisopropyl-4-[3-(3-methyl-3H-diazirin-3-yl)propyl]phenol (p-(4-azipentyl)propofol), or p-4-AziC5-Pro, a novel photoactivable derivative of the general anesthetic propofol. p-4-AziC5-Pro has an anesthetic potency similar to that of propofol. Like propofol, the compound potentiates inhibitory GABA(A) receptor current responses and allosterically modulates binding to both agonist and benzodiazepine sites, assayed on heterologously expressed GABA(A) receptors. p-4-AziC5-Pro inhibits excitatory current responses of nACh receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes and photoincorporates into native nACh receptor-enriched Torpedo membranes. Thus, p-4-AziC5-Pro is a functional general anesthetic that both modulates and photoincorporates into Cys-loop ligand-gated ion channels, making it an excellent candidate for use in identifying propofol binding sites.

  3. Antibacterial Activity of Recombinant Pig Intestinal Parasite Cecropin P4 Peptide Secreted from Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ki-Duk; Lee, Woon-Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Cecropins (Cec) are antibacterial peptides and their expression is induced in a pig intestinal parasite Ascaris suum by bacterial infection. To explore the usefulness of its activity as an antibiotic, CecP4 cDNA was prepared and cloned into the pPICZ B expression vector and followed by the integration into AOX1 locus in Pichia pastoris. The supernatants from cell culture were collected after methanol induction and concentrated for the test of antimicrobial activity. The recombinant P. patoris having CecP4 showed antimicrobial activity when tested against Staphyllococcus aureus in disc diffusion assay. We selected one of the CecP4 clones (CecP4-2) and performed further studies with it. The growth of recombinant P. pastoris was optimized using various concentration of methanol, and it was found that 2% methanol in the culture induced more antibacterial activity, compared to 1% methanol. We extended the test of antimicrobial activity by applying the concentrated supernatant of CecP4 culture to Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli respectively. Recombinant CecP4 also showed antimicrobial activity against both Pseudomona and E. coli, suggesting the broad spectrum of its antimicrobial activity. After improvements for the scale-up, it will be feasible to use recombinant CecP4 for supplementation to the feed to control microbial infections in young animals, such as piglets. PMID:25049952

  4. Pentose phosphate pathway function affects tolerance to the G-quadruplex binder TMPyP4.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Elizabeth J; Merchan, Stephanie; Lawless, Conor; Banks, A Peter; Wilkinson, Darren J; Lydall, David

    2013-01-01

    G-quadruplexes form in guanine-rich regions of DNA and the presence of these structures at telomeres prevents the activity of telomerase in vitro. Ligands such as the cationic porphyrin TMPyP4 stabilise G-quadruplexes and are therefore under investigation for their potential use as anti-cancer drugs. In order to investigate the mechanism of action of TMPyP4 in vivo, we carried out a genome-wide screen in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that deletion of key pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) genes increased the sensitivity of yeast to the presence of TMPyP4. The PPP plays an important role in the oxidative stress response and sensitivity to TMPyP4 also increased when genes involved in the oxidative stress response, CCS1 and YAP1, were deleted. For comparison we also report genome wide-screens using hydrogen peroxide, which causes oxidative stress, RHPS4, another G-quadruplex binder and hydroxyurea, an S phase poison. We found that a number of TMPyP4-sensitive strains are also sensitive to hydrogen peroxide in a genome-wide screen. Overall our results suggest that treatment with TMPyP4 results in light-dependent oxidative stress response in budding yeast, and that this, rather than G-quadruplex binding, is the major route to cytotoxicity. Our results have implications for the usefulness and mechanism of action of TMPyP4.

  5. Haemophilus influenzae P4 Interacts With Extracellular Matrix Proteins Promoting Adhesion and Serum Resistance.

    PubMed

    Su, Yu-Ching; Mukherjee, Oindrilla; Singh, Birendra; Hallgren, Oskar; Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla; Hood, Derek; Riesbeck, Kristian

    2016-01-15

    Interaction with the extracellular matrix (ECM) is one of the successful colonization strategies employed by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). Here we identified Haemophilus lipoprotein e (P4) as a receptor for ECM proteins. Purified recombinant P4 displayed a high binding affinity for laminin (Kd = 9.26 nM) and fibronectin (Kd = 10.19 nM), but slightly less to vitronectin (Kd = 16.51 nM). A P4-deficient NTHi mutant showed a significantly decreased binding to these ECM components. Vitronectin acquisition conferred serum resistance to both P4-expressing NTHi and Escherichia coli transformants. P4-mediated bacterial adherence to pharynx, type II alveolar, and bronchial epithelial cells was mainly attributed to fibronectin. Importantly, a significantly reduced bacterial infection was observed in the middle ear of the Junbo mouse model when NTHi was devoid of P4. In conclusion, our data provide new insight into the role of P4 as an important factor for Haemophilus colonization and subsequent respiratory tract infection.

  6. Synthesis of cubic zirconium and hafnium nitride having Th3P4 structure.

    PubMed

    Zerr, Andreas; Miehe, Gerhard; Riedel, Ralf

    2003-03-01

    High-pressure synthesis is a powerful method for the preparation of novel materials with high elastic moduli and hardness. Additionally, such materials may exhibit interesting thermal, optoelectronic, semiconductuing, magnetic or superconducting properties. Here, we report on the high-pressure synthesis of zirconium and hafnium nitrides with the stoichiometry M3N4, where M = Zr, Hf. Synthesis experiments were performed in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell at pressures up to 18 GPa and temperatures up to 3,000 K. We observed formation of cubic Zr3N4 and Hf3N4 (c-M3N4) with a Th3P4-structure, where M-cations are eightfold coordinated by N anions. The c-M3N4 phases are the first binary nitrides with such a high coordination number. Both compounds exhibit high bulk moduli around 250 GPa, which indicates high hardness. Moreover, the new nitrides, c-Zr3N4 and c-Hf3N4, may be the first members of a larger group of transition metal and/or lanthanide nitrides with interesting ferromagnetic or superconducting behaviour.

  7. The P4 truss is moved to a workstand in the SSPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Suspended by an overhead crane in the Space Station Processing Facility, the International Space Station's P4 truss moves toward a workstand. Below and behind it on the floor is the Multi- Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, another segment of the Space Station. Part of the 10-truss, girder-like structure that will ultimately extend the length of a football field, the P4 is the second port truss segment that will attach to the first port truss segment (P1 truss). The P4 is scheduled for mission 12A in September 2002.

  8. Transcriptional profiling of genes involved in n-hexadecane compounds assimilation in the hydrocarbon degrading Dietzia cinnamea P4 strain

    PubMed Central

    Procópio, Luciano; de Cassia Pereira e Silva, Michele; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Seldin, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    The petroleum-derived degrading Dietzia cinnamea strain P4 recently had its genome sequenced and annotated. This allowed employing the data on genes that are involved in the degradation of n-alkanes. To examine the physiological behavior of strain P4 in the presence of n-alkanes, the strain was grown under varying conditions of pH and temperature. D. cinnamea P4 was able to grow at pH 7.0–9.0 and at temperatures ranging from 35 ºC to 45 ºC. Experiments of gene expression by real-time quantitative RT-PCR throughout the complete growth cycle clearly indicated the induction of the regulatory gene alkU (TetR family) during early growth. During the logarithmic phase, a large increase in transcriptional levels of a lipid transporter gene was noted. Also, the expression of a gene that encodes the protein fused rubredoxin-alkane monooxygenase was enhanced. Both genes are probably under the influence of the AlkU regulator. PMID:24294263

  9. P4-ATPases as Phospholipid Flippases—Structure, Function, and Enigmas

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Jens P.; Vestergaard, Anna L.; Mikkelsen, Stine A.; Mogensen, Louise S.; Chalat, Madhavan; Molday, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    P4-ATPases comprise a family of P-type ATPases that actively transport or flip phospholipids across cell membranes. This generates and maintains membrane lipid asymmetry, a property essential for a wide variety of cellular processes such as vesicle budding and trafficking, cell signaling, blood coagulation, apoptosis, bile and cholesterol homeostasis, and neuronal cell survival. Some P4-ATPases transport phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine across the plasma membrane or intracellular membranes whereas other P4-ATPases are specific for phosphatidylcholine. The importance of P4-ATPases is highlighted by the finding that genetic defects in two P4-ATPases ATP8A2 and ATP8B1 are associated with severe human disorders. Recent studies have provided insight into how P4-ATPases translocate phospholipids across membranes. P4-ATPases form a phosphorylated intermediate at the aspartate of the P-type ATPase signature sequence, and dephosphorylation is activated by the lipid substrate being flipped from the exoplasmic to the cytoplasmic leaflet similar to the activation of dephosphorylation of Na+/K+-ATPase by exoplasmic K+. How the phospholipid is translocated can be understood in terms of a peripheral hydrophobic gate pathway between transmembrane helices M1, M3, M4, and M6. This pathway, which partially overlaps with the suggested pathway for migration of Ca2+ in the opposite direction in the Ca2+-ATPase, is wider than the latter, thereby accommodating the phospholipid head group. The head group is propelled along against its concentration gradient with the hydrocarbon chains projecting out into the lipid phase by movement of an isoleucine located at the position corresponding to an ion binding glutamate in the Ca2+- and Na+/K+-ATPases. Hence, the P4-ATPase mechanism is quite similar to the mechanism of these ion pumps, where the glutamate translocates the ions by moving like a pump rod. The accessory subunit CDC50 may be located in close association with the

  10. P4-ATPases as Phospholipid Flippases-Structure, Function, and Enigmas.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Jens P; Vestergaard, Anna L; Mikkelsen, Stine A; Mogensen, Louise S; Chalat, Madhavan; Molday, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    P4-ATPases comprise a family of P-type ATPases that actively transport or flip phospholipids across cell membranes. This generates and maintains membrane lipid asymmetry, a property essential for a wide variety of cellular processes such as vesicle budding and trafficking, cell signaling, blood coagulation, apoptosis, bile and cholesterol homeostasis, and neuronal cell survival. Some P4-ATPases transport phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine across the plasma membrane or intracellular membranes whereas other P4-ATPases are specific for phosphatidylcholine. The importance of P4-ATPases is highlighted by the finding that genetic defects in two P4-ATPases ATP8A2 and ATP8B1 are associated with severe human disorders. Recent studies have provided insight into how P4-ATPases translocate phospholipids across membranes. P4-ATPases form a phosphorylated intermediate at the aspartate of the P-type ATPase signature sequence, and dephosphorylation is activated by the lipid substrate being flipped from the exoplasmic to the cytoplasmic leaflet similar to the activation of dephosphorylation of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase by exoplasmic K(+). How the phospholipid is translocated can be understood in terms of a peripheral hydrophobic gate pathway between transmembrane helices M1, M3, M4, and M6. This pathway, which partially overlaps with the suggested pathway for migration of Ca(2+) in the opposite direction in the Ca(2+)-ATPase, is wider than the latter, thereby accommodating the phospholipid head group. The head group is propelled along against its concentration gradient with the hydrocarbon chains projecting out into the lipid phase by movement of an isoleucine located at the position corresponding to an ion binding glutamate in the Ca(2+)- and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPases. Hence, the P4-ATPase mechanism is quite similar to the mechanism of these ion pumps, where the glutamate translocates the ions by moving like a pump rod. The accessory subunit CDC50 may be located in close association

  11. Discovery of γ-MnP4 and the Polymorphism of Manganese Tetraphosphide.

    PubMed

    Henge, Dennis B; Hermus, Martin; Litterscheid, Christian F; Wagner, Norbert; Beck, Johannes; Albert, Barbara; Brgoch, Jakoah

    2015-09-01

    A new polymorph of MnP4 was prepared by reaction of the elements via chemical vapor transport with iodine as transporting agent. The crystal structure was refined using single-crystal diffraction data (space group Cc, no. 9, a = 5.1049(8) Å, b = 10.540(2) Å, c = 10.875(2) Å, β = 93.80(2)°). The phase is called γ-MnP4 as it is isostructural with γ-FeP4. It is the fourth reported binary polymorph in the MnP4 system, all of which are stacking variants of nets built with manganese and phosphorus atoms. In γ-MnP4, there are two Mn-Mn distances (2.93 and 3.72 Å) arising from a Peierls-like distortion effectively forming Mn2 dumbbells in the structure. Magnetic and electrical conductivity measurements show diamagnetism and a small anisotropic band gap (100-200 meV) with significantly enhanced conductivity along the crystallographic a axis. Calculations of the electronic and vibrational (phonon) structures show the P-P and Mn-P bonds within the nets are mainly responsible for the stability of the phase. The similar bonding motifs of the polymorphs give rise to the existence of numerous dynamically stable variants. The calculated Helmholtz energy shows the polymorph formation to be closely tied to temperature with the 6-MnP4 structure favorable at low temperatures, the 2-MnP4 favorable between approximately 800 and 2000 K, and 8-MnP4 preferred at high temperatures. PMID:26266629

  12. TMPyP4, a Stabilizer of Nucleic Acid Secondary Structure, Is a Novel Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Nana; Mazzola, Michael; Cai, Elizabeth; Wang, Meng; Cave, John W.

    2015-01-01

    The porphyrin compound, TMPyP4 (5,10,15,20-Tetrakis-(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphine), is widely used as a photosensitizer and a modulator of nucleic acid secondary structure stability. Our group recently showed in cultured cells and forebrain slice cultures that this compound can also down regulate expression of Tyrosine hydroxylase (Th), which encodes the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis, by stabilizing DNA secondary structures in the Th proximal promoter. The current study sought to establish whether treatment with TMPyP4 could modify mouse Th expression levels in vivo. Intraperitoneal administration of low TMPyP4 doses (10mg/kg), similar to those used for photosensitization, did not significantly reduce Th transcript levels in several catecholaminergic regions. Administration of a high dose (40 mg/kg), similar to those used for tumor xenograph reduction, unexpectedly induced flaccid paralysis in an age and sex-dependent manner. In vitro analyses revealed that TMPyP4, but not putative metabolites, inhibited Acetylcholinesterase activity and pre-treatment of TMPyP4 with Hemeoxygenase-2 (HO-2) rescued Acetylcholinesterase function. Age-dependent differences in HO-2 expression levels may account for some of the variable in vivo effects of high TMPyP4 doses. Together, these studies indicate that only low doses of TMPyP4, such as those typically used for photosensitization, are well tolerated in vivo. Thus, despite its widespread use in vitro, TMPyP4 is not ideal for modifying neuronal gene expression in vivo by manipulating nucleic acid secondary structure stability, which highlights the need to identify more clinically suitable compounds that can modulate nucleic acid secondary structure and gene expression. PMID:26402367

  13. TMPyP4, a Stabilizer of Nucleic Acid Secondary Structure, Is a Novel Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Nana; Mazzola, Michael; Cai, Elizabeth; Wang, Meng; Cave, John W

    2015-01-01

    The porphyrin compound, TMPyP4 (5,10,15,20-Tetrakis-(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphine), is widely used as a photosensitizer and a modulator of nucleic acid secondary structure stability. Our group recently showed in cultured cells and forebrain slice cultures that this compound can also down regulate expression of Tyrosine hydroxylase (Th), which encodes the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis, by stabilizing DNA secondary structures in the Th proximal promoter. The current study sought to establish whether treatment with TMPyP4 could modify mouse Th expression levels in vivo. Intraperitoneal administration of low TMPyP4 doses (10mg/kg), similar to those used for photosensitization, did not significantly reduce Th transcript levels in several catecholaminergic regions. Administration of a high dose (40 mg/kg), similar to those used for tumor xenograph reduction, unexpectedly induced flaccid paralysis in an age and sex-dependent manner. In vitro analyses revealed that TMPyP4, but not putative metabolites, inhibited Acetylcholinesterase activity and pre-treatment of TMPyP4 with Hemeoxygenase-2 (HO-2) rescued Acetylcholinesterase function. Age-dependent differences in HO-2 expression levels may account for some of the variable in vivo effects of high TMPyP4 doses. Together, these studies indicate that only low doses of TMPyP4, such as those typically used for photosensitization, are well tolerated in vivo. Thus, despite its widespread use in vitro, TMPyP4 is not ideal for modifying neuronal gene expression in vivo by manipulating nucleic acid secondary structure stability, which highlights the need to identify more clinically suitable compounds that can modulate nucleic acid secondary structure and gene expression. PMID:26402367

  14. Sirh7/Ldoc1 knockout mice exhibit placental P4 overproduction and delayed parturition.

    PubMed

    Naruse, Mie; Ono, Ryuichi; Irie, Masahito; Nakamura, Kenji; Furuse, Tamio; Hino, Toshiaki; Oda, Kanako; Kashimura, Misho; Yamada, Ikuko; Wakana, Shigeharu; Yokoyama, Minesuke; Ishino, Fumitoshi; Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko

    2014-12-01

    Sirh7/Ldoc1 [sushi-ichi retrotransposon homolog 7/leucine zipper, downregulated in cancer 1, also called mammalian retrotransposon-derived 7 (Mart7)] is one of the newly acquired genes from LTR retrotransposons in eutherian mammals. Interestingly, Sirh7/Ldoc1 knockout (KO) mice exhibited abnormal placental cell differentiation/maturation, leading to an overproduction of placental progesterone (P4) and placental lactogen 1 (PL1) from trophoblast giant cells (TGCs). The placenta is an organ that is essential for mammalian viviparity and plays a major endocrinological role during pregnancy in addition to providing nutrients and oxygen to the fetus. P4 is an essential hormone in the preparation and maintenance of pregnancy and the determination of the timing of parturition in mammals; however, the biological significance of placental P4 in rodents is not properly recognized. Here, we demonstrate that mouse placentas do produce P4 in mid-gestation, coincident with a temporal reduction in ovarian P4, suggesting that it plays a role in the protection of the conceptuses specifically in this period. Pregnant Sirh7/Ldoc1 knockout females also displayed delayed parturition associated with a low pup weaning rate. All these results suggest that Sirh7/Ldoc1 has undergone positive selection during eutherian evolution as a eutherian-specific acquired gene because it impacts reproductive fitness via the regulation of placental endocrine function.

  15. Sirh7/Ldoc1 knockout mice exhibit placental P4 overproduction and delayed parturition.

    PubMed

    Naruse, Mie; Ono, Ryuichi; Irie, Masahito; Nakamura, Kenji; Furuse, Tamio; Hino, Toshiaki; Oda, Kanako; Kashimura, Misho; Yamada, Ikuko; Wakana, Shigeharu; Yokoyama, Minesuke; Ishino, Fumitoshi; Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko

    2014-12-01

    Sirh7/Ldoc1 [sushi-ichi retrotransposon homolog 7/leucine zipper, downregulated in cancer 1, also called mammalian retrotransposon-derived 7 (Mart7)] is one of the newly acquired genes from LTR retrotransposons in eutherian mammals. Interestingly, Sirh7/Ldoc1 knockout (KO) mice exhibited abnormal placental cell differentiation/maturation, leading to an overproduction of placental progesterone (P4) and placental lactogen 1 (PL1) from trophoblast giant cells (TGCs). The placenta is an organ that is essential for mammalian viviparity and plays a major endocrinological role during pregnancy in addition to providing nutrients and oxygen to the fetus. P4 is an essential hormone in the preparation and maintenance of pregnancy and the determination of the timing of parturition in mammals; however, the biological significance of placental P4 in rodents is not properly recognized. Here, we demonstrate that mouse placentas do produce P4 in mid-gestation, coincident with a temporal reduction in ovarian P4, suggesting that it plays a role in the protection of the conceptuses specifically in this period. Pregnant Sirh7/Ldoc1 knockout females also displayed delayed parturition associated with a low pup weaning rate. All these results suggest that Sirh7/Ldoc1 has undergone positive selection during eutherian evolution as a eutherian-specific acquired gene because it impacts reproductive fitness via the regulation of placental endocrine function. PMID:25468940

  16. Sirh7/Ldoc1 knockout mice exhibit placental P4 overproduction and delayed parturition

    PubMed Central

    Naruse, Mie; Ono, Ryuichi; Irie, Masahito; Nakamura, Kenji; Furuse, Tamio; Hino, Toshiaki; Oda, Kanako; Kashimura, Misho; Yamada, Ikuko; Wakana, Shigeharu; Yokoyama, Minesuke; Ishino, Fumitoshi; Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko

    2014-01-01

    Sirh7/Ldoc1 [sushi-ichi retrotransposon homolog 7/leucine zipper, downregulated in cancer 1, also called mammalian retrotransposon-derived 7 (Mart7)] is one of the newly acquired genes from LTR retrotransposons in eutherian mammals. Interestingly, Sirh7/Ldoc1 knockout (KO) mice exhibited abnormal placental cell differentiation/maturation, leading to an overproduction of placental progesterone (P4) and placental lactogen 1 (PL1) from trophoblast giant cells (TGCs). The placenta is an organ that is essential for mammalian viviparity and plays a major endocrinological role during pregnancy in addition to providing nutrients and oxygen to the fetus. P4 is an essential hormone in the preparation and maintenance of pregnancy and the determination of the timing of parturition in mammals; however, the biological significance of placental P4 in rodents is not properly recognized. Here, we demonstrate that mouse placentas do produce P4 in mid-gestation, coincident with a temporal reduction in ovarian P4, suggesting that it plays a role in the protection of the conceptuses specifically in this period. Pregnant Sirh7/Ldoc1 knockout females also displayed delayed parturition associated with a low pup weaning rate. All these results suggest that Sirh7/Ldoc1 has undergone positive selection during eutherian evolution as a eutherian-specific acquired gene because it impacts reproductive fitness via the regulation of placental endocrine function. PMID:25468940

  17. Shear-induced orientation of gyroid PS-b-P4VP(PDP) supramolecules.

    PubMed

    Vukovic, Ivana; Friedrich, Heiner; Merino, Daniel Hermida; Portale, Giuseppe; Ten Brinke, Gerrit; Loos, Katja

    2013-08-01

    The phase behavior of block copolymer based supramolecular complexes polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) and amphiphilic pentadecylphenol (PDP) molecules resembles the phase behavior of conventional block copolymers. Several PS-b-P4VP(PDP) complexes are found to self-assemble into gyroid nanostructures. Typically, the grains are randomly oriented with a maximal size of several micrometers. Here, the orientation of a gyroid PS-b-P4VP(PDP) complex upon shearing is reported. It is found that the (111) gyroid lattice direction orients parallel to the shear direction after only several seconds of large amplitude oscillatory shearing. Oriented gyroid complexes can be used as templates for the preparation of metal nanofoams with improved ordering with potentially superior properties.

  18. Immunoactivating peptide p4 augments alveolar macrophage phagocytosis in two diverse human populations.

    PubMed

    Bangert, Mathieu; Wright, Adam K; Rylance, Jamie; Kelly, Matthew J; Wright, Angela D; Carlone, George M; Sampson, Jacquelyn S; Rajam, Gowrisankar; Ades, Edwin W; Kadioglu, Aras; Gordon, Stephen B

    2013-09-01

    New treatment strategies are urgently needed to overcome early mortality in acute bacterial infections. Previous studies have shown that administration of a novel immunoactivating peptide (P4) alongside passive immunotherapy prevents the onset of septicemia and rescues mice from lethal invasive disease models of pneumococcal pneumonia and sepsis. In this study, using two diverse populations of adult volunteers, we determined whether P4 treatment of human alveolar macrophages would upregulate phagocytic killing of Streptococcus pneumoniae ex vivo. We also measured macrophage intracellular oxidation, cytokine secretion, and surface marker expression following stimulation. Peptide treatment showed enhanced bacterial killing in the absence of nonspecific inflammation, consistent with therapeutic potential. This is the first demonstration of P4 efficacy on ex vivo-derived human lung cells.

  19. Translation of Two Nested Genes in Bacteriophage P4 Controls Immunity-Specific Transcription Termination

    PubMed Central

    Forti, Francesca; Polo, Simona; Lane, Kirk B.; Six, Erich W.; Sironi, Gianpiero; Dehò, Gianni; Ghisotti, Daniela

    1999-01-01

    In phage P4, transcription of the left operon may occur from both the constitutive PLE promoter and the regulated PLL promoter, about 400 nucleotides upstream of PLE. A strong Rho-dependent termination site, timm, is located downstream of both promoters. When P4 immunity is expressed, transcription starting at PLE is efficiently terminated at timm, whereas transcription from PLL is immunity insensitive and reads through timm. We report the identification of two nested genes, kil and eta, located in the P4 left operon. The P4 kil gene, which encodes a 65-amino-acid polypeptide, is the first translated gene downstream of the PLE promoter, and its expression is controlled by P4 immunity. Overexpression of kil causes cell killing. This gene is the terminal part of a longer open reading frame, eta, which begins upstream of PLE. The eta gene is expressed when transcription starts from the PLL promoter. Three likely start codons predict a size between 197 and 199 amino acids for the Eta gene product. Both kil and eta overlap the timm site. By cloning kil upstream of a tRNA reporter gene, we demonstrated that translation of the kil region prevents premature transcription termination at timm. This suggests that P4 immunity might negatively control kil translation, thus enabling transcription termination at timm. Transcription starting from PLL proceeds through timm. Mutations that create nonsense codons in eta caused premature termination of transcription starting from PLL. Suppression of the nonsense mutation restored transcription readthrough at timm. Thus, termination of transcription from PLL is prevented by translation of eta. PMID:10464191

  20. Understanding and controlling morphology formation in Langmuir-Blodgett block copolymer films using PS-P4VP and PS-P4VP/PDP.

    PubMed

    Perepichka, Iryna I; Lu, Qing; Badia, Antonella; Bazuin, C Geraldine

    2013-04-01

    This contribution offers a comprehensive understanding of the factors that govern the morphologies of Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) monolayers of amphiphilic diblock copolymers (BCs). This is achieved by a detailed investigation of a wide range of polystyrene-poly(4-vinyl pyridine) (PS-P4VP) block copolymers, in contrast to much more limited ranges in previous studies. Parameters that are varied include the block ratios (mainly for similar total molecular weights, occasionally other total molecular weights), the presence or not of 3-n-pentadecylphenol (PDP, usually equimolar with VP, with which it hydrogen bonds), the spreading solution concentration ("low" and "high"), and the LB technique (standard vs "solvent-assisted"). Our observations are compared with previously published results on other amphiphilic diblock copolymers, which had given rise to contradictory interpretations of morphology formation. Based on the accumulated results, we re-establish early literature conclusions that three main categories of LB block copolymer morphologies are obtained depending on the block ratio, termed planar, strand, and dot regimes. The block composition boundaries in terms of mol % block content are shown to be similar for all BCs having alkyl chain substituents on the hydrophilic block (such as PS-P4VP/PDP) and are shifted to higher values for BCs with no alkyl chain substituents (such as PS-P4VP). This is attributed to the higher surface area per repeat unit of the hydrophilic block monolayer on the water surface for the former, as supported by the onset and limiting areas of the Langmuir isotherms for the BCs in the dot regime. 2D phase diagrams are discussed in terms of relative effective surface areas of the two blocks. We identify and discuss how kinetic effects on morphology formation, which have been highlighted in more recent literature, are superposed on the compositional effects. The kinetic effects are shown to depend on the morphology regime, most strongly

  1. Domain structure of phage P4 alpha protein deduced by mutational analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Ziegelin, G; Linderoth, N A; Calendar, R; Lanka, E

    1995-01-01

    Bacteriophage P4 DNA replication depends on the product of the alpha gene, which has origin recognition ability, DNA helicase activity, and DNA primase activity. One temperature-sensitive and four amber mutations that eliminate DNA replication in vivo were sequenced and located in the alpha gene. Sequence analysis of the entire gene predicted a domain structure for the alpha polypeptide chain (777 amino acid residues, M(r) 84,900), with the N terminus providing the catalytic activity for the primase and the middle part providing that for the helicase/nucleoside triphosphatase. This model was confirmed experimentally in vivo and in vitro. In addition, the ori DNA recognition ability was found to be associated with the C-terminal third of the alpha polypeptide chain. The type A nucleotide-binding site is required for P4 replication in vivo, as shown for alpha mutations at G-506 and K-507. In the absence of an active DnaG protein, the primase function is also essential for P4 replication. Primase-null and helicase-null mutants retain the two remaining activities functionally in vitro and in vivo. The latter was demonstrated by trans complementation studies, indicating the assembly of active P4 replisomes by a primase-null and a helicase-null mutant. PMID:7635818

  2. Influence of the nacnac Ligand in Iron(I)‐Mediated P4 Transformations

    PubMed Central

    Spitzer, Fabian; Graßl, Christian; Balázs, Gábor; Zolnhofer, Eva M.; Meyer, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A study of P4 transformations at low‐valent iron is presented using β‐diketiminato (L) FeI complexes [LFe(tol)] (tol=toluene; L=L1 (1 a), L2 (1 b), L3 (1 c)) with different combinations of aromatic and backbone substituents at the ligand. The products [(LFe)4(μ4‐η2:η2:η2:η2‐P8)] (L=L1 (2 a), L2 (2 b)) containing a P8 core were obtained by the reaction of 1 a,b with P4 in toluene at room temperature. Using a slightly more sterically encumbered ligand in 1 c results in the formation of [(L3Fe)2(μ‐η4:η4‐P4)] (2 c), possessing a cyclo‐P4 moiety. Compounds 2 a–c were comprehensively characterized and their electronic structures investigated by SQUID magnetization and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy as well as by DFT methods. PMID:26924606

  3. FROM "CANAL BRIDGE, F.A.P. 4C, MAR. 1938." SHOWING WAIKELE BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FROM "CANAL BRIDGE, F.A.P. 4-C, MAR. 1938." SHOWING WAIKELE BRIDGE PLAN AND ELEVATION. Hawaii Department of Transportation, Design Branch, Project ID 7101-001, drawing 4449.27. - Waikele Canal Bridge and Highway Overpass, Farrington Highway and Waikele Stream, Waipahu, Honolulu County, HI

  4. 26 CFR 301.6103(p)(4)-1 - Procedures relating to safeguards for returns or return information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... or return information. 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Section 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Information and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Procedures relating to safeguards for returns..., see § 301.6103(p)(7)-1....

  5. 26 CFR 301.6103(p)(4)-1 - Procedures relating to safeguards for returns or return information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... or return information. 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Section 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Information and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Procedures relating to safeguards for returns..., see § 301.6103(p)(7)-1....

  6. 26 CFR 301.6103(p)(4)-1 - Procedures relating to safeguards for returns or return information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... or return information. 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Section 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Information and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Procedures relating to safeguards for returns..., see § 301.6103(p)(7)-1....

  7. 26 CFR 301.6103(p)(4)-1 - Procedures relating to safeguards for returns or return information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... or return information. 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Section 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Information and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Procedures relating to safeguards for returns..., see § 301.6103(p)(7)-1....

  8. Nonessential region of bacteriophage P4: DNA sequence, transcription, gene products, and functions.

    PubMed Central

    Ghisotti, D; Finkel, S; Halling, C; Dehò, G; Sironi, G; Calendar, R

    1990-01-01

    We sequenced the leftmost 2,640 base pairs of bacteriophage P4 DNA, thus completing the sequence of the 11,627-base-pair P4 genome. The newly sequenced region encodes three nonessential genes, which are called gop, beta, and cII (in order, from left to right). The gop gene product kills Escherichia coli when the beta protein is absent; the gop and beta genes are transcribed rightward from the same promoter. The cII gene is transcribed leftward to a rho-independent terminator. Mutation of this terminator creates a temperature-sensitive phenotype, presumably owing to a defect in expression of the beta gene. Images PMID:2403440

  9. Care and Do Not Harm: Possible Misunderstandings With Quaternary Prevention (P4)

    PubMed Central

    Widmer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The discussion between general practitioners (GPs) and healthcare delivery organizations necessitates a common language. The presentation of the 4 types of GP’s activities, opens dialogue but can lead to possible misunderstandings between the micro- and macro-level of the healthcare system. This commentary takes 4 examples: costs reduction by P4, priority of beneficence or nonmaleficence, role of evidence-based medicine (EBM) and use of a constructivist model. PMID:26340401

  10. Phage P4 alpha protein is multifunctional with origin recognition, helicase and primase activities.

    PubMed Central

    Ziegelin, G; Scherzinger, E; Lurz, R; Lanka, E

    1993-01-01

    alpha Protein of satellite phage P4 of Escherichia coli is multifunctional in P4 replication with three activities. First, the protein (subunit M(r) = 84,900) complexes specifically the P4 origin and the cis replication region required for replication. alpha Protein interacts with all six type I repeats (TGTTCACC) present in the origin. Second, associated with the alpha protein is a DNA helicase activity that is fueled by hydrolysis of a nucleoside 5' triphosphate. All common NTPs except UTP and dTTP can serve as cofactors. Strand separation of partial duplexes containing tailed ends that resemble a replication fork is preferred, although a preformed fork is not absolutely required for the enzyme to invade and unwind duplex DNA. alpha Protein catalyzes unwinding in the 3'-5' direction with respect to the strand it has bound. Finally, the primase activity already demonstrated for alpha protein is due to synthesis of RNA primers. In vitro, alpha protein generates di- to pentaribonucleotides on single-stranded phage fd DNA. The predominant product is the dimer pppApG, on which most of the longer oligoribonucleotides are based. Using DNA oligonucleotides of defined sequence as templates, synthesis of pppApG was also detectable. To date, among prokaryotic and eukaryotic replication systems, gp alpha is the only protein known that combines three activities on one single polypeptide chain. Images PMID:8253092

  11. Positive selection in AvrP4 avirulence gene homologues across the genus Melampsora.

    PubMed

    Van der Merwe, Marlien M; Kinnear, Mark W; Barrett, Luke G; Dodds, Peter N; Ericson, Lars; Thrall, Peter H; Burdon, Jeremy J

    2009-08-22

    Pathogen genes involved in interactions with their plant hosts are expected to evolve under positive Darwinian selection or balancing selection. In this study a single copy avirulence gene, AvrP4, in the plant pathogen Melampsora lini, was used to investigate the evolution of such a gene across species. Partial translation elongation factor 1-alpha sequences were obtained to establish phylogenetic relationships among the Melampsora species. We amplified AvrP4 homologues from species pathogenic on hosts from different plant families and orders, across the inferred phylogeny. Translations of the AvrP4 sequences revealed a predicted signal peptide and towards the C-terminus of the protein, six identically spaced cysteines were identified in all sequences. Maximum likelihood analysis of synonymous versus non-synonymous substitution rates indicated that positive selection played a role in the evolution of the gene during the diversification of the genus. Fourteen codons under significant positive selection reside in the C-terminal 28 amino acid region, suggesting that this region interacts with host molecules in most sequenced accessions. Selection pressures on the gene may be either due to the pathogenicity or avirulence function of the gene or both.

  12. Mammalian P4-ATPases and ABC transporters and their role in phospholipid transport.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Jonathan A; Quazi, Faraz; Molday, Robert S

    2013-03-01

    Transport of phospholipids across cell membranes plays a key role in a wide variety of biological processes. These include membrane biosynthesis, generation and maintenance of membrane asymmetry, cell and organelle shape determination, phagocytosis, vesicle trafficking, blood coagulation, lipid homeostasis, regulation of membrane protein function, apoptosis, etc. P(4)-ATPases and ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters are the two principal classes of membrane proteins that actively transport phospholipids across cellular membranes. P(4)-ATPases utilize the energy from ATP hydrolysis to flip aminophospholipids from the exocytoplasmic (extracellular/lumen) to the cytoplasmic leaflet of cell membranes generating membrane lipid asymmetry and lipid imbalance which can induce membrane curvature. Many ABC transporters play crucial roles in lipid homeostasis by actively transporting phospholipids from the cytoplasmic to the exocytoplasmic leaflet of cell membranes or exporting phospholipids to protein acceptors or micelles. Recent studies indicate that some ABC proteins can also transport phospholipids in the opposite direction. The importance of P(4)-ATPases and ABC transporters is evident from the findings that mutations in many of these transporters are responsible for severe human genetic diseases linked to defective phospholipid transport. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Phospholipids and Phospholipid Metabolism.

  13. P[8] and P[4] Rotavirus Infection Associated with Secretor Phenotypes Among Children in South China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xu-Fu; Long, Yan; Tan, Ming; Zhang, Ting; Huang, Qiong; Jiang, Xi; Tan, Wen-Fang; Li, Jian-Dong; Hu, Gui-Fang; Tang, Shixing; Dai, Ying-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Rotaviruses are known to recognize human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) as a host ligand that is believed to play an important role in rotavirus host susceptibility and host range. In this study, paired fecal and saliva samples collected from children with viral gastroenteritis, as well as paired serum and saliva samples collected from the general population in south China were studied to evaluate potential association between rotavirus infections and human HBGA phenotypes. Rotavirus was detected in 75 (28%) of 266 fecal samples and P[8] rotaviruses were found to be the predominant genotype. The HBGA phenotypes of the rotavirus-infected children were determined through their saliva samples. Secretor statuses were found to correlate with the risk of rotavirus infection and all P[8]/P[4] rotavirus infected children were secretors. Accordingly, recombinant VP8* proteins of the P[8]/P[4] rotaviruses bound saliva samples from secretor individuals. Furthermore, correlation between serum P[8]/P[4]-specific IgG and host Lewis and secretor phenotypes has been found among 206 studied serum samples. Our study supported the association between rotavirus infection and the host HBGA phenotypes, which would help further understanding of rotavirus host range and epidemiology. PMID:27708367

  14. The Unintended Consequence of Diabetes Mellitus Pay-for-Performance (P4P) Program in Taiwan: Are Patients with More Comorbidities or More Severe Conditions Likely to Be Excluded from the P4P Program?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tsung-Tai; Chung, Kuo-Piao; Lin, I-Chin; Lai, Mei-Shu

    2011-01-01

    Objective Taiwan has instituted a pay-for-performance (P4P) program for diabetes mellitus (DM) patients that rewards doctors based in part on outcomes for their DM patients. Doctors are permitted to choose which of their DM patients are included in the P4P program. We test whether seriously ill DM patients are disproportionately excluded from the P4P program. Data Source/Study Setting This study utilizes data from the National Health Insurance (NHI) database in Taiwan for the period of January 2007 to December 2007. Our sample includes 146,481 DM-P4P patients (16.56 percent of the total) and 737,971 non-DM-P4P patients. Data Collection/Extraction Methods We use logistic and multilevel models to estimate the effects of patient and hospital characteristics on P4P selection. Principal Findings The results show that older patients and patients with more comorbidities or more severe conditions are prone to be excluded from P4P programs. Conclusions We found that DM patients are disproportionately excluded from P4P programs. Our results point to the importance of mandated participation and risk adjustment measures in P4P programs. PMID:20880044

  15. ras oncogene-dependent activation of the P4 promoter of minute virus of mice through a proximal P4 element interacting with the Ets family of transcription factors.

    PubMed Central

    Fuks, F; Deleu, L; Dinsart, C; Rommelaere, J; Faisst, S

    1996-01-01

    The P4 promoter of parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVMp) directs transcription of the genes coding for nonstructural proteins. The activity of promoter P4 is regulated by several cis-acting DNA elements. Among these, a promoter-proximal GC box was shown to be essential for P4 activity (J.K. Ahn, B.J. Gavin, G. Kumar, and D.C. Ward, J. Virol. 63:5425-5439, 1989). In this study, a motif homologous to an Ets transcription factor-binding site (EBS), located immediately upstream from the GC box, was found to be required for the full activity of promoter P4 in the ras-transformed rat fibroblast cell line FREJ4. In normal parental FR3T3 cells, the transcriptional function of P4 EBS was insignificant but could be restored by transient cell transfection with the c-Ha-ras oncogene. P4 EBS may thus contribute to the stimulation of promoter P4 in ras-transformed cells. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays using crude extracts from FREJ4 cells revealed the binding of a member(s) of the Ets family of transcription factors to the P4 EBS, as well as the interaction of two members of the Sp1 family, Sp1 and Sp3, with the adjacent GC box. When produced in Drosophila melanogaster SL2 cells, Ets-1 and Sp1 proteins acted synergistically to transactivate promoter P4 through their respective cognate sites. PMID:8627649

  16. Efficacy of antibacterial bioactive glass S53P4 against S. aureus biofilms grown on titanium discs in vitro.

    PubMed

    Coraça-Huber, Débora C; Fille, Manfred; Hausdorfer, Johann; Putzer, David; Nogler, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of different sizes of bioactive glass S53P4 against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms grown on metal discs in vitro. S. aureus biofilms were cultivated on titanium discs. BAG-S53P4 (0.5-0.8 mm and <45 µm) were placed in contact with the discs containing biofilms. Glass beads (0.5 mm) were used as a control. After each interval, the pH from each sample was measured. Colony forming units were counted for the biofilm recovery verification. In parallel, we tested the activity of bioactive glass against S. aureus planktonic cells. We found that BAG-S53P4 can suppress S. aureus biofilm formation on titanium discs in vitro. The suppression rate of biofilm cells by BAG-S53P4 <45 µm was significantly higher than by BAG-S53P4 0.5-0.8 mm. BAG-S53P4 has a clear growth-inhibitory effect on S. aureus biofilms. BAG-S53P4 <45 µm is more efficient against biofilm growth in vitro comparing with BAG-S53P4 0.5-0.8 mm. Bioactive glass S53P4 has potential to be used as bone substitute for the resolution of infection complications in joint replacement surgeries and treatment of chronic osteomyelitis.

  17. Electric Field-Assisted Dip-Pen Nanolithography on P4VP Polymer Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Uppalapati, Suji; Wang, Xin; Fernandez, Rodolfo; Yan, Mingdi; La Rosa, Andres

    2010-03-01

    Dip-Pen Nanolithography (DPN) has attracted increased attention in recent years for its ability to generate nanometer-scale patterns on solid surface using an `ink'-coated atomic force microscope (AFM) tip. Herein we develop a modified DPN modality for creating nanostructures on Poly(4-vinylpyridine) (P4VP) polymer film, which exploits the mechanical swelling response of the substrate. The underlying working principle consists in delivering acidic ions onto polymer films to very locally trigger the protonation of the polymer film, causing the latter to swell. An AFM tip coated with phosphate buffer solution of pH 4 is used for the patterning process. More importantly, a reliable strategy results when applying an electric field between the AFM tip and polymer substrate to control the protonation process. We demonstrate the capability of the electric field-assisted DPN technique for reproducibly and reliably fabricating nanostructures originated from the swelling response of P4VP polymer. Our study includes a systematic pattern fabrication under different pattering parameters (applied bias and contact force), and provides evidence on the reversible character of the process.

  18. Rotavirus G2P[4] detection in fresh vegetables and oysters in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Quiroz-Santiago, Carolina; Vázquez-Salinas, Carlos; Natividad-Bonifacio, Ivan; Barrón-Romero, Blanca Lilia; Quiñones-Ramírez, Elsa Irma

    2014-11-01

    Rotaviruses are the principal cause of dehydration caused by diarrhea in children younger than 2 years of age. Although these viral infections have mainly been associated with ingestion of fecally contaminated food and water, few studies have addressed the presence of the virus in food that is consumed raw or slightly cooked. In this work, 30 oyster samples and 33 vegetable samples were examined for the presence of rotavirus genotypes to evaluate their potential to produce gastrointestinal infections. The rotaviruses were identified by reverse transcriptase PCR amplification of the VP7 gene. G and P genotyping was also performed by reverse transcriptase PCR, with a detection sensitivity of up to 15 PFU/ml. Rotaviruses were found in 17 (26.9%) of 63 samples (10 oysters and 7 vegetables). The G2 genotype was found in 11 (64.7%) of 17 of the rotavirus strains, and 16 (94.1%) of 17 had the P[4] genotype. The combined genotypes found most frequently were G2P[4] (10 [58.82%] of 17), GNTP[4] (6 [35.29%] of 17), and G2P[NT] (1 [5.8%] of 17).

  19. Outer Membrane Lipoprotein e (P4) of Haemophilus influenzae Is a Novel Phosphomonoesterase

    PubMed Central

    Reilly, Thomas J.; Chance, Deborah L.; Smith, Arnold L.

    1999-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae exists as a commensal of the upper respiratory tract of humans but also causes infections of contiguous structures. We describe the identification, localization, purification, and characterization of a novel, surface-localized phosphomonoesterase from a nontypeable H. influenzae strain, R2866. Sequences obtained from two CNBr-derived fragments of this protein matched lipoprotein e (P4) within the H. influenzae sequence database. Escherichia coli DH5α transformed with plasmids containing the H. influenzae hel gene, which encodes lipoprotein e (P4), produced high levels of a membrane-associated phosphomonoesterase. The isolated ∼28-kDa enzyme was tartrate resistant and displayed narrow substrate specificity with the highest activity for arylphosphates, excluding 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolylphosphate. Optimum enzymatic activity was observed at pH 5.0 and only in the presence of divalent copper. The enzyme was inhibited by vanadate, molybdate, and EDTA but was resistant to inorganic phosphate. The association of phosphomonoesterase activity with a protein that has also been recognized as a heme transporter suggests a unique role for this unusual phosphohydrolase. PMID:10542183

  20. TMPyP4 promotes cancer cell migration at low doses, but induces cell death at high doses

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiao-Hui; Nie, Xin; Liu, Hai-Ying; Fang, Yi-Ming; Zhao, Yong; Xia, Li-Xin

    2016-01-01

    TMPyP4 is widely considered as a potential photosensitizer in photodynamic therapy and a G-quadruplex stabilizer for telomerase-based cancer therapeutics. However, its biological effects including a possible adverse-effect are poorly understood. In this study, whole genome RNA-seq analysis was used to explore the alteration in gene expression induced by TMPyP4. Unexpectedly, we find that 27.67% of changed genes were functionally related to cell adhesion. Experimental evidences from cell adhesion assay, scratch-wound and transwell assay indicate that TMPyP4 at conventional doses (≤0.5 μM) increases cell-matrix adhesion and promotes the migration of tumor cells. In contrast, a high dose of TMPyP4 (≥2 μM) inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell death. The unintended “side-effect” of TMPyP4 on promoting cell migration suggests that a relative high dose of TMPyP4 is preferred for therapeutic purpose. These findings contribute to better understanding of biological effects induced by TMPyP4 and provide a new insight into the complexity and implication for TMPyP4 based cancer therapy. PMID:27221067

  1. 26 CFR 301.6103(p)(4)-1 - Procedures relating to safeguards for returns or return information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures relating to safeguards for returns or return information. 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Section 301.6103(p)(4)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Information and Returns Returns and Records...

  2. Image reconstruction from cryo-electron micrographs reveals the morphopoietic mechanism in the P2-P4 bacteriophage system.

    PubMed

    Dokland, T; Lindqvist, B H; Fuller, S D

    1992-03-01

    The satellite bacteriophage P4 does not have genes coding for any major structural proteins, but assembles a capsid from the gene products of bacteriophage P2. The capsid assembled under control of P4 is smaller (45 nm) than the normal P2 capsid (60 nm). The low resolution (4.5 nm) structures of P2 and P4 capsids were determined by cryo-electron microscopy and image processing. The capsid of P2 shows T = 7 symmetry with most of the mass clustered as 12 pentamers and 60 hexamers. The P4 capsid has T = 4 symmetry with a similar distribution of mass to P2, but the hexamer geometry has changed. The major capsid protein has a two-domain structure. The major domains form the capsomers proper, while connecting domains form trivalent contacts between the capsomers. The size determination by P4 appears to function by altering hexamer geometry rather than by affecting the interdomain angle alone.

  3. Use of aglepristone for the treatment of P4 induced insulin resistance in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Bresciani, Carla; Callegari, Daniela; Di Ianni, Francesco; Morini, Giorgio; Parmigiani, Enrico; Bianchi, Ezio

    2014-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) in dogs is suspected when hyperglycemia is present despite administration of insulin doses greater than 1.0 to 1.5 UI/kg. IR is caused by increases in counter regulatory hormones concentrations (glucagon, glucocorticoids, catecholamines and growth hormone). This study was conducted to investigate the use of aglepristone (RU 46534), a P4 receptor antagonist, for the treatment of IR diabetes mellitus in bitches during the luteal phase. All animals were treated with porcine insulin zinc suspension (Caninsulin) and aglepristone (Alizin) 10 mg/kg subcutaneously at day 1, 2, 9 and 17 from diagnosis. At day 5, no significant variation in glycemia was shown. At day 12 and 20, serum glucose concentrations were significant lower (p < 0.05). From day 12 the insulin dose was reduced to 0.8 IU BID. Insulin was reduced in the following weeks and glycemia was controlled. PMID:24378588

  4. Asymmetry in the triplet 3p-4s Mg lines in cool DZ white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allard, N. F.; Leininger, T.; Gadéa, F. X.; Brousseau-Couture, V.; Dufour, P.

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the present work is to make an exhaustive study of the line shape of the triplet 3p-4s Mg line (Mgb triplet), which is perturbed by He in the extreme physical conditions found in the cool atmosphere of DZ white dwarfs. This study is undertaken by inferring both a unified theory of spectral line broadening and ab initio potential energies. Cool white dwarfs require a specific treatment for line broadening owing to the high helium densities that are involved. Beyond the conventional symmetrical Lorentzian core at low density, we show that the line profiles are asymmetrical and have significant additional contributions on the short wavelength side. This blue asymmetry is a consequence of low maxima in the corresponding Mg-He potential energy difference curves at short and intermediate internuclear distances. The new profiles are shown to provide a good fit to an SDSS (Sloan Digital Sky Survey) observation.

  5. Systems Cancer Medicine: Towards Realization of Predictive, Preventive, Personalized, and Participatory (P4) Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Qiang; Price, Nathan D.; Hood, Leroy

    2011-01-01

    A grand challenge impeding optimal treatment outcomes for cancer patients arises from the complex nature of the disease: the cellular heterogeneity, the myriad of dysfunctional molecular and genetic networks as results of genetic (somatic) and environmental perturbations. Systems biology, with its holistic approach to understanding fundamental principles in biology, and the empowering technologies in genomics, proteomics, single-cell analysis, microfluidics, and computational strategies, enables a comprehensive approach to medicine, which strives to unveil the pathogenic mechanisms of diseases, identify disease biomarkers and begin thinking about new strategies for drug target discovery. The integration of multi-dimensional high throughput “omics” measurements from tumor tissues and corresponding blood specimens, together with new systems strategies for diagnostics, enables the identification of cancer biomarkers that will enable presymptomatic diagnosis, stratification of disease, assessment of disease progression, evaluation of patient response to therapy, and the identification of reoccurrences. While some aspects of systems medicine are being adopted in clinical oncology practice through companion molecular diagnostics for personalized therapy, the mounting influx of global quantitative data from both wellness and diseases, is shaping up a transformational paradigm in medicine we termed predictive, preventive, personalized, and participatory (P4) medicine, which requires new strategies, both scientific and organizational, to enable bringing this revolution in medicine to patients and to the healthcare system. P4 medicine will have a profound impact on society—transforming the healthcare system, turning around the ever escalating costs of healthcare, digitizing the practice of medicine and creating enormous economic opportunities for those organizations and nations that embrace this revolution PMID:22142401

  6. One-step synthesis of Mo(0) and W(0) bis(dinitrogen) complexes with the linear tetraphosphine ligand prP4: stereoselective formation of cis-[M(N2)2(rac-prP4)] and trans-[M(N2)2(meso-prP4)]; M = Mo, W.

    PubMed

    Römer, René; Gradert, Christian; Bannwarth, Alexander; Peters, Gerhard; Näther, Christian; Tuczek, Felix

    2011-04-01

    A new synthetic pathway to Chatt-type Mo(0) and W(0) bis(dinitrogen) complexes with the ligand prP(4) is presented (prP(4) is a linear tetraphos ligand with two ethylene bridges and a central propylene bridge). The synthesis starts from MoCl(5) and WCl(6), respectively, employing Mg as reductant. Whereas the electrochemical reduction of the oxido-iodido-molybdenum(IV) complex [Mo(O)I(meso-prP(4)](+) (1) only gave trans-[Mo(N(2))(2)(meso-prP(4))] (2a; Römer et al., Eur. J. Inorg. Chem.2008, 3258), the direct synthesis under normal conditions affords both trans and cis complexes 2a and 2b. The reaction products are characterised by vibrational and NMR spectroscopy. Moreover, a single-crystal X-ray structure determination of cis-α-[Mo(N(2))(2)(rac-prP(4))] (2b) is performed. In contrast to the trans bis(dinitrogen)molybdenum(0) complex 2a supported by the meso prP(4) ligand the corresponding cis-complex is exclusively coordinated by the rac isomer of prP(4). The reactivity of 2 with acids is investigated as well, leading to the NNH(2) complex [MoF(NNH(2))(meso-prP(4))]BF(4) (15). Analogous results are obtained with the tungsten complexes.

  7. Characterization of purified Sindbis virus nsP4 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Rubach, Jon K.; Wasik, Brian R.; Rupp, Jonathan C.; Kuhn, Richard J.; Hardy, Richard W.; Smith, Janet L.

    2009-02-05

    The Sindbis virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (nsP4) is responsible for the replication of the viral RNA genome. In infected cells, nsP4 is localized in a replication complex along with the other viral non-structural proteins. nsP4 has been difficult to homogenously purify from infected cells due to its interactions with the other replication proteins and the fact that its N-terminal residue, a tyrosine, causes the protein to be rapidly turned over in cells. We report the successful expression and purification of Sindbis nsP4 in a bacterial system, in which nsP4 is expressed as an N-terminal SUMO fusion protein. After purification the SUMO tag is removed, resulting in the isolation of full-length nsP4 possessing the authentic N-terminal tyrosine. This purified enzyme is able to produce minus-strand RNA de novo from plus-strand templates, as well as terminally add adenosine residues to the 3' end of an RNA substrate. In the presence of the partially processed viral replicase polyprotein, P123, purified nsP4 is able to synthesize discrete template length minus-strand RNA products. Mutations in the 3' CSE or poly(A) tail of viral template RNA prevent RNA synthesis by the replicase complex containing purified nsP4, consistent with previously reported template requirements for minus-strand RNA synthesis. Optimal reaction conditions were determined by investigating the effects of time, pH, and the concentrations of nsP4, P123 and magnesium on the synthesis of RNA.

  8. n-ZnO/p-4H-SiC diode: Structural, electrical, and photoresponse characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Guziewicz, M. Jung, W.

