Science.gov

Sample records for small arms range

  1. Environmental Effects of Small Arms Ranges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-10-01

    motor vehicles, and other sources. Land- spreading of sewage sludge may also increase the lead levels in treated areas. 5 Lead contcnt it. soil averages...EXECI1HVE SUMMARY This report is part of a series of reports assessing environmental contaminationi at outdoor small arms ranges, identifying associated...technologies to recover, recycle , and treat contaminated soil and control nonpoint source pollution at abandoned, zurrent, and future ranges. Indoor ranges

  2. Characterizing Munitions Constituents from Artillery and Small Arms Ranges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    Predicted MCOC Artillery Impact Areas Small Arms Ranges • Explosives – RDX – TNT – 2, 4-DNT, – 2,6-DNT • Perchlorate • Metals • Metals – Copper (Cu) – Lead ... Pb ) – Zinc (Zn) – Antimony (Sb) • 1st -determine if sampling necessary – MCOC source – Pathway (surface water system) – Receptor • 2nd - sample to

  3. Bioavailability of Lead in Small Arms Range Soils

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    speciation analysis showed that lead in these eight soils existed predominantly as lead carbonate or oxide, compounds with known high bioavailability...eight soils existed predominantly as lead carbonate or oxide, compounds with known high bioavailability. An additional 20 small arms range soils from...has generated oxidized forms of Pb, such as lead carbonate or lead oxide, which are then bound to, or sequestered by, soil particles. All three

  4. Credit BG. View looks southwest (246°) across Small Arms Range. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit BG. View looks southwest (246°) across Small Arms Range. Structure at extreme left is Building 4493 (Gymnasium), located in the secured area around Building 4505 - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Small Arms Range, Northeast of A Street, Boron, Kern County, CA

  5. Military Training Lands Historic Context: Small Arms Ranges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    58 92 Shell hole target details, Fort Bragg, NC, 1957 (Standard drawing 28...71 113 Range latrine, roof detail, Fort Bragg, NC, 1983 (DEH 4122...212 334 Shell hole target details, Fort Bragg, NC, 1957 (Standard drawing 28-13-05, close combat course, plan and details, 8

  6. Vertical Migration Potential of Metal Contaminants at Small Arms Firing Ranges, Camp Edwards Military Reservation, Massachusetts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-03-01

    Vertical Migration Potential of Metal Contaminants at Small Arms Firing Ranges. Camp Edwards Military Reservation, Massachusetts by R. Mark Bricka , Yilda...Military Reservation, Massachusetts by R. Mark Bricka , Yilda B. Rivera, Patrick N. Deliman U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Waterways Experiment...Reservation, Massachusetts / by R. Mark Bricka , Yiida B. Rivera, Patrick N. Deliman; prepared for Massachusetts Military Reservation. 198 p.: ill.; 28

  7. Evaluation of small arms range soils for metal contamination and lead bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Bannon, Desmond I; Drexler, John W; Fent, Genevieve M; Casteel, Stan W; Hunter, Penelope J; Brattin, William J; Major, Michael A

    2009-12-15

    Although small arms ranges are known to be contaminated with lead, the full extent of metal contamination has not been described, nor has the oral bioavailability of lead in these soils. In this work, soil samples from ranges with diverse geochemical backgrounds were sieved to <250 microm and analyzed for total metal content. Soils had consistently high levels of lead and copper, ranging from 4549 to 24 484 microg/g and 223 to 2936 microg/g, respectively, while arsenic, antimony, nickel, and zinc concentrations were 100-fold lower. For lead bioavailability measurements, two widely accepted methods were used: an in vivo juvenile swine relative bioavailability method measuring lead absorption from ingested soils relative to equivalent lead acetate concentrations and an in vitro bioaccessibility procedure which measured acid-extractable lead as a percent of total lead in the soil. For eight samples, the mean relative bioavailability and bioaccessibility of lead for the eight soils was about 100% (108 +/- 18% and 95 +/- 6%, respectively) showing good agreement between both methods. Risk assessment and/or remediation of small arms ranges should therefore assume high bioavailability of lead.

  8. 33 CFR 334.1120 - Pacific Ocean in the vicinity of Point Mugu, Calif.; naval small arms firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean in the vicinity of... REGULATIONS § 334.1120 Pacific Ocean in the vicinity of Point Mugu, Calif.; naval small arms firing range. (a) The danger zone. A triangular area extending westerly into the waters of the Pacific Ocean from...

  9. 33 CFR 334.1120 - Pacific Ocean in the vicinity of Point Mugu, Calif.; naval small arms firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean in the vicinity of... REGULATIONS § 334.1120 Pacific Ocean in the vicinity of Point Mugu, Calif.; naval small arms firing range. (a) The danger zone. A triangular area extending westerly into the waters of the Pacific Ocean from...

  10. 33 CFR 334.1120 - Pacific Ocean in the vicinity of Point Mugu, Calif.; naval small arms firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean in the vicinity of... REGULATIONS § 334.1120 Pacific Ocean in the vicinity of Point Mugu, Calif.; naval small arms firing range. (a) The danger zone. A triangular area extending westerly into the waters of the Pacific Ocean from...

  11. 33 CFR 334.1120 - Pacific Ocean in the vicinity of Point Mugu, Calif.; naval small arms firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean in the vicinity of... REGULATIONS § 334.1120 Pacific Ocean in the vicinity of Point Mugu, Calif.; naval small arms firing range. (a) The danger zone. A triangular area extending westerly into the waters of the Pacific Ocean from...

  12. 33 CFR 334.1120 - Pacific Ocean in the vicinity of Point Mugu, Calif.; naval small arms firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean in the vicinity of... REGULATIONS § 334.1120 Pacific Ocean in the vicinity of Point Mugu, Calif.; naval small arms firing range. (a) The danger zone. A triangular area extending westerly into the waters of the Pacific Ocean from...

  13. Lead retention by broiler litter biochars in small arms range soil: impact of pyrolysis temperature.

    PubMed

    Uchimiya, Minori; Bannon, Desmond I; Wartelle, Lynda H; Lima, Isabel M; Klasson, K Thomas

    2012-05-23

    Phosphorus-rich manure biochar has a potential for stabilizing Pb and other heavy metal contaminants, as well as serving as a sterile fertilizer. In this study, broiler litter biochars produced at 350 and 650 °C were employed to understand how biochar's elemental composition (P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Cu, Pb, Sb, and Zn) affects the extent of heavy metal stabilization. Soil incubation experiments were conducted using a sandy, slightly acidic (pH 6.11) Pb-contaminated (19906 mg kg(-1) total Pb primarily as PbCO(3)) small arms range (SAR) soil fraction (<250 μm) amended with 2-20 wt % biochar. The Pb stabilization in pH 4.9 acetate buffer reached maximum at lower (2-10 wt %) biochar amendment rate, and 350 °C biochar containing more soluble P was better able to stabilize Pb than the 650 °C biochar. The 350 °C biochar consistently released greater amounts of P, K, Mg, Na, and Ca than 650 °C biochar in both unbuffered (pH 4.5 sulfuric acid) and buffered (pH 4.9 acetate) systems, despite 1.9-4.5-fold greater total content of the 650 °C biochar. Biochars, however, did not influence the total extractable Pb over three consecutive equilibration periods consisting of (1) 1 week in pH 4.5 sulfuric acid (simulated leaching by rainfall), (2) 1 week in pH 4.9 acetate buffer (standard solution for toxicity characteristic leaching procedure), and (3) 1 h in pH 1.5 glycine at 37 °C (in vitro bioaccessibility procedure). Overall, lower pyrolysis temperature was favorable for stabilizing Pb (major risk driver of SAR soils) and releasing P, K, Ca, and other plant nutrients in a sandy acidic soil.

  14. 33 CFR 334.830 - Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill. 334.830 Section 334.830 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.830 Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes,...

  15. 33 CFR 334.830 - Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill. 334.830 Section 334.830 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.830 Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes,...

  16. 33 CFR 334.830 - Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill. 334.830 Section 334.830 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.830 Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes,...

  17. 33 CFR 334.830 - Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill. 334.830 Section 334.830 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.830 Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes,...

  18. 33 CFR 334.680 - Gulf of Mexico, southeast of St. Andrew Bay East Entrance, small-arms firing range, Tyndall Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Andrew Bay East Entrance, small-arms firing range, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.680 Section 334.680..., small-arms firing range, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The danger zones—(1) Area No. 1. The waters of... Officer, Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida, and such agencies as he may designate. (Sec. 7, 40 Stat....

  19. 33 CFR 334.680 - Gulf of Mexico, southeast of St. Andrew Bay East Entrance, small-arms firing range, Tyndall Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Andrew Bay East Entrance, small-arms firing range, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.680 Section 334.680..., small-arms firing range, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The danger zones—(1) Area No. 1. The waters of... Officer, Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida, and such agencies as he may designate. (Sec. 7, 40 Stat....

  20. 33 CFR 334.680 - Gulf of Mexico, southeast of St. Andrew Bay East Entrance, small-arms firing range, Tyndall Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Andrew Bay East Entrance, small-arms firing range, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.680 Section 334.680..., small-arms firing range, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The danger zones—(1) Area No. 1. The waters of... Officer, Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida, and such agencies as he may designate. (Sec. 7, 40 Stat....

  1. 33 CFR 334.680 - Gulf of Mexico, southeast of St. Andrew Bay East Entrance, small-arms firing range, Tyndall Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Andrew Bay East Entrance, small-arms firing range, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.680 Section 334.680..., small-arms firing range, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The danger zones—(1) Area No. 1. The waters of... Officer, Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida, and such agencies as he may designate. (Sec. 7, 40 Stat....

  2. 33 CFR 334.680 - Gulf of Mexico, southeast of St. Andrew Bay East Entrance, small-arms firing range, Tyndall Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Andrew Bay East Entrance, small-arms firing range, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.680 Section 334.680..., small-arms firing range, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The danger zones—(1) Area No. 1. The waters of... Officer, Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida, and such agencies as he may designate. (Sec. 7, 40 Stat....

  3. Passive ranging errors due to multipath distortion of deterministic transient signals with application to the localization of small arms fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Brian G.; Lo, Kam W.

    2002-01-01

    A passive ranging technique based on wavefront curvature is used to estimate the ranges and bearings of impulsive sound sources represented by small arms fire. The discharge of a firearm results in the generation of a transient acoustic signal whose energy propagates radially outwards from the omnidirectional source. The radius of curvature of the spherical wavefront at any instant is equal to the instantaneous range from the source. The curvature of the acoustic wavefront is sensed with a three-microphone linear array by first estimating the differential time of arrival (or time delay) of the acoustic wavefront at each of the two adjacent sensor pairs and then processing the time-delay information to extract the range and bearing of the source. However, modeling the passive ranging performance of the wavefront curvature method for a deterministic transient signal source in a multipath environment shows that when the multipath and direct path arrivals are unresolvable, the time-delay estimates are biased which, in turn, biases the range estimates. The model explains the observed under-ranging of small arms firing positions during a field experiment.

  4. Passive ranging errors due to multipath distortion of deterministic transient signals with application to the localization of small arms fire.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Brian G; Lo, Kam W

    2002-01-01

    A passive ranging technique based on wavefront curvature is used to estimate the ranges and bearings of impulsive sound sources represented by small arms fire. The discharge of a firearm results in the generation of a transient acoustic signal whose energy propagates radially outwards from the omnidirectional source. The radius of curvature of the spherical wavefront at any instant is equal to the instantaneous range from the source. The curvature of the acoustic wavefront is sensed with a three-microphone linear array by first estimating the differential time of arrival (or time delay) of the acoustic wavefront at each of the two adjacent sensor pairs and then processing the time-delay information to extract the range and bearing of the source. However, modeling the passive ranging performance of the wavefront curvature method for a deterministic transient signal source in a multipath environment shows that when the multipath and direct path arrivals are unresolvable, the time-delay estimates are biased which, in turn, biases the range estimates. The model explains the observed under-ranging of small arms firing positions during a field experiment.

  5. 33 CFR 334.630 - Tampa Bay south of MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U.S. Air Force, MacDill Air Force Base... Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U.S. Air Force, MacDill Air Force Base...″, longitude 82°33′02.44″; and thence to a point on the shore line of MacDill Air Force Base at......

  6. 33 CFR 334.630 - Tampa Bay south of MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U.S. Air Force, MacDill Air Force Base... Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U.S. Air Force, MacDill Air Force Base...″, longitude 82°33′02.44″; and thence to a point on the shore line of MacDill Air Force Base at......

  7. 33 CFR 334.630 - Tampa Bay south of MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U.S. Air Force, MacDill Air Force Base... Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U.S. Air Force, MacDill Air Force Base...″, longitude 82°33′02.44″; and thence to a point on the shore line of MacDill Air Force Base at......

  8. 33 CFR 334.630 - Tampa Bay south of MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U.S. Air Force, MacDill Air Force Base... Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U.S. Air Force, MacDill Air Force Base...″, longitude 82°33′02.44″; and thence to a point on the shore line of MacDill Air Force Base at......

  9. 33 CFR 334.630 - Tampa Bay south of MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U.S. Air Force, MacDill Air Force Base... Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U.S. Air Force, MacDill Air Force Base...″, longitude 82°33′02.44″; and thence to a point on the shore line of MacDill Air Force Base at......

  10. Evaluation of Small Arms Range Soils for Metal Contamination and Lead Bioavailability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-03

    Electron microprobe analysis (EMPA), using a JEOL 8600 electron microprobe, was used to identify and count lead particles (17); backscatter imaging was...the target area of a military shooting range. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 1997, 139, 403–407. (24) Bennett, J. R.; Kaufman, C. A.; Koch, I.; Sova, J

  11. Environmental Assessment for Construction of Small Arms Range at Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    extinct without protection. These species may be rare because of specialized habitat needs or habitat destruction. The Endangered Species Act of 1973...formed in the Permian age approximately 250 million years ago. The sandstones range in color from orange-red to reddish-brown and are fine-grained

  12. An Investigation of Small-Arms Range Noise Mitigation: The Firing Shed and the Interlane Barrier

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    report and future reports of this type more responsive to your needs, more usable, improve readability. etc.) 5. If you would like to be contacted by...planning and design of rifle ranges. The results will also be disseminated to potential users via distribution of this report, by publication in...conditions. Both guns were fired in the same compass direction to minimize wind effect differences on sound propagation. The c\\periments were carried

  13. Small arms ammunition

    DOEpatents

    Huerta, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    An elongate projectile for small arms use has a single unitary mass with a hollow nose cavity defined by a sharp rigid cutting edge adapted to make initial contact with the target surface and cut therethrough. The projectile then enters the target mass in an unstable flight mode. The projectile base is substantially solid such that the nose cavity, while relatively deep, does not extend entirely through the base and the projectile center of gravity is aft of its geometric center.

  14. The use of field methods to evaluate the toxicity of lead to plants at a small arms firing range

    SciTech Connect

    DeShields, B.R.; Meredith, R.W.; Griffin, D.; Laughlin, T.; Collins, W.

    1998-12-31

    The beach dunes at Fort Ord, California, were historically used as small arms firing ranges, resulting in the accumulation of spent bullets and varying concentrations of lead in soil. The form of the lead, and thus its bioavailability, is important in assessing associated ecological risks at firing ranges. Of particular interest at the beach firing ranges at Fort Ord are two species of buckwheat plants that provide habitat for an endangered butterfly. Initially, lead concentrations in soil and plant chaff were measured and root elongation bioassays were conducted. A linear correlation between lead in soil and lead in plant chaff was observed. However, the results of the bioassays were highly variable with no clear dose response pattern. Additional field studies were conducted to (1) further characterize lead concentrations in soil and plant tissue and (2) evaluate associations between soil lead concentrations and plant morphometric-variables. A relationship between soil and tissue lead concentrations was demonstrated. No significant associations between soil lead levels and plant health/condition were detected. Significant associations were observed between plant health/condition and factors other than lead.

  15. Characterization and metal availability of copper, lead, antimony and zinc contamination at four Canadian small arms firing ranges.

    PubMed

    Laporte-Saumure, Mathieu; Martel, Richard; Mercier, Guy

    2011-01-01

    Backstop soils of four small-arms firing ranges (SAFRs) of the Canadian Force Bases (CFBs) were characterized in terms of their total soil Cu, Pb, Sb and Zn concentrations, grain size distribution, mineralogy, chemical properties, vertical in-depth contamination distribution (for one CFB), and scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDS) characterization. Metal availability from the soils was evaluated with three leaching tests: the toxicity characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP), representing a landfill leachate; the synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP), representing field conditions; and the gastric juice simulation test (GJST), representing the leachate of the human stomach during the digestive process and, therefore, the potential metal transfer to humans in the case of soil ingestion. Metal analyses of soils and leaching test extracts were conducted with an Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) instrument. Total soil results showed maximal concentrations of 27,100 mg/kg for Pb, 7720 mg/kg for Cu, 1080 mg/kg for Zn, and 570 mg/kg for Sb. The SEM-EDS analysis showed significant amounts of lead carbonates, which resulted from the alteration of the initial metallic Pb particles. Metal availability evaluation with the leaching tests showed that TCLP Pb and Sb thresholds were exceeded. For the SPLP and the GJST, the drinking water thresholds of the Ministère du Développement Durable, de l'Environnement et des Pares (MDDEP) of Quebec were exceeded by Pb and Sb. The metal availability assessment showed that SAFR backstop soils may pose a potential risk to the environment, groundwater and humans, and affect the management of such soils in order to minimize potential metal dispersion in the environment.

  16. Assessment of concentrations of trace elements in ground water and soil at the Small-Arms Firing Range, Shaw Air Force Base, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landmeyer, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    Ground-water samples were collected from four shallow water-table aquifer observation wells beneath the Small-Arms Firing Range study area at Shaw Air Force Base. Water-chemistry analyses indicated that total lead concentrations in shallow ground water beneath the study area do not exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level established for lead in drinking water (0.05 milligrams per liter). All other trace element total concentrations in ground water beneath the study area were at or below the detection limit of the analytical methodology.

  17. 33 CFR 334.1125 - Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, Small Arms Range, Ventura County, California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1125 Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, Small... enforced by personnel attached to the Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, California, and by such...

  18. 33 CFR 334.1125 - Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, Small Arms Range, Ventura County, California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1125 Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, Small... enforced by personnel attached to the Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, California, and by such...

  19. 33 CFR 334.1125 - Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, Small Arms Range, Ventura County, California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1125 Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, Small... enforced by personnel attached to the Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, California, and by such...

  20. 33 CFR 334.1125 - Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, Small Arms Range, Ventura County, California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1125 Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, Small... enforced by personnel attached to the Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, California, and by such...

  1. 33 CFR 334.1125 - Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, Small Arms Range, Ventura County, California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1125 Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, Small... enforced by personnel attached to the Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, California, and by such...

  2. Selective adsorption of lead, copper and antimony in runoff water from a small arms shooting range with a combination of charcoal and iron hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Mariussen, Espen; Johnsen, Ida Vaa; Strømseng, Arnljot Einride

    2015-03-01

    Metals and metalloids from ammunition residues at small arms shooting ranges leach into the soil and surrounding watercourses and may pose a threat to exposed wildlife and humans. To reduce the potential impact of heavy metal on the environment a field study was performed with different sorbents in order to reduce the metal concentration in polluted water from a shooting range. Two sorbents were tested in situ for their ability to reduce the concentration of Cu, Sb and Pb: Brimac(®) charcoal and Kemira(®) iron hydroxide. The mean sorption of Cu, Sb and Pb was 85%, 65%, and 88% respectively when using the charcoal and 60%, 85% and 92% respectively with the iron hydroxide. Even better sorption of the elements was achieved when the two sorbents were combined in order to increase their selectivity. The best results were achieved in the filter in which the water percolated the charcoal first and the iron hydroxide last, with a mean sorption of Cu, Sb and Pb of 89%, 90% and 93% respectively. This preparation gave a significant better sorption of Cu compared to the filter in which the water percolated the iron hydroxide first and the charcoal last. The different effect between the two filters may be due to pH, since charcoal has alkaline properties and iron hydroxide has acidic properties. For large scale experiments or in filter devices we therefore recommend use of a combination of different reactive sorbents.

  3. Distribution and mobility of lead (Pb), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and antimony (Sb) from ammunition residues on shooting ranges for small arms located on mires.

    PubMed

    Mariussen, Espen; Johnsen, Ida Vaa; Strømseng, Arnljot Einride

    2017-03-06

    An environmental survey was performed on shooting ranges for small arms located on minerotrophic mires. The highest mean concentrations of Pb (13 g/kg), Cu (5.2 g/kg), Zn (1.1 g/kg), and Sb (0.83 g/kg) in the top soil were from a range located on a poor minerotrophic and acidic mire. This range had also the highest concentrations of Pb, Cu, Zn, and Sb in discharge water (0.18 mg/L Pb, 0.42 mg/L Cu, 0.63 mg/L Zn, and 65 μg/L Sb) and subsurface soil water (2.5 mg/L Pb, 0.9 mg/L Cu, 1.6 mg/L Zn, and 0.15 mg/L Sb). No clear differences in the discharge of ammunition residues between the mires were observed based on the characteristics of the mires. In surface water with high pH (pH ~7), there was a trend with high concentrations of Sb and lower relative concentrations of Cu and Pb. The relatively low concentrations of ammunition residues both in the soil and soil water, 20 cm below the top soil, indicates limited vertical migration in the soil. Channels in the mires, made by plant roots or soil layer of less decomposed materials, may increase the rate of transport of contaminated surface water into deeper soil layers and ground water. A large portion of both Cu and Sb were associated to the oxidizable components in the peat, which may imply that these elements form inner-sphere complexes with organic matter. The largest portion of Pb and Zn were associated with the exchangeable and pH-sensitive components in the peat, which may imply that these elements form outer-sphere complexes with the peat.

