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Sample records for sm-nd isotopic study

  1. Sm-Nd Isotopic Studies of Ureilite Novo Urei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Reese, Y.; Goodrich, C. A.

    2011-01-01

    Ureilites are ultramafic (harzburgitic) achondrites composed predominantly of olivine and pyroxenes, abundant carbon (graphites and shock-produced diamonds), some metal and sulfides. These rocks probably represent ultramafic mantles of differentiated parent asteroidal bodies. Age determinations of these rocks by Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd methods have been difficult because of their extremely low abundances of these parent-daughter elements. Nevertheless, Sm-Nd isochron ages were reported for Kenna, Goalpara, MET 78008 and PCA 82506 yielding ages of 3.74+/-0.02 Ga, approx.3.7 Ga, 4.09+/-0.08 Ga, 4.23+/-0.06 Ga, respectively [1-4]. These "young" Sm-Nd ages may represent secondary metasomatism events [1] related to impacts [5], as indicated by the similarly young Ar-39-Ar-40 degassing ages of 3.3-4.1 Ga for ureilites Kenna, Novo Urei and Havero [6]. Alternatively, it has been suggested that these rocks may have been contaminated with terrestrial crustal materials and the isochrons do not have any age significance [2,7]. Indications of old approx.4.56 Ga ages for ureilites were reported from the U-Pb and Sm-Nd model ages for MET 78008 [8]. More reliable evidences for old formation ages of ureilites were reported recently using the short-lived chronometers Hf-182-W-182, Al-26-Mg-26 and Mn-53-Cr-53. The deficits of 182W in ureilites suggest the metal-silicate segregation occurred very early, approx.1-2 Ma after CAI [9]. The Al-26-Mg-26 and Mn-53-Cr-53 studies for a feldspathic lithology [10] and the Mn-53-Cr-53 for olivine- and pyroxene-dominant lithologies [11] in ureilites revealed that they crystallized approx.5.4 Ma after CAI, i.e., at 4563.8+/-0.5 Ma relative to D.Orbigny. In this report, we present Sm-Nd isotopic data for a relatively fresh ureilite, Novo Urei, a rare ureilite fall (1886). We compare these data to Sm-Nd data for other ureilites, and discuss Novo Urei's petrogenesis

  2. Sm-Nd Isotopic Systematics of Troctolite 76335

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmunson, J.; Nyquist, L. E.; Borg, L. E.

    2007-01-01

    A study of the Sm-Nd isotopic systematics of lunar Mg-suite troctolite 76335 was undertaken to further establish the early chronology of lunar magmatism. Because the Rb-Sr isotopic systematics of similar sample 76535 yielded an age of 4570 +/- 70 Ma [2, lambda = 1.402 x 10(exp -11)], 76335 was expected to yield an old age. In contrast, the Sm-Nd and K-Ar ages of 76535 indicate that the sample is approximately 4260 Ma old, one of the youngest ages obtained for a Mg-suite rock. This study establishes the age of 76335 and discusses the constraints placed on its petrogenesis by its Sm-Nd isotope systematics. The Sm-Nd isotopic system of lunar Mg-suite troctolite 76335 indicates an age of 4278 +/- 60 Ma with an initial epsilon (sup 143)(sub Nd) value of 0.06 +/- 0.39. These values are consistent with the Sm-Nd isotopic systematics of similar sample 76535. Thus, it appears that a robust Sm-Nd age can be determined from a highly brecciated lunar sample. The Sm-Nd isotopic systematics of troctolites 76335 and 76535 appear to be different from those dominating the Mg-suite norites and KREEP basalts. Further analysis of the Mg-suite must be completed to reveal the isotopic relationships of these early lunar rocks.

  3. Sm-Nd Isotopic Studies of Two Nakhlites, NWA 5790 and Nakhla

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    C.-Y. Shih; Nyquist, L. E.; Reese, Y.; Jambon, A.

    2010-01-01

    NWA 5790 is a Martian meteorite recently found in the Mauritania part of the Saharan desert and is classified as a nakhlite, containing a small amount of interstitial plagioclase. Unlike other Martian meteorites ( e.g., shergottites), nakhlites have been only moderately shocked and their original igneous textures are still well-preserved. In this report, we present Sm-Nd isotopic data for NWA 5790 and Nakhla, a rare "fall" nakhlite, correlate their ages with those of other nakhlites and discuss their petrogenesis.

  4. Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd Isotopic Studies of Shergottites and Nakhlites: Implications for Martian Mantle Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debaille, V.; Yin, Q.-Z.; Brandon, A. D.; Jacobsen, B.; Treiman, A. H.

    2007-01-01

    We present a new Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotope systematics study of four enriched shergottites (Zagami, Shergotty, NWA856 and Los Angeles), and three nakhlites (Nakhla, MIL03346 and Yamato 000593) in order to further understand processes occurring during the early differentiation of Mars and the crystallization of its magma ocean. Two fractions of the terrestrial petrological analogue of nakhlites, the Archaean Theo's flow (Ontario, Canada) were also measured. The coupling of Nd and Hf isotopes provide direct insights on the mineralogy of the melt sources. In contrast to Sm/Nd, Lu/Hf ratios can be very large in minerals such as garnet. Selective partial melting of garnet bearing mantle sources can therefore lead to characteristic Lu/Hf signatures that can be recognized with Hf-176/Hf-177Hf ratios.

  5. Sm-Nd isotopic systematics of lherzolitic shergottite Yamato-793605

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Misawa, K.; Yamada, K.; Nakamura, N.; Morikawa, N.; Yamashita, K.; Premo, W.R.

    2006-01-01

    We have undertaken Sm-Nd isotopic studies on Yamato-793605 lherzolitic shergottite. The Sm-Nd internal isochron obtained for acid leachates and residues of whole-rock and separated mineral fractions yields an age of 185 ??16 Ma with an initial ??Nd value of +9.7??0.2. The obtained Sm-Nd age is, within analytical errors, identical to the Rb-Sr age of this meteorite as well as to the previous Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd ages of Allan Hills-77005 and Lewis Cliff 88516, although the ??Nd values are not identical to each other. Elemental abundances of lithophile trace elements remain nearly unaffected by aqueous alteration on the Martian surface. The isotopic systems of lherzolitic shergottites, thus, are considered to be indigenous, although disturbances by shock metamorphism are clearly observed. "Young ages of ??? 180 Ma" have been consistently obtained from this and previous Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd and U-Pb isotopic studies and appear to represent crystallization events. ?? 2006 National Institute of Polar Research.

  6. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd Isotopic Studies of Lunar Green and Orange Glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Reese, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Lunar volcanic glassy beads have been considered as quenched basaltic magmas derived directly from deep lunar mantle during fire-fountaining eruptions [1]. Since these sub-mm size glassy melt droplets were cooled in a hot gaseous medium during free flight [2], they have not been subject to mineral fractionations. Thus, they represent primary magmas and are the best samples for the investigation of the lunar mantle. Previously, we presented preliminary Rb- Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic results for green and orange glassy samples from green glass clod 15426,63 and orange soil 74220,44, respectively [3]. Using these isotopic data, initial Sr-87/Sr-86 and Nd ratios for these pristine mare glass sources can be calculated from their respective crystallization ages previously determined by other age-dating techniques. These isotopic data were used to evaluate the mineralogy of the mantle sources. In this report, we analyzed additional glassy samples in order to further characterize isotopic signatures of their source regions. Also, we'll postulate a relationship between these two major mare basalt source mineralogies in the context of lunar magma ocean dynamics.

  7. The Estherville mesosiderite: U-Pb, Rb-Sr, and Sm-Nd isotopic study of a polymict breccia

    SciTech Connect

    Brouxel, M.; Tatsumoto, M. )

    1991-04-01

    A systematic U-Pb, Sm-Nd, and Rb-Sr isotopic study shows that the Estherville mesosiderite was formed between 4.56 and 4.43 Ga. Observed isotopic heterogeneity is in agreement with multiple generations of meteoritic impacts described in other mesosiderites. At least part of the Estherville silicate fraction was formed early in solar system history as indicated by the Pb-Pb (4555 {plus minus} 35 Ma), U-Pb (4560 {plus minus} 31 Ma), Rb-Sr (4542 {plus minus} 203 Ma), and Sm-Nd (4533 {plus minus} 94 Ma) ages. Mesosiderites therefore present not only petrological but also geochronological similarities with eucrites. The Pb isotopic composition of the metal phase plots on the same isochron as the silicates, indicating formation and subsequent mixing with silicates early in the history of the solar system. This is consistent with previous observations indicating that iron was reduced during the silicate-magmatic stage, most likely a consequence of mixing with metal. In addition to these more-ancient portions of the Estherville breccia, other parts were formed later as suggested by the Pb-Pb (4422 {plus minus} 50 Ma) and U-Pb (4437 {plus minus} 11 Ma) ages observed in a second group of leaches and residues. This age is similar to some cumulate eucrite ages and may represent the formation of a second mesosiderite component. The Sm-Nd and the Rb-Sr ages obtained on Estherville show large errors that may be a consequence of the mixing between the 4.56 and 4.43 Ga endmembers. Estherville, like most mesosiderites, was affected by a major heating event around 3.5-3.7 Ga as shown by the Ar-Ar ages. This heating event partially disturbed the Rb-Sr isotopic system (Rb-Sr metamorphic ages range between 3.81 and 4.08 Ga).

  8. Sm-Nd isotopic systematics and REE abundance studies of the ALH-765 eucrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, N.; Tatsumoto, M.; Coffrant, D.

    1983-01-01

    Analyses of Sm-Nd systematics and REE concentrations were carried out for the whole rock and mineral separates from the ALH-765 meteorite. A Sm-Nd age of 4.52 + or - 0.09 (2 sigma) b.y. and an initial Nd-143/Nd-144 ratio of 0.50675 + or 0.00011 (2 sigma) have been obtained. The previously reported Ce irregularities have been re-examined in this work. The large Ce anomalies and some minor Sm-Nd system disturbances observed for the meteorite may be interpreted as results of terrestrial weathering effects.

  9. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd Isotopic Studies of Antarctic Nakhlite MIL 03346

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Reese, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Nakhlites are olivine-bearing clinopyroxenites with cumulate textures, and probably came from Mars [e.g., 1]. A total of seven nakhlites have been identified so far. Unlike other martian meteorites (e.g., shergottites), nakhlites have been only moderately shocked and their original igneous textures are still well-preserved. Also, these meteorites have similarly older crystallization ages of approx.1.3 Ga compared to shergottites with ages of approx.0.18-0.57 Ga [e.g., 2]. MIL 03346 is characterized by abundant (approx.20 vol %) glassy mesostasis, indicating that it cooled rapidly and probably formed near the top [3] or at the bottom [4] of the chilled margin of a thick intrusive body. The mesostasis quenched from the trapped intercumulus liquid may provide information on the parent magma compositions of the nakhlites. In this report, we present Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic data for MIL 03346, discuss correlation of its age with those of other nakhlites and the nature of their source regions in the Martian mantle.

  10. The Estherville mesosiderite - U-Pb, Rb-Sr, and Sm-Nd isotopic study of a polymict breccia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brouxel, M.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1991-01-01

    The U-Pb, Rb-Sr, and Sm-Nd isotopic systematics of the Estherville mesoderite were studied using analytical procedures and mass spectrometric techniques similar to those reported by Nakamura et al. (1976), Tatsumoto et al. (1987), and Premo et al. (1989) to analyze 21 separates of a 13-g Estherville clast, obtained either by handpicking or by using density and magnetic separation methods. The results on the Pb-Pb and U-Pb ages (about 4555 and about 4560 Ma, respectively) indicate that at least a part of the Estherville silicate fraction was formed early in the history of solar system. Younger Pb-Pb and U-Pb ages (about 4.43 Ga) were also obtained, confirming the heterogeneity of the Estherville mesoderite that is in agreement with the Wasson and Rubin (1985) suggestion of several generations of meteoritic impacts. The Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr ages were found to be close to 4.56 Ga.

  11. The Estherville mesosiderite - U-Pb, Rb-Sr, and Sm-Nd isotopic study of a polymict breccia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouxel, M.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1991-04-01

    The U-Pb, Rb-Sr, and Sm-Nd isotopic systematics of the Estherville mesoderite were studied using analytical procedures and mass spectrometric techniques similar to those reported by Nakamura et al. (1976), Tatsumoto et al. (1987), and Premo et al. (1989) to analyze 21 separates of a 13-g Estherville clast, obtained either by handpicking or by using density and magnetic separation methods. The results on the Pb-Pb and U-Pb ages (about 4555 and about 4560 Ma, respectively) indicate that at least a part of the Estherville silicate fraction was formed early in the history of solar system. Younger Pb-Pb and U-Pb ages (about 4.43 Ga) were also obtained, confirming the heterogeneity of the Estherville mesoderite that is in agreement with the Wasson and Rubin (1985) suggestion of several generations of meteoritic impacts. The Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr ages were found to be close to 4.56 Ga.

  12. Age and Petrogenesis of Picritic Shergottite NWA1068: Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr Isotopic Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Wiesmann, H.; Barrat, J. A.

    2003-01-01

    NWA 1068 is a 577g picritic shergottite found in the Moroccan Sahara in 2001. The meteorite resembles several other picritic shergottites, e.g. EETA79001B, DaG476, SaU005 and Dho019, in major-element chemistry and mineralogy, but it differs significantly from these meteorites in REE distribution pattern. It has a slightly LREE-depleted pattern commonly shared by some olivine-free basaltic shergottites, e.g. Shergotty, Zagami and Los Angeles, but not QUE94201. Detailed geochemical and mineral-petrological studies were given in. We performed Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic analyses on this rock to determine its crystallization age and to study the petrogenetic relationship between this meteorite and other basaltic and pricritic shergottites.

  13. Age and Petrogenesis of Picritic Shergottite NWA1068: Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr Isotopic Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Wiesmann, H.; Barrat, J. A.

    2003-01-01

    NWA 1068 is a 577g picritic shergottite found in the Moroccan Sahara in 2001. The meteorite resembles several other picritic shergottites, e.g. EETA79001B, DaG476, SaU005 and Dho019, in major-element chemistry and mineralogy, but it differs significantly from these meteorites in REE distribution pattern. It has a slightly LREE-depleted pattern commonly shared by some olivine-free basaltic shergottites, e.g. Shergotty, Zagami and Los Angeles, but not QUE94201. Detailed geochemical and mineral-petrological studies were given in. We performed Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic analyses on this rock to determine its crystallization age and to study the petrogenetic relationship between this meteorite and other basaltic and pricritic shergottites.

  14. A Sm-Nd isotopic study of atmospheric dusts and particulates from major river systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, S. L.; Onions, R. K.; Hamilton, P. J.

    1984-01-01

    Nd-143/Nd-144 ratios, together with Sm and Nd abundances, are given for particulates from major and minor rivers as well as continental sediments and aeolian dusts collected over the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. In combination with data from the literature, the present results have implications for the age, history, and composition of the sedimentary mass and the continental crust. It is noted that the average ratio of Sm/Nd is about 0.19 in the upper continental crust, and has remained so since the early Archean, thereby precluding the likelihood of major mafic-to-felsic or felsic-to-mafic trends in the overall composition of the upper continental crust through earth history. The average 'crustal residence age' of the entire sedimentary mass is about 1.9 Ga.

  15. A Sm-Nd and Pb isotope study of Archaean greenstone belts in the southern Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, A. H.; Carlson, R. W.

    1989-01-01

    An Sm-Nd and Pb study on a wide variety of lithologies in Archaean greenstone belt fragments in the southern Kaapvaal Craton reveals a complex petrogenetic history. The fragments are important because they represent a 350 km transect through the craton south of Barberton to its southern margin. The Commondale greenstone belt yields a precise Sm-Nd age of 3334 + or - 18 Ma on an exceptionally well preserved peridotite suite of komatiitic affinity. The wide range of Sm/Nd from 0.6 to 1.0 is attributed to the unusual occurrence of orthopyroxene in the spinifex-bearing rocks. A considerably younger age of about 3.2 Ga is suggested for the Nondweni greenstone belt close to the southern margin of the craton on the basis of separate Sm-Nd isochrons on individual lithologies ranging from komatiite, through komatiitic basalt and basalt to felsic volcanic rocks. On the basis of the present study the greenstone belts appear to have been emplaced at progressively younger ages toward the southern margin of the craton.

  16. Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr Isotopic Studies of Meteorite Kalahari 009: An Old VLT Mare Basalt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Reese, Y.; Bischoff, A.

    2008-01-01

    Lunar meteorite Kalahari 009 is a fragmental basaltic breccia contain ing various very-low-Ti (VLT) mare basalt clasts embedded in a fine-g rained matrix of similar composition. This meteorite and lunar meteorite Kalahari 008, an anorthositic breccia, were suggested to be paired mainly due to the presence of similar fayalitic olivines in fragment s found in both meteorites. Thus, Kalahari 009 probably represents a VLT basalt that came from a locality near a mare-highland boundary r egion of the Moon, as compared to the typical VLT mare basalt samples collected at Mare Crisium during the Luna-24 mission. The concordant Sm-Nd and Ar-Ar ages of such a VLT basalt (24170) suggest that the extrusion of VLT basalts at Mare Crisium occurred 3.30 +/- 0.05 Ga ag o. Previous age results for Kalahari 009 range from approximately 4.2 Ga by its Lu-Hf isochron age to 1.70?0.04 Ga of its Ar-Ar plateau ag e. However, recent in-situ U-Pb dating of phosphates in Kalahari 009 defined an old crystallization age of 4.35+/- 0.15 Ga. The authors su ggested that Kalahari 009 represents a cryptomaria basalt. In this r eport, we present Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotopic results for Kalahari 009, discuss the relationship of its age and isotopic characteristics to t hose of other L-24 VLT mare basalts and other probable cryptomaria ba salts represented by Apollo 14 aluminous mare basalts, and discuss it s petrogenesis.

  17. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd Isotopic Studies of Martian Depleted Shergottes SaU 094/005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Reese, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Sayh al Uhaymir (SaU) 094 and SaU 005 are olivine-phyric shergottites from the Oman desert and are considered as pairs. [e.g., 1]. They are very similar to the Libyan desert shergottite Dar al Gani (DaG) 476 in petrology, chemistry and ejection age [2-6]. This group of shergottites, also recognized as depleted shergottites [e.g. 7] has been strongly shocked and contains very low abundances of light rare earth elements (REE). In addition, terrestrial contaminants are commonly present in meteorites found in desert environments. Age-dating these samples is very challenging, but lower calcite contents in the SaU meteorites suggest that they have been subjected to less severe desert weathering than their DaG counterparts [3-4]. In this report, we present Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic results for SaU 094 and SaU 005, discuss the correlation of their ages with those of other similar shergottites, and discuss their petrogenesis.

  18. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd Isotopic Studies of Lunar Highland Meteorite Y86032 and Lunar Ferroan Anorthosites 60025 and 67075

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Reese, Y.; Yamaguchi, A.; Takeda, H.

    2005-01-01

    Lunar meteorite Yamato (Y) 86032 is a feldspathic breccia containing anorthositic fragments similar to ferroan anorthosite (FAN) clasts commonly found in Apollo 16 highland rocks. Previous Ar-39-Ar-40 analyses of a grey anorthositic clast (,116 GC) in Y86032 revealed an old degassing age of 4.39 plus or minus 0.06 Ga, which is as old as crystallization ages of some FANs e.g. 60025, 67016 and 67215, as determined by the more robust Sm-Nd radiometric method. The calculated initial Nd value for the clast is -1.8 plus or minus 0.3 for the age. The old age and its negative initial Nd value indicate that Y86032 contains components of the primitive lunar crust related to the lunar magma ocean (LMO). We undertook further Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic investigation of three major lithologies in the meteorite as described in the mineralogical and petrological studies. Ar-39-Ar-40 analyses of these component lithologies are presented in this volume. Also, we analyzed two Apollo 16 FANs, 60025 and 67075, to compare their ages and isotopic signatures to Y86032. Y86032 probably came from a feldspathic highland terrane (FHT) on the northern farside highlands, a locality not sampled by the Apollo and Luna missions.

  19. The Chronology and Petrogenesis of the Mare Basalt Clast from Lunar Meteorite Dhofar 287: Rb-Sr and Sm- Nd Isotopic Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Reese, Y.; Wiesmann, H.; Nazarov, M. A.; Taylor, L. A.

    2002-01-01

    The Sm-Nd isochron for lunar mare basalt meteorite Dhofar 287A yields T = 3.46 +/- 0.03 Ga and Nd = 0.6 +/- 0.3. Its Rb-Sr isotopic system is severely altered. The basalt is unique, probably coming from an enriched mantle source. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  20. The Chronology and Petrogenesis of the Mare Basalt Clast from Lunar Meteorite Dhofar 287: Rb-Sr and Sm- Nd Isotopic Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Reese, Y.; Wiesmann, H.; Nazarov, M. A.; Taylor, L. A.

    2002-01-01

    The Sm-Nd isochron for lunar mare basalt meteorite Dhofar 287A yields T = 3.46 +/- 0.03 Ga and Nd = 0.6 +/- 0.3. Its Rb-Sr isotopic system is severely altered. The basalt is unique, probably coming from an enriched mantle source. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  1. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd Studies of Olivine-Phyric Shergottites RBT 04262 and LAR 06319: Isotopic Evidence for Relationship to Enriched Basaltic Shergottites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L.E.; Shih, C.-Y.; Reese, Y.

    2009-01-01

    RBT 04262 and LAR 06319 are two Martian meteorites recently discovered in Antarctica. Both contain abundant olivines, and were classified as olivine-phyric shergottites. A detailed petrographic study of RBT 04262 suggested it should be reclassified as a lherzolitic shergottite. However, the moderately LREE-depleted REE distribution pattern indicated that it is closely related to enriched basaltic shergottites like Shergotty, Zagami, Los Angeles, etc. In earlier studies of a similarly olivinephyric shergottite NWA 1068 which contains 21% modal olivine, it was shown that it probably was produced from an enriched basaltic shergottite magma by olivine accumulation . As for LAR 06319, recent petrographic studies suggested that it is different from either lherzolitic shergottites or the highly LREE-depleted olivine-phyric shergottites. We performed Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic analyses on RBT 04262 and LAR 06319 to determine their crystallization ages and Sr and Nd isotopic signatures, and to better understand the petrogenetic relationships between them and other basaltic, lherzolitic and depleted olivine-phyric shergottites.

  2. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic study of the Glen Mountains layered complex: initiation of rifting within the southern Oklahoma aulacogen

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, D.D.; Unruh, D.M.; Gilbert, M.C.

    1988-01-01

    Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic data for rocks and minerals of the Glen Mountains layered complex (GMLC), a midcontinent mafic layered intrusion in the Wichita Mountains of southwestern Oklahoma, constrain the time of initiation of rifting within the southern Oklahoma aulacogen and provide information on the chemistry of the early Paleozoic mantle. Four whole-rock samples define a Rb-Sr isochron corresponding to a maximum crystallization age of 577 +/- 165 Ma and an initial Sr isotopic composition of 0.70359 +/- 2. A three-point Sm-Nd mineral-whole-rock (internal) isochron for an anorthositic gabbro provides a crystallization age of 528 +/- 29 Ma. These data suggest that the GMLC was emplaced into the southern Oklahoma aulacogen during the initial phase of rifting along the southern margin of the North American craton in the early Paleozoic. This Sm-Nd internal isochron age is within analytical uncertainty of U-Pb zircon ages for granites and rhyolites from the Wichita Mountains; therefore, mafic and felsic magmatism may have been contemporaneous within the rift during the early stages of development. Hybrid rocks and composite dikes in the Wichita Mountains provide field evidence for contemporaneous mafic and felsic magmas. Initial Sr and Nd isotopic data suggest that magmas parental to the GMLC were derived from a depleted mantle source. However, Nd isotopic data for the GMLC plot distinctly below data for the depleted mantle source cited by DePaolo and thus suggest that the parental magmas of the GMLC were either contaminated by Proterozoic crust of the southern midcontinent or were derived from a heterogenous mantle source region that had variable initial Nd isotopic compositions.

  3. A combined Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr, and U-Pb isotopic study of Mg-suite norite 78238: Further evidence for early differentiation of the Moon

    SciTech Connect

    Edmunson, J; E.Borg, L; Nyquist, L E; Asmerom, Y

    2008-11-17

    Lunar Mg-suite norite 78238 was dated using the Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr, and U-Pb isotopic systems in order to constrain the age of lunar magma ocean solidification and the beginning of Mg-suite magmatism, as well as to provide a direct comparison between the three isotopic systems. The Sm-Nd isotopic system yields a crystallization age for 78238 of 4334 {+-} 37 Ma and an initial {var_epsilon}{sub Nd}{sup 143} value of -0.27 {+-} 0.74. The age-initial {var_epsilon}{sub Nd}{sup 143} (T-I) systematics of a variety of KREEP-rich samples, including 78238 and other Mg-suite rocks, KREEP basalts, and olivine cumulate NWA 773, suggest that lunar differentiation was completed by 4492 {+-} 61 Ma assuming a Chondritic Uniform Reservoir bulk composition for the Moon. The Rb-Sr isotopic systematics of 78238 were disturbed by post-crystallization processes. Nevertheless, selected data points yield two Rb-Sr isochrons. One is concordant with the Sm-Nd crystallization age, 4366 {+-} 53 Ma. The other is 4003 {+-} 95 Ma and is concordant with an Ar-Ar age for 78236. The {sup 207}Pb-{sup 206}Pb age of 4333 {+-} 59 Ma is concordant with the Sm-Nd age. The U-Pb isotopic systematics of 78238 yield linear arrays equivalent to younger ages than the Pb-Pb system, and may reflect fractionation of U and Pb during sample handling. Despite the disturbed nature of the U-Pb systems, a time-averaged {mu} ({sup 238}U/{sup 204}Pb) value of the source can be estimated at 27 {+-} 30 from the Pb-Pb isotopic systematics. Because KREEP-rich samples are likely to be derived from source regions with the highest U/Pb ratios, the relatively low {mu} value calculated for the 78238 source suggests the bulk Moon does not have an exceedingly high {mu} value.

  4. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd Isotopic Studies of Shergottite Y980459 and a Petrogenetic Link Between Depleted Shergottites and Nakhlites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Wiesmann, H.; Misawa, K.

    2004-01-01

    Y980459 was found near the Minami-Yamato Nunataks, Antarctica in 1998 and was recently classified as an olivine-bearing shergottite. It petrographically resembles many other olivine-phyric shergottites mostly found in hot deserts, e.g. DaG476/489, SaU005/094, Dohfar 019, NWA 1068/1110, NWA 1195 and EETA 79001 lith.A. However, Y980459 is unique among these meteorites in several respects. It is apparently very fresh and only weakly shocked. Also, it completely lacks plagioclase, but contains abundant residual volcanic glass. This group of olivine-phyric shergottites is characterized by variable crystallization ages from approx.172 Ma to approx.575 Ma and ejection ages from approx.1 Ma to approx.20 Ma. They probably represent volcanic melts originated from the deep Martian mantle. We performed Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic analyses on Y980459 to determine its crystallization age and compared its age and isotopic signatures with those obtained from other olivine-phyric shergottites and QUE 94201, the other Antarctic olivine-free shergottite. QUE 94201 and some olivine-phyric shergottites e.g. DaG, SaU, Doh and EETA lith A have similar depleted-LREE patterns and are herein referred to as depleted shergottites. A petrogenetic model correlating depleted shergottites and nakhlites is also proposed. Preliminary Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic data for Y980459 were presented earlier at the NIPR, Japan, in 2003.

  5. Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf isotope composition of chondritic components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouvier, A.; Vervoort, J. D.; Patchett, P. J.; Gopel, C.

    2009-12-01

    The 146Sm-142Nd, 147Sm-143Nd and 176Lu-176Hf radiogenic isotopic systems are widely used as chronometers and tracers of planetary evolution. These involve refractory lithophile elements and thus it is assumed that the average Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf composition of bulk terrestrial planets should be the same as that of chondrites (CHUR). We previously revised the CHUR compositions with 0.1960 ±0.0004 for 147Sm/144Nd and with 0.0336 ±0.0001 for 176Lu/177Hf using unequilibrated ordinary (OC) and carbonaceous (CC) chondrites [1], and proposed these should apply to the bulk silicate Earth (BSE). Recent studies suggest that BSE may have a super-chondritic Sm/Nd (~5%) and Lu/Hf (~10%) composition and could explain the Nd and Hf isotopic systematics of Earth and planetary materials [2, 3]. Here, we present additional Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf compositions of chondrites and chondritic components to evaluate potential isotopic heterogeneities present in the protoplanetary disk. Isotopic analyses were carried out by Neptune MC-ICPMS at ASU. Analytical details are in [1, 4]. We extend our study to homogenized whole-rock (WR) powders of 4 equilibrated OC to investigate the scale of Lu-Hf isotopic heterogeneities as consequences of thermal metamorphism on the OC parent bodies (PB) [1]. Their 147Sm/144Nd and 176Lu/177Hf vary from 0.1954 to 0.1969, and 0.0298 to 0.0341 respectively indicating that open metasomatism associated with crystallization of phosphate [1] occurred at least at the cm scale on the OCPB. We also present the first Lu-Hf and coupled Sm-Nd isotopic data of 6 single or pooled chondrules, and 2 calcium aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) from 5 type 3 OC & CC. The 147Sm/144Nd and 176Lu/177Hf ranges are 0.1956-0.1969, and 0.0331-0.0341 respectively for chondrules, and 0.1947-0.2147, and 0.0392-0.0501 respectively for CAIs. The chondrules are within the range of our earlier Sm/Nd and Lu/Hf CHUR-BSE estimates but the CAIs have significantly higher values, especially for Lu/Hf. Thus

  6. Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotopic systematics of ureilites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodrich, C. A.; Patchett, P. J.; Lugmair, G. W.; Drake, M. J.

    1991-03-01

    The present evaluation of Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotopic data for seven ureilites establishes their divisions into three groups on the bases of Sm-Nd isotopic systematics. The first group of ureilites is made up of whole-rock samples whose highly depleted assemblages indicate Sm-Nd model ages consistent with 4.55 Ga. The second group of whole-rock samples of Kenna, Novo Urei, and ALHA77257 are heterogeneous mixtures of an unidentified light REE-enriched component and a light REE-depleted olivine-pyroxene assemblage. In the third group, LEW85440 neither has a model Sm-Nd age of 4.55 Ga nor plots of the 3.74 Ga isochron of the Kenna group; it might have had an evolution similar to the Kenna group, but involving different times and/or isotopic compositions.

  7. A Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd Isotope Geochronology and Trace Element Study of Lunar Meteorite LaPaz Icefield 02205

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rankenburg, K.; Brandon, A. D.; Norman, M. D.

    2007-01-01

    Rubidium-strontium and samarium-neodymium isotopes of lunar meteorite LaPaz Icefield (LAP) 02205 are consistent with derivation of the parent magma from a source region similar to that which produced the Apollo 12 low-Ti olivine basalts followed by mixing of the magma with small amounts (1 to 2 wt%) of trace element-enriched material similar to lunar KREEP-rich sample SaU 169. The crystallization age of LAP 02205 is most precisely dated by an internal Rb-Sr isochron of 2991+/-14 Ma, with an initial Sr-87/Sr-88 at the time of crystallization of 0.699836+/-0.000010. Leachable REE-rich phosphate phases of LAP 02205 do not plot on a Sm-Nd mineral isochron, indicating contamination or open system behavior of the phosphates. Excluding anomalous phases from the calculation of a Sm-Nd isochron yields a crystallization age of 2992+/-85 (initial Epsilon Nd-143 = +2.9+/-0.8) that is within error of the Rb-Sr age, and in agreement with other independent age determinations for LAP 02205 from Ar-Ar and U-Pb methods. The calculated Sm-147/Nd-144 source ratios for LAP 02205, various Apollo 12 and 15 basalts, and samples with strong affinities to KREEP (SaU 169, NWA 773, 15386) are uncorrelated with their crystallization ages. This finding does not support the involvement of a common KREEP component as a heat source for lunar melting events that occurred after crystallization of the lunar magma ocean.

  8. Rb Sr, Sm Nd and Ar Ar isotopic systematics of Martian dunite Chassigny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misawa, K.; Shih, C.-Y.; Reese, Y.; Bogard, D. D.; Nyquist, L. E.

    2006-06-01

    Isotopic analysis of the Martian meteorite Chassigny yields a Rb-Sr age of 1406 ± 14 Ma with an initial 87Sr/ 86Sr ratio of 0.702251 ± 0.000034, a Sm-Nd age of 1386 ± 28 Ma with an initial ɛ143Nd-value of + 16.9 ± 0.3 and an 39Ar- 40Ar age of 1360 + 40 - 20 Ma. The concordance of these ages and the Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd initial isotopic signatures suggest that Chassigny crystallized from low Rb/Sr, light rare earth element depleted source materials ˜ 1390 Ma ago. The ages and ɛ143Nd-values of Chassigny and the nakhlites Governador Valadares and Lafayette overlap, suggesting that they could have come from very similar mantle sources. Nakhla, Northwest Africa 998 and Yamato 000593 appear to be from similar but distinct sources. Chassigny and all nakhlites so far studied have undergone similar evolution histories. That is, chassignites/nakhlites were derived from a region where volcanism lasted at least 50 Ma and crystallized from different lava flows or subsurface sills. They probably were launched from Mars by a single impact event. The trapped Martian atmospheric 40Ar/ 36Ar ratios in Chassigny, nakhlites and shergottite impact glass are similar and possibly indicate minimal change in this ratio over the past ≥ 600 Ma.

  9. Oxygen isotope equilibrium between eclogite minerals and its constraints on mineral Sm-Nd chronometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yong-Fei; Wang, Zheng-Rong; Li, Shu-Guang; Zhao, Zi-Fu

    2002-02-01

    Sm-Nd and oxygen isotope analyses were carried out for mineral separates of ultrahigh pressure eclogites from the Sulu terrane in eastern China. The results show a direct correspondence in equilibrium or disequilibrium state between the oxygen and Sm-Nd isotope systems of eclogite minerals. The omphacite-garnet pairs of oxygen isotope equilibrium at eclogite-facies conditions yield meaningful Triassic Sm-Nd isochron ages, whereas those of oxygen isotope disequilibrium give non-Triassic ages of geological meaninglessness. This can be reasonably interpreted by the fact that the rates of oxygen diffusion in garnet and pyroxene are lower than, or close to, those of Nd diffusion, and thus attainment of isotopic equilibrium in the omphacite-garnet O system suggests achievement of Nd isotope equilibrium in the same mineral pairs. The presence or absence of fluid in the eclogite protoliths is a major rate-controlling factor for isotopic equilibration during high-grade metamorphism. It appears that the state of oxygen isotope equilibrium between cogenetic minerals can provide a critical test for the validity of the Sm-Nd mineral chronometer. In addition, the exact timing of the ultrahigh pressure metamorphism in the Dabie-Sulu terranes is constrained at Early Triassic rather than Late Triassic.

  10. Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, K-Ca, O, and H isotopic study of Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary sediments, Caravaca, Spain: evidence for an oceanic impact site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DePaolo, D.J.; Kyte, F.T.; Marshall, B.D.; O'Neil, J.R.; Smit, J.

    1983-01-01

    Isotopic ratios and trace element abundances were measured on samples of Ir-enriched clay at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, and in carbonate and marl from 5 cm below and 3 cm above the boundary. Samples were leached with acetic acid to remove carbonate, and with hydrochloric acid. Leachates and residues were measured. The Sr, Nd, O and H isotopic compositions of the boundary clay residues are distinct from those of the stratigraphically neighboring materials. The data indicate that most of the clay material was derived from a terrestrial source with relatively low 87Sr/86Sr and high 143Nd/144Nd ratios. The ??18O data suggest that the detritus has been modified by submarine weathering. K-Ca and Rb-Sr systematics, as well as O isotope ratios of K-feldspar spherules within the boundary clay, suggest that they are predominantly authigenic and may have formed after the time of deposition. However, Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotopic data indicate that the spherules contain relict material that provides information on the nature of the original detritus. The isotopic evidence for foreign terrestrial detritus in the boundary clay, the low rare earth element concentrations and high Ni concentration, support the hypothesis of a terminal Cretaceous asteroidal impact that produced a global layer of fallout. The data are most easily explained if the impact site was on oceanic crust rather than continental crust, and if a substantial fraction of the fallout was derived from relatively deep within the lithosphere (>3 km). This would probably require a single large impactor. ?? 1983.

  11. Whole-rock Pb and Sm-Nd isotopic constraints on the growth of southeastern Laurentia during Grenvillian orogenesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, C.M.; Loewy, S.L.; Miller, C.F.; Berquist, P.; Van Schmus, W. R.; Hatcher, R.D.; Wooden, J.L.; Fullagar, P.D.

    2010-01-01

    The conventional view that the basement of the southern and central Appalachians represents juvenile Mesoproterozoic crust, the final stage of growth of Laurentia prior to Grenville collision, has recently been challenged. New whole-rock Pb and Sm-Nd isotopic data are presented from Meso protero zoic basement in the southern and central Appalachians and the Granite-Rhyolite province, as well as one new U-Pb zircon age from the Granite-Rhyolite province. These data, combined with existing data from Mesoproterozoic terranes throughout southeastern Laurentia, further substantiate recent suggestions that the southern and central Appalachian basement is exotic with respect to Laurentia. Sm-Nd isotopic compositions of most rocks from the southern and central Appalachian basement are consistent with progressive growth through reworking of the adjacent Granite-Rhyolite province. However, Pb isotopic data, including new analyses from important regions not sampled in previous studies, do not correspond with Pb isotopic compositions of any adjacent crust. The most distinct ages and isotopic compositions in the southern and central Appalachian basement come from the Roan Mountain area, eastern Tennessee-western North Carolina. The data set indicates U-Pb zircon ages up to 1.8 Ga for igneous rocks, inherited and detrital zircon ages >2.0 Ga, Sm-Nd depleted mantle model (TDM) ages >2.0 Ga, and the most elevated 207Pb/204Pb observed in southeastern Laurentia. The combined U-Pb geochronologic and Sm-Nd and Pb isotopic data preclude derivation of southern and central Appalachian basement from any nearby crustal material and demonstrate that Grenville age crust in southeastern Laurentia is exotic and probably was transferred during collision and assembly of Rodinia. These new data better define the boundary between the exotic southern and central Appalachian basement and adjacent Laurentian Granite-Rhyolite province. ?? 2010 Geological Society of America.

  12. Do supercontinents introvert or extrovert?: Sm-Nd isotope evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brendan Murphy, J.; Damian Nance, R.

    2003-10-01

    In recent years, two end-member models for the formation of supercontinents have emerged. In the classical Wilson cycle, oceanic crust generated during supercontinent breakup (the interior ocean) is consumed during subsequent amalgamation so that the supercontinent turns “inside in” (introversion). Alternatively, following supercontinent breakup, the exterior margins of the dispersing continental fragments collide during reassembly so that the supercontinent turns “outside in” (extroversion). These end-member models can be distinguished by comparing the Sm-Nd crust-formation ages of accreted mafic complexes (e.g., ophiolites) in the collisional orogens formed during supercontinent assembly with the breakup age of the previous supercontinent. For supercontinents generated by introversion, these crust-formation ages postdate rifting of the previous supercontinent. For supercontinents generated by extroversion, the oceanic lithosphere consumed during reassembly predates breakup of the previous supercontinent, so that crust-formation ages of accreted mafic complexes are older than the age of rifting. In the Paleozoic Appalachian-Caledonide-Variscan orogen, a key collisional orogen in the assembly of Pangea, crust-formation ages of accretionary mafic complexes postdate the formation of the Iapetus Ocean (i.e., are younger than ca. 0.6 Ga), suggesting supercontinent reassembly by introversion. By contrast, the Neoproterozoic East African and Brasiliano orogens, which formed during the amalgamation of Gondwana, are characterized by mafic complexes with crust-formation ages (ca. 0.75 1.2 Ga) that predate the ca. 750 Ma breakup of Rodinia. Hence, these complexes must have formed from lithosphere in the exterior ocean that surrounded Rodinia, implying that this ocean was consumed during the amalgamation of Gondwana. These data indicate that Pangea and Gondwana were formed by introversion and extroversion, respectively, implying that supercontinents can be assembled

  13. Sm-Nd isotopic study of Precambrian/Cambrian sedimentary provenance in the Great Basin and implications for the tectonic evolution of the western US

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    The Nd isotopic compositions and Sm-Nd model ages were determined for 14 Precambrian to Cambrian clastic miogeoclinal and 2 Lower Paleozoic eugeoclinal metasedimentary rocks in the Great Basin to determine the sediment source regions and constrain the tectonic evolution of the western margin of the continental US Upper Precambrian (McCoy Creek Group-MCG) and Lower Cambrian miogeoclinal sandstones and shales have homogeneous 147SM/144Nd values (.110 to .119) but show a regional variation in measured element of/sub Nd/, from values of -18 and -26 (T/sub DM/=1.9 and 2.5Ga) in the Pilot and Ruby Ranges in N. Nevada, to values clustering at -11 and -18 (T/sub DM/=1.3 and 1.9Ga) in the Deep Creek and Schell Creek Ranges in the east-central Great Basin. The isotopic variations in the MCG correspond spatially to changes in the element of/sub ND/(0) and T/sub DM/ Precambrian basement adjacent to the miogeocline, suggesting that the MCG were derived from these crustal terranes and were deposited close to the paleocontinental margin of the western US. An element of/sub Nd/(0)=22.14 (T/sub DM/=2.1 Ga) for deeper water miogeoclinal sediment in the southern Great Basin (Wyman Fm-White Mountains, California) requires a source either in nearby T/sub DM/=2.2Ga crust in the S. Sierra Nevada (Bennett and DePaolo, 1984), or in T/sub DM/>2.0Ga crustal terranes to the north, with the sediment having been transported southward via Precambrian longshore currents. Feldspathic sandstone of the Cambrian Harmony Formation in north-central Nevada has element of/sub Nd/(0)=-25.22 (T/sub DM/=2.4Ga), consistent with a northerly source in Archean crust of present-day Idaho, while Ordovician shale of the Vinini Fm. in central Nevada has element of/sub Nd/(0)=-17.6, identical to values for the MCG exposed directly to the east.

  14. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd Study of the D'Orbigny Angrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tonui, E. K.; Ngo, H.H.; Papanastassiou, D. A.

    2003-01-01

    D'Orbigny, is a relatively a new angrite find. Angrites are achondrites that show unique mineralogy and typically ancient crystallization ages. D Orbigny has been described extensively by. We have initiated a study of D Orbigny. A Pb-Pb model age of 4559 Ga has been reported. The presence of Pu-244 fission Xe in D Orbigny has also been reported. We present Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr results and a Mn-53-Cr-53 study is in progress. We had expected to find a relatively well-behaved Sm-Nd system, and distinct evidence for the Sm-146-Nd-142 system. Emphasis in this study was placed on the precise measurement of initial Sr-87/Sr-86, since primitive initial Sr-87/Sr-86 may be characteristic of the angrite parent body. Sr isotope measurements were obtained in the recently completed laboratories at JPL, using the ThermoFinnigan Triton mass spectrometer. Due to lower amounts of Nd and Sm, Sm-Nd data were obtained on the Lunatic I spectrometer at Caltech, due to established high ionization techniques, on this instrument using light rare earth oxide ions.

  15. The U-Th-Pb, Sm-Nd, and Ar-Ar isotopic systematics of lunar meteorite Yamato-793169

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torigoye, Noriko; Misawa, Keji; Dalrymple, G. Brent; Tatsumoto, Mitsunobu

    1993-01-01

    U-Th-Pb, Sm-Nd, and (Ar-40)-(Ar-39) isotopic studies were performed on Yamato (Y)-793169, an unbrecciated diabasic lunar meteorite whose chemical composition is close to low Ti(LT) and very low-Ti (VLT) mare basalts. The isotopic data indicate that the meteorite was formed earlier than 3.9 Ga from a source with low U/Pb and high Sm/Nd and was distributed by a thermal event at 751 Ma. due to the small sample size (104 mg), a plagioclase crystal and glass grains were handpicked for Ar analysis, leaving four fractions for the U-Th-Pb and Sm-Nd studies; a fine-grained fraction (less than 63 microns; Fine) and three medium-grained fractions (63-150 microns). Medium-grained fractions were divided by density; a heavy fraction (rho greater than 3.3) consisting mainly of pyroxene (PX1), a lighter fraction (rho less than 2.8) consisting of plagioclase (PL), and a middle density fraction (predominantly pyroxene; PX2). The fractions were washed with acetone and alcohol, and then leached in 0.01 HBr and 0.1N HBr in order to remove any terrestrial Pb contamination. Analysis of the HBr leaches revealed that this meteorite was heavily contaminated with terrestrial Pb during its residence in Antarctic ice.

  16. The importance of late- and post-orogenic crustal growth in the early Proterozoic: Evidence from Sm-Nd isotopic studies of igneous rocks in the Makkovik Province, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Andrew; Fryer, Brian J.

    1994-07-01

    Sm-Nd isotopic studies suggest that large tracts of 1900-1700 Ma old crust in Laurentia-Baltica is of 'juvenile' origin. This crust has generally been ascribed to arc magmatism, sustained over long periods, and most conceptual models for crustal growth emphasize this process. The late- to post-orogenic granitoid rocks that areally dominate many ancient orogenic belts are commonly viewed as anatectic derivatives of the earlier arc-type crust. However, in regions of short crustal residence, the time resolution of isotopic tracers, such as the Sm-Nd system, does not permit discrimination between this model and continued growth of the crust during post-orogenic magmatism. The relative contributions of recycled crust and new, mantle-derived material in late- to post-orogenic magmas can only be assessed where they also transect much older crustal blocks. The Nd isotopic signatures of 1800-1720 Ma igneous suites in the Makkovik Province define such a boundary between an Archean craton and a juvenile Proterozoic domain. In the juvenile domain, the Nd signatures of most igneous suites are equivocal (initial epsilon(sub Nd) = 0 to +2), and they could be anatectic derivatives of slightly older orthogneisses; however, addition of new, mantle-derived material is documented by 'A-type' granites with initial epsilon(sub Nd) up to +4. In the cratonic domain, temporally and compositionally equivalent igneous suites mostly have initial epsilon(sub Nd) of -7 to -3, significantly above local Archean basement, which has epsilon(sub Nd) of -15 at 1800 Ma. Conservative calculations suggest that most of these suites contain more than 50% new, mantle-derived material. These results suggest significant crustal growth via late-stage magmatism, and direct interaction of mantle-derived magmas and lower crustal rocks. In contrast, 1650 Ma igneous suites lack clear systematic variation in epsilon(sub Nd), and are interpreted as representing crustal growth via later, distal, arc-type magmatism

  17. The Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotopic composition of CHUR: Constraints from unequilibrated chondrites and implications for the bulk composition of terrestrial planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouvier, Audrey; Vervoort, Jeffrey D.; Patchett, P. Jonathan

    2008-08-01

    The Lutetium-Hafnium radiogenic isotopic system is widely used as a chronometer and tracer of planetary evolution. In order for this isotopic system to fulfill its potential in planetary studies, the Lu-Hf system parameters need to be more tightly constrained, in particular the Lu-Hf isotopic composition of the chondritic uniform reservoir (CHUR) and, by extension, the bulk silicate Earth (BSE). We present new Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotopic compositions of unequilibrated carbonaceous, ordinary, and enstatite chondrites of petrologic types 1, 2, and 3 which define a narrow range of Lu/Hf ratios (3%) identical with that of Sm/Nd. This contrasts with previously published data from mostly equilibrated ordinary chondrites of petrologic types 4, 5, and 6 which have a much larger range in Lu/Hf (28%). This heterogeneity has hampered an unambiguous choice for the Lu-Hf isotopic composition of CHUR. Our new determinations of Lu-Hf CHUR parameters are 176Lu/177Hf = 0.0336 ± 1 and 176Hf/177Hf = 0.282785 ± 11 (2σm), which are higher than previous estimates and, together with average Sm-Nd chondrite compositions of unequilibrated chondrites of 147Sm/144Nd = 0.1960 ± 4 and 143Nd/144Nd = 0.512630 ± 11 (2σm), now provide firm constraints on the chondritic parameters for both Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotopic systems. A comparison of Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd data show that terrestrial planets, as well as early differentiated planetesimals, converge toward a common initial Hf and Nd isotope composition corresponding to the average of chondrites. Finally, a compilation of Lu-Hf isotopic data of unequilibrated and equilibrated chondrites demonstrates that the 176Lu decay decay-constant value cannot be resolved by age comparison on metamorphosed or shocked planetary materials which have a complex history.

  18. Sm-Nd age and isotopic systematics of the bimodal suite, ancient gneiss complex, Swaziland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, R.W.; Hunter, D.R.; Barker, F.

    1983-01-01

    Studies of the development and stabilization of the Archaean crust often focus on the relative temporal relationships between the metamorphosed basaltic to ultramafic volcanic units (greenstone belts) and the sialic gneiss terrains that make up the oldest sections of the terrestrial crust. At the heart of this interest are the questions of the processes responsible for crust formation in the Archaean and whether or not the various units of an Archaean crustal section represent new additions to the crust from the mantle or are products of the reprocessing of even older crustal materials. One area where this controversy has been particularly pronounced is the Archaean crustal section of south-west Africa1-6. The oldest rocks in the Kaapvaal craton consist of the Onverwacht Group of mafic to ultramafic metavolcanics of the Barberton greenstone belt and a grey-gneiss complex termed the ancient gneiss complex (AGC) of Swaziland. We report here the results of a whole-rock Sm-Nd isotopic study of the AGC and the implications these data may have for crustal evolution in the Kaapvaal craton. ?? 1983 Nature Publishing Group.

  19. Simultaneous in situ determination of U-Pb and Sm-Nd isotopes in monazite by laser ablation ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudie, Dylan J.; Fisher, Christopher M.; Hanchar, John M.; Crowley, James L.; Ayers, John C.

    2014-06-01

    are presented for in situ simultaneous determination of U-Pb and Sm-Nd isotopes in monazite using the Laser Ablation Split-Stream (LASS) method. This method uses a laser ablation system coupled to a magnetic-sector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HR) (ICP-MS) for measuring U-Pb isotopes and a multicollector (MC) ICP-MS for measuring Sm-Nd isotopes. Ablated material is split using a Y-connector and transported simultaneously to both mass spectrometers. In addition to Sm and Nd isotopes, the MC-ICP-MS is configured to also acquire Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, and Gd elemental abundances. This approach provides age, tracer isotope, and trace element data in the same ablation volume, reducing sampling problems associated with fine-scale zoning in accessory minerals and minimizing the material needed for ablation. Precision and accuracy of the U-Pb method (and the precision of the Sm-Nd method) is demonstrated with results from well-characterized monazite reference materials. The LASS results agree within uncertainty with the isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) U-Pb dates. The accuracy of the Sm-Nd method is assessed by comparing the LA-MC-ICP-MS results with ID-TIMS determinations on a well-characterized, in-house monazite reference material. The LASS method is then applied to monazite from the Birch Creek Pluton in the White Mountains of California as a case study to illustrate the utility of this method for solving geologic problems. The U-Pb ages and Sm-Nd isotopic data from the LASS method support the conclusions drawn from previous results that monazite can record timing and information about the source region(s) of hydrothermal fluids.

  20. Isotope Sm-Nd age of the paleoproterozoic PGE-bearing Monchetundra massif trachytoid gabbronorites (Fennoscandian shield)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunakkuzin, Evgeniy; Bayanova, Tamara; Serov, Pavel; Borisenko, Elena

    2015-04-01

    Monchetundra massif is located in the central part of the Kola Peninsula (Russia) and it is the south-eastern part of the Main Ridge Intrusion. Monchetundra massif together with well-known layered mafic-ultramafic PGE-bearing intrusions in the Fennoscandian shield such as the Fedorovo-Pansky complex, the mt. Generalskaya, the Monchepluton is of interest as a target for the PGE prospecting (Mitrofanov et al. 2006; Nerovich et al., 2009; Grokhovskaya et al., 2003). According to some previously researchers (Nazimova, Rayan, 2008, Nerovich et al., 2009, Layered intrusions…p.1, 2004) rocks of the Monchetundra massif is subdivided into two to five syngenetic zones. Hence the last isotope-geochronological and isotope-geochemical data revealed that the massif includes at least four groups of mafic rocks distinguished by formation ages (Bayanova et al., 2010). The aim of this work is to present Sm-Nd dating results of trachytoid gabbronorites, which are the second mafic rocks group in the Monchetundra massif. The Sm-Nd investigations for these rocks were carried out for the first time. The second group of mafic rocks comprises of medium-grained and coarse-grained mesocratic gabbronorites of trachytoid texture, with they characterized by well-preserved primary magmatic minerals and gabbro-ophitic texture. The U-Pb ages on single zircon-baddeleyite for these rocks recently obtained (2505 ± 6 Ma, 2501 ± 8 Ma, 2504.4±2.7 Ma and 2507.5±7.7 Ma (Layered intrusions…p.1., 2004, Borisenko et al., 2013)). Two samples of trachytoid gabbronorites were selected to study these rocks by Sm-Nd isotopic method. Mineral isochrons plotted from plagioclase, ortho- and clinopyroxene and whole-rock minerals gave ages of 2496±27 (MSWD = 0.9; ɛNd = -1.6±0.5) and 2492±55 Ma (MSWD = 0.5; ɛNd = -1.7±0.5). The new Sm-Nd ages obtained are close to the U-Pb data on zircons and baddeleyites for this rocks group and consider as oridin of second mafic rocks group. All investigations are

  1. The Sm-Nd isotopic method in the geochronology laboratory of the University of Brasília.

    PubMed

    Gioia; Pimentel

    2000-06-01

    Nd isotopes represent one of the best tools to investigate the processes involved in the evolution of the continental crust and mantle. This is due mainly to the similar geochemical behaviour of Sm and Nd, both light rare earth elements, which inhibits their fractionation during most varied geological processes. In order to carry out crustal evolution studies in central Brazil, the Sm-Nd isotopic method was implanted at the Geochronology Laboratory of the University of Brasília. The Sm-Nd separation methodology is basically that described in Richard et al. (1976), with the addition of some improvements. In this study we describe in detail the methodology used in Brasília. Precision and accuracy were checked with the international standards such as JB-3, BCR-1, BHVO-1 and La Jolla, and the following results were found: JB-3 (Nd=15.74 ppm and Sm=4.28 ppm), BCR-1 (143Nd/144Nd=0.512647+/-8, Nd=28.73 ppm and Sm=6.66 ppm), BHVO-1 (Nd=24.83 ppm and Sm=6.2 ppm) and La Jolla (143Nd/144Nd=0.511835+/-14).

  2. A Subchondritic Bulk Sm/Nd For The Earth Constrained By Nd Isotope Systematics Of Lunar Basalts: Implications For Evolving Terrestrial Mantle Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandon, A. D.

    2009-12-01

    The prevailing model for the origin of the Moon is that it formed from melt and vapor ejected from a giant cataclysmic collision between Proto-Earth and a Mars-sized impactor. The indistinguishable O, K, Cr, and W isotope compositions of the Earth and Moon are consistent with near- to complete-homogenization of the silicate portions of Earth and the impactor. If so, then the material that accreted to form the bulk Moon is likely to have a very similar Sm/Nd ratio as that for bulk silicate Earth. One recent study of lunar basalts shows that their coupled 142Nd-143Nd isotope systematics are consistent with a bulk Sm/Nd ratio for the Moon that was indistinguishable from the average for chondrites [1]. In contrast, a second recent study of the same and similar lunar basalts suggest that their coupled 142Nd-143Nd isotope systematics are consistent with a superchondritic bulk Sm/Nd ratio for the Moon similar to the present-day convecting mantle (MORB) reservoir in Earth [2]. To resolve this issue, the same lunar basalts as in [1] were re-measured for high precision Nd isotopes employing a multidynamic routine shown to be more accurate [3] than the static measurements previously obtained in [1] and in part [2]. The new multidynamic Nd isotope results, in combination with the 3 from [2], when corrected for neutron fluence, plot on a well correlated line that passes through a 147Sm/144Nd value of 0.213-0.214 at a 142Nd/144Nd of the modern terrestrial mantle. This is consistent with a model where the materials that formed the Moon are best explained by having a bulk Sm/Nd that is superchondritic and similar to the average for the present-day MORB reservoir that likely represents a significant portion of the Earth’s convecting mantle. If the terrestrial convecting mantle as sampled by MORB has remained relatively unchanged in its Sm/Nd over Earth history, as implied by these results, then an additional reservoir with superchondritic Sm/Nd is necessary to balance the

  3. Insights into the patterns and locations of erosion in the Himalaya — A combined fission-track and in situ Sm Nd isotopic study of detrital apatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, G. L.; Carter, A.

    2007-05-01

    Understanding the role that climate, erosion and tectonics play in determining the mean relief, elevation and general form of a mountain range over time has become the focus of much recent research in the field of tectonic geomorphology. A crucial constraint in these studies is the long-term exhumation rate, which is increasingly being examined using detrital minerals from the sedimentary rock record that represent the eroded remnants of the orogen. A classic field area of such studies is the Himalayan orogen — the Earth's largest mountain range. We describe here a novel approach that uses the in situ analysis of Nd isotopes by laser ablation multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry of fission-track dated apatite grains to unambiguously tie them to their source regions. We demonstrate the capability of this new approach on several modern and Holocene river sand samples from the Himalayan orogen and determine, because of the large isotopic differences in the constituent tectonostratigraphic units, both the location and magnitude of long-term erosion. In agreement with previous studies we are able to show that in the Central and Eastern Himalaya long-term denudation is focussed within the High Himalayan Crystalline Series (HHCS) at average rates of ˜ 2 mm/yr. Average long-term rates are similar in the Western Himalaya sampled by the Indus River and largely reflect erosional denudation of the Western Indian Himalaya and the Western Syntaxis (the Nanga Parbat Haramosh Massif and South Karakoram Metamorphic Complex). Notably, the Asian continent supplies significantly more apatites to the mouth of the Indus than they do to the Bengal delta. The ability to reconstruct the patterns of long-term erosion in the Himalaya using detrital apatites from a few samples collected from major transverse drainages provides confidence in the utility of this approach to examine the locations and magnitude of long-term erosion in the past.

  4. Decoupled Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic evolution of the continental crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, S. L.

    1988-01-01

    Evidence was presented that the Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic systems are decoupled in crust-mantle evolution. Rare earth element (including Sm and Nd) residue principally in silicates, and are resistant to mobilization by weathering and metamorphism. In contrast, Rb and Sr are easily fractionated by crustal processes and residue in carbonates as well as in silicates. As a result, continental Sr, but not Nd, can be recycled into the mantle by exchange of seawater with basalt at spreading ridges and by subduction of carbonates associated with ridge processes. These effects result in mean Rb-Sr ages of the continental crust and of the upper mantle that are too young. Crustal growth curves based largely on Rb-Sr data, such that of Hurley and Rand, are therefore incorrect.

  5. Decoupled Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic evolution of the continental crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, S. L.

    1988-01-01

    Evidence was presented that the Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic systems are decoupled in crust-mantle evolution. Rare earth element (including Sm and Nd) residue principally in silicates, and are resistant to mobilization by weathering and metamorphism. In contrast, Rb and Sr are easily fractionated by crustal processes and residue in carbonates as well as in silicates. As a result, continental Sr, but not Nd, can be recycled into the mantle by exchange of seawater with basalt at spreading ridges and by subduction of carbonates associated with ridge processes. These effects result in mean Rb-Sr ages of the continental crust and of the upper mantle that are too young. Crustal growth curves based largely on Rb-Sr data, such that of Hurley and Rand, are therefore incorrect.

  6. Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, K-Ca, O, and H isotopic study of Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary sediments, Caravaca, Spain Evidence for an oceanic impact site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Depaolo, D. J.; Kyte, F. T.; Marshall, B. D.; Oneil, J. R.; Smit, J.

    1983-01-01

    The results of isotopic and trace-element-abundance analyses of Ir-enriched Cretaceous-Tertiary-boundary clay sediments from Caravaca, Spain, and of adjacent carbonate and marl layers, are presented. Acetic-acid and HCl leachates and residues were analyzed by isotope dilution to determine K, Rb, Sr, Sm, and Nd concentrations and Sr-87/Sr-86 and Nd-143/Nd-144 ratios. The stable isotope ratios delta-D, delta-(C-13), and delta-(0-18) were also determined. The results are presented in tables and graphs and compared with published data on the Caravaca sediments and on samples from other locations. The boundary clay is found to be distinguished from the adjacent layers by its isotopic ratios and to be of mainly terrestrial, lithospheric (deeper than 3-km) origin. Although submarine-weathering effects are evident and difficult to quantify, the degree of variation in Ni, Ir, Sr, and REE concentrations is considered too large to be attributed to postdepositional processes alone. These findings are seen as evidence for the ocean impact of a large single asteroid producing a worldwide blanket of ejecta, a large injection of water vapor into the atmosphere, and perhaps a gigantic tsunami, at the end of the Cretaceous period.

  7. Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, K-Ca, O, and H isotopic study of Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary sediments, Caravaca, Spain Evidence for an oceanic impact site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Depaolo, D. J.; Kyte, F. T.; Marshall, B. D.; Oneil, J. R.; Smit, J.

    1983-01-01

    The results of isotopic and trace-element-abundance analyses of Ir-enriched Cretaceous-Tertiary-boundary clay sediments from Caravaca, Spain, and of adjacent carbonate and marl layers, are presented. Acetic-acid and HCl leachates and residues were analyzed by isotope dilution to determine K, Rb, Sr, Sm, and Nd concentrations and Sr-87/Sr-86 and Nd-143/Nd-144 ratios. The stable isotope ratios delta-D, delta-(C-13), and delta-(0-18) were also determined. The results are presented in tables and graphs and compared with published data on the Caravaca sediments and on samples from other locations. The boundary clay is found to be distinguished from the adjacent layers by its isotopic ratios and to be of mainly terrestrial, lithospheric (deeper than 3-km) origin. Although submarine-weathering effects are evident and difficult to quantify, the degree of variation in Ni, Ir, Sr, and REE concentrations is considered too large to be attributed to postdepositional processes alone. These findings are seen as evidence for the ocean impact of a large single asteroid producing a worldwide blanket of ejecta, a large injection of water vapor into the atmosphere, and perhaps a gigantic tsunami, at the end of the Cretaceous period.

  8. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd Isotopic Constraints on the Genesis of Lunar Green and Orange Glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih C.-Y.; Nyquist, L.; Reese, Y.; Wiesmann, H.; Schwandt, C.

    2001-01-01

    Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic compositions of lunar green and orange glasses suggest that orange glass and high-Ti mare basalts can be produced by partial melting of hybrid sources composed of early LMO cumulate mixing with late-stage LMO Ti-rich cumulates. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  9. Sm-Nd study of the Sudbury Complex, Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Faggart, B.E. Jr.; Basu, A.R.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1985-01-01

    Sm-Nd systematics of sixteen whole-rock samples from traverses across the North and South Ranges of the Sudbury Complex, Ontario, Canada were determined. Ten mineral separates from five of these rocks were also analyzed. An internal mineral isochron age of 1840 +/- 21 m.y. with an initial /sup 143/Nd//sup 144/Nd of 0.50986 +/- 4 was obtained for the crystallization of the norite of the Lower Irruptive. This age is in agreement with two high-precision U-Pb dates obtained from zircons in the same unit by other investigators. Within the Complex, Sm concentration values ranged from 14 to 62 times chondritic value in samples of norite and quartz diorite, respectively. Nd concentrations extended from 32 to 161 times that of chondrite with the values for the micropegmatite consistently averaging higher than those for the norite. Initial epsilon Nd values at 1840 m.y. range from -6.98 for a norite sample to -8.83 for a quartz diorite sample from the sublayer, thus falling on the crustal evolution trend of Nd as represented by Australian shales. The overall REE patterns for Sudbury samples also show a strong similarity to the REE abundances of upper crustal rocks. These data suggest that the Sudbury Complex originated entirely from the melting of crustal rocks by way of asteroid impact.

  10. Mantle evolution on Mars: Constraints from Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotope systematics of SNC meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, E. E.; Kurahashi, E.; Mezger, K.

    2012-12-01

    The long-lived 176Lu-176Hf and 147Sm-143Nd isotope systems are commonly employed to track the evolution of complementary mantle and crust reservoirs. The four elements involved are refractory and lithophile, and thus their relative abundances are not expected to have been changed by accretion or core formation. Subsequent silicate differentiation processes, however, e.g., the formation of crust by extraction of melts from the mantle, will fractionate Lu/Hf and Sm/Nd. This typically leaves a depleted mantle with higher Lu/Hf and Sm/Nd values than those of the undifferentiated, presumably chondritic parental reservoir. On the other hand, these same values in crustal rocks tend to be lower than those of their source. (Apparent exceptions are the Martian shergottites, which tend to have lower Lu/Hf as expected, but Sm/Nd higher than their presumed sources. Such decoupling of the two isotope systems may be explained by two-stage melting [e.g., 1, 5].) The ensuing chemical variability among secondary and later generation silicate reservoirs causes their isotopic compositions (e.g., 176Hf/177Hf and 143Nd/144Nd) to diverge from that of the bulk silicate planet over hundreds of millions of years. The resulting isotopic diversity preserved (SNC) meteorites is being used to constrain the differentiation history, melting mineralogy, and dynamics of the Martian mantle [e.g., 1-8]. However, interpretations based on the initial isotope compositions of Hf and Nd strongly depend on the accuracy of crystallization ages. The ages of shergottites in particular are debated (e.g., [3,4,7]). To resolve this issue and gain a better understanding of Martian mantle evolution, we are investigating the Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd systematics of bulk SNC meteorites and constructing internal (mineral) isochrons. Eleven bulk Martian meteorites (5 shergottites, 4 nakhlites, and 2 chassignites) were digested without prior leaching in high-pressure autoclaves for 5 days. Initial ɛ176Hf and ɛ143Nd values

  11. Provenance change in the Irkutsk coal basin during the early and middle Jurassic: Geochemical and Sm-Nd isotope evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikheeva, E. A.; Demonterova, E. I.; Frolov, A. O.; Arzhannikova, A. V.; Arzhannikov, S. G.; Cherkashina, T. Yu.; Ivanov, A. V.

    2017-07-01

    On the basis of the recently accepted chronostratigraphic chart, Jurassic sedimentation in the Irkutsk coal basin took place over a short time interval ( 23 My), from the Pliensbachian ( 191 Ma) to the Aalenian ( 170 Ma). In this study, we present geochemical and Sm-Nd isotope data for sedimentary rocks of the Prisayan and Kuda formations and those in the upper course of the Angara River, which were deposited over an even shorter time interval (from 174 to 170 Ma), as indicated by new data on biostratigraphy. Our results suggest that a greater contribution from Transbaikalia compared to that from the Siberian Platform during sediment deposition in the Irkutsk coal basin may reflect the onset of mountain building in Transbaikalia and reorganization of the river drainage network during the Middle Jurassic.

  12. Accretionary wedge harzburgite serpentinization and rodingitization constrained by perovskite U/Pb SIMS age, trace elements and Sm/Nd isotopes: Case study from the Western Carpathians, Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xian-Hua; Putiš, Marián; Yang, Yue-Heng; Koppa, Matúš; Dyda, Marian

    2014-09-01

    . Overgrowths of spinel by andradite are occasionally observed in contact zones between the serpentinites and rodingites. LA-ICP-MS study revealed strong depletion in LREE from Prv (1) to Prv (2), and a more typically positive Eu anomaly for Prv (2). Our spider diagram depicts relative enrichment in U, Nb, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, and decreased Rb, Ba, Th, Ta, Pb, Sr, Zr in both Prv generations. The U/Pb SIMS concordia ages of Prv (1) from 3 samples range from 137 ± 1 Ma to 135 ± 1 Ma, with a mean of 135.6 ± 0.58 Ma, while Prv (2) was dated at 133.7 ± 5.4 Ma. Such negligible age differences imply a relatively short-lived rodingitization event responsible for crystallization of both Prv generations. The 143Nd/144Nd mean value of Prv (1) is 0.512153 ± 0.000017 by LA-MC-ICP-MS, thus corresponding to the initial ɛNd(t = 135) = - 8.2 ± 0.4 (math's mean). This suggests that the subducted and dehydrated continental crust was the main source of the interactive fluids which initiated serpentinization and rodingitization in the Neotethyan Meliatic accretionary wedge following closure of the Meliata-Hallstatt Triassic to Jurassic oceanic back-arc basin and the high-pressure metamorphism dated at ca. 160-150 Ma by 40Ar/39Ar.

  13. Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotope systematics of an Archean anorthosite and related rocks from the Superior Province of the Canadian Shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashwal, L. D.; Wooden, J. L.; Phinney, W. C.; Morrison, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotopic data for the Bad Vermilion Lake anorthosite in the Rainy Lake area of the Superior Province of northwesten Ontario show that direct ages of Archean anorthosites can be obtained with these isotopic systems despite the effects of low-grade metamorphism. There is sufficient spread in Sm/Nd between plagioclase megacrysts and coexisting mafic groundmass to allow the determination of reasonably precise internal Sm-Nd isochrons. Initial isotopic ratios of Nd and Sr add to the growing body of data indicating the Superior Province is underlain by depleted mantle.

  14. Erosion of Archean continents: The Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf isotopic record of Barberton sedimentary rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garçon, M.; Carlson, R. W.; Shirey, S. B.; Arndt, N. T.; Horan, M. F.; Mock, T. D.

    2017-06-01

    Knowing the composition, nature and amount of crust at the surface of the early Earth is crucial to understanding the early geodynamics of our planet. Yet our knowledge of the Hadean-Archean crust is far from complete, limited by the poor preservation of Archean terranes, and the fact that less attention has been paid to the sedimentary record that tracks erosion of these ancient remnants. To address this problem and get a more comprehensive view of what an Archean continent may have looked like, we investigated the trace element and Sm-Nd, Lu-Hf isotopic records of Archean metasedimentary rocks from South Africa. We focused our study on sandstone and mudstone from drill core in the Fig Tree Group (3.23-3.26 Ga) of the Barberton granite-greenstone belt, but also analyzed the 3.4 Ga Buck Reef cherts and still older (3.5-3.6 Ga) meta-igneous rocks from the Ancient Gneiss Complex, Swaziland. Based on principal component analysis of major and trace element data, the Fig Tree metasedimentary rocks can be classified into three groups: crustal detritus-rich sediments, Si-rich sediments and Ca-, Fe-rich sediments. The detritus-rich sediments have preserved the Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf isotopic signatures of their continental sources, and hence can be used to constrain the composition of crust eroded in the Barberton area in the Paleoarchean period. Based on Sm/Nd ratios, we estimate that this crust was more mafic than today, with an average SiO2 content of 60.5 ± 2 wt.%. This composition is further supported by isotopic mixing calculations suggesting that the sedimentary source area contained equal proportions of mafic-ultramafic and felsic rocks. This implies that the Archean crust exposed to weathering was more mafic than today but does not exclude a more felsic composition at depth. Neodymium and Hf crustal residence ages show that the eroded crust was, on average, ∼300-400 Ma older than the deposition age of the sediments, which highlights the importance of intracrustal

  15. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic characterization of Eocene volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks from Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, C.D. ); Schellekens, J.H. )

    1991-03-01

    Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr data are presented for six volcanic and volcaniclastic samples from the Eocene belt and the Toa Baja drill hole of Puerto Rico in order to provide a preliminary isotopic description of Greater Antilles arc rocks. The lava samples have trace and rare earth element compositions typical of island arc rocks. The isotopic compositions of the volcaniclastic samples are displaced from those of the lavas, and suggest that they include an authigenic or detrital crustal component. The similarity of Sr and Nd isotopic ratios of Puerto Rican lavas and northern Lesser Antilles volcanic rocks suggests that they may have been produced from similar magma sources.

  16. Constraining Mantle Differentiation Processes with La-Ce and Sm-Nd Isotope Systematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willig, M.; Stracke, A.

    2016-12-01

    Cerium (Ce) and Neodymium (Nd) isotopic ratios in oceanic basalts reflect the time integrated La-Ce and Sm-Nd ratios, and hence the extent of light rare earth element element (LREE) depletion or enrichment of their mantle sources. New high precision Ce-Nd isotope data from several ocean islands define a tight array in ԑCe-ԑNd space with ԑNd = -8.2±0.4 ԑCe + 1.3±0.9 (S.D.), in good agreement with previous data [1, 2]. The slope of the ԑCe-ԑNd array and the overall isotopic range are sensitive indicators of the processes that govern the evolution of the mantle's LREE composition. A Monte Carlo approach is employed to simulate continuous mantle-crust differentiation by partial melting and recycling of crustal materials. Partial melting of mantle peridotites produces variably depleted mantle and oceanic crust, which evolve for different time periods, before the oceanic crust is recycled back into the mantle including small amounts of continental crust (GLOSS [3]). Subsequently, depleted mantle and recycled materials of variable age and composition melt, and the respective melts mix in different proportions. Mixing lines strongly curve towards depleted mantle, and tend to be offset from the data for increasingly older and more depleted mantle. Observed ԑCe-ԑNd in ridge [1] and ocean island basalts and the slope of the ԑCe-ԑNd array therefore define upper limits for the extent and age of LREE depletion preserved in mantle peridotites. Very old average mantle depletion ages (> ca. 1-2 Ga) for the bulk of the mantle are difficult to reconcile with the existing ԑCe-ԑNd data, consistent with the range of Nd-Hf-Os model ages in abyssal peridotites [4-6]. Moreover, unless small amounts of continental crust are included in the recycled material, it is difficult to reproduce the relatively shallow slope of the ԑCe-ԑNd array, consistent with constraints from the ԑNd - ԑHf mantle array [7]. [1] Makishima and Masuda, 1994 Chem. Geol. 118, 1-8. [2] Doucelance et al

  17. Sm-Nd and Ar-Ar Studies of DHO 908 and 489: Implications for Lunar Crustal History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C. Y.; Reese, Y. D.; Park, J.; Bogard, D. D.; Garrison, D. H.; Yamaguchi, A.

    2011-01-01

    It is widely assumed that ferroan anorthosites (FANs) formed as flotation cumulates on a global lunar magma ocean (LMO). A corollary is that all FANs are approximately contemporaneous and formed with the same initial Nd-143/Nd-144 ratio. Indeed, a whole rock isochron for selected FANs (and An93 anorthosite) yields an isochron age of 4.42 +/- 0.13 Ga and initial Nd-143/Nd-144, expressed in epsilon-units, of epsilon(sub Nd,CHUR) = 0.3+/-0.3 relative to the CHondritic Uniform Reservoir , or epsilon(sub Nd,HEDPB)=-0.6+/-0.3 relative to the HED Parent Body. These values are in good agreement with the age (T) = 4.47+/-0.07 Ga, and epsilon(sub Nd,HEDPB) =-0.6 +/- 0.5 for FAN 67075. We also have studied anorthositic clasts in the Dhofar 908 and 489 lunar highland meteorites containing clasts of magnesian anorthosites (MAN) with Mg# approximately 75. Because of their relatively high Mg#, magnesian anorthosites should have preceded most FANs in crystallization from the LMO if both are LMO products. Thus, it is important to determine whether the Nd-isotopic data of MAN and FAN are consistent with a co-magmatic origin. We previously reported Sm-Nd data for white clast Dho 908 WC. Mafic minerals in this clast were too small to be physically separated for an isochron. However, we estimated initial Nd-143/Nd-144 for the clast by combining its bulk ("whole rock") Sm-Nd data with an Ar-39-Ar-40 age of 4.42+/-.04 Ga. Here we report additional Sm-Nd data for bulk samples of Dho 908 and its pair Dho 489.

  18. The Role of Accessory Phases in the Sm-Nd Isotope Systematics of the Acasta Gneiss Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, A.; Fisher, C. M.; Vervoort, J. D.; Bowring, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Acasta Gneiss Complex (AGC) of the Slave Craton in the Northwest Territories, Canada, contains some of Earth's oldest continental crust. It is characterized by a range of compositionally diverse gneisses with crystallization ages of 3.3 to > 4.0 Ga1-5. The AGC has undergone a multistage history of metamorphism and deformation. Given these post-crystallization processes, the extent of Nd isotope heterogeneity suggested by published4-7 whole rock Sm-Nd analyses of these rocks has been called into question. Criticisms include the likelihood of mixed lithologies at the hand-sample scale and the potential for open-system behavior of the Sm-Nd isotopic system in these rocks. We obtained whole rock compositional, Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf isotope data paired with Hf in zircon and Nd in titanite and apatite data to further evaluate the isotope record, and use U-Pb and Lu-Hf of zircon as a basis for identifying mixed or complex samples. Preferential preservation of Lu-Hf over Sm-Nd isotope systematics in multiply deformed, complex rocks may be controlled by the minerals that dominate the Hf and Nd budgets, with the majority of the Hf effectively sheltered in zircon and the Nd largely hosted in accessory phases such as apatite and titanite. This composite dataset enables us to evaluate the possibility that Hf and Nd isotopic systematics have been decoupled in these samples that have such critical bearing on our understanding of early crust-forming processes. [1]Bowring and Williams (1999). CoMP, 134(1), 3-16. [2]Iizuka, T. et al. (2006) Geology, 34(4), 245-248. [3]Iizuka et al (2007). Precambrian Res, 153(3), 179-208. [4]Bowring et al. 1989. Nature, 340: 222-225. [5]Mojzsis et al. (2014). GCA, 133, 68-96. [6]Bowring and Housh (1995) Science 269, 1535-1540. [7]Moorbath et al (1997) Chem. Geol. 135, 213-231.