    2015-09-07

    Epitaxial n-type ZnO film has been grown, on a commercial 5 μm thick p-type 4H-SiC(00.1) Al doped epilayer, by atomic layer deposition. A full width at half maximum of the ZnO 00.2 diffraction peak rocking curve of 0.34°{sup  }± 0.02° has been measured. Diodes formed on the n-ZnO/p-4H-SiC heterostructure show rectifying behavior with a forward to reverse current ratio at the level of 10{sup 9} at ±4 V, a leakage current density of ∼6 × 10{sup −8} A/cm{sup 2}, and a low ideality factor equal to 1.17 ± 0.04. In addition, the diodes exhibit selective photoresponse with a maximum at 367 nm, and with a current increase of ∼10{sup 3} under illuminations with respect to the dark value, which makes such devices prospective candidates for ultraviolet light sensors.

  9. Interaction of the Neurospora crassa mitochondrial tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (CYT-18 protein) with the group I intron P4-P6 domain. Thermodynamic analysis and the role of metal ions.

    PubMed

    Caprara, M G; Myers, C A; Lambowitz, A M

    2001-04-27

    The Neurospora crassa mitochondrial tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (CYT-18 protein) functions in splicing group I introns by promoting the formation of the catalytically active structure of the intron's catalytic core. Previous studies suggested a model in which the protein binds first to the intron's P4-P6 domain, and then makes additional contacts with the P3-P9 domain to stabilize the two domains in the correct relative orientation to form the intron's active site. Here, we analyzed the interaction of CYT-18 with a small RNA (P4-P6 RNA) corresponding to the isolated P4-P6 domain of the N. crassa mitochondrial large subunit ribosomal RNA intron. RNA footprinting and modification-interference experiments showed that CYT-18 binds to this small RNA around the junction of the P4-P6 stacked helices on the side opposite the active-site cleft, as it does to the P4-P6 domain in the intact intron. The binding is inhibited by chemical modifications that disrupt base-pairing in P4, P6, and P6a, indicating that a partially folded structure of the P4-P6 domain is required. The temperature-dependence of binding indicates that the interaction is driven by a favorable enthalpy change, but is accompanied by an unfavorable entropy change. The latter may reflect entropically unfavorable conformational changes or decreased conformational flexibility in the complex. CYT-18 binding is inhibited at > or =125 mM KCl, indicating a strong dependence on phosphodiester-backbone interactions. On the other hand, Mg(2+) is absolutely required for CYT-18 binding, with titration experiments showing approximately 1.5 magnesium ions bound per complex. Metal ion-cleavage experiments identified a divalent cation-binding site near the boundary of P6 and J6/6a, and chemical modification showed that Mg(2+) binding induces RNA conformational changes in this region, as well as elsewhere, particularly in J4/5. Together, these findings suggest a model in which the binding of Mg(2+) near J6/6a and possibly at one

  10. Directed evolution of a sphingomyelin flippase reveals mechanism of substrate backbone discrimination by a P4-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Roland, Bartholomew P; Graham, Todd R

    2016-08-01

    Phospholipid flippases in the type IV P-type ATPase (P4-ATPases) family establish membrane asymmetry and play critical roles in vesicular transport, cell polarity, signal transduction, and neurologic development. All characterized P4-ATPases flip glycerophospholipids across the bilayer to the cytosolic leaflet of the membrane, but how these enzymes distinguish glycerophospholipids from sphingolipids is not known. We used a directed evolution approach to examine the molecular mechanisms through which P4-ATPases discriminate substrate backbone. A mutagenesis screen in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has identified several gain-of-function mutations in the P4-ATPase Dnf1 that facilitate the transport of a novel lipid substrate, sphingomyelin. We found that a highly conserved asparagine (N220) in the first transmembrane segment is a key enforcer of glycerophospholipid selection, and specific substitutions at this site allow transport of sphingomyelin. PMID:27432949

  11. The Lipid Kinase PI5P4Kβ Is an Intracellular GTP Sensor for Metabolism and Tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Sumita, Kazutaka; Lo, Yu-Hua; Takeuchi, Koh; Senda, Miki; Kofuji, Satoshi; Ikeda, Yoshiki; Terakawa, Jumpei; Sasaki, Mika; Yoshino, Hirofumi; Majd, Nazanin; Zheng, Yuxiang; Kahoud, Emily Rose; Yokota, Takehiro; Emerling, Brooke M; Asara, John M; Ishida, Tetsuo; Locasale, Jason W; Daikoku, Takiko; Anastasiou, Dimitrios; Senda, Toshiya; Sasaki, Atsuo T

    2016-01-21

    While cellular GTP concentration dramatically changes in response to an organism's cellular status, whether it serves as a metabolic cue for biological signaling remains elusive due to the lack of molecular identification of GTP sensors. Here we report that PI5P4Kβ, a phosphoinositide kinase that regulates PI(5)P levels, detects GTP concentration and converts them into lipid second messenger signaling. Biochemical analyses show that PI5P4Kβ preferentially utilizes GTP, rather than ATP, for PI(5)P phosphorylation, and its activity reflects changes in direct proportion to the physiological GTP concentration. Structural and biological analyses reveal that the GTP-sensing activity of PI5P4Kβ is critical for metabolic adaptation and tumorigenesis. These results demonstrate that PI5P4Kβ is the missing GTP sensor and that GTP concentration functions as a metabolic cue via PI5P4Kβ. The critical role of the GTP-sensing activity of PI5P4Kβ in cancer signifies this lipid kinase as a cancer therapeutic target. PMID:26774281

  12. Growth, Structure, Thermal Properties and Spectroscopic Characteristics of Nd3+-Doped KGdP4O12 Crystal

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Tongqing; Zhang, Yu; Shan, Pai; Zhang, Zichang; Chen, Shaolin; Kong, Yongfa; Xu, Jingjun

    2014-01-01

    A single crystal of Nd3+-doped KGdP4O12 was successfully grown with the top-seeded solution growth and slow cooling (TSSG−SC) technique. It crystallizes in space group C2/c with cell parameters a = 7.812(2) Å, b = 12.307(3) Å, c = 10.474(2) Å, β = 110.84(3)° and Z = 4. The IR and Raman spectra also indicated that the phosphoric polyhedra of Nd:KGdP4O12 has a cyclic symmetry. The chemical composition of the crystal was analyzed and the distribution coefficient of Nd3+ was calculated. The crystal morphology of KGdP4O12 was identified using X-ray diffraction. The compound has good thermal stability to 920°C. Its specific heat and thermal conductivity were determined for potential applications. The spectral properties of Nd:KGdP4O12 indicates that it exhibits broad absorption and emission bands, which are attributed to low symmetry of the crystal. The broad absorption band around 798 nm has a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 14.8 nm and is suitable for AlGaAs laser diode pumping. Moreover, 5 at% Nd3+-doped KGdP4O12 crystal has a long luminescence lifetime of 300 μs and a high quantum efficiency of 96%. PMID:24968165

  13. Contribution of the DDDD motif of H. influenzae e (P4) to phosphomonoesterase activity and heme transport.

    PubMed

    Reilly, T J; Green, B A; Zlotnick, G W; Smith, A L

    2001-04-01

    Haemophilus influenzae lipoprotein e (P4) is a member of the DDDD phosphohydrolase superfamily and mediates heme transport. Each of the aspartate residues of the signature motif is required for phosphomonoesterase activity, as none of the e (P4) single D mutants (D64A, D66A, D181N, and D185A) possessed detectable phosphomonoesterase activity. These results suggest that the signature motif is essential to the phosphomonoesterase activity of lipoprotein e (P4). When assessed for phosphomonoesterase-dependent heme transport activity in Escherichia coli hemA strains, plasmids containing D181N and D185A retained heme transport as indicated by aerobic growth while D64A and D66A did not. We conclude that phosphomonoesterase activity is not required for heme transport.

  14. Monovalent rotavirus vaccine provides protection against an emerging fully heterotypic G9P[4] rotavirus strain in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Yen, Catherine; Figueroa, Jesùs Reyna; Uribe, Edgar Sánchez; Carmen-Hernández, Luz Del; Tate, Jacqueline E; Parashar, Umesh D; Patel, Manish M; Richardson López-Collado, Vesta

    2011-09-01

    After the introduction of monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1) in Mexico in 2006-2007, diarrhea mortality and morbidity declined substantially among Mexican children under 5 years of age. In January 2010, surveillance identified the emergence of a novel G9P[4] rotavirus strain nationwide. We conducted a case-control study to assess the field effectiveness of RV1 against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis caused by this unusual strain and to determine whether the G9P[4] emergence was related to vaccine failure or failure to vaccinate. RV1 was 94% effective (95% confidence interval, 16%-100%) against G9P[4] rotavirus-related hospitalization, indicating that its emergence was likely unrelated to vaccine pressure.

  15. Structure of recombinant Haemophilus influenzae e (P4) acid phosphatase reveals a new member of the haloacid dehalogenase superfamily.

    PubMed

    Felts, Richard L; Ou, Zhonghui; Reilly, Thomas J; Tanner, John J

    2007-10-01

    Lipoprotein e (P4) from Haemophilus influenzae belongs to the "DDDD" superfamily of phosphohydrolases and is the prototype of class C nonspecific acid phosphatases. P4 is also a component of a H. influenzae vaccine. We report the crystal structures of recombinant P4 in the ligand-free and tungstate-inhibited forms, which are the first structures of a class C phosphatase. P4 has a two-domain architecture consisting of a core alpha/beta domain and a smaller alpha domain. The core domain features a five-stranded beta-sheet flanked by helices on both sides that is reminiscent of the haloacid dehalogenase superfamily. The alpha domain appears to be unique and plays roles in substrate binding and dimerization. The active site is solvent accessible and located in a cleft between the two domains. The structure shows that P4 is a metalloenzyme and that magnesium is the most likely metal ion in the crystalline recombinant enzyme. The ligands of the metal ion are the carboxyl groups of the first and third Asp residues of the DDDD motif, the backbone carbonyl of the second Asp of the DDDD motif, and two water molecules. The structure of the tungstate-bound enzyme suggests that Asp64 is the nucleophile that attacks the substrate P atom. Dimerization appears to be important for catalysis because intersubunit contacts stabilize the active site. Analysis of the structural context of mutations engineered for vaccine studies shows that the most promising mutations are located in the dimer interface. This observation suggests a structure-based vaccine design strategy in which the dimer interface is disrupted in order to expose epitopes that are buried in dimeric P4.

  16. Human G3P[4] rotavirus obtained in Japan, 2013, possibly emerged through a human-equine rotavirus reassortment event.

    PubMed

    Malasao, Rungnapa; Saito, Mayuko; Suzuki, Akira; Imagawa, Toshifumi; Nukiwa-Soma, Nao; Tohma, Kentaro; Liu, Xiaofang; Okamoto, Michiko; Chaimongkol, Natthawan; Dapat, Clyde; Kawamura, Kazuhisa; Kayama, Yasuko; Masago, Yoshifumi; Omura, Tatsuo; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2015-02-01

    Two novel G3P[4] rotavirus strains were detected from children with acute diarrhea in Sendai, Japan, identified as a G3-P[4]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2 genotype constellation by whole-genome sequence analysis. The VP7 gene of the two strains displayed the highest nucleotide sequence identity (91 %) and showed a close genetic relationship (99 % bootstrap value) to an equine rotavirus reported in India. The other gene segments were related to human group A rotaviruses. This report suggests a possible reassortment event between human and equine rotaviruses. PMID:25352228

  17. Above-threshold ionization near the 3p4d 1Fo autoionizing state in magnesium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reber, A.; Baynard, T.; Martín, F.; Bachau, H.; Berry, R. S.

    2005-05-01

    Two-photon above-threshold ionization (ATI) relative cross sections from the 3P1 state of Mg have been measured using two-color ionization in the focus of a magnetic bottle spectrometer and have been calculated using the Green’s-function method in the Feshbach formalism and an L2 -integrable close-coupling approach, with a basis of L2 -integrable B -spline functions. We report these cross sections in the region of 3d4p Fo1 autoionizing state, with photon energies of 3.3-3.6eV . This is one of the few direct comparisons between ab initio theory and experiments in ATI in the vicinity of a Feshbach resonance. A good agreement between theory and experiment is found in the relative total cross sections.

  18. On the relationship between radiation-stimulated photoluminescence and nitrogen atoms in p-4 H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, A. A.; Ber, B. Ya.; Bogdanova, E. V.; Seredova, N. V.; Kazantsev, D. Yu.; Kozlovski, V. V.

    2015-12-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) appearing in p-4 H-SiC upon its electron irradiation has been studied. A model that accounts for the dependence of the PL intensity on the irradiation dose is suggested. The conclusion is drawn that nitrogen-radiation defect donor-acceptor pairs are PL activators.

  19. Structure and size determination of bacteriophage P2 and P4 procapsids: function of size responsiveness mutations

    PubMed Central

    Dearborn, Altaira D.; Laurinmaki, Pasi; Chandramouli, Preethi; Rodenburg, Cynthia M.; Wang, Sifang; Butcher, Sarah J.; Dokland, Terje

    2012-01-01

    Bacteriophage P4 is dependent on structural proteins supplied by a helper phage, P2, to assemble infectious virions. Bacteriophage P2 normally forms an icosahedral capsid with T=7 symmetry from the gpN capsid protein, the gpO scaffolding protein and the gpQ portal protein. In the presence of P4, however, the same structural proteins are assembled into a smaller capsid with T=4 symmetry. This size determination is effected by the P4-encoded protein Sid, which forms an external scaffold around the small P4 procapsids. Size responsiveness (sir) mutants in gpN fail to assemble small capsids even in the presence of Sid. We have produced large and small procapsids by co-expression of gpN with gpO and Sid, respectively, and applied cryo-electron microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction methods to visualize these procapsids. gpN has an HK97-like fold and interacts with Sid in an exposed loop where the sir mutations are clustered. The T=7 lattice of P2 has dextro handedness, unlike the laevo lattices of other phages with this fold observed so far. PMID:22508104

  20. Mutagenesis of the in-frame opal termination codon preceding nsP4 of Sindbis virus: studies of translational readthrough and its effect on virus replication.

    PubMed Central

    Li, G P; Rice, C M

    1989-01-01

    Sindbis virus (SIN) contains an in-frame opal termination codon in the nonstructural protein-coding region separating nsP3 and nsP4 and provides a useful tool to study the readthrough phenomenon of the termination codon in host cells and its role in viral replication. We have changed the opal codon by site-directed mutagenesis of a full-length SIN cDNA clone to either sense amino acids (serine, tryptophan, or arginine) or the other two translation termination codons (amber or ochre). Transcripts from all of the mutant cDNA clones were infectious when used to transfect chicken embryo fibroblasts. The resulting progeny virus stocks were then used to study the effects of these mutations on viral protein and RNA synthesis, growth properties, host range, and fitness compared with the parental strain. None of the mutants showed temperature sensitivity in plaquing efficiency or plaque morphology on chicken embryo fibroblast monolayers. Relative to the wild-type parent, the mutants containing sense replacements overproduced nsP34 but not nsP4 and made slightly decreased levels of nsP3, with a delay in its appearance. This indicates that the cleavage separating nsP3 and nsP4 occurs in these mutants and also that the level of nsP4 is not regulated solely by readthrough of the opal codon. The amber and ochre mutants produced decreased levels of nsP34, and the ochre mutant grew significantly more slowly than the other mutants or wild-type virus. For all five mutants, RNA synthesis early in infection was inhibited compared with that of the parental virus. This effect was apparent at multiplicities of infection of 20 PFU per cell but not at 100 PFU per cell. Using in situ hybridization to distinguish between mutant and wild-type plaques, we have studied the behavior of the serine mutant in a high-multiplicity growth competition experiment with wild-type virus. The wild-type virus eventually outcompeted the mutant after several passages, and these results indicate that this

  1. The Arabidopsis P4-ATPase ALA3 localizes to the golgi and requires a beta-subunit to function in lipid translocation and secretory vesicle formation.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Lisbeth Rosager; López-Marqués, Rosa Laura; McDowell, Stephen C; Okkeri, Juha; Licht, Dirk; Schulz, Alexander; Pomorski, Thomas; Harper, Jeffrey F; Palmgren, Michael Gjedde

    2008-03-01

    Vesicle budding in eukaryotes depends on the activity of lipid translocases (P(4)-ATPases) that have been implicated in generating lipid asymmetry between the two leaflets of the membrane and in inducing membrane curvature. We show that Aminophospholipid ATPase3 (ALA3), a member of the P(4)-ATPase subfamily in Arabidopsis thaliana, localizes to the Golgi apparatus and that mutations of ALA3 result in impaired growth of roots and shoots. The growth defect is accompanied by failure of the root cap to release border cells involved in the secretion of molecules required for efficient root interaction with the environment, and ala3 mutants are devoid of the characteristic trans-Golgi proliferation of slime vesicles containing polysaccharides and enzymes for secretion. In yeast complementation experiments, ALA3 function requires interaction with members of a novel family of plant membrane-bound proteins, ALIS1 to ALIS5 (for ALA-Interacting Subunit), and in this host ALA3 and ALIS1 show strong affinity for each other. In planta, ALIS1, like ALA3, localizes to Golgi-like structures and is expressed in root peripheral columella cells. We propose that the ALIS1 protein is a beta-subunit of ALA3 and that this protein complex forms an important part of the Golgi machinery required for secretory processes during plant development.

  2. Photoionisation of Cl+ from the 3s23p4 3P2, 1, 0 and the 3s23p4 1D2, 1S0 states in the energy range 19 - 28 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, Brendan M.

    2016-10-01

    Absolute photoionisation cross sections for the Cl+ ion in its ground and the metastable states; 3s23p4 3P2, 1, 0, and 3s23p4 1D2, 1S0, were measured recently at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory using the merged beams photon-ion technique at an photon energy resolution of 15 meV in the energy range 19 - 28 eV. These measurements are compared with large-scale Dirac Coulomb R-matrix calculations in the same energy range. Photoionisation of this sulphur-like chlorine ion is characterized by multiple Rydberg series of autoionizing resonances superimposed on a direct photoionisation continuum. A wealth of resonance features observed in the experimental spectra are spectroscopically assigned and their resonance parameters tabulated and compared with the recent measurements. Metastable fractions in the parent ion beam are determined from the present study. Theoretical resonance energies and quantum defects of the prominent Rydberg series 3s23p3nd, identified in the spectra as 3p → nd transitions are compared with the available measurements made on this element. Weaker Rydberg series 3s23p3ns, identified as 3p → ns transitions and window resonances 3s3p4(4P)np features, due to 3s → np transitions are also found in the spectra.

  3. Effect of Synthetic Levers on Nickel Phosphide Nanoparticle Formation: Ni5P4 and NiP2.

    PubMed

    Li, Da; Senevirathne, Keerthi; Aquilina, Lance; Brock, Stephanie L

    2015-08-17

    Due to their unique catalytic, electronic, and redox processes, Ni5P4 and NiP2 nanoparticles are of interest for a wide-range of applications from the hydrogen evolution reaction to energy storage (batteries); yet synthetic approaches to these materials are limited. In the present work, a phase-control strategy enabling the arrested-precipitation synthesis of nanoparticles of Ni5P4 and NiP2 as phase-pure samples using different Ni organometallic precursors and trioctylphosphine (TOP) is described. The composition and purity of the product can be tuned by changing key synthetic levers, including the Ni precursor, the oleylamine (OAm) coordinating solvent and TOP concentrations, temperature, time, and the presence or absence of a moderate temperature soak step to facilitate formation of Ni and/or Ni-P amorphous nanoparticle intermediates. Notably, the 230 °C intermediate step favors the ultimate formation of Ni2P and hinders further phosphidation to form Ni5P4 or NiP2 as phase-pure products. In the absence of this step, increasing the P/Ni ratio (13-20), reaction temperature (350-385 °C), and time (10-48 h) favors more P-rich phases, and these parameters can be adjusted to generate either Ni5P4 or NiP2. The phase of the obtained particles can also be tuned between pure Ni2P to Ni5P4 and NiP2 by simply decreasing the OAm/TOP ratio and/or changing the nickel precursor (nickel(II)acetylacetonate, nickel(II)acetate tetrahydrate, or bis(cyclooctadiene)nickel(0)). However, at high concentrations of OAm, the product formed is the same regardless of Ni precursor, suggesting the formation of a uniform Ni intermediate (an Ni-oleylamine complex) under these conditions that is responsible for product distribution. Intriguingly, under the extreme phosphidation conditions required to favor Ni5P4 and NiP2 over Ni2P (large excess of TOP), the 20-30 nm crystallites assemble into supraparticles with diameters of 100-500 nm. These factors are discussed in light of a comprehensive

  4. P4 medicine: how systems medicine will transform the healthcare sector and society

    PubMed Central

    Glusman, Gustavo; Brogaard, Kristin; Price, Nathan D; Hood, Leroy

    2014-01-01

    Ten years ago, the proposition that healthcare is evolving from reactive disease care to care that is predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory was regarded as highly speculative. Today, the core elements of that vision are widely accepted and have been articulated in a series of recent reports by the US Institute of Medicine. Systems approaches to biology and medicine are now beginning to provide patients, consumers and physicians with personalized information about each individual’s unique health experience of both health and disease at the molecular, cellular and organ levels. This information will make disease care radically more cost effective by personalizing care to each person’s unique biology and by treating the causes rather than the symptoms of disease. It will also provide the basis for concrete action by consumers to improve their health as they observe the impact of lifestyle decisions. Working together in digitally powered familial and affinity networks, consumers will be able to reduce the incidence of the complex chronic diseases that currently account for 75% of disease-care costs in the USA. PMID:25342952

  5. P4 medicine: how systems medicine will transform the healthcare sector and society.

    PubMed

    Flores, Mauricio; Glusman, Gustavo; Brogaard, Kristin; Price, Nathan D; Hood, Leroy

    2013-01-01

    Ten years ago, the proposition that healthcare is evolving from reactive disease care to care that is predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory was regarded as highly speculative. Today, the core elements of that vision are widely accepted and have been articulated in a series of recent reports by the US Institute of Medicine. Systems approaches to biology and medicine are now beginning to provide patients, consumers and physicians with personalized information about each individual's unique health experience of both health and disease at the molecular, cellular and organ levels. This information will make disease care radically more cost effective by personalizing care to each person's unique biology and by treating the causes rather than the symptoms of disease. It will also provide the basis for concrete action by consumers to improve their health as they observe the impact of lifestyle decisions. Working together in digitally powered familial and affinity networks, consumers will be able to reduce the incidence of the complex chronic diseases that currently account for 75% of disease-care costs in the USA.

  6. Binding Patterns of Rotavirus Genotypes P[4], P[6], and P[8] in China with Histo-Blood Group Antigens.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xin; Li, Dan-di; Sun, Xiao-Man; Guo, Yan-Qing; Xiang, Jing-Yao; Wang, Wei-Huan; Zhang, Li-Xia; Gu, Qing-Jiu; Duan, Zhao-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Rotaviruses (RVs) are an important cause of severe gastroenteritis in children. It has been found that RV may recognize the histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) as ligands or receptors and bind HBGAs in a type-dependent manner. In this study, we investigated the binding specificity of VP8* proteins from human rotaviruses (RV) that are prevalent in China including genotypes P[4], P[6], and P[8]. Through the saliva- and oligosaccharide-based binding assays, we found that the VP8* proteins of P[4] and P[8] RV showed similar reactivity with the Leb and H type 1 antigens, while P[6] RV weakly bound the Leb antigen. These findings may facilitate further research into RV host specificity and vaccine development. PMID:26274396

  7. Binding Patterns of Rotavirus Genotypes P[4], P[6], and P[8] in China with Histo-Blood Group Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xin; Li, Dan-di; Sun, Xiao-man; Guo, Yan-qing; Xiang, Jing-yao; Wang, Wei-huan; Zhang, Li-xia; Gu, Qing-jiu; Duan, Zhao-jun

    2015-01-01

    Rotaviruses (RVs) are an important cause of severe gastroenteritis in children. It has been found that RV may recognize the histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) as ligands or receptors and bind HBGAs in a type-dependent manner. In this study, we investigated the binding specificity of VP8* proteins from human rotaviruses (RV) that are prevalent in China including genotypes P[4], P[6], and P[8]. Through the saliva- and oligosaccharide-based binding assays, we found that the VP8* proteins of P[4] and P[8] RV showed similar reactivity with the Leb and H type 1 antigens, while P[6] RV weakly bound the Leb antigen. These findings may facilitate further research into RV host specificity and vaccine development. PMID:26274396

  8. Clinical Applications of S53P4 Bioactive Glass in Bone Healing and Osteomyelitic Treatment: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    van Gestel, N. A. P.; Geurts, J.; Hulsen, D. J. W.; van Rietbergen, B.; Hofmann, S.; Arts, J. J.

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, S53P4 bioactive glass is indicated as a bone graft substitute in various clinical applications. This review provides an overview of the current published clinical results on indications such as craniofacial procedures, grafting of benign bone tumour defects, instrumental spondylodesis, and the treatment of osteomyelitis. Given the reported results that are based on examinations, such as clinical examinations by the surgeons, radiographs, CT, and MRI images, S53P4 bioactive glass may be beneficial in the various reported applications. Especially in craniofacial reconstructions like mastoid obliteration and orbital floor reconstructions, in grafting bone tumour defects, and in the treatment of osteomyelitis very promising results are obtained. Randomized clinical trials need to be performed in order to determine whether bioactive glass would be able to replace the current golden standard of autologous bone usage or with the use of antibiotic containing PMMA beads (in the case of osteomyelitis). PMID:26504821

  9. Bare-nucleus astrophysical factor of the 3He(d,p)4He reaction via the ``Trojan horse'' method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Cognata, M.; Spitaleri, C.; Tumino, A.; Typel, S.; Cherubini, S.; Lamia, L.; Musumarra, A.; Pizzone, R. G.; Rinollo, A.; Rolfs, C.; Romano, S.; Schürmann, D.; Strieder, F.

    2005-12-01

    The 3He(d,p)4He reaction has been studied from Ec.m.=600 keV down to astrophysical energies by means of the “Trojan horse” method using the 6Li(3He,pα)4He three-body reaction at Elab=5 and 6 MeV. Coincidence spectra were measured in kinematic conditions favoring the quasifree 3He+2H process. The bare astrophysical factor Sb(E) for the 3He(d,p)4He reaction was extracted from the three-body cross section in the modified plane-wave Born approximation. Comparison with the Sb extrapolation from the free two-body data is presented. The independent estimate of the screening potential as obtained with the present work seems to confirm the theoretical adiabatic limit.

  10. Crystal structure and conductivity investigation of KDyP 4O 12: a new potassium dysprosium cyclotetraphosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amri, M.; Zouari, N.; Mhiri, T.; Daoud, A.; Gravereau, P.

    2006-01-01

    A single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis has been performed on KDyP 4O 12 synthesized by a flux method. The new compound crystallizes at room temperature in the monoclinic space group C2/ c with unit cell parameters: a=7.812(2) Å, b=12.318(3) Å, c=10.441(2) Å, β=111.09(2)°, V=937.42(4) Å 3 and Dcal=3.66 g cm -3 for Z=4. A full-matrix least square refinement gave R1=0.022, wR2=0.04 for 2421 independent reflections ( I>2σ( I)) refined with 84 parameters. The structure is built up from P 4O 124- cyclotetraphosphate anions linked by DyO 8 polyhedra to form a three-dimensional framework, which delimits intersecting oxygen tunnels in which the K + ions are located. The atomic arrangement can be described as a succession of layers extending along the [010] direction. The P 4O 124- ring anion is centrosymmetrical is connected by irregularly shaped KO 10 polyhedra to form a layer structure parallel to (001). Dysprosium and potassium are surrounded by eight and ten oxygen atoms respectively. Samples have been examined by impedance and infrared spectroscopy techniques. The reported IR absorption investigation, recorded at room temperature in the frequency range 200-4000 cm -1, shows some bands characteristic of cyclotetraphosphates. The electrical conductivity of KDyP 4O 12 has subsequently been measured as a function of temperature, it represents a significant ionic conductivity and activation energy ( σ=2.15×10 -4 Ω -1cm -1 at 453 K and Ea=0.387 eV) corresponding to the mobility of the K + cations located within tunnels.

  11. P4 capped amides and lactams as HCV NS3 protease inhibitors with improved potency and DMPK profile

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, Latha G.; Sannigrahi, Mousumi; Bogen, Stephane; Pinto, Patrick; Chen, Kevin X.; Prongay, Andrew; Tong, Xiao; Cheng, K.-C.; Girijavallabhann, Viyyoor; Njoroge, F. George

    2010-09-03

    SAR studies on the extension of P3 unit of Boceprevir (1, SCH 503034) with amides and lactams and their synthesis is described. Extensive SAR studies resulted in the identification of 36 bearing 4,4-dimethyl lactam as the new P4 cap unit with improved potency (K*{sub i}, EC 90 = 70 nM) and pharmacokinetic properties (Rat AUC (PO) = 3.52 {micro}M h) compared to 1.

  12. The in vitro antibacterial effect of S53P4 bioactive glass and gentamicin impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads.

    PubMed

    Gergely, István; Zazgyva, Ancuta; Man, Adrian; Zuh, Sándor György; Pop, Tudor Sorin

    2014-06-01

    Osteomyelitis is a disease that is still difficult to treat, with considerable morbidity and associated costs. The current "gold standard" in treatment - debridement and implantation of antibiotic impregnated polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) beads - presents the disadvantage of a second surgical intervention required for the removal of the beads. We comparatively investigated the in vitro antibacterial effect of S53P4 bioactive glass (BAG) and gentamicin impregnated PMMA beads. Bacterial viability was assessed hourly by Standard Plate Count during 24 hours of incubation, by determining the number of colony forming units (CFU) of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Both tested materials showed an antibacterial effect on all studied bacteria. In case of S. aureus, BAG granules were almost as effective as gentamicin impregnated PMMA beads, with no statistically significant differences. In contrast, PMMA beads had a superior antibacterial effect on S. epidermidis and K. pneumoniae. The antibacterial effect of BAG was greatly influenced by granule size and contact time. There was a statistically significant correlation between pH values and the number of CFU in the case of S53P4 BAG granules. As a biocompatible and biodegradable bone substitute, S53P4 bioactive glass can be a good alternative in the local management of osteomyelitis.

  13. Proteomic Analysis of the Rat Canalicular Membrane Reveals Expression of a Complex System of P4-ATPases in Liver.

    PubMed

    Chaubey, Pururawa Mayank; Hofstetter, Lia; Roschitzki, Bernd; Stieger, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Transport processes in the canalicular membrane are key elements in bile formation and are the driving force of the enterohepatic circulation of bile salts. The canalicular membrane is constantly exposed to the detergent action of bile salts. One potential element protecting the canalicular membrane from the high canalicular bile salt concentrations may be bile salt resistant microdomains, however additional factors are likely to play a role. To obtain more insights into the molecular composition of the canalicular membrane, the proteome of highly purified rat canalicular membrane vesicles was determined. Isolated rat canalicular membrane vesicles were stripped from adhering proteins, deglycosylated and protease digested before subjecting the samples to shot gun proteomic analysis. The expression of individual candidates was studied by PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. A total of 2449 proteins were identified, of which 1282 were predicted to be membrane proteins. About 50% of the proteins identified here were absent from previously published liver proteomes. In addition to ATP8B1, four more P4-ATPases were identified. ATP8A1 and ATP9A showed expression specific to the canalicular membrane, ATP11C at the bLPM and ATP11A in an intracellular vesicular compartment partially colocalizing with RAB7A and EEA1 as markers of the endosomal compartment. This study helped to identify additional P4-ATPases from rat liver particularly in the canalicular membrane, previously not known to be expressed in liver. These P4-ATPases might be contributing for maintaining transmembrane lipid homeostasis in hepatocytes.

  14. Pathways of cylindrical orientations in PS-b-P4VP diblock copolymer thin films upon solvent vapor annealing.

    PubMed

    Gowd, E Bhoje; Koga, Tadanori; Endoh, Maya K; Kumar, Kamlesh; Stamm, Manfred

    2014-10-21

    The orientation changes of perpendicular cylindrical microdomains in polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) thin films upon annealing in different solvent vapors were investigated by in situ grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) and ex situ scanning force microscopy (SFM). The swelling of P4VP perpendicular cylinders (C⊥) in chloroform, a non-selective solvent vapor, leads to the reorientation to in-plane cylinders through a disordered state in a particular kinetic pathway in the phase diagram upon drying. On the other hand, the swelling of the P4VP perpendicular cylinders in a selective solvent vapor (i.e., 1,4-dioxane) induces a morphological transition from cylindrical to ellipsoidal as a transient structure to spherical microdomains; subsequent solvent evaporation resulted in shrinkage of the matrix in the vertical direction, merging the ellipsoidal domains into the perpendicularly aligned cylinders. In this paper, we have discussed the mechanism based on the selectivity of the solvent to the constituting blocks that is mainly responsible for the orientation changes. PMID:25142254

  15. Influence of H2TOEtPyP4 porphyrin on the stability and conductivity of bilayer lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Torosyan, Anahit; Arakelyan, Valeri

    2015-12-01

    Many water-soluble cationic porphyrins are known to be prospective chemotherapeutics and photosensitizers for cancer treatment and diagnosis. The physicochemical properties of porphyrins, in particular their interactions with membranes, are important determining factors of their biological activity. The influence of cationic meso-tetra-[4-N-(2'-hydroxyethyl) pyridyl] porphyrin (H2TOEtPyP) on the stability and conductivity of bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs) was studied. H2TOEtPyP4 porphyrin was shown to decrease the stability of BLMs made of a mixture of DOPS and DPPE (1:1) in an electric field because of a reduction of line tension of spontaneously formed pore edges in the BLM. The presence of cationic porphyrin was found to reduce BLM surface tension. This effect was enhanced with increasing porphyrin concentration. H2TOEtPyP4 increased the probability of spontaneous pore formation. Further investigating the cyclic current-voltage characteristics of BLMs allowed determining the electrical capacity and conductivity of BLMs in the presence of H2TOEtPyP4 porphyrin. It was shown that in the presence of cationic porphyrin the electrical capacity as well as conductivity of the BLM increases.

  16. Influence of H2TOEtPyP4 porphyrin on the stability and conductivity of bilayer lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Torosyan, Anahit; Arakelyan, Valeri

    2015-12-01

    Many water-soluble cationic porphyrins are known to be prospective chemotherapeutics and photosensitizers for cancer treatment and diagnosis. The physicochemical properties of porphyrins, in particular their interactions with membranes, are important determining factors of their biological activity. The influence of cationic meso-tetra-[4-N-(2'-hydroxyethyl) pyridyl] porphyrin (H2TOEtPyP) on the stability and conductivity of bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs) was studied. H2TOEtPyP4 porphyrin was shown to decrease the stability of BLMs made of a mixture of DOPS and DPPE (1:1) in an electric field because of a reduction of line tension of spontaneously formed pore edges in the BLM. The presence of cationic porphyrin was found to reduce BLM surface tension. This effect was enhanced with increasing porphyrin concentration. H2TOEtPyP4 increased the probability of spontaneous pore formation. Further investigating the cyclic current-voltage characteristics of BLMs allowed determining the electrical capacity and conductivity of BLMs in the presence of H2TOEtPyP4 porphyrin. It was shown that in the presence of cationic porphyrin the electrical capacity as well as conductivity of the BLM increases. PMID:26307365

  17. Proteomic Analysis of the Rat Canalicular Membrane Reveals Expression of a Complex System of P4-ATPases in Liver

    PubMed Central

    Chaubey, Pururawa Mayank; Hofstetter, Lia; Roschitzki, Bernd; Stieger, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Transport processes in the canalicular membrane are key elements in bile formation and are the driving force of the enterohepatic circulation of bile salts. The canalicular membrane is constantly exposed to the detergent action of bile salts. One potential element protecting the canalicular membrane from the high canalicular bile salt concentrations may be bile salt resistant microdomains, however additional factors are likely to play a role. To obtain more insights into the molecular composition of the canalicular membrane, the proteome of highly purified rat canalicular membrane vesicles was determined. Isolated rat canalicular membrane vesicles were stripped from adhering proteins, deglycosylated and protease digested before subjecting the samples to shot gun proteomic analysis. The expression of individual candidates was studied by PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. A total of 2449 proteins were identified, of which 1282 were predicted to be membrane proteins. About 50% of the proteins identified here were absent from previously published liver proteomes. In addition to ATP8B1, four more P4-ATPases were identified. ATP8A1 and ATP9A showed expression specific to the canalicular membrane, ATP11C at the bLPM and ATP11A in an intracellular vesicular compartment partially colocalizing with RAB7A and EEA1 as markers of the endosomal compartment. This study helped to identify additional P4-ATPases from rat liver particularly in the canalicular membrane, previously not known to be expressed in liver. These P4-ATPases might be contributing for maintaining transmembrane lipid homeostasis in hepatocytes. PMID:27347675

  18. Proteomic Analysis of the Rat Canalicular Membrane Reveals Expression of a Complex System of P4-ATPases in Liver.

    PubMed

    Chaubey, Pururawa Mayank; Hofstetter, Lia; Roschitzki, Bernd; Stieger, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Transport processes in the canalicular membrane are key elements in bile formation and are the driving force of the enterohepatic circulation of bile salts. The canalicular membrane is constantly exposed to the detergent action of bile salts. One potential element protecting the canalicular membrane from the high canalicular bile salt concentrations may be bile salt resistant microdomains, however additional factors are likely to play a role. To obtain more insights into the molecular composition of the canalicular membrane, the proteome of highly purified rat canalicular membrane vesicles was determined. Isolated rat canalicular membrane vesicles were stripped from adhering proteins, deglycosylated and protease digested before subjecting the samples to shot gun proteomic analysis. The expression of individual candidates was studied by PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. A total of 2449 proteins were identified, of which 1282 were predicted to be membrane proteins. About 50% of the proteins identified here were absent from previously published liver proteomes. In addition to ATP8B1, four more P4-ATPases were identified. ATP8A1 and ATP9A showed expression specific to the canalicular membrane, ATP11C at the bLPM and ATP11A in an intracellular vesicular compartment partially colocalizing with RAB7A and EEA1 as markers of the endosomal compartment. This study helped to identify additional P4-ATPases from rat liver particularly in the canalicular membrane, previously not known to be expressed in liver. These P4-ATPases might be contributing for maintaining transmembrane lipid homeostasis in hepatocytes. PMID:27347675

  19. Activation and repression of transcription at two different phage phi29 promoters are mediated by interaction of the same residues of regulatory protein p4 with RNA polymerase.

    PubMed Central

    Monsalve, M; Mencia, M; Rojo, F; Salas, M

    1996-01-01

    Phage phi29 regulatory protein p4 activates transcription from the late A3 promoter and represses the main early promoters, named A2b and A2c. Activation involves stabilization of RNA polymerase (RNAP) at the A3 promoter as a closed complex and is mediated by interaction between RNAP and a small domain of protein p4 in which residue Arg120 plays an essential role. We show that protein p4 represses the A2c promoter by binding to DNA immediately upstream from RNAP in a way that does not hinder RNAP binding; rather, the two proteins bind cooperatively to DNA. In the presence of protein p4, RNAP can form an initiated complex at the A2c promoter that generates short abortive transcripts, but cannot leave the promoter. Mutation of protein p4 residue Arg120, which relieves the contact between the two proteins, leads to a loss of repression. Therefore, the contact between protein p4 and RNAP through the protein p4 domain containing Arg120 can activate or repress transcription, depending on the promoter. The relative position of protein p4 and RNAP, which is different at each promoter, together with the distinct characteristics of the two promoters, may determine whether protein p4 activates or represses transcription. Images PMID:8617213

  20. Outcomes of a Seven Practice Pilot in a Pay For Performance (P4P)-Based Program in Pennsylvania

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Rhonda M.; Johnson, Twyla; Zimmerman, Sarah D.; Marsh, Gary M.; Garcia-Dominic, Oralia

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine how a targeted six-month interventions impacted Best Practice/Patient Outcomes for minority patients receiving primary care in physician practices participating in a pay-for-performance (P4P) program. Methods P4P Practices were invited to participate in a pilot intervention study designed to improve care for minority patients with hypertension, diabetes or pediatric asthma. Patient medical records were reviewed to assess how the interventions impacted (n=7 practices): Body mass index, diet and exercise, smoking, compliance with visits as recommended, blood pressure, sodium intake and weight management counseling, medication reconciliation, HbA1c testing, annual lipid profile, and anti-inflammatory medications. Results Significant improvements in various clinical quality measures were observed in all seven practices. Of the 19 specified interventions, 13 were statistically significant at α=0.05 level and 14 met the target proportion. This suggests that the best practice intervention had a significant impact on some of the health care processes in the physician practices. Conclusions The most impactful interventions were those related to face-to-face educational discussions, patient medical chart documentations rather than those pertaining to medication adherence. Improvements in measuring reporting and recording of data at post-intervention were also observed. PMID:25893158

  1. Influence of SrO substitution for CaO on the properties of bioactive glass S53P4.

    PubMed

    Massera, Jonathan; Hupa, Leena

    2014-03-01

    Commercial melt-quenched bioactive glasses consist of the oxides of silicon, phosphorus, calcium and sodium. Doping of the glasses with oxides of some other elements is known to affect their capability to support hydroxyapatite formation and thus bone tissue healing but also to modify their high temperature processing parameters. In the present study, the influence of gradual substitution of SrO for CaO on the properties of the bioactive glass S53P4 was studied. Thermal analysis and hot stage microscopy were utilized to measure the thermal properties of the glasses. The in vitro bioactivity and solubility was measured by immersing the glasses in simulated body fluid for 6 h to 1 week. The formation of silica rich and hydroxyapatite layers was assessed from FTIR spectra analysis and SEM images of the glass surface. Increasing substitution of SrO for CaO decreased all characteristic temperatures and led to a slightly stronger glass network. The initial glass dissolution rate increased with SrO content. Hydroxyapatite layer was formed on all glasses but on the SrO containing glasses the layer was thinner and contained also strontium. The results suggest that substituting SrO for CaO in S53P4 glass retards the bioactivity. However, substitution greater than 10 mol% allow for precipitation of a strontium substituted hydroxyapatite layer. PMID:24338267

  2. Cutaneous and Labyrinthine Tolerance of Bioactive Glass S53P4 in Mastoid and Epitympanic Obliteration Surgery: Prospective Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Bernardeschi, Daniele; Nguyen, Yann; Russo, Francesca Yoshie; Mosnier, Isabelle; Ferrary, Evelyne; Sterkers, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the cutaneous and the inner ear tolerance of bioactive glass S53P4 when used in the mastoid and epitympanic obliteration for chronic otitis surgery. Material and Methods. Forty-one cases have been included in this prospective study. Cutaneous tolerance was clinically evaluated 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after surgery with a physical examination of the retroauricular and external auditory canal (EAC) skin and the presence of otalgia; the inner ear tolerance was assessed by bone-conduction hearing threshold 1 day after surgery and by the presence of vertigo or imbalance. Results. All surgeries but 1 were uneventful: all patients maintained the preoperative bone-conduction hearing threshold except for one case in which the round window membrane was opened during the dissection of the cholesteatoma in the hypotympanum and this led to a dead ear. No dizziness or vertigo was reported. Three months after surgery, healing was achieved in all cases with a healthy painless skin. No cases of revision surgery for removal of the granules occurred in this study. Conclusion. The bioactive glass S53P4 is a well-tolerated biomaterial for primary or revision chronic otitis surgery, as shown by the local skin reaction which lasted less than 3 months and by the absence of labyrinthine complications. PMID:26504792

  3. Formation of sub-7 nm feature size PS-b-P4VP block copolymer structures by solvent vapour process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhari, Atul; Ghoshal, Tandra; Shaw, Matthew T.; Cummins, Cian; Borah, Dipu; Holmes, Justin D.; Morris, Michael A.

    2014-03-01

    The nanometer range structure produced by thin films of diblock copolymers makes them a great of interest as templates for the microelectronics industry. We investigated the effect of annealing solvents and/or mixture of the solvents in case of symmetric Poly (styrene-block-4vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) diblock copolymer to get the desired line patterns. In this paper, we used different molecular weights PS-b-P4VP to demonstrate the scalability of such high χ BCP system which requires precise fine-tuning of interfacial energies achieved by surface treatment and that improves the wetting property, ordering, and minimizes defect densities. Bare Silicon Substrates were also modified with polystyrene brush and ethylene glycol self-assembled monolayer in a simple quick reproducible way. Also, a novel and simple in situ hard mask technique was used to generate sub-7nm Iron oxide nanowires with a high aspect ratio on Silicon substrate, which can be used to develop silicon nanowires post pattern transfer.

  4. Bidirectional impact of atrazine-induced elevations in progesterone (P4) on the LH surge in the ovariectomized, estradiol (E2)-primed rat

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple daily exposures to the herbicide atrazine (ATZ) have been reported to suppress the luteinizing hormone surge (LHS) in female rats. Exposure has also been found to elevate P4 concentrations, and an increase in P4 is known to have a different directional effect on LH depe...

  5. Bidirectional impact of atrazine-induced elvations in progesterone (P4) on the LH Surge in the ovariectomized (OVX), estradiol (E2)-primed rat

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple daily exposures to the herbicide atrazine (ATZ) have been reported to suppress the luteinizing hormone surge (LHS) in female rats. Exposure has also been found to elevate P4 concentrations, and an increase in P4 is known to have a different directional effect on LH depen...

  6. Increase in VEGF secretion from human fibroblast cells by bioactive glass S53P4 to stimulate angiogenesis in bone.

    PubMed

    Detsch, Rainer; Stoor, Patricia; Grünewald, Alina; Roether, Judith A; Lindfors, Nina C; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2014-11-01

    Bioactive glasses (BAGs) are being investigated for the repair and reconstruction of bone defects, as they exhibit osteoconductive and osteostimulatory potential. However, successful bone regeneration requires also the neovascularization of the construct which is, among other factors, guided by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In this study, BAG S53P4 (53% SiO2 , 23% Na2 O, 20% CaO, 4% P2 O5 ) is investigated in relation to VEGF-release and response of fibroblast cells. Human CD-18CO fibroblasts were cultivated in contact with different granules of different sizes (0.5-0.8 mm, 1.0-2.0 mm, and 2.0-3.15 mm) and at different concentrations (0-1 wt/vol % of BAG) for 72 h. The analysis of morphology revealed no toxic effect for all granule sizes and concentrations. Compared with the reference, lactate dehydrogenase-activity of CCD-18CO cells increased in contact with BAG samples. The VEGF release from CCD-18CO fibroblasts cultured on different granule sizes and at different concentrations after 72 h of incubation was quantified. It was found that particles of 0.5-0.8 mm and 1.0-2.0 mm in size enhanced VEGF release, whereas BAG particle sizes of 2.0-3.15 mm led to inhibition of VEGF release. The results are relevant to understand the influence of the particle size and concentration of BAG S53P4 on VEGF expression and neovascularization. PMID:24357515

  7. Phage phi 29 regulatory protein p4 stabilizes the binding of the RNA polymerase to the late promoter in a process involving direct protein-protein contacts.

    PubMed

    Nuez, B; Rojo, F; Salas, M

    1992-12-01

    Transcription from the late promoter, PA3, of Bacillus subtilis phage phi 29 is activated by the viral regulatory protein p4. A kinetic analysis of the activation process has revealed that the role of protein p4 is to stabilize the binding of RNA polymerase to the promoter as a closed complex without significantly affecting further steps of the initiation process. Electrophoretic band-shift assays performed with a DNA fragment spanning only the protein p4 binding site showed that RNA polymerase could efficiently retard the complex formed by protein p4 bound to the DNA. Similarly, when a DNA fragment containing only the RNA polymerase-binding region of PA3 was used, p4 greatly stimulated the binding of RNA polymerase to the DNA. These results strongly suggest that p4 and RNA polymerase contact each other at the PA3 promoter. In the light of current knowledge of the p4 activation mechanism, we propose that direct contacts between the two proteins participate in the activation process.

  8. The immunologically protective P-4 antigen of Leishmania amastigotes. A developmentally regulated single strand-specific nuclease associated with the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Kar, S; Soong, L; Colmenares, M; Goldsmith-Pestana, K; McMahon-Pratt, D

    2000-12-01

    The purified membrane-associated Leishmania pifanoi amastigote protein P-4 has been shown to induce protective immunity against infection and to elicit preferentially a T helper 1-like response in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with American cutaneous leishmaniasis. As this molecule is potentially important for future vaccine studies, the L. pifanoi gene encoding the P-4 membrane protein was cloned and sequenced. Southern blot analyses indicate the presence of six tandemly arrayed copies of the P-4 gene in L. pifanoi; homologues of the P-4 gene are found in all other species of the genus Leishmania examined. DNA-derived protein sequence data indicated an identity to the P1 zinc-dependent nuclease of Penicillium citrinum (20.8%) and the C-terminal domain of the 3' nucleotidase of Leishmania donovani (33.7%). Consistent with these sequence analyses, purified L. pifanoi P-4 protein possesses single strand nuclease (DNA and RNA) and phosphomonoesterase activity, with a preference for UMP > TMP > AMP > CMP. Double-labeling immunofluorescence microscopic analyses employing anti-binding protein antibodies revealed that the P-4 protein is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum of the amastigote. Northern blot analyses indicated that the gene is selectively expressed in the intracellular amastigote stage (mammalian host) but not in the promastigote stage (insect) of the parasite. Based upon its subcellular localization and single-stranded specific nuclease activity, possible roles of the P-4 nuclease in the amastigote in RNA stability (gene expression) or DNA repair are discussed.

  9. First-principles calculations on structure and properties of amorphous Li5P4O8N3 (LiPON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicolo, Sabrina; Albe, Karsten

    2016-11-01

    The structural, electronic and ion transport properties of an amorphous member of the LiPON family with non-trivial composition and cross-linking are studied by means of electronic structure calculations within Density Functional Theory. By a combination of an evolutionary algorithm followed by simulated annealing and alternatively by a rapid quenching protocol, structural models of disordered Li5P4O8N3 are generated, which are characterized by a local demixing in Li-rich and Li-poor layers. These structures have a composition close to what is found experimentally in thin films and contain all the expected diversely coordinated atoms, namely triply- and doubly-coordinated nitrogens and bridging and non-bridging oxygens. The issue of ionic conductivity is addressed by calculating defect formation energies and migration barriers of neutral and charged point defects. Li+ interstitials are energetically much preferred over vacancies, both when the lithium reservoir is metallic lithium and LiCoO2. The competitive formation of neutral Li interstitials when LiPON is contacted with metallic Li results in the chemical reduction of LiPON and the disruption of the network, as recently observed in experiments.

  10. Diadenosine 5', 5'''-P(1),P(4)-tetraphosphate (Ap4A) is synthesized in response to DNA damage and inhibits the initiation of DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Marriott, Andrew S; Copeland, Nikki A; Cunningham, Ryan; Wilkinson, Mark C; McLennan, Alexander G; Jones, Nigel J

    2015-09-01

    The level of intracellular diadenosine 5', 5'''-P(1),P(4)-tetraphosphate (Ap4A) increases several fold in mammalian cells treated with non-cytotoxic doses of interstrand DNA-crosslinking agents such as mitomycin C. It is also increased in cells lacking DNA repair proteins including XRCC1, PARP1, APTX and FANCG, while >50-fold increases (up to around 25 μM) are achieved in repair mutants exposed to mitomycin C. Part of this induced Ap4A is converted into novel derivatives, identified as mono- and di-ADP-ribosylated Ap4A. Gene knockout experiments suggest that DNA ligase III is primarily responsible for the synthesis of damage-induced Ap4A and that PARP1 and PARP2 can both catalyze its ADP-ribosylation. Degradative proteins such as aprataxin may also contribute to the increase. Using a cell-free replication system, Ap4A was found to cause a marked inhibition of the initiation of DNA replicons, while elongation was unaffected. Maximum inhibition of 70-80% was achieved with 20 μM Ap4A. Ap3A, Ap5A, Gp4G and ADP-ribosylated Ap4A were without effect. It is proposed that Ap4A acts as an important inducible ligand in the DNA damage response to prevent the replication of damaged DNA.

  11. Ab initio investigations of the electronic structures and chemical bonding in LiCo6P4 and Li2Co12P7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matar, Samir F.; Al-Alam, Adel; Ouaini, Naïm; Pöttgen, Rainer

    2013-06-01

    The electronic structures of the metal-rich phosphides LiCo6P4 and Li2Co12P7 were studied by DFT calculations. Both phosphides consist of three-dimensional [Co6P4] and [Co12P7] polyanionic networks which leave hexagonal channels for the lithium atoms. COOP data show strong Co-P and Co-Co bonding within the polyanions. The lithium atoms have trigonal prismatic phosphorus coordination. Total energy calculations indicate stability upon de-lithiation towards the Co6P4 and Co12P7 substructures

  12. Specific metal-ion binding sites in a model of the P4-P6 triple-helical domain of a group I intron.

    PubMed Central

    Lindqvist, M; Sandström, K; Liepins, V; Strömberg, R; Gräslund, A

    2001-01-01

    Divalent metal ions play a crucial role in RNA structure and catalysis. Phosphorothioate substitution and manganese rescue experiments can reveal phosphate oxygens interacting specifically with magnesium ions essential for structure and/or activity. In this study, phosphorothioate interference experiments in combination with structural sensitive circular dichroism spectroscopy have been used to probe molecular interactions underlying an important RNA structural motif. We have studied a synthetic model of the P4-P6 triple-helical domain in the bacteriophage T4 nrdB group I intron, which has a core sequence analogous to the Tetrahymena ribozyme. Rp and Sp sulfur substitutions were introduced into two adjacent nucleotides positioned at the 3' end of helix P6 (U452) and in the joining region J6/7 (U453). The effects of sulfur substitution on triple helix formation in the presence of different ratios of magnesium and manganese were studied by the use of difference circular dichroism spectroscopy. The results show that the pro-Sp oxygen of U452 acts as a ligand for a structurally important magnesium ion, whereas no such effect is seen for the pro-Rp oxygen of U452. The importance of the pro-Rp and pro-Sp oxygens of U453 is less clear, because addition of manganese could not significantly restore the triple-helical interactions within the isolated substituted model systems. The interpretation is that U453 is so sensitive to structural disturbance that any change at this position hinders the proper formation of the triple helix. PMID:11497430

  13. Synthesis, crystal structure and optical properties of an indium phosphate K 3In 3P 4O 16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S.-L.; Zhang, H.; Xie, Z.; Zhao, D.; Zhang, W.-L.; Cheng, W.-D.

