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Sample records for small apple orchard

  1. Management strategies in apple orchards influence earwig community.

    PubMed

    Malagnoux, Laure; Marliac, Gaëlle; Simon, Sylvaine; Rault, Magali; Capowiez, Yvan

    2015-04-01

    Our aim was to assess whether different apple orchard management strategies (low-input, organic, Integrated Pest Management (IPM)) would have an effect on earwigs, which are important natural enemies of apple pests. These commercial orchards were as well compared to abandoned orchards. The density of Forficula auricularia and Forficula pubescens was studied for three years in 74 orchards around Avignon. The pesticide usage, some orchard characteristics and two small-scale landscape parameters were characterized. Pesticide use was significantly different between low-input, organic and IPM orchards with particularly significant differences in the number of insecticide applications (2.2, 4.9 and 9.2 respectively). Pesticide use had a much stronger impact on earwig community than other characteristics. F. auricularia density was significantly lower in IPM orchards (0.47 individuals per tree) compared to organic, low-input and abandoned orchards (3.1, 4.5 and 1.6 individuals per tree, respectively). F. pubescens was almost absent from IPM orchards and its abundance was higher in abandoned or low-input orchards compared to organic orchards (1.5 and 2.8 vs 0.8 individuals per tree). The percentage of F. pubescens in the earwig community decreased from abandoned (52%) to low-input (40%), organic (15%) and IPM orchards (0.5%). These results were confirmed by LD50 assays showing that for the two pesticides causing mortality close to normal application rates (chlorpyrifos-ethyl and acetamiprid), F. pubescens was significantly more sensitive than F. auricularia. Since earwigs are also easy to capture and identify, they may be useful to estimate the effects of management strategies and their modification in pome fruit orchards.

  2. Pest management systems affect composition but not abundance of phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Árpád; Pénzes, Béla; Sipos, Péter; Hegyi, Tamás; Hajdú, Zsuzsanna; Markó, Viktor

    2014-04-01

    We examined the faunal composition and abundance of phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in apple orchards under different pest management systems in Hungary. A total of 30 apple orchards were surveyed, including abandoned and organic orchards and orchards where integrated pest management (IPM) or broad spectrum insecticides (conventional pest management) were applied. A total of 18 phytoseiid species were found in the canopy of apple trees. Species richness was greatest in the organic orchards (mean: 3.3 species/400 leaves) and the least in the conventional orchards (1.4), with IPM (2.1) and abandoned (2.7) orchards showing intermediate values. The phytoseiid community's Rényi diversity displayed a similar pattern. However, the total phytoseiid abundance in the orchards with different pest management systems did not differ, with abundance varying between 1.8 and 2.6 phytoseiids/10 leaves. Amblyseius andersoni, Euseius finlandicus, and Typhlodromus pyri were the three most common species. The relative abundance of A. andersoni increased with the pesticide load of the orchards whereas the relative abundance of E. finlandicus decreased. The abundance of T. pyri did not change in the apple orchards under different pest management strategies; regardless of the type of applied treatment, they only displayed greater abundance in five of the orchards. The remaining 15 phytoseiid species only occurred in small numbers, mostly from the abandoned and organic orchards. We identified a negative correlation between the abundance of T. pyri and the other phytoseiids in the abandoned and organic orchards. However, we did not find any similar link between the abundance of A. andersoni and E. finlandicus.

  3. Sources and availability of Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens inoculum in apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens (SP) is the cause of Sphaeropsis rot, a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of apple. Infections of apple fruit by the fungus occur in the orchard, and symptoms develop during storage or in the market. SP also is the cause of a twig dieback and canker disease o...

  4. New Hampshire Apple Orchards as a Source of Arsenic Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, C. K.; Renshaw, C. E.; Feng, X.; Sturup, S.

    2002-05-01

    Concern about high trace metal contamination in New Hampshire water supplies has focused attention on the fate of both natural and anthropogenic trace metals in the environment. We investigate apple orchards as a possible source of As in surface water and groundwater of New Hampshire. Lead arsenate sprays were widely used as fungicides and insecticides in apple orchards for more than a century and they represent the largest single anthropogenic input of arsenic into the environment. The applied As may 1) have remained in the surface soil, 2) have moved downward in the soil column and become stored in deeper soil horizons and/or regional groundwater system, or 3) have been transported as a result of overland surface runoff and/or erosion to surface reservoirs. We examine these pathways using two types of samples collected from a Southern New Hampshire apple orchard: soil profiles from apple orchards having different pesticide application (sprayed or not sprayed with lead arsenate) and land use (tilled or untilled) history, and stream sediment cores that may have accumulated sediments transported from nearby apple orchards. Preliminary analyses provide the following observations. First, apple orchards which used lead arsenate pesticides contain significantly elevated As and Pb concentrations (up to 80æg/g and 600æg/g, and about 1 and 2 orders of magnitude above the background levels, respectively) in the surface soils. Second, As and Pb are generally limited to the upper 10-15 cm of soil, showing little evidence of downward transport. This suggests that As is largely chemically immobile in the soil environment and that the main mechanism for As removal from its source may be physical erosion. We hypothesize that, if left undisturbed, lead arsenate remains immobile in the soil column. However, any disturbances that increase physical erosion of the soil may mobilize the arsenic and lead and concentrate these metals in nearby stream and lake sediments. We test this

  5. Ecohydrological interactions between soil and trees in Alpine apple orchards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penna, Daniele; Scandellari, Francesca; Zanotelli, Damiano; Michael, Engel; Tagliavini, Massimo; Comiti, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    depleted and consistent with the local meteoric water line, whereas ii) soil water and sap have values more enriched and deviated from the meteoric line. Soil water shows a clear evaporation signal that decreases with increasing soil depth. Sap isotopic data are inconsistent with groundwater data but reflect well soil water data in the first 40 cm. This suggests that apple trees absorb a mixture of rainfall and irrigation water which undergo partial evaporation in the shallow soil layer. Water table varies between 40 cm and 140 cm making groundwater not easily intercepted by tree roots, consistently with the small root apparatus of the apple trees grafted on M9 rootstocks. Results reveal also a marked intra-field spatial variability in the isotopic composition of soil water, and significant differences between the two fields, with the one close to the river showing significantly more depleted values compared to the one farther form the river. This difference, which is reflected by sap isotopic composition in summer, is likely related to the different radiation that hits the two fields, due to the shading effect played by steep slopes on the orchard closer to the river.

  6. How to Plant Apple Trees to Reduce Replant Disease in Apple Orchard: A Study on the Phenolic Acid of the Replanted Apple Orchard

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Chengmiao; Xiang, Li; Wang, Gongshuai; Wang, Yanfang; Shen, Xiang; Chen, Xuesen; Mao, Zhiquan

    2016-01-01

    Apple replant disease (ARD) is an important problem in the production of apple. The phenolic acid is one of the causes of ARD. How phenolic acid affects the ARD was not well known. In this study, we analyzed the type, concentration and annual dynamic variation of phenolic acid in soil from three replanted apple orchards using an accelerated solvent extraction system with high performance liquid chromatography (ASE-HPLC). We found that the type and concentration of phenolic acid were significantly differed among different seasons, different sampling positions and different soil layers. Major types of phenolic acid in three replanted apple orchards were phlorizin, benzoic acid and vanillic aldehyde. The concentration of phenolic acid was highest in the soil of the previous tree holes and it was increased from the spring to autumn. Moreover, phenolic acid was primarily distributed in 30–60 cm soil layer in the autumn, while it was most abundant in 0–30 cm soil layer in the spring. Our results suggest that phlorizin, benzoic acid and vanillic aldehyde may be the key phenolic acid that brought about ARD in the replanted apple orchard. PMID:27907081

  7. Carbon Sequestration by Fruit Trees - Chinese Apple Orchards as an Example

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ting; Wang, Yi; Yu, Changjiang; Chiarawipa, Rawee; Zhang, Xinzhong; Han, Zhenhai; Wu, Lianhai

    2012-01-01

    Apple production systems are an important component in the Chinese agricultural sector with 1.99 million ha plantation. The orchards in China could play an important role in the carbon (C) cycle of terrestrial ecosystems and contribute to C sequestration. The carbon sequestration capability in apple orchards was analyzed through identifying a set of potential assessment factors and their weighting factors determined by a field model study and literature. The dynamics of the net C sink in apple orchards in China was estimated based on the apple orchard inventory data from 1990s and the capability analysis. The field study showed that the trees reached the peak of C sequestration capability when they were 18 years old, and then the capability began to decline with age. Carbon emission derived from management practices would not be compensated through C storage in apple trees before reaching the mature stage. The net C sink in apple orchards in China ranged from 14 to 32 Tg C, and C storage in biomass from 230 to 475 Tg C between 1990 and 2010. The estimated net C sequestration in Chinese apple orchards from 1990 to 2010 was equal to 4.5% of the total net C sink in the terrestrial ecosystems in China. Therefore, apple production systems can be potentially considered as C sinks excluding the energy associated with fruit production in addition to provide fruits. PMID:22719974

  8. Carbon sequestration by fruit trees--Chinese apple orchards as an example.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting; Wang, Yi; Yu, Changjiang; Chiarawipa, Rawee; Zhang, Xinzhong; Han, Zhenhai; Wu, Lianhai

    2012-01-01

    Apple production systems are an important component in the Chinese agricultural sector with 1.99 million ha plantation. The orchards in China could play an important role in the carbon (C) cycle of terrestrial ecosystems and contribute to C sequestration. The carbon sequestration capability in apple orchards was analyzed through identifying a set of potential assessment factors and their weighting factors determined by a field model study and literature. The dynamics of the net C sink in apple orchards in China was estimated based on the apple orchard inventory data from 1990s and the capability analysis. The field study showed that the trees reached the peak of C sequestration capability when they were 18 years old, and then the capability began to decline with age. Carbon emission derived from management practices would not be compensated through C storage in apple trees before reaching the mature stage. The net C sink in apple orchards in China ranged from 14 to 32 Tg C, and C storage in biomass from 230 to 475 Tg C between 1990 and 2010. The estimated net C sequestration in Chinese apple orchards from 1990 to 2010 was equal to 4.5% of the total net C sink in the terrestrial ecosystems in China. Therefore, apple production systems can be potentially considered as C sinks excluding the energy associated with fruit production in addition to provide fruits.

  9. [Variation characteristics of soil moisture in apple orchards of Luochuan County, Shaanxi Province of Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Ping; Han, Ming-Yu; Zhang, Lin-Sen; Dang, Yong-Jian; Qu, Jun-Tao

    2012-03-01

    To have an overall understanding on the soil moisture characteristics in the apple orchards of Luochuan County can not only provide theoretical basis for selecting apple orchard sites, choosing the best root-stock combination, and improving the soil water management, but also has reference importance in increasing the productive efficiency of our apple orchards. In this study, a fixed-point continuous monitoring was conducted on the overall soil moisture environment and the variation characteristics of soil moisture in the County apple orchards differed in age class, stand type, and tree type (standard or dwarfed). For the apple orchards in the County, the rhizosphere (0-200 cm) soils of most apple trees were water-deficient, and the deficit in 0-60 cm soil layer was less than that in 60-200 cm layer. During growth season, the water storage in 0-60 cm soil layer had the same variation trend as the rainfall pattern. The relative soil moisture content in most orchards was less than 60% , and seasonal drought was quite severe. The coefficient of variation of soil moisture content decreased with soil depth. With the increasing age of the orchards, soil water storage decreased. At the same planting density, the orchards with dwarfed trees had more water storage in 0-5 m soil layer than the orchards with standard trees. However, when the orchards were planted with dwarfed trees at a higher density, the soil water storage in the orchards with dwarfed trees was lesser than that in the standard orchards. The mature orchards on highland had the highest soil moisture content, followed by the mature orchards on flat land, and on terraced land. Tree density had great effects on the soil moisture content. When the tree density was the same, planting dwarfed trees could decrease the water consumption, and increase the soil moisture content significantly. To decrease the planting density through the removal of trees would be an effective way to maintain the soil water balance of

  10. Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis: inoculum availability, persistence and seasonal host susceptibility in Washington apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    P. washingtonensis infects apple fruit in the orchard but decay symptoms develop during storage. Pycnidia on diseased shoots are believed to be the inoculum source for fruit infection in the orchard. However, the period of twig susceptibility and availability of viable inoculum in the field are un...

  11. Contamination of apple orchard soils and fruit trees with copper-based fungicides: sampling aspects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Quanying; Liu, Jingshuang; Liu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Accumulations of copper in orchard soils and fruit trees due to the application of Cu-based fungicides have become research hotspots. However, information about the sampling strategies, which can affect the accuracy of the following research results, is lacking. This study aimed to determine some sampling considerations when Cu accumulations in the soils and fruit trees of apple orchards are studied. The study was conducted in three apple orchards from different sites. Each orchard included two different histories of Cu-based fungicides usage, varying from 3 to 28 years. Soil samples were collected from different locations varying with the distances from tree trunk to the canopy drip line. Fruits and leaves from the middle heights of tree canopy at two locations (outer canopy and inner canopy) were collected. The variation in total soil Cu concentrations between orchards was much greater than the variation within orchards. Total soil Cu concentrations had a tendency to increase with the increasing history of Cu-based fungicides usage. Moreover, total soil Cu concentrations had the lowest values at the canopy drip line, while the highest values were found at the half distances between the trunk and the canopy drip line. Additionally, Cu concentrations of leaves and fruits from the outer parts of the canopy were significantly higher than from the inner parts. Depending on the findings of this study, not only the between-orchard variation but also the within-orchard variation should be taken into consideration when conducting future soil and tree samplings in apple orchards.

  12. Cost-benefit trade-offs of bird activity in apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Peisley, Rebecca K; Saunders, Manu E; Luck, Gary W

    2016-01-01

    Birds active in apple orchards in south-eastern Australia can contribute positively (e.g., control crop pests) or negatively (e.g., crop damage) to crop yields. Our study is the first to identify net outcomes of these activities, using six apple orchards, varying in management intensity, in south-eastern Australia as a study system. We also conducted a predation experiment using real and artificial codling moth (Cydia pomonella) larvae (a major pest in apple crops). We found that: (1) excluding birds from branches of apple trees resulted in an average of 12.8% more apples damaged by insects; (2) bird damage to apples was low (1.9% of apples); and (3) when trading off the potential benefits (biological control) with costs (bird damage to apples), birds provided an overall net benefit to orchard growers. We found that predation of real codling moth larvae was higher than for plasticine larvae, suggesting that plasticine prey models are not useful for inferring actual predation levels. Our study shows how complex ecological interactions between birds and invertebrates affect crop yield in apples, and provides practical strategies for improving the sustainability of orchard systems.

  13. Cost-benefit trade-offs of bird activity in apple orchards

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Manu E.; Luck, Gary W.

    2016-01-01

    Birds active in apple orchards in south–eastern Australia can contribute positively (e.g., control crop pests) or negatively (e.g., crop damage) to crop yields. Our study is the first to identify net outcomes of these activities, using six apple orchards, varying in management intensity, in south–eastern Australia as a study system. We also conducted a predation experiment using real and artificial codling moth (Cydia pomonella) larvae (a major pest in apple crops). We found that: (1) excluding birds from branches of apple trees resulted in an average of 12.8% more apples damaged by insects; (2) bird damage to apples was low (1.9% of apples); and (3) when trading off the potential benefits (biological control) with costs (bird damage to apples), birds provided an overall net benefit to orchard growers. We found that predation of real codling moth larvae was higher than for plasticine larvae, suggesting that plasticine prey models are not useful for inferring actual predation levels. Our study shows how complex ecological interactions between birds and invertebrates affect crop yield in apples, and provides practical strategies for improving the sustainability of orchard systems. PMID:27413639

  14. Avian nesting success and diversity in conventionally and organically managed apple orchards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fluetsch, K.M.; Sparling, D.W.

    1994-01-01

    This study examines the effects of operational use of pesticides on avian species inhabiting apple orchards in Pennsylvania. Mourning dove (Zenaida rnacroura) and American robin (Turdus migratorius) nests were monitored in three organic and three conventional apple orchards during 1990 and 1991. In 1991 we surveyed the avian communities of these orchards by using line transects. Organophosphorus (OP) (e.g., azinphos-methyl, phosphamidon, parathion, dimethoate), carbamate (CA) (e.g., methomyl, formetanate, oxamyl), and organochlorine (endosulfan) pesticides, known to be highly toxic to birds, were sprayed individually or in mixtures as part of routine pest management as many as 19 times during peaks in breeding activity. Spray card tests revealed that OP pesticides were deposited on 86% of the nests in conventional orchards. Daily survival rates (DSRs) for nests of both species were higher in the organic orchards than in the conventional orchards for 1991 and for years combined (p < 0.05). Species diversity was greater in the organic orchards (H= 2.43) than in the conventional orchards (H=1.79). Repeated applications of pesticides within the conventional orchards reduced the reproductive success of doves and robins and may have lowered avian species diversity compared with organic orchards.

  15. Anystis baccarum: An Important Generalist Predatory Mite to be Considered in Apple Orchard Pest Management Strategies.

    PubMed

    Cuthbertson, Andrew G S; Qiu, Bao-Li; Murchie, Archie K

    2014-07-24

    The increasing concern over the continued use of pesticides is pressurising apple growers to look for alternatives to chemical pest control. The re-discovery, and subsequent conservation, of the beneficial predatory mite, Anystis baccarum (Linnaeus) (Acari: Anystidae), in Bramley apple orchards in Northern Ireland offers a potential alternative control component for incorporation into integrated pest management strategies. Anystis baccarum readily feeds upon economically important invertebrate pest species including European fruit tree red spider mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae) and show a level of compatibility with chemical pesticides. Recent mis-identification by apple growers of this beneficial mite species had resulted in unnecessary pesticide applications being applied within Northern Irish apple orchards. However, dissemination of information to the apple growers and promotion of the benefits this mite offers in apple orchards has helped to conserve its populations. Apple growers, across the United Kingdom, must be encouraged to be aware of A. baccarum, and indeed all predatory fauna, within their orchards and seek to conserve populations. In doing so, it will ensure that the British apple market remains an environmentally sustainable production system.

  16. Sources and availability of inoculum and seasonal survival of Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens in apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens is the cause of Sphaeropsis rot, a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of apple. Infection of apple fruit by the fungus is believed to occur in the orchard, and symptoms develop during storage or in the market. S. pyriputrescens also is the cause of a twig dieb...

  17. UAV based tree height estimation in apple orchards: potential of multiple approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejia-Aguilar, Abraham; Tomelleri, Enrico; Vilardi, Andrea; Zebisch, Marc

    2015-04-01

    Canopy height, as part of vegetation structure, is ecologically important for ecological studies on biomass, matter flows or meteorology. Measuring the growth of canopy can be undertaken by the use multiple remote sensing techniques. In this study, we firstly use data generated from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) with a simultaneous consumer-grade RGB and modified IR cameras, configured in nadir and multi-angle views to generate 3D models for Digital Surface Model (DSM) and Digital Terrain Models (DTM) in order to estimate tree height in apple orchards in South Tyrol, Italy. We evaluate the use of Ground Control Points (GCP) to minimize the error in scale and orientation. Then, we validate and compare the results of our primary data collection with data generated by geolocated field measurements over several selected tree species. Additionally, we compare DSM and DTM obtained from a recent 1-meter resolution LIDAR campaign (Light Detection and Ranging). The main purpose of this study is to contrast multiple estimation approaches and evaluate their utility for the estimation of canopy height, highlighting the use of UAV systems as a fast, reliable and non-expensive technique especially for small scale applications. The study is conducted in a homogenous tree canopy consisting of apple orchards located in Caldaro -South Tyrol, Italy. We end with proposing a potential low-cost and inexpensive application combining models for DSM from the UAV with DTM obtained from LIDAR for applications that should be updated frequently.

  18. Bird diversity and abundance in organic and conventional apple orchards in northern Japan

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the benefits of agri-environmental schemes, such as organic farming, on biodiversity conservation in annual systems, but their effectiveness in perennial systems is less well understood, particularly in bird communities in temperate regions of Asia. This study examined the effects of organic farming practices on species richness and abundance of breeding birds in apple orchards in northern Japan. Bird counts were conducted in six pairs of organic and conventional orchards during the breeding season in April and May 2015. The total species richness of birds, estimated by sample- and coverage-based rarefaction and extrapolation curves, was greater in organic orchards than in conventional orchards. Among the three dietary guilds (insectivore, granivore, and omnivore), only insectivorous species were more abundant in organic orchards than in conventional ones. This study offers the first quantitative evidence that organic farming can be beneficial for enhancing the diversity of birds, particularly of insectivores, in fruit orchards in Japan. PMID:27677408

  19. The impact of management strategies in apple orchards on the structural and functional diversity of epigeal spiders.

    PubMed

    Mazzia, Christophe; Pasquet, Alain; Caro, Gaël; Thénard, Jodie; Cornic, Jean-François; Hedde, Mickaël; Capowiez, Yvan

    2015-04-01

    Apple orchards are agro-ecosystems managed with high levels of inputs and especially pesticides. Epigeal spider communities were sampled in three seasons using pitfall traps in 19 apple orchards with four different management strategies (abandoned, under organic, Integrated Pest Management or conventional protection) and thus significantly different pesticide usage. The abundance and diversity of the spider communities was the highest in abandoned orchards. Higher diversity and evenness values were the only difference in spider communities from the organic orchards compared to the other commercial orchards. The analysis of five ecological traits (proportion of aeronauts, type of diet, overwintering stages, body size and maternal care), however, clearly showed differences in the spiders from the organic orchards. The spider species in the other commercial orchards were smaller and have higher dispersal abilities. Seven bioindicator species were identified in abandoned orchards, two species in organic ones (only Lycosidae) and one species in conventional orchards (Linyphiidae).

  20. Local Plant Diversity Across Multiple Habitats Supports a Diverse Wild Bee Community in Pennsylvania Apple Orchards.

    PubMed

    Kammerer, Melanie A; Biddinger, David J; Rajotte, Edwin G; Mortensen, David A

    2016-02-01

    Wild pollinators supply essential, historically undervalued pollination services to crops and other flowering plant communities with great potential to ensure agricultural production against the loss of heavily relied upon managed pollinators. Local plant communities provision wild bees with crucial floral and nesting resources, but the distribution of floristic diversity among habitat types in North American agricultural landscapes and its effect on pollinators are diverse and poorly understood, especially in orchard systems. We documented floristic diversity in typical mid-Atlantic commercial apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchards including the forest and orchard-forest edge ("edge") habitats surrounding orchards in a heterogeneous landscape in south-central Pennsylvania, USA. We also assessed the correlation between plant richness and orchard pollinator communities. In this apple production region, edge habitats are the most species rich, supporting 146 out of 202 plant species recorded in our survey. Plant species richness in the orchard and edge habitats were significant predictors of bee species richness and abundance in the orchard, as well as landscape area of the forest and edge habitats. Both the quantity and quality of forest and edges close to orchards play a significant role in provisioning a diverse wild bee community in this agroecosystem.

  1. Spatial distribution of brown marmorated stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) injury at harvest in mid-Atlantic apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brown marmorated stink bug's, Halyomorpha halys (Stal), injury to late-season apple cultivars was measured at harvest in 2011 and 2012 in commercial orchards in four mid-Atlantic states. In each orchard block, a border zone (adjacent to woods), an interior zone (near orchard center), and an interme...

  2. The impact of mancozeb on entomofauna communities in apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Miles, Mark; Kemmitt, Greg; Bakker, Frank; Aldershof, Saskia

    2008-01-01

    Two Large scale field studies have been conducted to the same design in commercial apple orchards in north and south France. Mancozeb (Dithane M-45) was applied at its post-annex I use rate of 1.6 kg a.i./ha on four occasions with a spray interval of 7 days. Reference treatments of a water treated control and toxic reference of dimethoate were also included. Studies were of randomized block design with 4 replicates (4 plots of 6 adjacent rows of 8 trees, on a surface of approximately 16 x 21 m) per treatment. Leaf and canopy dwelling arthropods were sampled before and at regular intervals after application until the end of the season. A diverse range of arthropod taxa was sampled, counted and identified which enabled for an evaluation of key taxa such as predatory mites and other beneficials but also of the whole foliar dwelling arthropod community. This two level analysis allows for a thorough investigation of both direct and indirect effects of the test item on beneficial, pest and non-target arthropods and for a state of the art evaluation at the ecological community Level using ordination techniques. The findings from the two locations were highly consistent in that mancozeb applied four times at 1.6 g a.i./ha with a 7 day spray interval caused significant but short lived reductions in predatory Phytoseiid mites of >50% with rapid recovery approximately one month after application. These transient effects did not impact secondary pests such as rust mites (Eriophyoidea) and broad mites (Tarsonemidae). A wide range of arthropod taxa were investigated (229 taxa in the north and 215 taxa in the south) and consistent adverse treatment related effects were not noted for any taxa other than Phytoseiidae. At a lower rate of mancozeb representing potential off-field deposits at 3 m due to drift effects were virtually absent on predatory mites in and to all other taxa present.

  3. Restricted streptomycin use in apple orchards did not adversely alter the soil bacteria communities.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Fiona; Smith, Daniel P; Owens, Sarah M; Duffy, Brion; Frey, Jürg E

    2013-01-01

    Streptomycin has been authorized for restricted use in the prevention of the fire blight disease of pome fruit orchards in the EU and Switzerland. This study addresses the important topic of the influence of the use of streptomycin in agriculture on the total bacteria community within the soil ecosystem. Soil samples were taken from soils under apple trees, prior to streptomycin application and 2 weeks post streptomycin application or water application (untreated control). High throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing was used to generate datasets from the soils under apple trees in apple orchards from three different locations in Switzerland. We hypothesized that the use of streptomycin would reduce the bacterial diversity within the soil samples and enhance a reduction in the variety of taxa present. Bacterial species such as Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, and Stenotrophomonas are intrinsically resistant to many antibiotics and as such it is of interest to investigate if the use of streptomycin provided a selective advantage for these bacteria in the soil ecosystem. The application of streptomycin did not influence the abundance and diversities of major bacteria taxa of the soils or the Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, and Stenotrophomonas species. We also discovered that apple orchards under the same management practices, did not harbor the same bacterial communities. The restricted application of streptomycin in the protection of apple orchards from the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora under the guidelines in Switzerland did not alter either the bacterial diversity or abundance within these soil ecosystems.

  4. Soil respiration in apple orchards, poplar plantations and adjacent grasslands in Artvin, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Tufekcioglu, Aydin; Ozbayram, Ali Kemal; Kucuk, Mehmet

    2009-09-01

    In this study influence of land-use type on soil respiration was investigated in poplar plantation, apple orchard (apple trees with understory grasses) and adjacent grassland sites in Seyitler Area, Artvin, Turkey. Soil respiration was measured approximately monthly in three sampling plots in each land use type from January 2005 to November 2005 using the soda-lime technique. Mean daily soil respiration ranged from 0.63-3.59 g Cm(-2) d(-1). Mean soil respiration in apple orchard, poplar plantation and grassland sites were 1.98, 1.45 and 1.12 g C m(-2) d(-1), respectively. Mean soil respiration was significantly greater in apple orchard than in poplar plantations and grasslands. Seasonal changes in soil respiration were related to soil moisture and temperature changes. Mean soil respiration rate correlated strongly with subsurface soil (15-35cm) pH (R = -0,73; p < 0.05), sand content (R = 0.96, p < 0.001), soil silt content (R = -0.75; p < 0.05), soil clay content (R = -0.83; p < 0.001) and organic matter content (R = 0.88; p < 0.001). No significant correlations were observed between soil respiration and surface (0-15 cm) soil properties and root biomass. Overall, our results indicate that apple orchards with understory grasses have higher soil biological activity compared to poplar and grassland sites.

  5. Evaluation of herbivore-induced plant volatiles for monitoring lacewings in Washington apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated five herbivore-induced plant volatiles plus a male-produced pheromone as attractants for adult lacewings in Washington apple orchards in 2008. We found that several of the attractants or combinations of attractants could be used to monitor three common lacewing species in our trials. ...

  6. Monitoring stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in mid-Atlantic apple and peach orchards.

    PubMed

    Leskey, T C; Hogmire, H W

    2005-02-01

    Pyramid traps coated with "industrial safety yellow" exterior latex gloss enamel paint and baited with Euschistus spp. aggregation pheromone, methyl (2E,4Z)-decadienoate captured more stink bugs than all other baited and unbaited trap types in both apple and peach orchards in 2002 and 2003. Commercial sources of dispensers of methyl (2E,4Z)-decadienoate deployed in association with pyramid traps had a significant impact on trap captures. Captures in pyramid traps were four-fold greater when baited with lures from IPM Technologies, Inc. (Portland, OR) than with lures from Suterra (Bend, OR). Variation in yellow pyramid trap color ("industrial safety yellow" and "standard coroplast yellow") and material (plywood, plastic, and masonite) did not affect trap captures. Brown stink bug was the predominant species captured (58%), followed by dusky stink bug, Euschistus tristigmus (Say) (20%); green stink bug, Acrosternum hilare (Say) (14%); and other stink bugs (Brochymena spp. and unidentified nymphs) (8%). Captures in baited pyramid traps were significantly correlated with tree beating samples in both managed and unmanaged apple orchards and with sweep netting samples in the unmanaged apple orchard. However, problems associated with trapping mechanisms of pyramid trap jar tops and jar traps likely resulted in reduced captures in baited traps. Improved trapping mechanisms must be established to develop an effective monitoring tool for stink bugs in mid-Atlantic orchards.

  7. Monitoring codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with passive interception traps in sex pheromone-treated apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Knight, A L

    2000-12-01

    Male and female codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), were monitored with passive interception traps (PI-traps) in apple orchards treated with sex pheromone dispensers. The proportion of mated females recaptured by PI-traps was significantly higher than the proportion released after the release of both sexes into a codling moth-infested orchard. However, no significant difference occurred between the proportion of mated females recaptured and released when only females were released into uninfested orchards. Replicated nine-tree apple plots situated either on the edge or in the center ofpheromone-treated apple orchards were monitored with PI-traps during first moth flight in 1995 and during both flights in 1996. Moths caught on PI-traps were predominately males. The first male moths were captured 7-10 d before females during the first flight in both years. Initial capture of virgin and mated females on PI-traps coincided in 1995. Mated females were captured 14 d after the first virgin females in 1996. The mean proportion of females that were mated ranged from 32 to 55% during the first flight and 85 to 92% during the second flight. Moth catch and fruit injury were significantly higher in the edge versus the center plots. The numbers of total and female moths caught with PI-traps were significantly correlated with fruit injury for each generation. The percentage of female moths caught on PI-traps that were mated was 32% lower and the mean oocyte load of all females was 42% higher in a pheromone-treated apple orchard than in the untreated crabapple grove monitored during May and June 1997.

  8. Decrease in diversity and changes in community composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in roots of apple trees with increasing orchard management intensity across a regional scale.

    PubMed

    van Geel, Maarten; Ceustermans, An; van Hemelrijck, Wendy; Lievens, Bart; Honnay, Olivier

    2015-02-01

    Understanding which factors drive the diversity and community composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is important due to the role of these soil micro-organisms in ecosystem functioning and current environmental threats to AMF biodiversity. Additionally, in agro-ecosystems, this knowledge may help to evaluate their use in making agriculture more sustainable. Here, we used 454-pyrosequencing of small subunit rRNA gene amplicons to quantify AMF diversity and community composition in the roots of cultivated apple trees across 24 orchards in central Belgium. We aimed at identifying the factors (soil chemical variables, organic vs. conventional farming, and geographical location) that affect AMF diversity and community composition. In total, 110 AMF OTUs were detected, of which the majority belonged to the Glomeraceae (73%) and the Claroideoglomeraceae (19%). We show that soil characteristics and farming system, rather than the geographical location of the orchards, shape AMF communities on apple trees. Particularly, plant-available P content of the soil was associated with lower AMF diversity. In orchards with a lower plant-available P content of the soil (P < 100 mg/kg soil), we also found a significantly higher AMF diversity in organically managed orchards as compared to conventionally managed orchards. Finally, the degree of nestedness of the AMF communities was related to plant-available P and N content of the soil, pointing at a progressive loss of AMF taxa with increasing fertilization. Overall, we conclude that a combination of organic orchard management and moderate fertilization may preserve diverse AMF communities on apple trees and that AMF in the roots of apple trees appear not to be dispersal limited at the scale of central Belgium.

  9. Diversity and phenology of the generalist predator community in apple orchards of Central Washington State (insecta, araneae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Predatory insects and spiders were collected from apple orchards in two geographic regions of Central Washington State to assess seasonal phenology and diversity of the generalist predator community. Arthropods were collected from orchard canopy every 3-7 d over two growing seasons (March-October) ...

  10. Influence of mowing on dynamics of native phytoseiid mites and Tetranychus urticae in apple orchards in northern Japan.

    PubMed

    Funayama, Ken

    2016-09-01

    To support practical integrated pest management in commercial apple orchards, I investigated the influence of mowing on the occurrence of Tetranychus urticae and native phytoseiid mites in apple orchards sprayed with selective insecticides in Akita Prefecture, northern Japan, from 2013 to 2015. The orchards were not mown in 2013, and unmown and mown plots were compared in 2014 and 2015. There were significantly fewer Typhlodromus vulgaris on apple leaves and Amblyseius tsugawai in the undergrowth in mown plots than in unmown plots in both years. Conversely, there were significantly more T. urticae on leaves and undergrowth in mown plots than in unmown plots. The reason for the decreased populations of these phytoseiid mites may be a lack of food (pollen) needed for reproduction on apple trees and in the undergrowth due to mowing. These results indicate that mowing strongly influences generalist phytoseiid mites in apple orchards. Moreover, mowing might increase the density of T. urticae in apple trees because increased nitrogen in the leaves increases fecundity; in addition, drought might promote the increase of mite numbers. Thus, retention of undergrowth suppresses T. urticae in apple orchards.

  11. Instar-specific phenology of Pandemis pyrusana and Choristoneura rosaceana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Washington apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Jones, Vincent P; Eastburn, Callie C; Wilburn, Tawnee D; Brunner, Jay F

    2005-06-01

    Head capsule width was used to determine the instar specific phenology of the leafroller Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott and the obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), attacking apple in Washington state during 2001-2003. In total, 7012 P. pyrusana and 6122 obliquebanded leafroller larvae were measured from apple orchards from mid-March to mid-September. Degree-day accumulations from each site were paired with the head capsule data to determine the periods during which different instars were present in the field. The implications of this work for pest management and biological control of leafrollers is discussed.

  12. Streptomycin use in apple orchards did not increase abundance of mobile resistance genes.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Brion; Holliger, Eduard; Walsh, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    Streptomycin is used as a first-line defense and tetracycline as a second-line defense, in the fight against fire blight disease in apple and pear orchards. We have performed the first study to quantitatively analyze the influence of streptomycin use in agriculture on the abundance of streptomycin and tetracycline resistance genes in apple orchards. Flowers, leaves, and soil were collected from three orchard sites in 2010, 2011, and 2012. Gene abundance distribution was analyzed using two-way anova and principal component analysis to investigate relationships between gene abundance data over time and treatment. The mobile antibiotic resistance genes, strA, strB, tetB, tetM, tetW, and the insertion sequence IS1133, were detected prior to streptomycin treatment in almost all samples, indicating the natural presence of these resistance genes in nature. Statistically significant increases in the resistance gene abundances were occasional, inconsistent, and not reproducible from one year to the next. We conclude that the application of streptomycin in these orchards was not associated with sustained increases in streptomycin or tetracycline resistance gene abundances.

  13. [Variation characteristic in soil respiration of apple orchard and its biotic and abiotic influencing factors].

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Guo, Sheng-Li; Liu, Qing-Fang; Zhang, Yan-Jun; Jiang, Ji-Shao; Guo, Hui-Min; Li, Ru-Jian

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the orchard variability of soil respiration and the response of soil respiration to its influencing factors is helpful for a deep understanding about the effects of converting cropland to apple orchard. A field experiment was conducted in the Changwu State Key Agro-Ecological Station. Soil respiration, soil temperature, soil moisture and roots biomasses were periodically measured in a mature apple orchard during 2011 and 2012. Soil respiration decreased as the distance from the trunk increased. The cumulative soil respiration in the 0.5 m-distance from the trunk was 20% and 31% higher than that in the 2 m-distance from the trunk, respectively in 2011 and 2012. The temperature sensitivity of soil respiration (Q10) was relatively lower in the 2 m-distance than that in the 0. 5 m-distance in both years. Soil temperature and soil moisture were slightly higher in the 2 m-distance, but there was no significant difference between the 2 m-distance and the 0. 5 m-distance. Soil respiration and soil temperature showed a significant exponential relationship, but there was no positive correlation between soil moisture and soil respiration. Soil temperature changes can explain seasonal variation of soil respiration well, but it could not explain its spatial variability. Root density was an important factor for the spatial variability of soil respiration and Q15. Variation of soil respiration coefficient was 23% -31%. Therefore, the distance from the trunk should be considered when estimating orchards soil respiration.

  14. Where does Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) overwinter in adjacent peach, pear and apple orchards?

    PubMed

    Yang, X-F; Fan, F; Wang, C; Wei, G-S

    2016-02-01

    The Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major pest of tree fruits worldwide, and the diapausing larvae overwinter in cryptic habitats. Investigations of overwintering G. molesta were conducted in adjacent peach, pear and apple orchards in Northern China over three consecutive winters to determine the overwintering site and habitat preferences of the moth. Counts of overwintering larvae in the different orchards demonstrated that the late-maturing peach orchard ('Shenzhou honey peach') was the most preferred overwintering habitat with more than 90% of the collected larvae. Larvae were more abundant in host trees, and they very rarely overwintered in the soil. The overwintering site preferences on the host trees were significantly different; over 50% larvae were located in the tree trunks, and followed by main branches. Most of the G. molesta overwintered on the sunny side of the host trees at or below 60 cm from the ground; a few were cocooned on the shaded sides of the trees or greater than 60 cm from the ground. G. molesta began overwintering between August and October, mid- to late September was the peak period for entering winter diapause during 2011-2013 (77.78, 67.59 and 71.15%, respectively). Our findings improve understanding of the orchard habitat and overwintering site preferences of G. molesta and would be useful in the development of efficient forecasting and pest-management strategies for orchards during the winter and early spring.

  15. Rootstock genotype succession influences apple replant disease and root-zone microbial community composition in an orchard soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple replant disease (ARD) is a soil-borne disease complex that affects young apple trees in replanted orchards, resulting in stunted growth and reduced yields. New rootstock genotypes with resistance to ARD may help to control this disease. To determine the effects of rootstock genotype succession...

  16. Infection of apple fruit by Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens in the orchard in relation to Sphaeropsis rot in storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sphaeropsis rot, caused by Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens, is a recently recognized postharvest fruit rot disease of apple in the United States. The objectives of this study were to determine the timing of apple fruit infection in the orchard in relation to development of Sphaeropsis rot in storage and ...

  17. Windpowered irrigation system for small pecan orchards. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Goulden, D.R.

    1981-06-02

    A solution to the high installation and maintenance costs for small-orchard irrigation lies in the use of the windmill and a gravity-flow distribution system. Applying windpower for pumping and distributing water for irrigation of small pecan orchards is now economically feasible in many areas where pecans are grown. Because of its constant, moderate wind speeds, the central Oklahoma region lends itself well to such a system.

  18. Temporal and spatial variation of canopy spectral characteristics in apple orchard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xiaolei; Li, Minzan; Zheng, Lihua; Zhang, Yao; An, Xiaofei

    2012-11-01

    Plant nutritional status can be evaluated with remote sensing. In order to detect the temporal and spatial variation of spectral characteristics in apple orchard, the experiments were carried out. Firstly the flower/ leaf samples from 15 year-on trees and 5 year-off t rees were collected. The real time reflectance spectra of flowers/leaves from three parts (base, middle, top) of each main branch were measured by using the ASD spectrometer. And then the temporal and spatial variations of spectral characteristics were analyzed. The results showed that leaves from the top of the branch had higher reflectance than the other parts of the branch at the same time. The reflectance spectra of apple trees changed significantly at different stages. Furthermore, the reflectance spectra varied in different parts of the apple trees as well as in different trees. Accordingly the temporal curve and spatial figure were obtained and the growing informat ion can be analyzed from them.

  19. Heavy metals in apple orchard soils and fruits and their health risks in Liaodong Peninsula, Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Quanying; Liu, Jingshuang; Cheng, Shuai

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the heavy metal concentrations in soils and fruits and their possible human health risk in apple orchards of Liaodong Peninsula-a well-known fruit-producing area of China. The soil pollution index (PI) and health risk assessment methods (daily intake of metals (DIM) and health risk index (HRI)) were employed to explore the soil pollution levels and the potential health hazards of heavy metals in fruits. The results showed that all orchard soils were with low PI values (PI ≤1) for Cd and Zn, while 2.78 and 5.56% of the soil samples exceeded the allowable levels of Cr and Cu for orchard soil, respectively. The Cd, Cu, and Zn concentrations for the apple flesh samples were all lower than the national maximum permissible concentrations. While 6.34% of apple peel samples for Cd, 76.5% of apple peel samples and 65.6% of apple flesh samples for Cr, and 28.1% of apple peel samples for Zn exceeded the national maximum permissible levels, respectively. Furthermore, both the DIM and the HRI values for all the apple flesh samples were within the safe limits, indicating that no health risk was found for heavy metals in the fruits of the study area. In order to protect the consumers from fruits that might cause health risks, results from this study suggested that the regular survey of heavy metal pollution levels should be conducted for the orchards of Liaodong Peninsula.

  20. Traps and Baits for Luring Grapholita molesta (Busck) Adults in Mating Disruption-Treated Apple Orchards.

    PubMed

    Padilha, A C; Arioli, C J; Boff, M I C; Rosa, J M; Botton, M

    2017-04-04

    Grapholita molesta (Busck) is one of the main pests in apple crops in Brazil, where it is controlled by mating disruption (MD) with the use of the synthetic sex pheromone. However, sex-pheromone-based monitoring is not effective in MD-treated areas and may result in losses in production. This work has defined a trap model and a bait for luring G. molesta adults in MD apple orchards. The experiments were conducted in commercial apple orchards located in São Joaquim, SC, Brazil. Three trap models-McPhail, Pot, and Ajar-and three baits-grape juice (25%) (GJ), sugarcane molasses (25%) (SM), and a solution containing brown sugar (8.69%) and terpinyl acetate (0.05%) (TAS)-were assessed for luring G. molesta adults in areas subjected to the mating disruption. The assessments were performed weekly by collecting the insects caught in the traps. In addition, time needed to replace traps was also assessed, as well as the selectivity of the trap/bait set. In the laboratory, G. molesta adults were sexed, and the females were dissected to confirm reproductive status. We discuss our results and sugarcane molasses (25%) captured the least number of G. molesta adults regardless of the tested traps. The Ajar/TAS, Pot/TAS, and McPhail/GJ captured the largest number of G. molesta adults. The Ajar/TAS was the most selective and easier to handle. TAS was efficient in catching G. molesta until 14 days after preparation of the solution. Ajar/TAS has potential to be used in the monitoring of G. molesta in apple orchards.

  1. Population Dynamics and Flight Phenology Model of Codling Moth Differ between Commercial and Abandoned Apple Orchard Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Neelendra K; Rajotte, Edwin G; Naithani, Kusum J; Krawczyk, Greg; Hull, Larry A

    2016-01-01

    Apple orchard management practices may affect development and phenology of arthropod pests, such as the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), which is a serious internal fruit-feeding pest of apples worldwide. Estimating population dynamics and accurately predicting the timing of CM development and phenology events (for instance, adult flight, and egg-hatch) allows growers to understand and control local populations of CM. Studies were conducted to compare the CM flight phenology in commercial and abandoned apple orchard ecosystems using a logistic function model based on degree-days accumulation. The flight models for these orchards were derived from the cumulative percent moth capture using two types of commercially available CM lure baited traps. Models from both types of orchards were also compared to another model known as PETE (prediction extension timing estimator) that was developed in 1970s to predict life cycle events for many fruit pests including CM across different fruit growing regions of the United States. We found that the flight phenology of CM was significantly different in commercial and abandoned orchards. CM male flight patterns for first and second generations as predicted by the constrained and unconstrained PCM (Pennsylvania Codling Moth) models in commercial and abandoned orchards were different than the flight patterns predicted by the currently used CM model (i.e., PETE model). In commercial orchards, during the first and second generations, the PCM unconstrained model predicted delays in moth emergence compared to current model. In addition, the flight patterns of females were different between commercial and abandoned orchards. Such differences in CM flight phenology between commercial and abandoned orchard ecosystems suggest potential impact of orchard environment and crop management practices on CM biology.

  2. Population Dynamics and Flight Phenology Model of Codling Moth Differ between Commercial and Abandoned Apple Orchard Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Neelendra K.; Rajotte, Edwin G.; Naithani, Kusum J.; Krawczyk, Greg; Hull, Larry A.

    2016-01-01

    Apple orchard management practices may affect development and phenology of arthropod pests, such as the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), which is a serious internal fruit-feeding pest of apples worldwide. Estimating population dynamics and accurately predicting the timing of CM development and phenology events (for instance, adult flight, and egg-hatch) allows growers to understand and control local populations of CM. Studies were conducted to compare the CM flight phenology in commercial and abandoned apple orchard ecosystems using a logistic function model based on degree-days accumulation. The flight models for these orchards were derived from the cumulative percent moth capture using two types of commercially available CM lure baited traps. Models from both types of orchards were also compared to another model known as PETE (prediction extension timing estimator) that was developed in 1970s to predict life cycle events for many fruit pests including CM across different fruit growing regions of the United States. We found that the flight phenology of CM was significantly different in commercial and abandoned orchards. CM male flight patterns for first and second generations as predicted by the constrained and unconstrained PCM (Pennsylvania Codling Moth) models in commercial and abandoned orchards were different than the flight patterns predicted by the currently used CM model (i.e., PETE model). In commercial orchards, during the first and second generations, the PCM unconstrained model predicted delays in moth emergence compared to current model. In addition, the flight patterns of females were different between commercial and abandoned orchards. Such differences in CM flight phenology between commercial and abandoned orchard ecosystems suggest potential impact of orchard environment and crop management practices on CM biology. PMID:27713702

  3. [Controlling effects of dual mulching on soil moisture in an apple orchard].

    PubMed

    Tian, Fei; Xie, Yong-Sheng; Suo, Gai-Di; Ding, Ya-Dong

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the controlling effects of dual mulching on soil moisture in an apple orchard on the Weibei rainfed highland, soil moisture in the 0-600 cm soil profile of the apple orchard was measured under four mulching treatments (plastic film plus straw, plastic film and straw mulches, as well as a non-mulching control) , and meanwhile the apple yield and branch growth increment were analyzed statistically. Results showed that the dual mulching treatment had the best effect on soil moisture conservation, and the soil water storage in such a soil profile was 6.7% higher than the control treatment. Long-term dual mulching could effectively alleviate soil desiccation occurring in deep soil layer in the region, and the monthly averaged soil water storage in stable layer (240-600 cm) was 64.22 mm higher than that of the control treatment. Both plastic film plus straw and plastic film mulches were able to reduce the temporal fluctuation of soil moisture in shallow soil (0-60 cm) and enhance the temporal stability of soil moisture in the layer. Compared with the single mulching treatments, the dual mulching treatment could effectively decrease the vertical variation of soil moisture in the profile and improve the stability of the vertical soil moisture distribution. The apple yield under the dual mulching treatment was evidently increased by 48.2%, as compared with the control treatment. All the analyses showed that dual mulching had more advantages in controlling soil moisture and improving apple yield than single mulching.

  4. Semiochemical Strategies for Tortricid Moth Control in Apple Orchards and Vineyards in Italy.

    PubMed

    Ioriatti, Claudio; Lucchi, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    - This review summarizes work done in Italy in taking semiochemical-based management of orchard and vineyard pests from the research and development stage to successful commercial deployment. Mating disruption (MD) of codling moth Cydia pomonella (CM) was originally introduced into the Trentino-South Tyrol areas to address the development of CM resistance to insecticides, particularly insect growth regulators (IGRs), and to mitigate the conflict at the rural/urban interface related to the extensive use of insecticides. Although the mountainous terrain of the area was not optimal for the efficacy of MD, commitment and determination led to the rapid adoption of MD technology throughout the region. Grower cooperatives and their field consultants were strongly influential in convincing growers to accept MD technology. Public research institutions conducted extensive research and education, and provided credible assessments of various MD technologies. By 2016, the deployment of MD in effective area-wide strategies in apple (22,100 ha) and grapes (10,450 ha), has resulted in better control of tortricid moth pests and a substantial decrease in insecticide use. Collaboration between the research community and the pheromone industry has resulted in the development of increasingly effective single-species dispensers, as well as multi-species dispensers for the control of both target and secondary pests. Over the last 20 years, hand-applied reservoir dispensers have shown excellent efficacy in both apple and grapes. Recently, aerosol dispensing systems have been shown to be effective in apple orchards. Further research is needed on the efficacy of aerosols in vineyards before the technology can be widely adopted. The successful implementation of MD in apple and grape production in Trentino-South Tyrol is expediting adoption of the technology in other Italian fruit production regions.

  5. Comparative Toxicities and Synergism of Apple Orchard Pesticides to Apis mellifera (L.) and Osmia cornifrons (Radoszkowski)

    PubMed Central

    Biddinger, David J.; Robertson, Jacqueline L.; Mullin, Chris; Frazier, James; Ashcraft, Sara A.; Rajotte, Edwin G.; Joshi, Neelendra K.; Vaughn, Mace

    2013-01-01

    The topical toxicities of five commercial grade pesticides commonly sprayed in apple orchards were estimated on adult worker honey bees, Apis mellifera (L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) and Japanese orchard bees, Osmia cornifrons (Radoszkowski) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). The pesticides were acetamiprid (Assail 30SG), λ-cyhalothrin (Warrior II), dimethoate (Dimethoate 4EC), phosmet (Imidan 70W), and imidacloprid (Provado 1.6F). At least 5 doses of each chemical, diluted in distilled water, were applied to freshly-eclosed adult bees. Mortality was assessed after 48 hr. Dose-mortality regressions were analyzed by probit analysis to test the hypotheses of parallelism and equality by likelihood ratio tests. For A. mellifera, the decreasing order of toxicity at LD50 was imidacloprid, λ-cyhalothrin, dimethoate, phosmet, and acetamiprid. For O. cornifrons, the decreasing order of toxicity at LD50 was dimethoate, λ-cyhalothrin, imidacloprid, acetamiprid, and phosmet. Interaction of imidacloprid or acetamiprid with the fungicide fenbuconazole (Indar 2F) was also tested in a 1∶1 proportion for each species. Estimates of response parameters for each mixture component applied to each species were compared with dose-response data for each mixture in statistical tests of the hypothesis of independent joint action. For each mixture, the interaction of fenbuconazole (a material non-toxic to both species) was significant and positive along the entire line for the pesticide. Our results clearly show that responses of A. mellifera cannot be extrapolated to responses of O.cornifrons, and that synergism of neonicotinoid insecticides and fungicides occurs using formulated product in mixtures as they are commonly applied in apple orchards. PMID:24039783

  6. Response of Tortricid Moths and Non-Target Insects to Pheromone Trap Color in Commercial Apple Orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pheromone traps are a widely used tool for monitoring pest activity in commercial apple orchards. Studies were conducted to evaluate delta-style traps painted with different colors (orange, red, yellow, green, blue, and white) for capture of obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris...

  7. Effect of the width of the herbicide strip on mite dynamics in apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Hardman, J M; Franklin, J L; Bostanian, N J; Thistlewood, H M A

    2011-03-01

    Herbicide strips are used in apple orchards to promote tree growth and survival, to increase yield and to reduce the risk of rodent damage to tree bark. However, herbicide strips, particularly wider ones, may cause problems including soil erosion, reduced organic matter, leaching of nitrates into ground water and increased incidence of plant diseases and pests, including two-spotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch. In this 2 year study we monitored mite dynamics in apple trees and used sticky bands on tree trunks to determine rates of T. urticae immigration into Nova Spy apple trees in plots with wide (2 m) or narrow (0.5 m) herbicide strips. Use of wider herbicide strips promoted two risk factors that could trigger outbreaks of tetranychid mites. First, concentrations of leaf N in apple trees were higher and those of P and K were lower with the wide strips. Such changes in nutritional quality of leaves would increase the potential for more rapid population growth of T. urticae, and to a lesser extent, the European red mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch). Second, there were higher rates of T. urticae immigration from the ground cover vegetation into the trees. In 2006, and for most of 2007, densities of T. urticae were higher with wide herbicide strips, whereas densities of P. ulmi were not enhanced. However, by late August to early September in 2007, densities of both tetranychids were lower with wide herbicide strips. This is because both risk factors were counterbalanced, and eventually negated, by the enhanced action of phytoseiid predators, mostly Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten. From July through September 2006, ratios of phytoseiids to tetranychids were always several-fold lower with wide herbicide strips but in 2007, from mid-July onwards, predator-prey ratios were usually several-fold higher with wide strips. However, this numerical response of phytoseiids to prey density can only occur where the pesticide program in orchards is not too harsh on phytoseiids

  8. The challenge of accurately documenting bee species richness in agroecosystems: bee diversity in eastern apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Russo, Laura; Park, Mia; Gibbs, Jason; Danforth, Bryan

    2015-09-01

    Bees are important pollinators of agricultural crops, and bee diversity has been shown to be closely associated with pollination, a valuable ecosystem service. Higher functional diversity and species richness of bees have been shown to lead to higher crop yield. Bees simultaneously represent a mega-diverse taxon that is extremely challenging to sample thoroughly and an important group to understand because of pollination services. We sampled bees visiting apple blossoms in 28 orchards over 6 years. We used species rarefaction analyses to test for the completeness of sampling and the relationship between species richness and sampling effort, orchard size, and percent agriculture in the surrounding landscape. We performed more than 190 h of sampling, collecting 11,219 specimens representing 104 species. Despite the sampling intensity, we captured <75% of expected species richness at more than half of the sites. For most of these, the variation in bee community composition between years was greater than among sites. Species richness was influenced by percent agriculture, orchard size, and sampling effort, but we found no factors explaining the difference between observed and expected species richness. Competition between honeybees and wild bees did not appear to be a factor, as we found no correlation between honeybee and wild bee abundance. Our study shows that the pollinator fauna of agroecosystems can be diverse and challenging to thoroughly sample. We demonstrate that there is high temporal variation in community composition and that sites vary widely in the sampling effort required to fully describe their diversity. In order to maximize pollination services provided by wild bee species, we must first accurately estimate species richness. For researchers interested in providing this estimate, we recommend multiyear studies and rarefaction analyses to quantify the gap between observed and expected species richness.

  9. Water content determination of soil surface in an intensive apple orchard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riczu, Péter; Nagy, Gábor; Tamás, János

    2015-04-01

    Currently in Hungary, less than 100,000 hectares of orchards can be found, from which cultivation of apple is one of the most dominant ones. Production of marketable horticulture products can be difficult without employing advanced and high quality horticulture practices, which, in turn, depends on appropriate management and irrigation systems, basically. The got out water amount depend on climatic, edafic factors and the water demand of plants as well. The soil water content can be determined by traditional and modern methods. In order to define soil moisture content, gravimetry measurement is one of the most accurate methods, but it is time consuming and sometimes soil sampling and given results are in different times. Today, IT provides the farmers such tools, like global positioning system (GPS), geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS). These tools develop in a great integration rapidly. RS methods are ideal to survey larger area quick and accurate. Laser scanning is a novel technique which analyses a real-world or object environment to collect structural and spectral data. In order to obtain soil moisture information, the Leica ScanStation C10 terrestrial 3D laser scanner was used on an intensive apple orchard on the Study and Regional Research Farm of the University of Debrecen, near Pallag. Previously, soil samples from the study area with different moisture content were used as reference points. Based on the return intensity values of the laser scanner can be distinguished the different moisture content areas of soil surface. Nevertheless, the error of laser distance echo were examined and statistically evaluated. This research was realized in the frames of TÁMOP 4.2.4. A/2-11-1-2012-0001 "National Excellence Program - Elaborating and operating an inland student and researcher personal support system". The project was subsidized by the European Union and co-financed by the European Social Fund.