  19. Timing of Early Proterozoic collisional and extensional events in the granulite-gneiss-charnockite-granite complex, Lake Baikal, USSR: A U-Pb, Rb-Sr, and Sm-Nd isotopic study

    SciTech Connect

    Aftalion, M. ); Bibikova, E.V. ); Bowes, D.R. ); Hopwood, A.M. ); Perchuk, L.L. )

    1991-11-01

    In the Sharyzhalgay Complex of the Lake Baikal region in eastern Siberia Early Proterozoic collisional and extensional events were separated by ca. 100 m.yr. The earlier collisional event, associated with the development of granulites and gneisses as the result of high-grade dynamothermal metamorphism, took place close to 1965 {plus minus} 4 Ma. A {sup 207}Pb/{sup 204}Pb vs. {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb isochron for zircon from five size fractions and a six point Rb-Sr whole-rock errorchron give generally corresponding ages of 1956 {plus minus} 8 and 1963 {plus minus} 163 Ma, respectively. The later extensional event, associated with charnockitization due to the uprise of fluids and heat in a regime corresponding to the middle to upper crustal levels of a Basin and Range-type province, was initiated in the 1880-1860 Ma period. The event was continued with magmatic emplacement of granitic masses into the deep levels of caldera-like structures, possibly during the upper time range of lower concordia intercept ages of 1817 +30/{minus}32 and 1797 +40/{minus}44 Ma for two distinctly different zircon populations in a pyroxene-bearing granodiorite interpreted as an evolved (and contaminated) product of the mantle-derived magma that was the source of CO{sub 2} involved in the charnockitization. Upper intercept ages of 2784 +48/{minus}45 and 2775 +61/{minus}55 Ma indicate late Archean crust at depth as the source region of the incorporated zircon. T{sub DM} ages from Sm-Nd isotopic data show that the protolith of the lithologically layered supracrustal assemblage, subsequently polyphase deformed and polymetamorphosed in Early Proterozoic times, was also formed in Early Proterozoic (not Archean) times.

  20. Paleoproterozoic age of the Zeya Group, Stanovoy Complex of the Dzhugdzhur-Stanovoy Superterrane (Central Asian mobile belt): Results of Sm-Nd isotopic and U-Th-Pb geochronological (LA-ICP-MS) analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotov, A. B.; Velikoslavinsky, S. D.; Kovach, V. P.; Sorokin, A. A.; Sorokin, A. P.; Skovitina, T. M.; Zagornaya, N. Yu.; Wang, K.-L.; Chung, S.-L.; Jahn, B.-M.

    2016-12-01

    Geochemical Sm-Nd isotope and U-Th-Pb geochronological (LA-ICP-MS) studies have demonstrated that the Zeya Group of the Stanovoy Complex of the Dzhugdzhur-Stanovoy Superterrane (Central Asian fold belt) is not Paleoarchean, as was previously thought, but Paleoproterozoic in age.

  1. Rare earth element and Sm-Nd isotopic redistribution in accessory minerals during lower crust recycling (Bergen Arc, Norway)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janots, Emilie; Austrheim, Håkon; Spandler, Carl; Hammerli, Johannes; Trepmann, Claudia; Berndt, Jasper; Magnin, Valerie

    2017-04-01

    In the Bergen Arc (Norway), the mineralogy, composition and Sm-Nd dating of REE-rich accessory minerals were obtained in samples of the anorthosite-mangerite-gabbronorite-chernockite series that have experienced early metamorphic crystallisation under granulite facies conditions at the Grenvillian (around 930 Ma) and minor to complete retrogression under eclogite and/or amphibolite conditions at the Caledonian (390-430 Ma). In the granulite sample, apatite contains significant REE content. Early (pre-Caledonian) fluid/rock interaction causes the replacement of one early magmatic generation of REE-rich apatite, found as relics armoured in ilmenite-hematite, by secondary apatite with less REE that are redistributed in monazite needles inclusions and REE-rich epidote rim. In the Caledonian retrogressed samples, reaction extent depends mainly on the external fluid availibility. In amphibolitized sample, REE are strongly redistributed in a corona of epidote group mineral that surrounds apatite. The in-situ Sm-Nd isotope data for epidote-group minerals and titanite confirms that these two minerals crystallized and equilibrated isotopically during the fluid-assisted Caledonian metamorphism. In eclogitized samples, apatite has the lowest REE and REE are redistributed in the main eclogite assemblage (mainly zoisite). Remarkably, the REE composition of apatite inclusions in ilmenite-hematite indicates that it remained unchanged during the granulite equilibration and later amphibolite/eclogite retrogression and that it is a good indicator of early magmatic crystallisation conditions.

  2. Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotopic systematics of the Pea Ridge Fe-P deposit and related rocks, southeast Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Marikos, M.A.; Barton, M.D. . Dept. of Geosciences)

    1993-03-01

    Pea ridge is a discordant Middle Proterozoic Fe-P deposit hosted in rhyolite tuffs and flows of the 1.4--1.5 Ga St. Francois terrane. Host rocks and the deposit are cut by basalt and aplite/pegmatite dikes. The deposit overlies a blind pluton which is partially surrounded by a trachytic ring complex. In the deposit, which is mined for Fe, early Qtz+Amph+Mag+Ap rock is cut by Mag+Ap+Qtz rock. Subsequently, portions of the deposit and host rocks were brecciated, oxidized and silicified to produce a complex suite of rocks enriched in Hem+Qtz+Ksp+Mu. Late breccia pipes/dikes cut the complex and were mineralized with Bar+Ksp+Flu+Chl+Cc+REE-phosphates. Sm/Nd and Rb/Sr isotopic systematics have been studied to: (1) constrain source(s) of igneous rocks and deposit components, (2) refine ages of magmatism, mineralization, and later hydrothermal activity, (3) begin regional comparison of isotopic systematics in SE Missouri Fe deposits, and (4) complement ongoing Missouri DGLS/USGS studies. Fourteen combined Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr analyses were done on materials including two host rhyolites, two nearby trachytes, two gneiss samples representing plausible basement, two intramineral dikes, and six samples of mineralization.

  3. Re-Os, Sm-Nd, and Pb isotopic constraints on mantle and crustal contributions to magmatic sulfide mineralization in the Duluth Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripley, Edward M.; Lambert, David D.; Frick, Louise R.

    1998-10-01

    Previous petrologic and stable isotopic studies of sulfide mineralization in the Duluth Complex have led to the premise that sulfide genesis is strongly linked to the interaction between mantle-derived magmas and sedimentary country rocks in a rift zone environment. In order to more fully evaluate the nature of this interaction, and to gain an insight into the possible importance of externally derived metals in the ore-forming process, Pb, Sm-Nd, and Re-Os isotopic studies of the Babbitt Cu-Ni deposit were initiated. Rock-types examined include low-sulfide troctolite that show very little petrologic evidence for contamination, disseminated sulfide-bearing troctolitic to gabbroic rocks that occur close to the basal contact with country rocks and contain metasedimentary xenoliths, and massive sulfide. Lead isotopic values of whole rocks, plagioclase mineral separates, and massive sulfides show only subtle differences, and are compatible with 3 to 5% contamination of a mantle-derived melt with a Proterozoic crustal contaminant. ɛ Nd (1.1 Ga) values of the troctolite and gabbro samples are chondritic, and only the massive sulfides show strong evidence for contamination based on Sm-Nd isotopic values. Massive sulfides tend to be more sensitive indicators of contamination in the Sm-Nd system because of late-stage incorporation of a light rare earth element-rich fluid into a Ca-PO 4 (apatite) component of the immiscible sulfide liquid. γ Os (1.1 Ga) values are also strongly anomalous, and range from ˜500 to 1200 in disseminated sulfide-bearing troctolites and massive sulfides. These values are also consistent with from 1 to 3% contamination by C-rich and strongly radiogenic Proterozoic sedimentary rocks. Elemental and isotopic mass balance calculations suggest that up to 50% of the Pb and at least 35% of the Os in the sulfide mineralization have been derived from external sources. A corollary is that other metals may also be in part derived from external sources, which

  4. Provenance and sedimentary environments of the Proterozoic São Roque Group, SE-Brazil: Contributions from petrography, geochemistry and Sm-Nd isotopic systematics of metasedimentary rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henrique-Pinto, R.; Janasi, V. A.; Tassinari, C. C. G.; Carvalho, B. B.; Cioffi, C. R.; Stríkis, N. M.

    2015-11-01

    The Proterozoic metasedimentary sequences exposed in the São Roque Domain (Apiaí Terrane, Ribeira Belt, southeast Brazil) consist of metasandstones and meta-felspathic wackes with some volcanic layers of within-plate geochemical signature (Boturuna Formation), a passive margin turbidite sequence of metawackes and metamudstones (Piragibu Formation), and volcano-sedimentary sequences with MORB-like basalts (Serra do Itaberaba Group; Pirapora do Bom Jesus Formation). A combination of zircon provenance studies in metasandstones, whole-rock geochemistry and Sm-Nd isotopic systematics in metamudstones was used to understand the provenance and tectonic significance of these sequences, and their implications to the evolution of the Precambrian crust in the region. Whole-rock geochemistry of metamudstones, dominantly from the Piragibu Formation, points to largely granitic sources (as indicated for instance by LREE-rich moderately fractionated REE patterns and subtle negative Eu anomalies) with some mafic contribution (responding for higher contents of Fe2O3, MgO, V, and Cr) and were subject to moderate weathering (CIA - 51 to 85). Sm-Nd isotope data show three main peaks of Nd TDM ages at ca. 1.9, 2.1 and 2.4 Ga; the younger ages define an upper limit for the deposition of the unit, and reflect greater contributions from sources younger than the >2.1 Ga basement. The coincident age peaks of Nd TDM and U-Pb detrital zircons at 2.1-2.2 Ga and 2.4-2.5 Ga, combined with the possible presence of a small amount of zircons derived from mafic (gabbroid) sources with the same ages, as indicated by a parallel LA-ICPMS U-Pb dating study in metapsammites, are suggestive that these were major periods of crustal growth in the sources involving not only crust recycling but also some juvenile addition. A derivation from similar older Proterozoic sources deposited in a passive margin basin is consistent with the main sedimentary sequences in the São Roque Domain being broadly coeval and

  5. Sm Nd isotope evidence for the provenance of the Skoorsteenberg Formation, Karoo Supergroup, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, P. O. D.; Johansson, Å.; Kumpulainen, R. A.

    2003-04-01

    The Karoo Basin is a late Palaeozoic to Mesozoic epicontinental foreland basin in South Africa. In its western part the basin fill, the Karoo Supergroup, is composed of the glacigenic Dwyka Group at the base followed by the shallow marine to lacustrine Ecca Group and the fluvial Beaufort Group. The Dwyka Group originated from the contemporaneous glaciation centre in the north. Current direction data suggest that the upper Ecca and lower Beaufort Groups are probably derived from the south and southwest. Petrographical data including heavy minerals from high grade rocks (detrital garnets, biotite and tourmaline) suggest that the likely source is a late Palaeozoic thrust belt and a magmatic arc. New Sm-Nd data on six sandstone samples from the Skoorsteenberg Formation of the Ecca Group, representing five submarine fans, yield very homogeneous ɛNd-values of around -5 at the time of deposition (270 Ma). Corresponding TCHUR model ages of 0.73-0.81 Ga, and TDM model ages of 1.19-1.34 Ga, are interpreted to result from a mixture of recycled Archaean and Proterozoic material with more juvenile Palaeozoic components in unknown proportions.

  6. Geochemical and Sm-Nd isotope-geochemical patterns of metavolcanic rocks, diabase, and metagabbroids on the northeastern flank of the South Mongolian-Khingan orogenic belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Yu. V.; Sorokin, A. A.

    2017-05-01

    The first results of geochemical and Sm-Nd isotope-geochemical studies of metavolcanic rocks, metagabbroids, and diabase of the Nora-Sukhotino terrane, the least studied part of the South Mongolian-Khingan orogenic belt in the system of the Central Asian orogenic belt are reported. It is established that the basic rocks composing this terrane include varieties comparable with E-MORB, tholeiitic, and calc-alkaline basalt of island arc, calc-alkaline gabbro-diabase, and gabbroids of island arcs. Most likely, these formations should be correlated with metabasalt and associated Late Ordovician gabbro-amphibolite of the Sukdulkin "block" of the South Mongolian-Khingan orogenic belt, which are similar to tholeiite of intraplate island arcs by their geochemical characteristics.

  7. Crustal segments in the North Patagonian Massif, Patagonia: An integrated perspective based on Sm-Nd isotope systematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez Dopico, Carmen I.; López de Luchi, Mónica G.; Rapalini, Augusto E.; Kleinhanns, Ilka C.

    2011-03-01

    New insights on the Paleozoic evolution of the continental crust in the North Patagonian Massif are presented based on the analysis of Sm-Nd systematics. New evidence is presented to constrain tectonic models for the origin of Patagonia and its relations with the South American crustal blocks. Geologic, isotopic and tectonic characterization of the North Patagonian Massif and comparison of the Nd parameters lead us to conclude that: (1) The North Patagonian Massif is a crustal block with bulk crustal average ages between 2.1 and 1.6 Ga TDM (Nd) and (2) At least three metamorphic episodes could be identified in the Paleozoic rocks of the North Patagonian Massif. In the northeastern corner, Famatinian metamorphism is widely identified. However field and petrographic evidence indicate a Middle to Late Cambrian metamorphism pre-dating the emplacement of the ca. 475 Ma granitoids. In the southwestern area, are apparent 425-420 Ma (?) and 380-360 Ma metamorphic peaks. The latter episode might have resulted from the collision of the Antonia terrane; and (3) Early Paleozoic magmatism in the northeastern area is coeval with the Famatinian arc. Nd isotopic compositions reveal that Ordovician magmatism was associated with attenuated crust. On the southwestern border, the first magmatic recycling record is Devonian. Nd data shows a step by step melting of different levels of the continental crust in the Late Palaeozoic. Between 330 and 295 Ma magmatism was likely the product of a crustal source with an average 1.5 Ga TDM (Nd). Widespread magmatism represented by the 295-260 Ma granitoids involved a lower crustal mafic source, and continued with massive shallower-acid plutono volcanic complexes which might have recycled an upper crustal segment of the Proterozoic continental basement, resulting in a more felsic crust until the Triassic. (4) Sm-Nd parameters and detrital zircon age patterns of Early Paleozoic (meta)-sedimentary rocks from the North Patagonian Massif and those

  8. An Improved Method for TIMS High Precision Nd Isotopic Analysis of Very Small Aliquots (1- 10ng) With Example Application in Garnet Sm/Nd Geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, E. F.; Harvey, J.; Mehl, L. Y.; Peterman, E. M.

    2007-12-01

    Technological and scientific developments have demonstrated both the attainability and the utility of very high precision (i.e. 5-20ppm 2 σ) Nd isotopic measurements with TIMS. However such high precision has been limited to relatively large aliquots of Nd, on the order of several hundred nanograms. Several potential applications of precise Nd isotopic measurements, including garnet Sm/Nd geochronology, do not always permit such large samples, instead yielding only a few nanograms of Nd. We have explored and tested an improved method for Nd isotopic analysis of such small (1-10ng) aliquots of Nd using the NdO+ method with a Triton TIMS at Boston University. Analyzing Nd isotopes as the oxide is a well known technique, frequently involving an oxygen bleed valve. Instead, we forego the bleed valve and load samples with a TaO slurry which provides the oxygen source. Using an in-house Nd isotopic standard solution, 4ng loads easily yield stable 2.0-2.5 volt beams resulting in internal precisions of 10ppm 2 σ RSE. Within barrel external precision of 4ng loads of the Nd standard is 13ppm 2 σ RSD (n=20). Long term (6 months, six analysts) external precision of 4ng loads of the standard is currently 23ppm 2 σ RSD (n=55) suggesting that further improvements are possible. As a further test of this method, we dissolved a natural rock sample (a metapelite), separated the Nd using TRU- spec and MLA column chemistry, and loaded nineteen 4ng loads in one barrel. Within barrel external precision was 21ppm 2 σ RSD (n=18). This precision represents a significant advance over previous NdO+ analyses of small samples using an oxygen bleed valve. The TaO loading method for small Nd aliquots is useful in Sm/Nd garnet geochronology as exemplified by two case studies. Garnets from eclogite facies gneisses from Norway ran very well with 2.4-18ng loads and yielded age precision as good as 0.8 million years 2 σ. Conversely, garnets from blueschist facies rocks from Sifnos, Greece, ran

  9. Neoproterozoic age of the Niquelândia Complex, central Brazil: Further ID-TIMS U Pb and Sm Nd isotopic evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimentel, Márcio M.; Filho, César Fonseca Ferreira; Armele, Alan

    2006-07-01

    The age and tectonic significance of the Barro Alto, Niquelândia, and Cana Brava layered mafic-ultramafic complexes in Goiás have been a matter of debate and controversy. In many models, they have been considered representative of Paleoproterozoic intrusions metamorphosed in the Neoproterozoic, at approximately 0.79-0.76 Ga. Recent SHRIMP U-Pb data for dioritic rocks of the Niquelândia Complex, however, suggest that they crystallized around 0.80 Ga. Petrologic and field data suggest that these dioritic rocks are late-stage crystallization phases representing intense contamination with sialic country rocks rather than much younger intrusions into the lower layered series of the complex. In this study, igneous zircon grains from a cumulate websterite belonging to the upper part of the lower series of the Niquelândia Complex are investigated by the ID-TIMS U-Pb method and yield an age of 799±6 Ma. Sm-Nd isotopic data for the same sample reveal strong contamination with older crust ( ɛNd( T) of -6.5 and TDM of 1.88 Ga). Additional Sm-Nd data for dioritic and late-stage granitic rocks of the complex have produced a whole-rock isochron with an age of 759±65 Ma and ɛNd( T) of -8.8. The data confirm that the upper mafic unit of the lower series of the Niquelândia Complex is Neoproterozoic and that the original magma is contaminated with Meso- to Paleoproterozoic crust. The layered complex may have been intruded into a continental rift developed at the western limb of the São Francisco-Congo continent, coeval with the development of the Goiás Magmatic Arc to the west.

  10. Archean to Middle Proterozoic evolution of Baltica subcontinental lithosphere: evidence from combined Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf isotope analyses of the Sandvik ultramafic body, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapen, Thomas J.; Medaris, L. Gordon; Johnson, Clark M.; Beard, Brian L.

    2005-09-01

    Combined Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf age and isotope data indicate that Mg- and Cr-rich ultramafic rocks at Sandvik, Western Gneiss Region (WGR), Norway, originated from depleted Archean lithospheric mantle that was chemically and physically modified in Middle Proterozoic time. The Sandvik outcrop consists of garnet peridotite and garnet-olivine pyroxenite and thin garnet pyroxenite layers. These contain two principal mineral assemblages: an earlier porphyroclastic assemblage of grt + opx + cpx ± ol (1,200-1,000°C, 40-50 kbar) and a later kelyphitic assemblage of grt + spl + am ± opx ± ol (700-750°C; 12-18 kbar). A CHUR Hf model age indicates a period of melt extraction at ca. 3.3 Ga for garnet peridotite, reflecting extremely high Lu/Hf ratios and very radiogenic present-day 176Hf/177Hf (ɛHf=+2,165). Lu-Hf garnet-cpx-whole rock ages of two olivine-bearing samples (garnet peridotite and garnet-olivine pyroxenite) from the outcrop are ca. 1,255 Ma, whereas two olivine-free garnet pyroxenites yield Lu-Hf ages of ca. 1,185 Ma. All Sm-Nd garnet-cpx-whole rock ages of these samples are significantly younger (ca. 1,150 Ma for garnet peridotite and ca. 1,120 Ma for garnet pyroxenite). The isotope systematics indicate that the Lu-Hf ages represent cooling from an earlier period of formation/recrystallization for garnet peridotite whereas they probably reflect formation/recrystallization ages of the garnet pyroxenite. The Sm-Nd ages and isotope systematics of the garnet peridotite samples are consistent with an episode of LREE metasomatism, perhaps facilitated by a fluid of carbonatitic composition that strongly decoupled Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf. The Sm-Nd ages of the garnet pyroxenite may represent either LREE metasomatism or cooling, and, like the peridotites, Lu-Hf ages are older than Sm-Nd ages. The age data, as well as the inferred Nd isotope composition of the fluid that affected the olivine-bearing samples, suggest that these rocks were not in contact during the LREE metasomatic

  11. Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr, and /sup 18/O//sup 16/O isotopic systematics in an oceanic crustal section: Evidence from the Samial ophiolite

    SciTech Connect

    McCulloch, M.T.; Gregory, R.T.; Wasserburg, G.J.; Taylor, H.P. Jr.

    1981-04-10

    The Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr, and /sup 18/O//sup 16/O isotopic systems have been used to distinguish between the effects of seafloor hydrothermal alteration and primary magmatic isotopic variations. The Sm-Nd isotopic system is essentially unaffected by seawater alteration, while the Rb-Sr and /sup 18/O//sup 16/O systems are sensitive to hydrothermal interactions with seawater. Sm-Nd mineral isochrons from the cumulate gabbros of the Samail ophiolite have an initial /sup 143/Nd//sup 144/Nd ratio of e/sub Nd/ = 7.8 +- 0.3, which clearly substantiates the oceanic affinity of this complex. The initial /sup 143/Nd//sup 144/Nd ratios for the harzburgite, plagiogranite, sheeted diabase dikes, and basalt units have a limited range in e/sub Nd/ of from 7.5 to 8.6, indicating that all the lithologies have distinctive oceanic affinities, although there is also some evidence for small isotopic heterogeneities in the magma reservoirs. The Sm-Nd mineral isochrons give crystallization ages of 128 +- 20 m.y. and 150 +- 40 m.y. from Ibra and 100 +- 20 m.y. from Wadi Fizh, which is approximately 300 km NW of Ibra. These crystallization ages are interpreted as the time of formation of the oceanic crust. The /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr initial ratios on the same rocks have an extremely large range of from 0.7030 to 0.7065 and the d/sup 18/O values vary from 2.6 to 12.7. These large variations clearly demonstrate hydrothermal interaction of oceanic crust with seawater.

  12. Correlated nucleosynthetic isotopic variability in Cr, Sr, Ba, Sm, Nd and Hf in Murchison and QUE 97008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Liping; Carlson, Richard W.; Alexander, Conel M. O.'D.

    2011-12-01

    chondrites and all modern Earth rocks, leaving decay of 146Sm and a superchondritic Sm/Nd ratio as the likely explanation for Earth's high 142Nd/ 144Nd.

  13. New U-Pb and Sm-Nd isotope data of the age of formation and metamorphic alteration of the Kandalaksha-Kolvitsa gabbro-anorthosite complex (Baltic Shield)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steshenko, Ekaterina; Bayanova, Tamara; Serov, Pavel; Chashchin, Viktor

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this research was to study the isotope U-Pb age of zircon and rutile and Sm-Nd (rock forming and sulphide minerals) in Kandalaksha-Kolvitsa gabbro-anorthosite complex. Kandalaksha-Kolvitsa gabbro-anorthosite complex is located in the N-E part of Baltic shield and consists of three parts. Marginal zone (mesocratic metanorite) lies at the base of the massif. Main zone is composed of leucocratic metagabbro. The upper zone is alteration of mataanorthosite and leucocratic metagabbro. All rocks were subjected to granulate metamorphism. New U-Pb and Sm-Nd isotopic and geochronological data for the rocks of the Kandalaksha-Kolvitsa Paleoproterozoic gabbro-anorthosite complex is presented. For the first time single zircon grains from metagabbros of Kolvitsa massif were dated 2448±5 Ma, using U-Pb method with an artificial 205Pb tracer. Sm-Nd isotopic age of the metamorphic minerals apatite, garnet and sulphide WR Kolvitsa array is 1985 ± 17 Ma, which is interpreted granulite metamorphism. Two fractions of single zircons from anorthosite of the Kandalaksha massif gave U-Pb age 2450± 3 Ma. Leucocratic gabbro-norite (Kandalaksha massif) were dated by U-Pb on single zircon, with age up to 2230±10 Ma. This age reflects the time of granulite metamorphism according to data of [1]. Two fractions of rutile from anorthosite of the Kandalaksha massif have been analyzed by U-Pb method and reflect age of 1700 ± 10 Ma. It is known that the closure temperature of U-Pb system rutile 400-450 ° C [2], thus cooling of the massif to these temperatures was about 1.7 Ga. These data suggested two stages of metamorphic transformations of the massif. Sm-Nd research Kandalaksha massif reflected the age of the high-temperature metasomatic transformations -1887 ± 37 Ma. Time of regional fluid processing - 1692 ± 71 Ma. A model Sm-Nd age metagabbros Kolvitsa massif is 3.3 Ga with a negative value ɛNd = -4.6, which corresponds to the most likely primary enriched mantle reservoir of

  14. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotope geochemistry and chronology of cherts from the Onverwacht Group (3.5 AE), South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weis, D.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1987-01-01

    An Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic analysis of Archean chert samples from the Onverwacht Group, South Africa is presented, showing the same characteristic Rb and Sr concentrations as Phanerozoic cherts, with a very large range of Rb-87/Sr-86 ratios. A good correlation line in the Rb-87 to Sr-87 evolution diagram, corresponding to an age of about 2119 My and an initial Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio of about 0.72246, is derived which may be interpreted as reflecting the age of rehomogenization of the Sr in the protolith and the recrystallization of these cherts due to circulating hydrothermal fluids during regional metamorphism about 1.4 AE after deposition of the Onverwacht Group. The Sm-Nd systematics reflect an ancient source age of about 3.5 AE.

  15. Significance of the Sm-Nd isotopic systematics of the Akilia Association

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruau, G.; Nutman, A.; Jahn, B. M.

    1986-01-01

    Samarium-Neodymium analyses were carried out on fourteen samples of basic to ultrabasic metavolcanics from several enclaves of the Amitsoq gneisses (T = to or approximately 3,700 Ma). Field observations suggest that all the analyzed rocks belong to the pre-Amitsoq Akilia Association. Consequently, a minimum age of 3,700 Ma is postulated for the emplacement of their protoliths. When all the data points are put together in a conventional isochron diagram, no clear isochron relationship can be discerned. However, the points seem to fall within a band broadly corresponding to an age of 3,600 Ma. The isotopic results are difficult to interpret satisfactorily. Two contrasting interpretations are offered and summarized: (1) data scatter as a result of open system behavior; and (2) data scatter due to a melange of data sets defining two distinct isochrons.

  16. An extremely low U Pb source in the Moon: UThPb, SmNd, RbSr, and 40Ar 39Ar isotopic systematics and age of lunar meteorite Asuka 881757

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Misawa, K.; Tatsumoto, M.; Dalrymple, G.B.; Yanai, K.

    1993-01-01

    We have undertaken UThPb, SmNd, RbSr, and 40Ar 39Ar isotopic studies on Asuka 881757, a coarse-grained basaltic lunar meteorite whose chemical composition is close to low-Ti and very low-Ti (VLT) mare basalts. The PbPb internal isochron obtained for acid leached residues of separated mineral fractions yields an age of 3940 ?? 28 Ma, which is similar to the U-Pb (3850 ?? 150 Ma) and Th-Pb (3820 ?? 290 Ma) internal isochron ages. The Sm-Nd data for the mineral separates yield an internal isochron age of 3871 ?? 57 Ma and an initial 143Nd 144Nd value of 0.50797 ?? 10. The Rb-Sr data yield an internal isochron age of 3840 ?? 32 Ma (??(87Rb) = 1.42 ?? 10-11 yr-1) and a low initial 87Sr 86Sr ratio of 0.69910 ?? 2. The 40Ar 39Ar age spectra for a glass fragment and a maskelynitized plagioclase are relatively flat and give a weighted mean plateau age of 3798 ?? 12 Ma. We interpret these ages to indicate that the basalt crystallized from a melt 3.87 Ga ago (the Sm-Nd age) and an impact event disturbed the Rb-Sr system and completely reset the K-Ar system at 3.80 Ga. The slightly higher Pb-Pb age compared to the Sm-Nd age could be due to the secondary Pb (from terrestrial and/or lunar surface Pb contamination) that remained in the residues after acid leaching. Alternatively, the following interpretation is also possible; the meteorite crystallized at 3.94 Ga (the Pb-Pb age) and the Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr, and K-Ar systems were disturbed by an impact event at 3.80 Ga. The crystallization age obtained here is older than those reported for low-Ti basalts (3.2-3.5 Ga) and for VLT basalts (3.4 Ga), but similar to ages of some mare basalts, indicating that the basalt may have formed from a magma related to a basin-forming event (Imbrium?). The age span for VLT basalts from different sampling sites suggest that they were erupted over a wide area during an interval of at least ~500 million years. The impact event that thermally reset the K-Ar system of Asuka 881757 must have been post

  17. Neoarchean metamorphism recorded in high-precision Sm-Nd isotope systematics of garnets from the Jack Hills (Western Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eccles, K. A.; Baxter, E. F.; Mojzsis, S. J.; Marschall, H.; Williams, M. L.; Jercinovic, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Studies of metasedimentary rocks from the Jack Hills, which host Earth's oldest known detrital minerals, have focused on zircon and occasionally monazite or xenotime, but no attention has been directed toward one of the most common mineral markers of metamorphism: garnet. Garnet can provide a record of the post-depositional, prograde metamorphic history of Archean metasedimentary rocks. Additionally, the use of a newly developed detrital garnet dating technique [1,2] may reveal information about pre-depositional metamorphism that could address lingering questions about the nature and timing of Earth's earliest tectonometamorphic events. Here we investigate garnet from the Jack Hills metasedimentary rocks to test whether they record in situ metamorphism or are a detrital relict of even older metamorphic events. We identified garnet in two bulk quartz-pebble conglomerate samples collected from the 'discovery' outcrop at Eranondoo Hill in the Jack Hills of Western Australia. Electron microprobe analyses of polished grains and SEM measurements of unpolished grain surfaces are consistent, revealing garnet composition indicative of a single generation/population of predominantly almandine-spessartine solid solution (~10-35% mole fraction spessartine). Compositional maps of garnet grains reveal little zoning and no discontinuities, most consistent with a single growth event. Dating Jack Hills' garnet via the Sm-Nd system is possible due to continued development of small sample analysis techniques, including running NdO+ TIMS analyses with Ta2O5 activator [3] permitting <50 ppm 2 sigma analytical precision on a 400pg in-house standard and continued improvement in blanks (<15pg full procedural blanks). Additionally, employing a nondestructive chemical prescreening technique (tabletop SEM) allows for grouping of multiple grains based on chemical similarity. Final Nd loads in the 450-750pg range routinely yield dates with precisions <×10Ma for two point isochrons between

  18. Constraints on Martian Differentiation Processes from Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd Isotopic Analyses of the Basaltic Shergottite QUE 94201

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borg, Lars E.; Nyquist, Larry E.; Taylor, Larry A.; Wiesmann, Henry; Shih, Chi-Y.

    1997-01-01

    Isotopic analyses of mineral, leachate, and whole rock fractions from the Martian shergottite meteorite QUE 94201 yield Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd crystallization ages of 327 +/- 12 and 327 +/- 19 Ma, respectively. These ages are concordant, although the isochrons are defined by different fractions within the meteorite. Comparison of isotope dilution Sm and Nd data for the various QUE 94201 fractions with in situ ion microprobe data for QUE 94201 minerals from the literature demonstrate the presence of a leachable crustal component in the meteorite. This component is likely to have been added to QUE 94201 by secondary alteration processes on Mars, and can affect the isochrons by selectively altering the isotopic systematics of the leachates and some of the mineral fractions. The absence of crustal recycling processes on Mars may preserve the geochemical evidence for early differentiation and the decoupling of the Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic systems, underscoring one of the fundamental differences between geologic processes on Mars and the Earth.

  19. Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr Isotopic Systematics of a Heavily Shocked Martian Meteorite Tissint and Petrogenesis of Depleted Shergottites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Park, J.; Agee, Carl B.

    2014-01-01

    Tissint is a very fresh Martian meteorite that fell near the town of Tissint in Morocco on July 18, 2011. It contains abundant olivine megacrysts (23%) in a fine-grained matrix of pyroxene (55%), maskelynitized plagioclase (15%), opaques (4%) and melt pockets (3%) and is petrographically similar to lithologies A and C of picritic shergottite EETA 79001 [1,2]. The presence of 2 types of shock-induced glasses and all 7 high-pressure mineral phases that were ever found in melt pockets of Martian meteorites suggests it underwent an intensive shock metamorphism of 25 GPa and 2000 C localized in melt pockets [2]. Mineral textures suggest that olivines, pyroxenes and plagioclases probably did not experience such hightemperature. Earlier determinations of its age yielded 596+/-23 Ma [3] and 616+/-67 Ma [4], respectively, for the Sm-Nd system and 583+/-86 Ma for the Lu-Hf system [4], in agreement with the 575+/-18 Ma age of the oldest olivine-phyric depleted shergottite Dho 019 [5]. However, the exposure ages of Tissint (1 Ma [1, 6, 7]) and Dho 019 (20 Ma [8]) are very different requiring two separate ejection events. These previously determined Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf ages are older than the Ar-Ar maskelynite plateau age of 524+/-15 Ma [9], reversing the pattern usually observed for Martian meteorites. In order to clarify these age issues and place models for Tissint's petrogenesis on a firm basis, we present new Rb-Sr and Sm- Nd isotopic results for Tissint, and discuss (a) the shock effects on them and the Ar-Ar chronometer, (b) correlation of the determined ages with those of other depleted shergottites, and (c) the petrogenesis of depleted shergottites. Since the meteorite is a recent fall, terrestrial contamination is expected to be minimal, but, the strong shock metamorphism might be expected to compromise the equilibrium of the isotopic systems.

  20. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd Study of Asuka 881394: Evidence of "Late" Metamorphism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C.-Y.; Reese, Y.; Takeda, H.

    2011-01-01

    The Asuka 881394 achondrite contains fossil Al-26 and Mn-53 [1,2,3] and has a Pb-207/Pb-206 age of 4566.5 plus or minus 0.2 Ma [3], the oldest for an achondrite. Preliminary results showed initial Sm-146/Sm-144 = (7.4 plus or minus 1.2) x 10(exp -3), indicative of an ancient age, but Rb-87 - Sr-87 and Sm-147 - Nd-143 ages of 4370 plus or minus 60 and 4490 plus or minus 20 Ma, resp. [1], were younger than expected from the presence of short-lived nuclides. We revisit the Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd chronology of A881394 in an attempt to establish whether late metamorphism led to inconsistency in its apparent ages.

  1. pre-Mesozoic evolution of the basement of the Catalan Coastal Ranges: implications from geochemical and Sm-Nd isotope data of the Palaeozoic succession of the Collserola Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilà, Miquel; Pin, Christian

    2016-04-01

    In the whole of the Western Europe and neighbouring areas numerous studies have addressed the provenance of pre-Mesozoic sedimentary rocks and the Palaeozoic geodynamic evolution using the Sm-Nd systematics. However, at present, there are still large areas of the Variscan mountain chain without systematic determinations of their whole - rock Sm-Nd isotope signatures. This is the case of the Palaeozoic blocks of the Catalan Coastal Ranges (NE Iberia). In the context of the Variscan belt many authors interpret the Palaeozoic basement of the Catalan Coastal Ranges as part of the southern foreland basin of the mountain belt. The pre-Mesozoic rocks in the Catalan Coastal Ranges exhibit important stratigraphical affinities with those outcropping in the Eastern Pyrenees, Montagne Noire, Sardinia and Iberian Range. Paleogeographic reconstructions predict that the Catalan Coastal Ranges were located in a transitional area between the northern branch of the Ibero-Armorican arc and the core of the arc. The Collserola Range, located in the metropolitan area of Barcelona, includes a representative Palaeozoic stratigraphic section, from Cambro-Ordovician to Carboniferous, of the central part of the Catalan Coastal Ranges. In this presentation we present an up-to-date review of the stratigraphy and structure of the Palaeozoic of the Collserola Range, and provide geochemical and Sm-Nd isotope data to constrain the Pre-Mesozoic crustal evolution of this sector of the Variscan belt. Geochemical compositions indicate that the Palaeozoic siliciclastic rocks of the Collserola Range were fed by a relative mature heterogeneous source of sediment, comprising from quartz-rich sediments to intermediate igneous rocks. The siliciclastic rocks of the Collserola Range show great geochemical affinity with the turbidites of passive margins. The Sm-Nd signature of the siliciclastic rocks is compatible with those of the Palaeozoic and Late Proterozoic fine grained siliciclastic rocks of the

  2. Geochemistry and Sm-Nd isotopic composition of the Imiter Pan-African granitoids (Saghro massif, eastern Anti-Atlas, Morocco): Geotectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baidada, Bouchra; Cousens, Brian; Alansari, Abdelkhalek; Soulaimani, Abderrahmane; Barbey, Pierre; Ilmen, Said; Ikenne, Moha

    2017-03-01

    The Imiter inlier (eastern part of the Moroccan Anti-Atlas) is located on the northwestern border of the West African Craton (WAC) and exhibits a range of Pan-African granitoids. Three massifs that crosscut the Imiter Saghro Group were targeted in this work: the Igoudrane granodiorite, Bou Teglimt granodiorite and Bou Fliou granite. We present here additional geochemical analyses (major and trace elements) and Sm-Nd isotopic data, which define two distinct groups: (i) the Igoudrane massif (677 Ma) and (ii) the Bou Teglimt granodiorite (576 Ma) and the Bou Fliou granite (550 Ma). Geochemical data confirm the calc-alkaline signature of the studied granitoids. Both groups of granitoids are slightly peraluminous and show strong negative anomalies in Nb, Ta and Ti in multi-element plots normalized to the primitive mantle. The granitoids have low 143Nd/144Nd initial ratios (0.5116-0.5117), with TDM model ages ranging from 1.73 to 1.52Ga. The εNd(t) values are negative, decreasing from the Igoudrane samples (-1.1 to -3.1) to the Bou Teglimt granodiorite (-3.0 to -3.3) and Bou Fliou (-4.2 to -4.8). All these data suggest a mixed magmatic origin involving a juvenile mantle source and an old, at least Paleoproterozoic crust. Given Mesoproterozoic rocks are lacking or very scarce in the Anti-Atlas, these results confirm the existence of an old cratonic basement beneath the eastern Anti-Atlas, and therefore suggest that the northern border of the West African Craton must be placed further to the north, as suggested by previous work in this region.

  3. The Crust Has Changed: Evidence for and implications of age dependent Sm/Nd ratios in juvenile continental crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, S. T.

    2011-12-01

    The Nd isotope systematics of crustal granites and their presumed source materials are used to reconstruct the Sm/Nd ratios of the continental crust with distinct mantle extraction ages (based on DePaolo, 1988 EPSL and Bennett and DePaolo, 1987 GSA Bull). A more extensive, literature-derived data set for the western USA supports the isotopic mapping of Bennett and DePaolo. Calculated Sm/Nd ratios of the crust show a secular increase from the Archean to approximately 1.5 Ga. Modern island arc lavas, analogs for juvenile continental crust have the lowest Sm/Nd, consistent with the inferred trend from the granites. Possible reasons for the increasing Sm/Nd include changes in the Sm/Nd ratio of the mantle reservoir and/or changes in the mineralogy of the reservoir from which the crust was extracted. It is postulated that the primary control of Sm/Nd in the continental crust is the residual mineralogy in the reservoirs from which the crust was extracted. This is possible because changes in the geothermal gradient through Earth's history affect the residual mineralogy during the extraction of continental crust. Recent phase equilibria studies relevant to modern island arcs suggest that accessory minerals such as allanite buffer the LREE budget from the subducting sediment and basaltic slab, the primary source of REE in island arc lavas. Crust production early in Earth's history likely occurred at temperatures too high for allanite stability, meaning Sm/Nd ratios were likely controlled by garnet and/or amphibole in either subducted crust or the mantle reservoir. Modeling results will show how changing residual mineralogy during crust extractions can produce the observed changes in Sm/Nd ratios. More broadly the inferred time dependence for Sm/Nd may relate to the silica content of juvenile crust throughout Earth's history.

  4. Neodymium Diffusion Kinetics in Orthopyroxene: Experimental Studies, Mineral Closure Temperature of Sm-Nd Decay System and Application to Mesosiderites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, J.; Ganguly, J.; Hervig, R.; Zhang, X.-Y.

    2008-03-01

    We have determined Nd diffusion kinetics in orthopyroxene, and applied these data to calculate closure temperature of Sm-Nd decay system in the mineral, and to refine the cooling history of mesosiderites.

  5. Peering Through a Martian Veil: ALHA84001 Sm-Nd Age Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, Laurence E.; Shih, Chi-Yu

    2013-01-01

    The ancient Martian orthopyroxenite ALH84001experienced a complex history of impact and aqueous alteration events. Here we summarize Sm-147-Nd-143 and Sm-146-Nd-142 analyses performed at JSC. Further, using REE data, we model the REE abundance pattern of the basaltic magma parental to ALH84001 cumulus orthopyroxene. We find the Sm-146-Nd-142 isotopic data to be consistent with isotopic evolution in material having the modeled Sm/Nd ratio from a time very close to the planet's formation to igneous crystallization of ALH84001 as inferred from the Sm-Nd studies.

  6. The Cambrian to Devonian odyssey of the Brabant Massif within Avalonia: A review with new zircon ages, geochemistry, Sm-Nd isotopes, stratigraphy and palaeogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnemann, Ulf; Herbosch, Alain; Liégeois, Jean-Paul; Pin, Christian; Gärtner, Andreas; Hofmann, Mandy

    2012-05-01

    This study provides an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the Early Palaeozoic evolution of the Brabant Massif belonging to the Anglo-Brabant Deformation Belt. Situated at the southeastern side of Avalonia microplate, it is the only well-known part of the northern passive margin of the Rheic Ocean. The Cambrian-Silurian sedimentary pile is > 13 km thick, with > 9 km for the Cambrian only. The unraveling of this continuous registration reflects the successive rifting and drifting of Avalonia from the Gondwana mainland, followed by soft-collisional processes with Baltica and finally the formation of Laurussia. Based on recently established detailed stratigraphy, sedimentology and basin development, on U-Pb LA-ICP-MS analyses of igneous and detrital zircon grains along with geochemical data including Sm-Nd isotopes, a new geodynamic and palaeogeographic evolution is proposed. Brabant Megasequence 1 (lower Cambrian to lowermost Ordovician, > 9 km thick) represents an embayment of the peri-Gondwanan rift from which the Rheic Ocean has evolved. Detrital zircon ages demonstrate that the Brabant is a typical peri-Gondwanan terrane with a major Pan-African (Neoproterozoic age) and a mixed West African and Amazonian source (Palaeoproterozoic, Archaean and some Mesoproterozoic age). The transition towards the Avalonia drifting is marked by an unconformity and a short volcanic episode. The northward drift of Avalonia towards Baltica is recorded by the Megasequence 2 (Middle to Upper Ordovician, 1.3 km thick). The source for Mesoproterozoic zircons vanished, as the result of the Rheic Ocean opening and the isolation from Amazonian sources. The transition to Megasequence 3 is marked by a drastic change in palaeobathymetry and an important (sub)volcanic episode during a tectonic instability period (460-430 Ma), reflecting the Avalonia-Baltica soft docking as also shown by the reappearance of Mesoproterozoic detrital zircons, typical of Baltica. Unradiogenic Nd isotope

  7. Sm-Nd systematics of chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelin, Yuri; Rotenberg, Ethan

    2004-07-01

    We have studied the 147Sm- 143Nd and 146Sm- 142Nd isotopic systems in phosphate fractions and chondrules from six ordinary chondrites and one carbonaceous chondrite, previously dated with Pb-Pb method. 147Sm/ 144Nd ratios vary between 0.182 and 0.191 in phosphates, and between 0.179 and 0.243 in chondrules. The 147Sm- 143Nd isochron regression through all 34 phosphate and chondrule analyses yields a date of 4588±100 Ma and is in good agreement with more precise Pb-Pb dates of the same chondrites. The initial 143Nd/ 144Nd is 0.50665±0.00014. The same analyses define a 146Sm- 142Nd isochron with a slope corresponding to 146Sm/ 144Sm=0.0075±0.0027. Initial 142Nd/ 144Nd=1.14160±0.00011 corresponds to ɛ142Nd=-2.62±0.93. Compilation of the published chondritic whole rock Sm-Nd analyses yields the median 147Sm/ 144Nd=0.1964+0.0003/-0.0007, which is our preferred Chondritic Uniform Reservoir (CHUR) value. Using this value and its error limits, we find the present-day CHUR 143Nd/ 144Nd=0.512637+0.000009/-0.000021 from the chondritic Sm-Nd isochron that includes all available data for whole rocks, chondrules and phosphates. This value is identical within error with the currently accepted number. An estimate of the bulk earth 147Sm/ 144Nd=0.1941±0.0059 is obtained from intercept of chondritic 146Sm- 142Nd isochron with the terrestrial value of 142Nd/ 144Nd. This estimate is independent of measured Sm/Nd ratios in chondrites. The same approach was applied to published 146Sm- 142Nd internal isochrons for differentiated meteorites and yielded similar, although less precise, values. Our data are completely consistent with the currently accepted CHUR parameters and substantiate their use as terrestrial reference values.

  8. Sm-Nd chronology of porphyroblastic garnets from granulite facies metabasic rocks in Calabria (Southern Italy): inferences for preserved isotopic memory and resetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchene, S.; Fornelli, A.; Micheletti, F.; Piccarreta, G.

    2013-08-01

    Metabasic rocks related to pre-Cambrian protoliths from the lower portion of the deep crust of the Serre (Calabria, southern Italy) contain porphyroblastic garnet up to 5-6 cm in diameter. Garnet forms coronas around the inclusions of clinopyroxene and is in contact with various matrix minerals. Both inner and outer coronas formed under granulite facies conditions after the thermal peak during the Hercynian reworking. Six porphyroblastic garnets (≥1 cm in diameter) from four samples have been dated with the Sm-Nd method to constrain the distinct metamorphic stages and, possibly, to investigate the diffusion of Sm and Nd in garnet. They show in the core major element flat profiles whereas one of these, analyzed for REEs, preserves only a feeble zoning. This suggests that the diffusion rates of REEs are effective at the crystal scale. The apparent Nd ages range from 354 to 88 Ma, without any reproducibility in each and in all rock samples. The oldest age of 354 Ma is interpreted as the primary isotopic signatures linked to prograde metamorphism. The interpretation of younger ages (309, 272, 215, 143 and 88 Ma) requires a detailed discussion about: (i) possible modification of chemical and isotopic composition of the rocks during and after garnet growth, (ii) possible contamination by inclusions in garnet, (iii) inherited isotopic disequilibrium, (iv) new growth or recrystallization of garnet and (v) possible isotopic resetting of large crystals which, in principle, is hampered by the slow diffusion of REE's in garnet. Some of the Nd ages are similar to U-Pb ages of zircon from the metabasic rocks of deep crustal rocks of the Serre (350, 300 and 280 Ma). This convergence of apparent ages can hardly be considered as simply fortuitous. Thus, since: (i) corona formation was fluid-assisted and (ii) all porphyroblasts were broken up into several fragmented subgrains by sets of fractures resulting in smaller volumes, the volume diffusion and the possible role of high

  9. High-spatial-resolution isotope geochemistry of monazite (U-Pb & Sm-Nd) and zircon (U-Pb & Lu-Hf) in the Old Woman and North Piute Mountains, Mojave Desert, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Stacy E.; Hanchar, John M.; Miller, Calvin F.; Fisher, Christopher M.; Lancaster, Penny J.; Darling, James R.

    2014-05-01

    Recent improvements in analytical capabilities allow us to reveal details of magmatic processes at an increasingly finer spatial and temporal scale. In situ analyses of the isotopic and trace element composition of accessory minerals at the sub-grain scale have proven to be effective tools for solving a wide range of geological problems. This study presents new data on accessory minerals including monazite & zircon, examined by in situ LA-ICP-MS and Laser Ablation Split Stream (LASS) techniques, analyzing multiple isotopic systems (U-Pb + Sm-Nd, and U-Pb + Lu-Hf in monazite and zircon, respectively) in order to track geochemical changes over time through a magmatic system. The late Cretaceous granitoids of the Old Woman Mountains in the Mojave Desert, California, provide an excellent opportunity to apply these analytical techniques. The peraluminous granites of the Sweetwater Wash, Painted Rock, and North Piute plutons represent different depths of the magmatic system, and are well understood in terms of field relations and whole-rock geochemistry. A preliminary study on the Sweetwater Wash monazites (Fisher et al., in preparation) has revealed significant inter-grain isotopic heterogeneity in the ɛNd composition of the source region (~1700 Ma); however, the U-Pb ages show an isotopic resetting during emplacement at ~75 Ma. This decoupling of U-Pb and Sm-Nd isotopic systems is suggested by Fisher et al. to be due to recrystallisation and/or dissolution-reprecipitation of monazite. If grain boundary diffusion of Pb overrides the more kinetically limited volume diffusion, then the U-Pb systematics will be reset while Sm and Nd remain immobile in the monazite structure as essential structural components of the lattice. This new data will allow the further investigation of these preliminary results, providing new insights into the observed isotopic disequilibrium, with the LASS technique accurately linking the multiple isotopic systems. This will provide important

  10. Sm-Nd and Initial Sr-87/Sr-86 Isotopic Systematics of Asuka 881394 and Cumulate Eucrites Yamato 980318/433 Compared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C-Y; Young, Y. D.; Takeda, H.

    2011-01-01

    The Asuka 881394 achondrite contains fossil Al-26 and Mn-53 and has a Pb-206/Pb-207 age of 4566.5 +/- 0.2 Ma, the oldest for an achondrite. Recent re-investigation of A881394 yielded revised initial Sm-146/Sm-144 = (9.1 +/- 1.4) x 10(exp -3), a Sm-147-Nd-143 age of 4525 +/- 58 Ma, a Rb-87-Sr-87 age of 4490 +/- 130 Ma, and initial Sr-87/Sr-86 = 0.698991 +/- 19, respectively. The relatively large uncertainties in the Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr ages are due to disturbances of the isotopic systematics of tridymite and other minor phases. A preliminary value for the Sm-147-Nd-143 age of the Yamato 980318 cumulate eucrite of 4560 +/- 150 Ma was refined in later work to 4567 +/- 24 Ma as reported orally at LPSC 35. Similarly, a preliminary value for Sm-146/Sm-144 = (7.7 +/- 1.2) x 10 (exp -3) was refined to (6.0 +/- 0.3) x 10(exp -3). For Yamato 980433, a Sm-147-Nd-143 age of 4542 +/-42 Ma and Sm-146/Sm-144 = (5.7 +/- 0.5) x 10(exp -3) has been reported. Because these two cumulate eucrites are paired, we consider them to represent one igneous rock and present their combined isotopic data here.

  11. Zircon age range and sources of alkaline rocks from the Kurgusul intrusion, Kuznetsk Alatau: The first U-Pb (SHRIMP II) and Sm-Nd isotope data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrublevskii, V. V.; Gertner, I. F.; Tishin, P. A.; Bayanova, T. B.

    2014-12-01

    U-Pb isotope analysis of basic feldspathoid rocks (juvites) of the Kurgusul intrusion, NE Kuznetsk Alatau, revealed three generations of zircons of various ages (˜1.3-1.5 Ga; 484.3 ± 5.5 and 393.6 ± 9.2Ma). This suggests several stages of regional alkaline basic magmatism in the Middle Cambrian-Early Ordovician and Early-Middle Devonian and melting of the Mesoproterozoic continental crust, which form part of the basement of the Kuznetsk Alatau terrane. The trace element geochemical data indicate a continental margin setting characterized by the complex interaction of a plume-related, supra-subduction zone and crustal materials. A possible model of the magmatic evolution assumes that the ascent of a plume at the Cambrian-Ordovician boundary induced generation of the initial alkaline basaltic magmas and metasomatism and erosion of the lower lithosphere. Repeated partial melting of the lower crust after a 100 Myr period produced new magma batches of alkaline composition, which inherited zircons from the preceding episode of magma generation. The inherited juvenile magmatic source (PREMA + E-type MORB + EM) is confirmed by similarities in the Sm-Nd isotopic signatures (ɛNd( T) ≈ +4.5 to +5.7, T(Nd)DM ≈ 0.8-0.9 Ga) of derivatives of regional alkaline basic complexes of different ages.

  12. Hf-W, Sm-Nd, and Rb-Sr isotopic evidence of late impact fractionation and mixing of silicates on iron meteorite parent bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Gregory A.; Lee, Der-Chuen; Ruzicka, Alex M.; Prinz, Martin; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Halliday, Alex N.

    2001-03-01

    We report the first Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotopic analyses of silicate inclusions in four IIE iron meteorites: Miles, Weekeroo Station A and B, and Watson. We also report the Hf-W isotopic composition of a silicate inclusion from Watson and 182W/ 184W of the host FeNi metal in all four IIEs. The host metal in Watson has a negative ɛW value (-2.21±0.24), similar to or higher than other iron meteorites [1,35] and consistent with segregation of metal from silicate early in solar system history. However, the large silicate inclusion in the Watson IIE iron yielded a chondritic ɛW value (-0.50±0.55), thus indicating a lack of equilibration with the FeNi host within the practical lifetime of activity of the parent 182Hf (˜50 Ma). One of the silicate inclusions in Miles is roughly chondritic in major-element composition, has a present-day ɛNd of +10.3, relatively non-radiogenic 87Sr/ 86Sr (0.714177±13), and a TCHUR age of 4270 Ma. Two silicate inclusions from Weekeroo Station and one from Watson exhibit fractionated Sm/Nd and Rb/Sr ratios, and more radiogenic 87Sr/ 86Sr (0.731639±12 to 0.791852±11) and non-radiogenic ɛNd values (-5.9 to -13.4). The silicate inclusion in Watson has a TCHUR age of 3040 Ma, in agreement with previously determined 4He and 40Ar gas retention ages, indicative of a late thermal event. A later event is implied for the two silicate inclusions in Weekeroo Station, which yield indistinguishable TCHUR ages of 698 and 705 Ma. Silicate inclusions in IIE iron meteorites formed over a period of 3 billion yr by impacts, involving an H-chondrite parent body and an FeNi metal parent body. The LILE-enriched nature of some of these silicates suggests several stages of melting, mixing, and processing. However, there is little evidence to suggest that the silicates in the IIE irons were ever in equilibrium with the host FeNi metal.

  13. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd Ages of Zagami DML and SR Isotopic Heterogeneity in Zagami

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L.aurenceE.; Shih, C.-Y.; Reese, Y. D.

    2010-01-01

    Zagami contains lithologic heterogeneity suggesting that it did not form in a homogeneous, thick lava flow [1]. We have previously investigated the Sr and Nd isotopic systematics of Coarse-Grained (CG) and Fine-Grained (FG) lithologies described by [2]. Both appear to belong to Normal Zagami (NZ) [1,3], but their initial Sr-isotopic compositions differ [4,5]. Here we report new analyses of the Dark Mottled Lithology (DML, [3]) that show its age and initial Sr and Nd isotopic compositions to be identical within error limits with those of CG, but Sr initial isotopic compositions differ from those of FG.

  14. Sm-Nd in marine carbonates and phosphates - Implications for Nd isotopes in seawater and crustal ages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, H. F.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1985-01-01

    The possibility of establishing a record of variations in the isotopic composition of Nd in seawater over geologic time is explored. To construct such a record, a phase must be identified which incorporated Nd with the same isotopic composition as seawater at the time of its formation, preserves that composition, and which is relatively common in sediments. To evaluate the suitability of carbonates and phosphates, the Rb, Sr, Sm, and Nd concentrations and the Nd and Sr isotopic composition of a variety of modern and ancient marine calcite, aragonite, and apatite samples have been measured and the results are presented and discussed.

  15. Sm-Nd in marine carbonates and phosphates - Implications for Nd isotopes in seawater and crustal ages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, H. F.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1985-01-01

    The possibility of establishing a record of variations in the isotopic composition of Nd in seawater over geologic time is explored. To construct such a record, a phase must be identified which incorporated Nd with the same isotopic composition as seawater at the time of its formation, preserves that composition, and which is relatively common in sediments. To evaluate the suitability of carbonates and phosphates, the Rb, Sr, Sm, and Nd concentrations and the Nd and Sr isotopic composition of a variety of modern and ancient marine calcite, aragonite, and apatite samples have been measured and the results are presented and discussed.

  16. Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotope systematics of Korean spinel peridotites: A case for metasomatically induced Nd-Hf decoupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sung Hi; Mukasa, Samuel B.

    2012-12-01

    We determined the Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotope compositions of spinel peridotite xenoliths in alkali basalts from Baengnyeong and Jeju islands, South Korea, to constrain the timing of melt-depletion events and stabilization of the lithospheric mantle beneath the region. Equilibration temperatures estimated by two-pyroxene thermometry range from 780 to 950 °C, and from 960 to 1010 °C for Baengnyeong and Jeju peridotites, respectively. The Baengnyeong peridotite clinopyroxenes are characterized by extremely radiogenic Hf in association with isotopically less extreme Nd, resulting in strong Nd-Hf decoupling referenced to the mantle array. This is in stark contrast to the well-correlated isotopic compositions of Hf and Nd in the Jeju peridotite clinopyroxenes, which plot along the Nd-Hf mantle array. The Hf abundances and isotopic compositions of the Baengnyeong clinopyroxenes were less affected by relatively recent secondary enrichments that overprinted the light rare earth element abundances and Nd isotopes, causing the decoupling of the Nd-Hf isotopes. The Nd-Hf isotopic compositions of the Jeju peridotites appear to have been re-equilibrated, probably as a result of efficient diffusion at the relatively higher temperatures of the Jeju peridotites. Lu-Hf tie lines for clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene from four of the Korean peridotites have negative slopes on a Lu-Hf isochron diagram, yielding negative ages. This is interpreted to indicate recent isotopic exchange in orthopyroxene by reaction with metasomatic agents having low 176Hf/177Hf components. Secondary overprinting in orthopyroxene was facilitated by the considerably lower Hf concentrations than in co-located clinopyroxene. Baengnyeong lherzolite clinopyroxenes yield a Lu-Hf errorchron age of 1.9 ± 0.1 Ga, which is independently supported by a model Os age (based on Re depletion or TRD) of 1.8 Ga on a refractory Baengnyeong peridotite. We interpret this age range to mark the time of stabilization of the mantle

  17. Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotope systematics of Korean spinel peridotites: A case for metasomatically induced Nd-Hf decoupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, S.; Mukasa, S. B.

    2012-12-01

    We determined the Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotope compositions of spinel peridotite xenoliths in alkali basalts from Baengnyeong and Jeju islands, South Korea, to constrain the timing of melt-depletion events and stabilization of the lithospheric mantle beneath the region. Equilibration temperatures estimated by two-pyroxene thermometry range from 780 to 950°C, and from 960 to 1010°C for Baengnyeong and Jeju peridotites, respectively. The Baengnyeong peridotite clinopyroxenes are characterized by extremely radiogenic Hf in association with isotopically less extreme Nd, resulting in strong Nd-Hf decoupling referenced to the mantle array. This is in stark contrast to the well-correlated isotopic compositions of Hf and Nd in the Jeju peridotite clinopyroxenes, which plot along the Nd-Hf mantle array. The Hf abundances and isotopic compositions of the Baengnyeong clinopyroxenes were less affected by relatively recent secondary enrichments that overprinted the light rare earth element abundances and Nd isotopes, causing the decoupling of the Nd-Hf isotopes. The Nd-Hf isotopic compositions of the Jeju peridotites appear to have been re-equilibrated, probably as a result of efficient diffusion at the relatively higher temperatures of the Jeju peridotites. Lu-Hf tie lines for clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene from four of the Korean peridotites have negative slopes on a Lu-Hf isochron diagram, yielding negative ages. This is interpreted to indicate recent isotopic exchange in orthopyroxene by reaction with metasomatic agents having low 176Hf/177Hf components. Secondary overprinting in orthopyroxene was facilitated by the considerably lower Hf concentrations than in co-located clinopyroxene. Baengnyeong lherzolite clinopyroxenes yield a Lu-Hf errorchron age of 1.9 ± 0.1 Ga, which is independently supported by a model Os age (based on Re depletion or TRD) of 1.8 Ga on a refractory Baengnyeong peridotite. We interpret this age range to mark the time of stabilization of the mantle

  18. Precambrian tholeiitic-dacitic rock-suites and Cambrian ultramafic rocks in the Pennine nappe system of the Alps: Evidence from Sm-Nd isotopes and rare earth elements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stille, P.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1985-01-01

    Major element, trace element and Sm-Nd isotope analyses were made of polymetamorphic hornblendefelses, plagioclase amphibolites and banded amphibolites from the Berisal complex in the Simplon area (Italy, Switzerland) to determine their age, origin and genetic relationships. In light of major and rare earth element data, the hornblendefelses are inferred to have originally been pyroxene-rich cumulates, the plagioclase amphibolites and the dark layers of the banded amphibolites to have been tholeiitic basalts and the light layers dacites. The Sm-Nd isotope data yield isochron ages of 475??81 Ma for the hornblendefelses, 1,018??59 Ma for the plagioclase amphibolites and 1,071??43 Ma for the banded amphibolites. The 1 Ga magmatic event is the oldest one ever found in the crystalline basement of the Pennine nappes. The Sm -Nd isotope data support the consanguinity of the tholeiitic dark layers and the dacitic light layers of the banded amphibolites with the tholeiitic plagioclase amphibolites and the ultramafic hornblendefelses. The initial e{open}Nd values indicate that all three rock types originated from sources depleted in light rare earth elements. We suggest that plagioclase and banded amphibolites were a Proterozoic tholeiite-dacite sequence that was strongly deformed and flattened during subsequent folding. The hornblendefelses are thought to be Cambrian intrusions of pyroxene-rich material. ?? 1985 Springer-Verlag.

  19. Sm-Nd, K-Ar and petrologic study of some kimberlites from eastern United States and their implication for mantle evolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Basu, A.R.; Rubury, E.; Mehnert, H.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1984-01-01

    We provide new data on Sm-Nd systematics, K-Ar dating and the major element chemistry of kimberlites from the eastern United States (mostly from central New York State) and their constituent mineral phases of olivine, clinopyroxene, garnet, phlogopite and perovskite. In addition, we report Nd-isotopes in a few kimberlites from South Africa, Lesotho and from the eastern part of China. The major element compositions of the New York dike rocks and of their constituent minerals including a xenolith of eclogite are comparable with those from the Kimberley area in South Africa. The K-Ar age of emplacement of the New York dikes is further established to be 143 Ma. We have analyzed the Nd-isotopic composition of the following kimberlites and related rocks: Nine kimberlite pipes from South Africa and Lesotho, two from southern India; one from the U.S.S.R., fifteen kimberlite pipes and related dike rocks from eastern and central U.S. and two pipes from the Shandong Province of eastern China. The age of emplacement of these kimberlites ranges from 1300 million years to 90 million years. The initial Nd-isotopic compositions of these kimberlitic rocks expressed as e{open}NdIwith respect to a chondritic bulk-earth growth-curve show a range between 0 and +4, with the majority of the kimberlites being in the range 0 to +2. This range is not matched by any other suite of mantle-derived igneous rocks. This result strengthens our earlier conclusion that kimberlitic liquids are derived from a relatively primeval and unique mantle reservoir with a nearly chondritic Sm/Nd ratio. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag.

  20. Sm Nd isotope systematics and REE data for leucotroctolites and their amphibolitized equivalents of the Niquelândia Complex upper layered series, central Brazil: further constraints for the timing of magmatism and high-grade metamorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira Filho, C. F.; Pimentel, M. M.

    2000-12-01

    The Barro Alto, Niquelândia, and Cana Brava Complexes are major Proterozoic layered intrusions in central Brazil that were affected by high-grade metamorphism with associated ductile deformation during the Neoproterozoic (770-795 Ma). Recent studies recognized that the Niquelândia Complex comprises two petrologically distinct and tectonically juxtaposed magmatic systems: a younger Upper Layered Series to the west and an older Lower Layered Series to the east. Previous geochronological studies on Lower Series rocks suggested a Paleoproterozoic (ca 2.0 Ga) age for the Lower Series magmatic event. New trace element data matched with Sm-Nd isotope data for Upper Series samples yielded well-constrained and original geochronological information. The 1.35 Ga age of the Upper Series magmatism reported in this paper indicates a much younger age of the Upper Series compared with the Lower Series. The tectonic contact between these two distinct magmatic systems is now raised to the category of a major Paleo-Mesoproterozoic crustal discontinuity.

  1. Contrasting geochemical and Sm-Nd isotopic compositions of Archean metasediments from the Kongling high-grade terrain of the Yangtze craton: Evidence for cratonic evolution and redistribution of REE during crustal anatexis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shan; Ling, Wenli; Qiu, Yumin; Lian, Zhou; Hartmann, Gerald; Simon, Klaus

    1999-07-01

    Twenty-three clastic metasediments from the Kongling high-grade terrain of the Yangtze craton, South China were analyzed for major, trace and rare earth elements and Sm-Nd isotopic ratios. Associated dioritic-tonalitic-trondhjemitic (DTT) and granitic gneisses as well as amphibolites were also analyzed in order to constrain provenance. The results show that the clastic metasediments can be classified into 3 distinct groups in terms of mineralogical, geochemical and Sm-Nd isotopic compositions. Group A is characterized by having no to slight negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu∗ = 0.82-1.07), being high in Cr (191-396 ppm) and Ni (68-137 ppm), and low in Th (3.3-7.8 ppm) and REE (ΣREE = 99-156 ppm). These characteristics are similar to those of metasediments from Archean greenstone belts. In addition, the Group A metasediments have the value of the Chemical Index of Alteration (CIW) close to felsic gneisses. Their Sm-Nd isotopic, REE and trace element compositions can be interpreted by mixtures of the DTT gneisses and amphibolites. Dating of detrital zircons from 2 Group A samples by SHRIMP reveals a major concordant age group of 2.87-3.0 Ga, which is identical to the age of the trondhjemitic gneiss. These results strongly suggest that Group A was principally the first-cycle erosion product of the local Kongling DTT gneiss and amphibolite. Moreover, the higher than amphibolite Cr content and slight Eu depletion exhibited by some samples from this group infer that ultramafic rocks like komatiite and granite of probably 3.0-3.3 Ga in age also played a role. Group B is characterized by the presence of graphite and shows a more evolved composition similar to post-Archean shales with a prominent negative Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu∗ = 0.48-0.77) and high CIW. On paired Cr/Th vs La/Co and Co/Th plots, Group B samples conform to a two-end member mixing line of the Kongling granitic gneiss and amphibolite. However, data on Nd model age and CIW suggest that the granite component should

  2. Rb-Sr And Sm-Nd Ages, and Petrogenesis of Depleted Shergottite Northwest Africa 5990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, C. Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Reese, Y.; Irving, A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Northwest Africa (NWA) 5990 is a very fresh Martian meteorite recently found on Hamada du Draa, Morocco and was classified as an olivine-bearing diabasic igneous rock related to depleted shergottites [1]. The study of [1] also showed that NWA 5990 resembles QUE 94201 in chemical, textural and isotopic aspects, except QUE 94201 contains no olivine. The depleted shergottites are characterized by REE patterns that are highly depleted in LREE, older Sm-Nd ages of 327-575 Ma and highly LREE-depleted sources with Nd= +35+48 [2-7]. Age-dating these samples by Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr methods is very challenging because they have been strongly shocked and contain very low abundances of light rare earth elements (Sm and Nd), Rb and Sr. In addition, terrestrial contaminants which are commonly present in desert meteorites will compromise the equilibrium of isotopic systems. Since NWA 5990 is a very fresh meteorite, it probably has not been subject to significant desert weathering and thus is a good sample for isotopic studies. In this report, we present Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic results for NWA 5990, discuss the correlation of the determined ages with those of other depleted shergottites, especially QUE 94201, and discuss the petrogenesis of depleted shergottites.

  3. Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf isotope systematics of the lunar Mg-suite: the age of the lunar crust and its relation to the time of Moon formation.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Richard W; Borg, Lars E; Gaffney, Amy M; Boyet, Maud

    2014-09-13

    New Rb-Sr, (146,147)Sm-(142,143)Nd and Lu-Hf isotopic analyses of Mg-suite lunar crustal rocks 67667, 76335, 77215 and 78238, including an internal isochron for norite 77215, were undertaken to better define the time and duration of lunar crust formation and the history of the source materials of the Mg-suite. Isochron ages determined in this study for 77215 are: Rb-Sr=4450±270 Ma, (147)Sm-(143)Nd=4283±23 Ma and Lu-Hf=4421±68 Ma. The data define an initial (146)Sm/(144)Sm ratio of 0.00193±0.00092 corresponding to ages between 4348 and 4413 Ma depending on the half-life and initial abundance used for (146)Sm. The initial Nd and Hf isotopic compositions of all samples indicate a source region with slight enrichment in the incompatible elements in accord with previous suggestions that the Mg-suite crustal rocks contain a component of KREEP. The Sm/Nd-(142)Nd/(144)Nd correlation shown by both ferroan anorthosite and Mg-suite rocks is coincident with the trend defined by mare and KREEP basalts, the slope of which corresponds to ages between 4.35 and 4.45 Ga. These data, along with similar ages for various early Earth differentiation events, are in accord with the model of lunar formation via giant impact into Earth at ca 4.4 Ga. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd study of granite-charnockite association in the Pudukkottai region and the link between metamorphism and magmatism in the Madurai Block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekaran, M. Chandra; Bhutani, Rajneesh; Balakrishnan, S.

    2016-04-01

    Pudukkottai region in the northeastern part of the Madurai Block exposes the garnetiferous pink granite that intruded the biotite gneiss. Charnockite patches are associated with both the rock types. Rb-Sr biotite and Sm-Nd whole-rock isochron ages indicate a regional uplift and cooling at ˜550 Ma. The initial Nd isotope ratios (\\varepsilon _{ {Nd}}t=-20 to -22) and Nd depleted-mantle model ages (TDM = 2.25 to 2.79 Ga) indicate a common crustal source for the pink-granite and associated charnockite, while the biotite gneiss and the charnockite within it represent an older crustal source (\\varepsilon _{ {Nd}}t= -29 and TDM = > 3.2 Ga). The Rb-Sr whole-rock data and initial Sr-Nd isotope ratios also help demonstrate the partial but systematic equilibration of Sr isotope and Rb/Sr ratios during metamorphic mineral-reactions resulting in an `apparent whole-rock isochron'. The available geochronological results from the Madurai Block indicate four major periods of magmatism and metamorphism: Neoarchaean-Paleoproterozoic, Mesoproterozoic, mid-Neoproterozoic and late-Neoproterozoic. We suggest that the high-grade and ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism was preceded by magmatism which `prepared' the residual crust to sustain the high P- T conditions. There also appears to be cyclicity in the tectono-magmatic events and an evolutionary model for the Madurai Block should account for the cyclicity in the preserved records.

  5. The history of a continent from U-Pb ages of zircons from Orinoco River sand and Sm-Nd isotopes in Orinoco basin river sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldstein, S.L.; Arndt, N.T.; Stallard, R.F.

    1997-01-01

    We report SHRIMP U-Pb ages of 49 zircons from a sand sample from the lower Orinoco River, Venezuela, and Nd model ages of the fine sediment load from the main river and tributaries. The U-Pb ages reflect individual magmatic or metamorphic events, the Sm-Nd model ages reflect average crustal-residence ages of the sediment sources. Together they allow delineation of the crust-formation history of the basement precursors of the sediments. The U-Pb ages range from 2.83 to 0.15 Ga, and most are concordant or nearly so. Discrete age groupings occur at ??? 2.8, ??? 2.1, and ??? 1.1 Ga. The oldest group contains only three samples but is isolated from its closest neighbors by a ??? 600 Ma age gap. Larger age groupings at ??? 2.1 and ??? 1.1 Ga make up about a third and a quarter of the total number of analyses, respectively. The remaining analyses scatter along concordia, and most are younger than 1.6 Ga. The ??? 2.8 and ??? 2.1 Ga ages correspond to periods of crust formation of the Imataca and Trans-Amazonian provinces of the Guyana Shield, respectively, and record intervals of short but intensive continental growth. These ages coincide with ??? 2.9 and ??? 2.1 Ga Nd model ages of sediments from tributaries draining the Archean and Proterozoic provinces of the Guyana Shield, respectively, indicating that the U-Pb ages record the geological history of the crystalline basement of the Orinoco basin. Zircons with ages corresponding to the major orogenies of the North Atlantic continents (the Superior at ??? 2.7 Ga and Hudsonian at 1.7-1.9 Ga) were not found in the Orinoco sample. The age distribution may indicate that South and North America were separated throughout their history. Nd model ages of sediments from the lower Orinoco River and Andean tributaries are ??? 1.9 Ga, broadly within the range displayed by major rivers and dusts. This age does not coincide with known thermal events in the region and reflects mixing of sources with different crust-formation ages. The

  6. Pt-Re-Os and Sm-Nd isotope and HSE and REE systematics of the 2.7 Ga Belingwe and Abitibi komatiites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puchtel, I. S.; Walker, R. J.; Brandon, A. D.; Nisbet, E. G.

    2009-10-01

    High-precision Pt-Re-Os and Sm-Nd isotope and highly siderophile element (HSE) and rare earth element (REE) abundance data are reported for two 2.7 b.y. old komatiite lava flows, Tony's flow (TN) from the Belingwe greenstone belt, Zimbabwe, and the PH-II flow (PH) from Munro Township in the Abitibi greenstone belt, Canada. The emplaced lavas are calculated to have contained ˜25% (TN) and ˜28% (PH) MgO. These lavas were derived from mantle sources characterized by strong depletions in highly incompatible lithophile trace elements, such as light REE (Ce/Sm N = 0.64 ± 0.02 (TN) and 0.52 ± 0.01 (PH), ɛ 143Nd(T) = +2.9 ± 0.2 in both sources). 190Pt- 186Os and 187Re- 187Os isochrons generated for each flow yield ages consistent with respective emplacement ages obtained using other chronometers. The calculated precise initial 186Os/ 188Os = 0.1198318 ± 3 (TN) and 0.1198316 ± 5 (PH) and 187Os/ 188Os = 0.10875 ± 17 (TN) and 0.10873 ± 15 (PH) require time-integrated 190Pt/ 188Os and 187Re/ 188Os of 0.00178 ± 11 and 0.407 ± 8 (TN) and 0.00174 ± 18 and 0.415 ± 5 (PH). These parameters, which by far represent the most precise and accurate estimates of time-integrated Pt/Os and Re/Os of the Archean mantle, are best matched by those of enstatite chondrites. The data also provide evidence for a remarkable similarity in the composition of the sources of these komatiites with respect to both REE and HSE. The calculated absolute HSE abundances in the TN and PH komatiite sources are within or slightly below the range of estimates for the terrestrial Primitive Upper Mantle (PUM). Assuming a chondritic composition of the bulk silicate Earth, the strong depletions in LREE, yet chondritic Re/Os in the komatiite sources are apparently problematic because early Earth processes capable of fractionating the LREE might also be expected to fractionate Re/Os. This apparent discrepancy could be reconciled via a two-stage model, whereby the moderate LREE depletion in the sources of

  7. Sm/Nd and Lu/Hf ratios of the Earth primitive mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostitsyn, Yu. A.

    2003-04-01

    The most popular isotopic models of the Earth mantle composition suggest following DePaolo and Wasserburg (1976) that Sm-Nd systematic of the primitive mantle (PriMa) is identical to the chondritic uniform reservoir (CHUR) with Sm/Nd=0.325 and today 143Nd/144Nd=0.512638. Corresponding values were found for Lu-Hf system as well: Lu/Hf=0.235 and 176Hf/177Hf=0.28286 (Tatsumoto et.al., 1981). However, there is no such a correspondence between PriMa and CHUR compositions in Rb-Sr or U-Pb isotopic systems. The idea about similarity of the PriMa and chondrites in Sm-Nd system, despite of its attraction, never was strictly proved, and analysis of isotopic data for different mantle rocks reveal a number of problems: 1. The most productive source on the Earth is DM despite an obvious suggestion that it should be more inert than undepleted mantle. CHUR-like PriMa, with zero Epsilon-Nd, does not exhibit itself by some rocks with regular isotopic composition. We all mutely accept this, using for model ages assessments TNd(DM), not TNd(CHUR). 2. Alkali basalts, enriched in incompatible elements, mostly have positive Epsilon-Nd and in terms of CHUR-based model must originate from the depleted mantle. 3. Origin of HIMU basalts is extremely controversial in terms of CHUR-based geochemical models. Their source is enriched in terms of U-Pb system but depleted in Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd systems (Epsilon-Nd=+5.0+/-1.4, Epsilon-Sr=-26+/-6). 4. There are absent any rock groups on the Earth having concurrently both Nd isotopic ratios and Sm/Nd ratios near CHUR composition. 5. Mass-balance for Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf isotopic systems constrains a source volume for continental crust by 1/4 to 1/6 of the whole mantle. However, many elements (Rb, U, Pb...) in this case could not be balanced. Seismic tomography studies suggest as well that the lower mantle is not dead and participates in the geodynamic processes documented at the surface by magmatic rocks. If whole mantle was involved in a continental crust

  8. U-Th-Pb, Rb-Sr, and Sm-Nd isotopic systematics of lunar troctolitic cumulate 76535 - Implications on the age and origin of this early lunar, deep-seated cumulate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Premo, Wayne R.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1992-01-01

    The U-Th-Pb, Rb-Sr, and Sm-Nd isotopic systematics of four lightly leached residues of pristine, high-Mg, troctolitic cumulate 76535 were analyzed in order to determine their ages and magma sources. The data indicate that the cumulate was in isotopic equilibrium with a fluid or magma characterized by a high U-238/Pb-204 (mu) value of 600 at 4.236 Ga. Two and three stage Pb evolution calculations define even greater source mu values of about 1000, assuming low lunar initial mu values between 5 and 40 prior to about 4.43 Ga. These results are similar to mu values for KREEP sources and are also consistent with values from 78235, suggesting that at least some high-Mg suite rocks were derived from magma sources with high-mu values similar to KREEP, and support that idea that these rocks postdate primary lunar differentiation and formation of ferroan anorthosites.

  9. U-Th-Pb, Rb-Sr, and Sm-Nd isotopic systematics of lunar troctolitic cumulate 76535 - Implications on the age and origin of this early lunar, deep-seated cumulate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Premo, Wayne R.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1992-01-01

    The U-Th-Pb, Rb-Sr, and Sm-Nd isotopic systematics of four lightly leached residues of pristine, high-Mg, troctolitic cumulate 76535 were analyzed in order to determine their ages and magma sources. The data indicate that the cumulate was in isotopic equilibrium with a fluid or magma characterized by a high U-238/Pb-204 (mu) value of 600 at 4.236 Ga. Two and three stage Pb evolution calculations define even greater source mu values of about 1000, assuming low lunar initial mu values between 5 and 40 prior to about 4.43 Ga. These results are similar to mu values for KREEP sources and are also consistent with values from 78235, suggesting that at least some high-Mg suite rocks were derived from magma sources with high-mu values similar to KREEP, and support that idea that these rocks postdate primary lunar differentiation and formation of ferroan anorthosites.

