Science.gov

Sample records for small apple orchard

  1. [Changes of Soil Organic Carbon and Its Influencing Factors of Apple Orchards and Black Locusts in the Small Watershed of Loess Plateau, China].

    PubMed

    Li, Ru-jian; Wang, Rui; Li, Na-na; Jiang, Ji-shao; Zhang, Yan-jun; Wang, Zhi-qi; Liu, Qing-fang; Wu, De-feng; Guo, Sheng-li

    2015-07-01

    Orchard and black locust are two typical plants for comprehensive control in the small watershed of land uses in Loess area. The analysis of soil carbon sequestration function changes of growing two plants is important to gain a deep understanding of soil carbon cycle process and its influencing factors of terrestrial ecosystems under the condition of small watershed comprehensive control. The experiment was conducted in the Changwu State Key Agro-Ecological Station, Shanxi, China. SOC, TN, fine root biomass and litter amount were determined at different age apple orchards and black locusts on the slope land of Wangdonggou watershed to study the variation characteristics of soil organic carbon and its influencing factors under two measurements. The results showed that: (1) SOC and TN contents in apple orchards significantly decreased with the increased age, whereas those in black locust showed an increased tendency with the age increased. Compared with the adjacent cropland,the SOC and TN contents in year 3, year 8, year 12 and year 18 apple orchards were decreased 3. 26%, 10. 54%, 18. 08%, 22. 55% and - 8. 08%, - 0. 48%, 4. 97%, 16. 91%, respectively. However,SOC and TN contents increased 5. 31%, 32. 36%, 44. 13% and 2. 49%, 15. 75%, 24. 22%, in year 12, year 18 and year 25 black locusts, respectively. (2) The fine root biomass in year 3, year 8, year 12, and year 18 apple orchards were about 25. 97% 66. 23%, 85. 71% and 96. 10% of the adjacent cropland, respectively; and the litter amounts were all 0 g . m-2. However, compared with adjacent cropland, The fine root biomass in year 12, year 18 and year 25 black locusts were increased 23. 53%, 79. 41%, 157. 35%, respectively; and the litter input rates were 194, 298 , 433 g . (m2 . a) -1, respectively. (3) The difference of organic matter input was the major factor which drove the variability of soil carbon sequestration function of apple orchard and black locust ecosystems.

  2. Management strategies in apple orchards influence earwig community.

    PubMed

    Malagnoux, Laure; Marliac, Gaëlle; Simon, Sylvaine; Rault, Magali; Capowiez, Yvan

    2015-04-01

    Our aim was to assess whether different apple orchard management strategies (low-input, organic, Integrated Pest Management (IPM)) would have an effect on earwigs, which are important natural enemies of apple pests. These commercial orchards were as well compared to abandoned orchards. The density of Forficula auricularia and Forficula pubescens was studied for three years in 74 orchards around Avignon. The pesticide usage, some orchard characteristics and two small-scale landscape parameters were characterized. Pesticide use was significantly different between low-input, organic and IPM orchards with particularly significant differences in the number of insecticide applications (2.2, 4.9 and 9.2 respectively). Pesticide use had a much stronger impact on earwig community than other characteristics. F. auricularia density was significantly lower in IPM orchards (0.47 individuals per tree) compared to organic, low-input and abandoned orchards (3.1, 4.5 and 1.6 individuals per tree, respectively). F. pubescens was almost absent from IPM orchards and its abundance was higher in abandoned or low-input orchards compared to organic orchards (1.5 and 2.8 vs 0.8 individuals per tree). The percentage of F. pubescens in the earwig community decreased from abandoned (52%) to low-input (40%), organic (15%) and IPM orchards (0.5%). These results were confirmed by LD50 assays showing that for the two pesticides causing mortality close to normal application rates (chlorpyrifos-ethyl and acetamiprid), F. pubescens was significantly more sensitive than F. auricularia. Since earwigs are also easy to capture and identify, they may be useful to estimate the effects of management strategies and their modification in pome fruit orchards.

  3. Pest management systems affect composition but not abundance of phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Árpád; Pénzes, Béla; Sipos, Péter; Hegyi, Tamás; Hajdú, Zsuzsanna; Markó, Viktor

    2014-04-01

    We examined the faunal composition and abundance of phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in apple orchards under different pest management systems in Hungary. A total of 30 apple orchards were surveyed, including abandoned and organic orchards and orchards where integrated pest management (IPM) or broad spectrum insecticides (conventional pest management) were applied. A total of 18 phytoseiid species were found in the canopy of apple trees. Species richness was greatest in the organic orchards (mean: 3.3 species/400 leaves) and the least in the conventional orchards (1.4), with IPM (2.1) and abandoned (2.7) orchards showing intermediate values. The phytoseiid community's Rényi diversity displayed a similar pattern. However, the total phytoseiid abundance in the orchards with different pest management systems did not differ, with abundance varying between 1.8 and 2.6 phytoseiids/10 leaves. Amblyseius andersoni, Euseius finlandicus, and Typhlodromus pyri were the three most common species. The relative abundance of A. andersoni increased with the pesticide load of the orchards whereas the relative abundance of E. finlandicus decreased. The abundance of T. pyri did not change in the apple orchards under different pest management strategies; regardless of the type of applied treatment, they only displayed greater abundance in five of the orchards. The remaining 15 phytoseiid species only occurred in small numbers, mostly from the abandoned and organic orchards. We identified a negative correlation between the abundance of T. pyri and the other phytoseiids in the abandoned and organic orchards. However, we did not find any similar link between the abundance of A. andersoni and E. finlandicus.

  4. Bird use of organic apple orchards: Frugivory, pest control and implications for production

    PubMed Central

    Pejchar, Liba; Werner, Scott J.

    2017-01-01

    As the largest terrestrial biomes, crop and pasturelands can have very large positive or negative impacts on biodiversity and human well-being. Understanding how animals use and impact agroecosystems is important for making informed decisions that achieve conservation and production outcomes. Yet, few studies examine the tradeoffs associated with wildlife in agricultural systems. We examined bird use of organic apple orchards as well as how birds influence fruit production positively through control of an economically important insect pest (codling moth (Cydia pomonella)) and negatively through fruit damage. We conducted transect surveys, observed bird frugivory and assessed bird and insect damage with an exclosure experiment in small organic farms in western Colorado. We found that organic apple orchards in this region provide habitat for a large number of both human-adapted and human-sensitive species and that the species in orchards were relatively similar to adjacent hedgerow habitats. Habitat use did not vary as a function of orchard characteristics, and apple damage by both birds and C. pomonella was consistent within and across apple blocks that varied in size. A small subset of bird species was observed foraging on apples yet the effect of birds as agents of fruit damage appeared rather minor and birds did not reduce C. pomonella damage. Our results demonstrate that organic apple orchards have the potential to provide habitat for diverse bird communities, including species typically sensitive to human activities, with little apparent effect on production. PMID:28910290

  5. Sources and availability of Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens inoculum in apple orchards

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens (SP) is the cause of Sphaeropsis rot, a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of apple. Infections of apple fruit by the fungus occur in the orchard, and symptoms develop during storage or in the market. SP also is the cause of a twig dieback and canker disease o...

  6. Variability in captan residues in apples from a Canadian orchard.

    PubMed

    Rawn, Dorothea F K; Quade, Sue C; Shields, J Brian; Conca, Giacomo; Sun, Wing-Fung; Lacroix, Gladys M A; Smith, Mark; Fouquet, André; Bélanger, André

    2007-02-01

    Apple trees in an orchard in Quebec, Canada were treated, following label directions, with the fungicide captan (1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-N-(trichloromethylthio)phthalimide) during the 2003 agricultural season. A total of 142 apples from three rows of trees were selected for determination of captan by GC/MS. Individual apples were found to contain captan levels ranging from 16.9 to 6350 ng g-1. Only two individual apple samples exceeded the Canadian maximum residue limit (5000 ng g-1) for captan in apples. Six composite samples, comprising half portions of eight individual apples, were analysed from each of the three experimental rows. Composite samples ranged in concentration from 166 to 2620 ng g-1. The greatest uncertainty associated with the measured concentrations was due to variability among apples rather than the measurement of residue levels.

  7. New Hampshire Apple Orchards as a Source of Arsenic Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, C. K.; Renshaw, C. E.; Feng, X.; Sturup, S.

    2002-05-01

    Concern about high trace metal contamination in New Hampshire water supplies has focused attention on the fate of both natural and anthropogenic trace metals in the environment. We investigate apple orchards as a possible source of As in surface water and groundwater of New Hampshire. Lead arsenate sprays were widely used as fungicides and insecticides in apple orchards for more than a century and they represent the largest single anthropogenic input of arsenic into the environment. The applied As may 1) have remained in the surface soil, 2) have moved downward in the soil column and become stored in deeper soil horizons and/or regional groundwater system, or 3) have been transported as a result of overland surface runoff and/or erosion to surface reservoirs. We examine these pathways using two types of samples collected from a Southern New Hampshire apple orchard: soil profiles from apple orchards having different pesticide application (sprayed or not sprayed with lead arsenate) and land use (tilled or untilled) history, and stream sediment cores that may have accumulated sediments transported from nearby apple orchards. Preliminary analyses provide the following observations. First, apple orchards which used lead arsenate pesticides contain significantly elevated As and Pb concentrations (up to 80æg/g and 600æg/g, and about 1 and 2 orders of magnitude above the background levels, respectively) in the surface soils. Second, As and Pb are generally limited to the upper 10-15 cm of soil, showing little evidence of downward transport. This suggests that As is largely chemically immobile in the soil environment and that the main mechanism for As removal from its source may be physical erosion. We hypothesize that, if left undisturbed, lead arsenate remains immobile in the soil column. However, any disturbances that increase physical erosion of the soil may mobilize the arsenic and lead and concentrate these metals in nearby stream and lake sediments. We test this

  8. Ecohydrological interactions between soil and trees in Alpine apple orchards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penna, Daniele; Scandellari, Francesca; Zanotelli, Damiano; Michael, Engel; Tagliavini, Massimo; Comiti, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    depleted and consistent with the local meteoric water line, whereas ii) soil water and sap have values more enriched and deviated from the meteoric line. Soil water shows a clear evaporation signal that decreases with increasing soil depth. Sap isotopic data are inconsistent with groundwater data but reflect well soil water data in the first 40 cm. This suggests that apple trees absorb a mixture of rainfall and irrigation water which undergo partial evaporation in the shallow soil layer. Water table varies between 40 cm and 140 cm making groundwater not easily intercepted by tree roots, consistently with the small root apparatus of the apple trees grafted on M9 rootstocks. Results reveal also a marked intra-field spatial variability in the isotopic composition of soil water, and significant differences between the two fields, with the one close to the river showing significantly more depleted values compared to the one farther form the river. This difference, which is reflected by sap isotopic composition in summer, is likely related to the different radiation that hits the two fields, due to the shading effect played by steep slopes on the orchard closer to the river.

  9. [Carbon Source Utilization Characteristics of Soil Microbial Community for Apple Orchard with Interplanting Herbage].

    PubMed

    Du, Yi-fei; Fang, Kai-kai; Wang, Zhi-kang; Li, Hui-ke; Mao, Peng-juan; Zhang, Xiang-xu; Wang, Jing

    2015-11-01

    As soil fertility in apple orchard with clean tillage is declined continuously, interplanting herbage in orchard, which is a new orchard management model, plays an important role in improving orchard soil conditions. By using biolog micro-plate technique, this paper studied the functional diversity of soil microbial community under four species of management model in apple orchards, including clear tillage model, interplanting white clover model, interplanting small crown flower model and interplanting cocksfoot model, and the carbon source utilization characteristics of microbial community were explored, which could provide a reference for revealing driving mechanism of ecological process of orchard soil. The results showed that the functional diversity of microbial community had a significant difference among different treatments and in the order of white clover > small crown flower > cocksfoot > clear tillage. The correlation analysis showed that the average well color development (AWCD), Shannon index, Richness index and McIntosh index were all highly significantly positively correlated with soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon, and Shannon index was significantly positively correlated with soil pH. The principal component analysis and the fingerprints of the physiological carbon metabolism of the microbial community demonstrated that grass treatments improved carbon source metabolic ability of soil microbial community, and the soil microbes with perennial legumes (White Clover and small crown flower) had a significantly higher utilization rate in carbohydrates (N-Acetyl-D-Glucosamine, D-Mannitol, β-Methyl-D-Glucoside), amino acids (Glycyl-L-Glutamic acid, L-Serine, L-Threonine) and polymers (Tween 40, Glycogen) than the soil microbes with clear tillage. It was considered that different treatments had the unique microbial community structure and peculiar carbon source utilization characteristics.

  10. How to Plant Apple Trees to Reduce Replant Disease in Apple Orchard: A Study on the Phenolic Acid of the Replanted Apple Orchard.

    PubMed

    Yin, Chengmiao; Xiang, Li; Wang, Gongshuai; Wang, Yanfang; Shen, Xiang; Chen, Xuesen; Mao, Zhiquan

    2016-01-01

    Apple replant disease (ARD) is an important problem in the production of apple. The phenolic acid is one of the causes of ARD. How phenolic acid affects the ARD was not well known. In this study, we analyzed the type, concentration and annual dynamic variation of phenolic acid in soil from three replanted apple orchards using an accelerated solvent extraction system with high performance liquid chromatography (ASE-HPLC). We found that the type and concentration of phenolic acid were significantly differed among different seasons, different sampling positions and different soil layers. Major types of phenolic acid in three replanted apple orchards were phlorizin, benzoic acid and vanillic aldehyde. The concentration of phenolic acid was highest in the soil of the previous tree holes and it was increased from the spring to autumn. Moreover, phenolic acid was primarily distributed in 30-60 cm soil layer in the autumn, while it was most abundant in 0-30 cm soil layer in the spring. Our results suggest that phlorizin, benzoic acid and vanillic aldehyde may be the key phenolic acid that brought about ARD in the replanted apple orchard.

  11. How to Plant Apple Trees to Reduce Replant Disease in Apple Orchard: A Study on the Phenolic Acid of the Replanted Apple Orchard

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Chengmiao; Xiang, Li; Wang, Gongshuai; Wang, Yanfang; Shen, Xiang; Chen, Xuesen; Mao, Zhiquan

    2016-01-01

    Apple replant disease (ARD) is an important problem in the production of apple. The phenolic acid is one of the causes of ARD. How phenolic acid affects the ARD was not well known. In this study, we analyzed the type, concentration and annual dynamic variation of phenolic acid in soil from three replanted apple orchards using an accelerated solvent extraction system with high performance liquid chromatography (ASE-HPLC). We found that the type and concentration of phenolic acid were significantly differed among different seasons, different sampling positions and different soil layers. Major types of phenolic acid in three replanted apple orchards were phlorizin, benzoic acid and vanillic aldehyde. The concentration of phenolic acid was highest in the soil of the previous tree holes and it was increased from the spring to autumn. Moreover, phenolic acid was primarily distributed in 30–60 cm soil layer in the autumn, while it was most abundant in 0–30 cm soil layer in the spring. Our results suggest that phlorizin, benzoic acid and vanillic aldehyde may be the key phenolic acid that brought about ARD in the replanted apple orchard. PMID:27907081

  12. Carbon Sequestration by Fruit Trees - Chinese Apple Orchards as an Example

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ting; Wang, Yi; Yu, Changjiang; Chiarawipa, Rawee; Zhang, Xinzhong; Han, Zhenhai; Wu, Lianhai

    2012-01-01

    Apple production systems are an important component in the Chinese agricultural sector with 1.99 million ha plantation. The orchards in China could play an important role in the carbon (C) cycle of terrestrial ecosystems and contribute to C sequestration. The carbon sequestration capability in apple orchards was analyzed through identifying a set of potential assessment factors and their weighting factors determined by a field model study and literature. The dynamics of the net C sink in apple orchards in China was estimated based on the apple orchard inventory data from 1990s and the capability analysis. The field study showed that the trees reached the peak of C sequestration capability when they were 18 years old, and then the capability began to decline with age. Carbon emission derived from management practices would not be compensated through C storage in apple trees before reaching the mature stage. The net C sink in apple orchards in China ranged from 14 to 32 Tg C, and C storage in biomass from 230 to 475 Tg C between 1990 and 2010. The estimated net C sequestration in Chinese apple orchards from 1990 to 2010 was equal to 4.5% of the total net C sink in the terrestrial ecosystems in China. Therefore, apple production systems can be potentially considered as C sinks excluding the energy associated with fruit production in addition to provide fruits. PMID:22719974

  13. Carbon sequestration by fruit trees--Chinese apple orchards as an example.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting; Wang, Yi; Yu, Changjiang; Chiarawipa, Rawee; Zhang, Xinzhong; Han, Zhenhai; Wu, Lianhai

    2012-01-01

    Apple production systems are an important component in the Chinese agricultural sector with 1.99 million ha plantation. The orchards in China could play an important role in the carbon (C) cycle of terrestrial ecosystems and contribute to C sequestration. The carbon sequestration capability in apple orchards was analyzed through identifying a set of potential assessment factors and their weighting factors determined by a field model study and literature. The dynamics of the net C sink in apple orchards in China was estimated based on the apple orchard inventory data from 1990s and the capability analysis. The field study showed that the trees reached the peak of C sequestration capability when they were 18 years old, and then the capability began to decline with age. Carbon emission derived from management practices would not be compensated through C storage in apple trees before reaching the mature stage. The net C sink in apple orchards in China ranged from 14 to 32 Tg C, and C storage in biomass from 230 to 475 Tg C between 1990 and 2010. The estimated net C sequestration in Chinese apple orchards from 1990 to 2010 was equal to 4.5% of the total net C sink in the terrestrial ecosystems in China. Therefore, apple production systems can be potentially considered as C sinks excluding the energy associated with fruit production in addition to provide fruits.

  14. [Variation characteristics of soil moisture in apple orchards of Luochuan County, Shaanxi Province of Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Ping; Han, Ming-Yu; Zhang, Lin-Sen; Dang, Yong-Jian; Qu, Jun-Tao

    2012-03-01

    To have an overall understanding on the soil moisture characteristics in the apple orchards of Luochuan County can not only provide theoretical basis for selecting apple orchard sites, choosing the best root-stock combination, and improving the soil water management, but also has reference importance in increasing the productive efficiency of our apple orchards. In this study, a fixed-point continuous monitoring was conducted on the overall soil moisture environment and the variation characteristics of soil moisture in the County apple orchards differed in age class, stand type, and tree type (standard or dwarfed). For the apple orchards in the County, the rhizosphere (0-200 cm) soils of most apple trees were water-deficient, and the deficit in 0-60 cm soil layer was less than that in 60-200 cm layer. During growth season, the water storage in 0-60 cm soil layer had the same variation trend as the rainfall pattern. The relative soil moisture content in most orchards was less than 60% , and seasonal drought was quite severe. The coefficient of variation of soil moisture content decreased with soil depth. With the increasing age of the orchards, soil water storage decreased. At the same planting density, the orchards with dwarfed trees had more water storage in 0-5 m soil layer than the orchards with standard trees. However, when the orchards were planted with dwarfed trees at a higher density, the soil water storage in the orchards with dwarfed trees was lesser than that in the standard orchards. The mature orchards on highland had the highest soil moisture content, followed by the mature orchards on flat land, and on terraced land. Tree density had great effects on the soil moisture content. When the tree density was the same, planting dwarfed trees could decrease the water consumption, and increase the soil moisture content significantly. To decrease the planting density through the removal of trees would be an effective way to maintain the soil water balance of

  15. Organophosphate levels in apple composites and individual apples from a treated Canadian orchard.

    PubMed

    Rawn, Dorothea F K; Quade, Sue C; Shields, J Brian; Conca, Giacomo; Sun, Wing-Fung; Lacroix, Gladys M A; Smith, Mark; Fouquet, André; Bélanger, André

    2006-03-08

    Azinphos-methyl, phosalone, and phosmet were applied individually to separate rows of trees within a commercial apple orchard in Quebec, Canada, during the 2003 agricultural season. Apples were collected for residue analysis immediately prior to the harvesting of the remaining apples for market distribution and were prepared for analysis as both individual apples and as composites of eight individuals. Analysis of the three applied compounds, as well as five organophosphate insecticides that were not applied, was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Azinphos-methyl, phosalone, and phosmet, which were applied, were detected in all samples analyzed at concentrations ranging from 0.004 ng/g to 2260 ng/g. Methidathion was not observed in any sample. Chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dimethoate, and malathion concentrations ranged from below method detection limits to 0.71 ng/g, and the detection frequency for these compounds ranged from 20% to 100%. Residues measured in this study were all below the Canadian maximum residue limit for apples. Variability factors ranged from 2 to 19 for all compounds observed in this study. Composite samples may not accurately reflect the extremes of exposure from consumption of single servings of apples.

  16. Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis: inoculum availability, persistence and seasonal host susceptibility in Washington apple orchards

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    P. washingtonensis infects apple fruit in the orchard but decay symptoms develop during storage. Pycnidia on diseased shoots are believed to be the inoculum source for fruit infection in the orchard. However, the period of twig susceptibility and availability of viable inoculum in the field are un...

  17. Contamination of apple orchard soils and fruit trees with copper-based fungicides: sampling aspects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Quanying; Liu, Jingshuang; Liu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Accumulations of copper in orchard soils and fruit trees due to the application of Cu-based fungicides have become research hotspots. However, information about the sampling strategies, which can affect the accuracy of the following research results, is lacking. This study aimed to determine some sampling considerations when Cu accumulations in the soils and fruit trees of apple orchards are studied. The study was conducted in three apple orchards from different sites. Each orchard included two different histories of Cu-based fungicides usage, varying from 3 to 28 years. Soil samples were collected from different locations varying with the distances from tree trunk to the canopy drip line. Fruits and leaves from the middle heights of tree canopy at two locations (outer canopy and inner canopy) were collected. The variation in total soil Cu concentrations between orchards was much greater than the variation within orchards. Total soil Cu concentrations had a tendency to increase with the increasing history of Cu-based fungicides usage. Moreover, total soil Cu concentrations had the lowest values at the canopy drip line, while the highest values were found at the half distances between the trunk and the canopy drip line. Additionally, Cu concentrations of leaves and fruits from the outer parts of the canopy were significantly higher than from the inner parts. Depending on the findings of this study, not only the between-orchard variation but also the within-orchard variation should be taken into consideration when conducting future soil and tree samplings in apple orchards.

  18. Cost-benefit trade-offs of bird activity in apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Peisley, Rebecca K; Saunders, Manu E; Luck, Gary W

    2016-01-01

    Birds active in apple orchards in south-eastern Australia can contribute positively (e.g., control crop pests) or negatively (e.g., crop damage) to crop yields. Our study is the first to identify net outcomes of these activities, using six apple orchards, varying in management intensity, in south-eastern Australia as a study system. We also conducted a predation experiment using real and artificial codling moth (Cydia pomonella) larvae (a major pest in apple crops). We found that: (1) excluding birds from branches of apple trees resulted in an average of 12.8% more apples damaged by insects; (2) bird damage to apples was low (1.9% of apples); and (3) when trading off the potential benefits (biological control) with costs (bird damage to apples), birds provided an overall net benefit to orchard growers. We found that predation of real codling moth larvae was higher than for plasticine larvae, suggesting that plasticine prey models are not useful for inferring actual predation levels. Our study shows how complex ecological interactions between birds and invertebrates affect crop yield in apples, and provides practical strategies for improving the sustainability of orchard systems.

  19. Cost-benefit trade-offs of bird activity in apple orchards

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Manu E.; Luck, Gary W.

    2016-01-01

    Birds active in apple orchards in south–eastern Australia can contribute positively (e.g., control crop pests) or negatively (e.g., crop damage) to crop yields. Our study is the first to identify net outcomes of these activities, using six apple orchards, varying in management intensity, in south–eastern Australia as a study system. We also conducted a predation experiment using real and artificial codling moth (Cydia pomonella) larvae (a major pest in apple crops). We found that: (1) excluding birds from branches of apple trees resulted in an average of 12.8% more apples damaged by insects; (2) bird damage to apples was low (1.9% of apples); and (3) when trading off the potential benefits (biological control) with costs (bird damage to apples), birds provided an overall net benefit to orchard growers. We found that predation of real codling moth larvae was higher than for plasticine larvae, suggesting that plasticine prey models are not useful for inferring actual predation levels. Our study shows how complex ecological interactions between birds and invertebrates affect crop yield in apples, and provides practical strategies for improving the sustainability of orchard systems. PMID:27413639

  20. Avian nesting success and diversity in conventionally and organically managed apple orchards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fluetsch, K.M.; Sparling, D.W.

    1994-01-01

    This study examines the effects of operational use of pesticides on avian species inhabiting apple orchards in Pennsylvania. Mourning dove (Zenaida rnacroura) and American robin (Turdus migratorius) nests were monitored in three organic and three conventional apple orchards during 1990 and 1991. In 1991 we surveyed the avian communities of these orchards by using line transects. Organophosphorus (OP) (e.g., azinphos-methyl, phosphamidon, parathion, dimethoate), carbamate (CA) (e.g., methomyl, formetanate, oxamyl), and organochlorine (endosulfan) pesticides, known to be highly toxic to birds, were sprayed individually or in mixtures as part of routine pest management as many as 19 times during peaks in breeding activity. Spray card tests revealed that OP pesticides were deposited on 86% of the nests in conventional orchards. Daily survival rates (DSRs) for nests of both species were higher in the organic orchards than in the conventional orchards for 1991 and for years combined (p < 0.05). Species diversity was greater in the organic orchards (H= 2.43) than in the conventional orchards (H=1.79). Repeated applications of pesticides within the conventional orchards reduced the reproductive success of doves and robins and may have lowered avian species diversity compared with organic orchards.

  1. Anystis baccarum: An Important Generalist Predatory Mite to be Considered in Apple Orchard Pest Management Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Cuthbertson, Andrew G. S.; Qiu, Bao-Li; Murchie, Archie K.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing concern over the continued use of pesticides is pressurising apple growers to look for alternatives to chemical pest control. The re-discovery, and subsequent conservation, of the beneficial predatory mite, Anystis baccarum (Linnaeus) (Acari: Anystidae), in Bramley apple orchards in Northern Ireland offers a potential alternative control component for incorporation into integrated pest management strategies. Anystis baccarum readily feeds upon economically important invertebrate pest species including European fruit tree red spider mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae) and show a level of compatibility with chemical pesticides. Recent mis-identification by apple growers of this beneficial mite species had resulted in unnecessary pesticide applications being applied within Northern Irish apple orchards. However, dissemination of information to the apple growers and promotion of the benefits this mite offers in apple orchards has helped to conserve its populations. Apple growers, across the United Kingdom, must be encouraged to be aware of A. baccarum, and indeed all predatory fauna, within their orchards and seek to conserve populations. In doing so, it will ensure that the British apple market remains an environmentally sustainable production system. PMID:26462829

  2. Anystis baccarum: An Important Generalist Predatory Mite to be Considered in Apple Orchard Pest Management Strategies.

    PubMed

    Cuthbertson, Andrew G S; Qiu, Bao-Li; Murchie, Archie K

    2014-07-24

    The increasing concern over the continued use of pesticides is pressurising apple growers to look for alternatives to chemical pest control. The re-discovery, and subsequent conservation, of the beneficial predatory mite, Anystis baccarum (Linnaeus) (Acari: Anystidae), in Bramley apple orchards in Northern Ireland offers a potential alternative control component for incorporation into integrated pest management strategies. Anystis baccarum readily feeds upon economically important invertebrate pest species including European fruit tree red spider mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae) and show a level of compatibility with chemical pesticides. Recent mis-identification by apple growers of this beneficial mite species had resulted in unnecessary pesticide applications being applied within Northern Irish apple orchards. However, dissemination of information to the apple growers and promotion of the benefits this mite offers in apple orchards has helped to conserve its populations. Apple growers, across the United Kingdom, must be encouraged to be aware of A. baccarum, and indeed all predatory fauna, within their orchards and seek to conserve populations. In doing so, it will ensure that the British apple market remains an environmentally sustainable production system.

  3. Sources and availability of inoculum and seasonal survival of Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens in apple orchards

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens is the cause of Sphaeropsis rot, a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of apple. Infection of apple fruit by the fungus is believed to occur in the orchard, and symptoms develop during storage or in the market. S. pyriputrescens also is the cause of a twig dieb...

  4. UAV based tree height estimation in apple orchards: potential of multiple approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejia-Aguilar, Abraham; Tomelleri, Enrico; Vilardi, Andrea; Zebisch, Marc

    2015-04-01

    Canopy height, as part of vegetation structure, is ecologically important for ecological studies on biomass, matter flows or meteorology. Measuring the growth of canopy can be undertaken by the use multiple remote sensing techniques. In this study, we firstly use data generated from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) with a simultaneous consumer-grade RGB and modified IR cameras, configured in nadir and multi-angle views to generate 3D models for Digital Surface Model (DSM) and Digital Terrain Models (DTM) in order to estimate tree height in apple orchards in South Tyrol, Italy. We evaluate the use of Ground Control Points (GCP) to minimize the error in scale and orientation. Then, we validate and compare the results of our primary data collection with data generated by geolocated field measurements over several selected tree species. Additionally, we compare DSM and DTM obtained from a recent 1-meter resolution LIDAR campaign (Light Detection and Ranging). The main purpose of this study is to contrast multiple estimation approaches and evaluate their utility for the estimation of canopy height, highlighting the use of UAV systems as a fast, reliable and non-expensive technique especially for small scale applications. The study is conducted in a homogenous tree canopy consisting of apple orchards located in Caldaro -South Tyrol, Italy. We end with proposing a potential low-cost and inexpensive application combining models for DSM from the UAV with DTM obtained from LIDAR for applications that should be updated frequently.

  5. Bird diversity and abundance in organic and conventional apple orchards in northern Japan

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the benefits of agri-environmental schemes, such as organic farming, on biodiversity conservation in annual systems, but their effectiveness in perennial systems is less well understood, particularly in bird communities in temperate regions of Asia. This study examined the effects of organic farming practices on species richness and abundance of breeding birds in apple orchards in northern Japan. Bird counts were conducted in six pairs of organic and conventional orchards during the breeding season in April and May 2015. The total species richness of birds, estimated by sample- and coverage-based rarefaction and extrapolation curves, was greater in organic orchards than in conventional orchards. Among the three dietary guilds (insectivore, granivore, and omnivore), only insectivorous species were more abundant in organic orchards than in conventional ones. This study offers the first quantitative evidence that organic farming can be beneficial for enhancing the diversity of birds, particularly of insectivores, in fruit orchards in Japan. PMID:27677408

  6. The impact of management strategies in apple orchards on the structural and functional diversity of epigeal spiders.

    PubMed

    Mazzia, Christophe; Pasquet, Alain; Caro, Gaël; Thénard, Jodie; Cornic, Jean-François; Hedde, Mickaël; Capowiez, Yvan

    2015-04-01

    Apple orchards are agro-ecosystems managed with high levels of inputs and especially pesticides. Epigeal spider communities were sampled in three seasons using pitfall traps in 19 apple orchards with four different management strategies (abandoned, under organic, Integrated Pest Management or conventional protection) and thus significantly different pesticide usage. The abundance and diversity of the spider communities was the highest in abandoned orchards. Higher diversity and evenness values were the only difference in spider communities from the organic orchards compared to the other commercial orchards. The analysis of five ecological traits (proportion of aeronauts, type of diet, overwintering stages, body size and maternal care), however, clearly showed differences in the spiders from the organic orchards. The spider species in the other commercial orchards were smaller and have higher dispersal abilities. Seven bioindicator species were identified in abandoned orchards, two species in organic ones (only Lycosidae) and one species in conventional orchards (Linyphiidae).

  7. Local Plant Diversity Across Multiple Habitats Supports a Diverse Wild Bee Community in Pennsylvania Apple Orchards.

    PubMed

    Kammerer, Melanie A; Biddinger, David J; Rajotte, Edwin G; Mortensen, David A

    2016-02-01

    Wild pollinators supply essential, historically undervalued pollination services to crops and other flowering plant communities with great potential to ensure agricultural production against the loss of heavily relied upon managed pollinators. Local plant communities provision wild bees with crucial floral and nesting resources, but the distribution of floristic diversity among habitat types in North American agricultural landscapes and its effect on pollinators are diverse and poorly understood, especially in orchard systems. We documented floristic diversity in typical mid-Atlantic commercial apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchards including the forest and orchard-forest edge ("edge") habitats surrounding orchards in a heterogeneous landscape in south-central Pennsylvania, USA. We also assessed the correlation between plant richness and orchard pollinator communities. In this apple production region, edge habitats are the most species rich, supporting 146 out of 202 plant species recorded in our survey. Plant species richness in the orchard and edge habitats were significant predictors of bee species richness and abundance in the orchard, as well as landscape area of the forest and edge habitats. Both the quantity and quality of forest and edges close to orchards play a significant role in provisioning a diverse wild bee community in this agroecosystem.

  8. Spatial distribution of brown marmorated stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) injury at harvest in mid-Atlantic apple orchards

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Brown marmorated stink bug's, Halyomorpha halys (Stal), injury to late-season apple cultivars was measured at harvest in 2011 and 2012 in commercial orchards in four mid-Atlantic states. In each orchard block, a border zone (adjacent to woods), an interior zone (near orchard center), and an interme...

  9. The impact of mancozeb on entomofauna communities in apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Miles, Mark; Kemmitt, Greg; Bakker, Frank; Aldershof, Saskia

    2008-01-01

    Two Large scale field studies have been conducted to the same design in commercial apple orchards in north and south France. Mancozeb (Dithane M-45) was applied at its post-annex I use rate of 1.6 kg a.i./ha on four occasions with a spray interval of 7 days. Reference treatments of a water treated control and toxic reference of dimethoate were also included. Studies were of randomized block design with 4 replicates (4 plots of 6 adjacent rows of 8 trees, on a surface of approximately 16 x 21 m) per treatment. Leaf and canopy dwelling arthropods were sampled before and at regular intervals after application until the end of the season. A diverse range of arthropod taxa was sampled, counted and identified which enabled for an evaluation of key taxa such as predatory mites and other beneficials but also of the whole foliar dwelling arthropod community. This two level analysis allows for a thorough investigation of both direct and indirect effects of the test item on beneficial, pest and non-target arthropods and for a state of the art evaluation at the ecological community Level using ordination techniques. The findings from the two locations were highly consistent in that mancozeb applied four times at 1.6 g a.i./ha with a 7 day spray interval caused significant but short lived reductions in predatory Phytoseiid mites of >50% with rapid recovery approximately one month after application. These transient effects did not impact secondary pests such as rust mites (Eriophyoidea) and broad mites (Tarsonemidae). A wide range of arthropod taxa were investigated (229 taxa in the north and 215 taxa in the south) and consistent adverse treatment related effects were not noted for any taxa other than Phytoseiidae. At a lower rate of mancozeb representing potential off-field deposits at 3 m due to drift effects were virtually absent on predatory mites in and to all other taxa present.

  10. Soil respiration in apple orchards, poplar plantations and adjacent grasslands in Artvin, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Tufekcioglu, Aydin; Ozbayram, Ali Kemal; Kucuk, Mehmet

    2009-09-01

    In this study influence of land-use type on soil respiration was investigated in poplar plantation, apple orchard (apple trees with understory grasses) and adjacent grassland sites in Seyitler Area, Artvin, Turkey. Soil respiration was measured approximately monthly in three sampling plots in each land use type from January 2005 to November 2005 using the soda-lime technique. Mean daily soil respiration ranged from 0.63-3.59 g Cm(-2) d(-1). Mean soil respiration in apple orchard, poplar plantation and grassland sites were 1.98, 1.45 and 1.12 g C m(-2) d(-1), respectively. Mean soil respiration was significantly greater in apple orchard than in poplar plantations and grasslands. Seasonal changes in soil respiration were related to soil moisture and temperature changes. Mean soil respiration rate correlated strongly with subsurface soil (15-35cm) pH (R = -0,73; p < 0.05), sand content (R = 0.96, p < 0.001), soil silt content (R = -0.75; p < 0.05), soil clay content (R = -0.83; p < 0.001) and organic matter content (R = 0.88; p < 0.001). No significant correlations were observed between soil respiration and surface (0-15 cm) soil properties and root biomass. Overall, our results indicate that apple orchards with understory grasses have higher soil biological activity compared to poplar and grassland sites.

  11. Restricted streptomycin use in apple orchards did not adversely alter the soil bacteria communities.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Fiona; Smith, Daniel P; Owens, Sarah M; Duffy, Brion; Frey, Jürg E

    2013-01-01

    Streptomycin has been authorized for restricted use in the prevention of the fire blight disease of pome fruit orchards in the EU and Switzerland. This study addresses the important topic of the influence of the use of streptomycin in agriculture on the total bacteria community within the soil ecosystem. Soil samples were taken from soils under apple trees, prior to streptomycin application and 2 weeks post streptomycin application or water application (untreated control). High throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing was used to generate datasets from the soils under apple trees in apple orchards from three different locations in Switzerland. We hypothesized that the use of streptomycin would reduce the bacterial diversity within the soil samples and enhance a reduction in the variety of taxa present. Bacterial species such as Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, and Stenotrophomonas are intrinsically resistant to many antibiotics and as such it is of interest to investigate if the use of streptomycin provided a selective advantage for these bacteria in the soil ecosystem. The application of streptomycin did not influence the abundance and diversities of major bacteria taxa of the soils or the Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, and Stenotrophomonas species. We also discovered that apple orchards under the same management practices, did not harbor the same bacterial communities. The restricted application of streptomycin in the protection of apple orchards from the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora under the guidelines in Switzerland did not alter either the bacterial diversity or abundance within these soil ecosystems.

  12. Apple orchard pest control strategies affect bird communities in southeastern France.

    PubMed

    Bouvier, Jean-Charles; Ricci, Benoît; Agerberg, Julia; Lavigne, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Birds are regarded as appropriate biological indicators of how changes in agricultural practices affect the environment. They are also involved in the biocontrol of pests. In the present study, we provide an assessment of the impact of pest control strategies on bird communities in apple orchards in southeastern France. We compared the structure (abundance, species richness, and diversity) of breeding bird communities in 15 orchards under conventional or organic pest control over a three-year period (2003-2005). Pest control strategies and their evolution over time were characterized by analyzing farmers' treatment schedules. The landscape surrounding the orchards was characterized using a Geographic Information System. We observed 30 bird species overall. Bird abundance, species richness, and diversity were all affected by pest control strategies, and were highest in organic orchards and lowest in conventional orchards during the three study years. The pest control strategy affected insectivores more than granivores. We further observed a tendency for bird communities in integrated pest management orchards to change over time and become increasingly different from communities in organic orchards, which also corresponded to changes in treatment schedules. These findings indicate that within-orchard bird communities may respond quickly to changes in pesticide use and may, in turn, influence biocontrol of pests by birds.

  13. Evaluation of herbivore-induced plant volatiles for monitoring lacewings in Washington apple orchards

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We evaluated five herbivore-induced plant volatiles plus a male-produced pheromone as attractants for adult lacewings in Washington apple orchards in 2008. We found that several of the attractants or combinations of attractants could be used to monitor three common lacewing species in our trials. ...

  14. Monitoring stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in mid-Atlantic apple and peach orchards.

    PubMed

    Leskey, T C; Hogmire, H W

    2005-02-01

    Pyramid traps coated with "industrial safety yellow" exterior latex gloss enamel paint and baited with Euschistus spp. aggregation pheromone, methyl (2E,4Z)-decadienoate captured more stink bugs than all other baited and unbaited trap types in both apple and peach orchards in 2002 and 2003. Commercial sources of dispensers of methyl (2E,4Z)-decadienoate deployed in association with pyramid traps had a significant impact on trap captures. Captures in pyramid traps were four-fold greater when baited with lures from IPM Technologies, Inc. (Portland, OR) than with lures from Suterra (Bend, OR). Variation in yellow pyramid trap color ("industrial safety yellow" and "standard coroplast yellow") and material (plywood, plastic, and masonite) did not affect trap captures. Brown stink bug was the predominant species captured (58%), followed by dusky stink bug, Euschistus tristigmus (Say) (20%); green stink bug, Acrosternum hilare (Say) (14%); and other stink bugs (Brochymena spp. and unidentified nymphs) (8%). Captures in baited pyramid traps were significantly correlated with tree beating samples in both managed and unmanaged apple orchards and with sweep netting samples in the unmanaged apple orchard. However, problems associated with trapping mechanisms of pyramid trap jar tops and jar traps likely resulted in reduced captures in baited traps. Improved trapping mechanisms must be established to develop an effective monitoring tool for stink bugs in mid-Atlantic orchards.

  15. Monitoring codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with passive interception traps in sex pheromone-treated apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Knight, A L

    2000-12-01

    Male and female codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), were monitored with passive interception traps (PI-traps) in apple orchards treated with sex pheromone dispensers. The proportion of mated females recaptured by PI-traps was significantly higher than the proportion released after the release of both sexes into a codling moth-infested orchard. However, no significant difference occurred between the proportion of mated females recaptured and released when only females were released into uninfested orchards. Replicated nine-tree apple plots situated either on the edge or in the center ofpheromone-treated apple orchards were monitored with PI-traps during first moth flight in 1995 and during both flights in 1996. Moths caught on PI-traps were predominately males. The first male moths were captured 7-10 d before females during the first flight in both years. Initial capture of virgin and mated females on PI-traps coincided in 1995. Mated females were captured 14 d after the first virgin females in 1996. The mean proportion of females that were mated ranged from 32 to 55% during the first flight and 85 to 92% during the second flight. Moth catch and fruit injury were significantly higher in the edge versus the center plots. The numbers of total and female moths caught with PI-traps were significantly correlated with fruit injury for each generation. The percentage of female moths caught on PI-traps that were mated was 32% lower and the mean oocyte load of all females was 42% higher in a pheromone-treated apple orchard than in the untreated crabapple grove monitored during May and June 1997.

  16. Diversity and phenology of the generalist predator community in apple orchards of Central Washington State (insecta, araneae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Predatory insects and spiders were collected from apple orchards in two geographic regions of Central Washington State to assess seasonal phenology and diversity of the generalist predator community. Arthropods were collected from orchard canopy every 3-7 d over two growing seasons (March-October) ...

  17. Decrease in diversity and changes in community composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in roots of apple trees with increasing orchard management intensity across a regional scale.

    PubMed

    van Geel, Maarten; Ceustermans, An; van Hemelrijck, Wendy; Lievens, Bart; Honnay, Olivier

    2015-02-01

    Understanding which factors drive the diversity and community composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is important due to the role of these soil micro-organisms in ecosystem functioning and current environmental threats to AMF biodiversity. Additionally, in agro-ecosystems, this knowledge may help to evaluate their use in making agriculture more sustainable. Here, we used 454-pyrosequencing of small subunit rRNA gene amplicons to quantify AMF diversity and community composition in the roots of cultivated apple trees across 24 orchards in central Belgium. We aimed at identifying the factors (soil chemical variables, organic vs. conventional farming, and geographical location) that affect AMF diversity and community composition. In total, 110 AMF OTUs were detected, of which the majority belonged to the Glomeraceae (73%) and the Claroideoglomeraceae (19%). We show that soil characteristics and farming system, rather than the geographical location of the orchards, shape AMF communities on apple trees. Particularly, plant-available P content of the soil was associated with lower AMF diversity. In orchards with a lower plant-available P content of the soil (P < 100 mg/kg soil), we also found a significantly higher AMF diversity in organically managed orchards as compared to conventionally managed orchards. Finally, the degree of nestedness of the AMF communities was related to plant-available P and N content of the soil, pointing at a progressive loss of AMF taxa with increasing fertilization. Overall, we conclude that a combination of organic orchard management and moderate fertilization may preserve diverse AMF communities on apple trees and that AMF in the roots of apple trees appear not to be dispersal limited at the scale of central Belgium. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Spatial Distribution of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Injury at Harvest in Mid-Atlantic Apple Orchards.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Shimat V; Stallings, Jonathan W; Leskey, Tracy C; Krawczyk, Greg; Polk, Dean; Butler, Bryan; Bergh, J Christopher

    2014-10-01

    Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), injury to late-season apple cultivars was measured at harvest in 2011 and 2012 in commercial orchards in four mid-Atlantic states. In each orchard block, a border zone (adjacent to woods), an interior zone (near orchard center), and an intermediate zone (between border and interior zones) comprised 1-3 tree rows per zone, depending on block size. Just before commercial harvest, 10 fruit were sampled from the upper, middle, and lower third of the canopy from five trees in each zone. After 3-5 wk in cold storage, fruit were examined for external and internal injury, and severity of internal injury (number of injury sites per fruit) from H. halys. A zero-inflated negative binomial model accounted for significant variation among the orchards and showed that apples from the upper canopy of border zone trees had the highest probability of experiencing external and internal injury. A minor interaction was detected among the orchards and zones for injury prevalence and severity, but there was no evidence of an orchard showing less expected injury in the border zone compared with other zones. Adjusting for orchard-to-orchard variation, differences in injury distributions among the zones and canopies were primarily due to injury prevalence rather than expected injury severity. The implications of these results to scouting and managing H. halys in eastern apple orchards are discussed. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  19. Copper and zinc fractionation in apple orchard soil in the village of Bukevje (Croatia) using the revised four-step BCR extraction procedure.

    PubMed

    Medunić, Gordana; Juranović Cindrić, Iva; Lovrenčić Mikelić, Ivanka; Tomašić, Nenad; Balen, Dražen; Oreščanin, Višnja; Kampić, Štefica; Ivković, Ivana

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the fractionation of copper and zinc in a small apple orchard using the revised (four-step) Bureau Communautaire de Référence (BCR) sequential extraction procedure and assess their potential mobility in soil. Soil samples were collected at the depth of 10 cm to 25 cm, sixteen from the orchard and five control samples from a meadow located some 200 m away from the orchard. As the distribution of trace-element concentrations in the control samples was normal, they were used for comparison as background levels. We also determined soil mineralogical composition, carbonate content, soil pH, cation exchange capacity, and soil organic matter. The extraction yields of Cu and Zn from the control soil were lower than from the orchard soil (25% vs. 34% and 47% vs. 52%, respectively), which pointed to natural processes behind metal bonding in the control soil and greater influence of man-made activities in the orchard soil. Compared to control, the orchard soil had significantly higher concentrations of total Cu (P=0.0009), possibly due to the application of Cu-based fungicides. This assumption was further supported by greater speciation variability of Cu than of zinc, which points to different origins of the two, Cu from pesticides and Zn from the parent bedrock. Copper levels significantly better (P=0.01) correlated with the oxidisable fraction of the orchard soil than of control soil. Residual and organically bound copper and zinc constituted the most important fractions in the studied soils. However, the use of Cu-based fungicides in the apple orchard did not impose environmental and health risk from Cu exposure.

  20. Population genetic structure of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from apple orchards in central Chile.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Contreras, Eduardo; Espinoza, Juan L; Lavandero, Blas; Ramírez, Claudio C

    2008-02-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is the main pest of pome fruits worldwide. Despite its economic importance, little is known about the genetic structure and patterns of dispersal at the local and regional scale, which are important aspects for establishing a control strategy for this pest. An analysis of genetic variability using microsatellites was performed for 11 codling moth populations in the two major apple (Malus domestica Borkh) cropping regions in central Chile. Despite the geographical distances between some populations (approximately 185 km), there was low genetic differentiation among populations (F(ST) = 0.002176), with only slight isolation by distance. Only approximately 0.2% of the genetic variability was found among the populations. Geographically structured genetic variation was independent of apple orchard management (production or abandoned). These results suggest a high genetic exchange of codling moth between orchards, possibly mediated by human activities related to fruit production.

  1. Instar-specific phenology of Pandemis pyrusana and Choristoneura rosaceana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Washington apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Jones, Vincent P; Eastburn, Callie C; Wilburn, Tawnee D; Brunner, Jay F

    2005-06-01

    Head capsule width was used to determine the instar specific phenology of the leafroller Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott and the obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), attacking apple in Washington state during 2001-2003. In total, 7012 P. pyrusana and 6122 obliquebanded leafroller larvae were measured from apple orchards from mid-March to mid-September. Degree-day accumulations from each site were paired with the head capsule data to determine the periods during which different instars were present in the field. The implications of this work for pest management and biological control of leafrollers is discussed.

  2. Influence of mowing on dynamics of native phytoseiid mites and Tetranychus urticae in apple orchards in northern Japan.

    PubMed

    Funayama, Ken

    2016-09-01

    To support practical integrated pest management in commercial apple orchards, I investigated the influence of mowing on the occurrence of Tetranychus urticae and native phytoseiid mites in apple orchards sprayed with selective insecticides in Akita Prefecture, northern Japan, from 2013 to 2015. The orchards were not mown in 2013, and unmown and mown plots were compared in 2014 and 2015. There were significantly fewer Typhlodromus vulgaris on apple leaves and Amblyseius tsugawai in the undergrowth in mown plots than in unmown plots in both years. Conversely, there were significantly more T. urticae on leaves and undergrowth in mown plots than in unmown plots. The reason for the decreased populations of these phytoseiid mites may be a lack of food (pollen) needed for reproduction on apple trees and in the undergrowth due to mowing. These results indicate that mowing strongly influences generalist phytoseiid mites in apple orchards. Moreover, mowing might increase the density of T. urticae in apple trees because increased nitrogen in the leaves increases fecundity; in addition, drought might promote the increase of mite numbers. Thus, retention of undergrowth suppresses T. urticae in apple orchards.

  3. [Variation characteristic in soil respiration of apple orchard and its biotic and abiotic influencing factors].

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Guo, Sheng-Li; Liu, Qing-Fang; Zhang, Yan-Jun; Jiang, Ji-Shao; Guo, Hui-Min; Li, Ru-Jian

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the orchard variability of soil respiration and the response of soil respiration to its influencing factors is helpful for a deep understanding about the effects of converting cropland to apple orchard. A field experiment was conducted in the Changwu State Key Agro-Ecological Station. Soil respiration, soil temperature, soil moisture and roots biomasses were periodically measured in a mature apple orchard during 2011 and 2012. Soil respiration decreased as the distance from the trunk increased. The cumulative soil respiration in the 0.5 m-distance from the trunk was 20% and 31% higher than that in the 2 m-distance from the trunk, respectively in 2011 and 2012. The temperature sensitivity of soil respiration (Q10) was relatively lower in the 2 m-distance than that in the 0. 5 m-distance in both years. Soil temperature and soil moisture were slightly higher in the 2 m-distance, but there was no significant difference between the 2 m-distance and the 0. 5 m-distance. Soil respiration and soil temperature showed a significant exponential relationship, but there was no positive correlation between soil moisture and soil respiration. Soil temperature changes can explain seasonal variation of soil respiration well, but it could not explain its spatial variability. Root density was an important factor for the spatial variability of soil respiration and Q15. Variation of soil respiration coefficient was 23% -31%. Therefore, the distance from the trunk should be considered when estimating orchards soil respiration.

  4. Streptomycin use in apple orchards did not increase abundance of mobile resistance genes.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Brion; Holliger, Eduard; Walsh, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    Streptomycin is used as a first-line defense and tetracycline as a second-line defense, in the fight against fire blight disease in apple and pear orchards. We have performed the first study to quantitatively analyze the influence of streptomycin use in agriculture on the abundance of streptomycin and tetracycline resistance genes in apple orchards. Flowers, leaves, and soil were collected from three orchard sites in 2010, 2011, and 2012. Gene abundance distribution was analyzed using two-way anova and principal component analysis to investigate relationships between gene abundance data over time and treatment. The mobile antibiotic resistance genes, strA, strB, tetB, tetM, tetW, and the insertion sequence IS1133, were detected prior to streptomycin treatment in almost all samples, indicating the natural presence of these resistance genes in nature. Statistically significant increases in the resistance gene abundances were occasional, inconsistent, and not reproducible from one year to the next. We conclude that the application of streptomycin in these orchards was not associated with sustained increases in streptomycin or tetracycline resistance gene abundances.

  5. Where does Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) overwinter in adjacent peach, pear and apple orchards?

    PubMed

    Yang, X-F; Fan, F; Wang, C; Wei, G-S

    2016-02-01

    The Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major pest of tree fruits worldwide, and the diapausing larvae overwinter in cryptic habitats. Investigations of overwintering G. molesta were conducted in adjacent peach, pear and apple orchards in Northern China over three consecutive winters to determine the overwintering site and habitat preferences of the moth. Counts of overwintering larvae in the different orchards demonstrated that the late-maturing peach orchard ('Shenzhou honey peach') was the most preferred overwintering habitat with more than 90% of the collected larvae. Larvae were more abundant in host trees, and they very rarely overwintered in the soil. The overwintering site preferences on the host trees were significantly different; over 50% larvae were located in the tree trunks, and followed by main branches. Most of the G. molesta overwintered on the sunny side of the host trees at or below 60 cm from the ground; a few were cocooned on the shaded sides of the trees or greater than 60 cm from the ground. G. molesta began overwintering between August and October, mid- to late September was the peak period for entering winter diapause during 2011-2013 (77.78, 67.59 and 71.15%, respectively). Our findings improve understanding of the orchard habitat and overwintering site preferences of G. molesta and would be useful in the development of efficient forecasting and pest-management strategies for orchards during the winter and early spring.

  6. Rootstock genotype succession influences apple replant disease and root-zone microbial community composition in an orchard soil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apple replant disease (ARD) is a soil-borne disease complex that affects young apple trees in replanted orchards, resulting in stunted growth and reduced yields. New rootstock genotypes with resistance to ARD may help to control this disease. To determine the effects of rootstock genotype succession...

  7. Infection of apple fruit by Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens in the orchard in relation to Sphaeropsis rot in storage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sphaeropsis rot, caused by Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens, is a recently recognized postharvest fruit rot disease of apple in the United States. The objectives of this study were to determine the timing of apple fruit infection in the orchard in relation to development of Sphaeropsis rot in storage and ...

  8. A risk assessment approach to DDE exposure based on the case of the eastern screech-owl (Megascops asio) in apple orchards of southern Quebec,Canada.

    PubMed

    Richards, N L; Mineau, P; Bird, D M

    2005-10-01

    As part of a larger study assessing exposure of the Eastern screech-owl to pesticides in apple orchards from consumption of contaminated small-mammal prey, we evaluated the potential for owls in orchards of southern Quebec to be exposed to persistent contaminants with emphasis on DDE. Levels were highest in short-tailed shrews (0.94 to 26.29 microg/g wet wt). Based on a worst-case scenario, it is possible that consumption of small-mammal prey in orchards of the study area may result in exposure to DDE at a level associated with significant eggshell thinning; however, consumption of other prey, (e.g., robins) may represent a more important threat. Other organochlorines and persistent contaminants such as trace metals and PCBs, reported elsewhere, were found at negligible levels only. Based on an evaluation of the data used, we identify critical information required to enhance the proposed risk assessment.

  9. The use of common elder Sambucus nigra to promote Aphidophagous syrphids in apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Bribosia, E; Bylemans, D; Huysmans, S; Schweitzer, P; Migon, M; van Impe, G

    2005-01-01

    Elder shrubs (Sambucus nigra L.) were planted in an experimental apple orchard as bordering hedgerow with the objective of rearing syrphids (Diptera: Syrphidae) and consequently enhancing the biological control of the rosy apple aphid Dysaphis plantaginea (Passerini). The inoculative introduction of the specific elder aphid Aphis sambuci L. (Homoptera: Aphididae) in late March 2002 and again in 2003 led to the complete hedgerow turning into an early and productive alternative prey reservoir for indigenous syrphids. The species Scaeva pyrastri (L.), S. selenetica (Meigen), Syrphus ribesii (L.), S. vitripennis Meigen, Epistrophe eligans (Harris), E. nitidicollis (Meigen), Platycheirus scutatus (Meigen), Eupeodes corollae (F.), Meligramma triangulifera (Zetterstedt) and Episyrphus balteatus (De Geer) developed on the elder hedgerow during the spring 2002 taking advantage of the aphid infestation. The season 2003 was characterised by a quite different species abundance pattern as, contrary to the previous year when both monovoltine and polyvoltine species were equally represented, the monovoltine syrphids (Epistrophe spp.) represented the dominant group exploiting the elder aphids. A parallel analysis showed that the faeces of the first adult syrphids observed ovipositing on the elder hedgerow in spring contained digested pollen of mainly apple. Our observations indicate the possibility of establishing a local population of monovoltine syrphids in apple orchards by managing an aphid-infested elder hedgerow, without any additional pollen or nectar producing plants.

  10. Windpowered irrigation system for small pecan orchards. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Goulden, D.R.

    1981-06-02

    A solution to the high installation and maintenance costs for small-orchard irrigation lies in the use of the windmill and a gravity-flow distribution system. Applying windpower for pumping and distributing water for irrigation of small pecan orchards is now economically feasible in many areas where pecans are grown. Because of its constant, moderate wind speeds, the central Oklahoma region lends itself well to such a system.

  11. Long-term experiment with orchard floor management systems: influence on apple yield and chemical composition.

    PubMed

    Slatnar, Ana; Licznar-Malanczuk, Maria; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert

    2014-05-07

    The study focuses on the response of apple primary and secondary metabolism and some important quality parameters to three living mulch treatments, classical herbicide fallow, and black polypropylene strip application in two apple cultivars. Primary and secondary metabolites were analyzed after 10 years of ground cover experiments. Soluble solids, firmness, and color measurements indicate differences among orchard floor management treatments. Significantly, lower levels of individual sugars have been measured in fruit of different living mulch treatments compared with fruit harvested from trees subjected to the herbicide strip treatment. Total sugar content was higher in fruit of the herbicide strip treatment in both cultivars analyzed. Significantly higher levels of total organic acids were only detected in 'Pinova' fruit of the Festuca ovina L. treatment. Long-term response of both cultivars to living mulch treatments indicated that apples increase the accumulation of almost all analyzed individual phenolic compounds.

  12. Temporal and spatial variation of canopy spectral characteristics in apple orchard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xiaolei; Li, Minzan; Zheng, Lihua; Zhang, Yao; An, Xiaofei

    2012-11-01

    Plant nutritional status can be evaluated with remote sensing. In order to detect the temporal and spatial variation of spectral characteristics in apple orchard, the experiments were carried out. Firstly the flower/ leaf samples from 15 year-on trees and 5 year-off t rees were collected. The real time reflectance spectra of flowers/leaves from three parts (base, middle, top) of each main branch were measured by using the ASD spectrometer. And then the temporal and spatial variations of spectral characteristics were analyzed. The results showed that leaves from the top of the branch had higher reflectance than the other parts of the branch at the same time. The reflectance spectra of apple trees changed significantly at different stages. Furthermore, the reflectance spectra varied in different parts of the apple trees as well as in different trees. Accordingly the temporal curve and spatial figure were obtained and the growing informat ion can be analyzed from them.

  13. Heavy metals in apple orchard soils and fruits and their health risks in Liaodong Peninsula, Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Quanying; Liu, Jingshuang; Cheng, Shuai

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the heavy metal concentrations in soils and fruits and their possible human health risk in apple orchards of Liaodong Peninsula-a well-known fruit-producing area of China. The soil pollution index (PI) and health risk assessment methods (daily intake of metals (DIM) and health risk index (HRI)) were employed to explore the soil pollution levels and the potential health hazards of heavy metals in fruits. The results showed that all orchard soils were with low PI values (PI ≤1) for Cd and Zn, while 2.78 and 5.56% of the soil samples exceeded the allowable levels of Cr and Cu for orchard soil, respectively. The Cd, Cu, and Zn concentrations for the apple flesh samples were all lower than the national maximum permissible concentrations. While 6.34% of apple peel samples for Cd, 76.5% of apple peel samples and 65.6% of apple flesh samples for Cr, and 28.1% of apple peel samples for Zn exceeded the national maximum permissible levels, respectively. Furthermore, both the DIM and the HRI values for all the apple flesh samples were within the safe limits, indicating that no health risk was found for heavy metals in the fruits of the study area. In order to protect the consumers from fruits that might cause health risks, results from this study suggested that the regular survey of heavy metal pollution levels should be conducted for the orchards of Liaodong Peninsula.