    2009-04-01

    An alkali-metal indium phosphate crystal, K 3In 3P 4O 16, has been synthesized by a high-temperature solution reaction and exhibits a new structure in the family of the alkali-metal indium phosphates system. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis shows the structure to be monoclinic with space group P2 1/ n, and the following cell parameters: a=9.7003(18), b=9.8065(18), c=15.855(3) Å, β=90.346(3)°, V=1508.2(5) Å 3, Z=4, R=0.0254. It possesses three-dimensional [In(PO)4]n3- anionic frameworks with tunnels occupied by K + cations running along the a-axis. The emission and absorption spectra of the compound have been investigated. Additionally, the calculations of energy band structure, density of states, dielectric constants and refractive indexes have been performed with the density functional theory method. Also, the two-photon absorption spectrum is simulated by two-band model. The obtained results tend to support the experimental data.

  14. Characterization of G2P[4] rotavirus strains causing outbreaks of gastroenteritis in the Northern Territory, Australia, in 1999, 2004 and 2009.

    PubMed

    Donato, Celeste M; Cowley, Daniel; Donker, Nicole C; Bogdanovic-Sakran, Nada; Snelling, Thomas L; Kirkwood, Carl D

    2014-12-01

    Outbreaks of rotavirus diarrhea cause a large disease burden in the Alice Springs region of the Northern Territory, Australia. The introduction of the rotavirus vaccine Rotarix® has been associated with an increase in detection of G2P[4] strains in many countries. However, G2P[4] emergence has also been observed in vaccine-naive countries, suggesting a general global increase in the circulation of G2P[4] strains. A G2P[4] rotavirus outbreak occurred in 2009, 28 months after the introduction of the Rotarix® vaccine and 43 children were hospitalized. Pre-vaccine introduction, G2P[4] strains were observed associated with large outbreaks in 1999 and 2004. To determine the genetic relationship between these strains whole genome sequence analysis was conducted on representative strains from each of the G2P[4] outbreaks, in 1999, 2004 and 2009. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the majority of genes from 2009 outbreak strain clustered with contemporary global strains, while the VP7 gene clustered with contemporary and older strains and was antigenically distinct to the majority of contemporary global G2P[4] strains; suggesting the strain was an intragenogroup reassortant. The 1999 and 2009 strains appear to share similar evolutionary origins, and both had a high degree of genetic identity to previously identified Australian and global strains. Conversely, the 2004 outbreak strain was more divergent in comparison to Australian and global strains. The 1999 and 2004 outbreaks likely occurred due to the accumulation of immunologically naïve children in the population following low levels of G2P[4] rotavirus disease in the community in the years prior to each outbreak. The 2009 outbreak was associated with moderate vaccine coverage in the population and vaccine efficacy against the strain was low. The circulation of this unusual strain in the population combined with low vaccine coverage and diminished vaccine efficacy likely contributed to the outbreak occurring in this

  15. Role of post-translational modifications at the β-subunit ectodomain in complex association with a promiscuous plant P4-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Costa, Sara R; Marek, Magdalena; Axelsen, Kristian B; Theorin, Lisa; Pomorski, Thomas G; López-Marqués, Rosa L

    2016-06-01

    P-type ATPases of subfamily IV (P4-ATPases) constitute a major group of phospholipid flippases that form heteromeric complexes with members of the Cdc50 (cell division control 50) protein family. Some P4-ATPases interact specifically with only one β-subunit isoform, whereas others are promiscuous and can interact with several isoforms. In the present study, we used a site-directed mutagenesis approach to assess the role of post-translational modifications at the plant ALIS5 β-subunit ectodomain in the functionality of the promiscuous plant P4-ATPase ALA2. We identified two N-glycosylated residues, Asn(181) and Asn(231) Whereas mutation of Asn(231) seems to have a small effect on P4-ATPase complex formation, mutation of evolutionarily conserved Asn(181) disrupts interaction between the two subunits. Of the four cysteine residues located in the ALIS5 ectodomain, mutation of Cys(86) and Cys(107) compromises complex association, but the mutant β-subunits still promote complex trafficking and activity to some extent. In contrast, disruption of a conserved disulfide bond between Cys(158) and Cys(172) has no effect on the P4-ATPase complex. Our results demonstrate that post-translational modifications in the β-subunit have different functional roles in different organisms, which may be related to the promiscuity of the P4-ATPase. PMID:27048590

  16. Role of post-translational modifications at the β-subunit ectodomain in complex association with a promiscuous plant P4-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Sara R.; Marek, Magdalena; Axelsen, Kristian B.; Theorin, Lisa; Pomorski, Thomas G.; López-Marqués, Rosa L.

    2016-01-01

    P-type ATPases of subfamily IV (P4-ATPases) constitute a major group of phospholipid flippases that form heteromeric complexes with members of the Cdc50 (cell division control 50) protein family. Some P4-ATPases interact specifically with only one β-subunit isoform, whereas others are promiscuous and can interact with several isoforms. In the present study, we used a site-directed mutagenesis approach to assess the role of post-translational modifications at the plant ALIS5 β-subunit ectodomain in the functionality of the promiscuous plant P4-ATPase ALA2. We identified two N-glycosylated residues, Asn181 and Asn231. Whereas mutation of Asn231 seems to have a small effect on P4-ATPase complex formation, mutation of evolutionarily conserved Asn181 disrupts interaction between the two subunits. Of the four cysteine residues located in the ALIS5 ectodomain, mutation of Cys86 and Cys107 compromises complex association, but the mutant β-subunits still promote complex trafficking and activity to some extent. In contrast, disruption of a conserved disulfide bond between Cys158 and Cys172 has no effect on the P4-ATPase complex. Our results demonstrate that post-translational modifications in the β-subunit have different functional roles in different organisms, which may be related to the promiscuity of the P4-ATPase. PMID:27048590

  17. Activation of White Phosphorus by Low-Valent Group 5 Complexes: Formation and Reactivity of cyclo-P4 Inverted Sandwich Compounds

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report the synthesis and comprehensive study of the electronic structure of a unique series of dinuclear group 5 cyclo-tetraphosphide inverted sandwich complexes. White phosphorus (P4) reacts with niobium(III) and tantalum(III) β-diketiminate (BDI) tert-butylimido complexes to produce the bridging cyclo-P4 phosphide species {[(BDI)(NtBu)M]2(μ-η3:η3P4)} (1, M = Nb; 2, M = Ta) in fair yields. 1 is alternatively synthesized upon hydrogenolysis of (BDI)Nb(NtBu)Me2 in the presence of P4. The trinuclear side product {[(BDI)NbNtBu]3(μ-P12)} (3) is also identified. Protonation of 1 with [HOEt2][B(C6F5)4] does not occur at the phosphide ring but rather involves the BDI ligand to yield {[(BDI#)Nb(NtBu)]2(μ-η3:η3P4)}[B(C6F5)4]2 (4). The monocation and dication analogues {[(BDI)(NtBu)Nb]2(μ-η3:η3P4)}{B(ArF)4}n (5, n = 1; 6, n = 2) are both synthesized by oxidation of 1 with AgBArF. DFT calculations were used in combination with EPR and UV–visible spectroscopies to probe the nature of the metal–phosphorus bonding. PMID:25469924

  18. Molecular Characterization of Plant Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes Belonging to the UbcP4/E2-C/UBCx/UbcH10 Gene Family1

    PubMed Central

    Criqui, Marie Claire; de Almeida Engler, Janice; Camasses, Alain; Capron, Arnaud; Parmentier, Yves; Inzé, Dirk; Genschik, Pascal

    2002-01-01

    The anaphase promoting complex or cyclosome is the ubiquitin-ligase that targets destruction box-containing proteins for proteolysis during the cell cycle. Anaphase promoting complex or cyclosome and its activator (the fizzy and fizzy-related) proteins work together with ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (UBCs) (E2s). One class of E2s (called E2-C) seems specifically involved in cyclin B1 degradation. Although it has recently been shown that mammalian E2-C is regulated at the protein level during the cell cycle, not much is known concerning the expression of these genes. Arabidopsis encodes two genes belonging to the E2-C gene family (called UBC19 and UBC20). We found that UBC19 is able to complement fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) UbcP4-140 mutant, indicating that the plant protein can functionally replace its yeast ortholog for protein degradation during mitosis. In situ hybridization experiments were performed to study the expression of the E2-C genes in various tissues of plants. Their transcripts were always, but not exclusively, found in tissues active for cell division. Thus, the UBC19/20 E2s may have a key function during cell cycle, but may also be involved in ubiquitylation reactions occurring during differentiation and/or in differentiated cells. Finally, we showed that a translational fusion protein between UBC19 and green fluorescent protein localized both in the cytosol and the nucleus in stable transformed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Bright Yellow 2) cells. PMID:12427990

  19. Effect of oestrus synchronization with PGF2α/eCG/hCG on luteal P4 synthesis in early pregnant gilts.

    PubMed

    Szymanska, M; Morawska-Pucinska, E; Krawczynski, K; Kiewisz, J; Ziecik, A J; Blitek, A

    2014-12-01

    Administration of hormones to synchronize oestrus is a useful tool in animal breeding. However, exogenous ovarian stimulation may be detrimental to reproductive function. This study was aimed to examine whether an oestrus synchronization with PGF2α/eCG/hCG could affect luteal P4 synthesis in early pregnant gilts. Corpora lutea (CLs) were collected on days 9, 12 and 16 of pregnancy from gilts with natural (n = 16) and synchronized (n = 18) oestrus and analysed for (i) the expre-ssion of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 family 11 subfamily A polypeptide (CYP11A1), and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3βHSD); (ii) the concentration of P4 in the luteal tissue and blood; and (iii) the expression of luteinizing hormone receptors (LHR) and oestrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ). Additionally, the effect of LH on P4 secretion from CL slices collected from synchronized and naturally ovulated animals has been studied in vitro. PGF2α /eCG/hCG administration increased mRNA expression of StAR, CYP11A1, 3βHSD, and LHR on day 9 and CYP11A1 and LHR on day 12 of pregnancy compared with the control group (p < 0.05). CYP11A1, 3βHSD, LHR, ERα and ERβ proteins were not affected by synchronization; only StAR protein increased in hormonally treated animals (p = 0.017). The concentration of P4 in luteal tissue was greater on day 9 (p < 0.01), but lower on day 16 (p < 0.05) in gilts with hormonally induced oestrus compared with control animals. Blood serum levels of P4 were lower in synchronized than control gilts (p < 0.001). Synchronization did not affect LH-stimulated P4 secretion from luteal slices; however, greater basal concentration of P4 in incubation medium was detected for CLs collected from synchronized than control gilts (p < 0.05). In conclusion, synchronization of oestrus with PGF2α/eCG/hCG protocol in gilts did not impair the expression of luteal P4 synthesis system, although decreased P4 concentration in the blood.

  20. Phosphate solubilization and promotion of maize growth in a calcareous soil by penicillium oxalicum P4 and aspergillus niger P85

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative tactics for improving phosphorus nutrition in crop production are needed in China and elsewhere as the over-application of phosphatic fertilizers can adversely impact agricultural sustainability. Penicillium oxalicum P4 and Aspergillus niger P85 were isolated from a calcareous soil in C...

  1. Predominance of rotavirus G2P[4] and emergence of G12P[9] strains in Asunción, Paraguay, 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Magaly; Amarilla, Alberto A; Galeano, Maria E; Aquino, Victor H; Fariña, Norma; Russomando, Graciela; Parra, Gabriel I

    2010-04-01

    Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhea in children worldwide. Monitoring the diversity of rotavirus strains is of great importance for current and future vaccination programs. To determine the diversity of rotavirus circulating in Asuncion, Paraguay, between 2006 and 2007, we carried out a molecular characterization of rotaviruses detected in children <5 years old and adults (>18 years old). We found that the most common circulating strain was G2P[4] (69/143), followed by G9P[8] (37/143). The temporal distribution of strains showed that, in children, G2P[4] was predominant in 2006, and that G2P[4] and G9P[8] were co-predominant in 2007, whereas in adults, G2P[4] was predominant in both years. Additionally, one G9P[6] and three G12P[9] strains were found in adult samples, making this the first report of these strains circulating in Paraguay. Sequence analysis of the G12P[9] strains suggests across-border migration of this strain within the southern cone of America.

  2. Bioactive Glass S53P4 versus Chlorhexidine Gluconate as Intracanal Medicament in Primary Teeth: An In-vivo Study Using Polymerase Chain Reaction Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Ankit; Sinha, Abhishek; Khandeparker, Rakshit Vijay Sinai; Mehrotra, Rachit; Vashisth, Pallavi; Garg, Anuj

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bacteria have long been recognized as the primary etiology for pulpal and periapical lesions, which necessitates the elimination of bacteria from the root canal system. In primary teeth, irrigation and debridement is the main protocol required to disinfect the canal. Biomechanical preparation cannot be vigorously done on the primary teeth due to anatomical barrier such as thin and flared roots. This calls for the use of an effective intracanal medication that will assist disinfection of root canal system. Aim of the study was to examine the in-vivo susceptibility of root canal bacteria to chlorhexidine (CHX) gluconate-1% gel and bioactive glass (BAG) S53P4 when used as intracanal medicaments using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Methodology: PCR (analysis used oligonucleotide primers of Escherichia coli) was used to detect and compare the microbial load reduction after medication of 14 teeth for a week with either CHX gel - 1% or BAG S53P4. The pre and post microbial load was checked in the form of colony forming units. When analysis was done, a statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups. Results: The study revealed that both medicaments caused a considerable amount of microbial load reduction. BAG S53P4 caused much more reduction than CHX 1% gel. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion: BAG S53P4 has superior antibacterial property as compared to CHX 1% gel. PMID:26464542

  3. Phosphate solubilization and promotion of maize growth by Penicillium oxalicum P4 and Aspergillus niger P85 in a calcareous soil.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhongwei; Shi, Fachao; Jiang, Hongmei; Roberts, Daniel P; Chen, Sanfeng; Fan, Bingquan

    2015-12-01

    Alternative tactics for improving phosphorus nutrition in crop production are needed in China and elsewhere, as the overapplication of phosphatic fertilizers can adversely impact agricultural sustainability. Penicillium oxalicum P4 and Aspergillus niger P85 were isolated from a calcareous soil in China that had been exposed to excessive application of phosphatic fertilizer for decades. Each isolate excreted a number of organic acids into, acidified, and solubilized phosphorus in a synthetic broth containing insoluble tricalcium phosphate or rock phosphate. Isolate P4, applied as a seed treatment, increased maize fresh mass per plant when rock phosphate was added to the calcareous soil in greenhouse pot studies. Isolate P85 did not increase maize fresh mass per plant but did significantly increase total phosphorus per plant when rock phosphate was added. Significant increases in 7 and 4 organic acids were detected in soil in association with isolates P4 and P85, respectively, relative to the soil-only control. The quantity and (or) number of organic acids produced by these isolates increased when rock phosphate was added to the soil. Both isolates also significantly increased available phosphorus in soil in the presence of added rock phosphate and effectively colonized the maize rhizosphere. Studies reported here indicate that isolate P4 is adapted to and capable of promoting maize growth in a calcareous soil. Plant-growth promotion by this isolate is likely due, at least in part, to increased phosphorus availability resulting from the excretion of organic acids into, and the resulting acidification of, this soil.

  4. Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 promotes sustained activation of the Ca(2+(-dependent Cl- current in isolated mouse lacrimal cells.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, P M

    1992-01-01

    Infusion of 50 microM-Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 in addition to 500 microM-Ins(1,4,5)P3 into mouse lacrimal cells via a patch-clamp pipette promoted sustained activation of the Ca(2+)-dependent Cl- current, which could not be achieved with 500 microM-Ins(1,4,5)P3 alone. It has been proposed that Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 facilitates Ca2+ influx in the presence of Ins(1,4,5)P3 [Morris, Gallacher, Irvine & Petersen (1987) Nature (London) 330, 653-655], but a subsequent study in mouse lacrimal cells [Bird, Rossier, Hughes, Shears, Armstrong & Putney (1991) Nature (London) 352, 162-165] showed that a high concentration of Ins(1,4,5)P3 could mobilize both intra- and extra-cellular Ca2+ in the absence of Ins(1,3,4,5)P4. My data confirm these findings, but also show that Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 can stimulate additional Ca2+ influx even when the Ins(1,4,5)P3-dependent intracellular Ca2+ pools have been depleted. PMID:1314565

  5. Repeated circulation over 6 years of intergenogroup mono-reassortant G2P[4] rotavirus strains with genotype N1 of the NSP2 gene.

    PubMed

    Doan, Yen Hai; Nakagomi, Toyoko; Nakagomi, Osamu

    2012-08-01

    Human rotavirus A, a major cause of acute diarrhoea in infants and young children worldwide, contains the genome of 11 segments of double-stranded RNA, which is grouped into three major genotype constellations: the Wa genogroup (G1-P[8]-I1-R1-C1-M1-A1-N1-T1-E1-H1), the DS-1 genogroup (G2-P[4]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2), and the AU-1 genogroup (G3-P[9]-I3-R3-C3-M3-A3-N3-T3-E3-H3). Recently, a G2P[4] strain detected in Kenya in 1982 was reported to be a nonstructural protein 2 (NSP2) gene mono-reassortant between the Wa and DS-1 genogroups. While NSP2 induces heterotypic antibody responses in children, thereby being the likely target of immune selective pressure, it was not known how frequently these NSP2 mono-reassortants circulated among children. In a previous 10 year epidemiological study, out of 100 G2P[4] rotavirus specimens that were typed into 22 distinct electropherotypes (i.e., strains), RNA-RNA hybridization identified that 12 strains were mono-reassortants involving either the NSP2 or the NSP3 gene. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the nucleotide sequences of all 11 genes of the representative mono-reassortant strain (AU605) and the sequences of the reassorted genes of the other mono-reassortant strains. The genome constellation of AU605 was G2-P[4]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N1-T2-E2-H2, indicating that it was a mono-reassortant strain carrying a Wa-like NSP2 genotype on the DS-1 genogroup background. The reassorted gene of the other 11 strains also had the genotype N1 in the NSP2 gene. Given that electrophoretically-identical rotaviruses represent a single strain, the 12 NSP2 mono-reassortants detected in six rotavirus seasons accounted for 36% (36 of 100) of G2P[4] rotavirus specimens in the 10 year collection. The circulation of NSP2 mono-reassortant strains was observed in epidemic seasons when the G2P[4] genotype was not dominant. Taken together with their repeated occurrence at higher-than-expected frequencies, the identification of NSP2 mono

  6. Effects of an Opal Termination Codon Preceding the nsP4 Gene Sequence in the O'Nyong-Nyong Virus Genome on Anopheles gambiae Infectivity

    PubMed Central

    Myles, Kevin M.; Kelly, Cindy L. H.; Ledermann, Jeremy P.; Powers, Ann M.

    2006-01-01

    The genomic RNA of an alphavirus encodes four different nonstructural proteins, nsP1, nsP2, nsP3, and nsP4. The polyprotein P123 is produced when translation terminates at an opal termination codon between nsP3 and nsP4. The polyprotein P1234 is produced when translational readthrough occurs or when the opal termination codon has been replaced by a sense codon in the alphavirus genome. Evolutionary pressures appear to have maintained genomic sequences encoding both a stop codon (opal) and an open reading frame (arginine) as a general feature of the O'nyong-nyong virus (ONNV) genome, indicating that both are required at some point. Alternate replication of ONNVs in both vertebrate and invertebrate hosts may determine predominance of a particular codon at this locus in the viral quasispecies. However, no systematic study has previously tested this hypothesis in whole animals. We report here the results of the first study to investigate in a natural mosquito host the functional significance of the opal stop codon in an alphavirus genome. We used a full-length cDNA clone of ONNV to construct a series of mutants in which the arginine between nsP3 and nsP4 was replaced with an opal, ochre, or amber stop codon. The presence of an opal stop codon upstream of nsP4 nearly doubled (75.5%) the infectivity of ONNV over that of virus possessing a codon for the amino acid arginine at the corresponding position (39.8%). Although the frequency with which the opal virus disseminated from the mosquito midgut did not differ significantly from that of the arginine virus on days 8 and 10, dissemination did began earlier in mosquitoes infected with the opal virus. Although a clear fitness advantage is provided to ONNV by the presence of an opal codon between nsP3 and nsP4 in Anopheles gambiae, sequence analysis of ONNV RNA extracted from mosquito bodies and heads indicated codon usage at this position corresponded with that of the virus administered in the blood meal. These results

  7. Effects of an opal termination codon preceding the nsP4 gene sequence in the O'Nyong-Nyong virus genome on Anopheles gambiae infectivity.

    PubMed

    Myles, Kevin M; Kelly, Cindy L H; Ledermann, Jeremy P; Powers, Ann M

    2006-05-01

    The genomic RNA of an alphavirus encodes four different nonstructural proteins, nsP1, nsP2, nsP3, and nsP4. The polyprotein P123 is produced when translation terminates at an opal termination codon between nsP3 and nsP4. The polyprotein P1234 is produced when translational readthrough occurs or when the opal termination codon has been replaced by a sense codon in the alphavirus genome. Evolutionary pressures appear to have maintained genomic sequences encoding both a stop codon (opal) and an open reading frame (arginine) as a general feature of the O'nyong-nyong virus (ONNV) genome, indicating that both are required at some point. Alternate replication of ONNVs in both vertebrate and invertebrate hosts may determine predominance of a particular codon at this locus in the viral quasispecies. However, no systematic study has previously tested this hypothesis in whole animals. We report here the results of the first study to investigate in a natural mosquito host the functional significance of the opal stop codon in an alphavirus genome. We used a full-length cDNA clone of ONNV to construct a series of mutants in which the arginine between nsP3 and nsP4 was replaced with an opal, ochre, or amber stop codon. The presence of an opal stop codon upstream of nsP4 nearly doubled (75.5%) the infectivity of ONNV over that of virus possessing a codon for the amino acid arginine at the corresponding position (39.8%). Although the frequency with which the opal virus disseminated from the mosquito midgut did not differ significantly from that of the arginine virus on days 8 and 10, dissemination did began earlier in mosquitoes infected with the opal virus. Although a clear fitness advantage is provided to ONNV by the presence of an opal codon between nsP3 and nsP4 in Anopheles gambiae, sequence analysis of ONNV RNA extracted from mosquito bodies and heads indicated codon usage at this position corresponded with that of the virus administered in the blood meal. These results

  8. When incentives work too well: locally implemented pay for performance (P4P) and adverse sanctions towards home birth in Tanzania - a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite limited evidence of its effectiveness, performance-based payments (P4P) are seen by leading policymakers as a potential solution to the slow progress in reaching Millennium Development Goal 5: improved maternal health. This paper offers insights into two of the aspects that are lacking in the current literature on P4P, namely what strategies health workers employ to reach set targets, and how the intervention plays out when implemented by local government as part of a national programme that does not receive donor funding. Methods A total of 28 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with 25 individuals were conducted in Mvomero district over a period of 15 months in 2010 and 2011, both before and after P4P payments. Seven facilities, including six dispensaries and one health centre, were covered. Informants included 17 nurses, three clinical officers, two medical attendants, one lab technician and two district health administrators. Results Health workers reported a number of strategies to increase the number of deliveries at their facility, including health education and cooperation with traditional health providers. The staff at all facilities also reported that they had told the women that they would be sanctioned if they gave birth at home, such as being fined or denied clinical cards and/or vaccinations for their babies. There is a great uncertainty in relation to the potential health impacts of the behavioural changes that have come with P4P, as the reported strategies may increase the numbers, but not necessarily the quality. Contrary to the design of the P4P programme, payments were not based on performance. We argue that this was due in part to a lack of resources within the District Administration, and in part as a result of egalitarian fairness principles. Conclusions Our results suggest that particular attention should be paid to adverse effects when using external rewards for improved health outcomes, and secondly, that P4P may take on a

  9. Changes in the distribution of lineage constellations of G2P[4] Rotavirus A strains detected in Japan over 32 years (1980-2011).

    PubMed

    Doan, Yen Hai; Nakagomi, Toyoko; Agbemabiese, Chantal Ama; Nakagomi, Osamu

    2015-08-01

    Rotavirus A (RVA) is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in young children worldwide. Most human RVA strains are classified into three major genotype constellations: Wa-like, DS-1-like and AU-1-like. The evolution of G2P[4] strains possessing the DS-1-like genetic background was described in a few recent studies. However, the strains analyzed in these studies were almost exclusively the ones detected after 2000. In recognition of the scarcity of G2P[4] strains detected before 2000 for which whole genome information was available, this study was undertaken to characterize 19 Japanese G2P[4] strains detected between 1983 and 1990 (14 strains) and between 2001 and 2011 (5 strains), and to compare them with 131 G2P[4] strains from across the world. The Japanese strains along with the strains elsewhere in the world underwent stepwise changes from lineage I to IVa in 5 genes (the VP7, VP4, VP2, NSP1 and NSP5 genes) and from lineage I to V in 6 genes (the VP6, VP1, VP3, NSP2, NSP3 and NSP4 genes). Furthermore, G2P[4] strains detected after 2004 appeared to have undergone further intragenotype reassortment, resulting in the emergence of lineage V in the VP7 gene, and VI and VII in the VP3 and NSP4 genes. The time of the most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) for the emergent lineages VI and VII was estimated to be around the early 2000s. However, the year when the ancestor of the emergent lineages diverged from that of the rest of the lineages in the respective genes preceded the tMRCA 80-90 years. The origin of the emergent lineages is likely to be human RVA strains possessing genotypes other than G2P[4], and not RVA strains of an animal origin. In conclusion, stepwise changes in lineages imparted new genomic constellations to G2P[4] strains, which appears to have contributed to their successful spread across the globe, most notably since 2004. PMID:26026594

  10. Differential coexpression of FoxP1, FoxP2, and FoxP4 in the Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata) song system.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Ezequiel; Tokarev, Kirill; Düring, Daniel N; Retamosa, Eva Camarillo; Weiss, Michael; Arpenik, Nshdejan; Scharff, Constance

    2015-06-15

    Heterozygous disruptions of the Forkhead transcription factor FoxP2 impair acquisition of speech and language. Experimental downregulation in brain region Area X of the avian ortholog FoxP2 disrupts song learning in juvenile male zebra finches. In vitro, transcriptional activity of FoxP2 requires dimerization with itself or with paralogs FoxP1 and FoxP4. Whether this is the case in vivo is unknown. To provide the means for future functional studies we cloned FoxP4 from zebra finches and compared regional and cellular coexpression of FoxP1, FoxP2, and FoxP4 mRNA and protein in brains of juvenile and adult male zebra finches. In the telencephalic song nuclei HVC, RA, and Area X, the three investigated FoxPs were either expressed alone or occurred in specific combinations with each other, as shown by double in situ hybridization and triple immunohistochemistry. FoxP1 and FoxP4 but not FoxP2 were expressed in RA and in the HVCRA and HVCX projection neurons. In Area X and the surrounding striatum the density of neurons expressing all three FoxPs together or FoxP1 and FoxP4 together was significantly higher than the density of neurons expressing other combinations. Interestingly, the proportions of Area X neurons expressing particular combinations of FoxPs remained constant at all ages. In addition, FoxP-expressing neurons in adult Area X express dopamine receptors 1A, 1B, and 2. Together, these data provide the first evidence that Area X neurons can coexpress all avian FoxP subfamily members, thus allowing for a variety of regulatory possibilities via heterodimerization that could impact song behavior in zebra finches.

  11. Magnetic Field Alignment of PS-P4VP: a Non-Liquid Crystalline Coil-Coil Block Copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokhlenko, Yekaterina; Zhang, Kai; Larson, Steven; Gopalan, Padma; O'Hern, Corey; Osuji, Chinedum

    2015-03-01

    Magnetic fields provide the ability to control alignment of self-assembled soft materials such as block copolymers. Most prior work in this area has relied on the presence of ordered assemblies of anisotropic liquid crystalline species to ensure sufficient magnetic anisotropy to drive alignment. Recent experiments with poly(styrene-b-4-vinylpyridine), a non-liquid crystalline BCP, however, show field-induced alignment of a lamellar microstructure during cooling across the order-disorder transition. Using in situ x-ray scattering, we examine the roles of field strength and cooling rate on the alignment response of this low MW coil-coil BCP. Alignment is first observed at field strengths as low as 1 Tesla and improves markedly with both increasing field strength and slower cooling. We present a geometric argument to illustrate the origin of a finite, non-trivial magnetic susceptibility anisotropy for highly stretched surface-tethered polymer chains and corroborate this using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. We rationalize the magnetic field response of the system in terms of the mobility afforded by the absence of entanglements, the intrinsic anisotropy resulting from the stretched polymer chains and sterically constrained conjugated rings, and the large grain size in these low molecular weight materials.

  12. Prehistoric spatial patterning and subsistence studies: Archaeological investigations at Sample Unit U19arP4, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, W.G.; DuBarton, A.; Edwards, S.; Drollinger, H.

    1992-12-31

    This report documents the methods and results of archaeological investigations at Sample Unit U19arP4 on Pahute Mesa at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Eight sites were located there: four lithic artifact scatters (26NY1370, 26NY1372, 26NY3666 and 26NY3667), two temporary camps (26NY3665 and 26NY5418), one artifact locality (26NY5419), and one quarry (26NY3664). One of the lithic scatters, 26NY3667, incorporated a previously recorded rock ring, 26NY1371, that could not be relocated during subsequent investigations. Surface artifacts were collected from all but two of the sites, 26NY1370 and 26NY1372. The data retrieved from these investigations include over one thousand artifacts, such as projectile points, bifaces, debitage, groundstone, and pottery. The temporally diagnostic materials indicate periodic use of Sample Unit U19arP4 from the Middle Archaic to the Shoshonean period.

  13. Prehistoric spatial patterning and subsistence studies: Archaeological investigations at Sample Unit U19arP4, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, W.G.; DuBarton, A.; Edwards, S.; Drollinger, H.

    1992-01-01

    This report documents the methods and results of archaeological investigations at Sample Unit U19arP4 on Pahute Mesa at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Eight sites were located there: four lithic artifact scatters (26NY1370, 26NY1372, 26NY3666 and 26NY3667), two temporary camps (26NY3665 and 26NY5418), one artifact locality (26NY5419), and one quarry (26NY3664). One of the lithic scatters, 26NY3667, incorporated a previously recorded rock ring, 26NY1371, that could not be relocated during subsequent investigations. Surface artifacts were collected from all but two of the sites, 26NY1370 and 26NY1372. The data retrieved from these investigations include over one thousand artifacts, such as projectile points, bifaces, debitage, groundstone, and pottery. The temporally diagnostic materials indicate periodic use of Sample Unit U19arP4 from the Middle Archaic to the Shoshonean period.

  14. The cytochrome P450 CYP6P4 is responsible for the high pyrethroid resistance in knockdown resistance-free Anopheles arabiensis

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Sulaiman S.; Riveron, Jacob M.; Stott, Robert; Irving, Helen; Wondji, Charles S.

    2016-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are the front line vector control tools used in bed nets to reduce malaria transmission and its burden. However, resistance in major vectors such as Anopheles arabiensis is posing a serious challenge to the success of malaria control. Herein, we elucidated the molecular and biochemical basis of pyrethroid resistance in a knockdown resistance-free Anopheles arabiensis population from Chad, Central Africa. Using heterologous expression of P450s in Escherichia coli coupled with metabolism assays we established that the over-expressed P450 CYP6P4, located in the major pyrethroid resistance (rp1) quantitative trait locus (QTL), is responsible for resistance to Type I and Type II pyrethroid insecticides, with the exception of deltamethrin, in correlation with field resistance profile. However, CYP6P4 exhibited no metabolic activity towards non-pyrethroid insecticides, including DDT, bendiocarb, propoxur and malathion. Combining fluorescent probes inhibition assays with molecular docking simulation, we established that CYP6P4 can bind deltamethrin but cannot metabolise it. This is possibly due to steric hindrance because of the large vdW radius of bromine atoms of the dihalovinyl group of deltamethrin which docks into the heme catalytic centre. The establishment of CYP6P4 as a partial pyrethroid resistance gene explained the observed field resistance to permethrin, and its inability to metabolise deltamethrin probably explained the high mortality from deltamethrin exposure in the field populations of this Sudano-Sahelian An. arabiensis. These findings describe the heterogeneity in resistance towards insecticides, even from the same class, highlighting the need to thoroughly understand the molecular basis of resistance before implementing resistance management/control tools. PMID:26548743

  15. The cytochrome P450 CYP6P4 is responsible for the high pyrethroid resistance in knockdown resistance-free Anopheles arabiensis.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Sulaiman S; Riveron, Jacob M; Stott, Robert; Irving, Helen; Wondji, Charles S

    2016-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are the front line vector control tools used in bed nets to reduce malaria transmission and its burden. However, resistance in major vectors such as Anopheles arabiensis is posing a serious challenge to the success of malaria control. Herein, we elucidated the molecular and biochemical basis of pyrethroid resistance in a knockdown resistance-free Anopheles arabiensis population from Chad, Central Africa. Using heterologous expression of P450s in Escherichia coli coupled with metabolism assays we established that the over-expressed P450 CYP6P4, located in the major pyrethroid resistance (rp1) quantitative trait locus (QTL), is responsible for resistance to Type I and Type II pyrethroid insecticides, with the exception of deltamethrin, in correlation with field resistance profile. However, CYP6P4 exhibited no metabolic activity towards non-pyrethroid insecticides, including DDT, bendiocarb, propoxur and malathion. Combining fluorescent probes inhibition assays with molecular docking simulation, we established that CYP6P4 can bind deltamethrin but cannot metabolise it. This is possibly due to steric hindrance because of the large vdW radius of bromine atoms of the dihalovinyl group of deltamethrin which docks into the heme catalytic centre. The establishment of CYP6P4 as a partial pyrethroid resistance gene explained the observed field resistance to permethrin, and its inability to metabolise deltamethrin probably explained the high mortality from deltamethrin exposure in the field populations of this Sudano-Sahelian An. arabiensis. These findings describe the heterogeneity in resistance towards insecticides, even from the same class, highlighting the need to thoroughly understand the molecular basis of resistance before implementing resistance management/control tools.

  16. Reduction in Rotavirus Disease and Sustained Predominance of G2P[4] Rotavirus Strain following Introduction of Rotavirus Vaccine in Recife, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Montenegro, Fernanda Maria Ulisses; Falbo, Ana Rodrigues; Germano, Eliane Mendes; Correia, Nancy Barros; Souza, Edvaldo da Silva; Nakagomi, Osamu; Nakagomi, Toyoko; Cuevas, Luis E; Cunliffe, Nigel A; Correia, Jailson B

    2015-06-01

    Rotavirus vaccination was introduced in Brazil in March 2006. We describe the distribution of rotavirus genotypes in children with acute gastroenteritis in a hospital in Recife, Brazil, during pre- and post-vaccination periods. There was a 43.8% reduction in the proportion of diarrhea episodes due to rotavirus. Nevertheless, we observed a sustained predominance of G2P[4] as the main genotype identified in the post-vaccination period.

  17. Human diadenosine 5',5"'-P1,P4-tetraphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase is a member of the MutT family of nucleotide pyrophosphatases.

    PubMed Central

    Thorne, N M; Hankin, S; Wilkinson, M C; Nuñez, C; Barraclough, R; McLennan, A G

    1995-01-01

    The cDNA and derived amino acid sequence of human diadenosine 5',5"'-P1,P4-tetraphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase have been determined with the aid of the GenBank Expressed Sequence Tag database. This enzyme possesses a modification of the MutT sequence motif found in certain nucleotide pyrophosphatases. It is unrelated to the enzymes of diadenosine tetraphosphate catabolism found in prokaryotes and fungi. Images Figure 1 PMID:7487923

  18. Phosphate solubilization and promotion of maize growth by Penicillium oxalicum P4 and Aspergillus niger P85 in a calcareous soil.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhongwei; Shi, Fachao; Jiang, Hongmei; Roberts, Daniel P; Chen, Sanfeng; Fan, Bingquan

    2015-12-01

    Alternative tactics for improving phosphorus nutrition in crop production are needed in China and elsewhere, as the overapplication of phosphatic fertilizers can adversely impact agricultural sustainability. Penicillium oxalicum P4 and Aspergillus niger P85 were isolated from a calcareous soil in China that had been exposed to excessive application of phosphatic fertilizer for decades. Each isolate excreted a number of organic acids into, acidified, and solubilized phosphorus in a synthetic broth containing insoluble tricalcium phosphate or rock phosphate. Isolate P4, applied as a seed treatment, increased maize fresh mass per plant when rock phosphate was added to the calcareous soil in greenhouse pot studies. Isolate P85 did not increase maize fresh mass per plant but did significantly increase total phosphorus per plant when rock phosphate was added. Significant increases in 7 and 4 organic acids were detected in soil in association with isolates P4 and P85, respectively, relative to the soil-only control. The quantity and (or) number of organic acids produced by these isolates increased when rock phosphate was added to the soil. Both isolates also significantly increased available phosphorus in soil in the presence of added rock phosphate and effectively colonized the maize rhizosphere. Studies reported here indicate that isolate P4 is adapted to and capable of promoting maize growth in a calcareous soil. Plant-growth promotion by this isolate is likely due, at least in part, to increased phosphorus availability resulting from the excretion of organic acids into, and the resulting acidification of, this soil. PMID:26469739

  19. Localization, Purification, and Functional Reconstitution of the P4-ATPase Atp8a2, a Phosphatidylserine Flippase in Photoreceptor Disc Membranes*

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Jonathan A.; Kwok, Michael C. M.; Molday, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    P4-ATPases comprise a relatively new subfamily of P-type ATPases implicated in the energy-dependent translocation of aminophospholipids across cell membranes. In this study, we report on the localization and functional properties of Atp8a2, a member of the P4-ATPase subfamily that has not been studied previously. Reverse transcription-PCR revealed high expression of atp8a2 mRNA in the retina and testis. Within the retina, immunofluorescence microscopy and subcellular fractionation studies localized Atp8a2 to outer segment disc membranes of rod and cone photoreceptor cells. Atp8a2 purified from photoreceptor outer segments by immunoaffinity chromatography exhibited ATPase activity that was stimulated by phosphatidylserine and to a lesser degree phosphatidylethanolamine but not by phosphatidylcholine or other membrane lipids. Purified Atp8a2 was reconstituted into liposomes containing fluorescent-labeled phosphatidylserine to measure the ability of Atp8a2 to flip phosphatidylserine across the lipid bilayer. Fluorescence measurements showed that Atp8a2 flipped fluorescent-labeled phosphatidylserine from the inner leaflet of liposomes (equivalent to the exocytoplasmic leaflet of cell membranes) to the outer leaflet (equivalent to cytoplasmic leaflet) in an ATP-dependent manner. Our studies provide the first direct biochemical evidence that purified P4-ATPases can translocate aminophospholipids across membranes and further implicates Atp8a2 in the generation and maintenance of phosphatidylserine asymmetry in photoreceptor disc membranes. PMID:19778899

  20. Layer by layer H-bonded assembly of P4VP with various hydroxylated PPFS: impact of the donor strength on growth mechanism and surface features.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Duchet, Jannick; Portinha, Daniel; Charlot, Aurélia

    2014-09-01

    Hydrogen bond mediated films made by step by step deposition of poly(4-vinylpyridine) (P4VP) and hydroxylated poly(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorostyrene) (PPFS) copolymers prepared by thiol para-fluoro coupling, bearing either one (PPFSME) or two (PPFSMPD) hydrogenated hydroxyl groups or a (poly)fluorinated hydroxyl (PPFSOH), respectively, were successfully constructed. The influence of the structural parameters, such as the hydroxyl environment (which dictates the H-bond strength) was in-depth investigated in terms of their impact on (i) growth mechanism, (ii) internal organization, and (iii) surface features. The use of the weaker H-bond donor partner (PPFSME) leads to low quality films composed of irregularly distributed aggregates. While [PPFSMPD/P4VP] multilayer films are comparatively thick and composed of stratified layers with smooth topology, the use of PPFSOH with P4VP yields thin films made of mixed and interpenetrated polymer layers. Playing on the interaction strength appears as a powerful tool to elaborate tailored multilayer films with molecularly tunable properties.

  1. Aligned silicon nanofins via the directed self-assembly of PS-b-P4VP block copolymer and metal oxide enhanced pattern transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummins, Cian; Gangnaik, Anushka; Kelly, Roisin A.; Borah, Dipu; O'Connell, John; Petkov, Nikolay; Georgiev, Yordan M.; Holmes, Justin D.; Morris, Michael A.

    2015-04-01

    `Directing' block copolymer (BCP) patterns is a possible option for future semiconductor device patterning, but pattern transfer of BCP masks is somewhat hindered by the inherently low etch contrast between blocks. Here, we demonstrate a `fab' friendly methodology for forming well-registered and aligned silicon (Si) nanofins following pattern transfer of robust metal oxide nanowire masks through the directed self-assembly (DSA) of BCPs. A cylindrical forming poly(styrene)-block-poly(4-vinyl-pyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) BCP was employed producing `fingerprint' line patterns over macroscopic areas following solvent vapor annealing treatment. The directed assembly of PS-b-P4VP line patterns was enabled by electron-beam lithographically defined hydrogen silsequioxane (HSQ) gratings. We developed metal oxide nanowire features using PS-b-P4VP structures which facilitated high quality pattern transfer to the underlying Si substrate. This work highlights the precision at which long range ordered ~10 nm Si nanofin features with 32 nm pitch can be defined using a cylindrical BCP system for nanolithography application. The results show promise for future nanocircuitry fabrication to access sub-16 nm critical dimensions using cylindrical systems as surface interfaces are easier to tailor than lamellar systems. Additionally, the work helps to demonstrate the extension of these methods to a `high χ' BCP beyond the size limitations of the more well-studied PS-b-poly(methyl methylacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) system.`Directing' block copolymer (BCP) patterns is a possible option for future semiconductor device patterning, but pattern transfer of BCP masks is somewhat hindered by the inherently low etch contrast between blocks. Here, we demonstrate a `fab' friendly methodology for forming well-registered and aligned silicon (Si) nanofins following pattern transfer of robust metal oxide nanowire masks through the directed self-assembly (DSA) of BCPs. A cylindrical forming poly

  2. Whole genome analysis of Vietnamese G2P[4] rotavirus strains possessing the NSP2 gene sharing an ancestral sequence with Chinese sheep and goat rotavirus strains.

    PubMed

    Do, Loan Phuong; Doan, Yen Hai; Nakagomi, Toyoko; Gauchan, Punita; Kaneko, Miho; Agbemabiese, Chantal; Dang, Anh Duc; Nakagomi, Osamu

    2015-10-01

    Because imminent introduction into Vietnam of a vaccine against Rotavirus A is anticipated, baseline information on the whole genome of representative strains is needed to understand changes in circulating strains that may occur after vaccine introduction. In this study, the whole genomes of two G2P[4] strains detected in Nha Trang, Vietnam in 2008 were sequenced, this being the last period during which virtually no rotavirus vaccine was used in this country. The two strains were found to be >99.9% identical in sequence and had a typical DS-1 like G2-P[4]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2 genotype constellation. Analysis of the Vietnamese strains with >184 G2P[4] strains retrieved from GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ DNA databases placed the Vietnamese strains in one of the lineages commonly found among contemporary strains, with the exception of the NSP2 and NSP4 genes. The NSP2 genes were found to belong to a previously undescribed lineage that diverged from Chinese sheep and goat rotavirus strains, including a Chinese rotavirus vaccine strain LLR with 95% nucleotide identity; the time of their most recent common ancestor was 1975. The NSP4 genes were found to belong, together with Thai and USA strains, to an emergent lineage (VIII), adding further diversity to ever diversifying NSP4 lineages. Thus, there is a need to enhance surveillance of locally-circulating strains from both children and animals at the whole genome level to address the effect of rotavirus vaccines on changing strain distribution.

  3. Whole genome analysis of Vietnamese G2P[4] rotavirus strains possessing the NSP2 gene sharing an ancestral sequence with Chinese sheep and goat rotavirus strains.

    PubMed

    Do, Loan Phuong; Doan, Yen Hai; Nakagomi, Toyoko; Gauchan, Punita; Kaneko, Miho; Agbemabiese, Chantal; Dang, Anh Duc; Nakagomi, Osamu

    2015-10-01

    Because imminent introduction into Vietnam of a vaccine against Rotavirus A is anticipated, baseline information on the whole genome of representative strains is needed to understand changes in circulating strains that may occur after vaccine introduction. In this study, the whole genomes of two G2P[4] strains detected in Nha Trang, Vietnam in 2008 were sequenced, this being the last period during which virtually no rotavirus vaccine was used in this country. The two strains were found to be >99.9% identical in sequence and had a typical DS-1 like G2-P[4]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2 genotype constellation. Analysis of the Vietnamese strains with >184 G2P[4] strains retrieved from GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ DNA databases placed the Vietnamese strains in one of the lineages commonly found among contemporary strains, with the exception of the NSP2 and NSP4 genes. The NSP2 genes were found to belong to a previously undescribed lineage that diverged from Chinese sheep and goat rotavirus strains, including a Chinese rotavirus vaccine strain LLR with 95% nucleotide identity; the time of their most recent common ancestor was 1975. The NSP4 genes were found to belong, together with Thai and USA strains, to an emergent lineage (VIII), adding further diversity to ever diversifying NSP4 lineages. Thus, there is a need to enhance surveillance of locally-circulating strains from both children and animals at the whole genome level to address the effect of rotavirus vaccines on changing strain distribution. PMID:26382233

  4. WARM SPITZER PHOTOMETRY OF THREE HOT JUPITERS: HAT-P-3b, HAT-P-4b AND HAT-P-12b

    SciTech Connect

    Todorov, Kamen O.; Deming, Drake; Knutson, Heather A.; Burrows, Adam; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Laughlin, Gregory; Lewis, Nikole K.; Cowan, Nicolas B.; Agol, Eric; Desert, Jean-Michel; Sada, Pedro V.; Charbonneau, David; Langton, Jonathan; Showman, Adam P.

    2013-06-20

    We present Warm Spitzer/IRAC secondary eclipse time series photometry of three short-period transiting exoplanets, HAT-P-3b, HAT-P-4b and HAT-P-12b, in both the available 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m bands. HAT-P-3b and HAT-P-4b are Jupiter-mass objects orbiting an early K and an early G dwarf star, respectively. For HAT-P-3b we find eclipse depths of 0.112%+0.015%-0.030% (3.6 micron) and 0.094%+0.016%-0.009% (4.5 {mu}m). The HAT-P-4b values are 0.142%+0.014%-0.016% (3.6 micron) and 0.122%+0.012%-0.014% 4.5 {mu}m). The two planets' photometry is consistent with inefficient heat redistribution from their day to night sides (and low albedos), but it is inconclusive about possible temperature inversions in their atmospheres. HAT-P-12b is a Saturn-mass planet and is one of the coolest planets ever observed during secondary eclipse, along with the hot Neptune GJ 436b and the hot Saturn WASP-29b. We are able to place 3{sigma} upper limits on the secondary eclipse depth of HAT-P-12b in both wavelengths: <0.042% (3.6 {mu}m) and <0.085% (4.5 {mu}m). We discuss these results in the context of the Spitzer secondary eclipse measurements of GJ 436b and WASP-29b. It is possible that we do not detect the eclipses of HAT-P-12b due to high eccentricity, but find that weak planetary emission in these wavelengths is a more likely explanation. We place 3{sigma} upper limits on the |e cos {omega}| quantity (where e is eccentricity and {omega} is the argument of periapsis) for HAT-P-3b (<0.0081) and HAT-P-4b (<0.0042), based on the secondary eclipse timings.

  5. Warm Spitzer Photometry of Three Hot Jupiters: HAT-P-3b, HAT-P-4b and HAT-P-12b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todorov, Kamen O.; Deming, Drake; Knutson, Heather A.; Burrows, Adam; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Lewis, Nikole K.; Cowan, Nicolas B.; Agol, Eric; Desert, Jean-Michel; Sada, Pedro V.; Charbonneau, David; Laughlin, Gregory; Langton, Jonathan; Showman, Adam P.

    2013-06-01

    We present Warm Spitzer/IRAC secondary eclipse time series photometry of three short-period transiting exoplanets, HAT-P-3b, HAT-P-4b and HAT-P-12b, in both the available 3.6 and 4.5 μm bands. HAT-P-3b and HAT-P-4b are Jupiter-mass objects orbiting an early K and an early G dwarf star, respectively. For HAT-P-3b we find eclipse depths of 0.112%^{+0.015%}_{-0.030%} (3.6 μm) and 0.094%^{+0.016%}_{-0.009%} (4.5 μm). The HAT-P-4b values are 0.142%^{+0.014%}_{-0.016%} (3.6 μm) and 0.122%^{+0.012%}_{-0.014%}(4.5 μm). The two planets' photometry is consistent with inefficient heat redistribution from their day to night sides (and low albedos), but it is inconclusive about possible temperature inversions in their atmospheres. HAT-P-12b is a Saturn-mass planet and is one of the coolest planets ever observed during secondary eclipse, along with the hot Neptune GJ 436b and the hot Saturn WASP-29b. We are able to place 3σ upper limits on the secondary eclipse depth of HAT-P-12b in both wavelengths: <0.042% (3.6 μm) and <0.085% (4.5 μm). We discuss these results in the context of the Spitzer secondary eclipse measurements of GJ 436b and WASP-29b. It is possible that we do not detect the eclipses of HAT-P-12b due to high eccentricity, but find that weak planetary emission in these wavelengths is a more likely explanation. We place 3σ upper limits on the |e cos ω| quantity (where e is eccentricity and ω is the argument of periapsis) for HAT-P-3b (<0.0081) and HAT-P-4b (<0.0042), based on the secondary eclipse timings.

  6. Simulation of 3He(d,p) 4He reaction and recent results of the experimental investigation of dp breakup reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janek, M.; Kurilkin, P. K.; Tarjanyiova, G.; Ladygin, V. P.; Gurchin, Yu V.; Isupov, A. Yu; Karachuk, J.-T.; Khrenov, A. N.; Kurilkin, A. K.; Livanov, A. N.; Martinska, G.; Piyadin, S. M.; Reznikov, S. G.; Merts, S. P.; Batyuk, P. N.; Terekhin, A. A.; Vnukov, I. E.

    2016-02-01

    The feasibility study for the measurements of the polarization observables in the 3He(d,p) 4He reaction for DSS project using a part of the BM@N setup have been performed. Deuteron beam with energy of 1.5 GeV, magnet, 12 stations GEM tracker and TOF wall were used in simulations in order to obtain momentum resolution and to prove the separation of the secondary protons and deuterons. Summarized results of the dp breakup reactions with detection of two protons in coincidence for some kinematic configurations at energies from 300 to 500 MeV obtained in Nuclotron are presented.

  7. Mutual influence between contiguous TMPyP4 ligands when bound to a synthetic double-stranded Poly(A)-Poly(U)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstykh, G.; Kudrev, A.

    2015-10-01

    The cooperativity of TMPyP4 ligand binding to Poly(A)-Poly(U) polynucleotide were monitored in this study by fluorescence spectroscopy and UV-Vis absorbance spectroscopy. To solve the equilibrium binding model between a dye and substrate, a new computational approach has been proposed based collectively on Principal Component Analysis and the conditional probabilities method. This approach suggest that the absorbance and fluorescence variance during a titration is determined by spectral species formed in stepwise saturation of binding sites on Poly(A)-Poly(U) with porphyrin and a conformational changes on a macromolecule. Spectral species assigned to different forms of polymer-ligand complexes whose existences in equilibrium were postulated by the conditional probabilities method. The binding of TMPyP4 molecule to the Poly(A)-Poly(U) enhances the binding of additional molecules to that same receptor. The intrinsic binding constant to an isolated binding site lgKin = 6.4, the cooperativity parameter ω = 5.0, and number of monomers occupied by a ligand n = 2 (25 °C; pH 7) were calculated based upon the non-linear least-squares fitting procedure.

  8. Combined Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Transcriptomic Analysis Identifies the P3/P4 Transition as a Key Stage in Rice Leaf Photosynthetic Development1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Yaapar, Muhammad N.; Wanchana, Samart; Thakur, Vivek; Quick, W. Paul

    2016-01-01

    Leaves are derived from heterotrophic meristem tissue that, at some point, must make the transition to autotrophy via the initiation of photosynthesis. However, the timing and spatial coordination of the molecular and cellular processes underpinning this switch are poorly characterized. Here, we report on the identification of a specific stage in rice (Oryza sativa) leaf development (P3/P4 transition) when photosynthetic competence is first established. Using a combined physiological and molecular approach, we show that elements of stomatal and vascular differentiation are coordinated with the onset of measurable light absorption for photosynthesis. Moreover, by exploring the response of the system to environmental perturbation, we show that the earliest stages of rice leaf development have significant plasticity with respect to elements of cellular differentiation of relevance for mature leaf photosynthetic performance. Finally, by performing an RNA sequencing analysis targeted at the early stages of rice leaf development, we uncover a palette of genes whose expression likely underpins the acquisition of photosynthetic capability. Our results identify the P3/P4 transition as a highly dynamic stage in rice leaf development when several processes for the initiation of photosynthetic competence are coordinated. As well as identifying gene targets for future manipulation of rice leaf structure/function, our data highlight a developmental window during which such manipulations are likely to be most effective. PMID:26813793

  9. Influence of microstructure on soft magnetic properties of low coreloss and high Bs Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 nanocrystalline alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Parmanand; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Yan; Makino, Akihiro

    2014-05-01

    Microstructure and magnetic properties of high Bs Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 nano-crystalline alloy were tailored. The Bs ˜ 1.85 T and low coercivity Hc ˜ 6 A/m were obtained by conventional annealing (i.e., one step) at a heating rate of ˜400 °C/min. While one step annealing process produces a fairly stable nanostructure, for short times at temperatures <425 °C, the nanostructure and concomitant magnetic properties of this alloy are shown to be tunable by two step annealing process. Nanocrystalline ribbons with grain size (D) ranging from ˜15 to 32 nm, Hc ˜ 6 to 140 A/m and core-loss at 1.5 T, 50 Hz ˜ 0.39 ˜ 5.0 W/kg were obtained. The Hc of Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 alloy is shown to vary as D6, but a small deviation was noticed, which may be due to weak anisotropy.