  4. Small Arms Marksmanship Manual, NAVPERS 93863.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    The Navy's small arms marksmanship training program is designed to achieve proficiency for Navy personnel in handling the rifle, pistol andshotgun. The minimum objective of this program is to qualify Navy personnel as "Marksman," and ensure that personnel who are issued small arms for security, recreation, or competitions are fully qualified in…

  5. Solubility of lead and copper in biochar-amended small arms range soils: influence of soil organic carbon and pH.

    PubMed

    Uchimiya, Minori; Bannon, Desmond I

    2013-08-14

    Biochar is often considered a strong heavy metal stabilizing agent. However, biochar in some cases had no effects on, or increased the soluble concentrations of, heavy metals in soil. The objective of this study was to determine the factors causing some biochars to stabilize and others to dissolve heavy metals in soil. Seven small arms range soils with known total organic carbon (TOC), cation exchange capacity, pH, and total Pb and Cu contents were first screened for soluble Pb and Cu concentrations. Over 2 weeks successive equilibrations using weak acid (pH 4.5 sulfuric acid) and acetate buffer (0.1 M at pH 4.9), Alaska soil containing disproportionately high (31.6%) TOC had nearly 100% residual (insoluble) Pb and Cu. This soil was then compared with sandy soils from Maryland containing significantly lower (0.5-2.0%) TOC in the presence of 10 wt % (i) plant biochar activated to increase the surface-bound carboxyl and phosphate ligands (PS450A), (ii) manure biochar enriched with soluble P (BL700), and (iii) unactivated plant biochars produced at 350 °C (CH350) and 700 °C (CH500) and by flash carbonization (corn). In weak acid, the pH was set by soil and biochar, and the biochars increasingly stabilized Pb with repeated extractions. In pH 4.9 acetate buffer, PS450A and BL700 stabilized Pb, and only PS450A stabilized Cu. Surface ligands of PS450A likely complexed and stabilized Pb and Cu even under acidic pH in the presence of competing acetate ligand. Oppositely, unactivated plant biochars (CH350, CH500, and corn) mobilized Pb and Cu in sandy soils; the putative mechanism is the formation of soluble complexes with biochar-borne dissolved organic carbon. In summary, unactivated plant biochars can inadvertently increase dissolved Pb and Cu concentrations of sandy, low TOC soils when used to stabilize other contaminants.

  6. 49 CFR 173.171 - Smokeless powder for small arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Smokeless powder for small arms. 173.171 Section 173.171 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS... Class 7 § 173.171 Smokeless powder for small arms. Smokeless powder for small arms which has...

  7. 48 CFR 225.7702 - Acquisition of small arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Acquisition of small arms... Operations in Iraq or Afghanistan 225.7702 Acquisition of small arms. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, when acquiring small arms for assistance to the Army of Iraq, the Army...

  8. 48 CFR 225.7702-1 - Acquisition of small arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Acquisition of small arms... Operations in Afghanistan 225.7702-1 Acquisition of small arms. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, when acquiring small arms for assistance to the Army of Afghanistan, the Afghani...

  9. 48 CFR 225.7702-1 - Acquisition of small arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Acquisition of small arms... Operations in Afghanistan 225.7702-1 Acquisition of small arms. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, when acquiring small arms for assistance to the Army of Afghanistan, the Afghani...

  10. 49 CFR 173.171 - Smokeless powder for small arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Smokeless powder for small arms. 173.171 Section 173.171 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS... Class 7 § 173.171 Smokeless powder for small arms. Smokeless powder for small arms which has...

  11. 49 CFR 173.171 - Smokeless powder for small arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Smokeless powder for small arms. 173.171 Section 173.171 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS... Class 7 § 173.171 Smokeless powder for small arms. Smokeless powder for small arms which has...

  12. 49 CFR 173.170 - Black powder for small arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Black powder for small arms. 173.170 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.170 Black powder for small arms. Black powder for small arms that has been classed in....58; (b) The total quantity of black powder in one motor vehicle, rail car, or freight container...

  13. 49 CFR 173.170 - Black powder for small arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Black powder for small arms. 173.170 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.170 Black powder for small arms. Black powder for small arms that has been classed in....58; (b) The total quantity of black powder in one motor vehicle, rail car, or freight container...

  14. 49 CFR 173.170 - Black powder for small arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Black powder for small arms. 173.170 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.170 Black powder for small arms. Black powder for small arms that has been classed in....58; (b) The total quantity of black powder in one motor vehicle, rail car, or freight container...

  15. 49 CFR 173.170 - Black powder for small arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Black powder for small arms. 173.170 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.170 Black powder for small arms. Black powder for small arms that has been classed in....58; (b) The total quantity of black powder in one motor vehicle, rail car, or freight container...

  16. 49 CFR 173.170 - Black powder for small arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Black powder for small arms. 173.170 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.170 Black powder for small arms. Black powder for small arms that has been classed in....58; (b) The total quantity of black powder in one motor vehicle, rail car, or freight container...

  17. 48 CFR 225.7702 - Acquisition of small arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition of small arms... Operations in Iraq or Afghanistan 225.7702 Acquisition of small arms. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, when acquiring small arms for assistance to the Army of Iraq, the Army...

  18. 48 CFR 225.7702 - Acquisition of small arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acquisition of small arms... Operations in Iraq or Afghanistan 225.7702 Acquisition of small arms. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, when acquiring small arms for assistance to the Army of Iraq, the Army...

  19. 49 CFR 173.171 - Smokeless powder for small arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Smokeless powder for small arms. 173.171 Section 173.171 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS... Class 7 § 173.171 Smokeless powder for small arms. Smokeless powder for small arms which has...

  20. Speciation and phytoavailability of lead and antimony in a small arms range soil amended with mussel shell, cow bone and biochar: EXAFS spectroscopy and chemical extractions.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mahtab; Lee, Sang Soo; Lim, Jung Eun; Lee, Sung-Eun; Cho, Ju Sik; Moon, Deok Hyun; Hashimoto, Yohey; Ok, Yong Sik

    2014-01-01

    Mussel shell (MS), cow bone (CB) and biochar (BC) were selected to immobilize metals in an army firing range soil. Amendments were applied at 5% (wt) and their efficacies were determined after 175 d. For metal phytoavailability test, maize (Zea mays L.) plants were cultivated for 3weeks. Results showed that all amendments decreased the exchangeable Pb by up to 99% in planted/unplanted soils. Contrarily, exchangeable Sb were increased in the MS- and CB-amended soils. The rise in soil pH (~1 unit) by the amendments affected Pb and Sb mobility in soils. Bioavailability of Pb to maize was reduced by up to 71% in the amended soils. The Sb uptake to maize was decreased by up to 53.44% in the BC-amended soil. Sequential chemical extractions showed the transformation of easily available Pb to stable residual form with the amendment treatments. Scanning electron microscopic elemental dot mapping revealed the Pb association with Al and Si in the MS-amended soil and that with P in the CB- and BC-amended soils. Additionally, the extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopic analysis indicated the transformation of organic bound Pb in unamended control soil to relatively more stable Pb-hydroxide (Ksp=10(-17.1)), chloropyromorphite (Ksp=10(-84.4)) and Pb-phosphate (Ksp=10(-23.8)) in soils amended with MS, CB and BC, respectively. Application of BC was the best in decreasing the phytoavailability of Pb and Sb in the studied army firing range soil.

  1. Joint Small-Arms Range Remediation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-01

    cells magnetic filters trommels hydrocyclone concentrator, jig (wet or dry) Sources: U.S. EPA, 1995, EPA/540/R-95/512. 2.3 ACID LEACHING After physical...the goals for processing, relatively elaborate bench-scale tests may needed. For example, bench-scale hydrocyclones and jigs may need to be tested to

  2. 49 CFR 173.171 - Smokeless powder for small arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Smokeless powder for small arms. 173.171 Section 173.171 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS... Class 7 § 173.171 Smokeless powder for small arms. Powders that have been classed in Division 1.3...

  3. 114. SMALL ARMS (BUILDINGS 9798) AND INERT STOREHOUSE (BLDGS. 1031040) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    114. SMALL ARMS (BUILDINGS 97-98) AND INERT STOREHOUSE (BLDGS. 103-1040) PLAN AND ELEVATIONS, FULLER/SCOTT, MARCH 15, 1941. QP ACC 1791. - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI

  4. Device capable small arms ammunition for unmanned systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Noah P.; Sweeney, John W.; Wilson, Chester G.

    2010-04-01

    The design of current small arms ammunition requires the use of radial and lateral accelerations to permit the inclusion of current Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS). Research at Louisiana Tech's Institute for Micromanufacturing into equipping small arms with MEMS technology has led to the development of a new type of small arms system. This ammunition is able to accelerate outside of its barrel, thereby decreasing the required acceleration for a specified maximum velocity. Additionally, the design of this ammunition eliminates the lateral accelerations typically required to stabilize current small arms ammunition, and permits the inclusion of non-metallic barrels and other components. A review of the current design and performance standards of this ammunition is presented, along with the current MEMS technology being tested for inclusion into this ammunition. A review of new armament systems, capabilities, and applications as a result of these advances is also presented.

  5. 95. BUILDING NO. 539, SMALL ARMS POWDER BLENDER AND PACKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    95. BUILDING NO. 539, SMALL ARMS POWDER BLENDER AND PACKING HOUSE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT NORTHWEST ELEVATION FROM NORTH SHORE OF PICATINNY LAKE. - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  6. Acoustical Evaluation of Combat Arms Firing Range, Schriever AFB, Colorado

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-19

    with AFOSH Standard 48-20, due to acoustical reflections. Therefore, it was recommended that acoustical absorption be added to these side walls to...and side walls from the red line back to the rear wall, as well as the the rear wall, with acoustical absorption material. Quilted fiberglass, or...Consultative Letter 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) April – June 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Acoustical Evaluation of Combat Arms Firing Range

  7. 33 CFR 334.1420 - Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. 334.1420 Section 334.1420... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1420 Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. (a) The danger zone. The waters within an area delineated by...

  8. A dynamic model for generating actuator specifications for small arms barrel active stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Anupam; Brei, Diann; Luntz, Jonathan; Lavigna, Chris

    2006-03-01

    Due to stresses encountered in combat, it is known that soldier marksmanship noticeably decreases regardless of prior training. Active stabilization systems in small arms have potential to address this problem to increase soldier survivability and mission effectiveness. The key to success is proper actuator design, but this is highly dependent on proper specification which is challenging due to the human/weapon interaction. This paper presents a generic analytical dynamic model which is capable of defining the necessary actuation specifications for a wide range of small arms platforms. The model is unique because it captures the human interface--shoulder and arm--that introduces the jitter disturbance in addition to the geometry, inertial properties and active stabilization stiffness of the small arms platform. Because no data to date is available for actual shooter-induced disturbance in field conditions, a method is given using the model to back-solve from measured shooting range variability data the disturbance amplitude information relative to the input source (arm or shoulder). As examples of the applicability of the model to various small arms systems, two different weapon systems were investigated: the M24 sniper weapon and the M16 assault rifle. In both cases, model based simulations provided valuable insight into impact on the actuation specifications (force, displacement, phase, frequency) due to the interplay of the human-weapon-active stabilization interface including the effect of shooter-disturbance frequency, disturbance location (shoulder vs. arm), and system parameters (stiffness, barrel rotation).

  9. The physician's role in preventing small arms injury.

    PubMed

    Hargarten, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    The first step in defining a public health problem is to describe its scope and nature. For most diseases, this involves details on the victims, morbidity and mortality, and the agent of the disease. In the case of the small-arms 'disease', apart from data on the injuries caused, most other information resides with criminal justice agencies that are primarily concerned with criminal activity. In the United States, beginning in the state of Wisconsin, an approach based on the nation-wide data system of car crash deaths has been developed, linking medical examiners, coroners, police data and other information to provide a comprehensive picture of firearm-related deaths. The next step should be to develop standardized firearm-markings that would aid in controlling the illicit trade in small arms and more detailed information on the relationship between type of firearm and injury. Physicians can do much to aid prevention of small arms injury by advocating this public health approach.

  10. Precision guided firearms: disruptive small arms technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Bret; Lupher, John

    2013-05-01

    Precision Guided Firearms (PGFs) employ target tracking, a Heads-Up Display, and advanced fire control technology to amplify shooting precision at long range by eliminating the most common sources of shooter error, including aim, trigger jerk, and shot setup miscalculation. Regardless of skill level or experience, PGFs significantly increase first shot success probability when compared to traditional technology, even at extreme ranges of 1,200 yards or more. More than just a scope, PGFs are fully integrated systems based on standard caliber bolt action or semi-automatic rifles with a Networked Tracking Scope, Guided Trigger and precision conventional ammunition. Onboard wireless technology allows PGFs to connect with local and wide area networks to deliver voice, video and data to mobile devices and various communication networks. These technologies allow shooters to be more accurate, engage multiple targets at unknown ranges quickly, track and engage moving targets, and communicate via command and control networks.

  11. Output testing of small-arms primers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Doris, Thomas A.; Schimmel, Morry L.

    1991-01-01

    The performance of two standard primers for initiating small-caliber ammunition are compared to that of a primer for initiating aircraft escape-system components. Three testing methods are employed including: (1) firing the primer to measure total energy delivered; (2) monitoring output in terms of gaseous product-mass flow rate and pressure as a function of time; and (3) firing the primer onto ignition material to study gas pressure produced during ignition and burning as a function of time. The results of the test demonstrate differences in the ignitability factors of the standard primers and time peak pressures of less than 100 microseconds. One unexpected result is that two percussion primers (the FA-41 and the M42C1) developed for different applications have the same ignitability. The ignitability test method is shown to yield the most useful data and can be used to specify percussion primers and optimize their performance.

  12. Analysis of electrostatic charge on small-arms projectiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinci, Stephen; Zhu, Jack; Hull, David

    2012-06-01

    Triboelectric (frictional) and combustion processes impart electrostatic charge on projectiles as they are fired. Additional charging and discharging processes alter the magnitude of charge in-flight and are complex functions of a plethora of environmental conditions. There is an interest in using electric-field sensors to help detect and track projectiles in counter-sniper and projectile ranging systems. These applications require knowledge of the quantity of charge, as well as the sensitivity of electric-field sensors. The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) took part in multiple experiments at Aberdeen Proving Grounds (APG) to simulate a battlefield-like environment. Sensors were placed in strategic locations along the bullets' paths and recorded the electric-field signatures of charged small-arms bullets. The focus of this effort was to analyze the electric-field signatures collected during the APG experiment in order to estimate electrostatic charge on the bullets. Algorithms were written to extract electric-field bullet signatures from raw data; these signatures were further processed to estimate the miss distance, velocity and charge. The estimates of range and velocity were compared to similar estimates from acoustic signatures for verification. Ground-truth Global Positioning System (GPS) data were used to independently calculate ranges, azimuths, and miss distances. Signatures were filtered to remove clutter signals from power lines and other unwanted field sources. Closed-form equations were then fitted to the collected signatures to retrieve estimates for the magnitude of charge on the bullets. Test data, collected with sensors placed on a wall, showed enhanced E-field intensity. A Method of Moments (MoM) model of the wall was created to improve signature simulation. Detectable charges on bullets were found to exist in the 1 pC to 1 nC (10-12 - 10-9 C) range. Relationships between estimated charge, gun type, bullet caliber, noise thresholds and number

  13. DECOMMISSIONING AND ENVRIONMENTAL CLEANUP OF SMALL ARMS TRAINING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Kmetz, T.

    2012-12-04

    USDOE performed a (CERCLA) non-time critical removal (NTCR) action at the Small Arms Training Area (SATA) Site Evaluation Area (SEA) located at the Savannah River Site (SRS), in Aiken, South Carolina. From 1951 to May 2010, the SATA was used as a small weapons practice and qualifying firing range. The SATA consisted of 870.1 ha (2,150 ac) of woodlands and open field, of which approximately 2.9 ha (7.3 ac) were used as a firing range. The SATA facility was comprised of three small arms ranges (one static and two interactive), storage buildings for supplies, a weapons cleaning building, and a control building. Additionally, a 113- m (370-ft) long earthen berm was used as a target backstop during live-fire exercises. The berm soils accumulated a large amount of spent lead bullets in the berm face during the facilities 59- years of operation. The accumulation of lead was such that soil concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) residential and industrial worker regional screening levels (RSLs). The RSL threshold values are based on standardized exposure scenarios that estimate contaminant concentrations in soil that the USEPA considers protective of humans over a lifetime. For the SATA facility, lead was present in soil at concentrations that exceed both the current residential (400 mg/kg) and industrial (800 mg/kg) RSLs. In addition, the concentration of lead in the soil exceeded the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) (40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 261.24) regulatory limit. The TCLP analysis simulates landfill conditions and is designed to determine the mobility of contaminants in waste. In addition, a principal threat source material (PTSM) evaluation, human health risk assessment (HHRA), and contaminant migration (CM) analysis were conducted to evaluate soil contamination at the SATA SEA. This evaluation determined that there were no contaminants present that constitute PTSM and the CM analysis revealed that no

  14. Disrupting Illicit Small Arms Trafficking in the Middle East

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Disrupting Illicit Small Arms Trafficking in the Middle East 6. AUTHOR( S ) Neil N. Snyder 5...FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943-5000 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING /MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) N/A 10. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY REPORT NUMBER 11. SUPPLEMENTARY

  15. A Historical Perspective on Evolutions and Revolutions in Small Arms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-04

    small arms development will have to factor in profit motivation in any development. If a weapons innovation, no matter how groundbreaking, is not...sufficiently profitable, it will have great difficulty gaining widespread implementation. The global economy could also bear on profit- motivated ...were going to fight. 10 The travails of this particular evolution are far too detailed for a work of this scale. encourage adoption. The nature of the

  16. Current Inadequacy of Small Arms Training for All Military Occupational Specialties in the Conventional Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    ABSTRACT This thesis examines the current inadequacy of small arms training for all military occupational specialties ( MOSs ) in the...to facilitate advanced, short-range, CQC like marksmanship training that will allow soldiers of all MOSs to dominate their 100 meters. Introduce Small...Member Dennis L . Dolan, Ph.D. , Member LTC Tony D. Baker, M.S. Accepted this 17th day of June 2005 by: , Director

  17. 48 CFR 225.7703 - Acquisition of products or services other than small arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acquisition of products or services other than small arms. 225.7703 Section 225.7703 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... than small arms....

  18. 48 CFR 225.7703 - Acquisition of products or services other than small arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Acquisition of products or services other than small arms. 225.7703 Section 225.7703 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... than small arms....

  19. Joint Small Arms Technology Development Strategy for Joint Service Small Arms Science and Technology Investments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-26

    System that Minimizes Projectile Muzzle Strike 8 Operate in Climate Extremes Ranging from Cold Weather to Tropical to Desert Environments 33 Fire...Targets at Extended Ranges 12 Avoid Detection Caused By Weapon Signature When Firing via Reduction in Acoustic Signature at 40m from the Shooter...Caused by Weapon Signature by Reducing Nonfiring Weapon Profile Signature 1 1 2 8 Operate in Climate Extremes Ranging from Cold Weather to

  20. Laser range profiling for small target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinvall, Ove; Tulldahl, Michael

    2016-05-01

    The detection and classification of small surface and airborne targets at long ranges is a growing need for naval security. Long range ID or ID at closer range of small targets has its limitations in imaging due to the demand on very high transverse sensor resolution. It is therefore motivated to look for 1D laser techniques for target ID. These include vibrometry, and laser range profiling. Vibrometry can give good results but is also sensitive to certain vibrating parts on the target being in the field of view. Laser range profiling is attractive because the maximum range can be substantial, especially for a small laser beam width. A range profiler can also be used in a scanning mode to detect targets within a certain sector. The same laser can also be used for active imaging when the target comes closer and is angular resolved. The present paper will show both experimental and simulated results for laser range profiling of small boats out to 6-7 km range and a UAV mockup at close range (1.3 km). We obtained good results with the profiling system both for target detection and recognition. Comparison of experimental and simulated range waveforms based on CAD models of the target support the idea of having a profiling system as a first recognition sensor and thus narrowing the search space for the automatic target recognition based on imaging at close ranges. The naval experiments took place in the Baltic Sea with many other active and passive EO sensors beside the profiling system. Discussion of data fusion between laser profiling and imaging systems will be given. The UAV experiments were made from the rooftop laboratory at FOI.

  1. Evaluation of small arms noise in a natural soundscape-Bear Butte, SD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braslau, David

    2005-09-01

    Most studies on soundscape intrusion have been limited to moving sources. Of less concern is noise from small arms. Potential impact was predicted from a proposed large small arms facility with 10000 rounds or more per day on the natural soundscape at Bear Butte, one of the most sacred sites of the Northern Cheyenne and other tribes. The primary impacted activity is meditation and oneness with the natural environment that can continue for several days through day and night. Non-natural sources included limited vehicles on a nearby highway and farm equipment, but few aircraft. Second-by-second ambient octave band readings were taken at 20 sites starting before sunrise. The minimum ambient level observed was 19.6 dBA but limits were encountered with a 1/2 in. microphone. Sound level data on small arms were projected from the proposed range four miles north of Bear Butte to elevated points on the Butte assuming a zero wind environment. Impact was evaluated using audibility, intrusiveness and impulse-weighted DNL. Projected levels were well above ambient. While the DNL was projected to increase by 15 dBA, this metric has little meaning for this type of activity. Assumptions related to outdoor sound propagation, audibility and impulsive noise perception are discussed.

  2. Tracking illicit small arms trafficking: implementation of Intentional Firearm Microstamping (IFM) to small arms and light weapons imports and exports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizotte, Todd E.; Ohar, Orest P.