  10. [Effects of different patterns surface mulching on soil properties and fruit trees growth and yield in an apple orchard].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Xie, Yong-Sheng; Hao, Ming-De; She, Xiao-Yan

    2010-02-01

    Taking a nine-year-old Fuji apple orchard in Loess Plateau as test object, this paper studied the effects of different patterns surface mulching (clean tillage, grass cover, plastic film mulch, straw mulch, and gravel mulch) on the soil properties and fruit trees growth and yield in this orchard. Grass cover induced the lowest differentiation of soil moisture profile, while gravel mulch induced the highest one. In treatment gravel mulch, the soil moisture content in apple trees root zone was the highest, which meant that there was more water available to apple trees. Surface mulching had significant effects on soil temperature, and generally resulted in a decrease in the maximum soil temperature. The exception was treatment plastic film mulch, in which, the soil temperature in summer exceeded the maximum allowable temperature for continuous root growth and physiological function. With the exception of treatment plastic film mulch, surface mulching increased the soil CO2 flux, which was the highest in treatment grass cover. Surface mulching also affected the proportion of various branch types and fruit yield. The proportion of medium-sized branches and fruit yield were the highest in treatment gravel mulch, while the fruit yield was the lowest in treatment grass cover. Factor analysis indicated that among the test surface mulching patterns, gravel mulch was most suitable for the apple orchards in gully region of Loess Plateau.

  11. Small bowel obstruction caused by dried apple

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, Sally; Hong, Khiem

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Small bowel obstruction in a virgin abdomen is an uncommon surgical condition. While malignancy, inflammatory bowel disease and foreign body are the main reported causes, undigested food bezoar causing bowel obstruction is a rare entity. We report a case of small bowel obstruction secondary to dried preserved apple having re-expanded within the gastrointestinal tract. Presentation of case A 69 year old male presented with severe abdominal distension, generalized abdominal tenderness and obstipation for 1 week. Small bowel obstruction (SBO) was confirmed on plain abdominal X-ray and CT imaging. An emergency explorative laparatomy identified a sausage-shaped intra-luminal foreign body obstructing the distal ileum. An enterotomy was performed which revealed a rehydrated, donut-shaped piece of dried apple. Discussion Swallowed items that pass through the pylorus rarely cause obstruction as they are usually small enough to pass through the rest of the bowel without difficulty. We postulate that in our patient that the dried apple was originally small enough to pass through the pylorus. However during small bowel, its’ highly absorbable nature resulted in an increase in size that prevented its’ passage through the ileocecal valve. A simple in-vitro experiment discovered that dried apple has a potential to reabsorb fluid and expand up to 35% of its initial size within 72 h. Conclusion This report illustrates the potential for dried food substances to cause intra-luminal SBO after significant expansion with rehydration. PMID:25841159

  12. [Vertical temperature distribution and its forecast for two tree structures of apple orchard during the blooming period in the Loess Plateau].

    PubMed

    Qu, Zhen-jiang; Shang, Xiao-ning; Wang, Jing-hong; Liang, Yi; Gao, Feng

    2015-11-01

    Temperature is the most sensitive environment factor for the blooming period of apple. Temperatures at different levels were measured by automatic micro-climatic gradient system in the blooming periods from 2011 to 2014, in two Fuji apple orchards with two different tree ages and structures [small canopy open center shape (SMCOCS) and freedom spindle shape (FSS)], respectively, which were typical in the Loess Plateau. Variations of the temperature gradient in both canopy and tree body were analyzed in sunny, overcast, cloudy, and rainy weather conditions, and a predicting model was established that could predict the temperature of the canopy (TL) according to the temperature observed in nearby meteorological station (TM). The results showed that the vertical distribution of canopy temperature and its difference to the outside of orchard was mainly due to the tree structure, rather than the weather condition. The average temperature and daily minimum temperature increased while the daily maximum temperature and the diurnal temperature range decreased from the bottom to the upper of the canopy. For SMCOCS, the diurnal temperature range reached its peak under the canopy in the clear days, and the diurnal temperature range was less than that for FSS in the middle and upper canopy in cloudy or overcast conditions. The daily variation of temperature difference between inside and outside the orchard behaved as a single peak-valley-peak for FSS but as a single peak for SMCOCS. The minimum temperature outside the orchard was closer to that in the middle of canopy, but higher than that in the bottom of the canopy. For SMCOCS, the minimum temperature in the bottom of its canopy was rather lower than that in the orchard outside, especially in cloudy or overcast day, while in the middle or upper canopy, the minimum temperature difference with the orchard outside was smaller than that for the FSS. The linear model was found to be able to predict the TL with absolute errors below

  13. Effectiveness of odor-baited trap trees for plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) monitoring in commercial apple orchards in the northeast.

    PubMed

    Piñero, Jaime C; Agnello, Arthur M; Tuttle, Arthur; Leskey, Tracy C; Faubert, Heather; Koehler, Glen; Los, Lorraine; Morin, Glenn; Leahy, Kathleen; Cooley, Daniel R; Prokopy, Ronald J

    2011-10-01

    The plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), is a key pest of pome and stone fruit in eastern and central North America. For effective management of this insect pest in commercial apple (Malus spp.) orchards in the northeastern United States and Canada, one of the greatest challenges has been to determine the need for and timing of insecticide applications that will protect apple fruit from injury by adults. In a 2004-2005 study, we assessed the efficacy and economic viability of a reduced-risk integrated pest management strategy involving an odor-baited trap tree approach to determine need for and timing of insecticide use against plum curculio based on appearance of fresh egg-laying scars. Evaluations took place in commercial apple orchards in seven northeastern U.S. states. More specifically, we compared the trap-tree approach with three calendar-driven whole-block sprays and with heat-unit accumulation models that predict how long insecticide should be applied to orchard trees to prevent injury by plum curculio late in the season. Trap tree plots received a whole-plot insecticide spray by the time of petal fall, and succeeding sprays (if needed) were applied to peripheral-row trees only, depending on a threshold of one fresh plum curculio egg-laying scar out of 25 fruit sampled from a single trap tree. In both years, level of plum curculio injury to fruit sampled from perimeter-row, the most interior-row trees and whole-plot injury in trap tree plots did not differ significantly from that recorded in plots subject to conventional management or in plots managed using the heat-unit accumulation approach. The amount of insecticide used in trap tree plots was reduced at least by 43% compared with plots managed with the conventional approach. Advantages and potential pitfalls of the bio-based trap tree approach to plum curculio monitoring in apple orchards are discussed.

  14. Distribution of soil arsenic species, lead and arsenic bound to humic acid molar mass fractions in a contaminated apple orchard.

    PubMed

    Newton, Kimberly; Amarasiriwardena, Dulasiri; Xing, Baoshan

    2006-09-01

    Excessive application of lead arsenate pesticides in apple orchards during the early 1900s has led to the accumulation of lead and arsenic in these soils. Lead and arsenic bound to soil humic acids (HA) and soil arsenic species in a western Massachusetts apple orchard was investigated. The metal-humate binding profiles of Pb and As were analyzed with size exclusion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SEC-ICP-MS). It was observed that both Pb and As bind "tightly" to soil HA molar mass fractions. The surface soils of the apple orchard contained a ratio of about 14:1 of water soluble As (V) to As (III), while mono-methyl (MMA) and di-methyl arsenic (DMA) were not detectable. The control soil contained comparatively very low levels of As (III) and As (V). The analysis of soil core samples demonstrated that As (III) and As (V) species are confined to the top 20 cm of the soil.

  15. Infection courts and timing of infection of apple fruit by Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis in the orchard in relation to speck rot during storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis is the cause of speck rot, a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of apple. The pathogen is believed to incite infections in the field, and disease symptoms become evident only during storage. To determine the timing of apple fruit infection in the orchard i...

  16. Application of Bioorganic Fertilizer Significantly Increased Apple Yields and Shaped Bacterial Community Structure in Orchard Soil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Li, Jing; Yang, Fang; E, Yaoyao; Raza, Waseem; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2017-02-01

    Application of bioorganic fertilizers has been reported to improve crop yields and change soil bacterial community structure; however, little work has been done in apple orchard soils where the biological properties of the soils are being degraded due to long-term application of chemical fertilizers. In this study, we used Illumina-based sequencing approach to characterize the bacterial community in the 0-60-cm soil profile under different fertilizer regimes in the Loess Plateau. The experiment includes three treatments: (1) control without fertilization (CK); (2) application of chemical fertilizer (CF); and (3) application of bioorganic fertilizer and organic-inorganic mixed fertilizer (BOF). The results showed that the treatment BOF increased the apple yields by 114 and 67 % compared to the CK and CF treatments, respectively. The treatment BOF also increased the soil organic matter (SOM) by 22 and 16 % compared to the CK and CF treatments, respectively. The Illumina-based sequencing showed that Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria were the predominant phyla and Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were the most abundant classes in the soil profile. The bacterial richness for ACE was increased after the addition of BOF. Compared to CK and CF treatments, BOF-treated soil revealed higher abundance of Proteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, Rhizobiales, and Xanthomonadales while Acidobacteria, Gp7, Gp17, and Sphaerobacter were found in lower abundance throughout the soil profile. Bacterial community structure varied with soil depth under different fertilizer treatments, e.g., the bacterial richness, diversity, and the relative abundance of Verruccomicrobia, Candidatus Brocadiales, and Skermanella were decreased with the soil depth in all three treatments. Permutational multivariate analysis showed that the fertilizer regime was the major factor than soil depth in the variations of the bacterial community composition. Two groups, Lysobacter

  17. Characterization of Osmotolerant Yeasts and Yeast-Like Molds from Apple Orchards and Apple Juice Processing Plants in China and Investigation of Their Spoilage Potential.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huxuan; Hu, Zhongqiu; Long, Fangyu; Niu, Chen; Yuan, Yahong; Yue, Tianli

    2015-08-01

    Yeasts and yeast-like fungal isolates were recovered from apple orchards and apple juice processing plants located in the Shaanxi province of China. The strains were evaluated for osmotolerance by growing them in 50% (w/v) glucose. Of the strains tested, 66 were positive for osmotolerance and were subsequently identified by 26S or 5.8S-ITS ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing. Physiological tests and RAPD-PCR analysis were performed to reveal the polymorphism of isolates belonging to the same species. Further, the spoilage potential of the 66 isolates was determining by evaluating their growth in 50% to 70% (w/v) glucose and measuring gas generation in 50% (w/v) glucose. Thirteen osmotolerant isolates representing 9 species were obtained from 10 apple orchards and 53 target isolates representing 19 species were recovered from 2 apple juice processing plants. In total, members of 14 genera and 23 species of osmotolerant isolates including yeast-like molds were recovered from all sources. The commonly recovered osmotolerant isolates belonged to Kluyveromyces marxianus, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Candida tropicalis, and Pichia kudriavzevii. The polymorphism of isolates belonging to the same species was limited to 1 to 3 biotypes. The majority of species were capable of growing within a range of glucose concentration, similar to sugar concentrations found in apple juice products with a lag phase from 96 to 192 h. Overall, Z. rouxii was particularly the most tolerant to high glucose concentration with the shortest lag phase of 48 h in 70% (w/v) glucose and the fastest gas generation rate in 50% (w/v) glucose.

  18. Residues of Pesticides in honeybee (Apis mellifera carnica) bee bread and in pollen loads from treated apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Smodis Skerl, Maja Ivana; Velikonja Bolta, Spela; Basa Cesnik, Helena; Gregorc, Ales

    2009-09-01

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera carnica) colonies were placed in two apple orchards treated with the insecticides diazinon and thiacloprid and the fungicide difenoconazole in accordance with a Protection Treatment Plan in the spring of 2007. Pollen and bee bread were collected from combs inside the hives. The residue of diazinon in pollen loads 10 days after orchard treatment was 0.09 mg/kg, and the same amount of residue was found in bee bread 16 days after treatment. In pollen loads 6 days after application 0.03 mg/kg of thiacloprid residues and 0.01 mg/kg of difenoconazole were found on the first day after application. Possible sub-lethal effects on individual honey bees and brood are discussed.

  19. A simplified extraction schema to for the analytical characterization of apple orchard soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sager, Manfred

    2014-05-01

    In agriculture, soil analysis is mainly done to monitor available nutrients as well contaminants, in order to find the optimum fertilization resp. remediation strategy. Traditionally, available nutrients in soils have been obtained from a series of different extractions, some just for one single parameter. In order to simplify the entire procedures, multi-element techniques, like ICP-OES and ICP-MS, have been applied to a sequence of extracts obtained with 0,16M acetic acid and 0,1M oxalate buffer pH 3, which are more suitable for the plasma than traditional salt extractant solutions. Dilute acetic acid should characterize exchangeables plus carbonates, and oxalate buffer the pedogenic oxides. Aqua regia extractions in glass have been replaced by pressure digestion with KClO3 in dilute nitric acid, which yields results equivalent to aqua regia, and additionally permits the determination of total sulfur, as well as acid-leachable boron and silicon. Total digestion was done in PTFE beakers by fuming with HNO3/HClO4, subsequently with HF, and final uptake in 1+1 HCl. The results of total digestion could be verified by XRF analysis of the solid, Ti recovery was the most critical item. The method was applied to 34 soils from apple orchards of different soil types and climatic zones. P and K obtained from standard acetate-lactate extract as well as B obtained from the Baron extract correlated with the results from the acetic acid extract better than 0,9. Just Mg from the CaCl2 extract (Schachtschabel) was independent from all other Mg fractions. The results for Ca, Cu, Mg, Mn, Sr, Pb and Zn obtained from KClO3 digest and from totals, were strongly correlated. The Rare Earth elements formed a strongly intercorrelated group as well after total digestion as in the oxalate leach. Factor analysis was utilized to prove if the obtained fractions part into groups in a geochemically feasible way. The fraction mobilized by dilute acetic acid contained Ca-Mg-carbonates as well as

  20. A monitoring study to assess the acute mortality effects of indoxacarb on honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in flowering apple orchards.

    PubMed

    van der Steen, Jozef J M; Dinter, Axel

    2007-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of the indoxacarb 300 g kg(-1) WG, Steward 30WDG, on the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) in apple orchards, a monitoring study was conducted in Dutch apple orchards in April/May 2004. Before apple flowering began, two honey bee colonies were placed in each orchard to investigate honey bee mortality. Each hive was provided with a Münster dead bee trap to collect dead honey bees. The numbers of dead bees found in these Münster dead traps were counted every 3-4 days for about 2 weeks before and after the period of the insecticide treatment. In nine flowering orchards no indoxacarb was applied during the flowering period, which served as control sites. In 30 flowering orchards indoxacarb was sprayed by the fruit growers according to local practice at 170-260 g formulated product ha(-1) (51-78 g AI ha(-1)). In the control orchards the average mortality was 8 honey bees colony(-1) day(-1). The average daily honey bee mortality before and after indoxacarb application was 8 and 10 honey bees colony(-1) day(-1) respectively. At one test site, indoxacarb was mixed with other plant protection products plus plant nutrients, and in this orchard a slight but biologically non-significant increase in acute honey bee mortality was recorded. It was concluded that the application of indoxacarb caused no effects on honey bee mortality, and that the number of dead honey bees counted in the Münster traps in the orchard treated with indoxacarb was comparable with those determined in control orchards.

  1. Long-Term Application of Bioorganic Fertilizers Improved Soil Biochemical Properties and Microbial Communities of an Apple Orchard Soil

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Yang, Fang; E, Yaoyao; Yuan, Jun; Raza, Waseem; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    Soil biochemical properties and microbial communities are usually considered as important indicators of soil health because of their association with plant nutrition. In this study, we investigated the impact of long-term application of bioorganic fertilizer (BOF) on soil biochemical properties and microbial communities in the apple orchard soil of the Loess Plateau. The experiment included three treatments: (1) control without fertilization (CK); (2) chemical fertilizer application (CF); and (3) bioorganic fertilizer application (BOF). The high throughput sequencing was used to examine the bacterial and fungal communities in apple orchard soil. The results showed that the BOF treatment significantly increased the apple yield during the experimental time (2009–2015). The application of BOF significantly increased the activities of catalase and invertase compared to those in CK and CF treatments. The high throughput sequencing data showed that the application of BOF changed the microbial community composition of all soil depths considered (0–20 cm, 20–40 cm, and 40–60 cm), e.g., the relative abundance of bio-control bacteria (Xanthomonadales, Lysobacter, Pseudomonas, and Bacillus), Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Ohtaekwangia, Ilyonectria, and Lecanicillium was increased while that of Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gp4, Gp6 and Sphaerobacter was decreased. The increase in apple yield after the application of BOF might be due to increase in organic matter, total nitrogen and catalase and invertase activities of soil and change in the bacterial community composition by enriching Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Lysobacter, and Ohtaekwangia. These results further enhance the understanding on how BOFs alter soil microbial community composition to stimulate soil productivity. PMID:27965631

  2. Risk assessment of the exposure of insecticide operators to fenvalerate during treatment in apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Moon, Joon-Kwan; Park, Sewon; Kim, Eunhye; Lee, Hyeri; Kim, Jeong-Han

    2013-01-16

    Dermal and inhalation exposure of the applicator to the insecticide fenavalerate in an apple orchard was measured for risk assessment during treatment. Emulsifiable concentrate (EC) and wettable powder (WP) formulations were sprayed using a speed sprayer (SS) or power sprayer (PS). Dermal patches, gloves, socks, and masks were used to monitor potential dermal exposure to fenavalerate, while personal air samplers with XAD-2 resins were used to monitor potential inhalation exposure. Validation of analytical methods was performed for the instruments' limit of detection, limit of quantitation, reproducibility, linearity of calibration curve, and recovery of fenvelerate from various exposure matrices. The results were encouraging and reasonable for an exposure study. Applicability of XAD-2 resin was evaluated with a trapping efficiency and breakthrough test. During mixing/loading, the amount of dermal exposure ranged from 262.8 μg (EC/SS) to 1652.6 μg (WP/PS) of fenvalerate, corresponding to ~0.0011-0.0066% of the total prepared quantity. In the case of WP, the amount of dermal exposure was 2032.3 μg (0.0081% of the total applied amount) for SS and 1087.9 μg (0.0145%) for PS after application. In the case of EC, the amount of dermal exposure was 3804.6 μg (0.0152%) for SS and 4055.0 μg (0.0541%) for PS after application. The primary body parts subject to exposure were thigh and upper arm for SS, and thigh and hand for PS. The amount of inhalation exposure with WP was 2.2 μg (8.65 × 10⁻⁶% of the total applied amount) for SS and 1.3 g (1.67 × 10⁻⁵%) for PS. The amount of inhalation exposure with EC was 2.5 μg (9.81 × 10⁻⁶%) for SS and 3.7 μg (4.97 × 10⁻⁵%) for PS. The absorbable quantity of exposure and margin of safety (MOS) were calculated for risk assessment. The MOS for all 4 cases was much greater than 1, indicating a low possibility of risk.

  3. Field Evaluation of Apple Rootstocks for Orchard Performance and Fire Blight Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2002, apple rootstock trials using three scion cultivars were established at Geneva, NY to evaluate 64 apple (Malus X domestica) rootstocks for horticultural performance and fire blight resistance. Field trials compared several elite Geneva® apple rootstocks, which were bred for tolerance to fir...

  4. Managing quarantine-significant post harvest diseases in Pacific Northwest apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis and Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens are two recently reported quarantined pathogens that cause speck rot and sphaeropsis rot, respectively, in apple. Due to quarantine regulation, export of apple from Washington State to China was banned from 2012 through 2014. Previous st...

  5. Mating Disruption of a Carpenter Moth, Cossus insularis (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) in Apple Orchards with Synthetic Sex Pheromone, and Registration of the Pheromone as an Agrochemical.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Hirotsuna; Takabe, Masanori; Nakamuta, Kiyoshi

    2016-07-01

    Mating disruption of the carpenter moth, Cossus insularis (Staudinger) (Lepidoptera: Cossidae), with a synthetic version of its sex pheromone, a mixture of (E)-3-tetradecenyl acetate and (Z)-3-tetradecenyl acetate, was tested for three successive years in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchards. Pheromone trap catches, percentage mating of tethered females and females enclosed with males in a mating cage, and tree damage were measured in both the pheromone-treated and untreated control orchards. The attraction of male moths to pheromone traps at heights of 1.5, 3, and 5 m was strongly disrupted when the pheromone dispensers were placed at 1.5 m height. Mating of tethered females placed at 1 m was completely inhibited, and the mating of tethered females at a height of 3 m was significantly reduced by the treatment in comparison to matings in an untreated control orchard. Similarly, mating of pairs of moths enclosed in mating cages was significantly reduced by the synthetic pheromone treatment in comparison to controls. The percentage of damaged trees in the pheromone-treated orchard also decreased significantly over the course of the experiment. These results suggest that mating disruption with the synthetic sex pheromone appears promising for reducing damage caused by C. insularis in apple orchards in Japan, and a commercial mating disruption product has been developed and registered.

  6. Isolation of entomopathogenic nematodes in an apple orchard in Southern Brazil and its virulence to Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) larvae, under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Foelkel, E; Voss, M; Monteiro, L B; Nishimura, G

    2017-03-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are a promising alternative to integrated control in many fruit pests. Few studies were made on the relationship of Anastrepha fraterculus natural population with native EPNs population and other biotic and abiotic factors. The aim of this work was to verify the occurrence of endemic nematodes in an apple orchard, concerning environmental conditions and technical procedure, and access isolates virulence to A. fraterculus larvae. The experiment was conducted during a year taking monthly soil samples from an apple orchard, with and without fallen fruits just above the soil. Samples were baited with Tenebrium molitor and A. fraterculus larvae in laboratory. Canopy and fallen fruits were sampled to access the pest infestation. Seventy three EPN isolates were captured, in 23.2% soil samples, more with T. molitor than with A. fraterculus baits. From the 20 isolates tested against A. fraterculus, only five were pathogenic, and they were identified as Oscheius sp. The nematodes were captured during all seasons in a similar frequency. Soil and weather conditions, presence of fruit over the orchard soil, and A. fraterculus pupae in the fruits had no significant influence on the capture. As a conclusion, nematodes of the genera Oscheius are found in an apple orchard of Porto Amazonas constantly along the year, independently of fluctuations in A. fraterculus population, climate conditions and presence of fruit over the soil. Some of the isolates are pathogenic to A. fraterculus.

  7. Edge effects in the directionally biased distribution of Choristoneura rosaceana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Hsu, C L; Agnello, A M; Reissig, W H

    2009-04-01

    Edge effect tests have been used in a number of studies on obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris), to test for evidence of mated female immigration into pheromone-treated orchards. This type of test compares obliquebanded leafroller presence or activity around the perimeter of an orchard against presence or activity in the interior. Higher numbers detected around the edges of an orchard would indicate higher levels of flight activity at the edge, a pattern that could be generated by high levels of immigration. Recent work has shown that the spatial distribution of recaptured obliquebanded leafroller adults released from a single location can be directionally biased, which could obscure the ability to detect an edge effect. To test this theory, data from an orchard study conducted in 1991 that found no significant edge effect was reanalyzed. When we accounted for the directional bias in the distribution of first-generation mated female moths, we found an edge effect with significantly more mated females captured in the edge traps than in the center or mid-interior traps. No edge effect was found when the directional bias was ignored. In addition, second-generation males and mated females both showed a significant edge effect that had not been detected in the original analysis, which had combined both first- and second-generation data.

  8. Evaluating plant volatiles for monitoring natural enemies in apple, pear and walnut orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of an effort to enhance biological control in Western orchards, we examine different combinations of herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs), floral volatiles, and trap combinations that would be useful in monitoring key natural enemies. In all crops, we found lure/trap combinations that e...

  9. Does Passive Sampling Accurately Reflect the Bee (Apoidea: Anthophila) Communities Pollinating Apple and Sour Cherry Orchards?

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Jason; Joshi, Neelendra K; Wilson, Julianna K; Rothwell, Nikki L; Powers, Karen; Haas, Mike; Gut, Larry; Biddinger, David J; Isaacs, Rufus

    2017-03-31

    During bloom of spring orchard crops, bees are the primary providers of pollination service. Monitoring these insects for research projects is often done by timed observations or by direct aerial netting, but there has been increasing interest in blue vane traps as an efficient passive approach to collecting bees. Over multiple spring seasons in Michigan and Pennsylvania, orchards were monitored for wild bees using timed netting from crop flowers and blue vane traps. This revealed a distinctly different community of wild bees captured using the two methods, suggesting that blue vane traps can complement but cannot replace direct aerial netting. The bee community in blue vane traps was generally composed of nonpollinating species, which can be of interest for broader biodiversity studies. In particular, blue vane traps caught Eucera atriventris (Smith), Eucera hamata (Bradley), Bombus fervidus (F.), and Agapostemon virescens (F.) that were never collected from the orchard crop flowers during the study period. Captures of bee species in nets was generally stable across the 3 yr, whereas we observed significant declines in the abundance of Lasioglossum pilosum (Smith) and Eucera spp. trapped using blue vane traps during the project, suggesting local overtrapping of reproductive individuals. We conclude that blue vane traps are a useful tool for expanding insights into bee communities within orchard crop systems, but they should be used with great caution to avoid local extirpation of these important insects.

  10. Estimating gene flow between refuges and crops: a case study of the biological control of Eriosoma lanigerum by Aphelinus mali in apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Lavandero, Blas; Figueroa, Christian C; Franck, Pierre; Mendez, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Parasitoid disturbance populations in agroecosystems can be maintained through the provision of habitat refuges with host resources. However, specialized herbivores that feed on different host plants have been shown to form host-specialized races. Parasitoids may subsequently specialize on these herbivore host races and therefore prefer parasitizing insects from the refuge, avoiding foraging on the crop. Evidence is therefore required that parasitoids are able to move between the refuge and the crop and that the refuge is a source of parasitoids, without being an important source of herbivore pests. A North-South transect trough the Chilean Central Valley was sampled, including apple orchards and surrounding Pyracantha coccinea (M. Roem) (Rosales: Rosacea) hedges that were host of Eriosoma lanigerum (Hemiptera: Aphididae), a globally important aphid pest of cultivated apples. At each orchard, aphid colonies were collected and taken back to the laboratory to sample the emerging hymenopteran parasitoid Aphelinus mali (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Aphid and parasitoid individuals were genotyped using species-specific microsatellite loci and genetic variability was assessed. By studying genetic variation, natural geographic barriers of the aphid pest became evident and some evidence for incipient host-plant specialization was found. However, this had no effect on the population-genetic features of its most important parasitoid. In conclusion, the lack of genetic differentiation among the parasitoids suggests the existence of a single large and panmictic population, which could parasite aphids on apple orchards and on P. coccinea hedges. The latter could thus comprise a suitable and putative refuge for parasitoids, which could be used to increase the effectiveness of biological control. Moreover, the strong geographical differentiation of the aphid suggests local reinfestations occur mainly from other apple orchards with only low reinfestation from P. cocinnea hedges

  11. Estimating Gene Flow between Refuges and Crops: A Case Study of the Biological Control of Eriosoma lanigerum by Aphelinus mali in Apple Orchards

    PubMed Central

    Lavandero, Blas; Figueroa, Christian C.; Franck, Pierre; Mendez, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Parasitoid disturbance populations in agroecosystems can be maintained through the provision of habitat refuges with host resources. However, specialized herbivores that feed on different host plants have been shown to form host-specialized races. Parasitoids may subsequently specialize on these herbivore host races and therefore prefer parasitizing insects from the refuge, avoiding foraging on the crop. Evidence is therefore required that parasitoids are able to move between the refuge and the crop and that the refuge is a source of parasitoids, without being an important source of herbivore pests. A North-South transect trough the Chilean Central Valley was sampled, including apple orchards and surrounding Pyracantha coccinea (M. Roem) (Rosales: Rosacea) hedges that were host of Eriosoma lanigerum (Hemiptera: Aphididae), a globally important aphid pest of cultivated apples. At each orchard, aphid colonies were collected and taken back to the laboratory to sample the emerging hymenopteran parasitoid Aphelinus mali (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Aphid and parasitoid individuals were genotyped using species-specific microsatellite loci and genetic variability was assessed. By studying genetic variation, natural geographic barriers of the aphid pest became evident and some evidence for incipient host-plant specialization was found. However, this had no effect on the population-genetic features of its most important parasitoid. In conclusion, the lack of genetic differentiation among the parasitoids suggests the existence of a single large and panmictic population, which could parasite aphids on apple orchards and on P. coccinea hedges. The latter could thus comprise a suitable and putative refuge for parasitoids, which could be used to increase the effectiveness of biological control. Moreover, the strong geographical differentiation of the aphid suggests local reinfestations occur mainly from other apple orchards with only low reinfestation from P. cocinnea hedges

  12. Evaluation of resistance pattern to fenpyroximate and pyridaben in Tetranychus urticae collected from greenhouses and apple orchards using lethal concentration-slope relationship.

    PubMed

    Suh, Eunho; Koh, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Joon-Ho; Shin, Key-Il; Cho, Kijong

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to monitor the present and future developments of the resistance of Tetranychus urticae Koch to fenpyroximate and pyridaben, using the relationship of the LC(50) and slope of the concentration-mortality line in a probit model, for the provision of reliable resistance management tactics. Tetranychus urticae populations were collected from 16 commercial greenhouses, where various crops were cultivated, as well as from 10 apple orchards throughout Korea. The resistance to fenpyroximate and pyridaben of each population was estimated by calculating the median lethal concentration (LC(50)), resistance ratio (RR) and slope of the concentration-mortality regression. Most of the greenhouse populations exhibited moderate levels of resistance, whereas the apple orchard populations showed only low levels, indicating that T. urticae populations in greenhouses were more strongly selected than those in apple orchards. Four population groups were established based on either the habitats (greenhouse and apple orchard) or acaricides (fenpyroximate and pyridaben). To test the hypothesis, "the slope is greatest at low and high levels of resistance," the slopes were regressed as a function of the LC(50), and fitted to a polynomial regression. The polynomial regression model explained this relationship well for the four population groups (p < 0.05), indicating that the development of resistance toward fenpyroximate or pyridaben was consistent with the gradient. A laboratory selection study agreed with the results from both acaricide field populations. These results suggest that the gradient was a good indicator of the susceptibility of T. urticae to genetic variations, which was related to the LC(50). The application of these findings is also discussed in relation to the resistance management of T. urticae.

  13. [Effects of sand-covering on apple trees transpiration and fruit quality in dry land orchards of Longdong, Gansu].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kun; Yin, Xiao-ning; Liu, Xiao-yong; Wang, Fa-lin

    2010-11-01

    Aiming at the seasonal drought in the dry land orchards of Longdong, Gansu Province, a sand-covering experiment was conducted with 15-year-old Nagafu No. 2 apple trees, with the soil water content, temperature, stem sap flow velocity, leaf stomatal conductance, and fruit quality measured. In the orchard covered with 5-cm-thick riversand, the increment of soil temperature in February-April was lower than 1 degrees C, while in June-July, it was 2.44 degrees C and 2.61 degrees C on sunny and cloudy days, respectively. The soil water content was over 60% of field capacity throughout the growing season. On sunny days with high soil water content (H season), the stem sap flow curve presented a wide peak. Under sand- covering, the sap flow started 0.6 h earlier, and the maximum sap flow velocity was 25.5% higher than the control. On cloudy days of H season, the maximum sap flow velocity was 165.6% higher than the control. On sunny days with low soil water content (L season), the sap flow curve had a single peak, and under sand covering, the sap flow started 0.5-1 h earlier than the control on sunny days. The maximum sap flow velocity was 794 g x h(-1). On cloudy days of L season, the sap flow started 1 h earlier, and the maximum sap flow velocity was 311.0% higher than the control. The evaporation of the control was 156.0% higher than that of sand-covering from March to July, suggesting that excessive ground water evaporation was the main reason to cause soil drought. Under sand-covering, single fruit mass was improved obviously whereas fruit firmness was reduced slightly, and soluble solids, vitamin C, total sugar, and organic acid contents were somewhat promoted.

  14. Releases of insectary-reared Galendromus occidentalis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in commercial apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt) is one of several phytoseiid species that are available for purchase to supplement endemic predator populations that are not providing sufficient control of spider mites. We performed a series of releases of commercially reared G. occidentalis in commercial apple (...

  15. Phytoremediation of groundwater contaminated with pesticides using short-rotation willow crops: A case study of an apple orchard.

    PubMed

    Lafleur, Benoit; Sauvé, Sébastien; Duy, Sung Vo; Labrecque, Michel

    2016-11-01

    The occurrence of pesticides in groundwater represents an important health issue, notably for population whose drinking water supply source is located in agricultural areas. However, few solutions have been considered with regard to this issue. We tested the efficacy of a vegetal filtering system made of shrub willows planted at a high density (16,000 plants ha(-1)) to filter or degrade pesticides found in the groundwater flowing out of an apple orchard. Ethylene urea (EU), ethylene thiourea (ETU), tetrahydrophthalimide (THPI), atrazine, and desethylatrazine were monitored in the soil solution in willow and control plots over one growing season. ETU and atrazine concentrations were lower in the willow plots relative to the control plots, whereas desethylatrazine concentration was higher in the willow plots. No significant difference was detected for EU and THPI. Furthermore, pesticide concentrations displayed complex temporal patterns. These results suggest that willow filter systems can filter or degrade pesticides, notably ETU and atrazine, and could be used for phytoremediation purposes. Yet, this potential remains to be quantified with further studies using experimental settings allowing more estimation in time and space.

  16. Apple fruit diameter and length estimation by using the thermal and sunshine hours approach and its application to the digital orchard management information system.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Chen, Meixiang; Zhang, Yong; Fu, Chunxia; Xing, Bin; Li, Wenyong; Qian, Jianping; Li, Sha; Wang, Hui; Fan, Xiaodan; Yan, Yujing; Wang, Yan'an; Yang, Xinting

    2015-01-01

    In apple cultivation, simulation models may be used to monitor fruit size during the growth and development process to predict production levels and to optimize fruit quality. Here, Fuji apples cultivated in spindle-type systems were used as the model crop. Apple size was measured during the growing period at an interval of about 20 days after full bloom, with three weather stations being used to collect orchard temperature and solar radiation data at different sites. Furthermore, a 2-year dataset (2011 and 2012) of apple fruit size measurements were integrated according to the weather station deployment sites, in addition to the top two most important environment factors, thermal and sunshine hours, into the model. The apple fruit diameter and length were simulated using physiological development time (PDT), an indicator that combines important environment factors, such as temperature and photoperiod, as the driving variable. Compared to the model of calendar-based development time (CDT), an indicator counting the days that elapse after full bloom, we confirmed that the PDT model improved the estimation accuracy to within 0.2 cm for fruit diameter and 0.1 cm for fruit length in independent years using a similar data collection method in 2013. The PDT model was implemented to realize a web-based management information system for a digital orchard, and the digital system had been applied in Shandong Province, China since 2013. This system may be used to compute the dynamic curve of apple fruit size based on data obtained from a nearby weather station. This system may provide an important decision support for farmers using the website and short message service to optimize crop production and, hence, economic benefit.

  17. Apple Fruit Diameter and Length Estimation by Using the Thermal and Sunshine Hours Approach and Its Application to the Digital Orchard Management Information System

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Fu, Chunxia; Xing, Bin; Li, Wenyong; Qian, Jianping; Li, Sha; Wang, Hui; Fan, Xiaodan; Yan, Yujing; Wang, Yan’an; Yang, Xinting

    2015-01-01

    In apple cultivation, simulation models may be used to monitor fruit size during the growth and development process to predict production levels and to optimize fruit quality. Here, Fuji apples cultivated in spindle-type systems were used as the model crop. Apple size was measured during the growing period at an interval of about 20 days after full bloom, with three weather stations being used to collect orchard temperature and solar radiation data at different sites. Furthermore, a 2-year dataset (2011 and 2012) of apple fruit size measurements were integrated according to the weather station deployment sites, in addition to the top two most important environment factors, thermal and sunshine hours, into the model. The apple fruit diameter and length were simulated using physiological development time (PDT), an indicator that combines important environment factors, such as temperature and photoperiod, as the driving variable. Compared to the model of calendar-based development time (CDT), an indicator counting the days that elapse after full bloom, we confirmed that the PDT model improved the estimation accuracy to within 0.2 cm for fruit diameter and 0.1 cm for fruit length in independent years using a similar data collection method in 2013. The PDT model was implemented to realize a web-based management information system for a digital orchard, and the digital system had been applied in Shandong Province, China since 2013. This system may be used to compute the dynamic curve of apple fruit size based on data obtained from a nearby weather station. This system may provide an important decision support for farmers using the website and short message service to optimize crop production and, hence, economic benefit. PMID:25831065

  18. The impact of insecticides applied in apple orchards on the predatory mite Kampimodromus aberrans (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    PubMed

    Duso, Carlo; Ahmad, Shakeel; Tirello, Paola; Pozzebon, Alberto; Klaric, Virna; Baldessari, Mario; Malagnini, Valeria; Angeli, Gino

    2014-03-01

    Kampimodromus aberrans is an effective predatory mite in fruit orchards. The side-effects of insecticides on this species have been little studied. Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of insecticides on K. aberrans. Field experiments showed the detrimental effects of etofenprox, tau-fluvalinate and spinosad on predatory mites. Spider mite (Panonychus ulmi) populations reached higher densities on plots treated with etofenprox and tau-fluvalinate than in the other treatments. Single or multiple applications of neonicotinoids caused no detrimental effects on predatory mites. In the laboratory, spinosad and tau-fluvalinate caused 100 % mortality. Etofenprox caused a significant mortality and reduced fecundity. The remaining insecticides did not affect female survival except for imidacloprid. Thiamethoxam, clothianidin, thiacloprid, chlorpyrifos, lufenuron and methoxyfenozide were associated with a significant reduction in fecundity. No effect on fecundity was found for indoxacarb or acetamiprid. Escape rate of K. aberrans in laboratory was relatively high for etofenprox and spinosad, and to a lesser extent thiacloprid. The use of etofenprox, tau-fluvalinate and spinosad was detrimental for K. aberrans and the first two insecticides induced spider mite population increases. The remaining insecticides caused no negative effects on predatory mites in field trials. Some of them (reduced fecundity and repellence) should be considered with caution in integrated pest management programs.

  19. Accumulation of lead and organochlorine residues in captive American kestrels fed pine voles from apple orchards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stendell, R.C.; Beyer, W.N.; Stehn, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Pine voles (Microtus pinetorum) were collected from pesticide-treated orchards in New York and fed to 3 captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius) for 60 days to evaluate potential hazards from soil-borne persistent insecticides. Three control kestrels were fed uncontaminated laboratory mice (Mus musculus). The pine voles contained an average of 38 ppm lead, 48 ppm DDE and 1.2 ppm dieldrin (dry weight). The kestrels accumulated sublethal amounts of lead (1 ppm lead wet weight) in their livers. In contrast, DDE and dieldrin accumulated in the tissues and brains of kestrels to toxicologically significant concentrations. Control kestrels remained healthy and accumulated insignificant concentrations of the contaminants. The results indicated raptors may not be significantly at risk from lead residues in soil and biota following field applications of lead arsenate. However, sublethal effects may be expected from the level of contamination by organochlorine pesticides. raptors may not be significantly at risk from lead residues in soil and biota following field applications of lead arsenate. However, sublethal effects may be expected from the level of contamination byorganochlorine pesticides. lead wet weight) in their livers.

  20. Combining Costs and Benefits of Animal Activities to Assess Net Yield Outcomes in Apple Orchards

    PubMed Central

    Luck, Gary W.

    2016-01-01

    Diverse animal communities influence ecosystem function in agroecosystems through positive and negative plant-animal interactions. Yet, past research has largely failed to examine multiple interactions that can have opposing impacts on agricultural production in a given context. We collected data on arthropod communities and yield quality and quantity parameters (fruit set, yield loss and net outcomes) in three major apple-growing regions in south-eastern Australia. We quantified the net yield outcome (accounting for positive and negative interactions) of multiple animal activities (pollination, fruit damage, biological control) across the entire growing season on netted branches, which excluded vertebrate predators of arthropods, and open branches. Net outcome was calculated as the number of undamaged fruit at harvest as a proportion of the number of blossoms (i.e., potential fruit yield). Vertebrate exclusion resulted in lower levels of fruit set and higher levels of arthropod damage to apples, but did not affect net outcomes. Yield quality and quantity parameters (fruit set, yield loss, net outcomes) were not directly associated with arthropod functional groups. Model variance and significant differences between the ratio of pest to beneficial arthropods between regions indicated that complex relationships between environmental factors and multiple animal interactions have a combined effect on yield. Our results show that focusing on a single crop stage, species group or ecosystem function/service can overlook important complexity in ecological processes within the system. Accounting for this complexity and quantifying the net outcome of ecological interactions within the system, is more informative for research and management of biodiversity and ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes. PMID:27391022

  1. Replication of honey bee-associated RNA viruses across multiple bee species in apple orchards of Georgia, Germany and Kyrgyzstan.

    PubMed

    Radzevičiūtė, Rita; Theodorou, Panagiotis; Husemann, Martin; Japoshvili, George; Kirkitadze, Giorgi; Zhusupbaeva, Aigul; Paxton, Robert J

    2017-04-06

    The essential ecosystem service of pollination is provided largely by insects, which are considered threatened by diverse biotic and abiotic global change pressures. RNA viruses are one such pressure, and have risen in prominence as a major threat for honey bees (Apis mellifera) and global apiculture, as well as a risk factor for other bee species through pathogen spill-over between managed honey bees and sympatric wild pollinator communities. Yet despite their potential role in global bee decline, the prevalence of honey bee-associated RNA viruses in wild bees is poorly known from both geographic and taxonomic perspectives. We screened members of pollinator communities (honey bees, bumble bees and other wild bees belonging to four families) collected from apple orchards in Georgia, Germany and Kyrgyzstan for six common honey bee-associated RNA virus complexes encompassing nine virus targets. The Deformed wing virus complex (DWV genotypes A and B) had the highest prevalence across all localities and host species and was the only virus complex found in wild bee species belonging to all four studied families. Based on amplification of negative-strand viral RNA, we found evidence for viral replication in wild bee species of DWV-A/DWV-B (hosts: Andrena haemorrhoa and several Bombus spp.) and Black queen cell virus (hosts: Anthophora plumipes, several Bombus spp., Osmia bicornis and Xylocopa spp.). Viral amplicon sequences revealed that DWV-A and DWV-B are regionally distinct but identical in two or more bee species at any one site, suggesting virus is shared amongst sympatric bee taxa. This study demonstrates that honey bee associated RNA viruses are geographically and taxonomically widespread, likely infective in wild bee species, and shared across bee taxa.

  2. Improving irrigation efficiency in Italian apple orchards: A large-scale approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della Chiesa, Stefano; la Cecilia, Daniele; Niedrist, Georg; Hafner, Hansjörg; Thalheimer, Martin; Tappeiner, Ulrike

    2016-04-01

    Nord-Italian region South Tyrol is Europe's largest apple growing area. In order to enable an economically relevant fruit quality and quantity the relative dry climate of the region 450-700mm gets compensated by a large scale irrigation management which until now follows old, traditional rights. Due to ongoing climatic changes and rising public sensitivity toward sustainable usage of water resources, irrigation practices are more and more critically discussed. In order to establish an objective and quantitative base of information to optimise irrigation practice, 17 existing microclimatic stations were upgraded with soil moisture and soil water potential sensors. As a second information layer a data set of 20,000 soil analyses has been geo-referenced and spatialized using a modern geostatistical method. Finally, to assess whether the zones with shallow aquifer influence soil water availability, data of 70 groundwater depth measuring stations were retrieved. The preliminary results highlight that in many locations in particular in the valley bottoms irrigation largely exceeds plant water needs because either the shallow aquifer provides sufficient water supply by capillary rise processes into the root zone or irrigation is applied without accounting for the specific soil properties.

  3. [Effects of different organic matter mulching on water content, temperature, and available nutrients of apple orchard soil in a cold region].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiang-Tao; Lü, De-Guo; Qin, Si-Jun

    2014-09-01

    The effects of different organic matter covers on soil physical-chemical properties were investigated in a 'Hanfu' apple orchard located in a cold region. Four treatments were applied (weed mulching, rice straw mulching, corn straw mulching, and crushed branches mulching), and physical-chemical properties, including orchard soil moisture and nutrient contents, were compared among treatment groups and between organic matter-treated and untreated plots. The results showed that soil water content increased in the plots treated with organic matter mulching, especially in the arid season. Cover with organic matter mulch slowed the rate of soil temperature increase in spring, which was harmful to the early growth of fruit trees. Organic matter mulching treatments decreased the peak temperature of orchard soil in the summer and increased the minimum soil temperature in the fall. pH was increased in soils treated with organic matter mulching, especially in the corn straw mulching treatment, which occurred as a response to alleviating soil acidification to achieve near-neutral soil conditions. The soil organic matter increased to varying extents among treatment groups, with the highest increase observed in the weed mulching treatment. Overall, mulching increased alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium in the soil, but the alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen content in the rice straw mulching treatment was lower than that of the control.

  4. Analysis of the influence of climatic and physiological parameters on the net ecosystem carbon exchange of an apple orchard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanotelli, Damiano; Montagnani, Leonardo; Scandellari, Francesca; Tagliavini, Massimo

    2013-04-01

    Net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) of an apple orchard located in South Tyrol (Caldaro, Bolzano, Italy) was monitored continuously since March 2009 via eddy covariance technique. Contemporary measurements of the main environmental parameters (temperature, photosynthetic active photon flux density, soil water content, vapor pressure deficit) were taken at the same field site. Leaf Area Index was also determined biometrically starting from spring 2010. Objectives of this work were (i) to assess the influence of these environmental and physiological parameters on NEE, (ii) to set up a model capable to fill large gap occurring in the dataset and (iii) predict inter-annual variability of fluxes based on the measurements of the selected explanatory variables. Daily cumulated values of the response variable (NEE, g C d-1) and mean daily value of the five explanatory variables considered (air T, ° C; SWC, m3m-3; PPFD, μmol m-2s-1; VPD, hPa, LAI m2m-2) were used in this analysis. The complex interactions between the explanatory variables and NEE were analyzed with the tree model approach which draws a picture of the complexity of data structure and highlights the explanatory variable that explain the greater amount of deviance of the response variable. NEE variability was mostly explained by LAI and PPFD. The most positive values of NEE occurred below the LAI threshold of 1.16 m2m-2 while above that LAI threshold and with an average daily PPFD above 13.2 μmol m-2s-1, the orchard resulted always a sink of carbon (negative daily NEE). On half of the available data (only alternate months of the considered period were considered), a stepwise multiple regression approach was used to model NEE using the variables indicated above. Simplification by deletion of the non-significant terms was carried out until all parameters where highly significant (p < 0.05) and a significant increase in deviance was observed when deleting further variables. Since heteroscedasticity and non

  5. From planning to execution to the future: An overview of a concerted effort to enhance biological control in apple, pear, and walnut orchards in the western U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We embarked on a large project designed to help enhance biological control in apple, pear and walnut orchards in the western U.S., where management programs are in the midst of a transition from older organo-phosphate insecticides to mating disruption and newer reduced risk insecticides. A “pesticid...

  6. First report of apple (Malus sylvestris) as a host of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma pruni’

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During a survey of Pennsylvania fruit tree orchards in 2013-2015, some apple trees were found to exhibit abnormally small fruits, clumps of small leaves, blind wood, or premature reddening and curling of leaves. DNA was extracted from symptomatic leaves collected from three apple trees, and the DN...

  7. Characterization of fungi (Fusarium and Rhizoctonia) and oomycetes (Phytophthora and Pythium) associated with apple orchards in South Africa.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several species of fungi and oomycetes including Fusarium, Rhizoctonia, Phytophthora and Pythium have been reported as root pathogens of apple where they contribute to a phenomenon known as apple replant disease. In South Africa, very little is known about the specific species in these genera and th...

  8. Response of microbial communities from an apple orchard and grassland soils to the first-time application of the fungicide tetraconazole.

    PubMed

    Sułowicz, Sławomir; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the impact of the triazole fungicide tetraconazole applied at the field rate (FR) and at ten-fold the FR (10FR) on microorganisms in orchard soil with a long-term history of fungicides application and in grassland soil that had not previously been treated with pesticides. To ascertain this impact, the microbial activity determined by fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis, the culturable number of bacteria, fungi and tetraconazole-resistant fungi, and the phospholipid microbial biomass and the structural and functional biodiversity assessed by the PLFA and Biolog approaches, respectively, were examined under laboratory conditions during 28-day experiment. The response of soil microorganisms to the fungicide tetraconazole, which had never been used before in these soils, depended on the management of the soils. In apple orchard soil that had been treated with FR or 10FR tetraconazole, a decrease in microbial activity was still observed on the 28th day after the application of the fungicide. In contrast, a significant impact of tetraconazole on the number of bacteria was still observed at the end of experiment in grassland soil. Results of principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that the application of tetraconazole significantly changed the structure of the microbial communities in the orchard soil. In addition, analysis of the Biolog profiles revealed a decrease in the catabolic activity of the microbial communities in grassland soil that had been treated with tetraconazole at both rates over time. The evaluation of the structural and functional diversity of microbial communities using PCA appears to be the most valuable monitoring tool for assessing the impact of tetraconazole application on soil microorganisms.

  9. Field efficacy of entomopathogenic fungi and nematodes targeting caged last-instar plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Michigan cherry and apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Pereault, R J; Whalon, M E; Alston, D G

    2009-08-01

    The plum curculio (Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst) is a key pest of pome and stone fruit in eastern North America. We tested the efficacy of five pathogens over the course of three seasons in 10 Michigan apple and cherry orchards, with introductions of larvae to caged pots containing pathogen-treated soil. The nematode Steinernema riobrave was the most effective pathogen in the 2 yr it was tested, but only in soils with the highest sand content (81-88%) and when it was applied 1 h or 5 d after last instars of plum curculio. S. carpocapsae in an organic formulation was less effective, but significantly reduced plum curculio emergence in 1 yr of the study when applied 3 d before C. nenuphar larvae were introduced. Beauveria bassiana was effective in only 1 of the 3 yr it was tested, only in soils with lower sand content, and only when it was introduced within 1 h of plum curculio larvae. Metarhizium anisopliae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora were ineffective. Michigan orchards may require sprinkler irrigation coupled with precise timing recommendations and oviposition monitoring to enhance entomopathogen application efficacy against soil-dwelling last instars.

  10. Impact of pest control strategies on the arthropodofauna living in bird nests built in nestboxes in pear and apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Roy, Lise; Bouvier, Jean-Charles; Lavigne, Claire; Galès, Mathieu; Buronfosse, Thierry

    2013-08-01

    Pesticide applications have a strong impact on biodiversity in agroecosystems. The present study aimed to assess the impact of pest control strategies on the arthropodofauna of Parus major nests built within nestboxes installed in orchards. Unlike many studied groups, these arthropod communities are not in direct contact with pesticide sprays (on account of their being sheltered by nestboxes) and are also unable to move away from the treated area. In this pilot study, we estimated the prevalence and the taxonomic and ecological diversities of arthropodofauna sampled in the nests and assessed the extent to which the whole and nest-specific arthropodofauna were affected by pest control strategies. Sixteen different insect and arachnid Primary Taxonomic Groups (PTGs, order level or below) were found in nests. The best represented PTGs (≥10% occurrence in years 2007 and 2008) were Psocoptera (Insecta, detritivorous/saprophagous), detritivorous/saprophagous Astigmata (Acari) and hematophagous Mesostigmata (Acari). Pest control strategies had a large impact on the prevalence of arthropods in nests, with higher proportions of nests hosting arthropods in organic orchards than in conventional orchards and with intermediate proportions in nests in Integrated Pest Management orchards. In contrast, pest control strategies had no significant effect on the composition of the arthropod communities when only nests hosting nidicolous arthropods were considered.

  11. Elucidating the Common Generalist Predators of Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in an Organic Apple Orchard Using Molecular Gut-Content Analysis.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jason M; Szendrei, Zsofia; Grieshop, Matthew

    2016-06-24

    Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), plum curculio, is a serious direct pest of North American tree fruit including, apples, cherries, peaches and plums. Historically, organophosphate insecticides were used for control, but this tool is no longer registered for use in tree fruit. In addition, few organically approved insecticides are available for organic pest control and none have proven efficacy as this time. Therefore, promoting biological control in these systems is the next step, however, little is known about the biological control pathways in this system and how these are influenced by current mechanical and cultural practices required in organic systems. We used molecular gut-content analysis for testing field caught predators for feeding on plum curculio. During the study we monitored populations of plum curculio and the predator community in a production organic apple orchard. Predator populations varied over the season and contained a diverse assemblage of spiders and beetles. A total of 8% of all predators (eight Araneae, two Hemiptera, and six Coleoptera species) assayed for plum curculio predation were observed positive for the presence of plum curculio DNA in their guts, indicating that these species fed on plum curculio prior to collection Results indicate a number of biological control agents exist for this pest and this requires further study in relation to cultural practices.

  12. Elucidating the Common Generalist Predators of Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in an Organic Apple Orchard Using Molecular Gut-Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Jason M.; Szendrei, Zsofia; Grieshop, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), plum curculio, is a serious direct pest of North American tree fruit including, apples, cherries, peaches and plums. Historically, organophosphate insecticides were used for control, but this tool is no longer registered for use in tree fruit. In addition, few organically approved insecticides are available for organic pest control and none have proven efficacy as this time. Therefore, promoting biological control in these systems is the next step, however, little is known about the biological control pathways in this system and how these are influenced by current mechanical and cultural practices required in organic systems. We used molecular gut-content analysis for testing field caught predators for feeding on plum curculio. During the study we monitored populations of plum curculio and the predator community in a production organic apple orchard. Predator populations varied over the season and contained a diverse assemblage of spiders and beetles. A total of 8% of all predators (eight Araneae, two Hemiptera, and six Coleoptera species) assayed for plum curculio predation were observed positive for the presence of plum curculio DNA in their guts, indicating that these species fed on plum curculio prior to collection Results indicate a number of biological control agents exist for this pest and this requires further study in relation to cultural practices. PMID:27348005

  13. Net primary productivity, allocation pattern and carbon use efficiency in an apple orchard assessed by integrating eddy covariance, biometric and continuous soil chamber measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanotelli, D.; Montagnani, L.; Manca, G.; Tagliavini, M.

    2013-05-01

    Carbon use efficiency (CUE), the ratio of net primary production (NPP) over gross primary production (GPP), is a functional parameter that could possibly link the current increasingly accurate global GPP estimates with those of net ecosystem exchange, for which global predictors are still unavailable. Nevertheless, CUE estimates are actually available for only a few ecosystem types, while information regarding agro-ecosystems is scarce, in spite of the simplified spatial structure of these ecosystems that facilitates studies on allocation patterns and temporal growth dynamics. We combined three largely deployed methods, eddy covariance, soil respiration and biometric measurements, to assess monthly values of CUE, NPP and allocation patterns in different plant organs in an apple orchard during a complete year (2010). We applied a measurement protocol optimized for quantifying monthly values of carbon fluxes in this ecosystem type, which allows for a cross check between estimates obtained from different methods. We also attributed NPP components to standing biomass increments, detritus cycle feeding and lateral exports. We found that in the apple orchard, both net ecosystem production and gross primary production on a yearly basis, 380 ± 30 g C m-2 and 1263 ± 189 g C m-2 respectively, were of a magnitude comparable to those of natural forests growing in similar climate conditions. The largest differences with respect to forests are in the allocation pattern and in the fate of produced biomass. The carbon sequestered from the atmosphere was largely allocated to production of fruit: 49% of annual NPP was taken away from the ecosystem through apple production. Organic material (leaves, fine root litter, pruned wood and early fruit falls) contributing to the detritus cycle was 46% of the NPP. Only 5% was attributable to standing biomass increment, while this NPP component is generally the largest in forests. The CUE, with an annual average of 0.71 ± 0.12, was higher

  14. Gendered vulnerabilities and grassroots adaptation initiatives in home gardens and small orchards in Northwest Mexico.

    PubMed

    Buechler, Stephanie

    2016-12-01

    With the retreat of the state under neoliberalism, the lack of (or negligible) government and non-governmental support reasserts grassroots initiatives as a global-change strategy. A feminist political ecology approach and the concept of adverse inclusion were used to facilitate an analysis of social differences shaping local-level adaptive responses. Adaptive responses of small farmers in the border village of San Ignacio, Sonora, Mexico, who are increasingly vulnerable to climate change, water scarcity, and changing labor markets were studied. Gender differences in production sites translate into diverse vulnerabilities and adaptive strategies. Local capacities and initiatives should be a focus of research and policy to avoid viewing women and men as passive in the face of global change. The dynamic strategies of San Ignacio women and men in home gardens and small orchards hold lessons for other regions particularly related to adaptation to climate change via agrobiodiversity, water resource management, and diversified agricultural livelihoods.