  14. Traps and Baits for Luring Grapholita molesta (Busck) Adults in Mating Disruption-Treated Apple Orchards.

    PubMed

    Padilha, A C; Arioli, C J; Boff, M I C; Rosa, J M; Botton, M

    2017-04-04

    Grapholita molesta (Busck) is one of the main pests in apple crops in Brazil, where it is controlled by mating disruption (MD) with the use of the synthetic sex pheromone. However, sex-pheromone-based monitoring is not effective in MD-treated areas and may result in losses in production. This work has defined a trap model and a bait for luring G. molesta adults in MD apple orchards. The experiments were conducted in commercial apple orchards located in São Joaquim, SC, Brazil. Three trap models-McPhail, Pot, and Ajar-and three baits-grape juice (25%) (GJ), sugarcane molasses (25%) (SM), and a solution containing brown sugar (8.69%) and terpinyl acetate (0.05%) (TAS)-were assessed for luring G. molesta adults in areas subjected to the mating disruption. The assessments were performed weekly by collecting the insects caught in the traps. In addition, time needed to replace traps was also assessed, as well as the selectivity of the trap/bait set. In the laboratory, G. molesta adults were sexed, and the females were dissected to confirm reproductive status. We discuss our results and sugarcane molasses (25%) captured the least number of G. molesta adults regardless of the tested traps. The Ajar/TAS, Pot/TAS, and McPhail/GJ captured the largest number of G. molesta adults. The Ajar/TAS was the most selective and easier to handle. TAS was efficient in catching G. molesta until 14 days after preparation of the solution. Ajar/TAS has potential to be used in the monitoring of G. molesta in apple orchards.

  15. Phytoseiids in Washington commercial apple orchards: biodiversity and factors affecting abundance.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Jeffris, Rebecca A; Beers, Elizabeth H; Crowder, David W

    2015-09-01

    Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt) is an important biological control agent of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) in Washington apple orchards. It was thought to be essentially the sole phytoseiid existing in this system, due in part to its resistance to commonly used orchard pesticides, and organophosphates in particular. To test this assumption, we conducted a survey of 102 commercial apple blocks in Washington to characterize the community of phytoseiid species. Seven phytoseiid species were found in our samples; G. occidentalis and Amblydromella caudiglans (Schuster) were found in the greatest abundance. We hypothesized that the gradual shift away from the use of organophosphates in recent decades may have caused the change in phytoseiid community structure. The survey data and information regarding the management, location, and surrounding habitat of each block were used to determine what factors affect phytoseiid abundances. Galendromus occidentalis abundance was positively affected by the use of conventional (vs. organic) spray programs, and the use of the acaricide bifenazate. Amblydromella caudiglans abundance was negatively affected by bifenazate use and positively affected by herbicide strip weediness; it was also less prevalent in 'Golden Delicious' blocks compared to other cultivars. These results indicate that A. caudiglans reaches higher abundances in orchards that lack certain agricultural disturbances, whereas G. occidentalis can survive in more disturbed environments. Surveys of this nature can provide valuable insight to potential drivers of community structure, allowing for the improvement of integrated pest management programs that incorporate conservation of newly recognized biological control agents such as A. caudiglans.

  16. Population Dynamics and Flight Phenology Model of Codling Moth Differ between Commercial and Abandoned Apple Orchard Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Neelendra K; Rajotte, Edwin G; Naithani, Kusum J; Krawczyk, Greg; Hull, Larry A

    2016-01-01

    Apple orchard management practices may affect development and phenology of arthropod pests, such as the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), which is a serious internal fruit-feeding pest of apples worldwide. Estimating population dynamics and accurately predicting the timing of CM development and phenology events (for instance, adult flight, and egg-hatch) allows growers to understand and control local populations of CM. Studies were conducted to compare the CM flight phenology in commercial and abandoned apple orchard ecosystems using a logistic function model based on degree-days accumulation. The flight models for these orchards were derived from the cumulative percent moth capture using two types of commercially available CM lure baited traps. Models from both types of orchards were also compared to another model known as PETE (prediction extension timing estimator) that was developed in 1970s to predict life cycle events for many fruit pests including CM across different fruit growing regions of the United States. We found that the flight phenology of CM was significantly different in commercial and abandoned orchards. CM male flight patterns for first and second generations as predicted by the constrained and unconstrained PCM (Pennsylvania Codling Moth) models in commercial and abandoned orchards were different than the flight patterns predicted by the currently used CM model (i.e., PETE model). In commercial orchards, during the first and second generations, the PCM unconstrained model predicted delays in moth emergence compared to current model. In addition, the flight patterns of females were different between commercial and abandoned orchards. Such differences in CM flight phenology between commercial and abandoned orchard ecosystems suggest potential impact of orchard environment and crop management practices on CM biology.

  17. Population Dynamics and Flight Phenology Model of Codling Moth Differ between Commercial and Abandoned Apple Orchard Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Neelendra K.; Rajotte, Edwin G.; Naithani, Kusum J.; Krawczyk, Greg; Hull, Larry A.

    2016-01-01

    Apple orchard management practices may affect development and phenology of arthropod pests, such as the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), which is a serious internal fruit-feeding pest of apples worldwide. Estimating population dynamics and accurately predicting the timing of CM development and phenology events (for instance, adult flight, and egg-hatch) allows growers to understand and control local populations of CM. Studies were conducted to compare the CM flight phenology in commercial and abandoned apple orchard ecosystems using a logistic function model based on degree-days accumulation. The flight models for these orchards were derived from the cumulative percent moth capture using two types of commercially available CM lure baited traps. Models from both types of orchards were also compared to another model known as PETE (prediction extension timing estimator) that was developed in 1970s to predict life cycle events for many fruit pests including CM across different fruit growing regions of the United States. We found that the flight phenology of CM was significantly different in commercial and abandoned orchards. CM male flight patterns for first and second generations as predicted by the constrained and unconstrained PCM (Pennsylvania Codling Moth) models in commercial and abandoned orchards were different than the flight patterns predicted by the currently used CM model (i.e., PETE model). In commercial orchards, during the first and second generations, the PCM unconstrained model predicted delays in moth emergence compared to current model. In addition, the flight patterns of females were different between commercial and abandoned orchards. Such differences in CM flight phenology between commercial and abandoned orchard ecosystems suggest potential impact of orchard environment and crop management practices on CM biology. PMID:27713702

  18. [Controlling effects of dual mulching on soil moisture in an apple orchard].

    PubMed

    Tian, Fei; Xie, Yong-Sheng; Suo, Gai-Di; Ding, Ya-Dong

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the controlling effects of dual mulching on soil moisture in an apple orchard on the Weibei rainfed highland, soil moisture in the 0-600 cm soil profile of the apple orchard was measured under four mulching treatments (plastic film plus straw, plastic film and straw mulches, as well as a non-mulching control) , and meanwhile the apple yield and branch growth increment were analyzed statistically. Results showed that the dual mulching treatment had the best effect on soil moisture conservation, and the soil water storage in such a soil profile was 6.7% higher than the control treatment. Long-term dual mulching could effectively alleviate soil desiccation occurring in deep soil layer in the region, and the monthly averaged soil water storage in stable layer (240-600 cm) was 64.22 mm higher than that of the control treatment. Both plastic film plus straw and plastic film mulches were able to reduce the temporal fluctuation of soil moisture in shallow soil (0-60 cm) and enhance the temporal stability of soil moisture in the layer. Compared with the single mulching treatments, the dual mulching treatment could effectively decrease the vertical variation of soil moisture in the profile and improve the stability of the vertical soil moisture distribution. The apple yield under the dual mulching treatment was evidently increased by 48.2%, as compared with the control treatment. All the analyses showed that dual mulching had more advantages in controlling soil moisture and improving apple yield than single mulching.

  19. Semiochemical Strategies for Tortricid Moth Control in Apple Orchards and Vineyards in Italy.

    PubMed

    Ioriatti, Claudio; Lucchi, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    - This review summarizes work done in Italy in taking semiochemical-based management of orchard and vineyard pests from the research and development stage to successful commercial deployment. Mating disruption (MD) of codling moth Cydia pomonella (CM) was originally introduced into the Trentino-South Tyrol areas to address the development of CM resistance to insecticides, particularly insect growth regulators (IGRs), and to mitigate the conflict at the rural/urban interface related to the extensive use of insecticides. Although the mountainous terrain of the area was not optimal for the efficacy of MD, commitment and determination led to the rapid adoption of MD technology throughout the region. Grower cooperatives and their field consultants were strongly influential in convincing growers to accept MD technology. Public research institutions conducted extensive research and education, and provided credible assessments of various MD technologies. By 2016, the deployment of MD in effective area-wide strategies in apple (22,100 ha) and grapes (10,450 ha), has resulted in better control of tortricid moth pests and a substantial decrease in insecticide use. Collaboration between the research community and the pheromone industry has resulted in the development of increasingly effective single-species dispensers, as well as multi-species dispensers for the control of both target and secondary pests. Over the last 20 years, hand-applied reservoir dispensers have shown excellent efficacy in both apple and grapes. Recently, aerosol dispensing systems have been shown to be effective in apple orchards. Further research is needed on the efficacy of aerosols in vineyards before the technology can be widely adopted. The successful implementation of MD in apple and grape production in Trentino-South Tyrol is expediting adoption of the technology in other Italian fruit production regions.

  20. Comparison of mating disruption with pesticides for management of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in North Carolina apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Kovanci, Orkun B; Schal, Coby; Walgenbach, James F; Kennedy, George G

    2005-08-01

    The efficacy of mating disruption by using Isomate-M 100 pheromone dispensers and two formulations of microencapsulated sprayable pheromone for management of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), was compared with conventional insecticides in large plot studies in Henderson County, North Carolina, in 2000 and 2001. In addition, experiments were conducted in small and large plots to test the response of oriental fruit moth males to different application rates of sprayable pheromone. Pheromone trap catches were significantly reduced in mating disruption blocks compared with conventional and abandoned orchards. Pheromone traps placed in the upper canopy captured significantly more moths than traps placed in the lower canopy across all treatments, and lures loaded with 100 microg of pheromone caught more moths than traps with 300 microg, but the difference between doses was statistically significant at only one location in 2001. Isomate-M 100 provided excellent trap shutdown and was significantly more effective than sprayable pheromone formulations. Fruit damage by oriental fruit moth larvae was very low (< or = 1%) in mating disruption blocks and was generally lower than in conventional and nonmanaged blocks. Based on male moth response to pheromone traps in small plots, there was little difference among doses of sprayable pheromone, ranging from 12.4 to 49.1 g (AI)/ha, but efficacy declined at 2.4 g (AI)/ha. With the exception of one orchard, there was no significant difference between 12.4 and 37.1 g (AI)/ha under low and high oriental fruit moth population pressure in large plot studies. Mating disruption proved to be an alternative to organophosphate insecticides for managing oriental fruit moth populations in North Carolina apple orchards.

  1. Comparative Toxicities and Synergism of Apple Orchard Pesticides to Apis mellifera (L.) and Osmia cornifrons (Radoszkowski)

    PubMed Central

    Biddinger, David J.; Robertson, Jacqueline L.; Mullin, Chris; Frazier, James; Ashcraft, Sara A.; Rajotte, Edwin G.; Joshi, Neelendra K.; Vaughn, Mace

    2013-01-01

    The topical toxicities of five commercial grade pesticides commonly sprayed in apple orchards were estimated on adult worker honey bees, Apis mellifera (L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) and Japanese orchard bees, Osmia cornifrons (Radoszkowski) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). The pesticides were acetamiprid (Assail 30SG), λ-cyhalothrin (Warrior II), dimethoate (Dimethoate 4EC), phosmet (Imidan 70W), and imidacloprid (Provado 1.6F). At least 5 doses of each chemical, diluted in distilled water, were applied to freshly-eclosed adult bees. Mortality was assessed after 48 hr. Dose-mortality regressions were analyzed by probit analysis to test the hypotheses of parallelism and equality by likelihood ratio tests. For A. mellifera, the decreasing order of toxicity at LD50 was imidacloprid, λ-cyhalothrin, dimethoate, phosmet, and acetamiprid. For O. cornifrons, the decreasing order of toxicity at LD50 was dimethoate, λ-cyhalothrin, imidacloprid, acetamiprid, and phosmet. Interaction of imidacloprid or acetamiprid with the fungicide fenbuconazole (Indar 2F) was also tested in a 1∶1 proportion for each species. Estimates of response parameters for each mixture component applied to each species were compared with dose-response data for each mixture in statistical tests of the hypothesis of independent joint action. For each mixture, the interaction of fenbuconazole (a material non-toxic to both species) was significant and positive along the entire line for the pesticide. Our results clearly show that responses of A. mellifera cannot be extrapolated to responses of O.cornifrons, and that synergism of neonicotinoid insecticides and fungicides occurs using formulated product in mixtures as they are commonly applied in apple orchards. PMID:24039783

  2. Effectiveness of odor-baited trap trees for plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) monitoring in commercial apple orchards in the Northeast

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst.), is a key pest of pome and stone fruit in eastern and central North America. For effective management of this insect pest in commercial apple orchards in the northeast, one of the greatest challenges has been to determine the need and timing of in...

  3. Response of Tortricid Moths and Non-Target Insects to Pheromone Trap Color in Commercial Apple Orchards

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pheromone traps are a widely used tool for monitoring pest activity in commercial apple orchards. Studies were conducted to evaluate delta-style traps painted with different colors (orange, red, yellow, green, blue, and white) for capture of obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris...

  4. Population dynamics of Cacopsylla melanoneura (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in northeast Italy and its role in the apple proliferation epidemiology in apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi, Rosemarie; Baldessari, Mario; Mazzoni, Valerio; Trona, Federica; Angeli, Gino

    2012-04-01

    In the current study, incidence of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma mali' in an experimental apple orchard in northeast Italy, in addition to abundance and phytoplasma infectivity of Cacopsylla melanoneura (Förster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) was determined and the role of this psyllid as a vector of 'Ca. P. mali' in this region was reviewed. Insect samples collected in the orchard by the beating method indicated high abundance of C. melanoneura (up to 7.92 specimens/branch); however, the psyllid C. picta was not observed. Molecular analyses revealed presence of 'Ca. P. mali' in 6.25% of overwintered psyllids. This infection rate is quite high in comparison to other localities where C. melanoneura is known as the main vector of the phytoplasma. This finding supports the assumption that C. melanoneura also is paramount in the epidemiology of the apple proliferation disease also in northeast Italy. Moreover, we correlated immigration dynamics to the temperatures registered in the apple orchard, and defined an immigration index to predict the progressive arrival of the overwintered adults from winter sites. Psyllids start to reach the apple orchards when either the average of the maximum temperature of the 7 d is above 9.5 degrees C or the immigration index has a positive value. This index will be a useful tool for the growers to prevent apple proliferation phytoplasma spread with well-timed insecticide treatments targeted against C. melanoneura. However, further research is needed to validate or adjust the index to other apple growing regions, which may affect more efficacious management of this disease and psyllid vector.

  5. Effect of the width of the herbicide strip on mite dynamics in apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Hardman, J M; Franklin, J L; Bostanian, N J; Thistlewood, H M A

    2011-03-01

    Herbicide strips are used in apple orchards to promote tree growth and survival, to increase yield and to reduce the risk of rodent damage to tree bark. However, herbicide strips, particularly wider ones, may cause problems including soil erosion, reduced organic matter, leaching of nitrates into ground water and increased incidence of plant diseases and pests, including two-spotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch. In this 2 year study we monitored mite dynamics in apple trees and used sticky bands on tree trunks to determine rates of T. urticae immigration into Nova Spy apple trees in plots with wide (2 m) or narrow (0.5 m) herbicide strips. Use of wider herbicide strips promoted two risk factors that could trigger outbreaks of tetranychid mites. First, concentrations of leaf N in apple trees were higher and those of P and K were lower with the wide strips. Such changes in nutritional quality of leaves would increase the potential for more rapid population growth of T. urticae, and to a lesser extent, the European red mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch). Second, there were higher rates of T. urticae immigration from the ground cover vegetation into the trees. In 2006, and for most of 2007, densities of T. urticae were higher with wide herbicide strips, whereas densities of P. ulmi were not enhanced. However, by late August to early September in 2007, densities of both tetranychids were lower with wide herbicide strips. This is because both risk factors were counterbalanced, and eventually negated, by the enhanced action of phytoseiid predators, mostly Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten. From July through September 2006, ratios of phytoseiids to tetranychids were always several-fold lower with wide herbicide strips but in 2007, from mid-July onwards, predator-prey ratios were usually several-fold higher with wide strips. However, this numerical response of phytoseiids to prey density can only occur where the pesticide program in orchards is not too harsh on phytoseiids

  6. The challenge of accurately documenting bee species richness in agroecosystems: bee diversity in eastern apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Russo, Laura; Park, Mia; Gibbs, Jason; Danforth, Bryan

    2015-09-01

    Bees are important pollinators of agricultural crops, and bee diversity has been shown to be closely associated with pollination, a valuable ecosystem service. Higher functional diversity and species richness of bees have been shown to lead to higher crop yield. Bees simultaneously represent a mega-diverse taxon that is extremely challenging to sample thoroughly and an important group to understand because of pollination services. We sampled bees visiting apple blossoms in 28 orchards over 6 years. We used species rarefaction analyses to test for the completeness of sampling and the relationship between species richness and sampling effort, orchard size, and percent agriculture in the surrounding landscape. We performed more than 190 h of sampling, collecting 11,219 specimens representing 104 species. Despite the sampling intensity, we captured <75% of expected species richness at more than half of the sites. For most of these, the variation in bee community composition between years was greater than among sites. Species richness was influenced by percent agriculture, orchard size, and sampling effort, but we found no factors explaining the difference between observed and expected species richness. Competition between honeybees and wild bees did not appear to be a factor, as we found no correlation between honeybee and wild bee abundance. Our study shows that the pollinator fauna of agroecosystems can be diverse and challenging to thoroughly sample. We demonstrate that there is high temporal variation in community composition and that sites vary widely in the sampling effort required to fully describe their diversity. In order to maximize pollination services provided by wild bee species, we must first accurately estimate species richness. For researchers interested in providing this estimate, we recommend multiyear studies and rarefaction analyses to quantify the gap between observed and expected species richness.

  7. The challenge of accurately documenting bee species richness in agroecosystems: bee diversity in eastern apple orchards

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Laura; Park, Mia; Gibbs, Jason; Danforth, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Bees are important pollinators of agricultural crops, and bee diversity has been shown to be closely associated with pollination, a valuable ecosystem service. Higher functional diversity and species richness of bees have been shown to lead to higher crop yield. Bees simultaneously represent a mega-diverse taxon that is extremely challenging to sample thoroughly and an important group to understand because of pollination services. We sampled bees visiting apple blossoms in 28 orchards over 6 years. We used species rarefaction analyses to test for the completeness of sampling and the relationship between species richness and sampling effort, orchard size, and percent agriculture in the surrounding landscape. We performed more than 190 h of sampling, collecting 11,219 specimens representing 104 species. Despite the sampling intensity, we captured <75% of expected species richness at more than half of the sites. For most of these, the variation in bee community composition between years was greater than among sites. Species richness was influenced by percent agriculture, orchard size, and sampling effort, but we found no factors explaining the difference between observed and expected species richness. Competition between honeybees and wild bees did not appear to be a factor, as we found no correlation between honeybee and wild bee abundance. Our study shows that the pollinator fauna of agroecosystems can be diverse and challenging to thoroughly sample. We demonstrate that there is high temporal variation in community composition and that sites vary widely in the sampling effort required to fully describe their diversity. In order to maximize pollination services provided by wild bee species, we must first accurately estimate species richness. For researchers interested in providing this estimate, we recommend multiyear studies and rarefaction analyses to quantify the gap between observed and expected species richness. PMID:26380684

  8. Water content determination of soil surface in an intensive apple orchard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riczu, Péter; Nagy, Gábor; Tamás, János

    2015-04-01

    Currently in Hungary, less than 100,000 hectares of orchards can be found, from which cultivation of apple is one of the most dominant ones. Production of marketable horticulture products can be difficult without employing advanced and high quality horticulture practices, which, in turn, depends on appropriate management and irrigation systems, basically. The got out water amount depend on climatic, edafic factors and the water demand of plants as well. The soil water content can be determined by traditional and modern methods. In order to define soil moisture content, gravimetry measurement is one of the most accurate methods, but it is time consuming and sometimes soil sampling and given results are in different times. Today, IT provides the farmers such tools, like global positioning system (GPS), geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS). These tools develop in a great integration rapidly. RS methods are ideal to survey larger area quick and accurate. Laser scanning is a novel technique which analyses a real-world or object environment to collect structural and spectral data. In order to obtain soil moisture information, the Leica ScanStation C10 terrestrial 3D laser scanner was used on an intensive apple orchard on the Study and Regional Research Farm of the University of Debrecen, near Pallag. Previously, soil samples from the study area with different moisture content were used as reference points. Based on the return intensity values of the laser scanner can be distinguished the different moisture content areas of soil surface. Nevertheless, the error of laser distance echo were examined and statistically evaluated. This research was realized in the frames of TÁMOP 4.2.4. A/2-11-1-2012-0001 "National Excellence Program - Elaborating and operating an inland student and researcher personal support system". The project was subsidized by the European Union and co-financed by the European Social Fund.

  9. [Effects of different patterns surface mulching on soil properties and fruit trees growth and yield in an apple orchard].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Xie, Yong-Sheng; Hao, Ming-De; She, Xiao-Yan

    2010-02-01

    Taking a nine-year-old Fuji apple orchard in Loess Plateau as test object, this paper studied the effects of different patterns surface mulching (clean tillage, grass cover, plastic film mulch, straw mulch, and gravel mulch) on the soil properties and fruit trees growth and yield in this orchard. Grass cover induced the lowest differentiation of soil moisture profile, while gravel mulch induced the highest one. In treatment gravel mulch, the soil moisture content in apple trees root zone was the highest, which meant that there was more water available to apple trees. Surface mulching had significant effects on soil temperature, and generally resulted in a decrease in the maximum soil temperature. The exception was treatment plastic film mulch, in which, the soil temperature in summer exceeded the maximum allowable temperature for continuous root growth and physiological function. With the exception of treatment plastic film mulch, surface mulching increased the soil CO2 flux, which was the highest in treatment grass cover. Surface mulching also affected the proportion of various branch types and fruit yield. The proportion of medium-sized branches and fruit yield were the highest in treatment gravel mulch, while the fruit yield was the lowest in treatment grass cover. Factor analysis indicated that among the test surface mulching patterns, gravel mulch was most suitable for the apple orchards in gully region of Loess Plateau.

  10. [Moisture and nutrient characteristics of deep layer soil in apple orchards on the Luochuan highland of Shaanxi, Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Cao, Yu; Jumahan, Kasimu; Fan, Peng; Zhang, Li-Na; Li, Jun

    2013-02-01

    Taking the 11-, 15-, 20-, and 43 years old apple orchards on the Luochuan highland of Shaanxi, Northwest China as test objects, this paper measured the moisture content in 0-1500 cm soil layer and the organic matter and total and available nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium contents in 0-300 cm soil layer, with the soil moisture and nutrient regimes as well as their variation characteristics with apple tree age and soil depth analyzed. The moisture content in 0-1500 cm soil layer in 11-, 15-, 20-, and 43 years old apple orchards was averagely 18.6%, 13.7%, 17.0%, 11.5%, and 13.1%, respectively, and decreased with apple tree age. Soil desiccation did not occurr in the orchards with supplementary irrigation, but a slight or medium soil desiccation occurred in the rainfed orchards. Nevertheless, the moisture content in 0-300 cm soil layer in the rainfed orchards was still higher than that in wheat field. The contents of organic matter and total and available nitrogen in 0-300 cm soil layer in the five apple orchards were less than 10 g.kg-1, 0.75 g. kg-1, and 50 mg.kg-1, respectively, all at shortage level, whilst the content of available phosphorous in 0-300 cm soil layer was 3.30-6.42 mg.kg-1, being moderate in upper soil layer and scarce in deep soil layer. The content of available potassium in 0-300 cm soil layer was 78.09-98.31 mg.kg-1, presenting abundant. The contents of nutrients were all higher in 0-100 cm soil layer than in 100-300 cm soil layer. The soil organic matter and total and available nitrogen contents and the soil nutrient index (SNI) all presented a trend of decrease after an initial increase with the increasing apple tree age. The contents of the test nutrients except total potassium in 0-100 cm soil layer all decreased rapidly with soil depth, while those in deeper soil layers kept relatively stable. There existed significant correlations between the contents of soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available nitrogen, total phosphorous

  11. Method to acquire regions of fruit, branch and leaf from image of red apple in orchard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Jidong; Xu, Liming

    2017-07-01

    This work proposed a method to acquire regions of fruit, branch and leaf from red apple image in orchard. To acquire fruit image, R-G image was extracted from the RGB image for corrosive working, hole filling, subregion removal, expansive working and opening operation in order. Finally, fruit image was acquired by threshold segmentation. To acquire leaf image, fruit image was subtracted from RGB image before extracting 2G-R-B image. Then, leaf image was acquired by subregion removal and threshold segmentation. To acquire branch image, dynamic threshold segmentation was conducted in the R-G image. Then, the segmented image was added to fruit image to acquire adding fruit image which was subtracted from RGB image with leaf image. Finally, branch image was acquired by opening operation, subregion removal and threshold segmentation after extracting the R-G image from the subtracting image. Compared with previous methods, more complete image of fruit, leaf and branch can be acquired from red apple image with this method.

  12. Effectiveness of odor-baited trap trees for plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) monitoring in commercial apple orchards in the northeast.

    PubMed

    Piñero, Jaime C; Agnello, Arthur M; Tuttle, Arthur; Leskey, Tracy C; Faubert, Heather; Koehler, Glen; Los, Lorraine; Morin, Glenn; Leahy, Kathleen; Cooley, Daniel R; Prokopy, Ronald J

    2011-10-01

    The plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), is a key pest of pome and stone fruit in eastern and central North America. For effective management of this insect pest in commercial apple (Malus spp.) orchards in the northeastern United States and Canada, one of the greatest challenges has been to determine the need for and timing of insecticide applications that will protect apple fruit from injury by adults. In a 2004-2005 study, we assessed the efficacy and economic viability of a reduced-risk integrated pest management strategy involving an odor-baited trap tree approach to determine need for and timing of insecticide use against plum curculio based on appearance of fresh egg-laying scars. Evaluations took place in commercial apple orchards in seven northeastern U.S. states. More specifically, we compared the trap-tree approach with three calendar-driven whole-block sprays and with heat-unit accumulation models that predict how long insecticide should be applied to orchard trees to prevent injury by plum curculio late in the season. Trap tree plots received a whole-plot insecticide spray by the time of petal fall, and succeeding sprays (if needed) were applied to peripheral-row trees only, depending on a threshold of one fresh plum curculio egg-laying scar out of 25 fruit sampled from a single trap tree. In both years, level of plum curculio injury to fruit sampled from perimeter-row, the most interior-row trees and whole-plot injury in trap tree plots did not differ significantly from that recorded in plots subject to conventional management or in plots managed using the heat-unit accumulation approach. The amount of insecticide used in trap tree plots was reduced at least by 43% compared with plots managed with the conventional approach. Advantages and potential pitfalls of the bio-based trap tree approach to plum curculio monitoring in apple orchards are discussed.

  13. [Vertical temperature distribution and its forecast for two tree structures of apple orchard during the blooming period in the Loess Plateau].

    PubMed

    Qu, Zhen-jiang; Shang, Xiao-ning; Wang, Jing-hong; Liang, Yi; Gao, Feng

    2015-11-01

    Temperature is the most sensitive environment factor for the blooming period of apple. Temperatures at different levels were measured by automatic micro-climatic gradient system in the blooming periods from 2011 to 2014, in two Fuji apple orchards with two different tree ages and structures [small canopy open center shape (SMCOCS) and freedom spindle shape (FSS)], respectively, which were typical in the Loess Plateau. Variations of the temperature gradient in both canopy and tree body were analyzed in sunny, overcast, cloudy, and rainy weather conditions, and a predicting model was established that could predict the temperature of the canopy (TL) according to the temperature observed in nearby meteorological station (TM). The results showed that the vertical distribution of canopy temperature and its difference to the outside of orchard was mainly due to the tree structure, rather than the weather condition. The average temperature and daily minimum temperature increased while the daily maximum temperature and the diurnal temperature range decreased from the bottom to the upper of the canopy. For SMCOCS, the diurnal temperature range reached its peak under the canopy in the clear days, and the diurnal temperature range was less than that for FSS in the middle and upper canopy in cloudy or overcast conditions. The daily variation of temperature difference between inside and outside the orchard behaved as a single peak-valley-peak for FSS but as a single peak for SMCOCS. The minimum temperature outside the orchard was closer to that in the middle of canopy, but higher than that in the bottom of the canopy. For SMCOCS, the minimum temperature in the bottom of its canopy was rather lower than that in the orchard outside, especially in cloudy or overcast day, while in the middle or upper canopy, the minimum temperature difference with the orchard outside was smaller than that for the FSS. The linear model was found to be able to predict the TL with absolute errors below

  14. Small bowel obstruction caused by dried apple

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, Sally; Hong, Khiem

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Small bowel obstruction in a virgin abdomen is an uncommon surgical condition. While malignancy, inflammatory bowel disease and foreign body are the main reported causes, undigested food bezoar causing bowel obstruction is a rare entity. We report a case of small bowel obstruction secondary to dried preserved apple having re-expanded within the gastrointestinal tract. Presentation of case A 69 year old male presented with severe abdominal distension, generalized abdominal tenderness and obstipation for 1 week. Small bowel obstruction (SBO) was confirmed on plain abdominal X-ray and CT imaging. An emergency explorative laparatomy identified a sausage-shaped intra-luminal foreign body obstructing the distal ileum. An enterotomy was performed which revealed a rehydrated, donut-shaped piece of dried apple. Discussion Swallowed items that pass through the pylorus rarely cause obstruction as they are usually small enough to pass through the rest of the bowel without difficulty. We postulate that in our patient that the dried apple was originally small enough to pass through the pylorus. However during small bowel, its’ highly absorbable nature resulted in an increase in size that prevented its’ passage through the ileocecal valve. A simple in-vitro experiment discovered that dried apple has a potential to reabsorb fluid and expand up to 35% of its initial size within 72 h. Conclusion This report illustrates the potential for dried food substances to cause intra-luminal SBO after significant expansion with rehydration. PMID:25841159

  15. Distribution of soil arsenic species, lead and arsenic bound to humic acid molar mass fractions in a contaminated apple orchard.

    PubMed

    Newton, Kimberly; Amarasiriwardena, Dulasiri; Xing, Baoshan

    2006-09-01

    Excessive application of lead arsenate pesticides in apple orchards during the early 1900s has led to the accumulation of lead and arsenic in these soils. Lead and arsenic bound to soil humic acids (HA) and soil arsenic species in a western Massachusetts apple orchard was investigated. The metal-humate binding profiles of Pb and As were analyzed with size exclusion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SEC-ICP-MS). It was observed that both Pb and As bind "tightly" to soil HA molar mass fractions. The surface soils of the apple orchard contained a ratio of about 14:1 of water soluble As (V) to As (III), while mono-methyl (MMA) and di-methyl arsenic (DMA) were not detectable. The control soil contained comparatively very low levels of As (III) and As (V). The analysis of soil core samples demonstrated that As (III) and As (V) species are confined to the top 20 cm of the soil.

  16. Infection courts and timing of infection of apple fruit by Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis in the orchard in relation to speck rot during storage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis is the cause of speck rot, a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of apple. The pathogen is believed to incite infections in the field, and disease symptoms become evident only during storage. To determine the timing of apple fruit infection in the orchard i...

  17. Impact of Agroecological Infrastructures on the Dynamics of Dysaphis plantaginea (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Its Natural Enemies in Apple Orchards in Northwestern France.

    PubMed

    Albert, Laurence; Franck, Pierre; Gilles, Yann; Plantegenest, Manuel

    2017-06-01

    Apple orchard production is facing new environmental and societal challenges, resulting, in particular, in strong pressure to reduce pesticide use. Cider-apple production, for which the perfect visual aspect of fruits is not a marketability imperative, offers good opportunities to study production systems that are developing new agronomic strategies, which could be subsequently extended to all apple-production types. Agroecological infrastructures play an important role in providing shelter, food resources, or reproduction habitats to many arthropods. Consequently, setting-up agroecological infrastructures in the vicinity of or within orchards could increase natural enemy presence and thus improve the biological control of pests. In this study, we focused on Dysaphis plantaginea (Passerini), one of the major pests in apple orchards in Europe, which causes important economic production losses. During two years (2014 and 2015), we monitored the population dynamics of D. plantaginea, its natural enemies, and mutualistic ants in commercial production cider-apple orchards. The influences of the cider-apple cultivar, insecticide use, and distance to agroecological infrastructures (hedgerows and flower strips) were assessed. Our results suggest that flower strips favor an increase in natural enemy abundance in the vicinity of the orchards and could thus play an important role in the production system by improving the biological control of D. plantaginea. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Getting More Power from Your Flowers: Multi-Functional Flower Strips Enhance Pollinators and Pest Control Agents in Apple Orchards.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Alistair John; Wilby, Andrew; Sutton, Peter; Wäckers, Felix

    2017-09-20

    Flower strips are commonly recommended to boost biodiversity and multiple ecosystem services (e.g., pollination and pest control) on farmland. However, significant knowledge gaps remain regards the extent to which they deliver on these aims. Here, we tested the efficacy of flower strips that targeted different subsets of beneficial arthropods (pollinators and natural enemies) and their ecosystem services in cider apple orchards. Treatments included mixes that specifically targeted: (1) pollinators ('concealed-nectar plants'); (2) natural enemies ('open-nectar plants'); or (3) both groups concurrently (i.e., 'multi-functional' mix). Flower strips were established in alleyways of four orchards and compared to control alleyways (no flowers). Pollinator (e.g., bees) and natural enemy (e.g., parasitoid wasps, predatory flies and beetles) visitation to flower strips, alongside measures of pest control (aphid colony densities, sentinel prey predation), and fruit production, were monitored in orchards over two consecutive growing seasons. Targeted flower strips attracted either pollinators or natural enemies, whereas mixed flower strips attracted both groups in similar abundance to targeted mixes. Natural enemy densities on apple trees were higher in plots containing open-nectar plants compared to other treatments, but effects were stronger for non-aphidophagous taxa. Predation of sentinel prey was enhanced in all flowering plots compared to controls but pest aphid densities and fruit yield were unaffected by flower strips. We conclude that 'multi-functional' flower strips that contain flowering plant species with opposing floral traits can provide nectar and pollen for both pollinators and natural enemies, but further work is required to understand their potential for improving pest control services and yield in cider apple orchards.

  19. Metagenomic Analysis of Apple Orchard Soil Reveals Antibiotic Resistance Genes Encoding Predicted Bifunctional Proteins▿

    PubMed Central

    Donato, Justin J.; Moe, Luke A.; Converse, Brandon J.; Smart, Keith D.; Berklein, Flora C.; McManus, Patricia S.; Handelsman, Jo

    2010-01-01

    To gain insight into the diversity and origins of antibiotic resistance genes, we identified resistance genes in the soil in an apple orchard using functional metagenomics, which involves inserting large fragments of foreign DNA into Escherichia coli and assaying the resulting clones for expressed functions. Among 13 antibiotic-resistant clones, we found two genes that encode bifunctional proteins. One predicted bifunctional protein confers resistance to ceftazidime and contains a natural fusion between a predicted transcriptional regulator and a β-lactamase. Sequence analysis of the entire metagenomic clone encoding the predicted bifunctional β-lactamase revealed a gene potentially involved in chloramphenicol resistance as well as a predicted transposase. A second clone that encodes a predicted bifunctional protein confers resistance to kanamycin and contains an aminoglycoside acetyltransferase domain fused to a second acetyltransferase domain that, based on nucleotide sequence, was predicted not to be involved in antibiotic resistance. This is the first report of a transcriptional regulator fused to a β-lactamase and of an aminoglycoside acetyltransferase fused to an acetyltransferase not involved in antibiotic resistance. PMID:20453147

  20. Application of Bioorganic Fertilizer Significantly Increased Apple Yields and Shaped Bacterial Community Structure in Orchard Soil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Li, Jing; Yang, Fang; E, Yaoyao; Raza, Waseem; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2017-02-01

    Application of bioorganic fertilizers has been reported to improve crop yields and change soil bacterial community structure; however, little work has been done in apple orchard soils where the biological properties of the soils are being degraded due to long-term application of chemical fertilizers. In this study, we used Illumina-based sequencing approach to characterize the bacterial community in the 0-60-cm soil profile under different fertilizer regimes in the Loess Plateau. The experiment includes three treatments: (1) control without fertilization (CK); (2) application of chemical fertilizer (CF); and (3) application of bioorganic fertilizer and organic-inorganic mixed fertilizer (BOF). The results showed that the treatment BOF increased the apple yields by 114 and 67 % compared to the CK and CF treatments, respectively. The treatment BOF also increased the soil organic matter (SOM) by 22 and 16 % compared to the CK and CF treatments, respectively. The Illumina-based sequencing showed that Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria were the predominant phyla and Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were the most abundant classes in the soil profile. The bacterial richness for ACE was increased after the addition of BOF. Compared to CK and CF treatments, BOF-treated soil revealed higher abundance of Proteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, Rhizobiales, and Xanthomonadales while Acidobacteria, Gp7, Gp17, and Sphaerobacter were found in lower abundance throughout the soil profile. Bacterial community structure varied with soil depth under different fertilizer treatments, e.g., the bacterial richness, diversity, and the relative abundance of Verruccomicrobia, Candidatus Brocadiales, and Skermanella were decreased with the soil depth in all three treatments. Permutational multivariate analysis showed that the fertilizer regime was the major factor than soil depth in the variations of the bacterial community composition. Two groups, Lysobacter

  1. Characterization of Osmotolerant Yeasts and Yeast-Like Molds from Apple Orchards and Apple Juice Processing Plants in China and Investigation of Their Spoilage Potential.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huxuan; Hu, Zhongqiu; Long, Fangyu; Niu, Chen; Yuan, Yahong; Yue, Tianli

    2015-08-01

    Yeasts and yeast-like fungal isolates were recovered from apple orchards and apple juice processing plants located in the Shaanxi province of China. The strains were evaluated for osmotolerance by growing them in 50% (w/v) glucose. Of the strains tested, 66 were positive for osmotolerance and were subsequently identified by 26S or 5.8S-ITS ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing. Physiological tests and RAPD-PCR analysis were performed to reveal the polymorphism of isolates belonging to the same species. Further, the spoilage potential of the 66 isolates was determining by evaluating their growth in 50% to 70% (w/v) glucose and measuring gas generation in 50% (w/v) glucose. Thirteen osmotolerant isolates representing 9 species were obtained from 10 apple orchards and 53 target isolates representing 19 species were recovered from 2 apple juice processing plants. In total, members of 14 genera and 23 species of osmotolerant isolates including yeast-like molds were recovered from all sources. The commonly recovered osmotolerant isolates belonged to Kluyveromyces marxianus, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Candida tropicalis, and Pichia kudriavzevii. The polymorphism of isolates belonging to the same species was limited to 1 to 3 biotypes. The majority of species were capable of growing within a range of glucose concentration, similar to sugar concentrations found in apple juice products with a lag phase from 96 to 192 h. Overall, Z. rouxii was particularly the most tolerant to high glucose concentration with the shortest lag phase of 48 h in 70% (w/v) glucose and the fastest gas generation rate in 50% (w/v) glucose.

  2. Residues of Pesticides in honeybee (Apis mellifera carnica) bee bread and in pollen loads from treated apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Smodis Skerl, Maja Ivana; Velikonja Bolta, Spela; Basa Cesnik, Helena; Gregorc, Ales

    2009-09-01

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera carnica) colonies were placed in two apple orchards treated with the insecticides diazinon and thiacloprid and the fungicide difenoconazole in accordance with a Protection Treatment Plan in the spring of 2007. Pollen and bee bread were collected from combs inside the hives. The residue of diazinon in pollen loads 10 days after orchard treatment was 0.09 mg/kg, and the same amount of residue was found in bee bread 16 days after treatment. In pollen loads 6 days after application 0.03 mg/kg of thiacloprid residues and 0.01 mg/kg of difenoconazole were found on the first day after application. Possible sub-lethal effects on individual honey bees and brood are discussed.

  3. A simplified extraction schema to for the analytical characterization of apple orchard soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sager, Manfred

    2014-05-01

    In agriculture, soil analysis is mainly done to monitor available nutrients as well contaminants, in order to find the optimum fertilization resp. remediation strategy. Traditionally, available nutrients in soils have been obtained from a series of different extractions, some just for one single parameter. In order to simplify the entire procedures, multi-element techniques, like ICP-OES and ICP-MS, have been applied to a sequence of extracts obtained with 0,16M acetic acid and 0,1M oxalate buffer pH 3, which are more suitable for the plasma than traditional salt extractant solutions. Dilute acetic acid should characterize exchangeables plus carbonates, and oxalate buffer the pedogenic oxides. Aqua regia extractions in glass have been replaced by pressure digestion with KClO3 in dilute nitric acid, which yields results equivalent to aqua regia, and additionally permits the determination of total sulfur, as well as acid-leachable boron and silicon. Total digestion was done in PTFE beakers by fuming with HNO3/HClO4, subsequently with HF, and final uptake in 1+1 HCl. The results of total digestion could be verified by XRF analysis of the solid, Ti recovery was the most critical item. The method was applied to 34 soils from apple orchards of different soil types and climatic zones. P and K obtained from standard acetate-lactate extract as well as B obtained from the Baron extract correlated with the results from the acetic acid extract better than 0,9. Just Mg from the CaCl2 extract (Schachtschabel) was independent from all other Mg fractions. The results for Ca, Cu, Mg, Mn, Sr, Pb and Zn obtained from KClO3 digest and from totals, were strongly correlated. The Rare Earth elements formed a strongly intercorrelated group as well after total digestion as in the oxalate leach. Factor analysis was utilized to prove if the obtained fractions part into groups in a geochemically feasible way. The fraction mobilized by dilute acetic acid contained Ca-Mg-carbonates as well as

  4. Susceptibility of Bonagota salubricola (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to Insecticides in Brazilian Apple Orchards: Implications for Resistance Management.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Daniel; Botton, Marcos; Andreazza, Felipe; Arnaldo Batista Neto E Silva, Oscar; João Arioli, Cristiano; Omoto, Celso

    2016-08-01

    The Bonagota salubricola (Meyrick) is a major pest in apple orchards in Brazil, and chemical control has been the primary tool for insect management. To support the development of an insect resistance management (IRM) program, baseline studies of the susceptibility of a reference (laboratory) B. salubricola population were conducted; seven wild B. salubricola populations were monitored for susceptibility to insecticide; and the toxicity of some new chemicals to third-instar larvae and adults was evaluated by a leaf dip and ingestion bioassay, respectively. Neonates from the susceptible (laboratory) population exposed to insecticide showed an LC50 ranging from 0.34 (spinetoram) to 30.19 (novaluron) µg of a.i. ml(-1) (88.8-fold variation), so the diagnostic concentrations for an IRM program in Brazil based on the LC99 were as follows: 19.0 µg of a.i./ml chlorantraniliprole, 510.0 novaluron, 72.0 phosmet, 4.1 spinetoram, 12.8 spinosad, and 110.0 tebufenozide. Based on the LC99, significant differences were not observed in the susceptibility of the field and laboratory populations to chlorantraniliprole, phosmet, spinetoram, spinosad, and tebufenozide insecticides, but there were significant differences in the survival rates of the two populations to novaluron insecticide (3.3%). All insecticides at the diagnostic concentrations showed high toxicity to third-instar larvae (mortality rates between 73 to 97%). Phosmet, spinetoram, and spinosad insecticides were toxic to B. salubricola adults (mortality >85%), while chlorantraniliprole, novaluron, and tebufenozide insecticides caused mortality below 5%. The evaluated insecticides showed high toxicity to different developmental stages of B. salubricola, so the diagnostic concentrations may be used in IRM programs in Brazil. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. A monitoring study to assess the acute mortality effects of indoxacarb on honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in flowering apple orchards.

    PubMed

    van der Steen, Jozef J M; Dinter, Axel

    2007-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of the indoxacarb 300 g kg(-1) WG, Steward 30WDG, on the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) in apple orchards, a monitoring study was conducted in Dutch apple orchards in April/May 2004. Before apple flowering began, two honey bee colonies were placed in each orchard to investigate honey bee mortality. Each hive was provided with a Münster dead bee trap to collect dead honey bees. The numbers of dead bees found in these Münster dead traps were counted every 3-4 days for about 2 weeks before and after the period of the insecticide treatment. In nine flowering orchards no indoxacarb was applied during the flowering period, which served as control sites. In 30 flowering orchards indoxacarb was sprayed by the fruit growers according to local practice at 170-260 g formulated product ha(-1) (51-78 g AI ha(-1)). In the control orchards the average mortality was 8 honey bees colony(-1) day(-1). The average daily honey bee mortality before and after indoxacarb application was 8 and 10 honey bees colony(-1) day(-1) respectively. At one test site, indoxacarb was mixed with other plant protection products plus plant nutrients, and in this orchard a slight but biologically non-significant increase in acute honey bee mortality was recorded. It was concluded that the application of indoxacarb caused no effects on honey bee mortality, and that the number of dead honey bees counted in the Münster traps in the orchard treated with indoxacarb was comparable with those determined in control orchards.

  6. Long-Term Application of Bioorganic Fertilizers Improved Soil Biochemical Properties and Microbial Communities of an Apple Orchard Soil

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Yang, Fang; E, Yaoyao; Yuan, Jun; Raza, Waseem; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    Soil biochemical properties and microbial communities are usually considered as important indicators of soil health because of their association with plant nutrition. In this study, we investigated the impact of long-term application of bioorganic fertilizer (BOF) on soil biochemical properties and microbial communities in the apple orchard soil of the Loess Plateau. The experiment included three treatments: (1) control without fertilization (CK); (2) chemical fertilizer application (CF); and (3) bioorganic fertilizer application (BOF). The high throughput sequencing was used to examine the bacterial and fungal communities in apple orchard soil. The results showed that the BOF treatment significantly increased the apple yield during the experimental time (2009–2015). The application of BOF significantly increased the activities of catalase and invertase compared to those in CK and CF treatments. The high throughput sequencing data showed that the application of BOF changed the microbial community composition of all soil depths considered (0–20 cm, 20–40 cm, and 40–60 cm), e.g., the relative abundance of bio-control bacteria (Xanthomonadales, Lysobacter, Pseudomonas, and Bacillus), Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Ohtaekwangia, Ilyonectria, and Lecanicillium was increased while that of Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gp4, Gp6 and Sphaerobacter was decreased. The increase in apple yield after the application of BOF might be due to increase in organic matter, total nitrogen and catalase and invertase activities of soil and change in the bacterial community composition by enriching Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Lysobacter, and Ohtaekwangia. These results further enhance the understanding on how BOFs alter soil microbial community composition to stimulate soil productivity. PMID:27965631

  7. Long-Term Application of Bioorganic Fertilizers Improved Soil Biochemical Properties and Microbial Communities of an Apple Orchard Soil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Yang, Fang; E, Yaoyao; Yuan, Jun; Raza, Waseem; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    Soil biochemical properties and microbial communities are usually considered as important indicators of soil health because of their association with plant nutrition. In this study, we investigated the impact of long-term application of bioorganic fertilizer (BOF) on soil biochemical properties and microbial communities in the apple orchard soil of the Loess Plateau. The experiment included three treatments: (1) control without fertilization (CK); (2) chemical fertilizer application (CF); and (3) bioorganic fertilizer application (BOF). The high throughput sequencing was used to examine the bacterial and fungal communities in apple orchard soil. The results showed that the BOF treatment significantly increased the apple yield during the experimental time (2009-2015). The application of BOF significantly increased the activities of catalase and invertase compared to those in CK and CF treatments. The high throughput sequencing data showed that the application of BOF changed the microbial community composition of all soil depths considered (0-20 cm, 20-40 cm, and 40-60 cm), e.g., the relative abundance of bio-control bacteria (Xanthomonadales, Lysobacter, Pseudomonas, and Bacillus), Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Ohtaekwangia, Ilyonectria, and Lecanicillium was increased while that of Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gp4, Gp6 and Sphaerobacter was decreased. The increase in apple yield after the application of BOF might be due to increase in organic matter, total nitrogen and catalase and invertase activities of soil and change in the bacterial community composition by enriching Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Lysobacter, and Ohtaekwangia. These results further enhance the understanding on how BOFs alter soil microbial community composition to stimulate soil productivity.

  8. Spatial distribution of diuron sorption affinity as affected by soil, terrain and management practices in an intensively managed apple orchard.

    PubMed

    Umali, Beng P; Oliver, Danielle P; Ostendorf, Bertram; Forrester, Sean; Chittleborough, David J; Hutson, John L; Kookana, Rai S

    2012-05-30

    We investigated how the sorption affinity of diuron (3'-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimenthyl-urea), a moderately hydrophobic herbicide, is affected by soil properties, topography and management practices in an intensively managed orchard system. Soil-landscape analysis was carried out in an apple orchard which had a strong texture contrast soil and a landform with relief difference of 50 m. Diuron sorption (K(d)) affinity was successfully predicted (R(2)=0.79; p<0.001) using a mid-infrared - partial least squares model and calibrated against measured data using a conventional batch sorption technique. Soil and terrain properties explained 75% of the variance of diuron K(d) with TOC, pH(w), slope and WI as key variables. Mean diuron K(d) values were also significantly different (p<0.05) between alley and tree line and between the different management zones. Soil in the tree line generally had lower sorption capacity for diuron than soil in the alleys. Younger stands, which were found to have lower TOC than in the older stands, also had lower diuron K(d) values. In intensively managed orchards, sorption affinity of pesticides to soils was not only affected by soil properties and terrain attributes but also by management regime. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk assessment of the exposure of insecticide operators to fenvalerate during treatment in apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Moon, Joon-Kwan; Park, Sewon; Kim, Eunhye; Lee, Hyeri; Kim, Jeong-Han

    2013-01-16

    Dermal and inhalation exposure of the applicator to the insecticide fenavalerate in an apple orchard was measured for risk assessment during treatment. Emulsifiable concentrate (EC) and wettable powder (WP) formulations were sprayed using a speed sprayer (SS) or power sprayer (PS). Dermal patches, gloves, socks, and masks were used to monitor potential dermal exposure to fenavalerate, while personal air samplers with XAD-2 resins were used to monitor potential inhalation exposure. Validation of analytical methods was performed for the instruments' limit of detection, limit of quantitation, reproducibility, linearity of calibration curve, and recovery of fenvelerate from various exposure matrices. The results were encouraging and reasonable for an exposure study. Applicability of XAD-2 resin was evaluated with a trapping efficiency and breakthrough test. During mixing/loading, the amount of dermal exposure ranged from 262.8 μg (EC/SS) to 1652.6 μg (WP/PS) of fenvalerate, corresponding to ~0.0011-0.0066% of the total prepared quantity. In the case of WP, the amount of dermal exposure was 2032.3 μg (0.0081% of the total applied amount) for SS and 1087.9 μg (0.0145%) for PS after application. In the case of EC, the amount of dermal exposure was 3804.6 μg (0.0152%) for SS and 4055.0 μg (0.0541%) for PS after application. The primary body parts subject to exposure were thigh and upper arm for SS, and thigh and hand for PS. The amount of inhalation exposure with WP was 2.2 μg (8.65 × 10⁻⁶% of the total applied amount) for SS and 1.3 g (1.67 × 10⁻⁵%) for PS. The amount of inhalation exposure with EC was 2.5 μg (9.81 × 10⁻⁶%) for SS and 3.7 μg (4.97 × 10⁻⁵%) for PS. The absorbable quantity of exposure and margin of safety (MOS) were calculated for risk assessment. The MOS for all 4 cases was much greater than 1, indicating a low possibility of risk.

  10. A new method to quantify the impact of soil carbon management on biophysical soil properties: the example of two apple orchard systems in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Deurer, Markus; Sivakumaran, Siva; Ralle, Stefanie; Vogeler, Iris; McIvor, Ian; Clothier, Brent; Green, Steve; Bachmann, Jörg

    2008-01-01

    A new method to diagnose the environmental sustainability of specific orchard management practices was derived and tested. As a significant factor for soil quality, the soil carbon (C) management in the topsoil of the tree-row of an integrated and organic apple orchard was selected and compared. Soil C management was defined as land management practices that maintain or increase soil C. We analyzed the impact of the soil C management on biological (microbial biomass C, basal respiration, dehydrogenase activity, respiratory quotient) and physical (aggregate stability, amount of plant-available water, conductive mean pore diameter near water saturation) soil properties. Soil in the alley acted as a reference for the managed soil in the tree row. The total and hot-water-extractable C amounts served as a combined proxy for the soil C management. The soil C management accounted for 0 to 81% of the degradation or enhancement of biophysical soil properties in the integrated and organic system. In the integrated system, soil C management led to a loss of C in the top 0.3 m of the tree row within 12 yr, causing a decrease in microbial activities. In the tree row of the organic orchard, C loss occurred in the top 0.1 m, and the decrease in microbial activities was small or not significant. Regarding physical soil properties, the C loss in the integrated system led to a decrease of the aggregate stability, whereas it increased in the organic system. Generally, the impact of soil C management was better correlated with soil microbial than with the physical properties. With respect to environmental soil functions that are sensitive to the decrease in microbial activity or aggregate stability, soil C management was sustainable in the organic system but not in the integrated system.

  11. Pheromone-based decision support tools for management of Halyomorpha halys in apple orchards: development of a trap-based treatment threshold

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), has become a serious pest in mid-Atlantic apple orchards. Because no decision support tools exist for H. halys management, calendar-based insecticide applications have been the only successful technique for mitigating H. halys injur...

  12. Phenology and structure of a phytoseiid community in an insecticide-free apple orchard.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Jeffris, Rebecca A; Beers, Elizabeth H

    2016-02-01

    Commercial orchards have acarine communities that are reduced in biological diversity compared to their undisturbed counterparts. Examining the phenology of an unsprayed orchard allows for the examination of non-pesticide factors that drive changes in populations. This study examined the mite community in a largely unsprayed research orchard in 2013–2014. The phytoseiids Galendromus flumenis (Chant), Amblydromella caudiglans (Schuster), Kampimodromus corylosus Kolodochka, and Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt) were found, in addition to Zetzellia mali (Ewing) and Aculus schlechtendali (Nalepa). Although G. occidentalis is typically the dominant phytoseiid in commercial orchards, G. flumenis was much more abundant in this unsprayed block. Aculus schlechtendali appeared to be the main source of prey for all predator species. The availability of this prey item and the lack of pesticides are likely the factors that allowed for G. flumenis to reach high abundances. Tetranychids were scarce, emphasizing the role of these mites as induced pests; without the application of disruptive sprays, the predatory mite community was able to maintain biological control. This study demonstrates that the species complex of generalist phytoseiids that is present in orchard systems undisturbed by pesticides is sufficient to maintain spider mite populations below damaging levels throughout the season.

  13. Managing quarantine-significant post harvest diseases in Pacific Northwest apple orchards

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis and Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens are two recently reported quarantined pathogens that cause speck rot and sphaeropsis rot, respectively, in apple. Due to quarantine regulation, export of apple from Washington State to China was banned from 2012 through 2014. Previous st...

  14. Mating Disruption of a Carpenter Moth, Cossus insularis (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) in Apple Orchards with Synthetic Sex Pheromone, and Registration of the Pheromone as an Agrochemical.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Hirotsuna; Takabe, Masanori; Nakamuta, Kiyoshi

    2016-07-01

    Mating disruption of the carpenter moth, Cossus insularis (Staudinger) (Lepidoptera: Cossidae), with a synthetic version of its sex pheromone, a mixture of (E)-3-tetradecenyl acetate and (Z)-3-tetradecenyl acetate, was tested for three successive years in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchards. Pheromone trap catches, percentage mating of tethered females and females enclosed with males in a mating cage, and tree damage were measured in both the pheromone-treated and untreated control orchards. The attraction of male moths to pheromone traps at heights of 1.5, 3, and 5 m was strongly disrupted when the pheromone dispensers were placed at 1.5 m height. Mating of tethered females placed at 1 m was completely inhibited, and the mating of tethered females at a height of 3 m was significantly reduced by the treatment in comparison to matings in an untreated control orchard. Similarly, mating of pairs of moths enclosed in mating cages was significantly reduced by the synthetic pheromone treatment in comparison to controls. The percentage of damaged trees in the pheromone-treated orchard also decreased significantly over the course of the experiment. These results suggest that mating disruption with the synthetic sex pheromone appears promising for reducing damage caused by C. insularis in apple orchards in Japan, and a commercial mating disruption product has been developed and registered.

  15. Isolation of entomopathogenic nematodes in an apple orchard in Southern Brazil and its virulence to Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) larvae, under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Foelkel, E; Voss, M; Monteiro, L B; Nishimura, G

    2017-03-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are a promising alternative to integrated control in many fruit pests. Few studies were made on the relationship of Anastrepha fraterculus natural population with native EPNs population and other biotic and abiotic factors. The aim of this work was to verify the occurrence of endemic nematodes in an apple orchard, concerning environmental conditions and technical procedure, and access isolates virulence to A. fraterculus larvae. The experiment was conducted during a year taking monthly soil samples from an apple orchard, with and without fallen fruits just above the soil. Samples were baited with Tenebrium molitor and A. fraterculus larvae in laboratory. Canopy and fallen fruits were sampled to access the pest infestation. Seventy three EPN isolates were captured, in 23.2% soil samples, more with T. molitor than with A. fraterculus baits. From the 20 isolates tested against A. fraterculus, only five were pathogenic, and they were identified as Oscheius sp. The nematodes were captured during all seasons in a similar frequency. Soil and weather conditions, presence of fruit over the orchard soil, and A. fraterculus pupae in the fruits had no significant influence on the capture. As a conclusion, nematodes of the genera Oscheius are found in an apple orchard of Porto Amazonas constantly along the year, independently of fluctuations in A. fraterculus population, climate conditions and presence of fruit over the soil. Some of the isolates are pathogenic to A. fraterculus.

  16. Evaluating plant volatiles for monitoring natural enemies in apple, pear and walnut orchards

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As part of an effort to enhance biological control in Western orchards, we examine different combinations of herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs), floral volatiles, and trap combinations that would be useful in monitoring key natural enemies. In all crops, we found lure/trap combinations that e...

  17. Edge effects in the directionally biased distribution of Choristoneura rosaceana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Hsu, C L; Agnello, A M; Reissig, W H

    2009-04-01

    Edge effect tests have been used in a number of studies on obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris), to test for evidence of mated female immigration into pheromone-treated orchards. This type of test compares obliquebanded leafroller presence or activity around the perimeter of an orchard against presence or activity in the interior. Higher numbers detected around the edges of an orchard would indicate higher levels of flight activity at the edge, a pattern that could be generated by high levels of immigration. Recent work has shown that the spatial distribution of recaptured obliquebanded leafroller adults released from a single location can be directionally biased, which could obscure the ability to detect an edge effect. To test this theory, data from an orchard study conducted in 1991 that found no significant edge effect was reanalyzed. When we accounted for the directional bias in the distribution of first-generation mated female moths, we found an edge effect with significantly more mated females captured in the edge traps than in the center or mid-interior traps. No edge effect was found when the directional bias was ignored. In addition, second-generation males and mated females both showed a significant edge effect that had not been detected in the original analysis, which had combined both first- and second-generation data.

  18. Does Passive Sampling Accurately Reflect the Bee (Apoidea: Anthophila) Communities Pollinating Apple and Sour Cherry Orchards?