    2009-09-01

    The illicit trafficking in small arms is an international problem with grave consequences to those who live in less developed nations. To stop any form of trafficking it is important to ensure the ability to track weapons to their sources, there must be a common international system for the marking and tracing of weapons. Under current international law, states may adopt various different weapons marking systems, complicating the identification of the country-of-origin of a weapon [1]. However, these marking technologies are only good for those firearms that are recovered or captured. By instituting Intentional Firearm Microstamping (IFM) a technology that provides a link to a serial or production build number, by embossing the IFM code on to the cartridge that is fired and ejected at the scene. IFM will provide critical forensic intelligence in regions of conflict by helping to identify patterns, trafficking routes and ultimately shut down illicit arms sources and markets that fuel the violence associated with regional genocide, terrorism and/or insurgency groups within warzones. Intentional Firearm Microstamping (IFM) technology will provide a rapid and accurate cartridge-to-firearm identification process, enabling law enforcement both national and international to quickly pursue international arms dealers and other illicit firearm markets. Intentional Firearm Microstamping (IFM) is a patented technology and trace solution where intentional tooling marks are formed or micromachined onto firearms interior surfaces that come into contact or impact the surfaces of cartridge casings. The IFM tooling marks can take the form of alphanumeric codes or encoded geometric codes, such as a barcode. As the firearm is discharged the intentional tooling marks transfer a code to the cartridge casing before it is ejected out of the firearm. When recovered at the scene of an incident, the intentional firearm microstamped cartridge can indentify a specific firearm, without the need

  3. Unequal-Arm Interferometry and Ranging in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinto, Massimo

    2005-01-01

    Space-borne interferometric gravitational wave detectors, sensitive in the low-frequency (millihertz) band, will fly in the next decade. In these detectors the spacecraft-to-spacecraft light-traveltimes will necessarily be unequal, time-varying, and (due to aberration) have different time delays on up- and down-links. By using knowledge of the inter-spacecraft light-travel-times and their time evolution it is possible to cancel in post-processing the otherwise dominant laser phase noise and obtain a variety of interferometric data combinations sensitive to gravitational radiation. This technique, which has been named Time-Delay Interferometry (TDI), can be implemented with constellations of three or more formation-flying spacecraft that coherently track each other. As an example application we consider the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission and show that TDI combinations can be synthesized by properly time-shifting and linearly combining the phase measurements performed on board the three spacecraft. Since TDI exactly suppresses the laser noises when the delays coincide with the light-travel-times, we then show that TDI can also be used for estimating the time-delays needed for its implementation. This is done by performing a post-processing non-linear minimization procedure, which provides an effective, powerful, and simple way for making measurements of the inter-spacecraft light-travel-times. This processing technique, named Time-Delay Interferometric Ranging (TDIR), is highly accurate in estimating the time-delays and allows TDI to be successfully implemented without the need of a dedicated ranging subsystem.

  4. Bioavailability of Lead in Small Arms Range Soils

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    than ecological risk assessment drives the process , using tools such as the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model, which predicts...1998. USEPA. 1994. Guidance Manual for the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic Model for Lead in Children. United States Environmental Protection...ESTCP Cost and Performance Report ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY TECHNOLOGY CERTIFICATION PROGRAM U.S. Department of Defense (ER-0222) BIOAVAILABILITY OF

  5. 33 CFR 334.1420 - Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. 334.1420 Section 334.1420... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1420 Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of...

  6. 33 CFR 334.1420 - Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. 334.1420 Section 334.1420... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1420 Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of...

  7. 33 CFR 334.1420 - Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. 334.1420 Section 334.1420... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1420 Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of...

  8. 33 CFR 334.1420 - Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. 334.1420 Section 334.1420... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1420 Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of...

  9. A demonstration of arm-locking for LISA using the GRACE-FO Laser Ranging Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorpe, Ira; McKenzie, Kirk; Sutton, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    The mitigation of laser frequency noise is a key challenge for the design of space-based interferometric gravitational wave detectors such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) and its derivatives. Arm locking is novel technique of stabilizing the laser frequency using the LISA arms that has been studied through simulations and in the laboratory. The Laser Ranging Instrument (LRI) on the upcoming GRACE-FO geodesy mission provides an opportunity to perform an on-orbit demonstration of arm-locking in a configuration that is representative of LISA in many aspects. In this talk, I will describe a potential arm-locking experiment for GRACE-FO and present preliminary results from time-domain simulations being used to refine the proposed experiment design.

  10. Arm position influences the activation patterns of trunk muscles during trunk range-of-motion movements.

    PubMed

    Siu, Aaron; Schinkel-Ivy, Alison; Drake, Janessa Dm

    2016-10-01

    To understand the activation patterns of the trunk musculature, it is also important to consider the implications of adjacent structures such as the upper limbs, and the muscles that act to move the arms. This study investigated the effects of arm positions on the activation patterns and co-activation of the trunk musculature and muscles that move the arm during trunk range-of-motion movements (maximum trunk axial twist, flexion, and lateral bend). Fifteen males and fifteen females, asymptomatic for low back pain, performed maximum trunk range-of-motion movements, with three arm positions for axial twist (loose, crossed, abducted) and two positions for flexion and lateral bend (loose, crossed). Electromyographical data were collected for eight muscles bilaterally, and activation signals were cross-correlated between trunk muscles and the muscles that move the arms (upper trapezius, latissimus dorsi). Results revealed consistently greater muscle co-activation (higher cross-correlation coefficients) between the trunk muscles and upper trapezius for the abducted arm position during maximum trunk axial twist, while results for the latissimus dorsi-trunk pairings were more dependent on the specific trunk muscles (either abdominal or back) and latissimus dorsi muscle (either right or left side), as well as the range-of-motion movement. The findings of this study contribute to the understanding of interactions between the upper limbs and trunk, and highlight the influence of arm positions on the trunk musculature. In addition, the comparison of the present results to those of individuals with back or shoulder conditions may ultimately aid in elucidating underlying mechanisms or contributing factors to those conditions.

  11. SWAD: small arms fire warning and direction finding system: a passive IR concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahler, Moti; Danino, Meir

    2007-04-01

    A passive IR approach for stationary system is introduced providing protection to high value infrastructure and strategic areas by detecting and warnings against fire shot from rifles, carbines, sub-machines and various other small arms - SWAD. SWAD provides protected surroundings in which it remotely detects small arms fire. By analyzing their patterns, including duration and intensity, SWAD classifies the type of weapon being used.

  12. Tracking illegal small arms traffic across U.S. borders through the implementation of firearm microstamping to small arms and small arms exports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizotte, Todd E.; Ohar, Orest P.

    2009-05-01

    At a border security conference in August 2008, Michael Sullivan, acting director of Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives stated that, "Nearly all illegal firearms (90% to 95%) seized in Mexico come from the United States"[1]. When firearms are recovered at a crime scene, the firearms can be traced providing specific details on illegal firearm dealers or straw purchasers within the United States. Criminals or narco terrorist groups target US dealers to source firearms for drug cartels in Mexico and South America. Joint law enforcement programs between the US and Mexico law enforcement have been effective, however, in most cases the firearms that are seized are only a small fraction of the firearms trafficked across the United States border. A technology called Microstamping, when applied to newly manufactured firearms will provide further opportunities for tracing illegal firearms for law enforcement in the United States and across the globe. Microstamping is a patented technology and trace solution where intentional tooling marks are formed or micromachined onto firearms interior surfaces that come into contact or impact the surfaces of cartridge casings. The intentional tooling marks can take the form of alphanumeric codes or encoded geometric codes, such as a barcode. As the firearm is discharged the intentional tooling marks transfer a code to the cartridge casing before it is ejected out of the firearm. When recovered at the scene of an incident, the Microstamped cartridge can indentify a specific firearm, without the need to recover that firearm. Microstamping provides critical intelligence for use in border security operations and cross border violent drug related crime investigations. This paper will explain the key attributes of microstamping technology; including its potential benefits in border security operations and how data gathered from the technique can be used in geospatial information systems to identify illicit firearm sources

  13. Arm-Locking with the GRACE Follow-On Laser Ranging Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorpe, James Ira; Mckenzie, Kirk

    2016-01-01

    Arm-locking is a technique for stabilizing the frequency of a laser in an inter-spacecraft interferometer by using the spacecraft separation as the frequency reference. A candidate technique for future space-based gravitational wave detectors such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), arm-locking has been extensive studied in this context through analytic models, time-domain simulations, and hardware-in-the-loop laboratory demonstrations. In this paper we show the Laser Ranging Instrument flying aboard the upcoming Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment Follow-On (GRACE-FO) mission provides an appropriate platform for an on-orbit demonstration of the arm-locking technique. We describe an arm-locking controller design for the GRACE-FO system and a series of time-domain simulations that demonstrate its feasibility. We conclude that it is possible to achieve laser frequency noise suppression of roughly two orders of magnitude around a Fourier frequency of 1Hz with conservative margins on the system's stability. We further demonstrate that `pulling' of the master laser frequency due to fluctuating Doppler shifts and lock acquisition transients is less than 100MHz over several GRACE-FO orbits. These findings motivate further study of the implementation of such a demonstration.

  14. An agent-vector-host-environment model for controlling small arms and light weapons.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Andrew D; Sharma, Malika; Muggah, Robert

    2011-05-01

    Armed violence is a significant public health problem. It results in fatal and non-fatal injuries and disrupts social and economic processes that are essential to the health of individuals and communities. We argue that an agent-vector-host-environment model can be helpful in understanding and describing the availability and misuse of small arms and light weapons. Moreover, such a model can assist in identifying potential control points and in developing mitigation strategies. These concepts have been developed from analogous vector control programs and are applied to controlling arms to reduce their misuse. So-called 'denormalization' and 'de-legitimization' campaigns that focus on the vector - including the industry producing these commodities - can be based on the experience of public health in controlling tobacco use and exposure. This model can assist health professionals, civil society and governments in developing comprehensive strategies to limit the production, distribution and misuse of small arms and light weapons.

  15. Non-intrusive measurement of inner bore temperature of small arms using integrated ultrasonic transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lévesque, D.; Pimentel, R.; Lord, M.; Beauchesne, A.; Kruger, S. E.; Stowe, R.; Wong, F.; Monchalin, J.-P.

    2016-02-01

    Management of thermal input to a small arms weapons system is a significant design and operational constraint. A collaborative project was initiated with the objective to measure non-intrusively the inner bore barrel temperature of a small arm during actual firing. The approach uses integrated ultrasonic transducers (IUTs) and the velocity temperature dependence of the longitudinal wave propagating through thickness. IUT is successfully implemented on a small arm at 3 locations and results from several firing tests are presented. The small but systematic increase in ultrasonic time delay of less than 1 ns after each firing shot is reliably measured, in agreement with a simple 1D model of heat conduction, and measured temperature rises are consistent with the thicknesses at the different locations. The evaluation of the peak inner bore temperatures using IUT and their validation using eroding surface thermocouples at the same locations in the barrel are discussed.

  16. The Evaluation of Small Arms Effectiveness Criteria, Volume I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-05-01

    Firing Situations IV-30 Advance and Encounter IV-30 Base of Fire for Assault and Support of Advance IV-32 Assaulting Rifle Squad IV-35 Rifle and...Arrays Used for Base of Fire for Assault and Support[ of Advance Situations IV.32 Volume II D-1 Range Intervals for Detecting Infantry Targets Reported... base of fire against -. assault (rifle and machine gun squads) firing situation IV-33 IV-4 Range layout for support-of-advance firing situations (rifle

  17. 48 CFR 225.7703 - Acquisition of products or services other than small arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... in Support of Operations in Iraq or Afghanistan 225.7703 Acquisition of products or services other... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition of products or services other than small arms. 225.7703 Section 225.7703 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...

  18. Decommissioning and Environmental Cleanup of a Small Arms Training Facility - 13225

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Karen M.; Kmetz, Thomas F.; Smith, Sandra B.; Blount, Gerald C.

    2013-07-01

    US DOE performed a (CERCLA) non-time critical removal (NTCR) action at the Small Arms Training Area (SATA) Site Evaluation Area (SEA) located at the Savannah River Site (SRS), in Aiken, South Carolina. From 1951 to May 2010, the SATA was used as a small weapons practice and qualifying firing range. The SATA consisted of 870.1 ha (2,150 ac) of woodlands and open field, of which approximately 2.9 ha (7.3 ac) were used as a firing range. The SATA facility was comprised of three small arms ranges (one static and two interactive), storage buildings for supplies, a weapons cleaning building, and a control building. Additionally, a 113- m (370-ft) long earthen berm was used as a target backstop during live-fire exercises. The berm soils accumulated a large amount of spent lead bullets in the berm face during the facilities 59- years of operation. The accumulation of lead was such that soil concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) residential and industrial worker regional screening levels (RSLs). The RSL threshold values are based on standardized exposure scenarios that estimate contaminant concentrations in soil that the USEPA considers protective of humans over a lifetime. For the SATA facility, lead was present in soil at concentrations that exceed both the current residential (400 mg/kg) and industrial (800 mg/kg) RSLs. In addition, the concentration of lead in the soil exceeded the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) (40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 261.24) regulatory limit. The TCLP analysis simulates landfill conditions and is designed to determine the mobility of contaminants in waste. In addition, a principal threat source material (PTSM) evaluation, human health risk assessment (HHRA), and contaminant migration (CM) analysis were conducted to evaluate soil contamination at the SATA SEA. This evaluation determined that there were no contaminants present that constitute PTSM and the CM analysis revealed that no

  19. Impact of range safety requirements on electronic S and A (Safe and Arming Device) design

    SciTech Connect

    Dell, D.D.; Medina, A.J.

    1989-04-12

    The use of a tactical Safe and Arming Device (S and A) as a flight termination system for range safety creates some conflicting requirements on the design of the unit. The purpose for a flight termination system (FTS) is to detonate the weapon under any unforeseen set of circumstances, while the purpose of a tactical S and A Device is to prevent weapon detonation for all but the intended flight profile. With the advent of the all-electronic S and A, the ramifications of the dual requirements on the design of the system should be examined. As viewed from the S and A design vantage point, the issue of range safety is really a reliability issue and not a safety issue. The purpose of the range safety policies is to ensure that the unit used to terminate the flight of a missile will function under any expected or unforeseen set of circumstances which the missile might encounter during its flight. This calls for a flight termination system which must function with ultra-high reliability and with special design features which allow it to operate even under flight environments beyond the tactical requirements. Henceforth, when the issue of range safety is discussed, it will be done so under the guise of the reliability of the flight termination unit, be it the tactical S and A or not.

  20. Environmental Assessment for Expansion of Combat Arms Training and Maintenance Range Moody AFB, Georgia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    SAR) 18 . NUMBER OF PAGES 56 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39- 18 ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS AFB Air Force Base BMP Best Management Practice CATM...cleared range area 60 feet wide by 1,640 feet long , a 150-foot access road, and a small parking area; • a small increase (3.3 percent) in the

  1. Soldiers and marksmen under fire: monitoring performance with neural correlates of small arms fire localization

    PubMed Central

    Sherwin, Jason; Gaston, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Important decisions in the heat of battle occur rapidly and a key aptitude of a good combat soldier is the ability to determine whether he is under fire. This rapid decision requires the soldier to make a judgment in a fraction of a second, based on a barrage of multisensory cues coming from multiple modalities. The present study uses an oddball paradigm to examine listener ability to differentiate shooter locations from audio recordings of small arms fire. More importantly, we address the neural correlates involved in this rapid decision process by employing single-trial analysis of electroencephalography (EEG). In particular, we examine small arms expert listeners as they differentiate the sounds of small arms firing events recorded at different observer positions relative to a shooter. Using signal detection theory, we find clear neural signatures related to shooter firing angle by identifying the times of neural discrimination on a trial-to-trial basis. Similar to previous results in oddball experiments, we find common windows relative to the response and the stimulus when neural activity discriminates between target stimuli (forward fire: observer 0° to firing angle) vs. standards (off-axis fire: observer 90° to firing angle). We also find, using windows of maximum discrimination, that auditory target vs. standard discrimination yields neural sources in Brodmann Area 19 (BA 19), i.e., in the visual cortex. In summary, we show that single-trial analysis of EEG yields informative scalp distributions and source current localization of discriminating activity when the small arms experts discriminate between forward and off-axis fire observer positions. Furthermore, this perceptual decision implicates brain regions involved in visual processing, even though the task is purely auditory. Finally, we utilize these techniques to quantify the level of expertise in these subjects for the chosen task, having implications for human performance monitoring in combat. PMID

  2. Shoulder muscle activity in Parkinson's disease during multijoint arm movements across a range of speeds.

    PubMed

    Farley, Becky G; Sherman, Scott; Koshland, Gail F

    2004-01-01

    Bradykinesia is one of the primary symptoms of Parkinson disease and leads to significant functional limitations for patients. Single joint movement studies, that have investigated the mechanism of bradykinesia, suggest that several features of muscle activity are disrupted, including modulation of burst amplitude and duration, and the number of bursts. It has been proposed that it is the blending of these different burst deficits that collectively defines bradykinesia. This study adds two new approaches to the study of bradykinesia. First, we examined the features of shoulder muscle activities during multijoint arm movement in bradykinetic and control subjects, such that previously reported single joint hypotheses could be tested for generalized arm movement. Second, we directly manipulated speed while keeping distance constant for a large range of speeds. In this manner, we could compare individual trials of muscle activity between controls and subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) for movements matched for both speed and movement duration. Our results showed that while a multiple burst pattern of shoulder muscles was a common strategy for all subjects (young, elderly controls and PD), subjects with PD showed several burst abnormalities, including deficits in initial agonist burst amplitude and duration at both fast and slow speeds. Subjects with PD also (1) failed to produce a one-burst pattern at fast speeds and, instead, produced a predominance of multiple burst patterns and (2) showed a relationship between the number of burst deficits and the severity of disease. These results extend the findings of single joint studies to multi-joint and similarly indicate that a combination of burst modulation abnormalities correlate with bradykinesia and disease severity.

  3. Small terminal deletions of the long arm of chromosome 2: Two new cases

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, A.M.; Ellis, K.H.; Browne, C.E.; Barber, J.C.K.; Barker, M.; Kennedy, C.R.; Foley, H.; Patton, M.A.

    1994-12-01

    We report on 2 girls with small de novo terminal deletions of the long arm of chromosome 2 and breakpoints within q37. Four cases with similar or more extensive deletions have been previously reported in full. Hypotonia and psychomotor retardation were the only manifestations common to all 6 cases. The phenotype associated with small terminal 2q deletions is variable and clearly not always as mild as indicated in previous reports. The abnormality may also be more common than has been assumed. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. An automated robot arm system for small animal tissue biopsy under dual-image modality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. H.; Wu, T. H.; Lin, M. H.; Yang, C. C.; Guo, W. Y.; Wang, Z. J.; Chen, C. L.; Lee, J. S.

    2006-12-01

    The ability to non-invasively monitor cell biology in vivo is one of the most important goals of molecular imaging. Imaging procedures could be inter-subject performed repeatedly at different investigating stages; thereby need not sacrifice small animals during the entire study period. Thus, the ultimate goal of this study was to design a stereotactic image-guided system for small animals and integrated it with an automatic robot arm for in vivo tissue biopsy analysis. The system was composed of three main parts, including one small animal stereotactic frame, one imaging-fusion software and an automatic robot arm system. The system has been thoroughly evaluated with three components; the robot position accuracy was 0.05±0.02 mm, the image registration accuracy was 0.37±0.18 mm and the system integration was satisfactorily within 1.20±0.39 mm of error. From these results, the system demonstrated sufficient accuracy to guide the micro-injector from the planned delivery routes into practice. The entire system accuracy was limited by the image fusion and orientation procedures, due to its nature of the blurred PET imaging obtained from the small objects. The primary improvement is to acquire as higher resolution as possible the fused imaging for localizing the targets in the future.

  5. A method of approximating range size of small mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.

    1965-01-01

    In summary, trap success trends appear to provide a useful approximation to range size of easily trapped small mammals such as Peromyscus. The scale of measurement can be adjusted as desired. Further explorations of the usefulness of the plan should be made and modifications possibly developed before adoption.

  6. Small long-range alpha detector (LRAD) with computer readout

    SciTech Connect

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.; Butterfield, K.B.

    1991-10-01

    The small long-range alpha detector developed by N-2 was described in detail in the Los Alamos publication LA-12073-MS, Long-Range Alpha Detector,'' published in 1991. Since publication of that report, a computerized data acquisition system has been added to the LRAD detector. In addition to detailing the new data acquisition system, we discuss new data generated with the enhanced system, including measurements of (1) ultimate sensitivity; (2) detector linearity; (3) ion lifetime; and (4) characteristics. Furthermore, we have expanded our understanding of ion recombination and statistical noise effects in the LRAD and have addressed them here as well as several proposed applications. 6 refs., 30 figs.