  15. Spatially explicit exposure assessment for small streams in catchments of the orchard growing region `Lake Constance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golla, B.; Bach, M.; Krumpe, J.

    2009-04-01

    1. Introduction Small streams differ greatly from the standardised water body used in the context of aquatic risk assessment for the regulation of plant protection products in Germany. The standard water body is static, with a depth of 0.3 m and a width of 1.0 m. No dilution or water replacement takes place. Spray drift happens always in direction to the water body. There is no variability in drift deposition rate (90th percentile spray drift deposition values [2]). There is no spray drift filtering by vegetation. The application takes place directly adjacent to the water body. In order to establish a more realistic risk assessment procedure the Federal Office for Consumer Protection and Food Safety (BVL) and the Federal Environment Agency (UBA) aggreed to replace deterministic assumptions with data distributions and spatially explicit data and introduce probabilistic methods [3, 4, 5]. To consider the spatial and temporal variability in the exposure situations of small streams the hydraulic and morphological characteristics of catchments need to be described as well as the spatial distribution of fields treated with pesticides. As small streams are the dominant type of water body in most German orchard regions, we use the growing region Lake Constance as pilot region. 2. Materials and methods During field surveys we derive basic morphological parameters for small streams in the Lake Constance region. The mean water width/depth ratio is 13 with a mean depth of 0.12 m. The average residence time is 5.6 s/m (n=87) [1]. Orchards are mostly located in the upper parts of the catchments. Based on an authoritative dataset on rivers and streams of Germany (ATKIS DLM25) we constructed a directed network topology for the Lake Constance region. The gradient of the riverbed is calculated for river stretches of > 500 m length. The network for the pilot region consists of 2000 km rivers and streams. 500 km stream length are located within a distance of 150 m to orchards. Within

  16. Comparison of female attractiveness and male response among populations of Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) in western and eastern U.S. apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Stelinski, L L; McKenzie, D; Gut, L J; Isaacs, R; Brunner, J

    2007-10-01

    Female obliquebanded leafrollers, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris), collected from Oregon, Michigan, and New York were deployed in delta traps in Michigan apple orchards to compare their relative attractiveness to Michigan males of the same species. Females originating from Oregon attracted more males than females originating from New York during both generations of leafroller flight in Michigan. Also, females from Oregon attracted more males in Michigan than did "native" Michigan females during the first generation of flight. Analysis of gland extracts from the three populations revealed significantly more of each pheromone component in females originating from Oregon (approximately nine-fold more pheromone per female overall) than those from Michigan. However, there were no significant differences in the relative amounts of each pheromone component between Oregon and Michigan females. A 100:4:5:2 blend of Z11-14:OAc, E11-14:OAc, Z11-14:OH, and Z11-14:Ald was optimal for catching males in Michigan with no added or detrimental effect of Z11-14:Ald, confirming previous studies. However, 100:1 ratios of Z11-14:OAc relative to either E11-14:OAc or Z11-14:OH (also containing 2% Z11-14:Ald) captured more males in Oregon apple orchards compared with 100:4 and 100:10 ratios of Z11-14:OAc relative to either E11-14:OAc or Z11-14:OH. Addition of increasing amounts of Z11-14:Ald relative to Z11-14:OAc (range, 0-8:100) into a blend also containing 4% E11-14:OAc and 5% Z11-14:OH increased male catch in Oregon but not in Michigan. Our results suggest that pheromone blend quantity rather than blend quality may explain greater attractiveness of western compared with eastern female C. rosaceana to males in Michigan. Also, an optimized generic blend for monitoring male C. rosaceana across North America should contain Z11-14:Ald as has been previously shown, but should not exceed 4:100 ratios of both E11-14:OAc and Z11-14:OH relative to Z11-14:OAc for optimized catch of males in the

  17. Stress and immune responses of nestling tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) exposed to nonpersistent pesticides and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene in apple orchards of southern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Mayne, Gregory J; Martin, Pamela A; Bishop, Christine A; Boermans, Herman J

    2004-12-01

    To determine the relative effects of pesticides in current use and persistent residues of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), we examined endocrine and immune responses in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) and eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis) chicks from pesticide-sprayed apple orchards and reference sites in southern Ontario, Canada, during 2000 to 2001. Nests were exposed to as many as seven individual pesticide applications and up to five mixtures of pesticides during the egg-incubation and chick-rearing stage. Eggs collected from sprayed orchards contained higher p,p'-DDE concentrations than eggs from reference sites. In 16-d-old tree swallows, no significant differences were found in body mass, basal corticosterone concentration, or the corticosterone stress response following a 10-min restraint of chicks sampled from sprayed orchards and reference sites. Challenge with adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), however, produced a higher level of corticosterone secretion in tree swallow chicks from sprayed orchards relative to chicks from reference sites. Multiple regression analysis revealed no correlation between corticosterone concentrations and exposure to pesticide sprays or p,p'-DDE in tree swallow chicks. In contrast, bluebird chicks from sprayed orchards were less responsive to challenge with ACTH and a significant negative association was found between the response to ACTH challenge and p,p'-DDE concentration in eggs. The phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity response was similar between exposure groups in both tree swallow and bluebird nestlings. Examination of immune organs revealed that tree swallow chicks from sprayed orchards had significantly greater thymic lymphocyte density and cortical/ medullary ratios and significant splenic B-cell hyperplasia relative to reference chicks. Our results indicate that modulation in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in songbird chicks tested are most associated

  18. Quantitative relationships between different injury factors and development of brown rot caused by Monilinia fructigena in integrated and organic apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Holb, I J; Scherm, H

    2008-01-01

    In a 4-year study, the incidence of various types of injuries (caused by insects, birds, growth cracks, mechanical wounding, and other, unidentified factors) was assessed in relation to brown rot development (caused by Monilinia fructigena) on fruit of three apple cultivars (Prima, Jonathan, and Mutsu) in integrated and organic blocks of two apple orchards in Hungary. In addition, populations of male codling moths (Cydia pomonella) were monitored with pheromone traps season-long in both management systems. On average, injury incidence on fruit at harvest was 6.1 and 19.2% in the integrated and organic treatments, respectively. Insect injury, which was caused primarily by C. pomonella, had the highest incidence among the five injury types, accounting for 79.4% of the total injury by harvest in the organic blocks and 36.6% in the integrated blocks. Levels of all other injury types remained close to zero during most of the season, but the incidence of bird injury and growth cracks increased markedly in the final 3 to 5 weeks before harvest in both production systems. Brown rot developed more slowly and reached a lower incidence in the integrated (6.4% final incidence on average) compared with the organic blocks (20.1% average incidence). In addition, the disease developed later but attained higher levels as the cultivar ripening season increased from early-maturing Prima to late-maturing Mutsu. Overall, 94.3 to 98.7% of all injured fruit were also infected by M. fructigena, whereas the incidence of brown-rotted fruit without visible injury was very low (0.8 to 1.6%). Correlation coefficients (on a per plot basis) and association indices (on a per-fruit basis) were calculated between brown rot and the various injury types for two selected assessment dates 4 weeks preharvest and at harvest. At both dates, the strongest significant (P < 0.05) relationships were observed between brown rot and insect injury and between brown rot and the cumulative number of trapped C

  19. Probabilistic Exposure Assessment for Applicators during Treatment of the Fungicide Kresoxim-methyl on an Apple Orchard by a Speed Sprayer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunhye; Moon, Joon-Kwan; Choi, Hoon; Kim, Jeong-Han

    2015-12-09

    Probabilistic exposure and risk assessment of kresoxim-methyl were conducted for agricultural applicators during preparation of spray suspension and application with a speed sprayer on an apple orchard. The preparation and application of 1000 L of spray suspension were repeated 30 times. Several exposure matrices, including patches, cotton gloves, socks, masks, and XAD-2 resin, were used to measure the potential exposure for workers. The analytical methods were fully validated to guarantee the precision and accuracy of analysis. The exposure amount on hands for mixer/loader was 0.7 mg [95% confidence interval (CI) from 0.02 to 2.4], taking 0.0005% (95% CI from 1.2 × 10(-5) to 0.001) of total prepared active ingredient. During application of kresoxim-methyl, the amount of dermal exposure was 17.5 mg (95% CI from 9.3 to 28.9), corresponding to 0.010% (95% CI from 0.006 to 0.017) of total applied active ingredient. The major exposure parts of the body were thighs and shins, with correlation coefficients of 0.53 and 0.43, respectively. The inhalation exposure during application were estimated as 6.8 ng (95% CI from 0.4 to 17.0), being 0.04% (95% CI from 0.004 to 0.06) of the dermal exposure. The calculated absorbable quantities of exposures for mixer/loader and applicator were 2.1 × 10(-4) mg/day (95% CI from 5.0 × 10(-6) to 7.2 × 10(-4)) and 2.3 mg/day (95% CI from 1.2 to 3.8), respectively. For risk assessment, the margin of safety of all working activities was much higher than 1, indicating that the possibility of risk to kresoxim-methyl was unlikely.

  20. The effects of orchard pesticide applications on breeding robins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, E.V.; Mack, G.L.; Thompson, D.Q.

    1976-01-01

    From 1966 through 1968, robins reproduced successfully in commercial apple orchards which were periodically sprayed with DDT, dieldrin, and other pesticides. Observations by a Z-man team using walkie-talkies revealed that breeding robins obtained essentially all food for themselves and nestlings from unsprayed areas adjacent to the orchards. Invertebrate trapping in sprayed and unsprayed areas showed that these food items were 5 or 6 times more abundant in unsprayed habitat. Worms forced to live in sprayed orchard soil displayed significantly greater mortality than controls. Mean robin clutch sizes in the study orchards were lower than those reported for robins in other studies, perhaps because of food shortage and/or increased foraging distances. Levels of DDT and its analogs in food items from robin foraging areas did not exceed 8 ppm wet weight basis. From late April to July, adult robins showed small but significant increases in DDE levels in all tissues examined, as well as an increase in dieldrin in brains. Pesticides sprayed on the farm had no direct demonstrable adverse effects on the robins; productivity was high and adult mortality low. The situation was in large measure fortuitous, since any changes in orchard management practices which resulted in the presence or availability of invertebrates under orchard trees would be expected to result in robin mortality and/or reduced breeding success.

  1. Evaluating systemic semi-selective chemicals for the management of apple replant disease in fumigated and non-fumigated orchards systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple Replant Disease (ARD) is a phenomenon where apple trees are stunted when replanted onto old apple soil, as the result of apple monoculture resulting in soil microbial changes where pathogenic and parasitic organism s predominate. The main soilborne organisms that cause ARD include oomycetes, f...

  2. Effects of aerial applications of esfenvalerate on small mammals and birds in Douglas-fir seed orchards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Henny, C.J.; Rice, C.P.; Grove, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    Although no adverse effects were documented, this study did not provide data sufficient to adequately test for effects of aerial spraying of esfenvalerate on small mammal populations or nesting of birds in Douglas-fir seed orchards. Small mammal trapping data were too sparse to provide statistical testing with reasonable power. Residues of the R and S forms of fenvalerate were low with maxima of 0.56 and 1.72 ?g/g, respectively in pelage of a deer mouse. No diagnostic residue data are available to interpret our results.

  3. Efficacy of sanitation and cleaning methods in a small apple cider mill.

    PubMed

    Keller, Susanne E; Merker, Robert I; Taylor, Kirk T; Tan, Hsu Ling; Melvin, Cathy D; Chirtel, Stuart J; Miller, Arthur J

    2002-06-01

    The efficacy of cleaning and sanitation in a small apple cider processing plant was evaluated by surface swab methods as well as microbiological examination of incoming raw ingredients and of the final product. Surface swabs revealed that hard-to-clean areas such as apple mills or tubing for pomace and juice transfer may continue to harbor contaminants even after cleaning and sanitation. Use of poor quality ingredients and poor sanitation led to an increase of approximately 2 logs in aerobic plate counts of the final product. Reuse of uncleaned press cloths contributed to increased microbiological counts in the finished juice. Finally, using apples inoculated with Escherichia coli K-12 in the plant resulted in an established population within the plant that was not removed during normal cleaning and sanitation. The data presented in this study suggest that current sanitary practices within a typical small cider facility are insufficient to remove potential pathogens.

  4. Modeling of water management and hydrological properties of orchards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, A.; Tamás, J.; Soltész, M.

    2012-04-01

    Our investigation was carried out at an micro-irrigated intensive apple orchard in Eastern part of Hungary and an 80 hectare Bosc and Williams pear orchard in the South Western part of Hungary. in 2010. The aims of the study were to monitor the effect of a compacted layer and soil physical parameters on soil water regime, supporting the water management of the orchard on hillsides and to reduce the effect of high precipitation intensity on orchards. The total drainable water regime is 920 m3 ha-1 from the upper 40cm soil layer and 1460 m3 ha-1 from the upper 70 cm soil layer. This amount of water should have been drained several times in 2010 to prevent the orchard from the negative effect of surplus water. Since the conventional horizontal drainage system can damage the present apple orchard significantly, the harmful surplus water can be infiltrated by the loosening of the compacted soil layer in the 50-70 cm depth or led off by vertical drainage. Therefore one, solo knife coulter is suggested to use at 80-90cm depth. In the case of the hillside a possible replantation of the orchard, pear trees should be planted along the contour lines, so as to avoid erosion and tree damage caused by water erosion. The irrigation of the orchard would be much easier in this case due to better establishment of the irrigation system and lower pipe-line pressure lost. To decrease the effect of erosion, the levels of the existing farm tracks have to be developed with reverse gradient. With the present situation, distributing small dosse of fertilizer should be utilized at the ridge spots, while in the case of convex parts of the valley, smaller doses of nutrients should be used. These digital data can be the basis for a precision spatial decision support system. This research was funded by TECH_08-A3/2-2008-0373 and TECH_08-A4/2-2008-0138 projects.

  5. Oviposition preference of Oriental fruit moth [Grapholita molesta (Busck), Lepidoptera: Tortricidae] for apple cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oviposition preferences and apple cultivar selection by fruit pests may impact integrated pest management in apple orchards. Experiments were conducted to study oviposition preferences of Oriental fruit moth ( Grapholita molesta [Busck], Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on ten commercially important apple ...

  6. Apple production and quality when cultivated under anti-hail cover in Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosco, Leosane Cristina; Bergamaschi, Homero; Cardoso, Loana Silveira; de Paula, Viviane Aires; Marodin, Gilmar Arduino Bettio; Nachtigall, Gilmar Ribeiro

    2015-07-01

    Anti-hail nets may change the microclimate of orchards and hence modify the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fruits. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of anti-hail nets on the physical, chemical, and sensory attributes of apples grown in southern Brazil. The study was conducted in commercial orchards, with apples grown under a black anti-hail net under an open sky during the 2008/2009, 2009/2010, and 2010/2011 cycles. Measurements of photosynthetically active radiation were collected at both sites. Physical, chemical, and sensory analyses of fruits were performed in the laboratory. The anti-hail net reduced incident photosynthetically active radiation by 32 %. The light spectrum in the canopy changed the corresponding R/FR (red/far-red) ratio in the lower and upper canopy layers from 0.27 to 1.55, respectively. In contrast to the majority of microclimate studies carried out in the temperate zones of the northern hemisphere, this study in the southern hemisphere showed that although it reduced the incident solar radiation, the cover did not change the color or organoleptic characteristics of "Royal Gala" and "Fuji Suprema" apples. The net cover prolonged the subperiod between fruit setting and harvesting, thus slowing fruit ripening. Therefore, the use of anti-hail nets on apple orchards is a suitable alternative for the protection of apple trees against hail because it causes only small changes in the microclimate and in the maturation period, ensuring fruit production without affecting its quality.

  7. Identification of external inoculum sources of apple replant pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple replant disease (ARD) is an important disease world-wide and occurs when old apple orchards are replanted with apple. The disease is mainly caused by biological agents, since fumigation alleviates symptom development. The main ARD causative agents are fungi (Rhizoctonia solani AG-5 and AG-6, a...

  8. Microbial control of insect pests in temperate orchard systems: potential for incorporation into IPM.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Lawrence A; Shapiro-Ilan, David I

    2008-01-01

    Because of their selectivity and safety, microbial control agents (MCAs) appear to be ready-made components of integrated pest management (IPM) systems that do not pose a threat to applicators or the environment and allow other natural enemies to function. Control of several orchard pest insects using MCAs, including viruses, Bacillus thuringiensis, fungi, and entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs), have been demonstrated in apple, pear, stone fruits, citrus, and several nut crops. B. thuringiensis is the most used MCA for control of lepidopteran orchard pests. Significant use of EPNs in citrus for control of root weevils is also reported. The granulovirus of codling moth is used increasingly in apple and pear by organic growers, with interest also shown by conventional growers. Although some success has been achieved, in most orchard systems MCAs account for a relatively small proportion of the pest control tactics employed, and in some systems they are not used at all. Research toward improving MCA efficacy and economic competitiveness is required to enhance the role of MCAs in IPM.

  9. Lead in tissue of cats fed pine voles from lead arsenate-treated orchards

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmartin, J.E.; Alo, D.K.; Richmond, M.E.; Bache, C.A.; Lisk, D.J.

    1985-02-01

    Lead arsenate has been used for many years for control of insects in apple orchards in the United States. In an earlier study, it was shown that such orchard soils may contain very high concentrations of lead and that orchards voles and mice inhibating such soils accumulate inordinately high levels of lead. It is of interest to learn the possible extent of deposition of lead in higher carnivores that may consume such orchard animals. In the work reported, cats were fed pine voles (Microtus pinetorum) captured in lead arsenate-treated orchards located in the vicinity of New Paltz, New York. Following sacrifice, the lead content of cat tissues was determined.

  10. Arsenic Recovery by Stinging Nettle From Lead-Arsenate Contaminated Orchard Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil contamination with arsenic (As) is common in orchards with a history of lead-arsenate pesticide application. This problem is prevalent in the U.S. Northeast where lead-arsenate foliar sprays were used to control codling moth (Cydia pomonella) in apple orchards. Arsenic is not easily biodegrad...

  11. Generating pseudo large footprint waveforms from small footprint full-waveform airborne LiDAR data for the layered retrieval of LAI in orchards.

    PubMed

    Li, Wang; Niu, Zheng; Li, Jing; Chen, Hanyue; Gao, Shuai; Wu, Mingquan; Li, Dong

    2016-05-02

    Leaf area index (LAI) is a key parameter for the study of biogeochemical cycles in ecosystems. Remote sensing techniques have been widely used to estimate LAIs in a wide range of vegetation types. However, limited by the sensor detection capability, considerable fewer studies investigated the layered estimation of LAIs in the vertical direction, which can significantly affect the precision evaluation of vegetation biophysical and biochemical processes. This study tried to generate a kind of pseudo large footprint waveform from the small footprint full-waveform airborne LiDAR data by an aggregation approach. The layered distribution of canopy heights and LAIs were successfully retrieved based on the large footprint waveform data in an agricultural landscape of orchards with typical multi-layer vegetation covers. The Gaussian fitting was conducted on the normalized large footprint waveforms to identify the vertical positions for different vegetation layers. Then, the gap theory was applied to retrieve the layered LAIs. Statistically significant simple linear regression models were fitted between the LiDAR-retrieved and field-observed values for the canopy heights and LAIs in different layers. Satisfactory results were obtained with a root mean square error of 0.36 m for the overstorey canopy height (R2 = 0.82), 0.29 m for the understory canopy height (R2 = 0.76), 0.28 for overstorey LAI (R2 = 0.75), 0.40 for understory LAI (R2 = 0.64), and 0.38 for total LAI (R2 = 0.69), respectively. To conclude, estimating the layered LAIs in the multi-layer agriculture orchards from the pseudo large footprint waveforms is feasible and the estimation errors are acceptable, which will provide some new ideas and methods for the quantitative remote sensing with vegetation.

  12. A Museum Grows in an Apple Orchard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svenning, Mary Ann

    2004-01-01

    The new Eric Carle Museum of Picture Book Art in Amherst, Massachusetts, is a tribute to the artistry of children's book illustration and a testament to the generous spirit of its founders and main benefactors, Eric Carle and his wife Barbara. Eric Carle is world-known for his boldly illustrated, cleverly designed picture books for children. His…

  13. Lead and Arsenic Uptake by Carrots Grown on Five Orchard Soils With History of Lead Arsenate Used

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lead arsenate was used to control codling moth in apple and plum orchards from 1900 to 1960. Consequently, many orchard soils are contaminated with lead (Pb) and arsenic (As). Some of these lands are being used for urban development and vegetable crop production. Both soil Pb and As have become i...

  14. Effect of flooding lead-arsenate contaminated orchard soil on growth, arsenic and lead accumulation in rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lead-arsenate has been used as a pesticide in controlling codling moth (Cydia pomonella) in apple and plum orchards from 1900-1960. As a result, many old orchards contain high levels of arsenic. Flooding soils contaminated by lead-arsenate could increase plant arsenic and lead and become a human h...

  15. A multiple reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay for simultaneous detection and differentiation of latent viruses and apscarviroids in apple trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), and Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV) are three latent viruses frequently occurring in apple trees worldwide. In field orchards, these viruses are frequently found in a mixed infection with viroids in the genus Apscarviroid, in...

  16. Deep Sequencing Analysis of Apple Infecting Viruses in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cho, In-Sook; Igori, Davaajargal; Lim, Seungmo; Choi, Gug-Seoun; Hammond, John; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Moon, Jae Sun

    2016-01-01

    Deep sequencing has generated 52 contigs derived from five viruses; Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), Apple green crinkle associated virus (AGCaV), and Apricot latent virus (ApLV) were identified from eight apple samples showing small leaves and/or growth retardation. Nucleotide (nt) sequence identity of the assembled contigs was from 68% to 99% compared to the reference sequences of the five respective viral genomes. Sequences of ASPV and ASGV were the most abundantly represented by the 52 contigs assembled. The presence of the five viruses in the samples was confirmed by RT-PCR using specific primers based on the sequences of each assembled contig. All five viruses were detected in three of the samples, whereas all samples had mixed infections with at least two viruses. The most frequently detected virus was ASPV, followed by ASGV, ApLV, ACLSV, and AGCaV which were withal found in mixed infections in the tested samples. AGCaV was identified in assembled contigs ID 1012480 and 93549, which showed 82% and 78% nt sequence identity with ORF1 of AGCaV isolate Aurora-1. ApLV was identified in three assembled contigs, ID 65587, 1802365, and 116777, which showed 77%, 78%, and 76% nt sequence identity respectively with ORF1 of ApLV isolate LA2. Deep sequencing assay was shown to be a valuable and powerful tool for detection and identification of known and unknown virome in infected apple trees, here identifying ApLV and AGCaV in commercial orchards in Korea for the first time. PMID:27721694

  17. Deep Sequencing Analysis of Apple Infecting Viruses in Korea.

    PubMed

    Cho, In-Sook; Igori, Davaajargal; Lim, Seungmo; Choi, Gug-Seoun; Hammond, John; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Moon, Jae Sun

    2016-10-01

    Deep sequencing has generated 52 contigs derived from five viruses; Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), Apple green crinkle associated virus (AGCaV), and Apricot latent virus (ApLV) were identified from eight apple samples showing small leaves and/or growth retardation. Nucleotide (nt) sequence identity of the assembled contigs was from 68% to 99% compared to the reference sequences of the five respective viral genomes. Sequences of ASPV and ASGV were the most abundantly represented by the 52 contigs assembled. The presence of the five viruses in the samples was confirmed by RT-PCR using specific primers based on the sequences of each assembled contig. All five viruses were detected in three of the samples, whereas all samples had mixed infections with at least two viruses. The most frequently detected virus was ASPV, followed by ASGV, ApLV, ACLSV, and AGCaV which were withal found in mixed infections in the tested samples. AGCaV was identified in assembled contigs ID 1012480 and 93549, which showed 82% and 78% nt sequence identity with ORF1 of AGCaV isolate Aurora-1. ApLV was identified in three assembled contigs, ID 65587, 1802365, and 116777, which showed 77%, 78%, and 76% nt sequence identity respectively with ORF1 of ApLV isolate LA2. Deep sequencing assay was shown to be a valuable and powerful tool for detection and identification of known and unknown virome in infected apple trees, here identifying ApLV and AGCaV in commercial orchards in Korea for the first time.

  18. Leafroller parasitism across an orchard landscape in central Washington and effect of neighboring rose habitats on parasitism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parasitiam of sentinel Pandemis pyrusana (Tortricidae) leafroller larvae on potted apple trees placed in apple, pear and cherry orchards within a 2000 hectare landscape mosaic in south-central Washington were measured in 1999-2000. Parasitism rates of sentinels averaged 15% in spring and 31% in summ...

  19. [Toxicity and apple production in southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Klanovicz, Jó

    2010-03-01

    The article explores the links between the controversial apprehension of contaminated apples in southern Brazil in 1989 and the reactions of the apple industry to press reports on the use of pesticides in Brazilian orchards. The issue is framed within a broader analysis of the notions of toxicity and 'danger' surrounding the consumption of healthier food and the idea of 'food security,' notions that have begun taking hold in public and private life. It is argued that apple growers' responses to the problem can be better understood through a historical reading of the interactions between the biology of the apple tree, the agroecology of this monoculture, and the structures, actors, and discourses of the human and non-human groups in Brazil's apple-producing region.

  20. Programmable ultrasonic sensing system for targeted spraying in orchards.

    PubMed

    Stajnko, Denis; Berk, Peter; Lešnik, Mario; Jejčič, Viktor; Lakota, Miran; Strancar, Andrej; Hočevar, Marko; Rakun, Jurij

    2012-11-09

    This research demonstrates the basic elements of a prototype automated orchard sprayer which delivers pesticide spray selectively with respect to the characteristics of the targets. The density of an apple tree canopy was detected by PROWAVE 400EP250 ultrasound sensors controlled by a Cypress PSOC CY8C29466 microcontroller. The ultrasound signal was processed with an embedded computer built around a LPC1343 microcontroller and fed in real time to electro-magnetic valves which open/close spraying nozzles in relation to the canopy structure. The analysis focuses on the detection of appropriate thresholds on 15 cm ultrasound bands, which correspond to maximal response to tree density, and this was selected for accurate spraying guidance. Evaluation of the system was performed in an apple orchard by detecting deposits of tartrazine dye (TD) on apple leaves. The employment of programmable microcontrollers and electro-magnetic valves decreased the amount of spray delivered by up to 48.15%. In contrast, the reduction of TD was only up to 37.7% at some positions within the tree crown and 65.1% in the gaps between trees. For all these reasons, this concept of precise orchard spraying can contribute to a reduction of costs and environmental pollution, while obtaining similar or even better leaf deposits.

  1. Programmable Ultrasonic Sensing System for Targeted Spraying in Orchards

    PubMed Central

    Stajnko, Denis; Berk, Peter; Lešnik, Mario; Jejčič, Viktor; Lakota, Miran; Štrancar, Andrej; Hočevar, Marko; Rakun, Jurij

    2012-01-01

    This research demonstrates the basic elements of a prototype automated orchard sprayer which delivers pesticide spray selectively with respect to the characteristics of the targets. The density of an apple tree canopy was detected by PROWAVE 400EP250 ultrasound sensors controlled by a Cypress PSOC CY8C29466 microcontroller. The ultrasound signal was processed with an embedded computer built around a LPC1343 microcontroller and fed in real time to electro-magnetic valves which open/close spraying nozzles in relation to the canopy structure. The analysis focuses on the detection of appropriate thresholds on 15 cm ultrasound bands, which correspond to maximal response to tree density, and this was selected for accurate spraying guidance. Evaluation of the system was performed in an apple orchard by detecting deposits of tartrazine dye (TD) on apple leaves. The employment of programmable microcontrollers and electro-magnetic valves decreased the amount of spray delivered by up to 48.15%. In contrast, the reduction of TD was only up to 37.7% at some positions within the tree crown and 65.1% in the gaps between trees. For all these reasons, this concept of precise orchard spraying can contribute to a reduction of costs and environmental pollution, while obtaining similar or even better leaf deposits. PMID:23202220

  2. Temporal patterns in appearance of sooty blotch and flyspeck fungi on apples.

    PubMed

    Batzer, J C; Sisson, A J; Harrington, T C; Mayfield, D A; Gleason, M L

    2012-11-01

    Sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) is a complex of about 80 fungal species that blemish the surface of apple fruit in humid regions worldwide. The dark colonies become visible in mid- to late summer, reducing the value of fresh fruit. Although many SBFS species can co-occur in the same orchard and even on the same apple, little is known about temporal patterns of these species, including the timing of colony appearance. To test the hypothesis that colonies of SBFS species appear on apples at characteristic times during the growing season, 50 apples were monitored weekly at three Iowa orchards in 2006 and six orchards in 2007 and 2008. However, a mean of 24.3 apples per orchard was assessed at harvest because of apple drop throughout the season. Colonies were marked with colored pens as they appeared. After harvest and after storage of apples at 2 °C for 3 months, SBFS colonies on each fruit were counted and classified by morphology, and a representative subset of colonies was excised from the fruit and preserved on dried peels for species identification using rDNA. Seventeen species were identified. Stomiopeltis spp. RS1 and RS2 appeared on apples 10 to 14 days before other SBFS taxa. Dissoconium aciculare was generally the last species to appear on apple fruit, and it continued to appear during postharvest storage. The most prevalent taxa in Iowa orchards were also the most abundant. Diversity of SBFS fungi in an orchard was positively correlated with cumulative hours of surface wetness hours due to rainfall or dew, which is believed to favor growth of SBFS fungi. Species-specific information about temporal patterns of appearance on apple fruit may lead to improved SBFS management strategies.

  3. Epiphytic bacteria and yeasts on apple blossoms and their potential as antagonists of Erwinia amylovora

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple blossoms were sampled for indigenous epiphytic populations of culturable microorganisms during different stages of bloom at two orchards in or near Wenatchee, WA, and one in Corvallis, OR. Frequencies and population sizes of bacteria on stigmas of apple were lower at Wenatchee than Corvallis, ...

  4. Preharvest applications of fungicides for control of Sphaeropsis rot in stored apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sphaeropsis rot caused by Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens is a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of apple in Washington State and causes significant economic losses. Infection of apple fruit by the fungus occurs in the orchard, but decay symptoms develop during storage or in the market. The...

  5. Control of speck rot in apple fruit caused by Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis with pre- and postharvest fungicides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Speck rot caused by Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis is a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of apple. Infection of apple fruit by the fungus occurs in the orchard, but symptoms develop during storage. In this study, selected pre- and postharvest fungicides were evaluated for control of s...

  6. Grass residues as a sustainable carbon source in application of anaerobic soil disinfestation for control of apple nursery replant disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted to assess the efficacy of anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) for control of replant disease in an apple nursery setting. Treatments applied in a field trial conducted at an experimental orchard in Washington State included ASD using orchard grass residues (GR; 20 t ha-1) as ...

  7. Accumulation of lead and arsenic by lettuce grown on lead-arsenate contaminated orchard soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lead-arsenate was one of the preferred insecticides used as foliar spray to control codling moth (Cydia pomonella) in apple (Malus sylvestris Mill) orchards from the 1900's to the 1960’s. Lead and arsenic are generally immobile and remain in the surface soil. Some of these contaminated lands are now...

  8. Parasitism of leafrollers in Washington fruit orchards is enhanced by perimeter plantings of rose and strawberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parasitism rates of leafrollers larvae attacking apple, pear, and cherry in Washington are typically low in spring. By providing an alternate, overwintering host for the parasitoid, Colpoclypeus florus, in perimeter plantings spring parasitism in orchards nearby was dramatically increased. Four gard...

  9. Parasitism of leafrollers in Washington fruit orchards is enhanced by perimater plantings of rose and strawberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pandemis pyrusana and Choristoneura rosaceana are the dominant leafroller pests in apple, pear and cherry orchards in Washington State. Parasitism rates of these pests are usually too low to avert the use of insecticides for control, despite the presence of a diverse parasitoid complex. In a previou...

  10. The beneficial effect of small toxic molecules on dormancy alleviation and germination of apple embryos is due to NO formation.

    PubMed

    Gniazdowska, Agnieszka; Krasuska, Urszula; Debska, Karolina; Andryka, Paulina; Bogatek, Renata

    2010-09-01

    Deep dormancy of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) seeds is terminated by a 3-month-long cold stratification. It is expressed by rapid germination of seeds and undisturbed growth of seedlings. However, stimulation of germination of isolated apple embryos is also observed after applying inhibitors of cytochrome c oxidase: nitric oxide (NO) or hydrogen cyanide (HCN) during the first 3-6 h of imbibition of dormant embryos. The aim of this work was to compare the effect of yet another toxic gaseous molecule carbon monoxide (CO) with the effects of HCN and NO on germination of apple embryos and growth and development of young seedlings. We demonstrated that stimulation of germination after short-term pre-treatment with HCN, NO or CO was accompanied by enhanced NO emission from the embryo axes during their elongation. Moreover, similarly high NO production from non-dormant embryos, after cold stratification, was detected. Therefore, we propose that NO may act as signaling molecule in apple embryo dormancy break.

  11. Apple Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Plant Genetic Resources Unit (PGRU) in Geneva, NY part of the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System. The PGRU maintains 55 species of apple (Malus) in both field and seed collections. The main field collection of apples has 2621 diverse clones grafted onto EMLA 9 rootstock. Ninety-seven p...

  12. Apple replant disease and the –omics: interaction of apple rootstock metabolome and the soil microbiome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple replant disease (ARD) negatively impacts tree health and reduces crop yield in new orchard plantings. Use of tolerant rootstock cultivars can diminish the growth limiting effects of ARD; however specific rootstock attributes enabling ARD tolerance are not understood. Systems biology tools were...

  13. Newton's Apple

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendry, Archibald W.

    2007-01-01

    Isaac Newton may have seen an apple fall, but it was Robert Hooke who had a better idea of where it would land. No one really knows whether or not Isaac Newton actually saw an apple fall in his garden. Supposedly it took place in 1666, but it was a tale he told in his old age more than 60 years later, a time when his memory was failing and his…

  14. Auxin-mediated relationships between apple plants and root inhabiting fungi: impact on root pathogens and potentialities of growth-promoting populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted to examine the symbiotic relationship between plant hosts and endophytic fungi recovered in multi-generation replanted apple orchard soils. Based upon results obtained, subsequent studies were oriented toward investigating fungal populations showing a mutualistic symbiotic rel...

  15. Susceptibility of fruit from diverse apple and crabapple germplasm to attack from apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) is a pest of major concern to apple, Malus x domestica (Borkh.) production in eastern North America. Host-plant resistance to apple maggot among apple germplasm has been previously evaluated among a small number of exotic Malus accessions and domestic hyb...

  16. Differential transcriptional regulation of defense-associated genes among apple rootstock genotypes in response to Pythium ultimum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple replant disease (ARD) poses a substantial threat to orchard establishment on replant sites. Deployment of resistant apple rootstocks is an ecologically desired, cost effective and durable disease control strategy particular for perennial production system. Candidate genes which function in pat...

  17. Identification and characterization of a viroid resembling apple dimple fruit viroid in fig (Ficus carica L.) by next generation sequencing of small RNAs.

    PubMed

    Chiumenti, M; Torchetti, E M; Di Serio, F; Minafra, A

    2014-08-08

    Viroids are small (246-401 nt) circular and non coding RNAs infecting higher plants. They are targeted by host Dicer-like enzymes (DCLs) that generate small RNAs of 21-24 nt (sRNAs), which are involved in the host RNA silencing pathways. The accumulation in plant tissues of such viroid-derived small RNAs (vd-sRNAs) is a clear sign of an ongoing viroid infection. In this study, next generation sequencing of a sRNAs library and assembling of the sequenced vd-sRNAs were instrumental for the identification of a viroid resembling apple dimple fruit viroid (ADFVd) in a fig accession. After confirming by molecular methods the presence of this viroid in the fig tree, its population was characterized, showing that the ADFVd master sequence from fig diverges from that of the ADFVd reference variant from apple. Moreover, since this viroid accumulates at a low level in fig, a semi-nested RT-PCR assay was developed for detecting it in other fig accessions. ADFVd seems to have a wider host range than thought before and this poses questions about its epidemiology. A further characterization of ADFVd-sRNAs showed similar accumulation of (+) or (-) vd-sRNAs that mapped on the viroid genome generating hotspot profiles. Moreover, similarly to other nuclear-replicating viroids, vd-sRNAs of 21, 22 and 24 nt in size prevailed in the distribution profiles. Altogether, these data support the involvement of double-stranded RNAs and different DCLs, targeting the same restricted viroid regions, in the genesis of ADFVd-sRNAs.

  18. Assessing Metal Contamination in Lead Arsenate Contaminated Orchard Soils Using Near and Mid-Infrared Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historic use of lead-arsenate as pesticide in apple orchards left many soils contaminated with arsenic (As) and lead (Pb). Notorious health effects and their severe soil contamination are of primary concerns for major regulatory agencies, and community at large. Wet chemistry methods for soil anal...

  19. Measuring local genetic variability in populations of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) across an unmanaged / commercial orchard interface

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic structure of adult codling moth Cydia pomonella L., populations was characterized both inside a managed apple, Malus domestica Borkdhausen, orchard and in surrounding unmanaged hosts and non-host trees in central Chile during 2006-2007. Adult males were collected using an array of sex ph...

  20. Apple (Malus x domestica).

    PubMed

    Dandekar, Abhaya M; Teo, Gianni; Uratsu, Sandra L; Tricoli, David

    2006-01-01

    Apple (Malus x domestica) is one of the most consumed fruit crops in the world. The major production areas are the temperate regions, however, because of its excellent storage capacity it is transported to distant markets covering the four corners of the earth. Transformation is a key to sustaining this demand - permitting the potential enhancement of existing cultivars as well as to investigate the development of new cultivars resistant to pest, disease, and storage problems that occur in the major production areas. In this paper we describe an efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation protocol that utilizes leaf tissues from in vitro grown plants. Shoot regeneration is selected with kanamycin using the selectable kanamycin phosphotransferase (APH(3)II) gene and the resulting transformants confirmed using the scorable uidA gene encoding the bacterial beta-glucuronidase (GUS) enzyme via histochemical staining. Transformed shoots are propagated, rooted to create transgenic plants that are then introduced into soil, acclimatized and transferred to the greenhouse from where they are taken out into the orchard for field-testing.

  1. New biotechnological tools to accelerate scab-resistance trait transfer to apple.

    PubMed

    Cusin, Roberta; Revers, Luís Fernando; Maraschin, Felipe Dos Santos

    2017-02-13

    Apple is a fruit crop cultivated worldwide. Apple orchards are exposed to a diverse set of environmental and biological factors that affect the productivity and sustainability of the culture. Many of the efforts and costs for apple production rely on reducing the incidence of fungal diseases, and one of the main diseases is apple scab caused by the fungus Venturia inaequalis. The economic impact of scab on apple productivity has guided many breeding programs to search for cultivars resistant to apple scab. Introgression from wild relatives has been successful to some extent, and genetic engineering for resistant cultivars has even been employed. This review presents the techniques used to the present time to obtain pathogen-resistant apple cultivars and introduces new biotechnological approaches based on plant plasmids that show promising results for delivering genetic traits with a short-term perspective.

  2. Traveling Apples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland Unified School District, Rowland Heights, CA.

    Teacher-developed materials for a basic computer literacy and utilization program for elementary students in grades 3-6 are included in this 4-part packet, which was originally prepared for use with or without the Apple IIe "traveling" microcomputers shared by 15 Rowland Unified School District elementary schools. Implementation…

  3. Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Jeanelle; Liu, Rui Hai

    2004-05-12

    Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. In the laboratory, apples have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidation, and lower cholesterol. Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of apples varies greatly between different varieties of apples, and there are also small changes in phytochemicals during the maturation and ripening of the fruit. Storage has little to no effect on apple phytochemicals, but processing can greatly affect apple phytochemicals. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior, and the effects of variety, ripening, storage and processing on apple phytochemicals.

  4. Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Jeanelle; Liu, Rui Hai

    2004-01-01

    Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. In the laboratory, apples have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidation, and lower cholesterol. Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of apples varies greatly between different varieties of apples, and there are also small changes in phytochemicals during the maturation and ripening of the fruit. Storage has little to no effect on apple phytochemicals, but processing can greatly affect apple phytochemicals. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior, and the effects of variety, ripening, storage and processing on apple phytochemicals. PMID:15140261

  5. Assessment of contamination from arsenical pesticide use on orchards in the Great Valley region, Virginia and West Virginia, USA.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Gilpin R; Larkins, Peter; Boughton, Carol J; Reed, Bradley W; Sibrell, Philip L

    2007-01-01

    Lead arsenate pesticides were widely used in apple orchards from 1925 to 1955. Soils from historic orchards in four counties in Virginia and West Virginia contained elevated concentrations of As and Pb, consistent with an arsenical pesticide source. Arsenic concentrations in approximately 50% of the orchard site soils and approximately 1% of reference site soils exceed the USEPA Preliminary Remediation Goal (PRG) screening guideline of 22 mg kg(-1) for As in residential soil, defined on the basis of combined chronic exposure risk. Approximately 5% of orchard site soils exceed the USEPA PRG for Pb of 400 mg kg(-1) in residential soil; no reference site soils sampled exceed this value. A variety of statistical methods were used to characterize the occurrence, distribution, and dispersion of arsenical pesticide residues in soils, stream sediments, and ground waters relative to landscape features and likely background conditions. Concentrations of Zn, Pb, and Cu were most strongly associated with high developed land density and population density, whereas elevated concentrations of As were weakly correlated with high orchard density, consistent with a pesticide residue source. Arsenic concentrations in ground water wells in the region are generally <0.005 mg L(-1). There was no spatial association between As concentrations in ground water and proximity to orchards. Arsenic had limited mobility into ground water from surface soils contaminated with arsenical pesticide residues at concentrations typically found in orchards.

  6. Assessment of contamination from arsenical pesticide use on orchards in the great valley region, Virginia and West Virginia, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, G.R.; Larkin, S.P.; Boughton, C.J.; Reed, B.W.; Sibrell, P.L.

    2007-01-01

    Lead arsenate pesticides were widely used in apple orchards from 1925 to 1955. Soils from historic orchards in four counties in Virginia and West Virginia contained elevated concentrations of As and Pb, consistent with an arsenical pesticide source. Arsenic concentrations in approximately 50% of the orchard site soils and approximately 1% of reference site soils exceed the USEPA Preliminary Remediation Goal (PRG) screening guideline of 22 mg kg-1 for As in residential soi, defined on the basis of combined chronic exposure risk. Approximately 5% of orchard site soils exceed the USEPA PRG for Pb of 400 mg kg-1 in residential soil; no reference site soils sampled exceed this value. A variety of statistical methods were used to characterize the occurrence, distribution, and dispersion of arsenical pesticide residues in soils, stream sediments, and ground waters relative to landscape features and likely background conditions. Concentrations of Zn, Pb, and Cu were most strongly associated with high developed land density and population density, whereas elevated concentrations of As were weakly correlated with high orchard density, consistent with a pesticide residue source. Arsenic concentrations in ground water wells in the region are generally <0.005 mg L-1. There was no spatial association between As concentrations in ground water and proximity to orchards. Arsenic had limited mobility into ground water from surface soils contaminated with arsenical pesticide residues at concentrations typically found in orchards. ?? ASA, CSSA, SSSA.

  7. Cancer chemopreventive potential of apples, apple juice, and apple components.

    PubMed

    Gerhauser, Clarissa

    2008-10-01

    Apples ( MALUS sp., Rosaceae) are a rich source of nutrient as well as non-nutrient components and contain high levels of polyphenols and other phytochemicals. Main structural classes of apple constituents include hydroxycinnamic acids, dihydrochalcones, flavonols (quercetin glycosides), catechins and oligomeric procyanidins, as well as triterpenoids in apple peel and anthocyanins in red apples. Several lines of evidence suggest that apples and apple products possess a wide range of biological activities which may contribute to health beneficial effects against cardiovascular disease, asthma and pulmonary dysfunction, diabetes, obesity, and cancer (reviewed by Boyer and Liu, Nutr J 2004). The present review will summarize the current knowledge on potential cancer preventive effects of apples, apple juice and apple extracts (jointly designated as apple products). In brief, apple extracts and components, especially oligomeric procyanidins, have been shown to influence multiple mechanisms relevant for cancer prevention in IN VITRO studies. These include antimutagenic activity, modulation of carcinogen metabolism, antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory mechanisms, modulation of signal transduction pathways, antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing activity, as well as novel mechanisms on epigenetic events and innate immunity. Apple products have been shown to prevent skin, mammary and colon carcinogenesis in animal models. Epidemiological observations indicate that regular consumption of one or more apples a day may reduce the risk for lung and colon cancer.

  8. The occurrence of the cicada Cicadatra persica on apple trees, Malus domestica, in Erneh, Syria.

    PubMed

    Dardar, Marah A; Belal, Hamzeh M R; Basheer, Abedlnabi M

    2013-01-01

    An infestation of Cicadatra persica KirKaldy (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) on apple trees, Malus domestica Borkhausen (Rosales: Rosaceae), was reported for the first time in the apple fruit orchards of Erneh, Syria. Nymphs, adults, exuvia, and exit holes in the soil were observed. The species was identified as C. persica based on morphological characters. Some biological observations and an acoustic analysis of the male's songs were also achieved.

  9. Cisgenic apple trees; development, characterization, and performance

    PubMed Central

    Krens, Frans A.; Schaart, Jan G.; van der Burgh, Aranka M.; Tinnenbroek-Capel, Iris E. M.; Groenwold, Remmelt; Kodde, Linda P.; Broggini, Giovanni A. L.; Gessler, Cesare; Schouten, Henk J.

    2015-01-01

    Two methods were developed for the generation of cisgenic apples. Both have been successfully applied producing trees. The first method avoids the use of any foreign selectable marker genes; only the gene-of-interest is integrated between the T-DNA border sequences. The second method makes use of recombinase-based marker excision. For the first method we used the MdMYB10 gene from a red-fleshed apple coding for a transcription factor involved in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. Red plantlets were obtained and presence of the cisgene was confirmed. Plantlets were grafted and grown in a greenhouse. After 3 years, the first flowers appeared, showing red petals. Pollination led to production of red-fleshed cisgenic apples. The second method used the pM(arker)F(ree) vector system, introducing the scab resistance gene Rvi6, derived from apple. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, followed by selection on kanamycin, produced genetically modified apple lines. Next, leaves from in vitro material were treated to activate the recombinase leading to excision of selection genes. Subsequently, the leaf explants were subjected to negative selection for marker-free plantlets by inducing regeneration on medium containing 5-fluorocytosine. After verification of the marker-free nature, the obtained plants were grafted onto rootstocks. Young trees from four cisgenic lines and one intragenic line, all containing Rvi6, were planted in an orchard. Appropriate controls were incorporated in this trial. We scored scab incidence for three consecutive years on leaves after inoculations with Rvi6-avirulent strains. One cisgenic line and the intragenic line performed as well as the resistant control. In 2014 trees started to overcome their juvenile character and formed flowers and fruits. The first results of scoring scab symptoms on apple fruits were obtained. Apple fruits from susceptible controls showed scab symptoms, while fruits from cisgenic and intragenic lines were free of scab

  10. Association Between Apple Consumption and Physician Visits

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Matthew A.; Bynum, Julie P.W.; Sirovich, Brenda E.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Fruit consumption is believed to have beneficial health effects, and some claim, “An apple a day keeps the doctor away.” OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship between eating an apple a day and keeping the doctor away. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the noninstitutionalized US adult population. A total of 8728 adults 18 years and older from the 2007–2008 and 2009–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey completed a 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire and reported that the quantity of food they ate was reflective of their usual daily diet. EXPOSURES Daily apple eaters (consuming the equivalent of at least 1 small apple daily, or 149 g of raw apple) vs non–apple eaters, based on the reported quantity of whole apple consumed during the 24-hour dietary recall period. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome measure was success at “keeping the doctor away,” measured as no more than 1 visit (self-reported) to a physician during the past year; secondary outcomes included successful avoidance of other health care services (ie, no overnight hospital stays, visits to a mental health professional, or prescription medications). RESULTS Of 8399 eligible study participants who completed the dietary recall questionnaire, we identified 753 adult apple eaters (9.0%)—those who typically consume at least 1 small apple per day. Compared with the 7646 non–apple eaters (91.0%), apple eaters had higher educational attainment, were more likely to be from a racial or ethnic minority, and were less likely to smoke (P < .001 for each comparison). Apple eaters were more likely, in the crude analysis, to keep the doctor (and prescription medications) away: 39.0% of apple eaters avoided physician visits vs 33.9%of non–apple eaters (P = .03). After adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related characteristics, however, the association was no longer statistically significant

  11. [Quantitative remote sensing retrieval of apple tree canopy reflectance at blossom stage in hilly area].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Zhao, Geng-Xing; Zhu, Xi-Cun; Wang, Rui-Yan; Chen, Hong-Yan; Chang, Chun-Yan

    2012-08-01

    By using the TM and ALOS images with different resolutions at the prosperous blossom stage of apple trees in Qixia City of Shandong Province, and taking the slope aspect coefficient and the ratio of canopy flower to leaf into account, the ground surface reflectance was retrieved through radiometric correction. The canopy reflectance of the apple trees was further retrieved by pixel unmixing method, and the retrieval effect and accuracy were assessed by the comparison of the retrieved reflectance with the measured canopy reflectance and apparent reflectance of 30 sample apple orchards. The results showed that radiometric correction effectively weakened the effects of atmosphere and topography, recovered the ground objects in the shadows, and obviously enhanced the analytical ability of ground surface retrieval reflectance images. Either TM or ALOS images, both the absolute and relative errors between retrieval reflectance and measured reflectance of apple tree canopy were the smallest. The relative errors of all bands were consistent, and its variation trend among the 30 sample apple orchards was also consistent with the measured reflectance, which showed the necessary of pixel unmixing. Moreover, the changes of the reflectance among the sample apple orchards showed similar characteristics when the retrieval method was used for different resolution images. The images with high resolution were more superior, but, because of band limitation, it would be better to integrate the high resolution images with moderate resolution images.

  12. Conservation biological control of rosy apple aphid, Dysaphis plantaginea (Passerini), in eastern North America.

    PubMed

    Brown, M W; Mathews, Clarissa R

    2007-10-01

    Because of the potentially serious damage rosy apple aphid, Dysaphis plantaginea (Passerini) (Homoptera: Aphididae), can cause to apple fruit and branch development, prophylactic insecticides are often used for control. If biological control could be relied on, the amount of pesticide applied in orchards could be reduced. This study examined biological control of rosy apple aphid in eastern West Virginia and the potential for enhancement through conservation biological control, in particular, the effect of interplanting extrafloral nectar-bearing peach trees. By 20 d after first bloom, only 2% of fundatrices initially present survived to form colonies based on regression of data from 687 colonies. Exclusion studies showed that many of the early colonies were probably destroyed by predation; the major predator responsible seemed to be adult Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Mortality before apple bloom was most important in controlling rosy apple aphid population growth but by itself is not sufficiently reliable to prevent economic injury. Interplanting of extrafloral nectar-bearing trees did not increase biological control, and interplanting with 50% trees with extrafloral nectar glands reduced biological control. The number of leaf curl colonies in the 50% interplanted orchards was lower than in monoculture orchards, suggesting a preference of alate oviparae for more diverse habitats, supporting the resource concentration hypothesis but not at a level sufficient to prevent injury. Predation and parasitism after the formation of leaf curl colonies was not adequate to control rosy apple aphid populations.

  13. Climate-driven spatial mismatches between British orchards and their pollinators: increased risks of pollination deficits.

    PubMed

    Polce, Chiara; Garratt, Michael P; Termansen, Mette; Ramirez-Villegas, Julian; Challinor, Andrew J; Lappage, Martin G; Boatman, Nigel D; Crowe, Andrew; Endalew, Ayenew Melese; Potts, Simon G; Somerwill, Kate E; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C

    2014-09-01

    Understanding how climate change can affect crop-pollinator systems helps predict potential geographical mismatches between a crop and its pollinators, and therefore identify areas vulnerable to loss of pollination services. We examined the distribution of orchard species (apples, pears, plums and other top fruits) and their pollinators in Great Britain, for present and future climatic conditions projected for 2050 under the SRES A1B Emissions Scenario. We used a relative index of pollinator availability as a proxy for pollination service. At present, there is a large spatial overlap between orchards and their pollinators, but predictions for 2050 revealed that the most suitable areas for orchards corresponded to low pollinator availability. However, we found that pollinator availability may persist in areas currently used for fruit production, which are predicted to provide suboptimal environmental suitability for orchard species in the future. Our results may be used to identify mitigation options to safeguard orchard production against the risk of pollination failure in Great Britain over the next 50 years; for instance, choosing fruit tree varieties that are adapted to future climatic conditions, or boosting wild pollinators through improving landscape resources. Our approach can be readily applied to other regions and crop systems, and expanded to include different climatic scenarios.

  14. Climate-driven spatial mismatches between British orchards and their pollinators: increased risks of pollination deficits

    PubMed Central

    Polce, Chiara; Garratt, Michael P; Termansen, Mette; Ramirez-Villegas, Julian; Challinor, Andrew J; Lappage, Martin G; Boatman, Nigel D; Crowe, Andrew; Endalew, Ayenew Melese; Potts, Simon G; Somerwill, Kate E; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how climate change can affect crop-pollinator systems helps predict potential geographical mismatches between a crop and its pollinators, and therefore identify areas vulnerable to loss of pollination services. We examined the distribution of orchard species (apples, pears, plums and other top fruits) and their pollinators in Great Britain, for present and future climatic conditions projected for 2050 under the SRES A1B Emissions Scenario. We used a relative index of pollinator availability as a proxy for pollination service. At present, there is a large spatial overlap between orchards and their pollinators, but predictions for 2050 revealed that the most suitable areas for orchards corresponded to low pollinator availability. However, we found that pollinator availability may persist in areas currently used for fruit production, which are predicted to provide suboptimal environmental suitability for orchard species in the future. Our results may be used to identify mitigation options to safeguard orchard production against the risk of pollination failure in Great Britain over the next 50 years; for instance, choosing fruit tree varieties that are adapted to future climatic conditions, or boosting wild pollinators through improving landscape resources. Our approach can be readily applied to other regions and crop systems, and expanded to include different climatic scenarios. PMID:24638986

  15. Are Red Apples Sweeter Than Green Apples?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Chris

    1999-01-01

    Describes how a classroom observation of apples led to the development of a science project. Discusses the correlation between the greenness and the acidity of apples. Finds that the greener the apple, the lower its pH, and thus the more acidic and less sweet it tastes. (Author/CCM)

  16. Apple Strength Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Syn, C

    2009-12-22

    -LEP apples seem to have been from a single batch of material. The pre-LEP apples of the weak strength and the post-LEP apples with even weaker strength could have been made of the same batch of material, and the small strength differential might be due to the difference in the induction heating system. If the pre-LEP apples with the lower strength and the post LEP apples are made from the same batch of material, their combined scatter of strength data would be wider and can be understood as a result of the additional processing steps of stress relief and induction heating as discussed.

  17. Management of bull’s-eye rot of apple using pre- and postharvest fungicides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bull’s-eye rot caused by Cryptosporiopsis kienholzii, Neofabraea alba, N. malicorticis and N. perennans is a common postharvest disease of apple and pear in the US Pacific Northwest. Fruit infection by these causal fungi occurs in the orchard and is latent at harvest. A primary practice for control ...

  18. First report of black rot on apple fruit caused by Diplodia seriata in Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In July 2014, decayed ‘Fuji’ apple fruit (Malus × domestica Borkh.) were observed and sampled from commercial orchards in Mattawa (Grant County) in Washington State. Fruit rot symptoms appeared to originate mainly from infections at either the calyx-end (floral parts) of the fruit or wounds on the f...

  19. Pesticides used against Cydia pomonella disrupt biological control of secondary pests of apple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of codling moth management programs on secondary pests of apple were examined from 2008 to 2011 in five replicated large-plot trials. The orchards were chosen for a history of Eriosoma lanigerum and tetranychid mite outbreaks. Programs covered the first, second, or both generations of C....