  10. Strontium magnesium phosphate, Sr(2+x)Mg(3-x)P4O15 (x ~ 0.36), from laboratory X-ray powder data.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jung-Hwa; Song, Seung-Wan; Hong, Seung-Tae

    2011-01-01

    The previously unknown crystal structure of strontium magnesium phosphate, Sr(2+x)Mg(3-x)P(4)O(15) (x ~ 0.36), determined and refined from laboratory powder X-ray diffraction data, represents a new structure type. The title compound was synthesized by high-temperature solid-state reaction and it crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Cmcm. It was earlier thought to be stoichiometric Sr(2)Mg(3)P(4)O(15), but our structural study indicates the nonstoichiometric composition. The asymmetric unit contains one Sr (site symmetry ..m on special position 8g), one M (= Mg 64%/Sr 36%; site symmetry 2/m.. on special position 4b), one Mg (site symmetry 2.. on special position 8e), two P (site symmetry m.. on special position 8f and site symmetry ..m on special position 8g), and six O sites [two on general positions 16h, two on 8g, one on 8f and one on special position 4c (site symmetry m2m)]. The nonstoichiometry is due to the mixing of magnesium and strontium ions on the M site. The structure consists of three-dimensional networks of MgO(4) and PO(4) tetrahedra, and MO(6) octahedra with the other strontium ions occupying the larger cavities surrounded by ten O atoms. All the polyhedra are connected by corner-sharing except the edge-sharing MO(6) octahedra forming one-dimensional arrangements along [001].

  11. Structural and mechanistic basis of anti-termination of Rho-dependent transcription termination by bacteriophage P4 capsid protein Psu

    PubMed Central

    Ranjan, Amitabh; Sharma, Savita; Banerjee, Ramanuj; Sen, Udayaditya; Sen, Ranjan

    2013-01-01

    The conserved bacterial transcription terminator, Rho, is a potent target for bactericidal agents. Psu, a bacteriophage P4 capsid protein, is capable of inducing anti-termination to the Rho-dependent transcription termination. Knowledge of structural and mechanistic basis of this anti-termination is required to design peptide-inhibitor(s) of Rho from Psu. Using suppressor genetics, cross-linking, protein foot-printing and FRET analyses, we describe a conserved disordered structure, encompassing 139–153 amino acids of Rho, as the primary docking site for Psu. Also a neighbouring helical structure, comprising 347–354 amino acids, lining its central channel, plays a supportive role in the Rho–Psu complex formation. Based on the crystal structure of Psu, its conformation in the capsid of the P4 phage, and its interacting regions on Rho, we build an energy-minimized structural model of the Rho:Psu complex. In this model, a V-shaped dimer of Psu interacts with the two diagonally opposite subunits of a hexameric Rho, enabling Psu to form a ‘lid’ on the central channel of the latter. We show that this configuration of Psu makes the central channel of Rho inaccessible, and it causes a mechanical impediment to its translocase activity. PMID:23703205

  12. Comparison of the accuracy of 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 SPECT and CT in diagnosing solitary pulmonary nodules

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haishan; Gao, Shi; Chen, Bin; Cheng, Guanghui

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare technetium-99m-(polyethylene glycol-4)3-(Arg-Gly-Asp)2 (99mTc-3P4-RGD2) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and computed tomography (CT) in the noninvasive differentiation of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs). The present study prospectively investigated a consecutive series of 24 patients with SPN, who were newly diagnosed using radiography between September 2012 and January 2014. All patients underwent 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 SPECT and CT scans using a dual-head variable-angle γ-camera equipped with high-resolution collimators. A blinded panel of two thoracic radiologists for CT and three nuclear physicians for SPECT analyzed the images using a 5-grade scale. The SPECT images were also semi-quantitatively evaluated using tumor to non-tumor localization ratios (T/NT). The results were verified by pathological examination of the biopsy material obtained from each patient with SPN, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated from these results. The present results revealed that there were 17 malignant and 7 benign SPNs among the 24 patients with SPN. The mean size of the SPN was 2.1±0.6 cm. Sensitivity of visual analysis for SPECT and CT were 100.0 and 82.4%, respectively, and specificity was 71.4% for the two methods. When the T/NT SPECT semiquantitative analysis (ratio, 1.64) was used as a cut-off, the sensitivity and specificity of SPECT were 100.0 and 71.4%, respectively. The areas under the ROC curves were 0.840 for visual analysis of SPECT [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.600–1.000], 0.849 for semiquantitative analysis of SPECT (95% CI, 0.618–1.000) and 0.815 for CT (95% CI, 0.626–1.000). In conclusion, the present results suggest that 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 SPECT is more accurate than CT in the detection of malignant SPN, and visual analysis appears to be sufficient for the characterization of SPN. PMID:27698821

  13. Comparison of the accuracy of 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 SPECT and CT in diagnosing solitary pulmonary nodules

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haishan; Gao, Shi; Chen, Bin; Cheng, Guanghui

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare technetium-99m-(polyethylene glycol-4)3-(Arg-Gly-Asp)2 (99mTc-3P4-RGD2) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and computed tomography (CT) in the noninvasive differentiation of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs). The present study prospectively investigated a consecutive series of 24 patients with SPN, who were newly diagnosed using radiography between September 2012 and January 2014. All patients underwent 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 SPECT and CT scans using a dual-head variable-angle γ-camera equipped with high-resolution collimators. A blinded panel of two thoracic radiologists for CT and three nuclear physicians for SPECT analyzed the images using a 5-grade scale. The SPECT images were also semi-quantitatively evaluated using tumor to non-tumor localization ratios (T/NT). The results were verified by pathological examination of the biopsy material obtained from each patient with SPN, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated from these results. The present results revealed that there were 17 malignant and 7 benign SPNs among the 24 patients with SPN. The mean size of the SPN was 2.1±0.6 cm. Sensitivity of visual analysis for SPECT and CT were 100.0 and 82.4%, respectively, and specificity was 71.4% for the two methods. When the T/NT SPECT semiquantitative analysis (ratio, 1.64) was used as a cut-off, the sensitivity and specificity of SPECT were 100.0 and 71.4%, respectively. The areas under the ROC curves were 0.840 for visual analysis of SPECT [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.600–1.000], 0.849 for semiquantitative analysis of SPECT (95% CI, 0.618–1.000) and 0.815 for CT (95% CI, 0.626–1.000). In conclusion, the present results suggest that 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 SPECT is more accurate than CT in the detection of malignant SPN, and visual analysis appears to be sufficient for the characterization of SPN.

  14. Ab initio many-body calculations of the (3)H(d,n)(4)He and (3)He(d,p)(4)He fusion reactions.

    PubMed

    Navrátil, Petr; Quaglioni, Sofia

    2012-01-27

    We apply the ab initio no-core shell model combined with the resonating-group method approach to calculate the cross sections of the (3)H(d,n)(4)He and (3)He(d,p)(4)He fusion reactions. These are important reactions for the big bang nucleosynthesis and the future of energy generation on Earth. Starting from a selected similarity-transformed chiral nucleon-nucleon interaction that accurately describes two-nucleon data, we performed many-body calculations that predict the S factor of both reactions. Virtual three-body breakup effects are obtained by including excited pseudostates of the deuteron in the calculation. Our results are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data and pave the way for microscopic investigations of polarization and electron-screening effects, of the (3)H(d,γn)(4)He bremsstrahlung and other reactions relevant to fusion research. PMID:22400830

  15. Novel interactions of large P3 moiety and small P4 moiety in the binding of the peptide mimetic factor VIIa inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Kadono, Shojiro; Sakamoto, Akihisa; Kikuchi, Yasufumi; Oh-Eda, Masayoshi; Yabuta, Naohiro; Yoshihashi, Kazutaka; Kitazawa, Takehisa; Suzuki, Tsukasa; Koga, Takaki; Hattori, Kunihiro; Shiraishi, Takuya; Haramura, Masayuki; Kodama, Hirofumi; Ono, Yoshiyuki; Esaki, Toru; Sato, Haruhiko; Watanabe, Yoshiaki; Itoh, Susumu; Ohta, Masateru; Kozono, Toshiro

    2005-01-28

    Selective factor VIIa-tissue factor complex (FVIIa/TF) inhibition is seen as a promising target for developing new anticoagulant drugs. A novel peptide mimetic factor VIIa inhibitor, ethylsulfonamide-d-biphenylalanine-Gln-p-aminobenzamidine, shows 100-fold selectivity against thrombin in spite of its large P3 moiety, unlike previously reported FVIIa/TF selective inhibitors. X-ray crystal structure analysis reveals that the large P3 moiety, d-biphenylalanine, and the small P4 moiety, ethylsulfonamide, make novel interactions with the 170-loop and Lys192 of FVIIa/TF, respectively, accompanying ligand-induced conformational changes of the 170-loop, Gln217, and Lys192. Structural comparisons of FVIIa with thrombin and amino acid sequence comparisons among coagulation serine proteases suggest that these interactions play an important role in achieving selective inhibition for FVIIa/TF. PMID:15607748

  16. Use of IRS-P4 Ocean Color Monitor (OCM) images for tracing the red edge of the terrestrial vegetation reflectance spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raychaudhuri, B.

    2016-04-01

    A methodology is put forward to retrieve the red edge for terrestrial vegetated regions of IRS P4 Ocean Color Monitor (OCM) images. The objective is to utilize land-related portions of the archived OCM images that contain a significant amount of digital information on land cover. OCM band data were simulated from spectroradiometric reflectance of fresh green leaves and hyperspectral reflectance of vegetated regions derived from EO-1 Hyperion images. The red edge recovered from these model data using numerical techniques of Lagrange interpolation and inverted Gaussian was compared with the original one and reasonable accuracy was obtained. The technique was then applied to the actual red and near-infrared bands of OCM images, and red edge reflectance curves were computed for evergreen, deciduous and mangrove forest regions of the images for winter and spring seasons. Consistent results were obtained for seasonal changes, and vegetated and non-vegetated areas could be distinguished.

  17. Addressing the complexity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: from phenotypes and biomarkers to scale-free networks, systems biology, and P4 medicine.

    PubMed

    Agusti, Alvar; Sobradillo, Patricia; Celli, Bartolomé

    2011-05-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex disease at the clinical, cellular, and molecular levels. However, its diagnosis, assessment, and therapeutic management are based almost exclusively on the severity of airflow limitation. A better understanding of the multiple dimensions of COPD and its relationship to other diseases is very relevant and of high current interest. Recent theoretical (scale-free networks), technological (high-throughput technology, biocomputing), and analytical improvements (systems biology) provide tools capable of addressing the complexity of COPD. The information obtained from the integrated use of those techniques will be eventually incorporated into routine clinical practice. This review summarizes our current knowledge in this area and offers an insight into the elements needed to progress toward an integrated, multilevel view of COPD based on the novel scientific strategy of systems biology and its potential clinical derivative, P4 medicine (Personalized, Predictive, Preventive, and Participatory).

  18. Kinetic and thermodynamic framework for P4-P6 RNA reveals tertiary motif modularity and modulation of the folding preferred pathway.

    PubMed

    Bisaria, Namita; Greenfeld, Max; Limouse, Charles; Pavlichin, Dmitri S; Mabuchi, Hideo; Herschlag, Daniel

    2016-08-23

    The past decade has seen a wealth of 3D structural information about complex structured RNAs and identification of functional intermediates. Nevertheless, developing a complete and predictive understanding of the folding and function of these RNAs in biology will require connection of individual rate and equilibrium constants to structural changes that occur in individual folding steps and further relating these steps to the properties and behavior of isolated, simplified systems. To accomplish these goals we used the considerable structural knowledge of the folded, unfolded, and intermediate states of P4-P6 RNA. We enumerated structural states and possible folding transitions and determined rate and equilibrium constants for the transitions between these states using single-molecule FRET with a series of mutant P4-P6 variants. Comparisons with simplified constructs containing an isolated tertiary contact suggest that a given tertiary interaction has a stereotyped rate for breaking that may help identify structural transitions within complex RNAs and simplify the prediction of folding kinetics and thermodynamics for structured RNAs from their parts. The preferred folding pathway involves initial formation of the proximal tertiary contact. However, this preference was only ∼10 fold and could be reversed by a single point mutation, indicating that a model akin to a protein-folding contact order model will not suffice to describe RNA folding. Instead, our results suggest a strong analogy with a modified RNA diffusion-collision model in which tertiary elements within preformed secondary structures collide, with the success of these collisions dependent on whether the tertiary elements are in their rare binding-competent conformations. PMID:27493222

  19. Retrieval and validation of chlorophyll from IRS-P4-OCM in the coastal waters of bay of Bengal: East Coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, N.; Rao, K.; Ramana, I.; Sarma, V.; Shaw, B.; Chodhury, S.; Dash, S.

    Ocean Colour monitor (OCM) is one of the sensor on board IRS-P4 (OceanSat-1). OCM is a eight channel payload operating at in the visible and near infrared bands centered at 412, 443, 490, 510, 555, 670 with a spectral band width of 20 nm and 765 and 865 nm with a band width of 40 nm. OCM is having a tilting within +/- 20 deg in order to avoid sun glint, with equatorial crossing time of around 12 noon. Having high radiometric resolution of 12 bit and a ground resolution of 360 meters covering a swath of 1420 kms with a two day repetivity, OCM data has been extensively used for the retrieval of chlorophyll and its dynamics.At NRSA under IRS-P4 OCM programme a data processing scheme was developed for the retrieval of water leaving radiances at visible wavelengths adopting the standard single scattering atmospheric correction methodology. Automated cloud masking methodology was also developed. Retrieved chlorophyll using SeaWifs operational OC2 (modified Cubic polynomial) algorithm during March 200 and 2001 for the cloud free pass over Bay of Bengal. Extensive satellite synchronous cruises conducted to validated the retrieved values and collected In-situ optical data (Es, Ed and Lu) using Satlantic radiometer (SPMR/ SMSR) and associated ocean parameters at about 40 stations for the above period. After employing proper geometric corrections, retrieved chlorophyll was compared to measured values at 40 geo- located stations and obtained an R2 value of 0.55. Chlorophyll values also retrieved from OCM data using the in- house developed bio optical algorithm and found the R2 value of 0.60. Also planned to use the OC4 algorithm for the retrieval of Chlorophyll for the above OCM passes and a comparative results will be presented.

  20. Probing the specificity of cysteine proteinases at subsites remote from the active site: analysis of P4, P3, P2' and P3' variations in extended substrates.

    PubMed Central

    Portaro, F C; Santos, A B; Cezari, M H; Juliano, M A; Juliano, L; Carmona, E

    2000-01-01

    We have determined the kinetic parameters for the hydrolysis by papain, cathepsin B and cathepsin L of internally quenched fluorescent peptides derived from the lead peptides Abz-AAFRSAQ-EDDnp [in which Abz and EDDnp stand for o-aminobenzoic acid and N-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)ethylenediamine respectively], to map the specificity of S(4) and S(3) subsites, and Abz-AFRSAAQ-EDDnp, to identify the specificity of S(2)' and S(3)'. Abz and EDDnp were the fluorescent quencher pair. These two series of peptides were cleaved at the Arg-Ser bond and systematic modifications at P(4), P(3), P(2)' and P(3)' were made. The S(4) to S(2)' subsites had a significant influence on the hydrolytic efficiencies of the three enzymes. Only papain activity was observed to be dependent on S(3)', indicating that its binding site is larger than those of cathepsins B and L. Hydrophobic amino acids were accepted at S(4), S(3), S(2)' and S(3)' of the three enzymes. The best substrates for cathepsins L and B had Trp and Asn at P(2)' respectively; variations at this position were less accepted by these enzymes. The best substrates for papain were peptides containing Trp, Tyr or Asn at P(3)'. Basic residues at P(3) and P(4) were well accepted by cathepsin L and papain. We also explored the susceptibility of substrates Abz-AFRSXAQ-EDDnp, modified at P(2)' (X), to human cathepsin B mutants from which one or two occluding loop contacts had been removed. The modifications at His(111) (H111A) and His(110) (H110A) of cathepsin B led to an increase in k(cat) values of one or two orders of magnitude. The hydrolytic efficiencies of these cathepsin B mutants became closer to those of papain or cathepsin L. PMID:10727410

  1. Critical roles of isoleucine-364 and adjacent residues in a hydrophobic gate control of phospholipid transport by the mammalian P4-ATPase ATP8A2

    PubMed Central

    Vestergaard, Anna L.; Coleman, Jonathan A.; Lemmin, Thomas; Mikkelsen, Stine A.; Molday, Laurie L.; Vilsen, Bente; Molday, Robert S.; Dal Peraro, Matteo; Andersen, Jens Peter

    2014-01-01

    P4-ATPases (flippases) translocate specific phospholipids such as phosphatidylserine from the exoplasmic leaflet of the cell membrane to the cytosolic leaflet, upholding an essential membrane asymmetry. The mechanism of flipping this giant substrate has remained an enigma. We have investigated the importance of amino acid residues in transmembrane segment M4 of mammalian P4-ATPase ATP8A2 by mutagenesis. In the related ion pumps Na+,K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase, M4 moves during the enzyme cycle, carrying along the ion bound to a glutamate. In ATP8A2, the corresponding residue is an isoleucine, which recently was found mutated in patients with cerebellar ataxia, mental retardation, and dysequilibrium syndrome. Our analyses of the lipid substrate concentration dependence of the overall and partial reactions of the enzyme cycle in mutants indicate that, during the transport across the membrane, the phosphatidylserine head group passes near isoleucine-364 (I364) and that I364 is critical to the release of the transported lipid into the cytosolic leaflet. Another M4 residue, N359, is involved in recognition of the lipid substrate on the exoplasmic side. Our functional studies are supported by structural homology modeling and molecular dynamics simulations, suggesting that I364 and adjacent hydrophobic residues function as a hydrophobic gate that separates the entry and exit sites of the lipid and directs sequential formation and annihilation of water-filled cavities, thereby enabling transport of the hydrophilic phospholipid head group in a groove outlined by the transmembrane segments M1, M2, M4, and M6, with the hydrocarbon chains following passively, still in the membrane lipid phase. PMID:24706822

  2. Analysis of the Vibrational Spectra of P_3N_3(OCH_2CF_3)_6 and P_4N_4(OCH_2CF_3)_8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Adrian K.; Plant, David F.; Golding, Peter; Lawson, Michael A.; Davies, Paul B.

    2011-06-01

    The cyclic phosphazene trimer P_3N_3(OCH_2CF_3)_6 and the related cyclic tetramer P_4N_4(OCH_2CF_3)_8 have been proposed as the major low-to-medium temperature pyrolysis products of the parent polyphosphazene (PN(OCH_2CF_3)_2)_n. Recently, both molecules have been synthesized, isolated and their vapour-phase vibrational spectra recorded using a high-resolution FTIR instrument. The interpretation of these spectra is achieved primarily by comparison with the results of high-quality density functional calculations, which enable the principal absorption features to be assigned and conclusions to be drawn regarding the geometries and conformations adopted by both molecules. These in turn allow interesting comparisons to be made with analogous cyclic halo-phosphazenes such as P_3N_3Cl_6 and P_4N_4Cl_8. Work to record in situ the spectra of the vapour-phase pyrolysis products of (PN(OCH_2CF_3)_2)_n and to analyse these results in terms of the tetramer and trimer spectra will also be presented. S. V. Peddada and J. H. Magill Macromolecules 16 (1983) 1258-1264. H. R. Allcock, G. S. McDonnell, G. H. Riding, and I. Manners Chem. Mater. 2 (1990) 425-432. T. R. Manley and D. A. Williams Spectrochimica Acta 23A (1966) 149-165. V. Varma, J. R. Fernandez and C. N. R. Rao J. Mol. Struct. 198 (1989) 403-412.

  3. Gene fusions AHRR-NCOA2, NCOA2-ETV4, ETV4-AHRR, P4HA2-TBCK, and TBCK-P4HA2 resulting from the translocations t(5;8;17)(p15;q13;q21) and t(4;5)(q24;q31) in a soft tissue angiofibroma

    PubMed Central

    Panagopoulos, Ioannis; Gorunova, Ludmila; Viset, Trond; Heim, Sverre

    2016-01-01

    We present an angiofibroma of soft tissue with the karyotype 46,XY,t(4;5)(q24;q31),t(5;8;17)(p15;q13;q21) [8]/46,XY,t(1;14)(p31;q32)[2]/46,XY[3]. RNA-sequencing showed that the t(4;5)(q24;q31) resulted in recombination of the genes TBCK on 4q24 and P4HA2 on 5q31.1 with generation of an in-frame TBCK-P4HA2 and the reciprocal but out-of-frame P4HA2-TBCK fusion transcripts. The putative TBCK-P4HA2 protein would contain the kinase, the rhodanese-like domain, and the Tre-2/Bub2/Cdc16 (TBC) domains of TBCK together with the P4HA2 protein which is a component of the prolyl 4-hydroxylase. The t(5;8;17)(p15;q13;q21) three-way chromosomal translocation targeted AHRR (on 5p15), NCOA2 (on 8q13), and ETV4 (on 17q21) generating the in-frame fusions AHRR-NCOA2 and NCOA2-ETV4 as well as an out-of-frame ETV4-AHRR transcript. In the AHRR-NCOA2 protein, the C-terminal part of AHRR is replaced by the C-terminal part of NCOA2 which contains two activation domains. The NCOA2-ETV4 protein would contain the helix-loop-helix, PAS_9 and PAS_11, CITED domains, the SRC-1 domain of NCOA2 and the ETS DNA-binding domain of ETV4. No fusion gene corresponding to t(1;14)(p31;q32) was found. Our findings indicate that, in spite of the recurrence of AHRR-NCOA2 in angiofibroma of soft tissue, additional genetic events (or fusion genes) might be required for the development of this tumor. PMID:27633981

  4. Electron Excitation Cross Sections for the C II Transitions 2s(exp 2)2p P-2(exp 0) yields 2s2p(exp 2) P-4, D-2, and S-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Steven J.; Zuo, M.; Chutjian, A.; Tayal, S. S.; Williams, I. D.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical excitation cross sections are reported for the transitions 2s(exp 2) 2p-2(exp 0) yield 2s2p(exp 2)P-4, D-2, and S-2 in C II. The transition wavelengths (energies) are 2324 A (5.34 eV), 1335 x (9.29 eV), and 1036 A (11.97 eV), respectively. Use is made of electron energy-loss and merged beams methods. The energy range covered is from below each threshold (4 - 11 eV) to 15-24 eV. As in previous work with O II, care was taken to assess and minimize the metastable fraction in the C II beam, to account for contributions from nearby energy-loss features, and to collect the full angular range of inelastically scattered electrons. A comparison is made for each transition between experiment and new 8-state R-matrix calculations. Subject headings: atomic data ultraviolet: general

  5. Longitudinal analysis of VP7 gene of group A human rotavirus G2P[4] strains circulating in the pre-vaccine era in Sapporo, Japan from 1991 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Tatsumi, Masatoshi; Nagaoka, Yoshinobu; Tsugawa, Takeshi; Yoto, Yuko; Hori, Tsukasa; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki

    2014-09-01

    Sequence analysis of the VP7 gene in 23 group A human rotavirus G2P[4] strains obtained during 1991-2011, that is, the pre-vaccine era, in Sapporo, Japan showed considerable genetic diversity, mainly in variable regions. Recent G2P[4] epidemic strains were located in sublineage IVa with a distinctive substitution of D96N. This study provides background data on the genetic variability of G2P[4] rotavirus-VP7 gene prior to the widespread use of rotavirus vaccines in Japan.

  6. Effect of irradiation with MeV protons and electrons on the conductivity compensation and photoluminescence of moderately doped p-4H-SiC (CVD)

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlovski, V. V.; Lebedev, A. A. Bogdanova, E. V.; Seredova, N. V.

    2015-09-15

    The compensation of moderately doped p-4H-SiC samples grown by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method under irradiation with 0.9-MeV electrons and 15-MeV protons is studied. The experimentally measured carrier removal rates are 1.2–1.6 cm{sup –1} for electrons and 240–260 cm{sup –1} for protons. The dependence of the concentration of uncompensated acceptors and donors, measured in the study, demonstrates a linear decrease with increasing irradiation dose to the point of complete compensation. This run of the dependence shows that compensation of the samples is due to the transition of carriers to deep centers formed by primary radiation-induced defects. It is demonstrated that, in contrast to n-SiC (CVD), primary defects in the carbon sublattice of moderately doped p-SiC (CVD) only cannot account for the compensation process. In p-SiC, either primary defects in the silicon sublattice, or defects in both sublattices are responsible for conductivity compensation. Also, photoluminescence spectra are examined in relation to the irradiation dose.

  7. CASL L1 Milestone report : CASL.P4.01, sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for CIPS with VIPRE-W and BOA.

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, Yixing; Adams, Brian M.; Secker, Jeffrey R.

    2011-12-01

    The CASL Level 1 Milestone CASL.P4.01, successfully completed in December 2011, aimed to 'conduct, using methodologies integrated into VERA, a detailed sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification of a crud-relevant problem with baseline VERA capabilities (ANC/VIPRE-W/BOA).' The VUQ focus area led this effort, in partnership with AMA, and with support from VRI. DAKOTA was coupled to existing VIPRE-W thermal-hydraulics and BOA crud/boron deposit simulations representing a pressurized water reactor (PWR) that previously experienced crud-induced power shift (CIPS). This work supports understanding of CIPS by exploring the sensitivity and uncertainty in BOA outputs with respect to uncertain operating and model parameters. This report summarizes work coupling the software tools, characterizing uncertainties, and analyzing the results of iterative sensitivity and uncertainty studies. These studies focused on sensitivity and uncertainty of CIPS indicators calculated by the current version of the BOA code used in the industry. Challenges with this kind of analysis are identified to inform follow-on research goals and VERA development targeting crud-related challenge problems.

  8. Formation of cationic [RP5Cl](+)-cages via insertion of [RPCl](+)-cations into a P-P bond of the P4 tetrahedron.

    PubMed

    Holthausen, Michael H; Feldmann, Kai-Oliver; Schulz, Stephen; Hepp, Alexander; Weigand, Jan J

    2012-03-19

    Fluorobenzene solutions of RPCl(2) and a Lewis acid such as ECl(3) (E = Al, Ga) in a 1:1 ratio are used as reactive sources of chlorophosphenium cations [RPCl](+), which insert into P-P bonds of dissolved P(4). This general protocol represents a powerful strategy for the synthesis of new cationic chloro-substituted organophosphorus [RP(5)Cl](+)-cages as illustrated by the isolation of several monocations (21a-g(+)) in good to excellent yields. For singular reaction two possible reaction mechanisms are proposed on the basis of quantum chemical calculations. The intriguing NMR spectra and structures of the obtained cationic [RP(5)Cl](+)-cages are discussed. Furthermore, the reactions of dichlorophosphanes and the Lewis acid GaCl(3) in various stoichiometries are investigated to obtain a deeper understanding of the species involved in these reactions. The formation of intermediates such as RPCl(2)·GaCl(3) (14) adducts, dichlorophosphanylchlorophosphonium cations [RPCl(2)-RPCl](+) (16(+)) and [RPCl(2)-RPCl-GaCl(3)](+) (17(+)) in reaction mixtures of RPCl(2) and GaCl(3) in fluorobenzene strongly depends on the basicity of the dichlorophosphane RPCl(2) (R = tBu, Cy, iPr, Et, Me, Ph, C(6)F(5)) and the reaction stoichiometry.

  9. Analysis of valence XPS and AES of (PP, P4VP, PVME, PPS, PTFE) polymers by DFT calculations using the model molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, Kazunaka; Shimada, Shingo; Kato, Nobuhiko; Ida, Tomonori

    2016-10-01

    We simulated valence X-ray photoelectron spectra (VXPS) of five [(CH2CH(CH3))n {poly(propyrene) PP}, ((CH2CH(C5NH4))n {poly(4-vinyl-pyridine) P4VP}, (CH2CHO(CH3))n {poly(vinyl methyl ether) PVME}, (C6H4S)n {poly(phenylene) sulphide PPS}, (CF2CF2)n {poly(tetrafluoroethylene) PTFE}] polymers by density-functional theory (DFT) calculations using the model oligomers. The spectra reflect the differences in the chemical structures between each polymer, since the peak intensities of valence band spectra are seen to be due to photo-ionization cross-section of (C, N, O, S, F) atoms by considering the orbital energies and cross-section values of the polymer models, individually. In the Auger electron spectra (AES) simulations, theoretical kinetic energies of the AES are obtained with our modified calculation method. The modified kinetic energies correspond to two final-state holes at the ground state and at the transition-state in DFT calculations, respectively. Experimental peaks of (C, N, O)- KVV, and S L2,3VV AES for each polymer are discussed in detail by our modified calculation method.

  10. Use Electrospinning to Introduce Graphene into Poly(4-Vinylpridine) (P4VP) Polymer Fibers and Their Biocompatibility with Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSCs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Linxi; Chang, Chung-Chueh; Rafailovich, Miriam

    Graphene-polymer composite materials have been popularized in tissue engineering due to the outstanding thermal, electrical and mechanical properties of graphene. Most of the current studies, however, focus on 2-D structured films which hardly represent the real conditions of scaffolds in vivo environment and dispersion of graphene in polymer matrix has always been challenging since the graphene tends to aggregate. In our study, we have successfully introduced graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) into poly(4-vinphylpridine) (P4VP) matrix and fabricated nano- and micro-scale size fibers by using electrospinning technique. SEM and TEM reveal uniform defect-free fiber structures and good dispersion of graphene; DSC and AFM indicate the enhancement of physical properties. The biocompatibility of the electrospun 3-D scaffolds with dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) has been examined. Our results show that the cells can accelerate proliferation to respond to the existence of GNPs. SEM with EDAX reveals a deposition of mineralized calcium matrix on the fibers after 35-day incubation, which has possibly been caused by cell differentiation induced by fibrous scaffolds. Electrospinning Nano- and Mirco-scale size Poly(4-vinphylpridine) Fibers Loaded with Graphene Nano Platelets (GNPs).

  11. Analysis of p-4,6,8He and p-6,8,9,11Li scattering at 700 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Deeksha; Khan, Z. A.; Usmani, A. A.

    2015-02-01

    The Glauber model is used to analyze the elastic scattering of protons from He and Li isotopes at ˜700 MeV. The calculations require two inputs; the nucleon-nucleon (NN) amplitude and the nucleon density distributions for the target nuclei. The NN amplitude is taken from the available NN scattering data, and, for the target nuclei, we use some of the nucleon density distributions available in the literature. The emphasis, in this work, is to study the sensitivity of the calculated differential cross sections for p-4,6,8He scattering on the density distributions used, and to compare the results with some recent findings in view of assessing the suitability of nucleon density distributions for a given nucleus at relatively low and intermediate energies. The results demonstrate that the study of p-nucleus scattering could be helpful in providing useful information about the behavior of matter density distribution in the surface and interior regions of a nuclear medium. Further, we find that the phase of the NN amplitude plays a role in providing a better description of the experimental data in all the cases.

  12. Reducing Lattice Thermal Conductivity of the Thermoelectric Compound AgSbTe2 (P4/mmm) by Lanthanum Substitution: Computational and Experimental Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amouyal, Yaron

    2014-10-01

    In this study we performed lattice dynamics first-principles calculations for the promising thermoelectric (TE) compound AgSbTe2, and estimated the stability of its three polymorphs over a wide temperature range from 0 to 600 K. We calculated the vibrational density of states of the AgSbTe2 (P4/mmm) phase. The results suggested that formation of substitutional defects at Ag-sublattice sites impedes lattice vibrations, thereby reducing lattice thermal conductivity. We focused on calculations based on the Debye approximation for the compound La0.125Ag0.875SbTe2, and predicted reduction of the average sound velocity from 1684 to 1563 m s-1 as a result of La doping. This is manifested as a ca. 14% reduction in thermal conductivity. To confirm the results from computation we produced two Ag-Sb-Te-based alloys, a ternary alloy without La addition and a quaternary alloy containing La. We measured the thermal conductivity of both alloys by use of the laser flash analysis method, and, as a result of La alloying, observed a reduction in thermal conductivity from 0.92 to 0.71 W m-1 K-1 at 573 K, as calculated from first principles.

  13. Mechanism of activation of phenylalanine and synthesis of P1, P4-bis(5'-adenosyl) tetraphosphate by yeast phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase.

    PubMed

    Harnett, S P; Lowe, G; Tansley, G

    1985-06-01

    The activation of L-phenylalanine by yeast phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase using adenosine 5'-[(S)-alpha-17O,alpha,alpha-18O2]triphosphate is shown to proceed with inversion of configuration at P alpha of ATP. This observation taken together with the lack of positional isotope exchange when adenosine 5'-[beta,beta-18O2]triphosphate is incubated with the enzyme in the absence of phenylalanine and in the presence of the competitive inhibitor phenylalaninol indicates that activation of phenylalanine occurs by a direct "in-line" adenylyl-transfer reaction. In the presence of Zn2+, yeast phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase also catalyzes the phenylalanine-dependent hydrolysis of ATP to AMP and the synthesis of P1,P4-bis(5'-adenosyl) tetraphosphate (Ap4A). With adenosine 5'-[(S)-alpha-17O,alpha,alpha-18O2]triphosphate, the formation of AMP and Ap4A is shown to occur with inversion and retention of configuration, respectively. It is concluded that phenylalanyl adenylate is an intermediate in both processes, Zn2+ promoting AMP formation by hydrolytic cleavage of the C-O bond and Ap4A formation by displacement at phosphorus of phenylalanine by ATP. PMID:3893531

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Marinobacter sp. Strain P4B1, an Electrogenic Perchlorate-Reducing Strain Isolated from a Long-Term Mixed Enrichment Culture of Marine Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Stepanov, Victor G; Xiao, Yeyuan; Lopez, April J; Roberts, Deborah J; Fox, George E

    2016-01-01

    The perchlorate-reducing strain Marinobacter sp. strain P4B1 was isolated from a long-term perchlorate-degrading enrichment culture seeded with marine sediment. The draft genome of Marinobacter sp. P4B1 is comprised of the bacterial chromosome (3.60 Mbp, G+C 58.51%, 3,269 predicted genes) and its associated plasmid pMARS01 (0.14 Mbp, G+C 52.95%, 165 predicted genes). PMID:26798109

  15. Molecular gallium arsenide phosphide clusters prepared from AsP(3), P(4), and [{GaC(SiMe(3))(3)}(4)].

    PubMed

    Cossairt, Brandi M; Cummins, Christopher C

    2010-11-01

    Treatment of AsP(3) with 0.75 equivalents of [{GaC(SiMe(3))(3)}(4)] resulted in selective insertion of three equivalents of {GaC(SiMe(3))(3)} into the three As--P bonds to give [As{GaC(SiMe(3))(3)}(3)P(3)] (1-As) with an intact cyclo-P(3) ring. This yellow compound has been characterized by NMR spectroscopy, combustion analysis, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, UV/Vis spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry (THF, 0.2 M [TBA][B(C(6)F(5))(4)]; TBA=tetrabutyl ammonium). Computational models of 1-As and the isomeric [P{GaC(SiMe(3))(3)}(3)AsP(2)] (1-P) have been investigated as well, revealing several interesting electronic features of these cage molecules. Following from the cyclic voltammetry studies of 1-As that highlight an irreversible two-electron reduction at -2.2 V versus Fc/Fc(+), treatment with one equivalent of [Mg(C(14)H(10))(thf)(3)] resulted in two-electron reduction to provide [As{GaC(SiMe(3))(3)}(3)P(3)Mg(thf)(3)] (2), in which the Mg(2+) ion has inserted into one of the P--P bonds of the cyclo-P(3) ring. It was also found that treatment of AsP(3) or P(4) with one equivalent of [{GaC(SiMe(3))(3)}(4)] resulted in formation of the quadruple insertion products [As{GaC(SiMe(3))(3)}(4)P(3)] (3) and [P{GaC(SiMe(3))(3)}(4)P(3)] (4), respectively.

  16. Preparation of a diphosphine with persistent phosphinyl radical character in solution: characterization, reactivity with O2, S8, Se, Te, and P4, and electronic structure calculations.

    PubMed

    Giffin, Nick A; Hendsbee, Arthur D; Roemmele, Tracey L; Lumsden, Michael D; Pye, Cory C; Masuda, Jason D

    2012-11-01

    A new, easily synthesized diphosphine based on a heterocyclic 1,3,2-diazaphospholidine framework has been prepared. Due to the large, sterically encumbering Dipp groups (Dipp = 2,6-diisopropylphenyl) on the heterocyclic ring, the diphosphine undergoes homolytic cleavage of the P-P bond in solution to form two phosphinyl radicals. The diphosphine has been reacted with O(2), S(8), Se, Te, and P(4), giving products that involve insertion of elements between the P-P bond to yield the related phosphinic acid anhydride, sulfide/disulfide, selenide, telluride, and a butterfly-type perphospha-bicyclobutadiene structure with a trans,trans-geometry. All molecules have been characterized by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and single-crystal X-ray crystallography. Variable-temperature EPR spectroscopy was utilized to study the nature of the phosphinyl radical in solution. Electronic structure calculations were performed on a number of systems from the parent diphosphine [H(2)P](2) to amino-substituted [(H(2)N)(2)P](2) and cyclic amino-substituted [(H(2)C)(2)(NH)(2)P](2); then, bulky substituents (Ph or Dipp) were attached to the cyclic amino systems. Calculations on the isolated diphosphine at the B3LYP/6-31+G* level show that the homolytic cleavage of the P-P bond to form two phosphinyl radicals is favored over the diphosphine by ~11 kJ/mol. Furthermore, there is a significant amount of relaxation energy stored in the ligands (52.3 kJ/mol), providing a major driving force behind the homolytic cleavage of the central P-P bond.

  17. Molecular identification of a G2 rotavirus that provided a G1P[4] mono-reassortant with a DS-1-like genotype constellation.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Eriko; Nakagomi, Toyoko; Doan, Yen Hai; Gauchan, Punita; Kaneko, Miho; Nakagomi, Osamu

    2015-04-01

    The segmented nature of the rotavirus genome provides an opportunity for the virus to reassort upon co-infection of more than one rotavirus strain. Previously, two G1P[4] strains isolated from children with diarrhoea, AU64, and AU67, were shown by RNA-RNA hybridization to be a VP7 mono-reassortant possessing a DS-1 genogroup background. However, the origin of the parental G2 strain was not sought for at that time. The aim of this study, therefore, was to identify the G2 strain that provided AU64/AU67 with the DS-1-like genotype constellation. By carefully comparing the genomic RNA migration patterns on polyacrylamide gels of strains circulating at the same and nearby geographic locations around the time of the mono-reassortant detection (1989), a G2 strain designated 88H449 was shown to possess 10 genome segments co-migrating with those of AU64. Sequencing of all genome segments of AU64 and 88H449 showed that those two strains were 99.6-100% identical at the nucleotide level in all except the VP7 gene, indicating that the parental G2 strain that provided AU64 with the 10 genome segments was a sibling of 88H449. Sequencing of the VP7 genes of 36 G1P[8] strains circulating locally between 1981 and 1990 revealed the presence of strains bearing diverse VP7 sequences among which the closest nucleotide identity to AU64 was 98.6% and the closest amino acid identity in the major antigenic regions was 100%. This unusual mono-reassortant was concluded to be the result of a contemporary reassosrtment event occurring between locally co-circulating strains.

  18. Comparing Student Experiences with Story Discussions in Dialogic versus Traditional Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reznitskaya, Alina; Glina, Monica

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the testimonials of 60 elementary school students about their experience during class discussions of assigned readings. They randomly assigned 12 classrooms to 2 treatments: Philosophy for Children (P4C) and Regular Instruction. P4C is an alternative educational environment that places dialogue at the center of its pedagogy.…

  19. Copper Selenidophosphates Cu4P2Se6, Cu4P3Se4, Cu4P4Se3, and CuP2Se, Featuring Zero-, One-, and Two-Dimensional Anions.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Alexander; Schoop, Leslie M; Eger, Roland; Moudrakovski, Igor; Schwarzmüller, Stefan; Duppel, Viola; Kremer, Reinhard K; Oeckler, Oliver; Lotsch, Bettina V

    2016-08-15

    Five new compounds in the Cu/P/Se phase diagram have been synthesized, and their crystal structures have been determined. The crystal structures of these compounds comprise four previously unreported zero-, one-, and two-dimensional selenidophosphate anions containing low-valent phosphorus. In addition to two new modifications of Cu4P2Se6 featuring the well-known hexaselenidohypodiphosphate(IV) ion, there are three copper selenidophosphates with low-valent P: Cu4P3Se4 contains two different new anions, (i) a monomeric (zero-dimensional) selenidophosphate anion [P2Se4](4-) and (ii) a one-dimensional selenidophosphate anion [Formula: see text], which is related to the well-known gray-Se-like [Formula: see text] Zintl anion. Cu4P4Se3 contains one-dimensional [Formula: see text] polyanions, whereas CuP2Se contains the 2D selenidophosphate [Formula: see text] polyanion. It consists of charge-neutral CuP2Se layers separated by a van der Waals gap which is very rare for a Zintl-type phase. Hence, besides black P, CuP2Se constitutes a new possible source of 2D oxidized phosphorus containing layers for intercalation or exfoliation experiments. Additionally, the electronic structures and some fundamental physical properties of the new compounds are reported. All compounds are semiconducting with indirect band gaps of the orders of around 1 eV. The phases reported here add to the structural diversity of chalcogenido phosphates. The structural variety of this family of compounds may translate into a variety of tunable physical properties. PMID:27447868

  20. Loss of the Arabidopsis thaliana P4-ATPases ALA6 and ALA7 impairs pollen fitness and alters the pollen tube plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Stephen C; López-Marqués, Rosa L; Cohen, Taylor; Brown, Elizabeth; Rosenberg, Alexa; Palmgren, Michael G; Harper, Jeffrey F

    2015-01-01

    Members of the P4 subfamily of P-type ATPases are thought to create and maintain lipid asymmetry in biological membranes by flipping specific lipids between membrane leaflets. In Arabidopsis, 7 of the 12 Aminophospholipid ATPase (ALA) family members are expressed in pollen. Here we show that double knockout of ALA6 and ALA7 (ala6/7) results in siliques with a ~2-fold reduction in seed set with a high frequency of empty seed positions near the bottom. Seed set was reduced to near zero when plants were grown under a hot/cold temperature stress. Reciprocal crosses indicate that the ala6/7 reproductive deficiencies are due to a defect related to pollen transmission. In-vitro growth assays provide evidence that ala6/7 pollen tubes are short and slow, with ~2-fold reductions in both maximal growth rate and overall length relative to wild-type. Outcrosses show that when ala6/7 pollen are in competition with wild-type pollen, they have a near 0% success rate in fertilizing ovules near the bottom of the pistil, consistent with ala6/7 pollen having short and slow growth defects. The ala6/7 phenotypes were rescued by the expression of either an ALA6-YFP or GFP-ALA6 fusion protein, which showed localization to both the plasma membrane and highly-mobile endomembrane structures. A mass spectrometry analysis of mature pollen grains revealed significant differences between ala6/7 and wild-type, both in the relative abundance of lipid classes and in the average number of double bonds present in acyl side chains. A change in the properties of the ala6/7 plasma membrane was also indicated by a ~10-fold reduction of labeling by lipophilic FM-dyes relative to wild-type. Together, these results indicate that ALA6 and ALA7 provide redundant activities that function to directly or indirectly change the distribution and abundance of lipids in pollen, and support a model in which ALA6 and ALA7 are critical for pollen fitness under normal and temperature-stress conditions. PMID:25954280

  1. Diadenosine 5',5'''-P1, P4-tetraphosphate alpha, beta-phosphorylase from yeast supports nucleoside diphosphate-phosphate exchange.

    PubMed

    Guranowski, A; Blanquet, S

    1986-05-01

    Homogeneous diadenosine 5',5'''-P1,P4-tetraphosphate alpha, beta-phosphorylase (Ap4A-phosphorylase), the enzyme recently found in yeast (Guranowski, A., and Blanquet, S. (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260, 3542-3547) catalyzes an exchange reaction between the beta-phosphate of nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) and orthophosphate from the medium (Pi). The common purine and pyrimidine ribonucleoside diphosphates as well as ADP analogs modified either in aglycone, sugar, or at the anhydride bond beta-position are substrates. The Km and rate values for the NDP-Pi exchange reaction were estimated at pH optima. These optima are 6.5 for UDP, 7.0 for ADP or CDP, and 8.0 for GDP. In the presence of 10 mM K2HPO4, 0.1 mM EDTA, and 100 mM Hepes/KOH (pH 7.0), the Km for ADP is 0.7 mM with a rate constant at saturating ADP of 96 s-1. The Km value for orthophosphate is 2 mM. In the NDP-Pi exchange reaction, phosphate can be substituted with arsenate and apparent arsenolysis of NDPs yields corresponding nucleoside monophosphates. The same pH optimum of 6.5 is found for arsenolysis of ADP, GDP, and CDP. Whereas the Ap4A phosphorylase sulfhydryl groups are essential for catalyzing the Ap4A phosphorolysis, the NDP-Pi exchange reactions, and the arsenolysis of NDPs, the divalent metal ions (Mg2+, Mn2+, Ca2+, Co2+, and Cd2+), which had been shown to be essential cofactors of the former reaction, are not required for the two latter ones. Used at concentrations which are optimum for Ap4A phosphorolysis, the cations (particularly Mg2+ and Cd2+) inhibit the NDP-Pi exchange and the arsenolysis of NDPs. Interestingly, the Ap4A phosphorylase exhibits higher specificity for adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (APS) than for any other NDP tested. The V/Km ratio is almost 5-fold higher with APS than with ADP. However, in the presence of orthophosphate, the APS is irreversibly converted to ADP. Thus, the enzyme displays a property already attributed to ADP-sulfurylase (EC 2.7.7.5), (Grunberg-Manago, M., Del Campillo

  2. Dinitrogen binding, P4-activation and aza-Büchner ring expansions mediated by an isocyano analogue of the CpCo(CO) fragment.

    PubMed

    Mokhtarzadeh, Charles C; Rheingold, Arnold L; Figueroa, Joshua S

    2016-10-01

    Synthetic studies targeting an m-terphenyl isocyanide analogue of the unstable 16e(-), S = 1 complex CpCo(CO) are reported (Cp = η(5)-C5H5). The m-terphenyl isocyanide CNAr(Dipp2) (Ar(Dipp2) = 2,6-(2,6-(i-Pr)2C6H3)2C6H3) is shown to readily bind to both CpCoI2 and Cp*CoI2 fragments (Cp* = η(5)-C5Me5) and provide mono-isocyanide starting materials that are suitable for chemical reduction. Treatment of CpCoI2(CNAr(Dipp2)) with KC8 produces the bridging isocyanide dimer, [CpCo(μ-CNAr(Dipp2))]2, thereby indicating that the steric combination of Cp and CNAr(Dipp2) ligands does not allow for the production of mononuclear complexes. However, Cp*CoI2(CNAr(Dipp2)) with KC8 under an N2 atmosphere results in the formation of the complex, Cp*Co(N2)(CNAr(Dipp2)), which is a unique two-legged piano stool complex featuring a coordinated dinitrogen ligand. The N2 ligand in Cp*Co(N2)(CNAr(Dipp2)) is shown to be labile and, upon removal by application of vacuum, leads to the production of an η(4)-coordinated 1-azabenz[b]azulene complex by aza-Büchner cyclization of the CNAr(Dipp2) ligand. This cyclization reaction is rationalized via the intermediacy of the unobserved 16e(-) species [Cp*Co(CNAr(Dipp2))]. While this intramolecular aza-Büchner cyclization prevents isolation of [Cp*Co(CNAr(Dipp2))], the dinitrogen complex Cp*Co(N2)(CNAr(Dipp2)) is shown to serve as a reliable synthon for this 16e(-) species upon reaction with small molecule substrates. Both free CNAr(Dipp2) and diphenylacetylene react with Cp*Co(N2)(CNAr(Dipp2)) to form two-legged piano stool complexes. In addition, Cp*Co(N2)(CNAr(Dipp2)) reacts readily with 0.5 and 1.0 equivalents of P4 to produce poly-phosphorus products resulting from P-P single bond cleavage. PMID:27480670

  3. The green alga Scenedesmus obliquus contains both diadenosine 5',5'''-P1,P4-tetraphosphate (asymmetrical) pyrophosphohydrolase and phosphorylase activities.

    PubMed Central

    McLennan, A G; Mayers, E; Hankin, S; Thorne, N M; Prescott, M; Powls, R

    1994-01-01

    Diadenosine 5',5'''-P1,P4-tetraphosphate (Ap4A) phosphorylase and Ap4A pyrophosphohydrolase activities have been purified from extracts of the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus. Both activities were also detected in Scenedesmus brasiliensis, Scenedesmus quadricauda and in Chlorella vulgaris. This is the first time that both types of enzyme have been detected in the same species. The Ap4A phosphorylase has a molecular mass of 46-48 kDa, a broad pH optimum between 7.5 and 9.5, and requires a divalent ion for activity (Mg2+ > Co2+ > Ca2+ = Mn2+ = Cd2+ > Zn2+). It degrades substrates with at least four phosphate groups and always produces a nucleoside 5'-diphosphate product. The Km values for Ap4A and Pi are 5.3 microM and 160 microM, respectively, and kcat. = 1.8 s-1. Arsenate, vanadate, molybdate, chromate and tungstate can substitute for phosphate. The enzyme also catalyses Ap4A synthesis (Keq. = [Ap4A] [Pi]/[ATP][ADP] = 9 x 10(-4)) and ADP arsenolysis. The Ap4A hydrolase has a molecular mass of 26-28 kDa, an alkaline pH optimum of 8.8-9.8, and prefers Zn2+ as the stimulatory ion (Zn2+ > Mg2+ > Mn2+ > Co2+ > Cd2+). It degrades substrates with at least four phosphate groups, having a slight preference for Ap5A, and always produces a nucleoside 5'-triphosphate product. The Km value for Ap4A is 6.6 microM and kcat. = 1.3 s-1. It is inhibited competitively by adenosine 5'-tetraphosphate (Ki = 0.67 microM) and non-competitively by fluoride (Ki = 150 microM). A 50-54 kDa dinucleoside 5',5'''-P1,P3-triphosphate (Ap3A) pyrophosphohydrolase was also detected in S. obliquus, S. quadricauda and C. vulgaris. The corresponding enzyme in S. brasiliensis (> 100 kDa) may be a dimer Images Figure 2 PMID:8198532

  4. Thermal analysis of a six-channel heat-generating blockage in an LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Warinner, D.K.; Chao, D.H.Y.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the temperature fields within and around a six-channel blockage designed as a molten-fuel-release initiator in SLSF-P4, an in-reactor experiment (37-mixed-oxide pin bundle) planned for February, 1981, irradiation. To meet the experiment objectives, a minimum of ten grams of molten UO/sub 2/ must be ejected into the sodium stream from one, two, or three such blockages. The temperature fields of the electrodeposited-nickel blockage filled with a mixture of UO/sub 2/ powder, stainless steel, and gas are found at intervals of full power. The SS content, type of gas, and porosity were parameters varied in this study which used the computer codes THYME-B, SABRE-1, and ANL's version of THTB. State-of-the-art treatments of the conductivity of the mixture and the gas-gap conductance are included. The contrived-blockage design has been found to maintain structural integrity until sufficient molten fuel exists to release, challenge the subassembly, and be detected by delayed-neutron and fission-product monitors. This will serve to resolve lingering questions on rapid pin-to-pin propagation, blockage propagation, and other local-fault issues.

  5. Ligand 5,10,15,20-tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphine (TMPyP4) prefers the parallel propeller-type human telomeric G-quadruplex DNA over its other polymorphs.

    PubMed

    Ali, Asfa; Bansal, Manju; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2015-01-01

    The binding of ligand 5,10,15,20-tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphine (TMPyP4) with telomeric and genomic G-quadruplex DNA has been extensively studied. However, a comparative study of interactions of TMPyP4 with different conformations of human telomeric G-quadruplex DNA, namely, parallel propeller-type (PP), antiparallel basket-type (AB), and mixed hybrid-type (MH) G-quadruplex DNA, has not been done. We considered all the possible binding sites in each of the G-quadruplex DNA structures and docked TMPyP4 to each one of them. The resultant most potent sites for binding were analyzed from the mean binding free energy of the complexes. Molecular dynamics simulations were then carried out, and analysis of the binding free energy of the TMPyP4-G-quadruplex complex showed that the binding of TMPyP4 with parallel propeller-type G-quadruplex DNA is preferred over the other two G-quadruplex DNA conformations. The results obtained from the change in solvent excluded surface area (SESA) and solvent accessible surface area (SASA) also support the more pronounced binding of the ligand with the parallel propeller-type G-quadruplex DNA.

  6. Control of morphology and corona composition in aggregates of mixtures of PS-b-PAA and PS-b-P4VP diblock copolymers: effects of solvent, water content, and mixture composition.

    PubMed

    Vyhnalkova, Renata; Müller, Axel H E; Eisenberg, Adi

    2014-11-11

    The morphologies and corona compositions in aggregates of mixtures of PS-b-PAA and PS-b-P4VP diblock copolymers are influenced by controllable assembly parameters such as water content, block copolymer molar ratios, and solvent effects as well as the hydrophilic block lengths and block length ratios. All these factors can affect the morphology of the aggregates as well as their corona composition, the latter especially in vesicles, where two interfaces are involved. The morphologies and corona compositions of the aggregates were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and electrophoretic mobility, respectively. They depend, to a large extent, on the solubility of P4VP and PAA in the given organic solvent (e.g., DMF, THF, or dioxane), which influences the coil dimensions of the hydrophilic chains. The water content affects both the size and the shape of the block copolymer aggregates as well as the corona composition. Water acts as a precipitant for the hydrophobic block in the common solvent and, therefore, its progressive addition to the solution changes the interaction parameter with the hydrophobic block. The block copolymer molar ratio has an effect on both the morphology and the corona composition of the aggregates. With increasing PS-b-P4VP content in the mixture, the morphology transforms gradually from large compound micelles (LCMs), through coexistence of LCMs and small spherical micelles (SSMs), and eventually to vesicles. As expected, the corona composition of the aggregates is also affected by the block copolymer molar ratio, and changes progressively from pure PAA to a mixture of PAA and P4VP and to pure P4VP with increasing PS-b-P4VP content. It is clear that the use of mixtures of the soluble chains offers the opportunity of fine-tuning the corona composition in block copolymer aggregates under assembly conditions.

  7. Characterization of G2P[4] rotavirus strains associated with increased detection in Australian states using the RotaTeq® vaccine during the 2010-2011 surveillance period.