  7. Small-Caliber Ammunition Identification Guide. Volume 1. Small-Arms Cartridges Up to 15 mm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-06-01

    the semirinmnnrd cartridge is also used in Type 89 fixed ard flexible aircraft machineguns. The practical L range of the 7.7x58 and 7.7x58 SiR...Nowe 2. •-L•J A267 A It, A273 SPAIN WEST GERMANY 4? Made by Manufactura • Madc by Manusar.-- Metalicas Madrilnas. 1957-1963. 1959-1964. Note 4. CAMBODIA

  8. Acoustical Evaluation of Combat Arms Firing Range, Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-23

    Combat Arms instructors wearing dual hearing protection. Note: Moldex Camo ear plugs have a noise reduction rating of 33 decibels A-Weighted (dBA...noise that is allowed to reach the ear shall not exceed 115 dBA, and the maximum level of impulse noise that is allowed to reach the ear shall not...weapon types. The second and third sets of data were the measured equivalent continuous noise level (Leq) at- ear unprotected and at- ear protected

  9. Microcalorimetry: Wide Temperature Range, High Field, Small Sample Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellman, Frances

    2000-03-01

    We have used Si micromachining techniques to fabricate devices for measuring specific heat or other calorimetric signals from microgram-quantity samples over a temperature range from 1 to 900K in magnetic fields to date up to 8T. The devices are based on a relatively robust silicon nitride membrane with thin film heaters and thermometers. Different types of thermometers are used for different purposes and in different temperature ranges. These devices are particularly useful for thin film samples (typically 200-400 nm thick at present) deposited directly onto the membrane through a Si micromachined evaporation mask. They have also been used for small single crystal samples attached by conducting grease or solder, and for powder samples dissolved in a solvent and dropped onto devices. The measurement technique used (relaxation method) is particularly suited to high field measurements because the thermal conductance can be measured once in zero field and is field independent, while the time constant of the relaxation does not depend on thermometer calibration. Present development efforts include designs which show promise for time-resolved calorimetry measurements of biological samples in small amounts of water. Samples measured to date include amorphous magnetic thin films (a-TbFe2 and giant negative magnetoresistance a-Gd-Si alloys), empty and filled fullerenes (C_60, K_3C_60, C_82, La@C_82, C_84, and Sc_2@C_84), single crystal manganites (La_1-xSr_xMnO_3), antiferromagnetic multilayers (NiO/CoO, NiO/MgO, and CoO/MgO), and nanoparticle magnetic materials (CoO in a Ag matrix).

  10. Localization of small arms fire using acoustic measurements of muzzle blast and/or ballistic shock wave arrivals.

    PubMed

    Lo, Kam W; Ferguson, Brian G

    2012-11-01

    The accurate localization of small arms fire using fixed acoustic sensors is considered. First, the conventional wavefront-curvature passive ranging method, which requires only differential time-of-arrival (DTOA) measurements of the muzzle blast wave to estimate the source position, is modified to account for sensor positions that are not strictly collinear (bowed array). Second, an existing single-sensor-node ballistic model-based localization method, which requires both DTOA and differential angle-of-arrival (DAOA) measurements of the muzzle blast wave and ballistic shock wave, is improved by replacing the basic external ballistics model (which describes the bullet's deceleration along its trajectory) with a more rigorous model and replacing the look-up table ranging procedure with a nonlinear (or polynomial) equation-based ranging procedure. Third, a new multiple-sensor-node ballistic model-based localization method, which requires only DTOA measurements of the ballistic shock wave to localize the point of fire, is formulated. The first method is applicable to situations when only the muzzle blast wave is received, whereas the third method applies when only the ballistic shock wave is received. The effectiveness of each of these methods is verified using an extensive set of real data recorded during a 7 day field experiment.

  11. Model for small arms fire muzzle blast wave propagation in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, Juan R.; Desai, Sachi V.

    2011-11-01

    Accurate modeling of small firearms muzzle blast wave propagation in the far field is critical to predict sound pressure levels, impulse durations and rise times, as functions of propagation distance. Such a task being relevant to a number of military applications including the determination of human response to blast noise, gunfire detection and localization, and gun suppressor design. Herein, a time domain model to predict small arms fire muzzle blast wave propagation is introduced. The model implements a Friedlander wave with finite rise time which diverges spherically from the gun muzzle. Additionally, the effects in blast wave form of thermoviscous and molecular relaxational processes, which are associated with atmospheric absorption of sound were also incorporated in the model. Atmospheric absorption of blast waves is implemented using a time domain recursive formula obtained from numerical integration of corresponding differential equations using a Crank-Nicholson finite difference scheme. Theoretical predictions from our model were compared to previously recorded real world data of muzzle blast wave signatures obtained by shooting a set different sniper weapons of varying calibers. Recordings containing gunfire acoustical signatures were taken at distances between 100 and 600 meters from the gun muzzle. Results shows that predicted blast wave slope and exponential decay agrees well with measured data. Analysis also reveals the persistency of an oscillatory phenomenon after blast overpressure in the recorded wave forms.

  12. Report of the M16 Rifle Review Panel. Volume 2, Appendix 1. Small Arms Test Policies and Procedures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1968-06-01

    Policies and Procedures Table of Contents A. Introduction B. Test Policies and Procedures As Applied to the M16, 1962-1966 C. Current Policies...SMALL ARMS TEST POLICIES AND PROCEDURES A. Introduction The purpose of this appendix Is to describe changes that have been made In the testing...smooth introduction of commer- cially developed items into the Army. Responsibilities for Testing No one DA staff agency was responsible for all

  13. Robotic arm

    DOEpatents

    Kwech, Horst

    1989-04-18

    A robotic arm positionable within a nuclear vessel by access through a small diameter opening and having a mounting tube supported within the vessel and mounting a plurality of arm sections for movement lengthwise of the mounting tube as well as for movement out of a window provided in the wall of the mounting tube. An end effector, such as a grinding head or welding element, at an operating end of the robotic arm, can be located and operated within the nuclear vessel through movement derived from six different axes of motion provided by mounting and drive connections between arm sections of the robotic arm. The movements are achieved by operation of remotely-controllable servo motors, all of which are mounted at a control end of the robotic arm to be outside the nuclear vessel.

  14. Small Arms Range Training Area Environmental Screening-Level Assessment at Fort Jackson, South Carolina

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    Pursuant to Section 305(b) of the Federal Clean Water Act, FY 2000. 22. SCDHEC, Watershed Water Quality Management Strategy: Saluda- Edisto Basin , June...July 1992. 33. SCDHEC Bureau of Water, Watershed Water Quality Assessment - Saluda River Basin , Technical Report No. 005-98, December 1998. 62...to southeasterly direction across Fort Jackson towards two major discharge points, the Congaree River to the south and southwest, and the Wateree

  15. Biochar-attenuated desorption of heavy metals in small arms range soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stabilization (capping/solidification) and dilution (e.g., washing, chelate-assisted phytoremediation) represent non-removal and removal remediation technologies for heavy metal contaminated soils. Biochar is stable in soil, and contains carboxyl and other surface ligands; these properties are usef...

  16. Retention of heavy metals by carboxyl functional groups of biochars in small arms range soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term effectiveness of biochar for heavy metal stabilization depends upon biochar’s sorptive property and recalcitrance in soil. To understand the role of carboxyl functional groups on heavy metal stabilization, cottonseed hull biochar and flax shive steam activated biochar having low O/C ratio...

  17. Lead Free Frangible Ammunition Exposure at United States Air Force Small Arms Firing Ranges, 2005 - 2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    Allergic rhinitis , unspecified 477.9 Other upper respiratory disease 478 Other diseases of nasal cavity and sinuses 478.1 Bronchitis, unspecified 490...it was noted at Columbus that personnel had reported eye and nasal irritation. The ventilation system at Columbus was also determined to be...0 3 0 4 0 5 0 Nitric Oxide 30 2 0 3 0 3 0 3 0 Nitrogen Dioxide 5.6 2 0 3 0 3 0 5 0 Phosgene 0.4 1 1

  18. Passive Reactive Berm (PRBerm) to Provide Low Maintenance Lead Containment at Active Small Arms Firing Ranges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    biological oxygen demand Ca calcium CAFB Charleston Air Force Base Cd cadmium CEC cation exchange capacity COTS commercial off-the-shelf Cr...Pb salts . This technology application is known as a Passive Reactive Berm (PRBerm™). The purpose of the technology demonstration is to provide...precipitation of Pb salts (e.g., carbonates, sulfates, sulfides, and phosphates). Generally, the mobility of dissolved Pb is controlled by pH

  19. Passive Reactive Berm (PRBerm) to Provide Low Maintenance Lead Containment at Active Small Arms Firing Ranges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    ppm Parts per million PRBerm Passive Reactive Berm PVC Polyvinyl Chloride QA Quality assurance QC Quality control RO Reverse Osmosis Water RO...1.1.2.2 TRAPPS TRAPPS™ is a COTS product, a formulation of apatite and other insoluble phosphate mineral, in which lead is precipitated as stable...the TTF. TRAPPS™ is a COTS product, a formulation of apatite and other insoluble phosphate mineral, in which lead is precipitated as stable

  20. Shock-Absorbing Concrete (SACON) Bullet Traps for Small Arms Ranges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-09-01

    Procedure (TCLP) levels that exceeded 5 mg/L, which would result in a hazardous waste classification based on lead toxicity . However, all samples taken...not be classified as a hazardous waste based on lead toxicity . In the absence of time and weathering, the samples exhibited leaching characteristics...that would result in a hazardous waste classification based on lead toxicity . This occurred in samples collected during accelerated testing at ATC. 18

  1. Environmental Assessment of Lead at Camp Edwards, Massachusetts, Small Arms Ranges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    organo -lead complexes are most favored at alkaline, not acidic, pH. As dis- cussed in Appendix B, aluminum, iron, and manganese minerals present in...have a low clay content. In contrast, when dissolved lead exists preferentially as an uncharged ion pair or negatively charged hydroxyl complex ...oxygen- rich and oxygen-poor environments, lead can bind to mineral surfaces directly and can form adsorption complexes on surfaces of quartz, humus

  2. Treatment and Management of Closed or Inactive Small Arms Firing Ranges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    Asphalt emulsion batching – Encapsulation ............................................................................84 Testing...96 Asphalt solidification studies...88 Figure 46. Experimental approach for asphalt and phosphate studies

  3. Comparative Analysis of Airborne Chemical Exposure to Air Force Small Arms Range Instructors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    pressures and heart irregularities (USDHHS, 1992). An animal study involving guinea pigs documented in 1986 showed similar cardiovascular effects (USDHHS...hormones (above 4.5 milli-international units per liter for adults) can lead to thyroid failure and may ultimately affect all body functions ( Nissl ...Bioenvironmental Engineering Flights dating back to 1986 . Results indicate eight-hour TWA lead exposures directly associated with M16 firing operations at

  4. Application of TREECS to Small Arms Firing Ranges at Fort Leonard Wood, MO

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    underlie FLW form karst features. Sinkholes, caves, and springs are evident throughout FLW, but are most prevalent in the cantonment area and the...tributaries also drain FLW into the Big Piney River, many of which are losing streams due to permeable sub-soils and karst bedrock conditions. Big Piney

  5. Predicting Noise Impact in the Vicinity of Small-Arms Ranges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-10-01

    C. Johnson. BRA : AIIM: Robert Jarrett zL US Army Engineer Division Wright-PatterSon AFO. CHi 45433 US Army Medical Bicengineering Europe R&D...T aa i tto USAm eoeia eerhLbMiddle East (Rear) AIIM: Ray Glass/Code 661 AII,11: Robert I. Cagg. Jr. ATIM: MEDED-I Building Ml ~a Box 577 ATIM: Chief...101 Engineering A 81dn EPA estinhouse Electrical forp ATN: AM-471/C. Caccavar ATTN: ’Jim B. MorelandATTs: AW.471/H. Nozick ATTN: AV-371/A. Konheim

  6. Fate and Transport of Tungsten at Camp Edwards Small Arms Ranges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    quality control RPD Relative percent difference RSD Relative Standard Deviation SD Serial dilution SEM Scanning electron microscope TCLP Toxicity...characteristic leach procedure TOC Total organic carbon XRD X-ray diffraction XRF X-ray fluorescence ERDC TR-07-5 ix PREFACE This report was...specific conductance, and organic carbon (Method 9060). Similarly, 10 samples of soil pore-water were ana- lyzed for major cations, specific conductance

  7. Small Engine Technology. Task 4: Advanced Small Turboshaft Compressor (ASTC) Performance and Range Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Jeff L.; Delaney, Robert A.

    1997-01-01

    This contact had two main objectives involving both numerical and experimental investigations of a small highly loaded two-stage axial compressor designated Advanced Small Turboshaft Compressor (ASTC) winch had a design pressure ratio goal of 5:1 at a flowrate of 10.53 lbm/s. The first objective was to conduct 3-D Navier Stokes multistage analyses of the ASTC using several different flow modelling schemes. The second main objective was to complete a numerical/experimental investigation into stall range enhancement of the ASTC. This compressor was designed wider a cooperative Space Act Agreement and all testing was completed at NASA Lewis Research Center. For the multistage analyses, four different flow model schemes were used, namely: (1) steady-state ADPAC analysis, (2) unsteady ADPAC analysis, (3) steady-state APNASA analysis, and (4) steady state OCOM3D analysis. The results of all the predictions were compared to the experimental data. The steady-state ADPAC and APNASA codes predicted similar overall performance and produced good agreement with data, however the blade row performance and flowfield details were quite different. In general, it can be concluded that the APNASA average-passage code does a better job of predicting the performance and flowfield details of the highly loaded ASTC compressor.

  8. Variable and Asymmetric Range of Enslaving: Fingers Can Act Independently over Small Range of Flexion

    PubMed Central

    van den Noort, Josien C.; van Beek, Nathalie; van der Kraan, Thomas; Veeger, DirkJan H. E. J.; Stegeman, Dick F.; Veltink, Peter H.; Maas, Huub

    2016-01-01

    The variability in the numerous tasks in which we use our hands is very large. However, independent movement control of individual fingers is limited. To assess the extent of finger independency during full-range finger flexion including all finger joints, we studied enslaving (movement in non-instructed fingers) and range of independent finger movement through the whole finger flexion trajectory in single and multi-finger movement tasks. Thirteen young healthy subjects performed single- and multi-finger movement tasks under two conditions: active flexion through the full range of movement with all fingers free to move and active flexion while the non-instructed finger(s) were restrained. Finger kinematics were measured using inertial sensors (PowerGlove), to assess enslaving and range of independent finger movement. Although all fingers showed enslaving movement to some extent, highest enslaving was found in adjacent fingers. Enslaving effects in ring and little finger were increased with movement of additional, non-adjacent fingers. The middle finger was the only finger affected by restriction in movement of non-instructed fingers. Each finger showed a range of independent movement before the non-instructed fingers started to move, which was largest for the index finger. The start of enslaving was asymmetrical for adjacent fingers. Little finger enslaving movement was affected by multi-finger movement. We conclude that no finger can move independently through the full range of finger flexion, although some degree of full independence is present for smaller movements. This range of independent movement is asymmetric and variable between fingers and between subjects. The presented results provide insight into the role of finger independency for different types of tasks and populations. PMID:27992598

  9. The AMRDEC Process for Analyzing Initiation Effectiveness Against Explosive Filled Small Arms Threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Dedra

    2011-06-01

    The mortar threats, due to their small size and robust structure, present difficult challenges to new and existing systems for acquisition, tracking, intercept and defeat. Defeat must come through either the fuze or detonation of the explosive. Direct detonation of the explosive payload at the point of intercept via fragment or direct missile impact is considered a more achievable alternative. A pre-detonation of the fuze due to impact can produce similar results. However, fuzes can be a small percentage of the target area. Another possible outcome is the fuze would simply be duded. However, a dudded mortar can be indistinguishable from a non-dudded mortar until it strikes the ground. A robust process must have the capability of analyzing multiple solution types. An extensive database of single fragment impacts against threats with high explosive payloads was utilized to develop and modify models to predict explosive reaction. The goal was to create models or equations that could be incorporated into fast running simulation tools to access potential lethal mechanisms over a wide range of battlespace conditions quickly. A methodology to ascertain impact effectiveness on a typical generic threat fuze was also developed separately to be included in the simulation tools. Computational efforts and trade studies can be conducted with fast running simulation tools whose accuracy had been validated with significant test data.

  10. Pick-up, transport and release of a molecular cargo using a small-molecule robotic arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassem, Salma; Lee, Alan T. L.; Leigh, David A.; Markevicius, Augustinas; Solà, Jordi

    2016-02-01

    Modern-day factory assembly lines often feature robots that pick up, reposition and connect components in a programmed manner. The idea of manipulating molecular fragments in a similar way has to date only been explored using biological building blocks (specifically DNA). Here, we report on a wholly artificial small-molecule robotic arm capable of selectively transporting a molecular cargo in either direction between two spatially distinct, chemically similar, sites on a molecular platform. The arm picks up/releases a 3-mercaptopropanehydrazide cargo by formation/breakage of a disulfide bond, while dynamic hydrazone chemistry controls the cargo binding to the platform. Transport is controlled by selectively inducing conformational and configurational changes within an embedded hydrazone rotary switch that steers the robotic arm. In a three-stage operation, 79-85% of 3-mercaptopropanehydrazide molecules are transported in either (chosen) direction between the two platform sites, without the cargo at any time fully dissociating from the machine nor exchanging with other molecules in the bulk.

  11. Pick-up, transport and release of a molecular cargo using a small-molecule robotic arm.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Salma; Lee, Alan T L; Leigh, David A; Markevicius, Augustinas; Solà, Jordi

    2016-02-01

    Modern-day factory assembly lines often feature robots that pick up, reposition and connect components in a programmed manner. The idea of manipulating molecular fragments in a similar way has to date only been explored using biological building blocks (specifically DNA). Here, we report on a wholly artificial small-molecule robotic arm capable of selectively transporting a molecular cargo in either direction between two spatially distinct, chemically similar, sites on a molecular platform. The arm picks up/releases a 3-mercaptopropanehydrazide cargo by formation/breakage of a disulfide bond, while dynamic hydrazone chemistry controls the cargo binding to the platform. Transport is controlled by selectively inducing conformational and configurational changes within an embedded hydrazone rotary switch that steers the robotic arm. In a three-stage operation, 79-85% of 3-mercaptopropanehydrazide molecules are transported in either (chosen) direction between the two platform sites, without the cargo at any time fully dissociating from the machine nor exchanging with other molecules in the bulk.

  12. Safety and efficacy of nivolumab and standard chemotherapy drug combination in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a four arms phase Ib study

    PubMed Central

    Kanda, S.; Goto, K.; Shiraishi, H.; Kubo, E.; Tanaka, A.; Utsumi, H.; Sunami, K.; Kitazono, S.; Mizugaki, H.; Horinouchi, H.; Fujiwara, Y.; Nokihara, H.; Yamamoto, N.; Hozumi, H.; Tamura, T.

    2016-01-01

    Background The human IgG4 monoclonal antibody nivolumab targets programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and promotes antitumor response by blocking the interaction of PD-1 with its ligands. This single-center phase Ib study investigated the tolerability, safety, and pharmacokinetics of nivolumab combined with standard chemotherapy in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients and methods Patients who had stage IIIB without indication for definitive radiotherapy, stage IV, or recurrent NSCLC were eligible. Regimens were nivolumab 10 mg/kg + gemcitabine/cisplatin (arm A), pemetrexed/cisplatin (arm B), paclitaxel/carboplatin/bevacizumab (arm C), or docetaxel (arm D). Regimens A, B, and D were repeated every 3 weeks for up to four cycles and regimen C was repeated for up to six cycles; nivolumab alone (arm A), with pemetrexed (arm B), bevacizumab (arm C), or docetaxel (arm D) was continued every 3 weeks as maintenance therapy until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was evaluated during the first treatment cycle. Results As of March 2014, six patients were enrolled in each arm. The combination of nivolumab 10 mg/kg and chemotherapy was well tolerated. DLT was observed in only one patient in arm A (alanine aminotransferase increased). Select adverse events (those with a potential immunologic cause) of any grade were observed in six, four, six, and five patients in arms A, B, C, and D, respectively. Three, three, six, and one patient achieved partial response while median progression-free survival was 6.28, 9.63 months, not reached, and 3.15 months in arms A, B, C, and D, respectively. Conclusions Combination of nivolumab 10 mg/kg and chemotherapy showed an acceptable toxicity profile and encouraging antitumor activity in patients with advanced NSCLC. Clinical trials number Japanese Pharmaceutical Information Center Clinical Trials Information (JapicCTI)-132071. PMID:27765756

  13. A comparison of ARMS and mutation specific IHC for common activating EGFR mutations analysis in small biopsy and cytology specimens of advanced non small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueqing; Wang, Guoqing; Hao, Yueyue; Xu, Yinhong; Zhang, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    We have compared mutation analysis by Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant-specific antibodies for their ability to detect two common activating EGFR mutations in a cohort of 115 advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), including cytology material, core biopsy, and bronchoscopic biopsies. Assessment of EGFR mutation status was performed by using antibodies and ARMS assay specific to the two major forms of mutant EGFR, exon 19 deletion E746-A750 (c.2235_2249del15 or c.2236_2250del15, p. Glu746_Ala750 del) and exon 21 L858R point mutation (c.2573T>G, p.Leu858Arg). In this study the optimal buffer for antigen retrieval was sodium citrate (pH 6.0). Q score was used to evaluate the specific mutant EGFR proteins expression. Validation using clinical material showed deletions in exon 19 were detected in 19.1% and L858R mutation in 20% of all cases by ARMS assay. A cutoff value of score 1 was used as positive by IHC. No wild type cases were immuno-reactive. The antibodies performed well in cytology, core biopsies and bronchoscopic biopsies. There were only one false positive case using L858R IHC (sensitivity 100%, specificity 98.5%, positive predictive value 96%, negative predictive value 100%). All 23 E746-A750 exon 19 deletions identified by mutation analysis were positive by IHC. The sensitivity of exon 19 IHC for E746-A750 was 100%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100% and negative predictive value 100%. The result of the IHC stains was finely correlated with mutations status determined by ARMS assay. Although inferior to molecular genetic analysis of the EGFR gene, IHC is highly specific and sensitive for the targeted EGFR mutations. The antibodies are likely to be of clinical value in cases especially where limited tumor material is available, or in situations where molecular genetic analysis is not readily available.