  20. Genetic Diversity of a Natural Population of Apple stem pitting virus Isolated from Apple in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ju Yeon; Joa, Jae Ho; Choi, Kyung San; Do, Ki Seck; Lim, Han Cheol; Chung, Bong Nam

    2014-06-01

    Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), of the Foveavirus genus in the family Betaflexiviridae, is one of the most common viruses of apple and pear trees. To examine variability of the coat protein (CP) gene from ASPV, eight isolates originating from 251 apple trees, which were collected from 22 apple orchards located in intensive apple growing areas of the North Gyeongsang and North Jeolla Provinces in Korea, were sequenced and compared. The nucleotide sequence identity of the CP gene of eight ASPV isolates ranged from 77.0 to 97.0%, while the amino acid sequence identity ranged from 87.7 to 98.5%. The N-terminal region of the viral CP gene was highly variable, whereas the C-terminal region was conserved. Genetic algorithm recombination detection (GARD) and single breakpoint recombination (SBP) analyses identified base substitutions between eight ASPV isolates at positions 54 and 57 and position 771, respectively. GABranch analysis was used to determine whether the eight isolates evolved due to positive selection. All values in the GABranch analysis showed a ratio of substitution rates at non-synonymous and synonymous sites (dNS/dS) below 1, suggestive of strong negative selection forces during ASPV CP history. Although negative selection dominated CP evolution in the eight ASPV isolates, SLAC and FEL tests identified four possible positive selection sites at codons 10, 22, 102, and 158. This is the first study of the ASPV genome in Korea.

  1. Nickel: Relevance to orchard profitability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nutritional physiology of essential micronutrients in pecan, especially that of nickel, is a limiting factor in optimization of physiological efficiency of orchard enterprises. Knowledge by farmers and extension specialists about the role of nickel, a newly recognized micronutrient, is meager. ...

  2. Ireland's Cherry Orchard National School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O Cuiv, Shan

    2007-01-01

    This recently completed primary school illustrates how architecture can contribute to creating a safe and warm environment in a difficult area and can meet the particular needs of the student community. In its first year in operation, Cherry Orchard National School is proving to be a successful project. Presented here are the architectural…

  3. BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF THE APPLE MEALYBUG PHENACOCCUS ACERIS (SIGNORET) IN BELGIUM.

    PubMed

    Bangels, E; Peusens, G; Bylemans, D; Belien, T

    2014-01-01

    Although in general very rare, some outbreaks of the apple mealybug Phenococcus aceris (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) were reported in the Belgian fruit growing area recently. This insect is known to be geographically widespread, to have a broad host range and to infest apple trees. Damage at harvest is considerable when sooty molds, a consequence of the pest's honeydew production, cover the fruits. Indirect damage of an infection is caused in cherry cultivation through transmission of the Little cherry virus (LChV2). Efficacy trials were executed in infested apple orchards in the Belgian fruit growing area and the life cycle of the pest on apple was studied more into detail. Apple mealybugs are univoltine, overwinter as 2nd instar nymphs inside a white cocoon on the tree (under the bark, in crevices) and leave their overwintering site in early spring (mid March). On sunny days the nymphs become active, move around and attach to start feeding (mid April). After a final moult into the adult form, females lay eggs in a cocoon-like white structure (from flowering on). Following hatching (end May), massive numbers of young nymphs spread out on the underside of the leaves (mid June) where they feed through suction. In order to manage this pest the efficacy of several plant protection products was tested in two infested apple orchards. Results indicated that mortality was high after an application of compounds belonging to the neonicotinoid insecticides. Different application timings and control strategies are possible, with active nymphs being the most vulnerable life stage. The observed degree of parasitation in our trial orchards also indicates a biological control contribution of parasitic wasps that should be taken into account. A decent IPM-strategy based on our results solved the problem in both apple orchards.

  4. Susceptibility of fruit from diverse apple and crabapple germplasm to attack from apple maggot (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Myers, Clayton T; Reissig, W Harvey; Forsline, Phillip L

    2008-02-01

    Apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a pest of major concern to apple, Malus x domestica (Borkh.) production in eastern North America. Host plant resistance to apple maggot among apple germplasm has been previously evaluated among a small number of exotic Malus accessions and domestic hybrid selections. However, a large number of exotic accessions housed in USDA collections have never been evaluated for their susceptibility to apple pests. Additionally, previous reports of resistance need to be confirmed under both field conditions and with more rigorous laboratory evaluations. Thus, studies were conducted to evaluate the susceptibility of a number of Malus accessions housed at the USDA Plant Genetic Resources Unit "core" collection. Contrary to earlier published reports, these results suggest that some selections previously described as "resistant" are in fact susceptible to both oviposition damage and larval feeding damage by apple maggot. One domestic, disease-resistant apple accession, 'E36-7' is resistant to survival of apple maggot larvae except when the fruit is nearly ripe in late fall. This is the first report of an apple cultivar that is confirmed to be resistant to larval feeding of apple maggot. Although adults can successfully oviposit on all accessions examined, larval survival was zero in a number of small-fruited crabapple accessions classified as resistant in previous studies and also in two accessions, Malus tschonoskii (Maxim) C. K. Schneid. and M. spectabilis (Aiton) Borkh., that have not been previously evaluated.

  5. Impact of the invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stal) in Mid-Atlantic tree fruit orchards in the United States: case studies of commercial management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four commercial orchards in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States were surveyed weekly in 2010 and 2011 for the presence of brown marmorated stink bug and the injury caused to both apple and peaches. Among tested sampling techniques, baited pyramid traps yielded the most brown marmorated sti...

  6. Fixed precision sampling plans for white apple leafhopper (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) on apple.

    PubMed

    Beers, Elizabeth H; Jones, Vincent P

    2004-10-01

    Constant precision sampling plans for the white apple leafhopper, Typhlocyba pomaria McAtee, were developed so that it could be used as an indicator species for system stability as new integrated pest management programs without broad-spectrum pesticides are developed. Taylor's power law was used to model the relationship between the mean and the variance, and Green's constant precision sequential sample equation was used to develop sampling plans. Bootstrap simulations of the sampling plans showed greater precision (D = 0.25) than the desired precision (Do = 0.3), particularly at low mean population densities. We found that by adjusting the Do value in Green's equation to 0.4, we were able to reduce the average sample number by 25% and provided an average D = 0.31. The sampling plan described allows T. pomaria to be used as reasonable indicator species of agroecosystem stability in Washington apple orchards.

  7. Aphis pomi (Hemiptera: Aphididae) population development, shoot characteristics, and antibiosis resistance in different apple genotypes.

    PubMed

    Stoeckli, Sibylle; Mody, Karsten; Dorn, Silvia

    2008-08-01

    In high-value crops such as apple, Malus X domestica (Borkh.), insecticidal pest control is of high relevance. The use of resistant apple cultivars can increase the sustainability of pest management in apple orchards. Besides variation in plant chemistry that may influence plant resistance by antibiosis or antixenosis, plant growth characteristics also can affect plant susceptibility to pests such as aphids. Variable susceptibility to the apple aphid, Aphis pomi De Geer (Hemiptera: Aphididae), has been described for different apple cultivars. These observations were based on phenotypic surveys and no information on genetically based apple resistance to A. pomi is yet available. The objective of this study was to relate shoot growth characteristics with aphid population development, and to assess the genetic background of apple antibiosis-based resistance to A. pomi by quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis. Aphid population development was repeatedly studied in the field in sleeve cages attached to 200 apple trees of different genotypes. Aphid population development was positively correlated to shoot length and growth, and it also was affected by climatic conditions. Indications for antibiosis-based resistance to A. pomi remained weak in the studied apple genotypes, and the only detected putative QTL on linkage group 11 of'Fiesta' apples was not stable for the different replications of the experiment. This lack of quantifiable resistance may be partly explained by environmental conditions related to aphid development in sleeve cages.

  8. Abundance of apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella, across different areas in central Washington, with special reference to black-fruited hawthorns.

    PubMed

    Yee, Wee L; Klaus, Michael W; Cha, Dong H; Linn, Charles E; Goughnour, Robert B; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2012-01-01

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), infests non-commercial apple (Malus domestica (Borkh.) Borkh.) and native black-fruited hawthorns (mostly Crataegus douglasii Lindl.) in central Washington, but little has been published on the abundance of the fly in this region. In this paper, the abundance of R. pomonella across different sites near apple-growing areas in central Washington is documented in order to assess the threat of the fly to commercial apple orchards. The fly was first detected on traps in Klickitat, Yakima, and Kittitas Counties in 1981, 1995, and 1997, respectively. From 1981-2010 in Kittitas and Yakima Counties, only 0 to 4.7% of traps on apple, crabapple, and hawthorn trees were positive for flies, whereas in Klickitat County, located farther from commercial apple orchards, 0 to 41.9% of traps were positive. In 2008, in Yakima County and Goldendale in Klickitat County, 7.8% of black-fruited hawthorn trees were infested, with 0 to 0.00054 larvae per fruit. In 2010, in Kittitas and Yakima Counties and Goldendale in Klickitat County, 25.0% of C. douglasii trees were infested, with 0.00042 to 0.00248 larvae per fruit. In 2010, in a remote forested area of Klickitat County far from commercial apple orchards, 94.7% of C. douglasii trees were infested, with 0.20813 larvae per fruit. Overall results suggest R. pomonella is unlikely to develop high populations rapidly near major commercial apple-growing areas in central Washington, including in black-fruited hawthorns, increasing chances it can be kept out of commercial orchards.

  9. Abundance of Apple Maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella, Across Different Areas in Central Washington, with Special Reference to Black-Fruited Hawthorns

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Wee L.; Klaus, Michael W.; Cha, Dong H.; Linn, Charles E.; Goughnour, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), infests non-commercial apple (Malus domestica (Borkh.) Borkh.) and native black-fruited hawthorns (mostly Crataegus douglasii Lindl.) in central Washington, but little has been published on the abundance of the fly in this region. In this paper, the abundance of R. pomonella across different sites near apple-growing areas in central Washington is documented in order to assess the threat of the fly to commercial apple orchards. The fly was first detected on traps in Klickitat, Yakima, and Kittitas Counties in 1981, 1995, and 1997, respectively. From 1981–2010 in Kittitas and Yakima Counties, only 0 to 4.7% of traps on apple, crabapple, and hawthorn trees were positive for flies, whereas in Klickitat County, located farther from commercial apple orchards, 0 to 41.9% of traps were positive. In 2008, in Yakima County and Goldendale in Klickitat County, 7.8% of black-fruited hawthorn trees were infested, with 0 to 0.00054 larvae per fruit. In 2010, in Kittitas and Yakima Counties and Goldendale in Klickitat County, 25.0% of C. douglasii trees were infested, with 0.00042 to 0.00248 larvae per fruit. In 2010, in a remote forested area of Klickitat County far from commercial apple orchards, 94.7% of C. douglasii trees were infested, with 0.20813 larvae per fruit. Overall results suggest R. pomonella is unlikely to develop high populations rapidly near major commercial apple-growing areas in central Washington, including in black-fruited hawthorns, increasing chances it can be kept out of commercial orchards. PMID:23451979

  10. Modeling apple surface temperature dynamics based on weather data.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Peters, Troy; Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Jingjin; Huang, Danfeng

    2014-10-27

    The exposure of fruit surfaces to direct sunlight during the summer months can result in sunburn damage. Losses due to sunburn damage are a major economic problem when marketing fresh apples. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a model for simulating fruit surface temperature (FST) dynamics based on energy balance and measured weather data. A series of weather data (air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed) was recorded for seven hours between 11:00-18:00 for two months at fifteen minute intervals. To validate the model, the FSTs of "Fuji" apples were monitored using an infrared camera in a natural orchard environment. The FST dynamics were measured using a series of thermal images. For the apples that were completely exposed to the sun, the RMSE of the model for estimating FST was less than 2.0 °C. A sensitivity analysis of the emissivity of the apple surface and the conductance of the fruit surface to water vapour showed that accurate estimations of the apple surface emissivity were important for the model. The validation results showed that the model was capable of accurately describing the thermal performances of apples under different solar radiation intensities. Thus, this model could be used to more accurately estimate the FST relative to estimates that only consider the air temperature. In addition, this model provides useful information for sunburn protection management.

  11. Elementary, My Dear Apple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Robert

    1981-01-01

    A review of "Elementary, My Dear Apple," a commercial software package for the Apple II microcomputer. The package contains four computer programs which present elementary-level spelling, math, and economics learning activities in game-like formats. (SJL)

  12. Multiple paternity in two natural populations (orchard and vineyard) of Drosophila.

    PubMed Central

    Ochando, M D; Reyes, A; Ayala, F J

    1996-01-01

    Male mating success is an important fitness component in Drosophila. The seminal fluid conveyed with the sperm inhibits the proclivity of the female to remate and reduces her fitness. Nevertheless, females may remate before they have exhausted the sperm from the first male and consequently use sperm from both males. We have studied concurrent multiple paternity (CMP) in two Drosophila melanogaster populations, from an apple orchard and a vineyard just after harvest. CMP is high in both populations, somewhat greater than 50%; but it is not significantly higher in the vineyard, where the population density is much greater than in the orchard. Population density had been thought to be an important determinant of CMP incidence. We have used four gene loci coding for enzymes as independent markers for detecting CMP. PMID:8876212

  13. Dermal insecticide residues from birds inhabiting an orchard

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Hulse, C.S.; Gentry, S.; Borges, S.L.

    2007-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency conducts risk assessments of insecticide applications to wild birds using a model that is limited to the dietary route of exposure. However, free-flying birds are also exposed to insecticides via the inhalation and dermal routes. We measured azinphos-methyl residues on the skin plus feathers and the feet of brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) in order to quantify dermal exposure to songbirds that entered and inhabited an apple (Malus x domestica) orchard following an insecticide application. Exposure to azinphos-methyl was measured by sampling birds from an aviary that was built around an apple tree. Birds sampled at 36 h and 7-day post-application were placed in the aviary within 1 h after the application whereas birds exposed for 3 days were released into the aviary 4-day post-application. Residues on vegetation and soil were also measured. Azinphos-methyl residues were detected from the skin plus feathers and the feet from all exposure periods. Our results underscore the importance of incorporating dermal exposure into avian pesticide risk assessments.

  14. Student Health Services at Orchard Ridge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Don D.

    This paper provides a synoptic review of student health services at the community college level while giving a more detailed description of the nature of health services at Orchard Ridge, a campus of Oakland Community College. The present College Health Service program provides for a part-time (24 hrs./wk.) nurse at Orchard Ridge. A variety of…

  15. PCR assays for diagnosis of postharvest fruit rots and early detection of Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis and Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens in apple fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Speck rot caused by Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis and Sphaeropsis rot caused by Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens are two recently reported postharvest diseases of apple. Fruit infection by the pathogens occurs in the orchard, but symptoms develop after harvest and are similar to that of gray mold caused...

  16. PCR assays for diagnosis of postharvest fruit rots and early detection of Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis and Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens in apple fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Speck rot caused by Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis and Sphaeropsis rot caused by Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens are two recently reported postharvest diseases of apple. Infection of fruit by the pathogens occurs in the orchard, but symptoms develop after harvest and are similar to that of gray mold caus...

  17. Development of PCR assays for diagnosis of the pathogens Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis and Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens in apple fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Speck rot caused by Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis and Sphaeropsis rot caused by Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens are two recently reported postharvest diseases of apple. Fruit infection by the pathogens occurs in the orchard but remains latent before harvest. Symptoms develop after harvest and are simil...

  18. [The content of phenolic acids in the edible parts of selected varieties of apples].

    PubMed

    Malik, Agnieszka; Kiczorowska, Bozena; Zdyb, Justyna

    2009-01-01

    Fruits and vegetables are essential sources of many nutritive substances which are necessary for normal function of the organism. One of the mostly consumed fruits in many European countries, including Poland is apples. The prohealthy properties of apples are associated with the contents of polyphenolic compounds, thus including in parts phenolic acids which have antioxidant properties. The concentration of these compounds depends on many factors such as variety climate and soil conditions, maturity as well as agro technical operations. The aim of this investigation was to compare the concentrations of phenolic acids and epicatechin in the varieties of apple Champion and Jonica, which were collected from different orchards around Lublin. The phenolic compounds were assayed using a Symmetry column carrier RP-C18 (Waters) integrated with a high pressure liquid chromatography apparatus. The dominant phenolic acids found in the Champion variety was chlorogenic acid, whereas in the Jonica variety, chlorogenic and homovanilic acids were the dominate once. The highest concentrations of chlorogenic acid was detected in the pulp of an apple (Jonica variety) collected from the orchards around the cities of Puławy and Lublin, whereas homovanilic acid was the highest in the other samples collected from the orchards in the vicinity of Stryjno and Góry Markuszowskie. Among the Jonica and Champion varieties of apples collected from various orchards in the vicinity of Lublin, the highest content of epicatechin (13,12 mg/kg) was found in the pulps of Champions variety collected in Puławy. In general, the Champion variety was the best source of phenolic acids and epicatechin compared to the Jonica variety independent of the harvest zone.

  19. Orchard factors associated with resistance and cross resistance to sterol demethylation inhibitor fungicides in populations of Venturia inaequalis from Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Pfeufer, Emily E; Ngugi, Henry K

    2012-03-01

    Orchard management practices, such as destroying of overwintered inoculum and limiting the number of fungicide applications, are often recommended as tactics for slowing the development of resistance to sterol demethylation-inhibitor (DMI) fungicides in populations of Venturia inaequalis. However, there is little quantitative evidence relating the use of such practices to levels of resistance in orchards. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of V. inaequalis isolates from Pennsylvania to DMI fungicides, and to identify orchard management factors related to the incidence of resistant isolates. In total, 644 single-spore V. inaequalis cultures obtained from 20 apple orchards in 2008 or 2009 were tested for sensitivity to myclobutanil, fenbuconazole, or difenoconazole. Growers provided management history of the sampled plots. Widespread shifts toward resistance to the three fungicides were noted, with mean effective concentration for 50% inhibition (EC(50)) values of 2.136, 0.786, and 0.187 μg/ml for myclobutanil, fenbuconazole, and difenoconazole, respectively. Cross resistance to the three fungicides was documented in high correlation (Spearman's r > 0.6) between mean EC(50) values for 14 orchards. Based on a 0.5-μg/ml threshold, 66 and 26% of isolates were resistant to myclobutanil and fenbuconazole, respectively, and 22% were cross resistant to the two fungicides. A significant between-year shift toward increased resistance was noted in two of three orchards surveyed in both years. Failure to use dormant copper sprays, older trees, larger orchards, orchards with ≤10 cultivars, and application of >4 DMI sprays were positively correlated (0.0001 < P < 0.05) with the incidence of resistant isolates. Isolates from orchards with >4 DMI sprays were four times as likely to be resistant to fenbuconazole (odds ratio = 4.57; P = 0.015). Isolates from orchards without dormant copper sprays were twice as likely to be cross-shifted toward resistance to all

  20. Digital Data Set of Orchards Where Arsenical Pesticides Were Likely Used in Clarke and Frederick Counties, Virginia, and Berkeley and Jefferson Counties, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, Bradley W.; Larkins, Peter; Robinson,, Gilpin R.

    2006-01-01

    This Fact Sheet provides information on a digital data set that identifies orchard areas under cultivation between the 1920s and 1960s in Clarke and Frederick Counties, Virginia and Berkeley and Jefferson Counties, West Virginia. The apple orchards in these areas likely used arsenical pesticides during this time. The digital data set can be used in a geographic information system (GIS) to identify where elevated arsenic and lead concentrations may be present in soils. The digital data set, the associated metadata, and the related files are available on the World Wide Web at http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1330/shapefile/.

  1. Temporal Effects on the Incidence and Severity of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Feeding Injury to Peaches and Apples during the Fruiting Period in Virginia.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Shimat V; Nita, Mizuho; Leskey, Tracy C; Bergh, J Christopher

    2015-04-01

    Exclusion cages were used to compare the incidence and severity of feeding injury from brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), on 'Redhaven' peaches, 'Golden Delicious' apples, and 'Smoothee Golden' apples at harvest, following sequential periods of exposure to natural H. halys populations during the 2011 and 2012 growing seasons in Virginia. The fruit used in these experiments were in orchards or on trees that were not managed for H. halys. Treatments were sets of 50 fruit that were always caged, never caged, or exposed during one interval during the fruiting period of peaches and apples in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. The cages effectively prevented feeding injury from H. halys. Peaches and apples that were never caged showed the highest percentages of injured fruit at harvest. Exposure treatment had a significant effect on the percentage of fruit showing external injury at harvest in both years for apples and in 2012 for peaches, and a significant effect on the percentage of apples and peaches showing internal injury at harvest in both years. There was no consistent effect of each exposure period on peach injury, but apples exposed during the mid- to latter portion of the season tended to show most injury. Across all exposure periods, more internal than external injuries were recorded at harvest from peaches, while apples tended to have equal or very similar numbers of both kinds of injury. The implications of these results to H. halys management in eastern apple orchards are discussed.

  2. Quantifying key parameters as elicitors for alternate fruit bearing in cv. 'Elstar' apple trees.

    PubMed

    Krasniqi, Anne-Lena; Damerow, Lutz; Kunz, Achim; Blanke, Michael M

    2013-11-01

    The commonly known alternate bearing, i.e. year-to-year change of large and small yields of fruit tree crops worldwide, is often induced by abiotic stress such as late frost, which will eliminate flowers or fruitlets. This study presents an alternative form, biotic biennial bearing, i.e. change of large and small yields of the same trees within the same tree row in the same year. Three methods were developed or modified for the analysis of the number of flower clusters and yield of 2086 apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cv. 'Elstar' trees. The first method, i.e., based on intersect between yield in year x and year x+1 and flower clusters in year x, yielded 91-106 flower clusters, whereas the second method, i.e., mean yield in year x and year x+1, resulted in a range of 72-133 flower clusters, or 9.6kg/tree necessary for sustainable cultivation of apple cv. 'Elstar'. The third 'biennial bearing index' (BBI), was calculated in three ways as the ratio of differences in tree yields to cumulative tree yield, for individual trees (rather than orchard average) to demonstrate the tree-to-tree alternation. A scheme for the possible underlying regulatory mechanisms was developed, which includes potential elicitors such as light deprivation and subsequent lack of flower initiation, are discussed as a possible result of polar basipetal GA7 transport, cytokinin level in the xylem and phloem and down-regulation of the gene expression of the flowering gene. Suggested countermeasures included early chemical or mechanical thinning.

  3. Cultivar and Year Rather than Agricultural Practices Affect Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Apple Fruit.

    PubMed

    Le Bourvellec, Carine; Bureau, Sylvie; Renard, Catherine M G C; Plenet, Daniel; Gautier, Hélène; Touloumet, Line; Girard, Thierry; Simon, Sylvaine

    2015-01-01

    Many biotic and abiotic parameters affect the metabolites involved in the organoleptic and health value of fruits. It is therefore important to understand how the growers' decisions for cultivar and orchard management can affect the fruit composition. Practices, cultivars and/or year all might participate to determine fruit composition. To hierarchize these factors, fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids contents, titratable acidity, individual sugars and organics acids, and phenolics were measured in three apple cultivars ('Ariane', 'Melrose' and 'Smoothee') managed under organic, low-input and conventional management. Apples were harvested at commercial maturity in the orchards of the cropping system experiment BioREco at INRA Gotheron (Drôme, 26) over the course of three years (2011, 2012 and 2013). The main factors affecting primary and secondary metabolites, in both apple skin and flesh, were by far the cultivar and the yearly conditions, while the management system had a very limited effect. When considering the three cultivars and the year 2011 to investigate the effect of the management system per se, only few compounds differed significantly between the three systems and in particular the total phenolic content did not differ significantly between systems. Finally, when considering orchards grown in the same pedoclimatic conditions and of the same age, instead of the usual organic vs. conventional comparison, the effect of the management system on the apple fruit quality (Fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, individual sugars, organic acids, and phenolics) was very limited to non-significant. The main factors of variation were the cultivar and the year of cropping rather than the cropping system. More generally, as each management system (e.g. conventional, organic…) encompasses a great variability of practices, this highlights the importance of accurately documenting orchard practices and design beside the generic

  4. Cultivar and Year Rather than Agricultural Practices Affect Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Apple Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Renard, Catherine M. G. C.; Plenet, Daniel; Gautier, Hélène; Touloumet, Line; Girard, Thierry; Simon, Sylvaine

    2015-01-01

    Many biotic and abiotic parameters affect the metabolites involved in the organoleptic and health value of fruits. It is therefore important to understand how the growers' decisions for cultivar and orchard management can affect the fruit composition. Practices, cultivars and/or year all might participate to determine fruit composition. To hierarchize these factors, fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids contents, titratable acidity, individual sugars and organics acids, and phenolics were measured in three apple cultivars (‘Ariane’, ‘Melrose’ and ‘Smoothee’) managed under organic, low-input and conventional management. Apples were harvested at commercial maturity in the orchards of the cropping system experiment BioREco at INRA Gotheron (Drôme, 26) over the course of three years (2011, 2012 and 2013). The main factors affecting primary and secondary metabolites, in both apple skin and flesh, were by far the cultivar and the yearly conditions, while the management system had a very limited effect. When considering the three cultivars and the year 2011 to investigate the effect of the management system per se, only few compounds differed significantly between the three systems and in particular the total phenolic content did not differ significantly between systems. Finally, when considering orchards grown in the same pedoclimatic conditions and of the same age, instead of the usual organic vs. conventional comparison, the effect of the management system on the apple fruit quality (Fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, individual sugars, organic acids, and phenolics) was very limited to non-significant. The main factors of variation were the cultivar and the year of cropping rather than the cropping system. More generally, as each management system (e.g. conventional, organic…) encompasses a great variability of practices, this highlights the importance of accurately documenting orchard practices and design beside the

  5. Improved monitoring of female codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with pear ester plus acetic acid in sex pheromone-treated orchards.

    PubMed

    Knight, Alan

    2010-08-01

    The performance of clear delta traps baited with 3.0 mg of pear ester, ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, and 5.0 ml of acetic acid in separate lures was compared with orange delta traps baited with a single lure containing 3.0 mg of both pear ester and the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone) for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), in apple, Malus domestica (Borkhausen). Residual analyses and field tests demonstrated that both the pear ester and acetic acid lures were effective for at least 8 wk. The two trap-lure combinations caught a similar number of total moths in an orchard treated with sex pheromone dispensers during short-term trials in 2008. However, the mean catch of female moths was significantly higher and male moths significantly lower in clear traps baited with pear ester and acetic acid versus orange traps baited with pear ester and codlemone. Season-long studies were conducted with these two trap-lure combinations in orchards treated with (n = 6) and without (n = 7) sex pheromone dispensers during 2009. The two trap-lure combinations caught similar numbers of moths in dispenser-treated orchards. In contrast, total catch was significantly higher (>2-fold) in the orange compared with the clear traps in untreated orchards. The clear caught >6-fold more females than the orange trap in both types of orchards. These studies suggest that deploying clear delta traps baited with pear ester and acetic acid can be an effective monitoring tool for female codling moth and an alternative to codlemone-baited traps in sex pheromone-treated orchards.

  6. Soil application of Beauveria bassiana GHA against apple sawfly, Hoplocampa testudinea (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae): Field mortality and fungal persistence.

    PubMed

    Świergiel, Weronika; Meyling, Nicolai V; Porcel, Mario; Rämert, Birgitta

    2016-12-01

    Low impact alternatives to synthetic insecticides for the control of apple sawfly (Hoplocampa testudinea Klug) are scarce encumbering pest management in organic apple orchards. We investigated the soil persistence and field efficacy of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (BotaniGard) against apple sawfly under common organic orchard practices. We also assessed the efficacy of B. bassiana GHA and Metarhizium brunneum Petch (indigenous strain) against sawfly in the laboratory. Larvae treated with either fungus in the laboratory died faster than control larvae and displayed 49.4%-68.4% mycosis. In the field, B. bassiana density remained high in the week after application, during larval descent to the soil. Fungal density decreased to 25% at 49 d after application and to 0.4% after 55 weeks. Molecular markers revealed that the majority of fungal isolates recovered comprised the applied B. bassiana strain GHA. Larvae pupating in soil cages in the orchard for 49 d displayed 17% mycosis. The high efficacy under laboratory conditions was not seen in the field. B. bassiana application resulted in densities above the upper natural background level during the growing season, but reversion to background levels occurred within a year. It remains to be investigated whether this has a detrimental effect on nontarget organisms. Additional work is needed to bridge the knowledge gap between laboratory and field efficacy in orchards.

  7. Monitoring of the entomological diversity in a pesticide free orchard: investigation of the Gembloux Agricultural University Conservatory.

    PubMed

    Poligui, René Noël; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frédéric

    2009-01-01

    In orchards, the fruit production is currently oriented to integrated pest management. In order to develop efficient pest control strategy by using entomophagous beneficial and lowering the application of pesticides, sufficient knowledge of entomological populations is needed. Here, a systematic monitoring of insect diversity and abundance in a conservatory orchard of Gembloux was performed. Combining yellow traps and visual observations, 19 pest and 34 beneficial families were identified among the 10766 and 3985 insects caught in yellow traps and visual observations respectively. Calculation of diversity indices allowed us to demonstrate the variability according to fruit tree species and insects observation method. Highest insects diversity was registered in apple, then in cherry and finally in the apple-pear association and plum. Pests and beneficials represented 27% and 39% of the insect collections respectively. Aphids represented from 81% to 95% of pests depending on fruit tree species and observation method. The predominant specie was Brachycaudus helychrysi (Kaltenbach). Aphidophagous guild was largely present and mainly constituted by coccinellids and hover-flies. Harmonia axyridis Pallas and Episyrphus balteatus De Geer were the most abundant. Aphididae was found to be the most common orchard pests with a range of related aphidophagous beneficials. These results highlight the need leading to potential reasoning.

  8. Biodiversity management of organic orchard enhances both ecological and economic profitability.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jie; Li, Lijun; Liu, Haitao; Li, Yong; Li, Caihong; Wu, Guanglei; Yu, Xiaofan; Guo, Liyue; Cheng, Da; Muminov, Mahmud A; Liang, Xiaotian; Jiang, Gaoming

    2016-01-01

    Organic farming has been regarded as an alternative solution for both agricultural sustainability and human health maintenance. Few researches have concentrated on the differences of biodiversity and eco-economic benefits between organic and conventional orchards. Organic management (OM) of orchards mainly includes taking advantage of natural enemies and beneficial weeds as well as soil organisms and controlling harmful pests. Here we conducted a three-year experiment on the effects of managing biodiversity in an organic apple orchard, using cattle manure to enrich soil biota, propagating native plant to suppress weeds and applying ecological pest management to control pests. The effect was assessed against the conventional management (CM) model. We found that OM enhanced soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen. The 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing results indicated that the dominant bacterial phyla of the top soil were Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, and OM had richer bacteria diversity with a 7% higher Shannon's index than the CM. In particular, the relative abundance of rhizobium in the OM was higher than that of the CM. For OM, Duchesnea indica was an ideal ground-cover plant to control weeds through winning the niche competition and thus decreased weeds' Simpson, Shannon-Wiener and Pielou index by 38.2%, 53.8% and 16.9% separately. The phototactic pests' weight and scarab beetle's population were effectively decreased by 35% and 86% respectively through long time control and prevention. OM had an average of 20 times more earthworms than CM, and the maximum density had reached 369 m(-2) (0-20 cm soil). The dominant earthworm species of the OM were detritivores which preferring soil with high organic matter content. Due to no synthetic chemicals being used, the OM produced much safer apple fruits which were sold at high prices. Economically, up to a 103% increase of output-input ratio had been achieved in the OM. Our

  9. Biodiversity management of organic orchard enhances both ecological and economic profitability

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Jie; Li, Lijun; Liu, Haitao; Li, Yong; Li, Caihong; Wu, Guanglei; Yu, Xiaofan; Guo, Liyue; Cheng, Da; Muminov, Mahmud A.; Liang, Xiaotian

    2016-01-01

    Organic farming has been regarded as an alternative solution for both agricultural sustainability and human health maintenance. Few researches have concentrated on the differences of biodiversity and eco-economic benefits between organic and conventional orchards. Organic management (OM) of orchards mainly includes taking advantage of natural enemies and beneficial weeds as well as soil organisms and controlling harmful pests. Here we conducted a three-year experiment on the effects of managing biodiversity in an organic apple orchard, using cattle manure to enrich soil biota, propagating native plant to suppress weeds and applying ecological pest management to control pests. The effect was assessed against the conventional management (CM) model. We found that OM enhanced soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen. The 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing results indicated that the dominant bacterial phyla of the top soil were Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, and OM had richer bacteria diversity with a 7% higher Shannon’s index than the CM. In particular, the relative abundance of rhizobium in the OM was higher than that of the CM. For OM, Duchesnea indica was an ideal ground-cover plant to control weeds through winning the niche competition and thus decreased weeds’ Simpson, Shannon–Wiener and Pielou index by 38.2%, 53.8% and 16.9% separately. The phototactic pests’ weight and scarab beetle’s population were effectively decreased by 35% and 86% respectively through long time control and prevention. OM had an average of 20 times more earthworms than CM, and the maximum density had reached 369 m−2 (0–20 cm soil). The dominant earthworm species of the OM were detritivores which preferring soil with high organic matter content. Due to no synthetic chemicals being used, the OM produced much safer apple fruits which were sold at high prices. Economically, up to a 103% increase of output–input ratio had been achieved in

  10. The Apple IIc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freiberger, Paul

    1984-01-01

    Description of the portable Apple IIc includes its flat panel display; a new microprocessor, the 65CO2; its new design language; layout; documentation, including interactive tutorials; software support; and cost. Apple IIc's competitors and its new printer, the Scribe, are also discussed. (MBR)

  11. Performance of Geneva® apple rootstock selections with ‘Brookfield Gala’ and ‘Cripps Pink’ on a tall spindle system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High density orchard systems have become the standard for new plantings in many apple production regions due to their earlier yield and higher cumulative yields which results in greater return on investments. Growers in the Mid-Atlantic region have unique challenges compared to northern production r...

  12. Elucidating the molecular responses of apple rootstock resistant to ARD pathogens: Challenges and opportunities for development of genomics-assisted breeding tools

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple Replant Disease (ARD) is one of the major limitations to the establishment of an economically viable orchard on replant sites due to the buildup and long-term survival of pathogen inoculum. Infection by several soilborne necrotrophic fungi and oomycetes is primarily responsible for ARD and res...

  13. A multi-phasic approach reveals that apple replant disease is caused by multiple biological agents, with some agents acting synergistically

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple replant disease (ARD) has been reported from all major fruit-growing regions of the world, and is often caused by a consortium of biological agents. The aim of this study was to investigate the etiology of ARD in South Africa in six orchard soils, using a multiphasic approach under glasshouse ...

  14. Increase in epidermal planar cell density accompanies decreased russeting of “Golden Delicious” apples treated with gibberellin A4+7

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A two-year study was conducted in a “Golden Delicious” (Malus Xdomestica Borkh.) orchard having a high historical incidence of physiological fruit russeting, to examine the effect of gibberellin A4+7 (GA4+7) on apple epidermal cell size. Beginning at petal fall, four sequential applications of GA4+7...

  15. Temporal dynamics of brown rot in different apple management systems and importance of dropped fruit for disease development.

    PubMed

    Holb, I J; Scherm, H

    2007-09-01

    ABSTRACT Epidemic development of brown rot, caused by Monilinia fructigena, was monitored in integrated and organic apple orchards at two locations in eastern Hungary between 2002 and 2005 on three cultivars with early, midseason, and late ripening periods. Disease incidence and severity measures were affected significantly (P < 0.05) by management system (organic versus integrated) and cultivar, but there was no significant management system-cultivar interaction. Epidemics started 2 to 4 weeks earlier in organic orchards and on the early cv. Prima compared with integrated orchards and the late cv. Mutsu. Disease intensity increased markedly in the final 3 to 5 weeks before harvest and was considerably lower in integrated than in organic orchards. Final brown rot incidence on fruit in the tree was correlated with incidence on dropped fruit on the orchard floor (r > 0.75, P < 0.05), whereby the lag period from the appearance of the first symptomatic fruit on the ground to the occurrence of the first symptomatic fruit in the tree ranged from 2 weeks to 2 months, depending on the cultivar. The inflection point of the disease progress curve was attained first by fruit on the ground, followed successively by fruit in the lower, middle, and upper thirds of the tree canopy. This may indicate that dropped fruit that became infected early provided a source of inoculum for subsequent epidemics by serving as a bridge between sporulation from overwintered fruit mummies in the spring and the first fruit with sporulating lesions in the tree in midsummer. Removal of dropped fruit from the orchard floor resulted in a significantly lower disease incidence on fruit in the tree on all cultivars; thus, drop-removal may be useful as a brown rot management practice in apple orchards.

  16. Monte Carlo simulation of the risk of contamination of apples with Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Siobain; Schaffner, Donald W

    2002-10-25

    Quantitative descriptions of the frequency and extent of contamination of apple cider with pathogenic bacteria were obtained using literature data and computer simulation. Probability distributions were chosen to describe the risk of apple contamination by each suspected pathway. Tree-picked apples may be contaminated by birds infected with Escherichia coli O157:H7 when orchards were located near a sewage source (ocean or landfill). Dropped apples could become contaminated from either infected animal droppings or from contaminated manure if used as fertilizer. A risk assessment model was created in Analytica. The results of worst-case simulations revealed that 6-9 log CFU E. coli O157:H7 might be found on a harvest of 1000 dropped apples, while 3-4 log CFU contamination could be present on 1000 tree-picked apples. This model confirms that practices such as using dropped apples and using animal waste as fertilizer increase risk in the production of apple cider, and that pasteurization may not eliminate all contamination in juice from heavily contaminated fruit. Recently published FDA regulations for juices requiring a 5-log CFU/ml reduction of pathogenic bacteria in fresh juices should be a fail-safe measure for apples harvested in all but the worst-case scenarios.

  17. Utilizing immunomarking techniques to track Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) movement and distribution within a peach orchard.

    PubMed

    Blaauw, Brett R; Jones, Vincent P; Nielsen, Anne L

    2016-01-01

    In this study we focus on the invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), which has a strong dispersal capacity and has had a significant impact on several cropping systems, including peach (Prunus persica (L.)). Management of H. halys has relied on intensive insecticide use, and thus a better understanding of its dispersal behavior may assist in developing improved management strategies. In order to investigate H. halys movement and distribution patterns within a peach orchard we applied ecologically safe, food protein markers to the trees along the orchard border (chicken egg albumin in the form of liquid egg whites) and to the trees within the orchard interior (bovine casein in the form of cow's milk). We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) to assess whether collected H. halys were "marked" with either of the two protein markers, revealing where in the orchard the bugs had visited. From the density data we determined that H. halys is a perimeter-driven pest in peaches, with a significantly higher density of bugs collected along the orchard border. Interestingly, this trend is primarily driven by the distribution of male bugs. The protein marking data revealed that a small proportion of male H. halys move equally between the orchard border and interior, while a small proportion of females move predominately to the border after visiting the interior. The verification of a strong edge-effect, although potentially sex-specific, implies that H. halys displays a dispersal behavior that may also be exploited for management, which may help growers more efficiently and more effectively manage H. halys.

  18. Utilizing immunomarking techniques to track Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) movement and distribution within a peach orchard

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Vincent P.; Nielsen, Anne L.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we focus on the invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), which has a strong dispersal capacity and has had a significant impact on several cropping systems, including peach (Prunus persica (L.)). Management of H. halys has relied on intensive insecticide use, and thus a better understanding of its dispersal behavior may assist in developing improved management strategies. In order to investigate H. halys movement and distribution patterns within a peach orchard we applied ecologically safe, food protein markers to the trees along the orchard border (chicken egg albumin in the form of liquid egg whites) and to the trees within the orchard interior (bovine casein in the form of cow’s milk). We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) to assess whether collected H. halys were “marked” with either of the two protein markers, revealing where in the orchard the bugs had visited. From the density data we determined that H. halys is a perimeter-driven pest in peaches, with a significantly higher density of bugs collected along the orchard border. Interestingly, this trend is primarily driven by the distribution of male bugs. The protein marking data revealed that a small proportion of male H. halys move equally between the orchard border and interior, while a small proportion of females move predominately to the border after visiting the interior. The verification of a strong edge-effect, although potentially sex-specific, implies that H. halys displays a dispersal behavior that may also be exploited for management, which may help growers more efficiently and more effectively manage H. halys. PMID:27190711

  19. Microbial control of arthropod pests of orchards in temperate climates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperate orchards systems have several environmental features that make them conducive to microbial control strategies including adequate soil moisture, shading (protection from harmful UV) and stability. This chapter reviews and analyzes microbial control efforts in temperate orchards, including p...

  20. Detection of apple juice adulteration using near-infrared transflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    León, Lorenzo; Kelly, J Daniel; Downey, Gerard

    2005-05-01

    Near-infrared transflectance spectroscopy was used to detect adulteration of apple juice samples. A total of 150 apple samples from 19 different varieties were collected in two consecutive years from orchards throughout the main cultivation areas in Ireland. Adulterant samples at 10, 20, 30, and 40% w/w were prepared using two types of adulterants: a high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) with 45% fructose and 55% glucose, and a sugars solution (SUGARS) made with 60% fructose, 25% glucose, and 15% sucrose (the average content of these sugars in apple juice). The results show that NIR analysis can be used to predict adulteration of apple juices by added sugars with a detection limit of 9.5% for samples adulterated with HFCS, 18.5% for samples adulterated with SUGARS, and 17% for the combined (HFCS + SUGARS) adulterants. Discriminant partial least squares (PLS) regression can detect authentic apple juice with an accuracy of 86-100% and adulterant apple juice with an accuracy of 91-100% depending on the adulterant type and level of adulteration considered. This method could provide a rapid screening technique for the detection of this type of apple juice adulteration, although further work is required to demonstrate model robustness.

  1. Apple Pollination: Demand Depends on Variety and Supply Depends on Pollinator Identity

    PubMed Central

    Garratt, M. P. D.; Breeze, T. D.; Boreux, V.; Coston, D. J.; Jenner, N.; Dean, R.; Westbury, D. B.; Biesmeijer, J. C.; Potts, S. G.

    2016-01-01

    Insect pollination underpins apple production but the extent to which different pollinator guilds supply this service, particularly across different apple varieties, is unknown. Such information is essential if appropriate orchard management practices are to be targeted and proportional to the potential benefits pollinator species may provide. Here we use a novel combination of pollinator effectiveness assays (floral visit effectiveness), orchard field surveys (flower visitation rate) and pollinator dependence manipulations (pollinator exclusion experiments) to quantify the supply of pollination services provided by four different pollinator guilds to the production of four commercial varieties of apple. We show that not all pollinators are equally effective at pollinating apples, with hoverflies being less effective than solitary bees and bumblebees, and the relative abundance of different pollinator guilds visiting apple flowers of different varieties varies significantly. Based on this, the taxa specific economic benefits to UK apple production have been established. The contribution of insect pollinators to the economic output in all varieties was estimated to be £92.1M across the UK, with contributions varying widely across taxa: solitary bees (£51.4M), honeybees (£21.4M), bumblebees (£18.6M) and hoverflies (£0.7M). This research highlights the differences in the economic benefits of four insect pollinator guilds to four major apple varieties in the UK. This information is essential to underpin appropriate investment in pollination services management and provides a model that can be used in other entomolophilous crops to improve our understanding of crop pollination ecology. PMID:27152628

  2. Apple rootstock evaluation for apple replant disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-nine rootstocks from the Cornell-Geneva rootstock breeding program, some Budagovski rootstocks, M.9T337 and M.26EMLA were screened for apple replant disease (ARD) tolerance at Geneva, New York in 2008. Bench grafted rootstocks were planted in pots with two types of soil –clay loam and sandy l...

  3. Insect management in deciduous orchard ecosystems: Habitat manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedders, W. L.

    1983-01-01

    Current literature pertaining to habitat manipulation of deciduous fruit and nut orchards for pest control is reviewed. The hypothesis of pesticide-induced pest problems in deciduous orchards as well as the changing pest population dynamics of deciduous orchards is discussed An experimental habitat manipulation program for pecans, utilizing vetch cover crops to enhance lady beetle populations for pecan aphid control is presented

  4. The Diminishing Apple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Catherine

    2002-01-01

    Introduces the Apple Ocean activity which teaches about the diminishing natural resources of the earth including drinkable water, habitable land, and productive areas while working with fractions, ratios, and proportions. (YDS)

  5. Orchard floor management effects on nitrogen fertility and soil biological activity in a newly established organic apple orchard

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrient supply in organic systems is dependent on mineralization of organic matter; however, the intensive cultivation commonly used to control weeds can disrupt biological processes and cause undue loss of organic matter. Here we address the often-competing goals of organic fertility and weed con...

  6. Curve numbers for olive orchard catchments in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguas, Encarnación; Yuan, Yongping; Licciardello, Feliciana; Gómez, Jose

    2014-05-01

    The Curve Number (CN) method (Soil Conservation Service, 1972) is widely applied around the world to estimate direct runoff and the corresponding hydrograph of a rainfall event. Its efficient and simple computation, its complete parameterization for different soils, uses and managements and its good performance justify its application. Nevertheless, apart from Romero et al. (2007) who calculated CN-values at the plot scale, there is little information on the model performance in olive orchards at the catchment scale. In this work, the CN-model has been applied in three small catchments in Spain ranging between 6 and 8 ha with different soil types (regosol, luvisol and vertisol), topography (mean slopes between 9-15%) and management practices (non-tillage with a spontaneous grass cover, minimum tillage, conventional tillage). A rainfall-runoff dataset of 6 years have been used to test the usefulness of model as well as the accuracy of its reference parameterization (CNs and of initial substraction, Ia). CN-values were adjusted, optimized and compared with reference values for orchard crops while the sensitivity of the goodness of fit to Ia was described for each catchment. Classical equations based on the use of CN-percentiles 50, 10 and 90 for determining the antecedent moisture content (AMC) provided very good results with Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients of efficiency equal to 0.73 and 0.81 in two of the catchments with an annual rainfall higher than 600 mm. The third one -with an annual rainfall lower than 400 mm and spontaneous grass cover- showed a different pattern where a multiple linear regression dependant on precipitation and temperature features, represented notably better the rainfall-runoff relationships. Although fractions of Ia on the storage (S) equal to 0.15 and 0.25 allowed to optimize the adjustments of CN, the usual reference of 0.20 is quite appropriate. Finally, significant deviations were observed on reference-CNs for sandy soils that should be

  7. Genetic and fitness costs of raising wild pollinators in captivity: interaction among species, subspecies and populations of orchard bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managed megachilid bees are often established as small genetically uniform populations, whose fate may foretell the costs of ongoing habitat fragmentation on wild pollinator species. Within our small captive population of a managed orchard bee Osmia ribifloris, mtDNA (COI) markers show two populatio...

  8. Traditional olive orchards on sloping land: sustainability or abandonment?

    PubMed

    Duarte, Filomena; Jones, Nádia; Fleskens, Luuk

    2008-11-01

    Traditional olive orchards account for a large share of the area under olives in the EU, particularly in marginal areas, like those analysed in the OLIVERO project. In general, traditional olive growing can be described as a low-intensity production system, associated with old (sometimes very old) trees, grown at a low density, giving small yields and receiving low inputs of labour and materials. Though such systems are environmentally sustainable, their economic viability has become an issue, since EU policies favour more intensive and competitive systems. Orchards that have not been intensified seem to be threatened by the recent reform of the EU olive and olive oil policy, as income support has been decoupled from production. The main purpose of this paper is to identify the present constraints to traditional olive growing, and to recommend some private and public interventions to prevent its abandonment. During the OLIVERO project, traditional olive production systems were identified and described in five target areas (Trás-os-Montes--Portugal, Cordoba and Granada/Jaen--Spain, Basilicata/Salerno--Italy, and West Crete--Greece). The causes and consequences of abandonment are discussed, based on the analysis of the costs and returns, which revealed that these systems are barely economically sustainable. Their viability is only assured if reduced opportunity costs for family labour are accepted, and the olive growing is part-time. Based on these results, recommendations are made to prevent the abandonment of traditional olive growing and to preserve its environmental benefits.

  9. [Effects of different potassium fertilizer application periods on the yield and quality of Fuji apple].

    PubMed

    Lu, Yong-li; Yang, Xian-long; Li, Ru; Li, Shui-li; Tong, Yan-an

    2015-04-01

    In order to ascertain the effects of potassium fertilizer application periods on apple production, we conducted a field experiment and analyzed the differences in apple yield, fruit quality, potassium fertilizer use efficiency, and nutrient concentrations in leaves and fruits among treatments with differences in timing of potassium application. The results indicated that, compared with no potassium-applied treatment (CK), all potassium fertilizer application treatments significantly increased the apple yield by 4.3%-33.2%, meanwhile, it also obviously improved the fruit quality. In comparison with the application of 100% potassium fertilizer as a base, the application of 50% or 100% of potassium fertilizer at the fruit enlargement stage (the remaining 50% applied as a base or after flowering) significantly increased the apple yield by 20.5% - 27.7% and improved the fruit quality. Compared with the application 100% potassium fertilizer at the stage of fruit enlargement, the evenly split application as base flowering stage and at the fruit enlargement: stage not only contributed to a higher yield, better quality and higher potassium use efficiency, but also maintained a relatively stable potassium concentration level in leaves. However, the split potassium fertilizer application at the flowering and fruit enlargement stages resulted in the significant decrease in concentration of calcium in fruit, which would be negative to fruit quality. In conclusion, our research suggested that evenly split application of potassium fertilizer as a base and at the fruit enlargement stage was the suitable period for apple production in Fuji apple orchards in this region.

  10. About APPLE II Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, T.; Zimoch, D.

    2007-01-19

    The operation of an APPLE II based undulator beamline with all its polarization states (linear horizontal and vertical, circular and elliptical, and continous variation of the linear vector) requires an effective description allowing an automated calculation of gap and shift parameter as function of energy and operation mode. The extension of the linear polarization range from 0 to 180 deg. requires 4 shiftable magnet arrrays, permitting use of the APU (adjustable phase undulator) concept. Studies for a pure fixed gap APPLE II for the SLS revealed surprising symmetries between circular and linear polarization modes allowing for simplified operation. A semi-analytical model covering all types of APPLE II and its implementation will be presented.

  11. Determination of amygdalin in apple seeds, fresh apples and processed apple juices.

    PubMed

    Bolarinwa, Islamiyat F; Orfila, Caroline; Morgan, Michael R A

    2015-03-01

    Cyanogenic glycosides are natural plant toxicants. Action by endogenous plant enzymes can release hydrogen cyanide causing potential toxicity issues for animals including humans. We have quantified amygdalin in seeds from different apple varieties, determined the effects of processing on the amygdalin content of apple juice and quantified amygdalin in commercially-available apple juices. Amygdalin contents of seeds from fifteen varieties of apples ranged from 1 mg g(-1) to 4 mg g(-1). The amygdalin content of commercially-available apple juice was low, ranging from 0.01 to 0.04 mg ml(-1) for pressed apple juice and 0.001-0.007 mg ml(-1) for long-life apple juice. Processing led to juice with low amygdalin content, ranging from 0.01 mg ml(-1) to 0.08 mg ml(-1). The results presented show that the amygdalin contents of commercially-available apple juices are unlikely to present health problems to consumers.

  12. Transcriptomics of shading-induced and NAA-induced abscission in apple (Malus domestica) reveals a shared pathway involving reduced photosynthesis, alterations in carbohydrate transport and signaling and hormone crosstalk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), a synthetic auxin analogue, is widely used as an effective thinner in apple orchards. When applied shortly after fruit set, some fruit abscise leading to improved fruit size and quality. However, the thinning results of NAA are inconsistent and difficult to predict, s...

  13. Seasonal and cultivar-associated variation in oviposition preference of Oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) adults and feeding behavior of neonate larvae in apples.

    PubMed

    Myers, Clayton T; Hull, Larry A; Krawczyk, Grzegorz

    2006-04-01

    The Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) has become a pest of tree fruits since its introduction to the United States in the early twentieth century. Oriental fruit moth has historically been a major pest problem in peach production, and outbreaks in commercial apple (Malus spp.) orchards in the eastern United States were rare until the late 1990s. Recent outbreaks in Mid-Atlantic apple orchards have lead researchers to investigate host-associated effects on oriental fruit moth biology, behavior, and population dynamics. Studies were designed to assess cultivar level effects in apples on oviposition and larval feeding behavior of oriental fruit moth. In a mixed cultivar apple orchard, total oriental fruit moth oviposition and oviposition site preferences varied between cultivars. These preferences also varied over time, when sampling was repeated at various times of the growing season. Although most adult female oriental fruit moth preferentially oviposited in the calyx and stem areas of apple fruit, noticeable numbers of eggs also were laid on the sides of fruit, contradicting some previous reports. Oriental fruit moth females exhibited a strong ovipositional preference for fruit that were previously damaged by oriental fruit moth or codling moth, Cydia ponmonella (L.). The majority of newly hatched oriental fruit moth larvae were observed to spend <24 h on the surface of apple fruit before entry, and this behavior was observed on several apple cultivars. Neonate larvae exhibited a preference for entering fruit at either the stem or calyx ends, regardless of their initial site of placement. Our findings underscore the importance of adequate spray coverage and accurate timing of insecticide applications targeting oriental fruit moth.

  14. [Genetic diversity of microbial communities in tea orchard soil].

    PubMed

    Xue, Dong; Yao, Huai-Ying; Huang, Chang-Yong

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, the total microbial DNA was extracted from the soils in 8-, 50- and 90 years old tea orchards, adjacent wasteland, and 90 years old forestland in Meijiawu tea area of Hangzhou. The 16S rDNA V3 fragment was amplified by PCR, and the polymorphism of this fragment was analyzed by DGGE. The results indicated that both the tea orchard age and the land use type had significant effects on soil microbial genetic diversity. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in the microbial genetic diversity index among wasteland, tea orchards and forestland, which was decreased in the order of wasteland > tea orchard > forestland. For the tea orchards of different ages, the soil microbial genetic diversity index, microbial biomass C, and basal respiration were significantly higher in 50 years old than in 8 and 90 years old tea orchards.

  15. Numerical Analysis of the Effects of Wind and Sprayer Type on Spray Distribution in Different Orchard Training Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duga, Ashenafi T.; Dekeyser, Donald; Ruysen, Kris; Bylemans, Dany; Nuyttens, David; Nicolai, Bart M.; Verboven, Pieter

    2015-12-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of airflow and spray application in orchards was validated using field trials and used to assess the effect of wind and sprayer type on spray distribution in different orchard training systems. Three air-assisted orchard sprayer designs (a cross-flow sprayer, an axial sprayer and a sprayer with individual spouts) and four different training systems of apple and pear trees were used for this analysis. The CFD model integrates the tree architecture into the model geometry, rather than using a generalized canopy profile approach. Predicted vertical on-tree deposition profiles agreed well with measurements. The lower airflow rate generated by the sprayer with individual spouts resulted in a significantly larger deflection of the spray particles under the same wind conditions. A detailed assessment was made on the most common axial sprayer. An increase in the magnitude of the wind speed for flow across the tree row resulted in an increase in the amount of spray detected in the air around the trees and in the ground deposition in front of the tree row. Environmental airflow in the direction of spraying gave the largest deposition on the tree, constraining the spray in the canopy region. A wind direction opposite to the spraying direction, however, resulted in an increase of the ground deposition and the amount of spray remaining in air. The model can be used to analyze the effects of implementation of more sustainable spray application procedures taking into account wind conditions, tree and machine characteristics.

  16. Soil acidification increases metal extractability and bioavailability in old orchard soils of Northeast Jiaodong Peninsula in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Lianzhen; Wu, Huifeng; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Allen, Herbert E

    2014-05-01

    The bioavailability of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd from field-aged orchard soils in a certified fruit plantation area of the Northeast Jiaodong Peninsula in China was assessed using bioassays with earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and chemical assays. Soil acidity increased with increasing fruit cultivation periods with a lowest pH of 4.34. Metals were enriched in topsoils after decades of horticultural cultivation, with highest concentrations of Cu (132 kg(-1)) and Zn (168 mg kg(-1)) in old apple orchards and Pb (73 mg kg(-1)) and Cd (0.57 mg kg(-1)) in vineyard soil. Earthworm tissue concentrations of Cu and Pb significantly correlated with 0.01 M CaCl2-extractable soil concentrations (R(2) = 0.70, p < 0.001 for Cu; R(2) = 0.58, p < 0.01 for Pb). Because of the increased bioavailability, regular monitoring of soil conditions in old orchards and vineyards is recommended, and soil metal guidelines need reevaluation to afford appropriate environmental protection under acidifying conditions.