  10. Reconciliation of the excess 176Hf conundrum in meteorites: Recent disturbances of the Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotope systematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bast, Rebecca; Scherer, Erik E.; Sprung, Peter; Mezger, Klaus; Fischer-Gödde, Mario; Taetz, Stephan; Böhnke, Mischa; Schmid-Beurmann, Hinrich; Münker, Carsten; Kleine, Thorsten; Srinivasan, Gopalan

    2017-09-01

    The long-lived 176Lu-176Hf and 147Sm-143Nd radioisotope systems are commonly used chronometers, but when applied to meteorites, they can reveal disturbances. Specifically, Lu-Hf isochrons commonly yield dates up to ∼300 Myr older than the solar system and varying initial 176Hf/177Hf values. We investigated this problem by attempting to construct mineral and whole rock isochrons for eucrites and angrites. Meteorites from different parent bodies exhibit similar disturbance features suggesting that a common process is responsible. Minerals scatter away from isochron regressions for both meteorite classes, with low-Hf phases such as plagioclase and olivine typically being most displaced above (or left of) reference isochrons. Relatively Hf-rich pyroxene is less disturbed but still to the point of steepening Lu-Hf errorchrons. Using our Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd data, we tested various Hf and Lu redistribution scenarios and found that decoupling of Lu/Hf from 176Hf/177Hf must postdate the accumulation of significant radiogenic 176Hf. Therefore early irradiation or diffusion cannot explain the excess 176Hf. Instead, disturbed meteorite isochrons are more likely caused by terrestrial weathering, contamination, or common laboratory procedures. The partial dissolution of phosphate minerals may predominantly remove rare earth elements including Lu, leaving relatively immobile and radiogenic Hf behind. Robust Lu-Hf (and improved Sm-Nd) meteorite geochronology will require the development of chemical or physical methods for removing unsupported radiogenic Hf and silicate-hosted terrestrial contaminants without disturbing parent-daughter ratios.

  11. Geochemistry and Sm-Nd isotopic systematics of Ediacaran-Ordovician, sedimentary and bimodal igneous rocks in the western Acatlán Complex, southern Mexico: Evidence for rifting on the southern margin of the Rheic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega-Obregon, Carlos; Murphy, J. Brendan; Keppie, J. Duncan

    2010-01-01

    Ordovician igneous rocks in the western Acatlán Complex (Olinalá area) of southern Mexico include a bimodal igneous suite that intrudes quartzites and gneisses of the Zacango Unit, and all these rocks were polydeformed and metamorphosed in the amphibolite facies during the Devono-Carboniferous. The Ordovician igneous rocks consist of the penecontemporaneous amphibolites, megacrystic granitoids and leucogranite, the latter dated at ca. 464 Ma. Geochemical and Sm-Nd data indicate that the amphibolites have a differentiated tholeiitic signature, and that its mafic protoliths formed in an extensional setting transitional between within-plate and ocean floor. The amphibolites are variably contaminated by a Mesoproterozoic crustal source, inferred to be the Oaxacan basement exposed in the adjacent terrane. The most primitive samples have ɛNdt ( t = 465 Ma) values significantly below that of the contemporary depleted mantle and were probably derived from the sub-continental lithospheric mantle. The megacrystic granites were most probably derived by partial melting of an arc crustal source (similar to the Oaxacan Complex) and triggered by the ascent of mafic magma from the lithospheric mantle. Sm-Nd isotopic signatures suggest that metasedimentary rocks from Zacango Unit were derived from adjacent Oaxacan Complex. Trace elements relationships (e.g. La/Th vs. Hf) and REE patterns suggest provenance in felsic-intermediate igneous rocks with a calc-alkaline signature. The Ordovician bimodal magmatism is inferred to have resulted from rifting on the southern flank of the Rheic Ocean and is an expression of a major rifting event that occurred along much of the northern Gondwanan margin in the Ordovician.

  12. The origin of the Maozu carbonate-hosted Pb-Zn deposit, southwest China: Constrained by C-O-S-Pb isotopic compositions and Sm-Nd isotopic age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jiaxi; Huang, Zhilong; Yan, Zaifei

    2013-09-01

    The Maozu Pb-Zn deposit, located on the western margin of the Yangtze Block, southwest China, is a typical carbonate-hosted deposit in the Sichuan-Yunnan-Guizhou Pb-Zn metallogenic province with Pb + Zn reserves of about 2.0 million tonnes grading 4.15 wt.% Pb and 7.25 wt.% Zn. Its ore bodies are hosted in Sinian (635-541 Ma) Dengying Formation dolostone and show stratiform, vein and irregular textures. Ores are composed of sphalerite, galena, pyrite, calcite, dolomite, quartz and fluorite with massive, banded, disseminated and veined structures. The C-O-Sm-Nd isotopic compositions of hydrothermal calcites and S-Pb isotopic compositions of sulfides were analyzed to constrain the origin of the Maozu deposit. δ13CPDB and δ18OSMOW values of hydrothermal calcites range from -3.7‰ to -2.0‰ and +13.8‰ to +17.5‰, respectively, and plot near the marine carbonate rocks field in a plot of δ13CPDB vs. δ18OSMOW, with a negative correlation. It suggests that CO2 in the hydrothermal fluids was mainly originated from marine carbonate rocks, with limited influence from sedimentary organic matter. δ34SCDT values of sulfides range from +9.9‰ to +19.2‰, similar to that of Cambrian to Triassic seawater sulfate (+15‰ to +35‰) and evaporate (+15‰ to +30‰) in the Cambrian to Triassic sedimentary strata. It suggests that reduced sulfur was derived from evaporate in sedimentary strata by thermo chemical sulfate reduction. Sulfides have low radiogenic Pb isotope compositions (206Pb/204Pb = 18.129-18.375, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.640-15.686 and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.220-38.577) that plot in the field between upper crust and the orogenic belt evolution curve in the plot of 207Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb, and similar to that of age corrected Proterozoic basement rocks (Dongchuan and Kunyang Groups). This indicates that ore-forming metals were mainly derived from basement rocks. Hydrothermal calcite yields a Sm-Nd isotopic age of 196 ± 13 Ma, possibly reflecting the timing of Pb

  13. Sm-Nd age of the Fiskenaesset Anorthosite Complex, West Greenland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashwal, Lewis D.; Goldstein, Steven J.; Jacobsen, Stein B.; Myers, John S.; Kalsbeek, Feiko

    1989-01-01

    A Sm-Nd isotopic study on samples from the Fiskenaesset Anorthosite Complex in West Greenland was conducted to estimate the age of crystallization of the complex. A five-point isochron, including data for whole-rock samples of anorthosite, metagabbro, metaperidotite, and separates of calcic plagioclase and mafic matrix from a coarse megacrystic leucogabbro, corresponds to an age of 2.86 + or - 0.05 Ga, with initial sigma(Nd) of +2.9 + or - 0.4. This implies a relatively short time interval, on the order of 70 Ma, during which anorthosite formation, tonalite emplacement, and high-grade metamorphism took place.

  14. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd Isotope Systematics of Shergottite NWA 856: Crystallization Age and Implications for Alteration of Hot Desert SNC Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, A. D.; Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C.-Y.; Wiesmann, H.

    2004-01-01

    Nakhlite NWA 998 was discovered in Algeria in 2001, and is unique among the six known members of this group of Martian meteorites in containing significant modal orthopyroxene. Initial petrologic and isotopic data were reported by Irving et al. This 456 gram stone consists mainly of sub-calcic augite with subordinate olivine and minor orthopyroxene, titanomagnetite, pyrrhotite, chlorapatite, and intercumulus An(sub 35) plagioclase. We report here preliminary results of radiogenic isotopic analyses conducted on fragmental material from the main mass.

  15. Multi-elemental Gd, Eu, Sm, Nd isotope ratio measurements by liquid chromatography coupled to MC-ICPMS with variable Faraday cup configurations during elution.

    PubMed

    Guéguen, Florence; Nonell, Anthony; Isnard, Hélène; Vio, Laurent; Chartier, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    The high-precision isotopic characterization of actinides and fission products in nuclear samples is fundamental for various applications such as the management of spent nuclear fuel or the validation of neutronic calculation codes. However multi-elemental isotope ratio measurements by mass spectrometric techniques are hampered by the presence of both spectral and non-spectral interferences as complex sample matrices are encountered in such topics, but also due to the lack of high precision mass spectrometers able to cover the entire mass spectrum. This work describes a new LC-MC-ICPMS approach allowing simultaneous high-precision and multi-elemental isotope ratio measurements of four fission products of interest for nuclear issues (Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd) within a single elution run. Variable motorized Faraday cup configurations were successively used during a specifically designed elution procedure in order to take into account the non-natural Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd isotopic compositions encountered in irradiated nuclear samples. This new method, involving the relevant isotopic reference standard injection timings for on-line mass bias corrections, was validated by the analysis of a simulated fission product fraction from a (235)U-irradiated target. Reproducibilities better than 2‰ (k=2), comparable to those obtained by off-line measurements and the classic sample-standard bracketing mass bias correction approach, were obtained for all isotope ratios, except those involving isotopes with a transient signal peak apex lower than 100mV, for which the reproducibilities were comprised between 2‰ and 6‰.

  16. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd chronology and genealogy of mare basalts from the Sea of Tranquility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papanastassiou, D. A.; Depaolo, D. J.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1977-01-01

    Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd ages of two Apollo 11 mare basalts, high-K basalt 10072 and low-K basalt 10062, are reported. Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, and Ar-40-Ar-39 ages are in good agreement and indicate an extensive time interval for filling of the Sea of Tranquility, presumably by thin lava flows, in agreement with similar observations for the Ocean of Storms. Initial Sr and Nd isotopic compositions on Apollo 11 basalts reveal at least two parent sources producing basalts. The Sm-Nd isotopic data demonstrate that low-K and high-Ti basalts from Apollo 11 and 17 derived from distinct reservoirs, while low-Ti Apollo 15 mare basalt sources have Sm/Nd similar to the sources of Apollo 11 basalts. Groupings of mare basalt based on Ti content and on isotopic data do not coincide.

  17. Tectonic development of the Samail ophiolite: High-precision U-Pb zircon geochronology and Sm-Nd isotopic constraints on crustal growth and emplacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rioux, Matthew; Bowring, Samuel; Kelemen, Peter; Gordon, Stacia; Miller, Robert; DudáS, Frank

    2013-05-01

    New high-precision single grain U-Pb zircon geochronology and whole rock Nd isotopic data provide insight into the magmatic and tectonic development of the Samail ophiolite. The analyzed rocks can be broadly divided into two groups based on their structural position, dates, and isotopic composition: an older group related to on-axis magmatism and a younger group of post-ridge dikes, sills, and stocks. On-axis gabbros, tonalites and trondhjemites yielded Th-corrected 206Pb/238U dates from 96.441 ± 0.062 to 95.478 ± 0.056 Ma. These dates, combined with dates from Rioux et al. (2012), suggest that most of the ophiolite crust formed at an oceanic spreading center in <1 Ma. The post-ridge intrusions come from all depths in the crust, the upper mantle, and the metamorphic sole. Post-ridge gabbros, tonalites, and trondhjemites from the crust and mantle yielded Th-corrected 206Pb/238U dates of 95.405 ± 0.062 to 95.077 ± 0.062 Ma. A small trondhjemitic pod from the metamorphic sole yielded younger Th-corrected 206Pb/238U dates of 94.90 ± 0.38 to 94.69 ± 0.12 Ma. Isotopic data suggest two distinct sources for the post-ridge magmas: five of the gabbros and tonalites from the crust have ɛNd(96 Ma) = 6.90 ± 0.12 to 7.88 ± 0.16, and two trondhjemites from the upper mantle and metamorphic sole have ɛNd(96 Ma) = -7.77 ± 0.08 and -7.01 ± 0.16. The negative ɛNd(t) and U-Pb dates from the mantle dike require that subduction or thrusting was established below the ophiolite ≤0.25-0.5 Ma after formation of the crust. The bimodal isotopic composition of post-ridge magmas may reflect coeval decompression and/or fluid fluxed melting of the mantle and melting, dehydration, or assimilation of sediment in the down going plate at this time. The new data place temporal constraints on mid-ocean ridge and supra-subduction zone models for ophiolite formation.

  18. Paleoproterozoic magmatism across the Archean-Proterozoic boundary in central Fennoscandia: Geochronology, geochemistry and isotopic data (Sm-Nd, Lu-Hf, O)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahtinen, Raimo; Huhma, Hannu; Lahaye, Yann; Lode, Stefanie; Heinonen, Suvi; Sayab, Mohammad; Whitehouse, Martin J.

    2016-10-01

    The central Fennoscandia is characterized by the Archean-Proterozoic (AP) boundary and the Central Finland Granitoid Complex (CFGC), a roundish area of approximately 40,000 km2 surrounded by supracrustal belts. Deep seismic reflection profile FIRE 3A runs across these units, and we have re-interpreted the profile and crustal evolution along the profile using 1.92-1.85 Ga plutonic rocks as lithospheric probes. The surface part of the profile has been divided into five subareas: Archean continent (AC) in the east, AP, CFGC, boundary zone (BZ) and the Bothnian Belt (BB) in the west. There are 12 key samples from which zircons were studied for inclusions and analyzed (core-rim) by ion probe for U-Pb dating and oxygen isotopes, followed by analyzes for Lu-Hf by LA-MC-ICP-MS. The AC plutonic rocks (1.87-1.85 Ga) form a bimodal suite, where the proposed mantle source for the mafic rocks is 2.1-2.0 Ga metasomatized lower part of the Archean subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) and the source for the felsic melts is related plume-derived underplated mafic material in the lower crust. Variable degrees of contamination of the Archean lower crust have produced ;subduction-like; Nb-Ta anomalies in spidergrams and negative εNd (T) values in the mafic-intermediate rocks. The felsic AC granitoids originate from a low degree melting of eclogitic or garnet-bearing amphibolites with titanite ± rutile partly prevailing in the residue (Nb-Ta fractionation) followed by variable degree of assimilation/melting of the Archean lower crust. The AP plutonic rocks (ca. 1.88 Ga) can be divided into I-type and A-type granitoids (AP/A), where the latter follow the sediment assimilation trend in ASI diagram, have high δ18O values (up to 8‰) in zircons and exhibit negative Ba anomalies (Rb-Ba-Th in spidergram), as found in sedimentary rocks. A mixing/assimilation of enriched mantle-derived melts with melts from already migmatized sedimentary rocks ± amphibolites is proposed. The CFGC is

  19. SM-ND Age and REE Systematics of Larkman Nunatek 06319: Closed System Fractional Crystallization of a Shergottite Magma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, J. T.; Brandon, A. D.; Lapen T. J.; Righter, M.; Peslier, A. H.

    2010-01-01

    Sm-Nd isotopic data were collected on mineral separates and bulk rock powders of LAR 06319, yielding an age of 180+/-13 Ma (2(sigma)). This age is concordant with the Lu-Hf age (197+/-29 Ma, [1]) determined in conjunction with these data and the Sm-Nd age (190+/-26 Ma) of Shih et al., 2009 [2]. The Sm-Nd data form at statistically significant isochron (Fig. 1) that is controlled largely by leachate-residue pairs (samples with the R suffix are residues after leaching in cold 2N HCl for 10 minutes).

  20. New constraints on the geochronology and Sm-Nd isotopic characteristics of Bas-Drâa mafic dykes, Anti-Atlas of Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Bahat, Abdelhakim; Ikenne, Moha; Cousens, Brian; Söderlund, Ulf; Ernst, Richard; Klausen, Martin B.; Youbi, Nasrrddine

    2017-03-01

    The Precambrian inliers of the Anti-Atlas belt across the southern part of Morocco contain numerous mafic dyke and sill swarms, which are thought to represent the erosional remnants of Proterozoic Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs). As part of an extended research campaign to date and characterize these LIPs, two amphiboles from one dyke within the Bas-Drâa inlier (western Anti-Atlas) yielded consistent 40Ar-39Ar ages of 611 Ma ± 1.3; i.e., evidence of magmatic activity during the Ediacaran (635-542 Ma). Furthermore, Nd isotope ratios and model ages identifies four groups of dykes within the Bas-Drâa inlier, all of which were derived from a previously enriched mantle reservoir with very low 143Nd/144Nd ratios (0.51065-0.51170) and corresponding εNd(t) values (-16.44 to -2.45). Such low Nd-ratios arguably reflect either a contribution of crustal components, such as the Paleoproterozoïc schisto-granitic basement, or metasomatic modification of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle.

  1. Neoproterozoic backarc basin: Sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe U-Pb and Sm-Nd isotopic evidence from the Eastern Pampean Ranges, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escayola, Mónica P.; Pimentel, Márcio M.; Armstrong, Richard

    2007-06-01

    The Eastern Pampean Ranges comprise high-grade supracrustal sequences with linear belts of mafic-ultramafic bodies representing ophiolite remnants. New U-Pb and Nd isotopic data suggest that the tectonic evolution of the Pampean Ranges started ca. 640 Ma with the deposition of supracrustal sequences in a backarc basin between a Neoproterozoic magmatic arc to the east and the Pampia terrane to the west. Ophiolite remnants of this backarc basin yielded a whole-rock isochron indicating the age of 647 ± 77 Ma (2σ) and ɛNd (initial time [T]) of +5.2. Sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe U-Pb data for detrital metasediments show provenance patterns with two main age populations: the older 1.1-0.9 Ga, and the younger between ca. 0.7 and 0.6 Ga. The Neoproterozoic population is relatively more abundant in sediments of the easternmost units of the Eastern Pampean Ranges and becomes less abundant toward the west. Depleted mantle ages show a similar pattern, with ages generally increasing from east (1.42 Ga) to west (1.76 Ga), suggesting the presence of Neo-proterozoic sources to the east of the ranges. The provenance data do not support previous evolution models for the Eastern Pampean Ranges, according to which the supracrustal sequence represents the passive margin of the Río de la Plata craton. Early Cambrian collision and high-grade metamorphism mark the final stages of evolution of the belt and were shortly followed by calc-alkaline metaluminous and peraluminous granitic magmatism ca. 530-514 Ma. The results suggest that the geological evolution of the Eastern Pampean Ranges took place between ca. 640 and 514 Ma, coeval with other Brasiliano orogens in Brazil (e.g., the Paraguay and Araguaia fold belts).

  2. 147Sm-143Nd systematics of Earth are inconsistent with a superchondritic Sm/Nd ratio.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shichun; Jacobsen, Stein B; Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy

    2013-03-26

    The relationship between the compositions of the Earth and chondritic meteorites is at the center of many important debates. A basic assumption in most models for the Earth's composition is that the refractory elements are present in chondritic proportions relative to each other. This assumption is now challenged by recent (142)Nd/(144)Nd ratio studies suggesting that the bulk silicate Earth (BSE) might have an Sm/Nd ratio 6% higher than chondrites (i.e., the BSE is superchondritic). This has led to the proposal that the present-day (143)Nd/(144)Nd ratio of BSE is similar to that of some deep mantle plumes rather than chondrites. Our reexamination of the long-lived (147)Sm-(143)Nd isotope systematics of the depleted mantle and the continental crust shows that the BSE, reconstructed using the depleted mantle and continental crust, has (143)Nd/(144)Nd and Sm/Nd ratios close to chondritic values. The small difference in the ratio of (142)Nd/(144)Nd between ordinary chondrites and the Earth must be due to a process different from mantle-crust differentiation, such as incomplete mixing of distinct nucleosynthetic components in the solar nebula.

  3. 147Sm-143Nd systematics of Earth are inconsistent with a superchondritic Sm/Nd ratio

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shichun; Jacobsen, Stein B.; Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between the compositions of the Earth and chondritic meteorites is at the center of many important debates. A basic assumption in most models for the Earth’s composition is that the refractory elements are present in chondritic proportions relative to each other. This assumption is now challenged by recent 142Nd/144Nd ratio studies suggesting that the bulk silicate Earth (BSE) might have an Sm/Nd ratio 6% higher than chondrites (i.e., the BSE is superchondritic). This has led to the proposal that the present-day 143Nd/144Nd ratio of BSE is similar to that of some deep mantle plumes rather than chondrites. Our reexamination of the long-lived 147Sm-143Nd isotope systematics of the depleted mantle and the continental crust shows that the BSE, reconstructed using the depleted mantle and continental crust, has 143Nd/144Nd and Sm/Nd ratios close to chondritic values. The small difference in the ratio of 142Nd/144Nd between ordinary chondrites and the Earth must be due to a process different from mantle-crust differentiation, such as incomplete mixing of distinct nucleosynthetic components in the solar nebula. PMID:23479630

  4. Evaluating crustal contributions to enriched shergottites from the petrology, trace elements, and Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotope systematics of Northwest Africa 856

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferdous, J.; Brandon, A. D.; Peslier, A. H.; Pirotte, Z.

    2017-08-01

    The origin of the incompatible trace element (ITE) characteristics of enriched shergottites has been critical for examining two contradicting scenarios to explain how these Martian meteorites form. The first scenario is that it reflects ITE enrichment in an early-formed mantle reservoir whereas the second scenario attributes it to assimilation of ancient Martian crust (∼4-4.5 Ga) by ITE-depleted magmas. Strongly differentiated shergottite magmas may yield added constraints for determining which scenario can best explain this signature in enriched shergottites. The meteorite Northwest Africa (NWA) 856 is a basaltic shergottite that, unlike many enriched shergottites, lacks olivine and has undergone extensive differentiation from more primitive parent magma. In similarity to other basaltic shergottites, NWA 856 is comprised primarily of compositionally zoned clinopyroxenes (45% pigeonite and 23% augite), maskelynite (23%) and accessory minerals such as ulvöspinel, merrillite, Cl-apatite, ilmenite, pyrrhotite, baddeleyite and silica polymorph. The CI-chondrite normalized rare earth element (REE) abundance patterns for its maskelynite, phosphates, and its whole rock are flat with corresponding light-REE depletions in clinopyroxenes. The 87Rb-87Sr and 147Sm-143Nd internal isochron ages are 162 ± 14 (all errors are ±2σ) Ma and 162.7 ± 5.5 Ma, respectively, with an initial εNdI = -6.6 ± 0.2. The Rb-Sr isotope systematics are affected by terrestrial alteration resulting in larger scatter and a less precise internal isochron age. The whole rock composition is used in MELTS simulations to model equilibrium and fractional crystallization sequences to compare with the crystallization sequence from textural observations and to the mineral compositions. These models constrain the depth of initial crystallization to a pressure range of 0.4-0.5 GPa (equivalent to 34-42 km) in anhydrous conditions at the Fayalite-Magnetite-Quartz buffer, and consistently reproduce the

  5. Re-evaluating 142Nd/ 144Nd in lunar mare basalts with implications for the early evolution and bulk Sm/Nd of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandon, Alan D.; Lapen, Thomas J.; Debaille, Vinciane; Beard, Brian L.; Rankenburg, Kai; Neal, Clive

    2009-10-01

    The Moon likely accreted from melt and vapor ejected during a cataclysmic collision between Proto-Earth and a Mars-sized impactor very early in solar system history. The identical W, O, K, and Cr isotope compositions between materials from the Earth and Moon require that the material from the two bodies were well-homogenized during the collision process. As such, the ancient isotopic signatures preserved in lunar samples provide constraints on the bulk composition of the Earth. Two recent studies to obtain high-precision 142Nd/ 144Nd ratios of lunar mare basalts yielded contrasting results. In one study, after correction of neutron fluence effects imparted to the Nd isotope compositions of the samples, the coupled 142Nd- 143Nd systematics were interpreted to be consistent with a bulk Moon having a chondritic Sm/Nd ratio [Rankenburg K., Brandon A. D. and Neal C. R. (2006) Neodymium isotope evidence for a chondritic composition of the Moon. Science312, 1369-1372]. The other study found that their data on the same and similar lunar mare basalts were consistent with a bulk Moon having a superchondritic Sm/Nd ratio [Boyet M. and Carlson R. W. (2007) A highly depleted Moon or a non-magma origin for the lunar crust? Earth Planet. Sci. Lett.262, 505-516]. Delineating between these two potential scenarios has key ramifications for a comprehensive understanding of the formation and early evolution of the Moon and for constraining the types of materials available for accretion into large terrestrial planets such as Earth. To further examine this issue, the same six lunar mare basalt samples measured in Rankenburg et al. [Rankenburg K., Brandon A. D. and Neal C. R. (2006) Neodymium isotope evidence for a chondritic composition of the Moon. Science312, 1369-1372] were re-measured for high-precision Nd isotopes using a multidynamic routine with reproducible internal and external precisions to better than ±3 ppm (2 σ) for 142Nd/ 144Nd ratios. The measurements were repeated in a

  6. New data for paleoprotherozoic PGE-bearing anorthosite of Kandalaksha massif (Baltic shield): U-Pb and Sm-Nd ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steshenko, Ekaterina; Bayanova, Tamara; Serov, Pavel

    2015-04-01

    The aims of this researches were to study the isotope U-Pb age of zircon and rutile and Sm-Nd (rock forming and sulphide minerals) on Kandalaksha anorthosite massif due to study of polimetamorphic history. In marginal zone firstly have been obtained the presence of sulphide mineralization with PGE (Chashchin, Petrov , 2013). Kandalaksha massif is located in the N-E part of Baltic shield and consists of three parts. Marginal zone (mesocratic metanorite) lies at the base of the massif. Main zone is composed of leucocratic metagabbro. The upper zone is alteration of mataanorthosite and leucocratic metagabbro. All rocks were subjected to granulate polymetamorphism. Two fractions of single grains from anorthosite of the massif gave precise U-Pb age, which is equal to 2450± 3 Ma. Leucocratic gabbro-norite were dated by U-Pb method, with age up to 2230 ± 10 Ma. This age reflects the time of granulite metamorphism according to data of (Mitrofanov, Nirovich, 2003). Two fractions of rutile have been analyzed by U-Pb method and reflect age of 1700 ± 10 Ma. It is known that the closure temperature of U-Pb system rutile is 400-450 ° C (Mezger et.al., 1989), thus cooling processes of massif rocks to these temperatures was about 1.7 Ga. These data reflect one of the stages of metamorphic alteration of the massif. Three stages of metamorphism are distinguished by Sm-Nd method. Isotope Sm-Nd dating on Cpx-WR line gives the age of 2311 Ma which suggested of high pressure granulite metamorphism. Moreover Cpx-Pl line reflect the age 1908 Ma of low pressure granulite metamorphism. Also two-points (Grt-Rt) Sm-Nd isochrone yield the age 1687 Ma of the last metamorphic alterations in Kandalaksha anorthosite massif. Model Sm-Nd age of the leucocratic gabbro-norite is 2796 Ma with positive ɛNd (+0.32). It means that the source of gabbro-norite was mantle reservoir. All investigations are devoted to memory of academician PAS F. MItrofanov which was a leader of scientific school for

  7. Sm-Nd dating of the giant Sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag deposit, British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jiang, Shao-Yong; Slack, John F.; Palmer, Martin R.

    2000-01-01

    We report here Sm and Nd isotope data for hydrothermal tourmalinites and sulfide ores from the giant Sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag deposit, which occurs in the lower part of the Mesoproterozoic Purcell (Belt) Supergroup. Whole-rock samples of quartz-tourmaline tourmalinite from the footwall alteration pipe yield a Sm-Nd isochron age of 1470 ± 59 Ma, recording synsedimentary B metasomatism of clastic sediments during early evolution of the Sullivan hydrothermal system. Data for variably altered (chloritized and/or albitized) tourmalinites from the hanging wall of the deposit, which are believed to have formed originally ca. 1470 Ma, define a younger 1076 ± 77 Ma isochron because of resetting of Sm and Nd isotopes during Grenvillian metamorphism. HCl leachates of bedded Pb-Zn ore yield a Sm-Nd isochron age of 1451 ± 46 Ma, which is consistent with syngenetic-exhalative mineralization ca. 1470 Ma; this age could also reflect a slightly younger, epigenetic hydrothermal event. Results obtained for the Sullivan deposit indicate that the Sm-Nd geochronometer has the potential to directly date mineralization and alteration in stratabound sulfide deposits that are not amenable to dating by other isotope methods.

  8. Fluorite as an Sm-Nd geochronometer of hydrothermal processes: Dating of mineralization hosted in the Strel'tsovka uranium ore field, eastern Baikal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyshev, I. V.; Golubev, V. N.; Aleshin, A. P.; Larionova, Yu. O.; Gol'tsman, Yu. V.

    2016-11-01

    The possibility of using hydrothermal fluorite as an Sm-Nd geochronometer is based on the results of an REE pattern study of this mineral (Chernyshev et al., 1986). As a result of REE fractionation, in many cases, the Sm/Nd ratio achieves a multifold increase compared with its level in terrestrial rocks, and the radiogenic shift of the 143Nd/144Nd isotope ratio reaches 10-20 ɛNd units over a short time interval (as soon as tens of Ma). This is a necessary prerequisite for Sm-Nd isochron dating of fluorite. Zonal polychrome fluorite from a vein referred to the final stage of large-scale uranium mineralization at the Sterl'tsovka deposit in the ore field of the same name located in the eastern Transbaikal region has been dated using the 143Nd/144Nd method. To optimize isochron construction, local probes with high and contrasting Sm/Nd ratios have been sampled from the polished surfaces of two samples, taking into account the REE pattern of zonal fluorite. Sm-Nd isochron dating has been carried out separately for each sample. The 147Sm/144Nd i 143Nd/144Nd ratios vary within the intervals 0.5359-2.037 and 0.512799-0.514105, respectively. Two isochrons, each based on six fluorite probes, have been obtained with the following parameters, which coincide within 2σ uncertainty limits: (1) t = 134.8 ± 1.3 Ma, (143Nd/144Nd)0 = 0.512310 ± 13, MWSD = 0.43 and (2) t = 135.8 ± 1.6 Ma, (143Nd/144Nd)0 = 0.512318 ± 10, MWSD = 1.5. The mean age of fluorite based on two isochron datings is 135.3 ± 1 Ma. Comparison of this value with the most precise dating of pitchblende related to the ore stage in the Strel'tsovka ore field (135.5 ± 1 Ma) shows that four mineralization stages, distinguished by geological and mineralogical data, that were completed with the formation of polychrome fluorite veins 135.3 ± 1 Ma ago, represent a single and indivisible hydrothermal process whose duration does not exceed 1 Ma.

  9. Sm-Nd and U-Pb isotopic constraints for crustal evolution during Late Neoproterozic from rocks of the Schirmacher Oasis, East Antarctica: geodynamic development coeval with the East African Orogeny

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ravikant, V.; Laux, J.H.; Pimentel, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Recent post-750 Ma continental reconstructions constrain models for East African Orogeny formation and also the scattered remnants of ~640 Ma granulites, whose genesis is controversial. One such Neoproterozoic granulite belt is the Schirmacher Oasis in East Antarctica, isolated from the distinctly younger Pan-African orogen to the south in the central Droning Maud Land. To ascertain the duration of granulite-facies events in these remnants, garnet Sm-Nd and monazite and titanite U-Pb IDTIMS geochronology was carried out on a range of metamorphic rocks. Garnet formation ages from a websterite enclave and gabbro were 660±48 Ma and 587±9 Ma respectively, and those from Stype granites were 598±4 Ma and 577±4 Ma. Monazites from metapelite and metaquartzite yielded lower intercept UPb ages of 629±3 Ma and 639±5 Ma, respectively. U-Pb titanite age from calcsilicate gneiss was 580±5 Ma. These indicate peak metamorphism to have occurred between 640 and 630 Ma, followed by near isobaric cooling to ~580 Ma. Though an origin as an exotic terrane from the East African Orogen cannot be discounted, from the present data there is a greater likelihood that Mesoproterozoic microplate collision between Maud orogen and a northerly Lurio-Nampula block resulted in formation of these granulite belt(s).

  10. Sm-Nd Age and Initial Sr-87/Sr-86 for Yamato 980318: An Old Cumulate Eucrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Takeda, H.; Shih, C.-Y.; Wiesmann, H.

    2004-01-01

    The complex pyroxene exsolution texture of the Moore County cumulate eucrite was interpreted by Miyamoto and Takeda as indicating initial cooling at 160 C/Ma followed by a sudden temperature rise and final cooling at 0.35 C/yr. They suggested initial cooling at a depth of approx. 8 km near the base of Vesta s crust, followed by impact excavation to its surface. Young Sm-Nd ages of approx. 4456, 4460, and 4410 Ma, respectively, for the Moore County, Moama, and Serra de Mag cumulate eucrites are puzzling because closure to Nd isotopic exchange would occur in only a few Ma at the above initial cooling rate. The exception to young ages among the cumulate eucrites is EET87520, with a 147Sm-147 - Nd-143 age of 4547-4598 Ma. We report here initial results of a combined mineralogical/chronological study of the Yamato 980318 feldspar-cumulate eucrite.

  11. The Sm-Nd systematics of silicate inclusions in iron meteorites: Results from Caddo (IAB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Brian W.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1993-01-01

    The timing of events leading to the formation of silicate-rich and metal-rich regions in planetesimals remains an important problem in the study of planetary formation and differentiation in the early solar system. The IAB irons are especially important as they are considered to represent a magmatic differentiation series. Iron meteorites present a particular challenge for chronological studies, due to the relative paucity of phases serving as hosts for radioactive parent-daughter nuclides. Recent work using the Re-Os system, following on the pioneering work by Herr et al. and Luck and Allegre, appears promising, but investigators up to now have concentrated on whole rock isochrons. Silicate clasts enclosed within iron meteorites can provide information about the chronology and thermal history of irons. Extensive work on Rb-Sr, K-Ar, and I-Xe has been reported on silicate inclusions in iron meteorites. We report the initial results from our Sm-Nd study of an inclusion with the Caddo IAB iron, the first Sm-Nd isotopic study of a silicate clast embedded within an iron meteorite. Our results include measurements of the standard long-lived Sm-147/Nd-143 (tau = 152 AE) system, as well as the shorter-lived SM-146/Nd-142 (tau = 0.149 AE) system, which has been shown to be very useful in deciphering the history of the early solar system. The Caddo silicate clast was described by Palme et al., who kindly provided us with a major part of the inclusion. The inclusion is coarse-grained consisting predominantly of olivine, clinopyroxene, and plagioclase, with lesser amounts of orthopyroxene, Fe-Ni metal, sulfide, and phosphate. The relatively large grain size (up to 3 mm) and 120 degree grain boundaries suggest extensive metamorphism at high temperatures. Based on study of a thin section, there is evidence for metal invading along grain boundaries in some regions of the inclusion, suggesting that the Fe-Ni metal was molten when the silicate clast was incorporated. Metamorphic

  12. The Sm-Nd history of KREEP. [in lunar rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lugmair, G. W.; Carlson, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    Sm-Nd whole rock measurements on a variety of KREEP-rich samples from different landing sites are reported. Despite a variation of Nd and Sm concentrations of almost a factor of 3, the Sm-Nd ratios, as well as the Nd-143/Nd-144 values, show an extremely close grouping. No systematic differences between samples from different landing sites are resolved. These results are taken to be indicative of a moon-wide process having been responsible for the generation of the KREEP source reservoir, 4.36 plus or minus 0.06 AE ago, as estimated from model age calculation.

  13. La-Ce and Sm-Nd systematics of siliceous sedimentary rocks: A clue to marine environment in their deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Hiroshi Shimizu; Masayo Amano; Akimasa Masuda )

    1991-04-01

    La-Ce isotopic data, together with Sm-Nd isotopic data, were determined on siliceous sedimentary rocks (cherts) in order to elucidate the rare earth element (REE) character of their sources and the nature of their depositional environments. The cherts studied are a late Archean chert from the Gorge Creek Group in the Pilbara block of Western Australia, Triassic cherts from central Japan, and Cretaceous and Paleogene deep-sea cherts from the central Pacific and the Caribbean Sea. The Archean chert from the Gorge Creek Group shows chondritic Ce and Nd isotope ratios at its sedimentation age which indicate that its sources had a time-integrated chondritic REE pattern. Triassic cherts from Japan have initial Ce and Nd isotope ratios that show a direct derivation from their continental source. On the other hand, for Cretaceous and Paleogene deep-sea cherts having negative Ce anomalies in their REE patterns, two different sources for Ce and Nd are revealed from their initial Ce and Nd isotope data: Ce from long-term light-REE-depleted oceanic volcanic rocks and Nd from light-REE-enriched continental rocks. The reverse nature observed for deep-sea cherts is considered to be a reflection of their depositional environment far from a continent. These results confirm that the La-Ce isotope system is highly useful in determining the nature and cause of Ce anomalies observed in marine sedimentary rocks such as chert.

  14. Sm-Nd for Norite 78236 and Eucrite Y980318/433: Implications for Planetary and Solar System Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C-Y.; Reese, Y. D.

    2008-01-01

    Here, we compare Sm-147-Nd-143 and Sm-146-Nd-142 data for lunar norite 78236 to those for approximately 4.54-4.56 Ga old cumulate eucrite Yamato 980318/433 and show that the norite data are compatible with its derivation from an isotopic reservoir similar to that from whence the eucrite pair came. Thus, lunar-like Sm-Nd isotopic systematics are not unique to the Earth-Moon system.

  15. Sulfide minerals as new Sm-Nd geochronometers for ore genesis dating of mafic-ultramafic layered intrusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serov, Pavel; Ekimova, Nadezhda; Bayanova, Tamara

    2014-05-01

    The main method of dating the ore process was the Re-Os method of sulfides (Luck, Allegre, 1983; Walker et. al., 1991). However, studies of Re-Os systematics of sulfide minerals do not always give the correct ages and showing the disturbances of the Re-Os systematics. At the same time, Sm-Nd age of sulfides in good agreement with the U-Pb dating on zircon and baddeleyite and suggests that the Sm-Nd system of sulfides is more resistant to secondary alteration processes. Our studies have shown that along with rock-forming, ore minerals (sulfides) can be used to determine the ore genesis time of industrially important geological sites, since exactly with the sulfides the industry Pt-Pd mineralization is closely connected. The Sm-Nd investigations steadily employ new minerals-geochronometers. Of these, sulfides of PGE-bearing layered intrusions are quite important in terms of dating the process of ore origin. Studying the REE distribution in the sulfides of MOR hydrothermal sources has shown possible REE presence in the sulfide lattice (Rimskaya-Korsakova et. al., 2003). These are difficult to carry out because the concentrations of Sm and Nd isotopes in sulfides are much lower than chondrites (Rimskaya-Korsakova et. al., 2003). For the first time in Russia with sulfide and rock-forming minerals and WR in Sm-Nd method have been dated impregnated and brecciform ores of the following objects: Pilguyarvi Cu-Ni deposits, Pechenga (1965±87 Ma); impregnated (2433±83 Ma) and redeposited (1903±24 Ma) ores of Ahmavaara intrusion (Finland); ore gabbronorites of Penikat PGE-bearing layered intrusion (2426±38 Ma (Ekimova et.al., 2011); Pt-Pd gabbro-pegmatite ores (2476± 41 Ma, which agrees with the U-Pb zircon age - 2470±9 Ma (Bayanova, 2004) and gabbronorites (2483±86 Ma) of PGE Kievei deposit and Fedorova Tundra metagabbroids (2494±54 Ma); Monchetundra gabbronorites - 2489±49 Ma. In (Kong et. al., 2000) sulfides from two metamorphosed chondrites studied by instrumental

  16. Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf isotope systematics of the lunar Mg-suite: the age of the lunar crust and its relation to the time of Moon formation

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Richard W.; Borg, Lars E.; Gaffney, Amy M.; Boyet, Maud

    2014-01-01

    New Rb-Sr, 146,147Sm-142,143Nd and Lu-Hf isotopic analyses of Mg-suite lunar crustal rocks 67667, 76335, 77215 and 78238, including an internal isochron for norite 77215, were undertaken to better define the time and duration of lunar crust formation and the history of the source materials of the Mg-suite. Isochron ages determined in this study for 77215 are: Rb-Sr=4450±270 Ma, 147Sm-143Nd=4283±23 Ma and Lu-Hf=4421±68 Ma. The data define an initial 146Sm/144Sm ratio of 0.00193±0.00092 corresponding to ages between 4348 and 4413 Ma depending on the half-life and initial abundance used for 146Sm. The initial Nd and Hf isotopic compositions of all samples indicate a source region with slight enrichment in the incompatible elements in accord with previous suggestions that the Mg-suite crustal rocks contain a component of KREEP. The Sm/Nd—142Nd/144Nd correlation shown by both ferroan anorthosite and Mg-suite rocks is coincident with the trend defined by mare and KREEP basalts, the slope of which corresponds to ages between 4.35 and 4.45 Ga. These data, along with similar ages for various early Earth differentiation events, are in accord with the model of lunar formation via giant impact into Earth at ca 4.4 Ga. PMID:25114305

  17. Geochemistry, U-Pb geochronology, Sm-Nd and O isotopes of ca. 50 Ma long Ediacaran High-K Syn-Collisional Magmatism in the Pernambuco Alagoas Domain, Borborema Province, NE Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francisco da Silva Filho, Adejardo; de Pinho Guimarães, Ignez; Santos, Lucilene; Armstrong, Richard; Van Schmus, William Randall

    2016-07-01

    The Pernambuco Alagoas (PEAL) domain shows the major occurrence of granitic batholiths of the Borborema Province, NE Brazil, with Archean to Neoproterozoic range of Nd TDM model ages, giving clues on the role of granites during the Brasiliano orogeny. SHRIMP U/Pb zircon geochronological data for seven granitic intrusions of the PEAL domain divide the studied granitoids into three groups: 1) early-to syn-collision granitoids with crystallization ages ca. 635 Ma (Serra do Catú pluton), 2) syn-collision granitoids with crystallization ages 610-618 Ma (Santana do Ipanema, Água Branca, Mata Grande and Correntes plutons) and 3) late-to post-collision granitoids with ages of ca. 590 Ma (Águas Belas, and Cachoeirinha plutons). The intrusions of group 1 and 2, except the Mata Grande and Correntes plutons, show Nd TDM model ages ranging from 1.2 to 1.5 Ga, while the granitoids from group 3, and Mata Grande Pluton and Correntes plutons have Nd TDM model ages ranging from 1.7 to 2.2 Ga. The studied granitoids with ages <600 Ma are high-K, calc-alkaline, shoshonitic and those with ages <600 Ma are transitional high-K calc-alkaline to alkaline. The volcanic arc signatures associated with the Paleoproterozoic Nd TDM model ages are interpreted as inherited from the source rocks. The oldest ages and lower Nd TDM model ages are recorded from granitoids intruded in the southwest part of the PEAL domain, suggesting that these intrusions are associated with slab-tearing during convergence between the PEAL and the Sergipano domains. Zircon oxygen isotopic data in some of the studied plutons, together with the available Nd isotopic data suggest that the Brasiliano orogeny strongly reworked older crust, of either Paleoproterozoic or Tonian ages. The studied granitoids are coeval with calc-alkaline granitoids of the Transversal Zone and Sergipano domains and rare high-K calc-alkaline granitoids from the Transversal Zone domain. Such large volumes of high-K granitoids with

  18. Promise and Pitfalls of Lu/Hf-Sm/Nd Garnet Geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, R. L.; Vervoort, J. D.; Kohn, M. J.; Zirakparvar, N. A.; Hart, G. L.; Corrie, S. L.; Cheng, H.

    2007-12-01

    Our ability to routinely measure Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotopes in garnet allows broad new applications in geochronology, petrology, and tectonics. However, applications of these data can be limited by challenges in interpreting the petrologic record and preparing garnets for analysis. Here, we examine petrologic and chemical pitfalls encountered in garnet geochronology. Petrologic factors influencing trace element compositions in garnet include reactions that modify REE availability and partitioning (1,2), kinetically limited transfer of REEs to garnet (3), and bulk compositional heterogeneities (4). Interpreting the effects of these processes on Sm/Nd and Lu/Hf ages requires characterizing REE zonation prior to isotope analysis and age interpretation. Because garnet fractions are traditionally picked from crushed samples without regard to intracrystalline origins or chemistries, isochrons will represent mixtures derived to varying degrees from all periods of garnet growth. While measured zoning might generally indicate what garnet portion dominates the Lu/Hf or Sm/Nd budget, traditional mineral separation will rarely realize the chronologic potential afforded by high precision Hf and Nd isotope measurements. The potential use of alternative techniques, such as microsampling, necessitates selective digestion and/or leaching to eliminate inclusions within garnet. For Sm/Nd geochronology, H2SO4 leaching removes LREE-rich phosphates (e.g. apatite), but not silicates (e.g. epidote), precluding Sm-Nd dating of some rocks. For Lu/Hf geochronology, ubiquitous zircon microinclusions (c. 1 μm) can significantly disrupt age determinations. Microinclusions cannot be detected optically or separated physically, requiring selective chemical digestion. If complete digestion methods, such as bomb digestion, are used for garnet fractions, then "common Hf" from zircon will be contained in final solutions. These mixed analyses are of dubious utility and will fall into one of two

  19. Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr Ages for MIL 05035: Implications for Surface and Mantle Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C-Y.; Reese, Y. D.

    2007-01-01

    The Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr ages and also the initial Nd and Sr isotopic compositions of MIL 05035 are the same as those of A-881757. Comparing the radiometric ages of these meteorites to lunar surface ages as modeled from crater size-frequency distributions as well as the TiO2 abundances and initial Sr-isotopic compositions of other basalts places their likely place of origin as within the Australe or Humboldtianum basins. If so, a fundamental west-east lunar asymmetry in compositional and isotopic parameters that likely is due to the PKT is implied.

  20. Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd geochronology of garnet gneisses in the central Appalachians, U.S.: Implications for the timing and duration of Grenville Orogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vervoort, Jeff; Ramsey, Molly; Mulcahy, Sean; Aleinikoff, John; Southworth, Scott

    2014-05-01

    temperatures resulting in Lu diffusing from high Lu regions after garnet formation, potentially leading to anomalously old ages (e.g., Ganguly et al., 2011). (3) The Lu-Hf system has a higher closure temperature than Sm-Nd (e.g., Scherer et al., 2001; Smit et al., 2013) and younger Sm-Nd ages could reflect a later start of their isotopic clocks. Based on our data, the first two explanations are unlikely to generate large and systematic differences in the ages. None of the Blue Ridge garnets have significant Lu/Hf or Sm/Nd zoning, which likely indicates equilibration of the garnets subsequent to their growth; differences in elemental partitioning during garnet growth cannot explain the age differences. The Lu-Hf ages, while much older than the Sm-Nd ages, are not anomalously old and overlap with the timing of zircon growth. Ti-in-quartz thermometry performed on 7 samples yield a weighted average temperature of 828±54° C which broadly overlaps with estimates from the Ti-in-zircon thermometer by Tollo et al., (2010) of 740±40° C. Therefore, we interpret the younger Sm-Nd ages as due to differences in closure temperatures; the Lu-Hf system closed soon after garnet growth at ~1024 Ma whereas Sm-Nd closed at ~ 970 to 930 Ma. These data require that the rocks remained at elevated temperatures and pressures for tens of millions of years, presumably deep within thickened crust, during the culmination of the Grenvillian orogeny.

  1. Sm-Nd Systematics of Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelin, Y.; Rotenberg, E.

    2004-03-01

    ^147Sm-^143Nd and ^146Sm-^142Nd systems are studied in phosphates and chondrules from nine chondrites. The ^147Sm-^143Nd isochron age is 4588±100 Ma. Initial ^146Sm/^144Sm is 0.0075±0.0027. The validity of currently used CHUR parameters is confirmed.

  2. Sm-Nd dating of Fig Tree clay minerals of the Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toulkeridis, T.; Goldstein, S. L.; Clauer, N.; Kroner, A.; Lowe, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    Sm-Nd isotopic data from carbonate-derived clay minerals of the 3.22-3.25 Ga Fig Tree Group, Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa, form a linear array corresponding to an age of 3102 +/- 64 Ma, making these minerals the oldest dated clays on Earth. The obtained age is 120-160 m.y. younger than the depositional age determined by zircon geochronology. Nd model ages for the clays range from approximately 3.39 to 3.44 Ga and almost cover the age variation of the Barberton greenstone belt rocks, consistent with independent evidence that the clay minerals are derived from material of the belt. The combined isotopic and mineralogical data provide evidence for a cryptic thermal overprint in the sediments of the belt. However, the highest temperature reached by the samples since the time of clay-mineral formation was <300 degrees C, lower than virtually any known early Archean supracrustal sequence.

  3. Sm-Nd dating of Fig Tree clay minerals of the Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toulkeridis, T.; Goldstein, S. L.; Clauer, N.; Kroner, A.; Lowe, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    Sm-Nd isotopic data from carbonate-derived clay minerals of the 3.22-3.25 Ga Fig Tree Group, Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa, form a linear array corresponding to an age of 3102 +/- 64 Ma, making these minerals the oldest dated clays on Earth. The obtained age is 120-160 m.y. younger than the depositional age determined by zircon geochronology. Nd model ages for the clays range from approximately 3.39 to 3.44 Ga and almost cover the age variation of the Barberton greenstone belt rocks, consistent with independent evidence that the clay minerals are derived from material of the belt. The combined isotopic and mineralogical data provide evidence for a cryptic thermal overprint in the sediments of the belt. However, the highest temperature reached by the samples since the time of clay-mineral formation was <300 degrees C, lower than virtually any known early Archean supracrustal sequence.

  4. Origin and evolution of the Ilmeny-Vishnevogorsky carbonatites (Urals, Russia): insights from trace-element compositions, and Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, U-Pb, Lu-Hf isotope data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedosekova, I. L.; Belousova, E. A.; Sharygin, V. V.; Belyatsky, B. V.; Bayanova, T. B.

    2013-02-01

    The carbonatites of the Ilmeny-Vishnevogorsky Alkaline Complex (IVAC) are specific in geological and geochemical aspects and differ by some characteristics from classic carbonatites of the zoned alkaline-ultramafic complexes. Geological, geochemical and isotopic data and comparison with relevant experimental systems show that the IVAC carbonatites are genetically related to miaskites, and seem to be formed as a result of separation of carbonatite liquid from a miaskitic magma. Appreciable role of a carbonate fluid is established at the later stages of carbonatite formation. The trace element contents in the IVAC carbonatites are similar to carbonatites of the ultramafic-alkaline complexes. The characteristic signatures of the IVAC carbonatites are a high Sr content, a slight depletion in Ba, Nb, Та, Ti, Zr, and Hf, and enrichment in HREE in comparison with carbonatites of ultramafic-alkaline complexes. This testifies a specific nature of the IVAC carbonatites related to the fractionation of a miaskitic magma and to further Late Paleozoic metamorphism. Isotope data suggest a mantle source for IVAC carbonatites and indicate that moderately depleted mantle and enriched EMI-type components participated in magma generation. The lower crust could have been involved in the generation of the IVAC magma.

  5. Dating Melt Rock 63545 By Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd: Age of Imbrium; Spa Dress Rehearsal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C. Y.; Reese, Y. D.

    2011-01-01

    Apollo 16 sample 63545 was initially described as one of a group of 19 generally rounded, fine-grained, crystalline rocks that were collected as rake samples [1]. This 16 g "rocklet" was collected at Station 13 on the ejecta blanket of North Ray Crater at the foot of Smoky Mountain [2]. Originally classified as a Very High Alumina (VHA) basalt on geochemical grounds [3], it was later argued to be an impact melt rock [4]. Here we report a Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic study that shows that some portions of the rock failed to reach isotopic equilibrium on last melting in agreement with the impact melt rock interpretation. Nevertheless, by omitting mineral fractions that are discordant with the majority of the data, we arrive at the time of last melting as 3.88 plus or minus 0.05 Ga ago. This age is in agreement with the Ar-39/Ar-40 plateau age of 3839 plus or minus 23 Ma [5], if the latter is adjusted for the 1.4-1.8% revision in the age of the hornblende monitor [6]. This investigation was undertaken in part as proof-of-concept for SPA-basin sample return.

  6. Ore genesis dating: implication of Sm-Nd method using sulfide minerals for mafic-ultramafic layered intrusions of Fennoscandian Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serov, Pavel; Bayanova, Tamara; Steshenko, Ekaterina; Ekimova, Nadezhda

    2015-04-01

    The main method of dating the ore process was the Re-Os method of sulfides (Luck, Allegre, 1983; Walker et. al., 1991). However, studies of Re-Os systematics of sulfide minerals do not always give the correct ages and showing the disturbances of the Re-Os systematics. At the same time, Sm-Nd age of sulfides in good agreement with the U-Pb dating on zircon and baddeleyite and suggests that the Sm-Nd system of sulfides is more resistant to secondary alteration processes. Our studies have shown that along with rock-forming, ore minerals (sulfides) can be used to determine the ore genesis time of industrially important geological sites, since exactly with the sulfides the industry Pt-Pd mineralization is closely connected. In to Sm-Nd measurements steadily introduce new minerals-geochronometers (i.e. titanite, burbancite, eudialite etc.). Of these, sulfides of PGE-bearing layered intrusions are quite important in terms of dating the process of ore origin. Studying the REE distribution in the sulfides of MOR hydrothermal sources has shown possible REE presence in the sulfide lattice (Rimskaya-Korsakova et. al., 2003). These are difficult to carry out because the concentrations of Sm and Nd isotopes in sulfides are much lower than those in chondrites (Rimskaya-Korsakova et. al., 2003). In (Kong et. al., 2000) sulfides from two metamorphosed chondrites were studied by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and ion probe. As shown, the level of REE in the sulfide phase determined by the ion probe is quite similar to that obtained by INAA. Although the concentrations of REE in the enstatite and the Fe, Si, Cr-rich inclusions are comparable to those in sulfide, estimates based on mass balance calculations show that the silicate inclusions would not noticeably contribute to the REE budget in sulfides (Kong et. al., 2000). For the first time in Russian geochemistry laboratories using sulfide and rock-forming minerals and WR in Sm-Nd method have been dated impregnated

  7. Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr Ages for Northwest Africa 2977, A Young Lunar Gabbro from the PKT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C.-Y.; Reese, Y. D.; Irving, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Northwest Africa (NWA) 2977 is an olivine gabbro cumulate equivalent to one of the lithologies in lunar mare breccia NWA 773 [1,2,3]. The Ar-39-Ar-40 age is 2.77+/-0.04 Ga based on the last approx.57% of the gas release [4], similar to results for NWA 773 [5]. A Sm-Nd age (T) of 2.865+/-0.031 Ga and Epsilon(sub Nd) = -7.84+/-0.22 for the NWA 773 gabbro reported by [6] has been revised to T = 2.993+/-=0.032 Ga, Epsilon(sub Nd) -4.5+/-0.3 [7]. Sm-147-Nd-143 isochron for NWA 2977: Whole rock, pyroxene, olivine, plagioclase, whole rock leachate (approx.phosphate) and the combined leachates from the mineral separates yield a well defined Sm-Nd isochron for an age T = 3.10+/-0.05 Ga and Epsilon(sub Nd-CHUR) = -3.74+/-0.26 [8], or Epsilon(sub Nd-HEDR) = -4.61+/-0.26 [9]. Rb-87-Sr-87 isochron: NWA 2977 contains only a modest amount of Rb and/or Sr contamination. The Sr-isotopic composition of the contaminant closely resembles that of seawater. The whole rock residue after leaching combined with leach residues for plagioclase and pyroxene define an isochron age of 3.29+/-0.11 Ga for initial Sr-87/Sr-86 = 0.70287+/-18. The olivine residue, with lower Sr abundance of approx 1.5 ppm, is only slightly displaced from the isochron. The relatively small uncertainties of the Rb-Sr isochron parameters and near-concordancy with the Sm-Nd age indicate that both the Rb-Sr and the Sm-Nd ages are reliable.

  8. Mantle eclogites and garnet pyroxenites - the meaning of two-point isochrons, Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf closure temperatures and the cooling of the subcratonic mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Qiao; Brey, Gerhard P.; Gerdes, Axel; Hoefer, Heidi E.

    2014-03-01

    The Earth's mantle is a huge metamorphic complex which undergoes permanent changes ruled by plate tectonics. It also has enclaves underneath Archean crust which are exempt from the convecting mantle since at least 2.5 Ga. Since then, this mantle may cool slowly as a result of diminishing heat input from the asthenosphere, of declining heat production from radioactive decay and of denudation of the crust. Under such circumstances, two point garnet-clinopyroxene isochrons from mantle xenoliths (here garnet pyroxenites and eclogites) reflect either cooling ages or eruption ages depending on whether the mantle portion under consideration was below or above the closure temperature of a radiogenic system. Available literature data from the Slave and Kaapvaal craton for the Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf isotope systems and our own new data from Bellsbank (Kaapvaal) provide a whole range of two-point isochron ages from younger than the kimberlite eruption age to early Proterozoic. The meaning of ages other than the kimberlite eruption age is unclear. We use here a compilation of Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf two-point isochron age data from this study and the literature, to assess the meaning of such isochrons. This is achieved by plotting the temperature of last equilibration as derived from the Fe-Mg exchange between garnet and clinopyroxene versus the two-point isochron age. There is a low temperature alignment for both systems of increasing age with decreasing temperature and an alignment around the kimberlite eruption ages at high temperatures. We interpret the intersect between the low temperature limb and the kimberlite eruption age as closure temperature which gives about 920 °C for the Lu-Hf system and about 850 °C for the Sm-Nd system. The differences of the cooling ages between the two isotope systems for individual samples combined with the closure temperatures from this study are used to deduce the cooling of the Slave and Kaapvaal subcratonic mantle from the early Proterozoic until

  9. Sm-Nd dating of fluorite from the worldclass Montroc fluorite deposit, southern Massif Central, France

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munoz, M.; Premo, W.R.; Courjault-Rade, P.

    2005-01-01

    A three-point Sm-Nd isotope isochron on fluorite from the very large Montroc fluorite vein deposit (southern Massif Central, France) defines an age of 111??13 Ma. Initial ??Nd of -8.6 and initial 87Sr/86Sr of ???0.71245 suggest an upper crustal source of the hydrothermal system, in agreement with earlier work on fluid inclusions which indicated a basinal brine origin. The mid-Cretaceous age of ???111 Ma suggests the Albian/Aptian transition as the most likely period for large-scale fluid circulation during a regional extensional tectonic event, related to the opening of the North Atlantic ocean. ?? Springer-Verlag 2004.

  10. Conflicting Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd ages in the garnet gneisses of the Central Appalachians, Eastern U.S.: Implications for the timing and duration of Grenville Orogeny and a case for using coupled Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vervoort, J. D.; Ramsey, M.; Aleinikoff, J. N.; Southworth, S.

    2013-12-01

    elevated temperatures resulting in Lu diffusing from high Lu regions after garnet formation, potentially leading to anomalously old ages (e.g., Ganguly et al., 2011). (3) The Lu-Hf system has a higher closure temperature than Sm-Nd (e.g., Scherer et al., 2001) and younger Sm-Nd ages could reflect a later start of their isotopic clocks. Based on our data, the first two explanations are unlikely. None of the Blue Ridge garnets have significant Lu/Hf or Sm/Nd zoning, which likely indicates equilibration of the garnets subsequent to their growth; differences in elemental partitioning during garnet growth cannot explain the age differences. The Lu-Hf ages, while much older than the Sm-Nd ages, are not anomalously old and agree with the time estimate of peak metamorphism in central Appalachians of 1028×9 Ma, based on zircon overgrowths (Carrigan et al., 2003). Therefore, we interpret the younger Sm-Nd ages as due to differences in closure temperatures; the Lu-Hf system closed soon after garnet growth at ~1024 Ma whereas Sm-Nd closed at ~ 970 to 930 Ma. These data require that the rocks remained at elevated temperatures and pressures for tens of millions of years, presumably deep within thickened crust, during the culmination of the Grenvillian orogeny.

  11. Paleoproterozoic layered PGE-bearing Monchetundra pluton, Kola Peninsula: Sm-Nd age of metamorphic alteration of mafic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunakkuzin, E. L.; Serov, P. A.; Bayanova, T. B.; Nerovich, L. I.; Borisenko, E. S.

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this work is Sm-Nd study of metamorphic alteration of massive gabbronorites from the Monchetundra pluton. The mafic rocks of the pluton are unevenly metamorphosed up to amphibolite facies with the formation of garnet, hornblende, and other minerals. The presence of garnet is a distinctive feature of this pluton in comparison with other Paleoproterozoic PGE-bearing plutons of the eastern part of the Baltic shield: Mt. General'skaya, Fedorovo-Pana, Imandra lopolith, and Monchepluton [9]. The degree of metamorphic alteration of rocks increases near the faults, the largest of which is Monchetundra fault separating the studied pluton from the Monchepluton. This fault was formed about 1.9-2.0 Ga ago according to Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr mineral isochrons for minerals from metagabbro-anorthosites of the M1 well.

  12. NWA 7034 Martian Breccia: Disturbed Rb-Sr Systematics, Preliminary Is Approximately 4.4 Ga Sm-Nd Age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C.-Y.; Peng, Zhan Xiong; Agee, C

    2013-01-01

    Agee et al. [1] reported a Rb-Sr age of 2.089 [plus or minus] 0.081 Ga for the unique Martian meteoritic breccia NWA 7034 making it the oldest Martian basalt, dating to the early Am-azonian epoch [2] of Martian geologic history. We have attempt-ed to confirm this exciting result. Our new Rb-Sr analyses show the Rb-Sr isotopic system to be disturbed, but preliminary Sm-Nd data suggest an even older age of approximately 4.4 Ga for at least some brec-cia components.

  13. Evidence for an Early Cretaceous mineralizing event above the basement/sediment unconformity in the intracratonic Paris Basin: paragenetic sequence and Sm-Nd dating of the world-class Pierre-Perthuis stratabound fluorite deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gigoux, Morgane; Delpech, Guillaume; Guerrot, Catherine; Pagel, Maurice; Augé, Thierry; Négrel, Philippe; Brigaud, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    World-class stratabound fluorite deposits are spatially associated with the basement/sediment unconformity of the intracratonic Paris Basin and the Morvan Massif in Burgundy (France). The reserves are estimated to be about 5.5 Mt of fluorite within six fluorite deposits. In this study, we aim to determine the age of the major fluorite mineralization event of the Pierre-Perthuis deposit (1.4 Mt fluorite) by a combined study of the paragenetic mineral sequence and Sm-Nd dating on fluorite crystals. Fluorite occurs as isolated cubes or filling geodes in a Triassic, silicified, dolomitic formation. Three fluorite stages associated with sphalerite, pyrite, galena, barite, and quartz have been distinguished using optical, cathodoluminescence, and scanning electron microscopes. Seven crystals of the geodic fluorite stage were analyzed for their rare earth element (REE) contents and their 147Sm/144Nd and 143Nd/144Nd isotopic compositions. The normalized REE distribution displays homogeneous bell-shaped patterns for all the geodic fluorite samples with a Mid-REE enrichment over the Light-REE and Heavy-REE. The 147Sm/144Nd varies from 0.3108 to 0.5504 and the 143Nd/144Nd from 0.512313 to 0.512518. A six-point Sm-Nd isochron defines an age of 130 ± 15 Ma (initial 143Nd/144Nd = 0.512054, MSWD = 0.21). This Sm-Nd isochron provides the first age for the stratabound fluorite sediment-hosted deposit, related to an unconformity in the Paris Basin, and highlights a major Early Cretaceous fluid circulation event mainly above the basement/sediment unconformity during a flexural deformation of the Paris Basin, which relates to the rifting of the Bay of Biscay and the formation of the Ligurian Sea in the Western Europe domain.

  14. The age and emplacement of obducted oceanic crust in the Urals from Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr systematics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, R. L.; Wassburg, G. J.

    1985-01-01

    The Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotopic characteristics of two mafic-ultramafic bodies, the Kemperai Massif in the South Ural Mountains and the Voykar-syninsky Massif in the Polar Ural mountains are examined. The data are found to be consistent with the hypothesis that these bodies represent fragments of old oceanic crust. Whole rock samples of pillow basalt, troctolite, gabbros, diabase, and a metasediment give Sm-Nd values which lie on this isochron indicating that the rock units are genetically related and formed 397 My ago. Basic and ultrabasic rocks from Kempersai and Voykar-Syninsky have an initial isotopic composition at time T, epsilon Nd(397 My), of +8.4, indicating derivation for an ancient depleted mantle source. The Sr isotopic data and the correlation with epsilon Nd indicate extensive alteration by seawater which is particularly strong on ultrabasic rocks. The results show that the segments of oceanic crust formed at least 80 My before the collision that produced the Urals.

  15. Sm-Nd systematics of lunar ferroan anorthositic suite rocks: Constraints on lunar crust

    DOE PAGES

    Boyet, Maud; Carlson, Richard W.; Borg, Lars E.; ...

    2014-09-28

    Here, we have measured Sm–Nd systematics, including the short-lived 146Sm–142Nd chronometer, in lunar ferroan anorthositic suite (FAS) whole rocks (15415, 62236, 62255, 65315, 60025). At least some members of the suite are thought to be primary crystallization products formed by plagioclase flotation during crystallization of the lunar magma ocean (LMO). Most of these samples, except 62236, have not been exposed to galactic cosmic rays for a long period and thus require minimal correction to their 142Nd isotope composition. These samples all have measured deficits in 142Nd relative to the JNdi-1 terrestrial standard in the range –45 to –21 ppm. Themore » range is –45 to –15 ppm once the 62236 142Nd/144Nd ratio is corrected from neutron-capture effects. Analyzed FAS samples do not define a single isochron in either 146Sm–142Nd or 147Sm–143Nd systematics, suggesting that they either do not have the same crystallization age, come from different sources, or have suffered isotopic disturbance. Because the age is not known for some samples, we explore the implications of their initial isotopic compositions for crystallization ages in the first 400 Ma of solar system history, a timing interval that covers all the ages determined for the ferroan anorthositic suite whole rocks as well as different estimates for the crystallization of the LMO. 62255 has the largest deficit in initial 142Nd and does not appear to have followed the same differentiation path as the other FAS samples. The large deficit in 142Nd of FAN 62255 may suggest a crystallization age around 60–125 Ma after the beginning of solar system accretion. This result provides essential information about the age of the giant impact forming the Moon. The initial Nd isotopic compositions of FAS samples can be matched either with a bulk-Moon with chondritic Sm/Nd ratio but enstatite-chondrite-like initial 142Nd/144Nd (e.g. 10 ppm below modern terrestrial), or a bulk-Moon with superchondritic Sm/Nd

  16. Sm-Nd systematics of lunar ferroan anorthositic suite rocks: Constraints on lunar crust

    SciTech Connect

    Boyet, Maud; Carlson, Richard W.; Borg, Lars E.; Horan, Mary

    2014-09-28

    Here, we have measured Sm–Nd systematics, including the short-lived 146Sm–142Nd chronometer, in lunar ferroan anorthositic suite (FAS) whole rocks (15415, 62236, 62255, 65315, 60025). At least some members of the suite are thought to be primary crystallization products formed by plagioclase flotation during crystallization of the lunar magma ocean (LMO). Most of these samples, except 62236, have not been exposed to galactic cosmic rays for a long period and thus require minimal correction to their 142Nd isotope composition. These samples all have measured deficits in 142Nd relative to the JNdi-1 terrestrial standard in the range –45 to –21 ppm. The range is –45 to –15 ppm once the 62236 142Nd/144Nd ratio is corrected from neutron-capture effects. Analyzed FAS samples do not define a single isochron in either 146Sm–142Nd or 147Sm–143Nd systematics, suggesting that they either do not have the same crystallization age, come from different sources, or have suffered isotopic disturbance. Because the age is not known for some samples, we explore the implications of their initial isotopic compositions for crystallization ages in the first 400 Ma of solar system history, a timing interval that covers all the ages determined for the ferroan anorthositic suite whole rocks as well as different estimates for the crystallization of the LMO. 62255 has the largest deficit in initial 142Nd and does not appear to have followed the same differentiation path as the other FAS samples. The large deficit in 142Nd of FAN 62255 may suggest a crystallization age around 60–125 Ma after the beginning of solar system accretion. This result provides essential information about the age of the giant impact forming the Moon. The initial Nd isotopic compositions of FAS samples can be matched either with a bulk-Moon with chondritic Sm/Nd ratio but

  17. Superchondritic Sm/Nd ratio of the Earth: Impact of Earth's core formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouhifd, M. A.; Boyet, M.; Cartier, C.; Hammouda, T.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Devidal, J. L.; Andrault, D.

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates the impact of Earth's core formation on the metal-silicate partitioning of Sm and Nd, two rare-earth elements assumed to be strictly lithophile although they are widely carried by the sulphide phases in reducing material (e.g. enstatite chondrites). The partition coefficients of Sm and Nd (DSm and DNd) between molten CI and EH chondrites model compositions and various Fe-rich alloys (in the Fe-Ni-C-Si-S system) have been determined in a multi-anvil between 3 and 26 GPa at various temperatures between 2073 and 2440 K, and at an oxygen fugacity ranging from 1 to 5 log units below the iron-wüstite (IW) buffer. The chemical compositions of the run products and trace concentrations in Sm and Nd elements were determined using electron microprobe and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Our results demonstrate the non-fractionation of Sm and Nd during the segregation of the metallic phases: the initial Sm/Nd ratio of about 1 in the starting materials yields precisely the same ratio in the recovered silicate phases after the equilibration with the metal phases at all conditions investigated in this study. In addition, DSm and DNd values range between 10-3 and 10-5 representing a low solubility in the metal. An increase of the partition coefficients is observed with decreasing the oxygen fugacity, or with an increase of S content of the metallic phase at constant oxygen fugacity. Thus, based on the actual Sm and Nd concentrations in the bulk Earth, the core should contain less than 0.4 ppb for Sm and less than 1 ppb for Nd. These estimates are three orders of magnitude lower than what would be required to explain the reported 142Nd excess in terrestrial samples relative to the mean chondritic value, using the core as a Sm-Nd complementary reservoir. In other words, the core formation processes cannot be responsible for the increase of the Sm/Nd ratio in the mantle early in Earth history.

  18. Large discrepancies between garnet Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isochron ages: the problem of inherited Hf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raimondo, Tom; Payne, Justin; Hand, Martin; Clark, Chris; Anczkiewicz, Robert

    2017-04-01

    separation and dissolution techniques that preferentially reduce zircon contamination in garnet relative to the untreated whole rock fraction, systematically skewing the Lu-Hf isochron to an apparent age older than the 'true' age. Furthermore, the moderate metamorphic grade of the Walter-Outalpa samples (530 °C; 5 kbar) prevents an appeal to diffusion to explain the large Lu-Hf vs. Sm-Nd age discrepancy. As such, it is concluded that the problem of inherited Hf can produce spuriously old ages that falsely suggest a high closure temperature for the Lu-Hf isotopic system and/or an early onset of garnet nucleation. This should urge caution in the interpretation of Lu-Hf data without consideration of potential inheritance effects.

  19. Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr, and Mn-Cr Ages of Yamato 74013

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C.- Y.; Reese, Y.D.

    2009-01-01

    Yamato 74013 is one of 29 paired diogenites having granoblastic textures. The Ar-39 - Ar-40 age of Y-74097 is approximately 1100 Ma. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd analyses of Y-74013, -74037, -74097, and -74136 suggested that multiple young metamorphic events disturbed their isotopic systems. Masuda et al. reported that REE abundances were heterogeneous even within the same sample (Y-74010) for sample sizes less than approximately 2 g. Both they and Nyquist et al. reported data for some samples showing significant LREE enrichment. In addition to its granoblastic texture, Y-74013 is characterized by large, isolated clots of chromite up to 5 mm in diameter. Takeda et al. suggested that these diogenites originally represented a single or very small number of coarse orthopyroxene crystals that were recrystallized by shock processes. They further suggested that initial crystallization may have occurred very early within the deep crust of the HED parent body. Here we report the chronology of Y-74013 as recorded in chronometers based on long-lived Rb-87 and Sm-147, intermediate- lived Sm-146, and short-lived Mn-53.

  20. Age and origin of the Cortlandt Complex, New York: Implications from Sm-Nd data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Domenick, M.A.; Basu, A.R.

    1982-01-01

    Sm-Nd systematics for nine whole-rock samples of hornblende norites, pyroxenites and a lamprophyre from various parts of the Cortlandt Complex were analyzed. Six of these samples from the central and eastern parts of the complex give an isochron age of 430??34 (2 ??) Ma with an e{open}Nd value of -2.9??0.5, and the other three samples from the western part, including the lamprophyre, define a similar age of 394??33 (2 ??) Ma but with a distinctly different e{open}Nd value of -1.4??0.4. The two different initial 143Nd/144Nd ratios corresponding to these e{open}-values are interpreted to reflect continental crustal contamination of the lamprophyric parental liquid prior to final emplacement and crystal fractionation to produce the different rock types of the complex. The intrusion age of 430 Ma for the complex clearly post-dates the major metamorphic event of the Taconic orogeny. The Nd-isotopic data also suggest a relationship between the Cortlandt Complex and a belt of lamprophyric dike rocks to the west, known as the Beemerville trend, which cuts across the metamorphic trends of the Taconic (Ratcliffe 1981). ?? 1982 Springer-Verlag.

  1. Diamond growth beneath Letlhakane established by Re-Os and Sm-Nd systematics of individual eclogitic sulphide, garnet and clinopyroxene inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gress, Michael U.; Pearson, D. Graham; Timmerman, Suzette; Chinn, Ingrid L.; Koornneef, Janne M.; Davies, Gareth R.

    2017-04-01

    The diamondiferous Letlhakane kimberlites are part of the Orapa kimberlite cluster (˜ 93.1 Ma) in north-eastern Botswana, located on the edge of the Zimbabwe Craton, close to the Proterozoic Magondi Mobile Belt. Here we report the first Re-Os ages of six individual eclogitic sulphide inclusions (3.0 to 35.7μg) from Letlhakane diamonds along with their rhenium, osmium, iridium and platinum concentrations, and carbon isotope, nitrogen content and N-aggregation data from the corresponding growth zones of the host diamonds. For the first time, Re-Os data will be compared to Sm-Nd ages of individual eclogitic silicate inclusions recovered from the same diamonds using a Triton Plus equipped with four 1013Ω amplifiers. The analysed inclusion set currently encompasses pairs of individual sulphides from two diamonds (LK040 sf4 & 5, LK113 sf1 & 2) and two sulphide inclusions from separate diamonds (LK048, LK362). Ongoing work will determine the Sm-Nd ages and element composition of multiple individual eclogitic garnets (LK113/LK362, n=4) and an eclogitic clinopyroxene (LK040) inclusion. TMA ages of the six sulphides range from 1.06 to 2.38 Ga (± 0.1 to 0.54 Ga) with Re and Os contents between 7 and 68 ppb and 0.03 and 0.3 ppb, respectively. The host diamond growth zones have low nitrogen abundances (21 to 43 ppm N) and high N-aggregation (53 to 90% IaB). Carbon isotope data suggests the involvement of crustal carbon (δ13C between -19.3 to -22.7 ± 0.2 per mill) during diamond precipitation. Cathodoluminescence imaging of central plates from LK040 and LK113 displays homogenous internal structure with no distinct zonation. The two sulphide inclusions from LK040 define an 'isochron' of 0.92 ± 0.23 Ga (2SD) with initial 187Os/188Os = 1.31 ± 0.24. Sulphides from LK113 have clear imposed diamond morphology and indicate diamond formation at 0.93 ± 0.36 Ga (2SD) with initial 187Os/188Os = 0.69 ± 0.44. The variation in the initial 187Os/188Os does not justify including these

  2. U-Pb and Sm-Nd systematics of monazite in high-pressure felsic granulites: an example from the Snowbird tectonic zone, northern Saskatchewan, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, J. A.; Bowring, S. A.; Williams, M. L.; Mahan, K. H.

    2004-05-01

    U-Pb and Sm-Nd systematics of monazite (Mnz) from felsic granulites of the Snowbird tectonic zone, northern Saskatchewan, have been investigated through an integrated electron microprobe (EMP) and ID-TIMS study. The granulites contain the assemblage Grt+Ky+ternary Fsp and were metamorphosed at conditions of 1.5-2.0 GPa and 900-1000° C. The Mnz occurs in a variety of textural settings, including both well-armored and un-armored inclusions in Grt, as well as matrix grains that are interstitial to Ky and/or alkali Fsp. EMP and ID-TIMS studies reveal a polyphase Mnz growth history. Well-armored Mnz inclusions in Grt yield the oldest U-Pb dates at 2.62 Ga. In contrast, matrix grains and un-armored inclusions in Grt rims show more complicated U-Pb systematics with age domains from 2.6 Ga to 1.9 Ga. This is interpreted to largely reflect the reactivity of Mnz with fluids and/or melt in the lower crust. Numerous small (5-10 μ m) grains yield Paleoproterozoic EMP dates (ca. 1.9 Ga), whereas only one matrix Mnz yielded a TIMS date of 1.90 Ga, reflecting the bias of grain separates to larger, and in this case, older populations. Sm-Nd isotope systematics of Mnz grains included in Grt are similar to the whole rock with a limited range of slightly negative ɛ Nd(i). In contrast, grains that show more complex histories have more positive ɛ Nd(i), indicating Nd derivation from a source containing Grt. Further, inclusions in Grt show higher Y, Th, U, Nd, and other REEs compared to the matrix grains. We suggest that the Archean Mnz grew in the absence of Grt; Proterozoic Mnz grew after significant Grt growth and whole-rock melting. These results have important implications for the U-Pb systematics of Mnz under high-T conditions, and show empirically that at temperatures of 1000° C there has not been any significant diffusional Pb loss consistent with the experimental data of Cherniak et al. 2004. Moreover, the two episodes of Mnz growth record the evolving composition and

  3. Super-chondritic Sm/Nd ratios in Mars, the Earth and the Moon.

    PubMed

    Caro, Guillaume; Bourdon, Bernard; Halliday, Alex N; Quitté, Ghylaine

    2008-03-20

    Small isotopic differences in the atomic abundance of neodymium-142 (142Nd) in silicate rocks represent the time-averaged effect of decay of formerly live samarium-146 (146Sm) and provide constraints on the timescales and mechanisms by which planetary mantles first differentiated. This chronology, however, assumes that the composition of the total planet is identical to that of primitive undifferentiated meteorites called chondrites. The difference in the 142Nd/144Nd ratio between chondrites and terrestrial samples may therefore indicate very early isolation (<30 Myr from the formation of the Solar System) of the upper mantle or a slightly non-chondritic bulk Earth composition. Here we present high-precision 142Nd data for 16 martian meteorites and show that Mars also has a non-chondritic composition. Meteorites belonging to the shergottite subgroup define a planetary isochron yielding an age of differentiation of 40 +/- 18 Myr for the martian mantle. This isochron does not pass through the chondritic reference value (100 x epsilon(142)Nd = -21 +/- 3; 147Sm/144Nd = 0.1966). The Earth, Moon and Mars all seem to have accreted in a portion of the inner Solar System with approximately 5 per cent higher Sm/Nd ratios than material accreted in the asteroid belt. Such chemical heterogeneities may have arisen from sorting of nebular solids or from impact erosion of crustal reservoirs in planetary precursors. The 143Nd composition of the primitive mantle so defined by 142Nd is strikingly similar to the putative endmember component 'FOZO' characterized by high 3He/4He ratios.