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Jason; Joshi, Neelendra K; Wilson, Julianna K; Rothwell, Nikki L; Powers, Karen; Haas, Mike; Gut, Larry; Biddinger, David J; Isaacs, Rufus

    2017-03-31

    During bloom of spring orchard crops, bees are the primary providers of pollination service. Monitoring these insects for research projects is often done by timed observations or by direct aerial netting, but there has been increasing interest in blue vane traps as an efficient passive approach to collecting bees. Over multiple spring seasons in Michigan and Pennsylvania, orchards were monitored for wild bees using timed netting from crop flowers and blue vane traps. This revealed a distinctly different community of wild bees captured using the two methods, suggesting that blue vane traps can complement but cannot replace direct aerial netting. The bee community in blue vane traps was generally composed of nonpollinating species, which can be of interest for broader biodiversity studies. In particular, blue vane traps caught Eucera atriventris (Smith), Eucera hamata (Bradley), Bombus fervidus (F.), and Agapostemon virescens (F.) that were never collected from the orchard crop flowers during the study period. Captures of bee species in nets was generally stable across the 3 yr, whereas we observed significant declines in the abundance of Lasioglossum pilosum (Smith) and Eucera spp. trapped using blue vane traps during the project, suggesting local overtrapping of reproductive individuals. We conclude that blue vane traps are a useful tool for expanding insights into bee communities within orchard crop systems, but they should be used with great caution to avoid local extirpation of these important insects.

  19. Evaluating sex-pheromone- and kairomone-based lures for attracting codling moth adults in mating disruption versus conventionally managed apple orchards in Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Neelendra K; Hull, Larry A; Rajotte, Edwin G; Krawczyk, Greg; Bohnenblust, Eric

    2011-10-01

    Effectiveness of different types of commercial sex-pheromone- and kairomone-based lures for attracting codling moth adults may vary under different pest management practices. The attractiveness of four types of codling moth (CM) lures (CM L2 Long-Life(®), CM 10X Megalure(®), Pherocon CM DA(®) and Pherocon CM-DA Combo(®)) was evaluated in commercial apple orchards either treated with sex pheromone mating disruption (MD) or only conventional insecticides (non-MD) in Adams County, Pennsylvania, in 2006 and 2007. CM DA Combo lure was most effective in terms of mean seasonal weekly moth capture as well as mean cumulative moth capture in MD orchards. In both years, the CM L2 lure was as attractive to adult moths as the CM DA Combo lure in non-MD orchards. The CM DA and CM 10X lures caught significantly fewer moths in both MD and non-MD orchards compared with the CM DA Combo lure. ON the basis of mean seasonal weekly moth capture as well as mean cumulative moth capture, the CM DA Combo and CM L2 lures were found to be significantly more effective for monitoring CM adults in both MD and non-MD orchards. In contrast, the CM DA and CM 10X lures were not as effective in either type of orchard. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Stable expression and phenotypic impact of attacin E transgene in orchard grown apple trees over a 12 year period

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Transgenic trees currently are being produced by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and biolistics. The future use of transformed trees on a commercial basis depends upon thorough evaluation of the potential environmental and public health risk of the modified plants, transgene stability over a prolonged period of time and the effect of the gene on tree and fruit characteristics. We studied the stability of expression and the effect on resistance to the fire blight disease of the lytic protein gene, attacin E, in the apple cultivar 'Galaxy' grown in the field for 12 years. Results Using Southern and western blot analysis, we compared transgene copy number and observed stability of expression of this gene in the leaves and fruit in several transformed lines during a 12 year period. No silenced transgenic plant was detected. Also the expression of this gene resulted in an increase in resistance to fire blight throughout 12 years of orchard trial and did not affect fruit shape, size, acidity, firmness, weight or sugar level, tree morphology, leaf shape or flower morphology or color compared to the control. Conclusion Overall, these results suggest that transgene expression in perennial species, such as fruit trees, remains stable in time and space, over extended periods and in different organs. This report shows that it is possible to improve a desirable trait in apple, such as the resistance to a pathogen, through genetic engineering, without adverse alteration of fruit characteristics and tree shape. PMID:20525262

  1. Estimating Gene Flow between Refuges and Crops: A Case Study of the Biological Control of Eriosoma lanigerum by Aphelinus mali in Apple Orchards

    PubMed Central

    Lavandero, Blas; Figueroa, Christian C.; Franck, Pierre; Mendez, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Parasitoid disturbance populations in agroecosystems can be maintained through the provision of habitat refuges with host resources. However, specialized herbivores that feed on different host plants have been shown to form host-specialized races. Parasitoids may subsequently specialize on these herbivore host races and therefore prefer parasitizing insects from the refuge, avoiding foraging on the crop. Evidence is therefore required that parasitoids are able to move between the refuge and the crop and that the refuge is a source of parasitoids, without being an important source of herbivore pests. A North-South transect trough the Chilean Central Valley was sampled, including apple orchards and surrounding Pyracantha coccinea (M. Roem) (Rosales: Rosacea) hedges that were host of Eriosoma lanigerum (Hemiptera: Aphididae), a globally important aphid pest of cultivated apples. At each orchard, aphid colonies were collected and taken back to the laboratory to sample the emerging hymenopteran parasitoid Aphelinus mali (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Aphid and parasitoid individuals were genotyped using species-specific microsatellite loci and genetic variability was assessed. By studying genetic variation, natural geographic barriers of the aphid pest became evident and some evidence for incipient host-plant specialization was found. However, this had no effect on the population-genetic features of its most important parasitoid. In conclusion, the lack of genetic differentiation among the parasitoids suggests the existence of a single large and panmictic population, which could parasite aphids on apple orchards and on P. coccinea hedges. The latter could thus comprise a suitable and putative refuge for parasitoids, which could be used to increase the effectiveness of biological control. Moreover, the strong geographical differentiation of the aphid suggests local reinfestations occur mainly from other apple orchards with only low reinfestation from P. cocinnea hedges

  2. Estimating gene flow between refuges and crops: a case study of the biological control of Eriosoma lanigerum by Aphelinus mali in apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Lavandero, Blas; Figueroa, Christian C; Franck, Pierre; Mendez, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Parasitoid disturbance populations in agroecosystems can be maintained through the provision of habitat refuges with host resources. However, specialized herbivores that feed on different host plants have been shown to form host-specialized races. Parasitoids may subsequently specialize on these herbivore host races and therefore prefer parasitizing insects from the refuge, avoiding foraging on the crop. Evidence is therefore required that parasitoids are able to move between the refuge and the crop and that the refuge is a source of parasitoids, without being an important source of herbivore pests. A North-South transect trough the Chilean Central Valley was sampled, including apple orchards and surrounding Pyracantha coccinea (M. Roem) (Rosales: Rosacea) hedges that were host of Eriosoma lanigerum (Hemiptera: Aphididae), a globally important aphid pest of cultivated apples. At each orchard, aphid colonies were collected and taken back to the laboratory to sample the emerging hymenopteran parasitoid Aphelinus mali (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Aphid and parasitoid individuals were genotyped using species-specific microsatellite loci and genetic variability was assessed. By studying genetic variation, natural geographic barriers of the aphid pest became evident and some evidence for incipient host-plant specialization was found. However, this had no effect on the population-genetic features of its most important parasitoid. In conclusion, the lack of genetic differentiation among the parasitoids suggests the existence of a single large and panmictic population, which could parasite aphids on apple orchards and on P. coccinea hedges. The latter could thus comprise a suitable and putative refuge for parasitoids, which could be used to increase the effectiveness of biological control. Moreover, the strong geographical differentiation of the aphid suggests local reinfestations occur mainly from other apple orchards with only low reinfestation from P. cocinnea hedges

  3. Evaluation of resistance pattern to fenpyroximate and pyridaben in Tetranychus urticae collected from greenhouses and apple orchards using lethal concentration-slope relationship.

    PubMed

    Suh, Eunho; Koh, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Joon-Ho; Shin, Key-Il; Cho, Kijong

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to monitor the present and future developments of the resistance of Tetranychus urticae Koch to fenpyroximate and pyridaben, using the relationship of the LC(50) and slope of the concentration-mortality line in a probit model, for the provision of reliable resistance management tactics. Tetranychus urticae populations were collected from 16 commercial greenhouses, where various crops were cultivated, as well as from 10 apple orchards throughout Korea. The resistance to fenpyroximate and pyridaben of each population was estimated by calculating the median lethal concentration (LC(50)), resistance ratio (RR) and slope of the concentration-mortality regression. Most of the greenhouse populations exhibited moderate levels of resistance, whereas the apple orchard populations showed only low levels, indicating that T. urticae populations in greenhouses were more strongly selected than those in apple orchards. Four population groups were established based on either the habitats (greenhouse and apple orchard) or acaricides (fenpyroximate and pyridaben). To test the hypothesis, "the slope is greatest at low and high levels of resistance," the slopes were regressed as a function of the LC(50), and fitted to a polynomial regression. The polynomial regression model explained this relationship well for the four population groups (p < 0.05), indicating that the development of resistance toward fenpyroximate or pyridaben was consistent with the gradient. A laboratory selection study agreed with the results from both acaricide field populations. These results suggest that the gradient was a good indicator of the susceptibility of T. urticae to genetic variations, which was related to the LC(50). The application of these findings is also discussed in relation to the resistance management of T. urticae.

  4. [Effects of sand-covering on apple trees transpiration and fruit quality in dry land orchards of Longdong, Gansu].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kun; Yin, Xiao-ning; Liu, Xiao-yong; Wang, Fa-lin

    2010-11-01

    Aiming at the seasonal drought in the dry land orchards of Longdong, Gansu Province, a sand-covering experiment was conducted with 15-year-old Nagafu No. 2 apple trees, with the soil water content, temperature, stem sap flow velocity, leaf stomatal conductance, and fruit quality measured. In the orchard covered with 5-cm-thick riversand, the increment of soil temperature in February-April was lower than 1 degrees C, while in June-July, it was 2.44 degrees C and 2.61 degrees C on sunny and cloudy days, respectively. The soil water content was over 60% of field capacity throughout the growing season. On sunny days with high soil water content (H season), the stem sap flow curve presented a wide peak. Under sand- covering, the sap flow started 0.6 h earlier, and the maximum sap flow velocity was 25.5% higher than the control. On cloudy days of H season, the maximum sap flow velocity was 165.6% higher than the control. On sunny days with low soil water content (L season), the sap flow curve had a single peak, and under sand covering, the sap flow started 0.5-1 h earlier than the control on sunny days. The maximum sap flow velocity was 794 g x h(-1). On cloudy days of L season, the sap flow started 1 h earlier, and the maximum sap flow velocity was 311.0% higher than the control. The evaporation of the control was 156.0% higher than that of sand-covering from March to July, suggesting that excessive ground water evaporation was the main reason to cause soil drought. Under sand-covering, single fruit mass was improved obviously whereas fruit firmness was reduced slightly, and soluble solids, vitamin C, total sugar, and organic acid contents were somewhat promoted.

  5. Releases of insectary-reared Galendromus occidentalis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in commercial apple orchards

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt) is one of several phytoseiid species that are available for purchase to supplement endemic predator populations that are not providing sufficient control of spider mites. We performed a series of releases of commercially reared G. occidentalis in commercial apple (...

  6. Evaluation of traps and lures for codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in apple orchards

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the use of several trap – lure combinations to improve monitoring of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in apple, Malus domestica Bordk. Treatments included the use of clear, orange and white traps baited with one or more of the followin...

  7. Phytoremediation of groundwater contaminated with pesticides using short-rotation willow crops: A case study of an apple orchard.

    PubMed

    Lafleur, Benoit; Sauvé, Sébastien; Duy, Sung Vo; Labrecque, Michel

    2016-11-01

    The occurrence of pesticides in groundwater represents an important health issue, notably for population whose drinking water supply source is located in agricultural areas. However, few solutions have been considered with regard to this issue. We tested the efficacy of a vegetal filtering system made of shrub willows planted at a high density (16,000 plants ha(-1)) to filter or degrade pesticides found in the groundwater flowing out of an apple orchard. Ethylene urea (EU), ethylene thiourea (ETU), tetrahydrophthalimide (THPI), atrazine, and desethylatrazine were monitored in the soil solution in willow and control plots over one growing season. ETU and atrazine concentrations were lower in the willow plots relative to the control plots, whereas desethylatrazine concentration was higher in the willow plots. No significant difference was detected for EU and THPI. Furthermore, pesticide concentrations displayed complex temporal patterns. These results suggest that willow filter systems can filter or degrade pesticides, notably ETU and atrazine, and could be used for phytoremediation purposes. Yet, this potential remains to be quantified with further studies using experimental settings allowing more estimation in time and space.

  8. Apple Fruit Diameter and Length Estimation by Using the Thermal and Sunshine Hours Approach and Its Application to the Digital Orchard Management Information System

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Fu, Chunxia; Xing, Bin; Li, Wenyong; Qian, Jianping; Li, Sha; Wang, Hui; Fan, Xiaodan; Yan, Yujing; Wang, Yan’an; Yang, Xinting

    2015-01-01

    In apple cultivation, simulation models may be used to monitor fruit size during the growth and development process to predict production levels and to optimize fruit quality. Here, Fuji apples cultivated in spindle-type systems were used as the model crop. Apple size was measured during the growing period at an interval of about 20 days after full bloom, with three weather stations being used to collect orchard temperature and solar radiation data at different sites. Furthermore, a 2-year dataset (2011 and 2012) of apple fruit size measurements were integrated according to the weather station deployment sites, in addition to the top two most important environment factors, thermal and sunshine hours, into the model. The apple fruit diameter and length were simulated using physiological development time (PDT), an indicator that combines important environment factors, such as temperature and photoperiod, as the driving variable. Compared to the model of calendar-based development time (CDT), an indicator counting the days that elapse after full bloom, we confirmed that the PDT model improved the estimation accuracy to within 0.2 cm for fruit diameter and 0.1 cm for fruit length in independent years using a similar data collection method in 2013. The PDT model was implemented to realize a web-based management information system for a digital orchard, and the digital system had been applied in Shandong Province, China since 2013. This system may be used to compute the dynamic curve of apple fruit size based on data obtained from a nearby weather station. This system may provide an important decision support for farmers using the website and short message service to optimize crop production and, hence, economic benefit. PMID:25831065

  9. Apple fruit diameter and length estimation by using the thermal and sunshine hours approach and its application to the digital orchard management information system.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Chen, Meixiang; Zhang, Yong; Fu, Chunxia; Xing, Bin; Li, Wenyong; Qian, Jianping; Li, Sha; Wang, Hui; Fan, Xiaodan; Yan, Yujing; Wang, Yan'an; Yang, Xinting

    2015-01-01

    In apple cultivation, simulation models may be used to monitor fruit size during the growth and development process to predict production levels and to optimize fruit quality. Here, Fuji apples cultivated in spindle-type systems were used as the model crop. Apple size was measured during the growing period at an interval of about 20 days after full bloom, with three weather stations being used to collect orchard temperature and solar radiation data at different sites. Furthermore, a 2-year dataset (2011 and 2012) of apple fruit size measurements were integrated according to the weather station deployment sites, in addition to the top two most important environment factors, thermal and sunshine hours, into the model. The apple fruit diameter and length were simulated using physiological development time (PDT), an indicator that combines important environment factors, such as temperature and photoperiod, as the driving variable. Compared to the model of calendar-based development time (CDT), an indicator counting the days that elapse after full bloom, we confirmed that the PDT model improved the estimation accuracy to within 0.2 cm for fruit diameter and 0.1 cm for fruit length in independent years using a similar data collection method in 2013. The PDT model was implemented to realize a web-based management information system for a digital orchard, and the digital system had been applied in Shandong Province, China since 2013. This system may be used to compute the dynamic curve of apple fruit size based on data obtained from a nearby weather station. This system may provide an important decision support for farmers using the website and short message service to optimize crop production and, hence, economic benefit.

  10. Accumulation of lead and organochlorine residues in captive American kestrels fed pine voles from apple orchards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stendell, Rey C.; Beyer, W. Nelson; Stehn, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    Pine voles (Microtus pinetorum) were collected from pesticide-treated orchards in New York and fed to 3 captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius) for 60 days to evaluate potential hazards from soil-borne persistent insecticides. Three control kestrels were fed uncontaminated laboratory mice (Mus musculus). The pine voles contained an average of 38 ppm lead, 48 ppm DDE and 1.2 ppm dieldrin (dry weight). The kestrels accumulated sublethal amounts of lead (1 ppm lead wet weight) in their livers. In contrast, DDE and dieldrin accumulated in the tissues and brains of kestrels to toxicologically significant concentrations. Control kestrels remained healthy and accumulated insignificant concentrations of the contaminants. The results indicated raptors may not be significantly at risk from lead residues in soil and biota following field applications of lead arsenate. However, sublethal effects may be expected from the level of contamination by organochlorine pesticides. raptors may not be significantly at risk from lead residues in soil and biota following field applications of lead arsenate. However, sublethal effects may be expected from the level of contamination byorganochlorine pesticides. lead wet weight) in their livers.

  11. Accumulation of lead and organochlorine residues in captive American kestrels fed pine voles from apple orchards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stendell, R.C.; Beyer, W.N.; Stehn, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Pine voles (Microtus pinetorum) were collected from pesticide-treated orchards in New York and fed to 3 captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius) for 60 days to evaluate potential hazards from soil-borne persistent insecticides. Three control kestrels were fed uncontaminated laboratory mice (Mus musculus). The pine voles contained an average of 38 ppm lead, 48 ppm DDE and 1.2 ppm dieldrin (dry weight). The kestrels accumulated sublethal amounts of lead (1 ppm lead wet weight) in their livers. In contrast, DDE and dieldrin accumulated in the tissues and brains of kestrels to toxicologically significant concentrations. Control kestrels remained healthy and accumulated insignificant concentrations of the contaminants. The results indicated raptors may not be significantly at risk from lead residues in soil and biota following field applications of lead arsenate. However, sublethal effects may be expected from the level of contamination by organochlorine pesticides. raptors may not be significantly at risk from lead residues in soil and biota following field applications of lead arsenate. However, sublethal effects may be expected from the level of contamination byorganochlorine pesticides. lead wet weight) in their livers.

  12. The impact of insecticides applied in apple orchards on the predatory mite Kampimodromus aberrans (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    PubMed

    Duso, Carlo; Ahmad, Shakeel; Tirello, Paola; Pozzebon, Alberto; Klaric, Virna; Baldessari, Mario; Malagnini, Valeria; Angeli, Gino

    2014-03-01

    Kampimodromus aberrans is an effective predatory mite in fruit orchards. The side-effects of insecticides on this species have been little studied. Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of insecticides on K. aberrans. Field experiments showed the detrimental effects of etofenprox, tau-fluvalinate and spinosad on predatory mites. Spider mite (Panonychus ulmi) populations reached higher densities on plots treated with etofenprox and tau-fluvalinate than in the other treatments. Single or multiple applications of neonicotinoids caused no detrimental effects on predatory mites. In the laboratory, spinosad and tau-fluvalinate caused 100 % mortality. Etofenprox caused a significant mortality and reduced fecundity. The remaining insecticides did not affect female survival except for imidacloprid. Thiamethoxam, clothianidin, thiacloprid, chlorpyrifos, lufenuron and methoxyfenozide were associated with a significant reduction in fecundity. No effect on fecundity was found for indoxacarb or acetamiprid. Escape rate of K. aberrans in laboratory was relatively high for etofenprox and spinosad, and to a lesser extent thiacloprid. The use of etofenprox, tau-fluvalinate and spinosad was detrimental for K. aberrans and the first two insecticides induced spider mite population increases. The remaining insecticides caused no negative effects on predatory mites in field trials. Some of them (reduced fecundity and repellence) should be considered with caution in integrated pest management programs.

  13. Monitoring of the red-belted clearwing moth, Synanthedon myopaeformis, and its parasitoid Liotryphon crassiseta in apple orchards in yellow Moericke traps.

    PubMed

    Bąkowski, Marek; Piekarska-Boniecka, Hanna; Dolańska-Niedbała, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted in 2008-2010 in three apple orchards in western Poland and involved a massive catch of the red-belted clearwing moth, Synanthedon myopaeformis (Borkhausen) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), and its parasitoid Liotryphon crassiseta (Thomson) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) in yellow Moericke traps. The flight time for both species was correlated and fell in the first half of July. However, the correlation between the occurrences of both species was statistically significant only in 2008, when most specimens were caught. A total of 7960 S. myopaeformis were caught, with a 2:1 male:female sex ratio, and 415 adult L. crassiseta. No correlation between the numbers of S. myopaeformis and L. crassiseta in relation to age, variety of trees, or orchard surface area was noted. Significant differences between the catches of S. myopaeformis and L. crassiseta were reported in particular years. Furthermore, clear differences in the yields of S. myopaeformis and L. crassiseta between traps situated in the orchard and those on its edges were recorded, particularly in the orchard surrounded by cultivated fields. Yellow pan-traps could be used more widely in order to monitor and control the abundance of S. myopaeformis, especially by catching its females.

  14. Combining Costs and Benefits of Animal Activities to Assess Net Yield Outcomes in Apple Orchards

    PubMed Central

    Luck, Gary W.

    2016-01-01

    Diverse animal communities influence ecosystem function in agroecosystems through positive and negative plant-animal interactions. Yet, past research has largely failed to examine multiple interactions that can have opposing impacts on agricultural production in a given context. We collected data on arthropod communities and yield quality and quantity parameters (fruit set, yield loss and net outcomes) in three major apple-growing regions in south-eastern Australia. We quantified the net yield outcome (accounting for positive and negative interactions) of multiple animal activities (pollination, fruit damage, biological control) across the entire growing season on netted branches, which excluded vertebrate predators of arthropods, and open branches. Net outcome was calculated as the number of undamaged fruit at harvest as a proportion of the number of blossoms (i.e., potential fruit yield). Vertebrate exclusion resulted in lower levels of fruit set and higher levels of arthropod damage to apples, but did not affect net outcomes. Yield quality and quantity parameters (fruit set, yield loss, net outcomes) were not directly associated with arthropod functional groups. Model variance and significant differences between the ratio of pest to beneficial arthropods between regions indicated that complex relationships between environmental factors and multiple animal interactions have a combined effect on yield. Our results show that focusing on a single crop stage, species group or ecosystem function/service can overlook important complexity in ecological processes within the system. Accounting for this complexity and quantifying the net outcome of ecological interactions within the system, is more informative for research and management of biodiversity and ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes. PMID:27391022

  15. Overcoming adverse effects of hailnets on fruit quality and microclimate in an apple orchard.

    PubMed

    Solomakhin, Alexej A; Blanke, Michael M

    2007-11-01

    With the increase of hailstorms as a possible result of global warming, fruit crops are increasingly grown under hailnets. This results in lesser fruit quality in terms of colouration, fruit mass, firmness, starch and taste, i.e. sugar and acid, and vitamin content under hailnet due to altered microclimate and light deprivation. Reflective mulches (Extenday and Daybright) were spread in autumn 2006 to improve fruit quality and light utilisation under hailnet at Klein-Altendorf Research Station near Bonn, Germany. A monophosphate (Seniphos) was applied twice for the same purpose; untreated apple cv. 'Elstar' trees served as control. Under the translucent, 'white' hailnet, humidity was increased by ca. 6%, air temperature reduced by ca. 1.6 °C, soil temperature increased by ca. 0.5 °C and light reduced by 11-15% resulting in lesser fruit quality of 2.5% less sugar and less taste. The two reflective mulches increased light reflection at 45° and 90° angles by 2.5- to 6.3-fold. No differences in fruit ripening and firmness were observed, but fruit from trees under hailnet with reflective mulch contained up to 2.4% (from 13.3 to 15.7%) more sugar than those of the control (uncovered grass alleys). A less negative normalised differential vegetation index (NDVI) of - 0.3 on the red compared with - 0.5 on the green fruit side indicated more chlorophyll in the outer, sun-exposed, red side of the apples relative to the shaded side. Monophosphate-treated fruits maintained the peel chlorophyll with a greener ground colour of 92-97° hue and a NDVI of - 0.3 as in the grassed control. Fruit in the lower canopy with reflective mulch were darker red (a value 30; 22° hue) relative to the grassed control with a = 25 and 43° hue (light red), expressed in a 4-fold increase in normalised anthocyanin index (NAI), but showed enhanced chlorophyll breakdown (NDVI from - 0.2 to - 0.5); similarly, the monophosphate increased the NAI by up to 2.5-fold. The effect of both reflective mulch

  16. Replication of honey bee-associated RNA viruses across multiple bee species in apple orchards of Georgia, Germany and Kyrgyzstan.

    PubMed

    Radzevičiūtė, Rita; Theodorou, Panagiotis; Husemann, Martin; Japoshvili, George; Kirkitadze, Giorgi; Zhusupbaeva, Aigul; Paxton, Robert J

    2017-06-01

    The essential ecosystem service of pollination is provided largely by insects, which are considered threatened by diverse biotic and abiotic global change pressures. RNA viruses are one such pressure, and have risen in prominence as a major threat for honey bees (Apis mellifera) and global apiculture, as well as a risk factor for other bee species through pathogen spill-over between managed honey bees and sympatric wild pollinator communities. Yet despite their potential role in global bee decline, the prevalence of honey bee-associated RNA viruses in wild bees is poorly known from both geographic and taxonomic perspectives. We screened members of pollinator communities (honey bees, bumble bees and other wild bees belonging to four families) collected from apple orchards in Georgia, Germany and Kyrgyzstan for six common honey bee-associated RNA virus complexes encompassing nine virus targets. The Deformed wing virus complex (DWV genotypes A and B) had the highest prevalence across all localities and host species and was the only virus complex found in wild bee species belonging to all four studied families. Based on amplification of negative-strand viral RNA, we found evidence for viral replication in wild bee species of DWV-A/DWV-B (hosts: Andrena haemorrhoa and several Bombus spp.) and Black queen cell virus (hosts: Anthophora plumipes, several Bombus spp., Osmia bicornis and Xylocopa spp.). Viral amplicon sequences revealed that DWV-A and DWV-B are regionally distinct but identical in two or more bee species at any one site, suggesting virus is shared amongst sympatric bee taxa. This study demonstrates that honey bee associated RNA viruses are geographically and taxonomically widespread, likely infective in wild bee species, and shared across bee taxa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of Lures Loaded with Codlemone and Pear Ester for Capturing Codling Moths, Cydia pomonella, in Apple and Pear Orchards using Mating Disruption

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, D.E.; Cichón, L.; Garrido, S.; Ribes-Dasi, M.; Avilla, J.

    2010-01-01

    Studies were conducted in apple, Malus domestica Borkhausen and pear, Pyrus communis L. (Rosales: Rosaceae), orchards to evaluate the attractiveness of grey halobutyl septa loaded with 1 (L2) and 10 (Mega) mg of codlemone, 8E, 10E-dodecadien-1-ol, 3 mg of pear ester, ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (DA2313), and 3 mg of pear ester plus 3 mg of codlemone (Combo) to adult codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). All studies were conducted in orchards treated with pheromone mating disruption. All four lures were tested on diamond-shaped sticky traps placed in 60 plots of apple and 40 plots of pears in 2003/04, and in 62 plots of apples and 30 of pears in 2004–05. Combo lures attracted significantly more moths (males + females) than all the others in both years. Comparisons among flights showed significant differences mainly for flight 1 and 2, but not always for flight 3. Mega lures provided no significant improvement compared with L2 lures during both seasons regarding the total number of moths. Combo and DA2313 lures attracted fewer females than males during the whole season. For most sample dates, more virgin than mated females were attracted to Combo lures, except during the third flight, and the overall ratio was 60:40, although the difference was not statistically significant. We conclude that the Combo lures are better indicators of codling moth activity in pheromone treated orchards, regardless of pest population level, when compared with similar lures containing codlemone or pear ester alone. PMID:20883133

  18. Improving irrigation efficiency in Italian apple orchards: A large-scale approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della Chiesa, Stefano; la Cecilia, Daniele; Niedrist, Georg; Hafner, Hansjörg; Thalheimer, Martin; Tappeiner, Ulrike

    2016-04-01

    Nord-Italian region South Tyrol is Europe's largest apple growing area. In order to enable an economically relevant fruit quality and quantity the relative dry climate of the region 450-700mm gets compensated by a large scale irrigation management which until now follows old, traditional rights. Due to ongoing climatic changes and rising public sensitivity toward sustainable usage of water resources, irrigation practices are more and more critically discussed. In order to establish an objective and quantitative base of information to optimise irrigation practice, 17 existing microclimatic stations were upgraded with soil moisture and soil water potential sensors. As a second information layer a data set of 20,000 soil analyses has been geo-referenced and spatialized using a modern geostatistical method. Finally, to assess whether the zones with shallow aquifer influence soil water availability, data of 70 groundwater depth measuring stations were retrieved. The preliminary results highlight that in many locations in particular in the valley bottoms irrigation largely exceeds plant water needs because either the shallow aquifer provides sufficient water supply by capillary rise processes into the root zone or irrigation is applied without accounting for the specific soil properties.

  19. Sex pheromone monitoring as a versatile tool for determining presence and abundance of Cydia pomonella (Lep.: Tortricidae) in German apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Hummel, H E; Czyrt, T; Schmid, S; Leithold, G; Vilcinskas, A

    2012-01-01

    Cydia pomonella (Lep.: Tortricidae), the codling moth, is an apple, pear, quince and walnut pest with considerable impact on horticultural production systems in many parts of the world. In commercial apple production, it is responsible for a yearly damage level of 40 billion dollars. In response to the need of tight codling moth control there are several options for intervention by pest managers in commercially operated orchards. Spray and count methods have been used for decades with success, but at considerable external costs for the integrity of ecological cycles. Also, problems with pesticide residues and with resistant strains are an issue of concern. For environmental reasons, toxicological means are discounted here. Instead, flight curves based on sex pheromone trapping and monitoring are preferred means towards determining the optimal timing of interventions by biotechnical and biological control methods. Finally, ecological reasons are discussed for vastly different population levels of C. pomonella developing in closely neighboring field sections which operated under different environmental management.

  20. Thyroid function in nestling tree swallows and eastern bluebirds exposed to non-persistent pesticides and p, p'-DDE in apple orchards of southern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Mayne, Gregory J; Bishop, Christine A; Martin, Pamela A; Boermans, Herman J; Hunter, Bruce

    2005-04-01

    This study examined the associated effects of pesticides and persistent residues of p,p'-DDE on thyroid function in 16-day-old tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and 12-day-old eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis). Apple orchards sprayed with pesticides in current use and reference sites were chosen for study in southern Ontario, Canada, during 2000-2001. We assessed thyroid hormone concentrations (plasma and muscle thyroxine [T4], and triiodothyronine [T3]) and the response to a challenge with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) as well as parameters of thyroid histology. Individual nests were exposed to as many as seven individual pesticide applications and up to five pesticide mixtures. Concentrations of p,p'-DDE in eggs from both species were highest in orchard sites, and ranged from 0.05 to 5.44 mg/kg wet weight for tree swallows, and from 0.17 to 95.4 mg/kg for eastern bluebirds. In 2000, tree swallows from sprayed orchards had elevated plasma T4 concentrations, and thyroid glands with collapsed follicles, hypertrophic epithelia, and higher follicular epithelial cells relative to chicks from reference sites. Plasma T4 concentration was positively correlated with the total number of pesticide mixtures applied during egg incubation through chick rearing. In 2001, basal plasma T3 concentration in tree swallow chicks did not differ between orchard and reference sites, though there were differences among orchards; T3 was positively correlated with total number of individual sprays applied during egg incubation through chick rearing. Tree swallows challenged with TSH showed no significant difference in thyroid hormone concentration or follicular epithelial cell height between exposure groups; however, a significantly greater proportion of chicks from reference sites were found to have thyroids with focal or diffuse hypertrophic epithelia relative to orchard chicks. In 2001, bluebirds from sprayed orchards had significantly higher T3 concentrations in response to TSH

  1. Analysis of the influence of climatic and physiological parameters on the net ecosystem carbon exchange of an apple orchard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanotelli, Damiano; Montagnani, Leonardo; Scandellari, Francesca; Tagliavini, Massimo

    2013-04-01

    Net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) of an apple orchard located in South Tyrol (Caldaro, Bolzano, Italy) was monitored continuously since March 2009 via eddy covariance technique. Contemporary measurements of the main environmental parameters (temperature, photosynthetic active photon flux density, soil water content, vapor pressure deficit) were taken at the same field site. Leaf Area Index was also determined biometrically starting from spring 2010. Objectives of this work were (i) to assess the influence of these environmental and physiological parameters on NEE, (ii) to set up a model capable to fill large gap occurring in the dataset and (iii) predict inter-annual variability of fluxes based on the measurements of the selected explanatory variables. Daily cumulated values of the response variable (NEE, g C d-1) and mean daily value of the five explanatory variables considered (air T, ° C; SWC, m3m-3; PPFD, μmol m-2s-1; VPD, hPa, LAI m2m-2) were used in this analysis. The complex interactions between the explanatory variables and NEE were analyzed with the tree model approach which draws a picture of the complexity of data structure and highlights the explanatory variable that explain the greater amount of deviance of the response variable. NEE variability was mostly explained by LAI and PPFD. The most positive values of NEE occurred below the LAI threshold of 1.16 m2m-2 while above that LAI threshold and with an average daily PPFD above 13.2 μmol m-2s-1, the orchard resulted always a sink of carbon (negative daily NEE). On half of the available data (only alternate months of the considered period were considered), a stepwise multiple regression approach was used to model NEE using the variables indicated above. Simplification by deletion of the non-significant terms was carried out until all parameters where highly significant (p < 0.05) and a significant increase in deviance was observed when deleting further variables. Since heteroscedasticity and non

  2. [Effects of different organic matter mulching on water content, temperature, and available nutrients of apple orchard soil in a cold region].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiang-Tao; Lü, De-Guo; Qin, Si-Jun

    2014-09-01

    The effects of different organic matter covers on soil physical-chemical properties were investigated in a 'Hanfu' apple orchard located in a cold region. Four treatments were applied (weed mulching, rice straw mulching, corn straw mulching, and crushed branches mulching), and physical-chemical properties, including orchard soil moisture and nutrient contents, were compared among treatment groups and between organic matter-treated and untreated plots. The results showed that soil water content increased in the plots treated with organic matter mulching, especially in the arid season. Cover with organic matter mulch slowed the rate of soil temperature increase in spring, which was harmful to the early growth of fruit trees. Organic matter mulching treatments decreased the peak temperature of orchard soil in the summer and increased the minimum soil temperature in the fall. pH was increased in soils treated with organic matter mulching, especially in the corn straw mulching treatment, which occurred as a response to alleviating soil acidification to achieve near-neutral soil conditions. The soil organic matter increased to varying extents among treatment groups, with the highest increase observed in the weed mulching treatment. Overall, mulching increased alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium in the soil, but the alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen content in the rice straw mulching treatment was lower than that of the control.

  3. From planning to execution to the future: An overview of a concerted effort to enhance biological control in apple, pear, and walnut orchards in the western U.S.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We embarked on a large project designed to help enhance biological control in apple, pear and walnut orchards in the western U.S., where management programs are in the midst of a transition from older organo-phosphate insecticides to mating disruption and newer reduced risk insecticides. A “pesticid...

  4. The Inexhaustible Apple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Raymond; Lehman, Jeffrey R.

    1986-01-01

    Describes several hands-on science activities which focus on the use of apples. Suggests several ways of using apples to teach classification. Proposes a field trip to an orchard as a culminating activity. (TW)

  5. Characterization of fungi (Fusarium and Rhizoctonia) and oomycetes (Phytophthora and Pythium) associated with apple orchards in South Africa.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Several species of fungi and oomycetes including Fusarium, Rhizoctonia, Phytophthora and Pythium have been reported as root pathogens of apple where they contribute to a phenomenon known as apple replant disease. In South Africa, very little is known about the specific species in these genera and th...

  6. Developing kairomone-based lures and traps targeting female Spilonota ocellana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in apple orchards treated with ex pheromones

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Spilonota ocellana (Denis and Schiffermüller) can be a serious pest of organic apples in British Columbia. Recent discovery that S. ocellana moths are attracted by a lure combining acetic acid (AA) and benzyl nitrile (BN), a caterpillar-induced apple leaf volatile, provides an opportunity to develo...

  7. Response of microbial communities from an apple orchard and grassland soils to the first-time application of the fungicide tetraconazole.

    PubMed

    Sułowicz, Sławomir; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the impact of the triazole fungicide tetraconazole applied at the field rate (FR) and at ten-fold the FR (10FR) on microorganisms in orchard soil with a long-term history of fungicides application and in grassland soil that had not previously been treated with pesticides. To ascertain this impact, the microbial activity determined by fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis, the culturable number of bacteria, fungi and tetraconazole-resistant fungi, and the phospholipid microbial biomass and the structural and functional biodiversity assessed by the PLFA and Biolog approaches, respectively, were examined under laboratory conditions during 28-day experiment. The response of soil microorganisms to the fungicide tetraconazole, which had never been used before in these soils, depended on the management of the soils. In apple orchard soil that had been treated with FR or 10FR tetraconazole, a decrease in microbial activity was still observed on the 28th day after the application of the fungicide. In contrast, a significant impact of tetraconazole on the number of bacteria was still observed at the end of experiment in grassland soil. Results of principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that the application of tetraconazole significantly changed the structure of the microbial communities in the orchard soil. In addition, analysis of the Biolog profiles revealed a decrease in the catabolic activity of the microbial communities in grassland soil that had been treated with tetraconazole at both rates over time. The evaluation of the structural and functional diversity of microbial communities using PCA appears to be the most valuable monitoring tool for assessing the impact of tetraconazole application on soil microorganisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Field efficacy of entomopathogenic fungi and nematodes targeting caged last-instar plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Michigan cherry and apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Pereault, R J; Whalon, M E; Alston, D G

    2009-08-01

    The plum curculio (Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst) is a key pest of pome and stone fruit in eastern North America. We tested the efficacy of five pathogens over the course of three seasons in 10 Michigan apple and cherry orchards, with introductions of larvae to caged pots containing pathogen-treated soil. The nematode Steinernema riobrave was the most effective pathogen in the 2 yr it was tested, but only in soils with the highest sand content (81-88%) and when it was applied 1 h or 5 d after last instars of plum curculio. S. carpocapsae in an organic formulation was less effective, but significantly reduced plum curculio emergence in 1 yr of the study when applied 3 d before C. nenuphar larvae were introduced. Beauveria bassiana was effective in only 1 of the 3 yr it was tested, only in soils with lower sand content, and only when it was introduced within 1 h of plum curculio larvae. Metarhizium anisopliae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora were ineffective. Michigan orchards may require sprinkler irrigation coupled with precise timing recommendations and oviposition monitoring to enhance entomopathogen application efficacy against soil-dwelling last instars.

  9. Mass Release of Trichogramma evanescens and T. cacoeciae Can Reduce Damage by the Apple Codling Moth Cydia pomonella in Organic Orchards under Pheromone Disruption.

    PubMed

    Sigsgaard, Lene; Herz, Annette; Korsgaard, Maren; Wührer, Bernd

    2017-04-04

    Cydia pomonella is a major pest in apples in Denmark. Trichogramma spp. are known biocontrol agents of C. pomonella eggs and two naturally occurring species in Denmark, which are also both commercially available, were chosen for mass-release trials. Trichogramma evanescens, T. cacoeciae or a mix of the two species were evaluated for mass-release to control C. pomonella in two commercial organic apple orchards, one in 2012 and one in 2013, using a complete randomized block design. Pheromone disruption was used in both orchards, making the study one of the first to evaluate Trichogramma release under a mating disruption regime. Trichogramma activity was assessed using bait cards with Sitotroga cerealella eggs. The percent C. pomonella damaged fruit was recorded and the fruit yield was estimated. In 2012 cool and wet weather conditions resulted in low Trichogramma activity (<16% bait cards parasitized) and only T. evanescens was recovered from bait cards. The conditions in 2013 were warmer but T. evanescens was still >10 times more frequently found in bait cards than T. cacoeciae. There was a significant effect of the treatment and year (p = 0.009) and of the sampling period (p = 0.0008) on Trichogramma activity (proportion bait cards parasitized), with no significant difference between treatments in 2012. In 2013 the highest activity was found in T. evanescens and mixed treatments, in July reaching 69% and 47% bait cards parasitized, respectively. Fruit damage was highest in the control plots (7.1%) compared with Trichogramma treatments (T. evanescens 2.8%, T. cacoeciae 3.8%, mixed 3.3%) (p = 0.028). Yield did not differ significantly between treatments. In conclusion, Trichogramma mass release is a promising biocontrol method for use in the Danish climate, but further studies are needed regarding the performance of the two Trichogramma species (and potential other Trichogramma species) towards C. pomonella eggs in the field to identify the best biocontrol candidate.

  10. Impact of pest control strategies on the arthropodofauna living in bird nests built in nestboxes in pear and apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Roy, Lise; Bouvier, Jean-Charles; Lavigne, Claire; Galès, Mathieu; Buronfosse, Thierry

    2013-08-01

    Pesticide applications have a strong impact on biodiversity in agroecosystems. The present study aimed to assess the impact of pest control strategies on the arthropodofauna of Parus major nests built within nestboxes installed in orchards. Unlike many studied groups, these arthropod communities are not in direct contact with pesticide sprays (on account of their being sheltered by nestboxes) and are also unable to move away from the treated area. In this pilot study, we estimated the prevalence and the taxonomic and ecological diversities of arthropodofauna sampled in the nests and assessed the extent to which the whole and nest-specific arthropodofauna were affected by pest control strategies. Sixteen different insect and arachnid Primary Taxonomic Groups (PTGs, order level or below) were found in nests. The best represented PTGs (≥10% occurrence in years 2007 and 2008) were Psocoptera (Insecta, detritivorous/saprophagous), detritivorous/saprophagous Astigmata (Acari) and hematophagous Mesostigmata (Acari). Pest control strategies had a large impact on the prevalence of arthropods in nests, with higher proportions of nests hosting arthropods in organic orchards than in conventional orchards and with intermediate proportions in nests in Integrated Pest Management orchards. In contrast, pest control strategies had no significant effect on the composition of the arthropod communities when only nests hosting nidicolous arthropods were considered.

  11. Elucidating the Common Generalist Predators of Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in an Organic Apple Orchard Using Molecular Gut-Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Jason M.; Szendrei, Zsofia; Grieshop, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), plum curculio, is a serious direct pest of North American tree fruit including, apples, cherries, peaches and plums. Historically, organophosphate insecticides were used for control, but this tool is no longer registered for use in tree fruit. In addition, few organically approved insecticides are available for organic pest control and none have proven efficacy as this time. Therefore, promoting biological control in these systems is the next step, however, little is known about the biological control pathways in this system and how these are influenced by current mechanical and cultural practices required in organic systems. We used molecular gut-content analysis for testing field caught predators for feeding on plum curculio. During the study we monitored populations of plum curculio and the predator community in a production organic apple orchard. Predator populations varied over the season and contained a diverse assemblage of spiders and beetles. A total of 8% of all predators (eight Araneae, two Hemiptera, and six Coleoptera species) assayed for plum curculio predation were observed positive for the presence of plum curculio DNA in their guts, indicating that these species fed on plum curculio prior to collection Results indicate a number of biological control agents exist for this pest and this requires further study in relation to cultural practices. PMID:27348005

  12. Elucidating the Common Generalist Predators of Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in an Organic Apple Orchard Using Molecular Gut-Content Analysis.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jason M; Szendrei, Zsofia; Grieshop, Matthew

    2016-06-24

    Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), plum curculio, is a serious direct pest of North American tree fruit including, apples, cherries, peaches and plums. Historically, organophosphate insecticides were used for control, but this tool is no longer registered for use in tree fruit. In addition, few organically approved insecticides are available for organic pest control and none have proven efficacy as this time. Therefore, promoting biological control in these systems is the next step, however, little is known about the biological control pathways in this system and how these are influenced by current mechanical and cultural practices required in organic systems. We used molecular gut-content analysis for testing field caught predators for feeding on plum curculio. During the study we monitored populations of plum curculio and the predator community in a production organic apple orchard. Predator populations varied over the season and contained a diverse assemblage of spiders and beetles. A total of 8% of all predators (eight Araneae, two Hemiptera, and six Coleoptera species) assayed for plum curculio predation were observed positive for the presence of plum curculio DNA in their guts, indicating that these species fed on plum curculio prior to collection Results indicate a number of biological control agents exist for this pest and this requires further study in relation to cultural practices.

  13. Net primary productivity, allocation pattern and carbon use efficiency in an apple orchard assessed by integrating eddy covariance, biometric and continuous soil chamber measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanotelli, D.; Montagnani, L.; Manca, G.; Tagliavini, M.

    2013-05-01

    Carbon use efficiency (CUE), the ratio of net primary production (NPP) over gross primary production (GPP), is a functional parameter that could possibly link the current increasingly accurate global GPP estimates with those of net ecosystem exchange, for which global predictors are still unavailable. Nevertheless, CUE estimates are actually available for only a few ecosystem types, while information regarding agro-ecosystems is scarce, in spite of the simplified spatial structure of these ecosystems that facilitates studies on allocation patterns and temporal growth dynamics. We combined three largely deployed methods, eddy covariance, soil respiration and biometric measurements, to assess monthly values of CUE, NPP and allocation patterns in different plant organs in an apple orchard during a complete year (2010). We applied a measurement protocol optimized for quantifying monthly values of carbon fluxes in this ecosystem type, which allows for a cross check between estimates obtained from different methods. We also attributed NPP components to standing biomass increments, detritus cycle feeding and lateral exports. We found that in the apple orchard, both net ecosystem production and gross primary production on a yearly basis, 380 ± 30 g C m-2 and 1263 ± 189 g C m-2 respectively, were of a magnitude comparable to those of natural forests growing in similar climate conditions. The largest differences with respect to forests are in the allocation pattern and in the fate of produced biomass. The carbon sequestered from the atmosphere was largely allocated to production of fruit: 49% of annual NPP was taken away from the ecosystem through apple production. Organic material (leaves, fine root litter, pruned wood and early fruit falls) contributing to the detritus cycle was 46% of the NPP. Only 5% was attributable to standing biomass increment, while this NPP component is generally the largest in forests. The CUE, with an annual average of 0.71 ± 0.12, was higher

  14. Gendered vulnerabilities and grassroots adaptation initiatives in home gardens and small orchards in Northwest Mexico.

    PubMed

    Buechler, Stephanie

    2016-12-01

    With the retreat of the state under neoliberalism, the lack of (or negligible) government and non-governmental support reasserts grassroots initiatives as a global-change strategy. A feminist political ecology approach and the concept of adverse inclusion were used to facilitate an analysis of social differences shaping local-level adaptive responses. Adaptive responses of small farmers in the border village of San Ignacio, Sonora, Mexico, who are increasingly vulnerable to climate change, water scarcity, and changing labor markets were studied. Gender differences in production sites translate into diverse vulnerabilities and adaptive strategies. Local capacities and initiatives should be a focus of research and policy to avoid viewing women and men as passive in the face of global change. The dynamic strategies of San Ignacio women and men in home gardens and small orchards hold lessons for other regions particularly related to adaptation to climate change via agrobiodiversity, water resource management, and diversified agricultural livelihoods.

  15. First report of apple (Malus sylvestris) as a host of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma pruni’in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During a survey of Pennsylvania fruit tree orchards in 2013-2015, some apple trees were found to exhibit abnormally small fruits, clumps of small leaves, blind wood, or premature reddening and curling of leaves. DNA was extracted from symptomatic leaves collected from three apple trees, and the DN...

  16. Spatially explicit exposure assessment for small streams in catchments of the orchard growing region `Lake Constance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golla, B.; Bach, M.; Krumpe, J.

    2009-04-01

    1. Introduction Small streams differ greatly from the standardised water body used in the context of aquatic risk assessment for the regulation of plant protection products in Germany. The standard water body is static, with a depth of 0.3 m and a width of 1.0 m. No dilution or water replacement takes place. Spray drift happens always in direction to the water body. There is no variability in drift deposition rate (90th percentile spray drift deposition values [2]). There is no spray drift filtering by vegetation. The application takes place directly adjacent to the water body. In order to establish a more realistic risk assessment procedure the Federal Office for Consumer Protection and Food Safety (BVL) and the Federal Environment Agency (UBA) aggreed to replace deterministic assumptions with data distributions and spatially explicit data and introduce probabilistic methods [3, 4, 5]. To consider the spatial and temporal variability in the exposure situations of small streams the hydraulic and morphological characteristics of catchments need to be described as well as the spatial distribution of fields treated with pesticides. As small streams are the dominant type of water body in most German orchard regions, we use the growing region Lake Constance as pilot region. 2. Materials and methods During field surveys we derive basic morphological parameters for small streams in the Lake Constance region. The mean water width/depth ratio is 13 with a mean depth of 0.12 m. The average residence time is 5.6 s/m (n=87) [1]. Orchards are mostly located in the upper parts of the catchments. Based on an authoritative dataset on rivers and streams of Germany (ATKIS DLM25) we constructed a directed network topology for the Lake Constance region. The gradient of the riverbed is calculated for river stretches of > 500 m length. The network for the pilot region consists of 2000 km rivers and streams. 500 km stream length are located within a distance of 150 m to orchards. Within

  17. Comparison of female attractiveness and male response among populations of Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) in western and eastern U.S. apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Stelinski, L L; McKenzie, D; Gut, L J; Isaacs, R; Brunner, J

    2007-10-01

    Female obliquebanded leafrollers, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris), collected from Oregon, Michigan, and New York were deployed in delta traps in Michigan apple orchards to compare their relative attractiveness to Michigan males of the same species. Females originating from Oregon attracted more males than females originating from New York during both generations of leafroller flight in Michigan. Also, females from Oregon attracted more males in Michigan than did "native" Michigan females during the first generation of flight. Analysis of gland extracts from the three populations revealed significantly more of each pheromone component in females originating from Oregon (approximately nine-fold more pheromone per female overall) than those from Michigan. However, there were no significant differences in the relative amounts of each pheromone component between Oregon and Michigan females. A 100:4:5:2 blend of Z11-14:OAc, E11-14:OAc, Z11-14:OH, and Z11-14:Ald was optimal for catching males in Michigan with no added or detrimental effect of Z11-14:Ald, confirming previous studies. However, 100:1 ratios of Z11-14:OAc relative to either E11-14:OAc or Z11-14:OH (also containing 2% Z11-14:Ald) captured more males in Oregon apple orchards compared with 100:4 and 100:10 ratios of Z11-14:OAc relative to either E11-14:OAc or Z11-14:OH. Addition of increasing amounts of Z11-14:Ald relative to Z11-14:OAc (range, 0-8:100) into a blend also containing 4% E11-14:OAc and 5% Z11-14:OH increased male catch in Oregon but not in Michigan. Our results suggest that pheromone blend quantity rather than blend quality may explain greater attractiveness of western compared with eastern female C. rosaceana to males in Michigan. Also, an optimized generic blend for monitoring male C. rosaceana across North America should contain Z11-14:Ald as has been previously shown, but should not exceed 4:100 ratios of both E11-14:OAc and Z11-14:OH relative to Z11-14:OAc for optimized catch of males in the

  18. Stress and immune responses of nestling tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) exposed to nonpersistent pesticides and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene in apple orchards of southern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Mayne, Gregory J; Martin, Pamela A; Bishop, Christine A; Boermans, Herman J

    2004-12-01

    To determine the relative effects of pesticides in current use and persistent residues of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), we examined endocrine and immune responses in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) and eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis) chicks from pesticide-sprayed apple orchards and reference sites in southern Ontario, Canada, during 2000 to 2001. Nests were exposed to as many as seven individual pesticide applications and up to five mixtures of pesticides during the egg-incubation and chick-rearing stage. Eggs collected from sprayed orchards contained higher p,p'-DDE concentrations than eggs from reference sites. In 16-d-old tree swallows, no significant differences were found in body mass, basal corticosterone concentration, or the corticosterone stress response following a 10-min restraint of chicks sampled from sprayed orchards and reference sites. Challenge with adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), however, produced a higher level of corticosterone secretion in tree swallow chicks from sprayed orchards relative to chicks from reference sites. Multiple regression analysis revealed no correlation between corticosterone concentrations and exposure to pesticide sprays or p,p'-DDE in tree swallow chicks. In contrast, bluebird chicks from sprayed orchards were less responsive to challenge with ACTH and a significant negative association was found between the response to ACTH challenge and p,p'-DDE concentration in eggs. The phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity response was similar between exposure groups in both tree swallow and bluebird nestlings. Examination of immune organs revealed that tree swallow chicks from sprayed orchards had significantly greater thymic lymphocyte density and cortical/ medullary ratios and significant splenic B-cell hyperplasia relative to reference chicks. Our results indicate that modulation in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in songbird chicks tested are most associated

  19. Quantitative relationships between different injury factors and development of brown rot caused by Monilinia fructigena in integrated and organic apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Holb, I J; Scherm, H

    2008-01-01

    In a 4-year study, the incidence of various types of injuries (caused by insects, birds, growth cracks, mechanical wounding, and other, unidentified factors) was assessed in relation to brown rot development (caused by Monilinia fructigena) on fruit of three apple cultivars (Prima, Jonathan, and Mutsu) in integrated and organic blocks of two apple orchards in Hungary. In addition, populations of male codling moths (Cydia pomonella) were monitored with pheromone traps season-long in both management systems. On average, injury incidence on fruit at harvest was 6.1 and 19.2% in the integrated and organic treatments, respectively. Insect injury, which was caused primarily by C. pomonella, had the highest incidence among the five injury types, accounting for 79.4% of the total injury by harvest in the organic blocks and 36.6% in the integrated blocks. Levels of all other injury types remained close to zero during most of the season, but the incidence of bird injury and growth cracks increased markedly in the final 3 to 5 weeks before harvest in both production systems. Brown rot developed more slowly and reached a lower incidence in the integrated (6.4% final incidence on average) compared with the organic blocks (20.1% average incidence). In addition, the disease developed later but attained higher levels as the cultivar ripening season increased from early-maturing Prima to late-maturing Mutsu. Overall, 94.3 to 98.7% of all injured fruit were also infected by M. fructigena, whereas the incidence of brown-rotted fruit without visible injury was very low (0.8 to 1.6%). Correlation coefficients (on a per plot basis) and association indices (on a per-fruit basis) were calculated between brown rot and the various injury types for two selected assessment dates 4 weeks preharvest and at harvest. At both dates, the strongest significant (P < 0.05) relationships were observed between brown rot and insect injury and between brown rot and the cumulative number of trapped C

  20. Probabilistic Exposure Assessment for Applicators during Treatment of the Fungicide Kresoxim-methyl on an Apple Orchard by a Speed Sprayer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunhye; Moon, Joon-Kwan; Choi, Hoon; Kim, Jeong-Han

    2015-12-09

    Probabilistic exposure and risk assessment of kresoxim-methyl were conducted for agricultural applicators during preparation of spray suspension and application with a speed sprayer on an apple orchard. The preparation and application of 1000 L of spray suspension were repeated 30 times. Several exposure matrices, including patches, cotton gloves, socks, masks, and XAD-2 resin, were used to measure the potential exposure for workers. The analytical methods were fully validated to guarantee the precision and accuracy of analysis. The exposure amount on hands for mixer/loader was 0.7 mg [95% confidence interval (CI) from 0.02 to 2.4], taking 0.0005% (95% CI from 1.2 × 10(-5) to 0.001) of total prepared active ingredient. During application of kresoxim-methyl, the amount of dermal exposure was 17.5 mg (95% CI from 9.3 to 28.9), corresponding to 0.010% (95% CI from 0.006 to 0.017) of total applied active ingredient. The major exposure parts of the body were thighs and shins, with correlation coefficients of 0.53 and 0.43, respectively. The inhalation exposure during application were estimated as 6.8 ng (95% CI from 0.4 to 17.0), being 0.04% (95% CI from 0.004 to 0.06) of the dermal exposure. The calculated absorbable quantities of exposures for mixer/loader and applicator were 2.1 × 10(-4) mg/day (95% CI from 5.0 × 10(-6) to 7.2 × 10(-4)) and 2.3 mg/day (95% CI from 1.2 to 3.8), respectively. For risk assessment, the margin of safety of all working activities was much higher than 1, indicating that the possibility of risk to kresoxim-methyl was unlikely.

  1. The effects of orchard pesticide applications on breeding robins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, E.V.; Mack, G.L.; Thompson, D.Q.

    1976-01-01

    From 1966 through 1968, robins reproduced successfully in commercial apple orchards which were periodically sprayed with DDT, dieldrin, and other pesticides. Observations by a Z-man team using walkie-talkies revealed that breeding robins obtained essentially all food for themselves and nestlings from unsprayed areas adjacent to the orchards. Invertebrate trapping in sprayed and unsprayed areas showed that these food items were 5 or 6 times more abundant in unsprayed habitat. Worms forced to live in sprayed orchard soil displayed significantly greater mortality than controls. Mean robin clutch sizes in the study orchards were lower than those reported for robins in other studies, perhaps because of food shortage and/or increased foraging distances. Levels of DDT and its analogs in food items from robin foraging areas did not exceed 8 ppm wet weight basis. From late April to July, adult robins showed small but significant increases in DDE levels in all tissues examined, as well as an increase in dieldrin in brains. Pesticides sprayed on the farm had no direct demonstrable adverse effects on the robins; productivity was high and adult mortality low. The situation was in large measure fortuitous, since any changes in orchard management practices which resulted in the presence or availability of invertebrates under orchard trees would be expected to result in robin mortality and/or reduced breeding success.

  2. Study of bio-fabrication of iron nanoparticles and their fungicidal property against phytopathogens of apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Hilal; Rajagopal, Kalyanaraman; Shah, Ashiq Hussain; Bhat, Arif Hussain; Venugopal, Kalyanaraman

    2017-04-01

    Current research trends on iron nanoparticles (FeNPs) are extensively focused because of their unique magnetic and electrical properties mostly applicable in essential medical devices. However, their fungicidal property against plant pathogens is very less known until date. Present study demonstrates a green technique for blending of FeNPs by utilising aqueous extract of neem leaf (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) as reducing agent. Various characterisation techniques such as ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were performed for FeNPs. The authors' results demonstrate the more cluster formation of FeNPs with size distribution of 20-80 nm. The bio-fabricated FeNPs showed enhanced biocidal activity against economically important phytopathogens of apple such as Alternaria mali, Botryosphaeria dothidea and Diplodia seriata. From the obtained results, it can be suggested that further delve into green synthesis of FeNPs can address future biotechnology concerns to limit the synthesis of FeNPs by conventional methods. Furthermore, the field study on pathogenic fungi can be an effective step to verify their agricultural applications.

  3. Evaluating systemic semi-selective chemicals for the management of apple replant disease in fumigated and non-fumigated orchards systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apple Replant Disease (ARD) is a phenomenon where apple trees are stunted when replanted onto old apple soil, as the result of apple monoculture resulting in soil microbial changes where pathogenic and parasitic organism s predominate. The main soilborne organisms that cause ARD include oomycetes, f...

  4. Effects of aerial applications of esfenvalerate on small mammals and birds in Douglas-fir seed orchards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Henny, C.J.; Rice, C.P.; Grove, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    Although no adverse effects were documented, this study did not provide data sufficient to adequately test for effects of aerial spraying of esfenvalerate on small mammal populations or nesting of birds in Douglas-fir seed orchards. Small mammal trapping data were too sparse to provide statistical testing with reasonable power. Residues of the R and S forms of fenvalerate were low with maxima of 0.56 and 1.72 ?g/g, respectively in pelage of a deer mouse. No diagnostic residue data are available to interpret our results.