  17. Upscaling of spectroradiometer data for stress detection in orchards with remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempeneers, Pieter; De Backer, Steve; Delalieux, Stephanie; Sterckx, Sindy; Debruyn, Walter; Coppin, Pol; Scheunders, Paul

    2004-10-01

    This paper studies the detection of vegetation stress in orchards via remote sensing. During previous research, it was shown that stress can be detected reliably on hyperspectral reflectances of the fresh leaves, using a generic wavelet based hyperspectral classification. In this work, we demonstrate the capability to detect stress from airborne/spaceborne hyperspectral sensors by upscaling the leaf reflectances to top of atmosphere (TOA) radiances. Several data sets are generated, measuring the foliar reflectance with a portable field spectroradiometer, covering different time periods, fruit variants and stress types. We concentrated on the Jonagold and Golden Delicious apple trees, induced with mildew and nitrogen deficiency. First, a directional homogeneous canopy reflectance model (ACRM) is applied on these data sets for simulating top of canopy (TOC) spectra. Then, the TOC level is further upscaled to TOA, using the atmospheric radiative transfer model MODTRAN4. To simulate hyperspectral imagery acquired with real airborne/spaceborne sensors, the spectrum is further filtered and subsampled to the available resolution. Using these simulated upscaled TOC and TOA spectra in classification, we will demonstrate that there is still a differentiation possible between stresses and non-stressed trees. Furthermore, results show it is possible to train a classifier with simulated TOA data, to make a classification of real hyperspectral imagery over the orchard.

  18. The use of 16S and 16S-23S rDNA to easily detect and differentiate common Gram-negative orchard epiphytes.

    PubMed

    Jeng, R S; Svircev, A M; Myers, A L; Beliaeva, L; Hunter, D M; Hubbes, M

    2001-02-01

    The identification of Gram-negative pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria commonly isolated from an orchard phylloplane may result in a time consuming and tedious process for the plant pathologist. The paper provides a simple "one-step" protocol that uses the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify intergenic spacer regions between 16S and 23S genes and a portion of 16S gene in the prokaryotic rRNA genetic loci. Amplified 16S rDNA, and restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) following EcoRI digestion produced band patterns that readily distinguished between the plant pathogen Erwinia amylovora (causal agent of fire blight in pear and apple) and the orchard epiphyte Pantoea agglomerans (formerly E. herbicola). The amplified DNA patterns of 16S-23S spacer regions may be used to differentiate E. amylovora at the intraspecies level. Isolates of E. amylovora obtained from raspberries exhibited two major fragments while those obtained from apples showed three distinct amplified DNA bands. In addition, the size of the 16S-23S spacer region differs between Pseudomonas syringae and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The RFLP pattern generated by HaeIII digestion may be used to provide a rapid and accurate identification of these two common orchard epiphytes.

  19. The polarization phase difference of orchard trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, James R.; Mo, Tsan

    1990-01-01

    An image obtained by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's airborne L-band polarimeter (SAR) over an agricultural area near Fresno, California, was analyzed for the signatures of polarization phase difference (PPD). The PPD of orchard trees was found to be distinctly different from that of bare fields or fields covered with other crops. Thus the PPD signatures obtained from a polarimeter may be useful in the understanding of the radar remote sensing of the earth's surface.

  20. Development of a Susceptibility Index of Apple Cultivars for Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Oviposition.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Neelendra K; Rajotte, Edwin G; Myers, Clayton T; Krawczyk, Greg; Hull, Larry A

    2015-01-01

    Codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a major fruit feeding pest of apples. Understanding susceptibility differences of various apple cultivars to CM oviposition is an important step in developing resistant varieties as well as monitoring and management strategies for this pest in apple orchards planted with mixed-cultivars. In this context, oviposition preferences of CM for the fruits of different apple cultivars were studied in laboratory bioassays using a series of no-choice and multiple-choice tests in 2006, 2007, and 2008. In 2006 and 2007, 10 apple cultivars, viz., Arlet, Fuji, Gala, Golden Delicious, Honeycrisp, Pristine, Delicious, Stayman, Sunrise, and York Imperial were evaluated, while in the 2008 tests, Golden Delicious, Honeycrisp, and York Imperial were evaluated. During the 2006 tests, preferred apple cultivars for CM oviposition were Golden Delicious and Fuji, while the least preferred were Arlet, Pristine, Sunrise, and Honeycrisp. Similarly, during the 2007 tests, Golden Delicious, Fuji and Stayman remained the preferred cultivars, while Arlet, Honeycrisp, Pristine, and Sunrise remained the least preferred cultivars. In the 2008 tests, Golden Delicious and Honeycrisp were the most and least preferred cultivars, respectively. Based on the oviposition preferences from these bioassays, a susceptibility index for each cultivar was developed. This index may be used as a standard measure in cultivar evaluations in breeding programs, and may assist fruit growers and crop consultants to select the most appropriate cultivar(s) for monitoring and detecting the initial signs of fruit injury from CM in an apple orchard planted with mixed-cultivars.

  1. Development of a Susceptibility Index of Apple Cultivars for Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Oviposition

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Neelendra K.; Rajotte, Edwin G.; Myers, Clayton T.; Krawczyk, Greg; Hull, Larry A.

    2015-01-01

    Codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a major fruit feeding pest of apples. Understanding susceptibility differences of various apple cultivars to CM oviposition is an important step in developing resistant varieties as well as monitoring and management strategies for this pest in apple orchards planted with mixed-cultivars. In this context, oviposition preferences of CM for the fruits of different apple cultivars were studied in laboratory bioassays using a series of no-choice and multiple-choice tests in 2006, 2007, and 2008. In 2006 and 2007, 10 apple cultivars, viz., Arlet, Fuji, Gala, Golden Delicious, Honeycrisp, Pristine, Delicious, Stayman, Sunrise, and York Imperial were evaluated, while in the 2008 tests, Golden Delicious, Honeycrisp, and York Imperial were evaluated. During the 2006 tests, preferred apple cultivars for CM oviposition were Golden Delicious and Fuji, while the least preferred were Arlet, Pristine, Sunrise, and Honeycrisp. Similarly, during the 2007 tests, Golden Delicious, Fuji and Stayman remained the preferred cultivars, while Arlet, Honeycrisp, Pristine, and Sunrise remained the least preferred cultivars. In the 2008 tests, Golden Delicious and Honeycrisp were the most and least preferred cultivars, respectively. Based on the oviposition preferences from these bioassays, a susceptibility index for each cultivar was developed. This index may be used as a standard measure in cultivar evaluations in breeding programs, and may assist fruit growers and crop consultants to select the most appropriate cultivar(s) for monitoring and detecting the initial signs of fruit injury from CM in an apple orchard planted with mixed-cultivars. PMID:26617629

  2. The Apple III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditlea, Steve

    1982-01-01

    Describes and evaluates the features, performance, peripheral devices, available software, and capabilities of the Apple III microcomputer. The computer's operating system, its hardware, and the commercially produced software it accepts are discussed. Specific applications programs for financial planning, accounting, and word processing are…

  3. Apple mosaic virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple mosaic virus (ApMV), a member of the ilarvirus group, naturally infects Betula, Aesculus, Humulus, and several crop genera in the family Rosaceae (Malus, Prunus, Rosa and Rubus). ApMV was first reported in Rubus in several blackberry and raspberry cultivars in the United States and subsequentl...

  4. Antibiosis activity of Pantoea agglomerans biocontrol strain E325 against Erwinia amylovora on apple flower stigmas.

    PubMed

    Pusey, P L; Stockwell, V O; Reardon, C L; Smits, T H M; Duffy, B

    2011-10-01

    Pantoea agglomerans E325, the active ingredient in a commercial product for fire blight control, was previously shown in vitro to produce a unique alkaline- and phosphate-sensitive antibiotic specific to Erwinia amylovora. Antibiosis was evaluated as a mode of antagonism on flower stigmas using two antibiosis-deficient mutants. On King's medium B, mutants E325ad1 and E325ad2 have stable smooth-butyrous or hypermucoid colony morphologies, respectively, and the parental strain E325 exhibits phenotypic plasticity with predominantly hypermucoid colonies accompanied by slower-growing, smooth-butyrous colonies. Mutants were tested against E. amylovora on stigmas of detached flowers of crab apple (Malus mandshurica) in growth chambers and apple (Malus domestica) in the orchard. Epiphytic fitness of the antibiosis-negative mutants was similar or greater than the parental strain as determined by relative area under the population curve (RAUPC). In laboratory and orchard trials, both mutants had significantly lower inhibitory activity against the pathogen (i.e., less reduction of E. amylovora RAUPC) compared with the parental strain. E325 and the mutants caused similar decreases in pH in a broth medium, indicating that acidification, which was previously reported as a possible mechanism of pathogen inhibition on stigmas, is not directly related to antibiosis. In this study we provide the first evidence for E325 antibiosis involved in E. amylovora growth suppression on apple flower stigmas.

  5. First report of Potato virus V and Peru tomato mosaic virus on tamarillo (Solanum betaceum) orchards of Ecuador

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Ecuador, tamarillo (Solanum betaceum) represents an important cash crop for hundreds of small farmers. In 2013, leaves from tamarillo plants showing severe virus-like symptoms (mosaic, mottling and leaf deformation) were collected from old orchards in Pichincha and Tungurahua. Double-stranded RN...

  6. Responses of apple fruit size to tree water status and crop load.

    PubMed

    Naor, A; Naschitz, S; Peres, M; Gal, Y

    2008-08-01

    The combined effects of irrigation rate and crop load on apple yield and fruit size were examined in two commercial apple orchards (cv. Golden Delicious) in a semi-arid zone. The irrigation rates applied were 1, 3 and 7 mm day(-1), and the two fruit thinning treatments involved adjusting crop load to 100 and 300 fruits per tree at Ortal and 50 and 150 fruits per tree at Matityahu. Unthinned trees served as the control. The fruit from each tree was picked separately, and fruit size distribution was determined with a commercial grading machine. Midday stem water potentials varied from -0.9 to -2.8 MPa, crop load varied from 80,000 to 1,900,000 fruit ha(-1) and crop yield varied from 10 to 144 Mg ha(-1). Midday stem water potential decreased with increasing crop load in all irrigation treatments at Matityahu, but only in the 1 mm day(-1) treatment at Ortal. The extent of the lowering of midday stem water potential by crop load decreased with increasing soil water availability. At both orchards, a similar response of total crop yield to crop load on a per hectare basis was observed. Mean fruit mass and relative yield of fruit > 70 mm in diameter increased with midday stem water potential, with the low crop loads having similar but steeper slopes than the high crop load. The responses of mean fruit mass and relative yield of fruit > 70 mm in diameter to midday stem water potential were similar at both orchards, perhaps indicating that thresholds for irrigation scheduling are transferable to other orchards within a region. Factors that may limit the transferability of these thresholds are discussed.

  7. A female-specific attractant for the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, from apple fruit volatiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hern, Alan; Dorn, Silvia

    Host plant-derived esters were investigated as potential female-specific attractants for the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.), a key pest of apples worldwide. The behavioural effects of single and combined volatile compounds and of a natural odour blend were examined using olfactometry and wind-tunnel bioassays. The apple-derived volatile butyl hexanoate attracted mated females while it was behaviourally ineffective for males over a dosage range of more than three orders of magnitude in olfactometer assays. Female CM preferred this kairomone to the headspace volatiles from ripe apples. Both no-choice and choice trials in the wind-tunnel suggested that female moths might be effectively trapped by means of this compound. In contrast, headspace volatiles collected from ripe apple fruits as well as a blend containing the six dominant esters from ripe apples were behaviourally ineffective. A female-specific repellency was found for the component hexyl acetate in the olfactometer, but this ester had no significant effect in the wind-tunnel. Butyl hexanoate with its sex-specific attraction should be further evaluated for monitoring and controlling CM females in orchards.

  8. Development of a portable spectroscopy-based device to detect nutrient status of apple tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yao; Zheng, Lihua; Li, Minzan; Deng, Xiaolei; An, Xiaofei

    2012-11-01

    In order to detect apple tree growth status fast and accurately, four sensitive wavebands (364nm, 652nm, 766nm, 810nm) were obtained by analyzing the correlation between the apple leaves spectra and their nitrogen contents plus adopting the segment reduced precise sampling methods. A rapid determination model of apple leaf nitrogen content suitable for portable detector was built. Then a portable spectroscopy-based device was developed. It consists of an optical unit and a control unit. The optical channel was consisted of convex lens, optical filter, photoelectric detector and airtight mechanical exine. The optical unit was used to capture, transit, transform and submit the optical signal. The controller was consisted of operation, input, display, data storage and power control unit adopting JN5139 as main control unit. Controller was the coordinator in building the wireless network. And it was also responsible for receiving the measured data from sensor, calculating vegetation index, and displaying and storing the calculated results. The experiments showed that the correlation coefficient between the measured nitrogen content and the predicted nitrogen content reached to 0.857. It illustrated that the apple tree nitrogen detector was practical and could be used to detect leaf nitrogen content in apple orchard.

  9. Population Genetic Structure of Apple Scab (Venturia inaequalis (Cooke) G. Winter) in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Leila; Fotuhifar, Khalil-Berdi; Javan Nikkhah, Mohammad; Naghavi, Mohammad-Reza; Baisakh, Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    The population genetic structure of 278 Venturia inaequalis isolates, collected from different apple cultivars of eighteen different provinces in Iran, was investigated using 22 polymorphic microsatellite markers. Analysis of molecular variation, Bayesian clustering and Nei's genetic distance analyses based on 88 microsatellite alleles indicated substantial levels of gene flow among the collection sites. Ninety three percent of the variation was observed among the individuals within the populations and only 7% variation was observed among the populations. Structure analysis grouped the isolates into two populations. Maximum number of pathogen genotypes (44) was observed in the North of Iran that grows various different apple cultivars. Investigation on the variation of the pathogen on different cultivars in the North of Iran suggested a significant differentiation of the pathogen populations between wild apple and commercial cultivars. During sampling, varying ranges of scab infection were observed on various apple cultivars in forests, monoculture and mix orchards. Wild type apple (Malus orientalis) along the Caspian Sea Coast had the most infection in comparison with the Iranian endemic and commercial cultivars. Based on the genetic analysis and host tracking scenario of the pathogen, it was presumed that Iran could potentially be the center of origin of V. inaequalis, which requires further detailed studies with isolates collected from different parts of central Asia and world for confirmation. PMID:27631622

  10. Impact of orchard and tillage management practices on soil leaching of atrazine, potassium, magnesium, manganese, iron, ammonium, nitrates and phosphates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szajdak, L.; Lipiec, J.; Siczek, A.; Kotowska, U.; Nosalewicz, A.

    2009-04-01

    The experiments were carried out on an Orthic Luvisol developed from loess, over limestone, at the experimental field of Lublin Agricultural University in Felin (51o15'N, 22o35'E), Poland. The investigation deals with the problems of leaching's rate of atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,2,3-triazine), potassium, magnesium, manganese, iron, ammonium, nitrates and phosphates from two management systems of soil: (i) conventionally tilled field with main tillage operations including stubble cultivator (10 cm) + harrowing followed by mouldboard ploughing to 20 cm depth, and crop rotation including selected cereals, root crops and papillionaceous crops, (ii) 35-year-old apple orchard field (100x200m) with a permanent sward that was mown in the inter-rows during the growing season. The conventionally tilled plot was under the current management practice for approximately 30 years. Field sites were close to each other (about 150 m). Core samples of 100 cm3 volume and 5 cm diameter were taken from two depths 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm, and were used to determine the soil water characteristic curve. It was observed that management practices impacted on the physic-chemical properties of soils. pH (in H2O) in tilled soil ranged from 5.80 to 5.91. However soil of orchard soil revealed higher values of pH than tilled soil and ranged from 6.36 to 6.40. The content of organic carbon for tilled soil ranged from 1.13 to 1.17%, but in orchard soil from 1.59 to 1.77%. Tillled soil showed broader range of bulk density 1.38-1.62 mg m-3, than orchard soil 1.33-134 mg m-3. The first-order kinetic reaction model was fitted to the experimental atrazine, potassium, magnesium, manganese, iron, nitrates, ammonium and phosphates leaching vs. time data. The concentrations of leached chemical compounds revealed linear curves. The correlation coefficients ranged from -0.873 to -0.993. The first-order reaction constants measured for the orchard soils were from 3.8 to 19 times higher than

  11. Orchard nitrogen management: Which nitrogen source is best?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Suboptimal management of nitrogen fertility in pecan orchards leads to a loss of nutmeat yield and quality, but also a waste of natural resources and money. This article reviews several basic guiding principles useful to orchard managers when developing nitrogen management strategies, and determini...

  12. 33 CFR 334.1230 - Port Orchard; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... paragraph shall be enforced by the Commander, Naval base, Seattle, and such agencies as he/she may designate... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Port Orchard; naval restricted... ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1230 Port Orchard;...

  13. Distribution of Anastrepha spp. in carambola orchards: Evidence for migration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carambola orchards in Juana Diaz, Corozal, and Isabela, PR, were monitored for Anastrepha spp. fruit flies using Multi-lure traps baited with putrescine and ammonium acetate. The number of flies at various locations within the orchards were statistically compared with the expected distribution if fl...

  14. Apple Image Processing Educator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunther, F. J.

    1981-01-01

    A software system design is proposed and demonstrated with pilot-project software. The system permits the Apple II microcomputer to be used for personalized computer-assisted instruction in the digital image processing of LANDSAT images. The programs provide data input, menu selection, graphic and hard-copy displays, and both general and detailed instructions. The pilot-project results are considered to be successful indicators of the capabilities and limits of microcomputers for digital image processing education.

  15. Polyphenol profiles of apple juices.

    PubMed

    Kahle, Kathrin; Kraus, Michael; Richling, Elke

    2005-08-01

    Focusing on 17 constituents, the polyphenol profiles of juices freshly made from various dessert (n = 4) and cider apple cultivars (n = 7) as well as commercially available apple juices (n = 24) were investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and (HPLC)-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI(neg)-MS/MS) analyses. Significant differences in the total polyphenol content as well as the profiles of the apple cultivars under study were observed. For dessert apples the total polyphenol content ranged from 154 to 178 mg/L, whereas for 'old' German cider apple cultivars 261-970 mg/L were determined. Boskoop showed the highest (970 mg/L) and Granny Smith the lowest (154 mg/L) polyphenol content of the freshly prepared samples under study. Hydroxycinnamic acids, with chlorogenic acid as dominating constituent, ranged from 57 to 68 mg/L as well as from 134-593 mg/L in juices made from dessert apples and that from cider apples, respectively. Dessert apple juices showed lower contents of dihydrochalcones (10-35 mg/L) and flavan-3-ols (50-95 mg/L) compared to that of cider apples (34-171 mg/L and 70-393 mg/L, respectively). Quercetin and its derivatives were found from 0.4-4 mg/L and 0.4-27 mg/L in juices made from dessert apples and that of cider apples, respectively. Compared with freshly made juices, lower contents of polyphenols were determined in the commercial samples under study. Amounts ranging from 110-459 mg/L, dominated by chlorogenic acid with concentrations from 53-217 mg/L, were determined. Information about cultivar-typical apple polyphenol content and profile is important for bioactivity studies and, consequently, essential for the development of consumer-relevant products with particular nutritional functionalities.

  16. Comparison of Cultivable Acetic Acid Bacterial Microbiota in Organic and Conventional Apple Cider Vinegar.

    PubMed

    Štornik, Aleksandra; Skok, Barbara; Trček, Janja

    2016-03-01

    Organic apple cider vinegar is produced from apples that go through very restricted treatment in orchard. During the first stage of the process, the sugars from apples are fermented by yeasts to cider. The produced ethanol is used as a substrate by acetic acid bacteria in a second separated bioprocess. In both, the organic and conventional apple cider vinegars the ethanol oxidation to acetic acid is initiated by native microbiota that survived alcohol fermentation. We compared the cultivable acetic acid bacterial microbiota in the production of organic and conventional apple cider vinegars from a smoothly running oxidation cycle of a submerged industrial process. In this way we isolated and characterized 96 bacteria from organic and 72 bacteria from conventional apple cider vinegar. Using the restriction analysis of the PCR-amplified 16S-23S rRNA gene ITS regions, we identified four different HaeIII and five different HpaII restriction profiles for bacterial isolates from organic apple cider vinegar. Each type of restriction profile was further analyzed by sequence analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA gene ITS regions, resulting in identification of the following species: Acetobacter pasteurianus (71.90%), Acetobacter ghanensis (12.50%), Komagataeibacter oboediens (9.35%) and Komagataeibacter saccharivorans (6.25%). Using the same analytical approach in conventional apple cider vinegar, we identified only two different HaeIII and two different HpaII restriction profiles of the 16S‒23S rRNA gene ITS regions, which belong to the species Acetobacter pasteurianus (66.70%) and Komagataeibacter oboediens (33.30%). Yeasts that are able to resist 30 g/L of acetic acid were isolated from the acetic acid production phase and further identified by sequence analysis of the ITS1-5.8S rDNA‒ITS2 region as Candida ethanolica, Pichia membranifaciens and Saccharomycodes ludwigii. This study has shown for the first time that the bacterial microbiota for the industrial production of

  17. Comparison of Cultivable Acetic Acid Bacterial Microbiota in Organic and Conventional Apple Cider Vinegar

    PubMed Central

    Štornik, Aleksandra; Skok, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Summary Organic apple cider vinegar is produced from apples that go through very restricted treatment in orchard. During the first stage of the process, the sugars from apples are fermented by yeasts to cider. The produced ethanol is used as a substrate by acetic acid bacteria in a second separated bioprocess. In both, the organic and conventional apple cider vinegars the ethanol oxidation to acetic acid is initiated by native microbiota that survived alcohol fermentation. We compared the cultivable acetic acid bacterial microbiota in the production of organic and conventional apple cider vinegars from a smoothly running oxidation cycle of a submerged industrial process. In this way we isolated and characterized 96 bacteria from organic and 72 bacteria from conventional apple cider vinegar. Using the restriction analysis of the PCR-amplified 16S−23S rRNA gene ITS regions, we identified four different HaeIII and five different HpaII restriction profiles for bacterial isolates from organic apple cider vinegar. Each type of restriction profile was further analyzed by sequence analysis of the 16S−23S rRNA gene ITS regions, resulting in identification of the following species: Acetobacter pasteurianus (71.90%), Acetobacter ghanensis (12.50%), Komagataeibacter oboediens (9.35%) and Komagataeibacter saccharivorans (6.25%). Using the same analytical approach in conventional apple cider vinegar, we identified only two different HaeIII and two different HpaII restriction profiles of the 16S‒23S rRNA gene ITS regions, which belong to the species Acetobacter pasteurianus (66.70%) and Komagataeibacter oboediens (33.30%). Yeasts that are able to resist 30 g/L of acetic acid were isolated from the acetic acid production phase and further identified by sequence analysis of the ITS1−5.8S rDNA‒ITS2 region as Candida ethanolica, Pichia membranifaciens and Saccharomycodes ludwigii. This study has shown for the first time that the bacterial microbiota for the industrial

  18. Inclusion of Specialist and Generalist Stimuli in Attract-and-Kill Programs: Their Relative Efficacy in Apple Maggot Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Pest Management.

    PubMed

    Morrison, William R; Lee, Doo-Hyung; Reissig, W Harvey; Combs, David; Leahy, Kathleen; Tuttle, Arthur; Cooley, Daniel; Leskey, Tracy C

    2016-08-01

    Investigating the chemical ecology of agricultural systems continues to be a salient part of integrated pest management programs. Apple maggot fly, a key pest of apple in eastern North America, is a visual specialist with attraction to host fruit-mimicking cues. These cues have been incorporated into red spherical traps used for both monitoring and behaviorally based management. Incorporating generalist or specialist olfactory cues can potentially increase the overall success of this management system. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the attractiveness of a generalist olfactory cue, ammonium carbonate, and the specialist olfactory cue, a five-component apple volatile blend, when included as a component of a red attracticidal sphere system. Secondly, we assessed how critical it was to maintain minimal deviation from the optimal, full-round specialist visual stimulus provided by red spheres. Finally, attracticidal spheres were deployed with specialist olfactory cues in commercial apple orchards to evaluate their potential for effective management of apple maggot. Ammonium carbonate did not increase residency, feeding time, or mortality in the laboratory-based trials. Field deployment of specialist olfactory cues increased apple maggot captures on red spheres, while the generalist cue did not. Apple maggot tolerated some deviation from the optimal visual stimulus without reducing captures on red spheres. Attracticidal spheres hung in perimeter trees in orchards resulted in acceptable and statistically identical levels of control compared with standard insecticide programs used by growers. Overall, our study contributes valuable information for developing a reliable attract-and-kill system for apple maggot.

  19. Response time accuracy in Apple Macintosh computers.

    PubMed

    Neath, Ian; Earle, Avery; Hallett, Darcy; Surprenant, Aimée M

    2011-06-01

    The accuracy and variability of response times (RTs) collected on stock Apple Macintosh computers using USB keyboards was assessed. A photodiode detected a change in the screen's luminosity and triggered a solenoid that pressed a key on the keyboard. The RTs collected in this way were reliable, but could be as much as 100 ms too long. The standard deviation of the measured RTs varied between 2.5 and 10 ms, and the distributions approximated a normal distribution. Surprisingly, two recent Apple-branded USB keyboards differed in their accuracy by as much as 20 ms. The most accurate RTs were collected when an external CRT was used to display the stimuli and Psychtoolbox was able to synchronize presentation with the screen refresh. We conclude that RTs collected on stock iMacs can detect a difference as small as 5-10 ms under realistic conditions, and this dictates which types of research should or should not use these systems.

  20. Volatility of patulin in apple juice.

    PubMed

    Kryger, R A

    2001-08-01

    Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by certain fungi, such as those found commonly on apples. The patulin content of apple juice is a regulatory concern because patulin is a suspected carcinogen and mutagen. A simple model of the apple juice concentration process was carried out to examine the possible contamination of patulin in apple aroma, a distillate produced commercially in the concentration of apple juice. The results show no evidence for patulin volatility, and document a reduction in patulin content by at least a factor of 250 in the apple distillate obtained from apple juice. Furthermore, a survey of several commercial apple aroma samples found no evidence of patulin content.

  1. Low-drift nozzles vs. standard nozzles for pesticide application in the biological efficacy trials of pesticides in apple pest and disease control.

    PubMed

    Doruchowski, Grzegorz; Świechowski, Waldemar; Masny, Sylwester; Maciesiak, Alicja; Tartanus, Małgorzata; Bryk, Hanna; Hołownicki, Ryszard

    2017-01-01

    The coarse spray air-induction nozzles have documented pesticide drift reducing potential and hence pose lower risk of environmental pollution than the standard fine spray hollow cone nozzles. However, it is questioned that use of the low-drift nozzles might not provide as effective crop protection as the standard nozzles. The objective of work was to assess the pest and disease control efficacy as affected by spray volume rate and nozzle type. The experiment was carried out in apple orchard, cv Jonagold/M26. The evaluated treatments were combinations of three spray volume rates: 250, 500 and 750lha(-1), and two types of nozzles: hollow cone nozzles generating very fine spray, and flat fan air induction nozzles producing coarse droplets. The biological performance of treatments was determined based on severity of diseases: apple scab (Venturia inaequalis), powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) and bull's eye rot (Pezicula spp.), as well as population or damage caused by pests: green apple aphid (Aphis pomi), rosy apple aphid (Dysaphis plantaginea Pass.), woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum), apple rust mite (Aculus schlechtendali) and apple blossom weevil (Anthonomus pomorum L.). In general apple scab was equally controlled by all treatments. Only in the years of high infection pressure efficacy of powdery mildew control was better for fine spray nozzles and high volume rates. Green and rosy apple aphids were better controlled with higher volume rates, though significance of the advantage over the lower rates was occasional. No effect of spray quality on efficacy of aphid and mite control was found for any spray volume rate. Better control of apple blossom weevil and woolly apple aphid was achieved with the high spray volume rate providing heavy coverage to the point of run-off. The air induction nozzles having drift reducing potential are biologically efficacious alternative to conventional hollow cone nozzles.

  2. Slow erosion of a quantitative apple resistance to Venturia inaequalis based on an isolate-specific Quantitative Trait Locus.

    PubMed

    Caffier, Valérie; Le Cam, Bruno; Al Rifaï, Mehdi; Bellanger, Marie-Noëlle; Comby, Morgane; Denancé, Caroline; Didelot, Frédérique; Expert, Pascale; Kerdraon, Tifenn; Lemarquand, Arnaud; Ravon, Elisa; Durel, Charles-Eric

    2016-10-01

    Quantitative plant resistance affects the aggressiveness of pathogens and is usually considered more durable than qualitative resistance. However, the efficiency of a quantitative resistance based on an isolate-specific Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) is expected to decrease over time due to the selection of isolates with a high level of aggressiveness on resistant plants. To test this hypothesis, we surveyed scab incidence over an eight-year period in an orchard planted with susceptible and quantitatively resistant apple genotypes. We sampled 79 Venturia inaequalis isolates from this orchard at three dates and we tested their level of aggressiveness under controlled conditions. Isolates sampled on resistant genotypes triggered higher lesion density and exhibited a higher sporulation rate on apple carrying the resistance allele of the QTL T1 compared to isolates sampled on susceptible genotypes. Due to this ability to select aggressive isolates, we expected the QTL T1 to be non-durable. However, our results showed that the quantitative resistance based on the QTL T1 remained efficient in orchard over an eight-year period, with only a slow decrease in efficiency and no detectable increase of the aggressiveness of fungal isolates over time. We conclude that knowledge on the specificity of a QTL is not sufficient to evaluate its durability. Deciphering molecular mechanisms associated with resistance QTLs, genetic determinants of aggressiveness and putative trade-offs within pathogen populations is needed to help in understanding the erosion processes.

  3. Small Potatoes for the Big Apple

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plumer, Amy

    1978-01-01

    New York's Tuition Assistance Program (TAP) is described with emphasis on its effect or lack of effect on access, urban students, and middle-income parents. Its role within the three major higher education systems in the state--SUNY, CUNY, and the independents--is examined. (LBH)

  4. Management of apple anthracnose canker

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple anthracnose (caused by Neofabraea malicorticis anamorph Cryptosporiopsis curvispora) is a fungal disease that causes cankers on trees and ‘Bull’s-eye rot’ on fruit. In western Washington, it is the canker phase of apple anthracnose that is considered most serious as it can result in death of ...

  5. Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum viarum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal), a perennial shrub, is a Federal Noxious Weed that continues to spread at an alarming rate in the southeastern United States. Information is provided on the impact of tropical soda apple on agricultural and natural areas, federal regulations for restricted...

  6. Apple rootstock resistance to drought

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water for irrigation will likely be less available in apple-growing regions due to climate change and competition with human needs other than agriculture. Apple cultivars and rootstocks may differ in water use necessary for acceptable cropping. In two greenhouse experiments in 2014 and 2015, roots...

  7. The gravity apple tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa Aldama, Mariana

    2015-04-01

    The gravity apple tree is a genealogical tree of the gravitation theories developed during the past century. The graphic representation is full of information such as guides in heuristic principles, names of main proponents, dates and references for original articles (See under Supplementary Data for the graphic representation). This visual presentation and its particular classification allows a quick synthetic view for a plurality of theories, many of them well validated in the Solar System domain. Its diachronic structure organizes information in a shape of a tree following similarities through a formal concept analysis. It can be used for educational purposes or as a tool for philosophical discussion.

  8. The domestication and evolutionary ecology of apples.

    PubMed

    Cornille, Amandine; Giraud, Tatiana; Smulders, Marinus J M; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Gladieux, Pierre

    2014-02-01

    The cultivated apple is a major fruit crop in temperate zones. Its wild relatives, distributed across temperate Eurasia and growing in diverse habitats, represent potentially useful sources of diversity for apple breeding. We review here the most recent findings on the genetics and ecology of apple domestication and its impact on wild apples. Genetic analyses have revealed a Central Asian origin for cultivated apple, together with an unexpectedly large secondary contribution from the European crabapple. Wild apple species display strong population structures and high levels of introgression from domesticated apple, and this may threaten their genetic integrity. Recent research has revealed a major role of hybridization in the domestication of the cultivated apple and has highlighted the value of apple as an ideal model for unraveling adaptive diversification processes in perennial fruit crops. We discuss the implications of this knowledge for apple breeding and for the conservation of wild apples.

  9. Letter from Hong Kong: A Report on Chinese Food, Fake Apples, and IBM's Asian Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immel, A. Richard

    1984-01-01

    Notes that microcomputer use in Hong Kong's small business community does not reflect the growth of its high-tech electronics industry and discusses IBM's influence in Hong Kong and Asia, the counterfeiting of Apple microcomputers and software, and why Apple currently has no recourse. (MBR)

  10. 75 FR 65213 - Removal of Varietal Restrictions on Apples From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... are cold treated and then fumigated under the supervision of an Animal and Plant Health Inspection... part 305. The regulations also provide that the apples must be inspected upon completion of the cold... economic impact on U.S. entities, large or small. Although the Fuji apple is the most common variety...

  11. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole...

  12. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole...

  13. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole...

  14. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole...

  15. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole...

  16. Evolution of the population structure of Venturia inaequalis, the apple scab fungus, associated with the domestication of its host.

    PubMed

    Gladieux, Pierre; Zhang, Xiu-Guo; Róldan-Ruiz, Isabel; Caffier, Valérie; Leroy, Thibault; Devaux, Martine; Van Glabeke, Sabine; Coart, Els; Le Cam, Bruno

    2010-02-01

    Evaluating the impact of plant domestication on the population structure of the associated pathogens provides an opportunity to increase our understanding of how and why diseases emerge. Here, we investigated the evolution of the population structure of the apple scab fungus Venturia inaequalis in response to the domestication of its host. Inferences were drawn from multilocus microsatellite data obtained from samples collected on (i) the Central Asian Malus sieversii, the main progenitor of apple, (ii) the European crabapple, Malus sylvestris, a secondary progenitor of apple, and (iii) the cultivated apple, Malus x domestica, in orchards from Europe and Central Asia. Using clustering methods, we identified three distinct populations: (i) a large European population on domesticated and wild apples, (ii) a large Central Asian population on domesticated and wild apples in urban and agricultural areas, and (iii) a more geographically restricted population in M. sieversii forests growing in the eastern mountains of Kazakhstan. Unique allele richness and divergence time estimates supported a host-tracking co-evolutionary scenario in which this latter population represents a relict of the ancestral populations from which current populations found in human-managed habitats were derived. Our analyses indicated that the domestication of apple induced a significant change in the genetic differentiation of populations of V. inaequalis in its centre of origin, but had little impact on its population dynamics and mating system. We discuss how the structure of the apple-based agrosystem may have restricted changes in the population structure of the fungus in response to the domestication of its host.

  17. Lincoln Co. Scrap Metal, Crab Orchard, Kentucky

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The City of Crab Orchard, KY (population less than 1,000) received a $200,000 EPA Brownfields cleanup grant in 2010 to cleanup up the Lincoln County ScrapMetal property. The site, a former scrap metal recycler and general junkyard, was located in the middle of downtown. The city has experienced a dramatic decline in growth over the past few years. The abandoned two-acre site is located in the city’s center, directly across the street from City Hall. It is the largest property on Main Street. The property was an eyesore, and posed potential health risks to area residents, and deterred investment. Its blighted status did little to help the commercial and private properties that surround it. The site was also home to a dilapidated building that once served as the Odd Fellows meeting hall.

  18. Canopy architecture of a walnut orchard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ustin, Susan L.; Martens, Scott N.; Vanderbilt, Vern C.

    1991-01-01

    A detailed dataset describing the canopy geometry of a walnut orchard was acquired to support testing and comparison of the predictions of canopy microwave and optical inversion models. Measured canopy properties included the quantity, size, and orientation of stems, leaves, and fruit. Eight trees receiving 100 percent of estimated potential evapotranspiration water use and eight trees receiving 33 percent of potential water use were measured. The vertical distributions of stem, leaf, and fruit properties are presented with respect to irrigation treatment. Zenith and probability distributions for stems and leaf normals are presented. These data show that, after two years of reduced irrigation, the trees receiving only 33 percent of their potential water requirement had reduced fruit yields, lower leaf area index, and altered allocation of biomass within the canopy.

  19. 36. ORCHARD LINE, LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING PACIFIC FRUIT PACKING HOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. ORCHARD LINE, LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING PACIFIC FRUIT PACKING HOUSE NEAR END OF LINE - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Connecting towns of Yakima, Selah & Wiley City, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  20. 9. VIEW SHOWING ARIZONA CANAL WITH CITRUS ORCHARDS, FACING NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW SHOWING ARIZONA CANAL WITH CITRUS ORCHARDS, FACING NORTH. CAMELBACK MOUNTAIN IS IN THE BACKGROUND Photographer: unknown. No date - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  1. A Guide to Energy Savings - For the Orchard Grower.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wynn, N. A.

    This booklet gives a brief overview of energy use in orchard crop production, and gives examples of cutting costs of fertilization, irrigation, weed management, pest management, high density crops, frost protection, and equipment use. (BB)

  2. 21. WILEY CITY LINE TYPICAL RIGHTOFWAY THROUGH CONGDON ORCHARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. WILEY CITY LINE - TYPICAL RIGHT-OF-WAY THROUGH CONGDON ORCHARD PROPERTY, LOOKING WEST - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Connecting towns of Yakima, Selah & Wiley City, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  3. Soil moisture changes in two experimental sites in Eastern Spain. Irrigation versus rainfed orchards under organic farming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azorin-Molina, Cesar; Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.; Cerdà, Artemi

    2013-04-01

    data. These complementary atmospheric measurements will serve to explain the intraannual and vertical variations observed in the soil moisture content in both experimental landscapes. This kind of study is aimed to understand the soil moisture content in two different environments such as irrigated rainfed orchards in a semi-arid region. For instance, these measurements have a direct impact on water availability for crops, plant transpiration and could have practical applications to schedule irrigation. Additionally, soil water content has also implications for erosion processes. Key Words: Water, Agriculture, Irrigation, Eastern Spain, Citrus. Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE and LEDDRA 243857 supported this research. References Cerdà, A. 1995. Soil moisture regime under simulated rainfall in a three years abandoned field in Southeast Spain. Physics and Chemistry of The Earth, 20 (3-4), 271-279. Cerdà, A. 1997. Seasonal Changes of the Infiltration Rates in a Typical Mediterranean Scrubland on Limestone in Southeast Spain. Journal of Hydrology, 198 (1-4) 198-209 Cerdà, A. 1998. Effect of climate on surface flow along a climatological gradient in Israel. A field rainfall simulation approach. Journal of Arid Environments, 38, 145-159. Levin, I., Assaf, R., and Bravdo, B. 1979. Soil moisture and root distribution in an apple orchard irrigated by tricklers. Plant and Soil, 52, 31-40. Schneider, G. W. And Childers, N.F. 1941. Influence of soil moisture on photosynthesis, respiration and transpiration of apples leaves. Plant Physiol., 16, 565-583. Valerie, A. and Orchard, F.J. Cook. 1983. Relationship between soil respiration and soil moisture. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 15, 447-453. Veihmeyer, F. J. and Hendrickson, A. H. 1950. Soil Moisture in Relation to Plant Growth. Annual Review of Plant Physiology, 1, 285-304.

  4. Citrus orchards management and soil water repellency in Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, A.; González Peñaloza, F. A.; Jordán, A.; Zavala, L. M.

    2012-04-01

    Water repellent soils are found around the world, although originally was found on fire affected soil (DeBano, 1981). However, for decades, water repellency was found to be a rare soil property. One of the pioneer research that shown that water repellency was a common soil property is the Wander (1949) publication in Science. Wander researched the water repellency on citrus groves, and since then, no information is available about the water repellency on citrus plantations. The Mediterranean soils are prone to water repellency due to the summer dry conditions (Cerdà and Doerr, 2007). And Land Use and Land Management are key factors (Harper et al., 2000; Urbanek et al., 2007) to understand the water repellency behaviour of agriculture soils. Valencia region (Eastern Spain) is the largest exporter in the world and citrus plantations located in the alluvial plains and fluvial terraces are moving to alluvial fans and slopes where the surface wash is very active (Cerdà et al., 2009). This research aims to show the water repellency on citrus orchards located on the sloping terrain (< 15 % angle slope). Measurement were conducted in four experimental plots located in the Canyoles River watershed to assess the soil water repellency in citrus orchards under different managements: annual addition of plant residues and manure with no tilling and no fertilizer (MNT), annual addition of plant residues with no tillage (NT), application of conventional herbicides and no tilling (HNT) and conventional tillage in June (CT). The period for each type of management ranged from 2 and 27 (MNT), 1 and 25 (NT), 2 and 27 (HNT) and 3 and 29 years (CT). At each plot, a ten points were selected every 10 cm along inter-rows and water drop penetration time test (WDTP; DeBano, 1981) was performed. The results show that the MNT treatment induced slight water repellency in citrus-cropped soils compared to other treatments. Small but significant soil water repellency was observed under NT and HNT

  5. Integration of insecticidal, phagostimulatory, and visual elements of an attract and kill system for apple maggot fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Wright, Starker E; Leskey, Tracy C; Jacome, Isabel; Piñero, Jaime C; Prokopy, Ronald J

    2012-10-01

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), is a key pest of apple in eastern North America that has been historically controlled with organophosphate insecticide applications. Here we report on progress toward development of an effective and maintenance-free attracticidal sphere system for this pest species. In our studies, we evaluated lethality of spinosad in combination with a feeding stimulant (sucrose) to replace a Tangletrap sticky coating as the killing agent of a sphere-based behavioral control system. Spinosad was incorporated into cylindrical and contoured controlled-release caps that were fixed atop visually stimulating sphere bases. For both cap styles, spinosad at or near 1.0% (a.i.) proved to be a relatively durable fly-killing agent, providing approximately equal to 85% mortality after simulated rainfall exposure reflective of average season-long precipitation levels experienced during the primary period of risk of apple maggot injury to fruit in the northeastern United States. In field trials, we assessed the impact of color degradation of contoured controlled-release caps on visual responsiveness of apple maggot fly and found that it had no significant impact on captures. In commercial orchard trials designed to evaluate the potential of attracticidal spheres with contoured caps for direct control of apple maggot, a perimeter-based deployment provided protection comparable to plots receiving 1-2 whole-plot insecticide applications.

  6. Effect of Over-Tree Evaporative Cooling in Orchards on Microclimate and Accuracy of Insect Model Predictions.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Ute; Jones, Vincent P

    2015-12-01

    Orchard design and management practices can alter microclimate and, thus, potentially affect insect development. If sufficiently large, these deviations in microclimate can compromise the accuracy of phenology model predictions used in integrated pest management (IPM) programs. Sunburn causes considerable damage in the Pacific Northwest, United States, apple-producing region. Common prevention strategies include the use of fruit surface protectants, evaporative cooling (EC), or both. This study focused on the effect of EC on ambient temperatures and model predictions for four insects (codling moth, Cydia pomonella L.; Lacanobia fruitworm, Lacanobia subjuncta Grote and Robinson; oblique-banded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana Harris; and Pandemis leafroller, Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott). Over-tree EC was applied in July and August when daily maximum temperatures were predicted to be ≥30°C between 1200-1700 hours (15/15 min on/off interval) in 2011 and between 1200-1800 hours (15/10 min on/off interval, or continuous on) in 2012. Control plots were sprayed once with kaolin clay in early July. During interval and continuous cooling, over-tree cooling reduced average afternoon temperatures compared with the kaolin treatment by 2.1-3.2°C. Compared with kaolin-treated controls, codling moth and Lacanobia fruitworm egg hatch in EC plots was predicted to occur up to 2 d and 1 d late, respectively. The presence of fourth-instar oblique-banded leafroller and Pandemis leafroller was predicted to occur up to 2 d and 1 d earlier in EC plots, respectively. These differences in model predictions were negligible, suggesting that no adjustments in pest management timing are needed when using EC in high-density apple orchards.

  7. Relationships between spur- and orchard-level fruit bearing in almond (Prunus dulcis).

    PubMed

    Tombesi, Sergio; Lampinen, Bruce D; Metcalf, Samuel; DeJong, Theodore M

    2011-12-01

    Almond is often considered to be a moderately alternate-bearing species but historical yield data typically do not exhibit clear patterns of alternate bearing at the orchard level, while research has indicated that spurs (the main fruit bearing unit in almond trees) rarely produce fruit in two subsequent years. The objective of the present work was to analyze the bearing behavior of almond trees at both the orchard level and the individual spur level over multiple years to explain this apparent paradox. The 10-year yield patterns of three almond cultivars grown at three different sites within California were analyzed for tendencies of alternate bearing at the orchard level. At the individual spur level, data on spur viability, and number of flowers and fruits per spur were collected on 2400 individually tagged spurs that were observed over 6 years to characterize bearing at that level. At the orchard level one cultivar (Nonpareil) did exhibit a tendency for alternate bearing at one site (Kern) but other cultivars and sites did not. The orchard and the individual trees in which the spur population study was conducted showed tendencies for alternate bearing but the spur population did not. Only a relatively small percentage of the total tagged spur population bore fruit in any given year and therefore while individual fruiting spurs exhibited a high level of non-bearing after fruiting the previous year the spurs that did produce fruit in any year generally did not constitute enough of the total spur population to exhibit alternate bearing at the whole population level. Our results suggest that annual bearing fluctuations in almond are probably mainly due to year-to-year variations of parameters affecting fruit set and that high rates of fruit set in a given year may involve a larger-than-normal percentage of a spur population in fruit bearing. This would limit the size of the spur population available for flowering in the subsequent year and could cause alternate

  8. Digital Data Set of Orchards Where Arsenical Pesticides Were Likely Used in Clarke and Frederick Counties, Virginia, and Berkeley and Jefferson Counties, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, Bradley W.; Larkins, Peter; Robinson,, Gilpin R.

    2006-01-01

    This data set shows orchard locations in Clarke and Frederick Counties, Virginia and Berkeley and Jefferson Counties, West Virginia where arsenical pesticides were likely used. The orchard locations are based on air photos and topographic maps prepared using information from the time period of extensive use of arsenical pesticides between the 1920s and 1960s. An orchard's presence in this data set does not necessarily indicate the use of arsenical pesticides on the site or that elevated arsenic and metal concentrations are present. Arsenical pesticides may have been used on part, or none, of the land and, under current land use, the land may have been remediated and no longer contain elevated arsenic and metal concentrations in soil. The data set was created to be used in an assessment of soil contamination related to past use of arsenical pesticides in orchards in the northern part of the Great Valley region, Virginia and West Virginia. Previous studies have documented that elevated concentrations of arsenic, lead, and sometimes copper occur in the soils of former apple orchards (Veneman et al., 1983; Jones and Hatch, 1937). Arsenical pesticide use was most extensive and widespread in agricultural applications from the 1920s to the late 1950s, and largely ceased agricultural use by the early 1960s in the nation. During this time period, lead arsenate was the most extensively used arsenical pesticide (Peryea, 1998), particularly in apple orchards. Other metal-bearing pesticides, such as copper acetoarsenite (Paris Green), Bordeaux Blue (a mixture of copper sulfate and calcium hydroxide), and organic mercury fumigants were used to a lesser degree in orchards (Peryea, 1998; Shepard, 1939; Veneman et al., 1983). During the time arsenical pesticides were extensively used, federal and state pesticide laws did not require farmers to keep accurate records of the quantity, location, and type of arsenical pesticides used on their property, thus the quantity and distribution

  9. Successful biological control of tropical soda apple in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tropical soda apple, Solanum viarum, is a small shrub native to tropical regions of Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina. This weed was first found in Florida in 1988. In May 2003, a leaf feeding beetle, Gratiana boliviana, from South America was released in Florida as a biological control agent of tro...

  10. Communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the roots of Pyrus pyrifolia var. culta (Japanese pear) in orchards with variable amounts of soil-available phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Yuko; Ido, Akifumi; Iwase, Koji; Matsumoto, Teruyuki; Yamato, Masahide

    2013-01-01

    We examined the colonization rate and communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the roots of Pyrus pyrifolia var. culta (Japanese pear) in orchards to investigate the effect of phosphorus (P) fertilization on AMF. Soil cores containing the roots of Japanese pear were collected from 13 orchards in Tottori Prefecture, Japan. Soil-available P in the examined orchards was 75.7 to 1,200 mg kg(-1), showing the extreme accumulation of soil P in many orchards. The AMF colonization rate was negatively correlated with soil-available P (P <0.01). AMF communities were examined on the basis of the partial fungal DNA sequences of the nuclear small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA) amplified by AMF-specific primers AML1 and AML2. The obtained AMF sequences were divided into 14 phylotypes, and the number of phylotypes (species richness) was also negatively correlated with soil-available P (P <0.05). It was also suggested that some AM fungi may be adapted to high soil-available P conditions. Redundancy analysis showed the significant effects of soil pH, available P in soil, and P content in leaves of P. pyrifolia var. culta trees on AMF distribution. These results suggested that the accumulation of soil-available P affected AMF communities in the roots of Japanese pear in the orchard environment.

  11. Duodenal Atresia Associated with Apple Peel Atresia and Situs Inversus Abdominus: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ben Hamida, H.; Hadj Salem, R.; Ben Ameur, K.; Rassas, A.; Chioukh, FZ.; Sakka, R.; Kechiche, N.; Bizid, M.; Sahnoun, L.; Monastiri, K.

    2016-01-01

    Duodenal atresia is rarely associated with situs inversus abdominus. We report a case of duodenal atresia associated with small bowel atresia of apple peel type and situs inversus abdominus. PMID:27896168

  12. Effect of Temperature on Demographic Parameters of the Hawthorn Red Midget Moth, Phyllonorycter corylifoliella, on Apple

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Abbas; Talebi, Ali Asghar; Zamani, Abbas Ali; Kamali, Karim

    2010-01-01

    The hawthorn red midget moth, Phyllonorycter corylifoliella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), is one of the most serious pests of apple and pear orchards in Iran, however little is known about its biology and relationship with environmental factors. The reproduction and population growth parameters of P. corylifoliella were examined at six constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, 33 and 35° C) on apple var. golden delicious. At 35° C, P. corylifoliella failed to develop beyond the first instar. The lowest (13%) and highest (64%) mortality rates of immature stages occurred at 25 and 33° C, respectively. The life expectancies (ex) decreased with increasing of age and the life expectancies of one-day-old larvae were estimated to be 38.68, 33.34, 35.11, 26.28 and 16.11 days at 15, 20, 25, 30 and 33° C, respectively. The highest intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm), net reproductive rate (Ro) and finite rate of increase (λ) at 25° C were 0.100 ± 0.003, 47.66 ± 5.47 and 1.11 ± 0.00, respectively. The mean generation time (T) decreased with increasing temperatures from 86.86 ± 0.53 days at 15° C to 33.48 ± 0.16 days at 30° C. Doubling time (DT) varied significantly with temperature and the shortest doubling time was obtained at 25° C. The results of this study provide direction for future research on evaluating the performance of P. corylifoliella and the efficiency of its natural enemies in apple orchards under variable environmental conditions. PMID:20883137

  13. Farm and product carbon footprints of China's fruit production--life cycle inventory of representative orchards of five major fruits.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ming; Cheng, Kun; Yue, Qian; Yan, Yu; Rees, Robert M; Pan, Genxing

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the environmental impacts of fruit production will provide fundamental information for policy making of fruit consumption and marketing. This study aims to characterize the carbon footprints of China's fruit production and to figure out the key greenhouse gas emissions to cut with improved orchard management. Yearly input data of materials and energy in a full life cycle from material production to fruit harvest were obtained via field visits to orchards of five typical fruit types from selected areas of China. Carbon footprint (CF) was assessed with quantifying the greenhouse gas emissions associated with the individual inputs. Farm and product CFs were respectively predicted in terms of land use and of fresh fruit yield. Additionally, product CFs scaled by fruit nutrition value (vitamin C (Vc) content) and by the economic benefit from fruit production were also evaluated. The estimated farm CF ranged from 2.9 to 12.8 t CO2-eq ha(-1) across the surveyed orchards, whereas the product CF ranged from 0.07 to 0.7 kg CO2-eq kg(-1) fruit. While the mean product CFs of orange and pear were significantly lower than those of apple, banana, and peach, the nutrition-scaled CF of orange (0.5 kg CO2-eq g(-1) Vc on average) was significantly lower than others (3.0-5.9 kg CO2-eq g(-1) Vc). The income-scaled CF of orange and pear (1.20 and 1.01 kg CO2-eq USD(-1), respectively) was higher than apple, banana, and peach (0.87~0.39 kg CO2-eq USD(-1)). Among the inputs, synthetic nitrogen fertilizer contributed by over 50 % to the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, varying among the fruit types. There were some tradeoffs in product CFs between fruit nutrition value and fruit growers' income. Low carbon production and consumption policy and marketing mechanism should be developed to cut down carbon emissions from fruit production sector, with balancing the nutrition value, producer's income, and climate change mitigation.

  14. The APPL "Learning Map"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Root Learning, a learning consulting organization with a background in strategic planning, recognizes the knowledge gap that frequently exists between a leadership team and the rest of an organization. Team members supposedly working toward the same goal don't always have the same vision as to where the organization is headed, and they may not understand how the piece they are accountable for fits into the big picture. To address these complex problems, Root Learning utilizes the age-old tools of sarcasm, metaphor and graphics (much in the same way that ASK uses a traditional storytelling format.) The company is best known for creating "Learning Maps" like this one: humorous drawings based on the inner workings of an organization. Their purpose is to put complex topics on the table, to stimulate discussion, and to ultimately give team members a common vision of where the organization is going and what role they personally play in getting there. APPL knows how effective it is to incorporate new and engaging techniques into its knowledge sharing programs. By collaborating with Root Learning, we were able to expand the knowledge of the organization and add one more of these techniques to our repertoire.

  15. The importance of traditional orchards for breeding birds: The preliminary study on Central European example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajtoch, Łukasz

    2017-01-01

    Orchards are parts of agriculture and apart from their economic role they may preserve biodiversity in highly transformed farmlands. An increasing intensity of orchards management is known to be threat for some species, especially pollinators and birds. On the other hand, the biodiversity of abandoned orchards was hardly investigated. Here, I present a survey of orchards in Poland to estimate how bird's diversities differ in response to the intensity of orchards management. In 2014, 66 orchards of three types - abandoned, extensively and intensively managed - were investigated. Bird species' richness and abundance were found to be highest in abandoned orchards but overall bird diversity and species composition in abandoned did not differ from these found in extensively managed orchards. In abandoned and extensively managed orchards, hollow-dwellers and insectivores (with some rare old-forest associated species) dominated, whereas in intensively managed orchards the most diverse were ground-dwellers. Among the several selected environmental features, the highest impact on bird diversity was related to the tree diversity, abundance of older trees, presence of multilayer understory and heterogeneous surrounding. The preliminary study point that traditional orchards could play a important role for wood-dwelling species in agriculture and because of that the removal or replacement of all traditional orchards by intensively managed orchards should be avoided and needs of orchard protection should be implemented into Agri-Environmental Schemes/High Nature Value farming systems and possibly also into habitat directive of EU. Unfortunately, the number of abandoned and extensively managed orchards is declining from agricultural landscapes, and traditional orchards are replaced by conventional fruit plantations.