  4. Geochemistry and the Sm-Nd model age of sedimentary rocks from the lower horizon of the cover in the northeastern part of the West Siberian Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, K. S.; Ronkin, Yu. L.; Erokhin, Yu. V.; Pogromskaya, O. E.

    2017-07-01

    The pre-Jurassic basement and lower (Jurassic) horizons of the sedimentary cover in Hole Borovaya 6 were studied. Analysis of rare and rare-earth elements shows that Jurassic sedimentary rocks were most likely formed at the expense of erosion and mixing of heterogeneous materials, namely acid sources of the Siberian Platform and Triassic riftogenic basaltoids. The variations of 147Sm/144Nd (0.1076-0.1250) and 143Nd/144Nd (0.512202-0.512437), as well as the Sm-Nd model ages of Jurassic sediments (1146-1362 Ma), provide certain evidence for participation of the Mesoproterozoic substrate in the formation of the rocks studied. The Sm-Nd model age of pre-Jurassic rocks (1281 Ma) is Mesoproterozoic as well. The Precambrian crystalline basement of the Siberian Platform is a likely source of these sedimentary rocks.

  5. Redetermination of the Sm-Nd Age and Initial (Epsilon)Nd of Lunar Troctolite 76535: Implications for Lunar Crustal Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, Laurence E.; Shih, C.-Y.; Reese, Y. D.

    2012-01-01

    Lunar troctolite 76535 is an old lunar rock predating the era of the lunar cataclysmic bombardment, but its radiometrially determined ages have been discordant [1-3]. The most recent multi-chronometer study [4] gave preferred ages of 4226+/-35 Ma and 4236+/-15 Ma from a Pb-207/Pb-206 isochron and an U-Pb upper concordia intercept, resp. We derive an age of 4323+/-64 Ma from Sm-Nd data reported by [4] for the bulk rock and three mineral separates. They derived an age of approx.4.38 Ga from combined Rb-Sr data [3,4] by omitting data for olivine separates. Ar-39-Ar-40 ages of approx.4.2 Ga are summarized by [5]. New Sm-147-Nd-143 data presented here give an age of 4335+/-71 Ma in agreement with the Sm-Nd age from [4], whereas Sm-146-Nd-142 data give a model age T(sub LEW) = 4439+/-22 Ma. Further, initial (Epsilon)Nd-143 for 76535 conforms to the Nd-143 evolution expected in an urKREEP [6] reservoir, consistent with inheritance of urKREEP Sm-Nd systematics via assimilation. We show that urKREEP Sm-Nd systematics require the lunar initial (Epsilon)Nd-143 to exceed the Chondritic Uniform Reservoir (CHUR) value [7], but are consistent with evolution from initial (Epsilon)Nd-143 like that of the HED meteorite parent body as defined by a 4557+/-20 Ma internal isochron for the cumulate eucrites Y-980433 and Y- 980318 [8].

  6. Determining age of Pan African metamorphism using Sm-Nd garnet-whole rock geochronology and phase equilibria modeling in the Tasriwine ophiolite, Sirwa, Anti-Atlas Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inglis, Jeremy D.; Hefferan, Kevin; Samson, Scott D.; Admou, Hassan; Saquaque, Ali

    2017-03-01

    Sm-Nd garnet-whole rock geochronology and phase equilibria modeling have been used to determine the age and conditions of regional metamorphism within the Tasriwine ophiolite complex, Sirwa, Morocco. Pressure and temperature estimates obtained using a NaCaKFMASHT phase diagram (pseudosection) and garnet core and rim compositions predict that garnet growth began at ∼0.72 GPa and ∼615 °C and ended at ∼0.8 GPa and ∼640 °C. A bulk garnet Sm-Nd age of 647.2 ± 1.7 Ma, calculated from a four point isochron that combines whole rock, garnet full dissolution and two successively more aggressive partial dissolutions, provides a precise date for garnet formation and regional metamorphism. The age is over 15 million years younger than a previous age estimate of regional metamorphism of 663 ± 13 Ma based upon a SHRIMP U-Pb date from rims on zircon from the Iriri migmatite. The new data provide further constraints on the age and nature of regional metamorphism in the Anti-Atlas mountains and emphasizes that garnet growth during regional metamorphism may not necessarily coincide with magmatism/anatexis which predominate the signature witnessed by previous U-Pb studies. The ability to couple PT estimates for garnet formation with high precision Sm-Nd geochronology highlights the utility of garnet studies for uncovering the detailed metamorphic history of the Anti-Atlas mountain belt.

  7. History of the Pasamonte achondrite: Relative susceptibility of the SmNd, RbSr, and UPb systems to metamorphic events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Unruh, D.M.; Nakamura, N.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1977-01-01

    The RbSr, SmNd, and UPb systematics of the eucrite Pasamonte have been studied in order to investigate the relative susceptibility of the different systems to post-crystallization events and to determine the age and history of the meteorite. The RbSr and 238U-206Pb data of mineral separates do not define an isochron but the SmNd data define an internal isochron which corresponds to the formation age of 4.58 ?? 0.12 b.y. (109 years). The 207Pb-206Pb data of mineral separates define an apparent age of 4.53 ?? 0.03 b.y., however we conclude that this age, while in agreement with the SmNd age, is not strictly valid since the UPb data indicate at least three stages of evolution. The UPb data indicate that the parent body of the meteorite experienced brecciation shortly after the formation of the parent body surface (???4.2-4.45 b.y. ago) and a recent disturbance (collision?) 6 ?? 30 m.y. ago. The latter age is within the range of cosmic ray exposure ages for achondrites. ?? 1977.

  8. Contrasts between Sm-Nd whole-rock and U-Pb zircon systematics in the Tobacco Root batholith, Montana: Implications for the determination of crustal age provinces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, P.A.; Heatherington, A.L.; D'Arcy, K. A.; Wooden, J.L.; Nutman, A.P.

    1996-01-01

    Proper documentation of the extent and age of crust in the western US is critical for constraining a variety of geologic problems ranging from the growth rate of continents to Precambrian continental reconstructions. The secondary isotopic systematics of granitoids have been one of the principal means used to characterize continental crust in areas where the basement is covered. In southwestern Montana and eastern Idaho a group of Late Mesozoic to Cenozoic, dioritic to quartz monzonitic batholiths (e.g., Tobacco Root, Idaho, Pioneer, Boulder, etc.) share a limited range of Paleoproterozoic Sm-Nd depleted mantle model ages. The Tobacco Root batholith (TRB) has a Nd isotopic composition (??Nd = -17.9 to -19.1) and Sm-Nd model age (TDM = 1.63 to 1.90 Ga) typical of this group. The TRB, however, intruded Archean crust (???3.3 Ga, ??Nd = ??? -35), rather than the presumed Proterozoic crust intruded by the other plutons. The Archean heritage of the TRB is confirmed by the presence of premagmatic zircons which range from 2.2 to 3.0 Ga. The combination of U-Pb zircon and Nd model ages suggest that the batholith was derived from both Archean and Proterozoic crustal sources, as well as an ???80 Ma mantle component. This contrasts with a sample from the northern Idaho batholith which exhibits concordancy between its Sm-Nd and premagmatic zircon systems at ???1.74 Ga. These data point to the difficulties that can occur if crustal age provinces are defined solely on the basis of Nd model ages of younger plutons, particularly in areas such as the northwestern US where Archean and Proterozoic crust is poorly exposed and dispersed over a large area.

  9. a Coupled nd and HF Isotopic Study of Isua Archean Rocks and the Differentiation of the Hadean Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizo Garza, H. L.; Boyet, M. M.; Blichert-Toft, J.; Rosing, M.; Gannoun, A.

    2010-12-01

    The first 500 Ma of Earth’s history is for the most part unknown due to the scarcity of rocks and minerals available for investigation. Instead, early mantle evolution can be inferred from short- and long-lived isotope systematics in Earth’s oldest rocks. While low concentrations of Sm and Nd in zircons make this mineral unsuitable for Nd isotope analysis, its high concentrations of Hf and low abundances of Lu makes it ideal for Hf isotope analysis. Hence, models of the early terrestrial mantle are based on Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf isotope analyses of, respectively, whole rocks and zircons. We here present the first such coupled 146,147Sm-142,143Nd and 176Lu-176Hf study of mafic rocks from the western part of the Isua supracrustal belt (SW Greenland). Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotopic compositions were measured by the Lyon Nu Plasma MC-ICPMS and the Clermont-Ferrand Triton TIMS. The Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isochrons yield identical ages within error: 3.701±0.063 Ga and 3.674±0.035 Ga, respectively. This is in good agreement with minimum zircon U-Pb ages from crosscutting tonalites [1] and, thus, can be taken as the emplacement age. Our results further confirm and extend the existing database of 142Nd excesses in Isua samples (ɛ142Nd<12 ppm relative to the Nd terrestrial standard), supporting the existence of an early-depleted reservoir (EDR) in the Archean [2]. Coupled 146,147Sm-142,143Nd suggest that the EDR differentiated from the Bulk Silicate Earth between ~4.32 and 4.47 Ga and that the Hadean mantle was less depleted (147Sm/144Nd ≈ 0.211) than the present-day MORB source. The intercept of the Sm-Nd whole rock isochron is in accordance with 142Nd results and consistent with a superchondritic initial 143Nd/144Nd ratio (ɛ143Nd= +1.41±0.98). In contrast, the corresponding initial ɛ176Hf = -1.41±0.57 is subchondritic. The correlation between Nd and Hf isotopes in most terrestrial samples [3] attests to coupled fractionation behaviour of Lu/Hf and Sm/Nd during igneous

  10. Sm-Nd dating and REE Composition of scheelite for the Honghuaerji scheelite deposit, Inner Mongolia, Northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhijun; Li, Jinwen; Xu, Xinying; Song, Zeyou; Dong, Xuzhou; Tian, Jing; Yang, Yuncheng; She, Hongquan; Xiang, Anping; Kang, Yongjian

    2016-09-01

    Sm-Nd analyses of seven scheelite samples from scheelite-quartz veins in the Honghuaerji scheelite deposit produce a well-defined linear array on an isochron diagram with a mean square weighted deviation (MSWD) of 0.87 corresponding to an age of 178.4 ± 2.9 Ma with εNd(t) = + 1.50. This age is interpreted to represent the age of scheelite mineralization. The scheelite Sm-Nd age is in good agreement with U-Pb ages obtained from a mineralization-related granite (179.4 178.6 Ma), indicating that there is no apparent age gap between granite crystallization and ore formation. Rare earth element (REE) abundances in the scheelite were determined by in situ laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and the scheelite samples contain elevated REE concentrations with total ΣREE + Y contents in the range of 3339 to 6321 ppm. The chondrite-normalized REE distribution patterns of all scheelites are middle REE (MREE)-enriched, with strong negative Eu-anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.09 0.23). The REE characteristics of the Honghuaerji scheelite suggest that REE3 + substituted into the Ca site along with Na and Nb (dominated by Na), whereas Eu is predominantly present as Eu2 + in the scheelite and may have crystallized from relatively reduced fluids. All sulfur isotope data (δ34S) for sulfide separates range from + 2.0 to + 3.8‰, with an average of 3.2‰. Measured 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb ratios vary from 18.243 to 18.451, 15.494 to 15.574, and 37.933 to 38.340, respectively. On the basis of common Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic characteristics between the scheelite and the host granite and the positive initial Nd isotope ratios (+ 1.46 - + 1.52), low 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.704983-0.705297) in the scheelites, it is inferred that the hydrothermal fluids responsible for tungsten mineralization at Honghuaerji were of magmatic origin with a mantle-derived signature. Based on the regional geology, tectonic evolution, and geochemical evidence, the

  11. Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd evolution in lunar mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unruh, D. M.; Tatsumoto, M.; Stille, P.; Patchett, P. J.

    1984-01-01

    Existing cumulate remelting models for mare basalt genesis are evaluated in light of Lu-Hf, Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd data and overall REE characteristics in order to determine the simplest model that can account for these data. A data base for comparing Lu-Hf evolution in the lunar mantle as inferred from Lu-Hf analyses of oceanic basalts is presented along with a preliminary comparison of Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd evolution betwee mare basalts and terrestrial oceanic basalts. It is found that Lu/Hf characteristics of mare basalts cannot be explained in terms of modal melting of cumulate sources formed from a magma ocean with chondritic Lu/Hf. The data are consistent with a model in which the cumulate sources formed from a light REE + HF-enriched magma ocean. Nonmodal melting of ilmenite in the sources is also required. The Lu-Hf data suggest that even the high-Ti basalt sources contained no more than about 3 percent ilmenite.

  12. Origin and evolution of the Nakhla meteorite inferred from the Sm-Nd and U-Pb systematics and REE, Ba, Sr, Rb and K abundances

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakamura, N.; Unruh, D.M.; Tatsumoto, M.; Hutchison, R.

    1982-01-01

    Analyses of Sm-Nd and U-Th-Pb systematics, REE, Ba, Sr, Rb and K concentrations were carried out for whole rock and mineral separates from the Nakhla meteorite. The 1.26 ??.07 b.y. Sm-Nd age obtained in this work is in good agreement with those previously obtained by the Rb-Sr and Ar-Ar methods. The high initial ??{lunate}Nd value of +16 suggests that Nakhla was derived from a light REE-depleted, old planetary mantle source. U-Th-Pb data, after correction for pre-analytical terrestrial Pb contamination assuming an age of 1.26 b.y., suggest that the age of the Nakhla source is ???4.33 b.y. The agreement in the age determined by three independent radiometric methods and the high initial ??{lunate}Nd value strongly suggest that the 1.3 b.y. age dates one thorough igneous event in the parent body which not only reset these isotopic systems but also established the chemical and petrologic characteristics observed for the Nakhla meteorite. Using a three-stage Sm-Nd evolution model in combination with LIL element data and estimated partition coefficients, we have tested partial melting and fractional crystallization models to estimate LIL element abundances in a possible Nakhla source. Our model calculations suggest that partial melting of the light REE-depleted source followed by extensive fractional crystallization (???50%) of the partial melt could account for the REE abundances in the Nakhla constituent minerals. The estimated source is depleted in the light REE, Ba, Rb and K and therefore may resemble the MORB source in the earth's upper mantle or the upper 60-300 km of the moon. The significantly younger age of Nakhla than the youngest lunar rock; the young differentiation age inferred from the U-Th-Pb data, and the estimated LIL element abundances (including those of K, U and Th) in the source suggest that the Nakhla meteorite may have been derived from a relatively large, well-differentiated planetary body such as Mars. ?? 1982.

  13. Concordant Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd Ages for NWA 1460: A 340 Ma Old Basaltic Shergottite Related to Lherzolitic Shergottites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C-Y; Reese, Y. D.; Irving, A. J.

    2006-01-01

    Preliminary Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd ages reported by [1] for the NWA 1460 basaltic shergottite are refined to 336+/-14 Ma and 345+/-21 Ma, respectively. These concordant ages are interpreted as dating a lava flow on the Martian surface. The initial Sr and Nd isotopic compositions of NWA 1460 suggest it is an earlier melting product of a Martian mantle source region similar to those of the lherzolitic shergottites and basaltic shergottite EETA79001, lithology B. We also examine the suggestion that generally "young" ages for other Martian meteorites should be reinterpreted in light of Pb-207/Pb-206 - Pb-204/Pb-206 isotopic systematics [2]. Published U-Pb isotopic data for nakhlites are consistent with ages of approx.1.36 Ga. The UPb isotopic systematics of some Martian shergottites and lherzolites that have been suggested to be approx.4 Ga old [2] are complex. We nevertheless suggest the data are consistent with crystallization ages of approx.173 Ma when variations in the composition of in situ initial Pb as well as extraneous Pb components are considered.

  14. Episodic mantle differentiation - Nd and Sr isotopic evidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stosch, H. G.; Carlson, R. W.; Lugmair, G. W.

    1980-01-01

    A study of Nd and Sr isotopic composition of clinopyroxenes separated from two hydrous and four anhydrous ultramafic nodules is presented. Correlation of Nd-143/Nd-144 with Sm/Nd suggests that a second partial melting occurred about 560 m.y. ago resulting in LREE enrichment of a part of the anhydrous mantle. The isotopic data for anhydrous nodules show that oceanic type mantle underlies at some continental areas. It is concluded that the separation of subcontinental mantle regions from an initially chondritic reservoir may occur in discrete episodes, and that different histories of depletion and/or enrichment will produce isotopically distinct mantle reservoirs.

  15. Sm-Nd Age and Nd- and Sr- Isotopic Evidence for the Petrogenesis of Dhofar 378

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Ikeda, Y.; Shih, C.-Y.; Reese, Y. D.; Nakamura, N.; Takeda, H.

    2006-01-01

    Dhofar 378 (hereafter Dho 378) is one of the most ferroan lithologies among martian meteorites, resembling the Los Angeles basaltic shergottite in lithology and mineral chemistry, although it is more highly shocked than Los Angeles. All plagioclase (Pl) grains in the original lithology were melted by an intense shock in the range 55-75 GPa. Clinopyroxenes (Cpx) sometimes show mosaic extinction under a microscope showing that they, too, experienced intense shock. Nevertheless, they zone from magnesian cores to ferroan rims, reflecting the original lithology. Cpx grains also often contain exsolution lamellae, showing that the original lithology cooled slowly enough for the lamellae to form. Because all plagioclase grains were melted by the intense shock and subsequently quenched, the main plagioclase component is glass (Pl-glass) rather than maskelynite. Like Los Angeles, but unlike most basaltic shergottites, Dho 378 contains approximately equal modal abundances of Cpx and Pl-glass. The grain sizes of the original minerals were comparatively large (approximately 1 mm). The original plagioclase zoning has been severely modified. Following shock melting, the plagioclase melts crystallized from the outside inward, first forming outer rims of Cpx-Pl intergrowths (approximately 10 micrometers) followed by inner rims (10's to 100 micrometers) of An(sub 40-50) feldspar, and finally Pl-gl cores of compositions An(sub 33-50) with orthoclase compositions up to Or(sub 12).

  16. Isotopic equilibrium between mantle peridotite and melt: Evidence from the Corsica ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampone, Elisabetta; Hofmann, Albrecht W.; Raczek, Ingrid

    2009-11-01

    A widely used assumption of mantle geochemistry and the theory of partial melting at oceanic settings is the existence of isotopic equilibrium between mantle source and melt. Yet, recent diffusion studies and isotopic investigations of ophiolites, abyssal peridotites and associated MORBs have cast doubts on this assumption, by providing evidence for isotopic disequilibrium between residual peridotites and MORBs. Here we present Sr and Sm-Nd isotope data on mantle peridotites and gabbroic intrusions from the Mt. Maggiore (Alpine Corsica, France) Tethyan ophiolite, which document Nd isotopic homogeneity, implying isotopic equilibrium, on a 1-kilometer scale. The peridotites record multi-stage melt-rock interaction and melt intrusion occurring at different lithospheric depths. Samples studied are residual cpx-poor spinel lherzolites, reactive spinel harzburgites, impregnated plagioclase peridotites and related gabbronoritic veinlets, later gabbroic dykes. Strontium isotopes in peridotites and gabbros are highly variable, due to interaction with sea-water derived fluids, and cannot be used to test melt-residue isotopic equilibrium. In contrast, Nd isotopes are unaffected by sea-water alteration. Peridotites display present-day high 147Sm/ 144Nd (0.49-0.59) and 143Nd/ 144Nd (0.513367-0.513551) ratios, with no appreciable differences between residual and reactive spinel peridotites, and between spinel and plagioclase peridotites. Gabbroic dykes have present-day Nd isotopic compositions typical of MORB ( 143Nd/ 144Nd = 0.513122-0.513138). Internal (plag-whole rock-cpx) Sm-Nd isochrons for olivine gabbro dykes and a gabbronoritic veinlet yield Jurassic ages (162 ± 10 and 159 ± 15 Ma in ol-gabbros, 155 ± 6 Ma in gabbronorite), and initial ɛNd = 8.9-9.7 indicative of a MORB-type source. Sm-Nd isotopic compositions of peridotites conform to the linear array defined by the gabbroic rocks, and yield initial (160 Ma) ɛNd values of 7.6-8.9, again consistent with a MORB

  17. Isotopic Studies of Angrite LEW 86010 and the Early History of Its Parent Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Wiesmann, H.; Bansal, B.; Shih, C.-Y.

    1993-07-01

    We summarize Mn-Cr, Rb-Sr, and Sm-Nd investigations of LEW 86010 (LEW) and Angra dos Reis (ADOR) and present a synthesis, including data for other isotopic systems. Samarium-neodymium investigation of LEW 86010 showed some surficial terrestrial contamination and/or Antarctic weathering products that could be removed by leaching in 2N HCl. A conventional Sm-Nd isochron anchored by data for pyroxene and phosphate, containing ~97% of the REE, yields an age of 4.538 +/- 0.018 Ga (2 sigma) using the Williamson [1] regression; the error limit increases to +/-0.033 Ga for the York [2] regression. Including data for leached plagioclase and olivine doubles the range in Sm/Nd, lowers the age to 4.532 Ga, but increases the uncertainty to +/-0.040 Ga. The isochron age agrees with Sm-Nd ages of ~4.55-4.56 Ga previously reported for ADOR [3,4] and LEW [5]. Manganese-chromium isotopic studies show excess ^53Cr from extinct ^53Mn* (t(sub)1/2 = 3.7 Ma) in the olivine of both LEW [6,7] and ADOR [7] corresponding to initial ^53Mn*/^56Mn = 1.3-1.4 x 10^-6. Angrite olivine closed to Cr isotopic homogenization ~18 Ma after Allende inclusions formed with ^53Mn*/^55Mn = 4.4 +/- 1.1 x 10^-5 [8]. The Mn-Cr formation interval is ~2x longer than the ~8-Ma difference between the single stage Pb-Pb ages of Allende and the angrites [5,9,10]. Angrite PbPb ages of 4.551 +/- 0.004 [9] to 4.5578 +/- 0.0005 [5] have been interpreted as limiting the time between major volatile element loss from the angrite parent body (APB) and crystallization of the angrites to <=2 Ma [5]. The Mn-Cr and Sm-Nd ages both date element partitioning among crystallizing mineral phases, the end point for the Mn-Cr formation age, and the starting point for the Sm-Nd age. Their sum should equal the age of Allende, and is 4.556 +/- 0.018 Ga using our preferred Sm-Nd age (4.538 Ga). This agrees adequately with Allende Pb-Pb ages of 4.559 +/- 0.015 Ga [9] to 4.566 +/- 0.002 Ga [10]. A ^146Sm-^142Nd isochron gives initial ^146Sm

  18. Electronic structure and optical properties of orthorhombic and rhombohedral RAlO3 (R = Sm, Nd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakhya, Anup Pradhan; Dutta, Alo; Shannigrahi, Santiranjan; Sinha, T. P.

    2015-04-01

    The electronic structure and optical properties of RAlO3 (R = Sm, Nd) have been investigated by full potential linearized augmented plane wave method within the framework of density functional theory in its generalized gradient approximation. The calculations are initiated with the experimental lattice constants obtained by the Rietveld refinement of the XRD data of the synthesized samples. The band gaps of the systems are measured from the UV-visible reflectance spectra using the Kubelka-Munk function and compared with the calculated data. The spin-polarized calculation has been carried out with on-site Coulomb potential U to consider the electron-electron correlation in the system. The X-ray photoemission spectra of the systems are measured. The valence-band density-of-states spectra are generated and compared with the X-ray photoemission spectra. The chemical shifts of these compounds suggest a mixed ionic and covalent character of the bonds. It has been observed that f-state of Nd and Sm hybridizes with O-2p state near the Fermi level in valence band. The Born effective charge tensors of the constituent ions for SmAlO3 and NdAlO3 have also been calculated which shows strong hybridization and charge transfer between Sm and O in SmAlO3 and Nd and O in NdAlO3. The calculated static dielectric tensor is found to be in good agreement with the experimental values.

  19. Sm-Nd, Lu-Hf and Nb-Zr Constraints on the Early Differentiation of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezger, K.; Munker, C.; Scherer, E. E.

    2002-12-01

    The dominant chemical and mineralogical differentiation process on the Moon is most likely associated with the formation and subsequent crystallisation of a magma ocean. The major evidence in favour of the existence of a magma ocean is the ancient anorthositic crust that once covered the lunar surface. The complementary heavier minerals that crystallised as cumulates from the magma ocean must have included olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, spinel, ilmenite, and possibly garnet. Partial melts from these differentiated silicate and oxide layers gave rise to younger mare basalts that now cover parts of the Moon's surface. Radioactive parent-daughter systems such as 147Sm-143Nd, 176Lu-176Hf and 92Nb-92Zr can provide important time constraints on early lunar differentiation processes, particularly if parent-daughter pairs are sufficiently fractionated during magmatic processes. Therefore we obtained Sm-Nd, Lu-Hf and Nb-Zr isotope data for a variety of well dated lunar samples including KREEP basalts, low and high-Ti mare basalts and lunar soils. 92Zr/90Zr and 96Zr/90Zr in mare basalts agree with the chondritic value within the analytical errors of +/-0.5 and +/-1.5 ɛ-units (2σ ), respectively. The absence of 92Zr-isotope anomalies and the presence of small 182W anomalies in mare basalts [1] confine the crystallisation age of the magma ocean to ca. 4.52 - 4.51 Ga (assuming initial 182Hf/180Hf of 1x10-4 and 92Nb/93Nb of 1x10-3). The initial ɛHf (ɛNd) range from -1.9 (-2.7) in the KREEP rocks to +16.6 (6.6) in high-Ti mare basalts. The initial Hf and Nd isotope ratios define two trends that deviate significantly from the terrestrial Hf-Nd array. The initial 176Hf-177Hf values for mare basalts (+7.3 to +16.6 ɛ) are consistent with the data from Beard et al. [2] (0 to +8 ɛ) using the revised 176Lu decay constant [3], but expand the known compositional range of mare basalts. The high ɛHf compared to the ɛNd in the low-Ti basalts requires that garnet played an

  20. Combined Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf dating of garnets from the Putomayo foreland basin in south-central Colombia and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloch, E. M.; Ibanez-mejia, M.; Ganguly, J.

    2013-12-01

    Garnet-whole rock (Grt-WR) ages of metapelites determined by the Lu-Hf decay system are almost always older than those determined by the Sm-Nd system. Unambiguous interpretation of the observed age differences has been hindered by a lack of adequate information about grain size, diffusion data for Hf in garnet, and in many cases about peak metamorphic conditions and cooling rates, all of which affect the closure temperatures of these decay systems. As part of a broader study on basement rocks from the Andean Putomayo foreland basin in south-central Colombia, we have determined the Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd Grt-WR ages of these rocks using painstakingly handpicked garnets of ~50 μm radius, and obtained ages of 1070 × 5.6 and 1007 × 2.9 Ma, respectively. By modeling the retrograde Fe-Mg zoning in garnet adjacent to biotite according to an asymptotic cooling model (1/T = 1/To + ηt) with the diffusion data from [1], an initial cooling rate of ~2-5 °C/Ma is obtained independently of the geochronological data; peak P-T conditions of ~8 kb, 675 °C are imposed by garnet-orthopyroxene thermobarometry. Using the above data in conjunction with the Nd diffusion data from [2] and Hf diffusion data from our recent study, we obtain closure temperatures for the Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd decay systems in garnet of ~545-565 °C and 415-430 °C, respectively. Results from analytical solutions [3, 4] and a more flexible numerical method are found to be in good agreement with one another. The calculated difference of closure temperatures predicts a difference of ~105-40 Ma between the ages determined by the two decay systems, as compared to the observed age difference of 63 × 6 Ma. The predicted peak metamorphic age derived from the measured and calculated resetting ages of the two decay systems is between ~1030 and 1185 Ma, as compared to the Lu-Hf age of 1070 ×1.9 Ma; we are currently working to obtain U-Pb zircon ages to better constrain this peak metamorphic age. In calculating these results

  1. Lunar Crustal History from Isotopic Studies of Lunar Anorthosites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, Laurence E.; Shih, C.-Y.; Bogard, D. D.; Yamaguchi, A.

    2010-01-01

    Anorthosites occur ubiquitously within the lunar crust at depths of approx.3-30 km in apparent confirmation of the Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) hypothesis. [1]. We will present recent chronological studies of anorthosites [2] that are relevant both to the LMO hypothesis and also to the lunar cataclysm hypothesis. Old (approx.4.4 Ga) Sm-Nd ages have been determined for some Apollo 16 anorthosites, and primitive initial Sr-87/Sr-86 ratios have been measured for several, but well-defined Rb-Sr ages concordant with the Sm-Nd ages have not been determined until now. Lunar anorthosite 67075, a Feldspathic Fragmental Breccia (FFB) collected near the rim of North Ray Crater, has concordant Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr ages of 4.47+/-0.07 Ga and 4.49+/-0.07 Ga, respectively. Initial Nd-143/Nd-144 determined from the Sm-Nd isochron corresponds to E(sub Nd,CHUR) = 0.3+/-0.5 compared to a Chondritic Uniform Reservoir, or E(sub Nd,HEDPB) = -0.6+/-0.5 compared to the initial Nd-143/Nd-144 of the HED Parent Body [3]. Lunar anorthosites tend to have E(sub Nd) > 0 when compared to CHUR, apparently inconsistent with derivation from a single lunar magma ocean. Although E(sub Nd) < 0 for some anorthosites, if lunar initial Nd-143/Nd-144 is taken equal to HEDR for the HED parent body [3], enough variability remains among the anorthosite data alone to suggest that lunar anorthosites do not derive from a single source, i.e., they are not all products of the LMO. An anorthositic clast from desert meteorite Dhofar 908 has an Ar-39-Ar-40 age of 4.42+/-0.04 Ga, the same as the 4.36-4.41+/-0.035 Ga Ar-39-Ar-40 age of anorthositic clast Y-86032,116 in Antarctic meteorite Yamato- 86032 [3,4]. Conclusions: (i) Lunar anorthosites come from diverse sources. Orbital geochemical studies confirm variability in lunar crustal composition [1, 5]. We suggest that the variability extends to anorthosites alone as shown by the Sm-Nd data (Fig. 2) and the existence of magnesian anorthosites (MAN, [6]) and "An93 anorthosites

  2. Combined Nd and Hf isotope evidence for deep-seated source of Isua lavas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizo, Hanika; Boyet, Maud; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Rosing, Minik

    2011-12-01

    We present the first combined 146,147Sm- 142,143Nd and 176Lu- 176Hf study of mafic rocks (amphibolites) from the western part of the Isua Supracrustal Belt (ISB, SW Greenland). Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf whole-rock isochrons yield identical ages within error: 3.72 ± 0.08 and 3.67 ± 0.07 Ga, respectively. 142Nd measurements confirm and extend the database of 142Nd excesses in Isua samples (μ 142Nd = 7-16 ppm relative to the terrestrial Nd standard), indicating that early-differentiated reservoirs escaped complete homogenization by mantle convection until the Archean. Combined 146,147Sm- 142,143Nd systematics suggest differentiation of the Isua amphibolite reservoir at maximum ages of ~ 4.53, ~ 4.47, and ~ 4.32 Ga. These ages are relative to, respectively, ordinary-chondritic, enstatite-chondritic, and higher-than-chondritic mantle compositions. The intercept of the Sm-Nd whole-rock isochron is in accordance with 142Nd results and consistent with a superchondritic initial 143Nd/ 144Nd ratio (ɛ 143Nd 3.7Ga = + 1.41 ± 0.98). In contrast, the corresponding initial ɛ 176Hf 3.7Ga = - 1.41 ± 0.57 is subchondritic. Since Lu/Hf and Sm/Nd fractionate similarly during mantle processes, the Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf isotope systems display incongruent relative parent-daughter behavior in the source of Isua amphibolites. Based on high-pressure and -temperature phase partition coefficients, we propose a model that satisfies 147Sm- 143Nd, 176Lu- 176Hf, and 142Nd results, as well as trace element characteristics. A deep-seated source composed largely of magnesium perovskite (98% MgPv) and containing 2% calcium perovskite satisfactorily explains the Nd and Hf isotopic discordance observed for Isua amphibolites. The negative HFSE anomalies characterizing Isua basalts likewise could have been inherited from such an early (4.53-4.32 Ga) deep mantle cumulate. Since the ~ 4 Ga old Acasta Gneisses (Northwest Territories, Canada) have radiogenic 176Hf/ 177Hf (Scherer et al., 2010), dissociation of the

  3. Sm-Nd geochronology of the Erro-Tobbio gabbros (Ligurian Alps, Italy): Insights into the evolution of the Alpine Tethys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampone, Elisabetta; Borghini, Giulio; Romairone, Anna; Abouchami, Wafa; Class, Cornelia; Goldstein, Steven L.

    2014-09-01

    The Alpine-Apennine ophiolites are considered analogs of the oceanic lithosphere formed at ocean-continent transition zones and very slow oceanic spreading centers. They are lithospheric remnants of the Jurassic Piedmont-Ligurian ocean, a branch of the Mesozoic Tethys separating the European and Adriatic continental margins. Previous geochronological studies on gabbroic rocks of the Alpine Tethys indicated a rather large time span of crust formation. In this paper, we present Sm-Nd geochronological data on well-preserved olivine gabbros intruded in mantle peridotites from the Erro-Tobbio ophiolitic unit (Ligurian Alps, Italy). Borghini et al. (2007) documented that these gabbros crystallized at low-P conditions (< 5 kb) from primitive N-MORB melts, similar to many gabbroic rocks from Alpine-Apennine ophiolites. Here four plagioclase-clinopyroxene internal Sm-Nd isochrons are presented, yielding equivalent ages and initial εNd values. The ages are 177 ± 7 Ma, 179 ± 7 Ma, 178 ± 21 Ma and 182 ± 19 Ma, reflecting a weighted mean age of 178 ± 5 Ma with initial εNd of 9.2 ± 0.4 (2SD). Similar ages are only recorded in gabbroic rocks from the External Liguride Units (Northern Apennines) and represent the oldest ages available for the gabbroic crust of the Alpine Tethys. These Mg-rich gabbros can therefore be considered as representative of early (syn-rift) melt intrusions in thinned lithospheric mantle exhumed at ocean-continent transition domains, likely close to Adria's continental margin, similar to the hyper-extended Western Iberian Margin. Our new results together with previous ages of the Tethys oceanic crust allow for the reconstruction of the spatial distribution of oceanic gabbros over time, and evaluation of the spreading and propagation rates of this paleo-ocean. The northward propagation rifting velocity, estimated at ~ 5 cm/year, is presumably higher than the lateral spreading rate of ~ 2 cm/year. Our rate estimates suggest that the Red Sea is a

  4. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd whole rock analyses of basalts of the Grao Para Group, Serra dos Carajas, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Olszewski, W.J. Jr.; Gibbs, A.K.; Wirth, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Grao Para Group at Serra dos Carajas in the Guapore Shield of Brazil is a 6 km thick sequence of bimodal metavolcanic rock with interbedded iron formations. Rhyolites are a minor part of the low grade meta-volcanic section, with the bulk consisting of subalkaline basalt, basaltic andesite, and shoshonite. Rb-Sr whole rock analyses of 7 basalts yield an age of 2687 +/- 54 Ma. This agrees well with an age of 2758 +/- 39 Ma from zircon U-Pb analyses of the interbedded rhyolites. Except for the allocthonous Imataca Complex of Venezuela, these dates for the Grao Para Group are the first well-constrained Archean ages from the Amazonian Craton. An even older age for the basement to the Grao Para Group is also implied. Sm-Nd whole-rock analyses of four of these basalts did not yield an isochron because of the limited range of /sup 147/Sm//sup 144/Nd values, but element of/sub Nd/ values relative to CHUR were calculated using the Rb-Sr age. The typical LREE-enrichment, lack of Ce depletion or spilitic alteration of alkalies, and the high Sr initial ratios, may indicate that these isotopic patterns were derived by incorporation of some older continental crust in the mafic melts. These data together with an element of/sub Sr/ of +63.6 might indicate significant seawater exchange with volcanic rocks derived from mantle with chondritic REE patterns. This demonstrates the presence of significant continental crust in the Archean and seawater-volcanic rock interaction in a rifting environment similar to modern analogs.

  5. The Santa Terezinha-Campos Verdes emerald district, central Brazil: structural and Sm-Nd data to constrain the tectonic evolution of the Neoproterozoic Brası´lia belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'el-Rey Silva, Luiz José Homem; Barros Neto, Leonel de Souza

    2002-12-01

    Structural analysis coupled with Sm-Nd isotope data and a detailed description of the geology of the Santa Terezinha-Campos Verdes emerald district (Goiás State, Central Brazil) constrain the evolution of the Neoproterozoic Brası´lia belt. The area is composed of tectonic slices of Archean-Paleoproterozoic gneiss, a Meso-Neoproterozoic metavolcanic sedimentary sequence called the Santa Terezinha sequence, and crustal-derived intrusive rocks such as mylonitic (ortho)gneiss and a syntectonic porphyry granite. It underwent a Neoproterozoic greenschist facies polyphase ductile deformation (D 1-D 3). Structures indicate an event of rotational deformation along a typical frontal ramp dipping gently to the west (i.e. an event of simple shear with top to ESE relative regional movement due to a subhorizontal WNW-ESE compression). A Sm-Nd whole-rock isochron age of 577±77 Ma for the intrusive rocks constrains the timing of at least part of the deformation/metamorphism in the area. Primary and metamorphic planar structures (mainly D 1-D 2) strike SW-NE and dip at low to moderate angles to the NW in the northern part of the area. However, they gradually rotate to SSE in the central SE part, where the Peixe River synclinorium is developed. This synclinorium is also the nest of the D 2 sheath folds that control emerald ore shoots. The Santa Cruz dome is a basement-cored, major elliptic structure in the SW of the area. The Santa Terezinha sequence represents a back-arc basin that received input from the Neoproterozoic Goiás magmatic arc to the west and the São Francisco ancient continental margin to the east. The basal and upper sections of this sequence correlate, respectively, with other passive margin and back-arc sequences of the Brası´lia belt.

  6. Neodymium and strontium isotopic study of Australasian tektites - New constraints on the provenance and age of target materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blum, Joel D.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Koeberl, C.

    1992-01-01

    The Nd and Sr isotopic compositions of Australasian tectites (including two flanged Australian tectites, two low-SiO2 Muong Nong-type tectites, and three high-SiO2 Muong Nong-type tectites) and the Nd, Sm, Sr, and Rb concentrations were investigated by isotope-dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry, and the Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotope systematics were used to study the characteristics of the parental material. It is shown that the Nd and Sr isotopic data provide evidence that all Australasian tektites were derived from a single sedimentary formation with a narrow range of stratigraphic ages close to 170 Ma. It is suggested that all of the Australasian tektites were derived from a single impact event and that the australites represent the upper part of a melt sheet ejected at high velocity, whereas the indochinites represent melts formed at a lower level in the target material distributed closer to the area of the impact.

  7. Thermal history of Colorado plateau lithoshere from Sm-Nd mineral geochronology of xenoliths

    SciTech Connect

    Wendlandt, E.; DePaolo, D.J.; Baldridge, W.S.

    1996-07-01

    The thermal history of the lower crust and upper mantle of the Colorado Plateau region is reconstructed on the basis of Nd and Sr isotopes in minerals and whole rock xenoliths hosted by Tertiary minette and kimberlite. Whole rock data indicate that the crustal rocks were extracted from the mantle at ca. 1900 Ma. The mineral ages, which are 30-100 m.y. younger than crystallization ages of Proterozoic `anorogenic` granitoids from regions bordering the Colorado Plateau, are interpreted as cooling ages set following the crustal thermal maximum at 1380-1440 Ma. The eclogite mineral ages are probably the ages of the host Garnet Ridge and Moses Rock diatremes, and require that Nd isotopes were maintained in equilibrium right up to the time of entrainment. The isotopic data and the mineral textures suggest that the eclogites were undergoing active recrystallization at 21 Ma. The contrast in mineral ages between granulite and eclogite xenoliths indicates that the equilibration temperatures of the two rock types reflect different times of equilibration, and therefore cannot be considered as evidence for a negative thermal gradient at depth. The Rb-Sr mineral data from the xenoliths give variable early Paleozoic and Proterozoic ages that cannot easily be assigned to geologic events. 55 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. REE chemistry and Sm-Nd systematics of late Archean weathering profiles in the Fortescue Group, Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacFarlane, A. W.; Danielson, A.; Holland, H. D.; Jacobsen, S. B.

    1994-01-01

    Two weathering profiles, each consisting of an upper, sericite-rich zone and a lower, chlorite-rich zone, are preserved between flows of the Mt. Roe Basalt in the Fortescue Group, Hamersley Basin, Western Australia. REE concentrations in samples from these two profiles, which originally developed ca 2,760 Ma, show large variations depending on stratigraphic position. LREE abundances and (La/Yb)N are greatest at depths of 3-6 m below the paleosurface of the Mt. Roe #1 profile and are somewhat lower in samples above this level. The LREEs reach concentrations 6-9 times greater than in the underlying basalt, and thus appear to have been mobilized downward in the paleosol and concentrated in its middle part. LREE concentrations in the #2 profile show a similar distribution but with a sharp increase in all REE concentrations within 50 cm of the paleosurface. The distinction between the REE profiles in the two paleosols may be related to the difference in the overlying material. The #1 paleosol is overlain by a few meters of sediments and then by basalt, whereas the #2 paleosol is directly overlain by basalt. The LREEs appear to have been mobilized both during chemical weathering of the parental basalt and during later lower-greenschist-facies metamorphism and metasomatism of the paleosols. Remobilization of the REEs during the regional metamorphism of the Fortescue Group is confirmed by a whole-rock Sm-Nd reference isochron of Mt. Roe #1 samples with an age of 2,151 +/- 360 Ma. Variable initial 143Nd/144Nd values of unweathered basalt samples which may represent the paleosol protolith prevents a confident determination of the magnitude of LREE mobility. Both the initial mobilization of the REEs during weathering and the metasomatic remobilization appear to have taken place under redox conditions where Ce was present dominantly as Ce3+, because Ce anomalies are not developed within the sericite zone samples regardless of concentration. Europium anomalies in the

  9. REE chemistry and Sm-Nd systematics of late Archean weathering profiles in the Fortescue Group, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    MacFarlane, A W; Danielson, A; Holland, H D; Jacobsen, S B

    1994-04-01

    Two weathering profiles, each consisting of an upper, sericite-rich zone and a lower, chlorite-rich zone, are preserved between flows of the Mt. Roe Basalt in the Fortescue Group, Hamersley Basin, Western Australia. REE concentrations in samples from these two profiles, which originally developed ca 2,760 Ma, show large variations depending on stratigraphic position. LREE abundances and (La/Yb)N are greatest at depths of 3-6 m below the paleosurface of the Mt. Roe #1 profile and are somewhat lower in samples above this level. The LREEs reach concentrations 6-9 times greater than in the underlying basalt, and thus appear to have been mobilized downward in the paleosol and concentrated in its middle part. LREE concentrations in the #2 profile show a similar distribution but with a sharp increase in all REE concentrations within 50 cm of the paleosurface. The distinction between the REE profiles in the two paleosols may be related to the difference in the overlying material. The #1 paleosol is overlain by a few meters of sediments and then by basalt, whereas the #2 paleosol is directly overlain by basalt. The LREEs appear to have been mobilized both during chemical weathering of the parental basalt and during later lower-greenschist-facies metamorphism and metasomatism of the paleosols. Remobilization of the REEs during the regional metamorphism of the Fortescue Group is confirmed by a whole-rock Sm-Nd reference isochron of Mt. Roe #1 samples with an age of 2,151 +/- 360 Ma. Variable initial 143Nd/144Nd values of unweathered basalt samples which may represent the paleosol protolith prevents a confident determination of the magnitude of LREE mobility. Both the initial mobilization of the REEs during weathering and the metasomatic remobilization appear to have taken place under redox conditions where Ce was present dominantly as Ce3+, because Ce anomalies are not developed within the sericite zone samples regardless of concentration. Europium anomalies in the

  10. REE chemistry and Sm-Nd systematics of late Archean weathering profiles in the Fortescue Group, Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacFarlane, A. W.; Danielson, A.; Holland, H. D.; Jacobsen, S. B.

    1994-01-01

    Two weathering profiles, each consisting of an upper, sericite-rich zone and a lower, chlorite-rich zone, are preserved between flows of the Mt. Roe Basalt in the Fortescue Group, Hamersley Basin, Western Australia. REE concentrations in samples from these two profiles, which originally developed ca 2,760 Ma, show large variations depending on stratigraphic position. LREE abundances and (La/Yb)N are greatest at depths of 3-6 m below the paleosurface of the Mt. Roe #1 profile and are somewhat lower in samples above this level. The LREEs reach concentrations 6-9 times greater than in the underlying basalt, and thus appear to have been mobilized downward in the paleosol and concentrated in its middle part. LREE concentrations in the #2 profile show a similar distribution but with a sharp increase in all REE concentrations within 50 cm of the paleosurface. The distinction between the REE profiles in the two paleosols may be related to the difference in the overlying material. The #1 paleosol is overlain by a few meters of sediments and then by basalt, whereas the #2 paleosol is directly overlain by basalt. The LREEs appear to have been mobilized both during chemical weathering of the parental basalt and during later lower-greenschist-facies metamorphism and metasomatism of the paleosols. Remobilization of the REEs during the regional metamorphism of the Fortescue Group is confirmed by a whole-rock Sm-Nd reference isochron of Mt. Roe #1 samples with an age of 2,151 +/- 360 Ma. Variable initial 143Nd/144Nd values of unweathered basalt samples which may represent the paleosol protolith prevents a confident determination of the magnitude of LREE mobility. Both the initial mobilization of the REEs during weathering and the metasomatic remobilization appear to have taken place under redox conditions where Ce was present dominantly as Ce3+, because Ce anomalies are not developed within the sericite zone samples regardless of concentration. Europium anomalies in the

  11. Low-Sulfide PGE ores in paleoproterozoic Monchegorsk pluton and massifs of its southern framing, Kola Peninsula, Russia: Geological characteristic and isotopic geochronological evidence of polychronous ore-magmatic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chashchin, V. V.; Bayanova, T. B.; Mitrofanov, F. P.; Serov, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    New U-Pb and Sm-Nd isotopic geochronological data are reported for rocks of the Monchegorsk pluton and massifs of its southern framing, which contain low-sulfide PGE ores. U-Pb zircon ages have been determined for orthopyroxenite (2506 ± 3 Ma) and mineralized norite (2503 ± 8 Ma) from critical units of Monchepluton at the Nyud-II deposit, metaplagioclasite (2496 ± 4 Ma) from PGE-bearing reef at the Vurechuaivench deposit, and host metagabbronorite (2504.3 ± 2.2. Ma); the latter is the youngest in Monchepluton. In the southern framing of Monchepluton, the following new datings are now available: U-Pb zircon ages of mineralized metanorite from the lower marginal zone (2504 ± 1 Ma) and metagabbro from the upper zone (2478 ± 20 Ma) of the South Sopcha PGE deposit, as well as metanorite from the Lake Moroshkovoe massif (2463.1 ± 2.7 Ma). The Sm-Nd isochron (rock-forming minerals, sulfides, whole-rock samples) age of orthopyroxenite from the Nyud-II deposit (2497 ± 36 Ma) is close to results obtained using the U-Pb method. The age of harzburgite from PGE-bearing 330 horizon reef of the Sopcha massif related to Monchepluton is 2451 ± 64 Ma at initial ɛNd =-6.0. The latter value agrees with geological data indicating that this reef was formed due to the injection of an additional portion of high-temperature ultramafic magma, which experienced significant crustal contamination. The results of Sm-Nd isotopic geochronological study of ore-bearing metaplagioclasite from PGE reef of the Vurechuaivench deposit (2410 ± 58 Ma at ɛNd =-2.4) provide evidence for the appreciable effect of metamorphic and hydrothermal metasomatic alterations on PGE ore formation. The Sm-Nd age of mineralized norite from the Nyud-II deposit is 1940 ± 32 Ma at initial ɛNd =-7.8. This estimate reflects the influence of the Svecofennian metamorphism on the Monchepluton ore-magmatic system, which resulted in the rearrangement of the Sm-Nd system and its incomplete closure. Thus, the new

  12. Paleoproterozoic gabbro-diorite-granite magmatism of the Batomga Rise (NE Aldan Shield): Sm-Nd isotope geochemical evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmin, V. K.; Bogomolov, E. S.; Glebovitskii, V. A.

    2016-02-01

    The geochemical similarity and almost simultaneous (2055-2060 Ma) formation of Utakachan gabbro-amphibolite, Jagdakin granodiorite-diorite, Khoyunda granitoid, and Tygymyt leucogranite complexes, which inruded metamorphic formations of the Batomga Group are evidence of their formaton from unified magmatic source. All this makes it possibble to combine aforementioned complexes into the unified Early Proterozoic diferentiated gabbro-diorite-granite complex.

  13. Chemical separation of Nd from geological samples for chronological studies using (146)Sm-(142)Nd and (147)Sm-(143)Nd systematics.

    PubMed

    Kagami, Saya; Yokoyama, Tetsuya

    2016-09-21

    Sm-Nd dating, which involves long-lived (147)Sm-(143)Nd and short-lived (146)Sm-(142)Nd systematics, has been widely used in the field of geosciences. To obtain precise and accurate ages of geological samples, the determination of highly precise Nd isotope ratios with nearly complete removal of Ce and Sm is indispensable to avoid mass spectral interference. In this study, we developed a three-step column chemistry procedure for separating Nd from geological samples that includes cation exchange chromatography for separating major elements from rare earth elements (REEs), oxidative extraction chromatography using Ln Resin coupled with HNO3 + KBrO3 for separating tetravalent Ce from the remaining REEs, and final purification of Nd using Ln Resin. This method enables high recovery of Nd (>91%) with effective separation of Nd from Ce and Sm (Ce/Nd < 1.2 × 10(-5) and Sm/Nd < 5.2 × 10(-6)). In addition, we devised a new method for determining Sm/Nd ratios with the isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method using (145)Nd- and (149)Sm-enriched spikes coupled with a group separation of REEs using TRU Resin. Applying the techniques developed in this study, we determined the Sm-Nd whole-rock isochron age of basaltic eucrites, yielding 4577 - 88(+ 55) Ma and 4558 ± 300 Ma for (146)Sm-(142)Nd and (147)Sm-(143)Nd systematics, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The mineralization age of the Makeng Fe deposit, South China: implications from U-Pb and Sm-Nd geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhenjie; Zuo, Renguang; Cheng, Qiuming

    2015-04-01

    The Makeng Fe deposit is located in the southwestern Fujian district, South China. The Sm-Nd isochron ages of seven samples of pure garnet and five of pure magnetite separates from the Makeng ores yielded an isochron age of 157 ± 15 Ma. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) zircon U-Pb dating of the nearby exposed the Dayang-Juzhou (DJ) porphyritic biotite granite and fine-grained syenogranite yielded 206Pb/238U ages of 140.2 ± 1.1 and 140.1 ± 1.0 Ma, respectively. These results suggest that the intrusion of the DJ granite and the Makeng skarn alterations and Fe mineralization are contemporaneous. The DJ granite exhibits geochemical characteristics of A-type granites, including high values of Na2O + K2O (8.13-8.92 wt%), FeOt/MgO (3.4-21.5), and Ga/Al (2.64-3.45 × 10-4), and low Al2O3 (10.71-13.29 wt%) value. Chondrite-normalized rare earth element patterns are characterized by obviously negative Eu anomalies (δEu = 0.02-0.28) and primitive-mantle normalized spidergrams show the enrichment in high field strength element and depleting in Sr, Ti, Ba, and Eu. The geochemical characteristics of DJ granite suggest that the granite was derived from partial melting of the Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks of the Cathaysia basement. And some underplating of mafic magma in the lower tholeiitic crust and/or depleted mantle might be involved and provide the heat source for the partial melting. The DJ granite also fits the spatiotemporal distribution of the Jurassic-Cretaceous coastward migration of both extensional and arc-related magmatism and fills the A-type granites gap in the early stage of the early Cretaceous (145-125 Ma). Therefore, it is suggested that the late Jurassic and early Cretaceous magmatism in southwestern Fujian district were generated in an extensional environment responding to the slab rollback and concomitant retreating arc system of the paleo-Pacific plate within the South China Block. And the Fe metallogeny

  15. New geochronological history of the Mbuji-Mayi Supergroup (Proterozoic, DRC) through U-Pb and Sm-Nd dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    François, Camille; Baludikay, Blaise K.; Storme, Jean-Yves; Baudet, Daniel; Paquette, Jean-Louis; Fialin, Michel; Debaille, Vinciane; Javaux, Emmanuelle J.

    2016-04-01

    1030-1075 Myr, coherent with an age on 2 syngenetic galenas around 1055 Myr for the top of BI Group (Cahen, 1954; Holmes & Cahen, 1955). Sm-Nd datings on basaltic pillow lavas overlying the Mbuji-Mayi Supergroup (previously dated around 950 Myr (Cahen et al., 1974; Cahen et al., 1984) are in progress (Laboratoire G-Time, ULB, Bruxelles) to precisely limit in time the end of deposition of this Supergroup.

  16. Importance of the Lu-Hf isotopic system in studies of planetary chronology and chemical evolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patchett, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    The 176Lu-176Hf isotope method and its applications in earth sciences are discussed. Greater fractionation of Lu/Hf than Sm/Nd in planetary magmatic processes makes 176Hf 177Hf a powerful geochemical tracer. In general, proportional variations of 176Hf 177Hf exceed those of 143Nd l44Nd by factors of 1.5-3 in terrestrial and lunar materials. Lu-Hf studies therefore have a major contribution to make in understanding of terrestrial and other planetary evolution through time, and this is the principal importance of Lu-Hf. New data on basalts from oceanic islands show unequivocally that whereas considerable divergences occur in 176Hf 177Hf- 87Sr 86Sr and 143Nd l44Nd- 87Sr 86Sr diagrams, 176Hf 177Hf and 143Nd 144Nd display a single, linear isotopic variation in the suboceanic mantle. These discordant 87Sr 86Sr relationships may allow, with the acquisition of further Hf-Nd-Sr isotopic data, a distinction between processes such as mantle metasomatism, influence of seawater-altered material in the magma source, or recycling of sediments into the mantle. In order to evaluate the Hf-Nd isotopic correlation in terms of mantle fractionation history, there is a need for measurements of Hf distribution coefficients between silicate minerals and liquids, and specifically for a knowledge of Hf behavior in relation to rareearth elements. For studying ancient terrestrial Hf isotopic variations, the best quality Hf isotope data are obtained from granitoid rocks or zircons. New data show that very U-Pb discordant zircons may have upwardly-biased 176Hf 177Hf, but that at least concordant to slightly discordant zircons appear to be reliable carriers of initial 176Hf 177Hf. Until the controls on addition of radiogenic Hf to zircon are understood, combined zircon-whole rock studies are recommended. Lu-Hf has been demonstrated as a viable tool for dating of ancient terrestrial and extraterrestrial samples, but because it offers little advantage over existing methods, is unlikely to find

  17. Rhenium-osmium isotope systematics of Group 2A and Group 4A iron meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creaser, R. A.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1993-01-01

    We are investigating the Re-Os isotope systematics of two groups of magmatic iron meteorites (2A, 4A) in an attempt to establish precise 'total rock' isochrons by the Re-Os system. The Re-187/Os-187 isotope system is recognized as a method by which the ages of iron meteorites can be directly determined and that can provide information on the timing of FeNi segregation and core formation in planetesimals. The Re-Os isotope system permits the direct absolute dating of the metal phase in iron meteorites. Indirect dating of iron meteorites has been achieved in the past through the Rb-Sr, K-Ar, and most recently, Sm-Nd for silicate inclusions, where present. Relative dating has been obtained directly by extensive studies of the short-lived system Pd-107/Ag-107 for the metal and sulfide phases and indirectly using I-129/Xe-129 in silicate and sulfide inclusions.

  18. Rhenium-osmium isotope systematics of Group 2A and Group 4A iron meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creaser, R. A.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1993-01-01

    We are investigating the Re-Os isotope systematics of two groups of magmatic iron meteorites (2A, 4A) in an attempt to establish precise 'total rock' isochrons by the Re-Os system. The Re-187/Os-187 isotope system is recognized as a method by which the ages of iron meteorites can be directly determined and that can provide information on the timing of FeNi segregation and core formation in planetesimals. The Re-Os isotope system permits the direct absolute dating of the metal phase in iron meteorites. Indirect dating of iron meteorites has been achieved in the past through the Rb-Sr, K-Ar, and most recently, Sm-Nd for silicate inclusions, where present. Relative dating has been obtained directly by extensive studies of the short-lived system Pd-107/Ag-107 for the metal and sulfide phases and indirectly using I-129/Xe-129 in silicate and sulfide inclusions.

  19. Pb-Sr-Nd isotope study of the 100- to 2700-Ma old alkalic rock-carbonatite complexes in the Canadian shield: inferences on the geochemical and structural evolution of the mantle

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, S.T.

    1986-01-01

    The isotopic signatures of young continental alkalic complexes (CAC) display a remarkable similarity to those of oceanic island basalts (OIB). A study of Sr isotopic evolution showed that the mantle, presumably similar to the source of OIB, beneath the shield appears to have been depleted in large ion lithophile elements (LILE) and to have remained as a closed system since ca. 3000 Ma ago. The present investigations apply Pb and Nd as well as Sr isotopic systems for those complexes to study the secular geochemical evolution of the mantle over the past 2700 million years, and address the question of the processes responsible for the geochemical heterogeneity of the mantle. The data suggest: (1) Like Sr, Pb and Nd isotopic data indicate LILE depleted sources for the southern Canadian shield CAC over at least the past 1900 Ma. (2) Sr, Nd and Pb are compatible with an age of ca. 3000 Ma for the depleted source. (3) In contrast to Sr, and probably Nd, the Pb isotopic data cannot be explained by a closed system model for the depleted mantle source. (4) Coherent fractionation patterns are observed in the mantle sources of CAC since at least 1900 Ma ago: higher U/Pb and Sm/Nd, and lower Th/U and Rb/Sr ratios versus lower U/Pb and Sm/Nd, and higher Th/U and Rb/Sr ratios, indicating OlB-like sources for CAC. (5) The inverse correlation between /sup 206/Pb//sup 204/Pb and /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr initial ratios permit calculation of apparent mean earth Pb isotope ratios with time, which yield 8.35 for the present day /sup 238/U//sup 204/Pb ratio, and 17.82 for /sup 206/Pb//sup 204/Pb. (6) A model for the geochemical and structural evolution of the mantle is based on the diverging isotopic evolution of the midocean ridge basalts (MORB) and OlB sources.

  20. U-Pb and Sm-Nd ages for the Stillwater Complex and its associated sills and dikes, Beartooth Mountains, Montana: identification of a parent magma?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Premo, W.R.; Helz, R.T.; Zientek, M.L.; Langston, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    Seven analyses from two samples of the Lower Banded series of the Stillwater Complex, Montana, yielded a U-Pb zircon-baddeleyite age of 2705??4 Ma. A more precise age of 2704??1 Ma is obtained if we regress only five of seven analyses. In either case, the age is in very good agreement with the previously reported Sm-Nd mineral isochron age of 2701??8 Ma for a gabbro from the Lower Banded series. Noncumulate mafic sills and dikes that immediately underlie the Stillwater Complex are separated into five compositional groups. U-Pb zircon ages for a group 1 gabbronorite (2711??1 Ma) and a group 3 mafic norite (2703??10Ma) are comparable to previously reported U-Pb zircon ages for a group 1 diabase (2713??3 Ma) and a group 4 high-Ti norite (2712??3 Ma). Mineral separates from group 2 yielded a four-point Pb-Pb internal isochron age of 2704??25 Ma, and separates from group 6 yielded a Sm-Nd internal isochron age of 2706??64 Ma. These results indicate that groups 1 and 4 of the associated sills and dikes are perhaps slightly older than the complex and that groups 2,3, and 6 may be coeval with it, supporting the idea that these three groups are the best candidates for a Stillwater parent magma. -from Authors

  1. Nd, O and Sr isotopic constraints on the origin of Precambrian rocks, southern Black Hills, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.J.; Hanson, G.N.; Papike, J.J.; O'Neil, J.R.

    1986-12-01

    The Nd, O and Sr isotopic characteristics of Precambrian metasedimentary, metavolcanic and granitic rocks from the Black Hills of South Dakota are examined. Two late-Archean granites (2.5-2.6 Ga) have T/sub DM/ ages of 3.05 and 3.30 Ga, suggesting that at least one of the granites was derived through the melting of significantly older crust. Early-Proterozoic metasedimentary rocks have T/sub DM/ ages that range from 2.32 to 2.45 Ga. These model ages, in conjunction with probable stratigraphic ages ranging from 1.9 to 2.2 Ga, indicate that mantle-derived material was added to the continental crust of this region during the early-Proterozoic. Previous studies of the Harney Peak Granite complex have reported U-Pb and Rb-Sr ages of about 1.71 Ga, and most granite samples examined in this study have Sr isotopic compositions consistent with that age. Two granite samples taken from the same sill, however, give two-point Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd ages of 2.08 +/- 0.08 and 2.20 +/- 0.20 Ga, respectively. In addition, whole-rock and apatite samples of the spatially associated Tin Mountain pegmatite give a Sm-Nd isochron age of 2000 +/- 100 Ma.

  2. Early differentiation of the silicate Earth : new constraints from isotopic investigation of rocks from the lunar highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyet, M.; Carlson, R.; Borg, L.; Connelly, J.; Horan, M.

    2012-04-01

    The isotopic similarity in O, Mo, W, Si, and Fe between lunar and terrestrial samples suggests that the two planetary bodies were equilibrated in the energetic aftermath of the giant impact that gave birth to the Moon [1]. Coupled 142Nd-143Nd isotope systematics of lunar samples including both low-Ti and high-Ti mare basalts along with KREEP basalts have been used to constrain the age of crystallization of the lunar interior [2-5]. These studies show that the Sm-Nd system in the lunar mantle closed in the interval of 180-250 Ma after the beginning of solar system formation, depending on the model considered for lunar mantle differentiation (1 or 2 stage-model and initial lunar Sm/Nd ratio). Does this age represent the age of Moon formation? A prolonged lunar magma ocean (LMO) might be expected given the insulating effect of the thick plagioclase crust, so closure of the Sm-Nd system in the lunar mantle, particularly in a late stage LMO component like KREEP, might substantially post-date lunar formation. We have recently determined a new age of 4360±3 Ma for the ferroan anorthosite (FAN) 60025 using the 207Pb-206Pb, 147Sm-143Nd and 146Sm-142Nd isotope systems [6]. This study is the first in which a single sample of FAN yielded consistent ages from multiple isotope dating techniques, strongly suggesting that this age indicates the time at which the sample crystallized. In order to pursue the question of whether Moon formation occurred over 100 Ma after solar system formation, we have investigated a number of lunar rocks sampling the highland crust from both the FAN and the Mg-suite groups. Internal Sm-Nd isochron on the norite 77215 yields an age of 4296±20 Ma, in agreement with the young age determined on 60025. We will show that our new data obtained on the 146Sm-142Nd systematics of the lunar crust support the scenario of a relative young age for the Moon. Thus, these results offer a unique opportunity to better constrain the composition of the terrestrial

  3. Effects of interaction between ultramafic tectonite and mafic magma on Nd-Pb-Sr isotopic systems in the Neoproterozoic Chaya Massif, Baikal-Muya ophiolite belt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amelin, Y.V.; Ritsk, E. Yu; Neymark, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr and U-Pb isotopic systems have been studied in minerals and whole rocks of harzburgites and mafic cumulates from the Chaya Massif, Baikal-Muya ophiolite belt, eastern Siberia, in order to determine the relationship between mantle ultramafic and crustal mafic sections. Geological relations in the Chaya Massif indicate that the mafic magmas were emplaced into, and interacted with older solid peridotite. Hand picked, acid-leached, primary rock-forming and accessory minerals (olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene and plagioclase) from the two harzburgite samples show coherent behavior and yield 147Sm/144Nd- 143Nd/144Nd and 238U/204Pb-206Pb/204Pb mineral isochrons, corresponding to ages of 640 ?? 58 Ma (95% confidence level) and 620 ?? 71 Ma, respectively. These values are indistinguishable from the crystallization age of the Chaya mafic units of 627 ?? 25 Ma (a weighted average of internal isochron Sm-Nd ages of four mafic cumulates). The Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic systems in the harzburgite whole-rock samples were disturbed by hydrothermal alteration. These alteration-related isotopic shifts mimic the trend of variations in primary isotopic compositions in the mafic sequence, thus emphasizing that isotopic data for ultramafic rocks should be interpreted with great caution. On the basis of initial Sr and Nd values, ultramafic and mafic rocks of the Chaya Massif can be divided into two groups: (1) harzburgites and the lower mafic unit gabbronorites with ??Nd = +6.6 to +7.1 and ??Sr = -11 to -16; and (2) websterite of the lower unit and gabbronorites of the upper mafic unit: ??Nd = + 4.6 to + 6.1 and ??Sr = - 8 to -9. Initial Pb isotopic ratios are identical in all rocks studied, with mean values of 206Pb/204Pb = 16.994 ?? 0.023 and 207Pb/204Pb = 15.363 ?? 0.015. The similarity of ages and initial isotopic ratios within the first group indicates that the isotopic systems in the pre-existing depleted peridotite were reset by extensive interaction with basaltic

  4. Garnet Sm-Nd and Zircon U-Pb Ages Track Pluton Emplacement, Granulite Facies Metamorphism, Partial Melting, and Extension in the Lower Crust, Fiordland New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stowell, H. H.; Klepeis, K. A.; Odom Parker, K.

    2011-12-01

    Extensional collapse of over thickened magmatic arc crust depends on crustal thickness variations and architecture. The structural architecture of the lower- and mid-crustal at the onset of extension may be complex due to lithologic variation resulting from structural juxtaposition of pre-arc lithologies, intrusion of plutons, and local partial melting. Additional complexity is introduced by the dynamic nature of arcs. Thus, robust ages for deformation, metamorphism, intrusion, and partial melting are essential for unraveling arc evolution and discerning the role of arc plutonism and metamorphism in strain localization during both contraction and extension. Eclogite and granulite facies metamorphic minerals indicate that Mesozoic arc crust in Fiordland was ≥ 50 km thick ca. 130 Ma prior to extensional collapse. This mid- to lower-crust records a history of mafic to intermediate magmatism, high-grade metamorphism, lower crustal melting, and the formation of extensional detachments that border eclogite- and granulite-cored gneiss domes. U-Pb zircon and Sm-Nd garnet ages indicate that intrusion of voluminous plutons, including the Western Fiordland Orthogneiss (WFO), and subsequent metamorphism occurred sequentially from north to south. Pluton emplacement occurred at 0.6-1.1 GPa in the north to 1.0-1.2 GPa in the south. In northern Fiordland [Milford Sound], intrusion of 135-128 Ma gabbroic magma was followed by 0.6-1.1 GPa 2-pyroxene granulite metamorphism at 126-135 Ma, and then 1.2-1.4 GPa garnet granulite metamorphism and partial melting ca. 126-123 Ma. To the south, WFO plutons have a similar history from north to south: the low-P 125-120.1 Ma Worsley was metamorphosed to garnet granulite at 1.2-1.4 GPa, ca. 115 Ma; the low-P ca. 120 Ma Misty was metamorphosed to garnet granulite at 1.2 GPa, ca. 115 Ma; the high-P 117.8-113.2 Ma Malaspina was metamorphosed to garnet granulite at 1.0-1.4 GPa, ca. 113 Ma along Doubtful Sound and 111.9±1.6 Ma to the south on

  5. Effet du traitement thermique sur la structure cristalline, la température critique et la ligne d'irréversibilité de Lm(SrBa)Cu 3O 6+ z (Lm=Sm, Nd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellioua, Mohammed; Nafidi, Abdelhakim; El Kaaouachi, Abdelhamid; Nafidi, Ahmed

    2004-03-01

    We have studied the structural and superconducting properties of Lm(SrBa)Cu 3O 6+ z (Lm=Sm, Nd). Each of the two samples was submitted to two types of heat treatment: an annealing in oxygen [O] and a heated in argon followed by oxygen annealing [A, O]. Our iodometry measurements indicate the same total oxygen constant 6+ z, which was around 6.95±0.04 in each sample. In the case of SmSrBaCu 3O 6+ z, the treatment [A, O] increased the orthorhombicity ɛ= b- a/( b+ a) from 0 to 5.34×10 -3, indicating a tetragonal to orthorhombic structural phase transition, accompanied by an increase of 6 K in critical temperature Tc to Tc[A, O]=85 K. While in the case of NdSrBaCu 3O 6+ z, ɛ[O]= ɛ[A, O]=0 but the Tc[O]=68 K increase by 10 K. Further, there was an enhancement of the irreversibility Tp/ Tc line whatever Lm. A combination of several factors such as the change of the ionic size of the rare earth Lm, its disorder on the (Sr, Ba) site, chain oxygen ordering and increase in phase purity for the [A, O] samples may qualitatively account for the observed data. To cite this article: M. Bellioua et al., C. R. Physique 5 (2004).

  6. Low-temperature anomaly of the magnetization in alloys (Pr,Dy, M)2(Fe,Co)14B ( M = Gd, Sm, Nd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kablov, E. N.; Ospennikova, O. G.; Rezchikova, I. I.; Valeev, R. A.; Cherednichenko, I. V.; Kunitsyna, E. I.; Morgunov, R. B.; Piskorskii, V. P.

    2016-03-01

    It has been found that temperature dependences of the saturation magnetization of sintered hard magnetic (Pr,Dy, M)2(Fe,Co)14B ( M = Gd, Sm, Nd) alloys demonstrate an increase at a temperature lower than a critical temperature (150 K for Sm and Nd and 70 K for Gd). An additive of copper does not influence the critical temperature. It has been assumed that there is a low-temperature phase in which cobalt is replaced with boron that diffuses from the (Pr,Dy,Gd)(Fe,Co)4B phase to the near-surface region of grains of the main magnetic (Pr,Dy,Gd)2(Fe,Co)14B phase.

  7. U-Pb and Sm-Nd ages for the Stillwater Complex and its associated sills and dikes, Beartooth Mountains, Montana: Identification of a parent magma

    SciTech Connect

    Premo, W.R. ); Helz, R.T. ); Zientek, M.L. ); Langston, R.B. )

    1990-11-01

    Seven analyses from two samples of the Lower Banded series of the Stillwater Complex, Montana, yielded a U-Pb zircon-baddeleyite age of 2,705 {plus minus}4 Ma. A more precise age of 2,704 {plus minus}1 Ma is obtained if the authors regress only five of seven analyses. In either case, the age is in very good agreement with the previously reported Sm-Nd mineral isochron age of 2,701 {plus minus}8 Ma for a gabbro from the Lower Banded series. Noncumulate mafic sills and dikes that immediately underlie the Stillwater Complex are separated into five compositional groups. U-Pb zircon ages for a group 1 gabbronorite (2,711 {plus minus}1 Ma) and a group 3 mafic norite (2,703 {plus minus}10 Ma) are comparable to previously reported U-Pb zircon ages for a group 1 diabase (2,713 {plus minus}3 Ma) and a group 4 high-Ti norite (2,712 {plus minus}3 Ma). Although group 2 high-Mg gabbronorite and group 6 olivine gabbro have not yet yielded significant amounts of zircon, baddeleyite, or sphene, mineral separates from group 2 yielded a four-point Pb-Pb internal isochron age of 2,704 {plus minus}25 Ma, and separates from group 6 yielded a Sm-Nd internal isochron age of 2,706 {plus minus}64 Ma, indicating that these groups are at least contemporaneous with intrusion of the Stillwater Complex. These results indicate that groups 1 and 4 of the associated sills and dikes are perhaps slightly older than the complex and that groups 2, 3, and 6 may be coeval with it, supporting the idea that these three groups are the best candidates for a Stillwater parent magma, a conclusion previously presented on the basis of detailed mineralogic and geochemical evidence.

  8. Changing styles of crustal growth in Southern Africa: Constraints from geochemical and Sr-Nd isotope studies in Archaean to Pan African terrains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdermott, F.; Hawkesworth, C. J.; Harris, N. B. W.

    1988-01-01

    Nd isotopic data was presented for southern Africa in support of episodic crustal growth. Over 50 percent of the continental crust there had formed before 2.5 Ga, and less than 10 percent was produced after about 1.0 Ga. The data imply a mean crustal age of about 2.4 Ga for southern Africa, and a higher rate of crustal growth than that derived from Australian shale data, particularly during the Proterozoic. Isotopic data from Damara metasediments imply that there is no need to invoke decoupling of the Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd systems in the continental crust.

  9. Garnet geochronology: improvements and application in studying India-Asia collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smit, Matthijs; Scherer, Erik; Mezger, Klaus; Lee, Jeffrey; Ratschbacher, Lothar; Kooijman, Ellen; Stearns, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Garnet enables constraints on all parameters relevant to lithosphere studies: pressure, temperature, strain, and time. This aspect, in combination with its widespread occurrence in metamorphic rocks, make the mineral a prime target in research into the dynamics of mountain belts. Our ability to obtain and interpret precise age constraints from garnet Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd data has greatly improved over the years. This contribution highlights recent enhancements in garnet geochronology and demonstrates the versatility of this method in two case studies set in the India-Asia collision zone. To enable a more effective use of garnet geochronology, we investigated the retentiveness of Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotope signatures in naturally metamorphosed garnet. A grain-size dependent Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd analysis of garnet was done on a sample of a slowly cooled Archean granulite from the Pikwitonei Granulite Domain, Canada. Comparison of the apparent ages to the known thermal history of this rock allowed constraints on chronometer systematics at high temperature. Diffusive re-equilibration is shown to occur to a small (Sm-Nd) to minor, if not insignificant (Lu-Hf), extent during high temperature metamorphism, thus firmly establishing the Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd chronometers as reliable, well-characterized dating tools. Garnet Lu-Hf chronology was done to show that mid-crustal flow and 'Barrovian-type' metamorphism of rocks now exposed in the North Himalayan Gneiss Domes in Central Tibet commenced in the early Eocene. This result is the first to confirm that crustal thickening and contraction in the Tibetan Himalaya was broadly synchronous with the collision between Greater India and Eurasia. Garnet dating and thermometry, and rutile U-Pb thermochronology on granulites from the Pamir (an exposed segment of deep Asia) revealed a history of heating to 750-830 °C, commencing at 37 Ma in the South Pamir and occurring progressively later northward. The data advocate a causal link between Indian slab

  10. Mantle heterogeneity and crustal recycling in Archean granite-greenstone belts - Evidence from Nd isotopes and trace elements in the Rainy Lake area, Superior Province, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirey, Steven B.; Hanson, Gilbert N.

    1986-01-01

    Crustal evolution in the Rainy Lake area, Ontario is studied in terms of geochemical characteristics. The Nd isotope data are examined for heterogeneity of the Archean mantle, and the Sm/Nd depletion of the mantle is analyzed. The Nd isotope systematics of individual rock suites is investigated in order to understand the difference between crust and mantle sources; the precursors and petrogenetic processes are discussed. The correlation between SiO2 content and Nd values is considered. Rapid recycling of crustal components, which were previously derived from depleted mantle sources, is suggested based on the similarity of the initial Nd isotopic composition for both mantle-derived and crustally-derived rocks.

  11. Mantle heterogeneity and crustal recycling in Archean granite-greenstone belts - Evidence from Nd isotopes and trace elements in the Rainy Lake area, Superior Province, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirey, Steven B.; Hanson, Gilbert N.

    1986-01-01

    Crustal evolution in the Rainy Lake area, Ontario is studied in terms of geochemical characteristics. The Nd isotope data are examined for heterogeneity of the Archean mantle, and the Sm/Nd depletion of the mantle is analyzed. The Nd isotope systematics of individual rock suites is investigated in order to understand the difference between crust and mantle sources; the precursors and petrogenetic processes are discussed. The correlation between SiO2 content and Nd values is considered. Rapid recycling of crustal components, which were previously derived from depleted mantle sources, is suggested based on the similarity of the initial Nd isotopic composition for both mantle-derived and crustally-derived rocks.

  12. Nd, O and Sr isotopic constraints on the origin of Precambrian rocks, Southern Black Hills, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, R.J.; Hanson, G.N.; Papike, J.J.; O'Neil, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Nd, O and Sr isotopic characteristics of Precambrian metasedimentary, metavolcanic and granitic rocks from the Black Hills of South Dakota are examined. Two late-Archean granites (2.5-2.6 Ga) have Tdm ages of 3.05 and 3.30 Ga, suggesting that at least one of the granites was derived through the melting of significantly older crust. Early-Proterozoic metasedimentary rocks have Tdm ages that range from 2.32 to 2.45 Ga. These model ages, in conjunction with probable stratigraphic ages ranging from 1.9 to 2.2 Ga, indicate that mantle-derived material was added to the continental crust of this region during the early-Proterozoic. Previous studies of the Harney Peak Granite complex have reported U-Pb and Rb-Sr ages of about 1.71 Ga and most granite samples examined in this study have Sr isotopic compositions consistent with that age. Two granite samples taken from the same sill, however, give two-point Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd ages of 2.08 ??0.08 and 2.20 ??0.20 Ga (???2200Nd = -15.5), respectively. In addition, whole-rock and apatite samples of the spatially associated Tin Mountain pegmatite give a Sm-Nd isochron age of 2000 ??100 Ma (???2200Nd = -5.8 ??1.8). The Sm-Nd, O and Rb-Sr isotopic systematics of these granitic rocks have been complicated to some degree by both crystallization and post-crystallization processes, and the age of the pegmatite and parts of the Harney Peak Granite complex remain uncertain. Processes that probably complicated the isotopic systematics of these rocks include derivation from heterogeneous source material, assimilation, mixing of REE between granite and country rock during crystallization via a fluid phase and post-crystallization mobility of Sr. The Nd isotopic compositions of the pegmatite and the Harney Peak Granite indicate that they were not derived primarily from the exposed metasedimentary rocks. ?? 1986.