  5. Efficacy of sanitation and cleaning methods in a small apple cider mill.

    PubMed

    Keller, Susanne E; Merker, Robert I; Taylor, Kirk T; Tan, Hsu Ling; Melvin, Cathy D; Chirtel, Stuart J; Miller, Arthur J

    2002-06-01

    The efficacy of cleaning and sanitation in a small apple cider processing plant was evaluated by surface swab methods as well as microbiological examination of incoming raw ingredients and of the final product. Surface swabs revealed that hard-to-clean areas such as apple mills or tubing for pomace and juice transfer may continue to harbor contaminants even after cleaning and sanitation. Use of poor quality ingredients and poor sanitation led to an increase of approximately 2 logs in aerobic plate counts of the final product. Reuse of uncleaned press cloths contributed to increased microbiological counts in the finished juice. Finally, using apples inoculated with Escherichia coli K-12 in the plant resulted in an established population within the plant that was not removed during normal cleaning and sanitation. The data presented in this study suggest that current sanitary practices within a typical small cider facility are insufficient to remove potential pathogens.

  6. Modeling of water management and hydrological properties of orchards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, A.; Tamás, J.; Soltész, M.

    2012-04-01

    Our investigation was carried out at an micro-irrigated intensive apple orchard in Eastern part of Hungary and an 80 hectare Bosc and Williams pear orchard in the South Western part of Hungary. in 2010. The aims of the study were to monitor the effect of a compacted layer and soil physical parameters on soil water regime, supporting the water management of the orchard on hillsides and to reduce the effect of high precipitation intensity on orchards. The total drainable water regime is 920 m3 ha-1 from the upper 40cm soil layer and 1460 m3 ha-1 from the upper 70 cm soil layer. This amount of water should have been drained several times in 2010 to prevent the orchard from the negative effect of surplus water. Since the conventional horizontal drainage system can damage the present apple orchard significantly, the harmful surplus water can be infiltrated by the loosening of the compacted soil layer in the 50-70 cm depth or led off by vertical drainage. Therefore one, solo knife coulter is suggested to use at 80-90cm depth. In the case of the hillside a possible replantation of the orchard, pear trees should be planted along the contour lines, so as to avoid erosion and tree damage caused by water erosion. The irrigation of the orchard would be much easier in this case due to better establishment of the irrigation system and lower pipe-line pressure lost. To decrease the effect of erosion, the levels of the existing farm tracks have to be developed with reverse gradient. With the present situation, distributing small dosse of fertilizer should be utilized at the ridge spots, while in the case of convex parts of the valley, smaller doses of nutrients should be used. These digital data can be the basis for a precision spatial decision support system. This research was funded by TECH_08-A3/2-2008-0373 and TECH_08-A4/2-2008-0138 projects.

  7. Oviposition preference of Oriental fruit moth [Grapholita molesta (Busck), Lepidoptera: Tortricidae] for apple cultivars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oviposition preferences and apple cultivar selection by fruit pests may impact integrated pest management in apple orchards. Experiments were conducted to study oviposition preferences of Oriental fruit moth ( Grapholita molesta [Busck], Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on ten commercially important apple ...

  8. Effect of insecticide regimens on biological control of Lygus lineolaris (Hemiptera: Miridae) by Peristenus spp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in New York apple orchards

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apple producers in New York state and the northeastern US have formidable pest and disease pressures and utilize a range of chemical regimens that rely heavily on broad-spectrum organophosphate, carbamate, and pyrethroid insecticides. The tarnished plant bug Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), a...

  9. Susceptibility in field populations of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in Ontario and Quebec apple orchards to a selection of insecticides.

    PubMed

    Grigg-McGuffin, Kristy; Scott, Ian M; Bellerose, Sylvie; Chouinard, Gérald; Cormier, Daniel; Scott-Dupree, Cynthia

    2015-02-01

    Codling moth is a major pest of pome fruit worldwide. Insecticide resistance has become a widespread pest management issue. However, the current status of insecticide resistance in Ontario and Quebec codling moth populations is unknown. Codling moth populations were collected from 27 orchards in Ontario and Quebec from 2008 to 2010. A series of laboratory bioassays were performed to establish baseline susceptibility of adults and larvae to azinphos-methyl, thiacloprid, chlorantraniliprole and methoxyfenozide. Adult codling moth percentage mortality ranged from 22 to 97% and from 21 to 85% when exposed to topical bioassays using azinphos-methyl and thiacloprid respectively. Azinphos-methyl LC50 values from three selected orchards were ca fivefold greater than those from an insecticide-susceptible population. Neonate larva percentage mortality ranged from 5 to 50%, from 15 to 65%, from 90 to 100% and from 10 to 40% when exposed to diet bioassays using azinphos-methyl, thiacloprid, chlorantraniliprole and methoxyfenozide respectively. Based on the response of the field-collected populations, resistance development to some registered insecticides was evident in some Ontario and Quebec populations. With the present status of insecticide resistance documented in these regions, modifications to codling moth management strategies should be initiated before changes in field efficacy occur. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. [Effect of ground mulch managements on soil bacterial community structure and diversity in the non-irrigated apple orchard in Weibei Loess Plateau].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuexing; Wen, Xiaoxia; Sun, Yulin; Zhang, Junli; Lin, Xiaoli; Liao, Yuncheng

    2015-07-04

    We studied the changes in soil bacterial communities induced by ground mulch managements at different apple growth periods. We adopted the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) with PCR-amplified 16S rRNA fragments to determine soil bacterial community structure and diversity. Soil bacterial community structure with different ground mulch managements were significantly different. Both the mulch management strategies and apple growth periods affected the predominant groups and their abundance in soil bacterial communities. Grass mulch and cornstalk mulch treatments had higher bacterial diversity and richness than the control at young fruit period and fruit expanding period, whereas film mulch treatment had no significant difference compared with the control. During mature period, bacterial diversity in the control reached its maximum, which may be ascribed to the rapid growth and reproduction of the r-selection bacteria. The clustering and detrended correspondence analysis revealed that differences in soil bacterial communities were closely correlated to apple growth periods and ground mulch managements. Soil samples from the grass mulch and cornstalk mulch treatments clustered together while those mulched with plastic film treatment were similar to the control. The most abundant phylum in soil bacterial community was Proteobacteria followed by Bacteroidetes. Some other phyla were also detected, such as Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi. Mulching with plant (Grass/Cornstalk) had great effects on soil bacterial community structure and enhanced the diversity while film mulch management had no significant effects.

  11. Apple production and quality when cultivated under anti-hail cover in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Leosane Cristina; Bergamaschi, Homero; Cardoso, Loana Silveira; de Paula, Viviane Aires; Marodin, Gilmar Arduino Bettio; Nachtigall, Gilmar Ribeiro

    2015-07-01

    Anti-hail nets may change the microclimate of orchards and hence modify the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fruits. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of anti-hail nets on the physical, chemical, and sensory attributes of apples grown in southern Brazil. The study was conducted in commercial orchards, with apples grown under a black anti-hail net under an open sky during the 2008/2009, 2009/2010, and 2010/2011 cycles. Measurements of photosynthetically active radiation were collected at both sites. Physical, chemical, and sensory analyses of fruits were performed in the laboratory. The anti-hail net reduced incident photosynthetically active radiation by 32%. The light spectrum in the canopy changed the corresponding R/FR (red/far-red) ratio in the lower and upper canopy layers from 0.27 to 1.55, respectively. In contrast to the majority of microclimate studies carried out in the temperate zones of the northern hemisphere, this study in the southern hemisphere showed that although it reduced the incident solar radiation, the cover did not change the color or organoleptic characteristics of "Royal Gala" and "Fuji Suprema" apples. The net cover prolonged the subperiod between fruit setting and harvesting, thus slowing fruit ripening. Therefore, the use of anti-hail nets on apple orchards is a suitable alternative for the protection of apple trees against hail because it causes only small changes in the microclimate and in the maturation period, ensuring fruit production without affecting its quality.

  12. Apple production and quality when cultivated under anti-hail cover in Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosco, Leosane Cristina; Bergamaschi, Homero; Cardoso, Loana Silveira; de Paula, Viviane Aires; Marodin, Gilmar Arduino Bettio; Nachtigall, Gilmar Ribeiro

    2015-07-01

    Anti-hail nets may change the microclimate of orchards and hence modify the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fruits. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of anti-hail nets on the physical, chemical, and sensory attributes of apples grown in southern Brazil. The study was conducted in commercial orchards, with apples grown under a black anti-hail net under an open sky during the 2008/2009, 2009/2010, and 2010/2011 cycles. Measurements of photosynthetically active radiation were collected at both sites. Physical, chemical, and sensory analyses of fruits were performed in the laboratory. The anti-hail net reduced incident photosynthetically active radiation by 32 %. The light spectrum in the canopy changed the corresponding R/FR (red/far-red) ratio in the lower and upper canopy layers from 0.27 to 1.55, respectively. In contrast to the majority of microclimate studies carried out in the temperate zones of the northern hemisphere, this study in the southern hemisphere showed that although it reduced the incident solar radiation, the cover did not change the color or organoleptic characteristics of "Royal Gala" and "Fuji Suprema" apples. The net cover prolonged the subperiod between fruit setting and harvesting, thus slowing fruit ripening. Therefore, the use of anti-hail nets on apple orchards is a suitable alternative for the protection of apple trees against hail because it causes only small changes in the microclimate and in the maturation period, ensuring fruit production without affecting its quality.

  13. Traceability of different apple varieties by multivariate analysis of isotope ratio mass spectrometry data.

    PubMed

    Mimmo, Tanja; Camin, Federica; Bontempo, Luana; Capici, Calogero; Tagliavini, Massimo; Cesco, Stefano; Scampicchio, Matteo

    2015-11-15

    The awareness of customers of the origin of foods has become an important issue. The growing demand for foods that are healthy, safe and of high quality has increased the need for traceability and clear labelling. Thus, this study investigates the capability of C and N stable isotope ratios to determine the geographical origin of several apple varieties grown in northern Italy. Four apple varieties (Cripps Pink, Gala, Golden Delicious, Granny Smith) have been sampled in orchards located in the Districts of Bolzano, Ferrara, Verona and Udine (northern Italy). Carbon (δ(13) C) and nitrogen (δ(15) N) isotope values of the whole apple fruits and three sub-fractions (peel, pulp and seed) have been determined simultaneously by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The δ(13) C and δ(15) N values of apples and apple sub-fractions, such as peel, seed and pulp, were significantly affected by the geographical origin and the fruit variety. The four varieties could be distinguished to a certain extent only within each district. A 99% correct identification of the samples according to their origin was, however, achieved by cross validation with the 'leave-one-out' method. This study proves the potential of stable isotopes to discriminate the geographical origin of apples grown in orchards located only a few hundreds of kilometres apart. Stable isotopes were also able to discriminate different apple varieties, although only within small geographical areas. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Microbial control of insect pests in temperate orchard systems: potential for incorporation into IPM.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Lawrence A; Shapiro-Ilan, David I

    2008-01-01

    Because of their selectivity and safety, microbial control agents (MCAs) appear to be ready-made components of integrated pest management (IPM) systems that do not pose a threat to applicators or the environment and allow other natural enemies to function. Control of several orchard pest insects using MCAs, including viruses, Bacillus thuringiensis, fungi, and entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs), have been demonstrated in apple, pear, stone fruits, citrus, and several nut crops. B. thuringiensis is the most used MCA for control of lepidopteran orchard pests. Significant use of EPNs in citrus for control of root weevils is also reported. The granulovirus of codling moth is used increasingly in apple and pear by organic growers, with interest also shown by conventional growers. Although some success has been achieved, in most orchard systems MCAs account for a relatively small proportion of the pest control tactics employed, and in some systems they are not used at all. Research toward improving MCA efficacy and economic competitiveness is required to enhance the role of MCAs in IPM.

  15. The vulnerability of US apple (Malus) genetic resources

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apple is one of the top three U.S. fruit crops in production and value. Apple production has high costs for land, labor and inputs, and orchards are a long-term commitment. Production is dominated by only a few apple scion cultivars and rootstocks, which increases susceptibility to dynamic external ...

  16. Identification of external inoculum sources of apple replant pathogens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apple replant disease (ARD) is an important disease world-wide and occurs when old apple orchards are replanted with apple. The disease is mainly caused by biological agents, since fumigation alleviates symptom development. The main ARD causative agents are fungi (Rhizoctonia solani AG-5 and AG-6, a...

  17. Lead in tissue of cats fed pine voles from lead arsenate-treated orchards

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmartin, J.E.; Alo, D.K.; Richmond, M.E.; Bache, C.A.; Lisk, D.J.

    1985-02-01

    Lead arsenate has been used for many years for control of insects in apple orchards in the United States. In an earlier study, it was shown that such orchard soils may contain very high concentrations of lead and that orchards voles and mice inhibating such soils accumulate inordinately high levels of lead. It is of interest to learn the possible extent of deposition of lead in higher carnivores that may consume such orchard animals. In the work reported, cats were fed pine voles (Microtus pinetorum) captured in lead arsenate-treated orchards located in the vicinity of New Paltz, New York. Following sacrifice, the lead content of cat tissues was determined.

  18. 7 CFR 319.56-22 - Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... following conditions are met: (1) Officials of the NPPO must survey each orchard producing apples or pears... officials find any leaf miners that suggest the presence of Leucoptera malifoliella in an orchard, the officials must reject any fruit harvested from that orchard during that growing season for shipment to the...

  19. Effects of apple (Malus x domestica) rootstocks on scion performance and hormone concentration

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rootstocks can influence the productivity and profitability of an orchard in a very significant way. Dwarfing rootstocks had a large impact in making possible the high-density orchards that have been planted during the last 15 years. However, there is a serious threat to high-density apple orchards,...

  20. Arsenic Recovery by Stinging Nettle From Lead-Arsenate Contaminated Orchard Soils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil contamination with arsenic (As) is common in orchards with a history of lead-arsenate pesticide application. This problem is prevalent in the U.S. Northeast where lead-arsenate foliar sprays were used to control codling moth (Cydia pomonella) in apple orchards. Arsenic is not easily biodegrad...

  1. A Museum Grows in an Apple Orchard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svenning, Mary Ann

    2004-01-01

    The new Eric Carle Museum of Picture Book Art in Amherst, Massachusetts, is a tribute to the artistry of children's book illustration and a testament to the generous spirit of its founders and main benefactors, Eric Carle and his wife Barbara. Eric Carle is world-known for his boldly illustrated, cleverly designed picture books for children. His…

  2. A Museum Grows in an Apple Orchard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svenning, Mary Ann

    2004-01-01

    The new Eric Carle Museum of Picture Book Art in Amherst, Massachusetts, is a tribute to the artistry of children's book illustration and a testament to the generous spirit of its founders and main benefactors, Eric Carle and his wife Barbara. Eric Carle is world-known for his boldly illustrated, cleverly designed picture books for children. His…

  3. Small RNA-Sequencing Links Physiological Changes and RdDM Process to Vegetative-to-Floral Transition in Apple

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xinwei; Ma, Zeyang; Zhang, Zhonghui; Cheng, Lailiang; Zhang, Xiuren; Li, Tianhong

    2017-01-01

    Transition from vegetative to floral buds is a critical physiological change during flower induction that determines fruit productivity. Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) including microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are pivotal regulators of plant growth and development. Although the key role of sRNAs in flowering regulation has been well-described in Arabidopsis and some other annual plants, their relevance to vegetative-to-floral transition (hereafter, referred to floral transition) in perennial woody trees remains under defined. Here, we performed Illumina sequencing of sRNA libraries prepared from vegetative and floral bud during flower induction of the apple trees. A large number of sRNAs exemplified by 33 previously annotated miRNAs and six novel members display significant differential expression (DE) patterns. Notably, most of these DE-miRNAs in floral transition displayed opposite expression changes in reported phase transition in apple trees. Bioinformatics analysis suggests most of the DE-miRNAs targeted transcripts involved in SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) gene regulation, stress responses, and auxin and gibberellin (GA) pathways, with further suggestion that there is an inherent link between physiological stress response and metabolism reprogramming during floral transition. We also observed significant changes in 24 nucleotide (nt) sRNAs that are hallmarks for RNA-dependent DNA methylation (RdDM) pathway, suggestive of the correlation between epigenetic modifications and the floral transition. The study not only provides new insight into our understanding of fundamental mechanism of poorly studied floral transition in apple and other woody plants, but also presents important sRNA resource for future in-depth research in the apple flowering physiology. PMID:28611800

  4. Generating pseudo large footprint waveforms from small footprint full-waveform airborne LiDAR data for the layered retrieval of LAI in orchards.

    PubMed

    Li, Wang; Niu, Zheng; Li, Jing; Chen, Hanyue; Gao, Shuai; Wu, Mingquan; Li, Dong

    2016-05-02

    Leaf area index (LAI) is a key parameter for the study of biogeochemical cycles in ecosystems. Remote sensing techniques have been widely used to estimate LAIs in a wide range of vegetation types. However, limited by the sensor detection capability, considerable fewer studies investigated the layered estimation of LAIs in the vertical direction, which can significantly affect the precision evaluation of vegetation biophysical and biochemical processes. This study tried to generate a kind of pseudo large footprint waveform from the small footprint full-waveform airborne LiDAR data by an aggregation approach. The layered distribution of canopy heights and LAIs were successfully retrieved based on the large footprint waveform data in an agricultural landscape of orchards with typical multi-layer vegetation covers. The Gaussian fitting was conducted on the normalized large footprint waveforms to identify the vertical positions for different vegetation layers. Then, the gap theory was applied to retrieve the layered LAIs. Statistically significant simple linear regression models were fitted between the LiDAR-retrieved and field-observed values for the canopy heights and LAIs in different layers. Satisfactory results were obtained with a root mean square error of 0.36 m for the overstorey canopy height (R2 = 0.82), 0.29 m for the understory canopy height (R2 = 0.76), 0.28 for overstorey LAI (R2 = 0.75), 0.40 for understory LAI (R2 = 0.64), and 0.38 for total LAI (R2 = 0.69), respectively. To conclude, estimating the layered LAIs in the multi-layer agriculture orchards from the pseudo large footprint waveforms is feasible and the estimation errors are acceptable, which will provide some new ideas and methods for the quantitative remote sensing with vegetation.

  5. Lead and Arsenic Uptake by Carrots Grown on Five Orchard Soils With History of Lead Arsenate Used

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lead arsenate was used to control codling moth in apple and plum orchards from 1900 to 1960. Consequently, many orchard soils are contaminated with lead (Pb) and arsenic (As). Some of these lands are being used for urban development and vegetable crop production. Both soil Pb and As have become i...

  6. Effect of flooding lead-arsenate contaminated orchard soil on growth, arsenic and lead accumulation in rice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lead-arsenate has been used as a pesticide in controlling codling moth (Cydia pomonella) in apple and plum orchards from 1900-1960. As a result, many old orchards contain high levels of arsenic. Flooding soils contaminated by lead-arsenate could increase plant arsenic and lead and become a human h...

  7. A multiple reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay for simultaneous detection and differentiation of latent viruses and apscarviroids in apple trees

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), and Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV) are three latent viruses frequently occurring in apple trees worldwide. In field orchards, these viruses are frequently found in a mixed infection with viroids in the genus Apscarviroid, in...

  8. Deep Sequencing Analysis of Apple Infecting Viruses in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cho, In-Sook; Igori, Davaajargal; Lim, Seungmo; Choi, Gug-Seoun; Hammond, John; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Moon, Jae Sun

    2016-01-01

    Deep sequencing has generated 52 contigs derived from five viruses; Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), Apple green crinkle associated virus (AGCaV), and Apricot latent virus (ApLV) were identified from eight apple samples showing small leaves and/or growth retardation. Nucleotide (nt) sequence identity of the assembled contigs was from 68% to 99% compared to the reference sequences of the five respective viral genomes. Sequences of ASPV and ASGV were the most abundantly represented by the 52 contigs assembled. The presence of the five viruses in the samples was confirmed by RT-PCR using specific primers based on the sequences of each assembled contig. All five viruses were detected in three of the samples, whereas all samples had mixed infections with at least two viruses. The most frequently detected virus was ASPV, followed by ASGV, ApLV, ACLSV, and AGCaV which were withal found in mixed infections in the tested samples. AGCaV was identified in assembled contigs ID 1012480 and 93549, which showed 82% and 78% nt sequence identity with ORF1 of AGCaV isolate Aurora-1. ApLV was identified in three assembled contigs, ID 65587, 1802365, and 116777, which showed 77%, 78%, and 76% nt sequence identity respectively with ORF1 of ApLV isolate LA2. Deep sequencing assay was shown to be a valuable and powerful tool for detection and identification of known and unknown virome in infected apple trees, here identifying ApLV and AGCaV in commercial orchards in Korea for the first time. PMID:27721694

  9. Deep Sequencing Analysis of Apple Infecting Viruses in Korea.

    PubMed

    Cho, In-Sook; Igori, Davaajargal; Lim, Seungmo; Choi, Gug-Seoun; Hammond, John; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Moon, Jae Sun

    2016-10-01

    Deep sequencing has generated 52 contigs derived from five viruses; Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), Apple green crinkle associated virus (AGCaV), and Apricot latent virus (ApLV) were identified from eight apple samples showing small leaves and/or growth retardation. Nucleotide (nt) sequence identity of the assembled contigs was from 68% to 99% compared to the reference sequences of the five respective viral genomes. Sequences of ASPV and ASGV were the most abundantly represented by the 52 contigs assembled. The presence of the five viruses in the samples was confirmed by RT-PCR using specific primers based on the sequences of each assembled contig. All five viruses were detected in three of the samples, whereas all samples had mixed infections with at least two viruses. The most frequently detected virus was ASPV, followed by ASGV, ApLV, ACLSV, and AGCaV which were withal found in mixed infections in the tested samples. AGCaV was identified in assembled contigs ID 1012480 and 93549, which showed 82% and 78% nt sequence identity with ORF1 of AGCaV isolate Aurora-1. ApLV was identified in three assembled contigs, ID 65587, 1802365, and 116777, which showed 77%, 78%, and 76% nt sequence identity respectively with ORF1 of ApLV isolate LA2. Deep sequencing assay was shown to be a valuable and powerful tool for detection and identification of known and unknown virome in infected apple trees, here identifying ApLV and AGCaV in commercial orchards in Korea for the first time.

  10. [Toxicity and apple production in southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Klanovicz, Jó

    2010-03-01

    The article explores the links between the controversial apprehension of contaminated apples in southern Brazil in 1989 and the reactions of the apple industry to press reports on the use of pesticides in Brazilian orchards. The issue is framed within a broader analysis of the notions of toxicity and 'danger' surrounding the consumption of healthier food and the idea of 'food security,' notions that have begun taking hold in public and private life. It is argued that apple growers' responses to the problem can be better understood through a historical reading of the interactions between the biology of the apple tree, the agroecology of this monoculture, and the structures, actors, and discourses of the human and non-human groups in Brazil's apple-producing region.

  11. Determination of copper in clarified apple juices.

    PubMed

    Zeiner, Michaela; Juranović Cindrić, Iva; Kröppl, Michaela; Stingeder, Gerhard

    2010-03-24

    Inorganic copper compounds are not considered as synthetic fertilizers for apple trees as they are traditional fertilizers. Thus, they are used in organic farming for soil or foliar applications. The European Union is for health reasons interested in reducing copper in apple orchards. Because the fertilizer application rate affects the nutrition of apples, the applied copper might also be reflected in the copper concentration of apple juices. Thus, the determination of copper is of concern for investigating the application of copper-containing fertilizers. Samples of clarified apple juice commercially available in the European market were analyzed for their copper content. Prior to quantification by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, the juices were processed by a microwave-assisted digestion system using HNO(3). All samples were also measured directly after dilution with HNO(3). The copper concentrations measured using both methods were all below the limit of detection (17 microg/L).

  12. Programmable Ultrasonic Sensing System for Targeted Spraying in Orchards

    PubMed Central

    Stajnko, Denis; Berk, Peter; Lešnik, Mario; Jejčič, Viktor; Lakota, Miran; Štrancar, Andrej; Hočevar, Marko; Rakun, Jurij

    2012-01-01

    This research demonstrates the basic elements of a prototype automated orchard sprayer which delivers pesticide spray selectively with respect to the characteristics of the targets. The density of an apple tree canopy was detected by PROWAVE 400EP250 ultrasound sensors controlled by a Cypress PSOC CY8C29466 microcontroller. The ultrasound signal was processed with an embedded computer built around a LPC1343 microcontroller and fed in real time to electro-magnetic valves which open/close spraying nozzles in relation to the canopy structure. The analysis focuses on the detection of appropriate thresholds on 15 cm ultrasound bands, which correspond to maximal response to tree density, and this was selected for accurate spraying guidance. Evaluation of the system was performed in an apple orchard by detecting deposits of tartrazine dye (TD) on apple leaves. The employment of programmable microcontrollers and electro-magnetic valves decreased the amount of spray delivered by up to 48.15%. In contrast, the reduction of TD was only up to 37.7% at some positions within the tree crown and 65.1% in the gaps between trees. For all these reasons, this concept of precise orchard spraying can contribute to a reduction of costs and environmental pollution, while obtaining similar or even better leaf deposits. PMID:23202220

  13. Programmable ultrasonic sensing system for targeted spraying in orchards.

    PubMed

    Stajnko, Denis; Berk, Peter; Lešnik, Mario; Jejčič, Viktor; Lakota, Miran; Strancar, Andrej; Hočevar, Marko; Rakun, Jurij

    2012-11-09

    This research demonstrates the basic elements of a prototype automated orchard sprayer which delivers pesticide spray selectively with respect to the characteristics of the targets. The density of an apple tree canopy was detected by PROWAVE 400EP250 ultrasound sensors controlled by a Cypress PSOC CY8C29466 microcontroller. The ultrasound signal was processed with an embedded computer built around a LPC1343 microcontroller and fed in real time to electro-magnetic valves which open/close spraying nozzles in relation to the canopy structure. The analysis focuses on the detection of appropriate thresholds on 15 cm ultrasound bands, which correspond to maximal response to tree density, and this was selected for accurate spraying guidance. Evaluation of the system was performed in an apple orchard by detecting deposits of tartrazine dye (TD) on apple leaves. The employment of programmable microcontrollers and electro-magnetic valves decreased the amount of spray delivered by up to 48.15%. In contrast, the reduction of TD was only up to 37.7% at some positions within the tree crown and 65.1% in the gaps between trees. For all these reasons, this concept of precise orchard spraying can contribute to a reduction of costs and environmental pollution, while obtaining similar or even better leaf deposits.

  14. Temporal patterns in appearance of sooty blotch and flyspeck fungi on apples.

    PubMed

    Batzer, J C; Sisson, A J; Harrington, T C; Mayfield, D A; Gleason, M L

    2012-11-01

    Sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) is a complex of about 80 fungal species that blemish the surface of apple fruit in humid regions worldwide. The dark colonies become visible in mid- to late summer, reducing the value of fresh fruit. Although many SBFS species can co-occur in the same orchard and even on the same apple, little is known about temporal patterns of these species, including the timing of colony appearance. To test the hypothesis that colonies of SBFS species appear on apples at characteristic times during the growing season, 50 apples were monitored weekly at three Iowa orchards in 2006 and six orchards in 2007 and 2008. However, a mean of 24.3 apples per orchard was assessed at harvest because of apple drop throughout the season. Colonies were marked with colored pens as they appeared. After harvest and after storage of apples at 2 °C for 3 months, SBFS colonies on each fruit were counted and classified by morphology, and a representative subset of colonies was excised from the fruit and preserved on dried peels for species identification using rDNA. Seventeen species were identified. Stomiopeltis spp. RS1 and RS2 appeared on apples 10 to 14 days before other SBFS taxa. Dissoconium aciculare was generally the last species to appear on apple fruit, and it continued to appear during postharvest storage. The most prevalent taxa in Iowa orchards were also the most abundant. Diversity of SBFS fungi in an orchard was positively correlated with cumulative hours of surface wetness hours due to rainfall or dew, which is believed to favor growth of SBFS fungi. Species-specific information about temporal patterns of appearance on apple fruit may lead to improved SBFS management strategies.

  15. [Using atomic fluorescence spectrometry to study the spatial distribution of As and Hg in orchard soils].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xi-Mei; Lü, Chun-Yan; Liu, Qing; Zhu, Xi-Cun

    2014-02-01

    Aqua regia digestion, double channels-atomic fluorescence spectrometry method was used to determine the concentrations of As and Hg in orchard soils of Qixia City - the main apple production area of Shandong province. Validate The detection limitation, accuracy and precision of the method were validated, the spatial distribution was analyzed, and the characteristics of As and Hg pollution in Qixia orchard soils were assessed. The results showed that the range of As concentration in Qixia soils is between 2.79 and 20.93 mg x kg(-1), the average concentration is 10.59 mg x kg(-1), the range of Hg concentration in Qixia soil is between 0.01 and 0.79 mg x kg(-1), the average concentration is 0.12 mg x kg(-1). The variation of As concentration in soils is small, whereas that of Hg concentration is large. Frequency distribution graphics of As and Hg showed that the concentration of As in soils is according with the normal distribution approximately and the concentrations are mostly between 7 and 15 mg x kg(-1), the concentration of Hg in soil isn't according with the normal distribution and the concentrations are mostly between 0.03 and 0.21 mg x kg(-1). The correlations between the concentrations of As or Hg in soils and the nutrient are not significant and there is no significant correlation even between As and Hg. Based on the environmental technical terms for green food production area, the As concentration in orchard soil of Qixia City is at clean level, but there are 4.76% of sample points with Hg pollution index exceeding 1, and this should be attracted the attention of the administrators.

  16. Preharvest applications of fungicides for control of Sphaeropsis rot in stored apples

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sphaeropsis rot caused by Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens is a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of apple in Washington State and causes significant economic losses. Infection of apple fruit by the fungus occurs in the orchard, but decay symptoms develop during storage or in the market. The...

  17. Control of speck rot in apple fruit caused by Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis with pre- and postharvest fungicides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Speck rot caused by Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis is a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of apple. Infection of apple fruit by the fungus occurs in the orchard, but symptoms develop during storage. In this study, selected pre- and postharvest fungicides were evaluated for control of s...

  18. Epiphytic bacteria and yeasts on apple blossoms and their potential as antagonists of Erwinia amylovora

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apple blossoms were sampled for indigenous epiphytic populations of culturable microorganisms during different stages of bloom at two orchards in or near Wenatchee, WA, and one in Corvallis, OR. Frequencies and population sizes of bacteria on stigmas of apple were lower at Wenatchee than Corvallis, ...

  19. Characterization of apple replant disease-associated microbial communities over multiple growth periods using next-generation sequencing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Replant disease in apple occurs as a result of incompletely understood and variable complexes of soil-borne pathogens that can build up over time in orchard soil. This disease limits economic viability of newly established orchards on replant sites and results in reduced productivity for the life of...

  20. Grass residues as a sustainable carbon source in application of anaerobic soil disinfestation for control of apple nursery replant disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies were conducted to assess the efficacy of anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) for control of replant disease in an apple nursery setting. Treatments applied in a field trial conducted at an experimental orchard in Washington State included ASD using orchard grass residues (GR; 20 t ha-1) as ...

  1. Parasitism of leafrollers in Washington fruit orchards is enhanced by perimeter plantings of rose and strawberry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Parasitism rates of leafrollers larvae attacking apple, pear, and cherry in Washington are typically low in spring. By providing an alternate, overwintering host for the parasitoid, Colpoclypeus florus, in perimeter plantings spring parasitism in orchards nearby was dramatically increased. Four gard...

  2. Parasitism of leafrollers in Washington fruit orchards is enhanced by perimater plantings of rose and strawberry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pandemis pyrusana and Choristoneura rosaceana are the dominant leafroller pests in apple, pear and cherry orchards in Washington State. Parasitism rates of these pests are usually too low to avert the use of insecticides for control, despite the presence of a diverse parasitoid complex. In a previou...

  3. Accumulation of lead and arsenic by lettuce grown on lead-arsenate contaminated orchard soils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lead-arsenate was one of the preferred insecticides used as foliar spray to control codling moth (Cydia pomonella) in apple (Malus sylvestris Mill) orchards from the 1900's to the 1960’s. Lead and arsenic are generally immobile and remain in the surface soil. Some of these contaminated lands are now...

  4. The beneficial effect of small toxic molecules on dormancy alleviation and germination of apple embryos is due to NO formation.

    PubMed

    Gniazdowska, Agnieszka; Krasuska, Urszula; Debska, Karolina; Andryka, Paulina; Bogatek, Renata

    2010-09-01

    Deep dormancy of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) seeds is terminated by a 3-month-long cold stratification. It is expressed by rapid germination of seeds and undisturbed growth of seedlings. However, stimulation of germination of isolated apple embryos is also observed after applying inhibitors of cytochrome c oxidase: nitric oxide (NO) or hydrogen cyanide (HCN) during the first 3-6 h of imbibition of dormant embryos. The aim of this work was to compare the effect of yet another toxic gaseous molecule carbon monoxide (CO) with the effects of HCN and NO on germination of apple embryos and growth and development of young seedlings. We demonstrated that stimulation of germination after short-term pre-treatment with HCN, NO or CO was accompanied by enhanced NO emission from the embryo axes during their elongation. Moreover, similarly high NO production from non-dormant embryos, after cold stratification, was detected. Therefore, we propose that NO may act as signaling molecule in apple embryo dormancy break.

  5. Interaction of BABA and ABA for drought resistance in apple

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Insufficient water can kill or adversely affect the growth of newly planted apple (Malus ×domestica) trees. In modern intensive orchard systems with mature trees, water stress is often limiting to production. Trees can acquire drought resistance by sensing water stress and activating defense mecha...

  6. Apple replant disease and the –omics: interaction of apple rootstock metabolome and the soil microbiome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apple replant disease (ARD) negatively impacts tree health and reduces crop yield in new orchard plantings. Use of tolerant rootstock cultivars can diminish the growth limiting effects of ARD; however specific rootstock attributes enabling ARD tolerance are not understood. Systems biology tools were...

  7. Apple Browning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemecology, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Describes an activity in which students investigate the effects of selected natural and synthetic substances on the rate of apple browning. Includes background information for the teacher, a list of necessary materials, and student instructions. (KR)

  8. Newton's Apple

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendry, Archibald W.

    2007-01-01

    Isaac Newton may have seen an apple fall, but it was Robert Hooke who had a better idea of where it would land. No one really knows whether or not Isaac Newton actually saw an apple fall in his garden. Supposedly it took place in 1666, but it was a tale he told in his old age more than 60 years later, a time when his memory was failing and his…

  9. Newton's Apple

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendry, Archibald W.

    2007-01-01

    Isaac Newton may have seen an apple fall, but it was Robert Hooke who had a better idea of where it would land. No one really knows whether or not Isaac Newton actually saw an apple fall in his garden. Supposedly it took place in 1666, but it was a tale he told in his old age more than 60 years later, a time when his memory was failing and his…

  10. Auxin-mediated relationships between apple plants and root inhabiting fungi: impact on root pathogens and potentialities of growth-promoting populations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies were conducted to examine the symbiotic relationship between plant hosts and endophytic fungi recovered in multi-generation replanted apple orchard soils. Based upon results obtained, subsequent studies were oriented toward investigating fungal populations showing a mutualistic symbiotic rel...

  11. Differential transcriptional regulation of defense-associated genes among apple rootstock genotypes in response to Pythium ultimum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apple replant disease (ARD) poses a substantial threat to orchard establishment on replant sites. Deployment of resistant apple rootstocks is an ecologically desired, cost effective and durable disease control strategy particular for perennial production system. Candidate genes which function in pat...

  12. Susceptibility of fruit from diverse apple and crabapple germplasm to attack from apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) is a pest of major concern to apple, Malus x domestica (Borkh.) production in eastern North America. Host-plant resistance to apple maggot among apple germplasm has been previously evaluated among a small number of exotic Malus accessions and domestic hyb...

  13. Apple replant disease: role of microbial ecology in cause and control.

    PubMed

    Mazzola, Mark; Manici, Luisa M

    2012-01-01

    Replant disease of apple is common to all major apple growing regions of the world. Difficulties in defining disease etiology, which can be exacerbated by abiotic factors, have limited progress toward developing alternatives to soil fumigation for disease control. However, the preponderance of data derived from studies of orchard soil biology employing multidisciplinary approaches has defined a complex of pathogens/parasites as causal agents of the disease. Approaches to manipulate microbial resources endemic to the orchard soil system have been proposed to induce a state of general soil suppressiveness to replant disease. Such a long-term strategy may benefit the existing orchard through extending the period of economic viability and reduce overall disease pressure to which young trees are exposed during establishment of successive plantings on the site. Alternatively, more near-term methods have been devised to achieve specific quantitative and qualitative changes in soil biology during the period of orchard renovation that may lead to effective disease suppression.

  14. Measuring local genetic variability in populations of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) across an unmanaged / commercial orchard interface

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genetic structure of adult codling moth Cydia pomonella L., populations was characterized both inside a managed apple, Malus domestica Borkdhausen, orchard and in surrounding unmanaged hosts and non-host trees in central Chile during 2006-2007. Adult males were collected using an array of sex ph...

  15. Comparative analysis of pesticide effects on natural enemies in western orchards: a synthesis of laboratory bioassay data

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pesticides are commonly used for management of codling moth and diseases in apple, pear and walnut orchards in the western U.S. and these pesticides may disrupt the biological control of secondary pests in these crops. A comparative analysis was made of results obtained from a series of studies of ...

  16. Assessing Metal Contamination in Lead Arsenate Contaminated Orchard Soils Using Near and Mid-Infrared Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Historic use of lead-arsenate as pesticide in apple orchards left many soils contaminated with arsenic (As) and lead (Pb). Notorious health effects and their severe soil contamination are of primary concerns for major regulatory agencies, and community at large. Wet chemistry methods for soil anal...

  17. Identification and characterization of a viroid resembling apple dimple fruit viroid in fig (Ficus carica L.) by next generation sequencing of small RNAs.

    PubMed

    Chiumenti, M; Torchetti, E M; Di Serio, F; Minafra, A

    2014-08-08

    Viroids are small (246-401 nt) circular and non coding RNAs infecting higher plants. They are targeted by host Dicer-like enzymes (DCLs) that generate small RNAs of 21-24 nt (sRNAs), which are involved in the host RNA silencing pathways. The accumulation in plant tissues of such viroid-derived small RNAs (vd-sRNAs) is a clear sign of an ongoing viroid infection. In this study, next generation sequencing of a sRNAs library and assembling of the sequenced vd-sRNAs were instrumental for the identification of a viroid resembling apple dimple fruit viroid (ADFVd) in a fig accession. After confirming by molecular methods the presence of this viroid in the fig tree, its population was characterized, showing that the ADFVd master sequence from fig diverges from that of the ADFVd reference variant from apple. Moreover, since this viroid accumulates at a low level in fig, a semi-nested RT-PCR assay was developed for detecting it in other fig accessions. ADFVd seems to have a wider host range than thought before and this poses questions about its epidemiology. A further characterization of ADFVd-sRNAs showed similar accumulation of (+) or (-) vd-sRNAs that mapped on the viroid genome generating hotspot profiles. Moreover, similarly to other nuclear-replicating viroids, vd-sRNAs of 21, 22 and 24 nt in size prevailed in the distribution profiles. Altogether, these data support the involvement of double-stranded RNAs and different DCLs, targeting the same restricted viroid regions, in the genesis of ADFVd-sRNAs.

  18. Newton's Apple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendry, Archibald W.

    2007-05-01

    Isaac Newton may have seen an apple fall, but it was Robert Hooke who had a better idea of where it would land. No one really knows whether or not Isaac Newton actually saw an apple fall in his garden. Supposedly it took place in 1666, but it was a tale he told in his old age more than 60 years later, a time when his memory was failing and his recollections of events did not always match known facts. However, one thing is certain-falling objects were to play a key part in Newton's eventual understanding of how objects move.

  19. Apple (Malus x domestica).

    PubMed

    Dandekar, Abhaya M; Teo, Gianni; Uratsu, Sandra L; Tricoli, David

    2006-01-01

    Apple (Malus x domestica) is one of the most consumed fruit crops in the world. The major production areas are the temperate regions, however, because of its excellent storage capacity it is transported to distant markets covering the four corners of the earth. Transformation is a key to sustaining this demand - permitting the potential enhancement of existing cultivars as well as to investigate the development of new cultivars resistant to pest, disease, and storage problems that occur in the major production areas. In this paper we describe an efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation protocol that utilizes leaf tissues from in vitro grown plants. Shoot regeneration is selected with kanamycin using the selectable kanamycin phosphotransferase (APH(3)II) gene and the resulting transformants confirmed using the scorable uidA gene encoding the bacterial beta-glucuronidase (GUS) enzyme via histochemical staining. Transformed shoots are propagated, rooted to create transgenic plants that are then introduced into soil, acclimatized and transferred to the greenhouse from where they are taken out into the orchard for field-testing.

  20. New biotechnological tools to accelerate scab-resistance trait transfer to apple

    PubMed Central

    Cusin, Roberta; Revers, Luís Fernando; Maraschin, Felipe dos Santos

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Apple is a fruit crop cultivated worldwide. Apple orchards are exposed to a diverse set of environmental and biological factors that affect the productivity and sustainability of the culture. Many of the efforts and costs for apple production rely on reducing the incidence of fungal diseases, and one of the main diseases is apple scab caused by the fungus Venturia inaequalis. The economic impact of scab on apple productivity has guided many breeding programs to search for cultivars resistant to apple scab. Introgression from wild relatives has been successful to some extent, and genetic engineering for resistant cultivars has even been employed. This review presents the techniques used to the present time to obtain pathogen-resistant apple cultivars and introduces new biotechnological approaches based on plant plasmids that show promising results for delivering genetic traits with a short-term perspective. PMID:28199444

  1. New biotechnological tools to accelerate scab-resistance trait transfer to apple.

    PubMed

    Cusin, Roberta; Revers, Luís Fernando; Maraschin, Felipe Dos Santos

    2017-02-13

    Apple is a fruit crop cultivated worldwide. Apple orchards are exposed to a diverse set of environmental and biological factors that affect the productivity and sustainability of the culture. Many of the efforts and costs for apple production rely on reducing the incidence of fungal diseases, and one of the main diseases is apple scab caused by the fungus Venturia inaequalis. The economic impact of scab on apple productivity has guided many breeding programs to search for cultivars resistant to apple scab. Introgression from wild relatives has been successful to some extent, and genetic engineering for resistant cultivars has even been employed. This review presents the techniques used to the present time to obtain pathogen-resistant apple cultivars and introduces new biotechnological approaches based on plant plasmids that show promising results for delivering genetic traits with a short-term perspective.

  2. Apple's Macintosh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael J.

    1984-01-01

    Description of the Macintosh personal, educational, and business computer produced by Apple covers cost; physical characteristics including display devices, circuit boards, and built-in features; company-produced software; third-party produced software; memory and storage capacity; word-processing features; and graphics capabilities. (MBR)

  3. Traveling Apples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland Unified School District, Rowland Heights, CA.

    Teacher-developed materials for a basic computer literacy and utilization program for elementary students in grades 3-6 are included in this 4-part packet, which was originally prepared for use with or without the Apple IIe "traveling" microcomputers shared by 15 Rowland Unified School District elementary schools. Implementation…

  4. Assessment of contamination from arsenical pesticide use on orchards in the Great Valley region, Virginia and West Virginia, USA.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Gilpin R; Larkins, Peter; Boughton, Carol J; Reed, Bradley W; Sibrell, Philip L

    2007-01-01

    Lead arsenate pesticides were widely used in apple orchards from 1925 to 1955. Soils from historic orchards in four counties in Virginia and West Virginia contained elevated concentrations of As and Pb, consistent with an arsenical pesticide source. Arsenic concentrations in approximately 50% of the orchard site soils and approximately 1% of reference site soils exceed the USEPA Preliminary Remediation Goal (PRG) screening guideline of 22 mg kg(-1) for As in residential soil, defined on the basis of combined chronic exposure risk. Approximately 5% of orchard site soils exceed the USEPA PRG for Pb of 400 mg kg(-1) in residential soil; no reference site soils sampled exceed this value. A variety of statistical methods were used to characterize the occurrence, distribution, and dispersion of arsenical pesticide residues in soils, stream sediments, and ground waters relative to landscape features and likely background conditions. Concentrations of Zn, Pb, and Cu were most strongly associated with high developed land density and population density, whereas elevated concentrations of As were weakly correlated with high orchard density, consistent with a pesticide residue source. Arsenic concentrations in ground water wells in the region are generally <0.005 mg L(-1). There was no spatial association between As concentrations in ground water and proximity to orchards. Arsenic had limited mobility into ground water from surface soils contaminated with arsenical pesticide residues at concentrations typically found in orchards.

  5. Assessment of contamination from arsenical pesticide use on orchards in the great valley region, Virginia and West Virginia, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, G.R.; Larkin, S.P.; Boughton, C.J.; Reed, B.W.; Sibrell, P.L.

    2007-01-01

    Lead arsenate pesticides were widely used in apple orchards from 1925 to 1955. Soils from historic orchards in four counties in Virginia and West Virginia contained elevated concentrations of As and Pb, consistent with an arsenical pesticide source. Arsenic concentrations in approximately 50% of the orchard site soils and approximately 1% of reference site soils exceed the USEPA Preliminary Remediation Goal (PRG) screening guideline of 22 mg kg-1 for As in residential soi, defined on the basis of combined chronic exposure risk. Approximately 5% of orchard site soils exceed the USEPA PRG for Pb of 400 mg kg-1 in residential soil; no reference site soils sampled exceed this value. A variety of statistical methods were used to characterize the occurrence, distribution, and dispersion of arsenical pesticide residues in soils, stream sediments, and ground waters relative to landscape features and likely background conditions. Concentrations of Zn, Pb, and Cu were most strongly associated with high developed land density and population density, whereas elevated concentrations of As were weakly correlated with high orchard density, consistent with a pesticide residue source. Arsenic concentrations in ground water wells in the region are generally <0.005 mg L-1. There was no spatial association between As concentrations in ground water and proximity to orchards. Arsenic had limited mobility into ground water from surface soils contaminated with arsenical pesticide residues at concentrations typically found in orchards. ?? ASA, CSSA, SSSA.

  6. Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Jeanelle; Liu, Rui Hai

    2004-05-12

    Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. In the laboratory, apples have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidation, and lower cholesterol. Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of apples varies greatly between different varieties of apples, and there are also small changes in phytochemicals during the maturation and ripening of the fruit. Storage has little to no effect on apple phytochemicals, but processing can greatly affect apple phytochemicals. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior, and the effects of variety, ripening, storage and processing on apple phytochemicals.

  7. Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Jeanelle; Liu, Rui Hai

    2004-01-01

    Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. In the laboratory, apples have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidation, and lower cholesterol. Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of apples varies greatly between different varieties of apples, and there are also small changes in phytochemicals during the maturation and ripening of the fruit. Storage has little to no effect on apple phytochemicals, but processing can greatly affect apple phytochemicals. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior, and the effects of variety, ripening, storage and processing on apple phytochemicals. PMID:15140261

  8. Cancer chemopreventive potential of apples, apple juice, and apple components.

    PubMed

    Gerhauser, Clarissa

    2008-10-01

    Apples ( MALUS sp., Rosaceae) are a rich source of nutrient as well as non-nutrient components and contain high levels of polyphenols and other phytochemicals. Main structural classes of apple constituents include hydroxycinnamic acids, dihydrochalcones, flavonols (quercetin glycosides), catechins and oligomeric procyanidins, as well as triterpenoids in apple peel and anthocyanins in red apples. Several lines of evidence suggest that apples and apple products possess a wide range of biological activities which may contribute to health beneficial effects against cardiovascular disease, asthma and pulmonary dysfunction, diabetes, obesity, and cancer (reviewed by Boyer and Liu, Nutr J 2004). The present review will summarize the current knowledge on potential cancer preventive effects of apples, apple juice and apple extracts (jointly designated as apple products). In brief, apple extracts and components, especially oligomeric procyanidins, have been shown to influence multiple mechanisms relevant for cancer prevention in IN VITRO studies. These include antimutagenic activity, modulation of carcinogen metabolism, antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory mechanisms, modulation of signal transduction pathways, antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing activity, as well as novel mechanisms on epigenetic events and innate immunity. Apple products have been shown to prevent skin, mammary and colon carcinogenesis in animal models. Epidemiological observations indicate that regular consumption of one or more apples a day may reduce the risk for lung and colon cancer.

  9. The occurrence of the cicada Cicadatra persica on apple trees, Malus domestica, in Erneh, Syria.

    PubMed

    Dardar, Marah A; Belal, Hamzeh M R; Basheer, Abedlnabi M

    2013-01-01

    An infestation of Cicadatra persica KirKaldy (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) on apple trees, Malus domestica Borkhausen (Rosales: Rosaceae), was reported for the first time in the apple fruit orchards of Erneh, Syria. Nymphs, adults, exuvia, and exit holes in the soil were observed. The species was identified as C. persica based on morphological characters. Some biological observations and an acoustic analysis of the male's songs were also achieved.

  10. The Occurrence of the Cicada Cicadatra persica on Apple Trees, Malus domestica, in Erneh, Syria

    PubMed Central

    Dardar, Marah A.; Belal, Hamzeh M.R.; Basheer, Abedlnabi M.

    2013-01-01

    An infestation of Cicadatra persica KirKaldy (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) on apple trees, Malus domestica Borkhausen (Rosales: Rosaceae), was reported for the first time in the apple fruit orchards of Erneh, Syria. Nymphs, adults, exuvia, and exit holes in the soil were observed. The species was identified as C. persica based on morphological characters. Some biological observations and an acoustic analysis of the male's songs were also achieved. PMID:23909877

  11. Cisgenic apple trees; development, characterization, and performance

    PubMed Central

    Krens, Frans A.; Schaart, Jan G.; van der Burgh, Aranka M.; Tinnenbroek-Capel, Iris E. M.; Groenwold, Remmelt; Kodde, Linda P.; Broggini, Giovanni A. L.; Gessler, Cesare; Schouten, Henk J.

    2015-01-01

    Two methods were developed for the generation of cisgenic apples. Both have been successfully applied producing trees. The first method avoids the use of any foreign selectable marker genes; only the gene-of-interest is integrated between the T-DNA border sequences. The second method makes use of recombinase-based marker excision. For the first method we used the MdMYB10 gene from a red-fleshed apple coding for a transcription factor involved in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. Red plantlets were obtained and presence of the cisgene was confirmed. Plantlets were grafted and grown in a greenhouse. After 3 years, the first flowers appeared, showing red petals. Pollination led to production of red-fleshed cisgenic apples. The second method used the pM(arker)F(ree) vector system, introducing the scab resistance gene Rvi6, derived from apple. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, followed by selection on kanamycin, produced genetically modified apple lines. Next, leaves from in vitro material were treated to activate the recombinase leading to excision of selection genes. Subsequently, the leaf explants were subjected to negative selection for marker-free plantlets by inducing regeneration on medium containing 5-fluorocytosine. After verification of the marker-free nature, the obtained plants were grafted onto rootstocks. Young trees from four cisgenic lines and one intragenic line, all containing Rvi6, were planted in an orchard. Appropriate controls were incorporated in this trial. We scored scab incidence for three consecutive years on leaves after inoculations with Rvi6-avirulent strains. One cisgenic line and the intragenic line performed as well as the resistant control. In 2014 trees started to overcome their juvenile character and formed flowers and fruits. The first results of scoring scab symptoms on apple fruits were obtained. Apple fruits from susceptible controls showed scab symptoms, while fruits from cisgenic and intragenic lines were free of scab

  12. Climate-driven spatial mismatches between British orchards and their pollinators: increased risks of pollination deficits.

    PubMed

    Polce, Chiara; Garratt, Michael P; Termansen, Mette; Ramirez-Villegas, Julian; Challinor, Andrew J; Lappage, Martin G; Boatman, Nigel D; Crowe, Andrew; Endalew, Ayenew Melese; Potts, Simon G; Somerwill, Kate E; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C

    2014-09-01

    Understanding how climate change can affect crop-pollinator systems helps predict potential geographical mismatches between a crop and its pollinators, and therefore identify areas vulnerable to loss of pollination services. We examined the distribution of orchard species (apples, pears, plums and other top fruits) and their pollinators in Great Britain, for present and future climatic conditions projected for 2050 under the SRES A1B Emissions Scenario. We used a relative index of pollinator availability as a proxy for pollination service. At present, there is a large spatial overlap between orchards and their pollinators, but predictions for 2050 revealed that the most suitable areas for orchards corresponded to low pollinator availability. However, we found that pollinator availability may persist in areas currently used for fruit production, which are predicted to provide suboptimal environmental suitability for orchard species in the future. Our results may be used to identify mitigation options to safeguard orchard production against the risk of pollination failure in Great Britain over the next 50 years; for instance, choosing fruit tree varieties that are adapted to future climatic conditions, or boosting wild pollinators through improving landscape resources. Our approach can be readily applied to other regions and crop systems, and expanded to include different climatic scenarios. © 2014 The Authors Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Climate-driven spatial mismatches between British orchards and their pollinators: increased risks of pollination deficits

    PubMed Central

    Polce, Chiara; Garratt, Michael P; Termansen, Mette; Ramirez-Villegas, Julian; Challinor, Andrew J; Lappage, Martin G; Boatman, Nigel D; Crowe, Andrew; Endalew, Ayenew Melese; Potts, Simon G; Somerwill, Kate E; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how climate change can affect crop-pollinator systems helps predict potential geographical mismatches between a crop and its pollinators, and therefore identify areas vulnerable to loss of pollination services. We examined the distribution of orchard species (apples, pears, plums and other top fruits) and their pollinators in Great Britain, for present and future climatic conditions projected for 2050 under the SRES A1B Emissions Scenario. We used a relative index of pollinator availability as a proxy for pollination service. At present, there is a large spatial overlap between orchards and their pollinators, but predictions for 2050 revealed that the most suitable areas for orchards corresponded to low pollinator availability. However, we found that pollinator availability may persist in areas currently used for fruit production, which are predicted to provide suboptimal environmental suitability for orchard species in the future. Our results may be used to identify mitigation options to safeguard orchard production against the risk of pollination failure in Great Britain over the next 50 years; for instance, choosing fruit tree varieties that are adapted to future climatic conditions, or boosting wild pollinators through improving landscape resources. Our approach can be readily applied to other regions and crop systems, and expanded to include different climatic scenarios. PMID:24638986

  14. [Quantitative remote sensing retrieval of apple tree canopy reflectance at blossom stage in hilly area].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Zhao, Geng-Xing; Zhu, Xi-Cun; Wang, Rui-Yan; Chen, Hong-Yan; Chang, Chun-Yan

    2012-08-01

    By using the TM and ALOS images with different resolutions at the prosperous blossom stage of apple trees in Qixia City of Shandong Province, and taking the slope aspect coefficient and the ratio of canopy flower to leaf into account, the ground surface reflectance was retrieved through radiometric correction. The canopy reflectance of the apple trees was further retrieved by pixel unmixing method, and the retrieval effect and accuracy were assessed by the comparison of the retrieved reflectance with the measured canopy reflectance and apparent reflectance of 30 sample apple orchards. The results showed that radiometric correction effectively weakened the effects of atmosphere and topography, recovered the ground objects in the shadows, and obviously enhanced the analytical ability of ground surface retrieval reflectance images. Either TM or ALOS images, both the absolute and relative errors between retrieval reflectance and measured reflectance of apple tree canopy were the smallest. The relative errors of all bands were consistent, and its variation trend among the 30 sample apple orchards was also consistent with the measured reflectance, which showed the necessary of pixel unmixing. Moreover, the changes of the reflectance among the sample apple orchards showed similar characteristics when the retrieval method was used for different resolution images. The images with high resolution were more superior, but, because of band limitation, it would be better to integrate the high resolution images with moderate resolution images.

  15. Conservation biological control of rosy apple aphid, Dysaphis plantaginea (Passerini), in eastern North America.

    PubMed

    Brown, M W; Mathews, Clarissa R

    2007-10-01

    Because of the potentially serious damage rosy apple aphid, Dysaphis plantaginea (Passerini) (Homoptera: Aphididae), can cause to apple fruit and branch development, prophylactic insecticides are often used for control. If biological control could be relied on, the amount of pesticide applied in orchards could be reduced. This study examined biological control of rosy apple aphid in eastern West Virginia and the potential for enhancement through conservation biological control, in particular, the effect of interplanting extrafloral nectar-bearing peach trees. By 20 d after first bloom, only 2% of fundatrices initially present survived to form colonies based on regression of data from 687 colonies. Exclusion studies showed that many of the early colonies were probably destroyed by predation; the major predator responsible seemed to be adult Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Mortality before apple bloom was most important in controlling rosy apple aphid population growth but by itself is not sufficiently reliable to prevent economic injury. Interplanting of extrafloral nectar-bearing trees did not increase biological control, and interplanting with 50% trees with extrafloral nectar glands reduced biological control. The number of leaf curl colonies in the 50% interplanted orchards was lower than in monoculture orchards, suggesting a preference of alate oviparae for more diverse habitats, supporting the resource concentration hypothesis but not at a level sufficient to prevent injury. Predation and parasitism after the formation of leaf curl colonies was not adequate to control rosy apple aphid populations.

  16. Association Between Apple Consumption and Physician Visits

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Matthew A.; Bynum, Julie P.W.; Sirovich, Brenda E.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Fruit consumption is believed to have beneficial health effects, and some claim, “An apple a day keeps the doctor away.” OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship between eating an apple a day and keeping the doctor away. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the noninstitutionalized US adult population. A total of 8728 adults 18 years and older from the 2007–2008 and 2009–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey completed a 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire and reported that the quantity of food they ate was reflective of their usual daily diet. EXPOSURES Daily apple eaters (consuming the equivalent of at least 1 small apple daily, or 149 g of raw apple) vs non–apple eaters, based on the reported quantity of whole apple consumed during the 24-hour dietary recall period. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome measure was success at “keeping the doctor away,” measured as no more than 1 visit (self-reported) to a physician during the past year; secondary outcomes included successful avoidance of other health care services (ie, no overnight hospital stays, visits to a mental health professional, or prescription medications). RESULTS Of 8399 eligible study participants who completed the dietary recall questionnaire, we identified 753 adult apple eaters (9.0%)—those who typically consume at least 1 small apple per day. Compared with the 7646 non–apple eaters (91.0%), apple eaters had higher educational attainment, were more likely to be from a racial or ethnic minority, and were less likely to smoke (P < .001 for each comparison). Apple eaters were more likely, in the crude analysis, to keep the doctor (and prescription medications) away: 39.0% of apple eaters avoided physician visits vs 33.9%of non–apple eaters (P = .03). After adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related characteristics, however, the association was no longer statistically significant

  17. Biological Control of Apple Ring Rot on Fruit by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 9001

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Han, Li-Rong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Fu, Xuechi; Chen, Xinyi; Zhang, Lixia; Mei, Ruhong; Wang, Qi

    2013-01-01

    Apple ring rot disease, caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea (Moug. ex. Fr) Ces. et de Not., is one of the most important diseases on apple fruits. In this study, strain 9001 isolated from healthy apple fruits from an infested orchard was evaluated for its biocontrol activity against apple ring rot in vitro and in vivo. Strain 9001 showed obvious antagonistic activity to B. dothidea YL-1 when plated on potato dextrose agar. Soaking healthy apples in the bacterial suspensions of strain 9001 prior to artificial inoculation of fungal pathogen resulted in a dramatic decrease in disease incidence when compared to the control. Moreover, either field application in the growth season or postharvest treatment of apples from infected orchards with bacterial suspensions of strain 9001 resulted in significantly reduced disease incidence within the storage period for 4 months at room temperature. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA and the gyrA gene, strain 9001 was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. These results indicated that B. amyloliquefaciens 9001 could be a promising agent in biocontrol of apple ring rot on fruit, which might help to minimize the yield loss of apple fruit during the long postharvest period. PMID:25288943

  18. Ireland's Cherry Orchard National School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O Cuiv, Shan

    2007-01-01

    This recently completed primary school illustrates how architecture can contribute to creating a safe and warm environment in a difficult area and can meet the particular needs of the student community. In its first year in operation, Cherry Orchard National School is proving to be a successful project. Presented here are the architectural…

  19. Ireland's Cherry Orchard National School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O Cuiv, Shan

    2007-01-01

    This recently completed primary school illustrates how architecture can contribute to creating a safe and warm environment in a difficult area and can meet the particular needs of the student community. In its first year in operation, Cherry Orchard National School is proving to be a successful project. Presented here are the architectural…

  20. Nickel: Relevance to orchard profitability

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The nutritional physiology of essential micronutrients in pecan, especially that of nickel, is a limiting factor in optimization of physiological efficiency of orchard enterprises. Knowledge by farmers and extension specialists about the role of nickel, a newly recognized micronutrient, is meager. ...