  16. Biocontrol Potential of Metchnikowia pulcherrima Strains Against Blue Mold of Apple.

    PubMed

    Janisiewicz, W J; Tworkoski, T J; Kurtzman, C P

    2001-11-01

    ABSTRACT Eight strains of Metschnikowia pulcherrima isolated over a 4-year period from an unmanaged orchard and selected for their biocontrol activity against blue mold (caused by Penicillium expansum) of apples were characterized phenotypically, genetically, and for their biocontrol potential against blue mold on apples. All strains grew well and only differed slightly in their growth in nutrient yeast dextrose broth medium at 1 degrees C after 216 h, but large differences occurred at 0 degrees C, with strain T5-A2 outgrowing other strains by more than 25% transmittance after 360 h. This strain was also one of the most resistant to diphenylamine (DPA), a postharvest antioxidant treatment. All strains required biotin for growth in minimum salt (MS) medium, although strain ST2-A10 grew slightly in MS medium containing riboflavin or folic acid, as did ST3-E1 in MS medium without vitamins. None of the strains produced killer toxins against an indicator strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Analysis of Biolog data from YT plates for all eight strains using the MLCLUST program resulted in separation of the strains into one major cluster containing four strains and four scattered strains from which strain ST1-D10 was the most distant from all other strains. This was particularly apparent in 3-D and principle component analysis. Genetic differentiation of the eight strains using maximum parsimony analysis of nucleotide sequences from domain D1/D2 of nuclear large subunit (26S) ribosomal DNA resulted in detection of two clades. Strain ST1-D10 grouped with the type strain of M. pulcherrima but the remaining seven strains grouped separately, which might possibly represent a new species. All strains significantly reduced blue mold on mature Golden Delicious apples during 1 month of storage at 1 degrees C followed by 7 days at room temperature, but strains T5-A2 and T4-A2 were distinctly more effective under these conditions. Strain T5-A2 also was the most effective in tests on

  17. Rootstock-regulated gene expression patterns associated with fire blight resistance in apple

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Desirable apple varieties are clonally propagated by grafting vegetative scions onto rootstocks. Rootstocks influence many phenotypic traits of the scion, including resistance to pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora, which causes fire blight, the most serious bacterial disease of apple. The purpose of the present study was to quantify rootstock-mediated differences in scion fire blight susceptibility and to identify transcripts in the scion whose expression levels correlated with this response. Results Rootstock influence on scion fire blight resistance was quantified by inoculating three-year old, orchard-grown apple trees, consisting of 'Gala' scions grafted to a range of rootstocks, with E. amylovora. Disease severity was measured by the extent of shoot necrosis over time. 'Gala' scions grafted to G.30 or MM.111 rootstocks showed the lowest rates of necrosis, while 'Gala' on M.27 and B.9 showed the highest rates of necrosis. 'Gala' scions on M.7, S.4 or M.9F56 had intermediate necrosis rates. Using an apple DNA microarray representing 55,230 unique transcripts, gene expression patterns were compared in healthy, un-inoculated, greenhouse-grown 'Gala' scions on the same series of rootstocks. We identified 690 transcripts whose steady-state expression levels correlated with the degree of fire blight susceptibility of the scion/rootstock combinations. Transcripts known to be differentially expressed during E. amylovora infection were disproportionately represented among these transcripts. A second-generation apple microarray representing 26,000 transcripts was developed and was used to test these correlations in an orchard-grown population of trees segregating for fire blight resistance. Of the 690 transcripts originally identified using the first-generation array, 39 had expression levels that correlated with fire blight resistance in the breeding population. Conclusions Rootstocks had significant effects on the fire blight susceptibility of 'Gala' scions

  18. 76 FR 2112 - Peach Orchard Road Groundwater Plume Site, Augusta, Richmond County, GA; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... Site name Peach Orchard Road Groundwater Plume Superfund Site by one of the following methods: http... AGENCY Peach Orchard Road Groundwater Plume Site, Augusta, Richmond County, GA; Notice of Settlement... costs concerning the Peach Orchard Road Groundwater Plume Site located in Augusta, Richmond...

  19. Orchard Management: Horticultural Practices for Peace Corps Volunteers. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Reprint R-31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Development and Resources Corp.

    This manual is intended for use by Peace Corps volunteers as a resource for gaining an understanding and knowledge of basic horticultural principles and practices of orchard management. Addressed in the individual units of instructional text are orchard soils; botany of horticultural plants; insect and disease control in orchards; pome, stone,…

  20. Detection and Counting of Orchard Trees from Vhr Images Using a Geometrical-Optical Model and Marked Template Matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maillard, Philippe; Gomes, Marília F.

    2016-06-01

    This article presents an original algorithm created to detect and count trees in orchards using very high resolution images. The algorithm is based on an adaptation of the "template matching" image processing approach, in which the template is based on a "geometricaloptical" model created from a series of parameters, such as illumination angles, maximum and ambient radiance, and tree size specifications. The algorithm is tested on four images from different regions of the world and different crop types. These images all have < 1 meter spatial resolution and were downloaded from the GoogleEarth application. Results show that the algorithm is very efficient at detecting and counting trees as long as their spectral and spatial characteristics are relatively constant. For walnut, mango and orange trees, the overall accuracy was clearly above 90%. However, the overall success rate for apple trees fell under 75%. It appears that the openness of the apple tree crown is most probably responsible for this poorer result. The algorithm is fully explained with a step-by-step description. At this stage, the algorithm still requires quite a bit of user interaction. The automatic determination of most of the required parameters is under development.

  1. Cryptosporidiosis associated with ozonated apple cider.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Brian G; Mazurek, Jacek M; Hlavsa, Michele; Park, Jean; Tillapaw, Matt; Parrish, MaryKay; Salehi, Ellen; Franks, William; Koch, Elizabeth; Smith, Forrest; Xiao, Lihua; Arrowood, Michael; Hill, Vince; da Silva, Alex; Johnston, Stephanie; Jones, Jeffrey L

    2006-04-01

    We linked an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis to ozonated apple cider by using molecular and epidemiologic methods. Because ozonation was insufficient in preventing this outbreak, its use in rendering apple cider safe for drinking is questioned.

  2. Oligo-DNA Custom Macroarray for Monitoring Major Pathogenic and Non-Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria in the Phyllosphere of Apple Trees

    PubMed Central

    He, Ying-Hong; Isono, Sayaka; Shibuya, Makoto; Tsuji, Masaharu; Adkar Purushothama, Charith-Raj; Tanaka, Kazuaki; Sano, Teruo

    2012-01-01

    Background To monitor the richness in microbial inhabitants in the phyllosphere of apple trees cultivated under various cultural and environmental conditions, we developed an oligo-DNA macroarray for major pathogenic and non-pathogenic fungi and bacteria inhabiting the phyllosphere of apple trees. Methods and Findings First, we isolated culturable fungi and bacteria from apple orchards by an agar-plate culture method, and detected 32 fungal and 34 bacterial species. Alternaria, Aureobasidium, Cladosporium, Rhodotorula, Cystofilobasidium, and Epicoccum genera were predominant among the fungi, and Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas, Methylobacterium, and Pantoea genera were predominant among the bacteria. Based on the data, we selected 29 major non-pathogenic and 12 phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria as the targets of macroarray. Forty-one species-specific 40-base pair long oligo-DNA sequences were selected from the nucleotide sequences of rDNA-internal transcribed spacer region for fungi and 16S rDNA for bacteria. The oligo-DNAs were fixed on nylon membrane and hybridized with digoxigenin-labeled cRNA probes prepared for each species. All arrays except those for Alternaria, Bacillus, and their related species, were specifically hybridized. The array was sensitive enough to detect 103 CFU for Aureobasidium pullulans and Bacillus cereus. Nucleotide sequencing of 100 each of independent fungal rDNA-ITS and bacterial 16S-rDNA sequences from apple tree was in agreement with the macroarray data obtained using the same sample. Finally, we analyzed the richness in the microbial inhabitants in the samples collected from apple trees in four orchards. Major apple pathogens that cause scab, Alternaria blotch, and Marssonina blotch were detected along with several non-phytopathogenic fungal and bacterial inhabitants. Conclusions The macroarray technique presented here is a strong tool to monitor the major microbial species and the community structures in the phyllosphere of

  3. Connecting your Apple to Octopus 7600's

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, G.W. Jr.

    1983-01-17

    In UCID-19588, Communicating between the Apple and the Wang, we described how to take Apple DOS text files and send them to the Wang, and how to return Wang files to the Apple. It is also possible to use your Apple as an Octopus terminal, and to exchange files with Octopus 7600's. Presumably, you can also talk to the Crays, or any other part of the system. This connection has another virtue. It eliminates one of the terminals in your office.

  4. Primary and secondary pesticide drift profiles from a peach orchard.

    PubMed

    Zivan, Ohad; Bohbot-Raviv, Yardena; Dubowski, Yael

    2017-06-01

    Atmospheric drift is considered a major loss path of pesticide from target areas, but there is still a large gap of knowledge regarding this complex phenomenon. Pesticide drift may occur during application (Primary drift) and after it (Secondary drift). The present study focuses on primary and secondary drift from ground applications in peach orchard (tree height of 3 m), under Mediterranean climate. Detailed and prolonged vertical drift profiles at close proximity to orchard are presented, together with detailed measurements of key meteorological parameters. The effect of volatility on drift was also studied by simultaneously applying two pesticides that differ in their volatility. Drifting airborne pesticides were detected both during and after applications at sampling distances of 7 and 20 m away from orchard edge. Concentrations ranged between hundreds ng m(-3) to a few μg m(-3) and showed clear decrease with time and with upwind conditions. Almost no decline in concentrations with height was observed up to thrice canopy height (i.e., 10 m). These homogeneous profiles indicate strong mixing near orchard and are in line with the unstable atmospheric conditions that prevailed during measurements. While air concentrations during pesticide application were higher than after it, overall pesticide load drifted from the orchard during primary and secondary drift are comparable. To the best of our knowledge this is the first work to show such large vertical dispersion and long duration of secondary drift following ground application in orchards. The obtained information indicates that secondary drift should not be neglected in exposure and environmental impact estimations.

  5. Successful biological control of tropical soda apple (Solanales: Solanaceae) in Florida: A review of key program components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal) is a small shrub native to South America that is invasive in pastures and conservation areas across Florida. Dense patches of tropical soda apple not only reduce cattle stocking rates and limit their movement, but also serve as reservoirs for pests of solan...

  6. Loading Appleworks into the Apple IIGS Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This step-by-step guide to loading AppleWorks V2.0 into the Apple IIGS computer provides instructions for energizing the computer and monitor, inserting the disk, using the Apple-control-reset function, and loading the program. Seven sample screen displays are included. (MES)

  7. What's an Adam's Apple? (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Happens in the Operating Room? What's an Adam's Apple? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's an Adam's Apple? A A A You're at the high ... the throat. This is what's called an Adam's apple. Everyone's larynx grows during puberty, but a girl's ...

  8. Questions and Answers: Apple Juice and Arsenic

    MedlinePlus

    ... in its juice than any other company. Does organic apple juice have less arsenic than non-organic apple juice? The FDA is unaware of any ... States. Is the arsenic in apple juice predominantly organic or inorganic? Due to limited data available to ...

  9. Ensuring the genetic diversity of apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apples (Malus × domestica Borkh.) are a nutritious source of antioxidants, polyphenolics, vitamins, and fiber. Many of the apple cultivars that are currently produced were identified over a century ago and do not offer resistance to pathogens and tolerance to climatic threats. Apple breeding program...

  10. Gap probability - Measurements and models of a pecan orchard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahler, Alan H.; Li, Xiaowen; Moody, Aaron; Liu, YI

    1992-01-01

    Measurements and models are compared for gap probability in a pecan orchard. Measurements are based on panoramic photographs of 50* by 135 view angle made under the canopy looking upwards at regular positions along transects between orchard trees. The gap probability model is driven by geometric parameters at two levels-crown and leaf. Crown level parameters include the shape of the crown envelope and spacing of crowns; leaf level parameters include leaf size and shape, leaf area index, and leaf angle, all as functions of canopy position.

  11. Recombinant DNA technology in apple.

    PubMed

    Gessler, Cesare; Patocchi, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    This review summarizes the achievements of almost 20 years of recombinant DNA technology applied to apple, grouping the research results into the sections: developing the technology, insect resistance, fungal disease resistance, self-incompatibility, herbicide resistance, fire blight resistance, fruit ripening, allergens, rooting ability, and acceptance and risk assessment. The diseases fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora, and scab, caused by Venturia inaequalis, were and still are the prime targets. Shelf life improvement and rooting ability of rootstocks are also relevant research areas. The tools to create genetically modified apples of added value to producers, consumers, and the environment are now available.

  12. Dry bin filler for apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A unique dry bin filler for apples using a sequenced tray was developed to reduce bruising in packing operations. Research and commercial trials in West Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Washington State demonstrated the ability to fill bins evenly and with low damage. Cultivars with different bruising su...

  13. Apples prevent mammary tumors in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui Hai; Liu, Jiaren; Chen, Bingqing

    2005-03-23

    Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables has been consistently shown to be associated with reduced risk of developing chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. Apples are commonly consumed and are the major contributors of phytochemicals in human diets. It was previously reported that apple extracts exhibit strong antioxidant and antiproliferative activities and that the major part of total antioxidant activity is from the combination of phytochemicals. Phytochemicals, including phenolics and flavonoids, are suggested to be the bioactive compounds contributing to the health benefits of apples. Here it is shown that whole apple extracts prevent mammary cancer in a rat model in a dose-dependent manner at doses comparable to human consumption of one, three, and six apples a day. This study demonstrated that whole apple extracts effectively inhibited mammary cancer growth in the rat model; thus, consumption of apples may be an effective strategy for cancer protection.

  14. Punjabi Orchard Farmers: An Immigrant Enclave in Rural California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Margaret A.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the adaptation patterns of Punjabi Sikh orchard farmers in rural California. Discusses the role of the following: (1) the historical context of immigration; (2) the immigrants' perceptions of their particular situation; (3) the group's cultural traditions; and (4) 1965 Immigration Act. (FMW)

  15. Weed suppression by grasses for orchard floor management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit trees in orchards of the mid-Atlantic region are often planted in vegetation-free rows alternating with grass travel alleys. The tree rows can be maintained vegetation-free by herbicides or tillage but soil degradation or tree injury can result from these practices. Grasses that suppress wee...

  16. Weed suppression by grasses for orchard floor management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit trees in orchards of the mid-Atlantic region of the U.S. are often planted in vegetation-free rows alternating with grass travel alleys. The tree rows can be maintained vegetation-free by herbicides or tillage, but soil degradation or tree injury can result. Grass that is managed to suppress...

  17. Formulating entompathogens for control of boring beetles in avocado orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A foam formulation of Beauveria bassiana was adapted to control boring beetles in avocado orchards. The two geographically independent avocado growing areas in the United States are threatened by emerging diseases vectored by boring beetles. In the California growing region, Fusarium dieback is vect...

  18. Human and soil exposure during mechanical chlorpyrifos, myclobutanil and copper oxychloride application in a peach orchard in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Berenstein, Giselle; Nasello, Soledad; Beiguel, Érica; Flores, Pedro; Di Schiena, Johanna; Basack, Silvana; Hughes, Enrique A; Zalts, Anita; Montserrat, Javier M

    2017-05-15

    The objective of this study was to measure the impact of the mechanized chlorpyrifos, copper oxychloride and myclobutanil application in a small peach orchard, on humans (operators, bystanders and residents) and on the productive soil. The mean Potential Dermal Exposure (PDE) of the workers (tractor drivers) was 30.8mL·h(-1)±16.4mL·h(-1), with no specific pesticide distribution on the laborers body. Although the Margin of Safety (MOS) factor for the application stage were above 1 (safe condition) for myclobutanil and cooper oxycloride it was below 1 for chlorpyrifos. The mix and load stage remained as the riskier operation. Pesticide found on the orchard soil ranged from 5.5% to 14.8% of the total chlorpyrifos, copper oxychloride and myclobutanil applied. Pesticide drift was experimentally measured, finding values in the range of 2.4% to 11.2% of the total pesticide applied. Using experimental drift values, bystander (for one application), resident (for 20 applications) and earthworm (for one application) risk indicators (RIs) were calculated for the chlorpyrifos plus copper oxychloride and for myclobutanil treatments for different distances to the orchard border. Earthworm RI was correlated with experimental Eisenia andrei ecotoxicological assays (enzymatic activities: cholinesterases, carboxylesterases and glutathione S-transferases; behavioral: avoidance and bait-lamina tests) with good correlation.

  19. Efficacy of Nitric Oxide Fumigation for Controlling Codling Moth in Apples

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong-Biao; Yang, Xiangbing; Simmons, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) fumigation under ultralow oxygen (ULO) conditions was studied for its efficacy in controlling codling moth and effects on postharvest quality of apples. NO fumigation was effective against eggs and larvae of different sizes on artificial diet in 48 h treatments. Small larvae were more susceptible to nitric oxide than other stages at 0.5% NO concentration. There were no significant differences among life stages at 1.0% to 2.0% NO concentrations. In 24 h treatments of eggs, 3.0% NO fumigation at 2 °C achieved 100% egg mortality. Two 24 h fumigation treatments of infested apples containing medium and large larvae with 3.0% and 5.0% NO resulted in 98% and 100% mortalities respectively. Sound apples were also fumigated with 5.0% NO for 24 h at 2 °C to determine effects on apple quality. The fumigation treatment was terminated by flushing with nitrogen and had no negative impact on postharvest quality of apples as measured by firmness and color at 2 and 4 weeks after fumigation. This study demonstrated that NO fumigation was effective against codling moth and safe to apple quality, and therefore has potential to become a practical alternative to methyl bromide fumigation for control of codling moth in apples. PMID:27918417

  20. The litter cover of citrus leaves control soil and water losses in chemically managed orchards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, A.; Jurgensen, M. F.; González-Peñaloza, F. A.

    2012-04-01

    Soil erosion in chemically managed orchards results in bare soil due to the removal of the weeds and the lack of catch crops. Those conditions results in extremely high erosion rates in citrus orchards (Cerdà et al., 2011) such it has been found in other orchards in the Mediterranean where the soil degradation trigger a change in the soil water properties (Gómez et al., 1999). The Mediterranean climatic and human conditions contribute to very active soil water erosion (Ruiz Sinoga et al., 2010) where rilling and piping are found (Romero-Diaz, 2007). It is widely known that high erosion rates can trigger the soil degradation such it has been found in vineyards (Ramos and Martínez Casasnovas, 2006), Olive (García Orenes et al., 2010) and other crops, which is related to the land management and land use (García Ruiz, 2010). Within the chemically managed citrus orchards, the surface cover is usually bare due to the removal of the pruned branches (usually burned) and the use of herbicides every season. A thin and non-continuous litter layer of leaves from the citrus trees covers the soil surface, which sometimes are removed by the farmers to keep the soil clean. There is no information about the effect of the citrus leaves effects on soil and water losses. The objective of this paper is to quantify the effect of the leaves cover on the surface runoff and soil losses. Experiments were conducted by means of simulated rainfall at 55 mm h-1 during one hour in a small circular plot (0.25 m2) to quantify in the field the effect of different litter cover on soil erosion and water losses. An orchard of orange trees (Navel-lane-late, 10 year old, and planted at 6 x 5m with a 45 % cover) was selected in the Municipality of Montesa. Witin the 2 ha field 35 plots were selected with litter covers from 0 to 100 % cover. The runoff discharge was measured every minute and each 5 minutes a sample for runoff sediment concentration was collected. The sediment concentration was

  1. Barriers in a tropical orchard landscape: how the presence or absence of hedges influences insect dispersal in mixed orchards of Carica papaya and Manilkara zapota.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of plants in the form of a hedge may hinder or alter movement of certain insects into and within an orchard. We investigated the impact that the presence of a hedge of tall grass had on infestation by various pests into mixed orchards of papaya and sapodilla. For most insects there was ...

  2. Occurrence of Apple stem grooving virus in commercial apple seedlings and analysis of its coat protein sequence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virus infections are responsible for reduced yield and quality in many crops, and are especially problematic in vegetatively-propagated crops such as apple. Three major viruses (Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus and Apple stem pitting virus) affect apple trees in Kore...

  3. Apple cuticle: the perfect interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, Eric; Arey, Bruce

    2010-06-01

    The domestic apple might well be called an 'extreme' fruit. In the arid Northwest United States, the fruit often tolerates surface temperatures ranging from -2 °C in the early spring to 50 °C in the heat of summer, and again to -2 °C during controlled postharvest storage for up to 12 months. During its 18-month existence, the apple maintains a cuticle that is dynamic and environmentally responsive to protect against 1) cellular water loss during desiccation stress and 2) excessive uptake of standing surface moisture. Physiological disorders of the peel such as russeting, cracking, splitting, flecking and lenticel marking, develop as epidermal cells respond to rapid changes in ambient conditions at specific developmental stages during the growing season. Resultant market losses underlie research investigating the nature of apple cuticle growth and development. Ultrastructural analysis of the pro-cuticle using scanning electron microscopy indicates an overlapping network of lipid-based distally-elongating microtubules--produced by and connected to epidermal cells--which co-polymerize to form an organic solvent-insoluble semi-permeable cutin matrix. Microtubule elongation, aggregation, and polymerization function together as long as the fruit continues to enlarge. The nature of lipid transport from the epidermal cells through the cell wall to become part of the cuticular matrix was explored using an FEI Helios NanoLabTM DualBeamTM focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope on chemically- and cryo-fixed peel tissue from mature or freshly harvested apples. Based on microtubule dimensions, regular projections found at the cell/cuticle interface suggest an array of microtubule-like structures associated with the epidermal cell.

  4. Stemflow in low-density and hedgerow olive orchards in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Pedro D.; Valente, Fernanda; Pereira, Fernando L.; Abreu, Francisco G.

    2015-04-01

    ) of all models ranged from 0.5 to 0.76. The size of leaves was also analysed. Although there were significant differences between varieties and between trees of the same variety, they did not seem to affect the amount of Sf generated. Through analysis of bark storage capacity, it was found that older trees, with rough and thick bark, had higher trunk storage capacity and, therefore, originated less Sf. The results confirm the need for considering the contribution of stemflow when trying to correctly assess interception loss in olive orchards. Although the use of simple and general statistical models may be an attractive option, their precision may be small, making direct measurements or conceptual modelling preferable methods.

  5. Orienting apples for imaging using their inertial properties and random apple loading

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The inability to control apple orientation during imaging has hindered development of automated systems for sorting apples for defects such as bruises and for safety issues such as fecal contamination. Recently, a potential method for orienting apples based on their inertial properties was discovere...

  6. [Diversity and stability of arthropod community in peach orchard under effects of ground cover vegetation].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jie-xian; Wan, Nian-feng; Ji, Xiang-yun; Dan, Jia-gui

    2011-09-01

    A comparative study was conducted on the arthropod community in peach orchards with and without ground cover vegetation. In the orchard with ground cover vegetation, the individuals of beneficial, neutral, and phytophagous arthropods were 1.48, 1.84 and 0.64 times of those in the orchard without ground cover vegetation, respectively, but the total number of arthropods had no significant difference with that in the orchard without ground cover vegetation. The species richness, Shannon's diversity, and Pielou's evenness index of the arthropods in the orchard with ground cover vegetation were 83.733 +/- 4.932, 4.966 +/- 0.110, and 0.795 +/- 0.014, respectively, being significantly higher than those in the orchard without ground cover vegetation, whereas the Berger-Parker's dominance index was 0.135 +/- 0.012, being significantly lower than that (0.184 +/- 0.018) in the orchard without ground cover vegetation. There were no significant differences in the stability indices S/N and Sd/Sp between the two orchards, but the Nn/Np, Nd/Np, and Sn/Sp in the orchard with ground cover vegetation were 0.883 +/- 0.123. 1714 +/- 0.683, and 0.781 +/- 0.040, respectively, being significantly higher than those in the orchard without ground cover vegetation. Pearson's correlation analysis indicated that in the orchard with ground cover vegetation, the Shannon's diversity index was significantly negatively correlated with Nd/Np, Sd/Sp, and S/N but had no significant correlations with Nn/Np and Sn/Sp, whereas in the orchard without ground cover vegetation, the diversity index was significantly positively correlated with Nn/Np and Nd/Np and had no significant correlations with Sd/Sp, Sn/Sp, and S/N.

  7. Effects of habitat on avian productivity in abandoned pecan orchards in southern Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patnode, K.A.; White, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    Daily survival rates (DSRs) of nests, eggs and nestlings were determined for Mourning Doves (Zenaida macroura), Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis), Brown Thrashers (Toxostoma rufum) and Northern Mockingbirds (Mimus polyglottos) occupying abandoned pecan orchards in a highly fragmented and intensively farmed area of southern Georgia. The effects of nest placement parameters, seasonal factors and habitat disruptions on DSRs for all species combined were statistically analyzed. Egg and nestling DSRs varied significantly by month of nesting, percent cover, vegetative form and position of nest in substrate. Causes of nest failure (no fledglings produced) in order of decreasing importance were predation by small mammals/snakes, avian predation, predation by large mammals, and abandonment. Results provide further evidence that the importance of nest placement and habitat disruptions in nesting success is influenced by foraging strategies of the predator community. Site-specific predator/habitat complexes may be a more appropriate criterion than habitat conditions alone for evaluating avian nesting habitat

  8. Digital computer processing of peach orchard multispectral aerial photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    Several methods of analysis using digital computers applicable to digitized multispectral aerial photography, are described, with particular application to peach orchard test sites. This effort was stimulated by the recent premature death of peach trees in the Southeastern United States. The techniques discussed are: (1) correction of intensity variations by digital filtering, (2) automatic detection and enumeration of trees in five size categories, (3) determination of unhealthy foliage by infrared reflectances, and (4) four band multispectral classification into healthy and declining categories.

  9. Modeling multi-frequency diurnal backscatter from a walnut orchard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, Kyle C.; Dobson, Myron C.; Ulaby, Fawwaz T.

    1991-01-01

    The Michigan Microwave Canopy Scattering Model (MIMICS) is used to model scatterometer data that were obtained during the August 1987 EOS (Earth Observing System) synergism study. During this experiment, truck-based scatterometers were used to measure radar backscatter from a walnut orchard in Fresno County, California. Multipolarized L- and X-band data were recorded for orchard plots for which dielectric and evapotranspiration characteristics were monitored. MIMICS is used to model a multiangle data set in which a single orchard plot was observed at varying impedance angles and a series of diurnal measurements in which backscatter from this same plot was measured continuously over several 24-h periods. MIMICS accounts for variations in canopy backscatter driven by changes in canopy state that occur diurnally as well as on longer time scales. L-band backscatter is dependent not only on properties of the vegetation but also on properties of the underlying soil surface. The behavior of the X-band backscatter is dominated by properties of the tree crowns.

  10. Mercury residues in south Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa)

    SciTech Connect

    Eisemann, J.D.; Beyer, W.N.; Morton, A.; Bennetts, R.E.

    1997-05-01

    Mercury concentrations in the sediments of south Florida wetlands have increased three fold in the last century. Because south Florida is home to many endemic and endangered species, it is important to understand the potential impacts of mercury in this ecosystem`s food web. Recent research by Malley et al. has shown mollusks to be sensitive indicators of methyl mercury which can reflect small differences in background methyl mercury concentrations. In this study, we attempted to determine if the apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) or its eggs are good indicators of bioavailable mercury. Then, using the apple snail as an indicator, we attempted to determine geographic differences in the concentrations of mercury in south Florida. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  11. Evaluation of the environmental impact of apple pest control strategies using pesticide risk indicators.

    PubMed

    Ioriatti, Claudio; Agnello, Arthur M; Martini, Fabrizio; Kovach, Joseph

    2011-10-01

    Various pesticide risk indicators have been developed for estimating pesticide impact on human health and the environment. The present work applied a pesticide risk indicator to estimate change in pesticide risk in apple production between 2001 and 2009. The "Environmental Impact Quotient" was used, which evaluates potential impacts of pesticide active ingredients on farm workers, consumers, and nontarget organisms. A modified Environmental Impact Quotient was also tested, which accounts for all ingredients in the formulation presenting a health or environmental hazard, as identified in the Security Data Sheet. Irrespective of the rating system applied, an overall average improvement in environmental impact of apple protection strategies was indicated ranging from 23 to 24%. Hazard reduction was more significant when estimated per treatment, and was higher for acaricides and insecticides than for fungicides. Improvement appeared to be a consequence of using more selective and more effective active ingredients, applying alternative pest control techniques, compulsory periodic sprayer calibration, and wider use of dwarfing orchards. The modified Environmental Impact Quotient does not overcome all limitations regarding accuracy of pesticide risk indicators, but its ease of use in relying on official, easily accessible data, and the consistency of its results, makes it a good candidate for monitoring the success of reduced risk policies.

  12. Determination of quality parameters in apple `Smoothee Golden Delicious' using backscattering laser imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafuente, Victoria; Val, Jesús; Urzola, Concha; Negueruela, Ignacio

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate in `Smoothee Golden Delicious' apples, the use of backscattering images as a non-destructive method to estimate some quality parameters during the ripening process of fruits. In this experiment, 208 apples were collected from an experimental orchard of the Estación Experimental de Aula Dei (CSIC) in Zaragoza (Northeastern, Spain). Backscattering images were kept from samples picked up every 15 days during 7 months until harvest. In the same fruits, soluble solids contents (SSC) and firmness were measured by traditional destructive methods. The light source was a solid state laser diode module emitting at three different spectral bands (670, 785 and 980 nm) PLS calibration methods were used to create the statistical model to predict SSC and firmness. Good results were obtained when PLS calibration was applied to Feret diameter corresponding at different levels of gray. The Rcv2 values were 0.87 for firmness and 0.93 for SSC, which are higher than other reported in the literature for the same commodity.

  13. Safe apples for baby-food production: survey of pesticide treatment regimes leaving minimum residues.

    PubMed

    Ticha, Jana; Hajslova, Jana; Kovalczuk, Tomas; Jech, Martin; Honzicek, Jiri; Kocourek, Vladimir; Lansky, Miroslav; Kloutvorova, Jana; Falta, Vladan

    2007-06-01

    A total of 19 pesticide preparations were used according to agricultural practice in six trials in apple orchards. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), premature Golden Delicious apples collected 64, 50, 36 days before harvest and mature fruit were examined for residues of active ingredients. No residues of triflumuron, triazamate, chlorpyrifos, etofenprox, fenoxycarb, kresoxim-methyl, cyprodinyl, difenoconazole or thiram were detected in the first sampling. Also, the levels of chlorpyrifos-methyl, penconazole, tebuconazole and tolylfluanid dropped during the pre-harvest interval. Detectable residues of pyridaben, thiacloprid, trifloxystrobin and tetraconazole in harvested fruits were below 0.01 mg kg(-1), which is the maximum concentration of residues acceptable by baby-food producers in any raw material. The only residues exceeding this concentration were captan and teflubenzuron. Based on the data, farmers can choose pesticides for optimal treatment of plants, while enabling growth of a safe crop suitable for baby-food production.

  14. Digital cover photography for estimating leaf area index (LAI) in apple trees using a variable light extinction coefficient.

    PubMed

    Poblete-Echeverría, Carlos; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Ortega-Farias, Samuel; Gonzalez-Talice, Jaime; Yuri, Jose Antonio

    2015-01-28

    Leaf area index (LAI) is one of the key biophysical variables required for crop modeling. Direct LAI measurements are time consuming and difficult to obtain for experimental and commercial fruit orchards. Devices used to estimate LAI have shown considerable errors when compared to ground-truth or destructive measurements, requiring tedious site-specific calibrations. The objective of this study was to test the performance of a modified digital cover photography method to estimate LAI in apple trees using conventional digital photography and instantaneous measurements of incident radiation (Io) and transmitted radiation (I) through the canopy. Leaf area of 40 single apple trees were measured destructively to obtain real leaf area index (LAI(D)), which was compared with LAI estimated by the proposed digital photography method (LAI(M)). Results showed that the LAI(M) was able to estimate LAI(D) with an error of 25% using a constant light extinction coefficient (k = 0.68). However, when k was estimated using an exponential function based on the fraction of foliage cover (f(f)) derived from images, the error was reduced to 18%. Furthermore, when measurements of light intercepted by the canopy (Ic) were used as a proxy value for k, the method presented an error of only 9%. These results have shown that by using a proxy k value, estimated by Ic, helped to increase accuracy of LAI estimates using digital cover images for apple trees with different canopy sizes and under field conditions.

  15. Digital Cover Photography for Estimating Leaf Area Index (LAI) in Apple Trees Using a Variable Light Extinction Coefficient

    PubMed Central

    Poblete-Echeverría, Carlos; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Ortega-Farias, Samuel; Gonzalez-Talice, Jaime; Yuri, Jose Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is one of the key biophysical variables required for crop modeling. Direct LAI measurements are time consuming and difficult to obtain for experimental and commercial fruit orchards. Devices used to estimate LAI have shown considerable errors when compared to ground-truth or destructive measurements, requiring tedious site-specific calibrations. The objective of this study was to test the performance of a modified digital cover photography method to estimate LAI in apple trees using conventional digital photography and instantaneous measurements of incident radiation (Io) and transmitted radiation (I) through the canopy. Leaf area of 40 single apple trees were measured destructively to obtain real leaf area index (LAID), which was compared with LAI estimated by the proposed digital photography method (LAIM). Results showed that the LAIM was able to estimate LAID with an error of 25% using a constant light extinction coefficient (k = 0.68). However, when k was estimated using an exponential function based on the fraction of foliage cover (ff) derived from images, the error was reduced to 18%. Furthermore, when measurements of light intercepted by the canopy (Ic) were used as a proxy value for k, the method presented an error of only 9%. These results have shown that by using a proxy k value, estimated by Ic, helped to increase accuracy of LAI estimates using digital cover images for apple trees with different canopy sizes and under field conditions. PMID:25635411

  16. Cultivable bacteria isolated from apple trees cultivated under different crop systems: Diversity and antagonistic activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

    PubMed Central

    dos Passos, João Frederico M.; da Costa, Pedro B.; Costa, Murilo D.; Zaffari, Gilmar R.; Nava, Gilberto; Boneti, José Itamar; de Oliveira, Andréia Mara R.; Passaglia, Luciane M.P.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the diversity of cultivable plant growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria associated with apple trees cultivated under different crop management systems and their antagonistic ability against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Samples of roots and rhizospheric soil from apple trees cultivated in organic and conventional orchards in southern Brazil were collected, together with soil samples from an area never used for agriculture (native field). Bacteria were identified at the genus level by PCR-RFLP and partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA, and were evaluated for some PGP abilities. The most abundant bacterial genera identified were Enterobacter (27.7%), Pseudomonas (18.7%), Burkholderia (13.7%), and Rahnella (12.3%). Sixty-nine isolates presented some antagonist activity against C. gloeosporioides. In a greenhouse experiment, five days after exposure to C. gloeosporioides, an average of 30% of the leaf area of plants inoculated with isolate 89 (identified as Burkholderia sp.) were infected, whereas 60 to 73% of the leaf area of untreated plants was affected by fungal attack. Our results allowed us to infer how anthropogenic activity is affecting the bacterial communities in soil associated with apple tree crop systems, and to obtain an isolate that was able to delay the emergence of an important disease for this culture. PMID:25249780

  17. Historic American apple cultivars: Identification and availability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apples have been important throughout the centuries in North America. Historic books, publications, and nursery catalogs were surveyed to identify apple cultivars that were propagated and grown in the United States prior to 1908. We collected synonym, introduction date, and original source country i...

  18. Unique characteristics of Geneva apple rootstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Geneva® apple rootstock breeding program has been operating since the early 1970’s. It is a unique program in that it had access to important germplasm resources that later became the USDA ARS apple collection in Geneva, NY. This genetic diversity allowed for the achievement of one of the proj...

  19. Production of alcohol from apple pomace

    SciTech Connect

    Hang, Y.D.; Lee, C.Y.; Woodams, E.E.; Cooley, H.J.

    1981-12-01

    Production of ethyl alcohol from apple pomace with a Montrachet strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is described. More than 43 grams of the ethyl alcohol could be produced per kg of apple pomace fermented at 30 degrees Celcius in 24 hours. The fermentation efficiency of this process was approximately 89%. (Refs. 9).

  20. The apple genome: ripe for harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An international consortium of plant report sequencing of the cultivated apple (Malus x domestica) genome (Velasco et al., this issue). Apples are among the most widely grown and consumed fruits in temperate regions of the world. This is in part due to years of extensive breeding and selection the ...

  1. 9,250 Apples for the Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uston, Ken

    1983-01-01

    Discusses Apple Computer Inc.'s plan to donate an Apple IIe to eligible elementary/secondary schools in California, dealer incentives for conducting orientation sessions for school personnel, and school uses of the computer (including peer tutoring and teacher education). Also discusses similar efforts of other microcomputer manufacturers. (JN)

  2. SED/Apple Computer, Inc., Partnership Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoll, Peter F.

    1991-01-01

    In 1990, the New York State Education Department (SED), Apple Computer, Inc., Boards of Cooperative Educational Services (BOCES), and school districts formed a partnership to explore the contribution technology can make to schools based on Apple Computer's Learning Society and SED's Long-Range Plan for Technology in Elementary and Secondary…

  3. Efficacy of tree trunk coating materials in the control of the apple clearwing, Synanthedon myopaeformis.

    PubMed

    Erler, Fedai

    2010-01-01

    The efficacy of trunk treatment with three materials, cotton seed oil, lime and used motor oil, were evaluated for the control of apple clearwing, Synanthedon myopaeformis (Borkhausen) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) in an apple orchard during two successive years (2004 and 2005). The weekly total number of adult catches and exuviae was recorded each year. No treatments caused significant reductions in mean numbers of adults caught in bait traps or the exuviae protruding from the barks of tree trunks and thick branches in the first year of the study whereas all of them differed significantly from each other or from water-treated control in the second year (P < 0.05). A comparison of the mean numbers of adult catches and exuviae in both years revealed significant differences between the used motor oil and cotton seed oil treatments (P < 0.05). The lime treatments in both years significantly differed in terms of adult catches, but not exuviae (P<0.05). In the second year, compared with those in water-treated control plots, the mean number of adult catches and exuviae decreased by 81.3% and 88.3% in the used motor oil-treated plots, and by 70.8% and 83.3% in the cotton seed oil-treated plots, respectively. Although population reductions in the lime treatment were significant in the second year, the effect was at a much reduced level in comparison to the two oil treatments. The overall results suggest that used motor oil and cotton seed oil may have potential for the control of apple clearwing.

  4. Apple contains receptor-like genes homologous to the Cladosporium fulvum resistance gene family of tomato with a cluster of genes cosegregating with Vf apple scab resistance.

    PubMed

    Vinatzer, B A; Patocchi, A; Gianfranceschi, L; Tartarini, S; Zhang, H B; Gessler, C; Sansavini, S

    2001-04-01

    Scab caused by the fungal pathogen Venturia inaequalis is the most common disease of cultivated apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.). Monogenic resistance against scab is found in some small-fruited wild Malus species and has been used in apple breeding for scab resistance. Vf resistance of Malus floribunda 821 is the most widely used scab resistance source. Because breeding a high-quality cultivar in perennial fruit trees takes dozens of years, cloning disease resistance genes and using them in the transformation of high-quality apple varieties would be advantageous. We report the identification of a cluster of receptor-like genes with homology to the Cladosporium fulvum (Cf) resistance gene family of tomato on bacterial artificial chromosome clones derived from the Vf scab resistance locus. Three members of the cluster were sequenced completely. Similar to the Cf gene family of tomato, the deduced amino acid sequences coded by these genes contain an extracellular leucine-rich repeat domain and a transmembrane domain. The transcription of three members of the cluster was determined by reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction to be constitutive, and the transcription and translation start of one member was verified by 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends. We discuss the parallels between Cf resistance of tomato and Vf resistance of apple and the possibility that one of the members of the gene cluster is the Vf gene. Cf homologs from other regions of the apple genome also were identified and are likely to present other scab resistance genes.

  5. Transforming Schools through Expanded Learning Time: Orchard Gardens K-8 Pilot School. Update 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Roy

    2013-01-01

    For years, Orchard Gardens K-8 Pilot School was plagued by low student achievement and high staff turnover. Then, in 2010, with an expanded school schedule made possible through federal funding, Orchard Gardens began a remarkable turnaround. Today, the school is demonstrating how increased learning time, combined with other key turnaround…

  6. Challenges of managing disease in tall orchard trees – pecan scab, a case study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managing disease in tall orchard trees presents unique issues not found in relatively shorter horticultural and agronomic crops, simply due to height. Pecan scab (caused by Fusicladium effusum [G. Winter] Seyran et al.) is used as an example of a major disease of one of the tallest orchard crops in ...

  7. Pest Control and Related Orchard Practices in Commercial Fruit Plantings. Circular 1151.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ries, S. M.; And Others

    This circular brings together suggestions from the Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station and the Illinois State Natural History Survey relating to orchard practices and pest control. It provides some basic steps in pest control and discusses some specific orchard pests such as grasshoppers, mites, mice, and rabbits. In addition, it gives some…

  8. Impact of barrier crops on arthropod pests immigrating into orchards of sapodilla and banana.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We compared the abundance and damage of several pests in orchards of sapodilla, banana, and papaya that were either surrounded by a border of tall sorghum or without such a border. Almost all pests were present in equal numbers in orchards, despite the presence or absence of a barrier crop of sorghu...

  9. Evaluation of the atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus strain AF36 in pistachio orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The atoxigenic strain Aspergillus flavus AF36, which has been extensively used as a biocontrol agent in commercial corn and cotton fields to reduce aflatoxin contamination, was applied in research pistachio orchards from 2002 to 2005 and in commercial pistachio orchards from 2008 to 2011. AF36 was a...

  10. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to...

  11. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to...

  12. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to...

  13. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to...

  14. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to...

  15. Longevity of the adult codling moth, Cydia pomonella, and the obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana, in Washington apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Jones, Vincent P; Wiman, Nik G

    2008-01-01

    The longevity of adult codling moth (Cydia pomonella (L.) Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and obliquebanded leafroller (Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) held in shaded vials in the tree canopy was measured during the normal flight periods during 2004 and 2005. In both years all codling moths were dead by 130 degree-days (DD) (21 d) in the spring and 121 DD (8 d) in the summer. On a degree-day basis, data were similar across sex, generation, and year, and a common curve adequately predicted the survival distribution. For the obliquebanded leafroller, there were longevity differences between the sexes, but not between generations or years. Use of empirical quantile-quantile plots showed that the female obliquebanded leafroller lived an average of 32% longer than males. Maximum longevity observed in these studies for obliquebanded leafrollers was 117 DD (11 d) across both generations. The implications of these data for population biology studies and quarantine requirements are discussed.

  16. Using entomopathogenic nematodes for biological control of plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar: Effects of irrigation and species in apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar, is a major pest of stone and pome fruit. Entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernema spp. and Heterorhabditis spp.) are virulent to ground-dwelling stages of C. nenuphar. Two significant questions that must be addressed prior to implementation are: 1) which n...

  17. Establishing the behavioral basis for an attract-and-kill strategy to manage the invasive Halyomorpha halys in apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Halyomorpha halys (Stål) is an invasive, polyphagous insect that inflicts serious economic injury on specialty crops in the United States. Growers have been forced to respond by increasing the frequency of broad-spectrum insecticide applications. One strategy to reduce reliance on insecticides is ...

  18. Weaver ant role in cashew orchards in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Peng, Renkang; Lan, La Pham; Christian, Keith

    2014-08-01

    Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) is a very important source of income for more than 200,000 farmer households in Vietnam. The present cashew productivity in Vietnam is low and unstable, and pest damage is partly responsible for this. Cashew farmers rely on pesticides to minimize the damage, resulting in adverse impacts on farm environment and farmers' health. Weaver ants (Oecophylla spp) are effective biocontrol agents of a range of cashew insect pests in several cashew-growing countries, and these ants are widely distributed in Vietnam. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential of weaver ants in cashew orchards in Vietnam. Field surveys and field experiment were conducted in five cashew orchards from July 2006 to January 2008 in Binh Phuoc, Dong Nai, and Ba Ria Vung Tau provinces, Vietnam. Based on the field surveys, the most important pests that damage flushing foliar and floral shoots and young cashew fruits and nuts were mosquito bugs, brown shoot borers, blue shoot borers, and fruit-nut borers. The damage caused by each of these pests was significantly lower on trees with weaver ants compared with trees without the ants, showing that the ants were able to keep these pest damages under the control threshold. Regular monitoring of the field experiment showed that weaver ants were similar to insecticides for controlling mosquito bugs, blue shoot borers, fruit-nut borers, leaf rollers, and leaf miners. Aphids did not become major pests in plot with weaver ants. To manage insect pest assemblage in cashew orchards, an integrated pest management using weaver ants as a major component is discussed.

  19. Effects of transmission towers on orchards and vineyards

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, W.S.

    1980-10-01

    Electric power transmission towers can pose problems for the farm operator in terms of the loss of productive area and interference with the movement of machinery. A study was conducted to evaluate the impact of transmission facilities on orchard and vineyard operations in Ontario, Canada. Economic losses to peach and grape crops were determined. Time loss varied greatly depending on the specific operation and tower location. Economic effects of transmission towers varied widely depending on location and orientation, and whether or not equipment can pass through the base area.

  20. [Service value assessment of orchard ecosystem: a case of Putian City of Fujian].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Wu, Duan-wang

    2011-09-01

    Based on the equivalent weight factor of China terrestrial ecosystem service value, and by using ecosystem service value assessment model, this paper evaluated the orchard ecosystem service value in Putian City. In 2002-2008, the orchard ecosystem service value in the City had an overall increasing trend, among which, the service value of gas regulation and water resource conservation had a fluctuation trend of decreased after an initial increase, and that of other functions increased rapidly in 2002-2006 and then developed mildly. The service value of regulation function was higher than that of direct use function, showing that only on the basis of preserving well the functions of ecosystem, could the orchard ecosystem be claimed and used. As most of the orchards in the City are on hills or mountains, the construction and ecological protection of the orchards are obviously disjointed, making the orchards become bare land or other land-use types, resulting in serious soil erosion and degradation, which not only destroyed the orchard ecology, but also gave negative effects on the production efficiency of agriculture. In the future construction of Putian orchards, it should implement comprehensive planning and management of mountain areas, water regions, farm lands, forest lands, and paths, reduce the orchard construction costs by taking advantage of high and new technologies in light of the local conditions and the demands of domestic and foreign markets, and promote the virtuous circle of ecosystem by comprehensive utilization of resources and regulation of biological interaction to make the structure of the orchard ecosystem approached to scientific and rational.

  1. The impact of agricultural management on selected soil properties in citrus orchards in Eastern Spain: A comparison between conventional and organic citrus orchards with drip and flood irrigation.

    PubMed

    Hondebrink, M A; Cammeraat, L H; Cerdà, A

    2017-03-01

    The agricultural management of citrus orchards is changing from flood irrigated managed orchards to drip irrigated organic managed orchards. Eastern Spain is the oldest and largest European producer of citrus, and is representative of the environmental changes triggered by innovations in orchard management. In order to determine the impact of land management on different soil quality parameters, twelve citrus orchards sites were selected with different land and irrigation management techniques. Soil samples were taken at two depths, 0-2cm and 5-10cm for studying soil quality parameters under the different treatments. Half of the studied orchards were organically managed and the other six were conventionally managed, and for each of these six study sites three fields were flood irrigated plots and the other three drip irrigated systems. The outcome of the studied parameters was that soil organic matter (SOM) and aggregate stability were higher for organic farms. Bulk density and pH were only significantly different for organic farms when drip irrigation was applied in comparison with flooded plots. C/N ratio did not vary significantly for the four treatments. Although there are some points of discussion, this research shows that a combination of different management decisions leads to improvement of a couple of soil quality parameters. Organic management practices were found to be beneficial for soil quality, compared to conventional management for soils with comparable textures and applied irrigation water.

  2. The 1978 Pennsylvania Orchard and Vineyard Inventory Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Significant developments in the fruit industry in Pennsylvania are reported to provide basic information as a guide in the production and marketing of apples, pears, cherries, peaches, grapes, plums, prunes and nectarines. Tables show the number of growers, trees and acres by kind of fruit as well as the age of the trees, the number of barrels produced, and production by county and region.

  3. Evaluation of Reference Genes for the Relative Quantification of Apple stem grooving virus and Apple mosaic virus in Apple Trees.

    PubMed

    Gadiou, S; Kundu, J K

    2012-06-01

    A SYBR Green(®)-based one step RT-qPCR assay was developed for the detection and quantification of Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV) and Apple mosaic virus (ApMV). The RT-qPCR assay employed seven plant-expressed genes-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), 18S ribosomal RNA, ubiquitin, ribosomal protein S19, Rubisco, RNA polymerase subunit II and β-actin-as internal reference housekeeping genes in a relative quantification system in three apple cultivars (i.e. Idared, Champion, Fragrance). The average expression stability (M) found by GeNorm software suggest that GAPDH and S19 were the most stable reference genes. We propose employing GAPDH and S19 as housekeeping genes for accurate quantification of ASGV and ApMV in apple leaf samples. The detection limit for both viruses was found around 70 copies of viral genome by one-step RT-qPCR.

  4. Evapotranspiration and turbulent transport in an irrigated desert orchard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoughton, Thomas E.; Miller, David R.; Huddleston, Ellis W.; Ross, James B.

    2002-10-01

    Micrometeorological measurements were recorded in an irrigated pecan orchard for 2 weeks in the summer of 1996 near Las Cruces, NM. A vertical array of five sonic anemometers recorded three-dimensional wind and temperature data within and above the orchard. The measured energy budget closure error was only 3.2% of net radiation, indicating freedom from local edge advection. The effects of regional (oasis) advection and unsteady winds on evapotranspiration (ET) were considered by comparing the observed latent heat flux values to estimates of ET using the Penman-Monteith and Advection-Aridity approaches. Penman-Monteith underestimated observed ET values by 82%. The Advection-Aridity modifications of potential evapotranspiration (PET) underestimated ET by 11%. Profiles of turbulence statistics demonstrated vertical heterogeneity of turbulence within the canopy. Directly above the canopy, momentum flux profiles showed little divergence. However, at a level of two times the tree heights, sensible heat flux profiles did show divergence, confirming the presence of "oasis" advection resulting from warm, dry air moving above the internal boundary layer. Upward convection from the hot soil surface between the trees diluted the oasis condition to the point where a weak upward sensible heat flux was observed during the midday periods when the soil was not shaded. Convection ratios, and exuberance ratios, generated from quadrant analyses of the heat and momentum flux events, showed that turbulent motions moved freely up and down within this canopy with little attenuation due to the open spaces between the trees.

  5. Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibe, Mary; MacLaren, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) project as a way of teaching astronomy concepts to middle school students. The project provides students opportunities to work with professional scientists. (SOE)

  6. Biochemistry of Apple Aroma: A Review.

    PubMed

    Espino-Díaz, Miguel; Sepúlveda, David Roberto; González-Aguilar, Gustavo; Olivas, Guadalupe I

    2016-12-01

    Flavour is a key quality attribute of apples defined by volatile aroma compounds. Biosynthesis of aroma compounds involves metabolic pathways in which the main precursors are fatty and amino acids, and the main products are aldehydes, alcohols and esters. Some enzymes are crucial in the production of volatile compounds, such as lipoxygenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and alcohol acyltransferase. Composition and concentration of volatiles in apples may be altered by pre- and postharvest factors that cause a decline in apple flavour. Addition of biosynthetic precursors of volatile compounds may be a strategy to promote aroma production in apples. The present manuscript compiles information regarding the biosynthesis of volatile aroma compounds, including metabolic pathways, enzymes and substrates involved, factors that may affect their production and also includes a wide number of studies focused on the addition of biosynthetic precursors in their production.

  7. Biochemistry of Apple Aroma: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Espino-Díaz, Miguel; Sepúlveda, David Roberto; González-Aguilar, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Summary Flavour is a key quality attribute of apples defined by volatile aroma compounds. Biosynthesis of aroma compounds involves metabolic pathways in which the main precursors are fatty and amino acids, and the main products are aldehydes, alcohols and esters. Some enzymes are crucial in the production of volatile compounds, such as lipoxygenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and alcohol acyltransferase. Composition and concentration of volatiles in apples may be altered by pre- and postharvest factors that cause a decline in apple flavour. Addition of biosynthetic precursors of volatile compounds may be a strategy to promote aroma production in apples. The present manuscript compiles information regarding the biosynthesis of volatile aroma compounds, including metabolic pathways, enzymes and substrates involved, factors that may affect their production and also includes a wide number of studies focused on the addition of biosynthetic precursors in their production. PMID:28115895

  8. Ergonomic evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard

    SciTech Connect

    Tittiranonda, P.; Burastero, S.; Shih, M.; Rempel, D.

    1994-05-01

    This study presents an evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard based on subjective preference and observed joint angles during typing. Thirty five keyboard users were asked to use the Apple adjustable keyboard for 7--14 days and rate the various characteristics of the keyboard. Our findings suggest that the most preferred opening angles range from 11--20{degree}. The mean ulnar deviation on the Apple Adjustable keyboard is 11{degree}, compared to 16{degree} on the standard keyboard. The mean extension was decreased from 24{degree} to 16{degree} when using the adjustable keyboard. When asked to subjectively rate the adjustable keyboard in comparison to the standard, the average subject felt that the Apple Adjustable Keyboard was more comfortable and easier to use than the standard flat keyboard.

  9. Evaluation of monitoring traps with novel bait for navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in California almond and pistachio orchards.

    PubMed

    Nay, Justin E; Peterson, Elonce M; Boyd, Elizabeth A

    2012-08-01

    Experiments conducted in three almond, Prunus dulcis (Rosales: Rosaceae), orchards and three pistachio, Pistacia vera (Sapindales: Anicardiaceae), orchards in 2009 and 2010, and determined that sticky bottom wing traps baited with ground pistachio mummies, or a combination of ground pistachio plus ground almond mummies, trapped more adult female navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), than did traps baited with ground almond mummies alone. During both years of this study, 2.9 and 1.8 more moths were caught in traps baited with pistachio mummies compared with traps baited with almond mummies in almond orchards and pistachio orchards, respectively. Also, traps located in pistachio orchards caught 5.9 and 8.3 times more navel orangeworm than were trapped from almond orchards in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Implications for use of this novel baited trap in almond and pistachio orchard integrated pest management programs are discussed.

  10. The Macintoshed Library: Uses of the Apple Macintosh in a Special Library. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valauskas, Edward J., Ed.

    This report describes the use of Apple Macintosh computers in the Merriam Center Library (MCL) (Illinois), a small, specialized library located on the campus of the University of Chicago. The appropriateness of the Macintosh for library use and the introduction of Macintosh computers to MCL are briefly discussed, current computer applications are…

  11. Production of apple snail for space diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Masamichi; Motoki, Shigeru; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.; Katayama, Naomi

    For food production in space at recycling bio-elements under closed environment, appropriate organisms should be chosen to drive the closed materials recycle loop. We propose a combination of green algae, photosynthetic protozoa, and aquatic plants such as Wolffia spp., for the primary producer fixing solar energy to chemical form in biomass, and apple snail, Pomacea bridgesii, which converts this biomass to animal meat. Because of high proliferation rate of green algae or protozoa compared to higher plants, and direct conversion of them to apple snail, the efficiency of food production in this combination is high, in terms of energy usage, space for rearing, and yield of edible biomass. Furthermore, green algae and apple snail can form a closed ecological system with exchanging bio-elements between two member, i.e. excreta of snail turn to fertilizer of algae, and grown algae become feed for snail. Since apple snail stays in water or on wet substrate, control of rearing is easy to make. Mass production technology of apple snail has been well established to utilize it as human food. Nutrients of apple snail are also listed in the standard tables of food composition in Japan. Nutrients for 100 g of apple snail canned in brine are energy 340 kJ, protein 16.5 g, lipid 1.0 g, cholesterol 240 mg, carbohydrate 0.8 g, Ca 400 mg, Fe 3.9 mg, Zn 1.5 mg. It is rich in minerals, especially Ca and Fe. Vitamin contents are quite low, but K 0.005 mg, B2 0.09 mg, B12 0.0006 mg, folate 0.001 mg, and E 0.6 mg. The amino acid score of apple snail could not be found in literature. Overall, apple snail provides rich protein and animal lipid such as cholesterol. It could be a good source of minerals. However, it does not give enough vitamin D and B12 , which are supposed to be supplemented by animal origin foods. In terms of acceptance in food culture, escargot is a gourmet menu in French dishes, and six to ten snail, roughly 50 g, are served for one person. Apple snail reaches to 30 g

  12. California's Effort to Improve Almond Orchard Crop Coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanden, B. L.; Fulton, A. E.; Munk, D. S.; Ewert, S.; Little, C.; Anderson, F.; Connell, J. H.; Rivera, M.; Orang, M. N.; Snyder, R. L.