  14. Small Caliber Ranges in New York and New Engand (Active Use Only).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    Table 3 lists, by state, the type of ranges (small caliber weapon use categories of pistol, .22 caliber rifle, M-16/ 5 56mm rifle, and M-60/i.62mm light...FIRING RANGE RANGE: UNIFORM 1 FIRING POINTS: 5 PRIMARY USE: BASIC 25 METER FIRING, ZEROING RANGE WEAPONS AUTH; M-14 ORD/AMMO AUTH: .30 CALIBER M-16...FIRING RANGE RANGE: UNIORM 2 FIRING POINTS: 5 PRIMARY USE: BASIC 25 METER FIRING, ZEROING RANGE WEAPONS AUTH: M-14 ORD/AMMO AUTH: .30 CALIBER M-16

  15. Generating Variable Wind Profiles and Modeling Their Effects on Small-Arms Trajectories

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    Pairwise correlation coefficients between anemometers .......................5 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 1 1...of crosswind data obtained from an anemometer array at Fort Benning in December 2012 and investigated several methodologies to simulate the observed...variation of crosswind with range, including treating each anemometer independently, autoregressive models of order p (where the previous p

  16. Stellar science from a blue wavelength range. A possible design for the blue arm of 4MOST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, C. J.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Seifert, W.; Koch, A.; Xu, W.; Caffau, E.; Christlieb, N.; Korn, A. J.; Lind, K.; Sbordone, L.; Ruchti, G.; Feltzing, S.; de Jong, R. S.; Barden, S.

    2015-09-01

    From stellar spectra, a variety of physical properties of stars can be derived. In particular, the chemical composition of stellar atmospheres can be inferred from absorption line analyses. These provide key information on large scales, such as the formation of our Galaxy, down to the small-scale nucleosynthesis processes that take place in stars and supernovae. By extending the observed wavelength range toward bluer wavelengths, we optimize such studies to also include critical absorption lines in metal-poor stars, and allow for studies of heavy elements (Z\\ensuremath{g}e 38) whose formation processes remain poorly constrained. In this context, spectrographs optimized for observing blue wavelength ranges are essential, since many absorption lines at redder wavelengths are too weak to be detected in metal-poor stars. This means that some elements cannot be studied in the visual-redder regions, and important scientific tracers and science cases are lost. The present era of large public surveys will target millions of stars. It is therefore important that the next generation of spectrographs are designed such that they cover a wide wavelength range and can observe a large number of stars simultaneously. Only then, we can gain the full information from stellar spectra, from both metal-poor to metal-rich ones, that will allow us to understand the aforementioned formation scenarios in greater detail. Here we describe the requirements driving the design of the forthcoming survey instrument 4MOST, a multi-object spectrograph commissioned for the ESO VISTA 4 m-telescope. While 4MOST is also intended for studies of active galactic nuclei, baryonic acoustic oscillations, weak lensing, cosmological constants, supernovae and other transients, we focus here on high-density, wide-area survey of stars and the science that can be achieved with high-resolution stellar spectroscopy. Scientific and technical requirements that governed the design are described along with a thorough

  17. Effects of corridors on home range sizes and interpatch movements of three small mammal species.

    SciTech Connect

    Mabry, Karen, E.; Barrett, Gary, W.

    2002-04-30

    Mabry, K.E., and G.W. Barrett. 2002. Effects of corridors on home range sizes and interpatch movements of three small mammal species. Landscape Ecol. 17:629-636. Corridors are predicted to benefit populations in patchy habitats by promoting movement, which should increase population densities, gene flow, and recolonization of extinct patch populations. However, few investigators have considered use of the total landscape, particularly the possibility of interpatch movement through matrix habitat, by small mammals. This study compares home range sizes of 3 species of small mammals, the cotton mouse, old field mouse and cotton rat between patches with and without corridors. Corridor presence did not have a statistically significant influence on average home range size. Habitat specialization and sex influenced the probability of an individual moving between 2 patches without corridors. The results of this study suggest that small mammals may be more capable of interpatch movement without corridors than is frequently assumed.

  18. Distribution, chemical speciation, and mobility of lead and antimony originating from small arms ammunition in a coarse-grained unsaturated surface sand.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Jeffrey; Sjöström, Jan; Skyllberg, Ulf; Hägglund, Lars

    2010-01-01

    This study quantified the heavy metal contamination caused by firing 500 high-velocity 7.62-mm jacketed Swedish military rounds. Contamination of solid and aqueous phases was studied, with Pb and Sb being the two contaminants of primary interest. The distribution of the Pb and Sb were measured in terms of depth of penetration in sand and grain size distribution of the bullet particles. The Pb- and Sb-contaminated sand was then used as a source material in two bench-scale unsaturated lysimeters to measure the transport of Pb and Sb through two coarse-grained sands, which were taken from the berms on two Swedish military small arms ranges. The lysimeters were subjected to an infiltration cycle that reproduced spring snowmelt, which is the most significant infiltration event of the year in northern climates. The levels of mobile Pb and Sb were monitored in the effluent from the lysimeters. Extended X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy analysis was performed on the contaminated sands to determine Pb speciation before and after leaching. Ninety-three percent of the mass of bullets was found in the top 30 cm of sand. Lead oxide was the predominant species of Pb before and after leaching. Transport of Pb was small, with aqueous concentrations remaining stable at <2 microg L(-1). Antimony was far more mobile, with solute breakthrough occurring between 5 and 14 d and concentrations rising to over 125 microg L(-1) within 1 month.

  19. Physical forms of contemporary small-arms propellants and their forensic value.

    PubMed

    Haag, Lucien C

    2005-03-01

    Intermediate gunshot wounds typically produce powder tattooing and/or stippling of the skin. The size and density of such powder-induced injuries around an entry wound are used to estimate the separation distance between the muzzle of the responsible firearm and the entry site through test firings at selected muzzle-to-target distances, with ammunition comparable to the injury-producing round and the evidence firearm. The foregoing is well known to forensic pathologists who document and describe such powder patterns in gunshot victims and firearm examiners who customarily produce the test-fired powder patterns for subsequent range-of-fire determinations. Less known, particularly to pathologists, is the considerable variety in forms of modern nitrocellulose propellants, their effects on powder-induced injuries to human skin, and the value of these varied physical forms in the reconstruction of shooting incidents. These factors are the subject of this article.

  20. Dynamic range in small-world networks of Hodgkin-Huxley neurons with chemical synapses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batista, C. A. S.; Viana, R. L.; Lopes, S. R.; Batista, A. M.

    2014-09-01

    According to Stevens' law the relationship between stimulus and response is a power-law within an interval called the dynamic range. The dynamic range of sensory organs is found to be larger than that of a single neuron, suggesting that the network structure plays a key role in the behavior of both the scaling exponent and the dynamic range of neuron assemblies. In order to verify computationally the relationships between stimulus and response for spiking neurons, we investigate small-world networks of neurons described by the Hodgkin-Huxley equations connected by chemical synapses. We found that the dynamic range increases with the network size, suggesting that the enhancement of the dynamic range observed in sensory organs, with respect to single neurons, is an emergent property of complex network dynamics.

  1. Towards biodiversity hotspots effective for conserving mammals with small geographic ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrara, Rodolfo; San Blas, Germán; Agrain, Federico; Roig-Juñent, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of using global biodiversity hotspots for conservation purposes is to protect taxa with small geographic ranges because these are highly vulnerable to extinction. However, the extent to what different hotspots types are effective for meeting this goal remains controversial because hotspots have been previously defined as either the richest or most threatened and richest sites in terms of total, endemic or threatened species. In this regard, the use of species richness to set conservation priorities is widely discussed because strategies focused on this diversity measure tend to miss many of the taxa with small geographic ranges. Here we use data on global terrestrial mammal distributions to show that, hotspots of total species, endemism and threat defined in terms of species richness are effective in including 27%, 29% and 11% respectively, of the taxa with small geographic ranges. Whilst, the same hotspot types defined in terms of a simple diversity index, which is a function of species richness and range-size rarity, include 68%, 44% and 90% respectively, of these taxa. In addition, we demonstrate that index hotspot types are highly efficient because they conserve 79% of mammal species (21% more species than richness hotspot types), with 59% of species shared by three hotspot types (31% more than richness hotspot types). These results suggest that selection of different diversity measures to define hotspots may strongly affect the achievement of conservation goals.

  2. Range determination for generating point clouds from airborne small footprint LiDAR waveforms.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yuchu; Vu, Tuong Thuy; Ban, Yifang; Niu, Zheng

    2012-11-05

    This paper presents a range determination approach for generating point clouds from small footprint LiDAR waveforms. Waveform deformation over complex terrain area is simulated using convolution. Drift of the peak center position is analyzed to identify the first echo returned by the illuminated objects in the LiDAR footprint. An approximate start point of peak in the waveform is estimated and adopted as the indicator of range calculation; range correction method is proposed to correct pulse widening over complex terrain surface. The experiment was carried out on small footprint LiDAR waveform data acquired by RIEGL LMS-Q560. The results suggest that the proposed approach generates more points than standard commercial products; based on field measurements, a comparative analysis between the point clouds generated by the proposed approach and the commercial software GeocodeWF indicates that: 1). the proposed approach obtained more accurate tree heights; 2). smooth surface can be achieved with low standard deviation. In summary, the proposed approach provides a satisfactory solution for range determination in estimating 3D coordinate values of point clouds, especially for correcting range information of waveforms containing deformed peaks.

  3. Small high-speed dynamic target at close range laser active imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jun; Wang, Du-yue; Zhang, Zheng; Zhang, Yue; Dai, Qin

    2016-11-01

    In the shooting range measuring, all-weather, high speed, unattended, the new concepts such as the remote control is gradually applied. In this paper, a new type of low cost range measurement system, using FPGA + MCU as electronic control system of laser active illumination and high-speed CMOS camera, data to the rear zone by using optical fiber communications, transmission and realizes the remote control of unmanned, due to the low cost of front-end equipment, can be used as consumables replacement at any time, combined with distributed layout principle, can maximum limit close to the measured with mutilate ability goal, thus to achieve the goal of small high-speed dynamic imaging from close range.

  4. Climate Change Risks and Conservation Implications for a Threatened Small-Range Mammal Species

    PubMed Central

    Morueta-Holme, Naia; Fløjgaard, Camilla; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2010-01-01

    Background Climate change is already affecting the distributions of many species and may lead to numerous extinctions over the next century. Small-range species are likely to be a special concern, but the extent to which they are sensitive to climate is currently unclear. Species distribution modeling, if carefully implemented, can be used to assess climate sensitivity and potential climate change impacts, even for rare and cryptic species. Methodology/Principal Findings We used species distribution modeling to assess the climate sensitivity, climate change risks and conservation implications for a threatened small-range mammal species, the Iberian desman (Galemys pyrenaicus), which is a phylogenetically isolated insectivore endemic to south-western Europe. Atlas data on the distribution of G. pyrenaicus was linked to data on climate, topography and human impact using two species distribution modeling algorithms to test hypotheses on the factors that determine the range for this species. Predictive models were developed and projected onto climate scenarios for 2070–2099 to assess climate change risks and conservation possibilities. Mean summer temperature and water balance appeared to be the main factors influencing the distribution of G. pyrenaicus. Climate change was predicted to result in significant reductions of the species' range. However, the severity of these reductions was highly dependent on which predictor was the most important limiting factor. Notably, if mean summer temperature is the main range determinant, G. pyrenaicus is at risk of near total extinction in Spain under the most severe climate change scenario. The range projections for Europe indicate that assisted migration may be a possible long-term conservation strategy for G. pyrenaicus in the face of global warming. Conclusions/Significance Climate change clearly poses a severe threat to this illustrative endemic species. Our findings confirm that endemic species can be highly vulnerable to

  5. Distinct Short-Range Order Is Inherent to Small Amorphous Calcium Carbonate Clusters (<2 nm)

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Shengtong; Chevrier, Daniel M.; Zhang, Peng; Gebauer, Denis; Cölfen, Helmut

    2016-09-09

    Amorphous intermediate phases are vital precursors in the crystallization of many biogenic minerals. While inherent short-range orders have been found in amorphous calcium carbonates (ACCs) relating to different crystalline forms, it has never been clarified experimentally whether such orders already exist in very small clusters less than 2 nm in size. Here, we studied the stability and structure of 10,12-pentacosadiynoic acid (PCDA) protected ACC clusters with a core size of ca. 1.4 nm consisting of only seven CaCO3 units. Ligand concentration and structure are shown to be key factors in stabilizing the ACC clusters. More importantly, even in such small CaCO3 entities, a proto-calcite short-range order can be identified but with a relatively high degree of disorder that arises from the very small size of the CaCO3 core. Our findings support the notion of a structural link between prenucleation clusters, amorphous intermediates, and final crystalline polymorphs, which appears central to the understanding of polymorph selection.

  6. Amended Ballistic Sand Studies to Provide Low Maintenance Lead Containment at Active Small Arms Firing Range Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    respective owners. The findings of this report are not to be construed as an official Department of the Army position unless so designated by other...9 2 Experimental Design ...16 Lysimeter design and operation

  7. Demonstration of Physical Separation/Leaching Methods for the Remediation of Heavy Metals Contaminated Soils at Small Arms Ranges.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-01

    large sample sizes or in pilot scale to design an appropriately sized , full scale unit. However, some operations may be suf- ficiently novel or...Environmental plant is designed to use these liquids in lieu of an additional demand on the public water supply. BDM/ABQ-ART-00654-96 2 0...a number of by-products, one of which can be the gen- eration of hazardous waste. ♦ The potential exists to change the grain size distribution of

  8. Passive Reactive Berm to Provide Low Maintenance Lead Containment at Active Small Arms Firing Ranges: Field Demonstration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    based material), alone and in combination with a 5% thermally treated fish bone Apatite™. For the CAFB PRBerm™, storm water runoff and leachate water...42  Partition Coefficient (Kd...charge) typically exhibit high soil/water distribution coefficients (Kd values) for metals such as Pb and Cu, and may thus be effective in retarding

  9. A miniature powerplant for very small, very long range autonomous aircraft. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tad McGeer

    1999-09-29

    The authors have developed a new piston engine offering unprecedented efficiency for a new generation of miniature robotic aircraft. Following Phase 1 preliminary design in 1996--97, they have gone forward in Phase 2 to complete detail design, and are nearing completion of a first batch of ten engines. A small-engine dynamometer facility has been built in preparation for the test program. Provisions have been included for supercharging, which will allow operation at ceilings in the 10,000 m range. Component tests and detailed analysis indicate that the engine will achieve brake-specific fuel consumption well below 300 gm/kWh at power levels of several hundred watts. This level of performance opens the door to development of tabletop-sized aircraft having transpacific range and multi-day endurance, which will offer extraordinary new capabilities for meteorology, geomagnetic, and a variety of applications in environmental monitoring and military operations.

  10. Photographic identification of individuals of a free-ranging, small terrestrial vertebrate.

    PubMed

    Treilibs, Claire E; Pavey, Chris R; Hutchinson, Mark N; Bull, C Michael

    2016-02-01

    Recognition of individuals within an animal population is central to a range of estimates about population structure and dynamics. However, traditional methods of distinguishing individuals, by some form of physical marking, often rely on capture and handling which may affect aspects of normal behavior. Photographic identification has been used as a less-invasive alternative, but limitations in both manual and computer-automated recognition of individuals are particularly problematic for smaller taxa (<500 g). In this study, we explored the use of photographic identification for individuals of a free-ranging, small terrestrial reptile using (a) independent observers, and (b) automated matching with the Interactive Individual Identification System (I(3)S Pattern) computer algorithm. We tested the technique on individuals of an Australian skink in the Egernia group, Slater's skink Liopholis slateri, whose natural history and varied scale markings make it a potentially suitable candidate for photo-identification. From 'photographic captures' of skink head profiles, we designed a multi-choice key based on alternate character states and tested the abilities of observers - with or without experience in wildlife survey - to identify individuals using categorized test photos. We also used the I(3)S Pattern algorithm to match the same set of test photos against a database of 30 individuals. Experienced observers identified a significantly higher proportion of photos correctly (74%) than those with no experience (63%) while the I(3)S software correctly matched 67% as the first ranked match and 83% of images in the top five ranks. This study is one of the first to investigate photo identification with a free-ranging small vertebrate. The method demonstrated here has the potential to be applied to the developing field of camera-traps for wildlife survey and thus a wide range of survey and monitoring applications.

  11. 33 CFR 334.20 - Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft practice mining range area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft practice mining range area. 334.20 Section 334.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.20 Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft practice mining range area. (a)...

  12. 33 CFR 334.20 - Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft practice mining range area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft practice mining range area. 334.20 Section 334.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.20 Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft practice mining range area. (a)...

  13. 33 CFR 334.20 - Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft practice mining range area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft practice mining range area. 334.20 Section 334.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.20 Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft practice mining range area. (a)...

  14. 33 CFR 334.20 - Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft practice mining range area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft practice mining range area. 334.20 Section 334.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.20 Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft practice mining range area. (a)...

  15. Operation Sun Beam, Shot Small Boy. Project Officer's report - Project 7. 8. Arming and fuzing component test

    SciTech Connect

    Taslitt, N.

    1985-09-01

    The objectives of this project were to (1) determine whether the radiation from a nuclear weapon can disable various arming and fuzing components by causing permanent damage; (2) determine whether transient nuclear radiation can induce an operating fuze to malfunction; and (3) compare nuclear weapon radiation effects with those produced by various radiation simulators. Data obtained revealed that none of the inertial components were detrimentally affected. The electronic components were severely degraded but would have satisfactorily accomplished their tactical functions. No electromagnetic effects were detected.

  16. Humans and seasonal climate variability threaten large-bodied coral reef fish with small ranges

    PubMed Central

    Mellin, C.; Mouillot, D.; Kulbicki, M.; McClanahan, T. R.; Vigliola, L.; Bradshaw, C. J. A.; Brainard, R. E.; Chabanet, P.; Edgar, G. J.; Fordham, D. A.; Friedlander, A. M.; Parravicini, V.; Sequeira, A. M. M.; Stuart-Smith, R. D.; Wantiez, L.; Caley, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs are among the most species-rich and threatened ecosystems on Earth, yet the extent to which human stressors determine species occurrences, compared with biogeography or environmental conditions, remains largely unknown. With ever-increasing human-mediated disturbances on these ecosystems, an important question is not only how many species can inhabit local communities, but also which biological traits determine species that can persist (or not) above particular disturbance thresholds. Here we show that human pressure and seasonal climate variability are disproportionately and negatively associated with the occurrence of large-bodied and geographically small-ranging fishes within local coral reef communities. These species are 67% less likely to occur where human impact and temperature seasonality exceed critical thresholds, such as in the marine biodiversity hotspot: the Coral Triangle. Our results identify the most sensitive species and critical thresholds of human and climatic stressors, providing opportunity for targeted conservation intervention to prevent local extinctions. PMID:26839155

  17. Mid-Range Coil Array for Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Small Animals

    SciTech Connect

    Solis, S. E.; Tomasi, D.; Rodriguez, A. O.

    2008-08-11

    The vast majority of articles on MRI RF coils over the past two decades have focused on large coils, where sample losses dominate, or on micro-coils, where sample and capacitor losses are negligible. Few have addressed the mid-range coils, seen in the majority of small-animal applications, where all the sources of loss are important, for example, mouse brain and body coils from 125 to 750 MHz. We developed a four-saddle coil array for magnetic resonance imaging of small animals. The saddle coil elements in the array were evenly distributed to cover the rat's head. The coil array was tuned to the resonant frequency of 170 MHz. Due to the close proximity of the coil elements, it was necessary to decouple the coil array using nonmagnetic trimmers and, it was operated in the transceiver mode and quadrature-driven. To test the coil array performance at high field, phantom images were acquired with our saddle coil array and standard pulse sequences on a research-dedicated 4 Tesla scanner. Ex vivo brain images of a rat were also acquired, and proved the feasibility of the scaled version of a saddle coil array and, its compatibility with standard pulse sequences when used in a high field magnetic resonance imager.

  18. Behavioral and physiological responses to fruit availability of spider monkeys ranging in a small forest fragment

    PubMed Central

    Rimbach, Rebecca; Link, Andrés; Montes-Rojas, Andrés; Di Fiore, Anthony; Heistermann, Michael; Heymann, Eckhard W

    2014-01-01

    Numerous animal species currently experience habitat loss and fragmentation. This might result in behavioral and dietary adjustments, especially because fruit availability is frequently reduced in fragments. Food scarcity can result in elevated physiological stress levels, and chronic stress often has detrimental effects on individuals. Some animal species exhibit a high degree of fission–fusion dynamics, and theory predicts that these species reduce intragroup feeding competition by modifying their subgroup size according to resource availability. Until now, however, there have been few studies on how species with such fission–fission dynamics adjust their grouping patterns and social behavior in small fragments or on how food availability influences their stress levels. We collected data on fruit availability, feeding behavior, stress hormone levels (measured through fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGCM)), subgroup size, and aggression for two groups of brown spider monkeys (Ateles hybridus) in a small forest fragment in Colombia and examined whether fruit availability influences these variables. Contrary to our predictions, spider monkeys ranged in smaller subgroups, had higher FGCM levels and higher aggression rates when fruit availability was high compared to when it was low. The atypical grouping pattern of the study groups seems to be less effective at mitigating contest competition over food resources than more typical fission–fusion patterns. Overall, our findings illustrate that the relationship between resource availability, grouping patterns, aggression rates, and stress levels can be more complex than assumed thus far. Additional studies are needed to investigate the long-term consequences on the health and persistence of spider monkeys in fragmented habitats. PMID:24820229

  19. A Small Range Six-Axis Accelerometer Designed with High Sensitivity DCB Elastic Element.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhibo; Liu, Jinhao; Yu, Chunzhan; Zheng, Yili

    2016-09-21

    This paper describes a small range six-axis accelerometer (the measurement range of the sensor is ±g) with high sensitivity DCB (Double Cantilever Beam) elastic element. This sensor is developed based on a parallel mechanism because of the reliability. The accuracy of sensors is affected by its sensitivity characteristics. To improve the sensitivity, a DCB structure is applied as the elastic element. Through dynamic analysis, the dynamic model of the accelerometer is established using the Lagrange equation, and the mass matrix and stiffness matrix are obtained by a partial derivative calculation and a conservative congruence transformation, respectively. By simplifying the structure of the accelerometer, a model of the free vibration is achieved, and the parameters of the sensor are designed based on the model. Through stiffness analysis of the DCB structure, the deflection curve of the beam is calculated. Compared with the result obtained using a finite element analysis simulation in ANSYS Workbench, the coincidence rate of the maximum deflection is 89.0% along the x-axis, 88.3% along the y-axis and 87.5% along the z-axis. Through strain analysis of the DCB elastic element, the sensitivity of the beam is obtained. According to the experimental result, the accuracy of the theoretical analysis is found to be 90.4% along the x-axis, 74.9% along the y-axis and 78.9% along the z-axis. The measurement errors of linear accelerations ax, ay and az in the experiments are 2.6%, 0.6% and 1.31%, respectively. The experiments prove that accelerometer with DCB elastic element performs great sensitive and precision characteristics.