  13. REE and Hf distribution among mineral phases in the CV-CK clan: A way to explain present-day Hf isotopic variations in chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Céline; Debaille, Vinciane; Lanari, Pierre; Goderis, Steven; Vandendael, Isabelle; Vanhaecke, Frank; Vidal, Olivier; Claeys, Philippe

    2013-11-01

    Chondrites are among the most primitive objects in the Solar System and constitute the main building blocks of telluric planets. Among the radiochronometers currently used for dating geological events, Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf are both composed of refractory, lithophile element. They are thought to behave similarly as the parent elements (Sm and Lu) are generally less incompatible than the daughter elements (Nd and Hf) during geological processes. As such, their respective average isotopic compositions for the solar system should be well defined by the average of chondrites, called Chondritic Uniform Reservoir (CHUR). However, while the Sm-Nd isotopic system shows an actual spread of less than 4% in the average chondritic record, the Lu-Hf system shows a larger variation range of 28% [Bouvier A., Vervoort J. D. and Patchett P. J. (2008) The Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotopic composition of CHUR: Constraints from unequilibrated chondrites and implications for the bulk composition of terrestrial planets. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett.273, 48-57]. To better understand the contrast between Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf systems, the REE and Hf distribution among mineral phases during metamorphism of Karoonda (CK) and Vigarano-type (CV) carbonaceous chondrites has been examined. Mineral modes were determined from elemental mapping on a set of five CK chondrites (from types 3-6) and one CV3 chondrite. Trace-element patterns are obtained for the first time in all the chondrite-forming minerals of a given class (CK chondrites) as well as one CV3 sample. This study reveals that REE are distributed among both phosphates and silicates. Only 30-50% of Sm and Nd are stored in phosphates (at least in chondrites types 3-5); as such, they are not mobilized during early stages of metamorphism. The remaining fraction of Sm and Nd is distributed among the same mineral phases; these elements are therefore not decoupled during metamorphism. Of the whole-rock total of Lu, the fraction held in phosphate decreases significantly

  14. The origin of decoupled Hf-Nd isotope compositions in Eoarchean rocks from southern West Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, J. Elis; Münker, Carsten; Polat, Ali; Rosing, Minik T.; Schulz, Toni

    2011-11-01

    Radiogenic isotope compositions of Hf and Nd are typically coupled in Phanerozoic and Proterozoic mafic rocks due to a similar behaviour of Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd during mantle melting. Eoarchean rocks, for instance those from southern West Greenland, exhibit an apparent decoupling of Hf and Nd isotope compositions. This apparent decoupling may either indicate metamorphic disturbance or, alternatively, mirror early differentiation processes in the silicate Earth. To evaluate the issue, we performed combined measurements of Hf-Nd isotope compositions together with major and trace element concentrations for well preserved >3720 to >3800 Ma old tholeiitic metabasalts and gabbros from the ˜3700 Ma and ˜3800 Ma old terranes of the Isua Supracrustal Belt, southern West Greenland. In contrast to younger mafic rocks, calculated initial ɛHf-ɛNd values of the Isua tholeiites show similar spreads and are both near chondritic to strongly depleted (-0.7 to +6.3 and -0.8 to +4.4, respectively), also in contrast to previously reported more depleted signatures in nearby boninite-like metabasalts of the Garbenschiefer unit. An evaluation of alteration effects based on preserved major and trace element arrays reveals pristine magmatic trends and therefore the measured isotope compositions indeed in most cases characterize contrasting Eoarchean mantle sources. In accord with this view, compositions of the Isua metabasalts yield Eoarchean regression ages in Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf isochron spaces, overlapping with emplacement ages inferred from crosscutting relationships with tonalites. Lutetium-Hf systematics of the Isua metabasalts studied here, yield clear isochron relationships. For both terranes, there is some scatter in Sm-Nd space, indicating early disturbance of the Sm-Nd system close in time to the extrusion ages, possibly by seafloor alteration. Trace element compositions of the metabasalts indicate an arc setting and a strong source overprint by melt-like subduction components. It is

  15. Sources of Paleozoic granitic rocks and isotopic heterogeneity of the continental crust of the Aktau-Dzhungar microcontinent, Central Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degtyarev, K. E.; Shatagin, K. N.; Tret'yakov, A. A.

    2016-10-01

    Several generations of Paleozoic granitic rocks are studied with Sm-Nd isotopic methods in the northwestern part of the Aktau-Dzhungar microcontinent of Central Kazakhstan (Atasu-Mointy divide). The initial Nd isotopic composition of the granitic rocks varies in a relatively narrow range from-0.1 to-3.5ɛ; the Nd model ages are also similar (1.11-1.46 Ga). These results indicate that the crustal source of all the Paleozoic granitic rocks of the region had similar composition and, probably, age. It is shown that the t Nd(DM) values of the Paleozoic granites reflect different proportions between ancient and juvenile material in the crustal source.

  16. Geochemistry and Sm-Nd geochronology of the metasomatised mafic rocks in the Khetri complex, Rajasthan, NW India: Evidence of an Early Cryogenian metasomatic event in the northern Aravalli orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Parampreet; Chaudhri, Naveen; Hofmann, Albrecht W.; Raczek, Ingrid; Okrusch, Martin

    2013-01-01

    processes varied on a local scale depending on the fluid composition. A whole-rock-mineral (clinopyroxene and scapolite) Sm-Nd isochron of the scapolitised clinopyroxenite at Dosi yields an age of 831 ± 15 Ma. Synthesis of this age data along with previously published geochronological data indicate an important Early Cryogenian (850-830 Ma) metasomatic event in the northern Aravalli orogen, which is also synchronous with the Erinpura granite event in the southern Aravalli orogen.

  17. Angular non-critical phase-matching second-harmonic-generation characteristics of RECOB (RE = Tm, Y, Gd, Sm, Nd and La) crystals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanqing; Wang, Zhengping; Yu, Fapeng; Qi, Hongwei; Yang, Xiuqin; Yu, Xiaoqiang; Zhao, Xian; Xu, Xinguang

    2017-05-15

    For the first time, the angular non-critical phase-matching (A-NCPM) second-harmonic-generation (SHG) characteristics of a family of monoclinic oxoborate crystals, RECa4O(BO3)3 (RECOB, RE = Tm, Y, Gd, Sm, Nd and La), were comprehensively investigated. For all of the realizable A-NCPM SHG styles, the feature parameters including PM wavelength, angular, wavelength and temperature acceptance bandwidths, have been derived from the theory and verified by the experiments. We discovered that the closer the ion radius between RE(3+) and Ca(2+), the smaller the birefringence, and the better the A-NCPM SHG properties. As a result, for the Type-I SHG on Y-axis which has the largest effective nonlinear optical coefficient (deff) among the three realizable A-NCPM styles, NdCOB crystal presents the longest PM wavelength (927 nm), the largest angular acceptance bandwidth (Δθ⋅l(1/2) = 84.3 mrad·cm(1/2), Δϕ⋅l(1/2) = 58.8 mrad·cm(1/2)), and the broadest wavelength acceptance bandwidth (8.7 nm). This discovery will contribute to the design of new NCPM materials, at the same time the parameter formula will be helpful for the theoretical prediction of NCPM performance.

  18. Modeling crust-mantle evolution using radiogenic Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope systematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Seema; Paul, Debajyoti

    2015-04-01

    The present-day elemental and isotopic composition of Earth's terrestrial reservoirs can be used as geochemical constraints to study evolution of the crust-mantle system. A flexible open system evolutionary model of the Earth, comprising continental crust (CC), upper depleted mantle (UM) -source of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB), and lower mantle (LM) reservoir with a D" layer -source of ocean island basalts (OIB), and incorporating key radioactive isotope systematics (Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, and U-Th-Pb), is solved numerically at 1 Ma time step for 4.55 Ga, the age of the Earth. The best possible solution is the one that produces the present-day concentrations as well as isotopic ratios in terrestrial reservoirs, compiled from published data. Different crustal growth scenarios (exponential, episodic, early and late growth), proposed in earlier studies, and its effect on the evolution of isotope systematics of terrestrial reservoirs is studied. Model simulations strongly favor a layered mantle structure satisfying majority of the isotopic constraints. In the successful model, which is similar to that proposed by Kellogg et al. (1999), the present-day UM comprises of 60% of mantle mass and extends to a depth 1600 km, whereas the LM becomes non-primitive and more enriched than the bulk silicate Earth, mainly due to addition of recycled crustal material. Modeling suggest that isotopic evolution of reservoirs is affected by the mode of crustal growth. Only two scenarios satisfied majority of the Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic constraints but failed to reproduce the present-day Pb-isotope systematics; exponential growth of crust (mean age, tc=2.3 Ga) and delayed and episodic growth (no growth for initial 900 Ma, tc=2.05 Ga) proposed by Patchett and Arndt (1986). However, assuming a slightly young Earth (4.45 Ga) better satisfies the Pb-isotope systematics. Although, the delayed crustal growth model satisfied Sr-Nd isotopic constraints, presence of early Hadean crust (4.03 and 4.4 Ga

  19. Hafnium isotope variations in oceanic basalts.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patchett, P.J.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1980-01-01

    Routine low-blank chemistry and 0.01-0.04% precision on the ratio 176Hf/177Hf allows study of Hf isotopic variations, generated by beta --decay of 176Lu, in volcanic rocks derived from the suboceanic mantle. Normalized to 176Hf/177Hf = 0.7325, 176Hf/177Hf ranges 0.2828-0.2835, based on 24 basalt samples. 176Hf/177Hf is positively correlated with 143Nd/144Nd, and negatively correlated with 87Sr/86Sr and 206Pb/204Pb. Along the Iceland-Reykjanes ridge traverse, 176Hf/177Hf increases southwards. The coherence of Hf, Nd and Sr isotopes in the oceanic mantle allows an approximate bulk Earth 176Hf/177Hf of 0.28295 to be inferred from the bulk Earth 143Nd/144Nd. This requires the bulk Earth Lu/Hf to be 0.25, similar to that of the Juvinas eucrite. 60% of the Hf isotopic variation in oceanic basalts occurs among mid-ocean ridge samples. Lu-Hf fractionation probably decouples from Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr fractionation in very depleted source regions, with high Lu/Hf, and consequent high 176Hf/177Hf ratios developing in mantle residual from partial melting. (Authors' abstract) -T.R.

  20. Formation, obduction and provenance of the Støren-Bymarka-Løkken ophiolite, Central Norwegian Caledonides; constraints from geochronology, geochemistry, Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slagstad, T.; Pin, C.; Roberts, D.; Kirkland, C. L.; Grenne, T.; Dunning, G.; Sauer, S.; Andersen, T.

    2012-04-01

    Suprasubduction-zone ophiolites are a characteristic feature of the Palaeozoic Caledonian-Appalachian orogenic belt, and mark the onset of convergence and closure of one or more oceans separating the Baltican, Laurentian and Avalonian continents, ending with continent-continent collision in the Mid Palaeozoic. The Bymarka-Løkken ophiolite in the Central Norwegian Caledonides is a variably tectonised ophiolite fragment, locally with an incomplete, but nevertheless well-preserved ophiolite pseudostratigraphy. Previous work has concluded that the ophiolite formed in an Early Ordovician suprasubduction-zone environment, most likely in an oceanic arc/back-arc basin system, but little is know about the evolution of the ophiolitic crust. There has also been some debate as to the whether obduction of the ophiolite upon the subjacent Gula Complex was onto Laurentia, Baltica, or a microcontinent of Baltican affinity. Here we present new, high-precision TIMS and SHRIMP zircon analyses from felsic rocks in the ophiolite. Combined with geochemical and Sm-Nd whole-rock and Lu-Hf zircon analyses from the same rocks, these data allow us to elucidate the timing of various stages in the evolution of the ophiolite. Plagiogranite bodies range in age from 493 to 480 Ma and have relatively juvenile isotopic compositions. Geochemical data suggest subduction-zone influence and we interpret this stage to represent formation of the ophiolite in an oceanic back-arc setting. At 480 Ma, a large granitoid body with an unradiogenic isotopic composition and strong subduction-zone geochemical signature intruded the ophiolite. We interpret this stage to reflect convergence in the back-arc basin and formation or migration of an oceanic arc. The unradiogenic isotopic composition probably reflects subduction of back-arc basin crust with sediments derived from the nearby continent or microcontinent. At 480-470 Ma, a greenstone-dominated conglomerate and an overlying volcaniclastic sequence was

  1. A structural, petrographic, and isotopic study of the Rapid River area and selected mafic complexes in the northwestern United States: Implications for the evolution of an abrupt island arc-continent boundary

    SciTech Connect

    Aliberti, E.A.

    1988-01-01

    The east side of the Columbia embayment is characterized by an unusually sharp island arc-continent boundary. Detailed mapping, strain analysis, and petrography of three structural levels along portion of this boundary, the Rapid River area, are discussed. From lowest to highest these are the Wallowa terrane, the Rapid River plate (RRP), and the Pollock Mountain plate (PMP). Mineral lineation data indicate that the RRP and the PMP were transported west-northwestward along steeply rooted thrust systems. Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotopic studies of three mafic and ultramafic complexes around the periphery of the Columbia embayment indicate that each formed from a separate source area, all within an oceanic environment. Structural, petrographic, and isotopic data support an evolution of the island arc-continent boundary in west-central Idaho characterized by three stages: (1) Initial collision of the amalgamated island arc terrane with the continental margin and the removal of a wedge of material northward along both left- and right-lateral strike-slip faults; (2) Strike-slip faults at the tail end of the wedge merge along a zone of occlusion (ZOO). The strain accommodated by northward removal of the wedge is transferred to compression along this zone resulting in intracontinental subduction and uplift; (3) Thermal weakening of the crust by increased magmatic activity resulted in several tens of kilometers of rapid uplift of material out of the ZOO along steeply rooted thrust faults.

  2. Nd isotopes and crustal growth rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albarede, F.

    1988-01-01

    Sm/Nd isotopic constraints on crustal growth is discussed. In order to constrain Sm/Nd fractionation between continental crust and depleted mantle, an extensive data base of isotopic measurements (assumed to be adequately representative of continental crust) was compiled. The results imply that the evolution of depleted mantles was roughly linear, with no major discontinuities over the course of geologic time. This is different from other determinations of depleting mantle evolution, which show nonlinear behavior. The Sm/Nd evolution lines for continental crust and depleted mantle intersect between 3.8 to 4.0 Ga, which may indicate that the onset of continental growth was later than 4.5 Ga. A mathematical model is described, the results of which imply that time integrated crustal additions from the mantle are about 1.8 to 2.5 cu km/a, whereas crustal subtractions by sediment recycling are about 0.6 to 1.5 cu km/a. This results in a net time integrated crustal growth rate of about 1 cu km/a, which is similar to present day rates determined, for example, by Reymer and Schubert.

  3. Nd, Sr and Os isotope systematics in young, fertile spinel peridotite xenoliths from northern Queensland, Australia: A unique view of depleted MORB mantle?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handler, M. R.; Bennett, V. C.; Carlson, R. W.

    2005-12-01

    Northeastern Queensland, a part of the Phanerozoic composite Tasman Fold Belt of eastern Australia, has a Paleozoic to Mesozoic history dominated by subduction zone processes. A suite of 13 peridotite xenoliths from the <3 Ma Atherton Tablelands Volcanic Province, predominantly from Mount Quincan, comprise fertile (1.8-3.4 wt.% Al 2O 3 and 38.7-41.9 wt.% MgO) spinel lherzolites free from secondary volatile-bearing phases and with only weak metasomatic enrichment of incompatible trace elements (Sm N/Yb N = 0.23-1.1; La N/Yb N = 0.11-4.9). The suite is isotopically heterogeneous, with measured Sr ( 87Sr/ 86Sr = 0.7027-07047), Nd ( 143Nd/ 144Nd = 0.51249-0.51362), and to a lesser extent, Os ( 187Os/ 188Os = 0.1228-0.1292) compositions broadly overlapping MORB source mantle (DMM) and extending to more depleted compositions, reflecting evolution in a time-integrated depleted reservoir. Major and rare earth element systematics are consistent with mantle that is residual after low to moderate degrees of melt extraction predominantly in the spinel facies, but with a few samples requiring partial melting at greater pressures in the garnet field or near the garnet-spinel transition. In contrast to most previously studied suites of continental lithospheric mantle samples, the incompatible trace element contents and Sr and Nd isotopic systematics of these samples suggest only minimal modification of the sampled lithosphere by metasomatic processes. Five of six Mount Quincan xenoliths preserving depleted middle to heavy REE patterns form a whole rock Sm-Nd isochron with an age of ˜275 Ma (ɛ Ndi = +9), coincident with widespread granitoid emplacement in the overlying region. This isochron is interpreted to indicate the timing of partial melting of a DMM-like source. Xenoliths from other Atherton localities scatter about the isochron, suggesting that the sampled mantle represents addition of DMM mantle to the lithosphere in the Permian, when the region may have broadly been

  4. Stable isotopic studies on chitin

    SciTech Connect

    Schimmelmann, A.

    1985-01-01

    Carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen stable isotope ratios of the poly-amino-sugar chitin isolated from exo-skeletons of 75 arthropod species collected in 59 locations were determined. The objectives were to understand the environmental, climatic, and biological influences on the isotope ratios and to develop a data base for interpreting isotope ratios of archaeological and fossil chitins. Measurements of stable isotope ratios in chitin isolates showed large variations which reflect intrinsic compositional and isotopic heterogeneities as well as differences caused by methods of preparation.

  5. Isotope analysis of crystalline impact melt rocks from Apollo 16 stations 11 and 13, North Ray Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reimold, W. U.; Nyquist, L. E.; Bansal, B. M.; Shih, C.-Y.; Weismann, H.; Wooden, J. L.; Mackinnon, I. D. R.

    1985-01-01

    The North Ray Crater Target Rock Consortium was formed to study a large number of rake samples collected at Apollo 16 stations 11 and 13 with comparative chemical, mineralogical, and chronological techniques in order to provide a larger data base for the discussion of lunar highland evolution in the vicinity of the Apollo 16 landing region. The present investigation is concerned with Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic analyses of a number of whole-rock samples of feldspathic microporhyritic (FM) impact melt, a sample type especially abundant among the North Ray crater (station 11) sample collection. Aspects of sample mineralogy and analytical procedures are discussed, taking into account FM impact melt rocks 6715 and 63538, intergranular impact melt rock 67775, subophitic impact melt rock 67747, subophitic impact melt rock 67559, and studies based on the utilization of electron microscopy and mass spectroscopy.

  6. Isotope analysis of crystalline impact melt rocks from Apollo 16 stations 11 and 13, North Ray Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimold, W. U.; Nyquist, L. E.; Bansal, B. M.; Wooden, J. L.; Shih, C.-Y.; Weismann, H.; MacKinnon, I. D. R.

    1985-02-01

    The North Ray Crater Target Rock Consortium was formed to study a large number of rake samples collected at Apollo 16 stations 11 and 13 with comparative chemical, mineralogical, and chronological techniques in order to provide a larger data base for the discussion of lunar highland evolution in the vicinity of the Apollo 16 landing region. The present investigation is concerned with Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic analyses of a number of whole-rock samples of feldspathic microporhyritic (FM) impact melt, a sample type especially abundant among the North Ray crater (station 11) sample collection. Aspects of sample mineralogy and analytical procedures are discussed, taking into account FM impact melt rocks 6715 and 63538, intergranular impact melt rock 67775, subophitic impact melt rock 67747, subophitic impact melt rock 67559, and studies based on the utilization of electron microscopy and mass spectroscopy.

  7. Granitic rocks and metasediments in Archean crust, Rainy Lake area, Ontario: ND isotope evidence for mantle-like SM/ND sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirey, S. B.; Hanson, G. N.

    1983-01-01

    Granitoids, felsic volcanic rocks and clastic metasediments are typical rocks in Archean granite-greenstone belts that could have formed from preexisting continentasl crust. The petrogenesis of such rocks is assessed to determine the relative roles of new crust formation or old crust formation or old crust recycling in the formation of granite-greenstone belts.

  8. Low-Temperature Sintering and Microwave Dielectric Properties of Bi0.9Ln0.05Li0.05V0.9Mo0.1O4 (Ln = Sm, Nd and La) Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zixing; Yuan, Changlai; Yang, Tao; Feng, Qin; Liu, Fei; Chen, Jinman; Zhou, Changrong; Chen, Guohua

    2016-08-01

    Microwave dielectric ceramics of Bi0.9Ln0.05Li0.05V0.9Mo0.1O4 (Ln = Sm, Nd and La) with a low firing temperature were prepared via conventional solid-state reaction. The phases and microstructures of the ceramics were characterized by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The temperature coefficients of resonant frequency in the three compositions increased as sintering temperature increased. It is worth noting that a phase transition of the Bi0.9Ln0.05Li0.05V0.9Mo0.1O4 (Ln = Sm, Nd and La) ceramics from a monoclinic to a tetragonal scheelite structure was found with an increase in sintering temperature. The densification temperatures of all compositions were below 700°C. Excellent microwave dielectric properties were obtained for the Bi0.9Nd0.05Li0.05V0.9Mo0.1O4 ceramic sintered at 650°C, with a dielectric constant of ~72.2, a quality factor of ~6467 GHz and a temperature coefficient of resonant frequency of ~2.6 ppm/°C. The Bi0.9Ln0.05Li0.05V0.9Mo0.1O4 (Ln = Sm, Nd and La) ceramics are chemically compatible with both Ag and Cu powders at their sintering temperatures, and are thus a promising candidate for use in LTCC technology applications.

  9. A strontium and neodymium isotopic study of Apollo 17 high-Ti mare basalts - Resolution of ages, evolution of magmas, and origins of source heterogeneities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paces, James B.; Neal, Clive R.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Nakai, Shun'ichi; Halliday, Alex N.

    1991-01-01

    The geochronological and compositional differences between previously identified magma types (A, B1, B2, and C) were investigated using high-precision Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic data for a set of Apollo 17 high-Ti mare basalt samples chosen to span the range of each of the magma types. These data, combined with previously reported geochemical ages, suggest that Apollo 17 volcanism was initially dominated by an eruption of Type B basalts. Data obtained from new whole-rock Sr and Nd isotopic analyses exhibited distinct differences in initial Sr and Nd isotopic compositions between Types A, B1, B2, and C basalts and were found to be consistent with existing petrogenetic models.

  10. Rb-Sr Isotopic Studies Of Antarctic Lherzolitic Shergottite Yamato 984028

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Reese, Y.; Misawa, K.

    2009-01-01

    Yamato 984028 is a Martian meteorite found in the Yamato Mountains of Antarctica. It is classified as a lherzolitic shergottite and petrographically resembles several other lherzolitic shergottites, i.e. ALHA 77005, LEW 88516, Y-793605 and Y-000027/47/97 [e.g. 2-5]. These meteorites have similarly young crystallization ages (152-185 Ma) as enriched basaltic shergottites (157-203 Ma), but have very different ejection ages (approximately 4 Ma vs. approximately 2.5 Ma), thus they came from different martian target crater areas. Lherzolitic shergottites have mg-values approximately 0.70 and represent the most mafic olivine-pyroxene cumulates. Their parental magmas were melts derived probably from the primitive Martian mantle. Here we present Rb-Sr isotopic data for Y-984028 and compare these data with those obtained from other lherzolitic and olivine-phyric basaltic shergottites to better understand the isotopic characteristics of their primitive mantle source regions. Corresponding Sm-Nd analyses for Y-984028 are in progress.

  11. Geochemical and isotopic characteristics of lithospheric mantle beneath West Kettle River, British Columbia: Evidence from ultramafic xenoliths

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Xianyu; Baadsgaard, H.; Scarfe, C.M. ); Irving, A.J. )

    1990-09-10

    A group of spinel peridotite xenoliths from West Kettle River, British Columbia, represents essentially undepleted to moderately depleted lithospheric mantle rocks in terms of major and compatible trace elements. Whole rock Sr isotopic composition for most of these xenoliths, and whole rock Sm-Nd isotopic composition and LREE contents for some of them, seem to have been perturbed by near-surface processes. Sr and Nd isotopic results for acid-cleaned clinopyroxenes separated from these spinel peridotites reveal an isotopically mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB)-like mantle. Seven spinel lherzolites gave Nd model ages of 1.5-3.6 Ga, similar to MORB, and on a Sm-Nd isotope diagram plot close to a reference Nd isochron with an age of 0.7 Ga and an initial {var epsilon}{sub Nd} of +7. These features likely resulted from multiple mantle depletion. The isotopic similarities of these xenoliths with MORB suggest that this area is underlain by oceanic lithospheric mantle, possibly accreted to North America during the mid-Jurassic. The Nd isochron age could record the time when the oceanic lithosphere was isolated from the asthenosphere. Recent enrichment event may have acted on such a depleted mantle, as indicated by the low Sm/Nd ratios of two spinel harzburgites.

  12. The Lu-Hf isotopic composition of CHUR and BSE: Tighter constraints from unequilibrated chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouvier, A.; Vervoort, J. D.; Patchett, J.

    2007-12-01

    The Lu-Hf isotopic system has been used increasingly in geochemistry as a chronometer and tracer of mantle and crust processes since the development of MC-ICPMS techniques [1]. Although a consensus has emerged on the value of the 176Lu decay constant, in contrast, the Lu and Hf isotopic compositions of the Chondrite Uniform Reservoir (CHUR) and Bulk Silicate Earth (BSE) have not been as well constrained. Lu-Hf isotopic compositions vary dramatically between the chondrite classes and petrologic types of the specimens that have been analyzed [1-3], which hampers a choice of Lu-Hf CHUR parameters. Chondrites are classified in three main petrologic groups: carbonaceous (CC), ordinary (OC) and enstatite chondrites (EC). They represent distinct chemical and isotopic compositions, which can be associated with reservoirs in the protoplanetary disk where the respective parent bodies have formed. They also have been subjected to various degrees of aqueous alteration (types 1 and 2) or thermal metamorphism (types 3-6) that has potentially affected their initial chemical and mineralogical characteristics. Despite the fact that numerous OCs (~50) have been analyzed for their Lu-Hf isotopic composition, nearly all of these have been equilibrated types 4-6; only 5 finds of types 3.6-3.8 unequilibrated OC have been analyzed. We have analyzed 20 new chondrites for Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotope systematics including (i) 13 H, L, and LL OC of types 3.0- 3.8, where their low degree of metamorphism limits the growth of phosphate (main carrier of REE) compared to the equilibrated OC; and (ii) 7 CC of types 1-3 (CI, CV, CO and CK groups). We obtained mean values (2σSE) of 176Lu/177Hf = 0.0337 ± 3, 176Hf/177Hf = 0.282802 ± 23, 147Sm/144Nd = 0.1961 ± 6, and 143Nd/144Nd = 0.512629 ± 16 from the types 1-3 OC and CC from this study and [2]. Our Lu-Hf values are higher than the previous estimates of [3] and are our best estimates for CHUR. The CC alone give higher mean values of 176Lu/177Hf

  13. Pb-, Sr- and Nd-Isotopic systematics and chemical characteristics of cenozoic basalts, Eastern China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peng, Z.C.; Zartman, R.E.; Futa, K.; Chen, D.G.

    1986-01-01

    Forty-eight Paleogene, Neogene and Quaternary basaltic rocks from northeastern and east-central China have been analyzed for major-element composition, selected trace-element contents, and Pb, Sr and Nd isotopic systematics. The study area lies entirely within the marginal Pacific tectonic domain. Proceeding east to west from the continental margin to the interior, the basalts reveal an isotopic transition in mantle source material and/or degree of crustal interaction. In the east, many of the rocks are found to merge both chemically and isotopically with those previously reported from the Japanese and Taiwan island-arc terrains. In the west, clear evidence exists for component(s) of Late Archean continental lithosphere to be present in some samples. A major crustal structure, the Tan-Lu fault, marks the approximate boundary between continental margin and interior isotopic behaviors. Although the isotopic signature of the western basalts has characteristics of lower-crustal contamination, a subcrustal lithosphere, i.e. an attached mantle keel, is probably more likely to be the major contributor of their continental "flavor". The transition from continental margin to interior is very pronounced for Pb isotopes, although Sr and Nd isotopes also combine to yield correlated patterns that deviate strikingly from the mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) and oceanic-island trends. The most distinctive chemical attribute of this continental lithosphere component is its diminished U Pb as reflected in the Pb isotopic composition when compared to sources of MORB, oceanic-island and island-arc volcanic rocks. Somewhat diminished Sm Nd and elevated Rb Sr, especially in comparison to the depleted asthenospheric mantle, are also apparent from the Nd- and Sr-isotopic ratios. ?? 1986.

  14. Isotopic studies in returned lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, E. C., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Analysis of lunar soil samples returned by Apollo 11 and 12 flights are discussed. Isotopic studies of the rare gases from Apollo 11 flight lunar samples are presented. The lunar soil analyses indicated the following: (1) high concentrations of solar wind rare gases, (2) isotopic match between solar wind gases and gas components in gas-rich meteorites, and (3) rare gases attributable to spallation reactions induced in heavier nuclides by cosmic ray particles.

  15. Multi-Isotopic evidence from West Eifel Xenoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiemens, M. M.; Sprung, P.

    2015-12-01

    Mantle Xenoliths from the West Eifel intraplate volcanic field of Germany provide insights into the nature and evolution of the regional continental lithospheric mantle. Previous isotope studies have suggested a primary Paleoproterozoic depletion age, a second partial melting event in the early Cambrian, and a Variscan metasomatic overprint. Textural and Sr-Nd isotopic observations further suggest two episodes of melt infiltration of early Cretaceous and Quaternary age. We have investigated anhydrous, vein-free lherzolites from this region, focusing on the Dreiser Weiher and Meerfelder Maar localities. Hand separated spinel, olivine, ortho- and clinopryoxene, along with host and bulk rocks were dissolved and purified for Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, and Lu-Hf analysis on the Cologne/Bonn Neptune MC-ICP-MS. We find an unexpected discontinuity between mineral separates and whole rocks. While the latter have significantly more radiogenic ɛNd and ɛHf, mineral separates imply close-to chondritic compositions. Our Lu-Hf data imply resetting of the Lu-Hf systematic after 200 Ma. Given the vein-free nature of the lherzolites, this appears to date to the second youngest metasomatic episode. We suggest that markedly radiogenic Nd and Hf were introduced during the Quarternary metasomatic episode and most likely reside on grain boundaries.

  16. Tracing Proterozoic arc mantle Hf isotope depletion of southern Fennoscandia through coupled zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersson, Andreas; Bjärnborg, Karolina; Scherstén, Anders; Gerdes, Axel; Næraa, Tomas

    2017-07-01

    Constraints on the composition of the depleted mantle Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf crust formation ages have a long history of scientific debate. When calculating mantle extraction ages, and constructing crustal growth models, a linear evolution of incompatible trace elements in a depleted mantle since > 4 Ga is routinely used. Mantle depletion however varies regionally and over time and subduction of sediments and oceanic crust renders a mantle-wedge variously enriched relative to a modelled depleted mantle. Here we show that primitive mantle-derived subduction related gabbroic intrusions from southern Fennoscandia have Hf isotope compositions that are enriched relative to a MORB-like linear depleted mantle evolution curve. Extrapolation of primitive Paleoproterozoic gabbro suites enables the construction of a regional mantle evolution curve, providing improved constraints on model ages, crustal residence times and the fraction of juvenile versus reworked continental crust. Convergent margins are assumed to be one of the main sites of continental crust growth, and using an overly depleted mantle source yield model ages that are too old, and hence cumulative crustal growth models show too much crust generation early in the Earth's history. The approach of using the Hf isotope composition of zircon from primitive subduction related gabbroic intrusions as a proxy for mantle Hf isotope composition, piloted in this study, can be applied to other convergent margins.

  17. Implications of Sm-Nd model ages and single grain U-Pb zircon geochronology for the age and heritage of the Swakane gneiss, Yellow Aster Complex, and Skagit gneiss, North Cascades, Wash

    SciTech Connect

    Rasbury, E.T.; Walker, N.W. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    Uncertainties regarding the protolith, age, and tectonic affinity of the Swakane gneiss (Swg), Skagit gneiss (Skg), and Yellow Aster complex (YAc) have long been obstacles to deciphering the tectonic history of the North Cascades. Single-grain zircon U-Pb data and Sm-Nd model ages now demonstrate these units are genetically unrelated metasediments derived from Early Proterozoic and younger sources. Zircon populations from Swg samples include rounded, subrounded, and euhedral grains. Three of four analyzed grains define a well-correlated discordia array that intercepts concordia at 1.4 Ga whereas the fourth grain has a 1.6 Ga 207Pb/206Pb age. the Sm-Nd depleted mantle model ages of two samples of Swg are 1.18 Ga and 1.27 Ga. The authors suggest that the Swg gneiss is a metaclastic rock derived chiefly from rocks of Middle Proterozoic age. A single analyzed zircon crystal extracted from garnet-biotite yields a nearly concordant age of 0.14 Ga. The YAc consists of fragments of metaplutonic rocks and quartz-pyroxene gneisses of uncertain protolith that are imbricated with Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks of the Cretaceous Northwest Cascades thrust system. U-Pb data from 6 single zircons extracted from mylonitic quartz-pyroxene gneiss are interpreted to indicate the presence of Grenville orogen-derived grains of ca 0.9--1.3 Ga age whereas one analyzed zircon has an ca 0.6 Ga age. Analyses of abraded zircons from a post-mylonitic pegmatite dike indicate pegmatite crystallization at ca0.22 Ga and imply the presence of ca1.85 Ga xenocrystic zircons.

  18. Re-Os isotopic evidence for Archean lithospheric mantle beneath the Kimberley block, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Stuart; Lambert, David D.; Shee, Simon R.; Smith, Chris B.; Reeves, Shane

    1999-05-01

    We report Sm-Nd and the first Re-Os isotopic data as well as platinum-group element concentrations for two of the highest-grade diamond deposits in the Kimberley block of Western Australia. Whole-rock Sm-Nd isotopic data for the 1200 Ma Argyle olivine lamproite and an Argyle peridotite xenolith yield unradiogenic initial isotopic compositions (ɛNd = -3.2 to -6.0) and depleted mantle model ages of 1750 to 2000 Ma. These data indicate that shallow-mantle light rare earth element enrichment of the Argyle lamproite source probably occurred during the Proterozoic Hooper orogeny. Sm-Nd isotopic data for the 800 Ma Seppelt kimberlite yield a radiogenic initial isotopic composition (ɛNd = +1.8) and a TDM model age of 1200 Ma, isotopic features consistent with worldwide group I kimberlite occurrences. Re-Os isotopic data yield unradiogenic initial isotopic compositions for the Argyle lamproite and peridotite xenoliths (γOs = -2 to -6) and Seppelt kimberlite and kimberlitic chromites (γOs = -7 to -8), whereas data for a picroilmenite megacryst from the 800 Ma Maude Creek kimberlite yield a radiogenic initial Os isotopic composition (γOs = +27). Our modeling suggests that the Os isotopic composition of the Argyle lamproite and peridotites may be explained as mixtures of a ca. 3000 Ma refractory mantle component (as represented by the kimberlitic chromites) and a ca. 1500 Ma enriched-mantle component (as represented by the picroilmenite megacryst). The xenoliths and chromites yield an imprecise Re-Os isochron age of 3400 Ma, giving a strong indication that the Kimberley block is underlain by Archean continental lithospheric mantle and that this mantle was largely unaffected during Early Proterozoic orogenesis.

  19. Disturbed Sr and Nd Isotope Systematics in Zircons With Concordant SHRIMP U-Pb Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, K. L.; Bennett, V. C.; Depaolo, D. J.; Mundil, R.

    2004-12-01

    Little is known about the Sr- and Nd-isotopic systematics of zircon. With slow diffusion rates and a high resistance to weathering, zircon should preserve accurate age information and initial Sr and Nd isotopic ratios. As a common accessory mineral, it could provide petrogenetic information for rocks that have been altered, weathered, or metamorphosed. We have investigated the Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr systematics of zircons from unmetamorphosed granitic rocks that have yielded concordant U-Pb SHRIMP (Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe) ages and have depleted mantle signatures for Nd and Sr isotopes. Zircon populations from mantle-derived igneous rocks with ages of 0.1, 1.7, and 3.8 Ga were chosen for Sr and Nd isotopic analysis. Low concentrations (Sr, 4 to 8 ppm and Nd, 6 to 12 ppm) and small grain size necessitate the use of multigrain aliquots. Meaningful results can be obtained only if all of the zircons in the rock are a coherent population with homogeneous ages throughout and among grains. Zircon U-Pb ages were characterized using the SHRIMP RG, and trace element concentrations were measured by LA-ICPMS. The populations are homogeneous and the material ablated by the ion beam ( ˜~20 μ m spot size) shows little evidence of lead loss. Results on zircons of 100 Ma and 1700 Ma indicate that both the Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd systems have been severely disturbed. For the 1700 Ma granitic rocks from the Yavapai sequence of Arizona, zircon Sm-Nd apparent ages are ca. 1000 Ma! Leaching was used to remove contributions from adhering or included minerals, but leached residues that presumably most closely approximate the composition of the pure zircon (e.g. have high Sm/Nd) are no less disturbed than unleached samples. Despite the U-Pb SHRIMP ages indicating a closed system, the zircons have failed to preserve a reasonable age or initial isotopic composition for Sr and Nd, indicating that parts of the crystal might be severely affected by radiation damage resulting in disturbed

  20. Ages and Nd, Sr isotopic systematics in the Sierran foothills ophiolite belt, CA: the Smartville and Feather River complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, H.F.; Niemeyer, S.

    1985-01-01

    Sm-Nd dating has shown the Kings-Kaweah ophiolite to be approx. 480 My old. Its Nd, Sr, and Pb isotopic compositions require an unusually old depleted mantle source. Samples from the Smartville and Feather River complexes have been analyzed in a search for similar highly depleted, early Paleozoic ophiolites in the northern foothills ophiolite belt. Six whole rocks from Smartville, encompassing representative lithologies, plus plagioclase and pyroxene mineral separates define a 183 +/- 22 My Sm-Nd isochron. This age, interpreted as the igneous age, is older than, but within error of, approx. 160 My U-Pb ages previously obtained from plagiogranite zircon analyses. One diabase with unusually high Rb/Sr yields a depleted mantle Sr model age of 200 +/- 25 My, consistent with the Sm-ND age. These compositions are clearly oceanic in character but do not discriminate among possible tectonic settings for the formation of the Smartville complex. Sm-Nd data for flaser gabbros and related rocks from Feather River scatter about an approx. 230 My errorchron with element of/sub Nd/(T) = +6.3 to +8.7. Initial /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ranges from 0.7028 to 0.7031. These results indicate a complex history with initial isotopic heterogeneities and/or disturbances of the isotopic systems. If primary, the element of/sub Nd/ (T) values are somewhat low, suggesting a possible arc origin for these rocks. Neither the Smartville nor Feather R. complexes appear to be related to the Kings-Kaweah ophiolite which, so far, is unique among foothill ophiolites in having an early Paleozoic age and a clear MORB, as opposed to arc or marginal basin, isotopic signature.

  1. Geochronological and isotopic evidence for early Proterozoic crust in the eastern Arabian Shield.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stacey, J.S.; Hedge, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    Zircon U/Pb, feldspar common Pb, whole-rock Sm/Nd, and Rb/Sr data indicate that the fine-grained granodiorite (Z103) has yielded conclusive evidence for rocks of early Proterozoic age in the eastern Arabian Shield (21o19' N, 44o50' W). Z103 may have been emplaced approx 1630 m.y. ago and subsequently was severely deformed or perhaps even remobilized at approx 660 m.y. Furthermore, lead isotope data, along with other evidence, show that the 1630 m.y. crustal rocks inherited material from an older, probably Archaean, source at the time of their formation. At that time addition of mantle material considerably modified the Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd systems so that they now yield similar, or only slightly older apparent ages (1600-1800 m.y.).-L.diH.

  2. Formation and Evolution of the Continental Lithospheric Mantle: Perspectives From Radiogenic Isotopes of Silicate and Sulfide Inclusions in Macrodiamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirey, S. B.; Richardson, S. H.

    2007-12-01

    Silicate and sulfide inclusions that occur in diamonds comprise the oldest (>3 Ga), deepest (>140 km) samples of mantle-derived minerals available for study. Their relevance to the evolution of the continental lithosphere is clear because terrestrial macrodiamonds are confined to regions of the Earth with continental lithospheric mantle keels. The goals of analytical work on inclusions in diamond are to obtain paragenesis constraints, radiogenic ages, and initial isotopic compositions. The purpose is to place diamond formation episodes into the broader framework of the geological processes that create and modify the continental lithosphere and to relate the source of the C and N in diamond-forming fluids to understanding the Earth's C and N cycles in the Archean. Although sulfide and silicate inclusions rarely occur in the same diamond, they both can be grouped according to their geochemical similarity with the chief rock types that comprise the mantle keel: peridotite and eclogite. Silicate inclusions are classified as harzburgitic (depleted; olivine > Fo91, garnet Cr2O3 > 3 wt% and CaO from 0 to 5 wt%), lherzolitic (fertile), or eclogitic (basaltic; garnet Cr2O3 < 2 wt% and CaO from 3 to 15 wt%, clinopyroxene with higher Na2O, Al2O3, and FeO); they are amenable for trace element study by SIMS and for Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr analysis by conventional P-TIMS after grouping by mineralogical similarity. Sulfide inclusions (chiefly FeS with lesser Ni, Cu, and Co) are classified as peridotitic (Ni > 14 wt%; Os > 2 ppm) versus eclogitic (Ni < 10 wt%; Os < 200 ppb); single sulfides are amenable for S isotopic study by SIMS or TIMS, and Re-Os analysis by N-TIMS. Work on inclusions in diamonds depends on the distribution of mined, diamond-bearing kimberlites, and the generosity of mining companies because of the extreme rarity of inclusions in suites of mostly gem-quality diamonds. Most isotopic work has been on the Kaapvaal-Zimbabwe craton with lesser work on the Slave, Siberian

  3. Stable Isotopes, Multidisciplinary Studies, and the Leadership of J.G. Liou in UHP Metamorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumble, D.

    2005-12-01

    J.G. Liou has played a crucial role in improving knowledge of UHP metamorphism by leading multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional teams of researchers and by encouraging new investigators and providing them access to samples. Stable isotope geochemistry has made important contributions to understanding UHP metamorphism including: (1) The discovery of O- and H-isotope signatures of meteoric water in UHP rocks from China and Kazakhstan demonstrates that their protoliths originated at or near Earth's surface in a cold climate(a); (2) The mapping of contiguous tracts of outcrops extending over distances of 100 km where both eclogites and their wall rocks retain unusually low d18O and dD is consistent with the subduction and exhumation of UHP slabs as coherent structural units(b); (3) Analysis of samples from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling project reveals not only that UHP metamorphic rocks have not exchanged O-isotopes with mantle rocks while they were buried in the upper mantle but also that garnet peridotite slabs from the mantle have not exchanged with crustal wall rocks(c). Recent advances have resulted from multidisciplinary geochemical investigations. The analysis of zircons for both d18O and U-Pb established the age of cold climate, meteoric water alteration of protoliths to be Neoproterozoic for UHP rocks from Dabie and Sulu, China(d). Thus, O-isotopes plus age dating raises the possibility that evidence of snowball Earth conditions has been preserved in an unlikely host: UHP metamorphic rocks. A comparison of U-Pb, Sm-Nd, and Rb-Sr isotope data with analyses for d18O in coexisting minerals shows that discordant age dates correlate with mineral pairs that are not in O-isotope exchange equilibrium(e). It may be seen that multidisciplinary geochemical investigations provide mutually reinforcing data that greatly strengthens interpretations. New discoveries of de novo microdiamonds accompanied by multiphase mineral inclusions in UHP metamorphosed

  4. Temporal and Spatial Heterogeneities in the Solar Nebula Reflected in Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd Systematics of Al3S4, an Allende Type B CAI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, N. E.; Borg, L. E.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Jacobsen, B.; Clayton, R. N.; Mayeda, T. K.

    2012-03-01

    We have measured the Rb-Sr, ^1^7^4Sm-^1^4^3Nd and ^1^4^7Sm-^1^4^2Nd isotope compositions of a type B CAI. These data indicate that CAIs and Earth have the same ^1^4^2Nd/^1^4^4Nd composition and that carbonaceous chondrites are distinct from both Earth and CAIs.

  5. U-Pb isotopic systematics of ferroan anorthosite 60025

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Premo, W. R.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1993-01-01

    Preliminary U-Pb isotopic data from separates of ferroan anorthosite 60025 confirm its antiquity at approximately 4.42 Ga. Three Pb-Pb isochron ages involving different sets of mineral separates vary by only 20 million years, but indicate derivation of the sets from isotopically distinct magma sources. If this anorthosite was a monomict cumulate product formed during the Moon's early primary differentiation stage, then residual liquids of crystallizing magmas were evolving isotopically, even at the cm-scale, over the duration of the crystallization period. Another explanation is that this sample is simply a polymict breccia and that the Pb isotopic results are a result of subsequent mechanical mixing of mineral assemblages from various cumulate piles formed coevally at approximately 4.42 Ga from isotopically distinct magma sources. In our ongoing search for early lunar Pb isotopic compositions, we have analyzed Apollo 16 anorthosites 67075 and 62337 and Apollo 17 high-Mg suite cumulates (troctolite 76535, norite 78235, and dunite 72415). The U-Pb isotopic systematics have been better behaved in the high-Mg suite rocks than in the anorthosites that have shown evidence of mineral assemblages of mixed parentage. Our aim in analyzing anorthosite 60025 was to avoid or minimize this problem as it had been considered essentially monomict, although recent work has shown that not only is 60025 polymict, but shows textual evidence of at least two episodes of deformation. Of five splits studied by James, Lindstrom and McGee, the four mineral splits appeared monomict, whereas the whole-rock split was considered polymict. Previous isotopic work indicate that this anorthosite was quite primitive, a claim that was apparently confirmed by the U-Pb isotopic age of 4.51 +/- .01 Ga on three plagioclase separates. However, a Sm-Nd internal isochron age of 4.44 +/- 0.02 Ga was determined using plagioclase, olivine, and mafic mineral separates, creating some doubt about the anorthosite

  6. Study report on a double isotope method of calcium absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Some of the pros and cons of three methods to study gastrointestinal calcium absorption are briefly discussed. The methods are: (1) a balance study; (2) a single isotope method; and (3) a double isotope method. A procedure for the double isotope method is also included.

  7. Microturbulence study of the isotope effect

    SciTech Connect

    Bustos, A.; Bañón Navarro, A.; Görler, T.; Jenko, F.

    2015-01-15

    The influence of the ion mass on the dynamics of magnetized plasmas is an important challenge in fusion research. The discrepancies between the improvement of the magnetic confinement with the ion mass in tokamak experiments and diffusive turbulent transport predictions have remained unexplained for several decades. We refer to this phenomenon as the isotope effect. In this paper, we study this effect with gyrokinetic theory using the GENE code. We find several sets of plasma parameters that correspond to low wavenumber turbulence for which the isotope effect is present, although the intensity is smaller than the experimental observations. We also relate these results to the zonal flow intensity of the system, which is characterized by the average shear flow rate.

  8. An evaluation of the origin and post-depositional modification of coal mineral matter using rare earth elements and neodymium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schatzel, Steven Joseph

    2001-07-01

    This study was conducted in western Pennsylvania on the Lower Kittanning Coal bed to address the issue of coal mineral matter origin and depositional environment. Channel samples of the coal, the underlying clay (paleosol) unit, and the overlying shale were retrieved over a 170 km east-west range of sampling sites. Analytical techniques applied to the samples include the megascopic description of coal lithotypes, proximate and ultimate analysis, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), coal petrography, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), and thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Major cation concentrations in the coal are generally consistent with depositional environment interpretations made on the overlying shale (e.g., epigenetic mineralization). Titanium and shale overburden-normalized plots of the major cation data show that the coal bed is enriched in Fe and Ca compared to the overlying shale. Magnesium, sodium and potassium were depleted in the coal relative to the shale. Rare earth element (REE) concentrations and neodymium (Nd) isotopes were used to identify sources of coal mineral matter and processes of alteration. A high degree of similarity exists between chondrite normalized REE plots of the coal, the shale overburden and the North American Shale Composite. The Nd isotopic data from the Lower Kittanning Coal bed show a range of epsilonNd(t) (at time of deposition) from -8.4 to -9.9 at the study sites. The Nd isotopic data from the overlying shale and the underlying clay unit show a range from epsilonNd(t) values = -8.2 to -10.2. These data are interpreted to indicate a single mineral source throughout the deposition of all three units. That source appears to be clastic matter derived the Appalachian Mountains. An isochron-style plot of the isotopic data appears to indicate Sm-Nd fractionation occurred at the approximate age of the coal bed. This is interpreted as evidence of mobilization of the Sm and Nd

  9. O-Isotope Features of Chondrules from Recent SIMS Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenner, T. J.; Ushikubo, T.; Nakashima, D.; Schrader, D. L.; Weisberg, M. K.; Kimura, M.; Kita, N. T.

    2017-02-01

    We highlight results of recent chondrule O-isotope studies by SIMS: (1) primary and secondary features based on the level of isotope homogeneity, (2) comparing ranges of host and relict data among chondrites, (3) O-isotope vs. major element links.

  10. [Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen in soil ecological studies].

    PubMed

    Tiunov, A V

    2007-01-01

    The development of stable isotope techniques is one of the main methodological advances in ecology of the last decades of the 20th century. Many biogeochemical processes are accompanied by changes in the ratio between stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen (12C/13C and 14N/15N), which allows different ecosystem components and different ecosystems to be distinguished by their isotopic composition. Analysis of isotopic composition makes it possible to trace matter and energy flows through biological systems and to evaluate the rate of many ecological processes. The main concepts and methods of stable isotope ecology and patterns of stable isotope fractionation during organic matter decomposition are considered with special emphasis on the fractionation of isotopes in food chains and the use of stable isotope studies of trophic relationships between soil animals in the field.

  11. Isotope pattern deconvolution as rising tool for isotope tracer studies in environmental research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irrgeher, Johanna; Zitek, Andreas; Prohaska, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    During the last decade stable isotope tracers have emerged as versatile tool in ecological research. Besides 'intrinsic' isotope tracers caused by the natural variation of isotopes, the intentional introduction of 'extrinsic' enriched stable isotope tracers into biological systems has gained significant interest. Hereby the induced change in the natural isotopic composition of an element allows amongst others for studying the fate and fluxes of metals, trace elements and species in organisms or provides an intrinsic marker or tag of particular biological samples. Due to the shoreless potential of this methodology, the number of publications dealing with applications of isotope (double) spikes as tracers to address research questions in 'real world systems' is constantly increasing. However, some isotope systems like the natural Sr isotopic system, although potentially very powerful for this type of application, are still rarely used, mainly because their adequate measurement/determination poses major analytical challenges; as e.g. Sr is available in significant amounts in natural samples. In addition, biological systems underlie complex processes such as metabolism, adsorption/desorption or oxidation/reduction. As a consequence, classic evaluation approaches such as the isotope dilution mass spectrometry equation are often not applicable because of the unknown amount of tracer finally present in the sample. Isotope pattern deconvolution (IPD), based on multiple linear regression, serves as simplified alternative data processing strategy to double spike isotope dilution calculations. The outstanding advantage of this mathematical tool lies in the possibility of deconvolving the isotope pattern in a spiked sample without knowing the quantities of enriched isotope tracer being incorporated into the natural sample matrix as well as the degree of impurities and species-interconversion (e.g. from sample preparation). Here, the potential of IPD for environmental tracer

  12. The reliability of ∼2.9 Ga old Witwatersrand banded iron formations (South Africa) as archives for Mesoarchean seawater: Evidence from REE and Nd isotope systematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viehmann, Sebastian; Bau, Michael; Smith, Albertus J. B.; Beukes, Nicolas J.; Dantas, Elton L.; Bühn, Bernhard

    2015-11-01

    Pure marine chemical sediments, such as (Banded) Iron Formations, (B)IFs, are archives of geochemical proxies for the composition of Precambrian seawater and may provide information about the ancient hydrosphere-atmosphere system. We here present rare earths and yttrium (REY) and high precision Sm-Nd isotope data of ∼2.90 Ga old Superior-type BIFs from the Witwatersrand Supergroup, South Africa, and compare those with data for near-contemporaneous BIFs from the correlative Pongola Supergroup (Superior-type BIF) and from the Pietersburg Greenstone Belt (Algoma-type IF), respectively. All Witwatersrand samples studied display the typical general REY distribution of Archean seawater, but their REY anomalies are less pronounced and their immobile element concentrations are higher than those of other pure (B)IFs. These observations indicate the presence of significant amounts of detrital aluminosilicates in the Witwatersrand BIFs and question the reliability of the Contorted Bed and Water Tower BIFs (Parktown Formation, West Rand Group) as archives of Mesoarchean seawater. Significant post-depositional alteration of the REY budget and the Sm-Nd isotope system is not observed. The Nd isotopic compositions of the purest BIF samples, i.e. the most reliable archives for Witwatersrand seawater, show initial εNd values between -3.95 and -2.25. This range is more negative than what is observed in ambient shales, indicating a decoupling of suspended and dissolved loads in the "near-shore" Witwatersrand Basin seawater. However, εNd range overlaps with that of the correlative Pongola BIF (Alexander et al., 2008). The deeper-water Algoma-type Pietersburg BIF shows more positive (i.e. more mantle-like) εNd2.9Ga values, supporting the hypothesis that a significant amount of its REY inventory was derived from black smoker-style, high-temperature hydrothermal fluids that had altered seafloor basalts. In marked contrast, the dissolved REY budgets (including the Nd isotopic

  13. A high-resolution study of isotopic compositions of precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeonghoon; Kim, Songyi; Han, Yeongcheol; Oh, Yoon Seok; Kim, Young-Hee; Kim, Hyerin; Ham, Ji-Young; Choi, Hye-Bin; Na, Un-Sung; Koh, Dong-Chan

    2015-04-01

    Isotopic compositions of precipitation have been used to understand moisture transport in the atmosphere and interactions between precipitation and groundwater. Isotopic compositions of speleothems and ice cores, so called, "paleoarchives", can be utilized to interpret climate of the past and global circulation models (GCMs), which are able to explain the paleoarchives, can be validated by the precipitation isotopes. The developments of stable isotope analyzers make high-resolution isotopic studies feasible and a high-resolution study of precipitation isotopes is needed. For this study, precipitation samples were collected for every 5 to 15 minutes, depending on precipitation rates, using an auto-sampler for precipitation isotopes near coastal area. The isotopic compositions of precipitation range from -5.7‰ (-40.1‰)) to -10.8‰ (-74.3‰)) for oxygen (hydrogen). The slope of δ18O-δD diagram for the whole period is 6.8, but that of each storm is 5.1, 4.2, 7.9 and 7.7, respectively. It indicates that evaporation occurred during the first two storms, while the latter two storms did not experience any evaporation. The isotopic fractionations of precipitation has significant implications for the water cycle and high-resolution data of precipitation isotopes will be needed for the future studies related to the precipitation isotopes.

  14. Identification of Isotopically Primitive Interplanetary Dust Particles: A NanoSIMS Isotopic Imaging Study

    SciTech Connect

    Floss, Christine; Stadermann, Frank J.; Bradley, John P.; Dai, Zurong; Bajt, Sasa; Giles, Graham; Lea, Alan S.

    2006-05-01

    We have carried out a comprehensive survey of the isotopic compositions (H, B, C, N, O,S) of a suite of interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), including both cluster and individual particles. Isotopic imaging with the NanoSIMS shows the presence of numerous discrete hotspots that are strongly enriched in 15N, including the largest 15N enrichments ({approx}1300 ?) observed in IDPs to date. A number of the IDPs also contain larger regions with more modest enrichments in 15N, leading to average bulk N isotopic compositions that are 15N-enriched in these IDPs. Although C isotopic compositions are normal in most of the IDPs, two 15N-rich hotspots have correlated 13C anomalies. CN?/C? ratios suggest that most of the 15N-rich hotspots are associated with relatively N-poor carbonaceous matter, although specific carriers have not been determined. H isotopic distributions are similar to those of N: D anomalies are present both as distinct very D-rich hotspots and as larger regions with more modest enrichments. Nevertheless, H and N isotopic anomalies are not directly correlated, consistent with results from previous studies. Oxygen isotopic imaging shows the presence of abundant presolar silicate grains in the IDPs. The O isotopic compositions of the grains are similar to those found in presolar oxide and silicate grains from primitive meteorites. Most of the silicate grains in the IDPs have isotopic ratios consistent with meteoritic Group 1 oxide grains, indicating origins in oxygen-rich red giant and asymptotic giant branch stars, but several presolar silicates exhibit the 17O and 18O enrichments of Group 4 oxide grains, whose origin is less well understood. Based on their N isotopic compositions, the IDPs studied here can be divided into two groups. One group is characterized as being ''isotopically primitive'' and consists of those IDPs that have anomalous bulk N isotopic compositions. These particles typically also contain numerous 15N-rich hotspots, occasional C

  15. Identification of isotopically primitive interplanetary dust particles: A NanoSIMS isotopic imaging study

    SciTech Connect

    Floss, C; Stadermann, F J; Bradley, J P; Dai, Z R; Bajt, S; Graham, G; Lea, A S

    2005-09-02

    We have carried out a comprehensive survey of the isotopic compositions (H, B, C, N, O, S) of a suite of interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), including both cluster and individual particles. Isotopic imaging with the NanoSIMS shows the presence of numerous discrete hotspots that are strongly enriched in {sup 15}N, including the largest {sup 15}N enrichments ({approx}1300 {per_thousand}) observed in IDPs to date. A number of the IDPs also contain larger regions with more modest enrichments in {sup 15}N, leading to average bulk N isotopic compositions that are {sup 15}N-enriched in these IDPs. Although C isotopic compositions are normal in most of the IDPs, two {sup 15}N-rich N-hotspots have correlated {sup 13}C anomalies. CN{sup -}/C{sup -} ratios suggest that most of the {sup 15}N-rich hotspots are associated with relatively N-poor carbonaceous matter, although specific carriers have not been determined. H isotopic distributions are similar to those of N: D anomalies are present both as distinct very D-rich hotspots and as larger regions with more modest enrichments. Nevertheless, H and N isotopic anomalies are not directly correlated, consistent with results from previous studies. Oxygen isotopic imaging shows the presence of abundant presolar silicate grains in the IDPs. The O isotopic compositions of the grains are similar to those found in presolar oxide and silicate grains from primitive meteorites. Most of the silicate grains in the IDPs have isotopic ratios consistent with meteoritic Group 1 oxide grains, indicating origins in oxygen-rich red giant and asymptotic giant branch stars, but several presolar silicates exhibit the {sup 17}O and {sup 18}O enrichments of Group 4 oxide grains, whose origin is less well understood. Based on their N isotopic compositions, the IDPs studied here can be divided into two groups. One group is characterized as being ''isotopically primitive'' and consists of those IDPs that have anomalous bulk N isotopic compositions. These

  16. NMR studies of isotopically labeled RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Pardi, A.

    1994-12-01

    In summary, the ability to generate NMR quantities of {sup 15}N and {sup 13}C-labeled RNAs has led to the development of heteronuclear multi-dimensional NMR techniques for simplifying the resonance assignment and structure determination of RNAs. These methods for synthesizing isotopically labeled RNAs are only several years old, and thus there are still relatively few applications of heteronuclear multi-dimensional NMR techniques to RNA. However, given the critical role that RNAs play in cellular function, one can expect to see an increasing number of NMR structural studies of biologically active RNAs.

  17. TTG magmatism in the Congo craton; a view from major and trace element geochemistry, Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd systematics: case of the Sangmelima region, Ntem complex, southern Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, C. K.; Satir, M.; Siebel, W.; Nsifa, E. N.; Taubald, H.; Liégeois, J. P.; Tchoua, F. M.

    2004-09-01

    TTG rocks of the Sangmelima region (Ntem complex, Congo craton) in southern Cameroon range in modal composition from rocks of the charnockitic suite, tonalites to granodiorites. They display a wide spectrum of SiO 2 composition (54-76 wt%), including metaluminous intermediate rocks (0.56 < A/CNK < 1) and rocks that are slightly peraluminous (1 < A/CNK < 1.08). Charnockites and tonalites define a trondhjemitic suite while granodiorites portray a slight potassic calc-alkaline affinity. The primordial mantle-normalized spidergrams are characterized by negative Nb-Ta anomalies, suggesting a subduction related signature or melting of crustal rocks that were formed along subduction zones. More siliceous members of the rock suites are enriched in LILE. REE fractionation is shown by 2 < La N/Yb N < 28 in the charnockitic suite while higher ratios of 12 < La N/Yb N < 114 in the tonalitic suite and 18 < La N/Yb N < 99 in granodiorites indicate melting of source rocks with garnet as a restite phase. Samples with overall lowest abundance in REE show a positive Eu anomaly and represent small amounts of magmas derived from a source with much feldspar contribution to the melt. Sr and Nd systematics coupled with Mg#-SiO 2 compositions are consistent with derivation by partial melting in a subduction setting or merely from a thickened Archaean crust of eclogite facies basaltic proto-crust with mantle material input. From Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd whole-rock data, intrusion timing is defined around 2900 Ma for rocks of the charnockitic suite. The Rb-Sr system in biotite portrays post-emplacement reheating during the Eburnean orogeny. TTG intrusions in the Sangmelima region represent a major Archaean accretion event in the Congo craton.

  18. Metamorphic, microstructural and isotopic studies of mylonites

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, A.K.; Hewitt, D.A.; Simpson, C.; Rimstidt, J.D.; Sutter, J.

    1985-01-01

    Recent advances in tectono-thermal models of orogenic belts require that the timing of thrust stacking and its relationship to the thermal history be evaluated. Before measuring radiometric ages of mylonites in thrust zones, it is critical to document the size of texturally and mineralogically equilibrated domains. A constancy of partition coefficients for the major and minor elements of minerals in textural equilibrium would be consistent with trace elements and isotopic equilibrium. Preliminary studies along the Brevard zone show non-equilibrium assemblages even in the highest strain mylonites. Such disequilibrium prohibits the use of whole rock ages to estimate the last episode of deformation; mineral ages probably give better estimates. The authors anticipate using a variety of radiometric systems on minerals in the fault zones to decipher the ages of thrusting. Recent deep drilling in the Kola Peninsula has revealed the availability of large volumes of fluids in the 4.5 to 9 km interval with temperatures over 150/sup 0/C. The presence of such fluids in deep crustal environments should accelerate the rates of reactions, crack propagation, hydrolytic weakening, dynamic recrystallization and recovery processes. Accelerated hydration reactions could also provide zones for development of faults. Microstructural analysis of mylonites from successively deeper structural levels will indicate the predominant mode of deformation and will test the traditional view of increasing ductility with depth. Geochemical and stable isotope analyses of the mylonites may also reveal enrichment of metals from possible deep crustal fluids.

  19. [Experimental study on the Eu isotopic enrichment].

    PubMed

    Huang, Xue-ren; Zhong, Da; Mei, Gang-hua; Zhu, Xi-wen

    2002-10-01

    The polarized atomic beam has found many applications, such as in studying atomic scattering processes, producing polarized nucleus, verifying the parity principle, measuring surface parameters and enriching isotopes. In this paper, we mainly described the experiment of Eu isotope enrichment by means of magnetic deflection. According to the special inner energy level structure of Eu atom, we analyzed the theory of the polarized atomic beam and described the main experimental set-up. Using one coherent laser with the wavelength of 601.9 nm and sigma polarization, Eu153 atoms have been selectively optical pumped and polarized, so positive and negative polarized atomic beams could be produced. The polarized atomic beams have been focused and defocused after passing through the deflection by hex-magnet. Finally, some clear enrichmental signal has been obtained in way of hot-wire detection. During the process of the experiment, we carefully selected the optimized conditions, the Eu153 enrichment effect of 4% can be achieved using only one coherent laser.

  20. Nucleosynthetic Nd isotope anomalies in primitive enstatite chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyet, M.; Gannoun, A.

    2013-11-01

    We carried out stepwise dissolutions of four primitive enstatite chondrites (EC) belonging to the EH subgroup. Large Nd isotope anomalies are found in the most refractory phases, dissolved using strong acids. Residues are characterized by excesses in 142Nd and deficits in 145Nd, 148Nd and 150Nd isotopes. The Nd anomalies measured in the ALHA77295 residue are even greater than those measured in the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite (CC) using a similar analytical technique (Qin et al., 2011). Once corrected for a common Sm/Nd evolution, the 142Nd excess in the ALHA77295 residue is equal to 700 ppm relative to the terrestrial standard value. The Nd isotope patterns measured in EC and CC residues can be adjusted to coincide by adding a small amount of an s-process-rich carrier phase such as SiC and 0.075% is required to fit the ALHA7795 residue. Small isotope differences still persist between these residues even if they can be considered similar within error. In enstatite chondrites, residues have a deficit in 150Nd similar to or smaller than that measured in 148Nd, whereas in SiC extracted from carbonaceous chondrites or in whole rock, the deficit in 150Nd is always greater than that in 148Nd. Moreover in a binary 142Nd-148Nd diagram, the best-fit lines obtained for leachates and residues from carbonaceous chondrites and enstatite chondrites have slightly different slopes. For the same 148Nd/144Nd ratio, the anomalous component in an enstatite chondrite has a higher 142Nd/144Nd ratio compared to carbonaceous chondrites, a feature already observed at the whole rock scale. Our results suggest that different chondrite groups sample different reservoirs of presolar grains formed in different environments. Assuming that the carrier of this anomalous component measured in residues of enstatite chondrites are SiC, our results may suggest that different meteorite parent bodies sample reservoirs of presolar SiC formed in different stellar environments. This could explain why

  1. Early crust of the Podolia Domain of the Ukrainian Shield: Isotopic age of terrigenous zircons from quartzites of the Bug Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibikova, E. V.; Fedotova, A. A.; Claesson, S.; Stepanyuk, L. M.

    2015-11-01

    Detrital zircons of the ancient metasedimentary rocks bear important information about the early crust of the Earth. In this work, the early crust in the west of the Ukrainian Shield was studied using U-Pb dating of terrigenous zircons from metasedimentary rocks (quartzites) of the lower parts of the Bug Group (Kosharo-Aleksandrovka Formation) of the Podolia Domain and through Sm-Nd isotopic investigation of these rocks. The Nd model age of rocks is 3.4-3.1 Ga. Detrital zircons were studied in two samples of quartzites. The cathodoluminescent images of most zircons support their clastic origin. More than 150 zircon grains were studied on an ion microprobe. The isotope age of zircons is 3775-2000 Ma. These results were compared with previous results of study of terrigenous zircons from garnet schists of the Zaval'e quarry located closely to the studied area. It is concluded that both Paleoarchean and Meso- to Neoarchean rocks were destroyed during formation of terrigenous rocks of the Bug Group. The different amount of ancient zircons in quartzites and garnet schists indicates the different remoteness of the most ancient rocks from sedimentary basins.

  2. Stable Chlorine Isotope Study: Application to Early Solar System Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mala,ira. M/; Nyquist, L. E.; Reese, Y.; Shih, C-Y; Fujitani, T.; Okano, O.

    2010-01-01

    A significantly large mass fractionation between two stable chlorine isotopes is expected during planetary processes In addition, in view of the isotopic heterogeneity of other light elements, the chlorine isotopes can potentially be used as a tracer for the origins and evolutionary processes of early solar system materials. Due to analytical difficulties, however, current chlorine isotope studies on planetary materials are quite controversial among IRMS (gas source mass spectrometry) and/or TIMS (Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry) groups [i.e. 1-3]. Although a cross-calibration of IRMS and TIMS indicates that both techniques are sufficiently consistent with each other [4], some authors have claimed that the Cl-37/Cl-35 ratio of geological samples obtained by TIMS technique are, in general, misleadingly too high and variable compared to those of IRMS [3]. For example, almost no differences of Cl isotope composition were observed among mantle materials and carbonaceous meteorites by [3]. On the other hand, according to more recent IRMS work [2], significant Cl isotope variations are confirmed for mantle materials. Therefore, additional careful investigation of Cl isotope analyses are now required to confirm real chlorine isotope variations for planetary materials including carbonaceous chondrites [5]. A significantly large mass fractionation between two stable chlorine isotopes is expected during planetary processes In addition, in view of the isotopic heterogeneity of other light elements, the chlorine isotopes can potentially be used as a tracer for the origins and evolutionary processes of early solar system materials. Due to analytical difficulties, however, current chlorine isotope studies on planetary materials are quite controversial among IRMS (gas source mass spectrometry) and/or TIMS (Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry) groups [i.e. 1-3]. Although a cross-calibration of IRMS and TIMS indicates that both techniques are sufficiently consistent with each

  3. Lead Isotopes in Olivine-Phyric Shergottite Tissint: Implications for the Geochemical Evolution of the Shergottite Source Mantle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moriwaki, R.; Usui, T.; Simon, J. I.; Jones, J. H.; Yokoyama, T.

    2015-01-01

    Geochemically-depleted shergottites are basaltic rocks derived from a martian mantle source reservoir. Geochemical evolution of the martian mantle has been investigated mainly based on the Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, and Lu-Hf isotope systematics of the shergottites [1]. Although potentially informative, U-Th- Pb isotope systematics have been limited because of difficulties in interpreting the analyses of depleted meteorite samples that are more susceptible to the effects of near-surface processes and terrestrial contamination. This study conducts a 5-step sequential acid leaching experiment of the first witnessed fall of the geochemically-depleted olivinephyric shergottite Tissint to minimize the effect of low temperature distrubence. Trace element analyses of the Tissint acid residue (mostly pyroxene) indicate that Pb isotope compositions of the residue do not contain either a martian surface or terrestrial component, but represent the Tissint magma source [2]. The residue has relatively unradiogenic initial Pb isotopic compositions (e.g., 206Pb/204Pb = 10.8136) that fall within the Pb isotope space of other geochemically-depleted shergottites. An initial µ-value (238U/204Pb = 1.5) of Tissint at the time of crystallization (472 Ma [3]) is similar to a time-integrated mu- value (1.72 at 472 Ma) of the Tissint source mantle calculated based on the two-stage mantle evolution model [1]. On the other hand, the other geochemically-depleted shergottites (e.g., QUE 94201 [4]) have initial µ-values of their parental magmas distinctly lower than those of their modeled source mantle. These results suggest that only Tissint potentially reflects the geochemical signature of the shergottite mantle source that originated from cumulates of the martian magma ocean

  4. Studies of enzyme mechanism using isotopic probes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.

    1987-01-01

    The isotope partitioning studies of the Ascaris suum NAD-malic enzyme reaction were examined with five transitory complexes including E:NAD, E:NAD:Mg, E:malate, E:Mg:malate, and E:NAD:malate. Three productive complexes, E:NAD, E:NAD:Mg, and E:Mg:malate, were obtained, suggesting a steady-state random mechanism. Data for trapping with E:/sup 14/C-NAD indicate a rapid equilibrium addition of Mg/sup 2 +/ prior to the addition of malate. Trapping with /sup 14/C-malate could only be obtained from the E:Mg/sup 2 +/:/sup 14/C-malate complex, while no trapping from E:/sup 14/C-malate was obtained under feasible experimental conditions. The equations for the isotope partitioning studies varying two substrates in the chase solution in an ordered terreactant reaction were derived, allowing a determination of the relative rates of substrate dissociation to the catalytic reaction for each of the productive transitory complexes. NAD and malate are released from the central complex at an identical rate, equal to the catalytic rate. The release of NAD from E:NAD and E:NAD:Mg complexes is 2- to 4-fold and 5- to 9-fold V/sub max//E/sub t/, respectively. The release of malate from the E:Mg:malate complex is 0.1- to 0.3-fold of V/sub max//E/sub t/. The individual rate constants for association and dissociation of the substrates, NAD and malate have been estimated.

  5. Geochronology and petrogenesis of the western highlands alkali suite: Radiogenic isotopic evidence from Apollo 14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Gregory A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Halliday, Alex N.

    1993-01-01

    Several rocks of alkalic affinity, from the western highlands of the Moon, have been analyzed for their Nd and Sr isotopic compositions. One sample yields a Sm-Nd mineral isochron of 4110 = 41 Ma. This age, in conjunction with U-Pb zircon ages on two other alkalic rocks from the Apollo 14 landing site suggests a distinct western highlands 'event' which was approximately 100 Ma in duration. Since the last dregs of the lunar magma ocean likely crystallized prior to 4.3 Ga, this alkalic 'event' may have included the re-melting of evolved plutons or the remobilization of urKREEP trapped liquid from upper mantle cumulates. Alkalic lithologies such as granites and felsites have been known from the Moon since the earliest days of the Apollo lunar sample returns. However, not until 1977 were alkali-rich rocks recognized from typical highlands suites such as ferroan anorthosites (FAN) and norites and Mg-suite rocks. In the intervening years, several other alkali suite samples have been discovered and characterized, mostly through labor-intesive breccia pull-apart studies of clasts and analyses of coarse-fine fractions of soils. We will speculate on the origins of this suite of lunar highlands rocks.

  6. Geochronology and petrogenesis of the western highlands alkali suite: Radiogenic isotopic evidence from Apollo 14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Gregory A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Halliday, Alex N.

    1993-01-01

    Several rocks of alkalic affinity, from the western highlands of the Moon, have been analyzed for their Nd and Sr isotopic compositions. One sample yields a Sm-Nd mineral isochron of 4110 = 41 Ma. This age, in conjunction with U-Pb zircon ages on two other alkalic rocks from the Apollo 14 landing site suggests a distinct western highlands 'event' which was approximately 100 Ma in duration. Since the last dregs of the lunar magma ocean likely crystallized prior to 4.3 Ga, this alkalic 'event' may have included the re-melting of evolved plutons or the remobilization of urKREEP trapped liquid from upper mantle cumulates. Alkalic lithologies such as granites and felsites have been known from the Moon since the earliest days of the Apollo lunar sample returns. However, not until 1977 were alkali-rich rocks recognized from typical highlands suites such as ferroan anorthosites (FAN) and norites and Mg-suite rocks. In the intervening years, several other alkali suite samples have been discovered and characterized, mostly through labor-intesive breccia pull-apart studies of clasts and analyses of coarse-fine fractions of soils. We will speculate on the origins of this suite of lunar highlands rocks.

  7. Geochronology and petrogenesis of the western highlands alkali suite: Radiogenic isotopic evidence from Apollo 14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Gregory A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Halliday, Alex N.

    1993-03-01

    Several rocks of alkalic affinity, from the western highlands of the Moon, have been analyzed for their Nd and Sr isotopic compositions. One sample yields a Sm-Nd mineral isochron of 4110 = 41 Ma. This age, in conjunction with U-Pb zircon ages on two other alkalic rocks from the Apollo 14 landing site suggests a distinct western highlands 'event' which was approximately 100 Ma in duration. Since the last dregs of the lunar magma ocean likely crystallized prior to 4.3 Ga, this alkalic 'event' may have included the re-melting of evolved plutons or the remobilization of urKREEP trapped liquid from upper mantle cumulates. Alkalic lithologies such as granites and felsites have been known from the Moon since the earliest days of the Apollo lunar sample returns. However, not until 1977 were alkali-rich rocks recognized from typical highlands suites such as ferroan anorthosites (FAN) and norites and Mg-suite rocks. In the intervening years, several other alkali suite samples have been discovered and characterized, mostly through labor-intesive breccia pull-apart studies of clasts and analyses of coarse-fine fractions of soils. We will speculate on the origins of this suite of lunar highlands rocks.

  8. Intramolecular Isotopic Studies: Chemical Enhancements and Alternatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    As mass spectroscopic and NMR-based methods now appropriately flourish, chemical techniques should not be forgotten. First, the methods developed by pioneering intramolecular analysts can be reapplied to new samples. Second, they can be extended. The synthesis of intramolecular isotopic standards is particularly important and straightforward. It requires only that a chemical reaction has no secondary products. An example is provided by the addition of carbon dioxide to a Grignard reagent. The reaction proceeds with an isotope effect. The isotopic composition of the carboxyl group in the acid which is produced is thus not equal to that of the starting carbon dioxide but the unconsumed CO2 can be recovered and analyzed. A simple titration can show that all the rest of the CO2 is in the product acid. The isotopic composition of the carboxyl group can then be calculated by difference. The product is an intramolecular isotopic standard, an organic molecule in which the isotopic composition of a specific carbon position is known accurately. Both analysts and reviewers can thus gain invaluable confidence in the accuracy of instrumental results. A second example: the haloform reaction quantitatively degrades methyl ketones, producing a carboxylic acid which can be decarboxylated to determine the isotopic composition of the parent carbonyl and a haloform (CHI3, for example) that can be combusted to determine the isotopic composition of the methyl group. Ketones thus analyzed can be combined with Grignard reagents to yield carbon skeletons in which the isotopic compositions of internal and terminal -CH2- and -CH3 groups are known accurately. In general, analysts accustomed to demanding quantitative reactions should remember the power of mass balances and recognize that many organic-chemical reactions, while not quantitative, lack side products and can be driven to the total consumption of at least one reactant.