    PubMed

    Donato, Celeste M; Zhang, Zheng Andrew; Donker, Nicole C; Kirkwood, Carl D

    2014-12-01

    The introduction of rotavirus vaccines Rotarix® and RotaTeq® into the Australian National Immunisation Program in July 2007 has resulted in a dramatic decrease in the burden of rotavirus disease. G2P[4] strains became the dominant genotype Australia-wide during the 2010-2011 surveillance period and for the first time since vaccine introduction, a higher proportion were isolated in jurisdictions using RotaTeq® vaccine compared to locations using Rotarix®. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP7 gene of 32 G2P[4] strains identified six genetic clusters, these distinct clusters were also observed in the VP4 gene for a subset of 12 strains. The whole genome was determined for a representative strain of clusters; A (RVA/Human-wt/AUS/SA066/2010/G2P[4]), B (RVA/Human-wt/AUS/WAPC703/2010/G2P[4]), C (RVA/Human-wt/AUS/MON008/2010/G2P[4]) and E (RVA/Human-wt/AUS/RCH041/2010/G2P[4]). All of the strains possessed the archetypal DS-1 like genome constellation G2-P[4]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2. Three of the strains, SA066, MON008 and WAPC703 clustered together and were distinct to RCH041 for all 11 genes. The VP7 genes of 31/32 of the strains characterized in this study possessed five conserved amino acid substitutions when compared to the G2 VP7 gene present in the RotaTeq® vaccine. Three of the substitutions were in the VP7 antigenic regions A and C, the substitutions A87T, D96N and S213D have been reported in the majority of G2P[4] strains circulating globally over the previous decade. These changes may have improved the ability of strains to circulate in settings of high vaccine use.

  8. A simple synthesis and characterization of binary Co 0.5Fe 0.5(H 2PO 4) 2·2H 2O and its final decomposition product CoFeP 4O 12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boonchom, Banjong; Danvirutai, Chanaiporn; Vittayakorn, Naratip

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the synthesis of binary Co 0.5Fe 0.5(H 2PO 4) 2·2H 2O by a simple, rapid and cost-effective method using CoCO 3-Fe(c)-H 3PO 4 system in water-acetone media at ambient temperature. Thermal transformation of the synthesized powder was investigated by TG/DTG/DTA and DSC techniques, which indicate that its final decomposed product was a binary cobalt iron cyclotetraphosphate CoFeP 4O 12. The FTIR and XRD results of the synthesized Co 0.5Fe 0.5(H 2PO 4) 2·2H 2O and the decomposed CoFeP 4O 12 indicate the pure monoclinic phases with space group P2 1/n and C2/c, respectively. The morphologies of Co 0.5Fe 0.5(H 2PO 4) 2·2H 2O and CoFeP 4O 12 powders appear non-uniform particle shapes and high agglomerates, which are different from the cases of the single compounds M(H 2PO 4) 2·2H 2O and M 2P 4O 12 (where M = Co, Fe). The magnetic properties of the studied compounds are superparamagnetic behaviors, which are important for specific applications. The physical properties of the studied powders are comparable with those reported in our previous study, affected by medium and condition of preparation method.

  9. Ground and excited state interactions of metalloporphyrin PtTMPyP4 with polynucleotides [poly(dG-dC)]2 and [poly(dA-dT)]2.

    PubMed

    Keane, Páraic M; Kelly, John M

    2016-08-01

    The ground- and excited-state interactions of Pt(ii) meso-tetrakis(4-N-methylpyridyl)porphyrin (PtTMPyP4) with polynucleotides [poly(dG-dC)]2 and [poly(dA-dT)]2 have been investigated using UV/visible, circular dichroism, and steady-state and time-resolved emission spectroscopy. PtTMPyP4 intercalates into [poly(dG-dC)]2 with K∼ 10(6) M(-1). When bound to [poly(dG-dC)]2 in aerated solution there is a six-fold emission enhancement with 18 nm red-shift in emission maximum. Emission lifetimes are biexponential. In the presence of [poly(dA-dT)]2 at least two distinct groove-binding modes are observed, depending on the binding ratio. In [poly(dA-dT)]2 the emission intensity increases by a maximum factor of 17 with no shift in the emission spectrum. Three exponentials were required for lifetime fitting. The lower extent of emission enhancement in the presence of [poly(dG-dC)]2 suggests that a slow electron transfer may take place to guanine, which is significantly less efficient than that previously observed for PtTMPyP4 in the presence of guanosine 5'-monophosphate (GMP). The results are compared to those previously recorded with free base H2TMPyP4.

  10. Facile synthesis of mononuclear early transition-metal complexes of κ3cyclo-tetrametaphosphate ([P4O12]4-) and cyclo-trimetaphosphate ([P3O9]3-.

    PubMed

    Manna, Cesar M; Nassar, Mostafa Y; Tofan, Daniel; Chakarawet, Khetpakorn; Cummins, Christopher C

    2014-01-28

    We herein report the preparation of several mononuclear-metaphosphate complexes using simple techniques and mild conditions with yields ranging from 56% to 78%. Treatment of cyclo-tetrametaphosphate ([TBA]4[P4O12]·5H2O, TBA = tetra-n-butylammonium) with various metal sources including (CH3CN)3Mo(CO)3, (CH3CN)2Mo(CO)2(η(3)-C3H5)Cl, MoO2Cl2(OSMe2)2, and VOF3, leads to the clean and rapid formation of [TBA]4[(P4O12)Mo(CO)3]·2H2O, [TBA]3[(P4O12)Mo(CO)2(η(3)-C3H5)], [TBA]3[(P4O12)MoO2Cl] and [TBA]3[(P4O12)VOF2]·Et2O salts in isolated yields of 69, 56, 68, and 56% respectively. NMR spectroscopy, NMR simulations and single crystal X-ray studies reveal that the [P4O12](4-) anion behaves as a tridentate ligand wherein one of the metaphosphate groups is not directly bound to the metal. cyclo-Trimetaphosphate-metal complexes were prepared using a similar procedure i.e., treatment of [PPN]3[P3O9]·H2O (PPN = bis(triphenylphosphine)iminium) with the metal sources (CH3CN)2Mo(CO)2(η(3)-C3H5)Cl, MoO2Cl2(OSMe2)2, MoOCl3, VOF3, WOCl4, and WO2Cl2(CH3CN)2 to produce the corresponding salts, [PPN]2[(P3O9)Mo(CO)2(η(3)-C3H5)], [PPN]2[(P3O9)MoO2Cl], [PPN]2[(P3O9)MoOCl2], [PPN]2[(P3O9)VOF2]·2CH2Cl2, and [PPN]2[(P3O9)WO2Cl] in isolated yields of 78, 56, 75, 59, and 77% respectively. NMR spectroscopy, NMR simulations and single-crystal X-ray studies indicate that the trianionic ligand [P3O9](3-) in these complexes also has κ(3) connectivity. PMID:24285119

  11. Thermodynamic analysis of binary Fe85B15 to quinary Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 alloys for primary crystallizations of α-Fe in nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, A.; Zhang, Y.; Takenaka, K.; Makino, A.

    2015-05-01

    Fe-based Fe85B15, Fe84B15Cu1, Fe82Si2B15Cu1, Fe85Si2B12Cu1, and Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 (NANOMET®) alloys were experimental and computational analyzed to clarify the features of NANOMET that exhibits high saturation magnetic flux density (Bs) nearly 1.9 T and low core loss than conventional nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys. The X-ray diffraction analysis for ribbon specimens produced experimentally by melt spinning from melts revealed that the samples were almost formed into an amorphous single phase. Then, the as-quenched samples were analyzed with differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) experimentally for exothermic enthalpies of the primary and secondary crystallizations (ΔHx1 and ΔHx2) and their crystallization temperatures (Tx1 and Tx2), respectively. The ratio ΔHx1/ΔHx2 measured by DSC experimentally tended to be extremely high for the Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 alloy, and this tendency was reproduced by the analysis with commercial software, Thermo-Calc, with database for Fe-based alloys, TCFE7 for Gibbs free energy (G) assessments. The calculations exhibit that a volume fraction (Vf) of α-Fe tends to increase from 0.56 for the Fe85B15 to 0.75 for the Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 alloy. The computational analysis of the alloys for G of α-Fe and amorphous phases (Gα-Fe and Gamor) shows that a relationship Gα-Fe ˜ Gamor holds for the Fe85Si2B12Cu1, whereas Gα-Fe < Gamor for the Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 alloy at Tx1 and that an extremely high Vf = 0.75 was achieved for the Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 alloy by including 2.8 at. % Si and 4.5 at. % P into α-Fe. These computational results indicate that the Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 alloy barely forms amorphous phase, which, in turn, leads to high Vf and resultant high Bs.

  12. Measurement of cross sections for the {sup 232}Th(P,4n){sup 229}Pa reaction at low proton energies

    SciTech Connect

    Jost, C. U.; Griswold, J. R.; Bruffey, S. H.; Mirzadeh, S.; Stracener, D. W.; Williams, C. L.

    2013-04-19

    The alpha-emitters {sup 225}Ac and {sup 213}Bi are of great interest for alpha-radioimmunotherapy which uses radioisotopes attached to cancer-seeking antibodies to efficiently treat various types of cancers. Both radioisotopes are daughters of the long-lived {sup 229}Th(t{sub 1/2} = 7880y). {sup 229}Th can be produced by proton irradiation of {sup 232}Th and {sup 230}Th, either directly or through production of isobars that beta-decay into {sup 229}Th. To obtain excitation functions, {sup 232}Th and {sup 230}Th have been irradiated at the On-Line Test Facility at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at ORNL. Benchmark tests conducted with Cu and Ni foils show very good agreement with literature results. The experiments with thorium targets were focused on the production of {sup 229}Pa and its daughter {sup 225}Ac from both {sup 232}Th and {sup 230}Th. Differential cross-sections for production of {sup 229}Pa and other Pa isotopes have been obtained.

  13. Multitasking in signal transduction by a promiscuous human Ins(3,4,5,6)P(4) 1-kinase/Ins(1,3,4)P(3) 5/6-kinase.

    PubMed

    Yang, X; Shears, S B

    2000-11-01

    We describe a human cDNA encoding 1-kinase activity that inactivates Ins(3,4,5,6)P(4), an inhibitor of chloride-channel conductance that regulates epithelial salt and fluid secretion, as well as membrane excitability. Unexpectedly, we further discovered that this enzyme has alternative positional specificity (5/6-kinase activity) towards a different substrate, namely Ins(1,3,4)P(3). Kinetic data from a recombinant enzyme indicate that Ins(1,3,4)P(3) (K(m)=0.3 microM; V(max)=320 pmol/min per microg) and Ins(3,4,5,6)P(4) (K(m)=0.1 microM; V(max)=780 pmol/min per microg) actively compete for phosphorylation in vivo. This competition empowers the kinase with multitasking capability in several key aspects of inositol phosphate signalling.

  14. Molecular characterisation of the NSP4 gene of group A human rotavirus G2P[4] strains circulating in São Paulo, Brazil, from 1994 and 2006 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Bertol, Jéssica Wildgrube; Fregolente, Maria Clara Duarte; Caruzo, Thabata Alessandra Ramos; Silva, Márcio José da; Munford, Veridiana; Sáfadi, Marco Aurélio Palazzi; Rácz, Maria Lucia; Gatti, Maria Silvia Viccari

    2015-09-01

    Group A human rotaviruses (HuRVA) are causative agents of acute gastroenteritis. Six viral structural proteins (VPs) and six nonstructural proteins (NSPs) are produced in RV-infected cells. NSP4 is a diarrhoea-inducing viral enterotoxin and NSP4 gene analysis revealed at least 15 (E1-E15) genotypes. This study analysed the NSP4 genetic diversity of HuRVA G2P[4] strains collected in the state of São Paulo (SP) from 1994 and 2006-2010 using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Forty (97.6%) G2P[4] strains displayed genotype E2; one strain (2.4%) displayed genotype E1. These results are consistent with the proposed linkage between VP4/VP7 (G2P[4]) and the NSP4 (E2) genotype of HuRVA. NSP4 phylogenetic analysis showed distinct clusters, with grouping of most strains by their genotype and collection year, and most strains from SP were clustered together with strains from other Brazilian states. A deduced amino acid sequence alignment for E2 showed many variations in the C-terminal region, including the VP4-binding domain. Considering the ability of NSP4 to generate host immunity, monitoring NSP4 variations, along with those in the VP4 or VP7 protein, is important for evaluating the circulation and pathogenesis of RV. Finally, the presence of one G2P[4]E1 strain reinforces the idea that new genotype combinations emerge through reassortment and independent segregation.

  15. An Exploratory Study on 99mTc-RGD-BBN Peptide Scintimammography in the Assessment of Breast Malignant Lesions Compared to 99mTc-3P4-RGD2

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qianqian; Ma, Qingjie; Chen, Minglong; Chen, Bin; Wen, Qiang; Jia, Bing; Wang, Fan; Sun, Butong; Gao, Shi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to explore the diagnostic performance of single photon emission computed tomography / computerized tomography (SPECT/CT) using a new radiotracer 99mTc-RGD-BBN for breast malignant tumor compared with 99mTc-3P4-RGD2. Methods 6 female patients with breast malignant tumors diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology biopsy (FNAB) who were scheduled to undergo surgery were included in the study. 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 and 99mTc-RGD-BBN were performed with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) at 1 hour after intravenous injection of 299 ± 30 MBq and 293 ± 32 MBq of radiotracers respectively at separate day. The results were evaluated by the Tumor to non-Tumor ratios (T/NT). 99mTc-RGD-BBN and 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 SPECT/CT images were interpreted independently by 3 experienced nuclear medicine physicians using a 3-point scale system. All of the samples were analyzed immunohistochemically to evaluate the integrin αvβ3 and gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) expression. The safety, biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of 99mTc-RGD-BBN were also evaluated in the healthy volunteers. Results No serious adverse events were reported in any of the patients during the study. The effective radiation dose entirely conformed to the relevant standards. A total of 6 palpable malignant lesions were detected using 99mTc-RGD-BBN SPECT/CT with clear uptake. All malignant lesions were also detected using 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 SPECT/CT. The results showed that five malignant lesions were with clear uptake and the other one with barely an uptake. 4 malignant cases were found with both αvβ3 and GRPR expression, 1 case with only GRPR positive expression (integrin αvβ3 negative) and 1 case with only integrin αvβ3 positive expression (GRPR negative). Conclusion 99mTc-RGD-BBN is a safe agent for detecting breast cancer. 99mTc-RGD-BBN may have the potential to make up for the deficiency of 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 in the detection of breast cancer with only GRPR positive

  16. The structures of marialite (Me[subscript 6]) and meionite (Me[subscript 93]) in space groups P4[subscript 2]/n and I4/m, and the absence of phase transitions in the scapolite series

    SciTech Connect

    Antao, Sytle M.; Hassan, Ishmael

    2014-05-28

    The crystal structures of marialite (Me{sub 6}) from Badakhshan, Afghanistan and meionite (Me{sub 93}) from Mt. Vesuvius, Italy were obtained using synchrotron high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction (HRPXRD) data and Rietveld structure refinements. Their structures were refined in space groups I4/m and P42/n, and similar results were obtained. The Me{sub 6} sample has a formula Ca{sub 0.24}Na{sub 3.37}K{sub 0.24}[Al{sub 3.16}Si{sub 8.84}O{sub 24}]Cl{sub 0.84}(CO{sub 3}){sub 0.15}, and its unit-cell parameters are a = 12.047555(7), c = 7.563210(6) {angstrom}, and V = 1097.751(1) {angstrom}{sup 3}. The average (T1-O) distances are 1.599(1) {angstrom} in I4/m and 1.600(2) {angstrom} in P4{sub 2}/n, indicating that the T1 site contains only Si atoms. In P4{sub 2}/n, the average distances of (T2-O) = 1.655(2) and (T3-O) = 1.664(2) {angstrom} are distinct and are not equal to each other. However, the mean (T2,3-O) = 1.659(2) {angstrom} in P4{sub 2}/n and is identical to the (T2-O) = 1.659(1) {angstrom} in I4/m. The (M-O) [7] = 2.754(1) {angstrom} (M site is coordinated to seven framework O atoms) and M-A = 2.914(1) {angstrom}; these distances are identical in both space groups. The Me{sub 93} sample has a formula of Na{sub 0.29}Ca{sub 3.76}[Al{sub 5.54}Si{sub 6.46}O{sub 24}]Cl{sub 0.05}(SO{sub 4}){sub 0.02}(CO{sub 3}){sub 0.93}, and its unit-cell parameters are a = 12.19882(1), c = 7.576954(8) {angstrom}, and V = 1127.535(2) {angstrom}{sup 3}. A similar examination of the Me{sub 93} sample also shows that both space groups give similar results; however, the C-O distance is more reasonable in P4{sub 2}/n than in I4/m. Refining the scapolite structure near Me{sub 0} or Me{sub 100} in I4/m forces the T2 and T3 sites (both with multiplicity 8 in P4{sub 2}/n) to be equivalent and form the T2' site (with multiplicity 16 in I4/m), but (T2-O) is not equal to (T3-O) in P4{sub 2}/n. Using different space groups for different regions across the series implies phase transitions

  17. Ferrimagnetic long-range order caused by periodicity of exchange interactions in the spin-1 trimer chain compounds ANi3P4O14 (A=Ca,Sr,Pb,Ba)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hase, Masashi; Kitazawa, Hideaki; Tsujii, Naohito; Ozawa, Kiyoshi; Kohno, Masanori; Kido, Giyuu

    2006-07-01

    We report magnetic properties of ANi3P4O14 (A=Ca,Sr,Pb,Ba) . A spin-1 trimer chain with J1-J1-J2 interactions exists, where J1 and J2 denote two exchange interaction parameters. A magnetic phase transition occurs and a small spontaneous magnetization appears at low temperatures. The temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility above the transition temperature and the magnetic-field dependence of magnetization in high magnetic fields are consistent with quantum Monte Carlo results for a spin model that consists of trimer chains with antiferromagnetic J1 and ferromagnetic J2 interactions. The small spontaneous magnetization is explainable qualitatively by ferrimagnetic long-range order in the chains and by imperfect cancellation of the net magnetic moments of the chains. To our knowledge, this is the first observation of ferrimagnetic long-range order whose origin is the periodicity of the exchange interactions in chains.

  18. Inhibitors of the hepatitis C virus NS3 protease with basic amine functionality at the P3-amino acid N-terminus: discovery and optimization of a new series of P2-P4 macrocycles.

    PubMed

    Harper, Steven; Ferrara, Marco; Crescenzi, Benedetta; Pompei, Marco; Palumbi, Maria Cecilia; DiMuzio, Jillian M; Donghi, Monica; Fiore, Fabrizio; Koch, Uwe; Liverton, Nigel J; Pesci, Silvia; Petrocchi, Alessia; Rowley, Michael; Summa, Vincenzo; Gardelli, Cristina

    2009-08-13

    In a follow-up to our recent disclosure of P2-P4 macrocyclic inhibitors of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 protease (e.g., 1, Chart 1), we report a new but related compound series featuring a basic amine at the N-terminus of the P3-amino acid residue. Replacement of the electroneutral P3-amino acid capping group (which is a feature of almost all tripeptide-like inhibitors of NS3 reported to date) with a basic group is not only tolerated but can result in advantageous cell based potency. Optimization of this new class of P3-amine based inhibitors gave compounds such as 25 and 26 that combine excellent cell based activity with pharmacokinetic properties that are attractive for an antiviral targeting HCV.

  19. Development of novel antibodies against non-structural proteins nsP1, nsP3 and nsP4 of chikungunya virus: potential use in basic research.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sameer; Mamidi, Prabhudutta; Kumar, Abhishek; Basantray, Itishree; Bramha, Umarani; Dixit, Anshuman; Maiti, Prasanta Kumar; Singh, Sujay; Suryawanshi, Amol Ratnakar; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Soma

    2015-11-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has reemerged recently as an important pathogen, causing several large epidemics worldwide. This necessitates the development of better reagents to understand its biology and to establish effective and safe control measures. The present study describes the development and characterization of polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) against synthetic peptides of CHIKV non-structural proteins (nsPs; nsP1, nsP3 and nsP4). The reactivity of these pAbs was demonstrated by ELISA and Western blot. Additionally, in vitro infection studies in a mammalian system confirmed that these pAbs are highly sensitive and specific for CHIKV nsPs, as these proteins were detected very early during viral replication. Homology analysis of the selected epitope sequences revealed that they are conserved among all of the CHIKV strains of different genotypes, while comparison with other alphavirus sequences showed that none of them are 100% identical to the epitope sequences (except Onyong-nyong and Igbo Ora viruses, which show 100% identity to the nsP4 epitope). Interestingly, two different forms of CHIKV nsP1 and three different forms of nsP3 were detected in Western blot analysis during infection; however, further experimental investigations are required to confirm their identity. Also, the use of these antibodies demonstrated faster and enhanced expression profiles of all CHIKV nsPs in 2006 Indian outbreak strains when compared to the CHIKV prototype strain, suggesting the epidemic potential of the 2006 isolate. Accordingly, it can be suggested that the pAbs reported in this study can be used as sensitive and specific tools for experimental investigations of CHIKV replication and infection. PMID:26280524

  20. Development of novel antibodies against non-structural proteins nsP1, nsP3 and nsP4 of chikungunya virus: potential use in basic research.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sameer; Mamidi, Prabhudutta; Kumar, Abhishek; Basantray, Itishree; Bramha, Umarani; Dixit, Anshuman; Maiti, Prasanta Kumar; Singh, Sujay; Suryawanshi, Amol Ratnakar; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Soma

    2015-11-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has reemerged recently as an important pathogen, causing several large epidemics worldwide. This necessitates the development of better reagents to understand its biology and to establish effective and safe control measures. The present study describes the development and characterization of polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) against synthetic peptides of CHIKV non-structural proteins (nsPs; nsP1, nsP3 and nsP4). The reactivity of these pAbs was demonstrated by ELISA and Western blot. Additionally, in vitro infection studies in a mammalian system confirmed that these pAbs are highly sensitive and specific for CHIKV nsPs, as these proteins were detected very early during viral replication. Homology analysis of the selected epitope sequences revealed that they are conserved among all of the CHIKV strains of different genotypes, while comparison with other alphavirus sequences showed that none of them are 100% identical to the epitope sequences (except Onyong-nyong and Igbo Ora viruses, which show 100% identity to the nsP4 epitope). Interestingly, two different forms of CHIKV nsP1 and three different forms of nsP3 were detected in Western blot analysis during infection; however, further experimental investigations are required to confirm their identity. Also, the use of these antibodies demonstrated faster and enhanced expression profiles of all CHIKV nsPs in 2006 Indian outbreak strains when compared to the CHIKV prototype strain, suggesting the epidemic potential of the 2006 isolate. Accordingly, it can be suggested that the pAbs reported in this study can be used as sensitive and specific tools for experimental investigations of CHIKV replication and infection.

  1. Psychology Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGraw, Ken; Tew, Mark D.; Williams, John E.

    2001-01-01

    A goal of the PsychExperiments project was to reduce the financial burden on psychology departments for hardware/software used in their laboratories. In its third year, the PsychExperiments site now hosts 39 experiments. Over 200 classrooms worldwide have signed up as official site users and there have been nearly 10,000 data sessions conducted.…

  2. Phorbol ester stimulates ethanolamine release from the metastatic basal prostate cancer cell line PC3 but not from prostate epithelial cell lines LNCaP and P4E6

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, J; Noble, A; Otsuka, M; Berry, P; Maitland, N J; Rumsby, M G

    2014-01-01

    Background: Malignancy alters cellular complex lipid metabolism and membrane lipid composition and turnover. Here, we investigated whether tumorigenesis in cancer-derived prostate epithelial cell lines influences protein kinase C-linked turnover of ethanolamine phosphoglycerides (EtnPGs) and alters the pattern of ethanolamine (Etn) metabolites released to the medium. Methods: Prostate epithelial cell lines P4E6, LNCaP and PC3 were models of prostate cancer (PCa). PNT2C2 and PNT1A were models of benign prostate epithelia. Cellular EtnPGs were labelled with [1-3H]-Etn hydrochloride. PKC was activated with phorbol ester (TPA) and inhibited with Ro31-8220 and GF109203X. D609 was used to inhibit PLD (phospholipase D). [3H]-labelled Etn metabolites were resolved by ion-exchange chromatography. Sodium oleate and mastoparan were tested as activators of PLD2. Phospholipase D activity was measured by a transphosphatidylation reaction. Cells were treated with ionomycin to raise intracellular Ca2+ levels. Results: Unstimulated cell lines release mainly Etn and glycerylphosphorylEtn (GPEtn) to the medium. Phorbol ester treatment over 3h increased Etn metabolite release from the metastatic PC3 cell line and the benign cell lines PNT2C2 and PNT1A but not from the tumour-derived cell lines P4E6 and LNCaP; this effect was blocked by Ro31-8220 and GF109203X as well as by D609, which inhibited PLD in a transphosphatidylation reaction. Only metastatic PC3 cells specifically upregulated Etn release in response to TPA treatment. Oleate and mastoparan increased GPEtn release from all cell lines at the expense of Etn. Ionomycin stimulated GPEtn release from benign PNT2C2 cells but not from cancer-derived cell lines P4E6 or PC3. Ethanolamine did not stimulate the proliferation of LNCaP or PC3 cell lines but decreased the uptake of choline (Cho). Conclusions: Only the metastatic basal PC3 cell line specifically increased the release of Etn on TPA treatment most probably by PKC activation of

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of a New Layered Aluminophosphate [Al 3P 4O 16][(CH 3) 2NHCH 2CH 2NH(CH 3) 2][H 3O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Wenfu; Yu, Jihong; Li, Yi; Shi, Zhan; Xu, Ruren

    2002-09-01

    A new layered aluminophosphate, denoted AlPO-CJ12, has been synthesized in the system Al(OPr i) 3-H 3PO 4-tetramethylethylenediamine-triethyleneglycol and its structure solved by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. It is further characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, ICP, TG, DTA, and elemental analyses. The compound has an empirical formula of [Al 3P 4O 16][(CH 3) 2NHCH 2CH 2NH(CH 3) 2][H 3O], and crystallizes in the triclinic space group P-1 (No. 2) with a=8.9907(6) Å b=9.8359(6) Å, c=14.5566(8) Å, α=75.872(3)°, β=88.616(3)°, γ=63.404(3)°, Z=2, R1=0.0451, and w R2=0.1094. The alternation of tetrahedral AlO 4 and PO 3 (=O) units forms a sheet structure with a 4×6×8 network. The inorganic layers stacked in an AAAA sequence are held together by the protonated organic amine and water molecules. The co-templating role of the water molecules is studied by the calculation of the nonbonding host-guest interaction energies through a computational simulation.

  4. The influence of dopant concentration on temperature dependent emission spectra in LiLa1-x-yEuxTbyP4O12 nanocrystals: toward rational design of highly-sensitive luminescent nanothermometers.

    PubMed

    Marciniak, L; Bednarkiewicz, A

    2016-06-21

    Luminescence nanothermometry is gaining great interest, and different excitation and readout schemes have been sought to improve temperature sensitivity and sensing range, or to simplify the readout. Although many up-conversion based nanothermometers have been studied, Tb(3+) and Eu(3+) doped systems have not been widely considered, so far. Herein, we report the synthesis of new LiLa1-x-yEuxTbyP4O12 nanocrystals for luminescent thermal sensing; their spectroscopic properties have been investigated in a wide range of compositions and temperatures. In particular, the impact of dopant concentration on energy transfer processes (such as energy transfer, back energy transfer, energy diffusion and cross relaxation) is presented in a quantitative manner, both experimentally and theoretically, which enables the intentional optimization of the composition to find the finest balance between temperature sensitive excitation and depletion phenomena, and thus, enhance the luminescent thermometry properties. The studied thermometers can be applied in as wide a temperature range as 77-600 K, where they demonstrate sensitivity up to 1% K(-1), which is the highest among the Tb(3+) and Eu(3+) doped inorganic phosphor based materials, to date.

  5. Alignment of Ar{sup +} [{sup 3}P]4p{sup 2}P{sup 0}{sub 3/2} satellite state from the polarization analysis of fluorescent radiation after photoionization

    SciTech Connect

    Yenen, O.; McLaughlin, K.W.; Jaecks, D.H.

    1997-04-01

    The measurement of the polarization of radiation from satellite states of Ar{sup +} formed after the photoionization of Ar provides detailed information about the nature of doubly excited states, magnetic sublevel cross sections and partial wave ratios of the photo-ejected electrons. Since the formation of these satellite states is a weak process, it is necessary to use a high flux beam of incoming photons. In addition, in order to resolve the many narrow doubly excited Ar resonances, the incoming photons must have a high resolution. The characteristics of the beam line 9.0.1 of the Advanced Light Source fulfill these requirements. The authors determined the polarization of 4765 {Angstrom} fluorescence from the Ar{sup +} [{sup 3}P] 4p {sup 2}P{sub 3/2}{sup 0} satellite state formed after photoionization of Ar by photons from the 9.0.1 beam line of ALS in the 35.620-38.261 eV energy range using a resolution of approximately 12,700. This is accomplished by measuring the intensities of the fluorescent light polarized parallel (I{parallel}) and perpendicular (I{perpendicular}) to the polarization axis of the incident synchrotron radiation using a Sterling Optics 105MB polarizing filter. The optical system placed at 90{degrees} with respect to the polarization axis of the incident light had a narrow band interference filter ({delta}{lambda}=0.3 nm) to isolate the fluorescent radiation.

  6. Spread and predominance in Japan of novel G1P[8] double-reassortant rotavirus strains possessing a DS-1-like genotype constellation typical of G2P[4] strains.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Yoshiki; Nakagomi, Toyoko; Nishimura, Naoko; Noguchi, Atsuko; Miura, Sinobu; Ito, Hisato; Doan, Yen Hai; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Ozaki, Takao; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Nakagomi, Osamu

    2014-12-01

    Rotavirus is a major cause of severe gastroenteritis in children <5 years of age worldwide, and two, live attenuated rotavirus vaccines are globally available. As rotavirus vaccines are introduced into national immunization programs, there is an increasing need to monitor circulating wild-type strains. However, few studies have systematically examined their full genotype constellation. This study was therefore undertaken to characterize the whole genotype constellation of circulating rotavirus strains in three widely-separated locations in Japan during the 2012 rotavirus season when rotavirus vaccines became available in the country for the first time. Of 107 rotavirus-positive specimens, 50 (46.7%) strains collected from all three locations possessed an unusual G1-P[8]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2 constellation in which a typical G2P[4] strain appeared to have acquired its two surface protein genes from the most common G1P[8] strain. These G1P[8] double-reassortant strains were shown to possess the 11 genome segments virtually indistinguishable from each other in their nucleotide sequences and phylogenetic lineages except for two strains that underwent further intra-genotype reassortment. Successful spread to and predominance in broad locations across Japan of novel rotavirus strains possessing a genotype constellation that was previously thought not to be preferred suggests unexpected genomic flexibility of the genotype constellation.

  7. Effects of bioactive glass S53P4 or beta-tricalcium phosphate and bone morphogenetic protein-2 and bone morphogenetic protein-7 on osteogenic differentiation of human adipose stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Patrikoski, Mimmi; Juntunen, Miia; Kujala, Kasperi; Kääriäinen, Minna; Kuokkanen, Hannu; Sándor, George K; Vapaavuori, Outi; Suuronen, Riitta; Mannerström, Bettina; von Rechenberg, Brigitte; Miettinen, Susanna

    2012-01-01

    The effects of bioactive glass S53P4 or beta-tricalcium phosphate; and bone morphogenetic proteins bone morphogenetic protein-2, bone morphogenetic protein-7, or bone morphogenetic protein-2 + 7 on osteogenic differentiation of human adipose stem cells were compared in control medium, osteogenic medium, and bone morphogenetic protein-supplemented osteogenic medium to assess suitability for bone tissue engineering. Cell amount was evaluated with qDNA measurements; osteogenic differentiation using marker gene expression, alkaline phosphate activity, and angiogenic potential was measured by vascular endothelial growth factor expression. As compared to beta-tricalcium phosphate, cell amount was significantly greater for bioactive glass in control medium after 7 days and in osteogenic medium after 14 days, and alkaline phosphate activity was always significantly greater for bioactive glass in control medium. However, alkaline phosphate activity increased for beta-tricalcium phosphate and decreased for bioactive glass granules in osteogenic medium. For both biomaterials, bone morphogenetic protein supplementation decreased cell amount and osteogenic differentiation of human adipose stem cells, and vascular endothelial growth factor expressions correlated with cell amounts. Effects of culture medium on human adipose stem cells are biomaterial dependent; bioactive glass in control medium enhanced osteogenic differentiation most effectively. PMID:23316275

  8. The influence of dopant concentration on temperature dependent emission spectra in LiLa1-x-yEuxTbyP4O12 nanocrystals: toward rational design of highly-sensitive luminescent nanothermometers.

    PubMed

    Marciniak, L; Bednarkiewicz, A

    2016-06-21

    Luminescence nanothermometry is gaining great interest, and different excitation and readout schemes have been sought to improve temperature sensitivity and sensing range, or to simplify the readout. Although many up-conversion based nanothermometers have been studied, Tb(3+) and Eu(3+) doped systems have not been widely considered, so far. Herein, we report the synthesis of new LiLa1-x-yEuxTbyP4O12 nanocrystals for luminescent thermal sensing; their spectroscopic properties have been investigated in a wide range of compositions and temperatures. In particular, the impact of dopant concentration on energy transfer processes (such as energy transfer, back energy transfer, energy diffusion and cross relaxation) is presented in a quantitative manner, both experimentally and theoretically, which enables the intentional optimization of the composition to find the finest balance between temperature sensitive excitation and depletion phenomena, and thus, enhance the luminescent thermometry properties. The studied thermometers can be applied in as wide a temperature range as 77-600 K, where they demonstrate sensitivity up to 1% K(-1), which is the highest among the Tb(3+) and Eu(3+) doped inorganic phosphor based materials, to date. PMID:27220884

  9. Language Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugh, Marylou

    1978-01-01

    When a child uses his words and his ideas in learning to read, he also assists in the normal integration of his personality. Starting with a method of language experience developed by Sylvia Ashton-Warner, the author, a reading consultant, describes a language experience-reading program which utilizes the student's own curiosity and interests. (RK)

  10. Art Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spodek, Bernard; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents four articles that examine the role of art experiences in early childhood education: "Educationally Appropriate Art Activities for Young Children," by Bernard Spodek; "Teachers and Children Together: Constructing New Learning," by Lella Gandini; "Fostering Experiences between Young Children and Clay," by Cathy Weisman Topal; and…

  11. TRIO experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Clemmer, R.G.; Finn, P.A.; Malecha, R.F.; Misra, B.; Billone, M.C.; Bowers, D.L.; Fischer, A.K.; Greenwood, L.R.; Mattas, R.F.; Tam, S.W.

    1984-09-01

    The TRIO experiment is a test of in-situ tritium recovery and heat transfer performance of a miniaturized solid breeder blanket assembly. The assembly (capsule) was monitored for temperature and neutron flux profiles during irradiation and a sweep gas flowed through the capsule to an anaytical train wherein the amounts of tritium in its various chemical forms were determined. The capsule was designed to operate at different temperatures and sweep gas conditions. At the end of the experiment the amount of tritium retained in the solid was at a concentration of less than 0.1 wppM. More than 99.9% of tritium generated during the experiment was successfully recovered. The results of the experiment showed that the tritium inventories at the beginning and at the end of the experiment follow a relationship which appears to be characteristic of intragranular diffusion.

  12. Mixture Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.

    2007-12-01

    A mixture experiment involves combining two or more components in various proportions or amounts and then measuring one or more responses for the resulting end products. Other factors that affect the response(s), such as process variables and/or the total amount of the mixture, may also be studied in the experiment. A mixture experiment design specifies the combinations of mixture components and other experimental factors (if any) to be studied and the response variable(s) to be measured. Mixture experiment data analyses are then used to achieve the desired goals, which may include (i) understanding the effects of components and other factors on the response(s), (ii) identifying components and other factors with significant and nonsignificant effects on the response(s), (iii) developing models for predicting the response(s) as functions of the mixture components and any other factors, and (iv) developing end-products with desired values and uncertainties of the response(s). Given a mixture experiment problem, a practitioner must consider the possible approaches for designing the experiment and analyzing the data, and then select the approach best suited to the problem. Eight possible approaches include 1) component proportions, 2) mathematically independent variables, 3) slack variable, 4) mixture amount, 5) component amounts, 6) mixture process variable, 7) mixture of mixtures, and 8) multi-factor mixture. The article provides an overview of the mixture experiment designs, models, and data analyses for these approaches.

  13. Hydronuclear experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Thorn, R.N.; Westervelt, D.R.

    1987-02-01

    Hydronuclear experiments, a method for assessing some aspects of nuclear weapon safety, were conducted at Los Alamos during the 1958 to 1961 moratorium on nuclear testing. The experiments resulted in subcritical multiplying assemblies or a very slight degree of supercriticality and, in some cases, involved a slight, but insignificant, fission energy release. These experiments helped to identify so-called one-point safety problems associated with some of the nuclear weapons systems of that time. The need for remedial action was demonstrated, although some of the necessary design changes could not be made until after the resumption of weapons testing at the end of 1961.

  14. Interpretive Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeHaan, Frank, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an interpretative experiment involving the application of symmetry and temperature-dependent proton and fluorine nmr spectroscopy to the solution of structural and kinetic problems in coordination chemistry. (MLH)

  15. Control of corona composition and morphology in aggregates of mixtures of PS-b-PAA and PS-b-P4VP diblock copolymers: effects of pH and block length.

    PubMed

    Vyhnalkova, Renata; Müller, Axel H E; Eisenberg, Adi

    2014-05-01

    The corona compositions and morphologies in aggregates of mixtures of amphiphilic polystyrene-block-poly(acrylic acid) (PS-b-PAA) and polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) diblock copolymers are influenced by controllable assembly parameters such as the hydrophilic block length and solution pH. The morphologies and corona compositions of the aggregates were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and electrophoretic mobility, respectively. When mineral acids or bases are present during aggregate formation, they can exert a strong influence on the corona composition. Morphology changes were also seen with changing pH, as well as changes in corona composition, specifically for vesicles. Because of complications introduced by the presence of ions, the general hypothesis that the external corona of the vesicles is composed of the longer chains, while the shorter chains form the inner corona, which is valid only in mixtures containing only nonionic chains without any additives (no acids or bases) or within a well-defined narrow pH range. In addition to the numerical block lengths and the pH, the solubility of the hydrophilic blocks can also influence the morphology and as well as the interfacial composition of vesicles; as the numerically longer chains become less soluble, they can contract and move to the interior, while the numerically shorter but more soluble chains go to the external corona. A remarkable morphological feature of the pH continuum is that for some compositions vesicles are observed in four distinct pH regions, separated by pH ranges in which other morphologies dominate. The effect of pH and microion content on coil dimensions of the PVP and PAA chains in the block copolymers is most likely responsible for the observed behavior.

  16. Low core losses and magnetic properties of Fe85-86Si1-2B8P4Cu1 nanocrystalline alloys with high B for power applications (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, Akihiro; Kubota, Takeshi; Yubuta, Kunio; Inoue, Akihisa; Urata, Akiri; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Shigeyoshi

    2011-04-01

    Recently, the energy crisis and the continued growth in electrical power generation strongly demand minimization of wasteful energy dissipation. Magnetic core loss (W) is the main source of energy dissipation in motors and transformers. This requires the development of soft magnetic materials with low coercivity (Hc) and high magnetic flux density (B). Fe-rich Fe85-86Si1-2B8P4Cu1 (at. %) alloy ribbons made from industrial raw materials (containing some impurities) with 6 mm in width have a heteroamorphous structure containing a large number of extremely small Fe grains (less than 3 nm), resulting from the unique effects of P and Cu addition in proper amounts. Crystallization of these alloys by annealing shows a uniform precipitation of α-Fe, leading to a uniform nanocrystallized structure of α-Fe grains, 16-19 nm in size, accompanied by an intergranular amorphous layer about 1 nm in width. The wide ribbons exhibit high B of 1.82-1.85 T (at 800 A/m), almost comparable to commercial oriented Fe-3 mass% Si alloys. Excellent magnetic softness (low Hc of 2.6-5.8 A/m, high permeability of 2.4-2.7 × 104 at 1 kHz and small saturation magnetostriction of 2.3-2.4 × 10-6) along with high electrical resistivity (0.67-0.74 μΩ m) of these alloys result in superior frequency characteristics of core losses and a much lower W at 50 Hz up to the maximum induction of 1.75 T, in comparison to the silicon steels now in practical use for power applications.

  17. The Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariana Nicoara, Floare

    2016-04-01

    My name is Nicoara Floarea and I am teacher at Secondary School Calatele and I teach students from preparatory class and the second grade . They are six-eight years old. In my activity, for introducing scientific concepts to my students, I use various and active methods or traditional methods including experiments. The experiment stimulates students' curiosity, their creativity, the understanding and knowledge taught accessibility. I propose you two such experiments: The life cycle of the plants (long-term experiment, with rigorous observation time):We use beans, wheat or other; They are grown in pots and on the cotton soaked with water,keeping under students' observation protecting them ( just soak them regularly) and we waiting the plants rise. For discussions and comments of plant embryo development we use the plants which rose on the cotton soaked with water plants at the end of the first week. Last school year we had in the pot climbing beans which in May made pods. They were not too great but our experiment was a success. The students could deduce that there will develop those big beans which after drying will be planted again. The influence of light on plants (average duration experiment with the necessary observation time): We use two pots in which plants are of the same type (two geraniums), one of them is situated so as to get direct sunlight and other plant we put in a closed box. Although we wet both plants after a week we see that the plant that benefited from sunlight has turned strain in direct sunlight, developing normally in return the plant out of the box I have yellowed leaves, photosynthesis does not She has occurred . Students will understand the vital role of the Sun in plants' life, both in the classroom and in nature. The experiment is a method of teaching students extremely pleasant, with a remarkable percentage of acquiring more knowledge.

  18. Neutrino Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    McKeown, R. D.

    2010-08-04

    Recent studies of neutrino oscillations have established the existence of finite neutrino masses and mixing between generations of neutrinos. The combined results from studies of atmospheric neutrinos, solar neutrinos, reactor antineutrinos and neutrinos produced at accelerators paint an intriguing picture that clearly requires modification of the standard model of particle physics. These results also provide clear motivation for future neutrino oscillation experiments as well as searches for direct neutrino mass and nuclear double-beta decay. I will discuss the program of new neutrino oscillation experiments aimed at completing our knowledge of the neutrino mixing matrix.

  19. HEGRA Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The La Palma cosmic-ray observatory HEGRA (High-Energy Gamma-Ray Astronomy) is an air shower experiment, located at the OBSERVATORIO DEL ROQUE DE LOS MUCHACHOS (2200 m above sea level, 28.75°N, 17.89°W) on the Canary island of La Palma, and is operated by institutes from Germany, Spain and Yerevan....

  20. Soil experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Linton; Butler, Todd; Smith, Mike; Cline, Charles; Scruggs, Steve; Zakhia, Nadim

    1987-01-01

    An experimental procedure was devised to investigate the effects of the lunar environment on the physical properties of simulated lunar soil. The test equipment and materials used consisted of a vacuum chamber, direct shear tester, static penetrometer, and fine grained basalt as the simulant. The vacuum chamber provides a medium for applying the environmental conditions to the soil experiment with the exception of gravity. The shear strength parameters are determined by the direct shear test. Strength parameters and the resistance of soil penetration by static loading will be investigated by the use of a static cone penetrometer. In order to conduct a soil experiment without going to the moon, a suitable lunar simulant must be selected. This simulant must resemble lunar soil in both composition and particle size. The soil that most resembles actual lunar soil is basalt. The soil parameters, as determined by the testing apparatus, will be used as design criteria for lunar soil engagement equipment.

  1. XMASS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Ko

    2016-06-01

    XMASS is a single phase liquid xenon scintillator detector. The project is designed for multi purposes, dark matter, neutrinoless double beta decay and 7Be/pp solar neutrino. As the first step of project, XMASS-I detector with 832kg sensitive volume started operation from Dec. 2010. In this paper, recent obtained physics results from commissioning data, refurbishment of detector and future step of experiment are presented.

  2. Multiwell experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Sattler, A.R.; Warpinski, N.R.; Lorenz, J.C.; Hart, C.M.; Branagan, P.T.

    1985-01-01

    The Multiwell Experiment is a research-oriented field laboratory. Its overall objectives are to characterize lenticular, low-permeability gas reservoirs and to develop technology for their production. This field laboratory has been established at a site in the east-central Piceance basin, Colorado. Here the Mesaverde formation lies at a depth of 4000 to 8250 ft. This interval contains different, distinct reservoir types depending upon their depositional environments. These different zones serve as the focus of the various testing and stimulation programs. Field work began in late 1981 and is scheduled through mid-1988. One key to the Multiwell Experiment is three closely spaced wells. Core, log, well testing, and well-to-well seismic data are providing a far better definition of the geological setting than has been available previously. The closely spaced wells also allow interference and tracer tests to obtain in situ reservoir parameters. The vertical variation of in situ stress throughout the intervals of interest is being measured. A series of stimulation experiments is being conducted in one well and the other two wells are being used as observation wells for improved fracture diagnostics and well testing. Another key to achieving the Multiwell Experiment objectives is the synergism resulting from a broad spectrum of activities: geophysical surveys, sedimentological studies, core and log analyses, well testing, in situ stress determination, stimulation, fracture diagnostics, and reservoir analyses. The results from the various activities will define the reservoir and the hydraulic fracture. These, in turn, define the net pay stimulated: the intersection of a hydraulic fracture of known geometry with a reservoir of known morphology and properties. Accomplishments of the past year are listed. 4 refs.

  3. Ecosystem experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Mooney, H.A.; Medina, E.; Schindler, D.W.; Schulze, E.D.; Walker, B.H.

    1991-01-01

    Large scale, human-induced modifications to terrestrial and hydrological systems have been a major factor in contributing to global change. The objective of this book is to explore the potential of ecosystem experimentation as a tool to understanding and predicting more precisely the consequences of our changing biosphere. The papers in this book are the result of two SCOPE workshops to evaluated understanding of the response of ecosystems to large scale perturbations and to design ecosystem experiments to study the impace of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations on ecosystem processes. The general topics addressed include the following: how changes in driving variables affect different biotic interactions within ecosystems; the human role in modifying forest structure and the resulting ecosystem processes; the role of ecosystem experiments in the study of controlling factors such as hydrological controls, temperature, and biotic controlles; analysis of ecosystem dynamics as a complex and chaotic system; role of ecosystem experiments in the study of the impact of acid deposition; role of ecosystem experimentation in the study of global change impace on the biosphere and the biospheric feedbacks to global environmental change.

  4. Transport Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Timothy M.; Wuebbles, Donald J.; Boering, Kristie A.; Eckman, Richard S.; Lerner, Jean; Plumb, R. Alan; Rind, David H.; Rinsland, Curtis P.; Waugh, Darryn W.; Wei, Chu-Feng

    1999-01-01

    MM II defined a series of experiments to better understand and characterize model transport and to assess the realism of this transport by comparison to observations. Measurements from aircraft, balloon, and satellite, not yet available at the time of MM I [Prather and Remsberg, 1993], provide new and stringent constraints on model transport, and address the limits of our transport modeling abilities. Simulations of the idealized tracers the age spectrum, and propagating boundary conditions, and conserved HSCT-like emissions probe the relative roles of different model transport mechanisms, while simulations of SF6 and C02 make the connection to observations. Some of the tracers are related, and transport diagnostics such as the mean age can be derived from more than one of the experiments for comparison to observations. The goals of the transport experiments are: (1) To isolate the effects of transport in models from other processes; (2) To assess model transport for realistic tracers (such as SF6 and C02) for comparison to observations; (3) To use certain idealized tracers to isolate model mechanisms and relationships to atmospheric chemical perturbations; (4) To identify strengths and weaknesses of the treatment of transport processes in the models; (5) To relate evaluated shortcomings to aspects of model formulation. The following section are included:Executive Summary, Introduction, Age Spectrum, Observation, Tropical Transport in Models, Global Mean Age in Models, Source-Transport Covariance, HSCT "ANOY" Tracer Distributions, and Summary and Conclusions.

  5. Chemistry Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brasseur, Guy; Remsberg, Ellis; Purcell, Patrick; Bhatt, Praful; Sage, Karen H.; Brown, Donald E.; Scott, Courtney J.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Tie, Xue-Xi; Huang, Theresa

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the chemistry component of the model comparison is to assess to what extent differences in the formulation of chemical processes explain the variance between model results. Observed concentrations of chemical compounds are used to estimate to what degree the various models represent realistic situations. For readability, the materials for the chemistry experiment are reported in three separate sections. This section discussed the data used to evaluate the models in their simulation of the source gases and the Nitrogen compounds (NO(y)) and Chlorine compounds (Cl(y)) species.

  6. The metaphor of experience and the experience of metaphor: critical reflection on a contemplative process toward aliveness and compassion.

    PubMed

    Kuchan, Karen L

    2009-01-01

    An epistemological web invites critical reflection and the possibility of new ideas emerging in the space between experience and different ways of thinking. A web offers a postmodern method of a hermeneutic of experience and a way of knowing that creates space for a robust, flexible, dynamic process of critical reflection and discovery. The following article utilizes an inter-textual epistemological web (see Figure 1, p. 4) to answer the question, "Do metaphors of experience and experiences of metaphor during contemplative healing prayer with a spiritual director nurture a transformational process toward aliveness and compassion?" How can one discover and communicate this reality in dialog with Hebrew scripture, psychoanalytic theory, affective neuroscience and ways of thinking about contemplative transformation?

  7. Microgravity Scaling Theory Experiment - Experiment Implementation Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, I.; Weilert, M.

    1999-01-01

    Microgravity Scaling Theory Experiment (MISTE) is a candidate experiment competitively peer reviewed and selected for flight definition from the 1996 Fundamental Physics NASA Research Announcement (NRA).

  8. G254 undergraduate experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, Doran; Bogh, Karilyn; Evans, Brett; Folkman, Steve; Hammond, Marc; Hatch, Casey; Herr, Neva; Hubble, Tina; Humpherys, Jeff; Johnson, Steve

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the experiments on payload G254. Each experiment is accommodated in a spacepak and six experiments fly in a full canister. One of the experiments will be housed in a new Isospacepak structure, which will be described briefly. Five of the six experiments have dedicated controllers. The objective of each experiment is discussed. In addition, the operational scenario is provided.

  9. Phylogenetic analysis of three genes of Penguinpox virus corresponding to Vaccinia virus G8R (VLTF-1), A3L (P4b) and H3L reveals that it is most closely related to Turkeypox virus, Ostrichpox virus and Pigeonpox virus.

    PubMed

    Carulei, Olivia; Douglass, Nicola; Williamson, Anna-Lise

    2009-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of three genes of Penguinpox virus, a novel Avipoxvirus isolated from African penguins, reveals its relationship to other poxviruses. The genes corresponding to Vaccinia virus G8R (VLTF-1), A3L (P4b) and H3L were sequenced and phylogenetic trees (Neighbour-Joining and UPGMA) constructed from MUSCLE nucleotide and amino acid alignments of the equivalent sequences from several different poxviruses. Based on this analysis, PEPV was confirmed to belong to the genus Avipoxvirus, specifically, clade A, subclade A2 and to be most closely related to Turkeypox virus (TKPV), Ostrichpox virus (OSPV)and Pigeonpox virus (PGPV).

  10. Synthesis, crystal structures and ionic conductivities of Bi 14P 4O 31 and Bi 50V 4O 85. Two members of the series Bi 18-4mM 4mO 27+4m ( M=P, V) related to the fluorite-type structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauvy, F.; Launay, J. C.; Darriet, J.

    2005-06-01

    The two hitherto unknown compounds Bi 14P 4O 31 and Bi 50V 4O 85 were prepared by the direct solid-state reaction of Bi 2O 3 and (NH 4)H 2PO 4 or V 2O 5, respectively. Bi 14P 4O 31 crystallizes in a C-centred monoclinic symmetry ( C2/ c space group) with the unit-cell parameters: a=19.2745(2) Å, b=11.3698(1) Å, c=52.4082(2) Å and β=93.63(1)° ( Z=16). The symmetry of Bi 50V 4O 85 is also monoclinic ( I2/ m space group) with lattice parameters of a=11.8123(3) Å, b=11.7425(2) Å, c=16.5396(2) Å and β=90.14(1)° ( Z=2). Both structures correspond to a fluorite-type superstructure where the Bi and P or V atoms are ordered in the framework. An idealized structural model is proposed where the structures result of the stacking of mixed atomic layers of composition [Bi 14M4O 31] and [Bi 18O 27] respectively. This new family can be formulated Bi 18-4mM 4mO 27+4m with M=P, V and where the parameter m ( 0⩽m⩽1) represents the ratio of the number of [Bi 14M4O 31] layers to the total number of layers in the sequence. Bi 14P 4O 31 corresponds to m=1 when Bi 50V 8O 85 corresponds to m=1/3. In this last case, the structural sequence is simply one [Bi 14V 4O 31] layer to two [Bi 18O 27] layers. As predicted by the proposed structural building principle, Bi 14P 4O 31 is not a good ionic conductor. The conductivity at 650 °C is 4 orders of magnitude lower from those found in Bi 46M8O 89 ( M=P, V) ( m=2/3) and Bi 50V 4O 85 ( m=1/3).

  11. Notes on Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Education, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Describes: (1) experiments using a simple phonocardiograph; (2) radioactivity experiments involving a VELA used as a ratemeter; (3) a 25cm continuously operating Foucault pendulum; and (4) camera control of experiments. Descriptions of equipment needed are provided when applicable. (JN)

  12. The User Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    User experience (UX) is about arranging the elements of a product or service to optimize how people will interact with it. In this article, the author talks about the importance of user experience and discusses the design of user experiences in libraries. He first looks at what UX is. Then he describes three kinds of user experience design: (1)…

  13. Structural Assembly Demonstration Experiment (SADE) experiment design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akin, D. L.; Bowden, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    The Structural Assembly Demonstration Experiment concept is to erect a hybrid deployed/assembled structure as an early space experiment in large space structures technology. The basic objectives can be broken down into three generic areas: (1) by performing assembly tasks both in space and in neutral buoyancy simulation, a mathematical basis will be found for the validity conditions of neutral buoyancy, thus enhancing the utility of water as a medium for simulation of weightlessness; (2) a data base will be established describing the capabilities and limitations of EVA crewmembers, including effects of such things as hardware size and crew restraints; and (3) experience of the M.I.T. Space Systems Lab in neutral buoyancy simulation of large space structures assembly indicates that the assembly procedure may create the largest loads that a structure will experience during its lifetime. Data obtained from the experiment will help establish an accurate loading model to aid designers of future space structures.