  1. Are Red Apples Sweeter Than Green Apples?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Chris

    1999-01-01

    Describes how a classroom observation of apples led to the development of a science project. Discusses the correlation between the greenness and the acidity of apples. Finds that the greener the apple, the lower its pH, and thus the more acidic and less sweet it tastes. (Author/CCM)

  2. Apple Strength Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Syn, C

    2009-12-22

    -LEP apples seem to have been from a single batch of material. The pre-LEP apples of the weak strength and the post-LEP apples with even weaker strength could have been made of the same batch of material, and the small strength differential might be due to the difference in the induction heating system. If the pre-LEP apples with the lower strength and the post LEP apples are made from the same batch of material, their combined scatter of strength data would be wider and can be understood as a result of the additional processing steps of stress relief and induction heating as discussed.

  3. Pesticides used against Cydia pomonella disrupt biological control of secondary pests of apple

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of codling moth management programs on secondary pests of apple were examined from 2008 to 2011 in five replicated large-plot trials. The orchards were chosen for a history of Eriosoma lanigerum and tetranychid mite outbreaks. Programs covered the first, second, or both generations of C....

  4. Management of bull’s-eye rot of apple using pre- and postharvest fungicides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bull’s-eye rot caused by Cryptosporiopsis kienholzii, Neofabraea alba, N. malicorticis and N. perennans is a common postharvest disease of apple and pear in the US Pacific Northwest. Fruit infection by these causal fungi occurs in the orchard and is latent at harvest. A primary practice for control ...

  5. First report of black rot on apple fruit caused by Diplodia seriata in Washington State

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In July 2014, decayed ‘Fuji’ apple fruit (Malus × domestica Borkh.) were observed and sampled from commercial orchards in Mattawa (Grant County) in Washington State. Fruit rot symptoms appeared to originate mainly from infections at either the calyx-end (floral parts) of the fruit or wounds on the f...

  6. Genetic Diversity of a Natural Population of Apple stem pitting virus Isolated from Apple in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ju Yeon; Joa, Jae Ho; Choi, Kyung San; Do, Ki Seck; Lim, Han Cheol; Chung, Bong Nam

    2014-06-01

    Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), of the Foveavirus genus in the family Betaflexiviridae, is one of the most common viruses of apple and pear trees. To examine variability of the coat protein (CP) gene from ASPV, eight isolates originating from 251 apple trees, which were collected from 22 apple orchards located in intensive apple growing areas of the North Gyeongsang and North Jeolla Provinces in Korea, were sequenced and compared. The nucleotide sequence identity of the CP gene of eight ASPV isolates ranged from 77.0 to 97.0%, while the amino acid sequence identity ranged from 87.7 to 98.5%. The N-terminal region of the viral CP gene was highly variable, whereas the C-terminal region was conserved. Genetic algorithm recombination detection (GARD) and single breakpoint recombination (SBP) analyses identified base substitutions between eight ASPV isolates at positions 54 and 57 and position 771, respectively. GABranch analysis was used to determine whether the eight isolates evolved due to positive selection. All values in the GABranch analysis showed a ratio of substitution rates at non-synonymous and synonymous sites (dNS/dS) below 1, suggestive of strong negative selection forces during ASPV CP history. Although negative selection dominated CP evolution in the eight ASPV isolates, SLAC and FEL tests identified four possible positive selection sites at codons 10, 22, 102, and 158. This is the first study of the ASPV genome in Korea.

  7. Occurrence and genetic diversity analysis of apple stem pitting virus isolated from apples in China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guo-Jun; Dong, Ya-Feng; Zhang, Zun-Ping; Fan, Xu-Dong; Ren, Fang; Li, Zhengnan

    2017-08-01

    Two primer pairs were used to detect apple stem pitting virus (ASPV) using a reverse transcription (RT)-PCR test. 82 out of the 141 randomly collected samples, from ten orchards in five provinces and regions of China, tested positive. In the positive samples forty-five (55%) were infected by ASPV and two other viruses. The full coat protein (CP) and the triple gene block (TGB) gene 1, 2 and 3 of partial ASPV isolates were subsequently cloned. The nucleotide and amino acid identities of 39 CP sequence variants from 31 Chinese apple samples were compared with that of previously reported ASPV isolates and were 67.4-96.0% and 68.4-97.7%, respectively. All ASPV sequence variants from Chinese apples separated into two clades with CP- and TGB-based phylogenetic trees, whilst the grouping of TGB2 and TGB3 trees was the same. Three recombinants (FS06-2, X5-2, and XLF-C-2) for CP and six (TH2-5, X8-2, FS05-2, X6-2 and XLF-A-1) recombinants for TGB were identified from the Chinese apple isolates. Two recombinants were found in the TGB sequence of isolate XLF-A-1. The results presented here may assist in the development of a more comprehensive screening tool for apple viruses.

  8. BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF THE APPLE MEALYBUG PHENACOCCUS ACERIS (SIGNORET) IN BELGIUM.

    PubMed

    Bangels, E; Peusens, G; Bylemans, D; Belien, T

    2014-01-01

    Although in general very rare, some outbreaks of the apple mealybug Phenococcus aceris (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) were reported in the Belgian fruit growing area recently. This insect is known to be geographically widespread, to have a broad host range and to infest apple trees. Damage at harvest is considerable when sooty molds, a consequence of the pest's honeydew production, cover the fruits. Indirect damage of an infection is caused in cherry cultivation through transmission of the Little cherry virus (LChV2). Efficacy trials were executed in infested apple orchards in the Belgian fruit growing area and the life cycle of the pest on apple was studied more into detail. Apple mealybugs are univoltine, overwinter as 2nd instar nymphs inside a white cocoon on the tree (under the bark, in crevices) and leave their overwintering site in early spring (mid March). On sunny days the nymphs become active, move around and attach to start feeding (mid April). After a final moult into the adult form, females lay eggs in a cocoon-like white structure (from flowering on). Following hatching (end May), massive numbers of young nymphs spread out on the underside of the leaves (mid June) where they feed through suction. In order to manage this pest the efficacy of several plant protection products was tested in two infested apple orchards. Results indicated that mortality was high after an application of compounds belonging to the neonicotinoid insecticides. Different application timings and control strategies are possible, with active nymphs being the most vulnerable life stage. The observed degree of parasitation in our trial orchards also indicates a biological control contribution of parasitic wasps that should be taken into account. A decent IPM-strategy based on our results solved the problem in both apple orchards.

  9. Susceptibility of fruit from diverse apple and crabapple germplasm to attack from apple maggot (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Myers, Clayton T; Reissig, W Harvey; Forsline, Phillip L

    2008-02-01

    Apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a pest of major concern to apple, Malus x domestica (Borkh.) production in eastern North America. Host plant resistance to apple maggot among apple germplasm has been previously evaluated among a small number of exotic Malus accessions and domestic hybrid selections. However, a large number of exotic accessions housed in USDA collections have never been evaluated for their susceptibility to apple pests. Additionally, previous reports of resistance need to be confirmed under both field conditions and with more rigorous laboratory evaluations. Thus, studies were conducted to evaluate the susceptibility of a number of Malus accessions housed at the USDA Plant Genetic Resources Unit "core" collection. Contrary to earlier published reports, these results suggest that some selections previously described as "resistant" are in fact susceptible to both oviposition damage and larval feeding damage by apple maggot. One domestic, disease-resistant apple accession, 'E36-7' is resistant to survival of apple maggot larvae except when the fruit is nearly ripe in late fall. This is the first report of an apple cultivar that is confirmed to be resistant to larval feeding of apple maggot. Although adults can successfully oviposit on all accessions examined, larval survival was zero in a number of small-fruited crabapple accessions classified as resistant in previous studies and also in two accessions, Malus tschonoskii (Maxim) C. K. Schneid. and M. spectabilis (Aiton) Borkh., that have not been previously evaluated.

  10. Impact of the invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stal) in Mid-Atlantic tree fruit orchards in the United States: case studies of commercial management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Four commercial orchards in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States were surveyed weekly in 2010 and 2011 for the presence of brown marmorated stink bug and the injury caused to both apple and peaches. Among tested sampling techniques, baited pyramid traps yielded the most brown marmorated sti...

  11. Fixed precision sampling plans for white apple leafhopper (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) on apple.

    PubMed

    Beers, Elizabeth H; Jones, Vincent P

    2004-10-01

    Constant precision sampling plans for the white apple leafhopper, Typhlocyba pomaria McAtee, were developed so that it could be used as an indicator species for system stability as new integrated pest management programs without broad-spectrum pesticides are developed. Taylor's power law was used to model the relationship between the mean and the variance, and Green's constant precision sequential sample equation was used to develop sampling plans. Bootstrap simulations of the sampling plans showed greater precision (D = 0.25) than the desired precision (Do = 0.3), particularly at low mean population densities. We found that by adjusting the Do value in Green's equation to 0.4, we were able to reduce the average sample number by 25% and provided an average D = 0.31. The sampling plan described allows T. pomaria to be used as reasonable indicator species of agroecosystem stability in Washington apple orchards.

  12. Aphis pomi (Hemiptera: Aphididae) population development, shoot characteristics, and antibiosis resistance in different apple genotypes.

    PubMed

    Stoeckli, Sibylle; Mody, Karsten; Dorn, Silvia

    2008-08-01

    In high-value crops such as apple, Malus X domestica (Borkh.), insecticidal pest control is of high relevance. The use of resistant apple cultivars can increase the sustainability of pest management in apple orchards. Besides variation in plant chemistry that may influence plant resistance by antibiosis or antixenosis, plant growth characteristics also can affect plant susceptibility to pests such as aphids. Variable susceptibility to the apple aphid, Aphis pomi De Geer (Hemiptera: Aphididae), has been described for different apple cultivars. These observations were based on phenotypic surveys and no information on genetically based apple resistance to A. pomi is yet available. The objective of this study was to relate shoot growth characteristics with aphid population development, and to assess the genetic background of apple antibiosis-based resistance to A. pomi by quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis. Aphid population development was repeatedly studied in the field in sleeve cages attached to 200 apple trees of different genotypes. Aphid population development was positively correlated to shoot length and growth, and it also was affected by climatic conditions. Indications for antibiosis-based resistance to A. pomi remained weak in the studied apple genotypes, and the only detected putative QTL on linkage group 11 of'Fiesta' apples was not stable for the different replications of the experiment. This lack of quantifiable resistance may be partly explained by environmental conditions related to aphid development in sleeve cages.

  13. Abundance of apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella, across different areas in central Washington, with special reference to black-fruited hawthorns.

    PubMed

    Yee, Wee L; Klaus, Michael W; Cha, Dong H; Linn, Charles E; Goughnour, Robert B; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2012-01-01

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), infests non-commercial apple (Malus domestica (Borkh.) Borkh.) and native black-fruited hawthorns (mostly Crataegus douglasii Lindl.) in central Washington, but little has been published on the abundance of the fly in this region. In this paper, the abundance of R. pomonella across different sites near apple-growing areas in central Washington is documented in order to assess the threat of the fly to commercial apple orchards. The fly was first detected on traps in Klickitat, Yakima, and Kittitas Counties in 1981, 1995, and 1997, respectively. From 1981-2010 in Kittitas and Yakima Counties, only 0 to 4.7% of traps on apple, crabapple, and hawthorn trees were positive for flies, whereas in Klickitat County, located farther from commercial apple orchards, 0 to 41.9% of traps were positive. In 2008, in Yakima County and Goldendale in Klickitat County, 7.8% of black-fruited hawthorn trees were infested, with 0 to 0.00054 larvae per fruit. In 2010, in Kittitas and Yakima Counties and Goldendale in Klickitat County, 25.0% of C. douglasii trees were infested, with 0.00042 to 0.00248 larvae per fruit. In 2010, in a remote forested area of Klickitat County far from commercial apple orchards, 94.7% of C. douglasii trees were infested, with 0.20813 larvae per fruit. Overall results suggest R. pomonella is unlikely to develop high populations rapidly near major commercial apple-growing areas in central Washington, including in black-fruited hawthorns, increasing chances it can be kept out of commercial orchards.

  14. Abundance of Apple Maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella, Across Different Areas in Central Washington, with Special Reference to Black-Fruited Hawthorns

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Wee L.; Klaus, Michael W.; Cha, Dong H.; Linn, Charles E.; Goughnour, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), infests non-commercial apple (Malus domestica (Borkh.) Borkh.) and native black-fruited hawthorns (mostly Crataegus douglasii Lindl.) in central Washington, but little has been published on the abundance of the fly in this region. In this paper, the abundance of R. pomonella across different sites near apple-growing areas in central Washington is documented in order to assess the threat of the fly to commercial apple orchards. The fly was first detected on traps in Klickitat, Yakima, and Kittitas Counties in 1981, 1995, and 1997, respectively. From 1981–2010 in Kittitas and Yakima Counties, only 0 to 4.7% of traps on apple, crabapple, and hawthorn trees were positive for flies, whereas in Klickitat County, located farther from commercial apple orchards, 0 to 41.9% of traps were positive. In 2008, in Yakima County and Goldendale in Klickitat County, 7.8% of black-fruited hawthorn trees were infested, with 0 to 0.00054 larvae per fruit. In 2010, in Kittitas and Yakima Counties and Goldendale in Klickitat County, 25.0% of C. douglasii trees were infested, with 0.00042 to 0.00248 larvae per fruit. In 2010, in a remote forested area of Klickitat County far from commercial apple orchards, 94.7% of C. douglasii trees were infested, with 0.20813 larvae per fruit. Overall results suggest R. pomonella is unlikely to develop high populations rapidly near major commercial apple-growing areas in central Washington, including in black-fruited hawthorns, increasing chances it can be kept out of commercial orchards. PMID:23451979

  15. Modeling apple surface temperature dynamics based on weather data.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Peters, Troy; Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Jingjin; Huang, Danfeng

    2014-10-27

    The exposure of fruit surfaces to direct sunlight during the summer months can result in sunburn damage. Losses due to sunburn damage are a major economic problem when marketing fresh apples. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a model for simulating fruit surface temperature (FST) dynamics based on energy balance and measured weather data. A series of weather data (air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed) was recorded for seven hours between 11:00-18:00 for two months at fifteen minute intervals. To validate the model, the FSTs of "Fuji" apples were monitored using an infrared camera in a natural orchard environment. The FST dynamics were measured using a series of thermal images. For the apples that were completely exposed to the sun, the RMSE of the model for estimating FST was less than 2.0 °C. A sensitivity analysis of the emissivity of the apple surface and the conductance of the fruit surface to water vapour showed that accurate estimations of the apple surface emissivity were important for the model. The validation results showed that the model was capable of accurately describing the thermal performances of apples under different solar radiation intensities. Thus, this model could be used to more accurately estimate the FST relative to estimates that only consider the air temperature. In addition, this model provides useful information for sunburn protection management.

  16. Modeling Apple Surface Temperature Dynamics Based on Weather Data

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lei; Peters, Troy; Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Jingjin; Huang, Danfeng

    2014-01-01

    The exposure of fruit surfaces to direct sunlight during the summer months can result in sunburn damage. Losses due to sunburn damage are a major economic problem when marketing fresh apples. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a model for simulating fruit surface temperature (FST) dynamics based on energy balance and measured weather data. A series of weather data (air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed) was recorded for seven hours between 11:00–18:00 for two months at fifteen minute intervals. To validate the model, the FSTs of “Fuji” apples were monitored using an infrared camera in a natural orchard environment. The FST dynamics were measured using a series of thermal images. For the apples that were completely exposed to the sun, the RMSE of the model for estimating FST was less than 2.0 °C. A sensitivity analysis of the emissivity of the apple surface and the conductance of the fruit surface to water vapour showed that accurate estimations of the apple surface emissivity were important for the model. The validation results showed that the model was capable of accurately describing the thermal performances of apples under different solar radiation intensities. Thus, this model could be used to more accurately estimate the FST relative to estimates that only consider the air temperature. In addition, this model provides useful information for sunburn protection management. PMID:25350507

  17. Multiple paternity in two natural populations (orchard and vineyard) of Drosophila.

    PubMed Central

    Ochando, M D; Reyes, A; Ayala, F J

    1996-01-01

    Male mating success is an important fitness component in Drosophila. The seminal fluid conveyed with the sperm inhibits the proclivity of the female to remate and reduces her fitness. Nevertheless, females may remate before they have exhausted the sperm from the first male and consequently use sperm from both males. We have studied concurrent multiple paternity (CMP) in two Drosophila melanogaster populations, from an apple orchard and a vineyard just after harvest. CMP is high in both populations, somewhat greater than 50%; but it is not significantly higher in the vineyard, where the population density is much greater than in the orchard. Population density had been thought to be an important determinant of CMP incidence. We have used four gene loci coding for enzymes as independent markers for detecting CMP. PMID:8876212

  18. Elementary, My Dear Apple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Robert

    1981-01-01

    A review of "Elementary, My Dear Apple," a commercial software package for the Apple II microcomputer. The package contains four computer programs which present elementary-level spelling, math, and economics learning activities in game-like formats. (SJL)

  19. Student Health Services at Orchard Ridge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Don D.

    This paper provides a synoptic review of student health services at the community college level while giving a more detailed description of the nature of health services at Orchard Ridge, a campus of Oakland Community College. The present College Health Service program provides for a part-time (24 hrs./wk.) nurse at Orchard Ridge. A variety of…

  20. Current seed orchard techniques and innovations

    Treesearch

    Lawrence K. Miller; Jeffrey DeBell

    2013-01-01

    As applied forest tree improvement programs in the US Northwest move forward into the third cycle, seed orchards remain as the primary source of genetically improved forest tree seed used for reforestation. The vast majority of seed orchards in this region are coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), consistent with the high economic importance of...

  1. Student Health Services at Orchard Ridge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Don D.

    This paper provides a synoptic review of student health services at the community college level while giving a more detailed description of the nature of health services at Orchard Ridge, a campus of Oakland Community College. The present College Health Service program provides for a part-time (24 hrs./wk.) nurse at Orchard Ridge. A variety of…

  2. Dermal insecticide residues from birds inhabiting an orchard

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Hulse, C.S.; Gentry, S.; Borges, S.L.

    2007-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency conducts risk assessments of insecticide applications to wild birds using a model that is limited to the dietary route of exposure. However, free-flying birds are also exposed to insecticides via the inhalation and dermal routes. We measured azinphos-methyl residues on the skin plus feathers and the feet of brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) in order to quantify dermal exposure to songbirds that entered and inhabited an apple (Malus x domestica) orchard following an insecticide application. Exposure to azinphos-methyl was measured by sampling birds from an aviary that was built around an apple tree. Birds sampled at 36 h and 7-day post-application were placed in the aviary within 1 h after the application whereas birds exposed for 3 days were released into the aviary 4-day post-application. Residues on vegetation and soil were also measured. Azinphos-methyl residues were detected from the skin plus feathers and the feet from all exposure periods. Our results underscore the importance of incorporating dermal exposure into avian pesticide risk assessments.

  3. PCR assays for diagnosis of postharvest fruit rots and early detection of Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis and Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens in apple fruit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Speck rot caused by Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis and Sphaeropsis rot caused by Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens are two recently reported postharvest diseases of apple. Fruit infection by the pathogens occurs in the orchard, but symptoms develop after harvest and are similar to that of gray mold caused...

  4. PCR assays for diagnosis of postharvest fruit rots and early detection of Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis and Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens in apple fruit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Speck rot caused by Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis and Sphaeropsis rot caused by Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens are two recently reported postharvest diseases of apple. Infection of fruit by the pathogens occurs in the orchard, but symptoms develop after harvest and are similar to that of gray mold caus...

  5. Development of PCR assays for diagnosis of the pathogens Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis and Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens in apple fruit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Speck rot caused by Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis and Sphaeropsis rot caused by Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens are two recently reported postharvest diseases of apple. Fruit infection by the pathogens occurs in the orchard but remains latent before harvest. Symptoms develop after harvest and are simil...

  6. Effects of size-controlling apple rootstocks on growth, ABA, and hydraulic conductivity of scion of different vigor

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Size-controlling rootstocks are required to attain trees with reduced stature that are necessary for modern orchard management, such as high density plantings. Apple cultivars can be grafted on commercially-available size-controlling rootstocks but new rootstocks are needed for both size-controllin...

  7. Brassica seed meal soil amendments transform the rhizosphere microbiome and improve apple production through resistance to pathogen reinfestation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Brassicaceae seed meal (SM) formulations were compared with pre-plant 1,3-dichloropropene/chloropicrin (Telone-C17®) soil fumigation for the ability to control apple replant disease and to suppress pathogen/parasite re-infestation of organic orchard soils at two sites in Washington State. Pre-plant...

  8. [The content of phenolic acids in the edible parts of selected varieties of apples].

    PubMed

    Malik, Agnieszka; Kiczorowska, Bozena; Zdyb, Justyna

    2009-01-01

    Fruits and vegetables are essential sources of many nutritive substances which are necessary for normal function of the organism. One of the mostly consumed fruits in many European countries, including Poland is apples. The prohealthy properties of apples are associated with the contents of polyphenolic compounds, thus including in parts phenolic acids which have antioxidant properties. The concentration of these compounds depends on many factors such as variety climate and soil conditions, maturity as well as agro technical operations. The aim of this investigation was to compare the concentrations of phenolic acids and epicatechin in the varieties of apple Champion and Jonica, which were collected from different orchards around Lublin. The phenolic compounds were assayed using a Symmetry column carrier RP-C18 (Waters) integrated with a high pressure liquid chromatography apparatus. The dominant phenolic acids found in the Champion variety was chlorogenic acid, whereas in the Jonica variety, chlorogenic and homovanilic acids were the dominate once. The highest concentrations of chlorogenic acid was detected in the pulp of an apple (Jonica variety) collected from the orchards around the cities of Puławy and Lublin, whereas homovanilic acid was the highest in the other samples collected from the orchards in the vicinity of Stryjno and Góry Markuszowskie. Among the Jonica and Champion varieties of apples collected from various orchards in the vicinity of Lublin, the highest content of epicatechin (13,12 mg/kg) was found in the pulps of Champions variety collected in Puławy. In general, the Champion variety was the best source of phenolic acids and epicatechin compared to the Jonica variety independent of the harvest zone.

  9. Orchard factors associated with resistance and cross resistance to sterol demethylation inhibitor fungicides in populations of Venturia inaequalis from Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Pfeufer, Emily E; Ngugi, Henry K

    2012-03-01

    Orchard management practices, such as destroying of overwintered inoculum and limiting the number of fungicide applications, are often recommended as tactics for slowing the development of resistance to sterol demethylation-inhibitor (DMI) fungicides in populations of Venturia inaequalis. However, there is little quantitative evidence relating the use of such practices to levels of resistance in orchards. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of V. inaequalis isolates from Pennsylvania to DMI fungicides, and to identify orchard management factors related to the incidence of resistant isolates. In total, 644 single-spore V. inaequalis cultures obtained from 20 apple orchards in 2008 or 2009 were tested for sensitivity to myclobutanil, fenbuconazole, or difenoconazole. Growers provided management history of the sampled plots. Widespread shifts toward resistance to the three fungicides were noted, with mean effective concentration for 50% inhibition (EC(50)) values of 2.136, 0.786, and 0.187 μg/ml for myclobutanil, fenbuconazole, and difenoconazole, respectively. Cross resistance to the three fungicides was documented in high correlation (Spearman's r > 0.6) between mean EC(50) values for 14 orchards. Based on a 0.5-μg/ml threshold, 66 and 26% of isolates were resistant to myclobutanil and fenbuconazole, respectively, and 22% were cross resistant to the two fungicides. A significant between-year shift toward increased resistance was noted in two of three orchards surveyed in both years. Failure to use dormant copper sprays, older trees, larger orchards, orchards with ≤10 cultivars, and application of >4 DMI sprays were positively correlated (0.0001 < P < 0.05) with the incidence of resistant isolates. Isolates from orchards with >4 DMI sprays were four times as likely to be resistant to fenbuconazole (odds ratio = 4.57; P = 0.015). Isolates from orchards without dormant copper sprays were twice as likely to be cross-shifted toward resistance to all

  10. Digital Data Set of Orchards Where Arsenical Pesticides Were Likely Used in Clarke and Frederick Counties, Virginia, and Berkeley and Jefferson Counties, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, Bradley W.; Larkins, Peter; Robinson,, Gilpin R.

    2006-01-01

    This Fact Sheet provides information on a digital data set that identifies orchard areas under cultivation between the 1920s and 1960s in Clarke and Frederick Counties, Virginia and Berkeley and Jefferson Counties, West Virginia. The apple orchards in these areas likely used arsenical pesticides during this time. The digital data set can be used in a geographic information system (GIS) to identify where elevated arsenic and lead concentrations may be present in soils. The digital data set, the associated metadata, and the related files are available on the World Wide Web at http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1330/shapefile/.

  11. Quantifying key parameters as elicitors for alternate fruit bearing in cv. 'Elstar' apple trees.

    PubMed

    Krasniqi, Anne-Lena; Damerow, Lutz; Kunz, Achim; Blanke, Michael M

    2013-11-01

    The commonly known alternate bearing, i.e. year-to-year change of large and small yields of fruit tree crops worldwide, is often induced by abiotic stress such as late frost, which will eliminate flowers or fruitlets. This study presents an alternative form, biotic biennial bearing, i.e. change of large and small yields of the same trees within the same tree row in the same year. Three methods were developed or modified for the analysis of the number of flower clusters and yield of 2086 apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cv. 'Elstar' trees. The first method, i.e., based on intersect between yield in year x and year x+1 and flower clusters in year x, yielded 91-106 flower clusters, whereas the second method, i.e., mean yield in year x and year x+1, resulted in a range of 72-133 flower clusters, or 9.6kg/tree necessary for sustainable cultivation of apple cv. 'Elstar'. The third 'biennial bearing index' (BBI), was calculated in three ways as the ratio of differences in tree yields to cumulative tree yield, for individual trees (rather than orchard average) to demonstrate the tree-to-tree alternation. A scheme for the possible underlying regulatory mechanisms was developed, which includes potential elicitors such as light deprivation and subsequent lack of flower initiation, are discussed as a possible result of polar basipetal GA7 transport, cytokinin level in the xylem and phloem and down-regulation of the gene expression of the flowering gene. Suggested countermeasures included early chemical or mechanical thinning.

  12. Improved monitoring of female codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with pear ester plus acetic acid in sex pheromone-treated orchards.

    PubMed

    Knight, Alan

    2010-08-01

    The performance of clear delta traps baited with 3.0 mg of pear ester, ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, and 5.0 ml of acetic acid in separate lures was compared with orange delta traps baited with a single lure containing 3.0 mg of both pear ester and the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone) for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), in apple, Malus domestica (Borkhausen). Residual analyses and field tests demonstrated that both the pear ester and acetic acid lures were effective for at least 8 wk. The two trap-lure combinations caught a similar number of total moths in an orchard treated with sex pheromone dispensers during short-term trials in 2008. However, the mean catch of female moths was significantly higher and male moths significantly lower in clear traps baited with pear ester and acetic acid versus orange traps baited with pear ester and codlemone. Season-long studies were conducted with these two trap-lure combinations in orchards treated with (n = 6) and without (n = 7) sex pheromone dispensers during 2009. The two trap-lure combinations caught similar numbers of moths in dispenser-treated orchards. In contrast, total catch was significantly higher (>2-fold) in the orange compared with the clear traps in untreated orchards. The clear caught >6-fold more females than the orange trap in both types of orchards. These studies suggest that deploying clear delta traps baited with pear ester and acetic acid can be an effective monitoring tool for female codling moth and an alternative to codlemone-baited traps in sex pheromone-treated orchards.

  13. Orchard Business Management. Unit I. Establishing an Orchard Record Keeping System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullinix, Shauna K.

    This guide is intended for use in providing in-depth formal classroom and on-site instruction in the principles of business and financial management as they apply to operating and managing orchards. Designed to be used with an accompanying Orchard Business Management Record Book, this unit (i.e., the first year) of the course deals with…

  14. Flower production on clonal orchards at Oconto River Seed Orchard in Wisconsin

    Treesearch

    J.G. Murphy; R.G. Miller

    1977-01-01

    The Eastern Region, USDA Forest Service has been establishing and managing seed orchards to produce improved seed for the National Forests in the Lake States since 1969. This paper presents a review of the female flower production for the past 4 years in the white pine, white spruce, and black spruce clonal seed orchards.

  15. Orchard Business Management. Unit II. Management and Analysis of the Orchard Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullinix, Shauna K.

    This guide is intended for use in providing in-depth formal classroom and on-site instruction in the principles of business and financial management as they apply to operating and managing orchards. Designed to be used with an accompanying Orchard Business Management Record Book, this unit is devoted to management and analysis of an orchard…

  16. Cultivar and Year Rather than Agricultural Practices Affect Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Apple Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Renard, Catherine M. G. C.; Plenet, Daniel; Gautier, Hélène; Touloumet, Line; Girard, Thierry; Simon, Sylvaine

    2015-01-01

    Many biotic and abiotic parameters affect the metabolites involved in the organoleptic and health value of fruits. It is therefore important to understand how the growers' decisions for cultivar and orchard management can affect the fruit composition. Practices, cultivars and/or year all might participate to determine fruit composition. To hierarchize these factors, fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids contents, titratable acidity, individual sugars and organics acids, and phenolics were measured in three apple cultivars (‘Ariane’, ‘Melrose’ and ‘Smoothee’) managed under organic, low-input and conventional management. Apples were harvested at commercial maturity in the orchards of the cropping system experiment BioREco at INRA Gotheron (Drôme, 26) over the course of three years (2011, 2012 and 2013). The main factors affecting primary and secondary metabolites, in both apple skin and flesh, were by far the cultivar and the yearly conditions, while the management system had a very limited effect. When considering the three cultivars and the year 2011 to investigate the effect of the management system per se, only few compounds differed significantly between the three systems and in particular the total phenolic content did not differ significantly between systems. Finally, when considering orchards grown in the same pedoclimatic conditions and of the same age, instead of the usual organic vs. conventional comparison, the effect of the management system on the apple fruit quality (Fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, individual sugars, organic acids, and phenolics) was very limited to non-significant. The main factors of variation were the cultivar and the year of cropping rather than the cropping system. More generally, as each management system (e.g. conventional, organic…) encompasses a great variability of practices, this highlights the importance of accurately documenting orchard practices and design beside the

  17. Cultivar and Year Rather than Agricultural Practices Affect Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Apple Fruit.

    PubMed

    Le Bourvellec, Carine; Bureau, Sylvie; Renard, Catherine M G C; Plenet, Daniel; Gautier, Hélène; Touloumet, Line; Girard, Thierry; Simon, Sylvaine

    2015-01-01

    Many biotic and abiotic parameters affect the metabolites involved in the organoleptic and health value of fruits. It is therefore important to understand how the growers' decisions for cultivar and orchard management can affect the fruit composition. Practices, cultivars and/or year all might participate to determine fruit composition. To hierarchize these factors, fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids contents, titratable acidity, individual sugars and organics acids, and phenolics were measured in three apple cultivars ('Ariane', 'Melrose' and 'Smoothee') managed under organic, low-input and conventional management. Apples were harvested at commercial maturity in the orchards of the cropping system experiment BioREco at INRA Gotheron (Drôme, 26) over the course of three years (2011, 2012 and 2013). The main factors affecting primary and secondary metabolites, in both apple skin and flesh, were by far the cultivar and the yearly conditions, while the management system had a very limited effect. When considering the three cultivars and the year 2011 to investigate the effect of the management system per se, only few compounds differed significantly between the three systems and in particular the total phenolic content did not differ significantly between systems. Finally, when considering orchards grown in the same pedoclimatic conditions and of the same age, instead of the usual organic vs. conventional comparison, the effect of the management system on the apple fruit quality (Fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, individual sugars, organic acids, and phenolics) was very limited to non-significant. The main factors of variation were the cultivar and the year of cropping rather than the cropping system. More generally, as each management system (e.g. conventional, organic…) encompasses a great variability of practices, this highlights the importance of accurately documenting orchard practices and design beside the generic

  18. Biodiversity management of organic orchard enhances both ecological and economic profitability.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jie; Li, Lijun; Liu, Haitao; Li, Yong; Li, Caihong; Wu, Guanglei; Yu, Xiaofan; Guo, Liyue; Cheng, Da; Muminov, Mahmud A; Liang, Xiaotian; Jiang, Gaoming

    2016-01-01

    Organic farming has been regarded as an alternative solution for both agricultural sustainability and human health maintenance. Few researches have concentrated on the differences of biodiversity and eco-economic benefits between organic and conventional orchards. Organic management (OM) of orchards mainly includes taking advantage of natural enemies and beneficial weeds as well as soil organisms and controlling harmful pests. Here we conducted a three-year experiment on the effects of managing biodiversity in an organic apple orchard, using cattle manure to enrich soil biota, propagating native plant to suppress weeds and applying ecological pest management to control pests. The effect was assessed against the conventional management (CM) model. We found that OM enhanced soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen. The 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing results indicated that the dominant bacterial phyla of the top soil were Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, and OM had richer bacteria diversity with a 7% higher Shannon's index than the CM. In particular, the relative abundance of rhizobium in the OM was higher than that of the CM. For OM, Duchesnea indica was an ideal ground-cover plant to control weeds through winning the niche competition and thus decreased weeds' Simpson, Shannon-Wiener and Pielou index by 38.2%, 53.8% and 16.9% separately. The phototactic pests' weight and scarab beetle's population were effectively decreased by 35% and 86% respectively through long time control and prevention. OM had an average of 20 times more earthworms than CM, and the maximum density had reached 369 m(-2) (0-20 cm soil). The dominant earthworm species of the OM were detritivores which preferring soil with high organic matter content. Due to no synthetic chemicals being used, the OM produced much safer apple fruits which were sold at high prices. Economically, up to a 103% increase of output-input ratio had been achieved in the OM. Our

  19. Biodiversity management of organic orchard enhances both ecological and economic profitability

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Jie; Li, Lijun; Liu, Haitao; Li, Yong; Li, Caihong; Wu, Guanglei; Yu, Xiaofan; Guo, Liyue; Cheng, Da; Muminov, Mahmud A.; Liang, Xiaotian

    2016-01-01

    Organic farming has been regarded as an alternative solution for both agricultural sustainability and human health maintenance. Few researches have concentrated on the differences of biodiversity and eco-economic benefits between organic and conventional orchards. Organic management (OM) of orchards mainly includes taking advantage of natural enemies and beneficial weeds as well as soil organisms and controlling harmful pests. Here we conducted a three-year experiment on the effects of managing biodiversity in an organic apple orchard, using cattle manure to enrich soil biota, propagating native plant to suppress weeds and applying ecological pest management to control pests. The effect was assessed against the conventional management (CM) model. We found that OM enhanced soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen. The 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing results indicated that the dominant bacterial phyla of the top soil were Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, and OM had richer bacteria diversity with a 7% higher Shannon’s index than the CM. In particular, the relative abundance of rhizobium in the OM was higher than that of the CM. For OM, Duchesnea indica was an ideal ground-cover plant to control weeds through winning the niche competition and thus decreased weeds’ Simpson, Shannon–Wiener and Pielou index by 38.2%, 53.8% and 16.9% separately. The phototactic pests’ weight and scarab beetle’s population were effectively decreased by 35% and 86% respectively through long time control and prevention. OM had an average of 20 times more earthworms than CM, and the maximum density had reached 369 m−2 (0–20 cm soil). The dominant earthworm species of the OM were detritivores which preferring soil with high organic matter content. Due to no synthetic chemicals being used, the OM produced much safer apple fruits which were sold at high prices. Economically, up to a 103% increase of output–input ratio had been achieved in

  20. Measuring local genetic variability in populations of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) across an unmanaged and commercial orchard interface.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Contreras, Eduardo; Basoalto, Esteban; Franck, Pierre; Lavandero, Blas; Knight, Alan L; Ramírez, Claudio C

    2014-04-01

    The genetic structure of adult codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), populations was characterized both inside a managed apple, Malus domestica Borkdhausen, orchard and in surrounding unmanaged hosts and nonhost trees in central Chile during 2006-2007. Adult males were collected using an array of sex pheromone-baited traps. Five microsatellite genetic markers were used to study the population genetic structure across both spatial (1-100 ha) and temporal (generations within a season) gradients. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) found a significant, but weak, association in both the spatial and temporal genetic structures. Discriminant analysis also found significant differentiation between the first and second generation for traps located either inside or outside the managed orchard. The Bayesian assignment test detected three genetic clusters during each of the two generations, which corresponded to different areas within the unmanaged and managed apple orchard interface. The lack of a strong spatial structure at a local scale was hypothesized to be because of active adult movement between the managed and unmanaged hosts and the asymmetry in the insecticide selection pressure inside and outside the managed habitats. These data highlight the importance of developing area-wide management programs that incorporate management tactics effective at the landscape level for successful codling moth control.

  1. Monitoring of the entomological diversity in a pesticide free orchard: investigation of the Gembloux Agricultural University Conservatory.

    PubMed

    Poligui, René Noël; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frédéric

    2009-01-01

    In orchards, the fruit production is currently oriented to integrated pest management. In order to develop efficient pest control strategy by using entomophagous beneficial and lowering the application of pesticides, sufficient knowledge of entomological populations is needed. Here, a systematic monitoring of insect diversity and abundance in a conservatory orchard of Gembloux was performed. Combining yellow traps and visual observations, 19 pest and 34 beneficial families were identified among the 10766 and 3985 insects caught in yellow traps and visual observations respectively. Calculation of diversity indices allowed us to demonstrate the variability according to fruit tree species and insects observation method. Highest insects diversity was registered in apple, then in cherry and finally in the apple-pear association and plum. Pests and beneficials represented 27% and 39% of the insect collections respectively. Aphids represented from 81% to 95% of pests depending on fruit tree species and observation method. The predominant specie was Brachycaudus helychrysi (Kaltenbach). Aphidophagous guild was largely present and mainly constituted by coccinellids and hover-flies. Harmonia axyridis Pallas and Episyrphus balteatus De Geer were the most abundant. Aphididae was found to be the most common orchard pests with a range of related aphidophagous beneficials. These results highlight the need leading to potential reasoning.

  2. Soil application of Beauveria bassiana GHA against apple sawfly, Hoplocampa testudinea (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae): Field mortality and fungal persistence.

    PubMed

    Świergiel, Weronika; Meyling, Nicolai V; Porcel, Mario; Rämert, Birgitta

    2016-12-01

    Low impact alternatives to synthetic insecticides for the control of apple sawfly (Hoplocampa testudinea Klug) are scarce encumbering pest management in organic apple orchards. We investigated the soil persistence and field efficacy of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (BotaniGard) against apple sawfly under common organic orchard practices. We also assessed the efficacy of B. bassiana GHA and Metarhizium brunneum Petch (indigenous strain) against sawfly in the laboratory. Larvae treated with either fungus in the laboratory died faster than control larvae and displayed 49.4%-68.4% mycosis. In the field, B. bassiana density remained high in the week after application, during larval descent to the soil. Fungal density decreased to 25% at 49 d after application and to 0.4% after 55 weeks. Molecular markers revealed that the majority of fungal isolates recovered comprised the applied B. bassiana strain GHA. Larvae pupating in soil cages in the orchard for 49 d displayed 17% mycosis. The high efficacy under laboratory conditions was not seen in the field. B. bassiana application resulted in densities above the upper natural background level during the growing season, but reversion to background levels occurred within a year. It remains to be investigated whether this has a detrimental effect on nontarget organisms. Additional work is needed to bridge the knowledge gap between laboratory and field efficacy in orchards.

  3. The Apple IIc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freiberger, Paul

    1984-01-01

    Description of the portable Apple IIc includes its flat panel display; a new microprocessor, the 65CO2; its new design language; layout; documentation, including interactive tutorials; software support; and cost. Apple IIc's competitors and its new printer, the Scribe, are also discussed. (MBR)

  4. Increase in epidermal planar cell density accompanies decreased russeting of “Golden Delicious” apples treated with gibberellin A4+7

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A two-year study was conducted in a “Golden Delicious” (Malus Xdomestica Borkh.) orchard having a high historical incidence of physiological fruit russeting, to examine the effect of gibberellin A4+7 (GA4+7) on apple epidermal cell size. Beginning at petal fall, four sequential applications of GA4+7...

  5. Performance of Geneva® apple rootstock selections with ‘Brookfield Gala’ and ‘Cripps Pink’ on a tall spindle system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    High density orchard systems have become the standard for new plantings in many apple production regions due to their earlier yield and higher cumulative yields which results in greater return on investments. Growers in the Mid-Atlantic region have unique challenges compared to northern production r...

  6. Elucidating the molecular responses of apple rootstock resistant to ARD pathogens: Challenges and opportunities for development of genomics-assisted breeding tools

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apple Replant Disease (ARD) is one of the major limitations to the establishment of an economically viable orchard on replant sites due to the buildup and long-term survival of pathogen inoculum. Infection by several soilborne necrotrophic fungi and oomycetes is primarily responsible for ARD and res...

  7. A multi-phasic approach reveals that apple replant disease is caused by multiple biological agents, with some agents acting synergistically

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apple replant disease (ARD) has been reported from all major fruit-growing regions of the world, and is often caused by a consortium of biological agents. The aim of this study was to investigate the etiology of ARD in South Africa in six orchard soils, using a multiphasic approach under glasshouse ...

  8. Microbial control of arthropod pests of orchards in temperate climates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Temperate orchards systems have several environmental features that make them conducive to microbial control strategies including adequate soil moisture, shading (protection from harmful UV) and stability. This chapter reviews and analyzes microbial control efforts in temperate orchards, including p...

  9. Temporal dynamics of brown rot in different apple management systems and importance of dropped fruit for disease development.

    PubMed

    Holb, I J; Scherm, H

    2007-09-01

    ABSTRACT Epidemic development of brown rot, caused by Monilinia fructigena, was monitored in integrated and organic apple orchards at two locations in eastern Hungary between 2002 and 2005 on three cultivars with early, midseason, and late ripening periods. Disease incidence and severity measures were affected significantly (P < 0.05) by management system (organic versus integrated) and cultivar, but there was no significant management system-cultivar interaction. Epidemics started 2 to 4 weeks earlier in organic orchards and on the early cv. Prima compared with integrated orchards and the late cv. Mutsu. Disease intensity increased markedly in the final 3 to 5 weeks before harvest and was considerably lower in integrated than in organic orchards. Final brown rot incidence on fruit in the tree was correlated with incidence on dropped fruit on the orchard floor (r > 0.75, P < 0.05), whereby the lag period from the appearance of the first symptomatic fruit on the ground to the occurrence of the first symptomatic fruit in the tree ranged from 2 weeks to 2 months, depending on the cultivar. The inflection point of the disease progress curve was attained first by fruit on the ground, followed successively by fruit in the lower, middle, and upper thirds of the tree canopy. This may indicate that dropped fruit that became infected early provided a source of inoculum for subsequent epidemics by serving as a bridge between sporulation from overwintered fruit mummies in the spring and the first fruit with sporulating lesions in the tree in midsummer. Removal of dropped fruit from the orchard floor resulted in a significantly lower disease incidence on fruit in the tree on all cultivars; thus, drop-removal may be useful as a brown rot management practice in apple orchards.

  10. Utilizing immunomarking techniques to track Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) movement and distribution within a peach orchard.

    PubMed

    Blaauw, Brett R; Jones, Vincent P; Nielsen, Anne L

    2016-01-01

    In this study we focus on the invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), which has a strong dispersal capacity and has had a significant impact on several cropping systems, including peach (Prunus persica (L.)). Management of H. halys has relied on intensive insecticide use, and thus a better understanding of its dispersal behavior may assist in developing improved management strategies. In order to investigate H. halys movement and distribution patterns within a peach orchard we applied ecologically safe, food protein markers to the trees along the orchard border (chicken egg albumin in the form of liquid egg whites) and to the trees within the orchard interior (bovine casein in the form of cow's milk). We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) to assess whether collected H. halys were "marked" with either of the two protein markers, revealing where in the orchard the bugs had visited. From the density data we determined that H. halys is a perimeter-driven pest in peaches, with a significantly higher density of bugs collected along the orchard border. Interestingly, this trend is primarily driven by the distribution of male bugs. The protein marking data revealed that a small proportion of male H. halys move equally between the orchard border and interior, while a small proportion of females move predominately to the border after visiting the interior. The verification of a strong edge-effect, although potentially sex-specific, implies that H. halys displays a dispersal behavior that may also be exploited for management, which may help growers more efficiently and more effectively manage H. halys.

  11. Utilizing immunomarking techniques to track Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) movement and distribution within a peach orchard

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Vincent P.; Nielsen, Anne L.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we focus on the invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), which has a strong dispersal capacity and has had a significant impact on several cropping systems, including peach (Prunus persica (L.)). Management of H. halys has relied on intensive insecticide use, and thus a better understanding of its dispersal behavior may assist in developing improved management strategies. In order to investigate H. halys movement and distribution patterns within a peach orchard we applied ecologically safe, food protein markers to the trees along the orchard border (chicken egg albumin in the form of liquid egg whites) and to the trees within the orchard interior (bovine casein in the form of cow’s milk). We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) to assess whether collected H. halys were “marked” with either of the two protein markers, revealing where in the orchard the bugs had visited. From the density data we determined that H. halys is a perimeter-driven pest in peaches, with a significantly higher density of bugs collected along the orchard border. Interestingly, this trend is primarily driven by the distribution of male bugs. The protein marking data revealed that a small proportion of male H. halys move equally between the orchard border and interior, while a small proportion of females move predominately to the border after visiting the interior. The verification of a strong edge-effect, although potentially sex-specific, implies that H. halys displays a dispersal behavior that may also be exploited for management, which may help growers more efficiently and more effectively manage H. halys. PMID:27190711

  12. Monte Carlo simulation of the risk of contamination of apples with Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Siobain; Schaffner, Donald W

    2002-10-25

    Quantitative descriptions of the frequency and extent of contamination of apple cider with pathogenic bacteria were obtained using literature data and computer simulation. Probability distributions were chosen to describe the risk of apple contamination by each suspected pathway. Tree-picked apples may be contaminated by birds infected with Escherichia coli O157:H7 when orchards were located near a sewage source (ocean or landfill). Dropped apples could become contaminated from either infected animal droppings or from contaminated manure if used as fertilizer. A risk assessment model was created in Analytica. The results of worst-case simulations revealed that 6-9 log CFU E. coli O157:H7 might be found on a harvest of 1000 dropped apples, while 3-4 log CFU contamination could be present on 1000 tree-picked apples. This model confirms that practices such as using dropped apples and using animal waste as fertilizer increase risk in the production of apple cider, and that pasteurization may not eliminate all contamination in juice from heavily contaminated fruit. Recently published FDA regulations for juices requiring a 5-log CFU/ml reduction of pathogenic bacteria in fresh juices should be a fail-safe measure for apples harvested in all but the worst-case scenarios.

  13. Detection of apple juice adulteration using near-infrared transflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    León, Lorenzo; Kelly, J Daniel; Downey, Gerard

    2005-05-01

    Near-infrared transflectance spectroscopy was used to detect adulteration of apple juice samples. A total of 150 apple samples from 19 different varieties were collected in two consecutive years from orchards throughout the main cultivation areas in Ireland. Adulterant samples at 10, 20, 30, and 40% w/w were prepared using two types of adulterants: a high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) with 45% fructose and 55% glucose, and a sugars solution (SUGARS) made with 60% fructose, 25% glucose, and 15% sucrose (the average content of these sugars in apple juice). The results show that NIR analysis can be used to predict adulteration of apple juices by added sugars with a detection limit of 9.5% for samples adulterated with HFCS, 18.5% for samples adulterated with SUGARS, and 17% for the combined (HFCS + SUGARS) adulterants. Discriminant partial least squares (PLS) regression can detect authentic apple juice with an accuracy of 86-100% and adulterant apple juice with an accuracy of 91-100% depending on the adulterant type and level of adulteration considered. This method could provide a rapid screening technique for the detection of this type of apple juice adulteration, although further work is required to demonstrate model robustness.

  14. 33 CFR 334.1230 - Port Orchard; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Port Orchard; naval restricted... ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1230 Port Orchard; naval restricted area. (a) Port Orchard; naval restricted area—(1) The area. Shoreward of a line beginning at a...

  15. Insect management in deciduous orchard ecosystems: Habitat manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedders, W. L.

    1983-01-01

    Current literature pertaining to habitat manipulation of deciduous fruit and nut orchards for pest control is reviewed. The hypothesis of pesticide-induced pest problems in deciduous orchards as well as the changing pest population dynamics of deciduous orchards is discussed An experimental habitat manipulation program for pecans, utilizing vetch cover crops to enhance lady beetle populations for pecan aphid control is presented

  16. Apple Pollination: Demand Depends on Variety and Supply Depends on Pollinator Identity.

    PubMed

    Garratt, M P D; Breeze, T D; Boreux, V; Fountain, M T; McKerchar, M; Webber, S M; Coston, D J; Jenner, N; Dean, R; Westbury, D B; Biesmeijer, J C; Potts, S G

    2016-01-01

    Insect pollination underpins apple production but the extent to which different pollinator guilds supply this service, particularly across different apple varieties, is unknown. Such information is essential if appropriate orchard management practices are to be targeted and proportional to the potential benefits pollinator species may provide. Here we use a novel combination of pollinator effectiveness assays (floral visit effectiveness), orchard field surveys (flower visitation rate) and pollinator dependence manipulations (pollinator exclusion experiments) to quantify the supply of pollination services provided by four different pollinator guilds to the production of four commercial varieties of apple. We show that not all pollinators are equally effective at pollinating apples, with hoverflies being less effective than solitary bees and bumblebees, and the relative abundance of different pollinator guilds visiting apple flowers of different varieties varies significantly. Based on this, the taxa specific economic benefits to UK apple production have been established. The contribution of insect pollinators to the economic output in all varieties was estimated to be £92.1M across the UK, with contributions varying widely across taxa: solitary bees (£51.4M), honeybees (£21.4M), bumblebees (£18.6M) and hoverflies (£0.7M). This research highlights the differences in the economic benefits of four insect pollinator guilds to four major apple varieties in the UK. This information is essential to underpin appropriate investment in pollination services management and provides a model that can be used in other entomolophilous crops to improve our understanding of crop pollination ecology.

  17. Apple Pollination: Demand Depends on Variety and Supply Depends on Pollinator Identity

    PubMed Central

    Garratt, M. P. D.; Breeze, T. D.; Boreux, V.; Coston, D. J.; Jenner, N.; Dean, R.; Westbury, D. B.; Biesmeijer, J. C.; Potts, S. G.

    2016-01-01

    Insect pollination underpins apple production but the extent to which different pollinator guilds supply this service, particularly across different apple varieties, is unknown. Such information is essential if appropriate orchard management practices are to be targeted and proportional to the potential benefits pollinator species may provide. Here we use a novel combination of pollinator effectiveness assays (floral visit effectiveness), orchard field surveys (flower visitation rate) and pollinator dependence manipulations (pollinator exclusion experiments) to quantify the supply of pollination services provided by four different pollinator guilds to the production of four commercial varieties of apple. We show that not all pollinators are equally effective at pollinating apples, with hoverflies being less effective than solitary bees and bumblebees, and the relative abundance of different pollinator guilds visiting apple flowers of different varieties varies significantly. Based on this, the taxa specific economic benefits to UK apple production have been established. The contribution of insect pollinators to the economic output in all varieties was estimated to be £92.1M across the UK, with contributions varying widely across taxa: solitary bees (£51.4M), honeybees (£21.4M), bumblebees (£18.6M) and hoverflies (£0.7M). This research highlights the differences in the economic benefits of four insect pollinator guilds to four major apple varieties in the UK. This information is essential to underpin appropriate investment in pollination services management and provides a model that can be used in other entomolophilous crops to improve our understanding of crop pollination ecology. PMID:27152628

  18. Apple rootstock evaluation for apple replant disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Twenty-nine rootstocks from the Cornell-Geneva rootstock breeding program, some Budagovski rootstocks, M.9T337 and M.26EMLA were screened for apple replant disease (ARD) tolerance at Geneva, New York in 2008. Bench grafted rootstocks were planted in pots with two types of soil –clay loam and sandy l...

  19. Orchard floor management effects on nitrogen fertility and soil biological activity in a newly established organic apple orchard

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nutrient supply in organic systems is dependent on mineralization of organic matter; however, the intensive cultivation commonly used to control weeds can disrupt biological processes and cause undue loss of organic matter. Here we address the often-competing goals of organic fertility and weed con...

  20. The Diminishing Apple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Catherine

    2002-01-01

    Introduces the Apple Ocean activity which teaches about the diminishing natural resources of the earth including drinkable water, habitable land, and productive areas while working with fractions, ratios, and proportions. (YDS)

  1. The Diminishing Apple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Catherine

    2002-01-01

    Introduces the Apple Ocean activity which teaches about the diminishing natural resources of the earth including drinkable water, habitable land, and productive areas while working with fractions, ratios, and proportions. (YDS)

  2. Furukawa with apple

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-02

    ISS029-E-037417 (2 Nov. 2011) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Satoshi Furukawa, Expedition 29 flight engineer, enjoys eating a fresh apple in the Unity node of the International Space Station.

  3. Furukawa with apple

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-02

    ISS029-E-037421 (2 Nov. 2011) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Satoshi Furukawa, Expedition 29 flight engineer, enjoys eating a fresh apple in the Unity node of the International Space Station.

  4. Effect of the use of anti-hail nets on codling moth (Cydia pomonella) and organoleptic quality of apple (cv. Braeburn) grown in Alto Adige Region (northern Italy).

    PubMed

    Baiamonte, Irene; Raffo, Antonio; Nardo, Nicoletta; Moneta, Elisabetta; Peparaio, Marina; D'Aloise, Antonio; Kelderer, Markus; Casera, Claudio; Paoletti, Flavio

    2016-04-01

    The anti-hail nets are widely used to protect apple fruit against hailstorms and hail damage. They can have also beneficial effects against pests in apple orchards, in particular codling moth (Cydia pomonella). However, covering the trees with anti-hail nets can modify the orchard microclimate and reduce the interception of light, thus potentially causing negative consequences on the organoleptic quality of apple fruits. A consistent reduction of the percentage of apple fruits infested by codling moth was registered as a result of the use of anti-hail nets during two consecutive harvest years. Their use did not affect fruit maturity, but reduced the skin colour, sugar content, pulp total phenol content, volatile compound composition and sensory characteristics. However, the results were inconsistent over the two years apart for total phenols, formation of two volatile compounds (butyl and hexenyl acetate, the first being one of the main odorants in most apple cultivars), sensory attributes of 'flavour of lemon' and 'juiciness'. For these parameters, the fruits from plots where the trees were not covered showed higher values than those from plots where anti-hail nets were used. The use of anti-hail nets was effective in preventing the attack of codling moth to apple fruits, suggesting their use in organic management where conventional insecticides are prohibited. Under the conditions tested, anti-hail nets showed a negative effect on some of the quality characteristics measured on apple fruits, which could influence consumer acceptability. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Curve numbers for olive orchard catchments in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguas, Encarnación; Yuan, Yongping; Licciardello, Feliciana; Gómez, Jose

    2014-05-01

    The Curve Number (CN) method (Soil Conservation Service, 1972) is widely applied around the world to estimate direct runoff and the corresponding hydrograph of a rainfall event. Its efficient and simple computation, its complete parameterization for different soils, uses and managements and its good performance justify its application. Nevertheless, apart from Romero et al. (2007) who calculated CN-values at the plot scale, there is little information on the model performance in olive orchards at the catchment scale. In this work, the CN-model has been applied in three small catchments in Spain ranging between 6 and 8 ha with different soil types (regosol, luvisol and vertisol), topography (mean slopes between 9-15%) and management practices (non-tillage with a spontaneous grass cover, minimum tillage, conventional tillage). A rainfall-runoff dataset of 6 years have been used to test the usefulness of model as well as the accuracy of its reference parameterization (CNs and of initial substraction, Ia). CN-values were adjusted, optimized and compared with reference values for orchard crops while the sensitivity of the goodness of fit to Ia was described for each catchment. Classical equations based on the use of CN-percentiles 50, 10 and 90 for determining the antecedent moisture content (AMC) provided very good results with Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients of efficiency equal to 0.73 and 0.81 in two of the catchments with an annual rainfall higher than 600 mm. The third one -with an annual rainfall lower than 400 mm and spontaneous grass cover- showed a different pattern where a multiple linear regression dependant on precipitation and temperature features, represented notably better the rainfall-runoff relationships. Although fractions of Ia on the storage (S) equal to 0.15 and 0.25 allowed to optimize the adjustments of CN, the usual reference of 0.20 is quite appropriate. Finally, significant deviations were observed on reference-CNs for sandy soils that should be

  6. Family indices for seed-orchard selection

    Treesearch

    Gene Namkoong

    1966-01-01

    Many seed orchard programs include a stage at which clones or seedlings are culled on the basis of progeny tests. Though breeding systems which involve progeny testing differ in efficiency, they all provide information on an individual's breeding value through its own performance and that of parental or seedling relatives. A combined index on any one trait, using...

  7. Genetic and fitness costs of raising wild pollinators in captivity: interaction among species, subspecies and populations of orchard bees

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Managed megachilid bees are often established as small genetically uniform populations, whose fate may foretell the costs of ongoing habitat fragmentation on wild pollinator species. Within our small captive population of a managed orchard bee Osmia ribifloris, mtDNA (COI) markers show two populatio...

  8. Traditional olive orchards on sloping land: sustainability or abandonment?

    PubMed

    Duarte, Filomena; Jones, Nádia; Fleskens, Luuk

    2008-11-01

    Traditional olive orchards account for a large share of the area under olives in the EU, particularly in marginal areas, like those analysed in the OLIVERO project. In general, traditional olive growing can be described as a low-intensity production system, associated with old (sometimes very old) trees, grown at a low density, giving small yields and receiving low inputs of labour and materials. Though such systems are environmentally sustainable, their economic viability has become an issue, since EU policies favour more intensive and competitive systems. Orchards that have not been intensified seem to be threatened by the recent reform of the EU olive and olive oil policy, as income support has been decoupled from production. The main purpose of this paper is to identify the present constraints to traditional olive growing, and to recommend some private and public interventions to prevent its abandonment. During the OLIVERO project, traditional olive production systems were identified and described in five target areas (Trás-os-Montes--Portugal, Cordoba and Granada/Jaen--Spain, Basilicata/Salerno--Italy, and West Crete--Greece). The causes and consequences of abandonment are discussed, based on the analysis of the costs and returns, which revealed that these systems are barely economically sustainable. Their viability is only assured if reduced opportunity costs for family labour are accepted, and the olive growing is part-time. Based on these results, recommendations are made to prevent the abandonment of traditional olive growing and to preserve its environmental benefits.

  9. [Effects of different potassium fertilizer application periods on the yield and quality of Fuji apple].