    2012-04-01

    Almonds are a major agricultural commodity in California and optimal irrigation management is important for production, protecting the environment, and long term water resources planning. While evapotranspiration (ET) estimates are widely used for water resource planning, it is used less for "realtime" irrigation management for several reasons. One problem is the lack of confidence in the crop coefficient (Kc) values that are used with reference ET (ETo) to estimate well-watered crop ET (ETc). This is especially true for orchard crops. Until recently, the Kc values used to estimate the ETc of most orchard crops in California were derived using measurements of applied water, runoff, and soil water content depletion with the assumption that the trees were transpiring at a rate that was not restricted by water availability. For decades, a typical midseason Kc value used for clean-cultivated almond orchards was 0.90. Recently, a study was conducted by the University of California and the California Department of Water Resources to improve the Kc estimates for almond orchards; helping growers improve their on-farm water management for better production and less adverse impacts on the environment. Field experiments were conducted in four locations (Butte, Fresno, Kern, and Tehama Counties) spanning 1000 km north to south within the Central Valley of California over somewhat different climates. California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS) weather stations were used with the ASCE-EWRI standardized reference evapotranspiration equation for short canopies to determine ETo. Latent heat flux (LE), in all four orchards, was estimated using the residual of the energy balance equation: LE=Rn-G-H from measured net radiation (Rn), ground heat flux (G), and sensible heat flux (H) using surface renewal and eddy covariance measurements. The LE was divided by the latent heat of vaporization (L) to determine ETc. In three years of measurements in Kern County, the data

  13. Characterisation of microRNAs from apple (Malus domestica 'Royal Gala') vascular tissue and phloem sap

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, non-coding RNAs that play an important role in development and environmental responses. Hundreds of plant miRNAs have been identified to date, mainly from the model species for which there are available genome sequences. The current challenge is to characterise miRNAs from plant species with agricultural and horticultural importance, to aid our understanding of important regulatory mechanisms in crop species and enable improvement of crops and rootstocks. Results Based on the knowledge that many miRNAs occur in large gene families and are highly conserved among distantly related species, we analysed expression of twenty-one miRNA sequences in different tissues of apple (Malus x domestica 'Royal Gala'). We identified eighteen sequences that are expressed in at least one of the tissues tested. Some, but not all, miRNAs expressed in apple tissues including the phloem tissue were also detected in the phloem sap sample derived from the stylets of woolly apple aphids. Most of the miRNAs detected in apple phloem sap were also abundant in the phloem sap of herbaceous species. Potential targets for apple miRNAs were identified that encode putative proteins shown to be targets of corresponding miRNAs in a number of plant species. Expression patterns of potential targets were analysed and correlated with expression of corresponding miRNAs. Conclusions This study validated tissue-specific expression of apple miRNAs that target genes responsible for plant growth, development, and stress response. A subset of characterised miRNAs was also present in the apple phloem translocation stream. A comparative analysis of phloem miRNAs in herbaceous species and woody perennials will aid our understanding of non-cell autonomous roles of miRNAs in plants. PMID:20682080

  14. Seasonality of Tylenchulus semipenetrans Cobb and Pasteuria sp. in Citrus Orchards in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Sorribas, F. J.; Verdejo-Lucas, S.; Forner, J. B.; Alcaidel, A.; Pons, J.; Ornat, C.

    2000-01-01

    Population densities of the Mediterranean biotype of Tylenchulus semipenetrans were monitored in soil and citrus roots at 3-month intervals for 3 consecutive years in four citrus orchards in the provinces of Tarragona (Amposta and Xalamera) and Valencia (Moncada and Ca´rcer). Nematode population densities in soil peaked once a year in April or July depending on the orchard and year. Numbers of females per gram of root increased once or twice each year. The maximum density of eggs per gram of root was recorded in April at Xalamera and Ca´rcer orchards, but there was no recognizable peak in the other two orchards. Numbers of nematodes in soil, females or eggs per gram of root, or eggs per female were correlated with either temperature or rainfall in the sampling month, 1 month before sampling, or in the second preceding month, depending on the orchard. Members of the Pasteuria group were present in the four citrus orchards, and a positive relationship occurred between nematodes in soil and bacterial parasitism (r² = 0.75) in the orchard at Amposta. PMID:19271018

  15. Maintenance of a living understory enhances soil carbon sequestration in subtropical orchards.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhanfeng; Lin, Yongbiao; Lu, Hongfang; Ding, Mingmao; Tan, Yaowen; Xu, Shejin; Fu, Shenglei

    2013-01-01

    Orchard understory represents an important component of the orchards, performing numerous functions related to soil quality, water relations and microclimate, but little attention has been paid on its effect on soil C sequestration. In the face of global climate change, fruit producers also require techniques that increase carbon (C) sequestration in a cost-effective manner. Here we present a case study to compare the effects of understory management (sod culture vs. clean tillage) on soil C sequestration in four subtropical orchards. The results of a 10-year study indicated that the maintenance of sod significantly enhanced the soil C stock in the top 1 m of orchard soils. Relative to clean tillage, sod culture increased annual soil C sequestration by 2.85 t C ha(-1), suggesting that understory management based on sod culture offers promising potential for soil carbon sequestration. Considering that China has the largest area of orchards in the world and that few of these orchards currently have sod understories, the establishment and maintenance of sod in orchards can help China increase C sequestration and greatly contribute to achieving CO2 reduction targets at a regional scale and potentially at a national scale.

  16. Optimal Path Planning Program for Autonomous Speed Sprayer in Orchard Using Order-Picking Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, T. S.; Park, S. J.; Hwang, K. Y.; Cho, S. I.

    This study was conducted to develop a software program which computes optimal path for autonomous navigation in orchard, especially for speed sprayer. Possibilities of autonomous navigation in orchard were shown by other researches which have minimized distance error between planned path and performed path. But, research of planning an optimal path for speed sprayer in orchard is hardly founded. In this study, a digital map and a database for orchard which contains GPS coordinate information (coordinates of trees and boundary of orchard) and entity information (heights and widths of trees, radius of main stem of trees, disease of trees) was designed. An orderpicking algorithm which has been used for management of warehouse was used to calculate optimum path based on the digital map. Database for digital map was created by using Microsoft Access and graphic interface for database was made by using Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0. It was possible to search and display information about boundary of an orchard, locations of trees, daily plan for scattering chemicals and plan optimal path on different orchard based on digital map, on each circumstance (starting speed sprayer in different location, scattering chemicals for only selected trees).

  17. Wildflower Plantings Do Not Compete With Neighboring Almond Orchards for Pollinator Visits.

    PubMed

    Lundin, Ola; Ward, Kimiora L; Artz, Derek R; Boyle, Natalie K; Pitts-Singer, Theresa L; Williams, Neal M

    2017-04-03

    The engineering of flowering agricultural field borders has emerged as a research and policy priority to mitigate threats to pollinators. Studies have, however, rarely addressed the potential that flowering field borders might compete with neighboring crops for pollinator visits if they both are in bloom at the same time, despite this being a concern expressed by growers. We evaluated how wildflower plantings added to orchard borders in a large (512 ha) commercial almond orchard affected honey bee and wild bee visitation to orchard borders and the crop. The study was conducted over two consecutive seasons using three large (0.48 ha) wildflower plantings paired with control orchard borders in a highly simplified agricultural landscape in California. Honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) and wild bee visitation to wildflower plots were at least an order of magnitude higher than to control plots, but increased honey bee visitation to wildflower plots did not lead to any detectable shifts in honey bee visitation to almond flowers in the neighboring orchard. Wild bees were rarely observed visiting almond flowers irrespective of border treatment, indicating a limited short-term potential for augmenting crop pollination using wild bees in highly simplified agricultural landscapes. Although further studies are warranted on bee visitation and crop yield from spatially independent orchards, this study indicates that growers can support bees with alternative forage in almond orchards without risking competition between the wildflower plantings and the crop.

  18. Maintenance of a Living Understory Enhances Soil Carbon Sequestration in Subtropical Orchards

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhanfeng; Lin, Yongbiao; Lu, Hongfang; Ding, Mingmao; Tan, Yaowen; Xu, Shejin; Fu, Shenglei

    2013-01-01

    Orchard understory represents an important component of the orchards, performing numerous functions related to soil quality, water relations and microclimate, but little attention has been paid on its effect on soil C sequestration. In the face of global climate change, fruit producers also require techniques that increase carbon (C) sequestration in a cost-effective manner. Here we present a case study to compare the effects of understory management (sod culture vs. clean tillage) on soil C sequestration in four subtropical orchards. The results of a 10-year study indicated that the maintenance of sod significantly enhanced the soil C stock in the top 1 m of orchard soils. Relative to clean tillage, sod culture increased annual soil C sequestration by 2.85 t C ha-1, suggesting that understory management based on sod culture offers promising potential for soil carbon sequestration. Considering that China has the largest area of orchards in the world and that few of these orchards currently have sod understories, the establishment and maintenance of sod in orchards can help China increase C sequestration and greatly contribute to achieving CO2 reduction targets at a regional scale and potentially at a national scale. PMID:24116188

  19. Apple quality, storage, and washing treatments affect patulin levels in apple cider.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Lauren S; Beacham-Bowden, Tina; Keller, Susanne E; Adhikari, Chaitali; Taylor, Kirk T; Chirtel, Stewart J; Merker, Robert I

    2003-04-01

    Patulin is a mycotoxin produced primarily by Penicillium expansum, a mold responsible for rot in apples and other fruits. The growth of this fungus and the production of patulin are common in fruit that has been damaged. However, patulin can be detected in visibly sound fruit. The purpose of this project was to determine how apple quality, storage, and washing treatments affect patulin levels in apple cider. Patulin was not detected in cider pressed from fresh tree-picked apples (seven cultivars) but was found at levels of 40.2 to 374 microg/liter in cider pressed from four cultivars of fresh ground-harvested (dropped) apples. Patulin was not detected in cider pressed from culled tree-picked apples stored for 4 to 6 weeks at 0 to 2 degrees C but was found at levels of 0.97 to 64.0 microg/liter in cider pressed from unculled fruit stored under the same conditions. Cider from controlled-atmosphere-stored apples that were culled before pressing contained 0 to 15.1 microg of patulin per liter, while cider made from unculled fruit contained 59.9 to 120.5 microg of patulin per liter. The washing of ground-harvested apples before pressing reduced patulin levels in cider by 10 to 100%, depending on the initial patulin levels and the type of wash solution used. These results indicate that patulin is a good indicator of the quality of the apples used to manufacture cider. The avoidance of ground-harvested apples and the careful culling of apples before pressing are good methods for reducing patulin levels in cider.

  20. Trophic transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls in great blue heron (Ardea herodias) at Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge, Illinois, United States.

    PubMed

    Straub, C L; Maul, J D; Halbrook, R S; Spears, B; Lydy, M J

    2007-05-01

    In this study, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were measured in great blue heron (GBHE) (Ardea herodias) chicks and eggs at Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge (CONWR) in southern Illinois. In addition, biomagnification factors (BMFs) from gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum) and their effects on reproductive effort were examined. Total PCBs (SigmaPCBs) in chicks and shad were greater at the east end of Crab Orchard Lake (i.e., near the site of contamination) than the west end, but chick concentrations (4.1 to 10.1 mg/kg lipid weight) were lower than those typically associated with adverse effects. Chick BMFs based on shad from diet samples were greater than those based on shad collected from the lake. Furthermore, the two shad sources had dissimilar dioxin-like congener patterns and SigmaPCBs, suggesting that there was variation in PCB load and composition and that the more contaminated shad were a small proportion of the actual heron chick diet. The number of eggs laid per nest was similar between colonies, suggesting no observable population level effects. Further study may be necessary to evaluate long-term effects on GBHEs at CONWR.

  1. Survey of apple chlorotic leaf spot virus and apple stem grooving virus occurrence in Korea and frequency of mixed infections in apple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the absence of knowledge of the distribution of Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV) and Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) in apples in Korea, we carried out a survey for these viruses in Gyeongsang and Chungcheong provinces in 2014. A total of 65 samples were collected and tested by RT-PCR...

  2. [Hyperspectral Estimation of Apple Tree Canopy LAI Based on SVM and RF Regression].

    PubMed

    Han, Zhao-ying; Zhu, Xi-cun; Fang, Xian-yi; Wang, Zhuo-yuan; Wang, Ling; Zhao, Geng-Xing; Jiang, Yuan-mao

    2016-03-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is the dynamic index of crop population size. Hyperspectral technology can be used to estimate apple canopy LAI rapidly and nondestructively. It can be provide a reference for monitoring the tree growing and yield estimation. The Red Fuji apple trees of full bearing fruit are the researching objects. Ninety apple trees canopies spectral reflectance and LAI values were measured by the ASD Fieldspec3 spectrometer and LAI-2200 in thirty orchards in constant two years in Qixia research area of Shandong Province. The optimal vegetation indices were selected by the method of correlation analysis of the original spectral reflectance and vegetation indices. The models of predicting the LAI were built with the multivariate regression analysis method of support vector machine (SVM) and random forest (RF). The new vegetation indices, GNDVI527, ND-VI676, RVI682, FD-NVI656 and GRVI517 and the previous two main vegetation indices, NDVI670 and NDVI705, are in accordance with LAI. In the RF regression model, the calibration set decision coefficient C-R2 of 0.920 and validation set decision coefficient V-R2 of 0.889 are higher than the SVM regression model by 0.045 and 0.033 respectively. The root mean square error of calibration set C-RMSE of 0.249, the root mean square error validation set V-RMSE of 0.236 are lower than that of the SVM regression model by 0.054 and 0.058 respectively. Relative analysis of calibrating error C-RPD and relative analysis of validation set V-RPD reached 3.363 and 2.520, 0.598 and 0.262, respectively, which were higher than the SVM regression model. The measured and predicted the scatterplot trend line slope of the calibration set and validation set C-S and V-S are close to 1. The estimation result of RF regression model is better than that of the SVM. RF regression model can be used to estimate the LAI of red Fuji apple trees in full fruit period.

  3. Constructing AppleWorks Word Processing Files for the Apple IIe Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This step-by-step guide to constructing word processing files using the AppleWorks software on the Apple IIe computer covers (1) loading the program; (2) adding files to the desktop; (3) selecting the word processor option; (4) naming the file; (5) setting tabs; (6) selecting print options; and (7) saving the file. Sixteen sample screen displays…

  4. Constructing AppleWorks Data Base Files for the Apple IIe Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This step-by-step guide to creating database files using the AppleWorks software on the Apple IIe computer covers (1) loading the program; (2) adding files to the desktop; (3) selecting the database option; (4) naming the file; (5) naming categories or fields; (6) inserting data; (7) changing database file formats; (8) altering the file layout;…

  5. Printing AppleWorks V2.0 Spreadsheet Files Using the Apple IIGS Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This guide was developed as a "how to" training device for printing AppleWorks version 2.0 spreadsheet files using the Apple IIGS computer with two disk drives. Step-by-step instructions are provided for loading spreadsheet files; selecting the print option; printing entire files; and for printing specific rows, columns, or blocks of the…

  6. Printing AppleWorks V2.0 Word Processing Files Using the Apple IIGS Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This guide was developed as a "how to" training device for printing AppleWorks version 2.0 word processor files using the Apple IIGS computer with two disk drives. Step-by-step instructions are provided for loading the word processor files, selecting the print option, printing files, and obtaining additional help. For each step, a…

  7. The history of Newton's apple tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keesing, R. G.

    1998-05-01

    This article contains a brief introduction to Newton's early life to put into context the subsequent events in this narrative. It is followed by a summary of accounts of Newton's famous story of his discovery of universal gravitation which was occasioned by the fall of an apple in the year 1665/6. Evidence of Newton's friendship with a prosperous Yorkshire family who planted an apple tree arbour in the early years of the eighteenth century to celebrate his discovery is presented. A considerable amount of new and unpublished pictorial and documentary material is included relating to a particular apple tree which grew in the garden of Woolsthorpe Manor (Newton's birthplace) and which blew down in a storm before the year 1816. Evidence is then presented which describes how this tree was chosen to be the focus of Newton's account. Details of the propagation of the apple tree growing in the garden at Woolsthorpe in the early part of the last century are then discussed, and the results of a dendrochronological study of two of these trees is presented. It is then pointed out that there is considerable evidence to show that the apple tree presently growing at Woolsthorpe and known as 'Newton's apple tree' is in fact the same specimen which was identified in the middle of the eighteenth century and which may now be 350 years old. In conclusion early results from a radiocarbon dating study being carried out at the University of Oxford on core samples from the Woolsthorpe tree lend support to the contention that the present tree is one and the same as that identified as Newton's apple tree more than 200 years ago. Very recently genetic fingerprinting techniques have been used in an attempt to identify from which sources the various 'Newton apple trees' planted throughout the world originate. The tentative result of this work suggests that there are two separate varieties of apple tree in existence which have been accepted as 'the tree'. One may conclude that at least some of

  8. A Comprehensive Review of Apples and Apple Components and Their Relationship to Human Health12

    PubMed Central

    Hyson, Dianne A.

    2011-01-01

    There has been an increasing appreciation and understanding of the link between dietary fruit and vegetable intake and improved health in humans. The widespread and growing intake of apples and apple juice/products and their rich phytochemical profile suggest their important potential to affect the health of the populations consuming them. This review summarizes current clinical, in vitro, and in vivo data and builds upon earlier published reports that apple may reduce the risk of chronic disease by various mechanisms, including antioxidant, antiproliferative, and cell signaling effects. Exposure to apples and apple products has been associated with beneficial effects on risk, markers, and etiology of cancer, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and Alzheimer’s disease. Recent work suggests that these products may also be associated with improved outcomes related to cognitive decline of normal aging, diabetes, weight management, bone health, pulmonary function, and gastrointestinal protection. PMID:22332082

  9. A comparison of the nesting success of mourning doves and American robins in conventionally managed and organic orchards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fluetsch, K.M.

    1992-01-01

    A comparative study was undertaken to document more closely the effects of operational pesticide use on non-target avian species. Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura) and American Robin (Turdus migratorius) nesting activity was monitored in three organic and three conventional orchards during two breeding seasons. Surveys were conducted to characterize the avian community within orchards under both management practices. Organophosphorus (OP) and carbamate pesticides, known to be extremely toxic to birds, were repeatedly sprayed during the peaks in dove and robin breeding activity. Spray card tests revealed that OP pesticides were deposited on 85.5% of the nests tested during routine spray operations. The threat of direct pesticide exposure to eggs, nestlings, and adult birds was considerable. Nest daily survival rates (DSRs) for both doves and robins, were significantly higher in the organic orchards than in the conventional orchards in 1991 and years combined (P < 0.05). Species diversity was significantly greater in the organic orchards (H = 2.43) than in the conventional orchards (H = 1.79). Results suggest that repeated applications of pesticides, within the conventional orchards, directly or indirectly, affected the reproductive success of doves and robins, as well as influenced species diversity within the treated orchards. Organic orchards appear to provide more favorable nesting and foraging habitat for birds than conventional orchards.

  10. Patterns and Drivers of Scattered Tree Loss in Agricultural Landscapes: Orchard Meadows in Germany (1968-2009)

    PubMed Central

    Plieninger, Tobias; Levers, Christian; Mantel, Martin; Costa, Augusta; Schaich, Harald; Kuemmerle, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Scattered trees support high levels of farmland biodiversity and ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes, but they are threatened by agricultural intensification, urbanization, and land abandonment. This study aimed to map and quantify the decline of orchard meadows (scattered fruit trees of high nature conservation value) for a region in Southwestern Germany for the 1968 2009 period and to identify the driving forces of this decline. We derived orchard meadow loss from 1968 and 2009 aerial images and used a boosted regression trees modelling framework to assess the relative importance of 18 environmental, demographic, and socio-economic variables to test five alternative hypothesis explaining orchard meadow loss. We found that orchard meadow loss occurred in flatter areas, in areas where smaller plot sizes and fragmented orchard meadows prevailed, and in areas near settlements and infrastructure. The analysis did not confirm that orchard meadow loss was higher in areas where agricultural intensification was stronger and in areas of lower implementation levels of conservation policies. Our results demonstrated that the influential drivers of orchard meadow loss were those that reduce economic profitability and increase opportunity costs for orchards, providing incentives for converting orchard meadows to other, more profitable land uses. These insights could be taken up by local- and regional-level conservation policies to identify the sites of persistent orchard meadows in agricultural landscapes that would be prioritized in conservation efforts. PMID:25932914

  11. Alkalization of irrigated soils suitable for orchard growing in steppe Crimea and prospects for their use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenko, O. E.

    2016-10-01

    Data of large-scale soil surveys performed by the Ukrgiprosad Institute (Ukrainian Institute for Orchard Growing) in 1997-2013 on irrigated soils of steppe Crimea reserved for orchards on the area of about 3000 ha are discussed. It is shown that all the studied soils are subjected to alkalization with the presence of soda and with an increase in concentrations of sodium and magnesium bicarbonates up to the values toxic for fruit crops. The concentrations and occurrence frequencies of alkaline salts depend on the soil type, the presence of solonetzic features, the amount of carbonates, the particular depth in the soil profile, the subsoiling, and other factors. Within the studied area, some soils are unsuitable or partly suitable for orchard growing. To improve the soil conditions for orchard growing in the areas subjected to alkalization, alkaline salts should be neutralized to nontoxic level, and the soil alkalinity should be reduced using chemical reclamation methods.

  12. Carnivore use of avocado orchards across an agricultural-wildland gradient

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nogeire, Theresa M.; Davis, Frank W.; Duggan, Jennifer M.; Crooks, Kevin R.; Boydston, Erin E.

    2013-01-01

    Wide-ranging species cannot persist in reserves alone. Consequently, there is growing interest in the conservation value of agricultural lands that separate or buffer natural areas. The value of agricultural lands for wildlife habitat and connectivity varies as a function of the crop type and landscape context, and quantifying these differences will improve our ability to manage these lands more effectively for animals. In southern California, many species are present in avocado orchards, including mammalian carnivores. We examined occupancy of avocado orchards by mammalian carnivores across agricultural-wildland gradients in southern California with motion-activated cameras. More carnivore species were detected with cameras in orchards than in wildland sites, and for bobcats and gray foxes, orchards were associated with higher occupancy rates. Our results demonstrate that agricultural lands have potential to contribute to conservation by providing habitat or facilitating landscape connectivity.

  13. 40 CFR 407.20 - Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple products... apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated products...

  14. 40 CFR 407.20 - Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple products... apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated products...

  15. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering...

  16. 40 CFR 407.20 - Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple products... apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated products...

  17. 40 CFR 407.20 - Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple products... apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated products...

  18. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering...

  19. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering...

  20. 40 CFR 407.20 - Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... apple products subcategory. 407.20 Section 407.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple... processing of apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated...

  1. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... apple juice subcategory. 407.10 Section 407.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering...

  2. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering...

  3. Biotechnology and apple breeding in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, Megumi; Hatsuyama, Yoshimichi; Harada, Takeo; Fukasawa-Akada, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    Apple is a fruit crop of significant economic importance, and breeders world wide continue to develop novel cultivars with improved characteristics. The lengthy juvenile period and the large field space required to grow apple populations have imposed major limitations on breeding. Various molecular biological techniques have been employed to make apple breeding easier. Transgenic technology has facilitated the development of apples with resistance to fungal or bacterial diseases, improved fruit quality, or root stocks with better rooting or dwarfing ability. DNA markers for disease resistance (scab, powdery mildew, fire-blight, Alternaria blotch) and fruit skin color have also been developed, and marker-assisted selection (MAS) has been employed in breeding programs. In the last decade, genomic sequences and chromosome maps of various cultivars have become available, allowing the development of large SNP arrays, enabling efficient QTL mapping and genomic selection (GS). In recent years, new technologies for genetic improvement, such as trans-grafting, virus vectors, and genome-editing, have emerged. Using these techniques, no foreign genes are present in the final product, and some of them show considerable promise for application to apple breeding. PMID:27069388

  4. Small-Scale Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Bactrocera minax (Enderlein) (Diptera: Tephritidae) Using Probability Kriging.

    PubMed

    Wang, S Q; Zhang, H Y; Li, Z L

    2016-10-01

    Understanding spatio-temporal distribution of pest in orchards can provide important information that could be used to design monitoring schemes and establish better means for pest control. In this study, the spatial and temporal distribution of Bactrocera minax (Enderlein) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was assessed, and activity trends were evaluated by using probability kriging. Adults of B. minax were captured in two successive occurrences in a small-scale citrus orchard by using food bait traps, which were placed both inside and outside the orchard. The weekly spatial distribution of B. minax within the orchard and adjacent woods was examined using semivariogram parameters. The edge concentration was discovered during the most weeks in adult occurrence, and the population of the adults aggregated with high probability within a less-than-100-m-wide band on both of the sides of the orchard and the woods. The sequential probability kriged maps showed that the adults were estimated in the marginal zone with higher probability, especially in the early and peak stages. The feeding, ovipositing, and mating behaviors of B. minax are possible explanations for these spatio-temporal patterns. Therefore, spatial arrangement and distance to the forest edge of traps or spraying spot should be considered to enhance pest control on B. minax in small-scale orchards.

  5. Use of Lead Isotopes to Assess Sources and Mobility of Contaminants from Barber's Orchard, North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondrad, S.; Miller, J. R.; Lechler, P. J.

    2001-12-01

    Pb-isotopes were used to identify and analyze the off-site migration of lead arsenate, a pesticide used on Barber's Orchard, western North Carolina. The orchard, heavily contaminated by Pb, As, and DDT, is being considered for the EPA's National Priorities List of hazardous waste sites. ICP-MS was used to analyze concentration and isotopic composition of Pb in sediment, fish, and water samples of Richland Creek, which drains the orchard. Isotopic ratios of contaminated sediment were compared to ratios of sediment, water, and fish collected up and downstream of the orchard. The data suggest that off-site migration of contaminants has occurred. Contaminated sediment from Barber's Orchard and older (historic) floodplain sediment downstream of the orchard fall along a well-defined mixing line, indicating a mixing of Pb from the underlying bedrock and from lead arsenate. Sediment not contaminated by lead arsenate, including samples upstream of the orchard, have a significantly different isotopic composition than contaminated terrace sediments. The composition of modern channel sediment also differs from contaminated materials, and may reflect the recent influx of upland sediments eroded during development activities. Whole fish samples of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), brown trout (Salmo trutta), and longnose dace (Rhinichythys cataractae) were analyzed from three sites located downstream of the orchard. At each site, no differences were seen in isotopic composition among species. However, isotopic fractionation and differential accumulation does occur within the fish. Total Pb in bone was significantly greater than in liver or muscle. Isotopic composition of bone was similar to contaminated sediment. Conversely, the Pb isotopic signature of liver and muscle was found to be similar to water samples. Waters sampled during low-flow conditions show a unique signature, differing from both contaminated and non-contaminated sediment. It is hypothesized that this

  6. Rise and fall of endrin usage in Washington state fruit orchards: Effects on wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Henny, C.J.; Grove, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    A study of the effects of endrin on wildlife was conducted from 1981 to 1983 in fruit orchards in central Washington state. The single post-harvest application of endrin as a rodenticide resulted in both acute and chronic toxicity to a variety of avian species. Most mortality occurred soon after application, but several raptors died during the spring and summer. Most wildlife sampled in the orchard system contained residues of endrin. There was on evidence that endrin depressed reproductive success.

  7. An investigation of spider fauna of olive orchards in northern part of Iran.

    PubMed

    Ghavami, Sahra; Mohammad, Ahmadi Damghan; Saeid, Soody; Saeid, Ghanad amooz; Saeb, Javadi

    2007-08-01

    The current study investigates spider fauna of olive orchards in Guilan, Ghazvin, Mazandaran, Zanjan and Golestan provinces during 2002-2003. Spiders were collected from branches, leaves, trunks, on the ground and under the stones and grasses by Steiner and Baggiolini method, bottle, aspirator, pitfall trap, pans and insect net and transfered to laboratory and classified in 45 species and 46 genera belonged to 18 families. Twenty five species, 9 genera and 2 families are reported for the first time of olive orchards.

  8. Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope System Theory of Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephan, George R.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this learning module is to enable learners to describe how the Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) system functions in support of Apple Valley Science and Technology Center's (AVSTC) client schools' radio astronomy activities.

  9. Prediction and diagnosis of apple fruit physiological disorders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple postharvest physiological disorders, characterized by peel or flesh necrosis, result in significant yearly financial losses in commercial operations. Stakeholders have identified the need for effective, consistent control measures for apple postharvest physiological disorders and the developme...

  10. Using the Apple II as a Laboratory Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Jong, Marvin L.; Layman, John W.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses using Apple II microcomputers for measuring resistance, temperature, and light intensity. Also discusses digital input and output and timing techniques. Although focusing on Apple II, the circuits and programs described may be applicable to other microcomputers. (JN)

  11. Production of fuels and chemicals from apple pomace

    SciTech Connect

    Hang, Y.D.

    1987-03-01

    Nearly 36 million tons of apples are produced annually in the US. Approximately 45% of the total US apple production is used for processing purposes. The primary by-product of apple processing is apple pomace. It consists of the presscake resulting from pressing apples for juice or cider, including the presscake obtained in pressing peel and core wastes generated in the manufacture of apple sauce or slices. More than 500 food processing plants in the US produce a total of about 1.3 million metric tons of apple pomace each year, and it is likely that annual disposal fees exceed $10 million. Apple pomace has the potential to be used for the production of fuels (ethanol and biogas containing 60% methane) and food-grade chemicals. These uses will be reviewed in this article.

  12. Spray irrigation effects on surface-layer stability in an experimental citrus orchard during winter freezes

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, H.J.; Smith, E.A.; Martsolf, J.D.

    1997-02-01

    Observations taken by two surface radiation and energy budget stations deployed in the University of Florida/Institute for Food and Agricultural Service experimental citrus orchard in Ginesville, Florida, have been analyzed to identify the effects of sprayer irrigation on thermal stability and circulation processes within the orchard during three 1992 winter freeze episodes. Lapse rates of temperature observed from a micrometeorological tower near the center of the orchard were also recorded during periods of irrigation for incorporation into the analysis. Comparisons of the near-surface temperature lapse rates observed with the two energy budget stations show consistency between the two sites and with the tower-based lapse rates taken over a vertical layer from 1.5 to 15 m above ground level. A theoretical framework was developed that demonstrates that turbulent-scale processes originating within the canopy, driven by latent heat release associated with condensation and freezing processes from water vapor and liquid water released from sprayer nozzles, can destabilize lapse rates and promote warm air mixing above the orchard canopy. The orchard data were then analyzed in the context of the theory for evidence of local overturning and displacement of surface layer air, with warmer air from aloft driven by locally buoyant plumes generated by water vapor injected into the orchard during the irrigation periods. 14 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Enhanced recovery of Salmonella from apple cider and apple juice with universal preenrichment broth.

    PubMed

    Hammack, Thomas S; Johnson, Mildred L; Jacobson, Andrew P; Andrews, Wallace H

    2002-01-01

    A comparison was made of the relative efficiencies of Universal Preenrichment (UP) broth and lactose broth for the recovery of a variety of Salmonella serovars from pasteurized and unpasteurized apple cider and pasteurized apple juice. Bulk portions of juice were contaminated with single Salmonella serovars at high and low levels of 0.4 and 0.04 CFU/mL, respectively. The juice was aged for a minimum of 5 days at 2-5 degrees C. On the day analysis was initiated, each of 20 test portions (25 mL) of the contaminated juice was preenriched in UP broth and in lactose broth. The Bacteriological Analytical Manual Salmonella culture method was followed thereafter. For pasteurized apple cider, UP broth recovered significantly (p < 0.05) more Salmonella-positive test portions than did lactose broth (112 and 75, respectively). For unpasteurized apple cider, UP broth recovered significantly more Salmonella-positive test portions than did lactose broth (326 and 221, respectively). For pasteurized apple juice, UP broth recovered more Salmonella-positive test portions than did lactose broth (93 and 81, respectively). However, this difference was not statistically significant. These results indicate that UP broth should replace lactose broth for the analysis of pasteurized and unpasteurized apple cider and pasteurized apple juice.

  14. Models for Predicting the Architecture of Different Shoot Types in Apple

    PubMed Central

    Baïram, Emna; Delaire, Mickaël; Le Morvan, Christian; Buck-Sorlin, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    In apple, the first-order branch of a tree has a characteristic architecture constituting three shoot types: bourses (rosettes), bourse shoots, and vegetative shoots. Its overall architecture as well as that of each shoot thus determines the distribution of sources (leaves) and sinks (fruits) and could have an influence on the amount of sugar allocated to fruits. Knowledge of architecture, in particular the position and area of leaves helps to quantify source strength. In order to reconstruct this initial architecture, rules equipped with allometric relations could be used: these allow predicting model parameters that are difficult to measure from simple traits that can be determined easily, non-destructively and directly in the orchard. Once such allometric relations are established they can be used routinely to recreate initial structures. Models based on allometric relations have been established in this study in order to predict the leaf areas of the three different shoot types of three apple cultivars with different branch architectures: “Fuji,” “Ariane,” and “Rome Beauty.” The allometric relations derived from experimental data allowed us to model the total shoot leaf area as well as the individual leaf area for each leaf rank, for each shoot type and each genotype. This was achieved using two easily measurable input variables: total leaf number per shoot and the length of the biggest leaf on the shoot. The models were tested using a different data set, and they were able to accurately predict leaf area of all shoot types and genotypes. Additional focus on internode lengths on spurs contributed to refine the models. PMID:28203241

  15. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of...

  16. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of...

  17. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of...

  18. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of...

  19. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of...

  20. Transcriptomic analysis of apple fruit ripening and texture attributes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular events regulating cultivar-specific apple fruit ripening and sensory quality are largely unknown. Such knowledge is essential for genomic-assisted apple breeding and postharvest quality management. The ripening behavior and texture attributes of two apple cultivars, ‘Pink Lady’ and ‘Honey...

  1. Cold Acclimation Improves Regrowth of Cryopreserved Apple Shoot Tips

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryopreservation is important for preserving the genetic resources of apple germplasm in Kazakhstan, the center of origin for apples. In this study of five apple genotypes [Malus domestica Borkh. and Malus sieversii (Ledeb.) M. Roem] we determined cold hardiness and the effect of cold acclimation o...

  2. Alar and Apples: Newspaper Coverage of a Major Risk Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Sharon M.; And Others

    A study reviewed coverage in 13 newspapers during 1989 of the issue of spraying the pesticide Alar on apples. Using VU/TEXT, a newspaper database, 297 articles in 13 newspapers that included the specified code words "Alar" with or without "apple" or "apples" were retrieved and analyzed using a 33-question coding…

  3. Differential response of cell-cycle and cell-expansion regulators to heat stress in apple (Malus domestica) fruitlets.

    PubMed

    Flaishman, Moshe A; Peles, Yuval; Dahan, Yardena; Milo-Cochavi, Shira; Frieman, Aviad; Naor, Amos

    2015-04-01

    Temperature is one of the most significant factors affecting physiological and biochemical aspects of fruit development. Current and progressing global warming is expected to change climate in the traditional deciduous fruit tree cultivation regions. In this study, 'Golden Delicious' trees, grown in a controlled environment or commercial orchard, were exposed to different periods of heat treatment. Early fruitlet development was documented by evaluating cell number, cell size and fruit diameter for 5-70 days after full bloom. Normal activities of molecular developmental and growth processes in apple fruitlets were disrupted under daytime air temperatures of 29°C and higher as a result of significant temporary declines in cell-production and cell-expansion rates, respectively. Expression screening of selected cell cycle and cell expansion genes revealed the influence of high temperature on genetic regulation of apple fruitlet development. Several core cell-cycle and cell-expansion genes were differentially expressed under high temperatures. While expression levels of B-type cyclin-dependent kinases and A- and B-type cyclins declined moderately in response to elevated temperatures, expression of several cell-cycle inhibitors, such as Mdwee1, Mdrbr and Mdkrps was sharply enhanced as the temperature rose, blocking the cell-cycle cascade at the G1/S and G2/M transition points. Moreover, expression of several expansin genes was associated with high temperatures, making them potentially useful as molecular platforms to enhance cell-expansion processes under high-temperature regimes. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of heat tolerance associated with genes controlling cell cycle and cell expansion may lead to the development of novel strategies for improving apple fruit productivity under global warming.

  4. Exercising AppleWorks V2.0 Data Base Print Options with the Apple IIgs Computer. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This is a step-by-step guide to using the AppleWorks software on the Apple IIGS computer to print AppleWorks database files in two types of formats--labels and tables. Steps covered for printing labels include naming the report, arranging or sorting, deleting a category, inserting a category, printing the category name and entry, selecting…

  5. Developing Simple Financial Records Using the AppleWorks Spreadsheet Subprogram, Apple IIe or GS Computers, and a Duodisk Drive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual is a "how to" training device for developing simple financial records using the AppleWorks spreadsheet subprogram with an Apple IIe or Apple IIGS Computer which has a Duodisk or two disk drives. The manual provides step-by-step directions, and includes 34 figures depicting the computer screen at the various stages of the…

  6. Setting Up Letters Using the AppleWorks Word Processor Subprogram and Apple IIe or GS Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual is a "how to" training device for setting up letter word processing files using the AppleWorks program with an Apple IIe or Apple IIGS computer which has a Duodisk or two disk drives and an 80-column card. The manual provides step-by-step directions, and includes 16 figures depicting the computer screen at the various stages…

  7. Developing Inventory Records Using the AppleWorks Data Base Subprogram and Apple IIe or GS Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual is a "how to" training device for developing inventory records in the AppleWorks program using an Apple IIe or Apple IIGS Computer with Duodisk or two disk drives and an 80-column card. The manual provides step-by-step directions, and includes 17 figures depicting the computer screen at the various stages of the inventory…

  8. Developing Simple Budgets Using the AppleWorks Spreadsheet Subprogram, Apple IIe or GS Computers, and a Single Disk Drive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual is a "how to" training device for developing spreadsheet files in the AppleWorks program using an Apple IIe or Apple IIGS Computer with a single disk drive. The manual provides step-by-step directions, and includes 36 figures depicting the computer screen at the various stages of the spreadsheet development sequence. (EW)

  9. Building Parts Inventory Files Using the AppleWorks Data Base Subprogram and Apple IIe or GS Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual is a "how to" training device for building database files using the AppleWorks program with an Apple IIe or Apple IIGS Computer with Duodisk or two disk drives and an 80-column card. The manual provides step-by-step directions, and includes 25 figures depicting the computer screen at the various stages of the database file…

  10. Manure Refinement Affects Apple Rhizosphere Bacterial Community Structure: A Study in Sandy Soil

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiang; Sun, Jian; Liu, Songzhong; Wei, Qinping

    2013-01-01

    We used DNA-based pyrosequencing to characterize the bacterial community structure of the sandy soil of an apple orchard with different manure ratios. Five manure percentages (5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%) were examined. More than 10,000 valid reads were obtained for each replicate. The communities were composed of five dominant groups (Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria and Bacteroidetes), of which Proteobacteria content gradually decreased from 41.38% to 37.29% as manure ratio increased from 0% to 25%, respectively. Redundancy analysis showed that 37 classes were highly correlated with manure ratio, 18 of which were positively correlated. Clustering revealed that the rhizosphere samples were grouped into three components: low manure (control, 5%) treatment, medium manure (10%, 15%) treatment and high manure (20%, 25%) treatment. Venn analysis of species types of these three groups revealed that the bacteria community difference was primarily reflected by quantity ratio rather than species variety. Although greater manure content led to higher soil organic matter content, the medium manure improved soil showed the highest urease activity and saccharase activity, while 5% to 20% manure ratio improvement also resulted in higher bacteria diversity than control and 25% manure ratio treatment. Our experimental results suggest that the use of a proper manure ratio results in significantly higher soil enzyme activity and different bacteria community patterns, whereas the use of excessive manure amounts has negative effect on soil quality. PMID:24155909

  11. Characterization of plasmids that encode streptomycin-resistance in bacterial epiphytes of apple.

    PubMed

    Huang, T C; Burr, T J

    1999-05-01

    Streptomycin resistance in strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. papulans, Pantoea agglomerans and a yellow-pigmented, non-fluorescent Pseudomonas sp. (Py), isolated from apple orchards in New York and Washington states, is predominantly associated with strA-strB genes carried on conjugal plasmids (R plasmids). None of 128 resistant Erwinia amylovora strains from the eastern and western USA hybridized with a strA-strB probe, SMP3. Resistant Py strains transfered R plasmids to Ps. syringae pv. papulans and to Py in vitro at frequencies of 10(-1)-10(-2) per recipient cell whereas Ps. syringae pv. papulans transferred its plasmids at frequencies of 10(-2) to below detectable levels. Transfer of R plasmids to P. agglomerans was not detected and resistant P. agglomerans did not transfer their R plasmids to any recipients. R plasmids were found to be highly diverse as measured by DNA fingerprint analysis. Transfer-deficient transposon mutants of R plasmid pCPP519 were generated, and 3.9 kb EcoRI and 3.0 kb SmaI fragments that hybridized with a Tn5 probe were cloned and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequences of the 3.9 kb fragment were similar to proteins involved in replication, nicking at oriT, and piliation in other bacteria.

  12. Free galactose concentrations in fresh and stored apples (Malus domestica) and processed apple products.

    PubMed

    Scaman, Christine H; Jim, Vickie Jin Wai; Hartnett, Carol

    2004-02-11

    Gas chromatography was used to quantitate free galactose in Braeburn, Fuji, Red Delicious, and Spartan apples during cold storage, after thermal processing of apple slices and in juice produced using clarification and/or liquifaction enzymes. Spartan had significantly higher galactose levels as compared to Red Delicious apples, but changes in galactose in all varieties during 9 months of cold storage were insignificant. Blanching and canning decreased galactose levels, but doubling the thermal processing during canning increased the free galactose concentration detected in plant tissue. An enzymatic liquefaction aid used to prepare apple juice dramatically increased the free galactose content while a clarification aid caused only a slight increase due to its selective action on soluble pectin. These findings provide useful information for dietitians to base diet recommendations for galactosemic patients.

  13. The impact of agriculture management on soil quality in citrus orchards in Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hondebrink, Merel; Cerdà, Artemi; Cammeraat, Erik

    2015-04-01

    Currently, the agricultural management of citrus orchard in the Valencia region in E Spain, is changing from traditionally irrigated and managed orchards to drip irrigated organic managed orchards. It is not known what is the effect of such changes on soil quality and hope to shed some light with this study on this transition. It is known that the drip-irrigated orchards built in sloping terrain increase soil erosion (Cerdà et al., 2009; Li et al., 2014) and that agricultural management such as catch crops and mulches reduce sediment yield and surface runoff (Xu et al., 2012; ), as in other orchards around the world (Wang et al., 2010; Wanshnong et al., 2013; Li et al., 2014; Hazarika et al., 2014): We hypothesize that these changes have an important impact on the soil chemical and physical properties. Therefor we studied the soil quality of 12 citrus orchards, which had different land and irrigation management techniques. We compared organic (OR) and conventional (CO) land management with either drip irrigation (DRP) or flood irrigation (FLD). Soil samples at two depths, 0-1 cm and 5-10 cm, were taken for studying soil quality parameters under the different treatments. These parameters included soil chemical parameters, bulk density, texture, soil surface shear strength and soil aggregation. Half of the studied orchards were organically managed and the other 6 were conventionally managed, and for each of these 6 study sites three fields were flood irrigated plots (FLD) and the other three drip irrigated systems (DRP) In total 108 soil samples were taken as well additional irrigation water samples. We will present the results of this study with regard to the impact of the studied irrigation systems and land management systems with regard to soil quality. This knowledge might help in improving citrus orchard management with respect to maintaining or improving soil quality to ensure sustainable agricultural practices. References Cerdà, A., Giménez-Morera, A. and

  14. Non-phytoseiid Mesostigmata within citrus orchards in Florida: species distribution, relative and seasonal abundance within trees, associated vines and ground cover plants and additional collection records of mites in citrus orchards.

    PubMed

    Childers, Carl C; Ueckermann, Eduard A

    2015-03-01

    Seven citrus orchards on reduced- to no-pesticide spray programs in central and south central Florida were sampled for non-phytoseiid mesostigmatid mites. Inner and outer canopy leaves, fruits, twigs and trunk scrapings were sampled monthly between August 1994 and January 1996. Open flowers were sampled in March from five of the sites. A total of 431 samples from one or more of 82 vine or ground cover plants were sampled monthly in five of the seven orchards. Two of the seven orchards (Mixon I and II) were on full herbicide programs and vines and ground cover plants were absent. A total of 2,655 mites (26 species) within the families: Ascidae, Blattisociidae, Laelapidae, Macrochelidae, Melicharidae, Pachylaelapidae and Parasitidae were identified. A total of 685 mites in the genus Asca (nine species: family Ascidae) were collected from within tree samples, 79 from vine or ground cover plants. Six species of Blattisociidae were collected: Aceodromus convolvuli, Blattisocius dentriticus, B. keegani, Cheiroseius sp. near jamaicensis, Lasioseius athiashenriotae and L. dentatus. A total of 485 Blattisociidae were collected from within tree samples compared with 167 from vine or ground cover plants. Low numbers of Laelapidae and Macrochelidae were collected from within tree samples. One Zygoseius furciger (Pachylaelapidae) was collected from Eleusine indica. Four species of Melicharidae were identified from 34 mites collected from within tree samples and 1,190 from vine or ground cover plants: Proctolaelaps lobatus was the most abundant species with 1,177 specimens collected from seven ground cover plants. One Phorytocarpais fimetorum (Parasitidae) was collected from inner leaves and four from twigs. Species of Ascidae, Blattisociidae, Melicharidae, Laelapidae and Pachylaelapidae were collected from 31 of the 82 vine or ground cover plants sampled, representing only a small fraction of the total number of Phytoseiidae collected from the same plants. Including the

  15. Bioanalytical characterization of apple juice from 88 grafted and nongrafted apple varieties grown in Upper Austria.

    PubMed

    Lanzerstorfer, Peter; Wruss, Jürgen; Huemer, Stefan; Steininger, Andrea; Müller, Ulrike; Himmelsbach, Markus; Borgmann, Daniela; Winkler, Stephan; Höglinger, Otmar; Weghuber, Julian

    2014-02-05

    The compositional characteristics of untreated pure juice prepared from 88 apple varieties grown in the region of Eferding/Upper Austria were determined. Many of the analyzed varieties are noncommercial, old varieties not present in the market. The aim of the study was to quantitate the mineral, phosphate, trace elements, and polyphenolic content in order to identify varieties that are of particular interest for a wider distribution. Great variations among the investigated varieties could be found. This holds especially true for the total polyphenolic content (TPC) ranging from 103.2 to 2,275.6 mg/L. A clear dependence of the antioxidant capacity on the TPC levels was detected. Bioinformatics was employed to find specific interrelationships, such as Mg²⁺/Mn²⁺ and PO₄³⁻/K⁺, between the analyzed bio- and phytochemical parameters. Furthermore, special attention was drawn on putative effects of grafting on the phytochemical composition of apple varieties. By grafting 27 different apple varieties on two trees grown close to each other, it could be shown that the apple fruits remain their characteristic phytochemical composition. Finally, apple juice prepared from selected varieties was further characterized by additional biochemical analysis including cytotoxicity, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition, and α-amylase activity tests. Cytotoxicity and inhibition of EGFR activation were found to be dependent on the TPC, while α-amylase activity was reduced by the apple juices independent of the presence of polyphenolic substances. Taken together selected apple varieties investigated within this study might serve as preferable sources for the development of apple-based food with a strong focus on health beneficial effects.

  16. Pre- and postharvest fungal apple diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The domesticated apple (Malus domestica) is the most significant pome fruit grown and consumed worldwide. China is the largest producer followed by the United States on a global scale. However, fungal plant pathogens cause significant economic losses in the field and in storage which negatively impa...

  17. Hormonal and anatomical effects of apple rootstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In greenhouse experiments, two-year-old 'Fuji' apple scions (Malus ×domestica, 'Fuji') on size-controlling rootstocks (dwarfing to vigorous), were grown for one season and shoot growth was measured to confirm size-controlling effects. In the next season, xylem sap was collected to determine hydraul...

  18. NEWTON'S APPLE 14th Season Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichmann, Sue, Ed.

    This guide was developed to help teachers use the 14th season of NEWTON'S APPLE in their classrooms and contains lessons formatted to follow the National Science Education Standards. The "Overview,""Main Activity," and "Try-This" sections were created with inquiry-based learning in mind. Each lesson page begins with…

  19. APPLE In-Service Programming for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Edward

    This book is designed to provide teachers with techniques for entering and modifying BASIC programs on Apple computers. The underlying theme is that a teacher need not become a programmer to benefit from being able to use and modify BASIC programs. The key to the successful use of software in the classroom is the ability to individualize software…

  20. Lessons learned from the Apple stores.

    PubMed

    Pinkney, Henry; Baum, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Medical practices have an opportunity to improve the services that they offer their patients. Practices can look at other businesses and industries for examples of outstanding customer service. This article will discuss the services provided by Apple, Inc., and how medical practices can learn from this industry giant and improve the services that they offer patients.

  1. Making Apple Computers Accessible to Blind Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renouf, Andrew; Phillips, Susan

    The study examined the feasibility of adapting commercially available educational software to a speech synthesizer compatible with the Apple II for use with 15 visually impaired students 8 to 12 years old. Ss were pre-tested on measures of auditory discrimination, computer literacy, keyboard proficiency, spelling, and language. Ss then received…

  2. Some Aspects of Enzymatic Browning in Apples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liffen, C. L.; Cleeve, H. N.

    1975-01-01

    Describes material modified from the Nuffield advanced chemistry course to make it meaningful and relevant to pupils in the middle school. Discusses a series of simple experiments on apple browning and summarizes the browning process and its control. (Author/GS)

  3. Metabolomic Change Precedes Apple Superficial Scald Symptoms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metabolic profiling of 621 metabolites was employed to characterize metabolomic changes associated with ‘Granny Smith’ apple superficial scald development following 1-MCP or DPA treatment. Partial least squares-discriminant analyses were used to link metabolites with scald, postharvest treatments, ...

  4. Transcriptional analysis of apple fruit proanthocyanidin biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Henry-Kirk, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are products of the flavonoid pathway, which also leads to the production of anthocyanins and flavonols. Many flavonoids have antioxidant properties and may have beneficial effects for human health. PAs are found in the seeds and fruits of many plants. In apple fruit (Malus × domestica Borkh.), the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway is most active in the skin, with the flavan-3-ols, catechin, and epicatechin acting as the initiating units for the synthesis of PA polymers. This study examined the genes involved in the production of PAs in three apple cultivars: two heritage apple cultivars, Hetlina and Devonshire Quarrenden, and a commercial cultivar, Royal Gala. HPLC analysis shows that tree-ripe fruit from Hetlina and Devonshire Quarrenden had a higher phenolic content than Royal Gala. Epicatechin and catechin biosynthesis is under the control of the biosynthetic enzymes anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR1), respectively. Counter-intuitively, real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of Royal Gala LAR1 and ANR were significantly higher than those of both Devonshire Quarrenden and Hetlina. This suggests that a compensatory feedback mechanism may be active, whereby low concentrations of PAs may induce higher expression of gene transcripts. Further investigation is required into the regulation of these key enzymes in apple. Abbreviations:ANOVAanalysis of varianceANRanthocyanidin reductaseDADdiode array detectorDAFBdays after full bloomDFRdihydroflavonol reductaseLARleucoanthocyanidin reductaseLC-MSliquid chromatography/mass spectrometryPAproanthocyanidinqPCRreal-time quantitative PCR PMID:22859681

  5. The Geneva apple rootstock breeding program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ancient practice of clonal propagation of perennial fruit crops by means of grafting was transformed when humans realized that certain properties of selected root systems could be beneficial for increasing productivity of that fruit crop. Certain clonal apple rootstocks were recognized for their...

  6. Overexpressing MhNPR1 in transgenic Fuji apples enhances resistance to apple powdery mildew.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiu-Kong; Zhang, Ji-Yu; Zhang, Zhen; Du, Xiao-Li; Du, Bei-Bei; Qu, Shen-Chun

    2012-08-01

    Fuji is susceptible to fungal diseases like apple powdery mildew. Non-expressor of pathogenesis-related gene 1 (NPR1) plays a key role in regulating salicylic acid (SA)-mediated systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Previous studies show that overexpressing the Malus hupehensis-derived NPR1 (MhNPR1) gene in tobacco induces the transcript expression of pathogenesis-related genes (PRs) and resistance to the fungus Botrytis cinerea. In this study we introduced the MhNPR1 gene into the 'Fuji' apple via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Four transgenic apple lines were verified by PCR and RT-PCR. The semi-quantitative RT-PCR results showed that transcript overexpression of the MhNPR1 gene induced the expression of MdPRs and MdMLO genes known to interact with powdery mildew. Furthermore, the transgenic apple plants resisted infection by apple powdery mildew better than the wild-type plants. As a result, transcript overexpression of the MhNPR1 gene induced SAR and enhanced the Fuji apple's resistance to fungal disease.

  7. Laser speckle technique to study the effect of chemical pre-treatment on the quality of minimally processed apples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minz, Preeti D.; Nirala, A. K.

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, the laser speckle technique has been used for the quality evaluation of chemically treated cut apples. Chemical pre-treatment includes 1% (w/v) solution of citric acid (CA), sodium chloride (SC), and a combination of CA and sodium chloride (CS). The variation in weight loss, respiration rate, total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), and absorbance of chemically treated cut apples stored at 5 °C was monitored for 11 d. The speckle grain size was calculated by an autocovariance method from the speckled images of freshly cut chemically treated apples. The effect of chemicals on TSS and the TA content variation of the cut apples were well correlated to the linear speckle grain size. Circular degree of polarization confirms the presence of a small scatterer and hence Rayleigh diffusion region. For all the treated cut apples, a decrease in the concentration of small particles nearly after the mid-period of storage results in the fast decay of circular degree of polarization. For non-invasive and fast analysis of the chemical constituent of fruits during minimal processing, the laser speckle can be practically used in the food industry.

  8. Renovation of a pear orchard site with sludge compost

    SciTech Connect

    Korcak, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    A lime-stabilized sewage sludge compost was used as a surface amendment to improve the soil and nutritional status of a number of established pear cultivars grown on an acidic, low fertility soil site. Leaf Ca status was significantly increased while trace metals were not elevated and in most cases decreased by sludge compost over the course of the study. Soil chemical properties were modified in a manner similar to liming. Addition of sludge composts, particularly low metal containing materials, appears to represent an acceptable aid in renovating established pear orchards located on poor soil sites. Leaf, fruit flesh or peel Cd were not significantly effected by the compost addition. The compost added twice the recommended level of available N the first year and sub-optimum N the following two years. Leaf N, although significantly increased in the composted versus non-composted controls, was below sufficiency levels by the third year after addition. This indicates that compost cannot fully supply required N from a one time application even over the short term.

  9. Apple leaf extract as a potential candidate for suppressing postprandial elevation of the blood glucose level.

    PubMed

    Shirosaki, Miyuki; Koyama, Tomoyuki; Yazawa, Kazunaga

    2012-01-01

    While the industrial value of fruits has long been recognized, only recently have the leaves of fruit trees been considered to have immense and mostly-untapped potential. In the present study, the physiological effects of apple leaf extract in mice were investigated. In addition, we sought to elucidate the active principle(s) and examined its potential for application. Apple leaf extract suppressed postprandial elevation of the blood glucose level and increased the residual amount of glucose in the small intestine in glucose-loaded mice compared with those in control mice. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to an active component that was identified as phloridzin, a known SGLT inhibitor, based on an analysis of its spectral data. With regard to an anti-hyperglycemic effect, extraction with ethanol from leaves of apple tree gave the best results. These effects decreased with heating during the extraction procedure. Since bolus ingestion of the extract did not affect blood glucose levels in normal mice with or without an overnight fast, the inhibitory effects on glucose absorption were not considered to be associated with unspecific gastrointestinal impairment and the extract did not cause hypoglycemia at a normally effective dose. Therefore, the leaf parts of apple tree may be a promising candidate as an industrial resource for maintaining good health in the future.

  10. Quantification of extraradical mycelium of Tuber melanosporum in soils from truffle orchards in northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Parladé, Javier; De la Varga, Herminia; De Miguel, Ana Ma; Sáez, Raimundo; Pera, Joan

    2013-02-01

    Quantification of extraradical mycelium of black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) has been carried out in a natural truffle ground and in seven truffle orchards (around 20 years old) established in Tierra Estella and Valdorba sites, within the natural distribution area of the black truffles in Navarre (northern Spain). Specific primers and a Taqman® probe were designed to perform real-time PCR with DNA extracted from soil samples. Amplification of T. melanosporum DNA was obtained from 131 out of the 160 soil samples. The detection limit of the technique was 1.48 μg mycelium/g of soil. The extraradical mycelium biomass detected in the soil from the natural truffle ground was significantly greater (up to ten times higher) than the mycelium biomass detected in any of the orchards. Soil from productive, nonirrigated orchards in the Tierra Estella site contained significantly more extraradical mycelium than the rest of orchards irrigated, productive of T. brumale, or nonproductive. The comparison of soil mycelium biomass in nonirrigated evergreen oak orchards in both sites showed significantly more mycelium biomass in the Tierra Estella site. This study is the first attempt to quantify extraradical mycelium of T. melanosporum in the soil using Taqman® probes. The obtained quantitative results are of special interest to evaluate the fungal response to cultural treatments and to monitor the dynamics of the extraradical mycelium of T. melanosporum in the soil.