  14. Commercial Biomedical Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Experiments to seek solutions for a range of biomedical issues are at the heart of several investigations that will be hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates (ITA), Inc. Biomedical Experiments (CIBX-2) payload. CIBX-2 is unique, encompassing more than 20 separate experiments including cancer research, commercial experiments, and student hands-on experiments from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the Stars program. Valerie Cassanto of ITA checks the Canadian Protein Crystallization Experiment (CAPE) carried by STS-86 to Mir in 1997. The experiments are sponsored by NASA's Space Product Development Program (SPD).

  15. Commercial Biomedical Experiments Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Experiments to seek solutions for a range of biomedical issues are at the heart of several investigations that will be hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates (ITA), Inc. The biomedical experiments CIBX-2 payload is unique, encompassing more than 20 separate experiments including cancer research, commercial experiments, and student hands-on experiments from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the stars program. Here, Astronaut Story Musgrave activates the CMIX-5 (Commercial MDA ITA experiment) payload in the Space Shuttle mid deck during the STS-80 mission in 1996 which is similar to CIBX-2. The experiments are sponsored by NASA's Space Product Development Program (SPD).

  16. Physician response to pay-for-performance: evidence from a natural experiment.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhu; Hurley, Jeremiah; DeCicca, Philip; Buckley, Gioia

    2014-08-01

    This study exploits a natural experiment in the province of Ontario, Canada, to identify the impact of pay-for-performance (P4P) incentives on the provision of targeted primary care services and whether physicians' responses differ by age, size of patient population, and baseline compliance level. We use administrative data that cover the full population of Ontario and nearly all the services provided by primary care physicians. We employ a difference-in-differences approach that controls for selection on observables and selection on unobservables that may cause estimation bias. We implement a set of robustness checks to control for confounding from other contemporaneous interventions of the primary care reform in Ontario. The results indicate that responses were modest and that physicians responded to the financial incentives for some services but not others. The results provide a cautionary message regarding the effectiveness of employing P4P to increase the quality of health care. PMID:23861240

  17. Biomedical experiments. Part A: Biostack experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buecker, H.; Horneck, G.; Reinholz, E.; Scheuermann, W.; Ruether, W.; Graul, E. H.; Planel, H.; Soleilhavoup, J. P.; Cuer, P.; Kaiser, R.

    1972-01-01

    The biostack experiment is described which was designed to study the biologic effects of individual heavy nuclei of galactic cosmic radiation during space flight outside the magnetosphere of the earth. Specifically, the biostack experiment was designed to promote research on the effects of high energy/high Z particles of galactic cosmic radiation on a broad spectrum of biologic systems, from the molecular to the highly organized and developed forms of life. The experiment was considered unique and scientifically meritorious because of its potential yield of information - currently unavailable on earth - on the interaction of biologic systems with the heavy particles of galactic cosmic radiation.

  18. Energies and E1, M1, E2, and M2 transition rates for states of the 2s22p3, 2s2p4, and 2p5 configurations in nitrogen-like ions between F III and Kr XXX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rynkun, P.; Jönsson, P.; Gaigalas, G.; Froese Fischer, C.

    2014-03-01

    Based on relativistic wavefunctions from multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock and configuration interaction calculations, E1, M1, E2, and M2 transition rates, weighted oscillator strengths, and lifetimes are evaluated for the states of the (1s2)2s22p3,2s2p4, and 2p5 configurations in all nitrogen-like ions between F III and Kr XXX. The wavefunction expansions include valence, core-valence, and core-core correlation effects through single-double multireference expansions to increasing sets of active orbitals. The computed energies agree very well with experimental values, with differences of only 300-600 cm-1 for the majority of the levels and ions in the sequence. Computed transitions rates are in close agreement with available data from MCHF-BP calculations by Tachiev and Froese Fischer [G.I. Tachiev, C. Froese Fischer, A&A 385 (2002) 716].

  19. Motional EMF demonstration experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingman, Robert; Popescu, Sabin

    2001-03-01

    A simple quantitative motional emf experiment. The induced voltage is recorded in this computer-based experiment as a coil is moved through the field of a permanent magnet. Results compare closely with predicted values.

  20. Experiments and Calculations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddons, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses several science experiments/activities and their associated measurements. These include a simple projectile activity, cartesian diver (used to measure altitude and atmospheric pressure), experiment demonstrating atmospheric pressure, and activities using a stroboscope, and electrometer. (JN)

  1. STEP Experiment Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brumfield, M. L. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    A plan to develop a space technology experiments platform (STEP) was examined. NASA Langley Research Center held a STEP Experiment Requirements Workshop on June 29 and 30 and July 1, 1983, at which experiment proposers were invited to present more detailed information on their experiment concept and requirements. A feasibility and preliminary definition study was conducted and the preliminary definition of STEP capabilities and experiment concepts and expected requirements for support services are presented. The preliminary definition of STEP capabilities based on detailed review of potential experiment requirements is investigated. Topics discussed include: Shuttle on-orbit dynamics; effects of the space environment on damping materials; erectable beam experiment; technology for development of very large solar array deployers; thermal energy management process experiment; photovoltaic concentrater pointing dynamics and plasma interactions; vibration isolation technology; flight tests of a synthetic aperture radar antenna with use of STEP.

  2. Advanced Process Control Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deshpande, Pradeep B.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Describes laboratory experiments of a chemistry course on advanced process control. The equipment for the process around which these experiments were developed by the University of Louisville was constructed from data provided by Exxon Oil Company. (HM)

  3. Literature or Experience?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Dennis

    1978-01-01

    Shows that the need to choose between literature-centered or experience-centered English instruction is a delusion, because instruction in literature also adds to the child's experience of language. (RL)

  4. Observing System Simulation Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prive, Nikki

    2015-01-01

    This presentation gives an overview of Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs). The components of an OSSE are described, along with discussion of the process for validating, calibrating, and performing experiments. a.

  5. Experiments in Magnetohydrodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner, J. P.

    1970-01-01

    Describes three student experiments in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In these experiments, it was found that the electrical conductivity of the local water supply was sufficient to demonstrate effectively some of the features of MHD flowmeters, generators, and pumps. (LC)

  6. Notes on Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Education, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Describes apparatus needed and instructions for conducting four experiments. Experiments focus on light waves, measurement of contact resistance, demonstration of longitudinal waves, and a simple method of measuring the refractive indices of transparent plates and liquids. (JM)

  7. More Experiments and Calculations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddons, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    Describes two experiments that illustrate basic ideas but would be difficult to carry out. Also presents activities and experiments on rainbow cups, electrical charges, electrophorus calculation, pulse electrometer, a skidding car, and on the Oersted effect. (JN)

  8. The Experiment Factory: Standardizing Behavioral Experiments.

    PubMed

    Sochat, Vanessa V; Eisenberg, Ian W; Enkavi, A Zeynep; Li, Jamie; Bissett, Patrick G; Poldrack, Russell A

    2016-01-01

    The administration of behavioral and experimental paradigms for psychology research is hindered by lack of a coordinated effort to develop and deploy standardized paradigms. While several frameworks (Mason and Suri, 2011; McDonnell et al., 2012; de Leeuw, 2015; Lange et al., 2015) have provided infrastructure and methods for individual research groups to develop paradigms, missing is a coordinated effort to develop paradigms linked with a system to easily deploy them. This disorganization leads to redundancy in development, divergent implementations of conceptually identical tasks, disorganized and error-prone code lacking documentation, and difficulty in replication. The ongoing reproducibility crisis in psychology and neuroscience research (Baker, 2015; Open Science Collaboration, 2015) highlights the urgency of this challenge: reproducible research in behavioral psychology is conditional on deployment of equivalent experiments. A large, accessible repository of experiments for researchers to develop collaboratively is most efficiently accomplished through an open source framework. Here we present the Experiment Factory, an open source framework for the development and deployment of web-based experiments. The modular infrastructure includes experiments, virtual machines for local or cloud deployment, and an application to drive these components and provide developers with functions and tools for further extension. We release this infrastructure with a deployment (http://www.expfactory.org) that researchers are currently using to run a set of over 80 standardized web-based experiments on Amazon Mechanical Turk. By providing open source tools for both deployment and development, this novel infrastructure holds promise to bring reproducibility to the administration of experiments, and accelerate scientific progress by providing a shared community resource of psychological paradigms.

  9. The Experiment Factory: Standardizing Behavioral Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Sochat, Vanessa V.; Eisenberg, Ian W.; Enkavi, A. Zeynep; Li, Jamie; Bissett, Patrick G.; Poldrack, Russell A.

    2016-01-01

    The administration of behavioral and experimental paradigms for psychology research is hindered by lack of a coordinated effort to develop and deploy standardized paradigms. While several frameworks (Mason and Suri, 2011; McDonnell et al., 2012; de Leeuw, 2015; Lange et al., 2015) have provided infrastructure and methods for individual research groups to develop paradigms, missing is a coordinated effort to develop paradigms linked with a system to easily deploy them. This disorganization leads to redundancy in development, divergent implementations of conceptually identical tasks, disorganized and error-prone code lacking documentation, and difficulty in replication. The ongoing reproducibility crisis in psychology and neuroscience research (Baker, 2015; Open Science Collaboration, 2015) highlights the urgency of this challenge: reproducible research in behavioral psychology is conditional on deployment of equivalent experiments. A large, accessible repository of experiments for researchers to develop collaboratively is most efficiently accomplished through an open source framework. Here we present the Experiment Factory, an open source framework for the development and deployment of web-based experiments. The modular infrastructure includes experiments, virtual machines for local or cloud deployment, and an application to drive these components and provide developers with functions and tools for further extension. We release this infrastructure with a deployment (http://www.expfactory.org) that researchers are currently using to run a set of over 80 standardized web-based experiments on Amazon Mechanical Turk. By providing open source tools for both deployment and development, this novel infrastructure holds promise to bring reproducibility to the administration of experiments, and accelerate scientific progress by providing a shared community resource of psychological paradigms. PMID:27199843

  10. The Experiment Factory: Standardizing Behavioral Experiments.

    PubMed

    Sochat, Vanessa V; Eisenberg, Ian W; Enkavi, A Zeynep; Li, Jamie; Bissett, Patrick G; Poldrack, Russell A

    2016-01-01

    The administration of behavioral and experimental paradigms for psychology research is hindered by lack of a coordinated effort to develop and deploy standardized paradigms. While several frameworks (Mason and Suri, 2011; McDonnell et al., 2012; de Leeuw, 2015; Lange et al., 2015) have provided infrastructure and methods for individual research groups to develop paradigms, missing is a coordinated effort to develop paradigms linked with a system to easily deploy them. This disorganization leads to redundancy in development, divergent implementations of conceptually identical tasks, disorganized and error-prone code lacking documentation, and difficulty in replication. The ongoing reproducibility crisis in psychology and neuroscience research (Baker, 2015; Open Science Collaboration, 2015) highlights the urgency of this challenge: reproducible research in behavioral psychology is conditional on deployment of equivalent experiments. A large, accessible repository of experiments for researchers to develop collaboratively is most efficiently accomplished through an open source framework. Here we present the Experiment Factory, an open source framework for the development and deployment of web-based experiments. The modular infrastructure includes experiments, virtual machines for local or cloud deployment, and an application to drive these components and provide developers with functions and tools for further extension. We release this infrastructure with a deployment (http://www.expfactory.org) that researchers are currently using to run a set of over 80 standardized web-based experiments on Amazon Mechanical Turk. By providing open source tools for both deployment and development, this novel infrastructure holds promise to bring reproducibility to the administration of experiments, and accelerate scientific progress by providing a shared community resource of psychological paradigms. PMID:27199843

  11. The ITALSAT experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paraboni, A.

    1989-01-01

    Some information is given on the ITALSAT millimetric waves propagation experiment, which is to be conducted with the ITALSAT satellite, whose launch is foreseen for the middle of 1990. The purpose of the experiment is one of experimenting with advanced technologies and techniques employing the 20/30 GHz bands in wideband telecommunications. Among the most qualified features of this system are the multispot antenna and the exchange function performed directly onboard. Details of the experiment are given.

  12. Rethinking Work Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Andrew; And Others

    This book on work experience programs in the United Kingdom begins with "History and Policy Context" (Ian Jamieson, Andrew Miller), which reviews the development of work experience in the United Kingdom, considers the current policy framework, and poses possible future scenarios. "The Concept of Work Experience" (A. G. Watts) explores the concept…

  13. Basic Experiments in Telecommunications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andresen, S. G.

    Presented is a set of laboratory experiments developed to provide students with demonstrations and hands-on experiences with a variety of basic communications methods. These experiments may be used with students who have training in engineering, as well as those with social sciences who have no engineering background. Detailed exercises dealing…

  14. NASTRAN: Users' experiences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The proceedings of a conference on NASA Structural Analysis (NASTRAN) to analyze the experiences of users of the program are presented. The subjects discussed include the following: (1) statics and buckling, (2) vibrations and dynamics, (3) substructing, (4) new capability, (5) user's experience, and (6) system experience. Specific applications of NASTRAN to spacecraft, aircraft, nuclear power plants, and materials tests are reported.

  15. Future Outlook: Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Yoichiro

    2008-11-01

    The personal view for the next to the next neutrino detector, the ultimate experiment, is discussed. Considering the size, cost and head winds against the basic science, the ultimate experiment will be the only experiment in the world. Here two such experiments one for the neutrino oscillation and the other for the double beta decay were discussed. The ultimate experiment needs to include a bread and butter science and to have a discovery potential for an unexpected phenomenon. There are many technical challenges and international co-operations are absolutely necessary.

  16. Atmospheric variability experiment /AVE II/ pilot experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. E.; Scroggins, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE II) was conducted in May 1974. Rawinsonde releases were made at 54 upper-air stations in two thirds of the eastern U.S. at 3-hr intervals for a 24-hr period. Radar data were obtained from 11 stations located near the center of the observational area, and as many data as possible were collected from the Nimbus 5, NOAA 2, ATS-3, and DMSP satellites. The present paper provides an overview of the experiment and describes how the user community can obtain copies of the data.

  17. The Experience of Emotion

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Mesquita, Batja; Ochsner, Kevin N.; Gross, James J.

    2007-01-01

    Experiences of emotion are content-rich events that emerge at the level of psychological description, but must be causally constituted by neurobiological processes. This chapter outlines an emerging scientific agenda for understanding what these experiences feel like and how they arise. We review the available answers to what is felt (i.e., the content that makes up an experience of emotion) and how neurobiological processes instantiate these properties of experience. These answers are then integrated into a broad framework that describes, in psychological terms, how the experience of emotion emerges from more basic processes. We then discuss the role of such experiences in the economy of the mind and behavior. PMID:17002554

  18. Mystical experience and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Buckley, P

    1981-01-01

    Autobiographical accounts of acute mystical experience and schizophrenia are compared in order to examine the similarities between the two states. The appearance of a powerful sense of noesis, heightening of perception, feelings of communion with the "divine," and exultation may be common to both. The disruption of thought seen in the acute psychoses is not a component of the accounts of mystical experience reviewed by the author, and auditory hallucinations are less common than visual hallucinations in the mystical state. The ease with which elements of the acute mystical experience can be induced in possession cults or in an experimental situation suggests that the capacity for such an altered state experience may be latently present in many people. It is postulated that there is a limited repertoire of response within the nervous system for altered state experiences such as acute psychosis and mystical experience, even though the precipitants and etiology may be quite different. PMID:7280578

  19. Microgravity Experiments On Animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, B. P.; Leon, H.; Hogan, R.; Clarke, B.; Tollinger, D.

    1991-01-01

    Paper describes experiments on animal subjects planned for Spacelab Life Sciences 1 mission. Laboratory equipment evaluated, and physiological experiments performed. Represents first step in establishing technology for maintaining and manipulating rodents, nonhuman primates, amphibians, and plants during space flight without jeopardizing crew's environment. In addition, experiments focus on effects of microgravity on cardiopulmonary, cardiovascular, and musculoskeletal systems; on regulation of volume of blood and production of red blood cells; and on calcium metabolism and gravity receptors.

  20. Gyroscope relativity experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decher, R.

    1971-01-01

    A gyroscope test of general relativity theory is proposed. The basic ideas and hardware concepts conceived by the investigators to implement the experiment are discussed. The goal is to measure the extremely small relativistic precession of gyroscopes in an earth-orbiting satellite. The experiment hardware (cryogenic gyroscopes, a telescope and superconducting circuits) is enclosed in a liquid helium dewar. The experiment will operate in orbit for about one year.

  1. Future reactor experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Liangjian

    2015-07-15

    The non-zero neutrino mixing angle θ{sub 13} has been discovered and precisely measured by the current generation short-baseline reactor neutrino experiments. It opens the gate of measuring the leptonic CP-violating phase and enables the neutrino mass ordering. The JUNO and RENO-50 proposals aim at resolving the neutrino mass ordering using reactors. The experiment design, physics sensitivity, technical challenges as well as the progresses of those two proposed experiments are reviewed in this paper.

  2. LDR structural experiment definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, R. A.

    1988-01-01

    A system study to develop the definition of a structural flight experiment for a large precision segmented reflector on the Space Station was accomplished by the Boeing Aerospace Company for NASA's Langley Research Center. The objective of the study was to use a Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) baseline configuration as the basis for focusing an experiment definition, so that the resulting accommodation requirements and interface constraints could be used as part of the mission requirements data base for Space Station. The primary objectives of the first experiment are to construct the primary mirror support truss and to determine its structural and thermal characteristics. Addition of an optical bench, thermal shield and primary mirror segments, and alignment of the optical components, would occur on a second experiment. The structure would then be moved to the payload point system for pointing, optical control, and scientific optical measurement for a third experiment. Experiment 1 will deploy the primary support truss while it is attached to the instrument module structure. The ability to adjust the mirror attachment points and to attach several dummy primary mirror segments with a robotic system will also be demonstrated. Experiment 2 will be achieved by adding new components and equipment to experiment one. Experiment 3 will demonstrate advanced control strategies, active adjustment of the primary mirror alignment, and technologies associated with optical sensing.

  3. Experiment support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, A. V.

    1977-01-01

    The Experiment Support System is a switchboard system with displays and controls. It routes electrical power to experiments M092, M093, and M171 equipment; gaseous nitrogen to the Blood Pressure Measurement System; receives biomedical data from all related equipment; routes the conditioned data signals to the Airlock Module Telemetry System and also displays (in digital or analog from) portions of that data which the crewmen must see to complete the experiment successfully. The Experiment Support System is interfaced to the M131 control panel to transfer conditioned data to the Airlock Module Telemetry System.

  4. [Near death experiences].

    PubMed

    Rubia Vila, Francisco José

    2012-01-01

    Near Death Experiences are those accounted by people who after being clinically dead return to life spontaneously or after reanimation. These experiences have been used traditionally to support the belief in the existence of the soul and of life after death. However, today neuroscience tries to explain these experiences from the scientific point of view, i.e. explaining them based on their brain substrates. Their resemblance to mystic experiences and to altered states of consciousness seems to indicate that they may be produced by hyperactivity of limbic structures caused by anoxia or hypercapnia.

  5. [Near death experiences].

    PubMed

    Rubia Vila, Francisco José

    2012-01-01

    Near Death Experiences are those accounted by people who after being clinically dead return to life spontaneously or after reanimation. These experiences have been used traditionally to support the belief in the existence of the soul and of life after death. However, today neuroscience tries to explain these experiences from the scientific point of view, i.e. explaining them based on their brain substrates. Their resemblance to mystic experiences and to altered states of consciousness seems to indicate that they may be produced by hyperactivity of limbic structures caused by anoxia or hypercapnia. PMID:24294729

  6. Chemiluminescence: An Illuminating Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafney, Harry D.; Adamson, Arthur W.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an experiment in which luminescence is observed during a reaction between sodium borohydride and trisbipyridalruthenium (III). Includes a discussion of the theory of chemiluminescence. (MLH)

  7. SEDS experiment design definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, Joseph A.; Alexander, Charles M.; Oldson, John C.

    1990-01-01

    The Small Expendable-tether Deployment System (SEDS) was developed to design, build, integrate, fly, and safely deploy and release an expendable tether. A suitable concept for an on-orbit test of SEDS was developed. The following tasks were performed: (1) Define experiment objectives and requirements; (2) Define experiment concepts to reach those objectives; (3) Support NASA in experiment concept selection and definition; (4) Perform analyses and tests of SEDS hardware; (5) Refine the selected SEDS experiment concept; and (6) Support interactive SEDS system definition process. Results and conclusions are given.

  8. Exploring Sensory Neuroscience Through Experience and Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Wyttenbach, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Many phenomena that we take for granted are illusions — color and motion on a TV or computer monitor, for example, or the impression of space in a stereo music recording. Even the stable image that we perceive when looking directly at the real world is illusory. One of the important lessons from sensory neuroscience is that our perception of the world is constructed rather than received. Sensory illusions effectively capture student interest, but how do you then move on to substantive discussion of neuroscience? This article illustrates several illusions, attempts to connect them to neuroscience, and shows how students can explore and experiment with them. Even when (as is often the case) there is no agreed-upon mechanistic explanation for an illusion, students can form hypotheses and test them by manipulating stimuli and measuring their effects. In effect, students can experiment with illusions using themselves as subjects. PMID:23493966

  9. On the Poggendorff Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coelho, Ricardo Lopes; Silva, P. A. S.; Borges, Paulo de Faria

    2015-01-01

    Poggendorff showed experimentally, in the middle of the 19th century, that the weight of an Atwood machine is reduced when it is brought to motion. His experiment has been revisited from time to time, making use of instrumentation that reflects the technological development of the moment. In this paper, the evolution of the experiment is briefly…

  10. Franklin: User Experiences

    SciTech Connect

    National Energy Research Supercomputing Center; He, Yun; Kramer, William T.C.; Carter, Jonathan; Cardo, Nicholas

    2008-05-07

    The newest workhorse of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center is a Cray XT4 with 9,736 dual core nodes. This paper summarizes Franklin user experiences from friendly early user period to production period. Selected successful user stories along with top issues affecting user experiences are presented.

  11. Real-World Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borja, Rhea R.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents IISME, a U.S. program that can give educators a real-world experience and that can deepen their subject-matter knowledge. It also presents the experiences of some teachers who are into this program. IISME's summer-fellowship program started out with 40 teachers and 12 companies. The group's growth picked up in 2001, when it…

  12. Play as Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henricks, Thomas S.

    2015-01-01

    The author investigates what he believes one of the more important aspects of play--the experience it generates in its participants. He considers the quality of this experience in relation to five ways of viewing play--as action, interaction, activity, disposition, and within a context. He treats broadly the different forms of affect, including…

  13. Experiments in Science Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hempstead, C. A.

    1973-01-01

    Analyzes the role of experiments in science teaching, and applies this analysis to the teaching of Millikan's experiment in physics. Critically examines an article written by T. J. Harvey entitled Millikan made easy'' which was previously published in The School Science Review. (JR)

  14. Seasat land experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.; Barath, F.; Bryant, N.; Cannon, P. J.; Elachi, C.; Goetz, A.; Krishen, K.; Macdonald, H. C.; Marmelstein, A.; Miller, L. J.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of the Seasat land experiments is presented. The potential roles for active microwave imaging systems on board satellites were reviewed with particular emphasis on the Seasat Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). Recommendations were made concerning the type of experiments that could most profitably be conducted over land with the Seasat SAR system capabilities available.

  15. Notes on Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Education, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Describes briefly three experiments, which are presented by three physics teachers to share their ideas with other teachers and readers. These experiments are: (1) a simple hazemeter for window pollution assessment; (2) the speed of light; and (3) the ball-bearing electric motor. (HM)

  16. The Jumping Ring Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baylie, M.; Ford, P. J.; Mathlin, G. P.; Palmer, C.

    2009-01-01

    The jumping ring experiment has become central to liquid nitrogen shows given as part of the outreach and open day activities carried out within the University of Bath. The basic principles of the experiment are described as well as the effect of changing the geometry of the rings and their metallurgical state. In general, aluminium rings are…

  17. Experience with MODSIM II

    SciTech Connect

    Streets, J.; Berg, D.; Oleynik, G.; Pordes, R.; Slimmer, D.

    1992-02-01

    We present results of computer simulations for Data Acquisition systems for large fixed target experiments in an object oriented simulation language, MODSIM. This paper summarizes our experiences and presents preliminary results from the simulation already completed. We also indicate the resources required for this project.

  18. Near-death experiences.

    PubMed

    Blackmore, S J

    1996-02-01

    Reactions to claims of near-death experiences (NDE) range from the popular view that this must be evidence for life after death, to outright rejection of the experiences as, at best, drug induced hallucinations or, at worse, pure invention. Twenty years, and much research, later, it is clear that neither extreme is correct.

  19. Fluorescence Experiments with Quinine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, James E.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a series of experiments which illustrate the analytical capabilities of fluorescence, and outlines two straightforward analyses involving real analyses. These experiments are suitable for an undergraduate instrumental analysis course and require approximately six to seven hours of laboratory time. (MLH)

  20. The Student Athlete Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayles, Joy Gaston

    2009-01-01

    Prior to the 1980s, the literature on the experiences of collegiate student athletes was rather scarce. Since that time the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) has passed several eligibility rules to address concerns about the academic performance and the overall experience of student athletes on college campuses. As such, the…

  1. Ball Collision Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, R.

    2015-01-01

    Experiments are described on collisions between two billiard balls and between a bat and a ball. The experiments are designed to extend a student's understanding of collision events and could be used either as a classroom demonstration or for a student project.

  2. Near-death experiences.

    PubMed Central

    Blackmore, S J

    1996-01-01

    Reactions to claims of near-death experiences (NDE) range from the popular view that this must be evidence for life after death, to outright rejection of the experiences as, at best, drug induced hallucinations or, at worse, pure invention. Twenty years, and much research, later, it is clear that neither extreme is correct. PMID:8683504

  3. Shusterman on Somatic Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maattanen, Pentti

    2010-01-01

    Richard Shusterman's "Body Consciousness" aims at formulating a theory of somaesthetics and somatic experience. There has indeed been a growing interest in the role of the body in experience. Shusterman examines the arguments of six important writers who have been influential in this discussion. The emphasis on the body is natural for a…

  4. Nonparametric identification experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yam, Yeung

    1988-01-01

    The following constitutes a summary of this paper: on-orbit identification methodology starts with nonparametric techniques for a priori system identification; development of the nonparametric identification and model determination experiment software has been completed; the validation experiments to be performed on the JPL Control and Identification Technology Validation Laboratory have been designed.

  5. Peak Experience Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Daniel G.; Evans, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    This paper emerges from the continued analysis of data collected in a series of international studies concerning Childhood Peak Experiences (CPEs) based on developments in understanding peak experiences in Maslow's hierarchy of needs initiated by Dr Edward Hoffman. Bridging from the series of studies, Canadian researchers explore collected…

  6. Notes on Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Describes: (1) two experiments using a laser (resonant cavity for light and pinhole camera effect with a hologram); (2) optical differaction patterns displayed by microcomputer; and (3) automating the Hall effect (with comments on apparatus needed and computer program used); and (4) an elegant experiment in mechanical equilibrium. (JN)

  7. Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siemers, Paul M., III

    1988-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE), an experiment with the objective of investigating critical vehicle design and environmental technologies applicable to the design of aeroassisted space transfer vehicles. Information is given on design, simulation, flight regime, mission requirements and objectives, instrumentation, and the project schedule.

  8. Boyle's Law Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermens, Richard A.

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that ideal experiments fit into course time constraints and be meaningful, relevant to course content, safe, inexpensive, simple, reproducible, and easy to set up/maintain. Describes a Boyle's Law experiment that uses a minimum of equipment and meets the foregoing criteria. Apparatus used, procedures, and safety precautions are…

  9. Human Simulated Diving Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, David S.; Speck, Dexter F.

    1979-01-01

    This report details several simulated divinq experiments on the human. These are suitable for undergraduate or graduate laboratories in human or environmental physiology. The experiment demonstrates that a diving reflex is precipitated by both facial cooling and apnea. (Author/RE)

  10. A Column Dispersion Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corapcioglu, M. Y.; Koroglu, F.

    1982-01-01

    Crushed glass and a Rhodamine B solution are used in a one-dimensional optically scanned column experiment to study the dispersion phenomenon in porous media. Results indicate that the described model gave satisfactory results and that the dispersion process in this experiment is basically convective. (DC)

  11. MSFC Skylab corollary experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The evolution of the development and integration of Skylab experiments from initial concepts through mission operations is documented. All experiment systems are covered as well as management controls which were developed and exercised to assure acceptable operational capability and optimize data acquisition for final scientific results.

  12. The Student Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haselgrove, Susanne, Ed.

    This collection of papers discusses the experience of students in the United Kingdom's new, mass higher education system. The papers are viewed as dispatches from the "front line" rather than conventional analyses by education researchers. The organization of the papers mirrors the stages of students' experience of higher education--getting in,…

  13. Extravehicular activity welding experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, J. Kevin

    1989-01-01

    The In-Space Technology Experiments Program (INSTEP) provides an opportunity to explore the many critical questions which can only be answered by experimentation in space. The objective of the Extravehicular Activity Welding Experiment definition project was to define the requirements for a spaceflight experiment to evaluate the feasibility of performing manual welding tasks during EVA. Consideration was given to experiment design, work station design, welding hardware design, payload integration requirements, and human factors (including safety). The results of this effort are presented. Included are the specific objectives of the flight test, details of the tasks which will generate the required data, and a description of the equipment which will be needed to support the tasks. Work station requirements are addressed as are human factors, STS integration procedures and, most importantly, safety considerations. A preliminary estimate of the cost and the schedule for completion of the experiment through flight and postflight analysis are given.

  14. Health education telecommunications experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, A. A.

    1975-01-01

    The Health/Education Telecommunications Experiment (HET) was conducted jointly by NASA and HEW on NASA's ATS-6 communications satellite. This experiment actually consisted of six experiments testing health and education applications of a communication spacecraft producing a broadcast of color television directly from space to over 120 low-cost receivers located in remote rural areas throughout the U.S. (including Alaska). The experiments were conducted over the period from 2 July 1974 to 20 May 1975 and operated on an almost daily basis. The overall telecommunications system to support these experiments consisted of many elements: The ATS-6 spacecraft; five different types of earth stations consisting of 120 video receive terminals, 51 telephony tranceivers and eight video originating terminals of three different types. Actual performance of the equipment as measured in the field was shown to equal or exceed predicted values.

  15. Hadron production experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Boris A.

    2013-02-01

    The HARP and NA61/SHINE hadroproduction experiments as well as their implications for neutrino physics are discussed. HARP measurements have already been used for predictions of neutrino beams in K2K and MiniBooNE/SciBooNE experiments and are also being used to improve the atmospheric neutrino flux predictions and to help in the optimization of neutrino factory and super-beam designs. First measurements released recently by the NA61/SHINE experiment are of significant importance for a precise prediction of the J-PARC neutrino beam used for the T2K experiment. Both HARP and NA61/SHINE experiments provide also a large amount of input for validation and tuning of hadron production models in Monte-Carlo generators.

  16. Space Experiment Module (SEM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodell, Charles L.

    1999-01-01

    The Space Experiment Module (SEM) Program is an education initiative sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Shuttle Small Payloads Project. The program provides nationwide educational access to space for Kindergarten through University level students. The SEM program focuses on the science of zero-gravity and microgravity. Within the program, NASA provides small containers or "modules" for students to fly experiments on the Space Shuttle. The experiments are created, designed, built, and implemented by students with teacher and/or mentor guidance. Student experiment modules are flown in a "carrier" which resides in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle. The carrier supplies power to, and the means to control and collect data from each experiment.

  17. USML-1 Glovebox experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    This report covers the development of and results from three experiments that were flown in the Materials Science Glovebox on USML-1: Marangoni convection in Closed Containers (MCCC), Double Float Zone (DFZ), and Fiber Pulling in Microgravity (FPM). The Glovebox provided a convenient, low cost method for doing simple 'try and see' experiments that could test new concepts or elucidate microgravity phenomena. Since the Glovebox provided essentially one (or possibly two levels of confinement, many of the stringent verification and test requirements on the experiment apparatus could be relaxed and a streamlined test and verification plan for flight qualification could be implemented. Furthermore, the experiments were contained in their own carrying cases whose external configurations could be identified early in the integration sequence for stowage considerations while delivery of the actual experiment apparatus could be postponed until only a few months before flight. This minimized the time fluids must be contained and reduced the possibility of corrosive reactions that could ruin the experiment. In many respects, this exercise was as much about developing a simpler, cheaper way of doing crew-assisted science as it was about the actual scientific accomplishments of the individual experiments. The Marangoni Convection in Closed Containers experiment was designed to study the effects of a void space in a simulated Bridgman crystal growth configuration and to determine if surface tension driven convective flows that may result from thermal gradients along any free surfaces could affect the solidification process. The Fiber Pulling in Microgravity experiment sought to separate the role of gravity drainage from capillarity effects in the break-up of slender cylindrical liquid columns. The Stability of a Double Float Zone experiment explored the feasibility of a quasi-containerless process in which a solidifying material is suspended by two liquid bridges of its own melt.

  18. LDR structural experiment definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Richard A.; Gates, Richard M.

    1988-01-01

    A study was performed to develop the definition of a structural flight experiment for a large precision segmented reflector that would utilize the Space Station. The objective of the study was to use the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) baseline configuration for focusing on experiment definition activity which would identify the Space Station accommodation requirements and interface constraints. Results of the study defined three Space Station based experiments to demonstrate the technologies needed for an LDR type structure. The basic experiment configurations are the same as the JPL baseline except that the primary mirror truss is 10 meters in diameter instead of 20. The primary objectives of the first experiment are to construct the primary mirror support truss and to determine its structural and thermal characteristics. Addition of the optical bench, thermal shield and primary mirror segments and alignment of the optical components occur on the second experiment. The structure will then be moved to the payload pointing system for pointing, optical control and scientific optical measurement for the third experiment.

  19. Understanding customer experience.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Christopher; Schwager, Andre

    2007-02-01

    Anyone who has signed up for cell phone service, attempted to claim a rebate, or navigated a call center has probably suffered from a company's apparent indifference to what should be its first concern: the customer experiences that culminate in either satisfaction or disappointment and defection. Customer experience is the subjective response customers have to direct or indirect contact with a company. It encompasses every aspect of an offering: customer care, advertising, packaging, features, ease of use, reliability. Customer experience is shaped by customers' expectations, which largely reflect previous experiences. Few CEOs would argue against the significance of customer experience or against measuring and analyzing it. But many don't appreciate how those activities differ from CRM or just how illuminating the data can be. For instance, the majority of the companies in a recent survey believed they have been providing "superior" experiences to customers, but most customers disagreed. The authors describe a customer experience management (CEM) process that involves three kinds of monitoring: past patterns (evaluating completed transactions), present patterns (tracking current relationships), and potential patterns (conducting inquiries in the hope of unveiling future opportunities). Data are collected at or about touch points through such methods as surveys, interviews, focus groups, and online forums. Companies need to involve every function in the effort, not just a single customer-facing group. The authors go on to illustrate how a cross-functional CEM system is created. With such a system, companies can discover which customers are prospects for growth and which require immediate intervention.

  20. Drexhage's Experiment for Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langguth, Lutz; Fleury, Romain; Alò, Andrea; Koenderink, A. Femius

    2016-06-01

    Drexhage's seminal observation that spontaneous emission rates of fluorophores vary with distance from a mirror uncovered the fundamental notion that a source's environment determines radiative linewidths and shifts. Further, this observation established a powerful tool to determine fluorescence quantum yields. We present the direct analogue for sound. We demonstrate that a Chinese gong at a hard wall experiences radiative corrections to linewidth and line shift, and extract its intrinsic radiation efficiency. Beyond acoustics, our experiment opens new ideas to extend the Drexhage experiment to metamaterials, nanoantennas, and multipolar transitions.

  1. The three eggs experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şahin Bülbül, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    The three eggs experiment concerns 37 pre-service science teachers’ predictions about the impact shapes of three uncooked eggs dropped from different heights. This experiment looks at energy transformation from potential to kinetic energy, where the smaller parts of the egg shell spread far from the center of the impact. This experience encouraged the pre-service science teachers to use their familiar models, such as a fried egg, omelet, puddle, dropping or explosions, to explain their predictions. These models from everyday life presented can be used as a tool to explain unfamiliar phenomena.

  2. Industrial application experiment series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluhm, S. A.

    1981-01-01

    Two procurements within the Industrial Application Experiment Series of the Thermal Power Systems Project are discussed. The first procurement, initiated in April 1980, resulted in an award to the Applied Concepts Corporation for the Capital Concrete Experiment: two Fresnel concentrating collectors will be evaluated in single-unit installations at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Parabolic Dish Test Site and at Capitol Concrete Products, Topeka, Kansas. The second procurement, initiated in March 1981, is titled, "Thermal System Engineering Experiment B." The objective of the procurement is the rapid deployment of developed parabolic dish collectors.

  3. Advanced biostack experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buecker, H.

    1981-01-01

    The Advanced Biostack Experiment is described. The objectives are: (1) to confirm, complement, and enlarge the information obtained from the previous experiments by applying improved and advanced methods of localization and physical and biological evaluation, performing advanced experiments based on these data, and including additional biological specimens and additional radiation detectors; (2) to determine the biological importance of nuclear disintegration stars; (3) to determine the interference of HZE particle induced effects with those of other space flight factors (e.g., weightlessness); and (4) to determine the distribution of HZE particles and of disintegration stars at different locations inside the module and on the pallet.

  4. Experiments and rights.

    PubMed

    Vollrath, John

    1989-04-01

    William Fletcher's 1905-1906 beriberi experiment with residents of the Kuala Lumpur Lunatic Asylum is the focus of Vollrath's essay on the moral obligations of the scientist. If an experiment harms some subjects (several of Fletcher's patients died), is the scientific integrity of the research consistent with the scientist's moral obligations to those subjects? Do the subjects have the moral right not to be harmed? What are the subjects' moral rights in this context? The author argues that, aside from the issue of using nonconsenting institutionalized subjects, Fletcher's experiment did not violate a moral right of the subjects; moral right is determined prospectively by anticipating risks, not retrospectively by calculating known harms.

  5. The GBAR experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Werf, D. P.

    2014-05-01

    The classical Weak Equivalence Principle has not yet been tested using antimatter in matter gravitational fields. The GBAR (Gravitational Behaviour of Antihydrogen at Rest) experiment, recently approved by CERN, proposes to measure the free-fall acceleration of antihydrogen. In this experiment, positive antihydrogen ions will be produced, and subsequently cooled down using laser cooled Be+ ions. Then, when a temperature of around 20 μK has been reached, the excess positron will be detached and the free-fall time will be measured using the antiproton annihilation products. An overview of the experiment will be given together with its present status.

  6. Hydrothermal organic synthesis experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shock, Everett L.

    1992-01-01

    Ways in which heat is useful in organic synthesis experiments are described, and experiments on the hydrothermal destruction and synthesis of organic compounds are discussed. It is pointed out that, if heat can overcome kinetic barriers to the formation of metastable states from reduced or oxidized starting materials, abiotic synthesis under hydrothermal conditions is a distinct possibility. However, carefully controlled experiments which replicate the descriptive variables of natural hydrothermal systems have not yet been conducted with the aim of testing the hypothesis of hydrothermal organic systems.

  7. Storage Ring EDM Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semertzidis, Yannis K.

    2016-04-01

    Dedicated storage ring electric dipole moment (EDM) methods show great promise advancing the sensitivity level by a couple orders of magnitude over currently planned hadronic EDM experiments. We describe the present status and recent updates of the field.

  8. The monsoon experiment MONEX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, P. K.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of monsoons in different parts of the world on the Earth's atmosphere were studied by MONEX, India's Monsoon Experiment program. Data were gathered from meteorological satellites, sounding rockets, aircraft, land and shipborne stations.

  9. Packed Bed Reactor Experiment

    NASA Video Gallery

    The purpose of the Packed Bed Reactor Experiment in low gravity is to determine how a mixture of gas and liquid flows through a packed bed in reduced gravity. A packed bed consists of a metal pipe ...

  10. Status of RENO Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Jee-Seung

    2011-10-01

    The RENO (Reactor Experiment for Neutrino Oscillation) experiment is under construction to measure the smallest neutrino mixing angle θ13 using anti-neutrinos emitted from the Yonggwang nuclear power plant in Korea. The experiment is planning to start data-taking in early 2011 with two identical 16-ton Gadolinium loaded liquid scintillator detectors located near and far from the center of the reactor array. The estimated systematic uncertainty associated with the measurement is less than 0.6%. Based on three years of data, the expected statistical error is about 0.3% and it would be sensitive to measure the neutrino mixing angle in the range, sin2(2θ13)> 0.02. In this talk, the overview and status of RENO experiment are described.

  11. Solar wind composition experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiss, J.; Buehler, F.; Cerutti, H.; Eberhardt, P.; Filleux, C.

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo 16 SWC experiment is a continuation of the earlier experiments; however, an essential change was introduced in the solar wind particle collection technique. Platinum surfaces were incorporated in the collector foil, and use was made of a layer technique for distinguishing particles of different energies and different directions of arrival. The improvements and the expanded scope of the Apollo 16 experiment, relative to the earlier SWC experiments, can be summarized as follows: elimination of possible residual dust contamination by treating the platinum foil sections with dilute hydrofluoric acid before analysis; increased accuracy of solar wind argon abundance; determination of solar wind albedo; and search for helium in the energy range above approximately 40 KeV/nucleon.

  12. Experiment design and operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, P. J.; Hall, F. G.; Markham, B. J.; Wang, J. R.; Strebel, D. E.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives, design, and field operations of the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE) are described. The simultaneous acquisition of satellite, atmosphere, and surface data, and the understanding of the processes governing surface energy and mass exchange and how these are manifested in satellite-resolution radiometric data are identified as the specific objectives of the field-phase experiment. The central issues concerning the design of the field experiment are considered: the size of the site, the duration of the experiment, and the location of the site; it is noted that the Konza Prairie National Reserve was selected as the focus of the study. Field operations in 1987 and 1989 are discussed, and it is pointed out that a data set is available now from a single combined repository to all FIFE investigators, and that scientists can test models and algorithms on scales consistent with satellite observations and with enough supporting data on finer scales.

  13. Foraging Experiences with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Helen Ross

    1976-01-01

    Provided are foraging experiences and wild foods information for utilization in the urban school curriculum. Food uses are detailed for roses, dandelions, wild onions, acorns, cattails, violets and mints. (BT)

  14. CCF Experiment #1

    NASA Video Gallery

    Images from CCF camera during Experiment #1, or EU#1, square groove geometry operations. The free surface, or gas/liquid interface, assumes a curved shape under subcritical flow conditions as its m...

  15. Electrophoresis experiment for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderhoff, J. W.; Micale, F. J.

    1976-01-01

    The Apollo 16 electrophoresis experiment was analyzed, demonstrating that the separation of the two different-size monodisperse latexes did indeed take place, but that the separation was obscured by the pronounced electroosmotic flow of the liquid medium. The results of this experiment, however, were dramatic since it is impossible to carry out a similar separation on earth. It can be stated unequivocally from this experiment that any electrophoretic separation will be enhanced under microgravity conditions. The only question is the degree of this enhancement, which can be expected to vary from one experimental technique to another. The low-electroosmotic-mobility coating (Z6040-MC) developed under this program was found to be suitable for a free-fluid electrophoretic separation such as the experiment designed for the ASTP flight. The problem with this coating, however, is that its permanency is limited because of the slow desorption of the methylcellulose from the coated surface.

  16. Experimenting with Minnaert's Cigar.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, J O; Bärring, L; Almqvist, E

    2000-07-20

    We have studied the seldom-seen halo phenomenon that can arise in divergent light, Minnaert's Cigar, which we produced in laboratory experiments and computer simulation. In the laboratory experiments halos or transections were produced in clouds of alum crystals precipitated in a solution of ethyl alcohol or in alum crystals deposited upon glass plates. The three-dimensional cigar form was less pronounced in our small-scale experiments than when the form was observed over several meters. In our experiments and simulations transections through Minnaert's Cigar include different halo forms that may arise on window panes or windshields covered with halo-active ice crystals or as horizontal halos on glittering frost-covered ground.

  17. Notes on Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Education, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Describes three experiments: (1) "Liquid Flow from Orifices"; (2) "Microcomputer-Controlled Investigation of Battery Discharge and Recovery"; and (3) "Measurement of the Speed of Sound." Drawings and diagrams accompany each. (RT)

  18. Notes on Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Education, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Describes four physics experiments including "Investigation of Box Resonances Using a Micro"; "A Direct Reading Wattmeter, DC or AC"; "Exercises in the Application of Ohm's Law"; and "Hysteresis on Gas Discharges." Discusses procedures, instrumentation, and analysis in each example. (CW)

  19. Experimenting with Detergents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Gail; Phillips, Donald B.

    1977-01-01

    Lists materials and procedures for experimenting with detergents. Included are methods for determination of the densities of dry detergents, ph values of detergent solutions, and a discussion of the ability of detergents to remove iodine stains from cloth. (CS)

  20. Notes on Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Education, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Explains how to demonstrate the following: the hysteresis effect and the existence of domains in Rochelle salt (sodium potassium tartrate); diffraction experiments using a slide with multiple slits; and an analogue technique for learning terminal velocity. (GA)

  1. A Colorful Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, C. Bruce

    1978-01-01

    This experiment, mixing solutions of potassium iodide and lead nitrate to give a bright yellow lead iodide precipitate, often leads students into other topics such as making paint from the precipitate. (BB)

  2. Quantum ghost imaging experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyers, Ronald E.; Deacon, Keith S.

    2009-08-01

    Since the first experiment achieving quantum ghost imaging of an opaque object, performed by the authors at the Army Research Laboratory, ghost imaging research has increased. That physics experiment resulting in the image of toy soldier created a new imaging paradigm. Prior to that all images of opaque objects were made by receiving patterns of the object from reflection and scattering of the light into a camera. In the ghost imaging experiment light patterns only came from the light source and the image was made from coincidences of those and photon counts of reflected and scattered photons received from the object. Since that original ghost imaging experiment, approximately thirteen years after ghost imaging of transmissive objects was introduced, ghost imaging is providing a new and proweful quantum tool for future improved imaging missions in the environment.

  3. Experimenting with Apostatic Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, J. A.; Cooper, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    Reviewed is some of the experimental evidence for apostatic selection from work with artificial prey. Guidelines for further experiments are suggested including experimental design, analysis, variables, and selection in the wild. (Author/CW)

  4. ACTS mobile SATCOM experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbe, Brian S.; Frye, Robert E.; Jedrey, Thomas C.

    1993-01-01

    Over the last decade, the demand for reliable mobile satellite communications (satcom) for voice, data, and video applications has increased dramatically. As consumer demand grows, the current spectrum allocation at L-band could become saturated. For this reason, NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory are developing the Advanced Communications Technology Satellites (ACTS) mobile terminal (AMT) and are evaluating the feasibility of K/Ka-band (20/30 GHz) mobile satcom to meet these growing needs. U.S. industry and government, acting as co-partners, will evaluate K/Ka-band mobile satcom and develop new technologies by conducting a series of applications-oriented experiments. The ACTS and the AMT testbed will be used to conduct these mobile satcom experiments. The goals of the ACTS Mobile Experiments Program and the individual experiment configurations and objectives are further presented.

  5. Dihalocarbene Insertion Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, S. H.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the insertion reaction using the insertion of carbenes into carbon-hydrogen bonds as an example. Outlines an experiment that will illustrate dihalocarbene insertions into diisopropyl ether. (GS)

  6. Celestial mechanics experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorell, J.; Anderson, J. D.; Jordan, J. F.; Reasenberg, R. D.; Shapiro, I. I.

    1973-01-01

    The efforts and accomplishments of the CME Team are summarized. The objectives and experiment status, gravity field of Mars, test of general relativity, and the generation of normal points are discussed.

  7. Notes on Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Education, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Introduced are two experiments: radon detection method shows real data using vacuum cleaner, soft toilet paper, and Geiger-Muller tube; critical potentials measurement describes the operation of Teltron tube with VELA. (YP)

  8. Experiments in Animal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polt, James M.

    1971-01-01

    Describes experiments in conditioning, sensory processes, social behavior, imprinting, innate preferences for color and form, and discrimination learning suitable for secondary school students. Mealworms, crickets, and chicks are used as subjects. (AL)

  9. Experiments with a sunbird

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güémez, J.; Valiente, R.; Fiolhais, C.; Fiolhais, M.

    2003-12-01

    A theoretical description of the sunbird, a drinking bird without any external liquid, is compared with experiment. The transient times and the periods of oscillation given by a simulation of the dynamics agree with the measured values.

  10. Experiments with Helmholtz Resonators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Presents experiments that use Helmholtz resonators and have been designed for a sophomore-level course in oscillations and waves. Discusses the theory of the Helmholtz resonator and resonance curves. (JRH)

  11. Experiments with needle bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferretti, Pericle

    1933-01-01

    Experiments and results are presented in testing needle bearings, especially in comparison with roller bearings. Reduction in coefficient of friction is discussed as well as experimental methods and recording devices.

  12. Experiment-o-mania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drndarski, Marina

    2015-04-01

    Every 21st century student is expected to develop science literacy skills. As this is not part of Serbian national curriculum yet, we decided to introduce it with this project. Experiment-o-mania provides students to experience science in different and exciting way. It makes opportunity for personalized learning offering space and time to ask (why, where, how, what if) and to try. Therefore, we empower young people with skills of experimenting, and they love science back. They ask questions, make hypothesis, make problems and solve them, make mistakes, discuss about the results. Subsequently this raises the students' interest for school curriculum. This vision of science teaching is associated with inquiry-based learning. Experiment-o-mania is the unique and recognizable teaching methodology for the elementary school Drinka Pavlović, Belgrade, Serbia. Experiment-o-mania implies activities throughout the school year. They are held on extra class sessions, through science experiments, science projects or preparations for School's Days of science. Students learn to ask questions, make observations, classify data, communicate ideas, conduct experiments, analyse results and make conclusions. All science teachers participate in designing activities and experiments for students in Experiment-o-mania teaching method. But they are not alone. Teacher of fine arts, English teachers and others also take part. Students have their representatives in this team, too. This is a good way to blend knowledge among different school subject and popularize science in general. All the experiments are age appropriate and related to real life situations, local community, society and the world. We explore Fibonacci's arrays, saving energy, solar power, climate change, environmental problems, pollution, daily life situations in the country or worldwide. We introduce great scientists as Nikola Tesla, Milutin Milanković and sir Isaac Newton. We celebrate all relevant international days, weeks

  13. Advanced Doppler tracking experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    The Doppler tracking method is currently the only technique available for broadband gravitational wave searches in the approx. 10(exp -4) to 10(exp -1) Hz low frequency band. A brief review is given of the Doppler method, a discussion of the main noise sources, and a review of experience with current spacecraft and the prospects for sensitivity improvements in an advanced Doppler tracking experiment.

  14. Spacelab J experiment descriptions

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, T.Y.

    1993-08-01

    Brief descriptions of the experiment investigations for the Spacelab J Mission which was launched from the Kennedy Space Center aboard the Endeavour in Sept. 1992 are presented. Experiments cover the following: semiconductor crystals; single crystals; superconducting composite materials; crystal growth; bubble behavior in weightlessness; microgravity environment; health monitoring of Payload Specialists; cultured plant cells; effect of low gravity on calcium metabolism and bone formation; and circadian rhythm. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

  15. Surface electrical properties experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simmons, Gene; Strangway, David; Annan, Peter; Baker, Richard G.; Bannister, Lawrence; Brown, Raymon; Cooper, William; Cubley, Dean; deBettencourt, Joseph; England, Anthony W.; Groener, John; Kong, Jin-Au; LaTorraca, Gerald; Meyer, James; Nanda, Ved; Redman, David; Rossiter, James; Tsang, Leung; Urner, Joseph; Watts, Raymond

    1973-01-01

    The surface electrical properties (SEP) experiment was used to explore the subsurface material of the Apollo 17 landing site by means of electromagnetic radiation. The experiment was designed to detect electrical layering, discrete scattering bodies, and the possible presence of water. From the analysis of the data, it was expected that values of the electrical properties (dielectric constant and loss tangent) of lunar material in situ would be obtained.

  16. The ATHENA antihydrogen experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Fine, K. S.

    1999-12-10

    The ATHENA experiment is being built at CERN to produce and trap neutral antihydrogen. Here we give an overview of the plans to produce antihydrogen. The experiment must 1) trap the antiprotons produced by the CERN accelerators, 2) produce and trap positrons, 3) combine the two charge species into antihydrogen, and finally 4) detect the presence of the antihydrogen. In this paper we discuss how we intend to accomplish each of these steps.

  17. ISE structural dynamic experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lock, Malcolm H.; Clark, S. Y.

    1988-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: directed energy systems - vibration issue; Neutral Particle Beam Integrated Space Experiment (NPB-ISE) opportunity/study objective; vibration sources/study plan; NPB-ISE spacecraft configuration; baseline slew analysis and results; modal contributions; fundamental pitch mode; vibration reduction approaches; peak residual vibration; NPB-ISE spacecraft slew experiment; goodbye ISE - hello Zenith Star Program.

  18. The GLUEX Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    M.R. Shepherd

    2009-12-01

    The GLUEX experiment, to be constructed in the new Hall D at Jefferson Lab as part of the 12 GeV upgrade, will utilize a linearly polarized 9 GeV photon beam, produced via coherent bremsstrahlung radiation off of a diamond wafer, incident on a proton target to conduct a search for exotic hybrid mesons. A summary of the physics motivation for the experiment and the key factors that drive the design of the detector and beam line is presented.

  19. Spacelab J experiment descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Teresa Y. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Brief descriptions of the experiment investigations for the Spacelab J Mission which was launched from the Kennedy Space Center aboard the Endeavour in Sept. 1992 are presented. Experiments cover the following: semiconductor crystals; single crystals; superconducting composite materials; crystal growth; bubble behavior in weightlessness; microgravity environment; health monitoring of Payload Specialists; cultured plant cells; effect of low gravity on calcium metabolism and bone formation; and circadian rhythm.