  9. Age and origin of anorthosites, charnockites, and granulites in the Central Virginia Blue Ridge: Nd and Sr isotopic evidence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pettingill, H.S.; Sinha, A.K.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1984-01-01

    Rb-Sr isotopic data for anorthosites, charnockites, ferrodioritic to quartz monzonitic plutons, and high-grade gneisses of the Blue Ridge of central Virginia show evidence of post-emplacement metamorphism, but in some cases retain Grenville ages. The Pedlar River Charnockite Suite yields an isochron age of 1021 +/-36 Ma, (initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.7047 +/-6), which agrees with published U-Pb zircon ages. Five samples of that unit which contain Paleozoic mylonitic fabrics define a regression line of 683 Ma, interpreted as a mixing line with no age significance. Samples of the Roseland Anorthosite Complex show excessive scatter on a Rb-Sr evolution diagram probably due to Paleozoic (475 m.y.) metamorphism. Data from the ferrodioritic to quartz monzonitic plutons of the area yield an age of 1009 +/-26 Ma (inital ratio=0.7058 +/-4), which is in the range of the U-Pb zircon ages of 1000-1100 Ma. The Stage Road Layered Gneiss yields an age of 1147 +/-34 Ma (initial ratio of 0.7047 +/- 5). Sm-Nd data for the Pedlar River Charnockite Suite reflect a pre-Grenville age of 1489 +/-118 Ma (e{open}Nd=+6.7 +/-1.2). Data for the Roseland Anorthosite Complex and the ferrodioritic to quartz monzonitic plutons yield Grenville isochron ages of 1045 +/44 Ma (e{open}Nd=+1.0 +/-0.3) and 1027 +/-101 Ma (e{open}Nd=+1.4 +/-1.0), respectively. Two Roseland Anorthosite samples plot far above the isochron, demonstrating the effects of post-emplacement disturbance of Sm-Nd systematics, while mylonitized Pedlar River Charnockite Suite samples show no evidence of Sm-Nd redistribution. The disparity of the Sm-Nd age and other isotopic ages for the Pedlar River Charnockite Suite probably reflects a Sm-Nd "source" age, suggesting the presence of an older crust within this portion of the ca. 1 Ga old basement. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag.

  10. Petrology, geochemistry and Sm-Nd analyses on the Balkan-Carpathian Ophiolite (BCO - Romania, Serbia, Bulgaria): Remnants of a Devonian back-arc basin in the easternmost part of the Variscan domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plissart, Gaëlle; Monnier, Christophe; Diot, Hervé; Mărunţiu, Marcel; Berger, Julien; Triantafyllou, Antoine

    2017-04-01

    The pre-Alpine basement of the Southern Carpathians/Western Balkans contains four ophiolitic massifs dismembered by Alpine tectonics, which define the ;Balkan-Carpathian Ophiolite; (BCO) for which the tectonic setting and age of formation are still debated (Precambrian or Early Devonian). In this contribution, we demonstrate that, in light of a Pre-Alpine restoration, the four massifs belonged to a unique slice of very complete, obducted oceanic lithosphere and we re-evaluate its tectonic setting. Large chromitite volumes with Al-rich spinel compositions (Cr# = 0.39-0.48), as well as major and trace geochemical results on basalts (slightly enriched N-MORBs with low negative Nb anomaly associated with calk-alkaline BABBs), point to a formation in a back-arc basin. Mantle spinel composition (Cr# = 0.49-0.51) and melting modeling indicate mean melting extents of 8.5-11% favouring intermediate spreading rate. New Sm-Nd dating on lower gabbroic rocks give a whole rock isochron, interpreted as the age of formation of the BCO crust at 409 ± 38 Ma, thus confirming an Early Devonian oceanic crust. The previous ∼563 Ma U-Pb zircon age can be interpreted as casual inheritance indicating the proximity of an old continental lithosphere. Taking into account the lithological evidences and paleocontinental affinities of the two recognized terranes separated by the BC oceanic basin (Balkans and Sredna Gora) and by analogy with other Variscan ophiolites in Western/Central Europe, we suggest that the BC ophiolite belong to the ∼400 Ma ophiolites group obducted between West and East Galatia and belonging to the southern Variscan suture. However, the BC ophiolite is the only one of this group obducted to the north and not involved in the Lower Allochthon/ophiolite/Upper Allochthon thrust pile, likely explaining its exceptional preservation. Finally, we tentatively propose a new unifying tectonic model where different terrane drift rates and highly oblique displacements create two

  11. 2.69-2.68 Ga granulite facies metamorphism in the Wyoming Craton revealed by Sm-Nd garnet geochronology and trace element zoning, eastern Beartooth Mountains, Montana and Wyoming, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guevara, V.; Dragovic, B.; Caddick, M. J.; Baxter, E. F.

    2014-12-01

    The Beartooth Mountains in Montana and Wyoming, USA, form an extensive exposure of Archean rocks of the Wyoming Craton and are dominantly comprised of a ~2.8 Ga granitoid batholith known as the Long Lake Magmatic Complex (LLMC). Contained within the LLMC are numerous m- to km-scale enclaves of metasedimentary granulites. P-T pseudosection modeling indicates that these granulites reached peak pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions of 800 °C, 7-8 kbar. This has previously been interpreted to result from contact heating with the LLMC. However, substantial field evidence from multiple localities suggests that the texturally dominant phase of HT metamorphism in the metasediments postdates LLMC emplacement. Further, Sm-Nd garnet (grt) dates from the metasediments are in the range ~2.69-2.68 Ga ('bulk' dates incorporating crystal cores and rims), ~100 Myrs younger than LLMC emplacement (based on U-Pb zircon ages, 1). Trace element zoning in grt suggests that these dates record the age of granulite facies metamorphism. Euhedral high-Ca overgrowths in Grt from a residual pelite are coincident with a high Eu spike, interpreted to result from plagioclase breakdown during partial melting. These overgrowths are also coincident with high Sm and Nd annuli, and we thus interpret the bulk grt date (2689±4 Ma) to record timing of the late stages of grt growth during migmatisation near peak T. Coupled with major element zoning, retention of Sm and Nd zoning in euhedral grt from the leucosome of another sample suggest that its bulk date (2681±1 Ma) also represents peritectic grt growth rather than subsequent diffusion. Grt from a lithology that did not experience melting records a date of 2686±1 Ma. Together, these ages indicate that granulite facies metamorphism persisted in the area for at least ~3 Myrs (inner bounds of the 2σ dates), ~100 Myrs after batholith emplacement. Limited evidence for this later event in the plutonic rocks is consistent with their experiencing little

  12. Sr-Nd isotope and geochemical characterisation of the Paleoproterozoic Västervik formation (Baltic Shield, SE-Sweden): a southerly exposure of Svecofennian metasiliciclastic sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinhanns, I. C.; Fischer-Gödde, M.; Hansen, B. T.

    2012-01-01

    The Paleoproterozoic Västervik formation represents the southernmost exposure of Svecofennian metasediments and comprises a large psammitic succession of up to 5,000 m thickness dominated by quartzite with minor pelite and arkose. The Västervik formation was deposited in a time interval of ~30 m.y. from 1.88 until 1.85 Ga. Whole-rock geochemical data and Rb-Sr-Sm-Nd analyses in combination with bulk zircon U-Pb ID-TIMS studies help to gain insight into the depositional and geodynamic history of the metasiliciclastic units of the Västervik formation. Discrimination function diagrams show good agreement of major element composition with petrographic characterisation pointing towards a quartzose sedimentary provenance area with a tendency towards felsic igneous provenance. Trace element characteristics show typical upper crustal composition and remarkably similar patterns despite the respective petrographic differences. Sm-Nd isotope systematics reveal a restricted range of TDM with 2.3 ± 0.1 Ga and initial Nd (1.80 Ga) values from -4 to -2. These values are in agreement with known values from other Svecofennian sedimentary basins and support the interpretation of the Västervik formation as a typical Svecofennian metasedimentary sequence. Three samples were analysed with the zircon U-Pb ID-TIMS technique, and resulting mixing ages of ~2.1 Ga are typical for Svecofennian metasediments. The final stage of the geodynamic history of the Västervik area was a HT/LP overprint that caused intense migmatisation and anatectic production of in situ granite melts. This was accompanied by large-scale metasomatism, which led to a regional disturbance of the Rb-Sr isotope system indicating an age of ~1,750 Ma for this event. This age overlaps with timing of the tectonic activity of the Loftahammar-Linköping deformation zone (LLDZ), a large-scale deformation zone, lying directly to the north of the study area, presumably linking these two events.

  13. Li Isotope Studies of Olivine in Mantle Xenoliths by SIMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, D. R.; Hervig, R. L.; Buseck, P. R.

    2005-01-01

    Variations in the ratio of the stable isotopes of Li are a potentially powerful tracer of processes in planetary and nebular environments [1]. Large differences in the 7Li/6Li ratio between the terrestrial upper mantle and various crustal materials make Li isotope composition a potentially powerful tracer of crustal recycling processes on Earth [2]. Recent SIMS studies of terrestrial mantle and Martian meteorite samples report intra-mineral Li isotope zoning [3-5]. Substantial Li isotope heterogeneity also exists within and between the components of chondritic meteorites [6,7]. Experimental studies of Li diffusion suggest the potential for rapid isotope exchange at elevated temperatures [8]. Large variations in 7Li, exceeding the range of unaltered basalts, occur in terrestrial mantle-derived xenoliths from individual localities [9]. The origins of these variations are not fully understood.

  14. Geochronologic and isotopic evidence for early Proterozoic crust in the eastern Arabian Shield

    SciTech Connect

    Stacey, J.S.; Hedge, C.E.

    1984-05-01

    The authors report zircon U-Pb, feldspar common Pb, whole-rock Sm-Nd, and Rb-Sr data from sample Z-103, a fine-grained granodiorite from the Jabal Khida region of the Saudi Arabian Shield (lat 21/sup 0/19'N; long 44/sup 0/50'W). The measurements yield conclusive evidence for continental crust of early Proterozoic age (approx.1630 Ma) at that locality. Furthermore, lead-isotope data indicate an even earlier, perhaps Archean, crustal history for the source of the lower Proterozoic rocks. 17 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  15. Isotope-geochemical Nd-Sr evidence of Palaeoproterozoic plume magmatism in Fennoscandia and mantle-crust interaction on stages of layered intrusions formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serov, Pavel; Bayanova, Tamara; Kunakkuzin, Evgeniy; Steshenko, Ekaterina

    2016-04-01

    Palaeoproterozoic Fennoscandian layered intrusions belong to the pyroxenite-gabbronorite-anorthosite formation and spread on a vast area within the Baltic Shield. Based on isotope U-Pb, Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr and Re-Os data the duration of this formation can be to 100-130 Ma (2.53-2.40 Ga) [Serov et. al., 2008; Bayanova et. al., 2009]. We have studied rocks of layered PGE-bearing Fedorovo-Pansky, Monchetundra, Burakovsky, Olanga group intrusions and Penikat intrusion. According to recent and new complex Nd-Sr-REE data magma source of the vast majority of these intrusions was a mantle reservoir with unusual characteristics: negative values of ɛNd (from 0 to -4) and ISr = 0.702-0.706, flat spectra of REE (value of (La/Yb)N ~ 1.0-5.8) with positive Eu-anomalies [Bayanova et. al., 2009; Bayanova et. al., 2014]. However, the distribution of REE for ore-bearing gabbronorite intrusions Penikat (Sm-Nd age is 2426 ± 38 Ma [Ekimova et. al., 2011]) has a negative Eu-anomalies. This may be due to the formation of plagioclase and its removal from the magma chamber. One of the aims of isotope geochemical investigations is to establish the contribution of mantle components in the formation of layered intrusions rocks and the degrees of contamination of the magma source by crustal material. To calculate the proportion of mantle component model binary mixture was used [Jahn et. al., 2000]. As the mantle components we used data for CHUR: ɛNd = 0, [Nd] = 1.324 [Palm, O'Neil, 2003] and for crustal components were used host-rocks Nd-data. The proportion of mantle component for the studied intrusions was 77-99%. Also, data were obtained for the Monchetundra dike complex and amphibolized gabbro, for which the proportion of mantle material was 20-40%. For these rocks a significant crustal contamination is most likely. This process resulted in low values of ɛNd, a direct relationship between ɛNd and Nd concentration, and significant differences between the U-Pb and Sm-Nd model ages. A

  16. Isotope-geochemical Nd-Sr evidence of Palaeoproterozoic plume magmatism in Fennoscandia and mantle-crust interaction on stages of layered intrusions formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serov, P.; Ekimova, N.; Bayanova, T.

    2012-04-01

    Palaeoproterozoic Fennoscandian layered intrusions belong to the pyroxenite-gabbronorite-anorthosite formation and spread on a vast area within the Baltic Shield. Based on isotope Sm-Nd and U-Pb data the duration of this formation can be to 130 Ma (2.53-2.40 Ga) [Serov et. al., 2008]. We have studied rocks of layered PGE-bearing Fedorovo-Pansky, Monchetundra, Burakovsky, Olanga group intrusions and Penikat intrusion. According to recent and new complex Nd-Sr-REE data magma source of the vast majority of these intrusions was a mantle reservoir with unusual characteristics: negative values of ɛNd (from 0 to -4) and ISr = 0.702-0.706, flat spectra of REE (value of (La/Yb)N ~ 1.0-5.8) with positive Eu-anomalies. However, the distribution of REE for ore-bearing gabbronorite intrusions Penikat (Sm-Nd age is 2426 ± 38 Ma [Ekimova et. al., 2011]) has a negative Eu-anomalies. This may be due to the formation of plagioclase and its removal from the magma chamber. One of the aims of isotope geochemical investigations is to establish the contribution of mantle components in the formation of layered intrusions rocks and the degrees of contamination of the magma source by crustal material. To calculate the proportion of mantle component model binary mixture was used [Jahn et. al., 2000]. As the mantle components we used data for CHUR: ɛNd = 0, [Nd] = 1.324 [Palm, O'Neil, 2003]. The proportion of mantle component for the studied intrusions was 77-99%. Also, data were obtained for the Monchetundra dike complex and amphibolized gabbro, for which the proportion of mantle material was 20-40%. For these rocks a significant crustal contamination is most likely. This process resulted in low values of ɛNd, a direct relationship between ɛNd and Nd concentration, and significant differences between the U-Pb and Sm-Nd model ages. A characteristic feature is that in most cases, the proportion of mantle component decreases from the central parts of intrusions to their boundary zones

  17. Isotopic Forced-Diffusion Technique for Soil Respiration Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McArthur, G.; Nickerson, N. R.; Egan, J.; Risk, D. A.; Jacobson, G. A.; Cunningham, K. L.; Saad, N.

    2013-12-01

    Isotopic ratio measurements of soil-respired CO2 can provide a wealth of insight into soil-level carbon-cycle processes that is not available using bulk CO2 emission measurements alone. Soil contains substantial amounts of carbon, and can contribute CO2 to the atmosphere through various respiration pathways. Isotopic analysis can distinguish autotrophic root and rhizosphere respiration from heterotrophic respiration due to the catabolism of soil organic matter (SOM). Because of this, researchers have shifted their efforts toward the use of natural abundance and tracer isotopic techniques in ecosystem respiration studies. However, recent experimental and theoretical evidence indicates that these traditional techniques yield biased estimates of the soil isotopic flux, largely owing to disturbances to the soil's natural diffusive regime. To help eliminate these biases, we have developed a new technique called Isotopic Forced-Diffusion (IsoFD). The Isotopic Forced-Diffusion technique integrates a Forced Diffusion dynamic chamber with a cavity ringdown spectrometer measuring d13C-CO2, which are operated together as an integrated system. The system produces real-time, high temporal resolution isotopic soil efflux data. Here, we will present the theory behind this technique, present laboratory data demonstrating the accuracy and precision of the technique in controlled environments and finally field data from two campaigns, showing the ability of the Iso-FD chamber to detect natural diurnal changes in isotopic signature as well as differentiate sources in C3-C4 transitional systems.

  18. Potential use of environmental isotopes in pollutant migration studies.

    PubMed

    Miljević, Nada; Golobocanin, Dusan

    2007-06-01

    This article presents the use of natural abundance stable isotope (hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, chlorine) analysis data as a tool for providing important information about the origin of contaminants, the contribution of different sources to a multi-source plume, characterisation of their complex transport (rate and mechanisms) and for evaluating the success of contaminated site remediation. Isotopic signatures of contaminants are useful tracers of their sources, while isotopic fractionation can be used to quantitatively assess the progress of an environmental process such as biodegradation. This new isotopic approach is reliable and can offer more information than traditional techniques in pollutant migration studies, particularly after waste disposal. During biological degradation of any organic compound, molecules containing lighter isotopes are degraded, and the portion of heavier isotopes in the substrate is increased, identifying specific microbial roles in biogeochemical cycling. Since isotopic fractionation is proportional to degradation, depending on the type of contamination, a microbial degradation of 50% to 99% of the initial concentration can be quantified using isotope ratio measurements.

  19. Isotope tracers in oceanographic studies: some sticky wickets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GROUSSET, F. E.

    2001-12-01

    Trace elements and isotopes have found widespread applications in oceanography. In most cases, their use has led to a better understanding of many oceanic processes (viz., chemical inputs to the ocean, chemical fluxes through the water column, particulate- dissolved-matter exchanges, watermass circulation, etc), permitting the application of reliable models. Anomalies have been observed, however, in the data on some tracers of particulates that should be given more attention in future. For example, it is widely recognized that the Sr isotopic composition of detrital particles is grain-size dependant (Dasch, 1969), whereas their Nd isotopic composition would not vary with grain-size (Goldstein et al., 1984). Recent sudies of detrital grain-size fractions, however, reveal that Sr, Nd and Pb isotopes can be strongly grain-size dependant. Some of these same isotopes can be used to study dissolved phases. The isotopic composition of Nd associated with iron oxides deposited on surface sediment planktic foraminifers has been used as a watermass tracer (Palmer et al., 1985). In the northern Atlantic surface sediments, however, the Nd isotope composition of the foraminifers is in fact mostly controled by the isotopic composition of the ambient detrital particles that are partially dissolved into the intertitial waters, subsequently contaminating the foraminifers (Grousset et al., 1986). The original watermass fingerprint is thus partly obscured. Another example is provided by iron-manganese nodules. In the Pacific ocean, the temporal evolution of the Pb-isotope composition of three nodules located at different latitudes has been explained by their plate-tectonic latitudinal shift through time (Meynadier, 2000). In the same ocean, another study still in progress of two nodules from a unique box-core reveals two totally different temporal behaviors of their trace elements and isotopes (Bernard et al., in prep.). Such anomalies will be reviewed and discussed.

  20. Fundamental studies on kinetic isotope effect (KIE) of hydrogen isotope fractionation in natural gas systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ni, Y.; Ma, Q.; Ellis, G.S.; Dai, J.; Katz, B.; Zhang, S.; Tang, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Based on quantum chemistry calculations for normal octane homolytic cracking, a kinetic hydrogen isotope fractionation model for methane, ethane, and propane formation is proposed. The activation energy differences between D-substitute and non-substituted methane, ethane, and propane are 318.6, 281.7, and 280.2cal/mol, respectively. In order to determine the effect of the entropy contribution for hydrogen isotopic substitution, a transition state for ethane bond rupture was determined based on density function theory (DFT) calculations. The kinetic isotope effect (KIE) associated with bond rupture in D and H substituted ethane results in a frequency factor ratio of 1.07. Based on the proposed mathematical model of hydrogen isotope fractionation, one can potentially quantify natural gas thermal maturity from measured hydrogen isotope values. Calculated gas maturity values determined by the proposed mathematical model using ??D values in ethane from several basins in the world are in close agreement with similar predictions based on the ??13C composition of ethane. However, gas maturity values calculated from field data of methane and propane using both hydrogen and carbon kinetic isotopic models do not agree as closely. It is possible that ??D values in methane may be affected by microbial mixing and that propane values might be more susceptible to hydrogen exchange with water or to analytical errors. Although the model used in this study is quite preliminary, the results demonstrate that kinetic isotope fractionation effects in hydrogen may be useful in quantitative models of natural gas generation, and that ??D values in ethane might be more suitable for modeling than comparable values in methane and propane. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Fundamental studies on kinetic isotope effect (KIE) of hydrogen isotope fractionation in natural gas systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Yunyan; Ma, Qisheng; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Dai, Jinxing; Katz, Barry; Zhang, Shuichang; Tang, Yongchun

    2011-05-01

    Based on quantum chemistry calculations for normal octane homolytic cracking, a kinetic hydrogen isotope fractionation model for methane, ethane, and propane formation is proposed. The activation energy differences between D-substitute and non-substituted methane, ethane, and propane are 318.6, 281.7, and 280.2 cal/mol, respectively. In order to determine the effect of the entropy contribution for hydrogen isotopic substitution, a transition state for ethane bond rupture was determined based on density function theory (DFT) calculations. The kinetic isotope effect (KIE) associated with bond rupture in D and H substituted ethane results in a frequency factor ratio of 1.07. Based on the proposed mathematical model of hydrogen isotope fractionation, one can potentially quantify natural gas thermal maturity from measured hydrogen isotope values. Calculated gas maturity values determined by the proposed mathematical model using δD values in ethane from several basins in the world are in close agreement with similar predictions based on the δ 13C composition of ethane. However, gas maturity values calculated from field data of methane and propane using both hydrogen and carbon kinetic isotopic models do not agree as closely. It is possible that δD values in methane may be affected by microbial mixing and that propane values might be more susceptible to hydrogen exchange with water or to analytical errors. Although the model used in this study is quite preliminary, the results demonstrate that kinetic isotope fractionation effects in hydrogen may be useful in quantitative models of natural gas generation, and that δD values in ethane might be more suitable for modeling than comparable values in methane and propane.

  2. The Importance of Complete Sample Dissolution and Spike-Sample Equilibration on Lu-Hf Isotope Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahlen, N. J.; Beard, B. L.; Johnson, C. M.; Lapen, T. J.

    2005-12-01

    Lu-Hf geochronology has gained attention due to its potential for precisely determining the age of garnet growth in a wide variety of rocks. A unique aspect of Lu-Hf analysis, however, is the disparate chemical behavior of Hf and Lu. For example, Hf is soluble in HF and Lu is soluble in HCl, which can create problems for spike-sample equilibration during dissolution as discussed by Unruh et al. 1984 JGR 89:B459 and later by Beard et al. 1998 GCA 62:525. Although partial dissolution may appear as an attractive means to preferentially dissolve garnet relative to refractory inclusions such as rutile and zircon, our investigations have shown that incomplete spike-sample equilibration may occur in such approaches. This leads to erroneous Lu and Hf contents that can adversely affect Lu-Hf isochron ages and calculated initial Hf isotope compositions. Dissolution of whole-rock powders using hot plates (low-pressure) or short-term microwave dissolution may produce inaccurate Lu-Hf isotope and concentration results, whereas high-temperature and -pressure dissolution in traditional Teflon steel-jacketed (Parr) bombs produces precise and accurate results. The greatest disparity in Lu-Hf isotope and concentration systematics of whole-rock powders among dissolution methods occurs for zircon- and garnet-bearing samples. In contrast, Sm-Nd isotope results are not affected by these different dissolution methods. Lu-Hf isochrons involving garnet may be affected by the dissolution method in a manner similar to that observed for whole-rock powders. Incomplete dissolution of garnet generally increases the measured Lu/Hf ratios, potentially increasing the precision of the isochron. In a number of lithologies, however, including garnet-bearing eclogites and amphibolites, significant errors may be introduced in the Lu-Hf age using hot plates (low-pressure) or short-term microwave dissolution, as compared to those obtained using high-temperature and -pressure dissolution bombs. These

  3. Sr and Nd isotope systematics of Francistown plutonic rocks, Botswana: implications for Neoarchaean crustal evolution of the Zimbabwe craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, M.; Kampunzu, A. B.; Modisi, M. P.; Bagai, Z.

    2006-06-01

    The Francistown plutonic rocks at the south-western margin of the Zimbabwe craton consist of three igneous suites: Sanukitoid, Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granite (TTG) suites and High-K granites. The TTG suite is subdivided into High Aluminum-TTG (HA-TTG) and Low Aluminum-TTG (LA-TTG) sub-suites. Their Rb-Sr isotope systems were partially homogenized by post-crystallization thermo-tectonic events, in which hydrothermal solutions and migmatization played an important role. Therefore, the Rb-Sr isochron age of 2427±54 Ma can only be regarded as a lower limit to the Francistown plutonic rock age. The large errors in the Sm-Nd isochron dates of Francistown granitoids indicate that these dates are not really constrained. In this study we compared the rock types of Francistown and adjacent areas, adopting the precise U, Th-Pb single zircon SHRIMP ages from the Vumba area as references. For TTG and Sanukitoid suites, the age we adopted is ca. 2.7 Ga, which is close to their depleted-mantle Sm-Nd model ages ( T DM). For High-K granites, the age adopted is ca. 2.65 Ga, which is also close to their Sm-Nd isochron age. The highest ɛ{Nd/ t } values of Sanukitoids and TTG are +2.1 and +2.3, respectively. The positive ɛ{Nd/ t } values and trace element geochemistry support partial melting of a depleted mantle and young oceanic crust for the genesis of Sanukitoid and the TTG suites respectively. The lowest ɛ{Nd/ t } values of Sanukitoids and TTGs are -1.0 and -1.1, respectively, indicating contamination by continental crust, up to 10 and 14%, respectively. The ɛ{Nd/ t } values of TTG decrease with decreasing Al2O3 and Sr contents and increasing Eu negative anomalies (Eu*-Eu), suggesting that the TTG magmas underwent a coupled fractionation crystallization and crustal contamination, and that the LA-TTG was the product of the fractionation and contamination of the HA-TTG sub-suite. In contrast, negative ɛ{Nd/ t } values for the High-K granites (from -0.4 to -3.5) indicate the

  4. Embryotoxicity of stable isotopes and use of stable isotopes in studies of teratogenetic mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Spielmann, H.; Nau, H.

    1986-07-01

    Experiments on teratogenic effects of stable isotopes from our own and other laboratories are evaluated. In the first series of investigations, the enrichment of the stable isotope /sup 13/C derived from U-/sup 13/C-glucose was studied in mouse embryos at various stages of development, including limb buds in organ culture. Preimplantation mouse embryos incubated in vitro in /sup 13/C-enriched medium for 48 hours showed normal development during subsequent differentiation in vitro and also in vivo after embryo transfer to faster mothers. These embryos were 15% to 20% enriched in /sup 13/C. Administration of U-13-C-glucose to pregnant mice during organogenesis led to an increase of the absolute /sup 13/C content of the embryo for several days after the end of isotope administration, whereas the enrichment in maternal tissue decreased. No alterations of embryonic development were detected due to stable isotope enrichment. Development of cultured mouse limb buds was unaffected by incubation with 82 mol% U-/sup 13/C-glucose as judged from morphologic and biochemical criteria. The second part of the article describes the value of deuterium-labeled drugs as probes into the mechanism of activation of teratogenic metabolites. A comparison of the pharmacokinetics as well as the teratogenicity between cyclophosphamide and some specific deuterium-labeled analogues showed that the isotope effect observed can be related to a particular metabolic pathway crucial for teratogenic activation by this drug.

  5. Lead isotope study of orogenic lherzolite massifs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamelin, Bruno; Allègre, Claude J.

    1988-12-01

    Orogenic lherzolites allow for almost "in-situ" observation of mantle isotopic heterogeneities on a restricted geographical scale, in contrast to basalts for which melting processes have averaged original mantle compositions over uncertain scales. Pb isotopes from whole rocks and clinopyroxenes from the massifs of Lherz (Pyrenees), Lanzo (Alps), Beni Bousera (Morocco) and Zabargad (Red Sea) show internal heterogeneities that encompass the entire range of variation observed in oceanic basalts. Some depleted lherzolites have a very unradiogenic composition similar to that of the most depleted ridge tholeiites. Pyroxenites from mafic layers generally have more radiogenic compositions, some of them comparable to the most radiogenic oceanic island results. The isotopic differences between lherzolites and pyroxenites vanish where layers are very closely spaced ( < 2 cm). In this case, the lherzolites may have equilibrated with the more Pb-rich pyroxenites through solid-state diffusion under mantle conditions. These results directly illustrate the smallest scales at which Pb isotopic heterogeneity may survive within the mantle. The genesis of these heterogeneities are discussed within the framework of the "marble cake" mantle model [1], where lherzolites are residues left over after oceanic crust extraction, whereas pyroxenites represent either basaltic or cumulate portions of the oceanic crust, reinjected by subduction and stretched by solid-state mixing during mantle convection. The Pb isotope data suggest that each massif was involved in several cycles of convective overturn, segregation and reinjection of the oceanic crust, during periods well over 1 Ga. If the upper mantle is made of interlayered radiogenic and unradiogenic layers, basalt heterogeneities may result from preferential melt-extraction from different layers depending on the degree of melting, as well as from large-scale, plume-related mantle heterogeneities. Orogenic lherzolites therefore allow direct

  6. Insights into early Earth from Barberton komatiites: Evidence from lithophile isotope and trace element systematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puchtel, I. S.; Blichert-Toft, J.; Touboul, M.; Walker, R. J.; Byerly, G. R.; Nisbet, E. G.; Anhaeusser, C. R.

    2013-05-01

    Major, minor, and lithophile trace element abundances and Nd and Hf isotope systematics are reported for two sets of remarkably fresh, by Archean standards, samples of komatiitic lavas from the 3.48 Ga Komati and the 3.27 Ga Weltevreden Formations of the Barberton Greenstone Belt (BGB) in South Africa. These data are used to place new constraints on the thermal history of the early Archean mantle, on the timing of its differentiation, and on the origin and chemical nature of early mantle reservoirs and their evolution through time. Projected moderate to strong depletions of highly incompatible lithophile trace elements and water in the mantle sources of both komatiite systems, combined with the partitioning behavior of V during lava differentiation, are consistent with anhydrous conditions during generation of the komatiite magmas. Komati and Weltevreden lavas are inferred to have erupted with temperatures of ∼1600 °C, and, thus, represent the hottest known lavas on Earth. The calculated mantle potential temperatures of ∼1800 °C for both komatiite systems are 150-200 °C higher than those of contemporary ambient mantle. Combined, these observations are consistent with the origin of these BGB komatiite magmas in mantle plumes in the lower mantle. New Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf isotopic data allow precise determination of initial ε143Nd = +0.46 ± 0.10 and +0.50 ± 0.11 and initial ε176Hf = +1.9 ± 0.3 and +4.7 ± 0.8 for the Komati and the Weltevreden system komatiites, respectively. These positive initial values reflect prior fractionation of Sm/Nd and Lu/Hf in the mantle early in Earth history. Conversely, μ142Nd values are 0.0 ± 2.4 and +2.2 ± 4.1 for the Komati and the Weltevreden systems, respectively. These values overlap, within uncertainties, those of modern terrestrial rocks, thus, limiting the magnitudes of possible Sm/Nd fractionations generated by early Earth processes in the sources of these rocks. Combined 142,143Nd and Hf isotope and lithophile trace

  7. Fluence dependent mixing of isotopic targets: a theoretical case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Rodríguez, J. J.; Conrad, U.; Urbassek, H. M.; Abril, I.; Gras-Martí, A.

    1992-04-01

    The collisional mixing of two isotopic species in a Ge sample by 5 keV Ar bombardment is studied theoretically. The evolution of the target isotope concentrations with fluence is calculated, by solving numerically the balance equation with the help of the TUI code. Its analytical input quantities for the atomic relocation under ion bombardment are checked against the predictions of a Monte Carlo computer simulation. In steady state, the light isotope is found to be depleted up to depths of around 90 Å, and enriched further inside. We compare the dependence of the preferential sputter enrichment on fluence with experimental data.

  8. Isotopic Forced-Diffusion Technique for Soil Respiration Pathway Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickerson, Nick; Egan, Jocelyn; Risk, David; McArthur, Gordon; Cunningham, Kevin; Jacobson, Gloria; Saad, Nabil; Panetta, Robert

    2013-04-01

    Isotopic ratio measurements of soil-respired CO2 can provide a wealth of insight into soil-level carbon-cycle processes that is not available using bulk CO2 emissions measurements alone. Soil contains substantial amounts of carbon, and can contribute CO2to the atmosphere through various respiration pathways. Isotopic analysis can distinguish autotrophic root and rhizosphere respiration from heterotrophic respiration due to the catabolism of soil organic matter (SOM). Because of this, researchers have shifted their efforts toward the use of natural abundance and tracer isotopic techniques in ecosystem respiration studies. However, recent experimental and theoretical evidence indicates that these traditional techniques yield biased estimates of the soil isotopic flux, largely owing to disturbances to the soil's natural diffusive regime. To help eliminate theses biases, we have developed a new technique called Isotopic Forced-Diffusion (IsoFD). The Isotopic Forced-Diffusion technique integrates a Forced Diffusion dynamic chamber with a cavity ringdown spectrometer measuring δ13C-CO2, which are operated together as a closed, recycling system where the leakage and pressures through the system are properly managed. The system produces real-time, high temporal resolution isotopic soil efflux data. We will present the theory behind this technique and present preliminary laboratory and field data.

  9. A latitudinal study of oxygen isotopes within horsehair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, E.; Bronk Ramsey, C.; McConnell, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to explore the hypothesis that 'if oxygen isotope ratios deplete with decreasing temperature then a study of oxygen isotope ratios within horsehair from Oxfordshire to Iceland will show a latitudinal depletion gradient'. By looking at oxygen isotope values at different geographical positions, we can track the relationship with latitude and with different regional climate features. This will provide a firmer understanding of how to compare climate records from different locations. Additionally, a comparison of the horse breeds from this study to those analysed within previous studies will create an even better understanding of the intra-species variation within the δ18O values of horsehair. A total of 24 horses were sampled on the 7th March from Thordale Stud in Shetland, the Icelandic Food And Veterinary Authority in Iceland, the Exmoor Pony Centre in Exmoor and the Pigeon House Equestrian Centre in Oxfordshire. By starting the sampling process from the most recent growth at the follicle, the sampling date becomes a chronological marker, temporally fixing the first sample within a sequential set of data points extending for one year or longer, depending on the length of each individual hair. The samples were analysed for oxygen isotope values using an IRMS coupled within a Sercon HTEA. Preliminary results show a latitudinal gradient is evident on comparison between the locations, consistent with the findings of Darling and Talbot's study of fresh water isotopes in the British Isles (2003). These results support the hypothesis, showing that a study of oxygen isotope ratios within horse hair from Oxfordshire to Iceland showing a latitudinal depletion gradient, consistent with a depletion of oxygen isotope ratios due to decreasing temperatures. Darling, W. and Talbot, J. (2003). The O and H stable isotope composition of freshwaters in the British Isles. 1. Rainfall. Hydrol. Earth System Science, 7(2), pp.163-181.

  10. P-T-time-isotopic evolution of coesite-bearing eclogites: Implications for exhumation processes in SW Tianshan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Zhou; Agard, Philippe; Gao, Jun; John, Timm; Li, JiLei; Jiang, Tuo; Bayet, Léa; Wang, XinShui; Zhang, Xi

    2017-05-01

    The Chinese Southwestern Tianshan high- to ultra-high pressure low temperature (HP-UHP/LT) metamorphic belt exhibits well-preserved mafic layers, tectonic blocks/slices and boudins of different sizes and lithology embedded within dominant meta-volcanosedimentary rocks. Despite a wealth of previous studies on UHP relicts, P-T path estimates and age constraints for metamorphism, controversies still exist on P-T-t assessments and regional exhumation patterns (i.e., tectonic mélange versus internally coherent ;sub-belt; model). This study focuses on a group of coesite-bearing eclogite samples from a thick ( 5 m) layered metabasalt outcrop in order to unravel its detailed tectono-metamorphic evolution through space and time (both prograde, peak and exhumation). Using SIMS zircon U-Pb and oxygen isotope analyses, TIMS Sm-Nd multi-point isochron dating, in situ laser-ICP-MS trace-element analyses, classical thermobarometry and thermodynamic modeling, we link the multistage zircon growth to garnet growth and reconstruct a detailed P-T-time-isotopic evolution history for this UHP tectonic slice: from UHP peak burial 2.95 ± 0.2 GPa, 510 ± 20 °C around 318.0 ± 2.3 Ma to HP peak metamorphism 2.45 ± 0.2 GPa, 540 ± 20 °C at 316.8 ± 0.8 Ma, then, with eclogite-facies deformation 2.0 ± 0.15 GPa, 525 ± 25 °C at 312 ± 2.5 Ma, exhumed to near surface within ca. 303 to ca. 280 Ma. Our P-T-time-isotopic results combined with the compilation of regional radiometric data and P-T estimates notably point to the existence of a short-lived period of rock detachment and exhumation (< 10 Ma, i.e. at ca. 315 ± 5 Ma) with respect to subduction duration.

  11. Isotope studies in the Caspian Sea.

    PubMed

    Froehlich, K; Rozanski, K; Povinec, P; Oregioni, B; Gastaud, J

    1999-09-30

    Oceanographic and isotopic investigations in the Caspian Sea and the analyses of the available data on the discharge to the sea and the observed sea level changes suggest that climatically caused changes of river inflow are the major cause of the sea level fluctuations over the last century. Hydrogen-3 and 3H-3He data indicate that the deep basins of the sea are rapidly ventilated, although the hydraulic turnover time of the sea is approximately 200 years. The concentration levels of the anthropogenic radionuclides 90Sr, 137Cs and 239,240Pu in the water column can be explained by global fallout and therefore, at the sampling sites visited, there were no signs of dumping of radioactive wastes. The anthropogenic radionuclide data support the idea of fast exchange of water masses in the Caspian Sea. The isotopic and oceanographic data collected during the cruises have shown potential to allow for a better understanding of the water circulation in the Caspian Sea.

  12. Insights into the deep continental lithosphere from xenolith studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C. A.; Rudnick, R. L.

    2006-12-01

    Studies of xenoliths provide a depth dimension to surface geology studies, and, in favorable circumstances, also provide the fourth dimension of time. In particular, geochemical studies of xenoliths provide insights into the processes that formed and modified the deep lithosphere (e.g., melting, metamorphism, fluid infiltration, basaltic underplating) and when they occurred. While xenoliths can provide a glimpse of the types of lithologies present at depth and how they formed, they cannot be assumed to be representative of the deep lithosphere, and inferences regarding the dominant lithologies present in the lower crust or upper mantle must be tempered by geophysical constraints on bulk physical properties of these regions. Mantle. Xenoliths from the lithospheric mantle are generally composed of peridotite, with lesser amounts of pyroxenite and/or eclogite. Equilibration T for these lithologies can generally be determined on the basis of two-pyroxene thermometery; precise depths of equilibration are much harder to estimate unless the samples contain garnet. The crystallization ages of mantle xenoliths are also usually difficult to constrain, as zircon is a rare phase in most upper mantle lithologies and most xenoliths have resided above the blocking temperature of other radiogenic isotope systems (Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, Lu-Hf) for a significant fraction of their histories. The Re- Os isotope system provides arguably the best means of determining the crystallization age of mantle xenoliths, but, like most model age approaches, carries significant uncertainty. Crust. Xenoliths from the lower continental crust can be extremely heterogeneous in composition, but mafic compositions dominate in a number of regions. Equilibration T and P may determined from coexisting phases and, in some cases, thermal histories deduced from presence of frozen metamorphic reactions (e.g., coronas). The presence of zircon and other U-bearing accessory phases provides the opportunity to determine the

  13. [Isotope nephrographic studies in benign gynecologic diseases].

    PubMed

    Lamm, D

    1977-01-01

    1014 patients with benigne gynaecological diseases (functional incontinence of urine with and without displacement, myoma of uterus, ovarian tumors, chronic salpingoophoritis) were examined by means of isotope nephrogram before gynaecological treatment was begun. A group of 156 patients was parallely examined by means of chromocystoscopy and intravenous urography. For judgement of the ING-curves we applicated an extra parameter--the drain value "A"--, through which it was possible to differenciate between emptying disturbances and functional urinary transport disorders. To obtain this value it is necessary to change the position of the patients during examination. Under these conditions approximately 95% of ING-findings conformed with those vaised by intravenous urography. Giving weight to these conditions, we recommend the application of ING in gynaecology as a screening method. Criteria for optimal usage of this method are mentioned.

  14. The Hf-Nd Isotopic Record of Southwest - no Evidence for Early Continental Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, C. M.; Vervoort, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    The nature and timing of the growth of continental crust has generated debate for decades, with numerous models for the rate of crustal growth being suggested. Ultimately, two end-member models have been proposed. One favors rapid and early differentiation of continental crust and a complimentary depleted mantle, while the other proposes an early basaltic proto-crust with true continental crust and depleted mantle forming many hundreds of millions of years later. Radiogenic isotope systems (e.g., Nd and Hf) are crucial in this debate, as they provide constraints on ancient fractionation of Sm from Nd and Lu from Hf, signaling mantle depletetion, relative to the Chondritic Uniform Reservior (CHUR). Southwest Greenland contains some of the best-studied Eoarchean rocks on Earth. As such, these rocks provide one of the best vantage points on the long-standing question of the growth of early continental crust. In order to address the question of the timing of early crustal growth, our approach is to focus on the zircon record from this area, as it is clearly the most robust repository of age and Hf isotopic information. We have conducted Laser Ablation Split Stream analysis on the U-Pb and Hf isotopic composition of twelve samples of the least-altered meta-igneous rocks from the Amitsoq gneiss from the Isukasia and Nuuk regions of southwest Greenland. This analytical approach allows us to unambiguously determine the age and Hf isotopic composition on the same zircon volume. Further, we have conducted new isotope-dilution whole rock Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf solution MC-ICPMS analyses of these same samples. Our results show that zircon from rocks ranging in age from ~3.8 Ga to ~3.6 Ga have initial ɛHf values within analytical uncertainty (~1.5 ɛHf units) of CHUR, consistent with previous age and Hf isotope studies conducted in the region. Thus, we conclude that these samples from southwest Greenland (which contains one of the largest tracts of Eoarchean crust) contain no

  15. Stable Isotope Applications in Hydrologic Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, C.; Doctor, D. H.

    2003-12-01

    The topic of stream flow generation has received considerable attention over the last two decades, first in response to concern about "acid rain" and more recently in response to the increasingly serious contamination of surface and shallow groundwaters by anthropogenic contaminants. Many sensitive, low-alkalinity streams in North America and Europe are already acidified (see Chapter 9.10). Still more streams that are not yet chronically acidic may undergo acidic episodes in response to large rainstorms and/or spring snowmelt. These acidic events can seriously damage local ecosystems. Future climate changes may exacerbate the situation by affecting biogeochemical controls on the transport of water, nutrients, and other materials from land to freshwater ecosystems.New awareness of the potential danger to water supplies posed by the use of agricultural chemicals and urban industrial development has also focused attention on the nature of rainfall-runoff and recharge processes and the mobility of various solutes, especially nitrate and pesticides, in shallow systems. Dumping and spills of other potentially toxic materials are also of concern because these chemicals may eventually reach streams and other public water supplies. A better understanding of hydrologic flow paths and solute sources is required to determine the potential impact of contaminants on water supplies, develop management practices to preserve water quality, and devise remediation plans for sites that are already polluted.Isotope tracers have been extremely useful in providing new insights into hydrologic processes, because they integrate small-scale variability to give an effective indication of catchment-scale processes. The main purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of recent research into the use of naturally occurring stable isotopes to track the movement of water and solutes in hydrological systems where the waters are relatively fresh: soils, surface waters, and shallow

  16. Granulite fades Nd-isotopic homogenization in the Lewisian complex of northwest Scotland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitehouse, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    A published Sm-Nd whole-rock isochron of 2,920 ?? 50 Myr, obtained from a wide range of lithologies in the Lewisian complex of north-west Scotland, was interpreted1 as the time of protolith formation. This date is ???260 Myr older than estimates for the timing of high-grade metamorphism in the complex at ??? 2,660 Myr2'3, and this period is considered to represent the duration of the Lewisian crustal accretion-differentiation superevent (CADS)4. Here we give new Sm-Nd data, obtained specifically from granulite facies tonalitic gneisses, that yield a date of 2,600 ??155 Myr. Although depleted-mantle model ages (tDM suggest >200 Myr of premetamorphic crustal residence, the regression date and its associated initial Nd-isotopic parameters demonstrate Nd-isotopic homogenization during the high-grade event, as well as the probability of general rare-earth-element (REE) mobility. Models for selective element depletion in the complex have previously assumed REE immobility since 2,920 Myr, but the data presented here suggest that a reappraisal of the depletion mechanism is required. ?? 1988 Nature Publishing Group.

  17. Nitrogen and Oxygen Isotopic Studies of the Marine Nitrogen Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casciotti, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    The marine nitrogen cycle is a complex web of microbially mediated reactions that control the inventory, distribution, and speciation of nitrogen in the marine environment. Because nitrogen is a major nutrient that is required by all life, its availability can control biological productivity and ecosystem structure in both surface and deep-ocean communities. Stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate and nitrite have provided new insights into the rates and distributions of marine nitrogen cycle processes, especially when analyzed in combination with numerical simulations of ocean circulation and biogeochemistry. This review highlights the insights gained from dual-isotope studies applied at regional to global scales and their incorporation into oceanic biogeochemical models. These studies represent significant new advances in the use of isotopic measurements to understand the modern nitrogen cycle, with implications for the study of past ocean productivity, oxygenation, and nutrient status.

  18. Nitrogen and Oxygen Isotopic Studies of the Marine Nitrogen Cycle.

    PubMed

    Casciotti, Karen L

    2016-01-01

    The marine nitrogen cycle is a complex web of microbially mediated reactions that control the inventory, distribution, and speciation of nitrogen in the marine environment. Because nitrogen is a major nutrient that is required by all life, its availability can control biological productivity and ecosystem structure in both surface and deep-ocean communities. Stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate and nitrite have provided new insights into the rates and distributions of marine nitrogen cycle processes, especially when analyzed in combination with numerical simulations of ocean circulation and biogeochemistry. This review highlights the insights gained from dual-isotope studies applied at regional to global scales and their incorporation into oceanic biogeochemical models. These studies represent significant new advances in the use of isotopic measurements to understand the modern nitrogen cycle, with implications for the study of past ocean productivity, oxygenation, and nutrient status.

  19. Ammonium transport and reaction in contaminated groundwater: Application of isotope tracers and isotope fractionation studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Böhlke, J.K.; Smith, R.L.; Miller, D.N.

    2006-01-01

    Ammonium (NH4+) is a major constituent of many contaminated groundwaters, but its movement through aquifers is complex and poorly documented. In this study, processes affecting NH4+ movement in a treated wastewater plume were studied by a combination of techniques including large-scale monitoring of NH4+ distribution; isotopic analyses of coexisting aqueous NH4+, NO3-, N2, and sorbed NH 4+; and in situ natural gradient 15NH 4+ tracer tests with numerical simulations of 15NH4+, 15NO3-, and 15N2 breakthrough data. Combined results indicate that the main mass of NH4+ was moving downgradient at a rate about 0.25 times the groundwater velocity. Retardation factors and groundwater ages indicate that much of the NH4+ in the plume was recharged early in the history of the wastewater disposal. NO3- and excess N2 gas, which were related to each other by denitrification near the plume source, were moving downgradient more rapidly and were largely unrelated to coexisting NH 4+. The ??15N data indicate areas of the plume affected by nitrification (substantial isotope fractionation) and sorption (no isotope fractionation). There was no conclusive evidence for NH 4+-consuming reactions (nitrification or anammox) in the anoxic core of the plume. Nitrification occurred along the upper boundary of the plume but was limited by a low rate of transverse dispersive mixing of wastewater NH4+ and O2 from overlying uncontaminated groundwater. Without induced vertical mixing or displacement of plume water with oxic groundwater from upgradient sources, the main mass of NH4+ could reach a discharge area without substantial reaction long after the more mobile wastewater constituents are gone. Multiple approaches including in situ isotopic tracers and fractionation studies provided critical information about processes affecting NH4+ movement and N speciation.

  20. Groundwater surface water interaction study using natural isotopes tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Yoon Yeol; Kim, Yong Chul; Cho, Soo Young; Lee, Kil Yong

    2015-04-01

    Tritium and stable isotopes are a component of the water molecule, they are the most conservative tracer for groundwater study. And also, radon is natural radioactive nuclide and well dissolved in groundwater. Therefore, these isotopes are used natural tracer for the study of surface water and groundwater interaction of water curtain greenhouse area. The study area used groundwater as a water curtain for warming tool of greenhouse during the winter, and is associated with issues of groundwater shortage while being subject to groundwater-river water interaction. During the winter time, these interactions were studied by using Rn-222, stable isotopes and H-3. These interaction was monitored in multi depth well and linear direction well of groundwater flow. And dam effect was also compared. Samples were collected monthly from October 2013 to April 2014. Radon and tritium were analyzed using Quantulus low background liquid scintillation counter and stable isotopes were analyzed using an IRIS (Isotope Ratio Infrared Spectroscopy ; L2120-i, Picarro). During the winter time, radon concentration was varied from 0.07 Bq/L to 8.9 Bq/L and different interaction was showed between dam. Surface water intrusion was severe at February and restored April when greenhouse warming was ended. The stable isotope results showed different trend with depth and ranged from -9.16 ‰ to -7.24 ‰ for δ 18O value, while the δD value was ranged from -57.86 ‰ to -50.98 ‰. The groundwater age as dated by H-3 was ranged 0.23 Bq/L - 0.59 Bq/L with an average value of 0.37 Bq/L.

  1. Oxygen isotope fractionation between analcime and water - An experimental study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karlsson, Haraldur R.; Clayton, Robert N.

    1990-01-01

    The oxygen isotope fractionation between analcime and water is studied to test the feasibility of using zeolites as low-temperature thermometers. The fractionation of oxygen isotopes between natural analcime and water is determined at 300, 350, and 400 C, and at fluid pressures ranging from 1.5 to 5.0 kbar. Also, isotope ratios for the analcime framework, the channel water, and bulk water are obtained. The results suggest that the channel water is depleted in O-18 relative to bulk water by a constant value of about 5 percent, nearly independent of temperature. The analcime-water fractionation curve is presented, showing that the exchange has little effect on grain morphology and does not involve recrystallization. The exchange is faster than any other observed for a silicate. The exchange rates suggest that zeolites in active high-temperature geothermal areas are in oxygen isotopic equilibrium with ambient fluids. It is concluded that calibrated zeolites may be excellent low-temperature oxygen isotope geothermometers.

  2. Oxygen isotope fractionation between analcime and water - An experimental study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karlsson, Haraldur R.; Clayton, Robert N.

    1990-01-01

    The oxygen isotope fractionation between analcime and water is studied to test the feasibility of using zeolites as low-temperature thermometers. The fractionation of oxygen isotopes between natural analcime and water is determined at 300, 350, and 400 C, and at fluid pressures ranging from 1.5 to 5.0 kbar. Also, isotope ratios for the analcime framework, the channel water, and bulk water are obtained. The results suggest that the channel water is depleted in O-18 relative to bulk water by a constant value of about 5 percent, nearly independent of temperature. The analcime-water fractionation curve is presented, showing that the exchange has little effect on grain morphology and does not involve recrystallization. The exchange is faster than any other observed for a silicate. The exchange rates suggest that zeolites in active high-temperature geothermal areas are in oxygen isotopic equilibrium with ambient fluids. It is concluded that calibrated zeolites may be excellent low-temperature oxygen isotope geothermometers.

  3. Sr and Nd isotope composition of deformed peridotite xenoliths from Udachnaya kimberlite pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surgutanova, E. A.; Agashev, A. M.; Demonterova, E. I.; Golovin, A. V.; Pokhilenko, N. P.

    2016-11-01

    New results of Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotope analyses have been obtained on samples of deformed peridotite xenoliths collected from the Udachnaya kimberlite pipe (Yakutia). The data obtained imply two main stages of metasomatic alteration of the lithospheric mantle base matter in the central part of the Siberian Craton. Elevated ratios of Sr isotopes may be considered as evidence of an ancient stage of metasomatic enrichment by a carbonatite melt. The acquired Nd isotope composition together with the geochemistry of the deformed peridotite xenoliths suggests that the second stage of metasomatic alteration took place shortly before formation of the kimberlite melt. The metasomatic agent of this stage had a silicate character and arrived from an asthenosphere source, common for the normal OIB type (PREMA) and the Group-I kimberlite.

  4. Pb isotope constaints on the extent of crustal recycling into a steady state mantle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galer, S. J. G.; Goldstein, S. L.; Onions, R. K.

    1988-01-01

    Isotopic and geochemical evidence was discussed against recycling of continental crust into the mantle. Element ratios such as Sm/Nd, Th/Sc, and U/Pb in sedimentary masses have remained relatively constant throughout Earth history, and this can only be reconciled with steady state recycling models if new crustal materials added from the mantle have had similar ratios. Such recycling models would also require shorter processing times for U, Th, and Pb through the mantle than are geodynamically reasonable. Models favoring subduction of pelagic sediments as the only recycling mechanism fail to account for the Pb isotopic signature of the mantle. Recycling of bulk crust with Pb isotopic compositions similar to those expected for primitive mantle would be permissable with available data, but there appear to be no plausible tectonic mechanisms to carry this out.

  5. Application of helium isotopes to studies of ocean circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlosser, P.; Newton, R.; Winckler, G.; Lupton, J.; Jenkins, W.; Top, Z.; Roether, W.; Jean-Baptiste, P.

    2004-12-01

    Since the discovery of excess He-3 in the ocean by Clarke and Craig in the 1960's helium isotopes have been used in local, regional and global studies of circulation patterns and water mass transformation in the world ocean. From initial pilot studies through systematic exploration of these tracers during the GEOSECS (Geochemical Ocean Sections) program to the recent global survey as part of the WOCE (World Ocean Circulation Experiment) hydrographic program (WHP) we obtained more detailed information on the distribution of helium isotopes, as well as their sources and sinks in the ocean. This information can now be applied to construct global fields of helium isotopes and to extract unique information on the circulation patterns at different depth levels in the ocean, as well as on local and regional processes such as ventilation of water masses in deep water formation regions. Additionally, the data sets are now sufficiently large to be useful for validation of Ocean General Circulation Models (OGCM's). In this contribution we present examples of global helium isotope fields constructed from major programs such as GEOCECS, TTO (Transient Tracers in the Ocean), SAVE (South Atlantic Ventilation Experiment) and WOCE, as well as from individual ocean sections. We use the data to delineate circulation patterns in the major ocean basins at several depth levels, especially mid-depth waters. Additionally, we outline the use of helium isotopes in studies of ocean ventilation. Finally, we compare observed and simulated helium isotope fields to highlight OGCM capabilities and deficiencies to reproduce internal He-3 excesses in the ocean and the related ventilation processes.

  6. Source characteristics of the ∼2.5 Ga Wangjiazhuang Banded Iron Formation from the Wutai greenstone belt in the North China Craton: Evidence from neodymium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Changle; Zhang, Lianchang; Dai, Yanpei; Li, Wenjun

    2014-10-01

    Here we first present samarium (Sm)-neodymium (Nd) isotopic data for the ∼2.5 Ga Wangjiazhuang BIF and associated lithologies from the Wutai greenstone belt (WGB) in the North China Craton. Previous geochemical data of the BIF indicate that there are three decoupled end members controlling REE compositions: high-T hydrothermal fluids, ambient seawater and terrigenous contaminants. Clastic meta-sediment samples were collected for major and trace elements studies in an attempt to well constrain the nature of detrital components of the BIF. Fractionated light rare earth elements patterns and mild negative Eu anomalies in the majority of these meta-sedimentary samples point toward felsic source rocks. Moreover, the relatively low Th/Sc ratios and positive εNd(t) values are similar to those of the ∼2.5 Ga granitoids, TTG gneisses and felsic volcanics in the WGB, further indicating that they are derived from less differentiated terranes. Low Chemical Index of Weathering (CIW) values and features in the A-CN-K diagrams for these meta-sediments imply a low degree of source weathering. Sm-Nd isotopes of the chemically pure BIF samples are characterized by negative εNd(t) values, whereas Al-rich BIF samples possess consistently positive εNd(t) features. Significantly, the associated supracrustal rocks in the study area have positive εNd(t) values. Taken together, these isotopic data also point to three REE sources controlling the back-arc basin depositional environment of the BIF, the first being seafloor-vented hydrothermal fluids (εNd(t) < -2.5) derived from interaction with the underlying old continental crust, the second being ambient seawater which reached its composition by erosion of parts of the depleted landmass (likely the arc) (εNd(t) > 0), the third being syndepositional detritus that received their features by weathering of a nearby depleted source (likely the arc) (εNd(t) > 0).

  7. Hydrothermal-metasomatic and tectono-metamorphic processes in the Isua supracrustal belt (West Greenland): a multi-isotopic investigation of their effects on the earth's oldest oceanic crustal sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frei, Robert; Rosing, Minik T.; Waight, Tod E.; Ulfbeck, David G.

    2002-02-01

    Despite superimposed metamorphic overprinting and metasomatic alterations, primary volcanic features remain preserved in low-strain domains of mafic volcanic sequences in the western Isua supracrustal belt (ISB, West Greenland). These basaltic successions represent the hitherto oldest known fragments of oceanic crust on Earth. Early Archean metasomatic fluids, rich in light rare earth elements (LREE), Th, U, Pb, Ba, and alkalies, invaded the supracrustal package and distinctively altered the basaltic sequences. Field relationships, source characteristics traced by Pb isotopes, and geochronological results provide indications that these fluids were genetically related to the emplacement of tonalite sheets into the ISB between 3.81 and 3.74 Ga ago. Subsequent early Archean metamorphism homogenized the mixed primary and metasomatic mineral parageneses of these metavolcanic rocks. Allanite occurs as the most characteristic and critical secondary metasomatic-metamorphic phase and is developed in macroscopically discernible zones of increased metsomatic alteration, even in domains of low strain. Because of its high concentration of LREE, Th, and U, this secondary mineral accounts for much of the disturbances recorded by the Sm-Nd and Th-U-Pb isotope systematics of the pillowed metabasalts. The supracrustal sequences were tectono-metamorphically affected to varying degrees during a late Archean, ˜2.6- to 2.8-Ga-old event, also recognized in the adjacent gneiss terranes of the Isuakasia area. The degree to which bulk rocks were isotopically reequilibrated is directly dependent on the different relative contributions of allanite-hosted parent-daughter elements to the overall whole-rock mass budget of the respective isotope systems. Although low-strained (initially only weakly metasomatized) pillow basalts remained more or less closed with respect to the U-Pb and Rb-Sr systems since ˜3.74 Ga, the Sm-Nd system appears to have been partially opened on a whole-rock scale

  8. Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopes of ultramafic xenoliths in volcanic rocks of Eastern China: enriched components EMI and EMII in subcontinental lithosphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tatsumoto, M.; Basu, A.R.; Wankang, H.; Junwen, W.; Guanghong, X.

    1992-01-01

    The UThPb, SmNd, and RbSr isotopic systematics of mafic and ultramafic xenolithic rocks and associated megacrystic inclusions of aluminous augite and garnet, that occur in three alkalic volcanic suites: Kuandian in eastern Liaoning Province, Hanluoba in Hebei Province, and Minxi in western Fujian Province, China are described. In various isotopic data plots, the inclusion data invariably fall outside the isotopic ranges displayed by the host volcanic rocks, testifying to the true xenolithic nature of the inclusions. The major element partitioning data on Ca, Mg, Fe, and Al among the coexisting silicate minerals of the xenoliths establish their growth at ambient mantle temperatures of 1000-1100??C and possible depths of 70-80 km in the subcontinental lithosphere. Although the partitioning of these elements reflects equilibrium between coexisting minerals, equilibria of the Pb, Nd, and Sr isotopic systems among the minerals were not preserved. The disequilibria are most notable with respect to the 206Pb 204Pb ratios of the minerals. On a NdSr isotopic diagram, the inclusion data plot in a wider area than that for oceanic basalts from a distinctly more depleted component than MORB with higher 143Nd 144Nd and a much broader range of 87Sr 86Sr values, paralleling the theoretical trajectory of a sea-water altered lithosphere in NdSr space. The garnets consistently show lower ?? and ?? values than the pyroxenes and pyroxenites, whereas a phlogopite shows the highest ?? and ?? values among all the minerals and rocks studied. In a plot of ??207 and ??208, the host basalts for all three areas show lower ??207 and higher ??208 values than do the xenoliths, indicating derivation of basalts from Th-rich (relative to U) sources and xenoliths from U-rich sources. The xenolith data trends toward the enriched mantle components, EMI and EMII-like, characterized by high 87Sr 86Sr and ??207 values but with slightly higher 143Nd 144Nd. The EMI trend is shown more distinctly by the host

  9. Multiple sulfur isotope and mineralogical constraints on the genesis of Ni-Cu-PGE magmatic sulfide mineralization of the Monchegorsk Igneous Complex, Kola Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekker, A.; Grokhovskaya, T. L.; Hiebert, R.; Sharkov, E. V.; Bui, T. H.; Stadnek, K. R.; Chashchin, V. V.; Wing, B. A.

    2016-12-01

    We present the results of a pilot investigation of multiple sulfur isotopes for the Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide mineralization of the ˜2.5 Ga Monchegorsk Igneous Complex (MIC). Base Metal Sulfide (BMS) compositions, Platinum Group Element (PGE) distributions, and Platinum Group Mineral (PGM) assemblages were also studied for different types of Ni-Cu-PGE mineralization. The uniformly low S content of the country rocks for the MIC as well as variable Sm-Nd isotope systematics and low-sulfide, PGE-rich mineralization of the MIC suggest that S saturation was reached via assimilation of silicates rather than assimilation of sulfur-rich lithologies. R-factor modeling suggests that the mixing ratio for silicate-to-sulfide melt was very high, well above 15,000 for the majority of our mineralized samples, as might be expected for the low-sulfide, PGE-rich mineralization of the MIC. Small, negative Δ33S values (from -0.23 to -0.04 ‰) for sulfides in strongly metamorphosed MIC-host rocks indicate that their sulfur underwent mass-independent sulfur isotope fractionation (MIF) in the oxygen-poor Archean atmosphere before it was incorporated into the protoliths of the host paragneisses and homogenized during metamorphism. Ore minerals from the MIC have similar Δ33S values (from -0.21 to -0.06 ‰) consistent with country rock assimilation contributing to sulfide saturation, but, also importantly, our dataset suggests that Δ33S values decrease from the center to the margin of the MIC as well as from early to late magmatic phases, potentially indicating that both local assimilation of host rocks and S homogenization in the central part of the large intrusion took place.

  10. The Enriched Background Isotope Study (EBIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, Paul J.; Trumbore, Susan; Swanston, Chris; Torn, Margaret; Jastrow, Julie; Parton, William A; Post, Wilfred M.; Froberg, Mats J; Hainsworth, Laura J; Kleber, Markus; Kramer, Christiane; Matamala-Paradeda, Roser; Garten, Jr, Charles T.

    2007-02-05

    A unique, large release of radiocarbon occurred near the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), Oak Ridge, TN in July/August 1999. Measurements of 14C in tree ring cellulose throughout the ORR area demonstrate that the 1999 release was unprecedented in its uptake by vegetation. We are taking advantage of the whole-ecosystem isotopic label generated by this release to address five outstanding issues in the terrestrial carbon cycle: (1) partitioning of soil respiration between autotrophic and heterotrophic sources, and quantification of that partitioning seasonally and inter-annually, (2) partitioning of heterotrophic respiration sources between above-ground litter decomposition and below-ground root detritus decomposition, (3) identification of pathways leading from leaf and root detritus to long-term stabilization of soil organic matter, including the role of soil fauna, (4) the role of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) transport in distributing carbon within the soil profile, and, (5) the longevity and turnover time of fine roots. The first four issues are being addressed through a reciprocal litter transplant experiment set up at four sites on the ORR encompassing two soil types and two levels of 14C exposure in 1999. The fifth issue, longevity and turnover of fine roots, is being addressed by tracing the radiocarbon label through the fine root pool over time. With a combination of incubation, soil surface chamber and soil CO2 profiles, and continuous measurements of soil temperature and moisture controls, we are tracking changes in soil respiration partitioning over several years. The nature and source of organic matter pools that reside in soils for years to decades are being tracked with differently labeled root and surface litter, and experiments to exclude soil fauna have been initiated to elucidate their role in vertical transport. Periodic sampling of soils and soil solutions and the use of inert tracers, allow us to investigate the chemical nature and form of DOC and

  11. Beta Decay Studies of Short Lived Barium Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendall, Charles Skipwith

    The half-lives and relative intensities of several short lived neutron rich isotopes, with atomic numbers between 54 and 57, produced in the spontaneous fission of californium-252 were determined. This was accomplished from the study of the time variation of the K X-ray yields of these isotopes. A transport system which allowed us to study isotopes with half-lives less than 10 seconds was developed. Mass assignments were made by comparing the experimental values of the half-lives with known values. A beta K X-ray coincidence technique was used to obtain the barium beta spectrum in coincidence with lanthanum K X -rays. A Kurie plot was performed on the spectrum to determine the beta groups. The probable origin of each beta group was determined through a comparison of the relative intensities of the isotopes and beta groups. Four beta groups probably from the decay of Ba-145 were revealed. The end point energies of these beta groups are 3870 (+OR-) 432 keV, 2772 (+OR-) 112 keV, 1894 (+OR-) 58 keV, and 746 (+OR-) 38 keV. The three lowest energy groups have not been observed before.

  12. Isotopic Biogeochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    An overview is provided of the biogeochemical research. The funding, productivity, personnel and facilities are reviewed. Some of the technical areas covered are: carbon isotopic records; isotopic studies of banded iron formations; isotope effects in microbial systems; studies of organic compounds in ancient sediments; and development in isotopic geochemistry and analysis.

  13. Geologically Controlled Isotope-Time Patterns Reveal Early Differentiation and Crust Formation Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, V. C.; Nutman, A. P.

    2014-12-01

    The mechanisms of continental crust production and evolution in the early Earth remain controversial, as are questions of the relative roles of early differentiation versus subsequent tectonic procssing in creating Earth's chemical signatures. Here we present geologic observations integrated with whole rock major, trace element and Sm-Nd isotopic signatures and combined with U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopic compositions of zircon populations from the same rocks, from the most extensive early rock record comprising the 3.9 Ga to 3.6 Ga terranes of southwest Greenland. These data reveal repeated patterns of formation of juvenile TTG crust and associated mafic and ultramafic rocks in convergent margin settings followed by formation of more evolved granites [1]. Our new zircon Lu-Hf data from rare 3.6-3.7 Ga tonalites within the Itsaq Gneiss Complex, obtained from single component, non-migmatitic gneisses with simple zircon populations, limited within sample Hf isotopic variability and accurate U-Pb ages, now document extraction of juvenile tonalites from a near chondritic mantle source between 3.9 Ga and 3.6 Ga. The more evolved, granitic rocks in each area show slightly negative initial ɛHf in accord with crustal reworking of the older (3.8-3.9 Ga) gniesses. There is no evidence for Hadean material in the sources of the granitoids. The Hf isotope-time patterns are consistent with juvenile crust production from a mantle source that experienced only modest amounts of prior crustal extraction. They are distinct from those predicted by reprocessing of an enriched Hadean mafic crust, as has been proposed for this region [2] and for the source of the Hadean Jack Hills zircons [3]. The well-documented, time decreasing, positive 142Nd anomalies [e.g., 4] from these rocks are further evidence of crustal derivation from a convecting mantle source, rather than reworking of an enriched mafic lithosphere. The 143Nd isotopic -time patterns are more complex, reflecting the interplay

  14. Paleoproterozoic pge-bearing Monchetundra massif (Fennoscandian shield): isotope-geochemical Nd-Sr features of the mafic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunakkuzin, Evgeniy; Borisenko, Elena; Bayanova, Tamara; Nerovich, Lydmila; Serov, Pavel; Elizarov, Dmitry

    2016-04-01

    The Monchetundra massif (MM) is situated in the central part of the Kola Peninsula (northwest of Russia) and belongs to the Paleoproterozoic East-Scandinavian Large Igneous province (ESCLIP) enclosing Cr, Ni, Cu, Co, Ti, V and PGM-bearing deposits (Mitrofanov, 2009). There are two belts of Paleoproterozoic layered intrusions in the Baltic (Fennoscandian) Shield: the Northern (Kola) Belt and the Southern (Fenno-Karelian) Belt. The last includes mafic-ultramafic intrusions of Finland (the Tornio-Näränkävaara Belt), Sweden (Tornio intrusion) and Russia (Olanga complex). The Northern Belt includes intrusions of the Kola Peninsula, the most famous of them are Mt Generalskaya, Monchegorsk Layered Complex, Fedorovo-Pansky. The MM is traditionally attributed to the Main Range Complex and together with Monchegorsk Layered Complex occurs in the central part of the Kola Belt. According to the new isotopic Nd-Sr data, the MM mafic rock groups of different ages are characterized by various isotopic and geochemical characteristics. These new Sm-Nd isotopic data obtained for the main types of the MM mafic rocks indicate that most of the rocks with negative ɛNd values have older TDM values from 3.4 to 3.1 Ga, and most of the rocks with positive ɛNd values have younger TDM values from 3.0 to 2.7 Ga. A special type of gabbronorites with high positive ɛNd values and TDM of ca. 2.7 Ga were found among the MM mafic rocks. According to isotopic Nd data, these rocks were formed from a depleted mantle source, but at present there are no enough geological and geochemical data to determine a mantle source for them. Thus, the isotope-geochemical Nd-Sr data indicate that the MM mafic rocks were formed from a mantle source enriched in lithophile elements. The variations of isotopic values in different groups of rocks are likely to cause by the evolution of the long life mantle reservoir during the plume-lithospheric interaction. The studies were supported by the Russian Foundation of

  15. Venous obstruction in permanent pacemaker patients: an isotopic study

    SciTech Connect

    Pauletti, M.; Di Ricco, G.; Solfanelli, S.; Marini, C.; Contini, C.; Giuntini, C.

    1981-01-01

    Isotope venography was used to study the venous circulation proximal to the superior vena cava in two groups of pacemaker patients, one with a single endocavitary electrode and the other with multiple pacing catheters. A control group of patients without pacemakers was also studied. Numerous abnormalities were found, especially in the group with multiple electrodes. These findings suggest that venous obstruction is a common complication of endocardial pacing.

  16. Impact of kinetic isotope effects in isotopic studies of metabolic systems.

    PubMed

    Millard, Pierre; Portais, Jean-Charles; Mendes, Pedro

    2015-09-26

    Isotope labeling experiments (ILEs) are increasingly used to investigate the functioning of metabolic systems. Some enzymes are subject to kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) which modulate reaction rates depending on the isotopic composition of their substrate(s). KIEs may therefore affect both the propagation of isotopes through metabolic networks and their operation, and ultimately jeopardize the biological value of ILEs. However, the actual impact of KIEs on metabolism has never been investigated at the system level. First, we developed a framework which integrates KIEs into kinetic and isotopic models of metabolism, thereby accounting for their system-wide effects on metabolite concentrations, metabolic fluxes, and isotopic patterns. Then, we applied this framework to assess the impact of KIEs on the central carbon metabolism of Escherichia coli in the context of (13)C-ILEs, under different situations commonly encountered in laboratories. Results showed that the impact of KIEs strongly depends on the label input and on the variable considered but is significantly lower than expected intuitively from measurements on isolated enzymes. The global robustness of both the metabolic operation and isotopic patterns largely emerge from intrinsic properties of metabolic networks, such as the distribution of control across the network and bidirectional isotope exchange. These results demonstrate the necessity of investigating the impact of KIEs at the level of the entire system, contradict previous hypotheses that KIEs would have a strong effect on isotopic distributions and on flux determination, and strengthen the biological value of (13)C-ILEs. The proposed modeling framework is generic and can be used to investigate the impact of all the isotopic tracers ((2)H, (13)C, (15)N, (18)O, etc.) on different isotopic datasets and metabolic systems. By allowing the integration of isotopic and metabolomics data collected under stationary and/or non-stationary conditions, it may

  17. Broadband non-selective excitation of plutonium isotopes for isotope ratio measurements in resonance ionization mass spectrometry: a theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Sankari, M

    2012-10-15

    Making isotope ratio measurements with minimum isotope bias has always been a challenging task to mass spectrometrists, especially for the specific case of plutonium, owing to the strategic importance of the element. In order to use resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS) as a tool for isotope ratio measurements, optimization of the various laser parameters and other atomic and system parameters is critical to minimize isotopic biases. Broadband simultaneous non-selective excitation of the isotopes of plutonium in the triple resonance excitation scheme with λ(1) = 420.77 nm, λ(2) = 847.28 nm, and λ(3) = 767.53 nm based on density matrix formalism has been theoretically computed for the determination of isotope ratios. The effects of the various laser parameters and other factors such as the atomization temperature and the dimensions of the atomic beam on the estimation of isotope ratios were studied. The effects of Doppler broadening, and time-dependent excitation parameters such as Rabi frequencies, ionization rate and the effect of non-Lorenztian lineshape have all been incorporated. The average laser powers and bandwidths for the three-excitation steps were evaluated for non-selective excitation. The laser intensity required to saturate the three-excitation steps were studied. The two-dimensional lineshape contour and its features were investigated, while the reversal of peak asymmetry of two-step and two-photon excitation peaks under these conditions is discussed. Optimized powers for the non-selective ionization of the three transitions were calculated as 545 mW, 150 mW and 545 mW and the laser bandwidth for all the three steps was ~20 GHz. The isotopic bias between the resonant and off-resonant isotope under the optimized conditions was no more than 9%, which is better than an earlier reported value. These optimized laser power and bandwidth conditions are better than in the earlier experimental work since these comprehensive calculations yield

  18. STABLE ISOTOPES IN ECOLOGICAL STUDIES: NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN MIXING MODELS (URUGUAY)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stable isotopes are increasingly being used as tracers in ecological studies. One application uses isotopic ratios to quantify the proportional contributions of multiple sources to a mixture. Examples include pollution sources for air or water bodies, food sources for animals, ...

  19. Applications of C and N stable isotopes to ecological and environmental studies in seagrass ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Lepoint, Gilles; Dauby, Patrick; Gobert, Sylvie

    2004-12-01

    Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen are increasingly used in marine ecosystems, for ecological and environmental studies. Here, we examine some applications of stable isotopes as ecological integrators or tracers in seagrass ecosystem studies. We focus on both the use of natural isotope abundance as food web integrators or environmental tracers and on the use of stable isotopes as experimental tools. As ecosystem integrators, stable isotopes have helped to elucidate the general structure of trophic webs in temperate, Mediterranean and tropical seagrass ecosystems. As environmental tracers, stable isotopes have proven their utility in sewage impact measuring and mapping. However, to make such environmental studies more comprehensible, future works on understanding of basic reasons for variations of N and C stable isotopes in seagrasses should be encouraged. At least, as experimental tracers, stable isotopes allow the study of many aspects of N and C cycles at the scale of a plant or at the scale of the seagrass ecosystem.

  20. STABLE ISOTOPES IN ECOLOGICAL STUDIES: NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN MIXING MODELS (URUGUAY)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stable isotopes are increasingly being used as tracers in ecological studies. One application uses isotopic ratios to quantify the proportional contributions of multiple sources to a mixture. Examples include pollution sources for air or water bodies, food sources for animals, ...

  1. Isotopically modified nanoparticles for enhanced detection in bioaccumulation studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Misra, S.K.; Dybowska, A.; Berhanu, D.; Croteau, M.-N.; Luoma, S.N.; Boccaccini, A.R.; Valsami-Jones, E.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents results on synthesis of isotopically enriched (99% 65Cu) copper oxide nanoparticles and its application in ecotoxicological studies. 65CuO nanoparticles were synthesized as spheres (7 nm) and rods (7 ?? 40 nm). Significant differences were observed between the reactivity and dissolution of spherical and rod shaped nanoparticles. The extreme sensitivity of the stable isotope tracing technique developed in this study allowed determining Cu uptake at exposure concentrations equivalent to background Cu concentrations in freshwater systems (0.2-30 ??g/L). Without a tracer, detection of newly accumulated Cu was impossible, even at exposure concentrations surpassing some of the most contaminated water systems (>1 mg/L). ?? 2011 American Chemical Society.

  2. Paleoclimate studies in Brazil using carbon isotopes in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessenda, Luiz C. R.; Valencia, E. P. E.; Aravena, R.; Telles, E. C. C.; Boulet, R.

    This chapter presents carbon isotope data of soil organic matter (SOM), collected in natural forest ecosystems in different sites from Brazil. The studied areas are located in Londrina (Southern part of the country), Piracicaba (Southeast), Salitre (Central) and Altamira (Northern). This study is part of the research program on tropical and sub-tropical soils in Brazil, of which the main objective is to use carbon isotopes to provide information on vegetation changes and their relationships with climatic changes during the Holocene. 14C data of charcoal samples, the humin fraction and soil organic matter (SOM) contents, indicate that the organic matter of this area is at least of Holocene age. 13C data in SOM indicate that C4 plants were the dominant vegetation in Londrina and Piracicaba during the early and middle Holocene, while C3 plants were the dominant vegetation in Altamira and probably a mixture of C3 and C4 plants occurred in Salitre during the Holocene.

  3. Neodymium and strontium isotopic constraints on soil sources in Barbados, West Indies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borg, Lars E.; Banner, Jay L.