    PubMed

    Lu, Yong-li; Yang, Xian-long; Li, Ru; Li, Shui-li; Tong, Yan-an

    2015-04-01

    In order to ascertain the effects of potassium fertilizer application periods on apple production, we conducted a field experiment and analyzed the differences in apple yield, fruit quality, potassium fertilizer use efficiency, and nutrient concentrations in leaves and fruits among treatments with differences in timing of potassium application. The results indicated that, compared with no potassium-applied treatment (CK), all potassium fertilizer application treatments significantly increased the apple yield by 4.3%-33.2%, meanwhile, it also obviously improved the fruit quality. In comparison with the application of 100% potassium fertilizer as a base, the application of 50% or 100% of potassium fertilizer at the fruit enlargement stage (the remaining 50% applied as a base or after flowering) significantly increased the apple yield by 20.5% - 27.7% and improved the fruit quality. Compared with the application 100% potassium fertilizer at the stage of fruit enlargement, the evenly split application as base flowering stage and at the fruit enlargement: stage not only contributed to a higher yield, better quality and higher potassium use efficiency, but also maintained a relatively stable potassium concentration level in leaves. However, the split potassium fertilizer application at the flowering and fruit enlargement stages resulted in the significant decrease in concentration of calcium in fruit, which would be negative to fruit quality. In conclusion, our research suggested that evenly split application of potassium fertilizer as a base and at the fruit enlargement stage was the suitable period for apple production in Fuji apple orchards in this region.

  10. Fate of Listeria monocytogenes in Fresh Apples and Caramel Apples.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Joelle K; Carstens, Christina K; Bathija, Vriddi M; Narula, Sartaj S; Parish, Mickey; Tortorello, Mary Lou

    2016-05-01

    An outbreak of listeriosis in late 2014 and early 2015 associated with caramel apples led to questions about how this product became a vector for Listeria monocytogenes. This investigation aimed to determine information about the survival and growth of L. monocytogenes in both fresh apples and caramel apples, specifically examining the effects of site and level of inoculation, inoculum drying conditions, and storage temperature. At a high inoculation level (7 log CFU per apple), L. monocytogenes inoculated at the stem end proliferated on Gala caramel apples at both 5 and 25°C and on Granny Smith caramel apples at 25°C by as much as 3 to 5 log CFU per apple. Fresh apples and caramel apples inoculated at the equatorial surface supported survival but not growth of the pathogen. Growth rates (μmax) for apples inoculated at the stem end, as determined using the Baranyi and Roberts growth model, were 1.64 ± 0.27 and 1.38 ± 0.20 log CFU per apple per day for Gala and Granny Smith caramel apples, respectively, stored at 25°C. At a low inoculation level (3 log CFU per apple), L. monocytogenes inoculated at the stem end and the equatorial surface survived but did not grow on fresh Gala and Granny Smith apples stored at 25°C for 49 days; however, on caramel apples inoculated at the stem end, L. monocytogenes had significant growth under the same conditions. Although certain conditions did not support growth, the pathogen was always detectable by enrichment culture. The inoculation procedure had a significant effect on results; when the inoculum was allowed to dry for 24 h at 5°C, growth was significantly slowed compared with inoculum allowed to dry for 2 h at 25°C. Variation in stick materials did affect L. monocytogenes survival, but these differences were diminished once sticks were placed into caramel apples.

  11. Seasonal phenology of woolly apple aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Central Washington.

    PubMed

    Beers, Elizabeth H; Cockfield, Stephen D; Gontijo, Lessando M

    2010-04-01

    The seasonal abundance of woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum Hausmann) was studied from 2005 to 2008 in commercial orchards in central Washington State. There was a single period of crawler migration on the tree trunks each year lasting from 7 to 16 wk. The peak period of crawler activity ranged from early June to late July, although peaks in June were more common. In one orchard, peak densities occurred 7 wk later in 2006 than in 2005. In all orchards where large numbers of crawlers were caught (up to 1,420 per band per week), more crawlers were caught in the lower band (migrating up from root colonies) than in the upper bands (migrating down from the aerial colonies). However, the peak period of crawler migration was similar for root and aerial colonies. In contrast, peaks in population densities of aerial colonies were sometimes bimodal, usually spanning the period from late May through mid-October; however, colonies were detected in mid-April in one orchard. There was no consistent relationship between the crawler density and aerial colony density within an orchard; this raises challenging questions regarding annual reinfestation of the aerial portions of the tree. Nymphs and adults formed 66 and 15%, respectively, of all stages found throughout the season. Alates were only found in September and October in orchards with fall populations, comprising up to 43% of individuals in aerial colonies. Overwintering survival was higher on the root colonies than in the aerial colonies in both years this was studied. Fruit infestation by aphids was relatively rare, and occurred only when aerial colonies were numerous.

  12. Landscape analysis of adult codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) distribution and dispersal within typical agroecosystems dominated by apple production in central Chile.

    PubMed

    Basoalto, E; Miranda, M; Knight, A L; Fuentes-Contreras, E

    2010-10-01

    We analyzed the spatial distribution and dispersal of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), adults within two heterogeneous agroecosystems typical of central Chile: commercial apple, Malus domestica Borkhausen, orchards surrounded by various unmanaged host plants. Both a geostatistical analysis of catches of adult males with a grid of sex pheromone-baited traps and an immunological self-marking technique combined with traps baited with a male and female attractant were used. The spatial analyses identified the key sources of moths within these diverse landscapes. Codling moth catches in traps were spatially associated within distances of ≈ 150-300 m. Similarly, the mean distance from the immunological self-marking plots within the commercial apple orchard to the traps that captured marked adults was 282 m. In contrast, the mean distance in the capture of marked moths from unmanaged self-marking plots to a commercial orchard was 828 m. These data suggest that the success of any future area-wide management programs for codling moth in Chilean pome fruit must include a component for managing or removing noncommercial hosts that surround orchards. This analysis also suggests that the selection pressure for resistance imposed by insecticide sprays within managed orchards is likely dampened by the influx of susceptible moths from unmanaged sites common in central Chile.

  13. About APPLE II Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, T.; Zimoch, D.

    2007-01-19

    The operation of an APPLE II based undulator beamline with all its polarization states (linear horizontal and vertical, circular and elliptical, and continous variation of the linear vector) requires an effective description allowing an automated calculation of gap and shift parameter as function of energy and operation mode. The extension of the linear polarization range from 0 to 180 deg. requires 4 shiftable magnet arrrays, permitting use of the APU (adjustable phase undulator) concept. Studies for a pure fixed gap APPLE II for the SLS revealed surprising symmetries between circular and linear polarization modes allowing for simplified operation. A semi-analytical model covering all types of APPLE II and its implementation will be presented.

  14. [Genetic diversity of microbial communities in tea orchard soil].

    PubMed

    Xue, Dong; Yao, Huai-Ying; Huang, Chang-Yong

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, the total microbial DNA was extracted from the soils in 8-, 50- and 90 years old tea orchards, adjacent wasteland, and 90 years old forestland in Meijiawu tea area of Hangzhou. The 16S rDNA V3 fragment was amplified by PCR, and the polymorphism of this fragment was analyzed by DGGE. The results indicated that both the tea orchard age and the land use type had significant effects on soil microbial genetic diversity. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in the microbial genetic diversity index among wasteland, tea orchards and forestland, which was decreased in the order of wasteland > tea orchard > forestland. For the tea orchards of different ages, the soil microbial genetic diversity index, microbial biomass C, and basal respiration were significantly higher in 50 years old than in 8 and 90 years old tea orchards.

  15. Transcriptomics of shading-induced and NAA-induced abscission in apple (Malus domestica) reveals a shared pathway involving reduced photosynthesis, alterations in carbohydrate transport and signaling and hormone crosstalk

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), a synthetic auxin analogue, is widely used as an effective thinner in apple orchards. When applied shortly after fruit set, some fruit abscise leading to improved fruit size and quality. However, the thinning results of NAA are inconsistent and difficult to predict, s...

  16. Seasonal and cultivar-associated variation in oviposition preference of Oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) adults and feeding behavior of neonate larvae in apples.

    PubMed

    Myers, Clayton T; Hull, Larry A; Krawczyk, Grzegorz

    2006-04-01

    The Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) has become a pest of tree fruits since its introduction to the United States in the early twentieth century. Oriental fruit moth has historically been a major pest problem in peach production, and outbreaks in commercial apple (Malus spp.) orchards in the eastern United States were rare until the late 1990s. Recent outbreaks in Mid-Atlantic apple orchards have lead researchers to investigate host-associated effects on oriental fruit moth biology, behavior, and population dynamics. Studies were designed to assess cultivar level effects in apples on oviposition and larval feeding behavior of oriental fruit moth. In a mixed cultivar apple orchard, total oriental fruit moth oviposition and oviposition site preferences varied between cultivars. These preferences also varied over time, when sampling was repeated at various times of the growing season. Although most adult female oriental fruit moth preferentially oviposited in the calyx and stem areas of apple fruit, noticeable numbers of eggs also were laid on the sides of fruit, contradicting some previous reports. Oriental fruit moth females exhibited a strong ovipositional preference for fruit that were previously damaged by oriental fruit moth or codling moth, Cydia ponmonella (L.). The majority of newly hatched oriental fruit moth larvae were observed to spend <24 h on the surface of apple fruit before entry, and this behavior was observed on several apple cultivars. Neonate larvae exhibited a preference for entering fruit at either the stem or calyx ends, regardless of their initial site of placement. Our findings underscore the importance of adequate spray coverage and accurate timing of insecticide applications targeting oriental fruit moth.

  17. Upscaling of spectroradiometer data for stress detection in orchards with remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempeneers, Pieter; De Backer, Steve; Delalieux, Stephanie; Sterckx, Sindy; Debruyn, Walter; Coppin, Pol; Scheunders, Paul

    2004-10-01

    This paper studies the detection of vegetation stress in orchards via remote sensing. During previous research, it was shown that stress can be detected reliably on hyperspectral reflectances of the fresh leaves, using a generic wavelet based hyperspectral classification. In this work, we demonstrate the capability to detect stress from airborne/spaceborne hyperspectral sensors by upscaling the leaf reflectances to top of atmosphere (TOA) radiances. Several data sets are generated, measuring the foliar reflectance with a portable field spectroradiometer, covering different time periods, fruit variants and stress types. We concentrated on the Jonagold and Golden Delicious apple trees, induced with mildew and nitrogen deficiency. First, a directional homogeneous canopy reflectance model (ACRM) is applied on these data sets for simulating top of canopy (TOC) spectra. Then, the TOC level is further upscaled to TOA, using the atmospheric radiative transfer model MODTRAN4. To simulate hyperspectral imagery acquired with real airborne/spaceborne sensors, the spectrum is further filtered and subsampled to the available resolution. Using these simulated upscaled TOC and TOA spectra in classification, we will demonstrate that there is still a differentiation possible between stresses and non-stressed trees. Furthermore, results show it is possible to train a classifier with simulated TOA data, to make a classification of real hyperspectral imagery over the orchard.

  18. Soil acidification increases metal extractability and bioavailability in old orchard soils of Northeast Jiaodong Peninsula in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Lianzhen; Wu, Huifeng; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Allen, Herbert E

    2014-05-01

    The bioavailability of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd from field-aged orchard soils in a certified fruit plantation area of the Northeast Jiaodong Peninsula in China was assessed using bioassays with earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and chemical assays. Soil acidity increased with increasing fruit cultivation periods with a lowest pH of 4.34. Metals were enriched in topsoils after decades of horticultural cultivation, with highest concentrations of Cu (132 kg(-1)) and Zn (168 mg kg(-1)) in old apple orchards and Pb (73 mg kg(-1)) and Cd (0.57 mg kg(-1)) in vineyard soil. Earthworm tissue concentrations of Cu and Pb significantly correlated with 0.01 M CaCl2-extractable soil concentrations (R(2) = 0.70, p < 0.001 for Cu; R(2) = 0.58, p < 0.01 for Pb). Because of the increased bioavailability, regular monitoring of soil conditions in old orchards and vineyards is recommended, and soil metal guidelines need reevaluation to afford appropriate environmental protection under acidifying conditions.

  19. Numerical Analysis of the Effects of Wind and Sprayer Type on Spray Distribution in Different Orchard Training Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duga, Ashenafi T.; Dekeyser, Donald; Ruysen, Kris; Bylemans, Dany; Nuyttens, David; Nicolai, Bart M.; Verboven, Pieter

    2015-12-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of airflow and spray application in orchards was validated using field trials and used to assess the effect of wind and sprayer type on spray distribution in different orchard training systems. Three air-assisted orchard sprayer designs (a cross-flow sprayer, an axial sprayer and a sprayer with individual spouts) and four different training systems of apple and pear trees were used for this analysis. The CFD model integrates the tree architecture into the model geometry, rather than using a generalized canopy profile approach. Predicted vertical on-tree deposition profiles agreed well with measurements. The lower airflow rate generated by the sprayer with individual spouts resulted in a significantly larger deflection of the spray particles under the same wind conditions. A detailed assessment was made on the most common axial sprayer. An increase in the magnitude of the wind speed for flow across the tree row resulted in an increase in the amount of spray detected in the air around the trees and in the ground deposition in front of the tree row. Environmental airflow in the direction of spraying gave the largest deposition on the tree, constraining the spray in the canopy region. A wind direction opposite to the spraying direction, however, resulted in an increase of the ground deposition and the amount of spray remaining in air. The model can be used to analyze the effects of implementation of more sustainable spray application procedures taking into account wind conditions, tree and machine characteristics.

  20. The polarization phase difference of orchard trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, James R.; Mo, Tsan

    1990-01-01

    An image obtained by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's airborne L-band polarimeter (SAR) over an agricultural area near Fresno, California, was analyzed for the signatures of polarization phase difference (PPD). The PPD of orchard trees was found to be distinctly different from that of bare fields or fields covered with other crops. Thus the PPD signatures obtained from a polarimeter may be useful in the understanding of the radar remote sensing of the earth's surface.

  1. The polarization phase difference of orchard trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, James R.; Mo, Tsan

    1990-01-01

    An image obtained by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's airborne L-band polarimeter (SAR) over an agricultural area near Fresno, California, was analyzed for the signatures of polarization phase difference (PPD). The PPD of orchard trees was found to be distinctly different from that of bare fields or fields covered with other crops. Thus the PPD signatures obtained from a polarimeter may be useful in the understanding of the radar remote sensing of the earth's surface.

  2. The use of 16S and 16S-23S rDNA to easily detect and differentiate common Gram-negative orchard epiphytes.

    PubMed

    Jeng, R S; Svircev, A M; Myers, A L; Beliaeva, L; Hunter, D M; Hubbes, M

    2001-02-01

    The identification of Gram-negative pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria commonly isolated from an orchard phylloplane may result in a time consuming and tedious process for the plant pathologist. The paper provides a simple "one-step" protocol that uses the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify intergenic spacer regions between 16S and 23S genes and a portion of 16S gene in the prokaryotic rRNA genetic loci. Amplified 16S rDNA, and restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) following EcoRI digestion produced band patterns that readily distinguished between the plant pathogen Erwinia amylovora (causal agent of fire blight in pear and apple) and the orchard epiphyte Pantoea agglomerans (formerly E. herbicola). The amplified DNA patterns of 16S-23S spacer regions may be used to differentiate E. amylovora at the intraspecies level. Isolates of E. amylovora obtained from raspberries exhibited two major fragments while those obtained from apples showed three distinct amplified DNA bands. In addition, the size of the 16S-23S spacer region differs between Pseudomonas syringae and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The RFLP pattern generated by HaeIII digestion may be used to provide a rapid and accurate identification of these two common orchard epiphytes.

  3. Apple mosaic virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apple mosaic virus (ApMV), a member of the ilarvirus group, naturally infects Betula, Aesculus, Humulus, and several crop genera in the family Rosaceae (Malus, Prunus, Rosa and Rubus). ApMV was first reported in Rubus in several blackberry and raspberry cultivars in the United States and subsequentl...

  4. The Apple III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditlea, Steve

    1982-01-01

    Describes and evaluates the features, performance, peripheral devices, available software, and capabilities of the Apple III microcomputer. The computer's operating system, its hardware, and the commercially produced software it accepts are discussed. Specific applications programs for financial planning, accounting, and word processing are…

  5. Bacterial diseases affecting apple

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bacterial diseases of plants are usually difficult to control and often require a combination of control measures to successfully manage the disease. There are often stark differences between the means available to control bacterial diseases in annual crops versus a woody tree crop, such as apple. ...

  6. Development of a Susceptibility Index of Apple Cultivars for Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Oviposition.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Neelendra K; Rajotte, Edwin G; Myers, Clayton T; Krawczyk, Greg; Hull, Larry A

    2015-01-01

    Codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a major fruit feeding pest of apples. Understanding susceptibility differences of various apple cultivars to CM oviposition is an important step in developing resistant varieties as well as monitoring and management strategies for this pest in apple orchards planted with mixed-cultivars. In this context, oviposition preferences of CM for the fruits of different apple cultivars were studied in laboratory bioassays using a series of no-choice and multiple-choice tests in 2006, 2007, and 2008. In 2006 and 2007, 10 apple cultivars, viz., Arlet, Fuji, Gala, Golden Delicious, Honeycrisp, Pristine, Delicious, Stayman, Sunrise, and York Imperial were evaluated, while in the 2008 tests, Golden Delicious, Honeycrisp, and York Imperial were evaluated. During the 2006 tests, preferred apple cultivars for CM oviposition were Golden Delicious and Fuji, while the least preferred were Arlet, Pristine, Sunrise, and Honeycrisp. Similarly, during the 2007 tests, Golden Delicious, Fuji and Stayman remained the preferred cultivars, while Arlet, Honeycrisp, Pristine, and Sunrise remained the least preferred cultivars. In the 2008 tests, Golden Delicious and Honeycrisp were the most and least preferred cultivars, respectively. Based on the oviposition preferences from these bioassays, a susceptibility index for each cultivar was developed. This index may be used as a standard measure in cultivar evaluations in breeding programs, and may assist fruit growers and crop consultants to select the most appropriate cultivar(s) for monitoring and detecting the initial signs of fruit injury from CM in an apple orchard planted with mixed-cultivars.

  7. Development of a Susceptibility Index of Apple Cultivars for Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Oviposition

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Neelendra K.; Rajotte, Edwin G.; Myers, Clayton T.; Krawczyk, Greg; Hull, Larry A.

    2015-01-01

    Codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a major fruit feeding pest of apples. Understanding susceptibility differences of various apple cultivars to CM oviposition is an important step in developing resistant varieties as well as monitoring and management strategies for this pest in apple orchards planted with mixed-cultivars. In this context, oviposition preferences of CM for the fruits of different apple cultivars were studied in laboratory bioassays using a series of no-choice and multiple-choice tests in 2006, 2007, and 2008. In 2006 and 2007, 10 apple cultivars, viz., Arlet, Fuji, Gala, Golden Delicious, Honeycrisp, Pristine, Delicious, Stayman, Sunrise, and York Imperial were evaluated, while in the 2008 tests, Golden Delicious, Honeycrisp, and York Imperial were evaluated. During the 2006 tests, preferred apple cultivars for CM oviposition were Golden Delicious and Fuji, while the least preferred were Arlet, Pristine, Sunrise, and Honeycrisp. Similarly, during the 2007 tests, Golden Delicious, Fuji and Stayman remained the preferred cultivars, while Arlet, Honeycrisp, Pristine, and Sunrise remained the least preferred cultivars. In the 2008 tests, Golden Delicious and Honeycrisp were the most and least preferred cultivars, respectively. Based on the oviposition preferences from these bioassays, a susceptibility index for each cultivar was developed. This index may be used as a standard measure in cultivar evaluations in breeding programs, and may assist fruit growers and crop consultants to select the most appropriate cultivar(s) for monitoring and detecting the initial signs of fruit injury from CM in an apple orchard planted with mixed-cultivars. PMID:26617629

  8. Bark scoring problem grafts in five Douglas-fir seed orchards: a case history.

    Treesearch

    Donald L. Copes

    1989-01-01

    A bark-scoring trial was carried out on 379 of 1,234 grafts in five western Oregon seed orchards. Ages of grafted trees in 1983 ranged from 5 to 16 years. Scoring was done in April, June, or August of the first and third years of the 4-year test. Cuts across the defective interface of the union were made every 3.1 to 4.3 cm with a small, gas-powered chain saw. Many...

  9. Antibiosis activity of Pantoea agglomerans biocontrol strain E325 against Erwinia amylovora on apple flower stigmas.

    PubMed

    Pusey, P L; Stockwell, V O; Reardon, C L; Smits, T H M; Duffy, B

    2011-10-01

    Pantoea agglomerans E325, the active ingredient in a commercial product for fire blight control, was previously shown in vitro to produce a unique alkaline- and phosphate-sensitive antibiotic specific to Erwinia amylovora. Antibiosis was evaluated as a mode of antagonism on flower stigmas using two antibiosis-deficient mutants. On King's medium B, mutants E325ad1 and E325ad2 have stable smooth-butyrous or hypermucoid colony morphologies, respectively, and the parental strain E325 exhibits phenotypic plasticity with predominantly hypermucoid colonies accompanied by slower-growing, smooth-butyrous colonies. Mutants were tested against E. amylovora on stigmas of detached flowers of crab apple (Malus mandshurica) in growth chambers and apple (Malus domestica) in the orchard. Epiphytic fitness of the antibiosis-negative mutants was similar or greater than the parental strain as determined by relative area under the population curve (RAUPC). In laboratory and orchard trials, both mutants had significantly lower inhibitory activity against the pathogen (i.e., less reduction of E. amylovora RAUPC) compared with the parental strain. E325 and the mutants caused similar decreases in pH in a broth medium, indicating that acidification, which was previously reported as a possible mechanism of pathogen inhibition on stigmas, is not directly related to antibiosis. In this study we provide the first evidence for E325 antibiosis involved in E. amylovora growth suppression on apple flower stigmas.

  10. Temporal Effects on the Incidence and Severity of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Feeding Injury to Peaches and Apples during the Fruiting Period in Virginia.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Shimat V; Nita, Mizuho; Leskey, Tracy C; Bergh, J Christopher

    2015-04-01

    Exclusion cages were used to compare the incidence and severity of feeding injury from brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), on 'Redhaven' peaches, 'Golden Delicious' apples, and 'Smoothee Golden' apples at harvest, following sequential periods of exposure to natural H. halys populations during the 2011 and 2012 growing seasons in Virginia. The fruit used in these experiments were in orchards or on trees that were not managed for H. halys. Treatments were sets of 50 fruit that were always caged, never caged, or exposed during one interval during the fruiting period of peaches and apples in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. The cages effectively prevented feeding injury from H. halys. Peaches and apples that were never caged showed the highest percentages of injured fruit at harvest. Exposure treatment had a significant effect on the percentage of fruit showing external injury at harvest in both years for apples and in 2012 for peaches, and a significant effect on the percentage of apples and peaches showing internal injury at harvest in both years. There was no consistent effect of each exposure period on peach injury, but apples exposed during the mid- to latter portion of the season tended to show most injury. Across all exposure periods, more internal than external injuries were recorded at harvest from peaches, while apples tended to have equal or very similar numbers of both kinds of injury. The implications of these results to H. halys management in eastern apple orchards are discussed. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. First report of Potato virus V and Peru tomato mosaic virus on tamarillo (Solanum betaceum) orchards of Ecuador

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In Ecuador, tamarillo (Solanum betaceum) represents an important cash crop for hundreds of small farmers. In 2013, leaves from tamarillo plants showing severe virus-like symptoms (mosaic, mottling and leaf deformation) were collected from old orchards in Pichincha and Tungurahua. Double-stranded RN...

  12. Role of neonicotinyl insecticides in Washington apple integrated pest management. Part I. Control of lepidopteran pests

    PubMed Central

    Brunner, J. F.; Beers, E. H.; Dunley, J. E.; Doerr, M.; Granger, K.

    2005-01-01

    Three neonicotinyl insecticides, acetamiprid, thiacloprid and clothianidin, were evaluated for their impact on four species of lepidopteran pests of apple in Washington, the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), the Pandemis leafroller, Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott, and the obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris), and Lacanobia subjuncta (Grote & Robinson). None of the neonicotinyl insecticides demonstrated sufficient activity against P. pyrusana, C. rosaceana, or L. subjuncta to warrant field trials. Conversely, all had some activity against one or more stages of C. pomonella. Acetamiprid was highly toxic to larvae in laboratory bioassays, and had relatively long activity of field-aged residues (21 days). It also showed some toxicity to C. pomonella eggs (via topical exposure) and adults. Acetamiprid provided the highest level of fruit protection from C. pomonella attack in field trials conducted over five years in experimental orchards with extremely high codling moth pressure. Thiacloprid performed similarly in bioassays, but fruit protection in field trials was slightly lower than acetamiprid. Clothianidin showed moderate to high toxicity in bioassays, depending on the C. pomonella stage tested, but poor fruit protection from attack in field trials. None of the neonicotinyl insecticides were as toxic to larvae or effective in protecting fruit as the current standard organophosphate insecticide used for C. pomonella control, azinphosmethyl. However, both acetamiprid and thiacloprid should provide acceptable levels of C. pomonella control in commercial orchards where densities are much lower than in the experimental orchards used for our trials. The advantages and disadvantages of the neonicotinyl insecticides as replacements for the organophosphate insecticides and their role in a pest management system for Washington apple orchards are discussed. Abbreviation: MFR Maximum field rate PMID:16341246

  13. Responses of apple fruit size to tree water status and crop load.

    PubMed

    Naor, A; Naschitz, S; Peres, M; Gal, Y

    2008-08-01

    The combined effects of irrigation rate and crop load on apple yield and fruit size were examined in two commercial apple orchards (cv. Golden Delicious) in a semi-arid zone. The irrigation rates applied were 1, 3 and 7 mm day(-1), and the two fruit thinning treatments involved adjusting crop load to 100 and 300 fruits per tree at Ortal and 50 and 150 fruits per tree at Matityahu. Unthinned trees served as the control. The fruit from each tree was picked separately, and fruit size distribution was determined with a commercial grading machine. Midday stem water potentials varied from -0.9 to -2.8 MPa, crop load varied from 80,000 to 1,900,000 fruit ha(-1) and crop yield varied from 10 to 144 Mg ha(-1). Midday stem water potential decreased with increasing crop load in all irrigation treatments at Matityahu, but only in the 1 mm day(-1) treatment at Ortal. The extent of the lowering of midday stem water potential by crop load decreased with increasing soil water availability. At both orchards, a similar response of total crop yield to crop load on a per hectare basis was observed. Mean fruit mass and relative yield of fruit > 70 mm in diameter increased with midday stem water potential, with the low crop loads having similar but steeper slopes than the high crop load. The responses of mean fruit mass and relative yield of fruit > 70 mm in diameter to midday stem water potential were similar at both orchards, perhaps indicating that thresholds for irrigation scheduling are transferable to other orchards within a region. Factors that may limit the transferability of these thresholds are discussed.

  14. Impact of orchard and tillage management practices on soil leaching of atrazine, potassium, magnesium, manganese, iron, ammonium, nitrates and phosphates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szajdak, L.; Lipiec, J.; Siczek, A.; Kotowska, U.; Nosalewicz, A.

    2009-04-01

    The experiments were carried out on an Orthic Luvisol developed from loess, over limestone, at the experimental field of Lublin Agricultural University in Felin (51o15'N, 22o35'E), Poland. The investigation deals with the problems of leaching's rate of atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,2,3-triazine), potassium, magnesium, manganese, iron, ammonium, nitrates and phosphates from two management systems of soil: (i) conventionally tilled field with main tillage operations including stubble cultivator (10 cm) + harrowing followed by mouldboard ploughing to 20 cm depth, and crop rotation including selected cereals, root crops and papillionaceous crops, (ii) 35-year-old apple orchard field (100x200m) with a permanent sward that was mown in the inter-rows during the growing season. The conventionally tilled plot was under the current management practice for approximately 30 years. Field sites were close to each other (about 150 m). Core samples of 100 cm3 volume and 5 cm diameter were taken from two depths 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm, and were used to determine the soil water characteristic curve. It was observed that management practices impacted on the physic-chemical properties of soils. pH (in H2O) in tilled soil ranged from 5.80 to 5.91. However soil of orchard soil revealed higher values of pH than tilled soil and ranged from 6.36 to 6.40. The content of organic carbon for tilled soil ranged from 1.13 to 1.17%, but in orchard soil from 1.59 to 1.77%. Tillled soil showed broader range of bulk density 1.38-1.62 mg m-3, than orchard soil 1.33-134 mg m-3. The first-order kinetic reaction model was fitted to the experimental atrazine, potassium, magnesium, manganese, iron, nitrates, ammonium and phosphates leaching vs. time data. The concentrations of leached chemical compounds revealed linear curves. The correlation coefficients ranged from -0.873 to -0.993. The first-order reaction constants measured for the orchard soils were from 3.8 to 19 times higher than

  15. A female-specific attractant for the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, from apple fruit volatiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hern, Alan; Dorn, Silvia

    Host plant-derived esters were investigated as potential female-specific attractants for the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.), a key pest of apples worldwide. The behavioural effects of single and combined volatile compounds and of a natural odour blend were examined using olfactometry and wind-tunnel bioassays. The apple-derived volatile butyl hexanoate attracted mated females while it was behaviourally ineffective for males over a dosage range of more than three orders of magnitude in olfactometer assays. Female CM preferred this kairomone to the headspace volatiles from ripe apples. Both no-choice and choice trials in the wind-tunnel suggested that female moths might be effectively trapped by means of this compound. In contrast, headspace volatiles collected from ripe apple fruits as well as a blend containing the six dominant esters from ripe apples were behaviourally ineffective. A female-specific repellency was found for the component hexyl acetate in the olfactometer, but this ester had no significant effect in the wind-tunnel. Butyl hexanoate with its sex-specific attraction should be further evaluated for monitoring and controlling CM females in orchards.

  16. Residues and dissipation of kresoxim methyl in apple under field condition.

    PubMed

    Malhat, Farag; Kamel, Essam; Saber, Ayman; Hassan, Ehab; Youssef, Ahmed; Almaz, Monir; Hassan, Ayman; Fayz, Abd El-Salam

    2013-09-01

    The dissipation and residual levels of kresoxim methyl in apple under field condition were determined by using HPLC-DAD with QuEChERS method. At fortification levels of 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mg kg(-1) in apple, it was shown that recoveries were ranged from 91.1% to 96.9% with coefficient variation of the method (CV%) for repeatability ranged from 1.27% to 4.77%. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of the method was 0.05 mg kg(-1). The dissipation rates of kresoxim methyl were described by using first-order kinetics and its half-life, as they are ranged from 4.58 to 4.77 days in apple. The terminal residues of kresoxim methyl were below the FAO/WHO maximum residue limit (MRL, 0.2 mg kg(-1)) in apple when measured 14 days after the final application, which suggested that the use of this fungicide was safe for humans. This study would help in providing the basic information for developing regulation to guard a safe use of kresoxim methyl in apple orchard and to prevent health problem from consumers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of a portable spectroscopy-based device to detect nutrient status of apple tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yao; Zheng, Lihua; Li, Minzan; Deng, Xiaolei; An, Xiaofei

    2012-11-01

    In order to detect apple tree growth status fast and accurately, four sensitive wavebands (364nm, 652nm, 766nm, 810nm) were obtained by analyzing the correlation between the apple leaves spectra and their nitrogen contents plus adopting the segment reduced precise sampling methods. A rapid determination model of apple leaf nitrogen content suitable for portable detector was built. Then a portable spectroscopy-based device was developed. It consists of an optical unit and a control unit. The optical channel was consisted of convex lens, optical filter, photoelectric detector and airtight mechanical exine. The optical unit was used to capture, transit, transform and submit the optical signal. The controller was consisted of operation, input, display, data storage and power control unit adopting JN5139 as main control unit. Controller was the coordinator in building the wireless network. And it was also responsible for receiving the measured data from sensor, calculating vegetation index, and displaying and storing the calculated results. The experiments showed that the correlation coefficient between the measured nitrogen content and the predicted nitrogen content reached to 0.857. It illustrated that the apple tree nitrogen detector was practical and could be used to detect leaf nitrogen content in apple orchard.

  18. Population Genetic Structure of Apple Scab (Venturia inaequalis (Cooke) G. Winter) in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Leila; Fotuhifar, Khalil-Berdi; Javan Nikkhah, Mohammad; Naghavi, Mohammad-Reza; Baisakh, Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    The population genetic structure of 278 Venturia inaequalis isolates, collected from different apple cultivars of eighteen different provinces in Iran, was investigated using 22 polymorphic microsatellite markers. Analysis of molecular variation, Bayesian clustering and Nei's genetic distance analyses based on 88 microsatellite alleles indicated substantial levels of gene flow among the collection sites. Ninety three percent of the variation was observed among the individuals within the populations and only 7% variation was observed among the populations. Structure analysis grouped the isolates into two populations. Maximum number of pathogen genotypes (44) was observed in the North of Iran that grows various different apple cultivars. Investigation on the variation of the pathogen on different cultivars in the North of Iran suggested a significant differentiation of the pathogen populations between wild apple and commercial cultivars. During sampling, varying ranges of scab infection were observed on various apple cultivars in forests, monoculture and mix orchards. Wild type apple (Malus orientalis) along the Caspian Sea Coast had the most infection in comparison with the Iranian endemic and commercial cultivars. Based on the genetic analysis and host tracking scenario of the pathogen, it was presumed that Iran could potentially be the center of origin of V. inaequalis, which requires further detailed studies with isolates collected from different parts of central Asia and world for confirmation. PMID:27631622

  19. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole apples...

  20. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole apples...

  1. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole apples...

  2. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole apples...

  3. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole apples...

  4. Cultivar evaluation and development for black walnut orchards

    Treesearch

    William Reid; Mark V. Coggeshall; Kenneth L. Hunt

    2004-01-01

    Black walnut is an underdeveloped orchard crop. Hundreds of cultivars have been named but a commercial orchard industry has not developed. The horticultural characteristics of currently available black walnut cultivars are reviewed. Important cultivar traits include: leaving date, flowering date, growth habit, disease susceptibility, yield, and nut quality. Breeding...

  5. Orchard nitrogen management: Which nitrogen source is best?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Suboptimal management of nitrogen fertility in pecan orchards leads to a loss of nutmeat yield and quality, but also a waste of natural resources and money. This article reviews several basic guiding principles useful to orchard managers when developing nitrogen management strategies, and determini...

  6. Distribution of Anastrepha spp. in carambola orchards: Evidence for migration

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Carambola orchards in Juana Diaz, Corozal, and Isabela, PR, were monitored for Anastrepha spp. fruit flies using Multi-lure traps baited with putrescine and ammonium acetate. The number of flies at various locations within the orchards were statistically compared with the expected distribution if fl...

  7. Apple Image Processing Educator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunther, F. J.

    1981-01-01

    A software system design is proposed and demonstrated with pilot-project software. The system permits the Apple II microcomputer to be used for personalized computer-assisted instruction in the digital image processing of LANDSAT images. The programs provide data input, menu selection, graphic and hard-copy displays, and both general and detailed instructions. The pilot-project results are considered to be successful indicators of the capabilities and limits of microcomputers for digital image processing education.

  8. Apple Image Processing Educator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunther, F. J.

    1981-01-01

    A software system design is proposed and demonstrated with pilot-project software. The system permits the Apple II microcomputer to be used for personalized computer-assisted instruction in the digital image processing of LANDSAT images. The programs provide data input, menu selection, graphic and hard-copy displays, and both general and detailed instructions. The pilot-project results are considered to be successful indicators of the capabilities and limits of microcomputers for digital image processing education.

  9. Saccharification and ethanol fermentation of apple pomace

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.E.; Weathers, P.J.; McConville, F.X.; Goldberg, M.

    1982-01-01

    Apple pomace (the pulp residue from pressing apple juice) is an abundant waste product and presents an expensive disposal problem. A typical (50,000 gal. juice/day) apple juice company in central Massachusetts produces 100 tons of pomace per day. Some of it is used as pig feed, but it is poor quality feed because of its low protein content. Most of the pomace is hauled away (at a cost of $4/ton) and landfilled (at a cost of $10/ton). If 5% (w/w) conversion of pomace to ethanol could be achieved, the need for this company to purchase No. 6 fuel oil (1000 gal/day) for cooking during processing would be eliminated. Our approach was to saccharify the pomace enzymatically, and then to carry out a yeast fermentation on the hydrolysate. We chose to use enzymatic hydrolysis instead of dilute acid hydrolysis in order to minimize pH control problems both in the fermentation phase and in the residue. The only chemical studies have concerned small subfractions of apple material: for example, cell walls have been analyzed but they constitute only 1 to 2% of the fresh weight of the apple (about 15 to 30% of the pomace fraction). Therefore, our major problems were: (1) to optimize hydrolysis by enzyme mixtures, using weight loss and ultimate ethanol production as optimization criteria; (2) to optimize ethanol production from the hydrolysate by judicious choice of yeast strains and fermentation conditions; and (3) achieve these optimizations consistent with minimum processing cost and energy input. We have obtained up to 5.1% (w/w) of ethanol without saccharification. We show here that hydrolysis with high levels of enzyme can enhance ethanol yield by up to 27%, to a maximum level of 6% (w/w); however, enzyme treament may be cost-effective only a low levels, for improvement of residue compaction. 3 figures, 4 tables.

  10. Biogas generation apple pulp.

    PubMed

    Llaneza Coalla, H; Blanco Fernández, J M; Morís Morán, M A; López Bobo, M R

    2009-09-01

    In view of the pressing problem that appears in our region (Asturias, north of Spain) with the residues from the cider production, it was decided to test this kind of material as a co-substrate joint with slaughterhouse waste in a laboratory unit. The anaerobic digestion of apple pulp was investigated for biogas production. This paper presents the results where apple pulp was co-digested with slaughterhouse waste (pig intestine and bovine stomach content) in a biogas laboratory unit (10 l CSTR reactor). The production of biogas has reached very satisfactory values during the whole test (0.8m(3)kg(-1)OTS), verifying that the process is kept in stable conditions of pH (near 8.0), and the volatile fatty acids was always underneath 3000 mg/l, when the pulp amount was lower than 100g in mesophilic conditions. The fat concentration into the digester remained always below the value that causes inhibition of the methanogenic bacteria, 500 mg/l. Finally, methane concentration (77-80%) and H(2)S concentration (400 ppm) in the biogas, they were similar to those obtained when the test was run out in the absence of apple pulp. The process efficiency with respect to COD removal was high, near 80% of the total COD. Finally, inhibitory effects of methanogenic bacteria were observed when pulp concentration was around 10% in the input material.

  11. Polyphenol profiles of apple juices.

    PubMed

    Kahle, Kathrin; Kraus, Michael; Richling, Elke

    2005-08-01

    Focusing on 17 constituents, the polyphenol profiles of juices freshly made from various dessert (n = 4) and cider apple cultivars (n = 7) as well as commercially available apple juices (n = 24) were investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and (HPLC)-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI(neg)-MS/MS) analyses. Significant differences in the total polyphenol content as well as the profiles of the apple cultivars under study were observed. For dessert apples the total polyphenol content ranged from 154 to 178 mg/L, whereas for 'old' German cider apple cultivars 261-970 mg/L were determined. Boskoop showed the highest (970 mg/L) and Granny Smith the lowest (154 mg/L) polyphenol content of the freshly prepared samples under study. Hydroxycinnamic acids, with chlorogenic acid as dominating constituent, ranged from 57 to 68 mg/L as well as from 134-593 mg/L in juices made from dessert apples and that from cider apples, respectively. Dessert apple juices showed lower contents of dihydrochalcones (10-35 mg/L) and flavan-3-ols (50-95 mg/L) compared to that of cider apples (34-171 mg/L and 70-393 mg/L, respectively). Quercetin and its derivatives were found from 0.4-4 mg/L and 0.4-27 mg/L in juices made from dessert apples and that of cider apples, respectively. Compared with freshly made juices, lower contents of polyphenols were determined in the commercial samples under study. Amounts ranging from 110-459 mg/L, dominated by chlorogenic acid with concentrations from 53-217 mg/L, were determined. Information about cultivar-typical apple polyphenol content and profile is important for bioactivity studies and, consequently, essential for the development of consumer-relevant products with particular nutritional functionalities.

  12. Comparison of Cultivable Acetic Acid Bacterial Microbiota in Organic and Conventional Apple Cider Vinegar.

    PubMed

    Štornik, Aleksandra; Skok, Barbara; Trček, Janja

    2016-03-01

    Organic apple cider vinegar is produced from apples that go through very restricted treatment in orchard. During the first stage of the process, the sugars from apples are fermented by yeasts to cider. The produced ethanol is used as a substrate by acetic acid bacteria in a second separated bioprocess. In both, the organic and conventional apple cider vinegars the ethanol oxidation to acetic acid is initiated by native microbiota that survived alcohol fermentation. We compared the cultivable acetic acid bacterial microbiota in the production of organic and conventional apple cider vinegars from a smoothly running oxidation cycle of a submerged industrial process. In this way we isolated and characterized 96 bacteria from organic and 72 bacteria from conventional apple cider vinegar. Using the restriction analysis of the PCR-amplified 16S-23S rRNA gene ITS regions, we identified four different HaeIII and five different HpaII restriction profiles for bacterial isolates from organic apple cider vinegar. Each type of restriction profile was further analyzed by sequence analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA gene ITS regions, resulting in identification of the following species: Acetobacter pasteurianus (71.90%), Acetobacter ghanensis (12.50%), Komagataeibacter oboediens (9.35%) and Komagataeibacter saccharivorans (6.25%). Using the same analytical approach in conventional apple cider vinegar, we identified only two different HaeIII and two different HpaII restriction profiles of the 16S‒23S rRNA gene ITS regions, which belong to the species Acetobacter pasteurianus (66.70%) and Komagataeibacter oboediens (33.30%). Yeasts that are able to resist 30 g/L of acetic acid were isolated from the acetic acid production phase and further identified by sequence analysis of the ITS1-5.8S rDNA‒ITS2 region as Candida ethanolica, Pichia membranifaciens and Saccharomycodes ludwigii. This study has shown for the first time that the bacterial microbiota for the industrial production of

  13. Comparison of Cultivable Acetic Acid Bacterial Microbiota in Organic and Conventional Apple Cider Vinegar

    PubMed Central

    Štornik, Aleksandra; Skok, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Summary Organic apple cider vinegar is produced from apples that go through very restricted treatment in orchard. During the first stage of the process, the sugars from apples are fermented by yeasts to cider. The produced ethanol is used as a substrate by acetic acid bacteria in a second separated bioprocess. In both, the organic and conventional apple cider vinegars the ethanol oxidation to acetic acid is initiated by native microbiota that survived alcohol fermentation. We compared the cultivable acetic acid bacterial microbiota in the production of organic and conventional apple cider vinegars from a smoothly running oxidation cycle of a submerged industrial process. In this way we isolated and characterized 96 bacteria from organic and 72 bacteria from conventional apple cider vinegar. Using the restriction analysis of the PCR-amplified 16S−23S rRNA gene ITS regions, we identified four different HaeIII and five different HpaII restriction profiles for bacterial isolates from organic apple cider vinegar. Each type of restriction profile was further analyzed by sequence analysis of the 16S−23S rRNA gene ITS regions, resulting in identification of the following species: Acetobacter pasteurianus (71.90%), Acetobacter ghanensis (12.50%), Komagataeibacter oboediens (9.35%) and Komagataeibacter saccharivorans (6.25%). Using the same analytical approach in conventional apple cider vinegar, we identified only two different HaeIII and two different HpaII restriction profiles of the 16S‒23S rRNA gene ITS regions, which belong to the species Acetobacter pasteurianus (66.70%) and Komagataeibacter oboediens (33.30%). Yeasts that are able to resist 30 g/L of acetic acid were isolated from the acetic acid production phase and further identified by sequence analysis of the ITS1−5.8S rDNA‒ITS2 region as Candida ethanolica, Pichia membranifaciens and Saccharomycodes ludwigii. This study has shown for the first time that the bacterial microbiota for the industrial

  14. Inclusion of Specialist and Generalist Stimuli in Attract-and-Kill Programs: Their Relative Efficacy in Apple Maggot Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Pest Management.

    PubMed

    Morrison, William R; Lee, Doo-Hyung; Reissig, W Harvey; Combs, David; Leahy, Kathleen; Tuttle, Arthur; Cooley, Daniel; Leskey, Tracy C

    2016-08-01

    Investigating the chemical ecology of agricultural systems continues to be a salient part of integrated pest management programs. Apple maggot fly, a key pest of apple in eastern North America, is a visual specialist with attraction to host fruit-mimicking cues. These cues have been incorporated into red spherical traps used for both monitoring and behaviorally based management. Incorporating generalist or specialist olfactory cues can potentially increase the overall success of this management system. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the attractiveness of a generalist olfactory cue, ammonium carbonate, and the specialist olfactory cue, a five-component apple volatile blend, when included as a component of a red attracticidal sphere system. Secondly, we assessed how critical it was to maintain minimal deviation from the optimal, full-round specialist visual stimulus provided by red spheres. Finally, attracticidal spheres were deployed with specialist olfactory cues in commercial apple orchards to evaluate their potential for effective management of apple maggot. Ammonium carbonate did not increase residency, feeding time, or mortality in the laboratory-based trials. Field deployment of specialist olfactory cues increased apple maggot captures on red spheres, while the generalist cue did not. Apple maggot tolerated some deviation from the optimal visual stimulus without reducing captures on red spheres. Attracticidal spheres hung in perimeter trees in orchards resulted in acceptable and statistically identical levels of control compared with standard insecticide programs used by growers. Overall, our study contributes valuable information for developing a reliable attract-and-kill system for apple maggot. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the United States.

  15. Enzymatic browning reactions in apple and apple products.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, J J; Richard-Forget, F C; Goupy, P M; Amiot, M J; Aubert, S Y

    1994-01-01

    This review examines the parameters of enzymatic browning in apple and apple products that is, phenolic compounds, polyphenoloxidases, and other factors (ascorbic acid and peroxidases), both qualitatively and quantitatively. Then the relationships between intensity of browning and the browning parameters are discussed, including a paragraph on the methods used for browning evaluation. Finally, the different methods for the control of browning are presented.

  16. Volatility of patulin in apple juice.

    PubMed

    Kryger, R A

    2001-08-01

    Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by certain fungi, such as those found commonly on apples. The patulin content of apple juice is a regulatory concern because patulin is a suspected carcinogen and mutagen. A simple model of the apple juice concentration process was carried out to examine the possible contamination of patulin in apple aroma, a distillate produced commercially in the concentration of apple juice. The results show no evidence for patulin volatility, and document a reduction in patulin content by at least a factor of 250 in the apple distillate obtained from apple juice. Furthermore, a survey of several commercial apple aroma samples found no evidence of patulin content.

  17. CAMAPPLE: CAMAC interface to the Apple computer

    SciTech Connect

    Oxoby, G.J.; Trang, Q.H.; Williams, S.H.

    1981-04-01

    The advent of the personal microcomputer provides a new tool for the debugging, calibration and monitoring of small scale physics apparatus, e.g., a single detector being developed for a larger physics apparatus. With an appropriate interface these microcomputer systems provide a low cost (1/3 the cost of a comparable minicomputer system), convenient, dedicated, portable system which can be used in a fashion similar to that of portable oscilloscopes. Here, an interface between the Apple computer and CAMAC which is now being used to study the detector for a Cerenkov ring-imaging device is described. The Apple is particularly well-suited to this application because of its ease of use, hi-resolution graphics, peripheral bus and documentation support.

  18. Response time accuracy in Apple Macintosh computers.

    PubMed

    Neath, Ian; Earle, Avery; Hallett, Darcy; Surprenant, Aimée M

    2011-06-01

    The accuracy and variability of response times (RTs) collected on stock Apple Macintosh computers using USB keyboards was assessed. A photodiode detected a change in the screen's luminosity and triggered a solenoid that pressed a key on the keyboard. The RTs collected in this way were reliable, but could be as much as 100 ms too long. The standard deviation of the measured RTs varied between 2.5 and 10 ms, and the distributions approximated a normal distribution. Surprisingly, two recent Apple-branded USB keyboards differed in their accuracy by as much as 20 ms. The most accurate RTs were collected when an external CRT was used to display the stimuli and Psychtoolbox was able to synchronize presentation with the screen refresh. We conclude that RTs collected on stock iMacs can detect a difference as small as 5-10 ms under realistic conditions, and this dictates which types of research should or should not use these systems.

  19. Gut content analysis of arthropod predators of codling moth in Washington apple orchards

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    More than 70% of pome fruits in the USA are produced in central Washington State. The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) is consistently the most damaging pest. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify codling moth DNA in 2591 field-collected arthropod predators to estimate predation in s...

  20. Reflective mulch enhances ripening and health compounds in apple fruit.

    PubMed

    Overbeck, Verena; Schmitz-Eiberger, Michaela A; Blanke, Michael M

    2013-08-15

    The objective of the study was to improve fruit quality, including health compounds, by improving light utilization for fruit crops under hail net. Four reflective mulches including plastics such as Extenday® and a bio-degradable paper were spread in the alleyways of a cv. 'Gala Mondial' apple orchard on 10 August 2010 5 weeks before anticipated harvest. Reflective mulch affected neither fruit firmness nor sugar, but accelerated starch breakdown, indicative of riper fruits (smaller Streif index), compared with the uncovered grass alleyway (control). Reflective mulches also improved fruit quality such as red coloration of cv. 'Gala Mondial' apples. This was due to significantly enhanced flavonoids and anthocyanins. Flavonoids increased up to 52.4% in the Extenday® treatment (29.2 nmol cm(-2) in the grass control versus 44.5 nmol cm(-2) fruit peel with reflective mulch). Similarly, reflective mulch improved anthocyanin content in cv. 'Gala Mondial' peel up to 66% compared to grass control (14.5 nmol cm(-2) in control fruit versus 24.1 nmol cm(-2) with reflective mulch). The reflective mulch did not affect chlorophyll and carotenoid content in the 'Gala' fruit peel. Overall, the application of reflective mulches improved fruit quality in terms of better coloration and health compounds and accelerated ripening, leading to higher market value. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Slow erosion of a quantitative apple resistance to Venturia inaequalis based on an isolate-specific Quantitative Trait Locus.

    PubMed

    Caffier, Valérie; Le Cam, Bruno; Al Rifaï, Mehdi; Bellanger, Marie-Noëlle; Comby, Morgane; Denancé, Caroline; Didelot, Frédérique; Expert, Pascale; Kerdraon, Tifenn; Lemarquand, Arnaud; Ravon, Elisa; Durel, Charles-Eric

    2016-10-01

    Quantitative plant resistance affects the aggressiveness of pathogens and is usually considered more durable than qualitative resistance. However, the efficiency of a quantitative resistance based on an isolate-specific Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) is expected to decrease over time due to the selection of isolates with a high level of aggressiveness on resistant plants. To test this hypothesis, we surveyed scab incidence over an eight-year period in an orchard planted with susceptible and quantitatively resistant apple genotypes. We sampled 79 Venturia inaequalis isolates from this orchard at three dates and we tested their level of aggressiveness under controlled conditions. Isolates sampled on resistant genotypes triggered higher lesion density and exhibited a higher sporulation rate on apple carrying the resistance allele of the QTL T1 compared to isolates sampled on susceptible genotypes. Due to this ability to select aggressive isolates, we expected the QTL T1 to be non-durable. However, our results showed that the quantitative resistance based on the QTL T1 remained efficient in orchard over an eight-year period, with only a slow decrease in efficiency and no detectable increase of the aggressiveness of fungal isolates over time. We conclude that knowledge on the specificity of a QTL is not sufficient to evaluate its durability. Deciphering molecular mechanisms associated with resistance QTLs, genetic determinants of aggressiveness and putative trade-offs within pathogen populations is needed to help in understanding the erosion processes.

  2. Low-drift nozzles vs. standard nozzles for pesticide application in the biological efficacy trials of pesticides in apple pest and disease control.

    PubMed

    Doruchowski, Grzegorz; Świechowski, Waldemar; Masny, Sylwester; Maciesiak, Alicja; Tartanus, Małgorzata; Bryk, Hanna; Hołownicki, Ryszard

    2017-01-01

    The coarse spray air-induction nozzles have documented pesticide drift reducing potential and hence pose lower risk of environmental pollution than the standard fine spray hollow cone nozzles. However, it is questioned that use of the low-drift nozzles might not provide as effective crop protection as the standard nozzles. The objective of work was to assess the pest and disease control efficacy as affected by spray volume rate and nozzle type. The experiment was carried out in apple orchard, cv Jonagold/M26. The evaluated treatments were combinations of three spray volume rates: 250, 500 and 750lha(-1), and two types of nozzles: hollow cone nozzles generating very fine spray, and flat fan air induction nozzles producing coarse droplets. The biological performance of treatments was determined based on severity of diseases: apple scab (Venturia inaequalis), powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) and bull's eye rot (Pezicula spp.), as well as population or damage caused by pests: green apple aphid (Aphis pomi), rosy apple aphid (Dysaphis plantaginea Pass.), woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum), apple rust mite (Aculus schlechtendali) and apple blossom weevil (Anthonomus pomorum L.). In general apple scab was equally controlled by all treatments. Only in the years of high infection pressure efficacy of powdery mildew control was better for fine spray nozzles and high volume rates. Green and rosy apple aphids were better controlled with higher volume rates, though significance of the advantage over the lower rates was occasional. No effect of spray quality on efficacy of aphid and mite control was found for any spray volume rate. Better control of apple blossom weevil and woolly apple aphid was achieved with the high spray volume rate providing heavy coverage to the point of run-off. The air induction nozzles having drift reducing potential are biologically efficacious alternative to conventional hollow cone nozzles.

  3. The gravity apple tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa Aldama, Mariana

    2015-04-01

    The gravity apple tree is a genealogical tree of the gravitation theories developed during the past century. The graphic representation is full of information such as guides in heuristic principles, names of main proponents, dates and references for original articles (See under Supplementary Data for the graphic representation). This visual presentation and its particular classification allows a quick synthetic view for a plurality of theories, many of them well validated in the Solar System domain. Its diachronic structure organizes information in a shape of a tree following similarities through a formal concept analysis. It can be used for educational purposes or as a tool for philosophical discussion.

  4. Management of apple anthracnose canker

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apple anthracnose (caused by Neofabraea malicorticis anamorph Cryptosporiopsis curvispora) is a fungal disease that causes cankers on trees and ‘Bull’s-eye rot’ on fruit. In western Washington, it is the canker phase of apple anthracnose that is considered most serious as it can result in death of ...

  5. Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum viarum)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal), a perennial shrub, is a Federal Noxious Weed that continues to spread at an alarming rate in the southeastern United States. Information is provided on the impact of tropical soda apple on agricultural and natural areas, federal regulations for restricted...

  6. Apple rootstock resistance to drought

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Water for irrigation will likely be less available in apple-growing regions due to climate change and competition with human needs other than agriculture. Apple cultivars and rootstocks may differ in water use necessary for acceptable cropping. In two greenhouse experiments in 2014 and 2015, roots...

  7. The domestication and evolutionary ecology of apples.

    PubMed

    Cornille, Amandine; Giraud, Tatiana; Smulders, Marinus J M; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Gladieux, Pierre

    2014-02-01

    The cultivated apple is a major fruit crop in temperate zones. Its wild relatives, distributed across temperate Eurasia and growing in diverse habitats, represent potentially useful sources of diversity for apple breeding. We review here the most recent findings on the genetics and ecology of apple domestication and its impact on wild apples. Genetic analyses have revealed a Central Asian origin for cultivated apple, together with an unexpectedly large secondary contribution from the European crabapple. Wild apple species display strong population structures and high levels of introgression from domesticated apple, and this may threaten their genetic integrity. Recent research has revealed a major role of hybridization in the domestication of the cultivated apple and has highlighted the value of apple as an ideal model for unraveling adaptive diversification processes in perennial fruit crops. We discuss the implications of this knowledge for apple breeding and for the conservation of wild apples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Small Potatoes for the Big Apple

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plumer, Amy

    1978-01-01

    New York's Tuition Assistance Program (TAP) is described with emphasis on its effect or lack of effect on access, urban students, and middle-income parents. Its role within the three major higher education systems in the state--SUNY, CUNY, and the independents--is examined. (LBH)

  9. Small Potatoes for the Big Apple

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plumer, Amy

    1978-01-01

    New York's Tuition Assistance Program (TAP) is described with emphasis on its effect or lack of effect on access, urban students, and middle-income parents. Its role within the three major higher education systems in the state--SUNY, CUNY, and the independents--is examined. (LBH)

  10. Letter from Hong Kong: A Report on Chinese Food, Fake Apples, and IBM's Asian Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immel, A. Richard

    1984-01-01

    Notes that microcomputer use in Hong Kong's small business community does not reflect the growth of its high-tech electronics industry and discusses IBM's influence in Hong Kong and Asia, the counterfeiting of Apple microcomputers and software, and why Apple currently has no recourse. (MBR)

  11. Determination of amygdalin in apple seeds, fresh apples and processed apple juices.

    PubMed

    Bolarinwa, Islamiyat F; Orfila, Caroline; Morgan, Michael R A

    2015-03-01

    Cyanogenic glycosides are natural plant toxicants. Action by endogenous plant enzymes can release hydrogen cyanide causing potential toxicity issues for animals including humans. We have quantified amygdalin in seeds from different apple varieties, determined the effects of processing on the amygdalin content of apple juice and quantified amygdalin in commercially-available apple juices. Amygdalin contents of seeds from fifteen varieties of apples ranged from 1 mg g(-1) to 4 mg g(-1). The amygdalin content of commercially-available apple juice was low, ranging from 0.01 to 0.04 mg ml(-1) for pressed apple juice and 0.001-0.007 mg ml(-1) for long-life apple juice. Processing led to juice with low amygdalin content, ranging from 0.01 mg ml(-1) to 0.08 mg ml(-1). The results presented show that the amygdalin contents of commercially-available apple juices are unlikely to present health problems to consumers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Canopy architecture of a walnut orchard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ustin, Susan L.; Martens, Scott N.; Vanderbilt, Vern C.

    1991-01-01

    A detailed dataset describing the canopy geometry of a walnut orchard was acquired to support testing and comparison of the predictions of canopy microwave and optical inversion models. Measured canopy properties included the quantity, size, and orientation of stems, leaves, and fruit. Eight trees receiving 100 percent of estimated potential evapotranspiration water use and eight trees receiving 33 percent of potential water use were measured. The vertical distributions of stem, leaf, and fruit properties are presented with respect to irrigation treatment. Zenith and probability distributions for stems and leaf normals are presented. These data show that, after two years of reduced irrigation, the trees receiving only 33 percent of their potential water requirement had reduced fruit yields, lower leaf area index, and altered allocation of biomass within the canopy.

  13. Lincoln Co. Scrap Metal, Crab Orchard, Kentucky

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The City of Crab Orchard, KY (population less than 1,000) received a $200,000 EPA Brownfields cleanup grant in 2010 to cleanup up the Lincoln County ScrapMetal property. The site, a former scrap metal recycler and general junkyard, was located in the middle of downtown. The city has experienced a dramatic decline in growth over the past few years. The abandoned two-acre site is located in the city’s center, directly across the street from City Hall. It is the largest property on Main Street. The property was an eyesore, and posed potential health risks to area residents, and deterred investment. Its blighted status did little to help the commercial and private properties that surround it. The site was also home to a dilapidated building that once served as the Odd Fellows meeting hall.

  14. Canopy architecture of a walnut orchard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ustin, Susan L.; Martens, Scott N.; Vanderbilt, Vern C.

    1991-01-01

    A detailed dataset describing the canopy geometry of a walnut orchard was acquired to support testing and comparison of the predictions of canopy microwave and optical inversion models. Measured canopy properties included the quantity, size, and orientation of stems, leaves, and fruit. Eight trees receiving 100 percent of estimated potential evapotranspiration water use and eight trees receiving 33 percent of potential water use were measured. The vertical distributions of stem, leaf, and fruit properties are presented with respect to irrigation treatment. Zenith and probability distributions for stems and leaf normals are presented. These data show that, after two years of reduced irrigation, the trees receiving only 33 percent of their potential water requirement had reduced fruit yields, lower leaf area index, and altered allocation of biomass within the canopy.