  20. A Small Range Six-Axis Accelerometer Designed with High Sensitivity DCB Elastic Element

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhibo; Liu, Jinhao; Yu, Chunzhan; Zheng, Yili

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a small range six-axis accelerometer (the measurement range of the sensor is ±g) with high sensitivity DCB (Double Cantilever Beam) elastic element. This sensor is developed based on a parallel mechanism because of the reliability. The accuracy of sensors is affected by its sensitivity characteristics. To improve the sensitivity, a DCB structure is applied as the elastic element. Through dynamic analysis, the dynamic model of the accelerometer is established using the Lagrange equation, and the mass matrix and stiffness matrix are obtained by a partial derivative calculation and a conservative congruence transformation, respectively. By simplifying the structure of the accelerometer, a model of the free vibration is achieved, and the parameters of the sensor are designed based on the model. Through stiffness analysis of the DCB structure, the deflection curve of the beam is calculated. Compared with the result obtained using a finite element analysis simulation in ANSYS Workbench, the coincidence rate of the maximum deflection is 89.0% along the x-axis, 88.3% along the y-axis and 87.5% along the z-axis. Through strain analysis of the DCB elastic element, the sensitivity of the beam is obtained. According to the experimental result, the accuracy of the theoretical analysis is found to be 90.4% along the x-axis, 74.9% along the y-axis and 78.9% along the z-axis. The measurement errors of linear accelerations ax, ay and az in the experiments are 2.6%, 0.6% and 1.31%, respectively. The experiments prove that accelerometer with DCB elastic element performs great sensitive and precision characteristics. PMID:27657089

  1. Long Range Hydroacoustic Propagation from Small Explosives to Large Tectonic Events (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degroot-Hedlin, C. D.

    2009-12-01

    A wide variety of hydroacoustic signals have been detected near Diego Garcia, in the Indian Ocean, and at other hydro-acoustic stations operated by the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization. The durations range from several seconds for signals from explosive shots in temperate latitudes, tens of seconds for explosions within the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), several minutes for small earthquakes near the continental shelf, to over half an hour for propagation from a large tsunamigenic event, for source-receiver distances of several thousands of kilometers. The primary mechanisms used to explain the variability in duration are the existence of a distributed source region, source size, and dispersion. Travel time, and hence dispersion is computed using normal modes; bottom interacting higher order modes are neglected. For the explosive shots, the observed and predicted travel times and signal dispersion agree to within 2 s, under the assumptions that propagation is adiabatic and follows a geodesic path. Dispersion is predicted and observed to increase with propagation distance through the ACC. The duration of the underwater earthquakes along the continental shelf are independent of source size, and significantly exceeds the dispersion times computed for the given location, indicating a distributed source region; the azimuths derived from the hydro-acoustic signals further corroborate this. Finally, the long duration of the acoustic signal from the tsunamigenic event is used to derive the velocity and direction of rupture.

  2. An abundance of small exoplanets around stars with a wide range of metallicities.

    PubMed

    Buchhave, Lars A; Latham, David W; Johansen, Anders; Bizzarro, Martin; Torres, Guillermo; Rowe, Jason F; Batalha, Natalie M; Borucki, William J; Brugamyer, Erik; Caldwell, Caroline; Bryson, Stephen T; Ciardi, David R; Cochran, William D; Endl, Michael; Esquerdo, Gilbert A; Ford, Eric B; Geary, John C; Gilliland, Ronald L; Hansen, Terese; Isaacson, Howard; Laird, John B; Lucas, Philip W; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Morse, Jon A; Robertson, Paul; Shporer, Avi; Stefanik, Robert P; Still, Martin; Quinn, Samuel N

    2012-06-13

    The abundance of heavy elements (metallicity) in the photospheres of stars similar to the Sun provides a 'fossil' record of the chemical composition of the initial protoplanetary disk. Metal-rich stars are much more likely to harbour gas giant planets, supporting the model that planets form by accumulation of dust and ice particles. Recent ground-based surveys suggest that this correlation is weakened for Neptunian-sized planets. However, how the relationship between size and metallicity extends into the regime of terrestrial-sized exoplanets is unknown. Here we report spectroscopic metallicities of the host stars of 226 small exoplanet candidates discovered by NASA's Kepler mission, including objects that are comparable in size to the terrestrial planets in the Solar System. We find that planets with radii less than four Earth radii form around host stars with a wide range of metallicities (but on average a metallicity close to that of the Sun), whereas large planets preferentially form around stars with higher metallicities. This observation suggests that terrestrial planets may be widespread in the disk of the Galaxy, with no special requirement of enhanced metallicity for their formation.

  3. Small-scale studies of roasted ore waste reveal extreme ranges of stable mercury isotope signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Robin S.; Wiederhold, Jan G.; Jew, Adam D.; Brown, Gordon E.; Bourdon, Bernard; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2014-07-01

    Active and closed Hg mines are significant sources of Hg contamination to the environment, mainly due to large volumes of mine waste material disposed of on-site. The application of Hg isotopes as source tracer from such contaminated sites requires knowledge of the Hg isotope signatures of different materials potentially released to the environment. Previous work has shown that calcine, the waste residue of the on-site ore roasting process, can exhibit distinct Hg isotope signatures compared with the primary ore. Here, we report results from a detailed small-scale study of Hg isotope variations in calcine collected from the closed New Idria Hg mine, San Benito County, CA, USA. The calcine samples exhibited different internal layering features which were investigated using optical microscopy, micro X-ray fluorescence, micro X-ray absorption spectroscopy (μ-XAS), and stable Hg isotope analysis. Significant Fe, S, and Hg concentration gradients were found across the different internal layers. Isotopic analyses revealed an extreme variation with pronounced isotopic gradients across the internal layered features. Overall, δ202Hg (±0.10‰, 2 SD) describing mass-dependent fractionation (MDF) ranged from -5.96 to 14.49‰, which is by far the largest range of δ202Hg values reported for any environmental sample. In addition, Δ199Hg (±0.06‰, 2 SD) describing mass-independent fractionation (MIF) ranged from -0.17 to 0.21‰. The μ-XAS analyses suggested that cinnabar and metacinnabar are the dominant Hg-bearing phases in the calcine. Our results demonstrate that the incomplete roasting of HgS ores in Hg mines can cause extreme mass-dependent Hg isotope fractionations at the scale of individual calcine pieces with enrichments in both light and heavy Hg isotopes relative to the primary ore signatures. This finding has important implications for the application of Hg isotopes as potential source tracers for Hg released to the environment from closed Hg mines and

  4. Debris flows from small catchments of the Ma Ha Tuak Range, metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorn, Ronald I.

    2010-08-01

    Debris flows debauch from tiny but steep mountain catchments throughout metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona, USA. Urban growth in the past half-decade has led to home construction directly underneath hundreds of debris-flow channels, but debris flows are not recognized as a potential hazard at present. One of the first steps in a hazard assessment is to determine occurrence rates. The north flank of the Ma Ha Tuak Range, just 10 km from downtown Phoenix, was selected to determine the feasibility of using the varnish microlaminations (VML) method to date every debris-flow levee from 127 catchment areas. Only 152 of the 780 debris-flow levees yielded VML ages in a first round of sampling; this high failure rate is due to erosion of VML by microcolonial fungi. The temporal pattern of preserved debris-flow levees indicates anomalously high production of debris flows at about 8.1 ka and about 2.8 ka, corresponding to Northern Hemisphere climatic anomalies. Because many prior debris flows are obliterated by newer events, the minimum overall occurrence rates of 1.3 debris flows per century for the last 60 ka, 2.2 flows/century for the latest Pleistocene, and 5 flows/century for the last 8.1 ka has little meaning in assessment of a contemporary hazard. This is because newer debris flows have obliterated an unknown number of past deposits. More meaningful to a hazards analysis is the estimate that 56 flows have occurred in the last 100 years on the north side of the range, an estimate that is consistent with direct observations of three small debris flows resulting events from a January 18-22, 2010 storm producing 70 mm of precipitation in the Ma Ha Tuak Range, and a 500 m long debris flow in a northern metropolitan Phoenix location that received over 150 mm of precipitation in this same storm. These findings support the need for a more extensive hazard assessment of debris flows in metropolitan Phoenix.

  5. Hearing Protection Evaluation for the Combat Arms Earplug at Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    James Lovejoy

    2007-03-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is managed by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA) for the Department of Energy. The INL Protective Security Forces (Pro Force) are involved in training exercises that generate impulse noise by small arms fire. Force-on-force (FOF) training exercises that simulate real world scenarios require the Pro Force to engage the opposition force (OPFOR) while maintaining situational awareness through verbal communications. The Combat Arms earplug was studied to determine if it provides adequate hearing protection in accordance with the requirements of MIL-STD-1474C/D. The Combat Arms earplug uses a design that allows continuous noise through a critical orifice while effectively attenuating high-energy impulse noise. The earplug attenuates noise on a non linear scale, as the sound increases the attenuation increases. The INL studied the effectiveness of the Combat Arms earplug with a Bruel & Kjaer (B&K) head and torso simulator used with a selection of small arms to create impulse sound pressures. The Combat Arms earplugs were inserted into the B&K head and torso ears, and small arms were then discharged to generate the impulse noise. The INL analysis of the data indicates that the Combat Arms earplug does provide adequate protection, in accordance with MIL-STD-1474C/D, when used to protect against impulse noise generated by small arms fire using blank ammunition. Impulse noise generated by small arms fire ranged from 135–160 dB range unfiltered un-weighted. The Combat Arms earplug attenuated the sound pressure 10–25 dB depending on the impulse noise pressure. This assessment is consistent with the results of previously published studies on the Combat Arms earplug (see Section 5, “References”). Based upon these result, the INL intends to use the Combat Arms earplug for FOF training exercises.

  6. Infants' Auditory Enumeration: Evidence for Analog Magnitudes in the Small Number Range

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    vanMarle, Kristy; Wynn, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Vigorous debate surrounds the issue of whether infants use different representational mechanisms to discriminate small and large numbers. We report evidence for ratio-dependent performance in infants' discrimination of small numbers of auditory events, suggesting that infants can use analog magnitudes to represent small values, at least in the…

  7. First Experiences Using Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Volcano Observation in the Visible Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buschmann, M.; Krüger, L.; Bange, J.

    2007-05-01

    Many of the most active volcanoes in the world are located in Middle and South America. While permanently installed sensors for seismicity give reliable supervision of volcanic activities, they lack the possibility to determine occurrence and extent of surface activities. Both from the point of science and civil protection, visible documentation of activities is of great interest. While satellites and manned aircraft already offer many possibilities, they also have disadvantages like delayed or poor image data availability or high costs. The Institute of Aerospace Systems of the Technical University of Braunschweig, in collaboration with the spin-off company Mavionics, developed a family of extremely small and lightweight Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), with the smallest aircraft weighting only 550~g (19~ounces) at a wing span of 50 cm (20~inch). These aircraft are operating completely automatically, controlled by a highly miniaturized autopilot system. Flight mission is defined by a list of GPS waypoints using a conventional notebook. While in radio range, current position and status of the aircraft is displayed on the notebook and waypoints can easily be changed by the user. However, when radio connection is not available, the aircraft operates on its on, completing the flight mission automatically. This greatly increases the operating range of the system. Especially for the purpose of volcano observation in South America, the aircraft Carolo~P330 was developed, weighting 5~kg (11~pounds) at a wing span of 3.3~m ( 11~ft). The whole system can be easily carried by car and the electric propulsion system avoids handling of flammable liquids. The batteries can be recharged in the field. Carolo~P330 has an endurance of up to 90~minutes at a flight speed of 25~m/s, giving it a maximum range of 67 km (41~miles). It was especially designed to operate under harsh conditions. The payload is a digital still camera, which delivers aerial images with a resolution of up to 8

  8. A comparison of certain methods of measuring ranges of small mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.

    1954-01-01

    SUMMARY: A comparison is made of different methods of determining size of home range from grid trapping data. Studies of artificial populations show that a boundary strip method of measuring area and an adjusted range length give sizes closer to the true range than do minimum area or observed range length methods. In simulated trapping of artificial populations, the known range size increases with successive captures until a level is reached that approximates the true range. The same general pattern is followed whether traps are visited at random or traps nearer the center of the range are favored; but when central traps are favored the curve levels more slowly. Range size is revealed with fewer captures when traps are far apart than when they are close together. The curve levels more slowly for oblong ranges than for circular ranges of the same area. Fewer captures are required to determine range length than to determine range area. Other examples of simulated trapping in artificial populations are used to provide measurements of distances from the center of activity and distances between successive captures. These are compared with similar measurements taken from Peromyscus trapping data. The similarity of range sizes found in certain field comparisons of area trapping, colored scat collections, and trailing is cited. A comparison of home range data obtained by area trapping and nest box studies is discussed. It is shown that when traps are set too far apart to include two or more in the range of each animal, calculation of average range size gives biased results. The smaller ranges are not expressed and cannot be included in the averages. The result is that range estimates are smaller at closer spacings and greater at wider spacings, purely as a result of these erroneous calculations and not reflecting any varying behavior of the animals. The problem of variation in apparent home range with variation in trap spacing is considered further by trapping in an

  9. Interior ballistics of small arms: Particular problems. Part 1: Heat transfer and cook-off phenomen in a small caliber weapon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meysmans, R.

    1986-01-01

    The first results obtained since beginning in 1983 are summarized. Induction periods and critical temperature, measured during salvo-firing in a small caliber weapon are compared with the values theoretically predicted by means of a mathematical model, describing as correct as possible what happens in the combustion chamber. The determination of some physico-chemical parameters, to be used in the mathematical model, is discussed.

  10. Accuracy of Range Restriction Correction with Multiple Imputation in Small and Moderate Samples: A Simulation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfaffel, Andreas; Spiel, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    Approaches to correcting correlation coefficients for range restriction have been developed under the framework of large sample theory. The accuracy of missing data techniques for correcting correlation coefficients for range restriction has thus far only been investigated with relatively large samples. However, researchers and evaluators are…

  11. Small intestinal volvulus in a free-ranging female dugong (Dugong dugon).

    PubMed

    Gillespie, A; Burgess, E; Lanyon, J; Owen, H

    2011-07-01

    An adult female dugong (Dugong dugon) was found dead and floating in Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. This animal was found to have a 360° mesenteric volvulus with infarction of the associated segment of small intestine, and fibrinous peritonitis. Mortality was attributed to the volvulus and its sequelae. The cause was not apparent on gross or histological examination.

  12. Convective stability of turbulent Boussinesq flow in the dissipative range and flow around small particles.

    PubMed

    Fouxon, Itzhak; Leshansky, Alexander

    2014-11-01

    We consider arbitrary, possibly turbulent, Boussinesq flow which is smooth below a dissipative scale l_{d}. It is demonstrated that the stability of the flow with respect to growth of fluctuations with scale smaller than l_{d} leads to a nontrivial constraint. That involves the dimensionless strength of fluctuations of the gradients of the scalar in the direction of gravity Fl and the Rayleigh scale L depending on the Rayleigh number Ra, the Nusselt number Nu, and l_{d}. The constraint implies that the stratified fluid at rest, which is linearly stable, develops instability in the limit of large Ra. This limits observability of solution for the flow around small swimmer in quiescent stratified fluid that has closed streamlines at scale L [A. M. Ardekani and R. Stocker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 084502 (2010)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.105.084502]. Correspondingly, to study the flow at scale L one has to take turbulence into account. We demonstrate that the resulting turbulent flow around small particles or swimmers can be described by a scalar integro-differential advection-diffusion equation. Describing the solutions, we show that closed streamlines persist with finite probability. Our results seem to be the necessary basis in understanding flows around small particles and swimmers in natural marine environments.

  13. Stable isotopes of C and S as indicators of habitat use by fish in small oregon Coast range streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are using stable isotopes of C, N, O and S (H planned) to study the ecology of coho salmon in streams of the Oregon Coast Range. We have found isotopes of C and, surprisingly, S to be very useful in discriminating rearing habitats in our small streams. We found 13C values ...

  14. Free-Ranging Rhesus Monkeys Spontaneously Individuate and Enumerate Small Numbers of Non-Solid Portions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Justin N.; Hauser, Marc D.; Glynn, David D.; Barner, David

    2008-01-01

    Fundamental questions in cognitive science concern the origins and nature of the units that compose visual experience. Here, we investigate the capacity to individuate and store information about non-solid portions, asking in particular whether free-ranging rhesus monkeys ("Macaca mulatta") quantify portions of a non-solid substance presented in…

  15. Wide-range structurally optimized channel for monitoring the certified power of small-core reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshelev, A. S.; Kovshov, K. N.; Ovchinnikov, M. A.; Pikulina, G. N.; Sokolov, A. B.

    2016-12-01

    The results of tests of a prototype version of a channel for monitoring the certified power of small-core reactors performed at the BR-K1 reactor at the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics are reported. An SNM-11 counter and commercial KNK-4 and KNK-3 compensated ion chambers were used as neutron detectors in the tested channel, and certified NCMM and CCMM measurement modules controlled by a PC with specialized software were used as measuring instruments. The specifics of metrological assurance of calibration of the channel in the framework of reactor power monitoring are discussed.

  16. Small landslide types and controls in glacial deposits: Lower Skagit river drainage, northern cascade range, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heller, P.L.

    1981-01-01

    Observations of 167 small, shallow landslides spanning a 22-year period on extensively logged slopes of Quaternary terraces in the lower Skagit and Baker Valleys, Washington, shows that there is a relationship between the common slope failures in this area and the slope angle, stratigraphy, and logging practices. Landslide frequency increases upvalley, as do mean annual precipitation and the frequency of perched water tables. Debris slides are most common, occur on steep slopes (>50%) composed of sand and gravel, and are most abundant in areas previously logged by the clear-cut method. Debris flows occur on shallower slopes (>30%) where the stratigraphy leads to perched water tables. Debris flows larger than 600 m2 in area appear to be unrelated to logging practices. Slump flows, described here for the first time, occur on similar slope angles and stratigraphic situations as debris flows. They differ mainly by the presence of semiconsolidated material, usually till, at the slide head. Where till is breached-commonly along road cuts-water infiltration is increased, saturating underlying fine-grained deposits, which then fail by debris flowage. Secondary slumping of till happens when the slope steepens during debris flow failure. Small landslides surrounding Lake Shannon may contribute up to 80% of the total particulate matter yield to the fluvial system at present, increasing lake sedimentation by a rate of 5 mm/yr. ?? 1981 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  17. Improving Photovoltaic Performance of the Linear A-Ar-A-type Small Molecules with Diketopyrropyrrole Arms by Tuning the Linkage Position of the Anthracene Core.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiongwei; Xiao, Manjun; Chen, Jianhua; Wang, Xiangdong; Peng, Wenhong; Duan, Linrui; Tan, Hua; Lei, Gangtie; Yang, Renqiang; Zhu, Weiguo

    2015-08-26

    Two isomeric A-Ar-A-type small molecules of DPP2An(9,10) and DPP2An(2,6), were synthesized with two acceptor arms of diketopyrropyrroles (DPP) and a planar aryl hydrocarbon core of the different substituted anthracene (An), respectively. Their thermal stability, crystallinity, optoelectronic, and photovoltaic performances were investigated. Significantly red-shifted absorption profile and higher HOMO level were observed for the DPP2An(2,6) with 2,6-substituted anthracene relative to the DPP2An(9,10) with 9,10-substituted anthracene, as the former exhibited better planarity and a larger conjugate system. As a result, the solution-processing solar cells based on DPP2An(2,6) and PC71BM (w/w,1:1) displayed remarkably increased power conversion efficiency of 5.44% and short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 11.90 mA/cm(2) under 1% 1,8-diiodooctane additive. The PCE and Jsc values were 3.7 and 2.9 times those of the optimized DPP2An(9,10)-based cells, respectively. This work demonstrates that changing the linkage position of the anthracene core in the A-Ar-A-type SMs can strongly improve the photovoltaic properties in organic solar cells.