    1996-11-01

    Neodymium and strontium isotopic compositions and Sm/Nd ratios are used to constrain the sources of silicate-rich soils developed on uplifted Pleistocene coral-reef limestones on Barbados, West Indies. The geographic and geologic setting of Barbados facilitates the application of these tracers to the evaluation of the following soil sources: (1) Pleistocene reef limestone regolith, (2) Tertiary carbonate rocks, sandstones, and mudstones that are exposed in northeastern Barbados, (3) volcanic ash erupted from the Lesser Antilles arc, (4) Saharan dust transported by trade winds, and (5) fertilizer. The soils have ɛNd values that range from -6.6 to -1.9, 87Sr /86Sr values of 0.70890 to 0.71067, and Sm/Nd ratios of 0.223-0.260. The Pleistocene limestone component is the most significant source of Sr in the soils and a negligible source of Nd. Comparison of Sm and Nd concentrations and neodymium isotopic compositions of soil samples that are weathered to varying extents indicates that Sm and Nd are relatively unfractionated and retained in the soils during weathering. ɛNd and Sm/Nd variations in the soils, therefore, primarily reflect the compositions and proportions of the silicate sources. Mass balance calculations based on SmNd systematics require that the silicate soil components contain between 30-85% volcanic ash, with the remaining silicate fraction comprised of old, continentally-derived sediment. In contrast to Sm and Nd, Sr is mobilized and removed from the soils during weathering. Strontium from volcanic and carbonate sources is preferentially removed relative to continental silicate sources. The strontium isotopic compositions of the soils, therefore, reflect the combined effects of the degree of weathering and the compositions and proportions of the soil sources. Mass balance calculations indicate that at least 35-60% of the initial Sr in the soils has been removed by weathering. These results illustrate (1) the utility of radiogenic isotopes in

  4. Sr and Nd isotopes of suspended sediments from rivers of the Amazon basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatting, Karina; Santos, Roberto V.; Sondag, Francis

    2014-05-01

    The Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic systems are important tools to constrain the provenance of sediment load in river systems. This study presents the isotopic composition of Sr and Nd isotopes and major and minor elements in suspended sediments from the Marañón-Solimões, Amazonas and Beni-Madeira rivers. The data were used to constrain the source region of the sediments and to better understand the main seasonal and spatial transport processes within the basin based on the variations of the chemical and isotopic signals. They also allow establishing a relationship between sediment concentrations and flow rate values. The study presents data collected during a hydrological year between 2009 and 2010. The Marañón-Solimões River presents low Sr isotopic values (0.7090-0.7186), broad EpslonNd(0) range (-15.17 to -8.09) and Nd model (TDM) ages varying from 0.99 to 1.81 Ga. Sources of sediments to the Marañón-Solimões River include recent volcanic rocks in northern Peru and Ecuador, as well as rocks with long crustal residence time and carbonates from the Marañón Basin, Peru. The Beni-Madeira River has more radiogenic Sr isotope values (0.7255-0.7403), more negative EpslonNd(0) values (-20.46 to -10.47), and older Nd isotope model ages (from 1.40 to 2.35 Ga) when compared to the Marañón-Solimões River. These isotope data were related to the erosion of Paleozoic and Cenozoic foreland basins that are filled with Precambrian sediments derived from the Amazonian Craton. These basins are located in Bolivian Subandina Zone. The Amazon River presents intermediate isotopic values when compared to those found in the Marañón-Solimões and Beni-Madeira rivers. Its Sr isotope ratios range between 0.7193 and 0.7290, and its EpslonNd(0) values varies between -11.09 and -9.51. The Nd isotope model ages of the suspended sediments vary between 1.28 and 1.77 Ga. Concentrations of soluble and insoluble elements indicate a more intense weathering activity in sediments of the Beni

  5. Heating Isotopically Labeled Bernal Stacked Graphene: A Raman Spectroscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Ek-Weis, Johan; Costa, Sara; Frank, Otakar; Kalbac, Martin

    2014-02-06

    One of the greatest issues of nanoelectronics today is how to control the heating of the components. Graphene is a promising material in this area, and it is essential to study its thermal properties. Here, the effect of heating a bilayer structure was investigated using in situ Raman spectroscopy. In order to observe the effects on each individual layer, an isotopically labeled bilayer graphene was synthesized where the two layers were composed of different carbon isotopes. Therefore, the frequency of the phonons in the Raman spectra was shifted in relation to each other. This technique was used to investigate the influence of different stacking order. It was found that in bilayer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), the two layers behave very similarly for both Bernal stacking and randomly oriented structures, while for transferred samples, the layers act more independently. This highlights a significant dependence on the sample preparation procedure.

  6. Isotopic Analysis of Fingernails as a USGS Open House Demonstration of the Use of Stable Isotopes in Foodweb Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, S. R.; Kendall, C.; Young, M. B.; Choy, D.

    2011-12-01

    The USGS Isotope Tracers Project uses stable isotopes and tritium to add a unique dimension of chemical information to a wide range of environmental investigations. The use and application of isotopes is usually an unfamiliar and even esoteric topic to the general public. Therefore during three USGS open house events, as a public outreach effort, we demonstrated the use of stable isotopes by analyzing nitrogen and carbon isotopes from very small fragments of fingernail from willing participants. We titled the exhibit "You Are What You Eat". The results from all participants were plotted on a graph indicating the general influence of different food groups on the composition of body tissues as represented by fingernails. All participants were assigned a number and no personal-identification information was collected. A subset of participants provided us with an estimate of the number of days a week various foods were eaten and if they were vegetarians, vegans or non-vegetarians. Volunteers from our research group were on hand to explain and discuss fundamental concepts such as how foods attain their isotopic composition, the difference between C3 and C4 plants, the effects of assimilation, trophic enrichment, and the various uses of stable isotopes in environmental studies. The results of the fingernail analyses showed the variation of the range of isotopic compositions among about 400 people at each event, the distinct influence of C4 plants (mainly corn and cane sugar) on our carbon isotopic composition, and the isotopic differences between vegetarians and non vegetarians among other details (http://wwwrcamnl.wr.usgs.gov/isoig/projects/fingernails/). A poll of visitors attending the open house event in 2006 indicated that "You Are What You Eat" was among the most popular exhibits. Following the first two open house events we were contacted by a group of researchers from Brazil who had completed a very similar study. Our collaboration resulted in a publication in

  7. Mars Molecular and Isotopic Analysis Research Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, Heidi L. K.

    1998-01-01

    Recently, the Martian atmosphere and surface constituents have become of great interest. The Viking in situ gas chromatograph mass spectrometer experiment contributed greatly to our knowledge of the composition of the Martian atmosphere. However, important questions remain such as the abundance of water on Mars. The Viking experiment employed solid reagents to enhance their carbon measurements. Techniques of chemical conversion using simple solid reagents have advanced considerably in the past 20 years. In this investigation we researched the advancements in techniques to reversibly adsorb and desorb water and focused on the techniques potentially useful for the temperatures and pressures on the Martian surface. During the granting period from June 15, 1998 to August 14, 1998, a literature study of the material appropriate for use in a chemical conversion device and the availability of these materials were undertaken. The focus of this investigation was searching for methods and materials potentially useful in enhancing the measurements of water. Three different methods were considered for the means to extract water from a given gas sample. These methods included adsorption in a desiccant, adsorption on a clean metal surface, and adsorption in a carbon molecular sieve or zeolite. Each method was evaluated with feasibility and reversibility in mind. By far the simplest and perhaps cheapest way to remove water from a gaseous sample is by means of a bulk desiccant. Desiccants are commercially available from many companies including those that supply chemicals. The main feature of a desiccant is its ability to rapidly bind or absorb water from the atmosphere. Calcium chloride, for example, is frequently incorporated into drying tubes by organic chemists when reactions require the absence of water. Other desiccants include sodium hydroxide, calcium hydride, and commercial products such as Drierite, available from Aldrich Chemical. The disadvantage to most desiccants is

  8. Mars Molecular and Isotopic Analysis Research Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, Heidi L. K.

    1998-01-01

    Recently, the Martian atmosphere and surface constituents have become of great interest. The Viking in situ gas chromatograph mass spectrometer experiment contributed greatly to our knowledge of the composition of the Martian atmosphere. However, important questions remain such as the abundance of water on Mars. The Viking experiment employed solid reagents to enhance their carbon measurements. Techniques of chemical conversion using simple solid reagents have advanced considerably in the past 20 years. In this investigation we researched the advancements in techniques to reversibly adsorb and desorb water and focused on the techniques potentially useful for the temperatures and pressures on the Martian surface. During the granting period from June 15, 1998 to August 14, 1998, a literature study of the material appropriate for use in a chemical conversion device and the availability of these materials were undertaken. The focus of this investigation was searching for methods and materials potentially useful in enhancing the measurements of water. Three different methods were considered for the means to extract water from a given gas sample. These methods included adsorption in a desiccant, adsorption on a clean metal surface, and adsorption in a carbon molecular sieve or zeolite. Each method was evaluated with feasibility and reversibility in mind. By far the simplest and perhaps cheapest way to remove water from a gaseous sample is by means of a bulk desiccant. Desiccants are commercially available from many companies including those that supply chemicals. The main feature of a desiccant is its ability to rapidly bind or absorb water from the atmosphere. Calcium chloride, for example, is frequently incorporated into drying tubes by organic chemists when reactions require the absence of water. Other desiccants include sodium hydroxide, calcium hydride, and commercial products such as Drierite, available from Aldrich Chemical. The disadvantage to most desiccants is

  9. Isotopic Fingerprints of Genetic Relations In Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagoutz, E.; Jotter, R.; Dreibus, G.

    Evaporation and condensation are the dominant chemical differentiation processes at the early solar system. However, a-chondrites are formed by chemical differentiation caused by magmatic processes. Radioisotopes (the Rb/Sr, Sm/Nd, U/Pb isotopic systems are considered here) provide insight into early solar system processes and might provide a method of distinction between magmatic processes and evaporation-condensation processes. The Sm-Nd isotopic system has parent and daughter refractory elements do not fractionate in the solar nebular. Furthermore, U and Sr are refractory elements and also might remain in chondritic abundance like Sm and Nd at evaporation-condensation processes. While magmatic processes might fractionate U, Sr, Sm and Nd . In contrast the Rb and Pb abundance is strongly affected at evaporation-condensation processes since both elements are volatile. C- chondrites have an Rb/Sr ratio of 0,24 and µ (238U/204Pb) of about 0,3, while calcium-aluminum rich inclusions (CAI) have an Rb/Sr <0,03 and a µ of >30. C- chondrites and CAIs are forming end-members in an Rb/Sr versus µ plot and condensation-evaporation processes might form an "anti-correlation" in the Rb/Sr versus µ plot connecting C -chondrites with CAIs. However, SNC meteorites form a correlation as shown by Dreibus (this session). Additionally, H-chondrites are plotting on the same correlation as the SNC meteorites as the few existing data might suggest. More H chondrites are analyzed in order to substantiate this important question. A correlation in the Rb/Sr versus µ plot can only be caused by a magmatic differentiation. This might suggest that SNC meteorites are magmatically differentiated from a H-chondritic source. H-chondrites and SNC meteorites overlap within the scatter in oxygen isotopes, also suggesting the same parent source. HED meteorites and the Earth are forming distinct points in the Rb/Sr versus µ plot different to the SNC correlation, since Earth and HED meteorites

  10. A Nd and Sr isotopic study of the Trinity peridotite Implications for mantle evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobsen, S. B.; Quick, J. E.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1984-01-01

    Field evidence is reported which indicates that the Trinity peridotite in Northern California was partially melted during its rise as part of the upwelling convecting mantle at a spreading center. A Sm-Nd mineral isochron for a plagioclase Iherzolite yielded an age of about 427 Ma which is significantly higher than that expected for depleted mantle during this period. The age is interpreted as the time of crystallization of trapped melt in the plagioclase Iherzolite P-T field, and probably represents the time when the massif was incorporated as a part of the oceanic lithosphere. The Sm-Nd model age of the plagioclase Iherzolite total rock is 3.4 AE. This suggests that the peridotite was derived from a mantle that was depleted early in earth history. Although most available data indicate that the depleted upper mantle has been relatively well stirred through time, the Trinity data suggest that very ancient Nd isotropic values are preserved and chemical and physical heterogeneities are sometimes preserved in the depleted source of midocean ridge basalts as well as the oceanic lithosphere which they intrude.

  11. Study of Cosmic Ray H and He Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picot-Clemente, Nicolas

    This proposal requests a support for analysis and interpretation of H and He isotope data from the last Antarctic balloon flight of the Balloon-borne Experiment with a Superconducting Spectrometer (BESS-Polar II). The isotopes 2H and 3He in the cosmic radiation are mainly secondary products from the p-p and p-4He interactions of primary cosmic rays in the interstellar medium. Other reactions such as 4He - 4He and p-(Z>3) contribute to a lesser extent to the production of 2H and 3He, as well as antiprotons. In the past most isotope measurements have been limited by statistics and mass resolution. BESS-Polar II flew for 24.5 days over Antarctica in 2007-2008. It recorded 4.7 billion events, about 5 times events collected with the prior BESS-Polar I. The BESS-Polar II data offer a unique opportunity to identify and precisely measure H and He isotopes over a wide rigidity range, 0.5 GV to 4 GV. The BESS instrument has many outstanding hardware features, which enable precise measurements of cosmic-ray H, He, and their isotopes, in addition to antiparticles. Its long-duration-balloon flight drastically reduced statistical uncertainties, and it provides the most precise measurements of H and He isotope fluxes and secondary-to-primary ratios. The unprecedented precision of BESSPolar II measurements together with other cosmic-ray data, can strongly constrain propagation models and their parameters. It also facilitates a sensitive study of cosmicray time variations, which contribute to our understanding of local conditions in the Heliosphere as well as modeling of particle fluxes and plasma conditions in the nearEarth environment. The long duration of the BESS-Polar II flight and stability of its detectors enable the study of transient time variations of hydrogen and helium isotope fluxes. Measurements of 2H and 3He isotopes along with their main parents 1H and 4He provide important information on both the Galactic and heliospheric propagation of cosmic rays, as well as a

  12. Digenean trematodes-marine mollusc relationships: a stable isotope study.

    PubMed

    Dubois, S Y; Savoye, N; Sauriau, P-G; Billy, I; Martinez, P; de Montaudouin, X

    2009-03-09

    The stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of digenean trematode parasites and their marine mollusc hosts was investigated to describe the potential influence of parasites on their host and its different tissues, and to obtain further insight into their trophic relationships. Four parasite-host systems were studied: Labratrema minimus-Cerastoderma edule, Monorchis parvus-C. edule, Lepocreadiidae parasites-Nassarius reticulatus and Zoogonidae parasites-N. reticulatus. Among the 4 sampling occasions reported here and corresponding to the 4 parasite-host systems, isotopic shifts from pathologic (i.e. linked to disturbances in host metabolism) and mass-balance (i.e. linked to significant differences between host and parasite isotopic signatures) origins were observed only once. Both corresponded to delta 13C measurements of the L. minimus-C. edule system when the infestation load (percentage parasite dry weight compared to total flesh dry weight) was highest (9 to 25%, mean = 16%) over the sampling period. Overall, measurements indicate that digenean trematode parasitism induced low or no shifts in isotopic signatures of C. edule and N. reticulatus tissues. The 2 endoparasites L. minimus and M. parvus appeared to be slightly depleted in 13C compared to C. edule digestive gland and gonads, which were the most parasitized tissues. In contrast, no fractionation or low 15N trophic enrichments occurred in the parasites. These results highly contrast with the classical trophic enrichment reported in prey-predator systems but are in agreement with the scarce literature regarding other parasite-host systems. Our results indicate that (1) digenean trematodes mainly feed on digestive glands (the cockle tissue with which they are mainly associated) with a possible slight preference for lipids, and (2) fractionation due to parasite metabolism should be low due to abbreviated metabolic pathways and/or slight loss of materials through excretion, tegument diffusion and

  13. s-process studies - Xenon and krypton isotopic abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, D. D.; Ward, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    We propose an analysis of the s-process contributions to the isotopes of xenon and krypton. The object is to aid studies of the possibility that meteorites may contain gas that was carried in presolar grains that were grown in stellar ejecta and that were not degassed prior to incorporation into parent bodies. That model suggests routine interstellar fractionation of s-isotopes from r-isotopes owing to differential incorporation into dust. We show that a deficiency of s-process nuclei cannot yield details of Xe-X, but the gross similarities are strong enough to lead one to think that such a deficiency may play a role in a more complicated explanation. We predict the existence of an s-rich complement somewhere if fractional separation of this type has played a role in Xe-X. We show that the analogous decomposition of krypton is more uncertain, and we call for measurements of neutron-capture cross sections to alleviate these uncertainties.

  14. s-process studies - Xenon and krypton isotopic abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, D. D.; Ward, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    We propose an analysis of the s-process contributions to the isotopes of xenon and krypton. The object is to aid studies of the possibility that meteorites may contain gas that was carried in presolar grains that were grown in stellar ejecta and that were not degassed prior to incorporation into parent bodies. That model suggests routine interstellar fractionation of s-isotopes from r-isotopes owing to differential incorporation into dust. We show that a deficiency of s-process nuclei cannot yield details of Xe-X, but the gross similarities are strong enough to lead one to think that such a deficiency may play a role in a more complicated explanation. We predict the existence of an s-rich complement somewhere if fractional separation of this type has played a role in Xe-X. We show that the analogous decomposition of krypton is more uncertain, and we call for measurements of neutron-capture cross sections to alleviate these uncertainties.

  15. Strontium isotope study, Pine Barrens, Long Island, NY

    SciTech Connect

    Xin, Geng; Hanson, G.N. . Dept. of Earth and Space Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    Twenty-four samples representing precipitation, through-fall, soil water, ground water, vegetation and soil were analyzed for strontium concentration and the [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr ratio. The Pine Barrens, which consists of forests and dense vegetation, covers approximately 300 square miles of the coastal plain of Long Island, New York. This study estimates the relative importance of atmospheric and weathering inputs of Sr to vegetation in this ecosystem. The values of the [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr ratios and Sr concentration in the Pine Barrens are shown in the attached figure. Precipitation has Sr isotopic ratios that are close to that of sea water (0.7092). The Sr in through-fall is dominated by the Sr from the canopy foliage. The [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr ratios of soil water and ground water increase with depth. The Sr isotopic ratio for a composite sample of pine (0.71181) is a mixture of atmosphere Sr and soil or ground waters. The Sr isotopic ratios and concentrations in pine suggest that plants are a major reservoir of Sr in the system.

  16. Isotopic Petrology: The Curious Case of the Shergottite Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J. H.

    2009-05-01

    The shergottites comprise a diverse suite of martian basalts and basaltic cumulates. As of 1985, there were three proposed igneous ages for this group of basaltic rocks: (i) 4-4.5 b.y. [1; Caltech]; (ii) 1.3 b.y. [2; JSC]; and (iii) 360 m.y. [3; Mainz]. At that time I proffered that petrographic observations demanded that the shergottites were only 180 m.y. old [4]. By 1985, all the above geochronology groups had presented evidence of a young 200 m.y. age, but interpreted that as a metamorphic resetting. My observation was considered extremely controversial. However, John Longhi was instrumental, perhaps pivotal, in causing this new, controversial interpretation to be accepted, at least among petrologists. John then used this newfound knowledge to infer the Nd isotopic composition of the martian crust [5]. This new interpretation of shergottite chronology has led to petrologic insights that would not otherwise have been possible: (I) There were melt extraction events in the shergottite mantle immediately(?) preceding shergottite formation; and (II) the variation in enriched vs. depleted characteristics of the shergottites is best explained by assimilation of ancient, enriched crust by young magmas from a depleted source region. I. Internal, mineral isochrons of the shergottites (15 years later) vary from 165 m.y. to 575 m.y. [6]. Without exception, the Sm/Nd ratios of the shergottites themselves are larger than the time-integrated Sm/Nd ratio of their source regions [7]. This means that there has been a LREE-enriched phase that has fractionated from the shergottites. There are no solid phases in the martian mantle that are capable of this. This implies that LREE-enriched magmas escaped the shergottite source regions just prior to shergottite petrogenesis. II. Therefore, the shergottites can be characterized in terms of three Sm-Nd components: (i) a primitive shergottite magma from a depleted source region; (ii) an enriched crust; and (iii) a missing LREE

  17. Evolution of the lithospheric mantle beneath Mt. Baekdu (Changbaishan): Constraints from geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic studies on peridotite xenoliths in trachybasalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Keunsu; Choi, Sung Hi; Cho, Moonsup; Lee, Der-Chuen

    2017-08-01

    well above the mantle array. The Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd model ages of residual clinopyroxenes yielded Early Proterozoic to Phanerozoic ages. No signature of Archean cratonic mantle was present. Therefore, Mt. Baekdu peridotite is residual lithospheric mantle that has undergone variable degrees of diachronous melt extraction and infiltration metasomatism involving subduction-related, fluid-bearing silicate melts. The predominance of Phanerozoic Hf model ages indicates that the lherzolites represent lithospheric mantle fragments newly accreted underneath the eastern NCC.

  18. Experimental Studies of the Isotope Effect in High Temperature Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franck, Jürgen P.

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * BACKGROUND * DEFINITIONS * CONNECTION WITH THEORY * OUTLINE * EXPERIMENTAL METHODS * SAMPLE PREPARATION * DETERMINATION OF ISOTOPIC SHIFTS * THE OXYGEN ISOTOPE EFFECT IN HIGH Tc CUPRATES * YBa2Cu3O7 AND RELATED SYSTEMS * Completely Isotope Exchanged * Partially and Selectively Isotope Exchanged * SUBSTITUTED YBa2Cu3O7 AND RELATED SYSTEMS * YBa2Cu4O8 * La2-xMxCuO4 (M = Sr, Ba) AND RELATED SYSTEMS * Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu OXIDES * (Nd1-xCex)2CuO4 * Tℓ BASED SYSTEMS * PARTIAL ISOTOPE EFFECTS FOR ELEMENTS OTHER THAN OXYGEN IN HIGH Tc CUPRATES * THE COPPER ISOTOPE EFFECT * ISOTOPE EFFECT FOR ELEMENTS OTHER THAN OXYGEN OR COPPER * THE OXYGEN ISOTOPE EFFECT IN RELATED SUPERCONDUCTORS * Ba-Pb-Bi OXIDE AND Ba-K-Bi OXIDE * FULLERENES * DISCUSSION * SUMMARY OF EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS * THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS * CONCLUSION * ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS * REFERENCES

  19. Chronology and Isotopic Constraints on Lunar Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, G. A.; Borg, L. E.; Nyquist, L. E.; Taylor, L. A.

    Isotopic systematics of lunar rocks indicate three major, distinct, reservoirs in the Moon: (1) the urKREEP residuum of a global lunar magma ocean with high 238U/204Pb (µ) >500, high Rb/Sr and thus elevated 87Sr/86Sr, and low Sm/Nd and consequent negative ɛNd values; (2) a “primordial” deep mantle source with µ values more typical of Earth, low Rb/Sr and 87Sr/86Sr, high Sm/Nd, and extremely positive ɛNd values, and positive to variable ɛW values; and (3) a shallower mantle reservoir that has similar µ values to the second, intermediate Nd values, low to intermediate 87Sr/86Sr, and chondritic ɛW values. The vast majority of lunar samples can be modeled by mixing these three reservoirs. A possible fourth source, with µ values from 35 to 100, is represented by a few early crustal rocks, the ferroan anorthosites. Ferroan anorthosites, ostensibly the earliest lunar crustal rocks, exhibit a range of ages from 4.56 to 4.29 Ga and initial ɛNd values (0.9 to 3.1). These ages are inconsistent with derivation of all these rocks from a short-lived magma ocean, as suggested by 182W and 142Nd anomalies in lunar highland rocks and basalts. The positive Nd values of the ferroan anorthosites indicate time-integrated LREE-depletion, which is also inconsistent with direct derivation from a progressively LREE-enriched magma ocean. Instead, the derivation of ferroan anorthosites may involve convective overturn of a magma ocean and consequent mixing of LREE-enriched, plagioclase-rich, lower crust with underlying LREE-depleted, mafic cumulate sources. Later modification of this early anorthositic crust involved serial KREEP basalt magmatism, ponding in the crust, and crystallization of highland alkali suite and magnesian suite plutons from 4.4 to 3.9 Ga. The end of this major period of crustal evolution roughly coincides in time with a fall-off in large basin-forming impacts. Argon-40 argon-39 analyses of a variety of lunar samples at the different landing sites have allowed

  20. Lead isotope systematics of mare basalt 75075

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. H.; Tilton, G. R.; Mattinson, J. M.; Vidal, P.

    1978-01-01

    Uranium, thorium and isotopic lead data are reported for two bulk samples and separated pyroxene, ilmenite and plagioclase from basalt 75075. In a concordia diagram the whole rock, ilmenite and four pyroxene samples define a chord intersecting the concordia curve at approximately 4.25 and 2.8 AE. Three plagioclase samples plot distinctly off the chord. The crystallization age of 75075 is accurately determined at 3.74 AE by Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd and K-Ar measurements from other laboratories. It is not possible to adjust the isotopic composition of initial lead so as to reconcile the U-Pb data with a crystallization age of 3.74 AE. The data therefore indicate some type of post-crystallization disturbance of the U-Pb system that is not detected by the other systems. The 75075 data are one of the few examples of this type of age pattern found on the moon. If the disturbance was a single event, it probably occurred around 2.8 AE ago, the time indicated by the pyroxene, whole rock and ilmenite data.

  1. Hafnium isotope variations in oceanic basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patchett, P. J.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1980-01-01

    Hafnium isotope ratios generated by the beta(-) decay of Lu-176 are investigated in volcanic rocks derived from the suboceanic mantle. Hf-176/Hf-177 and Lu/Hf ratios were determined to precisions of 0.01-0.04% and 0.5%, respectively, by routine, low-blank chemistry. The Hf-176/Hf-177 ratio is found to be positively correlated with the Nd-143/Nd-144 ratio and negatively correlated with the Sr-87/Sr-86 and Pb-206/Pb-204 ratios, and to increase southwards along the Iceland-Reykjanes ridge traverse. An approximate bulk earth Hf-176/Hf-177 ratio of 0.28295 is inferred from the bulk earth Nd-143/Nd-144 ratio, which requires a bulk earth Lu/Hf ratio of 0.25, similar to the Juvinas eucrite. Midocean ridge basalts are shown to account for 60% of the range of Hf isotope ratios, and it is suggested that Lu-Hf fractionation is decoupled from Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr fractionation in very trace-element-depleted source regions as a result of partial melting.

  2. Lead isotope systematics of mare basalt 75075

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. H.; Tilton, G. R.; Mattinson, J. M.; Vidal, P.

    1978-01-01

    Uranium, thorium and isotopic lead data are reported for two bulk samples and separated pyroxene, ilmenite and plagioclase from basalt 75075. In a concordia diagram the whole rock, ilmenite and four pyroxene samples define a chord intersecting the concordia curve at approximately 4.25 and 2.8 AE. Three plagioclase samples plot distinctly off the chord. The crystallization age of 75075 is accurately determined at 3.74 AE by Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd and K-Ar measurements from other laboratories. It is not possible to adjust the isotopic composition of initial lead so as to reconcile the U-Pb data with a crystallization age of 3.74 AE. The data therefore indicate some type of post-crystallization disturbance of the U-Pb system that is not detected by the other systems. The 75075 data are one of the few examples of this type of age pattern found on the moon. If the disturbance was a single event, it probably occurred around 2.8 AE ago, the time indicated by the pyroxene, whole rock and ilmenite data.

  3. Hafnium isotope variations in oceanic basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patchett, P. J.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1980-01-01

    Hafnium isotope ratios generated by the beta(-) decay of Lu-176 are investigated in volcanic rocks derived from the suboceanic mantle. Hf-176/Hf-177 and Lu/Hf ratios were determined to precisions of 0.01-0.04% and 0.5%, respectively, by routine, low-blank chemistry. The Hf-176/Hf-177 ratio is found to be positively correlated with the Nd-143/Nd-144 ratio and negatively correlated with the Sr-87/Sr-86 and Pb-206/Pb-204 ratios, and to increase southwards along the Iceland-Reykjanes ridge traverse. An approximate bulk earth Hf-176/Hf-177 ratio of 0.28295 is inferred from the bulk earth Nd-143/Nd-144 ratio, which requires a bulk earth Lu/Hf ratio of 0.25, similar to the Juvinas eucrite. Midocean ridge basalts are shown to account for 60% of the range of Hf isotope ratios, and it is suggested that Lu-Hf fractionation is decoupled from Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr fractionation in very trace-element-depleted source regions as a result of partial melting.

  4. Isotopic Tracers of Methane in Wetlands and Landfill Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanton, J.; Abichou, T.; Hater, G.

    2006-12-01

    Isotopic characterization is useful for determining variation in methane production mechanism and oxidation. In landfills, the quantity of methane oxidized is one of the largest uncertainties. The extent of methane oxidation can be constrained by measurements of methane within the production zone and captured escaping from the surface of the cover soil. The shift in d13C and dD of methane in these two pools is proportional to the degree of methane oxidation. This approach can be employed in wetlands and rice fields, but it is complicated by the greater complexities of gas transport processes which fractionation methane according to its isotopic composition. For determination of production mechanism, use of d13C is uncontroversial. However, there is disagreement between the results of field studies and laboratory incubation studies concerning the interpretation of dD of CH4. A compilation of field studies will be presented to help resolve this matter. Finally, the natural abundance of radiocarbon can be used to determine the sources of organic matter which fuel microbial respiration. Evidence of differences between wetland types will be presented.

  5. Study of Urban environmental quality through Isotopes δ13C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Sosa, E.; Mastachi-Loza, C.; Becerril-Piña, R.; Ramos-Salinas, N. M.

    2012-04-01

    Usually, trees with similar pH values on their bark develop epiphytes of similar species, the acidity to be a factor for growth. The aim of the study was evaluate the air quality through isotope δ13C in order to define the levels of environmental quality in the city of Queretaro, Mexico. In this work were collected at least 4 epiphytes positioned in trees of the species Prosopis Laevigata at 25 sites of Queretaro City. The samples were analyzed for trace elements with an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP). The collecting took place during dry period, in May and early rain June 2011 period, and on four sectors to identify the spatial distribution of pollution, using isotopic analysis of concentration of δ 13C. According with the results there are significant differences among the species in each of the sampled areas. The 5 February Avenue presented greater diversity and richness of δ13C, followed by those who were surveyed in the proximity of the UAQ and finally in the middle-east area. An average value of δ13C-17.92%, followed by those surveyed in the vicinity of the UAQ that correspond to sector I and II with an concentration of δ13C-17.55% and δ13C-17.22%, and finally the samples collected in trees scattered in the East-Sector II and IV with a value of δ13C-17.02% and δ13C-15.62%, respectively. Also were observed differences between the dry and wet period. It is likely that these results of δ 13C in moist period reflect the drag of the isotopes due to rain events that could mark a trend in the dilution of this element, however there is a trend in terms of abundance and composition of finding more impact in those species sampled in dry period, in May and early June 2011.

  6. Memories of Earth Formation in the Modern Mantle: W Isotopic Composition of Flood Basalt Lavas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizo Garza, H. L.; Walker, R. J.; Carlson, R.; Horan, M. F.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Francis, D.; Jackson, M. G.

    2015-12-01

    Four and a half billion years of geologic activity has overprinted much of the direct evidence for processes involved in Earth's formation and its initial chemical differentiation. Xenon isotopic ratios [1] and 3He/22Ne ratios [2] suggest that heterogeneities formed during Earth's accretion have been preserved to the present time. New opportunities to learn about early Earth history have opened up with the development of analytical techniques that allow high precision analysis of short-lived isotopic systems. The Hf-W system (t½ = 8.9 Ma) is particularly valuable for studying events that occurred during the first ~50 Ma of Solar System history. Here we report new data for ~ 60 Ma Baffin Bay and ~ 120 Ma Ontong Java Plateau lava samples. Both are large igneous provinces that may have sampled a primitive, less degassed deep mantle reservoir that has remained isolated since shortly after Earth formation [3,4]. Three samples analyzed have 182W/184W ratios that are 10 to 48 ppm higher than our terrestrial standard. These excesses in 182W are the highest ever measured in terrestrial rocks, and may reflect 182W ingrowth in an early-formed high Hf/W mantle domain that was produced by magma ocean differentiation [5]. Long and short-lived Sm-Nd systematics in these samples, however, are inconsistent with this hypothesis. The 182W excessses could rather reflect the derivation of these lavas from a mantle reservoir that was isolated from late accretionary additions [6]. The chondritic initial Os isotopic compositions and highly siderophile element abundances of these samples, however, are inconsistent with this interpretation. Tungsten concentrations for the Baffin Bay and Ontong Java Plateau samples range from 23 ppb to 62 ppb, and are negatively correlated with their 182W/184W ratios. We propose that the source reservoirs for these flood basalts likely formed through Hf/W fractionation caused by core-forming events occuring over a protacted time interval during Earth

  7. Utilizing Stable Isotopes and Isotopic Anomalies to Study Early Solar System Formation Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Justin

    2017-01-01

    Chondritic meteorites contain a diversity of particle components, i.e., chondrules and calcium-, aluminum-rich refractory inclusions (CAIs), that have survived since the formation of the Solar System. The chemical and isotopic compositions of these materials provide a record of the conditions present in the protoplanetary disk where they formed and can aid our understanding of the processes and reservoirs in which solids formed in the solar nebula, an important step leading to the accretion of planetesimals. Isotopic anomalies associated with nucleosynthetic processes are observed in these discrete materials, and can be compared to astronomical observations and astrophysical formation models of stars and more recently proplyds. The existence and size of these isotopic anomalies are typically thought to reflect a significant state of isotopic heterogeneity in the earliest Solar System, likely left over from molecular cloud heterogeneities on the grain scale, but some could also be due to late stellar injection. The homogenization of these isotopic anomalies towards planetary values can be used to track the efficiency and timescales of disk wide mixing,

  8. Inelastic proton scattering of Sn isotopes studied with GRETINA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Christopher

    2014-03-01

    The chain of semi-magic Sn nuclei, with many stable isotopes, has been a fertile ground for experimental and theoretical studies. Encompassing a major neutron shell from N = 50 to 82, the properties and structure of these nuclei provided important data for the development of the pairing-plus-quadrupole model. Recent experimental information on B(E2) for 106,108,110,112Sn came as a surprise as it indicated a larger collectivity than the predicted parabolic trend of quadrupole collectivity. These data, instead, show an unexpectedly flat trend even as the number of valence particles is reduced from 12 to 6. To fully understand how collectivity is evolving in these isotopes, 108,110,112Sn have been studied using thick-target, inelastic proton scattering with GRETINA tagging inelastic scattering events by detecting gamma-rays from the prompt decay of states excited in the reaction. We will present the trend of 2 + excitation cross-sections, the deduced quadrupole deformation parameters, and observations of other low-lying collective states. Comparison of these (p,p') quadrupole deformation parameters with B(E2) data will provide new insights into the relative importance of proton and neutron contributions to collectivity in these nuclei. GRETINA was funded by the US DOE - Office of Science. Operation of the array at NSCL is supported by NSF under Cooperative Agreement PHY-1102511(NSCL) and DOE under grant DE-AC02-05CH11231(LBNL).

  9. Lu-Hf, in-situ Sr and Pb isotope and trace element systematics for mantle eclogites from the Diavik diamond mine: Evidence for Paleoproterozoic subduction beneath the Slave craton, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidberger, Stefanie S.; Simonetti, Antonio; Heaman, Larry M.; Creaser, Robert A.; Whiteford, Sean

    2007-02-01

    Lu-Hf, Sm-Nd and in-situ clinopyroxene Sr and Pb isotope systematics, and mineral major and in-situ trace element compositions were obtained for a suite of non-diamond and diamond-bearing eclogites from the Diavik kimberlites (A154; 55 Ma old), Slave craton (Canada). Temperature estimates of last equilibration in the lithosphere for the non-diamond-bearing Diavik eclogites define two groups; low-temperature (800-1050 °C) and high-temperature eclogites (1100-1300 °C). Most diamond-eclogites indicate temperatures similar to those of the high-temperature eclogites. Isotopic and major and trace element systematics for the non-diamond- and diamond-bearing eclogites indicate overlapping chemical compositions suggesting similar rock formational histories. Calculated whole rock major and trace element abundances using chemical and modal abundances for constituent minerals exhibit broad similarities with mafic cumulates from ophiolite sequences. Most importantly the calculated whole rock eclogite compositions display positive Sr and Eu anomalies, typically interpreted as the result of plagioclase accumulation in cumulate rocks of oceanic crust sequences. Initial whole rock Hf isotopic values and in-situ Sr isotope data from clinopyroxene grains provide evidence that the eclogites were derived from precursor rocks with depleted mantle isotope characteristics. These combined results support the interpretation that the eclogites from Diavik represent remnants of subducted oceanic crust. Lu-Hf isotope systematics indicate that the oceanic protolith for the eclogites formed in the Paleoproterozoic at ˜ 2.1 Ga, which is in agreement with the in-situ Pb isotope data from clinopyroxene. This result also corroborates the ˜ 2.1 Ga Lu-Hf model ages recorded by mantle zircons from eclogite found within the Jericho kimberlite in the northern Slave Province (˜ 200 km northwest of Diavik). The results from both studies indicate a link between eclogite formation and Paleoproterozoic

  10. LU-HF Age and Isotope Systematics of ALH84001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, M.; Lapen, T. J.; Brandon, A. D.; Beard, B. L.; Shafer, J. T.; Peslier, A. H.

    2009-01-01

    Allan Hills (ALH) 84001 is an orthopyroxenite that is unique among the Martian meteorites in having the oldest inferred crystallization age (approx..4.5 to 4.0 Gyr) [e.g., 1-6 and references therein 7]. Its ancient origin makes this stone a critical constraint on early history of Mars, in particular the evolution of different planetary crust and mantle reservoirs. However, because there is significant variability in reported crystallization ages, determination of initial isotope compositions is imprecise making assessment of planetary reservoirs difficult. Here we report a new Lu-Hf mineral isochron age, initial Hf-176/Hf-177 isotope composition, and inferred Martian mantle source compositions for ALH84001 that place constraints on longlived source reservoirs for the enriched shergottite suite of Martian meteorites including Shergotty, Zagami, NWA4468, NWA856, RBT04262, LAR06319, and Los Angeles. Sm-Nd isotope analyses are under way for the same mineral aliquots analyzed for Lu-Hf. The Lu-Hf system was utilized because Lu and Hf are both lithophile and refractory and are not easily redistributed during short-lived thermal pulses associated with shock metamorphism. Moreover, chromite has relatively modest Hf concentrations with very low Lu/Hf ratios [9] yielding tight constraints on initial Hf-176/Hf-177 isotope compositions

  11. Concrete under sulphate attack: an isotope study on sulphur sources.

    PubMed

    Mittermayr, Florian; Bauer, Christoph; Klammer, Dietmar; Böttcher, Michael E; Leis, Albrecht; Escher, Peter; Dietzel, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The formation of secondary sulphate minerals such as thaumasite, ettringite and gypsum is a process causing severe damage to concrete constructions. A major key to understand the complex reactions, involving concrete deterioration is to decipher the cause of its appearance, including the sources of the involved elements. In the present study, sulphate attack on the concrete of two Austrian tunnels is investigated. The distribution of stable sulphur isotopes is successfully applied to decipher the source(s) of sulphur in the deteriorating sulphate-bearing minerals. Interestingly, δ(34)S values of sulphate in local groundwater and in the deteriorating minerals are mostly in the range from+14 to+27 ‰. These δ(34)S values match the isotope patterns of regional Permian and Triassic marine evaporites. Soot relicts from steam- and diesel-driven trains found in one of the tunnels show δ(34)S values from-3 to+5 ‰, and are therefore assumed to be of minor importance for sulphate attack on the concretes. In areas of pyrite-containing sedimentary rocks, the δ(34)S values of sulphate from damaged concrete range between-1 and+11 ‰. The latter range reflects the impact of sulphide oxidation on local groundwater sulphate.

  12. Isotope studies of dolomite formation under sedimentary conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clayton, R.N.; Jones, B.F.

    1968-01-01

    Measurements of stable isotope abundances of the carbonate portion of the sediment in Deep Springs Lake, California, indicate the presence of at least three phases: a magnesian calcite, a primary sedimentary dolomite, and a detrital dolomite. The former two have isotopic compositions consistent with precipitation at isotopic equilibrium from waters of the lake area. The measured isotopic fractionation factor between sedimentary dolomite and its interstitial water is 1.0351, which is outside the range possible for calcite-water. This indicates that the dolomite has formed by direct crystallization from solution and not from a caloite precursor without further isotope exchange. Isotopic and X-ray evidence does not support the contention of Peterson et al. (1966) that Deep Springs Lake dolomite crystals grow by means of a calcite-like surface layer. ?? 1968.

  13. Technical Note: A simple method for vaterite precipitation for isotopic studies: implications for bulk and clumped isotope analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluge, T.; John, C. M.

    2015-06-01

    Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) plays an important role in the natural environment as a major constituent of the skeleton and supporting structure of marine life and has high economic importance as an additive in food, chemicals and medical products. Anhydrous CaCO3 occurs in the three different polymorphs calcite, aragonite and vaterite, whereof calcite is the most abundant and best characterized mineral. In contrast, little is known about the rare polymorph vaterite, in particular with regard to the oxygen isotope fractionation between H2O and the mineral. Synthetic precipitation of vaterite in the laboratory typically involves rapid processes and isotopic non-equilibrium, which excludes isotope studies focused on the characterization of vaterite under equilibrium conditions. Here, we used a new experimental approach that enables vaterite mineral formation from an isotopically equilibrated solution. The solution consists of a ~0.007 mol L-1 CaCO3 solution that is saturated with NaCl at room temperature (up to 6.4 mol L-1). Vaterite precipitated as single phase or major phase (≥94%) in experiments performed between 23 and 91 °C. Only at 80 °C was vaterite a minor phase with a relative abundance of 27%. The high mineral yield per experiment of up to 235 mg relative to the initially dissolved CaCO3 amount of on average 360 mg enables an investigation of the oxygen isotope fractionation between the mineral and water, and the determination of clumped isotope values in vaterite.

  14. National uses and needs for separated stable isotopes in physics, chemistry, and geoscience research

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    Present uses of separated stable isotopes in the fields of physics, chemistry, and the geosciences have been surveyed to identify current supply problems and to determine future needs. Demand for separated isotopes remains strong, with 220 different nuclides having been used in the past three years. The largest needs, in terms of both quantity and variety of isotopes, are found in nuclear physics research. Current problems include a lack of availability of many nuclides, unsatisfactory enrichment of rare species, and prohibitively high costs for certain important isotopes. It is expected that demands for separated isotopes will remain roughly at present levels, although there will be a shift toward more requests for highly enriched rare isotopes. Significantly greater use will be made of neutron-rich nuclides below A = 100 for producing exotic ion beams at various accelerators. Use of transition metal nuclei for nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy will expand. In addition, calibration standards will be required for the newer techniques of radiological dating, such as the Sm/Nd and Lu/Hf methods, but in relatively small quantities. Most members of the research community would be willing to pay considerably more than they do now to maintain adequate supplies of stable isotopes.

  15. National uses and needs for separated stable isotopes in physics, chemistry, and geoscience research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zisman, M. S.

    Present uses of separated stable isotopes in the fields of physics, chemistry, and the geosciences were surveyed to identify current supply problems and to determine future needs. Demand for separated isotopes remains strong, with 220 different nuclides having been used in the past three years. The largest needs, in terms of both quantity and variety of isotopes, are found in nuclear physics research. Current problems include a lack of availability of many nuclides, unsatisfactory enrichment of rare species, and prohibitively high costs for certain important isotopes. Demand for separated isotopes is expected to remain roughly at present levels, although a shift toward more requests for highly enriched rare isotopes is predicted. Use of neutron rich nuclides below A = 100 for producing exotic ion beams at various accelerators and use of transition metal nuclei for nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy are expected to expand. An increase in the need for calibration standards for techniques of radiological dating, such as Sm/Nd and Lu/Hf is predicted, but in relatively small quantities. Most members of the research community would be willing to pay considerably more than they do now to maintain adequate supplies of stable isotopes.

  16. Early Earth evolution: new insight from Sm and Nd isotopes in meteoritic inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouvier, A.; Boyet, M.

    2014-12-01

    The interpretation of Sm-Nd systematics for the early Earth relies on knowing the composition of the silicate Earth and the 146Sm decay constant. We have measured both 146Sm-142Nd and 147Sm-143Nd internal systematics of four individual Calcium, Aluminum-rich Inclusions (CAIs), the first solids formed in the Solar System [1], from 3 different carbonaceous chondrites from the CV3 group: Allende, Northwest Africa (NWA) 2364 and NWA 6991. Results obtained on NWA 6991 plot on a well-defined mineral and bulk isochron with a Solar System initial 146Sm/144Sm ratio of 0.0070 ±0.0024. This ratio is more consistent with the ratio defined from internal isochrons of differentiated meteorites using the half-life of 103 Ma for 146Sm [2], instead of the value obtained considering the half-life of 68 Ma [3]. On the basis of nucleosynthethic anomalies in Sm and Nd isotopes [4], the ordinary (O) and enstatite (E) chondrites remain potential candidates for the Earth's building blocks. OC have an average deficit of -18±3 ppm relative to modern terrestrial 142Nd/144Nd, whereas EC range from the OC to the terrestrial values [4-6]. Sm stable isotope compositions of the analyzed CAIs indicate that galactic cosmic rays did not affect the 142Nd/144Nd compositions, but deficits are found in the pure p-process 144Sm nuclide (-240 to -290 ppm/ standard). These deficits may translate to 142Nd deficits of a few ppm. NWA 6991 CAI 146Sm-142Nd internal isochron passes through a 142Nd/144Nd ratio of -6 ±6 ppm relative to the terrestrial standard at a chondritic 147Sm/144Nd of 0.1960. We note that this value is identical to the enstatite chondrite average and the 142Nd/144Nd ratio of the lunar mantle, as defined recently by [7] using a chondritic Sm/Nd and Lu/Hf for the bulk Moon. While the determination of the Sm-Nd reference parameters for the bulk Earth is still contentious, the difference in 142Nd/144Nd between modern terrestrial rocks and meteorites analyzed so far is <10ppm. [1] Bouvier and

  17. Petrologic, Geochemical and Isotopic Study of 3.1Ga Peridotite-Chromitite Suite from the Western Dharwar Craton, India: Evidence for Recycling of Oceanic Crust in the Mesoarchean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, S. K.; Mukherjee, R.; Rosing, M. T.; Frei, R.; Waight, T.

    2008-12-01

    Sill-like ultramafic intrusions with massive chromitite bodies are common in Archean greenstone belts such as in the Zimbabwe craton and in the Singhbhum and Dharwar cratons of the Indian shield. In the western Dharwar craton deformed massive chromitites are hosted within dissected peridotitic rocks of the Nuggihulli schist belt and part of early to mid-Archean greenstone belts. The linear ultramafic belts are often associated with gabbroic rocks containing Ti-V-bearing magnetite bands and surrounded by the tonalite-trondhjemite- granodioritic (TTG) suites of rocks. Detailed electron microprobe study reveals high Cr-numbers (0.72- 0.87) and moderate Mg-numbers (0.47-0.59) for chromite and very high Fo content (~ Fo97) for interstitial olivine in massive chromitites from the seams. Our study suggests that the original igneous compositions of chromite grains are preserved in some of the massive chromitites, whereas accessory chromites in serpentinized peridotites are extensively altered to ferritchromit. The primitive composition of chromites along with high Fo content of olivine suggest parental melts produced by high degrees of partial melting of the source mantle. The tectonic discrimination plots plus parental melt calculations indicate derivation from a high-Mg komatiitic magma having a liquid Al2O3 ~ 9.64 wt% and liquid (FeO/MgO)wt% ~ 0.2 which is similar to the compositions recorded for komatiitic rocks within the schist belt. A Pb-isotope study of fourteen samples from this suite including peridotite, chromitite, gabbro and ultramafic-mafic schist rocks define an isochron yielding an age of 3159±180 Ma which is similar to the 207Pb/206Pb zircon age of ~ 3.1 Ga of the surrounding TTG-suite (Bidyananda et al. 2003). Ten samples from this suite have strongly scattering Sm-Nd model ages that range from 2.34 to 3.96 Ga (average 3.1 Ga) with respect to a depleted mantle source. The average initial Nd ratio, calculated at the presumed emplacement age of 3.1 Ga, is

  18. The initial Hf isotopic composition of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouvier, A.; Boyet, M. M.; Vervoort, J. D.; Patchett, P. J.

    2011-12-01

    One area of considerable activity in trying to understand the formation and evolution of Earth's crust is the isotopic analysis of Hf in parallel with Sm-Nd and U-Pb zircon studies, either to constrain early crustal growth and evolution [1], or as a complement to detrital zircon studies [2]. The 176Lu decay constant deduced from early planetary and Earth materials have different values. It has been suggested that a period of irradiation in the early Solar System affected the 176Hf production rate in meteoritic and planetary materials [3,4]. In this scenario, the initial Hf isotopic composition of the Solar System and the Earth would be ~4 ∈Hf units lower, affecting tremendously the interpretation of the differentiation history of the early Earth. We investigated Lu-Hf compositions of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions, the oldest known objects of the Solar System dated at 4568 Ma [5], to assess the possibility of neutrino irradiation in the solar nebula. Here we report high-precision 176Lu-176Hf systematics of leached and unleached, and spiked and unspiked, bulk fractions and mineral separates of 6 individual CAIs from 2 CV3 chondrites. Isotopic analyses were carried out by Neptune MC-ICPMS at ASU. Analytical details are in [6,7]. The unspiked Hf fractions reveal stable isotope anomalies of μ178Hf= 20 ± 6 and μ180Hf= 31 ± 9 (2SD) for the CAI B4 fractions (n=3) and μ178Hf= -4 ± 10 and μ180Hf= 2 ± 10 (n=2) for BCR-2 relative to the JMC 475 Hf standard. Further high-precision analysis of unspiked Sm and Nd fractions of the samples will be made to correct from nucleosynthetic or neutron capture anomalies [8]. Such Hf stable isotopic anomalies predict no more than 50ppm correction on 176Hf/177Hf. At this stage, we have thus regressed together the spiked and unspiked Hf compositions of CAI fractions (n=13) for isochron calculations. The slope of the Lu-Hf isochron is 0.0882 ± 0.0026 (2SD) which corresponds to a 176Lu decay constant value of 1.852 (± 0.052) ×10

  19. Iron-Isotopic Fractionation Studies Using Multiple Collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anbar, A. D.; Zhang, C.; Barling, J.; Roe, J. E.; Nealson, K. H.

    1999-01-01

    The importance of Fe biogeochemistry has stimulated interest in Fe isotope fractionation. Recent studies using thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) and a "double spike" demonstrate the existence of biogenic Fe isotope effects. Here, we assess the utility of multiple-collector inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry(MC-ICP-MS) with a desolvating sample introduction system for Fe isotope studies, and present data on Fe biominerals produced by a thermophilic bacterium. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  20. Carbon and nitrogen isotope studies in an arctic ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    This proposal requests funding for the completion of our current ecological studies at the MS-117 research site at Toolik Lake, Alaska. We have been using a mix of stable and radioisotope techniques to assess the fluxes of carbon and nitrogen within the ecosystem and the implications for long-term carbon storage or loss from the tundra. Several tentative conclusions have emerged from our study including: Tundra in the foothills is no longer accumulating carbon. Surficial radiocarbon abundances show little or no accumulation since 1000--2500 yrs BP. Coastal plain tundra is still accumulating carbon, but the rate of accumulation has dropped in the last few thousand years. Carbon export from watersheds in the Kuparuk and Imnavait Creek drainages are in excess of that expected from estimated primary productivity; and Nitrogen isotope abundances vary between species of plants and along hydrologic gradients.

  1. Carbon and nitrogen isotope studies in an arctic ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, D.M.

    1989-12-31

    This proposal requests funding for the completion of our current ecological studies at the MS-117 research site at Toolik Lake, Alaska. We have been using a mix of stable and radioisotope techniques to assess the fluxes of carbon and nitrogen within the ecosystem and the implications for long-term carbon storage or loss from the tundra. Several tentative conclusions have emerged from our study including: Tundra in the foothills is no longer accumulating carbon. Surficial radiocarbon abundances show little or no accumulation since 1000--2500 yrs BP. Coastal plain tundra is still accumulating carbon, but the rate of accumulation has dropped in the last few thousand years. Carbon export from watersheds in the Kuparuk and Imnavait Creek drainages are in excess of that expected from estimated primary productivity; and Nitrogen isotope abundances vary between species of plants and along hydrologic gradients.

  2. Isotope labeling for NMR studies of macromolecular structure and interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, P.E.

    1994-12-01

    Implementation of biosynthetic methods for uniform or specific isotope labeling of proteins, coupled with the recent development of powerful heteronuclear multidimensional NMR methods, has led to a dramatic increase in the size and complexity of macromolecular systems that are now amenable to NMR structural analysis. In recent years, a new technology has emerged that combines uniform {sup 13}C, {sup 15}N labeling with heteronuclear multidimensional NMR methods to allow NMR structural studies of systems approaching 25 to 30 kDa in molecular weight. In addition, with the introduction of specific {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N labels into ligands, meaningful NMR studies of complexes of even higher molecular weight have become feasible. These advances usher in a new era in which the earlier, rather stringent molecular weight limitations have been greatly surpassed and NMR can begin to address many central biological problems that involve macromolecular structure, dynamics, and interactions.

  3. Isotope Fractionation Studies in Prestellar Cores: The Case of Nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milam, Stefanie N.; Charnley, Steven B.

    2011-01-01

    Isotopically fractionated material is found in many solar system objects, including meteorites and comets. It is considered, in some cases, to trace interstellar material that was incorporated into the solar system without undergoing significant processing, thus preserving the fractionation. In interstellar molecular clouds, ion-molecule chemistry continually cycles nitrogen between the two main reservoirs - N and N2 - leading to only minor N-15 enrichments. Charnley and Rodgers showed that depletion of CO removes oxygen from the gas and weakens this cycle such that significant N-15 fractionation can occur for N2 and other N-bearing species in such cores. Observations are being conducted at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths employing various facilities in order to both spatially and spectrally, resolve emission from these cores. A preliminary study to obtain the N-14/N-15 ratio in nitriles (HCN and HNC) was conducted at the Arizona Radio Observatory's 12m telescope on Kitt Peak, AZ. Spectra were obtained at high resolution (0.08 km/s) in order to resolve dynamic properties of each source as well as to resolve hyperfine structure present in certain isotopologues. This study included four dark cloud cores, observed to have varying levels of molecular depletion: L1521E, L1498, L1544, and L1521F. Previous studies of the N-14/N-15 ratio towards LI544 were obtained with N2H+ and NIH3, yielding ratios of 446 and >700, respectively. The discrepancy observed in these two measurements suggests a strong chemical dependence on the fractionation of nitrogen. Ratios (C,N, and D) obtained from isotopologues for a particular molecule are likely tracing the same chemical heritage and are directly comparable within a given source. Results and comparisons between the protostellar evolutionary state and isomer isotope fractionation as well as between other N-bearing species will be presented.

  4. Advances in the Study of Surface Water Stable Isotope on the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, D.

    2016-12-01

    Advances in the Study of Surface Water Stable Isotopes on the Tibetan Plateau Di DAI, Jing GAO, Tandong YAO Institute of Tibetan PlateauResaech,Chinese Academy of Sciences,China Abstract: Water stable isotopes are ideal tools to study hydrologic processes. Because of the unique surface processes, Tibetan Plateau (TP) is a perfect geographic union to study regional hydrologic cycle. In this study, we reviewed recent advances of surface water (river and lake) stable isotopes studies on the TP and its surroundings, their relationships with precipitation stable isotopes, meteorological variables, geographic elements, regional hydrologic processes, and human activities. Furthermore, we summarized the common approaches and models used in spatiotemporal analysis of surface water isotopes. We expect to establish TP surface water isotope spatiotemporal distribution maps by combining the isotope data with the Geographic Information System (GIS) and geostatistical synthetical method. These maps can integrate regional hydrologic processes including glacier melt, precipitation, and river runoff. Moreover, these maps are basic input data for the isotope-enabled land-atmosphere models. Key Words: Tibetan Plateau (TP), surface water stable isotopes, spatiotemporal distribution spatial model

  5. USE OF STABLE ISOTOPES IN ENVIRONMENTAL AND FORENSIC GEOCHEMISTRY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stable carbon and hydrogen isotopes have been used for many decades in the petroleum industry, but the development of combined gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GCIRMS) has led to a virtual explosion in application of this technique not only in petroleum explora...

  6. USE OF STABLE ISOTOPES IN ENVIRONMENTAL AND FORENSIC GEOCHEMISTRY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stable carbon and hydrogen isotopes have been used for many decades in the petroleum industry, but the development of combined gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GCIRMS) has led to a virtual explosion in application of this technique not only in petroleum explora...

  7. Experiments to study cosmic ray isotopic composition up to Zr-40

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milliken, Barrett

    1990-01-01

    An overview is presented of instruments and techniques being developed with improved mass resolution and large geometry factor for the study of isotopes. The Advanced Composition Explorer and the Large-Isotope Spectrometer for Astromag are presented as two experiment systems that can reduce statistical uncertainty for the iron isotopes to a small percentage. The instruments are capable of studying isotopes with values of Z of 30-40 by means of orbiting or lunar-based platforms when used for long-duration exposure.

  8. Isotopic and chemical studies of early crustal metasedimentary rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobsen, Stein B.

    1988-01-01

    The aim, within the bounds of the Early Crustal Genesis Project, was the isotopic and chemical study of selected early crustal meta-sedimentary rocks. Western Australia was chosen as the first field area to examine, as the Yilgarn and Pilbara Blocks comprise one of the largest and most varied Precambrian terranes. Furthermore, the Western Gneiss Terrane (on the western flank of the Yilgarn Block) and the Pilbara Block are both non-greenstone in character; these types of terrane were relatively neglected, but are of great significance in the understanding of early crustal meta-sediments. The meta-sediments of aluminous or peraluminous character, commonly also enriched in Mg and/or Fe relative to the more common pelitic meta-sediments, and at many locations, deficient in one or more of the elements Ca, N, and K, were initially chosen.

  9. Decay studies of neutron deficient rare earth isotopes with OASIS

    SciTech Connect

    Gilat, J.; Nitschke, J.M.; Wilmarth, P.A.; Vierinen, K.; Firestone, R.B.

    1987-09-01

    We report results on the decay of /sup 124/Pr, /sup 124,125/Ce, /sup 124,125/La, /sup 134-136/Eu, /sup 134-136/Sm, /sup 134-136/Pm, /sup 144/Ho, /sup 141,142,144/Dy, /sup 140,141,142,144/Tb, /sup 140-142/Gd, and /sup 140-142/Eu, produced by /sup 92/Mo(H.I.,xpyn) reactions at the Berkeley SuperHILAC, and studied with the OASIS on-line mass separator facility. Half-lives, delayed proton branching ratios, ..gamma..-ray energies and intensities, partial decay schemes and several J/sup ..pi../ assignments are presented. Level systematics of the even mass Nd and Sm isotopes and of the nu h/sub 11/2/ - nu s/sub 1/2/ isomers for N = 77 are discussed.

  10. Petrologic and oxygen isotopic study of ALH 85085-like chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prinz, M.; Weisberg, M. K.; Clayton, R. N.; Mayeda, T. K.; Ebihara, M.

    1994-07-01

    Four meteorites (PAT 91546, PCA 91328, PCA 91452, PCA 91467) petrologically similar to ALH 85085 chondrite have now been found. Previous studies of ALH 85085 showed it be a new kind of CR-related microchondrule-bearing chondrite, although one called it a sub-chondrite. The purpose of this study is to learn more about ALH 85085-like meteorites and their relationship to CR and CR-related (LEW 85332, Acfer 182, Bencubbin) chondrites. The methods used included petrology, INA bulk chemical analysis (PAT 91546, PCA 91467), and O isotopic analyses of the whole rocks and separated chondrules and dark inclusions (DIs) from PAT 91546. Since microchondrules and fragments are approximately 20 microns it was necessary to analyze composite samples for O; one was of approximately 100 chondrules, and another was of 5 DIs. Petrologically, the four meteorites are similar to ALH 85085, and there is no basis for determining if all of them, or any combinations, are paired. Mineralogically, olivine and pyroxene are highly magnesian FeNi metal generally has 3-10% Ni, and has a positive Ni-Co correlation similar to that in CR and CR-related chondrites. Refractory inclusions are similar in size to the chondrules and have the following assemblages: (1) hibonite-perovskite, (2) melilite-fassaite-forsterite, (3) grossite (Ca-dialuminate)-melilite-perovskite, (4) spinel-melilite, and (5) spinel-pyroxene aggregates. Chemically, INA analyses indicate that PAT 91546 and PCA 91467 are generally similar to ALH 85085. Oxygen isotopic analyses of the four whole-rock compositions fall along the CR mixing line as does ALH 85085; they are also close to LEW 85332, Acfer 182, and Bencubbin. This supports the concept that these are all CR-related chondrites. Even stronger support is found in the compositions of the chondrules and DIs in PAT 91546, which also plot on or near the CR line.

  11. [Isotopic studies on the regeneration of stapedial bone in otosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Konarska, A

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the study was determining the bone rebuilding activity in stapes and otosclerotic focus and comparison the relation between bone rebuilding activity with some clinical features such as the patient's sex and age, duration of the disease and the degree of hearing impairment. The study covered 98 patients aged from 18 to 68 years (X = 37 years) in whom, due to otosclerosis, stapedectomy was performed at the Clinic of Otolaryngology--PAM in Szczecin. The rebuilding activity was estimated in bone fragments having been removed during the operation, i.e. in 98 specimens of canal wall bone, 97 specimens of stapedial crura, 88 fragments from posterior and 18 fragments from anterior parts of footplate as well as in 15 otosclerotic foci, using isotopic method implementing a complex of pyrophosphate labelled with technetium Tc-99m. The degree of bone rebuilding activity was defined by the amount of absorbed isotopic index. The "control group" was made up of 9 cases, in which stapedectomy was carried out for therapeutical purpose in consequence of other ailments, namely: in 3 cases of congenital stapedial ankylosis, 5 cases of stapedial tympanosclerosis, and 1 case of Menier's disease. It has been disclosed that otosclerosis is an active pathological process, involving the bone of the entire stapes with the strongest manifestation in the disease focus. An essential fact was linked with the very low bone rebuilding activity in the stapedial footplate and crura in the "control group". The bone rebuilding activity in otosclerotic foci and footplate of stapes was somewhat higher in males than in females. It was the highest in patients whose disease duration was the longest. In general the bone rebuilding activity didn't influence the degree of hearing impairment.

  12. An improved pyrite pretreatment protocol for kinetic and isotopic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzoyan, Natella; Kamyshny, Alexey; Halevy, Itay

    2014-05-01

    An improved pyrite pretreatment protocol for kinetic and isotopic studies Natella Mirzoyan1, Alexey Kamyshny Jr.2, Itay Halevy1 1Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel 2Geological and Environmental Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105, Israel Pyrite is one of the most abundant and widespread of the sulfide minerals with a central role in biogeochemical cycles of iron and sulfur. Due to its diverse roles in the natural and anthropogenic sulfur cycle, pyrite has been extensively studied in various experimental investigations of the kinetics of its dissolution and oxidation, the isotopic fractionations associated with these reactions, and the microbiological processes involved. Pretreatment of pyrite for removal of oxidation impurities to prevent experimental artifacts and inaccuracies is often practiced. While numerous pyrite-cleaning methods have been used in experiments, a common pyrite pretreatment method, often used to investigate pyrite chemistry by the isotopic fractionations associated with it, includes several rinses by HCl, acetone and deionized water. Elemental sulfur (S0) is a common product of incomplete pyrite oxidation. Removal of S0 is desirable to avoid experimental biases associated with its participation in pyrite transformations, but is more complicated than the removal of sulfate. Although rinsing with an organic solvent is in part aimed at removing S0, to the best of our knowledge, the extraction efficiency of S0 in existing protocols has not been assessed. We have developed and tested a new protocol for elemental sulfur removal from the surface of pyrite by ultrasonication with warm acetone. Our data demonstrate the presence of large fractions of S0 on untreated pyrite particle surfaces, of which only approximately 60% was removed by the commonly used pretreatment method. The new protocol described here was found to be more efficient at S0 removal than the commonly used method

  13. Ce isotope systematics of island arc lavas from the Lesser Antilles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellot, Nina; Boyet, Maud; Doucelance, Régis; Pin, Christian; Chauvel, Catherine; Auclair, Delphine

    2015-11-01

    The La-Ce systematics has one of the longest half-lifes (T1/2 = 292.5 Ga) of radioactive decay systems used in isotope geochemistry. Variations of the 138Ce/142Ce ratio are expected to be small and the use of Ce as isotopic tracer requires a very precise measurement. Compared to Sm-Nd studies, the La-Ce decay system can provide additional information about the nature of sediments recycled in subduction zones, because unusually large Ce anomalies relative to the neighboring rare earth elements exist in marine sediments such as fish teeth or hydrothermal deposits. Here, we present a chemical purification technique for Ce, and mass spectrometric technique to perform accurate and reproducible analyses of Ce isotopes of natural samples. We report a large set of Ce isotope data including analysis of 2 Ce reference material solutions (AMES and JMC-304), 2 rock standards (BCR-2 and BHVO-2), 2 chondrites (the carbonaceous chondrite Allende and the enstatite chondrite Sahara 97072), 4 mid-ocean ridge basalts, 30 arc lavas from the Martinique Island and 5 oceanic sediments from DSDP-site 144 drilled on the Demerara rise. The long-term, external precision obtained on the AMES reference material is 80 ppm (2 s.d., 138Ce/142Ce = 0.0225732 ± 18, n = 89). However, we note an evolution of isotopic ratios measured in static mode over the duration of this study (33 months). When the reproducibility is calculated from the AMES reference material measured during the same analytical session, it averages 40 ppm. All the 138Ce/142Ce ratios have been normalized to the AMES value of 0.0225746 (measured in session 7, 2 s.d. = 14 ppm, n = 8), a session during which the chondritic value has been defined and the peak tailing was negligible. The 138Ce/142Ce ratio measured for the JMC-304 Ce reference reagent is 0.0225706 ± 9 (2 s.d. = 38 ppm, n = 10). The analytical precision on natural samples is improved by a factor of about 4 in relation to previous studies on island arcs (Tanaka et al

  14. Geochemical and isotopic constraints on the age and origin of the Nidar Ophiolitic Complex, Ladakh, India: Implications for the Neo-Tethyan subduction along the Indus suture zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, T.; Tanaka, T.; Sachan, H. K.; Asahara, Y.; Islam, R.; Khanna, P. P.

    2008-04-01

    The Nidar ophiolite complex is exposed within the Indus suture zone in eastern Ladakh, India. The suture zone is considered to represent remnant Neo-Tethyan Ocean that closed via subduction as the Indian plate moved northward with respect to the Asian plate. The two plates ultimately collided during the Middle Eocene. The Nidar ophiolite complex comprises a sequence of ultra-mafic rocks at the base, gabbroic rocks in the middle and volcano-sedimentary assemblage on the top. Earlier studies considered the Nidar ophiolite complex to represent an oceanic floor sequence based on lithological assemblage. However, present study, based on new mineral and whole rock geochemical and isotopic data (on bulk rocks and mineral separates) indicate their generation and emplacement in an intra-oceanic subduction environment. The plutonic and volcanic rocks have nearly flat to slightly depleted rare earth element (REE) patterns. The gabbroic rocks, in particular, show strong positive Sr and Eu anomalies in their REE and spidergram patterns, probably indicating plagioclase accumulation. Depletion in high field strength elements (HFSE) in the spidergram patterns may be related to stabilization of phases retaining the HFSE in the subducting slab and / or fractional crystallization of titano-magnetite phases. The high radiogenic Nd- and low radiogenic Sr-isotopic ratios for these rocks exclude any influence of continental material in their genesis, implying an intra-oceanic environment. Nine point mineral-whole rock Sm-Nd isochron corresponds to an age of 140 ± 32 Ma with an initial 143Nd/ 144Nd of 0.513835 ± 0.000053 ( ENdt = + 7.4). This age is consistent with the precise Early Cretaceous age of Hauterivian (132 ± 2 to 127 ± 1.6 Ma) to Aptian (121 ± 1.4 to 112 ±1.1 Ma) for the overlying volcano-sedimentary (radiolarian bearing chert) sequences based on well-preserved radiolarian fossils (Kojima, S., Ahmad, T., Tanaka, T., Bagati, T.N., Mishra, M., Kumar, R. Islam, R., Khanna, P

  15. An isotopic biogeochemical study of the Green River oil shale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collister, J. W.; Summons, R. E.; Lichtfouse, E.; Hayes, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    Thirty-five different samples from three different sulfur cycles were examined in this stratigraphically oriented study of the Shell 22x-l well (U.S.G.S. C177 core) in the Piceance Basin, Colorado. Carbon isotopic compositions of constituents of Green River bitumens indicate mixing of three main components: products of primary photoautotrophs and their immediate consumers (delta approximately -30% vs PDB), products of methanotrophic bacteria (delta approximately -85%), and products of unknown bacteria (delta approximately -40%). For individual compounds synthesized by primary producers, delta-values ranged from -28 to -32%. 13C contents of individual primary products (beta-carotane, steranes, acyclic isoprenoids, tricyclic triterpenoids) were not closely correlated, suggesting diverse origins for these materials. 13C contents of numerous hopanoids were inversely related to sulfur abundance, indicating that they derived both from methanotrophs and from other bacteria, with abundances of methanotrophs depressed when sulfur was plentiful in the paleoenvironment. gamma-Cerane coeluted with 3 beta(CH3),17 alpha(H),21 beta(H)-hopane, but delta-values could be determined after deconvolution. gamma-Cerane (delta approximately -25%) probably derives from a eukaryotic heterotroph grazing on primary materials, the latter compound (delta approximately -90%) must derive from methanotrophic organisms. 13C contents of n-alkanes in bitumen differed markedly from those of paraffins generated pyrolytically. Isotopic and quantitative relationships suggest that alkanes released by pyrolysis derived from a resistant biopolymer of eukaryotic origin and that this was a dominant constituent of total organic carbon.

  16. An isotopic biogeochemical study of the Green River oil shale.

    PubMed

    Collister, J W; Summons, R E; Lichtfouse, E; Hayes, J M

    1992-12-01

    Thirty-five different samples from three different sulfur cycles were examined in this stratigraphically oriented study of the Shell 22x-l well (U.S.G.S. C177 core) in the Piceance Basin, Colorado. Carbon isotopic compositions of constituents of Green River bitumens indicate mixing of three main components: products of primary photoautotrophs and their immediate consumers (delta approximately -30% vs PDB), products of methanotrophic bacteria (delta approximately -85%), and products of unknown bacteria (delta approximately -40%). For individual compounds synthesized by primary producers, delta-values ranged from -28 to -32%. 13C contents of individual primary products (beta-carotane, steranes, acyclic isoprenoids, tricyclic triterpenoids) were not closely correlated, suggesting diverse origins for these materials. 13C contents of numerous hopanoids were inversely related to sulfur abundance, indicating that they derived both from methanotrophs and from other bacteria, with abundances of methanotrophs depressed when sulfur was plentiful in the paleoenvironment. gamma-Cerane coeluted with 3 beta(CH3),17 alpha(H),21 beta(H)-hopane, but delta-values could be determined after deconvolution. gamma-Cerane (delta approximately -25%) probably derives from a eukaryotic heterotroph grazing on primary materials, the latter compound (delta approximately -90%) must derive from methanotrophic organisms. 13C contents of n-alkanes in bitumen differed markedly from those of paraffins generated pyrolytically. Isotopic and quantitative relationships suggest that alkanes released by pyrolysis derived from a resistant biopolymer of eukaryotic origin and that this was a dominant constituent of total organic carbon.

  17. An isotopic biogeochemical study of the Green River oil shale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collister, J. W.; Summons, R. E.; Lichtfouse, E.; Hayes, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    Thirty-five different samples from three different sulfur cycles were examined in this stratigraphically oriented study of the Shell 22x-l well (U.S.G.S. C177 core) in the Piceance Basin, Colorado. Carbon isotopic compositions of constituents of Green River bitumens indicate mixing of three main components: products of primary photoautotrophs and their immediate consumers (delta approximately -30% vs PDB), products of methanotrophic bacteria (delta approximately -85%), and products of unknown bacteria (delta approximately -40%). For individual compounds synthesized by primary producers, delta-values ranged from -28 to -32%. 13C contents of individual primary products (beta-carotane, steranes, acyclic isoprenoids, tricyclic triterpenoids) were not closely correlated, suggesting diverse origins for these materials. 13C contents of numerous hopanoids were inversely related to sulfur abundance, indicating that they derived both from methanotrophs and from other bacteria, with abundances of methanotrophs depressed when sulfur was plentiful in the paleoenvironment. gamma-Cerane coeluted with 3 beta(CH3),17 alpha(H),21 beta(H)-hopane, but delta-values could be determined after deconvolution. gamma-Cerane (delta approximately -25%) probably derives from a eukaryotic heterotroph grazing on primary materials, the latter compound (delta approximately -90%) must derive from methanotrophic organisms. 13C contents of n-alkanes in bitumen differed markedly from those of paraffins generated pyrolytically. Isotopic and quantitative relationships suggest that alkanes released by pyrolysis derived from a resistant biopolymer of eukaryotic origin and that this was a dominant constituent of total organic carbon.

  18. [Application of stable isotopes in the study of whole-body protein metabolism].

    PubMed

    Tian, Ying; Yang, Xiaoguang; Piao, Jianhua

    2007-11-01

    Stable isotopes are non-radioactive, so they are safe and suitable for the study of human nutrition. In this paper, the principle and main methods of stable isotopic technique in the study of whole-body protein metabolism were introduced. Meanwhile, the advantages and disadvantages of different methods were discussed and the splanchnic metabolism of labeled amino acids was analyzed.

  19. Isotopic studies of Yucca Mountain soil fluids and carbonate pedogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    McConnaughey, T.A.; Whelan, J.F.; Wickland, K.P.; Moscati, R.J.

    1994-12-31

    Secondary carbonates occurring within the soils, faults, and subsurface fractures of Yucca Mountain contain some of the best available records of paleoclimate and palehydrology for the potential radioactive waste repository site. This article discusses conceptual and analytical advances being made with regard to the interpretation of stable isotope data from pedogenic carbonates, specifically related to the {sup 13}C content of soil CO{sub 2}, CaCO{sub 3}, precipitation mechanisms, and isotopic fractionations between parent fluids and precipitating carbonates. The {sup 13}C content of soil carbon dioxide from Yucca Mountain and vicinity shows most of the usual patterns expected in such contexts: Decreasing {sup 13}C content with depth decreasing {sup 13}C with altitude and reduced {sup 13}C during spring. These patterns exist within the domain of a noisy data set; soil and vegetational heterogeneities, weather, and other factors apparently contribute to isotopic variability in the system. Several soil calcification mechanisms appear to be important, involving characteristic physical and chemical environments and isotopic fractionations. When CO{sub 2} loss from thin soil solutions is an important driving factor, carbonates may contain excess heavy isotopes, compared to equilibrium precipitation with soil fluids. When root calcification serves as a proton generator for plant absorption of soil nutrients, heavy isotope deficiencies are likely. Successive cycles of dissolution and reprecipitation mix and redistribute pedogenic carbonates, and tend to isotopically homogenize and equilibrate pedogenic carbonates with soil fluids.

  20. Nd Isotope and U-Th-Pb Age Mapping of Single Monazite Grains by Laser Ablation Split Stream Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, C. M.; Hanchar, J. M.; Miller, C. F.; Phillips, S.; Vervoort, J. D.; Martin, W.

    2015-12-01

    Monazite is a common accessory mineral that occurs in medium to high grade metamorphic and Ca-poor felsic igneous rocks, and often controls the LREE budget (including Sm and Nd) of the host rock in which it crystallizes. Moreover, it contains appreciable U and Th, making it an ideal mineral for determining U-Th-Pb ages and Sm-Nd isotopic compositions, both of which are readily determined using in situ techniques with very high spatial resolution like LA-MC-ICPMS. Here, we present the results of laser ablation split stream analyses (LASS), which allows for simultaneous determination of the age and initial Nd isotopic composition in a single analysis. Analyses were done using a 20mm laser spot that allowed for detailed Nd isotope mapping of monazite grains (~30 analyses per ~250mm sized grain). Combined with LREE ratios (e.g., Sm/Nd, Ce/Gd, and Eu anomalies) these results yield important petrogenetic constraints on the evolution of peraluminous granites from the Old Woman-Piute batholith in southeastern California. Our findings also allow an improved understanding of the causes of isotope heterogeneity in granitic rocks. U-Th-Pb age mapping across the crystals reveals a single Cretaceous age for all grains with precision and accuracy typical of laser ablation analyses (~2%). In contrast, the concurrent Nd isotope mapping yields homogeneous initial Nd isotope compositions for some grains and large initial intra-grain variations of up to 8 epsilon units in others. The grains that yield homogeneous Nd isotope compositions have REE ratios suggesting that they crystallized in a fractionally crystallizing magma. Conversely, other grains, which also record fractional crystallization of both feldspar and LREE rich minerals, demonstrate a change in the Nd isotope composition of the magma during crystallization of monazite. Comparison of inter- and intra-grain Nd isotope compositions reveals further details on the potential mechanisms responsible for isotope heterogeneity

  1. Hafnium isotope results from mid-ocean ridges and Kerguelen.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patchett, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    176Hf/177Hf ratios are presented for oceanic volcanic rocks representing both extremes of the range of mantle Hf-Nd-Sr isotopic variation. Hf from critical mid-ocean ridge basalts shows that 176Hf/177Hf does indeed have a greater variability than 143Nd/144Nd and 87Sr/86Sr in the depleted mantle. This extra variation is essentially of a random nature, and can perhaps be understood in terms of known Rb/Sr-Sm/Nd-Lu/Hf fractionation relationships. At the other extreme of mantle isotopic compositions, 176Hf/177Hf ratios for igneous rocks from the Indian Ocean island of Kerguelen show a closely similar variation to published 143Nd/144Nd ratios for the same samples. Comparison of Hf-Nd-Sr isotopic relatonships for Tristan da Cunha, Kerguelen and Samoa reveals divergences in the mantle array for ocean-island magma sources, and perhaps suggests that these irregularities are largely the result of an extra component of 87Sr/86Sr variation.-G.R.

  2. Isotopic constraints on crustal growth and recycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobsen, Stein B.

    1988-01-01

    The Sm-Nd isotopic data on clastic and chemical sediments are used with the present-day age distribution of continental crustal rocks to estimate the rates of crustal accretion, growth and recycling throughout earth's history. A new method for interpreting Nd model ages on both chemical and clastic sediments is proposed. A general relationship is derived between the mean crustal residence time of material recycled from the crust to the mantle (i.e., sediments), the mean age of the crust, and the crustal growth and recycling rates. This relationship takes into account the fact that the age distribution of material in the continental crust is generally different from the age distribution of material recycled into the mantle. The episodic nature of the present-day age distribution in crustal rocks results in similar episodicity in the accretion and recycling rates. The results suggest that by about 3.8 Ga ago, about 40 percent of the present continental volume was present. Recycling rates were extremely high 3-4 Ga ago and declined rapidly to an insignificant value of about 0.1 cu km/a during most of the Phanerozoic. The Nd model age pattern on sediments suggests a fairly high rate of growth during the Phanerozoic.

  3. Isotopic constraints on crustal growth and recycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobsen, Stein B.

    1988-01-01

    The Sm-Nd isotopic data on clastic and chemical sediments are used with the present-day age distribution of continental crustal rocks to estimate the rates of crustal accretion, growth and recycling throughout earth's history. A new method for interpreting Nd model ages on both chemical and clastic sediments is proposed. A general relationship is derived between the mean crustal residence time of material recycled from the crust to the mantle (i.e., sediments), the mean age of the crust, and the crustal growth and recycling rates. This relationship takes into account the fact that the age distribution of material in the continental crust is generally different from the age distribution of material recycled into the mantle. The episodic nature of the present-day age distribution in crustal rocks results in similar episodicity in the accretion and recycling rates. The results suggest that by about 3.8 Ga ago, about 40 percent of the present continental volume was present. Recycling rates were extremely high 3-4 Ga ago and declined rapidly to an insignificant value of about 0.1 cu km/a during most of the Phanerozoic. The Nd model age pattern on sediments suggests a fairly high rate of growth during the Phanerozoic.