  20. The MAJORANA Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Avignone, F. T.; Back, Henning O.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Bergevin, M.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Collar, J. I.; Combs, Dustin C.; Cooper, R. J.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, Steven R.; Esterline, James H.; Fast, James E.; Fields, N.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Gehman, Victor M.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, Matthew P.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Henning, R.; Hime, Andrew; Hoppe, Eric W.; Horton, Mark; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K.; Keillor, Martin E.; Keller, C.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kidd, Mary; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; LaRoque, B. H.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, S.; Marino, Michael G.; Martin, R. D.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Merriman, Jason H.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, Leila; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Nicole R.; Phillips, D.; Poon, Alan; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Prior, Gersende; Radford, D. C.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Sobolev, V.; Steele, David; Strain, J.; Thomas, K.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Vanyushin, I.; Varner, R. L.; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; Wilkerson, John; Wolfe, B. A.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir; Zhang, C.

    2011-10-01

    The Majorana collaboration is actively pursuing research and development aimed at a tonne-scale {sup 76}Ge neutrinoless double-beta decay ({beta}{beta}(0{nu})-decay) experiment. The current, primary focus is the construction of the Majorana Demonstrator experiment, an R and D effort that will field approximately 40 kg of germanium detectors with mixed enrichment levels. This article provides a status update on the construction of the Demonstrator.

  1. LACE flight dynamics experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Shalom

    1989-01-01

    The Low Power Atmospheric Compensation Experiment (LACE) is scheduled for launch in late 1989 into a 556 km altitude circular orbit of 43 deg inclination. The LACE flight dynamics experiment is an experiment secondary to the primary LACE mission. The purpose of the experiment is to provide on-orbit systems identification of the LACE spacecraft. The structure of the LACE spacecraft is of special interest to the CSI community. It incorporates 3 deployable/retractable booms of maximum length 45.72 m (150 ft) mounted on a rectangular parallelepiped bus of mass 1,200 kg. The zenith directed gravity gradient boom is mounted on the top of the bus; the retroreflector boom is mounted forward and deployed along the velocity vector, the balance boom is mounted and pointed aft. Attitude stabilization is accomplished by means of gravity gradient torques and by a momentum wheel. The LACE flight dynamics experiment is designed to measure modal frequencies, damping ratios, and oscillation amplitudes of the LACE spacecraft, as well as the vibration intensity generated by boom deployments and retractions. It is anticipated that this experiment will provide an opportunity for improvements in the accuracy of computer simulations of flexible structures and multibody dynamics.

  2. Skylab sleep monitoring experiment (experiment M133)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, J. D., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A summary of the conceptual design of the Skylab sleep monitoring experiment and a comprehensive compilation of the data-analysis results from the three Skylab missions is presented. One astronaut was studied per flight, electroencephalographic, electro-oculographic, and headmotion signals acquired during sleep by use of an elastic recording cap containing sponge electrodes and an attached miniature preamplifier/accelerometer unit are shown. A control-panel assembly, mounted in the sleep compartment, tested electrodes, preserved analog signals, and automatically analyzed data in real time (providing a telemetered indication of sleep stage). Results indicate that men are able to obtain adequate sleep in regularly scheduled eight-hour rest periods during extended space missions.

  3. Understanding customer experience.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Christopher; Schwager, Andre

    2007-02-01

    Anyone who has signed up for cell phone service, attempted to claim a rebate, or navigated a call center has probably suffered from a company's apparent indifference to what should be its first concern: the customer experiences that culminate in either satisfaction or disappointment and defection. Customer experience is the subjective response customers have to direct or indirect contact with a company. It encompasses every aspect of an offering: customer care, advertising, packaging, features, ease of use, reliability. Customer experience is shaped by customers' expectations, which largely reflect previous experiences. Few CEOs would argue against the significance of customer experience or against measuring and analyzing it. But many don't appreciate how those activities differ from CRM or just how illuminating the data can be. For instance, the majority of the companies in a recent survey believed they have been providing "superior" experiences to customers, but most customers disagreed. The authors describe a customer experience management (CEM) process that involves three kinds of monitoring: past patterns (evaluating completed transactions), present patterns (tracking current relationships), and potential patterns (conducting inquiries in the hope of unveiling future opportunities). Data are collected at or about touch points through such methods as surveys, interviews, focus groups, and online forums. Companies need to involve every function in the effort, not just a single customer-facing group. The authors go on to illustrate how a cross-functional CEM system is created. With such a system, companies can discover which customers are prospects for growth and which require immediate intervention. PMID:17345685

  4. Cryogenic fluid management experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhardt, R. N.; Bailey, W. J.; Fester, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    The cryogenic fluid management experiment (CFME), designed to characterize subcritical liquid hydrogen storage and expulsion in the low-q space environment, is discussed. The experiment utilizes a fine mesh screen fluid management device to accomplish gas-free liquid expulsion and a thermodynamic vent system to intercept heat leak and control tank pressure. The experiment design evolved from a single flight prototype to provision for a multimission (up to 7) capability. A detailed design of the CFME, a dynamic test article, and dedicated ground support equipment were generated. All materials and parts were identified, and components were selected and specifications prepared. Long lead titanium pressurant spheres and the flight tape recorder and ground reproduce unit were procured. Experiment integration with the shuttle orbiter, Spacelab, and KSC ground operations was coordinated with the appropriate NASA centers, and experiment interfaces were defined. Phase 1 ground and flight safety reviews were conducted. Costs were estimated for fabrication and assembly of the CFME, which will become the storage and supply tank for a cryogenic fluid management facility to investigate fluid management in space.

  5. National Flood Interoperability Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maidment, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    The National Flood Interoperability Experiment is led by the academic community in collaboration with the National Weather Service through the new National Water Center recently opened on the Tuscaloosa campus of the University of Alabama. The experiment will also involve the partners in IWRSS (Integrated Water Resources Science and Services), which include the USGS, the Corps of Engineers and FEMA. The experiment will address the following questions: (1) How can near-real-time hydrologic forecasting at high spatial resolution, covering the nation, be carried out using the NHDPlus or next generation geofabric (e.g. hillslope, watershed scales)? (2) How can this lead to improved emergency response and community resilience? (3) How can improved an improved interoperability framework support the first two goals and lead to sustained innovation in the research to operations process? The experiment will run from September 2014 through August 2015, in two phases. The mobilization phase from September 2014 until May 2015 will assemble the components of the interoperability framework. A Summer Institute to integrate the components will be held from June to August 2015 at the National Water Center involving faculty and students from the University of Alabama and other institutions coordinated by CUAHSI. It is intended that the insight that arises from this experiment will help lay the foundation for a new national scale, high spatial resolution, near-real-time hydrologic simulation system for the United States.

  6. Commercial Experiment Transporter: COMET

    SciTech Connect

    Wessling, F.C.; Robinson, M.; Martinez, R.S.; Gallimore, T.; Combs, N.

    1994-09-01

    A launch system consisting of ground-support equipment, a four-stage rocket, a service module, a recovery system and a recovery site, and an orbital operations center is being assembled. The system is designed to launch 818 kg (1800 lb) to a 552-km (300-n.mi.) low earth orbit at a 40-deg inclination. Experiment space exists in both the service module and the recovery system. The service module provides space for 68 kg (150 lb) of experiments plus telemetry services, attitude control, and power and uses no consumables to maintain attitude. Consequently, the service module can maintain orbit attitude for years. Power of 400 W is supplied by solar cells and batteries for both experiment operation and housekeeping. The recovery system houses an experiment carrier for 136 kg (300 lb) of experiments, a retro rocket, a heat shield, and a parachute. An orbital operations control center provides tracking, telemetry, and commanding for the satellite. The payloads are also briefly described. The first launch was scheduled for 1995.

  7. FIRE Arctic Clouds Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, J. A.; Hobbs, P. V.; King, M. D.; Randall, D. A.; Minnis, P.; Issac, G. A.; Pinto, J. O.; Uttal, T.; Bucholtz, A.; Cripe, D. G.; Gerber, H.; Fairall, C. W.; Garrett, T. J.; Hudson, J.; Intrieri, J. M.; Jakob, C.; Jensen, T.; Lawson, P.; Marcotte, D.; Nguyen, L.

    1998-01-01

    An overview is given of the First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Arctic Clouds Experiment that was conducted in the Arctic during April through July, 1998. The principal goal of the field experiment was to gather the data needed to examine the impact of arctic clouds on the radiation exchange between the surface, atmosphere, and space, and to study how the surface influences the evolution of boundary layer clouds. The observations will be used to evaluate and improve climate model parameterizations of cloud and radiation processes, satellite remote sensing of cloud and surface characteristics, and understanding of cloud-radiation feedbacks in the Arctic. The experiment utilized four research aircraft that flew over surface-based observational sites in the Arctic Ocean and Barrow, Alaska. In this paper we describe the programmatic and science objectives of the project, the experimental design (including research platforms and instrumentation), conditions that were encountered during the field experiment, and some highlights of preliminary observations, modelling, and satellite remote sensing studies.

  8. Experiments in Computing: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Moisseinen, Nella

    2014-01-01

    Experiments play a central role in science. The role of experiments in computing is, however, unclear. Questions about the relevance of experiments in computing attracted little attention until the 1980s. As the discipline then saw a push towards experimental computer science, a variety of technically, theoretically, and empirically oriented views on experiments emerged. As a consequence of those debates, today's computing fields use experiments and experiment terminology in a variety of ways. This paper analyzes experimentation debates in computing. It presents five ways in which debaters have conceptualized experiments in computing: feasibility experiment, trial experiment, field experiment, comparison experiment, and controlled experiment. This paper has three aims: to clarify experiment terminology in computing; to contribute to disciplinary self-understanding of computing; and, due to computing's centrality in other fields, to promote understanding of experiments in modern science in general. PMID:24688404

  9. Experiments in mixed reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krum, David M.; Sadek, Ramy; Kohli, Luv; Olson, Logan; Bolas, Mark

    2010-01-01

    As part of the Institute for Creative Technologies and the School of Cinematic Arts at the University of Southern California, the Mixed Reality lab develops technologies and techniques for presenting realistic immersive training experiences. Such experiences typically place users within a complex ecology of social actors, physical objects, and collections of intents, motivations, relationships, and other psychological constructs. Currently, it remains infeasible to completely synthesize the interactivity and sensory signatures of such ecologies. For this reason, the lab advocates mixed reality methods for training and conducts experiments exploring such methods. Currently, the lab focuses on understanding and exploiting the elasticity of human perception with respect to representational differences between real and virtual environments. This paper presents an overview of three projects: techniques for redirected walking, displays for the representation of virtual humans, and audio processing to increase stress.

  10. Future Experiments in Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krizmanic, John F.

    2002-01-01

    The measurement methodologies of astrophysics experiments reflect the enormous variation of the astrophysical radiation itself. The diverse nature of the astrophysical radiation, e.g. cosmic rays, electromagnetic radiation, and neutrinos, is further complicated by the enormous span in energy, from the 1.95 Kappa relic neutrino background to cosmic rays with energy greater than 10(exp 20)eV. The measurement of gravity waves and search for dark matter constituents are also of astrophysical interest. Thus, the experimental techniques employed to determine the energy of the incident particles are strongly dependent upon the specific particles and energy range to be measured. This paper summarizes some of the calorimetric methodologies and measurements planned by future astrophysics experiments. A focus will be placed on the measurement of higher energy astrophysical radiation. Specifically, future cosmic ray, gamma ray, and neutrino experiments will be discussed.

  11. Droplet Combustion Experiment movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) was designed to investigate the fundamental combustion aspects of single, isolated droplets under different pressures and ambient oxygen concentrations for a range of droplet sizes varying between 2 and 5 mm. The DCE principal investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1 mission (STS-83, April 4-8 1997; the shortened mission was reflown as MSL-1R on STS-94). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (1.1 MB, 12-second MPEG, screen 320 x 240 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available)A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300164.html.

  12. An Organoleptic Laboratory Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risley, John M.

    1996-12-01

    Flavorings in foods and fragrances in personal care products is a topic often discussed in chemistry classes designed for the general education of non-science majors. A laboratory experiment has been designed to accompany the lecture topic. Compounds in ten different classes of organic molecules that are used in the fragrance and food industry are provided to students. Students whiff the vapors of each compound and describe the organoleptic properties using a set of terms utilized in the fragrance and food industry. A set of questions guides students to an understanding of the relationship between structure of molecules and smell. Students are permitted to create their own fragrance based on the results of the experiment. Student response has been favorable. The experiment rectifies misconceptions students have about structure and odor, and gives positive reinforcement to the lecture material.

  13. Results of space experiments.

    PubMed

    Reitz, G; Horneck, G; Facius, R; Schäfer, M

    1995-08-01

    Life science research in space was started in Europe with the first Biostack experiment flown onboard Apollo 16 in 1972. Biostack was designed to investigate the biological effects of single heavy ions of cosmic radiation. Among several undertakings towards this goal, the Biostack achieved the highest precision in the determination of the spatial correlation of the observed biological response of single test organisms to the passage of single heavy ions, which is the mandatory requirement. It also provided information on the influence of additional spaceflight factors, such as microgravity, on radiation effects and measurements of the spectrum of charge and energy of the cosmic radiation. The experiment was performed as an international cooperation effort. This report gives a summary of the biological data accumulated in this and the follow-on experiments of the Biostack program. PMID:7480627

  14. Results of space experiments.

    PubMed

    Reitz, G; Horneck, G; Facius, R; Schäfer, M

    1995-08-01

    Life science research in space was started in Europe with the first Biostack experiment flown onboard Apollo 16 in 1972. Biostack was designed to investigate the biological effects of single heavy ions of cosmic radiation. Among several undertakings towards this goal, the Biostack achieved the highest precision in the determination of the spatial correlation of the observed biological response of single test organisms to the passage of single heavy ions, which is the mandatory requirement. It also provided information on the influence of additional spaceflight factors, such as microgravity, on radiation effects and measurements of the spectrum of charge and energy of the cosmic radiation. The experiment was performed as an international cooperation effort. This report gives a summary of the biological data accumulated in this and the follow-on experiments of the Biostack program.

  15. Skylab experiments on metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundquist, C. A.

    1974-01-01

    The Skylab Materials Processing Facility is described. Eight experiments on metal processing under near-zero-gravity conditions were performed in this facility. Three of these involved metals and procedures of potential application to fabrication in space. A Multipurpose electric furnace within the Materials Processing Facility was employed to heat three ampoules of samples for each of the other five experiments. These five investigations cover diffusion versus convection rates in molten zinc, several immiscible alloy compositions, a whisker-reinforced silver-based composite, heat treating of porous silver samples, and a copper-aluminum eutectic.

  16. Microwave PASER Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Schoessow, P.; Kanareykin, A.; Antipov, S.; Poluektov, O.; Jing, C.

    2009-01-22

    The PASER (Particle Acceleration by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) concept for particle acceleration entails the direct transfer of energy from an active medium to a charged particle beam. The PASER was originally formulated for optical (laser) media; we are planning a PASER demonstration experiment based on an optically pumped X-band paramagnetic medium consisting of porphyrin or fullerene (C{sub 60}) derivatives in a toluene solution or polystyrene matrix. We discuss the background of this project and report on the status of the experiment to measure the acceleration of electrons using the microwave PASER.

  17. Chondrule Crystallization Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hweins, R. H.; Connolly, H. C., Jr.; Lofgren, G. E.; Libourel, G.

    2004-01-01

    Given the great diversity of chondrules, laboratory experiments are invaluable in yielding information on chondrule formation process(es) and for deciphering their initial conditions of formation together with their thermal history. In addition, they provide some critical parameters for astrophysical models of the solar system and of nebular disk evolution in particular (partial pressures, temperature, time, opacity, etc). Most of the experiments simulating chondrules have assumed formation from an aggregate of solid grains, with total pressure of no importance and with virtually no gain or loss of elements from or to the ambient environment. They used pressed pellets attached to wires and suffered from some losses of alkalis and Fe.

  18. Experiences of the dying.

    PubMed

    Schoenbeck, Susan L

    2011-01-01

    It is often a mystery to us how we have come to know and believe in certain things. Beliefs are like guests who come up to a door. They come in only if the host opens it and invites them in. Otherwise they are turned away, unable to enter. LPNs/LVNs are invited to reflect on their experiences and expand their knowledge and beliefs. There is growing recognition that bedside talks of the dying, spirit travel and near-death events are real events for the people who experience them. LPNs/ LVNs are encouraged to expand their knowledge and beliefs about dying.

  19. NOSL experiment support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brook, M.

    1986-01-01

    An optical lightning detector was constructed and flown, along with Vinton cameras and a Fairchild Line Scan Spectrometer, on a U-2 during the summer of 1979. The U-2 lightning data was obtained in daylight, and was supplemented with ground truth taken at Langmuir Laboratory. Simulations were prepared as required to establish experiment operating procedures and science training for the astronauts who would operate the Night/Day Optical Survey of Thunderstorm Lightning (NOSL) equipment during the STS-2 NOSL experiment on the Space Shuttle. Data was analyzed and papers were prepared for publication.

  20. Divertor bias experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staebler, G. M.

    1994-06-01

    Electrical biasing of the divertor target plates has recently been implemented on several tokamaks. The results of these experiments to date will be reviewed in this paper. The bias electrode configuration is unique in each experiment. The effects of biasing on the scrape-off layer (SOL) plasma also differ. By comparing results between machines, and using theoretical models, an understanding of the basic physics of biasing begins to emerge. Divertor biasing has been demonstrated to have a strong influence on the particle and energy transport within the SOL. The ability to externally control the SOL plasma with biasing has promising applications to future tokamak reactors.

  1. The Archimedes experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calloni, E.; Caprara, S.; Laurentis, M. De; Esposito, G.; Grilli, M.; Majorana, E.; Pepe, G. P.; Petrarca, S.; Puppo, P.; Rapagnani, P.; Ricci, F.; Rosa, L.; Rovelli, C.; Ruggi, P.; Saini, N. L.; Stornaiolo, C.; Tafuri, F.

    2016-07-01

    Archimedes is an INFN-funded pathfinder experiment aimed at verifying the feasibility of measuring the interaction of vacuum fluctuations with gravity. The final experiment will measure the force exerted by the gravitational field on a Casimir cavity whose vacuum energy is modulated with a superconductive transition, by using a balance as a small force detector. Archimedes is two-year project devoted to test the most critical experimental aspects, in particular the balance resonance frequency and quality factor, the thermal modulation efficiency and the superconductive sample realization.

  2. World Ocean Circulation Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, R. Allyn

    1992-01-01

    The oceans are an equal partner with the atmosphere in the global climate system. The World Ocean Circulation Experiment is presently being implemented to improve ocean models that are useful for climate prediction both by encouraging more model development but more importantly by providing quality data sets that can be used to force or to validate such models. WOCE is the first oceanographic experiment that plans to generate and to use multiparameter global ocean data sets. In order for WOCE to succeed, oceanographers must establish and learn to use more effective methods of assembling, quality controlling, manipulating and distributing oceanographic data.

  3. Halogen lamp experiment, HALEX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, G.; Stapelmann, J.

    1986-01-01

    The main purpose of the Halogen Lamp Experiment (HALEX) was to investigate the operation of a halogen lamp during an extended period in a microgravity environment and to prove its behavior in space. The Mirror Heating Facilities for Crystal Growth and Material Science Experiments in space relies on one or two halogen lamps as a furnace to melt the specimens. The HALEX aim is to verify: full power operation of a halogen lamp for a period of about 60 hours; achievement of about 10% of its terrestrial life span; and operation of the halogen lamp under conditions similar to furnace operation.

  4. Experiment SPHERE status 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaulov, S. B.; Besshapov, S. P.; Kabanova, N. V.; Sysoeva, T. I.; Antonov, R. A.; Anyuhina, A. M.; Bronvech, E. A.; Chernov, D. V.; Galkin, V. I.; Tkaczyk, W.; Finger, M.; Sonsky, M.

    2009-12-01

    The expedition carried out in March, 2008 to Lake Baikal became an important stage in the development of the SPHERE experiment. During the expedition the SPHERE-2 installation was hoisted, for the first time, on a tethered balloon, APA, to a height of 700 m over the lake surface covered with ice and snow. A series of test measurements were made. Preliminary results of the data processing are presented. The next plan of the SPHERE experiment is to begin a set of statistics for constructing the CR spectrum in the energy range 10-10 eV.

  5. Balancing Computation and Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Farber, Rob

    2007-04-01

    How do you know when the science being performed on a supercomputer reflects what actually occurs inside a test tube, or in real life? The answer can be stated simply enough: “run the model on the computer, get the result, and then perform an experiment to test the result”. The adage “easier said than done” truly applies – especially when the focus is on innovative science to benefit government and industry. The trick in this case is to find the right balance of science-driven computing integrated with experiment.

  6. Microgravity ignition experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motevalli, Vahid; Elliott, William; Garrant, Keith

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop a flight ready apparatus of the microgravity ignition experiment for the GASCan 2 program. This involved redesigning, testing, and making final modifications to the existing apparatus. The microgravity ignition experiment is intended to test the effect of microgravity on the time to ignition of a sample of alpha-cellulose paper. An infrared heat lamp is used to heat the paper sample within a sealed canister. The interior of the canister was redesigned to increase stability and minimize conductive heat transfer to the sample. This design was fabricated and tested and a heat transfer model of the paper sample was developed.

  7. Offshore wave energy experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, K.; Scholten, N.C.; Soerensen, K.A. |

    1995-12-31

    This article describes the second phase of the off-shore wave energy experiment, taking place in the Danish part of the North Sea near Hanstholm. The wave power converter is a scale model consisting of a float 2.5 meter in diameter connected by rope to a seabed mounted piston pump installed on 25 meter deep water 2,5 km offshore. The structure, installation procedure results and experience gained during the test period will be presented and compared to calculations based on a computer model.

  8. Experiments with nonneutral plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neil, T. M.

    2016-03-01

    Selected experiments with nonneutral plasmas are discussed. These include the laser cooling of a pure ion plasma to a crystalline state, a measurement of the Salpeter enhancement factor for fusion in a strongly correlated plasma and the measurement of thermally excited plasma waves. Also, discussed are experiments that demonstrate Landau damping, trapping and plasma wave echoes in the 2D ExB drift flow of a pure electron plasma, which is isomorphic to the 2D ideal flow (incompressible and inviscid flow) of a neutral fluid.

  9. Ti Hemi boombox experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Phillip Isaac; Hull, Lawrence Mark

    2015-05-14

    Previous deformation experiments in which IR imaging was used pointed to a correlation in between IR signature in areas where heat was expected to be. The surface is not uniform during deformation experiments which cause cracks in the image in areas with increased temperature. To measure temperature under dynamic conditions, simultaneous reflectivity and radiance measurement under events of interest is needed. To measure a temperature measurement, a Reflectance measurement taken by framing camera at the edge of the camera sensitivity (700nm). Allows relative measurement at this wavelength. At reasonable temperatures the spectral radiance should peak near 2u and be 3-4 orders of magnitude higher than at 700 nm.

  10. Experiments with RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Westfall, Gary D.

    2000-12-31

    Experiments with the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) will begin in December 1999. RHIC consists of two superconducting rings capable of accelerating and storing Au beams of 100 GeV/nucleon and proton beams of 250 GeV. Four experiments are being prepared for RHIC: STAR, PHENIX, PHOBOS, and BRAHMS. These detector systems are designed to search for signals of the quark gluon plasma in Au-Au collisions. A spin physics program using polarized protons will also be carried out at RHIC.

  11. AGS experiments: 1985, 1986, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    This report contains: Experimental areas layout, table of beam parameters and fluxes, experiment schedule ''as run,'' experiment long range schedule, a listing of experiments by number, two-page summaries of each experiment, also ordered by number, and publications of AGS experiments, 1982-1987.

  12. AGS experiments, 1988, 1989, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1991-04-01

    This report contains: experimental areas layout; table of beam parameters and fluxes; experiment schedule as run''; experiment long range schedule; a listing of experiments by number; two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; publications of AGS experiments; and list of experimenters.

  13. DSWA calorimeter bomb experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, B

    1998-10-01

    Two experiments were performed in which 25 grams of TNT were detonated inside an expended detonation calorimeter bomb. The bomb had a contained volume of approximately 5.28 liters. In the first experiment, the bomb was charged with 3 atmospheres of nitrogen. In the second, it was charged with 2.58 atmospheres (23.1 psi gage) of oxygen. In each experiment pressure was monitored over a period of approximately 1200 microseconds after the pulse to the CDU. Monitoring was performed via two 10,000 psi 102AO3 PCB high frequency pressure transducers mounted symmetrically in the lid of the calorimeter bomb. Conditioners used were PCB 482As. The signals from the transducers were recorded in digital format on a multi channel Tektronix scope. The sampling frequency was 10 Mhz (10 samples per microsecond). After a period of cooling following detonation, gas samples were taken and were subsequently submitted for analysis using gas mass spectrometry. Due to a late request for post shot measurement, it was only possible to make a rough estimate of the weight of debris (carbon) remaining in the calorimeter bomb following the second experiment.

  14. An NMR Kinetics Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Don; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Outlines advantages of and provides background information, procedures, and typical student data for an experiment determining rate of hydration of p-methyoxyphenylacetylene (III), followed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Reaction rate can be adjusted to meet time framework of a particular laboratory by altering concentration of…

  15. Notes on Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Education, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Described are the purposes, laboratory set-ups, and procedures of four classroom experiments: ultrasound speedometer; vibrating-bar depth gauge; folding three-dimensional model of equipotential surfaces; and a simple optical system for the reconstruction of images from computer-generated holograms. Diagrams and pictures are provided. (YP)

  16. Virtual Inquiry Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlow, Danielle; Nilsen, Katy

    2011-01-01

    Children in classrooms and scientists in laboratories engage in similar activities: they observe, ask questions, and try to explain phenomena. Video conferencing technology can remove the wall between the classroom and the laboratory, bringing children and scientists together. Virtual experiences and field trips can provide many of the benefits of…

  17. Experimenting with Guitar Strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2006-11-01

    What follows is a description of a simple experiment developed in a nonmathematical general education science course on sound and light for fine arts students in which a guitar is used with data collection hardware and software to verify the properties of standing waves on a string.

  18. Experiments with Retraining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shultz, George P.; Weber, Arnold R.

    When Armour and Company faced a shutdown of six plants, it joined in a cooperative program of vocational retraining with two labor unions; an Automation Fund Committee was formed, with representation from management, the unions, and "public" (college professors); and an experimental program in Oklahoma City provided experience which was applied in…

  19. Experimenting with Woodwind Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2007-01-01

    Simple experiments involving musical instruments of the woodwind family can be used to demonstrate the basic physics of vibrating air columns in resonance tubes using nothing more than straightforward measurements and data collection hardware and software. More involved experimentation with the same equipment can provide insight into the effects…

  20. Principal Experiences of Succession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Farla Gay

    2015-01-01

    This multiple case study explored the experiences of school principals and the usefulness of Peters' (2011) succession planning model. Ten purposefully selected principals from varying grade levels were interviewed; none reported a formal succession plan, and all had been assistant principals. The study concluded the assistant principal position…

  1. Permeable membrane experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, Thomas J.; Cao, Tuan Q.; Kliss, Mark H.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the Permeable Membrane Experiment is to gather flight data on three areas of membrane performance that are influenced by the presence of gravity. These areas are: (1) Liquid/gas phase separation, (2) gas bubble interference with diffusion through porous membranes and (3) wetting characteristics of hydrophilic membrane surfaces. These data are important in understaning the behavior of membrane/liquid/gas interfaces where surface tension forces predominate. The data will be compared with 1-g data already obtained and with predicted micrograviity behavior. The data will be used to develop designs for phase separation and plant nutrient delivery systems and will be available to the life support community for use in developing technologies which employ membranes. A conceptual design has been developed to conduct three membrane experiments, in sequence, aboard a single Complex Autonomous Payload (CAP) carrier to be carried in the Shuttle Orbiter payload bay. One experiment is conducted for each of the three membrane performance areas under study. These experiments are discussed in this paper.

  2. Carbon monoxide pollution experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bortner, M. H.; Dick, R.; Goldstein, H. W.; Grenda, R. N.

    1975-01-01

    The experiment is designed to obtain data for the investigation of mechanisms by which CO is removed from the earth's atmosphere. The approach uses an orbiting platform to remotely map global CO concentrations and determine vertical CO profiles using a correlation interferometer measurement technique. The instrument is capable of measuring CO over the range of expected atmospheric burdens and of measuring trace atmospheric constituents.

  3. A Harmonic Motion Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluck, P.; Krakower, Zeev

    2010-01-01

    We present a unit comprising theory, simulation and experiment for a body oscillating on a vertical spring, in which the simultaneous use of a force probe and an ultrasonic range finder enables one to explore quantitatively and understand many aspects of simple and damped harmonic motions. (Contains 14 figures.)

  4. Experiments with Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Mestre, Neville

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a hands-on experiment that covers many areas of high school mathematics. Included are the notions of patterns, proof, triangular numbers and various aspects of problem solving. The problem involves the arrangements of a school of fish using split peas or buttons to represent the fish. (Contains 4 figures.)

  5. [Near-death experiences].

    PubMed

    Bonilla, Ernesto

    2011-03-01

    Near-death experiences (NDE) are lucid events that take place when a person is so physically compromised that he would die if its condition does not improve. He is unconscious, without heartbeats and breath, and with a flat-line electroencephalogram. NDE may include some of the following elements: Out of the body experiences or separation of consciousness from the physical body, increase in sensory perception and intense emotions, travel into or through a tunnel, encounter with a brilliant light and mystical beings, deceased relatives or friends, a sense of alteration in time and space, visualization of unworldly realms and a special knowledge, encounter with a barrier or boundary, and a return to the body, either voluntary or involuntary. The fact that children NDE are similar to adult NDE is an evidence that these experiences are real and not due to pre-existing beliefs, cultural influences or previous experiences in the present life. The characteristics of NDE are similar worldwide. No evidence supports the physiological, psychological, neurochemical, and neuroanatomical hypothesis proposed to explain the NDE. Multifactorial models, based on the combination of all of them (brain anoxia or hypoxia, release of serotonin, endorphins and ketamine-like compounds) have also been proposed. Although physiological, psychological, and socio-cultural factors could interact in the NDE, the hypothesis proposed consist essentially in unsupported speculations about what might be happening during the NDE.

  6. The Experience of Menarche.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruble, Diane N.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    1982-01-01

    Examines reactions to menarche and the subsequent effects of this experience as a function of preparation for and timing of menarche. A questionnaire including measures of responses about first menstruation, current symptoms, and self-image was completed by 639 girls in fifth through twelfth grades. (Author/MP)

  7. Notes on Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Education, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Describes the following: use and construction of a lens-pinhole spatial filter assembly to produce expanded beams; how to modify a unilab V. L. F. oscillator to give variable frequencies between .1 Hz and 10 Hz; to use Crookes radiometer quantitatively; and an externally located, movable probe for plasma physics experiments, using conventional…

  8. Experiments with Dipole Antennas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2009-01-01

    Employment of a data-acquisition system for data collection and calculations makes experiments with antennas more convenient and less time consuming. The determined directional patterns of the dipole antennas of different lengths are in reasonable agreement with theory. The enhancement of the signal by using a reflector is demonstrated, and a…

  9. NASSC: A Businessman's Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rundell, C. Reid

    1992-01-01

    From a businessman's viewpoint, the New American Schools Development Corporation (NASDC) offers a singular opportunity to help this nation create a Saturn-like experience for education, school by school. As Saturn revolutionized the way cars are built, NASDC can revolutionize the way children are taught. The 11 winning projects have real potential…

  10. [Environmental Education Experiences].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke County Board of Education, Morganton, NC.

    Environmental/ecological experiences, appropriate for elementary grades, are presented in this compilation. Designed as individual units of study, they consider components of the natural environment and in particular the local environment of Burke County, North Carolina. Units are titled: Burke County in a Nutshell, Our Culture, A Tour of the…

  11. Cyclic Voltammetry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Benschoten, James J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes a three-part experiment designed to introduce cyclic voltammetry to graduate/undergraduate students. Part 1 demonstrates formal reduction potential, redox electron transfer, diffusion coefficient, and electrochemical reversibility. Part 2 investigates electrochemical behavior of acetaminophen. Part 3 examines such experimental variables…

  12. Personal Experiences of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hessler, Peter; Bradeen, Ryan; Wang, Richard; Masalski, Kathleen Woods

    2010-01-01

    This article presents four stories of personal experiences of China. In "A Journey Between China's Past and Present," Peter Hessler, a former Peace Corps volunteer and author, highlights misconceptions between Chinese and Americans and the desire both peoples share for knowledge about one another. In "Life on Liberation Avenue," Ryan Bradeen…

  13. Examining Latina College Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Amanda R.

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this qualitative narrative study were to explore the potential areas of conflict Latina college students experience between their educational goals and traditional cultural gender roles and expectations. Participants were selected utilizing purposeful sampling methods. All participants were first-generation college students.…

  14. Parabolic aircraft solidification experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L. (Principal Investigator); Smith, Guy A.; OBrien, Susan

    1996-01-01

    A number of solidification experiments have been utilized throughout the Materials Processing in Space Program to provide an experimental environment which minimizes variables in solidification experiments. Two techniques of interest are directional solidification and isothermal casting. Because of the wide-spread use of these experimental techniques in space-based research, several MSAD experiments have been manifested for space flight. In addition to the microstructural analysis for interpretation of the experimental results from previous work with parabolic flights, it has become apparent that a better understanding of the phenomena occurring during solidification can be better understood if direct visualization of the solidification interface were possible. Our university has performed in several experimental studies such as this in recent years. The most recent was in visualizing the effect of convective flow phenomena on the KC-135 and prior to that were several successive contracts to perform directional solidification and isothermal casting experiments on the KC-135. Included in this work was the modification and utilization of the Convective Flow Analyzer (CFA), the Aircraft Isothermal Casting Furnace (ICF), and the Three-Zone Directional Solidification Furnace. These studies have contributed heavily to the mission of the Microgravity Science and Applications' Materials Science Program.

  15. Kelp growth experiments

    SciTech Connect

    North, W. J.

    1980-01-01

    Harvest yields obtainable from giant kelp plants that are adequately fertilized were investigated. The following topics are discussed: desirable characteristics in a candidate macroalga, and giant kelp as a candidate macroalga for ocean farming. Nutrient requirements, field experiments, and approaches to acquiring yield data are reviewed. (MHR)

  16. A Horrible Experiment.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Michael H

    2015-07-01

    A patient presented to my office who had been tortured in the course of a wartime medical experiment many years ago. Seeing him prompted me to explore my personal reaction to his case and to reflect on the history of the ethics of medical experimentation in the 20th century. PMID:25855417

  17. FLORIDA TOWER FOOTPRINT EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    WATSON,T.B.; DIETZ, R.N.; WILKE, R.; HENDREY, G.; LEWIN, K.; NAGY, J.; LECLERC, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Florida Footprint experiments were a series of field programs in which perfluorocarbon tracers were released in different configurations centered on a flux tower to generate a data set that can be used to test transport and dispersion models. These models are used to determine the sources of the CO{sub 2} that cause the fluxes measured at eddy covariance towers. Experiments were conducted in a managed slash pine forest, 10 km northeast of Gainesville, Florida, in 2002, 2004, and 2006 and in atmospheric conditions that ranged from well mixed, to very stable, including the transition period between convective conditions at midday to stable conditions after sun set. There were a total of 15 experiments. The characteristics of the PFTs, details of sampling and analysis methods, quality control measures, and analytical statistics including confidence limits are presented. Details of the field programs including tracer release rates, tracer source configurations, and configuration of the samplers are discussed. The result of this experiment is a high quality, well documented tracer and meteorological data set that can be used to improve and validate canopy dispersion models.

  18. A Simple Adsorption Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guirado, Gonzalo; Ayllon, Jose A.

    2011-01-01

    The study of adsorption phenomenon is one of the most relevant and traditional physical chemistry experiments performed by chemistry undergraduate students in laboratory courses. In this article, we describe an easy, inexpensive, and straightforward way to experimentally determine adsorption isotherms using pieces of filter paper as the adsorbent…

  19. Respiration: An Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stott, P. A.

    1978-01-01

    This article describes how a gas chromatograph may be used to determine the amount of carbon dioxide in exhaled air. The experiment has been used as part of a demonstration exercise at a local science fair and proved of interest to all age groups. (Author/BB)

  20. Experiments in Free Fall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Art, Albert

    2006-01-01

    A model lift containing a figure of Albert Einstein is released from the side of a tall building and its free fall is arrested by elastic ropes. This arrangement allows four simple experiments to be conducted in the lift to demonstrate the effects of free fall and show how they can lead to the concept of the equivalence of inertial and…

  1. The Ninth Grade Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rourke, James R.

    2001-01-01

    Several districts have taken a radical approach to middle/high school transitions, removing ninth-graders from the mix to give them the attention needed to succeed in high school. Three ninth-grade-only schools with 720 to 750 students in Virginia, Texas, and Pennsylvania are profiled. Students experience less social pressure from upper-classmen.…

  2. Experimenting with Guitar Strings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2006-01-01

    What follows is a description of a simple experiment developed in a non-mathematical general education science course on sound and light for fine arts students in which a guitar is used with data collection hardware and software to verify the properties of standing waves on a string.

  3. Caretaker's Experiences of RPL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Per

    2006-01-01

    Recognition of prior learning (RPL) involves an idea of "making learning visible"--of valuing knowledge irrespective of how, when and where it is learnt. This is a phenomenographic analysis of how a group of caretakers from a Swedish property management company experience participation in an RPL initiative focusing on their vocational competence.…

  4. Globalization: The European Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Peter

    1996-01-01

    The experience of the United Kingdom and other European countries in designing legal education which responds to the changing needs of the European Union is described. The three-stage British system of legal education is outlined, and the impact of European Union formation discussed briefly. Changes in undergraduate study, professional training,…

  5. A Vibrating String Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsutsumanova, Gichka; Russev, Stoyan

    2013-01-01

    A simple experiment demonstrating the excitation of a standing wave in a metal string is presented here. Several tasks using the set-up are considered, which help the students to better understand the standing waves, the interaction between electric current and magnetic field and the resonance phenomena. This can serve also as a good lecture…

  6. Walkabout: An Educational Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copen, Peter; And Others

    The Walkabout program is an optional senior-year educational experience in which New York high school students can acquire the basic skills and confidence to take charge of their lives and contribute to the world. The year-long program is divided into 5 "challenge environments": wilderness (5 weeks); applied academics (18 weeks of health and…

  7. Experiments in ESP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerin, Stephen M.; Guerin, Clark L.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses a phenomenon called Extrasensory Perception (ESP) whereby information is gained directly by the mind without the use of the ordinary senses. Experiments in ESP and the basic equipment and methods are presented. Statistical evaluation of ESP experimental results are also included. (HM)

  8. Experiments in Ice Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, P. F.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Describes experiments in ice physics that demonstrate the behavior and properties of ice. Show that ice behaves as an ionic conductor in which charge is transferred by the movement of protons, its electrical conductivity is highly temperature-dependent, and its dielectric properties show dramatic variation in the kilohertz range. (Author/GA)

  9. Parent Hearing Aid Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Karen; Roberts, Mallory; Mullings, Day; Harward, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses parent experiences in obtaining and managing hearing aids for their young child. The purpose was to identify challenges parents encounter to determine what state agencies can do to improve parent access to amplification. Data were collected July through September of 2010; 40 parents of children ages birth to 3 years old…

  10. The Airplane Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Lee; Grant, Roderick

    1991-01-01

    Presents an experiment to investigate centripetal force and acceleration that utilizes an airplane suspended on a string from a spring balance. Investigates the possibility that lift on the wings of the airplane accounts for the differences between calculated tension and measured tension on the string. (MDH)

  11. The ALARM Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerhardt, Ira

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted over three recent semesters of an introductory calculus course to test whether it was possible to quantify the effect that difficulty with basic algebraic and arithmetic computation had on individual performance. Points lost during the term were classified as being due to either algebraic and arithmetic mistakes…

  12. My experience with helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oemichen, Etienne

    1923-01-01

    The author recounts his experiments with helicopters. The object of his investigations was to remain stationary in the air for five minutes and to make a closed flight at low altitude. Some of the topics discussed include stabilization, horizontal flight, and directional control.

  13. Experiences in Systemic Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Scott; Clem, Joe; Battino, Wendy; Richter, Kurt; Reigeluth, Charles; Doll, Marcelle; Moore, Julie; Hoo, Janet; Malopinsky, Larissa V.

    2006-01-01

    This section describes the systemic change experiences in Norfolk Public Schools, Chugach School District, Indianapolis Metropolitan School District of Decatur Township, Ditmas Educational Complex, Georgia Systemic Teacher Education Program, Sun Microsystems, and Azerbaijan. It provides a description of the change process and discusses the…

  14. Ice forming experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vali, G.

    1982-01-01

    A low gravity experiment to assess the effect of the presence of supercooled cloud droplets on the diffusional growth rate of ice crystals is described. The theoretical work and the feasibility studies are summarized. The nucleation of ice crystals in supercooled clouds is also discussed.

  15. The Doppler Pendulum Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, C. K.; Wong, H. K.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment to verify the Doppler effect of sound waves is described. An ultrasonic source is mounted at the end of a simple pendulum. As the pendulum swings, the rapid change of frequency can be recorded by a stationary receiver using a simple frequency-to-voltage converter. The experimental results are in close agreement with the Doppler…

  16. ATA beam director experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.P.; Younger, F.C.; Cruz, G.E.; Nolting, E.

    1986-06-23

    This report describes beam director elements for an experiment at the Advanced Test Accelerator. The elements described include a vernier magnet for beam aiming, an achromat magnet, and an isolation system for the beam interface. These components are built at small scale for concept testing. (JDH)

  17. Notes on Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Education, 1983

    1983-01-01

    An experiment on cooling by convection, holographic processes achieved using optical fibers and observation of magnetic domains are described. Also describes four demonstrations: mechanical resonance on air track, independence of horizontal/vertical motion, motion of sphere in fluid medium, and light scattering near the critical point. (JN)

  18. A Descriptive Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Josef

    1979-01-01

    In this experiment in description, students in a high school honors English class were asked to select a surrealistic painting and capture it in writing. Their compositions were given to art students who tried to reproduce the paintings from the written descriptions. (SJL)

  19. Notes on Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bligh, P. H.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Introduces three physics experiments for high school and college classes. Topics include measuring the ratio of heat capacities using a microcomputer and a glass syringe, producing large electric sparks using a variation of a Leyden bucket, and observing transmission line behavior using television signals. Includes descriptions of materials and…

  20. Experimenting with Electric Trains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wick, D. P.; Ramsdell, M. W.

    2007-01-01

    A simple experiment can be performed to characterize the relationship between applied voltage and velocity (steady state and transient) for an electric toy train. The results can be used by teams of students to solve a series of challenges in which they attempt to predict the performance of a particular train. Some sample challenges might include…

  1. Electrophoresis experiments in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Robert S.; Rhodes, Percy H.

    1991-01-01

    The use of the microgravity environment to separate and purify biological cells and proteins has been a major activity since the beginning of the NASA Microgravity Science and Applications program. Purified populations of cells are needed for research, transplantation and analysis of specific cell constituents. Protein purification is a necessary step in research areas such as genetic engineering where the new protein has to be separated from the variety of other proteins synthesized from the microorganism. Sufficient data are available from the results of past electrophoresis experiments in space to show that these experiments were designed with incomplete knowledge of the fluid dynamics of the process including electrohydrodynamics. However, electrophoresis is still an important separation tool in the laboratory and thermal convection does limit its performance. Thus, there is a justification for electrophoresis but the emphasis of future space experiments must be directed toward basic research with model experiments to understand the microgravity environment and fluid analysis to test the basic principles of the process.

  2. Demonstration Experiments in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Richard M.

    2003-01-01

    This book represents a "cookbook" for teachers of physics, a book of recipes for the preparation of demonstration experiments to illustrate the principles that make the subject of physics so fascinating. Illustrations and explanations of each demonstration are done in an easy-to-understand format. Each can be adapted to be used as a demonstration…

  3. Experiments on ferrimagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2013-03-01

    Ferrimagnetism undoubtedly deserves a proper place in the undergraduate laboratory on electricity and magnetism. Four student experiments on ferrimagnetism are considered: (i) the hysteresis loops and permeability of a ‘soft’ ferrite; (ii) the differential permeability versus a dc bias; (iii) the frequency dependence of the complex permeability and (iv) the electromagnetic interference suppression by ferrite chokes and beads. Two ferrite cores taken off a low-frequency choke and a power cord are used. The measurements are simple and straightforward and show the important properties of ferrites and their applications. The values of the permeability of the ferrite core determined in experiments (i)-(iii) are in reasonable agreement. The frequency dependence of the complex permeability of the ferrites is similar to that given by the manufacturers. The capability of absorbing electromagnetic waves in a definite frequency range shown in experiment (iv) demonstrates one of the principles of Stealth technology. The equipment necessary for the experiments can be found in many student laboratories.

  4. Science and Human Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Leon N.

    2014-12-01

    Part I. Science and Society: 1. Science and human experience; 2. Does science undermine our values?; 3. Can science serve mankind?; 4. Modern science and contemporary discomfort: metaphor and reality; 5. Faith and science; 6. Art and science; 7. Fraud in science; 8. Why study science? The keys to the cathedral; 9. Is evolution a theory? A modest proposal; 10. The silence of the second; 11. Introduction to Copenhagen; 12. The unpaid debt; Part II. Thought and Consciousness: 13. Source and limits of human intellect; 14. Neural networks; 15. Thought and mental experience: the Turing test; 16. Mind as machine: will we rubbish human experience?; 17. Memory and memories: a physicist's approach to the brain; 18. On the problem of consciousness; Part III. On the Nature and Limits of Science: 19. What is a good theory?; 20. Shall we deconstruct science?; 21. Visible and invisible in physical theory; 22. Experience and order; 23. The language of physics; 24. The structure of space; 25. Superconductivity and other insoluble problems; 26. From gravity to light and consciousness: does science have limits?

  5. Science and Human Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Leon N.

    2015-01-01

    Part I. Science and Society: 1. Science and human experience; 2. Does science undermine our values?; 3. Can science serve mankind?; 4. Modern science and contemporary discomfort: metaphor and reality; 5. Faith and science; 6. Art and science; 7. Fraud in science; 8. Why study science? The keys to the cathedral; 9. Is evolution a theory? A modest proposal; 10. The silence of the second; 11. Introduction to Copenhagen; 12. The unpaid debt; Part II. Thought and Consciousness: 13. Source and limits of human intellect; 14. Neural networks; 15. Thought and mental experience: the Turing test; 16. Mind as machine: will we rubbish human experience?; 17. Memory and memories: a physicist's approach to the brain; 18. On the problem of consciousness; Part III. On the Nature and Limits of Science: 19. What is a good theory?; 20. Shall we deconstruct science?; 21. Visible and invisible in physical theory; 22. Experience and order; 23. The language of physics; 24. The structure of space; 25. Superconductivity and other insoluble problems; 26. From gravity to light and consciousness: does science have limits?

  6. Microheater Array Boiling Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jungho; McQuillen, John; Balombin, Joe

    2002-01-01

    By conducting pool boiling tests in microgravity, the effect of buoyancy on the overall boiling process and the relative magnitude of other phenomena can be assessed. Data from KC-135 and sounding rocket experiments indicate little effect of gravity on boiling heat transfer at wall superheats below 25 C, despite vast differences in bubble behavior between gravity levels. In microgravity, a large primary bubble, surrounded by smaller satellite bubbles, moved over the surface, occasionally causing nucleation. Once formed, the primary bubble size remained constant for a given superheat, indicating evaporation at the bubble base is balanced with condensation on the bubble cap. The primary bubble's size increased with wall superheat. Most heaters under the primary bubble had low heat transfer rates, suggesting liquid dryout. Strong Marangoni convection developed in microgravity, forming a 'jet' into the bulk liquid that forced the bubble onto the heater. An experiment is being designed for the. Microgravity Science Glovebox. This experiment uses two 96 element microheater arrays, 2.7 and 7.0 mm in size. These heaters are individually controlled to operate at a constant temperature, measuring local heat fluxes as a function of time and space. Most boiling experiments operate at constant wall heat flux with larger heaters, allowing only time and space-averaged measurements. Each heater is about the bubble departure size in normal gravity, but significantly smaller than the bubble departure size in reduced gravity.

  7. Experimenting with Liquid Membranes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, J. D.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Outlined are two experiments using liquid membranes that illustrate carrier-facilitated transport, where chemical species are ushered across the membrane by selective "carrier" molecules residing in the membrane. The use of liquid membranes as models for studying and describing biological transport mechanisms is explored. (CS)

  8. Microcomputer Controlled Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkman, John; Knaggs, David

    1982-01-01

    Describes a microcomputer-controlled system which determines the current/voltage characteristics of a resistor, lamp, and diode, detailing system elements, construction, and providing printout of the program developed to provide control and arithmetic functions necessary to complete the experiment. (SK)

  9. Experiments with Ultrasonic Transducers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas R., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the use of 40 kHz ultrasonic transducers to study wave phenomena. Determines that the resulting wavelength of 9 mm allows acoustic experiments to be performed on a tabletop. Includes transducer characteristics and activities on speed of sound, reflection, double- and single-slit diffraction, standing waves, acoustical zone plate, and…

  10. Remote Agent Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benard, Doug; Dorais, Gregory A.; Gamble, Ed; Kanefsky, Bob; Kurien, James; Millar, William; Muscettola, Nicola; Nayak, Pandu; Rouquette, Nicolas; Rajan, Kanna; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Remote Agent (RA) is a model-based, reusable artificial intelligence (At) software system that enables goal-based spacecraft commanding and robust fault recovery. RA was flight validated during an experiment on board of DS1 between May 17th and May 21th, 1999.

  11. Thermal Control Surfaces Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, D. R.

    1999-01-01

    This report is the final experiment report for the TCSE and summarizes many years of hardware development and analyses. Also included are analyses presented in a number of TCSE papers that were prepared and given at scientific conferences including three LDEF Post-Retrieval Symposiums.

  12. The OLYMPUS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner, R.; Hasell, D. K.; Kohl, M.; Schneekloth, U.; Akopov, N.; Alarcon, R.; Andreev, V. A.; Ates, O.; Avetisyan, A.; Bayadilov, D.; Beck, R.; Belostotski, S.; Bernauer, J. C.; Bessuille, J.; Brinker, F.; Buck, B.; Calarco, J. R.; Carassiti, V.; Cisbani, E.; Ciullo, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; D'Ascenzo, N.; De Leo, R.; Diefenbach, J.; Donnelly, T. W.; Dow, K.; Elbakian, G.; Eversheim, D.; Frullani, S.; Funke, Ch.; Gavrilov, G.; Gläser, B.; Görrissen, N.; Hauschildt, J.; Henderson, B. S.; Hoffmeister, Ph.; Holler, Y.; Ice, L. D.; Izotov, A.; Kaiser, R.; Karyan, G.; Kelsey, J.; Khaneft, D.; Klassen, P.; Kiselev, A.; Krivshich, A.; Lehmann, I.; Lenisa, P.; Lenz, D.; Lumsden, S.; Ma, Y.; Maas, F.; Marukyan, H.; Miklukho, O.; Movsisyan, A.; Murray, M.; Naryshkin, Y.; O'Connor, C.; Perez Benito, R.; Perrino, R.; Redwine, R. P.; Rodríguez Piñeiro, D.; Rosner, G.; Russell, R. L.; Schmidt, A.; Seitz, B.; Statera, M.; Thiel, A.; Vardanyan, H.; Veretennikov, D.; Vidal, C.; Winnebeck, A.; Yeganov, V.

    2014-03-01

    The OLYMPUS experiment was designed to measure the ratio between the positron-proton and electron-proton elastic scattering cross-sections, with the goal of determining the contribution of two-photon exchange to the elastic cross-section. Two-photon exchange might resolve the discrepancy between measurements of the proton form factor ratio, μpGEp/GMp, made using polarization techniques and those made in unpolarized experiments. OLYMPUS operated on the DORIS storage ring at DESY, alternating between 2.01 GeV electron and positron beams incident on an internal hydrogen gas target. The experiment used a toroidal magnetic spectrometer instrumented with drift chambers and time-of-flight detectors to measure rates for elastic scattering over the polar angular range of approximately 25°-75°. Symmetric Møller/Bhabha calorimeters at 1.29° and telescopes of GEM and MWPC detectors at 12° served as luminosity monitors. A total luminosity of approximately 4.5 fb-1 was collected over two running periods in 2012. This paper provides details on the accelerator, target, detectors, and operation of the experiment.

  13. Experiments on Photoconductivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2012-01-01

    Computer-assisted experiments with CdS and CdSe photoresistors are described. The most important characteristics of the photoresistors are determined: (i) the spectral response, (ii) the photocurrent versus incident radiant power, (iii) the rise and decay time constants and (iv) the frequency response to modulated light. The photoconductivity gain…

  14. Enhance Your Twitter Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Shannon McClintock

    2010-01-01

    The author has been encouraging teachers, students, and others to join Twitter and build their personal learning networks (PLNs) ever since she delved into this great social networking site. In this article, she offers a few other tools and tips that can improve the Twitter experience of those who have opened up an account and dabbled a bit but…

  15. Experiments with Aspirin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borer, Londa L.; Barry, Edward

    2000-01-01

    Presents a series of experiments that can be used to demonstrate how aspirin can be synthesized and characterized, how the hydrolysis of aspirin can be used as an introduction to kinetics, and how coordination chemistry (chelation) can be introduced by preparing and characterizing the copper complexes of aspirin and salicylic acid. (Contains over…

  16. Revisiting Supervised Agricultural Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, William G.; Clarke, Ariane; Fallon, Maureen

    2000-01-01

    A Delphi panel of 40 agricultural educators unanimously agreed that supervised agricultural experience should remain an integral component of the curriculum; a name change is not currently warranted. Categories recommended were agribusiness entrepreneurship, placement, production, research, directed school lab, communications, exploration, and…

  17. Experiment with Conical Pendulum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tongaonkar, S. S.; Khadse, V. R.

    2011-01-01

    Conical pendulum is similar to simple pendulum with the difference that the bob, instead of moving back and forth, swings around in a horizontal circle. Thus, in a conical pendulum the bob moves at a constant speed in a circle with the string tracing out a cone. This paper describes an experiment with conical pendulum, with determination of g from…

  18. Invisalign: early experiences.

    PubMed

    Joffe, L

    2003-12-01

    This article describes the Invisalign technique. It is based on the author's personal experience of over 60 cases started in the private practice setting. The technology behind Invisalign and its development is reviewed. The Invisalign clinical technique is described, and the advantages and disadvantages of using Invisalign are highlighted.