  18. Small-angle X-ray Solution Scattering Study of the Multi-aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetase Complex Reveals an Elongated and Multi-armed particle*

    PubMed Central

    Dias, José; Renault, Louis; Pérez, Javier; Mirande, Marc

    2013-01-01

    In animal cells, nine aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are associated with the three auxiliary proteins p18, p38, and p43 to form a stable and conserved large multi-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complex (MARS), whose molecular mass has been proposed to be between 1.0 and 1.5 MDa. The complex acts as a molecular hub for coordinating protein synthesis and diverse regulatory signal pathways. Electron microscopy studies defined its low resolution molecular envelope as an overall rather compact, asymmetric triangular shape. Here, we have analyzed the composition and homogeneity of the native mammalian MARS isolated from rabbit liver and characterized its overall internal structure, size, and shape at low resolution by hydrodynamic methods and small-angle x-ray scattering in solution. Our data reveal that the MARS exhibits a much more elongated and multi-armed shape than expected from previous reports. The hydrodynamic and structural features of the MARS are large compared with other supramolecular assemblies involved in translation, including ribosome. The large dimensions and non-compact structural organization of MARS favor a large protein surface accessibility for all its components. This may be essential to allow structural rearrangements between the catalytic and cis-acting tRNA binding domains of the synthetases required for binding the bulky tRNA substrates. This non-compact architecture may also contribute to the spatiotemporal controlled release of some of its components, which participate in non-canonical functions after dissociation from the complex. PMID:23836901

  19. On the physics of momentum in ballistics: can the human body be displaced or knocked down by a small arms projectile?

    PubMed

    Karger, B; Kneubuehl, B P

    1996-01-01

    Shooting incidents are often portrayed as resulting in a sometimes violent backwards displacement of the victim. This opinion is also not infrequently held by expert witnesses. The physical force responsible for this would be momentum (mass x velocity). The physics of momentum in ballistic injury is explained in detail. The maximum momentum transferred from different small arms projectiles including large calibre rifles and a 12-gauge shotgun only results in a backwards motion of a 80 kg target body of 0.01-0.18 m/s, which is negligible compared to the velocity of a pedestrian (1-2 m/s). Furthermore, counterbalance is constantly maintained by neurophysiological reflexes. So the effect of the momentum transferred from the missile is virtually zero and there is no backwards motion of the person shot. Empirical evidence verifying these calculations can be obtained from hunting big game, from human gunshot victims and from a video documentary demonstrating the lack of any backwards motion of a person wearing body armour after hits from a centre fire rifle. So the alleged backwards hurling of a person shot is nothing but a myth which should be refuted not only because it is incorrect but also because it can result in miscarriages of justice.

  20. Arm CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - arm; Computed axial tomography scan - arm; Computed tomography scan - arm; CT scan - arm ... scanners can perform the exam without stopping.) A computer creates separate images of the arm area, called ...

  1. Small-scale kinematic dynamo and non-dynamo in inertial-range turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyink, Gregory L.; Neto, Antônio F.

    2010-02-01

    We investigate the Lagrangian mechanism of the kinematic 'fluctuation' magnetic dynamo in a turbulent plasma flow at small magnetic Prandtl numbers. The combined effect of turbulent advection and plasma resistivity is to carry infinitely many field lines to each space point, with the resultant magnetic field at that point given by the average over all the individual line vectors. As a consequence of the roughness of the advecting velocity, this remains true even in the limit of zero resistivity. We show that the presence of the dynamo effect requires sufficient angular correlation of the passive line vectors that arrive simultaneously at the same space point. We illustrate this in detail for the Kazantsev-Kraichnan model of the kinematic dynamo with a Gaussian advecting velocity that is spatially rough and white noise in time. In the regime where dynamo action fails, we also obtain the precise rate of decay of the magnetic energy. These exact results for the model are obtained by a generalization of the 'slow-mode expansion' of Bernard, Gawȩdzki and Kupiainen to non-Hermitian evolution. Much of our analysis applies also to magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.

  2. Small Arms Handbook WS - 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-01-01

    single and multiple moving targets. sound targets And a combination of sound and multipla mc~ving targets. Tests are conducted at tile end of these...therefore, are Lalled "active" syste ms . ’A~.tve ’ nfrarcd systents are ous~.e;stible to dote~~tion by a properly equipped enemy. d. Filtered infrared tight...Sim u e nt n% ,IiI withl the d vic’ how i it’ F iu re 5. ms ytmI*n isdI -rhis ~oxwit M.14 or M. Rifle $-anl be ugcq an all Rifie sqa~i TA"I’w c of F

  3. Kinematic Tests of Small Arms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-15

    the changes. 14. ABSTRACT This TOP describes methods to determine the dynamic performance of selected weapon components to aid in correcting design...components to aid in correcting design problems. This is done by (a) recording the displacement of gun components relative to time and distance through

  4. Small Ruminant Lentiviruses (SRLVs) Break the Species Barrier to Acquire New Host Range

    PubMed Central

    Minardi da Cruz, Juliano Cezar; Singh, Dinesh Kumar; Lamara, Ali; Chebloune, Yahia

    2013-01-01

    Zoonotic events of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) from non-human primates to humans have generated the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), one of the most devastating infectious disease of the last century with more than 30 million people dead and about 40.3 million people currently infected worldwide. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 and HIV-2), the two major viruses that cause AIDS in humans are retroviruses of the lentivirus genus. The genus includes arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) and Maedi-Visna virus (MVV), and a heterogeneous group of viruses known as small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs), affecting goat and sheep. Lentivirus genome integrates into the host DNA, causing persistent infection associated with a remarkable diversity during viral replication. Direct evidence of mixed infections with these two closely related SRLVs was found in both sheep and goats. The evidence of a genetic continuum with caprine and ovine field isolates demonstrates the absence of an efficient species barrier preventing cross-species transmission. In dual-infected animals, persistent infections with both CAEV and MVV have been described, and viral chimeras have been detected. This not only complicates animal trade between countries but favors the risk that highly pathogenic variants may emerge as has already been observed in the past in Iceland and, more recently, in outbreaks with virulent strains in Spain. SRLVs affecting wildlife have already been identified, demonstrating the existence of emergent viruses adapted to new hosts. Viruses adapted to wildlife ruminants may acquire novel biopathological properties which may endanger not only the new host species but also domestic ruminants and humans. SRLVs infecting sheep and goats follow a genomic evolution similar to that observed in HIV or in other lentiviruses. Lentivirus genetic diversity and host factors leading to the establishment of naturally occurring virulent versus avirulent infections, in addition to

  5. Small valley glaciers and the effectiveness of the glacial buzzsaw in the northern Basin and Range, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, David; Brocklehurst, Simon H.; Gawthorpe, Rob L.

    2008-12-01

    The glacial buzzsaw hypothesis suggests that efficient erosion limits topographic elevations in extensively glaciated orogens. Studies to date have largely focussed on regions where large glaciers (tens of kilometres long) have been active. In light of recent studies emphasising the importance of lateral glacial erosion in lowering peaks and ridgelines, we examine the effectiveness of small glaciers in limiting topography under both relatively slow and rapid rock uplift conditions. Four ranges in the northern Basin and Range, Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming, USA, were chosen for this analysis. Estimates of maximum Pleistocene slip rates along normal faults bounding the Beaverhead-Bitterroot Mountains (~ 0.14 mm y - 1 ), Lemhi Range (~ 0.3 mm y - 1 ) and Lost River Range (~ 0.3 mm y - 1 ) are an order of magnitude lower than those on the Teton Fault (~ 2 mm y - 1 ). We compare the distribution of glacial erosion (estimated from cirque floor elevations and last glacial maximum (LGM) equilibrium line altitude (ELA) reconstructions) and fault slip rate with three metrics of topography in each range: the along-strike maximum elevation swath profile, hypsometry, and slope-elevation profiles. In the slowly uplifting Beaverhead-Bitterroot Mountains, and Lemhi and Lost River Ranges, trends in maximum elevation parallel ELAs, independent of variations in fault slip rate. Maximum elevations are offset ~ 500 m from LGM ELAs in the Lost River Range, Lemhi Range, and northern Beaverhead-Bitterroot Mountains, and by ~ 350 m in the southern Beaverhead-Bitterroot Mountains, where glacial extents were less. The offset between maximum topography and mean Quaternary ELAs, inferred from cirque floor elevations, is ~ 350 m in the Lost River and Lemhi Ranges, and 200-250 m in the Beaverhead-Bitterroot Mountains. Additionally, slope-elevation profiles are flattened and hypsometry profiles show a peak in surface areas close to the ELA in the Lemhi Range and Beaverhead-Bitterroot Mountains

  6. Greater eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage by large versus small range of motion with the same end-point

    PubMed Central

    Fochi, AG; Damas, F; Berton, R; Alvarez, I; Miquelini, M; Salvini, TF

    2016-01-01

    Several factors can affect the magnitude of eccentric exercise (ECC)-induced muscle damage, but little is known regarding the effect of the range of motion (ROM) in ECC-induced muscle damage. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether elbow flexor ECC with 120° of ROM (from 60° of elbow flexion until elbow full extension - 180° [120ROM]) induces a greater magnitude of muscle damage compared with a protocol with 60° of ROM (120-180° of elbow flexion [60ROM]). Twelve healthy young men (age: 22 ± 3.1 years; height: 1.75 ± 0.05 m; body mass: 75.6 ± 13.6 kg) performed the ECC with 120ROM and 60ROM using different arms in a random order separated by 2 weeks and were tested before and 24, 48, 72 and 96 h after ECC for maximal voluntary isometric contraction torque (MVC-ISO), ROM and muscle soreness. The 120ROM protocol showed greater changes and effect sizes (ES) for MVC-ISO (-35%, ES: 1.97), ROM (-11.5°, ES: 1.27) and muscle soreness (19 mm, ES: 1.18) compared with the 60ROM protocol (-23%, ES: 0.93; -12%, ES: 0.56; 17°, ES: 0.63; 8 mm, ES: 1.07, respectively). In conclusion, ECC of the elbow flexors with 120° of ROM promotes a greater magnitude of muscle damage compared with a protocol with 60° of ROM, even when both protocols are performed at long muscle lengths. PMID:27601784

  7. Range-gated pulsed Doppler ultrasonographic evaluation of carotid arterial blood flow in small preterm infants with patent ductus arteriosus.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, W D; Carrigan, T A; Dooley, K J; Giddens, D P; Dykes, F D; Lazzara, A; Ray, J L; Ahmann, P A

    1983-02-01

    Range-gated pulsed Doppler (RGPD) ultrasonography was utilized to study the effect of a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) on carotid arterial blood flow in small preterm infants. Carotid arterial flow velocity studies were performed on 23 preterm infants, sampling right and left carotid arteries. Studies on seven infants after PDA ligation and on seven who developed no evidence of PDA were used as controls. A strong relationship was demonstrated between diastolic reversal in the carotid arteries and PDA. The results of this study indicate that the RGPD flow velocity curve from the carotid artery is more sensitive than M-mode echocardiography or clinical examination in detecting PDA, and that PDA in small preterm infants is associated with a distinct abnormality in the carotid arterial flow pattern.

  8. Gelation of large hard particles with short-range attraction induced by bridging of small soft microgels.

    PubMed

    Luo, Junhua; Yuan, Guangcui; Zhao, Chuanzhuang; Han, Charles C; Chen, Jie; Liu, Yun

    2015-03-28

    In this study, mixed suspensions of large hard polystyrene microspheres and small soft poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) microgels are used as model systems to investigate the static and viscoelastic properties of suspensions which go through liquid to gel transitions. The microgels cause short-range attraction between microspheres through the bridging and depletion mechanism whose strength can be tuned by the microgel concentration. Rheological measurements are performed on suspensions with the volume fraction (Φ) of microspheres ranging from 0.02 to 0.15, and the transitions from liquid-like to solid-like behaviors triggered by the concentration of microgels are carefully identified. Two gel lines due to bridging attraction under unsaturated conditions are obtained. Ultra-small angle neutron scattering is used to probe the thermodynamic properties of suspensions approaching the liquid-solid transition boundaries. Baxter's sticky hard-sphere model is used to extract the effective inter-microsphere interaction introduced by the small soft microgels. It is found that the strength of attraction (characterized by a single stickiness parameter τ) on two gel lines formed by bridging is very close to the theoretical value for the spinodal line in the τ-Φ phase diagram predicted by Baxter's model. This indicates that the nature of the gel state may have the same thermodynamic origins, independent of the detailed mechanism of the short-range attraction. The relationship between the rheological criterion for the liquid-solid transition and the thermodynamic criterion for the equilibrium-nonequilibrium transition is also discussed.

  9. The uptake and effects of lead on small mammals and frogs at a trap and skeet range

    SciTech Connect

    Stansley, W.; Roscoe, D.E.

    1995-12-31

    This study was performed to evaluate the bioavailability and effects of lead in wildlife at a trap and skeet range. The total lead concentration in a composite soil sample (pellets removed) was 75,000 {micro}g/g dry weight. Mean tissue lead concentrations ({micro}g/g dry wt.) in while footed mice at the range (liver = 4.98, kidney = 34.9, femur = 245) were elevated (P < 0.01) 5 to 64-fold relative to concentrations in mice from a control area. Tissue lead concentrations in the only short tail shrew captured at the range (liver = 34.1, kidney = 1506, femur = 437) were elevated 35 to 1,038-fold. Femur lead concentrations in green frogs at the range (1,728 {micro}g/g) were elevated nearly 1,000-fold, and the lead concentration in a pooled kidney sample (96.2 {micro}g/g) was elevated 67-fold. There was significant depression of blood ALAD activity in mice (P = 0.0384) and depression of blood and liver ALAD activity in frogs (P<0.001). Hemoglobin concentrations were reduced 6.7% in mice (P = 0.0249), but hematocrit was not significantly affected in mice or frogs. Kidney:body weight ratios were similar in range and control mice. Intranuclear inclusions were present in the renal proximal tubular epithelium of two of the mice and the shrew that were captured at the range, and necrosis of the tubular epithelium was also evident in one of the mice, Soil ingestion may be a significant route of lead uptake in small mammals at the range. However, the tendency of lead to concentrate in the bones rather than in more digestible soft tissues may minimize food chain uptake of lead by predators, especially raptors that regurgitate undigestible material.

  10. A posteriori determination of the useful data range for small-angle scattering experiments on dilute monodisperse systems.

    PubMed

    Konarev, Petr V; Svergun, Dmitri I

    2015-05-01

    Small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (SAXS and SANS) experiments on solutions provide rapidly decaying scattering curves, often with a poor signal-to-noise ratio, especially at higher angles. On modern instruments, the noise is partially compensated for by oversampling, thanks to the fact that the angular increment in the data is small compared with that needed to describe adequately the local behaviour and features of the scattering curve. Given a (noisy) experimental data set, an important question arises as to which part of the data still contains useful information and should be taken into account for the interpretation and model building. Here, it is demonstrated that, for monodisperse systems, the useful experimental data range is defined by the number of meaningful Shannon channels that can be determined from the data set. An algorithm to determine this number and thus the data range is developed, and it is tested on a number of simulated data sets with various noise levels and with different degrees of oversampling, corresponding to typical SAXS/SANS experiments. The method is implemented in a computer program and examples of its application to analyse the experimental data recorded under various conditions are presented. The program can be employed to discard experimental data containing no useful information in automated pipelines, in modelling procedures, and for data deposition or publication. The software is freely accessible to academic users.

  11. Investigating GRACE Range-Rate Observations over West Africa with respect to Small-Scale Hydrological Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springer, A.; Eicker, A.; Kusche, J.; Longuevergne, L.; Diekkrüger, B.; Jütten, T.

    2015-12-01

    Here, GRACE K-band range rate (KBRR) observations are analyzed for the effects from small-scale hydrological signals over West Africa including water level changes in reservoirs, extreme weather events, and water storage variability predicted by hydrological models. The presented approach, which is based on level 1B data, avoids the downward continuation and filtering process required for computing monthly gravity field solutions and, thus, enables to assess hydrological signals with a high temporal resolution and at small spatial scales. In a first step, water mass variations derived from tide gauges, altimetry, and from hydrological model output are converted into simulated KBRR observations. Secondly, these simulated observations and a number of geophysical corrections are reduced from the original GRACE K-band observations to obtain the residuals for a time span of ten years. Then, (i) the residuals are used to validate differently modeled water mass variations and (ii) extreme weather events are identified in the residuals. West Africa represents an interesting study region as it is increasingly facing exteme precipitation events and floodings. In this study, monthly and daily output from different global hydrological models is validated for their representation of long-term and short-term (daily) water storage variability over West Africa. The daily RMS of KBRR residuals ranges between 0.1 μm/s and 0.7 μm/s. Smaller residuals imply that the model is able to better explain the observations. For example, we find that in 2007 the Land Surface Discharge Model (LSDM) better agrees with GRACE range-rate observations than the Water-GAP Global Hydrology Model (WGHM) and the GLDAS-Noah land surface model. Furthermore, we confirm previous studies and show that the signal from Lake Volta is distinctly contained in the residuals. Finally, we investigate variations of other smaller reservoirs and the floodings over West Africa in June 2009 and over Benin in October 2010.

  12. Does Octopus vulgaris have preferred arms?

    PubMed

    Byrne, Ruth A; Kuba, Michael J; Meisel, Daniela V; Griebel, Ulrike; Mather, Jennifer A

    2006-08-01

    Previous behavioral studies in Octopus vulgaris revealed lateralization of eye use. In this study, the authors expanded the scope to investigate arm preferences. The octopus's generalist hunting lifestyle and the structure of their arms suggest that these animals have no need to designate specific arms for specific tasks. However, octopuses also show behaviors, like exploration, in which only single or small groups of arms are involved. Here the authors show that octopuses had a strong preference for anterior arm use to reach for and explore objects, which points toward a task division between anterior and posterior arms. Four out of 8 subjects also showed a lateral bias. In addition, octopuses had a preference for a specific arm to reach into a T maze to retrieve a food reward. These findings give evidence for limb-specialization in an animal whose 8 arms were believed to be equipotential.

  13. Spatial variation in the phylogenetic structure of flea assemblages across geographic ranges of small mammalian hosts in the Palearctic.

    PubMed

    Krasnov, Boris R; Pilosof, Shai; Shenbrot, Georgy I; Khokhlova, Irina S

    2013-08-01

    We investigated spatial variation in the phylogenetic structure (measured as a degree of phylogenetic clustering) of flea assemblages across the geographic ranges of 11 Palearctic species of small mammalian hosts and asked whether the phylogenetic structure of the flea assemblage of a host in a locality is affected by (i) distance of this locality from the centre of the host's geographic range, (ii) geographic position of the locality (distance to the equator) and (iii) phylogenetic structure of the entire flea assemblage of the locality. Our results demonstrated that the key factor underlying spatial variation of the phylogenetic structure of the flea assemblage of a host was the distance from the centre of the host's geographic range. However, the pattern of this spatial variation differed between host species and might be explained by their species-specific immunogenetic and/or distributional patterns. Local flea assemblages may also, to some extent, be shaped by environmental filtering coupled with historical events. In addition, the phylogenetic structure of a local within-host flea assemblage may mirror the phylogenetic structure of the entire across-host flea assemblage in that locality and, thus, be affected by the availability of certain phylogenetic lineages.

  14. Surface hopping outperforms secular Redfield theory when reorganization energies range from small to moderate (and nuclei are classical)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landry, Brian R.; Subotnik, Joseph E.

    2015-03-01

    We evaluate the accuracy of Tully's surface hopping algorithm for the spin-boson model in the limit of small to moderate reorganization energy. We calculate transition rates between diabatic surfaces in the exciton basis and compare against exact results from the hierarchical equations of motion; we also compare against approximate rates from the secular Redfield equation and Ehrenfest dynamics. We show that decoherence-corrected surface hopping performs very well in this regime, agreeing with secular Redfield theory for very weak system-bath coupling and outperforming secular Redfield theory for moderate system-bath coupling. Surface hopping can also be extended beyond the Markovian limits of standard Redfield theory. Given previous work [B. R. Landry and J. E. Subotnik, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 22A513 (2012)] that establishes the accuracy of decoherence-corrected surface-hopping in the Marcus regime, this work suggests that surface hopping may well have a very wide range of applicability.

  15. Surface hopping outperforms secular Redfield theory when reorganization energies range from small to moderate (and nuclei are classical)

    SciTech Connect

    Landry, Brian R. Subotnik, Joseph E.

    2015-03-14

    We evaluate the accuracy of Tully’s surface hopping algorithm for the spin-boson model in the limit of small to moderate reorganization energy. We calculate transition rates between diabatic surfaces in the exciton basis and compare against exact results from the hierarchical equations of motion; we also compare against approximate rates from the secular Redfield equation and Ehrenfest dynamics. We show that decoherence-corrected surface hopping performs very well in this regime, agreeing with secular Redfield theory for very weak system-bath coupling and outperforming secular Redfield theory for moderate system-bath coupling. Surface hopping can also be extended beyond the Markovian limits of standard Redfield theory. Given previous work [B. R. Landry and J. E. Subotnik, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 22A513 (2012)] that establishes the accuracy of decoherence-corrected surface-hopping in the Marcus regime, this work suggests that surface hopping may well have a very wide range of applicability.

  16. Vacuum System Upgrade for Extended Q-Range Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Diffractometer (EQ-SANS) at SNS

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Christopher M.; Williams, Derrick C.; Price, Jeremy P.

    2016-09-23

    The Extended Q-Range Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Diffractometer (EQ-SANS) instrument at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, incorporates a 69m3 detector vessel with a vacuum system which required an upgrade with respect to performance, ease of operation, and maintenance. The upgrade focused on improving pumping performance as well as optimizing system design to minimize opportunity for operational error. This upgrade provided the following practical contributions: Reduced time required to evacuate from atmospheric pressure to 2mTorr from 500-1,000 minutes to 60-70 minutes Provided turn-key automated control with a multi-faceted interlock for personnel and machine safety.