  4. Accretion timescale and impact history of Mars deduced from the isotopic systematics of martian meteorites

    DOE PAGES

    Borg, Lars E.; Brennecka, Gregory A.; Symes, Steven J. K.

    2015-12-12

    High precision Sm-Nd isotopic analyses have been completed on a suite of 11 martian basaltic meteorites in order to better constrain the age of silicate differentiation on Mars associated with the formation of their mantle sources. Our data is used to evaluate the merits and disadvantages of various mathematical approaches that have been employed in previous work on this topic. Ages determined from the Sm-Nd isotopic systematics of individual samples are strongly dependent on the assumed Nd isotopic composition of the bulk planet. This assumption is problematic given differences observed between the Nd isotopic composition of Earth and chondritic meteoritesmore » and the fact that these materials are both commonly used to represent bulk planetary Nd isotopic compositions. Ages determined from the slope of Sm-146-Nd-142 whole rock isochrons are not dependent on the assumed Nd-142/Nd-144 ratio of the planet, but require the sample suite to be derived from complementary, contemporaneously-formed reservoirs. In this work, we present a mathematical expression that defines the age of formation of the source regions of such a suite of samples that is based solely on the slope of a Nd-143-Nd-142 whole rock isochron and is also independent of any a priori assumptions regarding the bulk isotopic composition of the planet. This expression is also applicable to mineral isochrons and has been used to successfully calculate Nd-143-Nd-142 model crystallization ages of early refractory solids as well as lunar samples. This permits ages to be obtained using only Nd isotopic measurements without the need for Sm-147/Nd-144 isotope dilution determinations. When used in conjunction with high-precision Nd isotopic measurements completed on martian meteorites this expression yields an age of formation of the martian basaltic meteorite source regions of 4504 +/- 6 Ma. Because the Sm-Nd model ages for the formation of martian source regions are commonly interpreted to record the age at

  5. Accretion timescale and impact history of Mars deduced from the isotopic systematics of martian meteorites

    SciTech Connect

    Borg, Lars E.; Brennecka, Gregory A.; Symes, Steven J. K.

    2015-12-12

    High precision Sm-Nd isotopic analyses have been completed on a suite of 11 martian basaltic meteorites in order to better constrain the age of silicate differentiation on Mars associated with the formation of their mantle sources. Our data is used to evaluate the merits and disadvantages of various mathematical approaches that have been employed in previous work on this topic. Ages determined from the Sm-Nd isotopic systematics of individual samples are strongly dependent on the assumed Nd isotopic composition of the bulk planet. This assumption is problematic given differences observed between the Nd isotopic composition of Earth and chondritic meteorites and the fact that these materials are both commonly used to represent bulk planetary Nd isotopic compositions. Ages determined from the slope of Sm-146-Nd-142 whole rock isochrons are not dependent on the assumed Nd-142/Nd-144 ratio of the planet, but require the sample suite to be derived from complementary, contemporaneously-formed reservoirs. In this work, we present a mathematical expression that defines the age of formation of the source regions of such a suite of samples that is based solely on the slope of a Nd-143-Nd-142 whole rock isochron and is also independent of any a priori assumptions regarding the bulk isotopic composition of the planet. This expression is also applicable to mineral isochrons and has been used to successfully calculate Nd-143-Nd-142 model crystallization ages of early refractory solids as well as lunar samples. This permits ages to be obtained using only Nd isotopic measurements without the need for Sm-147/Nd-144 isotope dilution determinations. When used in conjunction with high-precision Nd isotopic measurements completed on martian meteorites this expression yields an age of formation of the martian basaltic meteorite source regions of 4504 +/- 6 Ma. Because the Sm-Nd model ages for the formation of martian source regions are commonly interpreted to record the age at which

  6. Accretion timescale and impact history of Mars deduced from the isotopic systematics of martian meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borg, Lars E.; Brennecka, Gregory A.; Symes, Steven J. K.

    2016-02-01

    High precision Sm-Nd isotopic analyses have been completed on a suite of 11 martian basaltic meteorites in order to better constrain the age of silicate differentiation on Mars associated with the formation of their mantle sources. These data are used to evaluate the merits and disadvantages of various mathematical approaches that have been employed in previous work on this topic. Ages determined from the Sm-Nd isotopic systematics of individual samples are strongly dependent on the assumed Nd isotopic composition of the bulk planet. This assumption is problematic given differences observed between the Nd isotopic composition of Earth and chondritic meteorites and the fact that these materials are both commonly used to represent bulk planetary Nd isotopic compositions. Ages determined from the slope of 146Sm-142Nd whole rock isochrons are not dependent on the assumed 142Nd/144Nd ratio of the planet, but require the sample suite to be derived from complementary, contemporaneously-formed reservoirs. In this work, we present a mathematical expression that defines the age of formation of the source regions of such a suite of samples that is based solely on the slope of a 143Nd-142Nd whole rock isochron and is also independent of any a priori assumptions regarding the bulk isotopic composition of the planet. This expression is also applicable to mineral isochrons and has been used to successfully calculate 143Nd-142Nd model crystallization ages of early refractory solids as well as lunar samples. This permits ages to be obtained using only Nd isotopic measurements without the need for 147Sm/144Nd isotope dilution determinations. When used in conjunction with high-precision Nd isotopic measurements completed on martian meteorites this expression yields an age of formation of the martian basaltic meteorite source regions of 4504 ± 6 Ma. Because the Sm-Nd model ages for the formation of martian source regions are commonly interpreted to record the age at which large scale

  7. Open system models of isotopic evolution in Earth's silicate reservoirs: Implications for crustal growth and mantle heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Seema; Paul, Debajyoti; Stracke, Andreas

    2016-12-01

    An open system evolutionary model of the Earth, comprising continental crust (CC), upper and lower mantle (UM, LM), and an additional isolated reservoir (IR) has been developed to study the isotopic evolution of the silicate Earth. The model is solved numerically at 1 Myr time steps over 4.55 Gyr of Earth history to reproduce both the present-day concentrations and isotope ratios of key radioactive decay systems (Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, and U-Th-Pb) in these terrestrial reservoirs. Various crustal growth scenarios - continuous versus episodic and early versus late crustal growth - and their effect on the evolution of Sr-Nd-Pb isotope systematics in the silicate reservoirs have been evaluated. Modeling results where the present-day UM is ∼60% of the total mantle mass and a lower mantle that is non-primitive reproduce the estimated geochemical composition and isotope ratios in Earth's silicate reservoirs. The isotopic evolution of the silicate Earth is strongly affected by the mode of crustal growth; only an exponential crustal growth pattern with crustal growth since the early Archean satisfactorily explains the chemical and isotopic evolution of the crust-mantle system and accounts for the so-called Pb paradoxes. Assuming that the OIB source is located in the deeper mantle, our model could, however, not reproduce its target ɛNd of +4.6 for the UM, which has been estimated from the average isotope ratios of 32 individual ocean island localities. Hence, either mantle plumes sample the LM in a non-representative way, or the simplified model set-up does not capture the full complexity of Earth's lower mantle (Nd isotope) evolution. Compared to the results obtained for a 4.55 Ga Earth, a model assuming a protracted U-Pb evolution of silicate Earth by ca. 100 Myr reproduces a slightly better fit for the Pb isotope ratios in Earth's silicate reservoirs. One notable feature of successful models is the early depletion of incompatible elements (as well as rapid decrease in Th/U) in

  8. Coordinated Isotopic and TEM Studies of Presolar Graphites from Murchison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croat, T. K.; Stadermann, F. J.; Zinner, E.; Bernatowicz, T. J.

    2004-03-01

    TEM and NanoSIMS investigations of the same presolar Murchison KFC graphites revealed high Zr, Mo, and Ru content in refractory carbides within the graphites. Along with isotopically light carbon, these suggest a low-metallicity AGB source.

  9. Speculations on nature and extent of Archean basement in Labrador as indicated by SR, ND and PB isotopic systematics of proterozoic intrusives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashwal, L. D.; Wooden, J. L.; Emslie, R. F.

    1986-01-01

    The Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotopic compositions of mid to late Proterozoic (approximately 1.6 to 1.1 Ga) massif-type anorthosites and mafic intrusives in the eastern Canadian shield are correlated with geographic location. Complexes in the Grenville province have positive epsilon sub Nd values and initial Sr-87/Sr-86 (I sub Sr) generally less than 0.703, suggesting derivation from depleted mantle. In Labrador, similar complexes close to or northwest of a line roughly corresponding to the Grenville Front have negative epsilon sub Nd values and I sub Sr 0.703. This contrast was intrepreted as reflecting either enriched mantle under the Nain Province, or contamination of the Nain intrusives with older crustal components. Lead isotopic compositions, however, favor the latter. The possibility of using these Proterozoic intrusives as tracers to characterize the nature and extent of older basement types in Labrador is discussed.

  10. The process of glauconitization: chemical and isotopic evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stille, Peter; Clauer, Norbert

    1994-08-01

    Sequential leaching experiments were made on Recent glauconies and clay fractions of the associated mud from off-shore Africa near the estuary of the Congo River. Analyses of major/rare earth elements (REE) and Nd isotopic compositions on the resulting leachate and residue pairs allow identification of at least three important and isotopically distinct components which contributed to the glauconitization process: (1) a detrital component with relatively high 87Sr/86Sr and relatively low 143Nd/144Nd isotopic ratios; (2) a phosphate phase rich in REE and Sr with sea water Sr and Nd isotopic characteristics; (3) a component rich in organic matter and Ca with a sea water Sr isotopic signature, a relatively low Nd isotopic composition and elevated Sm/Nd ratios. This latter component probably represents the suspended organic and carbonate-rich river load. The detrital and the river components were mixed up in the muddy off-shore sediment, ingested by worms, and integrated into faecal pellets. The resulting material has Sr and Nd isotopic signatures intermediate between those of the detrital and river components, and represents the precursor of the glaucony minerals. During the subsequent dissolution-crystallization process, the glauconitic pellets remain isotopically closed to any external supply, but expulsion of Sr and Nd with increasing degree of maturation is observed without any effect on the Sr and Nd isotopic compositions. At a higher maturation stage (K2O>4.5%), the Sr and Nd isotopic compositions tend to decrease and increase, respectively, approximating the isotopic composition values of the phosphate-rich phase. Because the Sr and Nd concentrations decrease, the evolution of the glauconies toward lower Sr and higher Nd isotopic compositions can only be explained by expulsion of Sr and Nd of the detrital component with high Sr and low Nd isotopic signatures. Dissolution of the chemically unstable, wormdigested clay material from mud may be responsible for the

  11. Study of the isotopic features of Swan bands in comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishna Swamy, K. S.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown from a detailed statistical equilibrium calculation of the (C-12)(C-13) molecule that the interpretation of the observed intensities of Swan bands of the normal and the isotopic molecule of C2 in terms of the abundance ratio of C-12 and C-13 is a reasonable one. The synthetic profile of some isotopic features in the (0.0) Swan band is compared with the observed profiles for comet West.

  12. Isotopic probes for chamber-based microphysics studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyer, E. J.; Möhler, O.; Ebert, V.; Morong, C. P.

    2008-12-01

    Measurements of the isotopic composition of water vapor are an underutilized potential probe of processes of ice crystal nucleation and growth and cirrus cloud evolution. We discuss a new laser- based absorption spectroscopy instrument for measurement of gas-phase water isotopologues (H2O, HDO, and H218O) currently under construction for use at the AIDA aerosol and cloud chamber in Karlsruhe, Germany, the largest such facility in the world and the only one suitable for isotopic measurements. We discuss proposed chamber experiments and show how isotopic measurements can help discriminate between many current hypotheses proposed to explain observed high supersaturation in cold cirrus, which include inactivation of aerosols by glassification, growth inhibition due to aerosol coating with organic material, ice in cubic rather than hexagonal phase, unexpectedly low temperature-dependent mass accommodation coefficients, and NAT deposition on ice. Chamber experiments offer several advantages over field sampling in the atmosphere from aircraft. First, the limitations of natural isotopic ratios (1:10000 for HDO:H2O) are not a constraint in controlled chamber experiments, because chamber water can be doped to reduce the difference between concentrations of common and rare isotopologues and allow increased measurement sensitivity. Second, different water sources can be isotopically labeled, allowing explicit measurement of fluxes. The combination allows the use of isotopic probes in novel ways for understanding microphysics in cold cirrus.

  13. COMPOUND-SPECIFIC ISOTOPE ANALYSIS OF MTBE AND TBA FOR BIOREMEDIATION STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The utility of stable isotope ratios to detect biodegradation for a number of chemical compounds including MTBE and TBA has been demonstrated in a number of laboratory or field studies. Chemical reactions tend to favor molecules with the lighter isotopic species (e.g., 12C, 1H), ...

  14. Experiments to study cosmic ray isotopic composition up to sub 40 Zr

    SciTech Connect

    Milliken, B. )

    1990-03-20

    Instruments being currently developed for balloon-borne cosmic ray isotopic composition measurements should lead to instruments with the precise mass resolution and large geometry factor needed to study isotopes in the range 30{le}{ital Z}{le}40 with long duration exposure on a polar orbiting platform or on the moon.

  15. STABLE ISOTOPES IN ECOLOGICAL STUDIES: EXPANDING THE SCOPE OF MIXING MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stable isotopes are increasingly being used as tracers in ecological studies. One common application uses isotopic ratios to quantify the proportional contributions of multiple sources to a mixture. Examples include pollution sources for air or water bodies, food sources for an...

  16. Use of micrometeorological techniques to study the isotopic exchange in ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, E.; Wagner-Riddle, C.; Brown, S. E.; Stropes, K.

    2015-12-01

    The combination of micrometeorological techniques with high frequency concentration measurements of stable isotopes are a powerful tool to study the temporal dynamics of isotope signatures at the ecosystem level. The objective of this study was to study the isotopic composition of the net CO2 exchange (NEE) above and with corn and tall grass canopies. Profiles of stable isotopes of CO2 (12C-CO2, 13C-CO2 and 18O-CO2) were measured using tunable diode laser trace gas analyzers and multiport sampling systems in corn (12C-CO2 and 13C-CO2, only) and tall grass canopies. These measurements were combined with the flux gradient method and Lagrangian dispersion analysis to estimate the isotopic signatures of the net CO2 flux. The use of a gradient of a concentration threshold to screen half hourly period improved the estimates of flux signatures by the isotope flux ratio approach. The Langrangian dispersion analysis and the isotope flux ratio method estimates showed good agreement above the corn canopy, indicating that the former method can be a viable alternative to study the isotopic exchange within plant canopies. The 13CO2 composition of NEE showed a downward trend near the end of the growing season, which may be related to a reduction of autotrophic respiration in the soil.

  17. COMPOUND-SPECIFIC ISOTOPE ANALYSIS OF MTBE AND TBA FOR BIOREMEDIATION STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The utility of stable isotope ratios to detect biodegradation for a number of chemical compounds including MTBE and TBA has been demonstrated in a number of laboratory or field studies. Chemical reactions tend to favor molecules with the lighter isotopic species (e.g., 12C, 1H), ...

  18. Coordinated Chemical and Isotopic Studies of GEMS in IDPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, L. P.; Messenger, S.

    2008-01-01

    Cometary IDPs contain a record of the building blocks of the solar system including presolar grains, molecular cloud material, and materials formed in the early solar nebula [1]. Following their accretion, these materials have remained relatively unaltered because of the lack of parent body hydrothermal alteration. We are using coordinated transmission electron microscope (TEM) and ion microprobe studies to establish the origins of the various components within cometary IDPs. Of particular interest is the nature and abundance of presolar silicates in these IDPs because astronomical observations suggest that crystalline and amorphous silicates are the dominant grain types produced in young main sequence stars and evolved O-rich stars [e.g. 2]. Amorphous silicates (in the form of GEMS grains) are a major component of cometary IDPs and so a major objective of this work is to elucidate their origins. In rare cases, GEMS grains have highly anomalous O isotopic compositions that establish their origins as circumstellar condensates [3]. Here we present data on a systematic study of the silicate components within a primitive IDP.

  19. Isotope effects of neodymium in different ligands exchange systems studied by ion exchange displacement chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Ibrahim; Fawzy, Ahmed S.; Ahmad, Mohammad I.; Aly, Hisham F.; Nomura, Masao; Fujii, Yasuhiko

    2012-01-01

    The isotope effects of neodymium in Nd-glycolate ligand exchange system were studied by using ion exchange chromatography. The separation coefficients of neodymium isotopes, ε’s, were calculated from the observed isotopic ratios at the front and rear boundaries of the neodymium adsorption band. The values of separation coefficients of neodymium isotopes, ε’s, for the Nd-glycolate ligand exchange system were compared with those of Nd-malate and Nd-citrate, which indicated that the isotope effects of neodymium as studied by the three ligands takes the following direction Malate > Citrate > Glycolate. This order agrees with the number of available sites for complexation of each ligand. The values of the plate height, HETP of Nd in Nd-ligand exchange systems were also calculated. PMID:25685410

  20. Isotope effects of neodymium in different ligands exchange systems studied by ion exchange displacement chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Ibrahim; Fawzy, Ahmed S; Ahmad, Mohammad I; Aly, Hisham F; Nomura, Masao; Fujii, Yasuhiko

    2013-03-01

    The isotope effects of neodymium in Nd-glycolate ligand exchange system were studied by using ion exchange chromatography. The separation coefficients of neodymium isotopes, ε's, were calculated from the observed isotopic ratios at the front and rear boundaries of the neodymium adsorption band. The values of separation coefficients of neodymium isotopes, ε's, for the Nd-glycolate ligand exchange system were compared with those of Nd-malate and Nd-citrate, which indicated that the isotope effects of neodymium as studied by the three ligands takes the following direction Malate > Citrate > Glycolate. This order agrees with the number of available sites for complexation of each ligand. The values of the plate height, HETP of Nd in Nd-ligand exchange systems were also calculated.

  1. Oxygen and iron isotope studies of magnetite produced by magnetotactic bacteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mandernack, K.W.; Bazylinski, D.A.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Bullen, T.D.

    1999-01-01

    A series of carefully controlled laboratory studies was carried out to investigate oxygen and iron isotope fractionation during the intracellular production of magnetite (Fe3O4) by two different species of magnetotactic bacteria at temperatures between 4??and 35??C under microaerobic and anaerobic conditions. No detectable fractionation of iron isotopes in the bacterial magnetites was observed. However, oxygen isotope measurements indicated a temperature-dependent fractionation for Fe3O4 and water that is consistent with that observed for Fe3O4 produced extracellularly by thermophilic Fe3+-reducing bacteria. These results contrast with established fractionation curves estimated from either high-temperature experiments or theoretical calculations. With the fractionation curve established in this report, oxygen-18 isotope values of bacterial Fe3O4 may be useful in paleoenvironmental studies for determining the oxygen-18 isotope values of formation waters and for inferring paleotemperatures.

  2. Isotopic studies of Yucca Mountain soil fluids and carbonate pedogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    McConnaughey, T.A.; Whelan, J.F.; Wickland, K.P.; Moscati, R.J.

    1994-12-31

    Secondary carbonates occurring within the soils, faults, and subsurface fractures of Yucca Mountain contain some of the best available records of paleoclimate and paleohydrology for the potential radioactive waste repository site. This article discusses conceptual and analytical advances being made with regard to the interpretation of stable isotope data from pedogenic carbonates, specifically related to the {sup 13}C content of soil CO{sub 2}, CaCO{sub 3} precipitation mechanisms, and isotopic fractionations between parent fluids and precipitating carbonates. The {sup 13}C content of soil carbon dioxide from Yucca Mountain and vicinity shows most of the usual patterns expected in such contexts: decreasing {sup 13}C content with depth (due mainly to increased importance of respired CO{sub 2}), decreasing {sup 13}C with altitude (partially due to relatively more C-3 vegetation), and reduced {sup 13}C during spring (due again to higher rates of respiration, and reduced gas permeability of wet soils). These patterns exist within the domain of a noisy data set; soil and vegetational heterogeneities, weather, and other factors apparently contribute to isotopic variability in the system. Several soil calcification mechanisms appear to be important, involving characteristic physical and chemical environments and isotopic fractionations. When CO{sub 2} loss from thin soil solutions is an important driving factor, carbonates may contain excess heavy isotopes, compared to equilibrium precipitation with soil fluids. When root calcification serves as a proton generator for plant absorption of soil nutrients, heavy isotope deficiencies are likely. Successive cycles of dissolution and reprecipitation mix and redistribute pedogenic carbonates, and tend to isotopically homogenize and equilibrate pedogenic carbonates with soil fluids.

  3. Collisional erosion in the Giant Impact and a non-chondritic Earth: constraints from lunar Nd isotope data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armytage, R. M.; Brandon, A. D.

    2013-12-01

    A growing body of isotopic evidence suggests that the Moon and bulk silicate Earth (BSE) are identical and unique among solar system bodies [e.g. 1]. If the Moon is composed largely of material from the proto-Earth, lunar samples can provide an independent method for constraining the chemistry of the early bulk silicate Earth. An important question is whether the BSE is chondritic in its refractory lithophile element ratios. Measurements of 142Nd /144Nd in samples from the Earth's modern convecting mantle are offset by ~20ppm from average chondritic values [2]. Assuming that this is the result of decay of 146Sm, this could imply that the bulk Earth has a superchondritic Sm/Nd ratio. We present a model of collisional erosion [3] for the proto-Earth and Moon during the Giant Impact using constraints from the coupled Sm-Nd decay system and data from lunar basalts [2,4]. A key assumption is that the lunar basaltic data form an isochron in ɛ143Nd-μ142Nd space, which can constrain the bulk lunar (and BSE) 147Sm/142Nd for a given time of collisional erosion. Using a half-life of 68Myr for 146Sm [4], and the assumption μ142Nd=0×3 for the bulk Earth and Moon, the range in 147Sm/142Nd is 0.2075-0.229 for Giant Impact. This limits the maximum age of the Giant Impact to ≤70Myr after the onset of nebular condensation. The constraints from the Sm-Nd isotope systematics on collisional erosion parameters will be used to extend this model of lithophile element fractionation during the Giant Impact to the heat producing elements such as U and Th. The effect on noble gas budgets of bulk silicate Earth will also be investigated. References: [1] Zhang J. et al. (2012) Nature Geosci., 5, 251-255. [2] Boyet. M. and Carlson R. W. (2005) Science, 309, 576-581. [3] O'Neill H. S. C. and Palme H. (2008) Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, 366, 4205-4238 [4] Brandon A. D. et al. (2009) GCA, 73, 6421-6445. [5] Kinoshita N. et al. (2012) Science, 335, 1614-1617

  4. Follow the Carbon: Isotopic Labeling Studies of Early Earth Aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, Raea K.; Day, Douglas A.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    2016-11-01

    Despite the faint young Sun, early Earth might have been kept warm by an atmosphere containing the greenhouse gases CH4 and CO2 in mixing ratios higher than those found on Earth today. Laboratory and modeling studies suggest that an atmosphere containing these trace gases could lead to the formation of organic aerosol haze due to UV photochemistry. Chemical mechanisms proposed to explain haze formation rely on CH4 as the source of carbon and treat CO2 as a source of oxygen only, but this has not previously been verified experimentally. In the present work, we use isotopically labeled precursor gases and unit-mass resolution (UMR) and high-resolution (HR) aerosol mass spectrometry to examine the sources of carbon and oxygen to photochemical aerosol formed in a CH4/CO2/N2 atmosphere. UMR results suggest that CH4 contributes 70-100% of carbon in the aerosol, while HR results constrain the value from 94% to 100%. We also confirm that CO2 contributes approximately 10% of the total mass to the aerosol as oxygen. These results have implications for the geochemical interpretations of inclusions found in Archean rocks on Earth and for the astrobiological potential of other planetary atmospheres.

  5. Feasibility study of medical isotope production at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Massey, C.D.; Miller, D.L.; Carson, S.D.

    1995-12-01

    In late 1994, Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, (SNL/NM), was instructed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Isotope Production and Distribution Program (IPDP) to examine the feasibility of producing medically useful radioisotopes using the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) and the Hot Cell Facility (HCF). Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) would be expected to supply the targets to be irradiated in the ACRR. The intent of DOE would be to provide a capability to satisfy the North American health care system demand for {sup 99}Mo, the parent of {sup 99m}Tc, in the event of an interruption in the current Canadian supply. {sup 99m}Tc is used in 70 to 80% of all nuclear medicine procedures in the US. The goal of the SNL/NM study effort is to determine the physical plant capability, infrastructure, and staffing necessary to meet the North American need for {sup 99}Mo and to identify and examine all issues with potential for environmental impact.

  6. Follow the Carbon: Isotopic Labeling Studies of Early Earth Aerosol.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Raea K; Day, Douglas A; Jimenez, Jose L; Tolbert, Margaret A

    2016-11-01

    Despite the faint young Sun, early Earth might have been kept warm by an atmosphere containing the greenhouse gases CH4 and CO2 in mixing ratios higher than those found on Earth today. Laboratory and modeling studies suggest that an atmosphere containing these trace gases could lead to the formation of organic aerosol haze due to UV photochemistry. Chemical mechanisms proposed to explain haze formation rely on CH4 as the source of carbon and treat CO2 as a source of oxygen only, but this has not previously been verified experimentally. In the present work, we use isotopically labeled precursor gases and unit-mass resolution (UMR) and high-resolution (HR) aerosol mass spectrometry to examine the sources of carbon and oxygen to photochemical aerosol formed in a CH4/CO2/N2 atmosphere. UMR results suggest that CH4 contributes 70-100% of carbon in the aerosol, while HR results constrain the value from 94% to 100%. We also confirm that CO2 contributes approximately 10% of the total mass to the aerosol as oxygen. These results have implications for the geochemical interpretations of inclusions found in Archean rocks on Earth and for the astrobiological potential of other planetary atmospheres. Key Words: Atmosphere-Early Earth-Planetary atmospheres-Carbon dioxide-Methane. Astrobiology 16, 822-830.

  7. Isotopic study of oxygen diffusion in oxide coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulino, Daniel A.; Kren, Lawrence A.; Dever, Therese M.

    1989-01-01

    Diffusion of oxygen in thin films of silicon dioxide was studied using oxygen isotopically enriched in oxygen of atomic mass 18 (O-18). This subject is of interest because thin films of dielectrics such as SiO2 are proposed for use as a protective coatings for solar mirrors in low Earth orbit, which is a strongly oxidizing environment. Films of this material were prepared with a direct current magnetron using reactive sputtering techniques. To produce (O-18)- enriched SiO2, a standard 3.5-in.-diameter silicon wafer was reactively sputtered using (O-18)-enriched (95 percent) oxygen as the plasma feed gas. The films were characterized using Rutherford backscattering and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer (SIMS) to establish stoichiometry and purity. Subsequently, the films were exposed to an air-derived oxygen plasma in a standard laboratory plasma reactor for durations of up to 10 hr. The concentration ratio of O-16 as a function of depth was determined using SIMS profiling and compared to a baseline, nonplasma exposed sample. A value for the diffusivity of oxygen near the surface of these films was obtained and found to be about 10(-15)sq cm/sec.

  8. Sr isotopic tracer study of the Samail ophiolite, Oman

    SciTech Connect

    Lanphere, M.A.; Coleman, R.G.; Hopson, C.A.

    1981-04-10

    We have measured Rb and Sr concentrations and Sr isotopic compositions in 41 whole-rock samples and 12 mineral separates from units of the Samail ophiolite, including peridotite, gabbro, plagiogranite diabase dikes, and gabbro and websterite dikes within the metamorphic peridotite. Ten samples of cummulate gabbro from the Wadir Kadir section and nine samples from the Wadi Khafifah section have mean /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios and standard deviations of 0.70314 +- 0.00030 and 0.70306 +- 0.00034, respectively. The dispersion in Sr isotopic composition may reflect real heterogeneities in the magma source region. The average Sr isotopic composition of cumulate gabbro falls in the range of isotopic compositions of modern midocean ridge basalt. The /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios of noncumulate gabbro, plagiogranite, and diabase dikes range from 0.7034 to 0.7047, 0.7038 to 0.7046, and 0.7037 to 0.7061, respectively. These higher /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios are due to alteration of initial magmatic compositions by hydrothermal exchange with seawater. Mineral separates from dikes that cut harzburgite tectonite have Sr isotopic compositions which agree with that of cumulate gabbro. These data indicate that the cumulate gabbro and the different dikes were derived from partial melting of source regions that had similar long-term histories and chemical compositions.

  9. Sr isotopic tracer study of the Samail ophiolite, Oman.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lanphere, M.A.; Coleman, R.G.; Hopson, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    Rb and Sr concentrations and Sr-isotopic compositions were measured in 41 whole-rock samples and 12 mineral separates from units of the Samail ophiolite, including peridotite, gabbro, plagiogranite, diabase dykes, and gabbro and websterite dykes within the metamorphic peridotite. Ten samples of cumulate gabbro from the Wadir Kadir section and nine samples from the Wadi Khafifah section have 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.70314 + or - 0.00030 and 0.70306 + or - 0.00034, respectively. The dispersion in Sr- isotopic composition may reflect real heterogeneities in the magma source region. The average Sr-isotopic composition of cumulate gabbro falls in the range of isotopic compositions of modern MORB. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios of noncumulate gabbro, plagiogranite, and diabase dykes range 0.7034-0.7047, 0.7038-0.7046 and 0.7037- 0.7061, respectively. These higher 87Sr/86Sr ratios are due to alteration of initial magmatic compositions by hydrothermal exchange with sea-water. Mineral separates from dykes that cut harzburgite tectonite have Sr-isotopic compositions which agree with that of cumulate gabbro. These data indicate that the cumulate gabbro and the different dykes were derived from partial melting of source regions that had similar long-term histories and chemical compositions.-T.R.

  10. Combining Solvent Isotope Effects with Substrate Isotope Effects in Mechanistic Studies of Alcohol and Amine Oxidation by Enzymes*

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Paul F.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidation of alcohols and amines is catalyzed by multiple families of flavin-and pyridine nucleotide-dependent enzymes. Measurement of solvent isotope effects provides a unique mechanistic probe of the timing of the cleavage of the OH and NH bonds, necessary information for a complete description of the catalytic mechanism. The inherent ambiguities in interpretation of solvent isotope effects can be significantly decreased if isotope effects arising from isotopically labeled substrates are measured in combination with solvent isotope effects. The application of combined solvent and substrate (mainly deuterium) isotope effects to multiple enzymes is described here to illustrate the range of mechanistic insights that such an approach can provide. PMID:25448013

  11. A high-resolution study of the isotopes of solar flare nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mewaldt, R. A.; Spalding, J. D.; Stone, E. C.

    1984-01-01

    Individual isotopes of the elements He, C, N, O, Ne, and Mg with energies from 5 to 50 MeV per nucleon have been resolved in energetic flare particles during the September 23, 1978 solar flare event. In addition, an earlier determination of Ne-22/Ne-20 in this flare was improved on by extending the energy interval for isotope analysis. A significant difference between the isotopic composition of solar flare and solar wind neon is found, which is compared to similar evidence from studies of solar energetic particles implanted in lunar and meteoritic samples. Although limited by statistics, the measurements of He, C, N, O, and Mg isotopes are consistent with typical isotopic abundances found in other samples of solar system material. The ensemble of these results is used to test for the possibility of mass-dependent fractionation during solar flare acceleration and propagation.

  12. NMR studies of two spliced leader RNAs using isotope labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Lapham, J.; Crothers, D.M.

    1994-12-01

    Spliced leader RNAs are a class of RNA molecules (<200 nts) involved in the trans splicing of messenger RNA found in trypanosomes, nematodes, and other lower eukaryotes. The spliced leader RNA from the trypanosome Leptomonas Collosoma exists in two alternate structural forms with similar thermal stabilities. The 54 nucleotides on the 5{prime} end of the SL molecule is structurally independent from the 3{prime} half of the RNA, and displays the two structural forms. Furthermore, the favored of the two structures was shown to contain anomalous nuclease sensitivity and thermal stability features, which suggests that there may be tertiary interactions between the splice site and other nucleotides in the 5{prime} end. Multidimensional NMR studies are underway to elucidate the structural elements present in the SL RNAs that give rise to their physical properties. Two spliced leader sequences have been studied. The first, the 54 nucleotides on the 5{prime} end of the L. Collosoma sequence, was selected because of earlier studies in our laboratory. The second sequence is the 5{prime} end of the trypanosome Crithidia Fasciculata, which was chosen because of its greater sequence homology to other SL sequences. Given the complexity of the NMR spectra for RNA molecules of this size, we have incorporated {sup 15}N/{sup 13}C-labeled nucleotides into the RNA. One of the techniques we have developed to simplify the spectra of these RNA molecules is isotope labeling of specific regions of the RNA. This has been especially helpful in assigning the secondary structure of molecules that may be able to adopt multiple conformations. Using this technique one can examine a part of the molecule without spectral interference from the unlabeled portion. We hope this approach will promote an avenue for studying the structure of larger RNAs in their native surroundings.

  13. Experimental stand for studies of hydrogen isotopes permeation

    SciTech Connect

    Brad, S.; Stefanescu, I.; Stefan, L.; Lazar, A.; Vijulie, M.; Sofilca, N.; Bornea, A.; Vasut, F.; Zamfirache, M.; Bidica, N.; Postolache, C.; Matei, L.

    2008-07-15

    As a result of the high probability of hydrogen isotope permeation through materials used in high-temperature reactor operations, the interaction of hydrogen isotopes with metallic structural materials proposed to be used for fusion reactor designing is of great importance for safety considerations. Determining the parameters of the interaction between hydrogen isotopes and different materials, is therefore essential to accurately calculate recycling, outgassing, loading, permeation and hydrogen embrittlement. The permeation tests were made in collaboration with IFIN Bucuresti inside of a special glove-box to avail their radioactive protection expertise. This investigation programme is ongoing. In this paper we describe the permeation stand facility and the preliminary tests carried out to date. (authors)

  14. Lead isotopic studies of the Samail ophiolite, Oman

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.H.; Pallister, J.S.

    1981-04-10

    The isotopic composition of Pb and the concentrations of U, Th, and Pb have been determined for samples from various lithologic units and massive sulfides of the Samail ophiolite. The observed /sup 206/Pb//sup 204/Pb ratios range from 17.90 to 19.06, /sup 207/Pb//sup 204/Pb ratios from 15.43 to 15.63, and /sup 208/Pb//sup 204/Pb from 37.66 to 38.78. In Pb isotopic evolution diagrams, the initial Pb isotopic compositions of most of the samples from the Samail ophiolite plot within the field of oceanic basalt, clearly distinct from island arc data, and define some of the least radiogenic Pb observed from oceanic rocks. Lead data from the Samail are compatible with a model involving magma generation from an oceanic mantle source and formation of the ophiolite at an oceanic spreading center. U--Th--Pb isotopic systematics demonstrate that vertical heterogeneity in the oceanic crust can be created through differential concentration of U, Th, and Pb during crystal fractionation and alteration at, or near, the spreading ridge. Calcite form amygdules in the ophiolite basalt has similar Pb isotopic composition to the igneous rocks, suggesting precipitation of the calcite from seawater which contained Pb derived mostly from the oceanic crust. Lead isotopic data on Fe--Cu sulfides are also similar to the results from the igneous suite suggesting that the source of the sulfides is predominently from the oceanic crust. Lead data from serpentinized peridotite and a galena sample from below the ophiolite suggest that part of the serpentinization process and the formation of galena could involve addition of radiogenic Pb from either a continental source or from oceanic sediments.

  15. Collectivity in the light xenon isotopes: A shell model study

    SciTech Connect

    Caurier, E.; Nowacki, F.; Sieja, K.; Poves, A.

    2010-12-15

    The lightest xenon isotopes are studied in the shell model framework, within a valence space that comprises all the orbits lying between the magic closures N=Z=50 and N=Z=82. The calculations produce collective deformed structures of triaxial nature that encompass nicely the known experimental data. Predictions are made for the (still unknown) N=Z nucleus {sup 108}Xe. The results are interpreted in terms of the competition between the quadrupole correlations enhanced by the pseudo-SU(3) structure of the positive parity orbits and the pairing correlations brought in by the 0h{sub 11/2} orbit. We also have studied the effect of the excitations from the {sup 100}Sn core on our predictions. We show that the backbending in this region is due to the alignment of two particles in the 0h{sub 11/2} orbit. In the N=Z case, one neutron and one proton align to J=11 and T=0. In {sup 110,112}Xe the alignment begins in the J=10, T=1 channel and it is dominantly of neutron-neutron type. Approaching the band termination the alignment of a neutron-proton pair to J=11 and T=0 takes over. In a more academic mood, we have studied the role of the isovector and isoscalar pairing correlations on the structure on the yrast bands of {sup 108,110}Xe and examined the possible existence of isovector and isoscalar pairing condensates in these N{approx}{approx}Z nuclei.

  16. Carbon isotopic studies of organic matter in Precambrian rocks.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oehler, D. Z.; Schopf, J. W.; Kvenvolden, K. A.

    1972-01-01

    A survey has been undertaken of the carbon composition of the total organic fraction of a suite of Precambrian sediments to detect isotopic trends possibly correlative with early evolutionary events. Early Precambrian cherts of the Fig Tree and upper and middle Onverwacht groups of South Africa were examined for this purpose. Reduced carbon in these cherts was found to be isotopically similar to photosynthetically produced organic matter of younger geological age. Reduced carbon in lower Onverwacht cherts was found to be anomalously heavy; it is suggested that this discontinuity may reflect a major event in biological evolution.

  17. Isotope and trace element insights into heterogeneity of subridge mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallick, Soumen; Dick, Henry J. B.; Sachi-Kocher, Afi; Salters, Vincent J. M.

    2014-06-01

    data for abyssal peridotites are used to determine the relationship to mid-ocean ridge basalts from several locations at ridge segments on the SW Indian Ridge (SWIR), the Mid-Cayman-Rise (MCR), and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). Based on chemical and petrological criteria peridotites are categorized as being either dominantly impregnated with melt or being residual after recent melting. Those that are considered impregnated with melt also have isotopic compositions similar to the basalts indicating impregnation by an aggregate MORB melt. A SWIR and MCR residual peridotite Nd-isotopic compositions partly overlap the Nd-isotopic compositions of the basalts but extend to more radiogenic compositions. The differences between peridotite and basalt Nd-isotopic compositions can be explained by incorporating a low-solidus component with enriched isotopic signature in the subridge mantle: a component that is preferentially sampled by the basalts. At the MAR, peridotites and associated basalts have overlapping Nd-isotopic compositions, suggesting a more homogeneous MORB mantle. The combined chemistry and petrography indicates a complex history with several depletion and enrichment events. The MCR data indicate that a low-solidus component can be a ubiquitous component of the asthenosphere. Residual abyssal peridotites from limited geographic areas also show significant chemical variations that could be associated with initial mantle heterogeneities related to events predating the ridge-melting event. Sm-Nd model ages for possible earlier depletion events suggest these could be as old as 2.4 Ga. This article was corrected on 9 JULY 2014. See the end of the full text for details.

  18. High flux isotope reactor cold source preconceptual design study report

    SciTech Connect

    Selby, D.L.; Bucholz, J.A.; Burnette, S.E.

    1995-12-01

    In February 1995, the deputy director of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) formed a group to examine the need for upgrades to the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) system in light of the cancellation of the Advanced Neutron Source Project. One of the major findings of this study was that there was an immediate need for the installation of a cold neutron source facility in the HFIR complex. The anticipated cold source will consist of a cryogenic LH{sub 2} moderator plug, a cryogenic pump system, a refrigerator that uses helium gas as a refrigerant, a heat exchanger to interface the refrigerant with the hydrogen loop, liquid hydrogen transfer lines, a gas handling system that includes vacuum lines, and an instrumentation and control system to provide constant system status monitoring and to maintain system stability. The scope of this project includes the development, design, safety analysis, procurement/fabrication, testing, and installation of all of the components necessary to produce a working cold source within an existing HFIR beam tube. This project will also include those activities necessary to transport the cold neutron beam to the front face of the present HFIR beam room. The cold source project has been divided into four phases: (1) preconceptual, (2) conceptual design and research and development (R and D), (3) detailed design and procurement, and (4) installation and operation. This report marks the conclusion of the preconceptual phase and establishes the concept feasibility. The information presented includes the project scope, the preliminary design requirements, the preliminary cost and schedule, the preliminary performance data, and an outline of the various plans for completing the project.

  19. Hafnium isotope results from mid-ocean ridges and Kerguelen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jonathan, Patchett P.

    1983-01-01

    176Hf/177Hf ratios are presented for oceanic volcanics representing both extremes of the range of mantle HfNdSr isotopic variation. Hf from critical mid-ocean ridgebasalts shows that 176Hf/177Hf does indeed have a greater variability than 143Nd/144Nd and 87Sr/86Sr in the depleted mantle. This extra variation is essentially of a random nature, and can perhaps be understood in terms of known Rb/SrSm/NdLu/Hf fractionation relationships. At the other extreme of mantle isotopic composition, 176Hf/177Hf ratios for igneous rocks from the Indian Ocean island of Kerguelen show a closely similar variation to published 143Nd/144Nd ratios for the same samples. Comparison of HfNdSr c relationships for Tristan da Cunha, Kerguelen and Samoa reveals divergences in the mantle array for ocean island magma sources, and perhaps suggests that these irregularities are largely the result of an extra component of 87Sr/86Sr variation. ?? 1983.

  20. The Hemlo gold deposit, Ontario: A geochemical and isotopic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Eion M.; Hattori, Keiko

    1985-10-01

    The Hemlo deposit, near Marathon, Ontario, is one of the largest gold deposits in North America. It is stratiform within Archean metamorphosed volcano-sedimentary rocks. The main ore zone is composed of pyritic, sericitic schist, and massive barite. This is the first report of stratiform barite in the Archean of North America, but other occurrences have since been found west of Hemlo. The mineralization is substantially enriched in Au, Mo, Sb, Hg, Tl and V and lacks carbonate. Because of metamorphism and deformation of the body its genesis is uncertain. 87Sr /86Sr of .7017 for barite from the deposit is similar to that of the sedimentary barite west of Hemlo and to initial ratios of contemporaneous volcanic rocks. At the base of the main ore zone, barite with δ34 S of +8 to +12%. was deposited with ~0%. pyrite. Upward, both barite and pyrite get isotopically lighter, with minimum values for pyrite, to -17.5%, in non-baritic schist forming the upper part of the ore zone. In drill section, Au grades correlate with the isotopic composition of pyrite. This, and the association of fractionated sulphide with sulphate, suggests that Au, pyrite and barite were deposited contemporaneously. The linked, asymmetric distributions of S minerals and isotopic distributions, which are continuous from section to section, and the isotopic similarity of the Hemlo and western barites are consistent with a syngenetic depositional model. Two sources for the S minerals are considered. In the first, exogenous sulphate from a restricted basin were partially reduced in a geothermal system to form 34S-depleted sulphide. In the second, the sulphate and sulphide are of magmatic-hydrothermal origin. Sulphate and fractionated sulphide are uncommon in Archean rocks, but one or both occur with unusual frequency in major Archean gold deposits. Hydrothermal fluids of moderately high ƒ O 2, containing sulphate and permitting isotopic fractionation between oxidized and reduced S species, may have

  1. Recrystallization history and P-T-time-isotopic evolution of coesite-bearing eclogites: implications for exhumation processes (SW Tianshan, China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Zhou; Agard, Philippe; Gao, Jun; John, Timm; Li, Ji-Lei; Jiang, Tuo; Bayet, Léa; Wang, Xin-Shui; Zhang, Xi

    2017-04-01

    The Chinese Southwestern Tianshan high- to ultra-high pressure low temperature (HP-UHP/LT) metamorphic belt exhibits well-preserved mafic layers, tectonic blocks/slices and boudins of different sizes and lithology embedded within dominant meta-volcanosedimentary rocks. Despite a wealth of previous studies on UHP relicts, P-T paths estimates and age constraints for metamorphism, controversies still exist on P-T-t assessments and regional exhumation patterns (i.e., tectonic mélange versus internally coherent "sub-belt" model). Our study focuses on a group of coesite-bearing eclogite samples from a thick (˜ 5 meters) layered metabasalt outcrop in order to unravel its detailed tectono-metamorphic evolution through space and time (both prograde, peak and exhumation). Using SIMS zircon U-Pb and oxygen isotope analyses, TIMS Sm-Nd multi-point isochron dating, in situ laser-ICP-MS trace-element analyses, classical thermobarometry and thermodynamic modeling, we link the multistage zircon growth to garnet growth and reconstruct a detailed P-T-time-isotopic evolution history for this UHP tectonic slice: from UHP peak burial ˜ 2.95 ± 0.2 GPa, 510 ± 20 ° around 318.0 ± 2.3 Ma to HP peak metamorphism ˜ 2.45 ± 0.2 GPa, 540 ± 20 ° at 316.8 ± 0.8 Ma, then, with eclogite-facies deformation ˜ 2.0 ± 0.15 GPa, 525 ± 25 ° at 312 ± 2.5 Ma, exhumed to near surface within ca. 303 to ca. 280 Ma. Our P-T-time-isotopic results combined to the exhaustive compilation of regional radiometric data and P-T estimates notably point to the existence of a short-lived period of rock detachment and exhumation (< 10 Ma, i.e. at ca. 315 ± 5 Ma) with respect to "long-term" subduction duration (> 50-100 Ma).

  2. Development of a Laser Probe for Argon Isotope Studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConville, Paul

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The first objective of this study was to develop a laser outgassing facility for argon isotope studies. Apart from the laser and construction of the laser sample port, existing vacuum and mass spectrometer systems were used. Laser performance and optimum operating conditions were investigated. The second objective was test and evaluate the laser extraction technique by studies of simple geological samples. Previous laser ^{40} Ar-^{39}Ar dating studies by other workers had not systematically established the basis or characteristics of the method. Results from laser and complementary stepped heating studies of the ^{40}Ar-^ {39}Ar dating standard hornblende, hb3gr; a phlogopite sample from the Palabora (Phalaborwa) Complex; and biotites in a thin section of the Hamlet Bjerg granite from East Greenland, verified that: (1) Laser extraction reproduced within experimental error the stepped heating ^{40}Ar-^ {39}Ar and K-Ar ages of simple samples. (2) The precision of the technique i.e. the amount of sample required to give reliable ages, was limited in the present experiments largely by the level of the blanks and backgrounds to 10-100 ug samples. (3) Sample outgassing appeared to be limited to the order of 10 um outside the physical size of the laser pit, consistent with other estimates of the spatial definition in the literature. This could be understood by thermal diffusion and the length of the laser pulse. (4) The efficiency of the laser pulse in melting and outgassing mineral samples was shown to be dependent on silicate latent heats and mineral absorption at the laser wavelength. In addition, the ^{40} Ar-^{39}Ar age of the geologically significant Palabora Complex was determined as (2053 +/- 5) Ma. Excess argon led to a discrepancy between the laser and stepped heating ages of biotite and muscovite, (405 +/- 5) Ma, and laser ages of feldspars (510 +/- 20) Ma in the Hamlet Bjerg granite. This illustrated

  3. Isotopic composition of Murchison organic compounds: Intramolecular carbon isotope fractionation of acetic acid. Simulation studies of cosmochemical organic syntheses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuen, G. U.; Cronin, J. R.; Blair, N. E.; Desmarais, D. J.; Chang, S.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, in our laboratories, samples of Murchison acetic acid were decarboxylated successfully and the carbon isotopic composition was measured for the methane released by this procedure. These analyses showed significant differences in C-13/C-12 ratios for the methyl and carboxyl carbons of the acetic acid molecule, strongly suggesting that more than one carbon source may be involved in the synthesis of the Murchison organic compounds. On the basis of this finding, laboratory model systems simulating cosmochemical synthesis are being studied, especially those processes capable of involving two or more starting carbon sources.

  4. A hydrogen gas-water equilibration method produces accurate and precise stable hydrogen isotope ratio measurements in nutrition studies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Stable hydrogen isotope methodology is used in nutrition studies to measure growth, breast milk intake, and energy requirement. Isotope ratio MS is the best instrumentation to measure the stable hydrogen isotope ratios in physiological fluids. Conventional methods to convert physiological fluids to ...

  5. Phase I-II study of isotopic immunoglobulin therapy for primary liver cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Ettinger, D.S.; Order, S.E.; Wharam, M.D.; Parker, M.K.; Klein, J.L.; Leichner, P.K.

    1982-02-01

    A phase I-II study of isotopic immunoglobulin therapy was performed in 18 patients with primary liver cancer; 14 were evaluable for toxicity. The patients received a dose of 37-157 millicuries of 131I-labeled antibody. The dose-limiting factor appears to be hematologic toxicity, especially thrombocytopenia. An objective antitumor effect was seen in six of nine patients who were evaluable for response. Present results suggest that further clinical studies with isotopic immunoglobulin are indicated.

  6. Rare-isotope and kinetic studies of Pt/SnO2 catalysts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Upchurch, Billy T.; Wood, George M.; Schryer, David R.; Hess, Robert V.; Miller, Irvin M.; Kielin, Erik J.

    1990-01-01

    Closed-cycle pulsed CO2 laser operation requires the use of an efficient CO-O2 recombination catalyst for these dissociation products which otherwise would degrade the laser operation. The catalyst must not only operate at low temperatures but also must operate efficiently for long periods. In the case of the Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS) laser, an operational lifetime of 3 years is required. Additionally, in order to minimize atmospheric absorption and enhance aerosol scatter of laser radiation, the LAWS system will operate at 9.1 micrometers with an oxygen-18 isotope CO2 lasing medium. Consequently, the catalyst must not only operate at low temperatures but must also preserve the isotopic integrity of the rare-isotope composition in the recombination mode. Several years ago an investigation of commercially available and newly synthesized recombination catalysts for use in closed-cycle pulsed common and rare-isotope CO2 lasers was implemented at the NASA Langley Research Center. Since that time, mechanistic efforts utilizing both common and rare oxygen isotopes have been implemented and continue. Rare-isotope studies utilizing commercially available platinum-tin oxide catalyst have demonstrated that the catalyst contributes oxygen-16 to the product carbon dioxide thus rendering it unusable for rare-isotope applications. A technique has been developed for modification of the surface of the common-isotope catalyst to render it usable. Results of kinetic and isotope label studies using plug flow, recycle plug flow, and closed internal recycle plug flow reactor configuration modes are discussed.

  7. Stable carbon and oxygen isotope study on benthic foraminifera: Implication for microhabitat preferences and interspecies correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaumik, Ajoy K.; Kumar, Shiv; Ray, Shilpi; Vishwakarma, G. K.; Gupta, Anil K.; Kumar, Pushpendra; Sain, Kalachand

    2017-07-01

    Stable isotopes of benthic foraminifera have widely been applied in micropalaeontological research to understand vital effects in foraminifera. Isotopic fractionations are mainly controlled by ontogeny, bottom/pore water chemistry, habitat preference, kinetic effect and respiration. Discontinuous abundance of a species for isotopic analysis has forced us to select multiple species from down-core samples. Thus standardisation factors are required to convert isotopic values of one species with respect to other species. The present study is pursued on isotopic values of different pairs of benthic foraminifera from the Krishna-Godavari basin and Peru offshore to understand habitat-wise isotopic variation and estimation of isotopic correction factors for the paired species ( Cibicides wuellerstorfi-Bulimina marginata, Ammonia spp.- Loxostomum amygdalaeformis and Bolivina seminuda-Nonionella auris). Infaunal species ( B. marginata, Ammonia spp. and N. auris) show a lighter carbon isotopic excursion with respect to the epifaunal to shallow infaunal forms ( C. wuellerstorfi, L. amygdalaeformis and B. seminuda). These lighter δ^{13} C values are related to utilisation of CO2 produced by anaerobic remineralisation of organic matter. However, enrichment of δ^{18} O for the deeper microhabitat (bearing lower pH and decreased {CO3}^{2-}) is only recorded in case of B. marginata. It is reverse in case of N. auris and related to utilisation of respiratory CO2 and internal dissolve inorganic carbon pool. Estimation of interspecies isotopic correction factors for the species pairs (δ^{13} C of C. wuellerstorfi- B. marginata, L. amygdalaeformis- Ammonia spp., N. auris- B. seminuda) and δ^{18} O of C. wuellerstorfi- B. marginata are statistically reliable and may be used in palaeoecological studies.

  8. Copper isotope effect in serum of cancer patients. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Télouk, Philippe; Puisieux, Alain; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Balter, Vincent; Bondanese, Victor P; Morel, Anne-Pierre; Clapisson, Gilles; Lamboux, Aline; Albarede, Francis

    2015-02-01

    The isotope effect describes mass-dependent variations of natural isotope abundances for a particular element. In this pilot study, we measured the (65)Cu/(63)Cu ratios in the serums of 20 breast and 8 colorectal cancer patients, which correspond to, respectively, 90 and 49 samples taken at different times with molecular biomarker documentation. Copper isotope compositions were determined by multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). When compared with the literature data from a control group of 50 healthy blood donors, abundances of Cu isotopes predict mortality in the colorectal cancer group with a probability p = 0.018. For the breast cancer patients and the group of control women the probability goes down to p = 0.0006 and the AUC under the ROC curve is 0.75. Most patients considered in this preliminary study and with serum δ(65)Cu lower than the threshold value of -0.35‰ (per mil) did not survive. As a marker, a drop in δ(65)Cu precedes molecular biomarkers by several months. The observed decrease of δ(65)Cu in the serum of cancer patients is assigned to the extensive oxidative chelation of copper by cytosolic lactate. The potential of Cu isotope variability as a new diagnostic tool for breast and colorectal cancer seems strong. Shifts in Cu isotope compositions fingerprint cytosolic Cu chelation by lactate mono- and bidentates. This simple scheme provides a straightforward explanation for isotopically light Cu in the serum and isotopically heavy Cu in cancer cells: Cu(+) escaping chelation by lactate and excreted into the blood stream is isotopically light. Low δ(65)Cu values in serum therefore reveal the strength of lactate production by the Warburg effect.

  9. Isotope Analysis of Individual Aerosol Particles - a New Tool for Studying Heterogeneous Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterholler, B.; Hoppe, P.; Huth, J.; Andreae, M. O.; Foley, S.

    2006-12-01

    Sources of atmospheric sulfur and its oxidation pathways are studied by isotope analysis of sulfate particles. conventional gas mass spectrometry averages the isotopic compositions of millions of aerosol grains and, therefore, several different types of sulphur aerosol. The new Cameca NanoSIMS 50 ion microprobe technique permits isotope analyses of individual aerosol particles down to 0.5 μm diameter. Combining the chemical composition and isotopic signature of individual particles enables source apportionment of non-sea-salt (nss) sulfate and elucidating mixing processes between nss sulfate and sea-salt sulfate for each sample. Results from aerosol samples collected in Mace Head (Western Ireland) are presented. These samples represent different airmass types, such as clean marine boundary layer air, moderately polluted air and strongly polluted air transported from the continent. Fresh aerosol preserves the original isotopic signature of sea-salt and nss sulfate in separate particles, the latter being present predominantly in the form of ammonium sulfate. This enables us to identify oxidation of nss sulfate in deliquescent sea salt particles by means of their sulfur isotope ratio. Cloud processing however, leads to a complete homogenization as far as the sulfur isotopic signature is concerned.

  10. Studies of neutron-deficient mendelevium isotopes at SHIP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antalic, S.; Heßberger, F. P.; Hofmann, S.; Ackermann, D.; Heinz, S.; Kindler, B.; Kojouharov, I.; Kuusiniemi, P.; Leino, M.; Lommel, B.; Mann, R.; Šáro, Š.

    2010-01-01

    The radioactive decay of the isotopes 247Md , 246Md and their daughter products was investigated by means of α - α and α - γ coincidence spectroscopy. The isotopes were produced using the fusion reaction 40Ar + 209Bi. Decay schemes are suggested for 247Md and 243Es . A new isomeric state in 246Md with a half-life of ( 4.4±0.8 s was observed. Previous data of electron-capture delayed fission of 246Md and 242Es were confirmed. The probability for this decay branch in 246Md was measured to be P ECDF > 0.10 . The probability for electron-capture delayed fission in the case of 242Es was determined to be P ECDF = 0.013+0.012 -0.007.

  11. Study of stable isotopes for highly deformed aquifers in the Hsinchu-Miaoli area, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Hsueh-Yu; Peng, Tsung-Ren; Liu, Tsung-Kwei; Wang, Chung-Ho; Huang, Chih-Chao

    2006-08-01

    This study was based on the analysis of isotopic compositions of hydrogen and oxygen in samples from precipitation, groundwater and stream water. In addition, parts of groundwater samples were dated by carbon-14 and tritium. These data are integrated to provide other views of the hydrologic cycle in the Hsinchu-Miaoli groundwater district. The groundwater district is principally composed of Pleistocene and Holocene aquifers. The Pleistocene aquifers are highly deformed by folding and faults into small sub-districts with areas of only tens of square kilometers. These aquifers are exclusively recharged by local precipitation. The Holocene aquifers cover narrow creek valleys, only tens of meters in thickness. The local meteoric water line (LMWL), constructed from rainfall samples in the Hsinchu Science Park, is described by the equation δD=8.02δ18O+10.16, which agrees with the global meteoric water line. In addition, the precipitation isotopic compositions can be categorized into two distinct end members: typhoon type and monsoon type. The groundwater isotopic compositions are perfectly located on an LMWL and can be considered a mixture of precipitations. Based on the mass balance of isotopic compositions of oxygen and hydrogen, infiltration is more active in the rainy season with depleted isotopic compositions. The amount of infiltration during May-September is roughly estimated to comprise at least 55% of the whole year’s recharge. The isotopic compositions of stream water are expressed by a regression equation: δD=7.61δ18O+9.62, which is similar to the LMWL. Although precipitation isotopic compositions are depleted during summer time, the isotopic compositions contrarily show an enriched trend in the upstream area. This is explained by the opposite altitude effect on isotopic compositions for typhoon-related precipitations.

  12. Study of the charge radii of the stable lead isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Borchert, G.L.; Schult, O.W.B.; Speth, J.; Hansen, P.G.; Jonson, B.; Ravn, H.; McGrory, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    Isotope shifts have been measured of the K/sub ..cap alpha..l/ x-ray lines emitted after photo ionization of /sup 204/Pb, /sup 206/Pb, /sup 207/Pb and /sup 208/Pb samples. The results are compared with theoretical values for delta < r/sup 2/> calculated with a microscopic model. The x-ray shift data are also compared with optical data and the nuclear parameters lambda derived from electron scattering results.

  13. Use of stable isotopes of selenium in human metabolic studies: development of analytical methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Janghorbani, M.; Ting, B.T.; Young, V.R.

    1981-12-01

    Use of stable isotopes of selenium in relation to enrichment of diets for studies of selenium absorption and metabolism in human subjects is discussed. A method based on radiochemical neutron activation analysis is described which allows accurate measurement of stable isotopes 74Se, 76Se, and 80Se in matrices (feces, plasma, red blood cells, and urine) of interest in metabolic studies. We show that these isotopes can routinely be measured with analytical precision and accuracy of 10% in samples of available size. This precision and accuracy is satisfactory for conduct of many nutritional experiments concerned with gastrointestinal absorption, plasma and red cell selenium turnover, and urinary excretion of the element, using an oral dose of 74Se. Original, experimental data are presented to illustrate the degree of enrichment of 74Se in feces, plasma, and urine after a single oral ingestion of 50 micrograms of the isotope with a breakfast meal in healthy young men.

  14. Isotopic structure and tectonics of the central Transantarctic Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Borg, S.G.; DePaolo, D.J.; Smith, B.M. Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Berkeley, CA )

    1990-05-10

    Regional patterns of Nd, Sr, and O isotopic ratios of {approximately} 500 Ma granite rocks are used to identify the ages and areal extents of three crustal provinces in the central Transantarctic Mountains. One of the provinces is the edge of the East Antarctic Craton, which isotopic analyses show is composed of Archean rocks thrust over Proterozoic rocks. The other two provinces compose the Beardmore microcontinent. Evidence for a former ocean basin between the Beardmore microcontinent and East Antarctica is provided by basalt and gabbro of mid-ocean ridge character, dated by Sm-Nd at {approximately} 760 Ma. The granitic rocks formed over a westward-dipping subduction zone that was active at {approximately} 500 Ma. The isotopic provinces correspond to differences in age and composition of the middle and lower crust at the time of formation of the granite magmas. The boundaries of the isotopic provinces also correspond to discontinuities in provenance, lithology, structural style, and grade of metamorphism of prebatholithic metasedimentary rocks. The isotopic data indicate that the granite magmas were formed mostly by crustal anatexis in the areas west of the Shackleton Glacier. The tectonic history deduced for the Gondwana margin, as represented in the central Transantarctic Mountains, began with deposition of sediments on an Atlantic-type rifted margin at {approximately} 760 Ma. The Beardmore microcontinent was most likely accreted in association with folding of the clastic sedimentary rocks before middle Early Cambrian time (550 Ma). Carbonate sedimentation and volcanism along the eastern margin of the Beardmore microcontinent commenced in Cambrian time. Folding and metamorphism of all older units occurred in late Cambrian time followed by emplacement of granite rocks at {approximately} 500 Ma.

  15. Application of neodymium isotope ratio measurements for the origin assessment of uranium ore concentrates.

    PubMed

    Krajkó, Judit; Varga, Zsolt; Yalcintas, Ezgi; Wallenius, Maria; Mayer, Klaus

    2014-11-01

    A novel procedure has been developed for the measurement of (143)Nd/(144)Nd isotope ratio in various uranium-bearing materials, such as uranium ores and ore concentrates (UOC) in order to evaluate the usefulness and applicability of variations of (143)Nd/(144)Nd isotope ratio for provenance assessment in nuclear forensics. Neodymium was separated and pre-concentrated by extraction chromatography and then the isotope ratios were measured by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). The method was validated by the measurement of standard reference materials (La Jolla, JB-2 and BCR-2) and the applicability of the procedure was demonstrated by the analysis of uranium samples of world-wide origin. The investigated samples show distinct (143)Nd/(144)Nd ratio depending on the ore type, deposit age and Sm/Nd ratio. Together with other characteristics of the material in question, the Nd isotope ratio is a promising signature for nuclear forensics and suggests being indicative of the source material, the uranium ore.

  16. In situ chemical and Sr-Nd-O isotopic compositions of apatite from the Tongshi intrusive complex in the southern part of the North China Craton: Implications for petrogenesis and metallogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wen-Gang; Fan, Hong-Rui; Hu, Fang-Fang; Santosh, M.; Yang, Kui-Feng; Lan, Ting-Guang

    2015-06-01

    The Tongshi intrusive complex from the southeastern margin of the North China Craton is composed of syenite and monzonite, and was emplaced at ca. 180 Ma. Apatite from the syenite and monzonite were analyzed to better understand the petrogenesis of the complex and its mineralization potential. The cathodoluminescence images of some apatites from the monzonite exhibit core-rim texture, whereas the apatites from the syenite display uniform inner texture. The core and rim domains of the apatites exhibit distinct Sr isotopes and major-trace element compositions, whereas only little variation is displayed by the oxygen isotopes. The core portions of the apatites were inferred to be inherited from the protolith of the monzonite during remelting process. The calculated δ18O values of the syenite range from 3.5‰ to 4.1‰ with an average of 3.8‰ (SE = 0.21), which is significantly lower than that of the monzonite sample (with a range of 6.4-6.9‰, and mean at 6.7‰). In conjunction with the heterogeneity of Nd isotopic compositions (with normalized 143Nd/144Nd ratios varying from 0.51151 to 0.51236, and εNd (t = 180 Ma) values from -20.3 to -4.8) of the apatites from the syenite, it is proposed that the syenite melts may have been contaminated by crustal components which were earlier hydrothermally altered at high temperature. Based on element diffusion theory, we calculate the temperature of this crustal contamination to be higher than 637 °C, the closure temperature of Sm-Nd isotopic diffusion in apatite, and estimate that the duration of this process is probably shorter than 0.13 Ma. The oxygen fugacity of the syenite and monzonite calculated by apatite Mn content indicate that high oxidization state of the syenite magma can enhance the metallic mineralization potential. In contrast, the lower oxygen fugacity of the monzonite melt was unfavorable for metal enrichment, thus leading to insignificant mineralization. Our study recommends more focus for gold

  17. A preliminary study on isotopic evolution of ice by a melting experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, J. Y.; Lee, J.; Lee, W. S.; Han, Y.; Hur, S. D.

    2016-12-01

    that of the Global Meteoric Water Line (8) and the sublimation (7.7) suggested by Earman et al. (2006). We believe that isotopic exchange between liquid water and ice plays a crucial role in the variations of isotopes for the ice and its meltwater. We will modify a physically based 1-D model used in the previous studies to better understand the isotopic compositions of ice and its meltwater.

  18. The study of trace metal absoption using stable isotopes and mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fennessey, P. V.; Lloyd-Kindstrand, L.; Hambidge, K. M.

    1991-12-01

    The absorption and excretion of zinc stable isotopes have been followed in more than 120 human subjects. The isotope enrichment determinations were made using a standard VG 7070E HF mass spectrometer. A fast atom gun (FAB) was used to form the ions from a dry residue on a pure silver probe tip. Isotope ratio measurements were found to have a precision of better than 2% (relative standard deviation) and required a sample size of 1-5 [mu]g. The average true absorption of zinc was found to be 73 ± 12% (2[sigma]) when the metal was taken in a fasting state. This absorption figure was corrected for tracer that had been absorbed and secreted into the gastrointestinal (GI) tract over the time course of the study. The average time for a majority of the stable isotope tracer to pass through the GI tract was 4.7 ± 1.9 (2[sigma]) days.

  19. Isotope effects on chemical shifts in the study of intramolecular hydrogen bonds.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Poul Erik

    2015-01-30

    The paper deals with the use of isotope effects on chemical shifts in characterizing intramolecular hydrogen bonds. Both so-called resonance-assisted (RAHB) and non-RAHB systems are treated. The importance of RAHB will be discussed. Another very important issue is the borderline between "static" and tautomeric systems. Isotope effects on chemical shifts are particularly useful in such studies. All kinds of intramolecular hydrogen bonded systems will be treated, typical hydrogen bond donors: OH, NH, SH and NH+, typical acceptors C=O, C=N, C=S C=N-. The paper will be deal with both secondary and primary isotope effects on chemical shifts. These two types of isotope effects monitor the same hydrogen bond, but from different angles.

  20. Combining solvent isotope effects with substrate isotope effects in mechanistic studies of alcohol and amine oxidation by enzymes.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Paul F

    2015-11-01

    Oxidation of alcohols and amines is catalyzed by multiple families of flavin- and pyridine nucleotide-dependent enzymes. Measurement of solvent isotope effects provides a unique mechanistic probe of the timing of the cleavage of the OH and NH bonds, necessary information for a complete description of the catalytic mechanism. The inherent ambiguities in interpretation of solvent isotope effects can be significantly decreased if isotope effects arising from isotopically labeled substrates are measured in combination with solvent isotope effects. The application of combined solvent and substrate (mainly deuterium) isotope effects to multiple enzymes is described here to illustrate the range of mechanistic insights that such an approach can provide. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Enzyme Transition States from Theory and Experiment.

  1. U Th Pb and Lu Hf isotopic constraints on the evolution of sub-continental lithospheric mantle, French Massif Central

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittig, Nadine; Baker, Joel A.; Downes, Hilary

    2007-03-01

    We have carried out a Pb double-spike and Lu-Hf isotope study of clinopyroxenes from spinel-facies mantle xenoliths entrained in Cenozoic intraplate continental volcanism of the French Massif Central (FMC). U-Th-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope systematics verify the existence of different lithospheric domains beneath the northern and southern FMC. Northern FMC clinopyroxenes have extreme Lu/Hf ratios and ultra-radiogenic Hf ( ɛHf = +39.6 to +2586) that reflect ˜15-25% partial melting in Variscan times (depleted mantle model ages ˜360 Ma). Zr, Hf and Th abundances in these clinopyroxenes are low and unaffected by hydrous/carbonatitic metasomatism that overprinted LILE and light REE abundances and caused decoupling of Lu/Hf-Sm/Nd ratios and Nd-Hf isotopes ( ɛNd = +2.1 to +91.2). Pb isotopes of northern FMC clinopyroxenes are radiogenic ( 206Pb/ 204Pb > 19), and typically more so than the host intraplate volcanic rocks. 238U/ 204Pb ratios range from 17 to 68, and most samples have distinctively low 232Th/ 238U (<1) and 232Th/ 204Pb (3-22). Clinopyroxenes from southern FMC lherzolites are generally marked by overall incompatible trace element enrichment including Zr, Hf and Th abundances, and have Pb isotopes that are similar to or less radiogenic than the host volcanic rocks. Hf isotope ratios are less radiogenic ( ɛHf = +5.4 to +41.5) than northern FMC mantle and have been overprinted by silicate-melt-dominated metasomatism that affected this part of FMC mantle. Major element and Lu concentrations of clinopyroxenes from southern FMC harzburgites are broadly similar to northern FMC clinopyroxenes and suggest they experienced similar degrees of melt extraction as northern FMC mantle. 238U/ 204Pb (53-111) and 232Th/ 204Pb ratios (157-355) of enriched clinopyroxenes from the southern FMC are extreme and significantly higher than the intraplate volcanic rocks. In summary, mantle peridotites from different parts of the FMC record depletion at ˜360 Ma during Variscan subduction

  2. Application of Stable Isotope-Assisted Metabolomics for Cell Metabolism Studies

    PubMed Central

    You, Le; Zhang, Baichen; Tang, Yinjie J.

    2014-01-01

    The applications of stable isotopes in metabolomics have facilitated the study of cell metabolisms. Stable isotope-assisted metabolomics requires: (1) properly designed tracer experiments; (2) stringent sampling and quenching protocols to minimize isotopic alternations; (3) efficient metabolite separations; (4) high resolution mass spectrometry to resolve overlapping peaks and background noises; and (5) data analysis methods and databases to decipher isotopic clusters over a broad m/z range (mass-to-charge ratio). This paper overviews mass spectrometry based techniques for precise determination of metabolites and their isotopologues. It also discusses applications of isotopic approaches to track substrate utilization, identify unknown metabolites and their chemical formulas, measure metabolite concentrations, determine putative metabolic pathways, and investigate microbial community populations and their carbon assimilation patterns. In addition, 13C-metabolite fingerprinting and metabolic models can be integrated to quantify carbon fluxes (enzyme reaction rates). The fluxome, in combination with other “omics” analyses, may give systems-level insights into regulatory mechanisms underlying gene functions. More importantly, 13C-tracer experiments significantly improve the potential of low-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for broad-scope metabolism studies. We foresee the isotope-assisted metabolomics to be an indispensable tool in industrial biotechnology, environmental microbiology, and medical research. PMID:24957020

  3. Stable isotope methodology in the pharmacokinetic studies of androgenic steroids in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Shinohara, Y.; Baba, S. )

    1990-04-01

    The use of stable isotopically labeled steroids combined with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has found a broad application in pharmacologic studies. Initially, stable isotopically labeled steroids served as the ideal analytic internal standard for GC/MS analysis; however, their in vivo use has expanded and has proven to be a powerful pharmacokinetic tool. We have successfully used stable isotope methodology to study the pharmacokinetic/bioavailability of androgens. The primary advantage of the technique is that endogenous and exogenous steroids with the same basic structure can be differentiated by using stable isotopically labeled analogs. The method was used to examine the pharmacokinetics of testosterone and testosterone propionate, and to clarify the influence of endogenous testosterone. Another advantage of the isotope methods is that steroidal drugs can be administered concomitantly in two formulations (e.g., solution and solid dosage). A single set of blood samples serves to describe the time course of the formulations being compared. This stable isotope coadministration technique was used to estimate the relative bioavailability of 17 alpha-methyltestosterone. 35 references.

  4. Study of the Photon Strength Functions for Gadolinium Isotopes with the DANCE Array

    SciTech Connect

    Dashdorj, D.; Mitchell, G. E.; Baramsai, B.; Chankova, R.; Chyzh, A.; Walker, C.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Becker, J. A.; Parker, W.; Sleaford, B.; Wu, C. Y.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wouters, J. M.; Krticka, M.

    2009-03-10

    The gadolinium isotopes are interesting for reactor applications as well as for medicine and astrophysics. The gadolinium isotopes have some of the largest neutron capture cross sections. As a consequence they are used in the control rod in reactor fuel assembly. From the basic science point of view, there are seven stable isotopes of gadolinium with varying degrees of deformation. Therefore they provide a good testing ground for the study of deformation dependent structure such as the scissors mode. Decay gamma rays following neutron capture on Gd isotopes are detected by the DANCE array, which is located at flight path 14 at the Lujan Neutron Scattering Center at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The high segmentation and close packing of the detector array enable gamma-ray multiplicity measurements. The calorimetric properties of the DANCE array coupled with the neutron time-of-flight technique enables one to gate on a specific resonance of a specific isotope in the time-of-flight spectrum and obtain the summed energy spectrum for that isotope. The singles gamma-ray spectrum for each multiplicity can be separated by their DANCE cluster multiplicity. Various photon strength function models are used for comparison with experimentally measured DANCE data and provide insight for understanding the statistical decay properties of deformed nuclei.

  5. Hydrogen isotope variability in prairie wetland systems: implications for studies of migratory connectivity.

    PubMed

    Bortolotti, Lauren E; Clark, Robert G; Wassenaar, Leonard I

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen isotopes (delta2H) are often used to infer the origins of migratory animals based on the strong correlation between deuterium content of tissues and long-term patterns of precipitation. However, the extreme flood and drought dynamics of surface waters in prairie wetland systems could mask these expected correlations. We investigated H isotopic variability in an aquatic food web associated with Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) that rely heavily on wetland-derived aerial insects for food. We evaluated isotopic turnover and incorporation of environmental water into tissue, processes that could affect H isotopic composition. Wetland water and aquatic invertebrates showed intra- and interannual H isotopic variation mainly related to evaporation and the amount and timing of precipitation. Snails showed rapid turnover of tissue deuterium and a large contribution of environmental water to their tissues. Swallow feather deuterium (delta2Hf) was variable but did not clearly follow changes in any of the food web compartments measured. Instead, isotopic variability may have been driven by shifts in the type or relative amounts of grey consumed and types of wetlands used. Nevertheless, despite relatively high variance in delta2Hf, the majority of birds fell within the predicted range of delta2Hf for the study area, revealing that significant trophic averaging occurred. However, both (presumed) diet shifts and variable hydrological conditions have the potential to greatly increase variance that must be considered when assigning origins of migratory animals based on delta2H.

  6. Mechanistic studies of sesquiterpene cyclases based on their carbon isotope ratios at natural abundance.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wenhua; Bartram, Stefan; Boland, Wilhelm

    2017-01-03

    During the process of terpene biosynthesis, C-C bond breaking and forming steps are subjected to kinetic carbon isotope effects, leading to distinct carbon isotopic signatures of the products. Accordingly, carbon isotopic signatures could be used to reveal the 'biosynthetic history' of the produced terpenoids. Five known sesquiterpene cyclases, regulating three different pathways, representing simple to complex biosynthetic sequences, were heterologously expressed and used for in vitro assays with farnesyl diphosphate as substrate. Compound specific isotope ratio mass spectrometry measurements of the enzyme substrate farnesyl diphosphate (FDP) and the products of all the five cyclases were performed. The calculated δ(13) C value for FDP, based on δ(13) C values and relative amounts of the products, was identical with its measured δ(13) C value, confirming the reliability of the approach and the precision of measurements. The different carbon isotope ratios of the products reflect the complexity of their structure and are correlated with the frequency of carbon-carbon bond forming and breaking steps on their individual biosynthetic pathways. Thus, the analysis of carbon isotopic signatures of terpenes at natural abundance can be used as a powerful tool in elucidation of associated biosynthetic mechanisms of terpene synthases and in future in vivo studies even without 'touching' the plant. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Study of the Photon Strength Functions for Gadolinium Isotopes with the DANCE Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dashdorj, D.; Mitchell, G. E.; Baramsai, B.; Chankova, R.; Chyzh, A.; Walker, C.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Becker, J. A.; Parker, W.; Sleaford, B.; Wu, C. Y.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wouters, J. M.; Krtička, M.; Bečvář, F.

    2009-03-01

    The gadolinium isotopes are interesting for reactor applications as well as for medicine and astrophysics. The gadolinium isotopes have some of the largest neutron capture cross sections. As a consequence they are used in the control rod in reactor fuel assembly. From the basic science point of view, there are seven stable isotopes of gadolinium with varying degrees of deformation. Therefore they provide a good testing ground for the study of deformation dependent structure such as the scissors mode. Decay gamma rays following neutron capture on Gd isotopes are detected by the DANCE array, which is located at flight path 14 at the Lujan Neutron Scattering Center at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The high segmentation and close packing of the detector array enable gamma-ray multiplicity measurements. The calorimetric properties of the DANCE array coupled with the neutron time-of-flight technique enables one to gate on a specific resonance of a specific isotope in the time-of-flight spectrum and obtain the summed energy spectrum for that isotope. The singles gamma-ray spectrum for each multiplicity can be separated by their DANCE cluster multiplicity. Various photon strength function models are used for comparison with experimentally measured DANCE data and provide insight for understanding the statistical decay properties of deformed nuclei.

  8. Study of Yb isotopes with the coherent state formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inci, I.

    2016-08-01

    Coherent state approach (CSA) is applied to the interacting boson model (IBM) in the rotational region. States of the N particle system are built up in a most general form as a function of the shape parameters β and γ. The parameter χ occurring in the quadrupole operator which determines the degree of the γ-softness is taken to be varying with the boson number. The excitation energy equations are formed by using the moment of inertia of a rotating system which is obtained from the solution of the cranking problem. For each isotope, the deformation parameter is found by minimizing the ground state energy equation. The results are used to fit the experimental excitation energy spectrum and the electric quadrupole transition ratios of Yb isotopes. It is found that CSA works well to predict the energy of the states up to L = 10. But the predictions about the electric quadrupole transitions are nearly 1.5 times greater than the experimental data.

  9. Stable Isotope Resolved Metabolomics Studies