  15. A Guide to Energy Savings - For the Orchard Grower.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wynn, N. A.

    This booklet gives a brief overview of energy use in orchard crop production, and gives examples of cutting costs of fertilization, irrigation, weed management, pest management, high density crops, frost protection, and equipment use. (BB)

  16. 36. ORCHARD LINE, LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING PACIFIC FRUIT PACKING HOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. ORCHARD LINE, LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING PACIFIC FRUIT PACKING HOUSE NEAR END OF LINE - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Connecting towns of Yakima, Selah & Wiley City, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  17. 9. VIEW SHOWING ARIZONA CANAL WITH CITRUS ORCHARDS, FACING NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW SHOWING ARIZONA CANAL WITH CITRUS ORCHARDS, FACING NORTH. CAMELBACK MOUNTAIN IS IN THE BACKGROUND Photographer: unknown. No date - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  18. 21. WILEY CITY LINE TYPICAL RIGHTOFWAY THROUGH CONGDON ORCHARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. WILEY CITY LINE - TYPICAL RIGHT-OF-WAY THROUGH CONGDON ORCHARD PROPERTY, LOOKING WEST - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Connecting towns of Yakima, Selah & Wiley City, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  19. Macro-porosity and leaching of atrazine in tilled and orchard loamy soils.

    PubMed

    Siczek, Anna; Kotowska, Urszula; Lipiec, Jerzy; Nosalewicz, Artur

    2008-02-01

    Atrazine is the most commonly detected herbicide in the groundwater. Leaching of atrazine largely depends on soil management practices. The aim of this study was to examine leaching of atrazine in tilled and orchard silty loam soils. The experimental objects included: conventionally tilled field (CT) with main tillage operations including pre-plow (10 cm)+harrowing, mouldboard ploughing (20 cm), and a 35 year-old apple orchard (OR) with a permanent sward. To determine leaching of atrazine soil columns of undisturbed structure were taken with steel cylinders of 21.5 cm diameter and 20 cm high from the depth of 0-20 cm. All columns were equilibrated at water content corresponding to field capacity (0.21 kg kg(-1)). Atrazine suspended in distilled water was dripped uniformly onto the surface of each column. Then water was infiltrated and breakthrough times of leachates were recorded. Atrazine concentration in the leachates was determined by means of HPLC Waters. Macro-porosity and percolation rate were higher in OR than CT soil. Cumulative recovery % of the atrazine applied was 1.267% for OR and approximately one third more from the CT soil but the rate of leaching (per unit of time) was greater from the OR soil. The lower leaching under OR than CT can be due to a greater SOM and the presence of earthworm burrows with organic burrow linings that could adsorb atrazine and contribute to preferential flow allowing solutes to bypass parts whereas the greater rate of leaching due to a greater infiltration rate. The results indicate potential of management practices for minimizing atrazine leaching.

  20. Evolution of the population structure of Venturia inaequalis, the apple scab fungus, associated with the domestication of its host.

    PubMed

    Gladieux, Pierre; Zhang, Xiu-Guo; Róldan-Ruiz, Isabel; Caffier, Valérie; Leroy, Thibault; Devaux, Martine; Van Glabeke, Sabine; Coart, Els; Le Cam, Bruno

    2010-02-01

    Evaluating the impact of plant domestication on the population structure of the associated pathogens provides an opportunity to increase our understanding of how and why diseases emerge. Here, we investigated the evolution of the population structure of the apple scab fungus Venturia inaequalis in response to the domestication of its host. Inferences were drawn from multilocus microsatellite data obtained from samples collected on (i) the Central Asian Malus sieversii, the main progenitor of apple, (ii) the European crabapple, Malus sylvestris, a secondary progenitor of apple, and (iii) the cultivated apple, Malus x domestica, in orchards from Europe and Central Asia. Using clustering methods, we identified three distinct populations: (i) a large European population on domesticated and wild apples, (ii) a large Central Asian population on domesticated and wild apples in urban and agricultural areas, and (iii) a more geographically restricted population in M. sieversii forests growing in the eastern mountains of Kazakhstan. Unique allele richness and divergence time estimates supported a host-tracking co-evolutionary scenario in which this latter population represents a relict of the ancestral populations from which current populations found in human-managed habitats were derived. Our analyses indicated that the domestication of apple induced a significant change in the genetic differentiation of populations of V. inaequalis in its centre of origin, but had little impact on its population dynamics and mating system. We discuss how the structure of the apple-based agrosystem may have restricted changes in the population structure of the fungus in response to the domestication of its host.

  1. Soil moisture changes in two experimental sites in Eastern Spain. Irrigation versus rainfed orchards under organic farming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azorin-Molina, Cesar; Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.; Cerdà, Artemi

    2013-04-01

    data. These complementary atmospheric measurements will serve to explain the intraannual and vertical variations observed in the soil moisture content in both experimental landscapes. This kind of study is aimed to understand the soil moisture content in two different environments such as irrigated rainfed orchards in a semi-arid region. For instance, these measurements have a direct impact on water availability for crops, plant transpiration and could have practical applications to schedule irrigation. Additionally, soil water content has also implications for erosion processes. Key Words: Water, Agriculture, Irrigation, Eastern Spain, Citrus. Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE and LEDDRA 243857 supported this research. References Cerdà, A. 1995. Soil moisture regime under simulated rainfall in a three years abandoned field in Southeast Spain. Physics and Chemistry of The Earth, 20 (3-4), 271-279. Cerdà, A. 1997. Seasonal Changes of the Infiltration Rates in a Typical Mediterranean Scrubland on Limestone in Southeast Spain. Journal of Hydrology, 198 (1-4) 198-209 Cerdà, A. 1998. Effect of climate on surface flow along a climatological gradient in Israel. A field rainfall simulation approach. Journal of Arid Environments, 38, 145-159. Levin, I., Assaf, R., and Bravdo, B. 1979. Soil moisture and root distribution in an apple orchard irrigated by tricklers. Plant and Soil, 52, 31-40. Schneider, G. W. And Childers, N.F. 1941. Influence of soil moisture on photosynthesis, respiration and transpiration of apples leaves. Plant Physiol., 16, 565-583. Valerie, A. and Orchard, F.J. Cook. 1983. Relationship between soil respiration and soil moisture. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 15, 447-453. Veihmeyer, F. J. and Hendrickson, A. H. 1950. Soil Moisture in Relation to Plant Growth. Annual Review of Plant Physiology, 1, 285-304.

  2. Citrus orchards management and soil water repellency in Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, A.; González Peñaloza, F. A.; Jordán, A.; Zavala, L. M.

    2012-04-01

    Water repellent soils are found around the world, although originally was found on fire affected soil (DeBano, 1981). However, for decades, water repellency was found to be a rare soil property. One of the pioneer research that shown that water repellency was a common soil property is the Wander (1949) publication in Science. Wander researched the water repellency on citrus groves, and since then, no information is available about the water repellency on citrus plantations. The Mediterranean soils are prone to water repellency due to the summer dry conditions (Cerdà and Doerr, 2007). And Land Use and Land Management are key factors (Harper et al., 2000; Urbanek et al., 2007) to understand the water repellency behaviour of agriculture soils. Valencia region (Eastern Spain) is the largest exporter in the world and citrus plantations located in the alluvial plains and fluvial terraces are moving to alluvial fans and slopes where the surface wash is very active (Cerdà et al., 2009). This research aims to show the water repellency on citrus orchards located on the sloping terrain (< 15 % angle slope). Measurement were conducted in four experimental plots located in the Canyoles River watershed to assess the soil water repellency in citrus orchards under different managements: annual addition of plant residues and manure with no tilling and no fertilizer (MNT), annual addition of plant residues with no tillage (NT), application of conventional herbicides and no tilling (HNT) and conventional tillage in June (CT). The period for each type of management ranged from 2 and 27 (MNT), 1 and 25 (NT), 2 and 27 (HNT) and 3 and 29 years (CT). At each plot, a ten points were selected every 10 cm along inter-rows and water drop penetration time test (WDTP; DeBano, 1981) was performed. The results show that the MNT treatment induced slight water repellency in citrus-cropped soils compared to other treatments. Small but significant soil water repellency was observed under NT and HNT

  3. Effect of Over-Tree Evaporative Cooling in Orchards on Microclimate and Accuracy of Insect Model Predictions.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Ute; Jones, Vincent P

    2015-12-01

    Orchard design and management practices can alter microclimate and, thus, potentially affect insect development. If sufficiently large, these deviations in microclimate can compromise the accuracy of phenology model predictions used in integrated pest management (IPM) programs. Sunburn causes considerable damage in the Pacific Northwest, United States, apple-producing region. Common prevention strategies include the use of fruit surface protectants, evaporative cooling (EC), or both. This study focused on the effect of EC on ambient temperatures and model predictions for four insects (codling moth, Cydia pomonella L.; Lacanobia fruitworm, Lacanobia subjuncta Grote and Robinson; oblique-banded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana Harris; and Pandemis leafroller, Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott). Over-tree EC was applied in July and August when daily maximum temperatures were predicted to be ≥30°C between 1200-1700 hours (15/15 min on/off interval) in 2011 and between 1200-1800 hours (15/10 min on/off interval, or continuous on) in 2012. Control plots were sprayed once with kaolin clay in early July. During interval and continuous cooling, over-tree cooling reduced average afternoon temperatures compared with the kaolin treatment by 2.1-3.2°C. Compared with kaolin-treated controls, codling moth and Lacanobia fruitworm egg hatch in EC plots was predicted to occur up to 2 d and 1 d late, respectively. The presence of fourth-instar oblique-banded leafroller and Pandemis leafroller was predicted to occur up to 2 d and 1 d earlier in EC plots, respectively. These differences in model predictions were negligible, suggesting that no adjustments in pest management timing are needed when using EC in high-density apple orchards. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Relationships between spur- and orchard-level fruit bearing in almond (Prunus dulcis).

    PubMed

    Tombesi, Sergio; Lampinen, Bruce D; Metcalf, Samuel; DeJong, Theodore M

    2011-12-01

    Almond is often considered to be a moderately alternate-bearing species but historical yield data typically do not exhibit clear patterns of alternate bearing at the orchard level, while research has indicated that spurs (the main fruit bearing unit in almond trees) rarely produce fruit in two subsequent years. The objective of the present work was to analyze the bearing behavior of almond trees at both the orchard level and the individual spur level over multiple years to explain this apparent paradox. The 10-year yield patterns of three almond cultivars grown at three different sites within California were analyzed for tendencies of alternate bearing at the orchard level. At the individual spur level, data on spur viability, and number of flowers and fruits per spur were collected on 2400 individually tagged spurs that were observed over 6 years to characterize bearing at that level. At the orchard level one cultivar (Nonpareil) did exhibit a tendency for alternate bearing at one site (Kern) but other cultivars and sites did not. The orchard and the individual trees in which the spur population study was conducted showed tendencies for alternate bearing but the spur population did not. Only a relatively small percentage of the total tagged spur population bore fruit in any given year and therefore while individual fruiting spurs exhibited a high level of non-bearing after fruiting the previous year the spurs that did produce fruit in any year generally did not constitute enough of the total spur population to exhibit alternate bearing at the whole population level. Our results suggest that annual bearing fluctuations in almond are probably mainly due to year-to-year variations of parameters affecting fruit set and that high rates of fruit set in a given year may involve a larger-than-normal percentage of a spur population in fruit bearing. This would limit the size of the spur population available for flowering in the subsequent year and could cause alternate

  5. Integration of insecticidal, phagostimulatory, and visual elements of an attract and kill system for apple maggot fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Wright, Starker E; Leskey, Tracy C; Jacome, Isabel; Piñero, Jaime C; Prokopy, Ronald J

    2012-10-01

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), is a key pest of apple in eastern North America that has been historically controlled with organophosphate insecticide applications. Here we report on progress toward development of an effective and maintenance-free attracticidal sphere system for this pest species. In our studies, we evaluated lethality of spinosad in combination with a feeding stimulant (sucrose) to replace a Tangletrap sticky coating as the killing agent of a sphere-based behavioral control system. Spinosad was incorporated into cylindrical and contoured controlled-release caps that were fixed atop visually stimulating sphere bases. For both cap styles, spinosad at or near 1.0% (a.i.) proved to be a relatively durable fly-killing agent, providing approximately equal to 85% mortality after simulated rainfall exposure reflective of average season-long precipitation levels experienced during the primary period of risk of apple maggot injury to fruit in the northeastern United States. In field trials, we assessed the impact of color degradation of contoured controlled-release caps on visual responsiveness of apple maggot fly and found that it had no significant impact on captures. In commercial orchard trials designed to evaluate the potential of attracticidal spheres with contoured caps for direct control of apple maggot, a perimeter-based deployment provided protection comparable to plots receiving 1-2 whole-plot insecticide applications.

  6. Digital Data Set of Orchards Where Arsenical Pesticides Were Likely Used in Clarke and Frederick Counties, Virginia, and Berkeley and Jefferson Counties, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, Bradley W.; Larkins, Peter; Robinson,, Gilpin R.

    2006-01-01

    This data set shows orchard locations in Clarke and Frederick Counties, Virginia and Berkeley and Jefferson Counties, West Virginia where arsenical pesticides were likely used. The orchard locations are based on air photos and topographic maps prepared using information from the time period of extensive use of arsenical pesticides between the 1920s and 1960s. An orchard's presence in this data set does not necessarily indicate the use of arsenical pesticides on the site or that elevated arsenic and metal concentrations are present. Arsenical pesticides may have been used on part, or none, of the land and, under current land use, the land may have been remediated and no longer contain elevated arsenic and metal concentrations in soil. The data set was created to be used in an assessment of soil contamination related to past use of arsenical pesticides in orchards in the northern part of the Great Valley region, Virginia and West Virginia. Previous studies have documented that elevated concentrations of arsenic, lead, and sometimes copper occur in the soils of former apple orchards (Veneman et al., 1983; Jones and Hatch, 1937). Arsenical pesticide use was most extensive and widespread in agricultural applications from the 1920s to the late 1950s, and largely ceased agricultural use by the early 1960s in the nation. During this time period, lead arsenate was the most extensively used arsenical pesticide (Peryea, 1998), particularly in apple orchards. Other metal-bearing pesticides, such as copper acetoarsenite (Paris Green), Bordeaux Blue (a mixture of copper sulfate and calcium hydroxide), and organic mercury fumigants were used to a lesser degree in orchards (Peryea, 1998; Shepard, 1939; Veneman et al., 1983). During the time arsenical pesticides were extensively used, federal and state pesticide laws did not require farmers to keep accurate records of the quantity, location, and type of arsenical pesticides used on their property, thus the quantity and distribution

  7. Characterization of virus-derived small interfering RNAs in Apple stem grooving virus-infected in vitro-cultured Pyrus pyrifolia shoot tips in response to high temperature treatment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juan; Zhang, XueJiao; Yang, YueKun; Hong, Ni; Wang, GuoPing; Wang, Aiming; Wang, LiPing

    2016-10-06

    Heat treatment (known as thermotherapy) together with in vitro culture of shoot meristem tips is a commonly used technology to obtain virus-free germplasm for the effective control of virus diseases in fruit trees. RNA silencing as an antiviral defense mechanism has been implicated in this process. To understand if high temperature-mediated acceleration of the host antiviral gene silencing system in the meristem tip facilitates virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNA) accumulation to reduce the viral RNA titer in the fruit tree meristem tip cells, we used the Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV)-Pyrus pyrifolia pathosystem to explore the possible roles of vsiRNA in thermotherapy. At first we determined the full-length genome sequence of the ASGV-Js2 isolate and then profiled vsiRNAs in the meristem tip of in vitro-grown pear (cv. 'Jinshui no. 2') shoots infected by ASGV-Js2 and cultured at 24 and 37 °C. A total of 7,495 and 7,949 small RNA reads were obtained from the tips of pear shoots cultured at 24 and 37 °C, respectively. Mapping of the vsiRNAs to the ASGV-Js2 genome revealed that they were unevenly distributed along the ASGV-Js2 genome, and that 21- and 22-nt vsiRNAs preferentially accumulated at both temperatures. The 5'-terminal nucleotides of ASGV-specific siRNAs in the tips cultured under different temperatures had a similar distribution pattern, and the nucleotide U was the most frequent. RT-qPCR analyses suggested that viral genome accumulation was drastically compromised at 37 °C compared to 24 °C, which was accompanied with the elevated levels of vsiRNAs at 37 °C. As plant Dicer-like proteins (DCLs), Argonaute proteins (AGOs), and RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RDRs) are implicated in vsiRNA biogenesis, we also cloned the partial sequences of PpDCL2,4, PpAGO1,2,4 and PpRDR1 genes, and found their expression levels were up-regulated in the ASGV-infected pear shoots at 37 °C. Collectively, these results showed that upon high temperature

  8. Communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the roots of Pyrus pyrifolia var. culta (Japanese pear) in orchards with variable amounts of soil-available phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Yuko; Ido, Akifumi; Iwase, Koji; Matsumoto, Teruyuki; Yamato, Masahide

    2013-01-01

    We examined the colonization rate and communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the roots of Pyrus pyrifolia var. culta (Japanese pear) in orchards to investigate the effect of phosphorus (P) fertilization on AMF. Soil cores containing the roots of Japanese pear were collected from 13 orchards in Tottori Prefecture, Japan. Soil-available P in the examined orchards was 75.7 to 1,200 mg kg(-1), showing the extreme accumulation of soil P in many orchards. The AMF colonization rate was negatively correlated with soil-available P (P <0.01). AMF communities were examined on the basis of the partial fungal DNA sequences of the nuclear small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA) amplified by AMF-specific primers AML1 and AML2. The obtained AMF sequences were divided into 14 phylotypes, and the number of phylotypes (species richness) was also negatively correlated with soil-available P (P <0.05). It was also suggested that some AM fungi may be adapted to high soil-available P conditions. Redundancy analysis showed the significant effects of soil pH, available P in soil, and P content in leaves of P. pyrifolia var. culta trees on AMF distribution. These results suggested that the accumulation of soil-available P affected AMF communities in the roots of Japanese pear in the orchard environment.

  9. Physiological processes of size-controlling rootstocks in apple

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Small, efficient trees are critical for early and high yield in high-density plantings of apple. Tree size is controlled by budding scion to size-controlling rootstocks. New rootstocks are needed for both size-controlling efficacy and tolerance of abiotic and biotic stress. Improved knowledge of ...

  10. Successful biological control of tropical soda apple in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tropical soda apple, Solanum viarum, is a small shrub native to tropical regions of Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina. This weed was first found in Florida in 1988. In May 2003, a leaf feeding beetle, Gratiana boliviana, from South America was released in Florida as a biological control agent of tro...

  11. A bioassessment of soil nickel genotoxic effect in orchard planted on rehabilitated coalmine overburden.

    PubMed

    Ličina, Vlado; Akšić, Milica Fotirić; Colić, Slavica; Zec, Gordan

    2013-12-01

    Environmental problems of non-rehabilitated overburden material are present in surrounding of open coal mines worldwide. Ecological restoration of this soil material usually deals with the improvement of its bad physico-chemical properties and its poor nutrient status, sometimes associated with heavy metal problems. Applied overburden restoration by planting orchard (1990) is assumed to be the first of its kind at opencast mines globally, so that present work was aimed at acquiring information about its efficiency of the applied measures concerning their possible use in agriculture. Various physical and chemical properties, together with the pseudo total and DTPA extractable metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Co, Ni, Pb, Cr, Cd) as well as sequential Ni extraction analyses, was measured, in order to evaluate the impact of soil's Ni level (76.3-111.7 mg kg⁻¹) on decreasing yields of apples, pears and plums. As a general pattern, reclaimed soil was significantly enriched with organic matter (>2.5 percent) and nutrients compared to the initial (2 m depth) and non-reclaimed adjacent soil, approving this method for overburden restoration. Despite low Ni concentration in organs, Ni accumulation in a fruits' trees qualified these species as suitable for phytostabilization of present heavy metals, with a woody biomass as a large and important sink for Ni, especially in the roots. Applied cytogenetic studies evaluate the lack of genotoxic effect of nickel (Ni) on the gametic cells of investigated species, having no significant effect on meiosis and pollen germination. Most of the found anomalies were in apples, as a kind of aberrations with sticky figures and chromosome lagging, should be ascribed to the environmental and genetic interaction over the aging of trees. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Duodenal Atresia Associated with Apple Peel Atresia and Situs Inversus Abdominus: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ben Hamida, H.; Hadj Salem, R.; Ben Ameur, K.; Rassas, A.; Chioukh, FZ.; Sakka, R.; Kechiche, N.; Bizid, M.; Sahnoun, L.; Monastiri, K.

    2016-01-01

    Duodenal atresia is rarely associated with situs inversus abdominus. We report a case of duodenal atresia associated with small bowel atresia of apple peel type and situs inversus abdominus. PMID:27896168

  13. Effect of Temperature on Demographic Parameters of the Hawthorn Red Midget Moth, Phyllonorycter corylifoliella, on Apple

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Abbas; Talebi, Ali Asghar; Zamani, Abbas Ali; Kamali, Karim

    2010-01-01

    The hawthorn red midget moth, Phyllonorycter corylifoliella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), is one of the most serious pests of apple and pear orchards in Iran, however little is known about its biology and relationship with environmental factors. The reproduction and population growth parameters of P. corylifoliella were examined at six constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, 33 and 35° C) on apple var. golden delicious. At 35° C, P. corylifoliella failed to develop beyond the first instar. The lowest (13%) and highest (64%) mortality rates of immature stages occurred at 25 and 33° C, respectively. The life expectancies (ex) decreased with increasing of age and the life expectancies of one-day-old larvae were estimated to be 38.68, 33.34, 35.11, 26.28 and 16.11 days at 15, 20, 25, 30 and 33° C, respectively. The highest intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm), net reproductive rate (Ro) and finite rate of increase (λ) at 25° C were 0.100 ± 0.003, 47.66 ± 5.47 and 1.11 ± 0.00, respectively. The mean generation time (T) decreased with increasing temperatures from 86.86 ± 0.53 days at 15° C to 33.48 ± 0.16 days at 30° C. Doubling time (DT) varied significantly with temperature and the shortest doubling time was obtained at 25° C. The results of this study provide direction for future research on evaluating the performance of P. corylifoliella and the efficiency of its natural enemies in apple orchards under variable environmental conditions. PMID:20883137

  14. Farm and product carbon footprints of China's fruit production--life cycle inventory of representative orchards of five major fruits.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ming; Cheng, Kun; Yue, Qian; Yan, Yu; Rees, Robert M; Pan, Genxing

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the environmental impacts of fruit production will provide fundamental information for policy making of fruit consumption and marketing. This study aims to characterize the carbon footprints of China's fruit production and to figure out the key greenhouse gas emissions to cut with improved orchard management. Yearly input data of materials and energy in a full life cycle from material production to fruit harvest were obtained via field visits to orchards of five typical fruit types from selected areas of China. Carbon footprint (CF) was assessed with quantifying the greenhouse gas emissions associated with the individual inputs. Farm and product CFs were respectively predicted in terms of land use and of fresh fruit yield. Additionally, product CFs scaled by fruit nutrition value (vitamin C (Vc) content) and by the economic benefit from fruit production were also evaluated. The estimated farm CF ranged from 2.9 to 12.8 t CO2-eq ha(-1) across the surveyed orchards, whereas the product CF ranged from 0.07 to 0.7 kg CO2-eq kg(-1) fruit. While the mean product CFs of orange and pear were significantly lower than those of apple, banana, and peach, the nutrition-scaled CF of orange (0.5 kg CO2-eq g(-1) Vc on average) was significantly lower than others (3.0-5.9 kg CO2-eq g(-1) Vc). The income-scaled CF of orange and pear (1.20 and 1.01 kg CO2-eq USD(-1), respectively) was higher than apple, banana, and peach (0.87~0.39 kg CO2-eq USD(-1)). Among the inputs, synthetic nitrogen fertilizer contributed by over 50 % to the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, varying among the fruit types. There were some tradeoffs in product CFs between fruit nutrition value and fruit growers' income. Low carbon production and consumption policy and marketing mechanism should be developed to cut down carbon emissions from fruit production sector, with balancing the nutrition value, producer's income, and climate change mitigation.

  15. The APPL "Learning Map"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Root Learning, a learning consulting organization with a background in strategic planning, recognizes the knowledge gap that frequently exists between a leadership team and the rest of an organization. Team members supposedly working toward the same goal don't always have the same vision as to where the organization is headed, and they may not understand how the piece they are accountable for fits into the big picture. To address these complex problems, Root Learning utilizes the age-old tools of sarcasm, metaphor and graphics (much in the same way that ASK uses a traditional storytelling format.) The company is best known for creating "Learning Maps" like this one: humorous drawings based on the inner workings of an organization. Their purpose is to put complex topics on the table, to stimulate discussion, and to ultimately give team members a common vision of where the organization is going and what role they personally play in getting there. APPL knows how effective it is to incorporate new and engaging techniques into its knowledge sharing programs. By collaborating with Root Learning, we were able to expand the knowledge of the organization and add one more of these techniques to our repertoire.

  16. The importance of traditional orchards for breeding birds: The preliminary study on Central European example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajtoch, Łukasz

    2017-01-01

    Orchards are parts of agriculture and apart from their economic role they may preserve biodiversity in highly transformed farmlands. An increasing intensity of orchards management is known to be threat for some species, especially pollinators and birds. On the other hand, the biodiversity of abandoned orchards was hardly investigated. Here, I present a survey of orchards in Poland to estimate how bird's diversities differ in response to the intensity of orchards management. In 2014, 66 orchards of three types - abandoned, extensively and intensively managed - were investigated. Bird species' richness and abundance were found to be highest in abandoned orchards but overall bird diversity and species composition in abandoned did not differ from these found in extensively managed orchards. In abandoned and extensively managed orchards, hollow-dwellers and insectivores (with some rare old-forest associated species) dominated, whereas in intensively managed orchards the most diverse were ground-dwellers. Among the several selected environmental features, the highest impact on bird diversity was related to the tree diversity, abundance of older trees, presence of multilayer understory and heterogeneous surrounding. The preliminary study point that traditional orchards could play a important role for wood-dwelling species in agriculture and because of that the removal or replacement of all traditional orchards by intensively managed orchards should be avoided and needs of orchard protection should be implemented into Agri-Environmental Schemes/High Nature Value farming systems and possibly also into habitat directive of EU. Unfortunately, the number of abandoned and extensively managed orchards is declining from agricultural landscapes, and traditional orchards are replaced by conventional fruit plantations.

  17. On the Origin and Spread of the Scab Disease of Apple: Out of Central Asia

    PubMed Central

    Gladieux, Pierre; Zhang, Xiu-Guo; Afoufa-Bastien, Damien; Valdebenito Sanhueza, Rosa-Maria; Sbaghi, Mohamed; Le Cam, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    Background Venturia inaequalis is an ascomycete fungus responsible for apple scab, a disease that has invaded almost all apple growing regions worldwide, with the corresponding adverse effects on apple production. Monitoring and predicting the effectiveness of intervention strategies require knowledge of the origin, introduction pathways, and population biology of pathogen populations. Analysis of the variation of genetic markers using the inferential framework of population genetics offers the potential to retrieve this information. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we present a population genetic analysis of microsatellite variation in 1,273 strains of V. inaequalis representing 28 orchard samples from seven regions in five continents. Analysis of molecular variance revealed that most of the variation (88%) was distributed within localities, which is consistent with extensive historical migrations of the fungus among and within regions. Despite this shallow population structure, clustering analyses partitioned the data set into separate groups corresponding roughly to geography, indicating that each region hosts a distinct population of the fungus. Comparison of the levels of variability among populations, along with coalescent analyses of migration models and estimates of genetic distances, was consistent with a scenario in which the fungus emerged in Central Asia, where apple was domesticated, before its introduction into Europe and, more recently, into other continents with the expansion of apple growing. Across the novel range, levels of variability pointed to multiple introductions and all populations displayed signatures of significant post-introduction increases in population size. Most populations exhibited high genotypic diversity and random association of alleles across loci, indicating recombination both in native and introduced areas. Conclusions/Significance Venturia inaequalis is a model of invasive phytopathogenic fungus that has now reached the

  18. 76 FR 2112 - Peach Orchard Road Groundwater Plume Site, Augusta, Richmond County, GA; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... AGENCY Peach Orchard Road Groundwater Plume Site, Augusta, Richmond County, GA; Notice of Settlement... costs concerning the Peach Orchard Road Groundwater Plume Site located in Augusta, Richmond County... Site name Peach Orchard Road Groundwater Plume Superfund Site by one of the following methods: http...

  19. Orchard Management: Horticultural Practices for Peace Corps Volunteers. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Reprint R-31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Development and Resources Corp.

    This manual is intended for use by Peace Corps volunteers as a resource for gaining an understanding and knowledge of basic horticultural principles and practices of orchard management. Addressed in the individual units of instructional text are orchard soils; botany of horticultural plants; insect and disease control in orchards; pome, stone,…

  20. Detection and Counting of Orchard Trees from Vhr Images Using a Geometrical-Optical Model and Marked Template Matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maillard, Philippe; Gomes, Marília F.

    2016-06-01

    This article presents an original algorithm created to detect and count trees in orchards using very high resolution images. The algorithm is based on an adaptation of the "template matching" image processing approach, in which the template is based on a "geometricaloptical" model created from a series of parameters, such as illumination angles, maximum and ambient radiance, and tree size specifications. The algorithm is tested on four images from different regions of the world and different crop types. These images all have < 1 meter spatial resolution and were downloaded from the GoogleEarth application. Results show that the algorithm is very efficient at detecting and counting trees as long as their spectral and spatial characteristics are relatively constant. For walnut, mango and orange trees, the overall accuracy was clearly above 90%. However, the overall success rate for apple trees fell under 75%. It appears that the openness of the apple tree crown is most probably responsible for this poorer result. The algorithm is fully explained with a step-by-step description. At this stage, the algorithm still requires quite a bit of user interaction. The automatic determination of most of the required parameters is under development.

  1. [Research progress of cover crop in Chinese orchard].

    PubMed

    Whang, Yan-ting; Ji, Xiao-hao; Wu, Yu-sen; Mao, Zhi-quan; Jiang, Yuan-mao; Peng, Fu-tian; Whang, Zhi-qiang; Chen, Xue-sen

    2015-06-01

    Grass growing in orchard is implemented in most fruit cultivation advanced countries, but only China carries out grass weeding. To effectively resolve the puzzle on harmful or beneficial effect on fruit production imparted by grass growing, and promote grass growing management in orchard in China, more and more domestic research was reported in recent years. Combined the results of our research and domestic related research, we reviewed the latest research progress about the effect of growing grass on soil, microclimate, fruit tree diseases and insect pests, tree growth and fruit quali- ty, etc. in this paper. We pointed out that grass growing in orchard must consider the local conditions, economic efficiency, the critical period, and the supporting technique.

  2. Rootstock-regulated gene expression patterns associated with fire blight resistance in apple

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Desirable apple varieties are clonally propagated by grafting vegetative scions onto rootstocks. Rootstocks influence many phenotypic traits of the scion, including resistance to pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora, which causes fire blight, the most serious bacterial disease of apple. The purpose of the present study was to quantify rootstock-mediated differences in scion fire blight susceptibility and to identify transcripts in the scion whose expression levels correlated with this response. Results Rootstock influence on scion fire blight resistance was quantified by inoculating three-year old, orchard-grown apple trees, consisting of 'Gala' scions grafted to a range of rootstocks, with E. amylovora. Disease severity was measured by the extent of shoot necrosis over time. 'Gala' scions grafted to G.30 or MM.111 rootstocks showed the lowest rates of necrosis, while 'Gala' on M.27 and B.9 showed the highest rates of necrosis. 'Gala' scions on M.7, S.4 or M.9F56 had intermediate necrosis rates. Using an apple DNA microarray representing 55,230 unique transcripts, gene expression patterns were compared in healthy, un-inoculated, greenhouse-grown 'Gala' scions on the same series of rootstocks. We identified 690 transcripts whose steady-state expression levels correlated with the degree of fire blight susceptibility of the scion/rootstock combinations. Transcripts known to be differentially expressed during E. amylovora infection were disproportionately represented among these transcripts. A second-generation apple microarray representing 26,000 transcripts was developed and was used to test these correlations in an orchard-grown population of trees segregating for fire blight resistance. Of the 690 transcripts originally identified using the first-generation array, 39 had expression levels that correlated with fire blight resistance in the breeding population. Conclusions Rootstocks had significant effects on the fire blight susceptibility of 'Gala' scions

  3. Biocontrol Potential of Metchnikowia pulcherrima Strains Against Blue Mold of Apple.

    PubMed

    Janisiewicz, W J; Tworkoski, T J; Kurtzman, C P

    2001-11-01

    ABSTRACT Eight strains of Metschnikowia pulcherrima isolated over a 4-year period from an unmanaged orchard and selected for their biocontrol activity against blue mold (caused by Penicillium expansum) of apples were characterized phenotypically, genetically, and for their biocontrol potential against blue mold on apples. All strains grew well and only differed slightly in their growth in nutrient yeast dextrose broth medium at 1 degrees C after 216 h, but large differences occurred at 0 degrees C, with strain T5-A2 outgrowing other strains by more than 25% transmittance after 360 h. This strain was also one of the most resistant to diphenylamine (DPA), a postharvest antioxidant treatment. All strains required biotin for growth in minimum salt (MS) medium, although strain ST2-A10 grew slightly in MS medium containing riboflavin or folic acid, as did ST3-E1 in MS medium without vitamins. None of the strains produced killer toxins against an indicator strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Analysis of Biolog data from YT plates for all eight strains using the MLCLUST program resulted in separation of the strains into one major cluster containing four strains and four scattered strains from which strain ST1-D10 was the most distant from all other strains. This was particularly apparent in 3-D and principle component analysis. Genetic differentiation of the eight strains using maximum parsimony analysis of nucleotide sequences from domain D1/D2 of nuclear large subunit (26S) ribosomal DNA resulted in detection of two clades. Strain ST1-D10 grouped with the type strain of M. pulcherrima but the remaining seven strains grouped separately, which might possibly represent a new species. All strains significantly reduced blue mold on mature Golden Delicious apples during 1 month of storage at 1 degrees C followed by 7 days at room temperature, but strains T5-A2 and T4-A2 were distinctly more effective under these conditions. Strain T5-A2 also was the most effective in tests on

  4. Feasibility of utilizing apple pomace

    SciTech Connect

    Stapleton, J.

    1983-06-01

    Apple pomace, the solid residue from juice production, is a solid waste problem in the Hudson Valley. This study investigates possibilities for converting it to a resource. The characteristics of the region's apple growing and processing industries are examined at length, including their potential for converting waste biomass. The properties of apple pomace are described. From interviews with Hudson Valley apple processors the following information is presented: quantities of pomace produced; seasonality of production; disposal procedures, costs, and revenues; trends in juice production; and attitudes toward alternatives. Literature research resulted in a list of more than 25 end uses for apple pomace of which eight were selected for analysis. Landfilling, landspreading, composting, animal feed, direct burning, gasification, anaerobic digestion (methane generation), and fermentation (ethanol production) were analyzed with regard to technical availability, regulatory and environmental impact, attitudes toward end use, and energetic and economic feasibility (See Table 19). The study recommends (1) a pilot anaerobic digestion plant be set up, (2) the possibility of extracting methane from the Marlborough landfill be investigated, (3) a study of the mid-Hudson waste conversion potential be conducted, and (4) an education program in alternative waste management be carried out for the region's industrial and agricultural managers.

  5. Primary and secondary pesticide drift profiles from a peach orchard.

    PubMed

    Zivan, Ohad; Bohbot-Raviv, Yardena; Dubowski, Yael

    2017-06-01

    Atmospheric drift is considered a major loss path of pesticide from target areas, but there is still a large gap of knowledge regarding this complex phenomenon. Pesticide drift may occur during application (Primary drift) and after it (Secondary drift). The present study focuses on primary and secondary drift from ground applications in peach orchard (tree height of 3 m), under Mediterranean climate. Detailed and prolonged vertical drift profiles at close proximity to orchard are presented, together with detailed measurements of key meteorological parameters. The effect of volatility on drift was also studied by simultaneously applying two pesticides that differ in their volatility. Drifting airborne pesticides were detected both during and after applications at sampling distances of 7 and 20 m away from orchard edge. Concentrations ranged between hundreds ng m(-3) to a few μg m(-3) and showed clear decrease with time and with upwind conditions. Almost no decline in concentrations with height was observed up to thrice canopy height (i.e., 10 m). These homogeneous profiles indicate strong mixing near orchard and are in line with the unstable atmospheric conditions that prevailed during measurements. While air concentrations during pesticide application were higher than after it, overall pesticide load drifted from the orchard during primary and secondary drift are comparable. To the best of our knowledge this is the first work to show such large vertical dispersion and long duration of secondary drift following ground application in orchards. The obtained information indicates that secondary drift should not be neglected in exposure and environmental impact estimations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cryptosporidiosis Associated with Ozonated Apple Cider

    PubMed Central

    Mazurek, Jacek M.; Hlavsa, Michele; Park, Jean; Tillapaw, Matt; Parrish, MaryKay; Salehi, Ellen; Franks, William; Koch, Elizabeth; Smith, Forrest; Xiao, Lihua; Arrowood, Michael; Hill, Vince; da Silva, Alex; Johnston, Stephanie; Jones, Jeffrey L.

    2006-01-01

    We linked an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis to ozonated apple cider by using molecular and epidemiologic methods. Because ozonation was insufficient in preventing this outbreak, its use in rendering apple cider safe for drinking is questioned. PMID:16704822

  7. Cryptosporidiosis associated with ozonated apple cider.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Brian G; Mazurek, Jacek M; Hlavsa, Michele; Park, Jean; Tillapaw, Matt; Parrish, MaryKay; Salehi, Ellen; Franks, William; Koch, Elizabeth; Smith, Forrest; Xiao, Lihua; Arrowood, Michael; Hill, Vince; da Silva, Alex; Johnston, Stephanie; Jones, Jeffrey L

    2006-04-01

    We linked an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis to ozonated apple cider by using molecular and epidemiologic methods. Because ozonation was insufficient in preventing this outbreak, its use in rendering apple cider safe for drinking is questioned.

  8. Questions and Answers: Apple Juice and Arsenic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Food Resources for You Consumers Questions & Answers: Apple Juice and Arsenic Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... MMA), may also be a health concern. Are apple and other fruit juices safe to drink? The ...

  9. Gap probability - Measurements and models of a pecan orchard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahler, Alan H.; Li, Xiaowen; Moody, Aaron; Liu, YI

    1992-01-01

    Measurements and models are compared for gap probability in a pecan orchard. Measurements are based on panoramic photographs of 50* by 135 view angle made under the canopy looking upwards at regular positions along transects between orchard trees. The gap probability model is driven by geometric parameters at two levels-crown and leaf. Crown level parameters include the shape of the crown envelope and spacing of crowns; leaf level parameters include leaf size and shape, leaf area index, and leaf angle, all as functions of canopy position.

  10. Gap probability - Measurements and models of a pecan orchard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahler, Alan H.; Li, Xiaowen; Moody, Aaron; Liu, YI

    1992-01-01

    Measurements and models are compared for gap probability in a pecan orchard. Measurements are based on panoramic photographs of 50* by 135 view angle made under the canopy looking upwards at regular positions along transects between orchard trees. The gap probability model is driven by geometric parameters at two levels-crown and leaf. Crown level parameters include the shape of the crown envelope and spacing of crowns; leaf level parameters include leaf size and shape, leaf area index, and leaf angle, all as functions of canopy position.

  11. Connecting your Apple to Octopus 7600's

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, G.W. Jr.

    1983-01-17

    In UCID-19588, Communicating between the Apple and the Wang, we described how to take Apple DOS text files and send them to the Wang, and how to return Wang files to the Apple. It is also possible to use your Apple as an Octopus terminal, and to exchange files with Octopus 7600's. Presumably, you can also talk to the Crays, or any other part of the system. This connection has another virtue. It eliminates one of the terminals in your office.

  12. Oligo-DNA Custom Macroarray for Monitoring Major Pathogenic and Non-Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria in the Phyllosphere of Apple Trees

    PubMed Central

    He, Ying-Hong; Isono, Sayaka; Shibuya, Makoto; Tsuji, Masaharu; Adkar Purushothama, Charith-Raj; Tanaka, Kazuaki; Sano, Teruo

    2012-01-01

    Background To monitor the richness in microbial inhabitants in the phyllosphere of apple trees cultivated under various cultural and environmental conditions, we developed an oligo-DNA macroarray for major pathogenic and non-pathogenic fungi and bacteria inhabiting the phyllosphere of apple trees. Methods and Findings First, we isolated culturable fungi and bacteria from apple orchards by an agar-plate culture method, and detected 32 fungal and 34 bacterial species. Alternaria, Aureobasidium, Cladosporium, Rhodotorula, Cystofilobasidium, and Epicoccum genera were predominant among the fungi, and Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas, Methylobacterium, and Pantoea genera were predominant among the bacteria. Based on the data, we selected 29 major non-pathogenic and 12 phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria as the targets of macroarray. Forty-one species-specific 40-base pair long oligo-DNA sequences were selected from the nucleotide sequences of rDNA-internal transcribed spacer region for fungi and 16S rDNA for bacteria. The oligo-DNAs were fixed on nylon membrane and hybridized with digoxigenin-labeled cRNA probes prepared for each species. All arrays except those for Alternaria, Bacillus, and their related species, were specifically hybridized. The array was sensitive enough to detect 103 CFU for Aureobasidium pullulans and Bacillus cereus. Nucleotide sequencing of 100 each of independent fungal rDNA-ITS and bacterial 16S-rDNA sequences from apple tree was in agreement with the macroarray data obtained using the same sample. Finally, we analyzed the richness in the microbial inhabitants in the samples collected from apple trees in four orchards. Major apple pathogens that cause scab, Alternaria blotch, and Marssonina blotch were detected along with several non-phytopathogenic fungal and bacterial inhabitants. Conclusions The macroarray technique presented here is a strong tool to monitor the major microbial species and the community structures in the phyllosphere of

  13. Energy accounting of apple processing operations

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, R.; Singh, R.P.; Brown, D.

    1981-01-01

    A thermal-energy accounting study was conducted at an apple processing plant. An analysis is given of thermal energy use and thermal efficiencies of an apple-juice single-effect evaporator and an apple-sauce cooker. 3 refs.

  14. Ensuring the genetic diversity of apples

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apples (Malus × domestica Borkh.) are a nutritious source of antioxidants, polyphenolics, vitamins, and fiber. Many of the apple cultivars that are currently produced were identified over a century ago and do not offer resistance to pathogens and tolerance to climatic threats. Apple breeding program...

  15. Loading Appleworks into the Apple IIGS Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This step-by-step guide to loading AppleWorks V2.0 into the Apple IIGS computer provides instructions for energizing the computer and monitor, inserting the disk, using the Apple-control-reset function, and loading the program. Seven sample screen displays are included. (MES)

  16. What's an Adam's Apple? (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Happens in the Operating Room? What's an Adam's Apple? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's an Adam's Apple? A A A You're at the high ... the throat. This is what's called an Adam's apple. Everyone's larynx grows during puberty, but a girl's ...

  17. What's an Adam's Apple? (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Too Short All About Puberty What's an Adam's Apple? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's an Adam's Apple? Print A A A You're at the ... the throat. This is what's called an Adam's apple. Everyone's larynx grows during puberty, but a girl's ...

  18. Successful biological control of tropical soda apple (Solanales: Solanaceae) in Florida: A review of key program components

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal) is a small shrub native to South America that is invasive in pastures and conservation areas across Florida. Dense patches of tropical soda apple not only reduce cattle stocking rates and limit their movement, but also serve as reservoirs for pests of solan...

  19. Recombinant DNA technology in apple.

    PubMed

    Gessler, Cesare; Patocchi, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    This review summarizes the achievements of almost 20 years of recombinant DNA technology applied to apple, grouping the research results into the sections: developing the technology, insect resistance, fungal disease resistance, self-incompatibility, herbicide resistance, fire blight resistance, fruit ripening, allergens, rooting ability, and acceptance and risk assessment. The diseases fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora, and scab, caused by Venturia inaequalis, were and still are the prime targets. Shelf life improvement and rooting ability of rootstocks are also relevant research areas. The tools to create genetically modified apples of added value to producers, consumers, and the environment are now available.

  20. Branch induction in spur-type Delicious apple nursery trees

    SciTech Connect

    Popenoe, J.

    1987-01-01

    Long sylleptic shoots produced on apple trees in the nursery result in increased early yields once the trees are planted in the orchard. Spur-type Delicious trees do not naturally produce branches in the nursery. To achieve branched spur-type Delicious trees, applications of combinations of growth regulators benzyladenine (BA) and gibberellic acid 4 + 7 (GA) and leaf removal (LR) techniques were tested. Spacings of 15, 25, 35, and 45 cm and MM.106, M.7, M.26 and seedling rootstocks were tested for their effects on branching. Carbon partitioning changes caused by these treatments were evaluated by dry weight analysis and for benzyladenine, leaf removal and tipping treatments by {sup 14}C-photoassimilate labelling. Possible involvement of roots produced cytokinins was examined by {sup 14}C-benzyladenine labeling through the xylem and by analyzing relationships between root mass and branching characteristics. Although partitioning of {sup 14}C-photoassimilate was increased to the top of the plant by BA sprays, and to the bottom of the plant by LR and tipping for up to six days after treatment, final plant weights were not different. No relationship between branching and root mass or {sup 14}C-benzyladenine mobilization was found. This evidence indicates branched trees possessed no greater dry weight than unbranched trees, only a redistribution of the dry weight into a form more suited to early fruit production in high density planting systems.

  1. Restoration seed reserves for assisted gene flow within seed orchards

    Treesearch

    C.S. Echt; B.S. Crane

    2017-01-01

    Changing climate and declining forest populations imperil the future of certain forest tree species. To complement forest management and genetic conservation plans, we propose a new paradigm for seedling seed orchards: foster genetic mixing among a variety of seed sources to increase genetic diversity and adaptive potential of seed supplies used for forest restoration...

  2. 97 Orchard Street: The Biography of a Tenement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shenton, James

    1990-01-01

    Recommends using U.S. Bureau of the Census data as historical research resource and illustrates how to use data through analysis of tenement residents in New York City, at 97 Orchard Street. Census records provide information that allow an analysis of the changing social demographics of occupancy in large city tenements. Includes primary documents…

  3. Orchard Display Nursery evaluation summary (2005-2006)

    Treesearch

    Derek J. Tilley; Loren St. John

    2006-01-01

    The Orchard Display Nursery was planted on November 16, 2004 in cooperation with the Great Basin Native Plant Selection and Increase Project. The nursery includes 82 accessions of 27 native and introduced grass, forb and shrub species. Each accession was planted in 7 X 60 foot plots. See Tilley et al (2005) for descriptions of the species and accessions planted. The...

  4. Punjabi Orchard Farmers: An Immigrant Enclave in Rural California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Margaret A.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the adaptation patterns of Punjabi Sikh orchard farmers in rural California. Discusses the role of the following: (1) the historical context of immigration; (2) the immigrants' perceptions of their particular situation; (3) the group's cultural traditions; and (4) 1965 Immigration Act. (FMW)

  5. Efficiency of seed production in southern pine seed orchards

    Treesearch

    David L. Bramlett

    1977-01-01

    Seed production in southern pine seed orchards can be evaluated by estimating the efficiency of four separate stages of cone, seed, and seedling development. Calculated values are: cone efficiency (CE), the ratio of mature cones to the initial flower crop; seed efficiency (SE), the ratio of filled seeds per cone to the seed potential; extraction efficiency (EE), the...

  6. The Old Orchard white pine plantation at Biltmore

    Treesearch

    W. Henry McNab; Brian A. Ritter

    2000-01-01

    A pioneering case study in the Old Orchard Plantation on Biltmore Estate near Asheville, North Carolina, considered current yields and the effects of periodic thinning on height and basal area growth, as well as cubic volume and board-foot yields. Established in 1899, one of three plots of this eastern white pine stand was first thinned in 1916. Beyond providing growth...

  7. The New England Spruce-Fir Seed Orchard Program

    Treesearch

    Carter B. Gibbs; James B. Carlaw

    1973-01-01

    I once heard it said that if you want to know how something was organized, ask a man who had nothing to do with it. I suspect this may be one of the reasons I was asked to collaborate on this report of the development of the New England Spruce-Fir Seed Orchard Program.

  8. Punjabi Orchard Farmers: An Immigrant Enclave in Rural California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Margaret A.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the adaptation patterns of Punjabi Sikh orchard farmers in rural California. Discusses the role of the following: (1) the historical context of immigration; (2) the immigrants' perceptions of their particular situation; (3) the group's cultural traditions; and (4) 1965 Immigration Act. (FMW)

  9. Weed suppression by grasses for orchard floor management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fruit trees in orchards of the mid-Atlantic region are often planted in vegetation-free rows alternating with grass travel alleys. The tree rows can be maintained vegetation-free by herbicides or tillage but soil degradation or tree injury can result from these practices. Grasses that suppress wee...

  10. Weed suppression by grasses for orchard floor management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fruit trees in orchards of the mid-Atlantic region of the U.S. are often planted in vegetation-free rows alternating with grass travel alleys. The tree rows can be maintained vegetation-free by herbicides or tillage, but soil degradation or tree injury can result. Grass that is managed to suppress...

  11. Formulating entompathogens for control of boring beetles in avocado orchards

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A foam formulation of Beauveria bassiana was adapted to control boring beetles in avocado orchards. The two geographically independent avocado growing areas in the United States are threatened by emerging diseases vectored by boring beetles. In the California growing region, Fusarium dieback is vect...

  12. Dry bin filler for apples

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A unique dry bin filler for apples using a sequenced tray was developed to reduce bruising in packing operations. Research and commercial trials in West Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Washington State demonstrated the ability to fill bins evenly and with low damage. Cultivars with different bruising su...

  13. Apple Floating in Cupola Module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-06

    ISS038-E-042112 (6 Feb. 2014) --- A fresh apple floating freely near a window in the Cupola of the International Space Station is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 38 crew member. Currently docked to the station, a Russian Progress resupply vehicle (left) and a Soyuz spacecraft along with Earth's horizon are visible in the background.

  14. Apple Floating in Cupola Module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-06

    ISS038-E-042121 (6 Feb. 2014) --- A fresh apple floating freely near a window in the Cupola of the International Space Station is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 38 crew member. The bright sun and Earth's horizon provide the backdrop for the scene.

  15. Brain cancer and pesticide relationship in orchard farmers of Kashmir.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Abdul Rashid; Wani, Muhammed Afzal; Kirmani, A R

    2010-09-01

    The increasing trend in the incidence of primary malignant brain tumors in orchard farmers and their families in Kashmir. To determine the relationship between the patients of primary malignant brain tumors and their occupation. Retrospectively, case files along with death certificates of 432 patients of primary malignant brain tumors and 457 controls (non-tumor neurologic diseases), admitted for treatment simultaneously over a period of 4 years from January 2005 to December 2008, to the Neurosurgery, Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences (SKIMS), Kashmir, were studied. Follow-up and family interaction was established. Analysis revealed that 90.04% (389 out of 432) patients were orchard farm workers, orchard residents and orchard playing children exposed to the high levels of multiple types of neurotoxic and carcinogenic (chlorpyriphos, dimethoate, mancozeb and captan) chemicals for more than 10 years [relative risk (RR) = 10.6; odds ratio (OR) = >10; 95% confidence interval (CI) = >25-40]. The 9.96% (43 out of 432) patients were not exposed to pesticides. On the other hand, only 19 patients out of 457 controls had recorded history of pesticide exposure and 438 were unrelated to pesticides. Out of 389 patients, 71.7% (279 out of 389) were males and 28.3% (110 out of 389), including six members of three families, were females (one male child). All orchard-related 389 patients had high-grade tumors as compared to the non-pesticide tumors. Mortality in pesticide-exposed tumors was 12%. The higher or upper-normal levels of serum cholinesterase (AChE) were observed in 54.7% (213 out of 389) patients and decreased levels were found in only 45.3% (176 out of 389) orchard-related patients (RR = 19.4; OR = >5; 95% CI = >1-10). Although serum AChE levels were a routine investigation in malignant brain tumors, this was not a routine in other neurological conditions (hospitalized controls). The familial gliomas have shown an emerging trend in the orchard residents of

  16. Human and soil exposure during mechanical chlorpyrifos, myclobutanil and copper oxychloride application in a peach orchard in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Berenstein, Giselle; Nasello, Soledad; Beiguel, Érica; Flores, Pedro; Di Schiena, Johanna; Basack, Silvana; Hughes, Enrique A; Zalts, Anita; Montserrat, Javier M

    2017-05-15

    The objective of this study was to measure the impact of the mechanized chlorpyrifos, copper oxychloride and myclobutanil application in a small peach orchard, on humans (operators, bystanders and residents) and on the productive soil. The mean Potential Dermal Exposure (PDE) of the workers (tractor drivers) was 30.8mL·h(-1)±16.4mL·h(-1), with no specific pesticide distribution on the laborers body. Although the Margin of Safety (MOS) factor for the application stage were above 1 (safe condition) for myclobutanil and cooper oxycloride it was below 1 for chlorpyrifos. The mix and load stage remained as the riskier operation. Pesticide found on the orchard soil ranged from 5.5% to 14.8% of the total chlorpyrifos, copper oxychloride and myclobutanil applied. Pesticide drift was experimentally measured, finding values in the range of 2.4% to 11.2% of the total pesticide applied. Using experimental drift values, bystander (for one application), resident (for 20 applications) and earthworm (for one application) risk indicators (RIs) were calculated for the chlorpyrifos plus copper oxychloride and for myclobutanil treatments for different distances to the orchard border. Earthworm RI was correlated with experimental Eisenia andrei ecotoxicological assays (enzymatic activities: cholinesterases, carboxylesterases and glutathione S-transferases; behavioral: avoidance and bait-lamina tests) with good correlation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Apples prevent mammary tumors in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui Hai; Liu, Jiaren; Chen, Bingqing

    2005-03-23

    Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables has been consistently shown to be associated with reduced risk of developing chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. Apples are commonly consumed and are the major contributors of phytochemicals in human diets. It was previously reported that apple extracts exhibit strong antioxidant and antiproliferative activities and that the major part of total antioxidant activity is from the combination of phytochemicals. Phytochemicals, including phenolics and flavonoids, are suggested to be the bioactive compounds contributing to the health benefits of apples. Here it is shown that whole apple extracts prevent mammary cancer in a rat model in a dose-dependent manner at doses comparable to human consumption of one, three, and six apples a day. This study demonstrated that whole apple extracts effectively inhibited mammary cancer growth in the rat model; thus, consumption of apples may be an effective strategy for cancer protection.

  18. Apple extract induces increased epithelial resistance and claudin 4 expression in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Vreeburg, Robert A M; van Wezel, Esther E; Ocaña-Calahorro, Francisco; Mes, Jurriaan J

    2012-01-30

    The small intestinal epithelium functions both to absorb nutrients, and to provide a barrier between the outside, luminal, world and the human body. One of the passageways across the intestinal epithelium is paracellular diffusion, which is controlled by the properties of tight junction complexes. We used a differentiated Caco-2 monolayer as a model for small intestinal epithelium to study the effect of crude apple extracts on paracellular permeability. Exposure of crude apple homogenate to the differentiated Caco-2 cells increased the paracellular resistance, determined as trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER). This increase was linearly related to the concentration of apple present. The TEER-enhancing effect of apple extract was due to factors mainly present in the cortex, and the induction was not inhibited by protein kinase inhibitors. Apple-induced resistance was accompanied by increased expression of several tight junction related genes, including claudin 4 (CLDN4). Crude apple extract induces a higher paracellular resistance in differentiated Caco-2 cells. Future research will determine whether these results can be extrapolated to human small intestinal epithelia. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. The litter cover of citrus leaves control soil and water losses in chemically managed orchards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, A.; Jurgensen, M. F.; González-Peñaloza, F. A.

    2012-04-01

    Soil erosion in chemically managed orchards results in bare soil due to the removal of the weeds and the lack of catch crops. Those conditions results in extremely high erosion rates in citrus orchards (Cerdà et al., 2011) such it has been found in other orchards in the Mediterranean where the soil degradation trigger a change in the soil water properties (Gómez et al., 1999). The Mediterranean climatic and human conditions contribute to very active soil water erosion (Ruiz Sinoga et al., 2010) where rilling and piping are found (Romero-Diaz, 2007). It is widely known that high erosion rates can trigger the soil degradation such it has been found in vineyards (Ramos and Martínez Casasnovas, 2006), Olive (García Orenes et al., 2010) and other crops, which is related to the land management and land use (García Ruiz, 2010). Within the chemically managed citrus orchards, the surface cover is usually bare due to the removal of the pruned branches (usually burned) and the use of herbicides every season. A thin and non-continuous litter layer of leaves from the citrus trees covers the soil surface, which sometimes are removed by the farmers to keep the soil clean. There is no information about the effect of the citrus leaves effects on soil and water losses. The objective of this paper is to quantify the effect of the leaves cover on the surface runoff and soil losses. Experiments were conducted by means of simulated rainfall at 55 mm h-1 during one hour in a small circular plot (0.25 m2) to quantify in the field the effect of different litter cover on soil erosion and water losses. An orchard of orange trees (Navel-lane-late, 10 year old, and planted at 6 x 5m with a 45 % cover) was selected in the Municipality of Montesa. Witin the 2 ha field 35 plots were selected with litter covers from 0 to 100 % cover. The runoff discharge was measured every minute and each 5 minutes a sample for runoff sediment concentration was collected. The sediment concentration was

  20. Efficacy of Nitric Oxide Fumigation for Controlling Codling Moth in Apples

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong-Biao; Yang, Xiangbing; Simmons, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) fumigation under ultralow oxygen (ULO) conditions was studied for its efficacy in controlling codling moth and effects on postharvest quality of apples. NO fumigation was effective against eggs and larvae of different sizes on artificial diet in 48 h treatments. Small larvae were more susceptible to nitric oxide than other stages at 0.5% NO concentration. There were no significant differences among life stages at 1.0% to 2.0% NO concentrations. In 24 h treatments of eggs, 3.0% NO fumigation at 2 °C achieved 100% egg mortality. Two 24 h fumigation treatments of infested apples containing medium and large larvae with 3.0% and 5.0% NO resulted in 98% and 100% mortalities respectively. Sound apples were also fumigated with 5.0% NO for 24 h at 2 °C to determine effects on apple quality. The fumigation treatment was terminated by flushing with nitrogen and had no negative impact on postharvest quality of apples as measured by firmness and color at 2 and 4 weeks after fumigation. This study demonstrated that NO fumigation was effective against codling moth and safe to apple quality, and therefore has potential to become a practical alternative to methyl bromide fumigation for control of codling moth in apples. PMID:27918417

  1. Efficacy of Nitric Oxide Fumigation for Controlling Codling Moth in Apples.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Biao; Yang, Xiangbing; Simmons, Gregory

    2016-12-02

    Nitric oxide (NO) fumigation under ultralow oxygen (ULO) conditions was studied for its efficacy in controlling codling moth and effects on postharvest quality of apples. NO fumigation was effective against eggs and larvae of different sizes on artificial diet in 48 h treatments. Small larvae were more susceptible to nitric oxide than other stages at 0.5% NO concentration. There were no significant differences among life stages at 1.0% to 2.0% NO concentrations. In 24 h treatments of eggs, 3.0% NO fumigation at 2 °C achieved 100% egg mortality. Two 24 h fumigation treatments of infested apples containing medium and large larvae with 3.0% and 5.0% NO resulted in 98% and 100% mortalities respectively. Sound apples were also fumigated with 5.0% NO for 24 h at 2 °C to determine effects on apple quality. The fumigation treatment was terminated by flushing with nitrogen and had no negative impact on postharvest quality of apples as measured by firmness and color at 2 and 4 weeks after fumigation. This study demonstrated that NO fumigation was effective against codling moth and safe to apple quality, and therefore has potential to become a practical alternative to methyl bromide fumigation for control of codling moth in apples.

  2. Inhibition of Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) in apple juices and its resistance to pasteurization.