  11. Ammonia-oxidizing activity and microbial community structure in acid tea (Camellia sinensis) orchard soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamura, K.; Takanashi, A.; Yamada, T.; Hiraishi, A.

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the ammonia-oxidizing activity and the phylogentic composition of microorganisms involved in acid tea (Camellia sinensis) orchard soil. All soil samples were collected from three sites located in Tahara and Toyohashi, Aichi Prefecture, Japan. The potential nitrification rate (PNR) was measured by the chlorate inhibition method. The soil pH of tea orchards studied ranged from 2.78 to 4.84, differing significantly from sample to sample, whereas that of meadow and unplanted fields ranged from 5.78 to 6.35. The PNR ranged from 0.050 to 0.193 μg NO2--Ng-1 h-1 and were positively correlated with the soil pH (r2 = 0.382, p<0.001). Bulk DNA was extracted from a tea orchard soil (pH 4.8; PNR, 0.078 μg NO2--Ng-1 h-1) and subjected to PCR-aided clone library analyses targeting archaeal and bacterial amoA genes. The detected archaeal clones separated from the cluster of the 'Soil clones' and tightly clustered with the clones originating from other acidic soil environments including the Chinese tea orchard soil. These results suggest that the specific archaeal populations dominate as the ammonia oxidizers in acid tea-orchard soils and possibly other acid soils, independent of geographic locations, which results from the adaptation to specific ecological niches.

  12. A new three-locus model for rootstock-induced dwarfing in apple revealed by genetic mapping of root bark percentage

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Nicola; Harrison, Richard J.; Barber-Perez, Nuria; Cascant-Lopez, Emma; Cobo-Medina, Magdalena; Lipska, Marzena; Conde-Ruíz, Rebeca; Brain, Philip; Gregory, Peter J.; Fernández-Fernández, Felicidad

    2016-01-01

    Rootstock-induced dwarfing of apple scions revolutionized global apple production during the twentieth century, leading to the development of modern intensive orchards. A high root bark percentage (the percentage of the whole root area constituted by root cortex) has previously been associated with rootstock-induced dwarfing in apple. In this study, the root bark percentage was measured in a full-sib family of ungrafted apple rootstocks and found to be under the control of three loci. Two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for root bark percentage were found to co-localize to the same genomic regions on chromosome 5 and chromosome 11 previously identified as controlling dwarfing, Dw1 and Dw2, respectively. A third QTL was identified on chromosome 13 in a region that has not been previously associated with dwarfing. The development of closely linked sequence-tagged site markers improved the resolution of allelic classes, thereby allowing the detection of dominance and epistatic interactions between loci, with high root bark percentage only occurring in specific allelic combinations. In addition, we report a significant negative correlation between root bark percentage and stem diameter (an indicator of tree vigour), measured on a clonally propagated grafted subset of the mapping population. The demonstrated link between root bark percentage and rootstock-induced dwarfing of the scion leads us to propose a three-locus model that is able to explain levels of dwarfing from the dwarf ‘M.27’ to the semi-invigorating rootstock ‘M.116’. Moreover, we suggest that the QTL on chromosome 13 (Rb3) might be analogous to a third dwarfing QTL, Dw3, which has not previously been identified. PMID:26826217

  13. A new three-locus model for rootstock-induced dwarfing in apple revealed by genetic mapping of root bark percentage.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Nicola; Harrison, Richard J; Barber-Perez, Nuria; Cascant-Lopez, Emma; Cobo-Medina, Magdalena; Lipska, Marzena; Conde-Ruíz, Rebeca; Brain, Philip; Gregory, Peter J; Fernández-Fernández, Felicidad

    2016-03-01

    Rootstock-induced dwarfing of apple scions revolutionized global apple production during the twentieth century, leading to the development of modern intensive orchards. A high root bark percentage (the percentage of the whole root area constituted by root cortex) has previously been associated with rootstock-induced dwarfing in apple. In this study, the root bark percentage was measured in a full-sib family of ungrafted apple rootstocks and found to be under the control of three loci. Two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for root bark percentage were found to co-localize to the same genomic regions on chromosome 5 and chromosome 11 previously identified as controlling dwarfing, Dw1 and Dw2, respectively. A third QTL was identified on chromosome 13 in a region that has not been previously associated with dwarfing. The development of closely linked sequence-tagged site markers improved the resolution of allelic classes, thereby allowing the detection of dominance and epistatic interactions between loci, with high root bark percentage only occurring in specific allelic combinations. In addition, we report a significant negative correlation between root bark percentage and stem diameter (an indicator of tree vigour), measured on a clonally propagated grafted subset of the mapping population. The demonstrated link between root bark percentage and rootstock-induced dwarfing of the scion leads us to propose a three-locus model that is able to explain levels of dwarfing from the dwarf 'M.27' to the semi-invigorating rootstock 'M.116'. Moreover, we suggest that the QTL on chromosome 13 (Rb3) might be analogous to a third dwarfing QTL, Dw3, which has not previously been identified.

  14. Transcriptomics Analysis of Apple Leaves in Response to Alternaria alternata Apple Pathotype Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Longming; Ni, Weichen; Liu, Shuai; Cai, Binhua; Xing, Han; Wang, Sanhong

    2017-01-01

    Alternaria blotch disease of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.), caused by the apple pathotype of Alternaria alternata, is one of the most serious fungal diseases to affect apples. To develop an understanding of how apples respond to A. alternata apple pathotype (AAAP) infection, we examined the host transcript accumulation over the period between 0 and 72 h post AAAP inoculation. Large-scale gene expression analysis was conducted of the compatible interaction between “Starking Delicious” apple cultivar and AAAP using RNA-Seq and digital gene expression (DGE) profiling methods. Our results show that a total of 9080 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected (>two-fold and FDR < 0.001) by RNA-Seq. During the early phase of infection, 12 h post inoculation (HPI), AAAP exhibited limited fungal development and little change in the transcript accumulation status (950 DEGs). During the intermediate phase of infection, the period between 18 and 36 HPI, increased fungal development, active infection, and increased transcript accumulation were detected (4111 and 3838 DEGs detected at each time point, respectively). The majority of DEGs were detected by 72 HPI, suggesting that this is an important time point in the response of apples' AAAP infection. Subsequent gene ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analyses showed that DEGs are predominately involved in biological processes and metabolic pathways; results showed that almost gene associated with photosynthesis, oxidation-reduction were down-regulated, while transcription factors (i.e., WRKY, MYB, NAC, and Hsf) and DEGs involved in cell wall modification, defense signaling, the synthesis of defense-related metabolites, including pathogenesis-related (PRs) genes and phenylpropanoid/cyanoamino acid /flavonoid biosynthesis, were activated during this process. Our study also suggested that the cell wall defensive vulnerability and the down-regulation of most PRs and HSP70s in “Starking Delicious” following AAAP

  15. Nesting site density and distribution affects Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) reproductive success and almond yield in a commercial orchard.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Continued declines in honey bee Apis mellifera populations have prompted further exploration of alternative, economically-viable managed bee pollinators of agricultural crops. The potential of commercially-managed, native blue orchard bees Osmia lignaria to augment honey bees in orchard pollination...

  16. Spatial and temporal patterns of dispersal of western flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in nectarine orchards in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Pearsall, I A; Myers, J H

    2001-08-01

    Thrips were sampled from six nectarine orchards in the Dry Central Interior, British Columbia, Canada, between April and June 1993 using yellow sticky cards on posts spaced around the perimeter of each orchard. Although 12 identified species of thrips were captured, >90% of individuals were the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande). The flight patterns and abundances of western flower thrips were compared between orchards located in two differently oriented valleys (N-S and E-W) and between orchards located close to or far from areas of wild land. Results indicate that densities of western flower thrips entering orchards, and their direction of movement, were related more to the external vegetation than either location within the two different valleys or general wind flow patterns. Western flower thrips tended to move into orchards close to ground level in early spring (late April and early May) but flew higher as ground cover grew taller and temperatures increased. Densities of western flower thrips at ground level were highest in an orchard with the densest dandelion ground cover. We conclude that the location of nectarine orchards in relation to wild areas is a major determinate of western flower thrips densities.

  17. Controls on interannual variation in evapotranspiration and water use efficiency in a mature, furrow-irrigated peach orchard

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evapotranspiration (ET) and water use efficiency (WUE) in peach orchards has previously been observed in young (less than 5-8 years old), drip irrigated orchards using micrometeorological techniques such as Eddy Covariance or large-weighing lysimeters. However, no work has been reported on ET and W...

  18. The effect of nest box distribution on sustainable propagation of Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in commercial tart cherry orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The blue orchard bee, Osmia lignaria Say, is a solitary, native bee that is an excellent pollinator of tree fruit orchards. Due to the annual rising costs of honey bee hive rentals, many orchardists are eager to develop management tools and practices to support O. lignaria as alternative pollinator...

  19. Fertility variation and status number in clonal seed orchards of Pinus sylvestris.

    PubMed

    Bilir, Nebi; Temiraga, Halime

    2012-11-15

    The present study was carried out to evaluate fertility variation, status number and gene diversity based on strobili productions in two clonal seed orchards of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). There were large differences among clones for the female and male strobili productions in the orchards. Positive and significant (p< or =0.05) correlations were found between female and male strobili production (r = 0.76, 0.55). Female fertility variation (1.03, 1.07) was larger than male fertility variation (1.02, 1.03) in the orchards. The status numbers estimated based on the total fertility were very high (97 and 98% of census numbers). The large fertility variation could be balanced by different treatments such as mixing seed equally from clones or genetinc thinning.

  20. Mediterranean savanna system: understanding and modeling of olive orchard.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brilli, Lorenzo; Moriondo, Marco; Bindi, Marco

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays most of the studies on C and N exchange were focused on forest ecosystems and crop systems, while only few studies have been focused on so called "savanna systems". They are long-term agro-ecosystems (fruit trees, grapevines and olive trees, etc.) usually characterized by two different layers (ground vegetation and trees). Generally, there is a lack of knowledge about these systems due to their intrinsic structural complexity (different eco-physiological characteristics so as agricultural practices). However, given their long-term carbon storage capacity, these systems can play a fundamental role in terms of global C cycle. Among all of them, the role that olive trees can play in C sequestration should not be neglected, especially in Mediterranean areas where they typify the rural landscape and are widely cultivated (Loumou and Giourga, 2003). It is therefore fundamental modelling the C-fluxes exchanges coming from these systems through a tool able to well reproduce these dynamics in one of the most exposed areas to the risk of climate change (IPCC, 2007). In this work, 2 years of Net CO2 Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) measures from eddy covariance were used to test the biogeochemistry model DayCent. The study was conducted in a rain-fed olive orchard situated in Follonica, South Tuscany, Italy (42 ° 55'N, 10 ° 45'E), in an agricultural area near the coast. The instrumentation for flux measurement was placed 1.9 m above the canopy top (6.5 m from the ground) so that the footprint area, expressed as the area containing 90% of the observed flux, was almost entirely contained within the olive orchard limits (Brilli et al., in press). Ancillary slow sensors have included soil temperature profiles, global radiation, air temperature and humidity, rain gauge. Fluxes of sensible heat, latent heat, momentum and CO2 as well as ancillary data were derived at half-hourly time resolution. Specific soil (texture, current and historical land use and vegetation cover) and

  1. Monitoring of water and nitrate leaching in an almond orchard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandelous, M. M.; Moradi, A. B.; Brown, P.; Hopmans, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    The quality of groundwater is specifically vulnerable in irrigated agricultural lands such as in California and many other (semi-) arid regions of the world. The regular application of nitrogen fertilizers with irrigation water is likely responsible for the increase in nitrate concentrations of groundwater resources such as in CA's main agricultural areas in the Salinas Valley and the Tulare Lake Basin. Since groundwater contamination regulations are going to be implemented, improved fertigation practices may become an essential part of CA farming operations. Therefore, we conducted a field study in an almond orchard located in Lost Hills, CA which provides critical information on the movement of water and nutrients through the soil under variable soil moisture conditions. Water balance and Darcy equation were two approaches used to estimate the leaching in this study. Given the amount of applied irrigation water using flowmeter, water lost through evapotranspiration measured by Eddy-Covariance tower, changes in soil water storage using neutron probe data, and precipitation data provided by a nearby CIMIS station, we applied water balance to estimate the amount of leaching water. In the other hand, coupled deep tensiometers were used to calculate the head gradient below the root zone, thereby estimating the leaching flux with Darcy equation for known hydraulic conductivity of layer between two tensiometers. Although, the cumulative amount of leaching estimated by water balance were in the same order of magnitude as what was estimated using Darcy method, the uncertainties and different cumulative trend observed in each method suggest further evaluation of collected data and also looking for an alternative method which could reduce the observed uncertainty.

  2. Nitrogen partitioning in orchard-grown Macadamia integrifolia.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Andrew; Rennenberg, Heinz; Schmidt, Susanne

    2010-02-01

    Nut yield is highly variable in commercial macadamia production, and to ensure that nitrogen (N) supply does not limit yield, high rates of N fertilizer are generally applied. To elucidate N source and sink relations in mature Macadamia integrifolia Maiden et Betche trees, we traced (15)N label after injection into individual branches and, after soil application, analysed xylem sap and examined the effects of hedging on tree N relations. Xylem sap N and sugar composition and concentration changed in relation to phenology and tree management. Canopy position did not affect xylem sap N concentration but sampling date had a significant effect. Hedging in spring was associated with a rapid and dramatic reduction of the concentration of xylem sap N until the following autumn, but unhedged trees were not available to unequivocally assess the significance of the results. Following (15)N-branch injection in winter, most (15)N label was incorporated into flushing leaves and into bark. After (15)N injection in spring, flushing leaves and flowers were most strongly (15)N-labelled. In late spring, (15)N label was equally incorporated by developing nuts that were retained or later abscised. Soil (15)N application in summer resulted in (15)N-labelling of outer and mid-canopy leaves. In the following spring, (15)N label was translocated to flushing leaves, flowers and developing nuts. The results indicate that outer and mid-canopy leaves are the main N sink for soil-derived N during the vegetative phase and a N source for developing tissues during the reproductive phase. Our study provides evidence that N supply to developing nuts is not a primary cause for nut abscission, supporting the notion that high N fertilizer application rates do not improve nut retention. We propose that current orchard design and hedging practices should be reviewed in context of the role of outer canopy leaves as a source of N for reproductive tissues.

  3. Brassica seed meal soil amendments transform the rhizosphere microbiome and improve apple production through resistance to pathogen reinfestation.

    PubMed

    Mazzola, Mark; Hewavitharana, Shashika S; Strauss, Sarah L

    2015-04-01

    Brassicaceae seed meal (SM) formulations were compared with preplant 1,3-dichloropropene/chloropicrin (Telone-C17) soil fumigation for the ability to control apple replant disease and to suppress pathogen or parasite reinfestation of organic orchard soils at two sites in Washington State. Preplant soil fumigation and an SM formulation consisting of either Brassica juncea-Sinapis alba or B. juncea-B. napus each provided similar levels of disease control during the initial growing season. Although tree growth was similar in fumigated and SM-amended soil during the initial growing season, tree performance in terms of growth and yield was commonly superior in B. juncea-S. alba SM-amended soil relative to that in fumigated soil at the end of four growing seasons. SM-amended soils were resistant to reinfestation by Pratylenchus penetrans and Pythium spp. relative to fumigated soils and corresponded with enhanced tree performance. Phytotoxic symptoms were observed in response to SM amendment at one of two orchard sites, were dependent upon season of application, and occurred in an SM formulation-specific manner. After 2 years, the rhizosphere microbiome in fumigated soils had reverted to one that was indistinguishable from the no-treatment control. In contrast, rhizosphere soils from the SM treatment possessed unique bacterial and fungal profiles, including specific microbial elements previously associated with suppression of plant-pathogenic fungi, oomycetes, and nematodes. Overall diversity of the microbiome was reduced in the SM treatment rhizosphere, suggesting that enhanced "biodiversity" was not instrumental in achieving system resistance or pathogen suppression.

  4. Ethylene binding site affinity in ripening apples

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenship, S.M. . Dept. of Horticultural Science); Sisler, E.C. )

    1993-09-01

    Scatchard plots for ethylene binding in apples (Malus domestica Borkh.), which were harvested weekly for 5 weeks to include the ethylene climacteric rise, showed C[sub 50] values (concentration of ethylene needed to occupy 50% of the ethylene binding sites) of 0.10, 0.11, 0.34, 0.40, and 0.57 [mu]l ethylene/liter[sup [minus]1], respectively, for each of the 5 weeks. Higher ethylene concentrations were required to saturate the binding sites during the climacteric rise than at other times. Diffusion of [sup 14]C-ethylene from the binding sites was curvilinear and did not show any indication of multiple binding sites. Ethylene was not metabolized by apple tissue.

  5. Integrated pest management of "Golden Delicious" apples.

    PubMed

    Simončič, A; Stopar, M; Velikonja Bolta, Š; Bavčar, D; Leskovšek, R; Baša Česnik, H

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring of plant protection product (PPP) residues in "Golden Delicious" apples was performed in 2011-2013, where 216 active substances were analysed with three analytical methods. Integrated pest management (IPM) production and improved IPM production were compared. Results were in favour of improved IPM production. Some active compounds determined in IPM production (boscalid, pyraclostrobin, thiacloprid and thiametoxam) were not found in improved IPM production. Besides that, in 2011 and 2012, captan residues were lower in improved IPM production. Risk assessment was also performed. Chronic exposure of consumers was low in general, but showed no major differences for IPM and improved IPM production for active substances determined in both types of production. Analytical results were compared with the European Union report of 2010 where 1.3% of apple samples exceeded maximum residue levels (MRLs), while MRL exceedances were not observed in this survey.

  6. UV inactivation of bacteria in apple cider.

    PubMed

    Geveke, David J

    2005-08-01

    Apple cider, inoculated with Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua, was processed using a simple UV apparatus. The apparatus consisted of a low-pressure mercury lamp surrounded by a coil of UV transparent tubing. Cider was pumped through the tubing at flow rates of 27 to 83 ml/min. The population of E. coli K-12 was reduced by 3.4 +/- 0.3 log after being exposed for 19 s at a treatment temperature of 25 degrees C. The population of L. innocua, which was more resistant to UV, was reduced by 2.5 +/- 0.1 log after being exposed for 58 s. The electrical energy for the process was 34 J/ml and is similar to that for conventional thermal processing. UV processing has the potential to improve the safety and extend the shelf life of apple cider.

  7. Bidirectional reflectance effects derived from ASAS imagery of a pecan orchard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staenz, Karl; Gauthier, Robert P.; Teillet, Phil M.; Williams, Daniel J.

    1993-09-01

    Bidirectional reflectance factors (BRF) for a pecan orchard have been studied using Advanced Solid-State Array Spectrometer (ASAS) data acquired in the solar principal plane at altitudes of 2300 m and 5300 m above ground. In particular, the angular dependency of the BRF of different targets such as sunlit and shaded portions of the pecan tree, orchard floor, and soil (road) have been studied for viewing directions between -45 degrees and +45 degrees. The results indicate in general an increasing reflectance from the forward scattering direction to the backscattering direction. In addition, an increase in pixel size has significant effects on the surface BRFs.

  8. Evaluation of apple juice quality using spectral fluorescence signatures.

    PubMed

    Poryvkina, L; Tsvetkova, N; Sobolev, I

    2014-01-01

    In current work the method of in vivo evaluation of apple juice degree of naturalness based on Spectral Fluorescence Signature (SFS) is proposed. SFS spectra of intact apple juice were measured as excitation-emission matrix by specially designed compact spectrofluorimeter with front-face optical layout - Instant Screener Compact (LDI AS, Estonia). The data were analysed using PCA method with a view to evaluate the information of polyphenol's content in different commercial juices. Results of PCA analysis have shown a clear separation of juice reconstituted from concentrate, unclarified pasteurised juice and personally squeezed apple juice at the two dimensional PCs space. For implementation of apple juice analysis into spectrofluorimeter software the k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN) Search technique was used. The implemented model was tested using 19 different samples of apple juice. Results of test demonstrate that SFS-PCA-kNN method can provide quick nondestructive analysis of naturalness degree of commercial apple juice.

  9. Sustainability of three apple production systems.

    PubMed

    Reganold, J P; Glover, J D; Andrews, P K; Hinman, H R

    2001-04-19

    Escalating production costs, heavy reliance on non-renewable resources, reduced biodiversity, water contamination, chemical residues in food, soil degradation and health risks to farm workers handling pesticides all bring into question the sustainability of conventional farming systems. It has been claimed, however, that organic farming systems are less efficient, pose greater health risks and produce half the yields of conventional farming systems. Nevertheless, organic farming became one of the fastest growing segments of US and European agriculture during the 1990s. Integrated farming, using a combination of organic and conventional techniques, has been successfully adopted on a wide scale in Europe. Here we report the sustainability of organic, conventional and integrated apple production systems in Washington State from 1994 to 1999. All three systems gave similar apple yields. The organic and integrated systems had higher soil quality and potentially lower negative environmental impact than the conventional system. When compared with the conventional and integrated systems, the organic system produced sweeter and less tart apples, higher profitability and greater energy efficiency. Our data indicate that the organic system ranked first in environmental and economic sustainability, the integrated system second and the conventional system last.

  10. Getting Started with AppleWorks Data Base. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual is a hands-on teaching tool for beginning users of the AppleWorks database software. It was developed to allow Apple IIGS users who are generally familiar with their machine and its peripherals to build a simple AppleWorks database file using version 2.0 or 2.1 of the program, and to store, print, and manipulate the file. The materials…

  11. The Venturia Apple Pathosystem: Pathogenicity Mechanisms and Plant Defense Responses

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Gopaljee; Thakur, Karnika; Thakur, Priyanka

    2009-01-01

    Venturia inaequalis is the causal agent of apple scab, a devastating disease of apple. We outline several unique features of this pathogen which are useful for molecular genetics studies intended to understand plant-pathogen interactions. The pathogenicity mechanisms of the pathogen and overview of apple defense responses, monogenic and polygenic resistance, and their utilization in scab resistance breeding programs are also reviewed. PMID:20150969

  12. Impact of wood pruning to greenhouse gas emissions in three orchards and a vineyard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germer, Sonja; Schleicher, Sarah; Bischoff, Wolf-Anno; Gomez Palermo, Maider; Kern, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Pruning of orchards and vineyards is usually burned or left on the soil for nutrient and organic carbon recycling. Recently the interest rose to extract pruning for energetic use. Very few studies exist that analyzed the effects of pruning removal on soil physical and chemical characteristics. This is linked to the fact that changes are expected rather in the long term, but project funding is typically restricted to 2 or 3 years. Some soil characteristics, however, as organic carbon content and greenhouse gas emissions might also change on the short term as our literature review reveals. The main objective of this research is to determine if pruning extraction from orchards and vineyards impact greenhouse gas emissions (N2O, CH4, and CO2) from soil to the atmosphere, change soil nitrogen and carbon content or effect nitrogen leaching. Results from our study and from the literature will be compiled to formulate best management practices for sustainable pruning utilization from orchards and vineyards. Here we compare four different study sites in a block design over two rows each with two parcels where we extracted pruning and two parcels where pruning was chipped and left on the soil (n=4). Comparisons were made for initial soil chemistry and greenhouse gas emissions in a cherry orchard without irrigation in Germany, a vineyard without irrigation in France, an almond orchard with drip irrigation in Spain and a peach orchard with flood irrigation in Spain. Soil greenhouse gas emissions depend on soil chemistry and soil moisture. These characteristics can be expected to vary between the tree rows and inter-rows of orchards. Therefore we took soil samples from row and inter-row positions of each study site and analyzed them for chemical parameters (pH, total C, N, S, and H, and available PO4, NH4, NO3, K, Mg, Ca). Additionally soil moisture and temperature data have been recorded for tree rows and inter-rows in the cherry orchard and the vineyard. Gas samples were

  13. Developing Data Base Files Using the AppleWorks Data Base Subprogram and Apple IIe or GS Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    Developed around the technology of the Apple duodisk drive, five and one-fourth inch floppy disks, and the 1.3 version of the AppleWorks program, this manual is designed for use as a "how to" training device in developing database files. The guide is meant to be used with Apple IIe or IIGS computers which have a duodisk or two disk…

  14. Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) species composition and potential aphid vectors of plum pox virus in Pennsylvania peach orchards.

    PubMed

    Wallis, C M; Fleischer, S J; Luster, D; Gildow, F E

    2005-10-01

    Plum pox, an invasive disease recently identified in Pennsylvania stone fruit orchards, is caused by the aphid-transmitted Plum pox virus (genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae, PPV). To identify potential vectors, we described the aphid species communities and the seasonal dynamics of the dominant aphid species within Pennsylvania peach orchards. Aphids were trapped weekly in 2002 and 2003 from mid-April through mid-November within two central Pennsylvania orchards by using yellow and green water pan traps. In total, 42 aphid species were identified from both orchards over 2 yr. Within orchards, actual species richness ranged from 24 to 30 species. The Abundance Based Coverage Estimator predicted species richness to range from 30 to 36 species, indicating that trap catches were identifying most aphid species expected to occur in the orchard. Three species, Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch), Aphis spiraecola Patch, and Myzus persicae (Sulzer), were consistently dominant across locations and years. Orchard-trapped populations of these three species peaked in a similar chronological sequence each year. As expected, trap color influenced the total number and distribution of the predominate species collected. However, the same dominant species occurred in both yellow and green traps. Based on the seasonal population dynamics reported here and on published vector efficacy studies, the most probable significant PPV vector was identified as A. spiraecola. If the PPV pathogen escapes current quarantine or if subsequent reintroductions of PPV occur, these data will be useful for developing plum pox management strategies.

  15. RNA interference silencing of CHS greatly alters the growth pattern of apple (Malus x domestica).

    PubMed

    Dare, Andrew P; Hellens, Roger P

    2013-08-01

    Plants produce a vast array of phenolic compounds which are essential for their survival on land. One major class of polyphenols are the flavonoids and their formation is dependent on the enzyme chalcone synthase (CHS). In a recent study we silenced the CHS genes of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) and observed a loss of pigmentation in the fruit skin, flowers and stems. More surprisingly, highly silenced lines were significantly reduced in size, with small leaves and shortened internode lengths. Chemical analysis also revealed that the transgenic shoots contained greatly reduced concentrations of flavonoids which are known to modulate auxin flow. An auxin transport study verified this, with an increased auxin transport in the CHS-silenced lines. Overall, these findings suggest that auxin transport in apple has adapted to take place in the presence of high endogenous concentrations of flavonoids. Removal of these compounds therefore results in abnormal auxin movement and a highly disrupted growth pattern.

  16. Phenology, dichogamy, and floral synchronization in a northern red oak (Quercus Rubra L.) seed orchard

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We developed a novel scoring system to assess spring phenology in a northern red oak clonal seed orchard. The system was used to score between 304 and 364 ramets for three reproductive seasons and place clones into early, middle, and late phenology groups. While the absolute number of clones in ea...

  17. Fumigation efficacy and emission reduction using low-permeability film in orchard soil fumigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Many orchards in California, USA, apply fumigants to soil before replanting to reduce the impact of pest pressure or replanting disease on new tree establishment. Emission control of alternative fumigants to methyl bromide is mandatory in air quality (ozone) non-attainment areas. This s...

  18. Spatial Classification of Orchards and Vineyards with High Spatial Resolution Panchromatic Imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, Timothy; Steinmaus, Karen L.

    2005-02-01

    New high resolution single spectral band imagery offers the capability to conduct image classifications based on spatial patterns in imagery. A classification algorithm based on autocorrelation patterns was developed to automatically extract orchards and vineyards from satellite imagery. The algorithm was tested on IKONOS imagery over Granger, WA, which resulted in a classification accuracy of 95%.

  19. Accumulation of lead and arsenic by carrots grown on four lead-arsenate contaminated orchard soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concerns have been raised about possible human food chain transfer of contaminants resulting from crops grown on orchard soils with histories of lead arsenate use. The objective of this study was to determine the uptake of arsenic and lead by three cultivars of carrots. Carrots were grown on four ...

  20. An experimental variable-rate sprayer for nursery and orchard applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most chemical applications in orchards and ornamental nurseries are not target-oriented, resulting in significant loss of pesticides and contamination of the environment. To avoid over- and under-application of chemicals, sprayers must be designed to apply the appropriate amount of pesticide based o...

  1. Emission, pest control, and crop response in almond orchard soil fumigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many growers use soil fumigation to control plant-parasitic nematodes or diseases for successful orchard replanting. However, both high emission and poor efficacy with alternative fumigants to methyl bromide need to be addressed simultaneously. The objective of this research was to test if a commerc...

  2. Efficacy of entomopathogenic fungi in suppressing pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in commercial pecan orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecans. Here we report the efficacy of entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae applied to trees in grower orchards at three locations. In Fort Valley, Georgia, treatments included B. bassiana applied to the tru...

  3. Organic amendments for risk mitigation of organochlorine pesticide residues in old orchard soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Performance of compost and biochar amendments for in situ risk mitigation of aged DDT, DDE and dieldrin residues in an old orchard soil was examined. The change in bioavailability of pesticide residues relative to an unamended control soil was assessed using Lumbricus terrestris in 4-L soil microcos...

  4. Influence of rough handling on Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) retention in commercial orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The blue orchard bee, Osmia lignaria Say, is a promising alternative pollinator for some fruit trees. Commercial O. lignaria populations can be sustained in agricultural settings and have been known to increase fruit yield by two-fold or more each year. However, some females fail to establish at t...

  5. Genetic diversity in populations of the blue orchard bee (Osmia lignaria)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The blue orchard bee (Osmia lignaria) is a native pollinator that is an excellent candidate to supplement the honeybee in agricultural settings. Genetic diversity of wild-caught bees from several locations in eastern and western USA is being measured across multiple mitochondrial and nuclear DNA seg...

  6. Genetic diversity populations of the blue orchard bee (Osmia lignaria) in eastern and western North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The blue orchard bee (Osmia lignaria) is a native pollinator that is an excellent candidate to supplement the honeybee in agricultural settings. Genetic diversity of wild-caught bees from several locations in eastern and western USA is being measured with mitochondrial and nuclear DNA segments. Ther...

  7. Status and future for incorporation of entomopathogenic nematodes in temperate orchard IPM systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research and commercial application of entomopathogenic nematodes in temperate orchard systems has a long history. In the pursuit of commercial viability, there have been a number of success stories, but also quite a number of dead ends. In this presentation, we provide insight into the current st...

  8. Laboratory virulence and orchard efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes against the lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote & Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) is indigenous to eastern North America where it is a pest of commercially grown Prunus spp., especially to southeastern peach orchards where earlier regulatory changes affected pesticide usage on peach and fa...

  9. Plasmid Content of Isolates of Erwinia amylovora from Orchards in Washington and Oregon in the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Washington (WA) and Oregon (OR) represent a major pome fruit production region of the United States, and streptomycin-resistant isolates of the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora are common in orchards in this region. We examined the plasmid content of a collection of more than 200 isolates of ...

  10. Orchard Pollination in Capitol Reef National Park, Utah, USA. Honey Bees or Native Bees?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unlike most National Parks in the United States, Capitol Reef National Park in central Utah includes an agricultural component. The Park surrounds 22 rosaceous fruit orchards started over a century ago by Mormon pioneers. During bloom, hives of the alien honey bee are imported to pollinate the flow...

  11. There Is Space to Play! Mexican American Children of Immigrants Learning With(in) Cherry Orchards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales, María Isabel

    2016-01-01

    While some children spend their summers in camps or other recreational activities, many children of immigrants in Washington state spend them picking cherries and learning with(in) orchards. Children's experiences consist of multiple narratives demonstrating that children's lives are complicated, yet full of possibilities for teaching and…

  12. Accumulation of lead and arsenic by potato grown on lead-arsenate contaminated orchard soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concerns have been raised about the potential food chain transfer of metals in crops grown on historic orchard soils where lead arsenate pesticide was used. The objective of this study was to evaluate the uptake of lead and arsenic (As) by four potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars (Atlantic, Dar...

  13. On the use of L-band multipolarization airborne SAR for surveys of crops, vineyards, and orchards in a California irrigated agricultural region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paris, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    The airborne L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) collected multipolarization calibrated image data over an irrigated agricultural test site near Fresno, CA, on March 6, 1984. The conclusions of the study are as follows: (1) the effects of incidence angle on the measured backscattering coefficients could be removed by using a correction factor equal to the secant of the angle raised to the 1.4 power, (2) for this scene and time of year, the various polarization channels were highly correlated such that the use of more than one polarization added little to the ability of the radar to discriminate vegetation type or condition; the exception was barley which separated from vineyards only when a combination of like and cross polarization data were used (polarization was very useful for corn identification in fall crops), (3) an excellent separation between herbaceous vegetation (alfalfa, barley, and oats) or bare fields and trees in orchards existed in brightness was well correlated to alfalfa height or biomass, especially for the HH polarization combination, (5) vineyards exhibited a narrow range of brightnesses with no systematic effects of type or number of stakes nor of number of wires in the trellises nor of the size of the vines, (6) within the orchard classes, areal biomass characterized by basal area differences caused radar image brightness differences for small to medium trees but not for medium to large trees.

  14. Detecting moisture status of pecan orchards and the potential of remotely-sensed surface reflectance data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, Yahia Abdelrahman

    Demand for New Mexico's limited water resources coupled with periodic drought has increased the need to schedule irrigation of pecan orchards based on tree water status. The overall goal of this research was to develop advanced tree water status sensing techniques to optimize irrigation scheduling of pecan orchards. To achieve this goal, I conducted three studies in the La Mancha and Leyendecker orchards, both mature pecan orchards located in the Mesilla Valley, New Mexico. In the first study, I screened leaf-level physiological changes that occurred during cyclic irrigation to determine parameters that best represented changes in plant moisture status. Then, I linked plant physiological changes to remotely-sensed surface reflectance data derived from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+). In the second study, I assessed the impact of water deficits that developed during the flood irrigation dry-down cycles on photosynthesis (A) and gas exchange and established preliminary water deficit thresholds of midday stem water potential (Psi smd) critical to A and gas exchange of pecans. In a third study, I investigated whether hyperspectral data obtained from a handheld spectroradiometer and multispectral remotely-sensed data derived from Landsat 7 ETM+ and Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) could detect moisture status in pecans during cyclic flood irrigations. I conducted the first study simultaneously in both orchards. Leaf-level physiological responses and remotely-sensed surface reflectance data were collected from trees that were either well watered or in water deficit. Midday stem water potential was the best leaf-level physiological response to detect moisture status in pecans. Multiple linear regression between Psismd and vegetation indices revealed a significant relationship (R 2 = 0.54) in both orchards. Accordingly, I concluded that remotely-sensed multispectral data form Landsat TMETM+ holds promise for detecting the moisture

  15. Fruit load and elevation affect ethylene biosynthesis and action in apple fruit (Malus domestica L. Borkh) during development, maturation and ripening.

    PubMed

    Dal Cin, Valeriano; Danesin, Marcello; Botton, Alessandro; Boschetti, Andrea; Dorigoni, Alberto; Ramina, Angelo

    2007-11-01

    The influence of internal and external factors such as tree fruit load and elevation on ethylene biosynthesis and action was assessed during apple fruit development and ripening. Ethylene biosynthesis, as well as transcript accumulation of the hormone biosynthetic enzymes (MdACS1 and MdACO1), receptors (MdETR1 and MdERS1) and an element of the transduction pathway (MdCTR1), were evaluated in apples borne by trees with high (HL) and low (LL) fruit load. Orchards were located in two localities differing in elevation and season day degree sum. These parameters significantly affected the date of bloom and commercial harvest, and the length of the fruit developmental cycle. Trees from the low elevation (LE) bloomed and the fruit ripened earlier than those from the high elevation (HE), displaying also a shortened fruit developmental cycle. Dynamics of ethylene evolution was apparently not affected by elevation. The onset of ethylene evolution started 130 days after bloom (DAB) at both elevations. During early ripening, fruits from LL trees produced significantly more ethylene than those from HL trees. Expression analysis of MdACS1, MdACO1 and MdERS1 indicated that the transcript accumulation well correlated with ethylene evolution. MdCTR1 was expressed at constant level throughout fruit growth and development up to 130 DAB, thereafter, the transcript accumulation decreased up to commercial harvest, concurrently with the onset of ethylene evolution.

  16. Apples in the Apple Library--How One Library Took a Byte.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertel, Monica

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes automation of a specialized library at Apple Computer, Inc., describing software packages chosen for the following functions: word processing/text editing; cataloging and circulation; reference; and in-house databases. Examples of each function and additional sources of information on software and equipment mentioned in the article are…

  17. Effects of orchard host plants on the oviposition preference of the oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Myers, Clayton T; Hull, Larry A; Krawczyk, Grzegorz

    2006-08-01

    Recently, the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), has emerged as a major problem on apples (Malus spp.) grown in the mid-Atlantic and midwestern United States, despite its historically important and frequent occurrence as a peach (Prunus spp.) pest. It is possible that host-driven biological phenomena may be contributing to changes in G. molesta population dynamics resulting in outbreaks in apple. Studies were designed to examine the effects of host plants on oviposition behavior, in an effort to clarify the host association status of eastern U.S. populations and also to gain insight into how pest modeling and management efforts may be altered to take into account various host-associated effects. G. molesta adults exhibited ovipositional preference for nonbearing peach trees over nonbearing apple trees in close-range choice tests conducted in the field, regardless of the larval host origin. A significant preference for peach shoots over apple shoots was observed on six of 12 sampling dates with a wild G. molesta population at the interface of adjacent peach and apple blocks. Numbers of eggs found on apple fruit were higher after peach fruit were harvested and apple fruit began to approach maturity (during the flight period for third and fourth brood adults). Possible implications for population modeling and integrated management of G. molesta are discussed.

  18. Seasonal cycles of biogenic volatile organic compound fluxes and concentrations in a California citrus orchard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fares, S.; Park, J.-H.; Gentner, D. R.; Weber, R.; Ormeño, E.; Karlik, J.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2012-07-01

    Orange trees are widely cultivated in Mediterranean climatic regions where they are an important agricultural crop. Citrus have been characterized as emitters of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in chamber studies under controlled environmental conditions, but an extensive characterization at field scale has never been performed using modern measurement methods, and is particularly needed considering the complex interactions between the orchards and the polluted atmosphere in which Citrus is often cultivated. For one year, in a Valencia orange orchard in Exeter, California, we measured fluxes using PTRMS (Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer) and eddy covariance for the most abundant VOC typically emitted from citrus vegetation: methanol, acetone, and isoprenoids. Concentration gradients of additional oxygenated and aromatic compounds from the ground level to above the canopy were also measured. In order to characterize concentrations of speciated biogenic VOC (BVOC) in leaves, we analyzed leaf content by GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometery) regularly throughout the year. We also characterize in more detail concentrations of speciated BVOC in the air above the orchard by in-situ GC-MS during a few weeks in spring flowering and summer periods. Here we report concentrations and fluxes of the main VOC species emitted by the orchard, discuss how fluxes measured in the field relate to previous studies made with plant enclosures, and describe how VOC content in leaves and emissions change during the year in response to phenological and environmental parameters. The orchard was a source of monoterpenes and oxygenated VOC. The highest emissions were observed during the springtime flowering period, with mid-day fluxes above 2 nmol m-2 s-1 for methanol and up to 1 nmol m-2 s-1 for acetone and monoterpenes. During hot summer days emissions were not as high as we expected considering the known dependence of biogenic emissions on temperature. We provide evidence

  19. Seasonal cycles of biogenic volatile organic compound fluxes and concentrations in a California citrus orchard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fares, S.; Park, J.-H.; Gentner, D. R.; Weber, R.; Ormeño, E.; Karlik, J.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2012-10-01

    Orange trees are widely cultivated in Mediterranean climatic regions where they are an important agricultural crop. Citrus have been characterized as emitters of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in chamber studies under controlled environmental conditions, but an extensive characterization at field scale has never been performed using modern measurement methods, and is particularly needed considering the complex interactions between the orchards and the polluted atmosphere in which Citrus is often cultivated. For one year, in a Valencia orange orchard in Exeter, California, we measured fluxes using PTRMS (Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer) and eddy covariance for the most abundant VOC typically emitted from citrus vegetation: methanol, acetone, and isoprenoids. Concentration gradients of additional oxygenated and aromatic compounds from the ground level to above the canopy were also measured. In order to characterize concentrations of speciated biogenic VOC (BVOC) in leaves, we analyzed leaf content by GC-MS (Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometery) regularly throughout the year. We also characterized in more detail concentrations of speciated BVOC in the air above the orchard by in-situ GC-MS during a few weeks in spring flowering and summer periods. Here we report concentrations and fluxes of the main VOC species emitted by the orchard, discuss how fluxes measured in the field relate to previous studies made with plant enclosures, and describe how VOC content in leaves and emissions change during the year in response to phenological and environmental parameters. The orchard was a source of monoterpenes and oxygenated VOC. The highest emissions were observed during the springtime flowering period, with mid-day fluxes above 2 nmol m-2 s-1 for methanol and up to 1 nmol m-2 s-1 for acetone and monoterpenes. During hot summer days emissions were not as high as we expected considering the known dependence of biogenic emissions on temperature. We provide

  20. Reading Michael Apple--The Sociological Imagination at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses Michael Apple's contribution to the sociology of education and education policy analysis and the politics of education. It focuses on ways of "reading" Apple as an intellectual and an activist and looks at the trajectory of his work over a long and illustrious career.

  1. Chapter 11. Quality evaluation of apple by computer vision

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple is one of the most consumed fruits in the world, and there is a critical need for enhanced computer vision technology for quality assessment of apples. This chapter gives a comprehensive review on recent advances in various computer vision techniques for detecting surface and internal defects ...

  2. Interview with Michael Apple: The Biography of a Public Intellectual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Michael W. Apple is the John Bascom Professor of Curriculum and Instruction and Educational Policy Studies in the Departments of Curriculum and Instruction (CI) and Educational Policy Studies (EPS) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Education where he has taught since 1970. Michael Apple is one of the foremost educational theorists…

  3. Sugar apple emerges as tempting treat for Florida Growers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Sugar Apple, Annona squamosa, is described as a potential alternative crop for the Florida east coast. Sugar Apple is highly productive of fruit on bushes from seed beginning at about 1-2 years of age, and produces a very flavorful and highly sought after tropical fruit. Several cultivars of Sug...

  4. Apple anthracnose canker life cycle and disease cycle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple anthracnose [caused by Neofabraea malicorticis (H.S. Jacks) anamorph Cryptosporiopsis curvispora (Peck)] is a fungal disease that impacts apple production. The pathogen produces cankers on trees as well as a rot on the fruit known as ‘Bull’s-eye rot’. The cankers cause severe damage to trees...

  5. Morphological and chemical characterization of the kei apple (Dovyalis spp)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dovyalis (Tropical apple) is an exotic fruit originated in Africa, reddish-orange color and high acidity. Tropical apricot or Kei apple (Dovyalis hebecarpa X D. abyssinica) P.I. 112086, is a natural cross which resulted from a mixed planting of D. hebecarpa and D. abyssinica at the Subtropical Horti...

  6. Apple juice greatly reduces systemic exposure to atenolol

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hyewon; Jang, In-Jin; Lee, SeungHwan; Ohashi, Kyoichi; Kotegawa, Tsutomu; Ieiri, Ichiro; Cho, Joo-Youn; Yoon, Seo Hyun; Shin, Sang-Goo; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Lim, Kyoung Soo

    2013-01-01

    AIM Fruit juice reduces the plasma concentrations of several β-adrenoceptor blockers, likely by inhibiting OATP2B1-mediated intestinal absorption. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of apple juice on the pharmacokinetics of atenolol. METHODS Twelve healthy Korean volunteers with genotypes of SLCO2B1 c.1457C> T (*1/*1 (n= 6) and *3/*3 (n= 6)) were enrolled in this study. In a three-phase, one-sequence crossover study, the pharmacokinetics (PK) of atenolol was evaluated after administration of 50 mg atenolol. Subjects received atenolol with either 300 ml water, 1200 ml apple juice or 600 ml apple juice. RESULTS Apple juice markedly reduced the systemic exposure to atenolol. The geometric mean ratios (95% confidence intervals) of apple juice : water were 0.18 (0.13, 0.25, 1200 ml) and 0.42 (0.30, 0.59, 600 ml) for the AUC(0,tlast). In this study, the PK parameters of atenolol responded in a dose-dependent manner to apple juice. CONCLUSIONS Apple juice markedly reduced systemic exposure to atenolol. The genetic variation of SLCO2B1 c.1457C>T had a minimal effect on the pharmacokinetics of atenolol when the drug was administered with water or apple juice. PMID:22574741

  7. Cytology of infection of apple leaves by Diplocarpon mali

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diplocarpon mali, the causal agent of Marssonina leaf blotch of apple, causes severe defoliation during the growing season. Little information is available on the mode of infection and infection process. In this study, the infection strategies of D. mali in apple leaves were investigated using fluor...

  8. Formatting Data Disks for Use with the Apple IIe Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This step-by-step guide to formatting disks using the AppleWorks software on the Apple IIe computer covers (1) loading the program; (2) formatting the disk; (3) volume naming; and (4) exiting the format options. Eleven sample screen displays illustrate the steps. (MES)

  9. Genome to phenome mapping in apple using historical data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple (Malus domestica) is one of the world’s most valuable fruit crops. Its large size and long juvenile phase make it a particularly promising candidate for marker-assisted selection (MAS). However, advances in MAS in apple have been limited by a lack of phenotype and genotype data from sufficien...

  10. Unraveling apple fruit metabolism: Storage management opportunities and beyond

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple fruit has become a staple fruit commodity in many markets worldwide, making year-round availability crucial to retail chains. Consequently, apple storage practices have become increasingly sophisticated to meet rising quality expectations of fresh taste and a blemish free appearance. Modern ...

  11. Apple-products phytochemicals and processing: a review.

    PubMed

    Soler, Carla; Soriano, José M; Mañes, Jordi

    2009-05-01

    Epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. Extensive research exists on apples and the health benefits of their beverages and phytochemicals. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature in this area focusing on phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior.

  12. Classworks: AppleWorks for the Classroom. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Rick

    This book provides a brief and succinct introduction to AppleWorks and is designed for use by teachers who are already familiar with the three AppleWorks tools: the word processor, the database, and the spreadsheet. "Classworks" (developed for grades 8 and 9) emphasizes computer work in which the teacher serves as troubleshooter,…

  13. Gene expression profiles of auxin metabolism in maturing apple fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variation exists among apple genotypes in fruit maturation and ripening patterns that influences at-harvest fruit firmness and postharvest storability. Based on the results from our previous large-scale transcriptome profiling on apple fruit maturation and well-documented auxin-ethylene crosstalk, t...

  14. Determination of D-glucaric acid and/or D-glucaro-1,4-lacton in different apple varieties through hydrophilic interaction chromatography.

    PubMed

    Xie, Baogang; Liu, Yalan; Zou, Huiqin; Son, Yong; Wang, Huiyun; Wang, Haipeng; Shao, Jianghua

    2016-07-15

    d-Glucaric acid (GA) derivatives exhibit anti-cancerogenic properties in vivo in apples, but quantitative information about these derivatives is limited. Hydrophilic interaction-based HPLC with ultraviolet detection or mass spectrometry was developed to quantify GA and/or D-glucaro-1,4-lacton (1,4-GL) in apples. Although the formation of 1,4-GL from GA could be the prerequisite to exert biological effects in vivo, only a small portion of GA (<5%) was identified and converted to 1,4-GL in the rat stomach. The 1,4-GL content in apples ranged from 0.3 mg/g to 0.9 mg/g, and this amount can substantiate health claims associated with apples. The amount of 1,4-GL was 1.5 times higher in Gala and the ratio of 1,4-GL to GA was lower in Green Delicious apples than those in the other varieties. Our findings suggested that the variety and maturity of apples at harvest are factors that determine 1,4-GL content.

  15. Apple ring rot-responsive putative microRNAs revealed by high-throughput sequencing in Malus × domestica Borkh.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xin-Yi; Du, Bei-Bei; Gao, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Shi-Jie; Tu, Xu-Tong; Chen, Xiao-Yun; Zhang, Zhen; Qu, Shen-Chun

    2014-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs, which silence target mRNA via cleavage or translational inhibition to function in regulating gene expression. MiRNAs act as important regulators of plant development and stress response. For understanding the role of miRNAs responsive to apple ring rot stress, we identified disease-responsive miRNAs using high-throughput sequencing in Malus × domestica Borkh.. Four small RNA libraries were constructed from two control strains in M. domestica, crabapple (CKHu) and Fuji Naga-fu No. 6 (CKFu), and two disease stress strains, crabapple (DSHu) and Fuji Naga-fu No. 6 (DSFu). A total of 59 miRNA families were identified and five miRNAs might be responsive to apple ring rot infection and validated via qRT-PCR. Furthermore, we predicted 76 target genes which were regulated by conserved miRNAs potentially. Our study demonstrated that miRNAs was responsive to apple ring rot infection and may have important implications on apple disease resistance.

  16. Apple peels as a value-added food ingredient.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Kelly L; Liu, Rui Hai

    2003-03-12

    There is some evidence that chronic diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease, may occur as a result of oxidative stress. Apple peels have high concentrations of phenolic compounds and may assist in the prevention of chronic diseases. Millions of pounds of waste apple peels are generated in the production of applesauce and canned apples in New York State each year. We proposed that a valuable food ingredient could be made using the peels of these apples if they could be dried and ground to a powder without large losses of phytochemicals. Rome Beauty apple peels were treated with citric acid dips, ascorbic acid dips, and blanches before being oven-dried at 60 degrees C. Only blanching treatments greatly preserved the phenolic compounds, and peels blanched for 10 s had the highest total phenolic content. Rome Beauty apple peels were then blanched for 10 s and dried under various conditions (oven-dried at 40, 60, or 80 degrees C, air-dried, or freeze-dried). The air-dried and freeze-dried apple peels had the highest total phenolic, flavonoid, and anthocyanin contents. On a fresh weight basis, the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of these samples were similar to those of the fresh apple peels. Freeze-dried peels had a lower water activity than air-dried peels on a fresh weight basis. The optimal processing conditions for the ingredient were blanching for 10s and freeze-drying. The process was scaled up, and the apple peel powder ingredient was characterized. The total phenolic content was 3342 +/- 12 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g dried peels, the flavonoid content was 2299 +/- 52 mg catechin equivalents/100 g dried peels, and the anthocyanin content was 169.7 +/- 1.6 mg cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalents/100 g dried peels. These phytochemical contents were a significantly higher than those of the fresh apple peels if calculated on a fresh weight basis (p < 0.05). The apple peel powder had a total antioxidant activity of 1251 +/- 56 micromol vitamin C

  17. RAB21 Activity Assay Using GST-fused APPL1

    PubMed Central

    Jean, Steve; Kiger, Amy A.

    2016-01-01

    The Rab family of small GTPases are essential regulators of membrane trafficking events. As with other small GTPase families, Rab GTPases cycle between an inactive GDP-bound state and an active GTP-bound state. Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) promote Rab activation with the exchange of bound GDP for GTP, while GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) regulate Rab inactivation with GTP hydrolysis. Numerous methods have been established to monitor the activation status of Rab GTPases. Of those, FRET-based methods are used to identify when and where a Rab GTPase is activated in cells. Unfortunately, the generation of such probes is complex, and only a limited number of Rabs have been probed this way. Biochemical purification of activated Rabs from cell or tissue extracts is easily achievable through the use of a known Rab effector domain to pull down a specific GTP-bound Rab form. Although this method is not ideal for detailed subcellular localization, it can offer temporal resolution of Rab activity. The identification of a growing number of specific effectors now allows tests for activation levels of many Rab GTPases in specific conditions. Here, we described an affinity purification approach using GST fused APPL1 (a known RAB21 effector) to test RAB21 activation in mammalian cells. This method was successfully used to assay changes in RAB21 activation status under nutrient rich versus starved conditions and to test the requirement of the MTMR13 RAB21 GEF in this process. PMID:28251173

  18. Effect of enzymatic mash treatment and storage on phenolic composition, antioxidant activity, and turbidity of cloudy apple juice.

    PubMed

    Oszmiański, Jan; Wojdylo, Aneta; Kolniak, Joanna

    2009-08-12

    The effects of different commercial enzymatic mash treatments on yield, turbidity, color, and polyphenolic and sediment of procyanidins content of cloudy apple juice were studied. Addition of pectolytic enzymes to mash treatment had positive effect on the production of cloud apple juices by improving polyphenolic contents, especially procyanidins and juice yields (68.3% in control samples to 77% after Pectinex Yield Mash). As summary of the effect of enzymatic mash treatment, polyphenol contents in cloudy apple juices significantly increased after Pectinex Yield Mash, Pectinex Smash XXL, and Pectinex XXL maceration were applied but no effect was observed after Pectinex Ultra-SPL I Panzym XXL use, compared to the control samples. The content of polymeric procyanidins represented 50-70% of total polyphenols, but in the present study, polymeric procyanidins were significantly lower in juices than in fruits and also affected by enzymatic treatment (Pectinex AFP L-4 and Panzym Yield Mash) compared to the control samples. The enzymatic treatment decreased procyanidin content in most sediment with the exception of Pectinex Smash XXL and Pectinex AFP L-4. Generally in samples that were treated by pectinase, radical scavenging activity of cloudy apple juices was increased compared to the untreated reference samples. The highest radical scavenging activity was associated with Pectinex Yield Mash, Pectinex Smash XXL, and Pectinex XXL enzyme and the lowest activity with Pectinex Ultra SP-L and Pectinex APFL-4. However, in the case of enzymatic mash treatment cloudy apple juices showed instability of turbidity and low viscosity. These results must be ascribed to the much higher hydrolysis of pectin by enzymatic preparation which is responsible for viscosity. During 6 months of storage at 4 degrees C small changes in analyzed parameters of apple juices were observed.

  19. An apple a day may hold colorectal cancer at bay: recent evidence from a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Maugeri, Umberto

    2009-01-01

    Environmental factors play an important role in the etiology of colorectal cancer, the second-most common malignancy in both genders in developed countries. Evidence has shown that potential cancer-inducing oxidative damage might be prevented or restricted largely by the presence of dietary antioxidants of plant origin, such as fruits or vegetables. The protective antioxidant effect of fruits and vegetables has been attributed to flavonoids, a major class of phytochemicals naturally occurring in fruits, vegetables, and various foods of plant origin. Yet, epidemiologic cohort studies relating flavonoid intake to risk of colorectal cancer have been sparse and inconclusive. Apples are a rich source of flavonoids and have the second highest level of antioxidant power among all fruits, with peels having a stronger antioxidant activity than apple flesh. A recent reanalysis of several case-control studies in Italy demonstrated a consistent inverse association between apple consumption and the risk of various cancers, and among them ofcolorectal cancer. Here we assessed the potential protective impact of apples on risk of colorectal cancer in the course of a recently performed hospital-based case-control study in a country with dietary habits very different from those of Mediterranean region. The results showed that highest risk of colorectal cancer was among older persons and those who were residents of villages or small towns. The risk of colorectal cancer was inversely correlated with daily number of apple servings, but the most significant reductions of OR estimates were observed for an intake one or more apple servings daily (OR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.15-0.91). No other fruit was significantly associated with altering the risk of colorectal cancer.

  20. A Real-Time Apple Grading System Using Multicolor Space

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This study was focused on the multicolor space which provides a better specification of the color and size of the apple in an image. In the study, a real-time machine vision system classifying apples into four categories with respect to color and size was designed. In the analysis, different color spaces were used. As a result, 97% identification success for the red fields of the apple was obtained depending on the values of the parameter “a” of CIE L*a*b*color space. Similarly, 94% identification success for the yellow fields was obtained depending on the values of the parameter y of CIE XYZ color space. With the designed system, three kinds of apples (Golden, Starking, and Jonagold) were investigated by classifying them into four groups with respect to two parameters, color and size. Finally, 99% success rate was achieved in the analyses conducted for 595 apples. PMID:24574880