  19. The Information Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senese, Diane

    1997-01-01

    The author argues that, in a team-based business culture where good service is a minimum and professionalism is a given, information experts need to move beyond the service era and distinguish themselves by creating an "information experience." Describes how corporate information experts can adapt to what John Naisbitt has called the "experience…

  20. The MAJORANA Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Guiseppe, V.E.; Keller, C.; Mei, D-M; Perevozchikov, O.; Perumpilly, G.; Thomas, K.; Xiang, W.; Zhang, C.; Aalseth, C.E.; Aguayo, E.; Ely, J.; Fast, J.E.; Hoppe, E.W.; Hossbach, T.W.; Keillor, M.; Kephart, J.D.; Kouzes, R.; Miley, H.S.; Mizouni, L.; Myers, A.W.; Reid, D.; Amman, M.; Bergevin, M.; Chan, Y-D; Detwiler, J.A.; Loach, J.C.; Luke, P.N.; Martin, R.D.; Poon, A.W.P.; Prior, G.; Vetter, K.; Yaver, H.; Avignone, F.T. III; Creswick, R.; Farach, H.; Mizouni, L.; Avignone, Frank Titus; Bertrand Jr, Fred E; Capps, Gregory L; Cooper, Reynold J; Radford, David C; Varner Jr, Robert L; Wilkerson, John F; Yu, Chang-Hong; Back, H.O.; Leviner, L.; Young, A.R.; Back , H.O.; Bai, X.; Hong, H.; Howard, S.; Medlin, D.; Sobolev, V.; Barabash, A.S.; Konovalov, S.I.; Vanyushin, I.; Yumatov, V.; Barbeau, P.S.; Collar, J.I.; Fields, N.; Boswell , M.; Brudanin, V.; Egorov, V.; Gusey, K.; Kochetov, O.; Shirchenko, M.; Timkin, V.; Yakushev, E.; Bugg, W.; Efremenko, M.; Burritt , T.H.; Burritt , T.H.; Busch, M.; Esterline, J.; Swift, G.; Tornow, W.; Hazama, R.; Nomachi, M.; Shima, T.; Finnerty , P.; et al.

    2011-01-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is assembling an array of HPGe detectors to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in {sup 76}Ge. Initially, Majorana aims to construct a prototype module to demonstrate the potential of a future 1-tonne experiment. The design and potential reach of this prototype Demonstrator module are presented.

  1. The Majorana Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Aalseth, Craig E.; Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Amman, M.; Avignone, F. T.; Back, Henning O.; Bai, Xinhua; Barabash, Alexander S.; Barbeau, P. S.; Bergevin, M.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Bugg, William; Burritt, Tom H.; Busch, Matthew; Capps, Greg L.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Collar, J. I.; Cooper, R. J.; Creswick, R.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Diaz, J.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Ely, James H.; Esterline, James H.; Farach, H. A.; Fast, James E.; Fields, N.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Gehman, Victor M.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Harper, Gregory; Hazama, R.; Henning, Reyco; Hime, Andrew; Hong, H.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K.; Keillor, Martin E.; Keller, C.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kidd, M. F.; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaRoque, B. H.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; Luke, P.; MacMullin, S.; Marino, Michael G.; Martin, R. D.; Medlin, D.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Miley, Harry S.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, Leila; Myers, Allan W.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; Peterson, David; Phillips, D.; Poon, Alan; Perevozchikov, O.; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Prior, Gersende; Radford, D. C.; Reid, Douglas J.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Rodriguez, Larry; Ronquest, M. C.; Salazar, Harold; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Sobolev, V.; Steele, David; Strain, J.; Swift, Gary; Thomas, K.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Van Wechel, T. D.; Vanyushin, I.; Varner, R. L.; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wolfe, B. A.; Xiang, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yaver, Harold; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, V.; Zhang, C.

    2011-08-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is assembling an array of HPGe detectors to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in 76Ge. Initially, Majorana aims to construct a prototype module to demonstrate the potential of a future 1-tonne experiment. The design and potential reach of this prototype Demonstrator module are presented.

  2. Work Experience Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas Univ., Fayetteville. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This program provides supervised vocational personnel with work experience opportunities. The primary function and purpose of this program is the development and/or refinement of vocational competencies in occupational careers. In the introduction, the first of seventeen sections, course options and requirements are outlined. Criteria for the…

  3. Experiments in Pulsed Ultrasonics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, S. B.; Forster, G. A.

    1970-01-01

    Describes and apparatus designed to generate and detect pulsed ultrasonics in solids and liquids over the frequency range 1-20 MHz. Experiments are suggested for velocity of sound, elastic constant and ultrasonic attenuation measurements on various materials over a wide temperature range. The equipment should be useful for demonstration purposes.…

  4. Ganges valley aerosol experiment.

    SciTech Connect

    Kotamarthi, V.R.; Satheesh, S.K.

    2011-08-01

    In June 2011, the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) began in the Ganges Valley region of India. The objective of this field campaign is to obtain measurements of clouds, precipitation, and complex aerosols to study their impact on cloud formation and monsoon activity in the region.

  5. Transformations of emotional experience.

    PubMed

    de Cortiñas, Lia Pistiner

    2013-06-01

    In this paper the author approaches mental pain and the problems in a psychoanalytic treatment of patients with difficulties in the psychic transformation of their emotional experiences. The author is interested in the symbolic failure related to the obstruction of development of phantasies, dreams, dream-thoughts, etc. She differentiates symbolization disturbances related to hypertrophic projective identification from a detention of these primitive communications and emotional isolation. She puts forward the conjecture that one factor in the arrest of this development is the detention of projective identifications and that, when this primitive means of communication is re-established in a container-contained relationship of mutual benefit, this initiates the development of a symbolization process that can replace the pathological 'protection'. Another hypothesis she develops is that of inaccessible caesuras that, associated with the detention of projective identification, obstruct any integrative or interactive movement. This caesura and the detention of projective identifications affect mental functions needed for dealing with mental pain. The personality is left with precarious mental equipment for transforming emotional experiences. How can a psychoanalytical process stimulate the development of creative symbolization, transforming the emotional experiences and leading towards mental growth? The author approaches the clinical problem with the metaphor of the psychic birth of emotional experience. The modulation of mental pain in a container-contained relationship is a central problem for the development of the human mind. For discovering and giving a meaning to emotional experience, the infant depends on reverie, a function necessary in order to develop an evolved consciousness capable of being aware, which is different from the rudimentary consciousness that perceives but does not understand. The development of mature mental equipment is associated with the

  6. Hydrothermal organic synthesis experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shock, Everett L.

    1992-01-01

    The serious scientific debate about spontaneous generation which raged for centuries reached a climax in the nineteenth century with the work of Spallanzani, Schwann, Tyndall, and Pasteur. These investigators demonstrated that spontaneous generation from dead organic matter does not occur. Although no aspects of these experiments addressed the issue of whether organic compounds could be synthesized abiotically, the impact of the experiments was great enough to cause many investigators to assume that life and its organic compounds were somehow fundamentally different than inorganic compounds. Meanwhile, other nineteenth-century investigators were showing that organic compounds could indeed be synthesized from inorganic compounds. In 1828 Friedrich Wohler synthesized urea in an attempt to form ammonium cyanate by heating a solution containing ammonia and cyanic acid. This experiment is generally recognized to be the first to bridge the artificial gap between organic and inorganic chemistry, but it also showed the usefulness of heat in organic synthesis. Not only does an increase in temperature enhance the rate of urea synthesis, but Walker and Hambly showed that equilibrium between urea and ammonium cyanate was attainable and reversible at 100 C. Wohler's synthesis of urea, and subsequent syntheses of organic compounds from inorganic compounds over the next several decades dealt serious blows to the 'vital force' concept which held that: (1) organic compounds owe their formation to the action of a special force in living organisms; and (2) forces which determine the behavior of inorganic compounds play no part in living systems. Nevertheless, such progress was overshadowed by Pasteur's refutation of spontaneous generation which nearly extinguished experimental investigations into the origins of life for several decades. Vitalism was dealt a deadly blow in the 1950's with Miller's famous spark-discharge experiments which were undertaken in the framework of the Oparin

  7. A Pharmacogenetics Service Experience for Pharmacy Students, Residents, and Fellows

    PubMed Central

    Drozda, Katarzyna; Labinov, Yana; Jiang, Ruixuan; Thomas, Margaret R.; Wong, Shan S.; Patel, Shitalben; Nutescu, Edith A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To utilize a comprehensive, pharmacist-led warfarin pharmacogenetics service to provide pharmacy students, residents, and fellows with clinical and research experiences involving genotype-guided therapy. Design. First-year (P1) through fourth-year (P4) pharmacy students, pharmacy residents, and pharmacy fellows participated in a newly implemented warfarin pharmacogenetics service in a hospital setting. Students, residents, and fellows provided genotype-guided dosing recommendations as part of clinical care, or analyzed samples and data collected from patients on the service for research purposes. Assessment. Students’, residents’, and fellows’ achievement of learning objectives was assessed using a checklist based on established core competencies in pharmacogenetics. The mean competency score of the students, residents, and fellows who completed a clinical and/or research experience with the service was 97% ±3%. Conclusion. A comprehensive warfarin pharmacogenetics service provided unique experiential and research opportunities for pharmacy students, residents, and fellows and sufficiently addressed a number of core competencies in pharmacogenetics. PMID:24159216

  8. Return flux experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tveekrem, June L.

    1992-01-01

    All spacecraft emit molecules via outgassing, thruster plumes, vents, etc. The return flux is the portion of those molecules that scatter from the ambient atmosphere and return to the spacecraft. Return flux allows critical spacecraft surfaces to become contaminated even when there is no direct line of sight between the contamination source and the critical surface. Data from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) show that contamination of LDEF surfaces could not have come entirely from direct flux. The data suggest significant return flux. Several computer models have been developed to simulate return flux, but the predictions have never been verified in orbit. Large uncertainties in predictions lead to overly conservative spacecraft designs. The purpose of the REturn FLux EXperiment (REFLEX) is to fly a controlled experiment that can be directly compared with predictions from several models.

  9. The ISPM dust experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruen, E.; Fechtig, H.; Giese, R. H.; Kissel, J.; Linkert, L. D.; Mcdonnell, J. A. M.; Morfill, G. E.; Schwehm, G.; Zook, H. A.

    1983-01-01

    The ISPM Dust Experiment observes particulate matter with masses between 10 to the minus 19th power and 10 to the minus 10th power kg in the solar system; investigates its physical and dynamical properties as a function of ecliptic latitude and heliocentric distance; and studies its interaction with solar radiation, the solar wind, and the interplanetary magnetic field. Measurement of the three dimensional spatial distribution of cosmic dust particles and their dynamics allows the relative significance of their probable sources (comets, asteroids and interstellar dust) to be determined. An instrument that measures the mass, speed, flight direction and electric charge of individual dust particles is used. It is a multicoincidence detector with a sensitivity 100,000 times higher than that of previous experiments. The instrument weighs 3.750 kg, consumes 2.0 W, and has a normal data transmission rate of 8 bit/sec in spacecraft tracking mode.

  10. The deconstructive experience.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Robert J

    2005-01-01

    Logocentrism was conceptualized by Jacques Derrida as connoting the assertion within Western philosophical traditions of certain assumed truths and the exclusion of alternative perspectives. In this paper, the author proposes that the concept of logocentrism may be usefully applied within the clinical situation to enrich understanding of splitting between idealized and devalued perceptions of self and others. He presents a case of a woman with borderline personality disorder to illustrate a logocentric self-structure, as well as how common psychotherapeutic models inadvertently risk reinforcing such structures through the hierarchical nature of the patient-therapist relationship. The process of deconstructing logocentric self-structures is facilitated by the patient experiencing the therapist paradoxically as an extension of the self that sometimes behaves contrary to expectations. Such a deconstructive experience challenges reified perceptions of self and others, serves to broaden the experience of self, and enhances qualities of self-reflection and empathy. PMID:16555459

  11. Health Education Telecommunications Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, A. A.

    1975-01-01

    The Health/Education Telecommunications Experiment carried out with Applications Technology Satellite-6 is described. The experiment tested the effectiveness of color television broadcasts to over 120 low-cost receivers in rural areas. Five types of earth stations were involved: receive-only terminals (ROT), an intensive terminal consisting of the ROT plus a VHF transmitter and receiver; comprehensive S and C-band terminals having the capability of transmitting the video signal plus four audio channels; and the main originating stations. Additional supporting elements comprise 120 video receive terminals, 51 telephony transceivers, and 8 video originating terminals of 3 different parts. Technical parameters were measured to within 1 dB of the calculated values.

  12. Shooting Star Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Shooting Star Experiment (SSE) is designed to develop and demonstrate the technology required to focus the sun's energy and use the energy for inexpensive space Propulsion Research. Pictured is an engineering model (Pathfinder III) of the Shooting Star Experiment (SSE). This model was used to test and characterize the motion and deformation of the structure caused by thermal effects. In this photograph, alignment targets are being placed on the engineering model so that a theodolite (alignment telescope) could be used to accurately measure the deformation and deflections of the engineering model under extreme conditions, such as the coldness of deep space and the hotness of the sun as well as vacuum. This thermal vacuum test was performed at the X-Ray Calibration Facility because of the size of the test article and the capabilities of the facility to simulate in-orbit conditions

  13. Future flavour physics experiments

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The current status of flavour physics and the prospects for present and future experiments will be reviewed. Measurements in B‐physics, in which sensitive probes of new physics are the CKM angle γ, the Bs mixing phase ϕs, and the branching ratios of the rare decays B(s)0→μ+μ− , will be highlighted. Topics in charm and kaon physics, in which the measurements of ACP and the branching ratios of the rare decays K→πνν¯ are key measurements, will be discussed. Finally the complementarity of the future heavy flavour experiments, the LHCb upgrade and Belle‐II, will be summarised. PMID:26877543

  14. Computer Experience of Nurses.

    PubMed

    Schleder Gonçalves, Luciana; Cândida Castro, Talita; Fialek, Soraya

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the computing experience of nurses in southern Brazil, through exploratory survey research. The results, which were obtained from the application of The Staggers Nursing Computer Experience Questionnaire®, were analyzed by statistical tests. The survey was conducted with nurses working both in hospitals, as in public health, in a capital in southern Brazil. There is the predominance of novice nurses in the application of computer tools in their practices but most often declare the use the computers to develop their professional and also personal life activities. We conclude that the computer and health information systems are part of the working reality of the participants, being considered indispensable resources his activity, while noting limitations on the potential use of these tools. This study reflects on how the issue has been addressed in educational schools and the challenges of inclusion of the theme of Nursing Informatics in the curricula in Brazil. PMID:26262313

  15. Chemical Kiloton Experiment schedules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory will conduct a large chemical explosion (CE) called the Chemical Kiloton Experiment (CKE) in the Rainier Mesa area of the Nevada Test site. The explosion will involve a 30/70 Emulsion-to-ANFO blend of 1,147,000 kg to supply 1 kt, and is scheduled for January 29. It will be heavily instrumented with close-in, free-field surface seismic and regional seismic measurements. The CKE is located near several DNA-sponsored nuclear explosions (NEs) and will provide a unique opportunity for fundamental studies on explosion phenomenology (for example, CE/NE equivalence), scaling with CEs and NEs, and integration of multiple monitoring methods. This experiment will also address some critical proliferation monitoring problems such as CE masking of NEs, CEs as false alarms, CEs for regional calibration, and on-site inspection.

  16. Stirling machine operating experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Brad; Dudenhoefer, James E.

    1991-01-01

    Numerous Stirling machines have been built and operated, but the operating experience of these machines is not well known. It is important to examine this operating experience in detail, because it largely substantiates the claim that Stirling machines are capable of reliable and lengthy lives. The amount of data that exists is impressive, considering that many of the machines that have been built are developmental machines intended to show proof of concept, and were not expected to operate for any lengthy period of time. Some Stirling machines (typically free-piston machines) achieve long life through non-contact bearings, while other Stirling machines (typically kinematic) have achieved long operating lives through regular seal and bearing replacements. In addition to engine and system testing, life testing of critical components is also considered.

  17. Timing in Choice Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Jozefowiez, Jeremie; Cerutti, Daniel T.; Staddon, John E. R.

    2005-01-01

    In Experiment 1, pigeons chose between variable- and fixed-interval schedules. The timer for 1 schedule was reset by a reinforcement on that schedule or on either schedule. In both cases, the pigeons timed reinforcement on each schedule from trial onset. The data further suggest that their behavior reflects 2 independent processes: 1 deciding when a response should be emitted and responsible for the timing of the overall activity, and the other determining what this response should be and responsible for the allocation of behavior between the 2 response keys. Results from Experiment 2, which studied choice between 2 fixed-interval schedules, support those 2 conclusions. These results have implications for the study of operant choice in general. PMID:15839777

  18. Antimatter gravity experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.E.; Camp, J.B.; Darling, T.W.

    1990-01-01

    An experiment is being developed to measure the acceleration of the antiproton in the gravitational field of the earth. Antiprotons of a few MeV from the LEAR facility at CERN will be slowed, captured, cooled to a temperature of about 10 K, and subsequently launched a few at a time into a drift tube where the effect of gravity on their motion will be determined by a time-of-flight method. Development of the experiment is proceeding at Los Alamos using normal matter. The fabrication of a drift tube that will produce a region of space in which gravity is the dominant force on moving ions is of major difficulty. This involves a study of methods of minimizing the electric fields produced by spatially varying work functions on conducting surfaces. Progress in a number of areas is described, with stress on the drift-tube development.

  19. Gross decontamination experiment report

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, R.; Kinney, K.; Dettorre, J.; Gilbert, V.

    1983-07-01

    A Gross Decontamination Experiment was conducted on various levels and surfaces of the TMI - Unit 2 reactor building in March 1982. The polar crane, D-rings, missile shields, refueling canals, refueling bridges, equipment, and elevations 305' and 347'-6'' were flushed with low pressure water. Additionally, floor surfaces on elevation 305' and floor surfaces and major pieces of equipment on elevation 347'-6'' were sprayed with high pressure water. Selective surfaces were decontaminated with a mechanical scrubber and chemicals. Strippable coating was tested and evaluated on equipment and floor surfaces. The effectiveness, efficiency, and safety of several decontamination techniques were established for the large, complex decontamination effort. Various decontamination equipment was evaluated and its effectiveness was documented. Decontamination training and procedures were documented and evaluated, as were the support system and organization for the experiment.

  20. Cibola flight experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Roussel-Dupre, D.; Caffrey, M. P.

    2004-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is building the Cibola Flight Experiment (CFE), a reconfigurable processor payload intended for a Low Earth Orbit system. It will survey portions of the VHF and UHF radio spectra. The experiment uses networks of reprogrammable, Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) to process the received signals for ionospheric and lightning studies. The objective is to validate the on-orbit use of commercial, reconfigurable FPGA technology utilizing several different single-event upset mitigation schemes. It will also detect and measure impulsive events that occur in a complex background. Surrey Satellite Technology, Ltd (SSTL) is building the small host satellite, CFESat, based upon SSTL's disaster monitoring constellation (DMC) and Topsat mission satellite designs. The CFESat satellite will be launched by the Space Test Program in September 2006 on the US Air Force Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) using the EELV's Secondary Payload Adapter (ESPA) that allows up to six small satellites to be launched as 'piggyback' passengers with larger spacecraft.

  1. Return flux experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tveekrem, June L.

    All spacecraft emit molecules via outgassing, thruster plumes, vents, etc. The return flux is the portion of those molecules that scatter from the ambient atmosphere and return to the spacecraft. Return flux allows critical spacecraft surfaces to become contaminated even when there is no direct line of sight between the contamination source and the critical surface. Data from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) show that contamination of LDEF surfaces could not have come entirely from direct flux. The data suggest significant return flux. Several computer models have been developed to simulate return flux, but the predictions have never been verified in orbit. Large uncertainties in predictions lead to overly conservative spacecraft designs. The purpose of the REturn FLux EXperiment (REFLEX) is to fly a controlled experiment that can be directly compared with predictions from several models.

  2. The GLORIA demonstrator experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majcher, A.; Ćwiek, A.; Ćwiok, M.; Mankiewicz, L.; Zaremba, M.; Żarnecki, A. F.

    2013-10-01

    GLORIA stands for "GLObal Robotic-telescopes Intelligent Array" and it is the first free and open-access network of robotic telescopes on the world. Based on a Web 2.0 environment amateur and professional users can do research in astronomy by observing with robotic telescopes, and/or analyzing data acquired with GLORIA, or from other free access databases. GLORIA project develops free standards, protocols and tools for controlling Robotic Telescopes and related instrumentation, for scheduling observations in the telescope network, and for conducting so-called off-line experiments based on the analysis of astronomical data. This contribution summarizes the implementation and results from the first research level off-line demonstrator experiment implemented in GLORIA, which was base on the data collected with the "Pi of the Sky" telescope in Chile.

  3. Electronics for Satellite Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Robert P.; /UC, Santa Cruz

    2006-05-16

    The tracking detector for the LAT science instrument on the GLAST mission is an example of a large-scale particle detection system built primarily by particle physicists for space flight within the context of a NASA program. The design and fabrication model in most ways reflected practice and experience from particle physics, but the quality assurance aspects were guided by NASA. Similarly, most of the electronics in the LAT as a whole were designed and built by staff at a particle physics lab. This paper reports on many of the challenges and lessons learned in the experience of designing and building the tracking detector and general LAT electronics for use in the NASA GLAST mission.

  4. White Cliffs: Operating Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaneff, S.

    1984-01-01

    The fourteen dish white cliffs solar power station area is remote and subject to extreme environmental conditions, solution of the associated problems required careful and thoughtful attention and the application of resources. Notwithstanding the wide range and harshness of conditions, the difficulties caused by remoteness and the lack of a technological base and the need for relatively rapid demonstration of success, the project has had a very positive outcome. Qualitative and quantitative information and lessons are now available to enable considerable simplifications to be made for a new system, reducing both hardware and operation and maintenance costs. Experience and lessons are presented, particularly in relation to: system performance in various environmental conditions; design philosophies for collectors, the array, control systems, engine and plant; operation and maintenance strategies and cost reducing possibilities. Experience so far gives encouragement for the future of such paraboloidal dish systems in appropriate areas.

  5. The gravitational wave experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertotti, B.; Ambrosini, R.; Asmar, S. W.; Brenkle, J. P.; Comoretto, G.; Giampieri, G.; Less, L.; Messeri, A.; Wahlquist, H. D.

    1992-01-01

    Since the optimum size of a gravitational wave detector is the wave length, interplanetary dimensions are needed for the mHz band of interest. Doppler tracking of Ulysses will provide the most sensitive attempt to date at the detection of gravitational waves in the low frequency band. The driving noise source is the fluctuations in the refractive index of interplanetary plasma. This dictates the timing of the experiment to be near solar opposition and sets the target accuracy for the fractional frequency change at 3.0 x 10 exp -14 for integration times of the order of 1000 sec. The instrumentation utilized by the experiment is distributed between the radio systems on the spacecraft and the seven participating ground stations of the Deep Space Network and Medicina. Preliminary analysis is available of the measurements taken during the Ulysses first opposition test.

  6. The PHOBOS experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Betts, R.R.

    1995-08-01

    PHOBOS is an experiment designed to study Au-Au collisions at RHIC. The apparatus consists of a 4{pi} multiplicity array and two spectrometer arms. The experiment is designed to measure the polar and azimuthal angles of most particles produced in the collisions and whether they are charged particles or photons. For approximately 1% of these particles, the two spectrometer arms will measure their properties in great detail. This includes many of the particles near mid-rapidity which are expected to show the most striking effects of any new physics which may occur. PHOBOS has proceeded from the Letter of Intent stage through Proposal and Conceptual Design Review to Construction Approval. It is anticipated that data taking will commence in 1999 when RHIC first provides beam.

  7. Experimenting with Bulbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavicchi, Elizabeth M.

    1998-04-01

    What questions come about as learners explore physical materials? How does their learning deepen through inventing experiments and making and testing their own interpretations? I present episodes from the investigatory work of three adult learners who met regularly with me to explore batteries, bulbs and wires. I taught by engaging the learners' interest in these materials and by interactively researching their developing understandings. As both teacher and researcher, I used what I learned about their understandings to support their efforts to extend the body of experimental knowledge they were developing. Development is evident in experimental details. Initially, by hand-holding, they light a bulb with a wire and battery. Later, in soldering connections, they wonder about the bulb's internal structure. They research thoughts about this through dissecting a bulb -- and lighting its exposed filament. Such experimenting changed thinking: from imagining sequential loops, to questioning electrical contacts, to inferring circuital paths.

  8. Experiences with groundwater contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses developments in combating groundwater contamination. The papers include: Regulation of Groundwater; Utility Experiences Related to Existing and Proposed Drinking Water Regulations; Point-of-Use Treatment Technology to Control Organic and Inorganic Contamination; Hazardous Waste Disposal Practices and Groundwater Contamination; Reverse Osmosis Treatment to Control Inorganic and Volatile Organic Contamination; The Dilemma of New Wells Versus Treatment; Characteristics and Handling of Wastes From Groundwater Treatment Systems; and Removing Solvents to Restore Drinking Water at Darien, Connecticut.

  9. NPB Cesium Space Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, George M., III

    1992-01-01

    Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) weapons systems are planned to perform the ballistic missile defense functions of nuclear weapon/decoy discrimination and warhead kill at appropriate energy levels and ion currents. Negatively charged ions are produced in a specialized ion source and focused into a high quality particle beam. NPB linear accelerators accelerate and steer the negatively charged ions using electric and magnetic fields. After acceleration and steering the neutralizer system strips away extra electrons from ions to form the electrically neutral particle beam. The neutral beam then travels through space to the target unaffected by the Earth's magnetic fields. Continuing technological advances have greatly reduced the size and weight of NPB accelerator systems. Ion current production has been enhanced by over 100 percent with the intermittent addition of cesium at the NPB ion source device. This increase in current is essential to attain the most light weight, compact NPB platforms and minimize expensive launch costs. Addition of cesium into the ion source has been identified by the NPB community as the highest priority risk reduction space experiment necessary prior to planned NPB accelerator experiments and later weapons systems. The NPB Cesium Space Experiment is planned to successfully demonstrate controlled cesium introduction and vaporization into a simulated ion source chamber. Microgravity effects on the cesium deposition will be studied as will the effects of small amounts of cesium on high voltage accelerator components that might be susceptible to electrical insulator break downs. The experiment design will simulate as closely as possible the environment, physical and operational characteristics of the actual NPB ion source.

  10. The LUX experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Akerib, D. S.; Araújo, H. M.; Bai, X.; Bailey, A. J.; Balajthy, J.; Bernard, E.; Bernstein, A.; Bradley, A.; Byram, D.; Cahn, S. B.; et al

    2015-03-24

    We present the status and prospects of the LUX experiment, which employs approximately 300 kg of two-phase xenon to search for WIMP dark matter interactions. The LUX detector was commissioned at the surface laboratory of the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, SD, between December 2011 and February 2012 and the detector has been operating underground since January, 2013. These proceedings review the results of the commissioning run as well as the status of underground data-taking.

  11. Apollo lunar sounder experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, R.J.; Adams, G.F.; Brown, W.E., Jr.; Eggleton, R.E.; Jackson, P.; Jordan, R.; Linlor, W.I.; Peeples, W.J.; Porcello, L.J.; Ryu, J.; Schaber, G.; Sill, W.R.; Thompson, T.W.; Ward, S.H.; Zelenka, J.S.

    1973-01-01

    The scientific objectives of the Apollo lunar sounder experiment (ALSE) are (1) mapping of subsurface electrical conductivity structure to infer geological structure, (2) surface profiling to determine lunar topographic variations, (3) surface imaging, and (4) measuring galactic electromagnetic radiation in the lunar environment. The ALSE was a three-frequency, wide-band, coherent radar system operated from lunar orbit during the Apollo 17 mission.

  12. Holodeck-ISS Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rainbolt, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    For the duration of my internship here at JSC for the summer 2016 session, the main project that I worked on dealt with hybrid reality simulations of the ISS. As an ER6 intern for the spacecraft software division, the main project that I worked alongside others was with regards to the Holodeck Virtual Reality Project, specifically with the ISS experience, with the use of the HTC Vive and controllers.

  13. The Blowgun Demonstration Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsukamoto, Koji; Uchino, Masanori

    2008-01-01

    We have found that a simple demonstration experiment using a match or a cotton swab and a drinking straw or an acrylic pipe serves as an effective introduction to dynamics. The most basic apparatus has a cotton swab serving as a dart and the straw as the blowgun. When blown from a starting point near the exit end of the straw, the cotton swab does…

  14. Experimenting cavitation measuring instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toulouse, G.

    1988-09-01

    A calibrating method for measuring the volume of cavitation bubbles is presented and the results of open air experiments are given. The bubbles appearing on the surface of a marine rotating propeller are measured using CCD cameras and optical procedures. Square bubble section first approximations is used. The performance of cameras equipped with light amplifiers is studied in order to use them for real bubble cross section measurements.

  15. The CKM Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan H. Nguyen

    2002-10-25

    I describe the CKM experiment, a new initiative using the Fermilab Main Injector to obtain {approx} 100 events of the ultra-rare decay mode K{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{nu}{bar {nu}}. The branching ratio will be used to extract |V*{sub ts}V{sub td}|. Due to the decay mode's theoretical cleanliness, it plays a key role in over-constraining the Standard Model description of CP violation.

  16. An analemma experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Dan M.

    2000-12-01

    I describe here a very simple experiment that allows a science class to measure the latitude of their school, determine the inclination of the Earth's axis to the ecliptic, and demonstrate the noncircularity of our orbit around the Sun. The only tools needed are: something tall and pointed (a flagpole will do), paint and a paint brush, a tape measure, a watch, and an accurate way of finding the time (such as a radio).

  17. Multiphase-flowmeter experience

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    Multiphase-flowmeters (MPFM`s) are finding increasing acceptance offshore, where operators are becoming more comfortable with the technology after several years of familiarization. Meters are being used in well testing, well management, and allocation of production. Since the first deliveries of the Framo engineering A/S meter in 1993, significant experience has been gained in both topside and subsea applications of the devices. The paper describes purposes, technology, Framo`s meter, applications, performance verification, and operational problems.

  18. Localized wave pulse experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, D L; Henderson, T L; Krueger, K L; Lewis, D K; Zilkowski, R N

    1999-06-01

    The Localized Wave project of the Strategic System Support Program has recently finished an experiment in cooperation with the Advanced SONAR group of the Applied Research Laboratory of the University of Texas at Austin. The purpose of the experiment was three-fold. They wanted to see if (1) the LW pulse could propagate over significant distances, to see if (2) a new type of array and drive system specifically designed for the pulse would increase efficiency over single frequency tone bursts, and to see if (3) the complexity of our 24 channel drivers resulted in better efficiency than a single equivalent pulse driving a piston. In the experiment, several LW pulses were launched from the Lake Travis facility and propagated over distances of either 100 feet or 600 feet, through a thermocline for the 600 foot measurements. The results show conclusively that the Localized Wave will propagate past the near field distance. The LW pulses resulted in extremely broad frequency band width pulses with narrow spatial beam patterns and unmeasurable side lobes. Their array gain was better than most tone bursts and further, were better than their equivalent piston pulses. This marks the first test of several Low Diffraction beams against their equivalent piston pulses, as well as the first propagation of LW pulses over appreciable distances. The LW pulse is now proven a useful tool in open water, rather than a laboratory curiosity. The experimental system and array were built by ARL, and the experiments were conducted by ARL staff on their standard test range. The 600 feet measurements were made at the farthest extent of that range.

  19. Experiments with Electrodynamic Wheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaul, Nathan; Corey, Daniel; Cordrey, Vincent; Majewski, Walerian

    2015-04-01

    Our experiments were involving inductive magnetic levitation. A Halbach array is a system in which a series of magnets is arranged in a manner such that the magnetic field is cancelled on one side of the array while strengthening the field on the other. We constructed two circular Halbach wheels, making the strong magnetic field on the outer rim of the ring. Such system is usually dubbed as an Electrodynamic Wheel (EDW). Rotating this wheel around a horizontal axis above a flat conducting surface should induce eddy currents in said surface through the variable magnetic flux. The eddy currents produce, in turn, their own magnetic fields which interact with the magnets of the EDW. We demonstrated that these interactions produce both drag and lift forces on the EDW which can theoretically be used for lift and propulsion of the EDW. The focus of our experiments is determining how to maximize the lift-to-drag ratio by the proper choice of the induction element. We will also describe our experiments with a rotating circular Halbach array having the strong magnetic field of about 1 T on the flat side of the ring, and acting as a hovercraft.

  20. Madison Plasma Dynamo Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostadinova, Evdokiya; Forest, C.; Cooper, C.; Coquerel, M.

    2014-01-01

    The Madison Plasma Dynamo Experiment (MPDX) is investigating the self-generation of magnetic fields and related processes in a large, weakly magnetized, fast flowing, and hot (conducting) plasma. The dynamo re-creates conditions highly similar to many astrophysical plasmas. Stars and other planets have dynamos, and so do galaxies and clusters of galaxies, which makes it extremely crucial for researchers in the field to carry out experiments in this previously uninvestigated plasma regime, which will help for the development of a comprehensive theory of how magnetic fields are generated in planets, the Sun and other stars. MPDX is a laboratory astrophysical experiment where 200,000-degree Fahrenheit plasma is confined within a three-meter diameter spherical aluminum vacuum chamber with the help of multiple tracks of cusp magnets covering the inside shell. The dynamo utilizes six robotic insertion sweep probes that are programmed to find any point inside the sphere by given radial and angular coordinates. This innovative mechanical system allows us to take measurements of the state variables in key points in the plasma flow and to better investigate its cosmic-like plasma behavior. The probes are able to autonomously calculate coordinate transformations, move in a two dimensional plane, and return information about their relative position. This makes them an extremely useful, highly accurate, and easily controlled tool for plasma analysis.

  1. Reactor antineutrino experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Haoqi

    2014-09-01

    Neutrinos are elementary particles in the standard model of particle physics. There are three flavors of neutrinos that oscillate among themselves. Their oscillation can be described by a 3×3 unitary matrix, containing three mixing angles θ12, θ23, θ13, and one CP phase. Both θ12 and θ23 are known from previous experiments. θ13 was unknown just two years ago. The Daya Bay experiment gave the first definitive nonzero value in 2012. An improved measurement of the oscillation amplitude sin 22(θ 13) = 0.090+0.008-0.009 and the first direct measurement of the \\bar ν e mass-squared difference \\vertΔ m2ee\\vert\\big (2.59+0.19-0.20\\big )×10-3 eV2 were obtained recently. The large value of θ13 boosts the next generation of reactor antineutrino experiments designed to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy, such as JUNO and RENO-50.

  2. Critical experiment data archiving

    SciTech Connect

    Koponen, B.L. ); Clayton, E.D.; Doherty, A.L. )

    1991-01-01

    Critical experiment facilities produced a large number of important data during the past 45 years; however, many useful data remain unpublished. The unpublished material exists in the form of experimenters' logbooks, notes, photographs, material descriptions, etc., This data could be important for computer code validation, understanding the physics of criticality, facility design, or for setting process limits. In the past, criticality specialists have been able to obtain unpublished details by direct contact with the experimenters. Obviously, this will not be possible indefinitely. Most of the US critical experiment facilities are now closed, and the experimenters are moving to other jobs, retiring, or otherwise becoming unavailable for this informal assistance. Also, the records are in danger of being discarded or lost during facility closures, cleanup activities, or in storage. A project was begun in 1989 to ensure that important unpublished data from critical experiment facilities in the United States are archived and made available as a resource of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Nuclear Criticality Information System (NCIS). The objective of this paper is to summarize the project accomplishments to date and bring these activities to the attention of those who might be aware of the location of source information needed for archiving and could assist in getting the materials included in the archive.

  3. Long Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezzetto, Mauro

    2016-05-01

    Following the discovery of neutrino oscillations by the Super-Kamiokande collaboration, recently awarded with the Nobel Prize, two generations of long baseline experiments had been setup to further study neutrino oscillations. The first generation experiments, K2K in Japan, Minos in the States and Opera in Europe, focused in confirming the Super-Kamiokande result, improving the precision with which oscillation parameters had been measured and demonstrating the ντ appearance process. Second generation experiments, T2K in Japan and very recently NOνA in the States, went further, being optimized to look for genuine three neutrino phenomena like non-zero values of θ13 and first glimpses to leptonic CP violation (LCPV) and neutrino mass ordering (NMO). The discovery of leptonic CP violation will require third generation setups, at the moment two strong proposals are ongoing, Dune in the States and Hyper-Kamiokande in Japan. This review will focus a little more in these future initiatives.

  4. Mars brine formation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.; Bullock, Mark A.; Stoker, Carol R.

    1993-09-01

    Evaporites, particularly carbonates, nitrates, and sulfates, may be major sinks of volatiles scavenged from the martian atmosphere. Mars is thought to have once had a denser, warmer atmosphere that permitted the presence of liquid surface water. The conversion of atmospheric CO2 into carbonate is hypothesized to have degraded the martian climate to its present state of a generally subfreezing, desiccated desert. The rate for such a conversion under martian conditions is poorly known, so the time scale of climate degradation by this process cannot be easily evaluated. If some models are correct, carbonate formation may have been fast at geological time scales. The experiments of Booth and Kieffer also imply fast (106 - 107 yr) removal of the missing CO2 inventory, estimated to be 1 - 5 bar, by means of carbonate formation. The timing of formation of many of the fluvial features observed on Mars is, in large part, dependent on when and how fast the atmosphere changed. A knowledge of the rate at which carbonates and nitrates formed is also essential for assessing the probability that life, or its chemical precursors, could have developed on Mars. No previous experiments have quantitatively evaluated the rate of solution for a suite of mobile anions and cations from unaltered minerals and atmospheric gases into liquid water under Mars-like conditions. Such experiments are the focus of this task.

  5. CEAREX Drift Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CEAREX Drift Group

    The Coordinated Eastern Arctic Experiment (CEAREX) was conducted to study the processes regulating eastern Arctic Ocean exchange of momentum, heat, and biomass. The primary CEAREX objectives were to understand the structure and function of mesoscale (order 10 km) and submesoscale processes in the transport of heat northward, and to understand the ice behavior and associated acoustic ambient noise and coherence. The Drift Experiment described here was one part of the comprehensive CEAREX program. It focused on the transition period during freeze up and on the dark winter period. The Drift Experiment was designed to observe atmosphere, ice, and ocean behavior simultaneously. Specific observations were carried out under independent research programs by investigators from a number of organizations. The concurrent information provided an opportunity to measure and understand the relationship between stresses observed in individual ice floes and the geophysical driving forces and overall ice conditions, and to identify and describe noise generated by different processes. The coordinated effort has resulted in a complete set of data for helping to understand the dynamic interactions among ice, ocean, and atmosphere. This large, valuable, and unique data set will be archived by the National Snow and Ice Data Center in Boulder, Colo. Some subsets will be available on CD-ROM for simple and inexpensive use on personal computers.

  6. Reproducible Experiment Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Rogozhnikov, Alex; Baranov, Alexander; Khairullin, Egor; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey

    2015-12-01

    Data analysis in fundamental sciences nowadays is an essential process that pushes frontiers of our knowledge and leads to new discoveries. At the same time we can see that complexity of those analyses increases fast due to a) enormous volumes of datasets being analyzed, b) variety of techniques and algorithms one have to check inside a single analysis, c) distributed nature of research teams that requires special communication media for knowledge and information exchange between individual researchers. There is a lot of resemblance between techniques and problems arising in the areas of industrial information retrieval and particle physics. To address those problems we propose Reproducible Experiment Platform (REP), a software infrastructure to support collaborative ecosystem for computational science. It is a Python based solution for research teams that allows running computational experiments on shared datasets, obtaining repeatable results, and consistent comparisons of the obtained results. We present some key features of REP based on case studies which include trigger optimization and physics analysis studies at the LHCb experiment.

  7. ACTS broadband aeronautical experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbe, Brian S.; Jedrey, Thomas C.; Estabrook, Polly; Agan, Martin J.

    1993-01-01

    In the last decade, the demand for reliable data, voice, and video satellite communication links between aircraft and ground to improve air traffic control, airline management, and to meet the growing demand for passenger communications has increased significantly. It is expected that in the near future, the spectrum required for aeronautical communication services will grow significantly beyond that currently available at L-band. In anticipation of this, JPL is developing an experimental broadband aeronautical satellite communications system that will utilize NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) as a satellite of opportunity and the technology developed under JPL's ACTS Mobile Terminal (AMT) Task to evaluate the feasibility of using K/Ka-band for these applications. The application of K/Ka-band for aeronautical satellite communications at cruise altitudes is particularly promising for several reasons: (1) the minimal amount of signal attenuation due to rain; (2) the reduced drag due to the smaller K/Ka-band antennas (as compared to the current L-band systems); and (3) the large amount of available bandwidth. The increased bandwidth available at these frequencies is expected to lead to significantly improved passenger communications - including full-duplex compressed video and multiple channel voice. A description of the proposed broadband experimental system will be presented including: (1) applications of K/Ka-band aeronautical satellite technology to U.S. industry; (2) the experiment objectives; (3) the experiment set-up; (4) experimental equipment description; and (5) industrial participation in the experiment and the benefits.

  8. The QUIJOTE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Caniego, Marcos

    2015-08-01

    The QUIJOTE (Q-U-I JOint Tenerife) CMB Experiment is observing the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background and other Galactic and extragalactic signals at medium and large angular scales in the frequency range of 10-40 GHz. This experiment will provide valuable information about the polarization properties of synchrotron and anomalous microwave emission at these frequencies. The maps obtained with the multi-frequency instrument (10-20 GHz), in combination with data from other experiments like Planck and the VLA, will be used to clean the diffuse and compact foreground emission at 30 and 40 GHz, the cosmological channels. After three years of effective observations we expect to reach the required sensitivity to detect a primordial gravitational-wave component if the tensor-to-scalar ratio is larger than r = 0.05. At the moment we have completed the Wide Survey with the multi-frequency instrument, covering 20.000 square degrees of the Northern hemisphere. In addition, we have deep integrations of our main calibrators Taurus A, Cassiopea A, Jupiter and of the Perseus molecular complex region, where we have measured the spectrum of the anomalous microwave emission. We also have observed several regions of interest for our science program where we plan to study the compact and diffuse polarized emission.

  9. Aesthetic Experience and Aesthetic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenner, David E. W.

    2003-01-01

    The "raw data" that aesthetics is meant to explain is the aesthetic experience. People have experiences that they class off from other experiences and label, as a class, the aesthetic ones. Aesthetic experience is basic, and all other things aesthetic--aesthetic properties, aesthetic objects, aesthetic attitudes--are secondary in their importance…

  10. AGS Experiments: 1989, 1990, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1992-02-01

    This report contains: Experimental areas layout; table of beam parameters and fluxes; experiment schedule as run''; proposed 1992 schedule; a listing of experiments by number; two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; publications of AGS Experiments begin here; and list of AGS Experimenters begins here.

  11. AGS Experiments: 1989, 1990, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Depken, J.C.

    1992-02-01

    This report contains: Experimental areas layout; table of beam parameters and fluxes; experiment schedule ``as run``; proposed 1992 schedule; a listing of experiments by number; two-page summaries of each experiment begin here, also ordered by number; publications of AGS Experiments begin here; and list of AGS Experimenters begins here.

  12. APT radionuclide production experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Ullmann, J.L.; Gavron, A.; King, J.D.

    1994-07-02

    Tritium ({sup 3}H, a heavy isotope of hydrogen) is produced by low energy neutron-induced reactions on various elements. One such reaction is n+{sup 3}He {yields}>{sup 3}H+{sup 1}H in which {sup 3}He is transmuted to tritium. Another reaction, which has been used in reactor production of tritium, is the n+{sup 6}Li {yields}> {sup 3}H+{sup 4}He reaction. Accelerator Production of Tritium relies on a high-energy proton beam to produce these neutrons using the spallation reaction, in which high-energy proton beam to produce these neutrons using the spallation reaction, in which high-energy protons reacting with a heavy nucleus produce a shower of low-energy neutrons and a lower-mass residual nucleus. It is important to quantify the residual radionuclides produced in the spallation target for two reasons. From an engineering point of view, one must understand short-lived isotopes that may contribute to decay heat. From a safety viewpoint, one must understand what nuclei and decay gammas are produced in order to design adequate shielding, to estimate ultimate waste disposal problems, and to predict possible effects due to accidental dispersion during operation. The authors have performed an experiment to measure the production of radioisotopes in stopping-length W and Pb targets irradiated by a 800 MeV proton beam, and are comparing the results to values obtained from calculations using LAHET and MCNP. The experiment was designed to pay particular attention to the short half-life radionuclides, which have not been previously measured. In the following, they present details of the experiment, explain how they analyzed the data and obtain the results, how they perform the calculations, and finally, how the experimental data agree with the calculations.

  13. Situating emotional experience.

    PubMed

    Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine D; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2013-01-01

    Psychological construction approaches to emotion suggest that emotional experience is situated and dynamic. Fear, for example, is typically studied in a physical danger context (e.g., threatening snake), but in the real world, it often occurs in social contexts, especially those involving social evaluation (e.g., public speaking). Understanding situated emotional experience is critical because adaptive responding is guided by situational context (e.g., inferring the intention of another in a social evaluation situation vs. monitoring the environment in a physical danger situation). In an fMRI study, we assessed situated emotional experience using a newly developed paradigm in which participants vividly imagine different scenarios from a first-person perspective, in this case scenarios involving either social evaluation or physical danger. We hypothesized that distributed neural patterns would underlie immersion in social evaluation and physical danger situations, with shared activity patterns across both situations in multiple sensory modalities and in circuitry involved in integrating salient sensory information, and with unique activity patterns for each situation type in coordinated large-scale networks that reflect situated responding. More specifically, we predicted that networks underlying the social inference and mentalizing involved in responding to a social threat (in regions that make up the "default mode" network) would be reliably more active during social evaluation situations. In contrast, networks underlying the visuospatial attention and action planning involved in responding to a physical threat would be reliably more active during physical danger situations. The results supported these hypotheses. In line with emerging psychological construction approaches, the findings suggest that coordinated brain networks offer a systematic way to interpret the distributed patterns that underlie the diverse situational contexts characterizing emotional life.

  14. Initial blood storage experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surgenor, Douglas MACN.

    1988-01-01

    The design of the Initial Blood Storage Experiment (IBSE) was based upon a carefully controlled comparison between identical sets of human blood cell suspensions - red cells, white cell, and platelets - one set of which was transported aboard the Columbia on a 6 day 11 hour mission, and the other held on the ground. Both sets were carried inside stainless steel dewars within specially fabricated flight hardware. Individual bags of cell suspensions were randomly assigned with respect to ground vs orbit status, dewar chamber, and specific location within the dewar. To foster optimal preservation, each cell type was held under specific optimal conditions of pH, ionic strength, solute concentration, gas tension, and temperature. An added variable in this initial experiment was provided by the use of three different polymer/plasticizer formulations for the sealed bags which held the blood cells. At termination of the experiment, aliquots of the suspensions, identified only by code, were distributed to be assayed. Assays were selected to constitute a broad survey of cellular properties and thereby maximize the chances of detection of gravitational effects. A total of 74 different outcome measurements were reported for statistical analysis. When the measurements were completed, the results were entered into the IBSE data base, at which time the data were matched with the original blood bag numbers to determine their status with respect to polymer/plasticizer type, orbit status (orbit or ground), and storage position within the experimental hardware. The data were studied by analysis of variance. Initially, type of bag and orbital status were main factors; later more detailed analyses were made on specific issues such as position in the hardware and specific plastic. If the analysis of variance indicated a statistical significance at the 5 percent level the corresponding p-value was reported.

  15. Experience the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Gil, A.; Benacchio, L.; Boccato, C.

    2011-10-01

    The Moon is, together with the Sun, the very first astronomical object that we experience in our life. As this is an exclusively visual experience, people with visual impairments need a different mode to experience it too. This statement is especially true when events, such as more and more frequent public observations of sky, take place. This is the reason why we are preparing a special package for visual impaired people containing three brand new items: 1. a tactile 3D Moon sphere in Braille with its paper key in Braille. To produce it we used imaging data obtained by NASA's mission Clementine, along with free image processing and 3D rendering software. In order to build the 3D small scale model funding by Europlanet and the Italian Ministry for Research have been used. 2. a multilingual web site for visually impaired users of all ages, on basic astronomy together with an indepth box about the Moon; 3. a book in Braille with the same content of the Web site mentioned above. All the items will be developed with the collaboration of visually impaired people that will check each step of the project and support their comments and criticism to improve it. We are going to test this package during the next International Observe the Moon Night event. After a first testing phase we'll collect all the feedback data in order to give an effective form to the package. Finally the Moon package could be delivered to all those who will demand it for outreach or educational goals.

  16. 2169 steel waveform experiments.

    SciTech Connect

    Furnish, Michael David; Alexander, C. Scott; Reinhart, William Dodd; Brown, Justin L.

    2012-11-01

    In support of LLNL efforts to develop multiscale models of a variety of materials, we have performed a set of eight gas gun impact experiments on 2169 steel (21% Cr, 6% Ni, 9% Mn, balance predominantly Fe). These experiments provided carefully controlled shock, reshock and release velocimetry data, with initial shock stresses ranging from 10 to 50 GPa (particle velocities from 0.25 to 1.05 km/s). Both windowed and free-surface measurements were included in this experiment set to increase the utility of the data set, as were samples ranging in thickness from 1 to 5 mm. Target physical phenomena included the elastic/plastic transition (Hugoniot elastic limit), the Hugoniot, any phase transition phenomena, and the release path (windowed and free-surface). The Hugoniot was found to be nearly linear, with no indications of the Fe phase transition. Releases were non-hysteretic, and relatively consistent between 3- and 5-mmthick samples (the 3 mm samples giving slightly lower wavespeeds on release). Reshock tests with explosively welded impactors produced clean results; those with glue bonds showed transient releases prior to the arrival of the reshock, reducing their usefulness for deriving strength information. The free-surface samples, which were steps on a single piece of steel, showed lower wavespeeds for thin (1 mm) samples than for thicker (2 or 4 mm) samples. A configuration used for the last three shots allows release information to be determined from these free surface samples. The sample strength appears to increase with stress from ~1 GPa to ~ 3 GPa over this range, consistent with other recent work but about 40% above the Steinberg model.

  17. Situating emotional experience

    PubMed Central

    Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine D.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Barsalou, Lawrence W.

    2013-01-01

    Psychological construction approaches to emotion suggest that emotional experience is situated and dynamic. Fear, for example, is typically studied in a physical danger context (e.g., threatening snake), but in the real world, it often occurs in social contexts, especially those involving social evaluation (e.g., public speaking). Understanding situated emotional experience is critical because adaptive responding is guided by situational context (e.g., inferring the intention of another in a social evaluation situation vs. monitoring the environment in a physical danger situation). In an fMRI study, we assessed situated emotional experience using a newly developed paradigm in which participants vividly imagine different scenarios from a first-person perspective, in this case scenarios involving either social evaluation or physical danger. We hypothesized that distributed neural patterns would underlie immersion in social evaluation and physical danger situations, with shared activity patterns across both situations in multiple sensory modalities and in circuitry involved in integrating salient sensory information, and with unique activity patterns for each situation type in coordinated large-scale networks that reflect situated responding. More specifically, we predicted that networks underlying the social inference and mentalizing involved in responding to a social threat (in regions that make up the “default mode” network) would be reliably more active during social evaluation situations. In contrast, networks underlying the visuospatial attention and action planning involved in responding to a physical threat would be reliably more active during physical danger situations. The results supported these hypotheses. In line with emerging psychological construction approaches, the findings suggest that coordinated brain networks offer a systematic way to interpret the distributed patterns that underlie the diverse situational contexts characterizing emotional

  18. Multiwell experiment: Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenz, J.C.; Sattler, A.R.; Warpinski, N.R.; Thorne, B.J.; Branagan, P.T.

    1987-01-01

    This field laboratory has been established about 7 mi southwest of Rifle, Colorado. Here the Mesaverde formation lies at a depth of 4000 to 8250 ft. This interval contains different, distinct reservoir types depending upon their depositional environments. These different zones serve as the focus of the various testing and stimulation programs. One key to the Multiwell Experiment is three closely spaced wells. Their 110 to 215 ft separation at depth is less than the nominal dimensions of the lenses in the area. Core, log, well testing, and well-to-well seismic data are providing a far better definition of the geological setting than has been available previously. Comprehensive logging and core analysis programs were conducted. The closely spaced wells also allow interference and tracer tests to obtain in situ reservoir parameters. The vertical variation of in situ stress throughout the intervals of interest is being measured. A series of stimulation experiments is being conducted in one well and the other two wells are being used as observation wells for improved fracture diagnostics and well testing. Another key to achieving the Multiwell Experiment objectives is the synergism resulting from a broad spectrum of activities: geophysical surveys, sedimentological studies, core and log analyses, well testing, in situ stress determination, stimulation, fracture diagnostics, and reservoir analyses. The results from the various activities will define the reservoir and the hydraulic fracture. These, in turn, define the net pay stimulated: the intersection of a hydraulic fracture of known geometry with a reservoir of known morphology and properties. These definitions are further enhanced by the fact that most data will come from closely spaced wells. Thus, spatial variations in reservoir properties can be quantified. 10 refs.

  19. Initial blood storage experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surgenor, Douglas MACN.

    1988-01-01

    The possibility of conducting experiments with the formed elements of the blood under conditions of microgravity opens up important opportunities to improve the understanding of basic formed element physiology, as well as, contribution to improved preservation of the formed elements for use in transfusion. The physiological, biochemical, and physical changes of the membrane of the erythrocyte, platelet, and leukocyte was studied during storage under two specific conditions: standard blood bank conditions and microgravity, utilizing three FDA approved plastic bags. Storage lesions; red cell storage on Earth; platelet storage on Earth; and leukocyte storage Earth were examined. The interaction of biomaterials and blood cells was studied during storage.

  20. Drift Chamber Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walenta, A. H.; ćonka Nurdan, T.

    2003-07-01

    This paper describes a laboratory course held at ICFA 2002 Regional Instrumentation School in Morelia, Mexico. This course intends to introduce drift chambers, which play an important role in particle physics experiments as tracking detectors. The experimental setup consists of a single-sided, single-cell drift chamber, a plastic scintillator detector and a collimated 90Sr source. The measurements on the drift velocity of electrons, its change as a function of a drift field, gas gain and diffusion are performed at this laboratory course.