    PubMed

    Rasooly, Reuven; Do, Paula M; Levin, Carol E; Friedman, Mendel

    2010-06-01

    In the present study, we evaluated Shiga toxin (Stx2) activity in apple juices by measuring a decrease in dehydrogenase activity of Vero cells with the microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Freshly prepared juice from Red Delicious apples and Golden Delicious apples inhibited the biological activity of the bacterial toxin Stx2 produced by E. coli O157:H7 strains. Studies with immunomagnetic beads bearing specific antibodies against the toxin revealed that Stx2 activity was restored when removed from the apple juice. SDS gel electrophoresis revealed no difference (P < 0.05) in the densities or molecular weights between Stx2 in either PBS or apple juices. These results suggest that Stx2 may be reversibly bound to small molecular weight constituents in the juice. The Stx2 toxin was not inactivated on exposure to heat programs (63 degrees C for 30 min, 72 degrees C for 15 s, 89 degrees C for 1 s) commonly used to pasteurize apple juice, but lost all activity when exposed to 100 degrees C for 5 min. The results suggest that pasteurization of apple juice used to inactivate E. coli O157:H7 has no effect on Stx2, and that food-compatible and safe antitoxin compounds can be used to inhibit the biological activity of the Shiga toxin.

  3. Consistent codling moth population decline by two years of mating disruption in apple: a Flemish case study.

    PubMed

    Bangels, E; Beliën, T

    2012-01-01

    Codling moth (Cydia pomonella) is one of the most important pests in apple and pear. In 2010 mating disruption became a key pest management tactic in Flemish pip fruit orchards, largely due to a government subsidy and demonstrating projects aiming to widen the area treated by pheromones as large as possible. As a consequence, the mating disruption strategy was applied at approximately 7.500 ha, or half of the pip fruit area, in 2010 and 2011. The sudden large-scale implementation of this technique changed the codling moth management landscape. Here we present a case study of a commercially managed orchard that suffered from high codling moth pressures for many years, as did the surrounding area. The RAK3 mating disruption system was introduced at this location in 2010, and was continued in 2011. Systematic detailed codling moth flight data for this location are available for many years. In addition, comprehensive data on damage levels of chemically untreated windows spread all over the test orchard in a randomized block design were obtained in successive years, enabling us to thoroughly evaluate the effect of the changed codling moth management strategy. Data from 2011 included damage levels in chemically treated windows when the entire orchard was applied once at the flight peak of Cydia pomonella. In 2009, before introduction of mating disruption, a mean of 8.25 +/- 5.54% of the fruits were infested at harvest when assessed in completely untreated windows. After two years of mating disruption, supported with a full chemical support in 2010, except for the untreated assessment windows, and only one application on the flight peak of 2011, damage was reduced to less than 0.03% at harvest. This is a valuable case study to demonstrate the benefits of the mating disruption approach.

  4. Barriers in a tropical orchard landscape: how the presence or absence of hedges influences insect dispersal in mixed orchards of Carica papaya and Manilkara zapota.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The presence of plants in the form of a hedge may hinder or alter movement of certain insects into and within an orchard. We investigated the impact that the presence of a hedge of tall grass had on infestation by various pests into mixed orchards of papaya and sapodilla. For most insects there was ...

  5. Deep sequencing analysis of apple infecting viruses in Korea

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Deep sequencing of viruses isolated from eight symptomatic apple trees in Korea has generated 52 contigs derived from five viruses: Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), Apple green crinkle associated virus (AGCaV) and Apricot lat...

  6. Apple cuticle: the perfect interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, Eric; Arey, Bruce

    2010-06-01

    The domestic apple might well be called an 'extreme' fruit. In the arid Northwest United States, the fruit often tolerates surface temperatures ranging from -2 °C in the early spring to 50 °C in the heat of summer, and again to -2 °C during controlled postharvest storage for up to 12 months. During its 18-month existence, the apple maintains a cuticle that is dynamic and environmentally responsive to protect against 1) cellular water loss during desiccation stress and 2) excessive uptake of standing surface moisture. Physiological disorders of the peel such as russeting, cracking, splitting, flecking and lenticel marking, develop as epidermal cells respond to rapid changes in ambient conditions at specific developmental stages during the growing season. Resultant market losses underlie research investigating the nature of apple cuticle growth and development. Ultrastructural analysis of the pro-cuticle using scanning electron microscopy indicates an overlapping network of lipid-based distally-elongating microtubules--produced by and connected to epidermal cells--which co-polymerize to form an organic solvent-insoluble semi-permeable cutin matrix. Microtubule elongation, aggregation, and polymerization function together as long as the fruit continues to enlarge. The nature of lipid transport from the epidermal cells through the cell wall to become part of the cuticular matrix was explored using an FEI Helios NanoLabTM DualBeamTM focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope on chemically- and cryo-fixed peel tissue from mature or freshly harvested apples. Based on microtubule dimensions, regular projections found at the cell/cuticle interface suggest an array of microtubule-like structures associated with the epidermal cell.

  7. Occurrence of Apple stem grooving virus in commercial apple seedlings and analysis of its coat protein sequence

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Virus infections are responsible for reduced yield and quality in many crops, and are especially problematic in vegetatively-propagated crops such as apple. Three major viruses (Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus and Apple stem pitting virus) affect apple trees in Kore...

  8. Stemflow in low-density and hedgerow olive orchards in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Pedro D.; Valente, Fernanda; Pereira, Fernando L.; Abreu, Francisco G.

    2015-04-01

    ) of all models ranged from 0.5 to 0.76. The size of leaves was also analysed. Although there were significant differences between varieties and between trees of the same variety, they did not seem to affect the amount of Sf generated. Through analysis of bark storage capacity, it was found that older trees, with rough and thick bark, had higher trunk storage capacity and, therefore, originated less Sf. The results confirm the need for considering the contribution of stemflow when trying to correctly assess interception loss in olive orchards. Although the use of simple and general statistical models may be an attractive option, their precision may be small, making direct measurements or conceptual modelling preferable methods.

  9. Addition of Pear Ester With Sex Pheromone Enhances Disruption of Mating by Female Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Walnut Orchards Treated with Meso Dispensers.

    PubMed

    Light, Douglas M; Grant, Joseph A; Haff, Ronald P; Knight, Alan L

    2017-04-01

    We evaluated the low-density application of 50 dispensers per hectare, in contrast to the traditional >800 dispensers per hectare in apple orchards, to achieve disruption of communication of adult codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), in walnuts, Juglans regia (L.), using several methods. These methods included cumulative catches of male moths in traps baited with sex pheromone (Ph) or codlemone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol, or a combination of codlemone, pear ester (PE), ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, and acetic acid, and by examining the mating status of females. These data were collected from 2011-2014 in nontreated plots and in similar plots treated with Meso dispensers loaded with codlemone (Ph Meso) or codlemone and PE (Ph + PE Meso). Male moth captures in both the Ph and combination lure traps reduced by 88-96% and 72 to 77%, respectively, compared with traps in the nontreated plots. A significantly higher proportion of female moths were nonmated in plots treated with Ph + PE Meso dispensers (33%) than in plots treated with Ph Meso (18-26%), or left nontreated (13%). In addition, significantly fewer multiple-mated females were trapped in the Ph + PE Meso-treated plots (6%) than in either Ph Meso-treated (13-18%) or nontreated plots (23%). These data suggest that the addition of PE can effectively improve Ph-based disruption of C. pomonella in walnut orchards. In addition, these data suggest that the use of low-density hand-applied dispensers can be an effective and lower-cost approach to manage this pest in the large canopy presented by walnut orchards. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by a US Government employee and is in the public domain in the US.

  10. [Diversity and stability of arthropod community in peach orchard under effects of ground cover vegetation].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jie-xian; Wan, Nian-feng; Ji, Xiang-yun; Dan, Jia-gui

    2011-09-01

    A comparative study was conducted on the arthropod community in peach orchards with and without ground cover vegetation. In the orchard with ground cover vegetation, the individuals of beneficial, neutral, and phytophagous arthropods were 1.48, 1.84 and 0.64 times of those in the orchard without ground cover vegetation, respectively, but the total number of arthropods had no significant difference with that in the orchard without ground cover vegetation. The species richness, Shannon's diversity, and Pielou's evenness index of the arthropods in the orchard with ground cover vegetation were 83.733 +/- 4.932, 4.966 +/- 0.110, and 0.795 +/- 0.014, respectively, being significantly higher than those in the orchard without ground cover vegetation, whereas the Berger-Parker's dominance index was 0.135 +/- 0.012, being significantly lower than that (0.184 +/- 0.018) in the orchard without ground cover vegetation. There were no significant differences in the stability indices S/N and Sd/Sp between the two orchards, but the Nn/Np, Nd/Np, and Sn/Sp in the orchard with ground cover vegetation were 0.883 +/- 0.123. 1714 +/- 0.683, and 0.781 +/- 0.040, respectively, being significantly higher than those in the orchard without ground cover vegetation. Pearson's correlation analysis indicated that in the orchard with ground cover vegetation, the Shannon's diversity index was significantly negatively correlated with Nd/Np, Sd/Sp, and S/N but had no significant correlations with Nn/Np and Sn/Sp, whereas in the orchard without ground cover vegetation, the diversity index was significantly positively correlated with Nn/Np and Nd/Np and had no significant correlations with Sd/Sp, Sn/Sp, and S/N.

  11. Digital computer processing of peach orchard multispectral aerial photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    Several methods of analysis using digital computers applicable to digitized multispectral aerial photography, are described, with particular application to peach orchard test sites. This effort was stimulated by the recent premature death of peach trees in the Southeastern United States. The techniques discussed are: (1) correction of intensity variations by digital filtering, (2) automatic detection and enumeration of trees in five size categories, (3) determination of unhealthy foliage by infrared reflectances, and (4) four band multispectral classification into healthy and declining categories.

  12. Orienting apples for imaging using their inertial properties and random apple loading

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The inability to control apple orientation during imaging has hindered development of automated systems for sorting apples for defects such as bruises and for safety issues such as fecal contamination. Recently, a potential method for orienting apples based on their inertial properties was discovere...

  13. First report of Apple necrotic mosaic virus infecting apple trees in Korea

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In September 2016, two apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh) cv. Shinano Sweet showing bright cream spot and mosaic patterns on leaves were observed in Pocheon, South Korea. Mosaic symptoms are common on leaves of apple trees infected with Apple mosaic virus (ApMV). Symptomatic leaves were tested by e...

  14. Effects of habitat on avian productivity in abandoned pecan orchards in southern Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patnode, K.A.; White, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    Daily survival rates (DSRs) of nests, eggs and nestlings were determined for Mourning Doves (Zenaida macroura), Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis), Brown Thrashers (Toxostoma rufum) and Northern Mockingbirds (Mimus polyglottos) occupying abandoned pecan orchards in a highly fragmented and intensively farmed area of southern Georgia. The effects of nest placement parameters, seasonal factors and habitat disruptions on DSRs for all species combined were statistically analyzed. Egg and nestling DSRs varied significantly by month of nesting, percent cover, vegetative form and position of nest in substrate. Causes of nest failure (no fledglings produced) in order of decreasing importance were predation by small mammals/snakes, avian predation, predation by large mammals, and abandonment. Results provide further evidence that the importance of nest placement and habitat disruptions in nesting success is influenced by foraging strategies of the predator community. Site-specific predator/habitat complexes may be a more appropriate criterion than habitat conditions alone for evaluating avian nesting habitat

  15. Modeling multi-frequency diurnal backscatter from a walnut orchard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, Kyle C.; Dobson, Myron C.; Ulaby, Fawwaz T.

    1991-01-01

    The Michigan Microwave Canopy Scattering Model (MIMICS) is used to model scatterometer data that were obtained during the August 1987 EOS (Earth Observing System) synergism study. During this experiment, truck-based scatterometers were used to measure radar backscatter from a walnut orchard in Fresno County, California. Multipolarized L- and X-band data were recorded for orchard plots for which dielectric and evapotranspiration characteristics were monitored. MIMICS is used to model a multiangle data set in which a single orchard plot was observed at varying impedance angles and a series of diurnal measurements in which backscatter from this same plot was measured continuously over several 24-h periods. MIMICS accounts for variations in canopy backscatter driven by changes in canopy state that occur diurnally as well as on longer time scales. L-band backscatter is dependent not only on properties of the vegetation but also on properties of the underlying soil surface. The behavior of the X-band backscatter is dominated by properties of the tree crowns.

  16. Modeling multi-frequency diurnal backscatter from a walnut orchard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, Kyle C.; Dobson, Myron C.; Ulaby, Fawwaz T.

    1991-01-01

    The Michigan Microwave Canopy Scattering Model (MIMICS) is used to model scatterometer data that were obtained during the August 1987 EOS (Earth Observing System) synergism study. During this experiment, truck-based scatterometers were used to measure radar backscatter from a walnut orchard in Fresno County, California. Multipolarized L- and X-band data were recorded for orchard plots for which dielectric and evapotranspiration characteristics were monitored. MIMICS is used to model a multiangle data set in which a single orchard plot was observed at varying impedance angles and a series of diurnal measurements in which backscatter from this same plot was measured continuously over several 24-h periods. MIMICS accounts for variations in canopy backscatter driven by changes in canopy state that occur diurnally as well as on longer time scales. L-band backscatter is dependent not only on properties of the vegetation but also on properties of the underlying soil surface. The behavior of the X-band backscatter is dominated by properties of the tree crowns.

  17. Reducing background effects in orchards through spectral vegetation index correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Beek, Jonathan; Tits, Laurent; Somers, Ben; Deckers, Tom; Janssens, Pieter; Coppin, Pol

    2015-02-01

    Satellite remote sensing provides an alternative to time-consuming and labor intensive in situ measurements of biophysical variables in agricultural crops required for precision agriculture applications. In orchards, however, the spatial resolution causes mixtures of canopies and background (i.e. soil, grass and shadow), hampering the estimation of these biophysical variables. Furthermore, variable background mixtures obstruct meaningful comparisons between different orchard blocks, rows or within each row. Current correction methodologies use spectral differences between canopies and background, but struggle with a vegetated orchard floor. This background influence and the lack of a generic solution are addressed in this study. Firstly, the problem was demonstrated in a controlled environment for vegetation indices sensitive to chlorophyll content, water content and leaf area index. Afterwards, traditional background correction methods (i.e. soil-adjusted vegetation indices and signal unmixing) were compared to the proposed vegetation index correction. This correction was based on the mixing degree of each pixel (i.e. tree cover fraction) to rescale the vegetation indices accordingly and was applied to synthetic and WorldView-2 satellite imagery. Through the correction, the effect of background admixture for vegetation indices was reduced, and the estimation of biophysical variables was improved (ΔR2 = 0.2-0.31).

  18. Analysis of unculturable bacterial communities in tea orchard soils based on nested PCR-DGGE.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Juan; Wu, Xiaobing; Nie, Chuanpeng; Wu, Ting; Dai, Wanhong; Liu, Hui; Yang, Ruyi

    2012-05-01

    The bacterial communities in the soils from tea orchards and their adjacent wasteland in Anhui Province, China were analysed by nested PCR-DGGE technique combined with sequencing. DGGE profiles revealed that the DGGE patterns of different soils were similar to each other and the most intensely bands appeared in all lanes. The bacterial genetic diversity index of tea orchard soils was lower than that of wasteland. For the tea orchard soils, Shannon's diversity index decreased in the order: 45-year-old tea orchard >25-year-old tea orchard >7-year-old tea orchard >70-year-old tea orchard. The analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the fragments belong to Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, TM7, Cyanobacteria and Firmicutes. A comprehensive analysis of the bacterial community structure in the tea orchard soils indicated the bacterial community was dominantly composed of Acidobacteria, followed by Proteobacteria (Gamma and Alpha), Firmicutes, Cyanobacteria and candidate division TM7. The RDA combined with UPGMA clustering analysis showed that the more similar the environmental variables were, the more similar the bacterial community structures in tea orchard soils were.

  19. Influence of copper fungicide residues on occurrence of earthworms in avocado orchard soils.

    PubMed

    Van Zwieten, Lukas; Rust, Josh; Kingston, Tim; Merrington, Graham; Morris, Steven

    2004-08-15

    The compost worm Eisenia fetida was used to demonstrate the avoidance by worms of Cu contaminated soil. Soils were collected from two avocado orchards in north eastern New South Wales, Australia. In avoidance trials, worms preferred non-contaminated control soils, sourced from adjacent to the orchard or an OECD control soil, when Cu residues in the orchard soils reached 4-34 mg Cu kg(-1). At levels of 553 mg Cu kg(-1), 90% avoidance of orchard soil was observed. The worms showed preference for the soils in the order; uncontaminated field derived soil >OECD standard soil >Cu contaminated orchard soil. It was demonstrated that OECD standard soil was less favoured by worms than control soil derived from the test sites. While Cu was found to be the primary influence on worm avoidance in orchard soil, other factors, such as elevated soil Zn concentrations, could not be discounted. In a corresponding field study, it was shown that earthworms occurred at lower density in orchard soils with a history of Cu fungicide use. In one such orchard, soil Cu concentrations of up to 270 mg kg(-1) were determined and no earthworms were found, while nearby control sites and less contaminated sites within the orchard had up to 40.7 g m(-2) earthworm biomass. Considering the potential for Cu to accumulate in these soils and the subsequent impacts on soil biota, our results highlight the importance of limiting future application of Cu based fungicides.

  20. Transcriptional regulation of ethylene and jasmonate mediated defense response in apple (Malus domestica) root during Pythium ultimum infection

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sungbong; Lv, Jingyi; Fazio, Gennaro; Mazzola, Mark; Zhu, Yanmin

    2014-01-01

    Apple replant disease (ARD) is a significant economic restraint to the successful re-establishment of new apple orchards on sites previously planted to the same crop. Pythium ultimum, an oomycete, is a significant component of the ARD pathogen complex. Although ethylene (ET)- and jasmonic acid (JA)-mediated defense responses are intensively studied in the foliar pathosystem, the transferability of this knowledge to the interaction between a perennial root system and soilborne pathogens is unknown. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the ET/JA-mediated defense response is conserved in roots of tree crops in response to infection by P. ultimum. Apple genes with the annotated function of ET/JA biosynthesis, MdERF (ethylene response factor) for signaling transduction and a gene encoding a pathogenesis-related (PR) protein (β-chitinase, the target of ERF) were identified from the apple genome sequences. The transcriptional profiles of these genes during P. ultimum infection and after exogenous ET and/or JA treatment were characterized using qRT-PCR. Several genes showed a 10- to 60-fold upregulation in apple root tissue 24-48 h post inoculation (hpi). Exogenous ET and JA treatment exhibited either a positive or negative influence on expression of ET or JA biosynthesis genes, depending upon gene isoforms and the tissue types, while the expression of MdERF and the PR protein encoding gene was upregulated by both ET and JA treatment. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that ET/JA-mediated defense pathways are functional in the root system of perennial tree species defending soilborne pathogens. PMID:26504552

  1. Mercury residues in south Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa)

    SciTech Connect

    Eisemann, J.D.; Beyer, W.N.; Morton, A.; Bennetts, R.E.

    1997-05-01

    Mercury concentrations in the sediments of south Florida wetlands have increased three fold in the last century. Because south Florida is home to many endemic and endangered species, it is important to understand the potential impacts of mercury in this ecosystem`s food web. Recent research by Malley et al. has shown mollusks to be sensitive indicators of methyl mercury which can reflect small differences in background methyl mercury concentrations. In this study, we attempted to determine if the apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) or its eggs are good indicators of bioavailable mercury. Then, using the apple snail as an indicator, we attempted to determine geographic differences in the concentrations of mercury in south Florida. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. GIPC Is Recruited by APPL to Peripheral TrkA Endosomes and Regulates TrkA Trafficking and Signaling▿

    PubMed Central

    Varsano, Tal; Dong, Meng-Qiu; Niesman, Ingrid; Gacula, Hyacynth; Lou, Xiaojing; Ma, Tianlin; Testa, Joseph R.; Yates, John R.; Farquhar, Marilyn G.

    2006-01-01

    GIPC is a PDZ protein located on peripheral endosomes that binds to the juxtamembrane region of the TrkA nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor and has been implicated in NGF signaling. We establish here that endogenous GIPC binds to the C terminus of APPL, a Rab5 binding protein, which is a marker for signaling endosomes. When PC12(615) cells are treated with either NGF or antibody agonists to activate TrkA, GIPC and APPL translocate from the cytoplasm and bind to incoming, endocytic vesicles carrying TrkA concentrated at the tips of the cell processes. GIPC, but not APPL, dissociates from these peripheral endosomes prior to or during their trafficking from the cell periphery to the juxtanuclear region, where they acquire EEA1. GIPC's interaction with APPL is essential for recruitment of GIPC to peripheral endosomes and for TrkA signaling, because a GIPC PDZ domain mutant that cannot bind APPL or APPL knockdown with small interfering RNA inhibits NGF-induced GIPC recruitment, mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, and neurite outgrowth. GIPC is also required for efficient endocytosis and trafficking of TrkA because depletion of GIPC slows down endocytosis and trafficking of TrkA and APPL to the early EEA1 endosomes in the juxtanuclear region. We conclude that GIPC, following its recruitment to TrkA by APPL, plays a key role in TrkA trafficking and signaling from endosomes. PMID:17015470

  3. GIPC is recruited by APPL to peripheral TrkA endosomes and regulates TrkA trafficking and signaling.

    PubMed

    Varsano, Tal; Dong, Meng-Qiu; Niesman, Ingrid; Gacula, Hyacynth; Lou, Xiaojing; Ma, Tianlin; Testa, Joseph R; Yates, John R; Farquhar, Marilyn G

    2006-12-01

    GIPC is a PDZ protein located on peripheral endosomes that binds to the juxtamembrane region of the TrkA nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor and has been implicated in NGF signaling. We establish here that endogenous GIPC binds to the C terminus of APPL, a Rab5 binding protein, which is a marker for signaling endosomes. When PC12(615) cells are treated with either NGF or antibody agonists to activate TrkA, GIPC and APPL translocate from the cytoplasm and bind to incoming, endocytic vesicles carrying TrkA concentrated at the tips of the cell processes. GIPC, but not APPL, dissociates from these peripheral endosomes prior to or during their trafficking from the cell periphery to the juxtanuclear region, where they acquire EEA1. GIPC's interaction with APPL is essential for recruitment of GIPC to peripheral endosomes and for TrkA signaling, because a GIPC PDZ domain mutant that cannot bind APPL or APPL knockdown with small interfering RNA inhibits NGF-induced GIPC recruitment, mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, and neurite outgrowth. GIPC is also required for efficient endocytosis and trafficking of TrkA because depletion of GIPC slows down endocytosis and trafficking of TrkA and APPL to the early EEA1 endosomes in the juxtanuclear region. We conclude that GIPC, following its recruitment to TrkA by APPL, plays a key role in TrkA trafficking and signaling from endosomes.

  4. Evaluation of the environmental impact of apple pest control strategies using pesticide risk indicators.

    PubMed

    Ioriatti, Claudio; Agnello, Arthur M; Martini, Fabrizio; Kovach, Joseph

    2011-10-01

    Various pesticide risk indicators have been developed for estimating pesticide impact on human health and the environment. The present work applied a pesticide risk indicator to estimate change in pesticide risk in apple production between 2001 and 2009. The "Environmental Impact Quotient" was used, which evaluates potential impacts of pesticide active ingredients on farm workers, consumers, and nontarget organisms. A modified Environmental Impact Quotient was also tested, which accounts for all ingredients in the formulation presenting a health or environmental hazard, as identified in the Security Data Sheet. Irrespective of the rating system applied, an overall average improvement in environmental impact of apple protection strategies was indicated ranging from 23 to 24%. Hazard reduction was more significant when estimated per treatment, and was higher for acaricides and insecticides than for fungicides. Improvement appeared to be a consequence of using more selective and more effective active ingredients, applying alternative pest control techniques, compulsory periodic sprayer calibration, and wider use of dwarfing orchards. The modified Environmental Impact Quotient does not overcome all limitations regarding accuracy of pesticide risk indicators, but its ease of use in relying on official, easily accessible data, and the consistency of its results, makes it a good candidate for monitoring the success of reduced risk policies. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  5. Determination of quality parameters in apple `Smoothee Golden Delicious' using backscattering laser imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafuente, Victoria; Val, Jesús; Urzola, Concha; Negueruela, Ignacio

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate in `Smoothee Golden Delicious' apples, the use of backscattering images as a non-destructive method to estimate some quality parameters during the ripening process of fruits. In this experiment, 208 apples were collected from an experimental orchard of the Estación Experimental de Aula Dei (CSIC) in Zaragoza (Northeastern, Spain). Backscattering images were kept from samples picked up every 15 days during 7 months until harvest. In the same fruits, soluble solids contents (SSC) and firmness were measured by traditional destructive methods. The light source was a solid state laser diode module emitting at three different spectral bands (670, 785 and 980 nm) PLS calibration methods were used to create the statistical model to predict SSC and firmness. Good results were obtained when PLS calibration was applied to Feret diameter corresponding at different levels of gray. The Rcv2 values were 0.87 for firmness and 0.93 for SSC, which are higher than other reported in the literature for the same commodity.

  6. Fate of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in harvested apples held under short photoperiod.

    PubMed

    Neven, Lisa G

    2012-04-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., is a cosmopolitan pest of pome and stone fruits. It has been identified as a quarantine pest of concern in a number of countries where it is not known to occur, most of them tropical or subtropical countries. Although considerable work has been done on the basic biology and physiology of this temperate pest, little is known on its potential to develop and establish in tropical environments with short photoperiods and few to no days below 10 degrees C. Apples were harvested over three field seasons (2007-2009) from unmanaged orchards in central Washington State and subjected to simulated commercial cold storage at 1.1 +/- 2 degrees C for up to 119 d. After cold storage, infested fruits were held at 20 degrees C under a 12:12 L:D photoperiod for up to 6 mo. Over the entire experiment only 27% of the larvae collected exited the fruit and cocooned. Of those 27%, only 1.06% of larvae held under a 12:12 L:D photoperiod successfully emerged as moths. No moths emerged when host fruit would be available in a representative importing country in the tropics over the 3 yr of testing. These results indicate that codling moth in apples from the Pacific Northwest pose little threat of surviving and establishing in tropical regions where daylength is insufficient to break diapause and the chilling requirement is not met.

  7. Safe apples for baby-food production: survey of pesticide treatment regimes leaving minimum residues.

    PubMed

    Ticha, Jana; Hajslova, Jana; Kovalczuk, Tomas; Jech, Martin; Honzicek, Jiri; Kocourek, Vladimir; Lansky, Miroslav; Kloutvorova, Jana; Falta, Vladan

    2007-06-01

    A total of 19 pesticide preparations were used according to agricultural practice in six trials in apple orchards. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), premature Golden Delicious apples collected 64, 50, 36 days before harvest and mature fruit were examined for residues of active ingredients. No residues of triflumuron, triazamate, chlorpyrifos, etofenprox, fenoxycarb, kresoxim-methyl, cyprodinyl, difenoconazole or thiram were detected in the first sampling. Also, the levels of chlorpyrifos-methyl, penconazole, tebuconazole and tolylfluanid dropped during the pre-harvest interval. Detectable residues of pyridaben, thiacloprid, trifloxystrobin and tetraconazole in harvested fruits were below 0.01 mg kg(-1), which is the maximum concentration of residues acceptable by baby-food producers in any raw material. The only residues exceeding this concentration were captan and teflubenzuron. Based on the data, farmers can choose pesticides for optimal treatment of plants, while enabling growth of a safe crop suitable for baby-food production.

  8. Pesticides and brain cancer linked in orchard farmers of Kashmir.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Abdul Rashid; Wani, Muhammed Afzal; Kirmani, A R; Raina, T H

    2010-10-01

    The atmosphere of valley of Kashmir is ideal for fresh and dry fruit production. Millions of tons of pesticides, insecticides and fungicides (chemicals like chlorpyriphos, mancozeb, captan, dimethoate, phosalone, etc.) are being used by the orchard farmers to spray the plants, fruits and the leaves every year. The increasing trend in the incidence of primary malignant brain tumors in orchard farmers of Kashmir is alarming. To determine the relationship between the patients of primary malignant brain tumors and their occupation. Retrospectively case files along with death certificates of 432 patients of primary malignant brain tumors and 457 controls (non-tumor neurologic diseases), admitted for treatment simultaneously over a period of 4 years from January 2005 to December 2008, to the Department of Neurosurgery, Sher-I-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences (SKIMS), Kashmir, were studied. Follow-up and family contact was established. The serum cholinesterase activity was measured by kinetic/DGKC calorimetric method and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) samples were sent to the laboratory. The results are expressed in U/l which is U/l×1000. The laboratory at SKIMS, Srinagar, and Dr Lal PathLabs at New Delhi used a reference range for serum cholinesterase as 3167-6333 U/l. Analysis revealed that 90.04% (389 out of 432) patients were orchard-farm workers, orchard residents and orchard playing children exposed to the high levels of multiple types of neurotoxic and carcinogenic (chlorpyriphos, dimethoate, mancozeb and captan) chemicals for more than 10-20 years. About 31.9% (124 out of 389) of these from both sexes were younger than 40 years beginning exposure at an early age and had higher (<6334 U/l) serum cholinesterase (SCE) levels. The 9.96% (43 out of 432) patients were not exposed to pesticides. On the other hand, only 119 patients out of 457 controls had recorded history of pesticide exposure and 338 were unrelated to pesticides. Out of 389 patients, 71

  9. Cultivable bacteria isolated from apple trees cultivated under different crop systems: Diversity and antagonistic activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

    PubMed Central

    dos Passos, João Frederico M.; da Costa, Pedro B.; Costa, Murilo D.; Zaffari, Gilmar R.; Nava, Gilberto; Boneti, José Itamar; de Oliveira, Andréia Mara R.; Passaglia, Luciane M.P.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the diversity of cultivable plant growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria associated with apple trees cultivated under different crop management systems and their antagonistic ability against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Samples of roots and rhizospheric soil from apple trees cultivated in organic and conventional orchards in southern Brazil were collected, together with soil samples from an area never used for agriculture (native field). Bacteria were identified at the genus level by PCR-RFLP and partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA, and were evaluated for some PGP abilities. The most abundant bacterial genera identified were Enterobacter (27.7%), Pseudomonas (18.7%), Burkholderia (13.7%), and Rahnella (12.3%). Sixty-nine isolates presented some antagonist activity against C. gloeosporioides. In a greenhouse experiment, five days after exposure to C. gloeosporioides, an average of 30% of the leaf area of plants inoculated with isolate 89 (identified as Burkholderia sp.) were infected, whereas 60 to 73% of the leaf area of untreated plants was affected by fungal attack. Our results allowed us to infer how anthropogenic activity is affecting the bacterial communities in soil associated with apple tree crop systems, and to obtain an isolate that was able to delay the emergence of an important disease for this culture. PMID:25249780

  10. Digital cover photography for estimating leaf area index (LAI) in apple trees using a variable light extinction coefficient.

    PubMed

    Poblete-Echeverría, Carlos; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Ortega-Farias, Samuel; Gonzalez-Talice, Jaime; Yuri, Jose Antonio

    2015-01-28

    Leaf area index (LAI) is one of the key biophysical variables required for crop modeling. Direct LAI measurements are time consuming and difficult to obtain for experimental and commercial fruit orchards. Devices used to estimate LAI have shown considerable errors when compared to ground-truth or destructive measurements, requiring tedious site-specific calibrations. The objective of this study was to test the performance of a modified digital cover photography method to estimate LAI in apple trees using conventional digital photography and instantaneous measurements of incident radiation (Io) and transmitted radiation (I) through the canopy. Leaf area of 40 single apple trees were measured destructively to obtain real leaf area index (LAI(D)), which was compared with LAI estimated by the proposed digital photography method (LAI(M)). Results showed that the LAI(M) was able to estimate LAI(D) with an error of 25% using a constant light extinction coefficient (k = 0.68). However, when k was estimated using an exponential function based on the fraction of foliage cover (f(f)) derived from images, the error was reduced to 18%. Furthermore, when measurements of light intercepted by the canopy (Ic) were used as a proxy value for k, the method presented an error of only 9%. These results have shown that by using a proxy k value, estimated by Ic, helped to increase accuracy of LAI estimates using digital cover images for apple trees with different canopy sizes and under field conditions.

  11. Digital Cover Photography for Estimating Leaf Area Index (LAI) in Apple Trees Using a Variable Light Extinction Coefficient

    PubMed Central

    Poblete-Echeverría, Carlos; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Ortega-Farias, Samuel; Gonzalez-Talice, Jaime; Yuri, Jose Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is one of the key biophysical variables required for crop modeling. Direct LAI measurements are time consuming and difficult to obtain for experimental and commercial fruit orchards. Devices used to estimate LAI have shown considerable errors when compared to ground-truth or destructive measurements, requiring tedious site-specific calibrations. The objective of this study was to test the performance of a modified digital cover photography method to estimate LAI in apple trees using conventional digital photography and instantaneous measurements of incident radiation (Io) and transmitted radiation (I) through the canopy. Leaf area of 40 single apple trees were measured destructively to obtain real leaf area index (LAID), which was compared with LAI estimated by the proposed digital photography method (LAIM). Results showed that the LAIM was able to estimate LAID with an error of 25% using a constant light extinction coefficient (k = 0.68). However, when k was estimated using an exponential function based on the fraction of foliage cover (ff) derived from images, the error was reduced to 18%. Furthermore, when measurements of light intercepted by the canopy (Ic) were used as a proxy value for k, the method presented an error of only 9%. These results have shown that by using a proxy k value, estimated by Ic, helped to increase accuracy of LAI estimates using digital cover images for apple trees with different canopy sizes and under field conditions. PMID:25635411

  12. Prospects for the control of apple leaf midge Dasineura mali (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) by mass trapping with pheromone lures.

    PubMed

    Lo, Peter L; Walker, James T S; Suckling, D Max

    2015-07-01

    Apple leaf midge, Dasineura mali (Kieffer), poses quarantine issues for some apple export markets because larvae occasionally pupate in the stem end and calyx of fruit. Pheromone-baited oil-filled containers were used in 1 ha orchard plots to trap adult male D. mali in order to test the potential for mass trapping to reduce populations. Mass-trapped plots had 97% fewer adult males in pheromone traps and 48% fewer larvae per shoot in the second D. mali generation compared with untreated areas. Oil traps caught on average 900 000 D. mali per plot over 11 weeks during the second and third generations. Catches averaged 9200 per trap at plot corners. By comparison, catches were 51% lower 10-25 m away along borders, 80% lower at the midpoint of borders and 95% lower >7 m from plot edges. Fruit infestation was low (four out of 8000 apples). The attractiveness of the pheromone, monophagous habit and low mobility of D. mali enhance the prospects for successful mass trapping. Countering this are high populations, multivoltinism and aspects of mating behaviour. Mass trapping would probably have been more effective had it been in place season long and conducted over successive years. It needs refinements and more study before becoming a feasible control option for D. mali. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. 77 FR 58624 - Progressive Rail Incorporated-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Rail Lines of Crab Orchard...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... Lines of Crab Orchard & Egyptian Railroad Company Progressive Rail Incorporated (PGR), a Class III rail carrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.41 to acquire from Crab Orchard...

  14. PEOPLE IN PHYSICS: Newton's apple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandford Smith, Daniel

    1997-03-01

    This essay has a long history. It was triggered at university by one of my tutors describing the dispute between Robert Hooke and Isaac Newton. He conjured up an image of Newton sitting at his desk doing calculations while Hooke went down mineshafts trying to detect a change in the strength of gravity. To someone who was finding the maths content of a physics degree somewhat challenging this was a symbolic image. I believe that the story of Newton and the apple illustrates the complex nature of scientific discovery.

  15. Our Ten Favorite AppleWorks Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Warren; Merritt, Cathleen

    1991-01-01

    The monthly newsletter of the National AppleWorks Users Group (NAUG), "The AppleWorks Forum," serves as a clearinghouse for user-discovered applications and work-arounds. This article presents 10 of the most popular suggested applications for the program, including the development and use of word processing templates, the installation of…

  16. Historic American apple cultivars: Identification and availability

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apples have been important throughout the centuries in North America. Historic books, publications, and nursery catalogs were surveyed to identify apple cultivars that were propagated and grown in the United States prior to 1908. We collected synonym, introduction date, and original source country i...

  17. 9,250 Apples for the Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uston, Ken

    1983-01-01

    Discusses Apple Computer Inc.'s plan to donate an Apple IIe to eligible elementary/secondary schools in California, dealer incentives for conducting orientation sessions for school personnel, and school uses of the computer (including peer tutoring and teacher education). Also discusses similar efforts of other microcomputer manufacturers. (JN)

  18. SED/Apple Computer, Inc., Partnership Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoll, Peter F.

    1991-01-01

    In 1990, the New York State Education Department (SED), Apple Computer, Inc., Boards of Cooperative Educational Services (BOCES), and school districts formed a partnership to explore the contribution technology can make to schools based on Apple Computer's Learning Society and SED's Long-Range Plan for Technology in Elementary and Secondary…

  19. Apple function genomics: from fruit to root

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genotype-specific fruit ripening patterns of apple (Malus x domestica Borkh) are closely associated with the at-harvest quality and the post-harvest storability. To elucidate the molecular networks and identify the key genes regulating apple fruit maturation and ripening processes, large-scale a...

  20. Apple function genomics: from fruit to root

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genotype-specific fruit ripening patterns of apple (Malus x domestica Borkh) are closely associated with the at-harvest quality and the post-harvest storability. To elucidate the molecular networks and identify the key genes regulating apple fruit maturation and ripening processes, large-scale ...

  1. The apple genome: ripe for harvest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An international consortium of plant report sequencing of the cultivated apple (Malus x domestica) genome (Velasco et al., this issue). Apples are among the most widely grown and consumed fruits in temperate regions of the world. This is in part due to years of extensive breeding and selection the ...

  2. 9,250 Apples for the Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uston, Ken

    1983-01-01

    Discusses Apple Computer Inc.'s plan to donate an Apple IIe to eligible elementary/secondary schools in California, dealer incentives for conducting orientation sessions for school personnel, and school uses of the computer (including peer tutoring and teacher education). Also discusses similar efforts of other microcomputer manufacturers. (JN)

  3. Production of alcohol from apple pomace

    SciTech Connect

    Hang, Y.D.; Lee, C.Y.; Woodams, E.E.; Cooley, H.J.

    1981-12-01

    Production of ethyl alcohol from apple pomace with a Montrachet strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is described. More than 43 grams of the ethyl alcohol could be produced per kg of apple pomace fermented at 30 degrees Celcius in 24 hours. The fermentation efficiency of this process was approximately 89%. (Refs. 9).

  4. Transverse gradient in Apple-type undulators

    PubMed Central

    Calvi, M.; Camenzuli, C.; Prat, E.; Schmidt, Th.

    2017-01-01

    Apple-type undulators are globally recognized as the most flexible devices for the production of variable polarized light in the soft X-ray regime, both at synchrotron and free-electron laser facilities. Recently, the implementation of transverse gradient undulators has been proposed to enhance the performance of new generation light sources. In this paper it is demonstrated that Apple undulators do not only generate linear and elliptical polarized light but also variable transverse gradient under certain conditions. A general theoretical framework is introduced to evaluate the K-value and its transverse gradient for an Apple undulator, and formulas for all regular operational modes and different Apple types (including the most recent Delta type and Apple X) are calculated and critically discussed. PMID:28452751

  5. Soil Organic Carbon distribution in three contrasting olive orchards in Southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguas, Encarnación V.; Burguet, María; Guzmán, Gema; Pedrera-Parrila, Aura; Vanderlinden, Karl; Vanwalleghem, Tom; Pérez, Rafael; Ayuso, José L.; Gómez, José A.

    2013-04-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) shows a considerable spatial variability at the field, farm or catchment scales. This complicates its use as an indicator for soil quality, and is an important drawback for the efficient evaluation of carbon sequestration schemes, or for the certification of carbon sequestration potential of agricultural soils at these scales. This is especially significant for olive orchards in Mediterranean environments. We hypothesize that the typical row crop configuration of olive orchards, with cover crops or bare soil in the inter-row areas,can explain a vast proportion of this variability. In addition agricultural activities and topography-driven erosion processes at different scales contribute to SOC variability. Given the complexity of this problem and the important experimental effort required to address it, there are to our knowledgefew studies that have addressed this issue, specifically in agriculturalsoils under Mediterranean conditions. We present an analysis of SOC data obtained during 2011 and 2012 at three small (6-8 ha) catchmentsin Southern Spain, with contrasting soils (Vertisol, Luvisol and Cambisol) and covered by olive groves with different managements (conventional tillage, minimum tillage with mulch and non tillage with spontaneous grass cover). Soil organic carbon is analysed across tree rows, inter-row areas, and for different depths. The spatial SOC distribution is evaluated against the topography of the catchments and the intensity of the water erosion processes. The differences among the catchments are discussed and guidelines are provided for further exploring the sources of SOC variability and to improve SOC estimation at the field scale.

  6. Challenges of managing disease in tall orchard trees – pecan scab, a case study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Managing disease in tall orchard trees presents unique issues not found in relatively shorter horticultural and agronomic crops, simply due to height. Pecan scab (caused by Fusicladium effusum [G. Winter] Seyran et al.) is used as an example of a major disease of one of the tallest orchard crops in ...

  7. Estimating Cone and Seed Production and Monitoring Pest Damage in Southern Pine Seed Orchards

    Treesearch

    Carl W. Fatzinger; H. David Muse; Thomas Miller; Helen T. Bhattacharyya

    1988-01-01

    Field sampling procedures and computer programs are described for monitoring seed production and pest damage in southern pine seed orchards. The system estimates total orchard yields of female strobili and seeds, quantifies pest damage, determines times of year when losses occur, and produces life tables for female strobili. An example is included to illustrate the...

  8. Diurnal patterns of chlorophyll fluorescence and CO2 fixation in orchard grown Torreya taxifolia (Arn.).

    Treesearch

    Anita C. Koehn; Robert L. Doudrick

    1999-01-01

    Diurnal patterns of chlorophyll fluorescence and CO2 fixation in orchard measurements were taken on sunny days in October 1996, on three Torreya taxifolia (Arn.) plants grown in an open canopy orchard. Information from chlorophyll fluorescence quenching analysis indicated that during periods of highest light intensity and temperatures there were...

  9. Transforming Schools through Expanded Learning Time: Orchard Gardens K-8 Pilot School. Update 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Roy

    2013-01-01

    For years, Orchard Gardens K-8 Pilot School was plagued by low student achievement and high staff turnover. Then, in 2010, with an expanded school schedule made possible through federal funding, Orchard Gardens began a remarkable turnaround. Today, the school is demonstrating how increased learning time, combined with other key turnaround…

  10. Pest Control and Related Orchard Practices in Commercial Fruit Plantings. Circular 1151.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ries, S. M.; And Others

    This circular brings together suggestions from the Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station and the Illinois State Natural History Survey relating to orchard practices and pest control. It provides some basic steps in pest control and discusses some specific orchard pests such as grasshoppers, mites, mice, and rabbits. In addition, it gives some…

  11. Evaluation of the atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus strain AF36 in pistachio orchards

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The atoxigenic strain Aspergillus flavus AF36, which has been extensively used as a biocontrol agent in commercial corn and cotton fields to reduce aflatoxin contamination, was applied in research pistachio orchards from 2002 to 2005 and in commercial pistachio orchards from 2008 to 2011. AF36 was a...

  12. Impact of barrier crops on arthropod pests immigrating into orchards of sapodilla and banana.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We compared the abundance and damage of several pests in orchards of sapodilla, banana, and papaya that were either surrounded by a border of tall sorghum or without such a border. Almost all pests were present in equal numbers in orchards, despite the presence or absence of a barrier crop of sorghu...

  13. Expected genetic gains and development plans for two longlead pine third-generation seedling seed orchards

    Treesearch

    C.D. Nelson; L.H. Lott; D.P. Gwaze

    2005-01-01

    Selection and thinning plans were developed for two longleaf pine (Pinus palushis Mill .), third-generation seedling seed orchards located in southeastern Mississippi and central Louisiana. The two orchards were part of several long-term experimental field tests designed to investigate genetic variation in height growth and brown spot needle blight (...

  14. Pest Control and Related Orchard Practices in Commercial Fruit Plantings. Circular 1151.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ries, S. M.; And Others

    This circular brings together suggestions from the Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station and the Illinois State Natural History Survey relating to orchard practices and pest control. It provides some basic steps in pest control and discusses some specific orchard pests such as grasshoppers, mites, mice, and rabbits. In addition, it gives some…

  15. Cone consumption by southeastern fox squirrels: A potential basis for clonal preferences in a loblolly and slash pine seed orchard

    Treesearch

    Christopher Asaro; Susan C. Loeb; James L. Hanula

    2003-01-01

    Southeastern fox squirrels were observed feeding preferentially on seeds of certain clones of loblolly pine in a central Georgia seed orchard in the early 1990s and, similarly, on slash pine seed in an orchard in central Florida in the late 1990s. In each orchard, the degree of feeding preference and avoidance among selected clones was documented and quantified. We...

  16. Forward vs. backwards selection for seed orchards and cooperative second-generation breeding in the US Pacific Northwest.

    Treesearch

    R. Johnson; K. Jayawickrama

    2003-01-01

    Gain from various orchard strategies were modeled. The scenario tested 2,000 first-generation open-pollinated families, from which orchards of 20 selections were formed, using either parents, progeny or both. This was followed by a second-generation breeding population in which 200 full-sib families were tested followed by a second-generation orchard of 20 selections....

  17. Gene expression and metabolism preceding soft scald, a chilling injury of 'Honeycrisp' apple fruit.

    PubMed

    Leisso, Rachel S; Gapper, Nigel E; Mattheis, James P; Sullivan, Nathanael L; Watkins, Christopher B; Giovannoni, James J; Schaffer, Robert J; Johnston, Jason W; Hanrahan, Ines; Hertog, Maarten L A T M; Nicolaï, Bart M; Rudell, David R

    2016-10-12

    'Honeycrisp' is an apple cultivar that is susceptible to soft scald, a chilling injury expressed as necrotic patches on the peel. Improved understanding of metabolism associated with the disorder would improve our understanding of soft scald and contribute to developing more effective management strategies for apple storage. It was expected that specific gene expression and specific metabolite levels in the peel would be linked with soft scald risk at harvest and/or specific time points during cold storage. Fruit from nine 'Honeycrisp' apple orchards that would eventually develop different incidences of soft scald between 4 and 8 weeks of cold air storage were used to contrast and determine differential transcriptomic and metabolomic changes during storage. Untargeted metabolic profiling revealed changes in a number of distinct pathways preceding and concurrent with soft scald symptom development, including elevated γ-aminobutryic acid (GABA), 1-hexanol, acylated steryl glycosides, and free p-coumaryl acyl esters. At harvest, levels of sesquiterpenoid and triterpenoid acyl esters were relatively higher in peel of fruit that did not later develop the disorder. RNA-seq driven gene expression profiling highlighted possible involvement of genes and associated metabolic processes with soft scald development. These included elevated expression of genes involved in lipid peroxidation and phenolic metabolism in fruit with soft scald, and isoprenoid/brassinosteroid metabolism in fruit that did not develop soft scald. Expression of other stress-related genes in fruit that developed soft scald included chlorophyll catabolism, cell wall loosening, and lipid transport while superoxide dismutases were up-regulated in fruit that did not develop the disorder. This study delineates the sequential transcriptomic and metabolomic changes preceding soft scald symptom development. Changes were differential depending on susceptibility of fruit to the disorder and could be attributed to

  18. Efficacy of tree trunk coating materials in the control of the apple clearwing, Synanthedon myopaeformis.

    PubMed

    Erler, Fedai

    2010-01-01

    The efficacy of trunk treatment with three materials, cotton seed oil, lime and used motor oil, were evaluated for the control of apple clearwing, Synanthedon myopaeformis (Borkhausen) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) in an apple orchard during two successive years (2004 and 2005). The weekly total number of adult catches and exuviae was recorded each year. No treatments caused significant reductions in mean numbers of adults caught in bait traps or the exuviae protruding from the barks of tree trunks and thick branches in the first year of the study whereas all of them differed significantly from each other or from water-treated control in the second year (P < 0.05). A comparison of the mean numbers of adult catches and exuviae in both years revealed significant differences between the used motor oil and cotton seed oil treatments (P < 0.05). The lime treatments in both years significantly differed in terms of adult catches, but not exuviae (P<0.05). In the second year, compared with those in water-treated control plots, the mean number of adult catches and exuviae decreased by 81.3% and 88.3% in the used motor oil-treated plots, and by 70.8% and 83.3% in the cotton seed oil-treated plots, respectively. Although population reductions in the lime treatment were significant in the second year, the effect was at a much reduced level in comparison to the two oil treatments. The overall results suggest that used motor oil and cotton seed oil may have potential for the control of apple clearwing.

  19. Using entomopathogenic nematodes for biological control of plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar: Effects of irrigation and species in apple orchards

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar, is a major pest of stone and pome fruit. Entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernema spp. and Heterorhabditis spp.) are virulent to ground-dwelling stages of C. nenuphar. Two significant questions that must be addressed prior to implementation are: 1) which n...

  20. Longevity of the adult codling moth, Cydia pomonella, and the obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana, in Washington apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Jones, Vincent P; Wiman, Nik G

    2008-01-01

    The longevity of adult codling moth (Cydia pomonella (L.) Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and obliquebanded leafroller (Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) held in shaded vials in the tree canopy was measured during the normal flight periods during 2004 and 2005. In both years all codling moths were dead by 130 degree-days (DD) (21 d) in the spring and 121 DD (8 d) in the summer. On a degree-day basis, data were similar across sex, generation, and year, and a common curve adequately predicted the survival distribution. For the obliquebanded leafroller, there were longevity differences between the sexes, but not between generations or years. Use of empirical quantile-quantile plots showed that the female obliquebanded leafroller lived an average of 32% longer than males. Maximum longevity observed in these studies for obliquebanded leafrollers was 117 DD (11 d) across both generations. The implications of these data for population biology studies and quarantine requirements are discussed.

  1. Establishing the behavioral basis for an attract-and-kill strategy to manage the invasive Halyomorpha halys in apple orchards

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Halyomorpha halys (Stål) is an invasive, polyphagous insect that inflicts serious economic injury on specialty crops in the United States. Growers have been forced to respond by increasing the frequency of broad-spectrum insecticide applications. One strategy to reduce reliance on insecticides is ...

  2. Longevity of the Adult Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella, and the Obliquebanded Leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana, in Washington Apple Orchards

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Vincent P.; Wiman, Nik G.

    2008-01-01

    The longevity of adult codling moth (Cydia pomonella (L.) Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and obliquebanded leafroller (Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) held in shaded vials in the tree canopy was measured during the normal flight periods during 2004 and 2005. In both years all codling moths were dead by 130 degree-days (DD) (21 d) in the spring and 121 DD (8 d) in the summer. On a degree-day basis, data were similar across sex, generation, and year, and a common curve adequately predicted the survival distribution. For the obliquebanded leafroller, there were longevity differences between the sexes, but not between generations or years. Use of empirical quantile-quantile plots showed that the female obliquebanded leafroller lived an average of 32% longer than males. Maximum longevity observed in these studies for obliquebanded leafrollers was 117 DD (11 d) across both generations. The implications of these data for population biology studies and quarantine requirements are discussed. PMID:20337564

  3. Apple contains receptor-like genes homologous to the Cladosporium fulvum resistance gene family of tomato with a cluster of genes cosegregating with Vf apple scab resistance.

    PubMed

    Vinatzer, B A; Patocchi, A; Gianfranceschi, L; Tartarini, S; Zhang, H B; Gessler, C; Sansavini, S

    2001-04-01

    Scab caused by the fungal pathogen Venturia inaequalis is the most common disease of cultivated apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.). Monogenic resistance against scab is found in some small-fruited wild Malus species and has been used in apple breeding for scab resistance. Vf resistance of Malus floribunda 821 is the most widely used scab resistance source. Because breeding a high-quality cultivar in perennial fruit trees takes dozens of years, cloning disease resistance genes and using them in the transformation of high-quality apple varieties would be advantageous. We report the identification of a cluster of receptor-like genes with homology to the Cladosporium fulvum (Cf) resistance gene family of tomato on bacterial artificial chromosome clones derived from the Vf scab resistance locus. Three members of the cluster were sequenced completely. Similar to the Cf gene family of tomato, the deduced amino acid sequences coded by these genes contain an extracellular leucine-rich repeat domain and a transmembrane domain. The transcription of three members of the cluster was determined by reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction to be constitutive, and the transcription and translation start of one member was verified by 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends. We discuss the parallels between Cf resistance of tomato and Vf resistance of apple and the possibility that one of the members of the gene cluster is the Vf gene. Cf homologs from other regions of the apple genome also were identified and are likely to present other scab resistance genes.

  4. Weaver ant role in cashew orchards in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Peng, Renkang; Lan, La Pham; Christian, Keith

    2014-08-01

    Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) is a very important source of income for more than 200,000 farmer households in Vietnam. The present cashew productivity in Vietnam is low and unstable, and pest damage is partly responsible for this. Cashew farmers rely on pesticides to minimize the damage, resulting in adverse impacts on farm environment and farmers' health. Weaver ants (Oecophylla spp) are effective biocontrol agents of a range of cashew insect pests in several cashew-growing countries, and these ants are widely distributed in Vietnam. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential of weaver ants in cashew orchards in Vietnam. Field surveys and field experiment were conducted in five cashew orchards from July 2006 to January 2008 in Binh Phuoc, Dong Nai, and Ba Ria Vung Tau provinces, Vietnam. Based on the field surveys, the most important pests that damage flushing foliar and floral shoots and young cashew fruits and nuts were mosquito bugs, brown shoot borers, blue shoot borers, and fruit-nut borers. The damage caused by each of these pests was significantly lower on trees with weaver ants compared with trees without the ants, showing that the ants were able to keep these pest damages under the control threshold. Regular monitoring of the field experiment showed that weaver ants were similar to insecticides for controlling mosquito bugs, blue shoot borers, fruit-nut borers, leaf rollers, and leaf miners. Aphids did not become major pests in plot with weaver ants. To manage insect pest assemblage in cashew orchards, an integrated pest management using weaver ants as a major component is discussed.

  5. Effects of transmission towers on orchards and vineyards

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, W.S.

    1980-10-01

    Electric power transmission towers can pose problems for the farm operator in terms of the loss of productive area and interference with the movement of machinery. A study was conducted to evaluate the impact of transmission facilities on orchard and vineyard operations in Ontario, Canada. Economic losses to peach and grape crops were determined. Time loss varied greatly depending on the specific operation and tower location. Economic effects of transmission towers varied widely depending on location and orientation, and whether or not equipment can pass through the base area.

  6. Punjabi orchard farmers: an immigrant enclave in rural California.

    PubMed

    Gibson, M A

    1988-01-01

    Examination of the adaptation patterns of Punjabi Sikh orchard farmers in rural California provides further evidence of ways in which strong ethnic enclaves help to promote rapid economic self-sufficiency among immigrant groups. The discussion emphasizes the need to consider not only the cultural traditions of group members, but also the historical context of immigration and the immigrants' perceptions of their particular situation. The Punjabi case indicates, too, how the 1965 Immigration Act, with its preference for family reunification, has promoted the formation of immigrant enclave.

  7. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to packages...

  8. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of apples...

  9. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to packages...

  10. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to packages...

  11. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of apples...

  12. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to packages...

  13. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of apples...

  14. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of apples...

  15. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to packages...

  16. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of apples...

  17. [Service value assessment of orchard ecosystem: a case of Putian City of Fujian].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Wu, Duan-wang

    2011-09-01

    Based on the equivalent weight factor of China terrestrial ecosystem service value, and by using ecosystem service value assessment model, this paper evaluated the orchard ecosystem service value in Putian City. In 2002-2008, the orchard ecosystem service value in the City had an overall increasing trend, among which, the service value of gas regulation and water resource conservation had a fluctuation trend of decreased after an initial increase, and that of other functions increased rapidly in 2002-2006 and then developed mildly. The service value of regulation function was higher than that of direct use function, showing that only on the basis of preserving well the functions of ecosystem, could the orchard ecosystem be claimed and used. As most of the orchards in the City are on hills or mountains, the construction and ecological protection of the orchards are obviously disjointed, making the orchards become bare land or other land-use types, resulting in serious soil erosion and degradation, which not only destroyed the orchard ecology, but also gave negative effects on the production efficiency of agriculture. In the future construction of Putian orchards, it should implement comprehensive planning and management of mountain areas, water regions, farm lands, forest lands, and paths, reduce the orchard construction costs by taking advantage of high and new technologies in light of the local conditions and the demands of domestic and foreign markets, and promote the virtuous circle of ecosystem by comprehensive utilization of resources and regulation of biological interaction to make the structure of the orchard ecosystem approached to scientific and rational.

  18. Effect of orchard age on soil nitrogen transformation in subtropical China and implications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yushu; Zhang, Jinbo; Zhu, Tongbin; Müller, Christoph; Cai, Zucong

    2015-08-01

    A better understanding of nitrogen transformation in soils could reveal the capacity for biological inorganic N supply and improve the efficiency of N fertilizers. In this study, a (15)N tracing study was carried out to investigate the effects of converting woodland to orchard, and orchard age on the gross rates of N transformation occurring simultaneously in subtropical soils in Eastern China. The results showed that inorganic N supply rate was remained constant with soil organic C and N contents increased after converting woodland into citrus orchard and with increasing orchard age. This phenomenon was most probably due to the increase in the turnover time of recalcitrant organic-N, which increased with decreasing soil pH along with increasing orchard age significantly. The amoA gene copy numbers of both archaeal and bacterial were stimulated by orchard planting and increased with increasing orchard age. The nitrification capacity (defined as the ratio of gross rate of nitrification to total gross rate of mineralization) increased following the Michaelis-Menten equation, sharply in the first 10 years after woodland conversion to orchard, and increased continuously but much more slowly till 30 years. Due to the increase in nitrification capacity and unchanged NO3(-) consumption, the dominance of ammonium in inorganic N in woodland soil was shifted to nitrate dominance in orchard soils. These results indicated that the risk of NO3(-) loss was expected to increase and the amount of N needed from fertilizers for fruit growth did not change although soil organic N accumulated with orchard age. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. The impact of agricultural management on selected soil properties in citrus orchards in Eastern Spain: A comparison between conventional and organic citrus orchards with drip and flood irrigation.

    PubMed

    Hondebrink, M A; Cammeraat, L H; Cerdà, A

    2017-03-01

    The agricultural management of citrus orchards is changing from flood irrigated managed orchards to drip irrigated organic managed orchards. Eastern Spain is the oldest and largest European producer of citrus, and is representative of the environmental changes triggered by innovations in orchard management. In order to determine the impact of land management on different soil quality parameters, twelve citrus orchards sites were selected with different land and irrigation management techniques. Soil samples were taken at two depths, 0-2cm and 5-10cm for studying soil quality parameters under the different treatments. Half of the studied orchards were organically managed and the other six were conventionally managed, and for each of these six study sites three fields were flood irrigated plots and the other three drip irrigated systems. The outcome of the studied parameters was that soil organic matter (SOM) and aggregate stability were higher for organic farms. Bulk density and pH were only significantly different for organic farms when drip irrigation was applied in comparison with flooded plots. C/N ratio did not vary significantly for the four treatments. Although there are some points of discussion, this research shows that a combination of different management decisions leads to improvement of a couple of soil quality parameters. Organic management practices were found to be beneficial for soil quality, compared to conventional management for soils with comparable textures and applied irrigation water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The 1978 Pennsylvania Orchard and Vineyard Inventory Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Significant developments in the fruit industry in Pennsylvania are reported to provide basic information as a guide in the production and marketing of apples, pears, cherries, peaches, grapes, plums, prunes and nectarines. Tables show the number of growers, trees and acres by kind of fruit as well as the age of the trees, the number of barrels produced, and production by county and region.