  17. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    of its missiles in Western Europe is a continuation of the policy of upsetting the established approximate equilibrium in the illusory hope of...measures in Europe. The Soviet Union advocates a sharp reduction in the level of medium-range nuclear means, with strict observance of equilibrium ...maintaining strategic equilibrium and its stability. But if this happens, the case in point will be a new round of the arms race. As is known, there were no

  18. Coat of Arms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bryan

    1998-01-01

    Describes an activity, the "coat of arms," that can serve as an ice-breaker or warm-up for the first day of an English-as-a-Second/Foreign-Language class, as a motivating start to the week, or act as an innovative segue between skill lessons. The technique can be adapted for students ranging from elementary school to adult language learners of all…

  19. A new species of nurse-frog (Aromobatidae, Allobates) from the Madeira River basin with a small geographic range.

    PubMed

    Simões, Pedro Ivo

    2016-02-23

    I describe the seventh species of nurse-frog (Allobates) from the Madeira River basin in Brazilian Amazonia. The new species is distinguished from similar congeneric species by its small body size (snout-to-vent length ranging between 14.0-14.7 mm in adult males and between 14.7-14.9 mm in adult females), by the absence of dark brown regular shapes (e.g. hourglass, "X" or polygon-like marks) on the dorsum, by the absence of transverse dark bars on the dorsal surface of the thigh, and by the light gray to white ventral surfaces, light to dark gray only on throat in live male and female specimens. Males have a distinctive advertisement call characterized by the emission of long (7-11 s) trills of short notes (0.04 s in average) with dominant frequency at 5.9-6.3 kHz and emission rate ranging between 6.7-8.7 notes/s. DNA barcode analyses based on a fragment of the 16S rDNA mitochondrial gene provides additional support to the recognition of the new taxon, which is probably distributed on the east riverbank of the Madeira River, in the interfluve between the Aripuanã and Ji-Paraná rivers.

  20. Leptospirosis in free-ranging endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola) and other small carnivores (Mustelidae, Viverridae) from southwestern France.

    PubMed

    Moinet, Marie; Fournier-Chambrillon, Christine; André-Fontaine, Geneviève; Aulagnier, Stéphane; Mesplède, Alain; Blanchard, Béatrice; Descarsin, Véronique; Dumas, Philippe; Dumas, Yann; Coïc, Christophe; Couzi, Laurent; Fournier, Pascal

    2010-10-01

    To study the possible role of disease in the decline of endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola), we conducted a survey of antibody prevalence and renal carriage of pathogenic leptospira (Leptospira interrogans sensu lato) using serum and kidney samples collected from 1990 to 2007 from several free-ranging small carnivores and farmed American mink (Mustela vison) in southwestern France. An indirect microscopic agglutination test using a panel of 16 serovars belonging to 6 serogroups (Australis, Autumnalis, Icterohæmorrhagiæ, Grippotyphosa, Panama, Sejroe) revealed antibodies in all species, with significant differences in antibody prevalences: 74% in European mink (n=99), 65.4% in European polecats (Mustela putorius, n=133), 86% in American mink (n=74), 89% in stone martens (Martes foina, n=19), 74% in pine martens (Martes martes, n=19), 35% in common genets (Genetta genetta, n=79), and 31% in farmed American mink (n=51). Serogroups Australis and Icterohæmorragiæ were dominant in most free-ranging species; serogroup Grippotyphosa had high prevalences in European mink. Such high antibody prevalences have never been reported. They are probably related to the large number of known reservoirs, rats (Rattus spp.), muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus), and coypu (Myocastor coypu), in the study area. The polymerase chain reaction test specific for pathogenic leptospiral DNA detected renal carriage in 23% of 34 European mink, 22% of 18 polecats, and 15% of 33 free-ranging American mink, with no significant differences. Renal carriage shows that mustelids may shed leptospira for short periods, but their epidemiologic role is probably limited. High antibody prevalences suggest that the disease is unlikely to be highly pathogenic for these species; however, chronic forms of the disease (abortions, renal lesions) could reduce the reproductive success or life span of infected animals. Further studies on the pathogenicity of leptospirosis in these populations are needed to

  1. 33 CFR 334.830 - Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA.... (a) The danger zone. An area bounded on the north by latitude 42°20′30″; on the east by longitude 87...) When firing affecting the danger zone is in progress, the enforcing agency will post guards at...

  2. Environmental Assessment for the Construction and Operation of an Indoor Small Arms Range at Niagara Falls Air Reserve Station, New York

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    Niagara Falls ARS. 1999. Site Management Plan for Circus Cyaneus Hudsoniu for the Project : Natural Resources, Habitat, and Threatened and Endangered...Niagara Falls ARS 1999b Niagara Falls ARS. 1999. Site Management Plan for Asio Flammeus Flammeus for the Project : Natural Resources, Habitat, and... products , substituting raw materials, and making improvements in management techniques, training, and inventory control. Consistent with pollution

  3. Impediments to Effective Use of the Small Arms Trainer: 84mm Short-Range Anti-Armour Weapon (Heavy) and C9A1 Light Machine Gun

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Defence R& D Canada Technical Report DRDC Toronto TR 2007-003 January 2007 Defence Research and Development Canada Recherche et développement pour la...Light Machine Gun Stuart C. Grant Defence R& D Canada – Toronto Technical Report DRDC Toronto TR 2007-003 January...issued jointly by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada and the Social Sciences

  4. Solubility of lead and copper in biochar-amended small arms range soils: influence of soil organic carbon and pH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In situ application of heavy metal stabilizing agents has in some cases increased the mobility of target metal contaminants. Mechanistic understandings are necessary to better predict (1) the dynamic short- and long-term response to soil amendments, and (2) the utility of biochars in nonremoval and...

  5. Hantaan virus surveillance targeting small mammals at nightmare range, a high elevation military training area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Klein, Terry A; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Won-Keun; Nunn, Peter V; Song, Jin-Won

    2015-01-01

    Rodent-borne disease surveillance was conducted at Nightmare Range (NM-R), near the demilitarized zone in northeast Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, to identify hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) risks for a mountainous high-elevation (500 m) military training site. Monthly surveys were conducted from January 2008-December 2009. A total of 1,720 small mammals were captured belonging to the Orders Rodentia [Families, Sciuridae (1 species) and Muridae (7 species)] and Soricomorpha [Family, Soricidae (1species)]. Apodemus agrarius, the primary reservoir for Hantaan virus (HTNV), accounted for 89.9% (1,546) of all small mammals captured, followed by Myodes regulus (4.0%), Crocidura lasiura (3.9%), Micromys minutus (1.4%), Mus musculus (0.3%), Microtus fortis (0.2%), Apodemus peninsulae (0.2%), Tamias sibiricus (0.1%), and Rattus norvegicus (<0.1%). Three species were antibody-positive (Ab+) for hantaviruses: A. agrarius (8.2%), M. minutus (4.2%), and C. lasiura (1.5%). HTNV specific RNA was detected in 93/127 Ab+ A. agrarius, while Imjin virus specific RNA was detected in 1/1 Ab+ C. lasiura. Overall, hantavirus Ab+ rates for A. agrarius increased with weight (age) and were significantly higher among males (10.9%) than females (5.1%) (P<0.0001). High A. agrarius gravid rates during the fall (August-September) were associated with peak numbers of HFRS cases in Korea that followed high gravid rates. From 79 RT-PCR positive A. agrarius, 12 HTNV RNA samples were sequenced and compared phylogenetically based on a 320 nt sequence from the GC glycoprotein-encoding M segment. These results demonstrate that the HTNV isolates from NM-R are distinctly separated from HTNV isolated from the People's Republic of China. These studies provide for improved disease risk assessments that identify military activities, rodent HTNV rates, and other factors associated with the transmission of hantaviruses during field training exercises.

  6. Hantaan Virus Surveillance Targeting Small Mammals at Nightmare Range, a High Elevation Military Training Area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Terry A.; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Won-Keun; Nunn, Peter V.; Song, Jin-Won

    2015-01-01

    Rodent-borne disease surveillance was conducted at Nightmare Range (NM-R), near the demilitarized zone in northeast Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, to identify hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) risks for a mountainous high-elevation (500 m) military training site. Monthly surveys were conducted from January 2008-December 2009. A total of 1,720 small mammals were captured belonging to the Orders Rodentia [Families, Sciuridae (1 species) and Muridae (7 species)] and Soricomorpha [Family, Soricidae (1species)]. Apodemus agrarius, the primary reservoir for Hantaan virus (HTNV), accounted for 89.9% (1,546) of all small mammals captured, followed by Myodes regulus (4.0%), Crocidura lasiura (3.9%), Micromys minutus (1.4%), Mus musculus (0.3%), Microtus fortis (0.2%), Apodemus peninsulae (0.2%), Tamias sibiricus (0.1%), and Rattus norvegicus (<0.1%). Three species were antibody-positive (Ab+) for hantaviruses: A. agrarius (8.2%), M. minutus (4.2%), and C. lasiura (1.5%). HTNV specific RNA was detected in 93/127 Ab+ A. agrarius, while Imjin virus specific RNA was detected in 1/1 Ab+ C. lasiura. Overall, hantavirus Ab+ rates for A. agrarius increased with weight (age) and were significantly higher among males (10.9%) than females (5.1%) (P<0.0001). High A. agrarius gravid rates during the fall (August-September) were associated with peak numbers of HFRS cases in Korea that followed high gravid rates. From 79 RT-PCR positive A. agrarius, 12 HTNV RNA samples were sequenced and compared phylogenetically based on a 320 nt sequence from the GC glycoprotein-encoding M segment. These results demonstrate that the HTNV isolates from NM-R are distinctly separated from HTNV isolated from the People’s Republic of China. These studies provide for improved disease risk assessments that identify military activities, rodent HTNV rates, and other factors associated with the transmission of hantaviruses during field training exercises. PMID:25874643

  7. Arm Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... of them are in your arm; the humerus, radius and ulna. Your arms are also made up of muscles, joints, tendons and other connective tissue. Injuries to any of these parts of the arm can occur during sports, a fall or an accident. Types of arm injuries ...

  8. Physics and technology of the arms race

    SciTech Connect

    Garwin, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Traditional military concepts of superiority and effectiveness (as embodied in Lanchester's law) have little relevance to thermonuclear weapons, with their enormous effectiveness in destruction of society. Few are needed to saturate their deterrent effect, but their military effectiveness is limited. The evolution and future of strategic nuclear forces is discussed, and their declining marginal utility emphasized. Some calculations relevant to the nuclear confrontation are presented (Lanchester's Law; skin effect of VLF and ELF signals to submarines; the rocket equation; simple radar-range equation) and recommendations presented for future strategic forces and arms control initiatives. Recommended programs include a silo-based 12-ton single-warhead missile (SICM), the development of buried-bomb defense of individual Minuteman silos, the completion of the deployment of air-launched cruise missiles on the B-52 fleet, and the development of small (1000-ton) submarines for basing ICBM-range missiles.

  9. Letter report: Ari Patrinos -- ARM summary

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, G.J.; Ruderman, M.A.; Treiman, S.B.

    1995-07-27

    This letter report provides a summary of the authors` views on ARM. ARM is a highly focused program designed to improve understanding of the transport of infrared and solar radiation through the atmosphere. The program pays particular attention to the interaction of radiation with the three phases of water. The goals of ARM are usually articulated in terms of improvements in climate models. The authors agree that ARM can indeed make significant contributions to the understanding of climate change. In addition they believe that the results of the program will have wide applicability to a broad range of problems, including more accurate short-term and seasonal weather forecasting.

  10. Geographical Range of Rio Mamoré Virus (Family Bunyaviridae, Genus Hantavirus) in Association with the Small-Eared Pygmy Rice Rat (Oligoryzomys microtis)

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Martin H.; Hanson, John Delton; Cajimat, Maria N.; Milazzo, Mary Louise

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Hantavirus HTN·007 was originally isolated from a small-eared pygmy rice rat (Oligoryzomys microtis) captured in northeastern Peru. The results of analyses of nucleotide and amino acid sequence data in this study indicated that HTN·007 is a strain of Rio Mamoré virus (RIOMV) which is enzootic in small-eared pygmy rice rat populations in Bolivia. As such, the results of this study extend our knowledge of the geographical range of RIOMV and support the notion that the small-eared pygmy rice rat is the principal host of RIOMV. PMID:20687859

  11. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a robotic mission to visit a large near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface, and redirect it into a stable orbit around the Moon. Once returned to cislunar space in the mid-2020s, astronauts will explore the boulder and return to Earth with samples. This Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is part of NASA's plan to advance the technologies, capabilities, and spaceflight experience needed for a human mission to the Martian system in the 2030s. Subsequent human and robotic missions to the asteroidal material would also be facilitated by its return to cislunar space. Although ARM is primarily a capability demonstration mission (i.e., technologies and associated operations), there exist significant opportunities to advance our knowledge of small bodies in the synergistic areas of science, planetary defense, asteroidal resources and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and capability and technology demonstrations. In order to maximize the knowledge return from the mission, NASA is organizing an ARM Investigation Team, which is being preceded by the Formulation Assessment and Support Team. These teams will be comprised of scientists, technologists, and other qualified and interested individuals to help plan the implementation and execution of ARM. An overview of robotic and crewed segments of ARM, including the mission requirements, NEA targets, and mission operations, will be provided along with a discussion of the potential opportunities associated with the mission.

  12. NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abell, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Naasz, Bo; Cichy, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a robotic mission to visit a large near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface, and redirect it into a stable orbit around the Moon. Once returned to cislunar space in the mid-2020s, astronauts will explore the boulder and return to Earth with samples. This Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is part of NASA’s plan to advance the technologies, capabilities, and spaceflight experience needed for a human mission to the Martian system in the 2030s. Subsequent human and robotic missions to the asteroidal material would also be facilitated by its return to cislunar space. Although ARM is primarily a capability demonstration mission (i.e., technologies and associated operations), there exist significant opportunities to advance our knowledge of small bodies in the synergistic areas of science, planetary defense, asteroidal resources and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and capability and technology demonstrations. In order to maximize the knowledge return from the mission, NASA is organizing an ARM Investigation Team, which is being preceded by the Formulation Assessment and Support Team. These teams will be comprised of scientists, technologists, and other qualified and interested individuals to help plan the implementation and execution of ARM. An overview of robotic and crewed segments of ARM, including the mission requirements, NEA targets, and mission operations, will be provided along with a discussion of the potential opportunities associated with the mission.

  13. Gaseous Structures and Mass Drift in Spiral Galaxies: Effects of Arm Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Kim, W.-T.

    2015-10-01

    Stellar spiral arms in disk galaxies play an important role in the formation of gaseous substructures such as gaseous feathers as well as mass inflows/outflows in the radial direction. We study nonlinear responses of self-gravitating gas to an imposed stellar spiral potential in galactic disks with differing arm strength and pattern speed. We find that the extent and shapes of gaseous arms as well as the radial mass drift rate depend rather sensitively on the arm pattern speed. Quasi-steady spiral shocks can exist only when the normal Mach number is small. The pitch angle of gaseous arms is usually smaller than that of stellar arms. The mass drift rate to the central region is in the range of ˜0.05-3.0M⊙yr-1 , with larger values corresponding to stronger and/or slower-rotating arms. Using a normal-mode linear stability analysis together with nonlinear simulations, we show that wiggle instability of spiral shocks is due to the accumulation of potential vorticity at a perturbed shock front, rather than Kelvin-Helmholtz instability as previously suggested.

  14. Physics and technology of the arms race

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garwin, R. L.

    1983-10-01

    Traditional military concepts of superiority and effectiveness (as embodied in Lanchester's law) have little relevance to thermonuclear weapons, with their enormous effectiveness in destruction of society. Few are needed to saturate their deterrent effect, but their military effectiveness is limited. The evolution and future of strategic nuclear forces is discussed, and their declining marginal utility emphasized. Some calculatons relevant to the nuclear confrontation are presented (Lanchester's Law; skin effect of VLF and ELF signals to submarines; the rocket equation; simple radar-range equation) and recommendations presented for future strategic forces and arms control initiatives. Recommended programs include a silo-based 12-ton single-warhead missile (SICM), the development of buried-bomb defense of individual Minuteman silos, the completion of the deployment of air-launched cruise missiles on the B-52 fleet, and the development of small (1000-ton) submarines for basing ICBM-range missiles. Limiting the threat by arms control should include ratification of SALT II, followed by negotiation of a protrocool to allow a SICM and dedicated silo to be deployed for each two, SALT-II-allowed warheads given up; a ban on weapons in space and anti-satellite tests; and an eventual reduction to 1000 nuclear warheads in U.S. and Soviet inventories.

  15. Muscle moment arms of the gibbon hind limb: implications for hylobatid locomotion.

    PubMed

    Channon, Anthony J; Crompton, Robin H; Günther, Michael M; Vereecke, Evie E

    2010-04-01

    Muscles facilitate skeletal movement via the production of a torque or moment about a joint. The magnitude of the moment produced depends on both the force of muscular contraction and the size of the moment arm used to rotate the joint. Hence, larger muscle moment arms generate larger joint torques and forces at the point of application. The moment arms of a number of gibbon hind limb muscles were measured on four cadaveric specimens (one Hylobates lar, one H. moloch and two H. syndactylus). The tendon travel technique was used, utilizing an electro-goniometer and a linear voltage displacement transducer. The data were analysed using a technique based on a differentiated cubic spline and normalized to remove the effect of body size. The data demonstrated a functional differentiation between voluminous muscles with short fascicles having small muscle moment arms and muscles with longer fascicles and comparatively smaller physiological cross-sectional area having longer muscle moment arms. The functional implications of these particular configurations were simulated using a simple geometric fascicle strain model that predicts that the rectus femoris and gastrocnemius muscles are more likely to act primarily at their distal joints (knee and ankle, respectively) because they have short fascicles. The data also show that the main hip and knee extensors maintain a very small moment arm throughout the range of joint angles seen in the locomotion of gibbons, which (coupled to voluminous, short-fascicled muscles) might help facilitate rapid joint rotation during powerful movements.

  16. Evolution of robotic arms.

    PubMed

    Moran, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    The foundation of surgical robotics is in the development of the robotic arm. This is a thorough review of the literature on the nature and development of this device with emphasis on surgical applications. We have reviewed the published literature and classified robotic arms by their application: show, industrial application, medical application, etc. There is a definite trend in the manufacture of robotic arms toward more dextrous devices, more degrees-of-freedom, and capabilities beyond the human arm. da Vinci designed the first sophisticated robotic arm in 1495 with four degrees-of-freedom and an analog on-board controller supplying power and programmability. von Kemplen's chess-playing automaton left arm was quite sophisticated. Unimate introduced the first industrial robotic arm in 1961, it has subsequently evolved into the PUMA arm. In 1963 the Rancho arm was designed; Minsky's Tentacle arm appeared in 1968, Scheinman's Stanford arm in 1969, and MIT's Silver arm in 1974. Aird became the first cyborg human with a robotic arm in 1993. In 2000 Miguel Nicolalis redefined possible man-machine capacity in his work on cerebral implantation in owl-monkeys directly interfacing with robotic arms both locally and at a distance. The robotic arm is the end-effector of robotic systems and currently is the hallmark feature of the da Vinci Surgical System making its entrance into surgical application. But, despite the potential advantages of this computer-controlled master-slave system, robotic arms have definite limitations. Ongoing work in robotics has many potential solutions to the drawbacks of current robotic surgical systems.

  17. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Research Service, 1000 North Glebe Road, Arlington, Virginia 22201. JPRS-TAC-86-023 11 March 1986 WORLDWIDE REPORT ARMS CONTROL CONTENTS SDI AND SPACE ...ARMS Soviet Journal Reviews SIPRI Books on Arms Race in Outer Space (I. Kuznetsova, Yu. Orlov; Moscow INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS, No 12, Dec 85) 1...Moscow KRASNAYA ZVEZDA, 8 Feb 86) 59 TASS: INF Accord Possible Without Space Arms Connection (Moscow TASS, 7 Feb 86) 62 TASS: U.S. Officials

  18. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    on nuclear and space arms cannot be described as "equitable" even with most unrestrained imagination. ’Gray Hawk’ PM131006 Moscow IZVESTIYA in...WORLDWIDE REPORT ARMS CONTROL CONTENTS SDI AND SPACE ARMS Effectiveness of U.S. SDI Effort Downplayed ’ (Peter Bretschneider; Karl-Marx-Stadt...MEZHDUNARODNYYE OTNOSHENIYA, No 7, Jul 85) 53 - b - JPRS-TAO85-064 13 December 1985 SDI AND SPACE ARMS EFFECTIVENESS OF U.S. SDI EFFORT

  19. TCLS Arm for Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, Benoit; Helfers, Tim; Poupat, Jean-Luc

    2015-09-01

    The TCLS ARM FOR SPACE proposal was an answer to the H2020 topic “COMPET-6-2014: Bottom-up Space Technologies at low TRL”. This paper presents this H2020 TCLS ARM FOR SPACE initiative led by Airbus DS and which aims at fostering the use of European technology such as ARM processing for Space.

  20. Measurement Capabilities of the DOE ARM Aerial Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, B.; Tomlinson, J. M.; Hubbe, J.; Comstock, J. M.; Kluzek, C. D.; Chand, D.; Pekour, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    The Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a climate research user facility operating stationary ground sites in three important climatic regimes that provide long-term measurements of climate relevant properties. ARM also operates mobile ground- and ship-based facilities to conduct shorter field campaigns (6-12 months) to investigate understudied climate regimes around the globe. Finally, airborne observations by ARM's Aerial Facility (AAF) enhance the surface-based ARM measurements by providing high-resolution in situ measurements for process understanding, retrieval algorithm development, and model evaluation that is not possible using ground-based techniques. AAF started out in 2007 as a "virtual hangar" with no dedicated aircraft and only a small number of instruments owned by ARM. In this mode, AAF successfully carried out several missions contracting with organizations and investigators who provided their research aircraft and instrumentation. In 2009, the Battelle owned G-1 aircraft was included in the ARM facility. The G-1 is a large twin turboprop aircraft, capable of measurements up to altitudes of 7.5 km and a range of 2,800 kilometers. Furthermore the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 provided funding for the procurement of seventeen new instruments to be used aboard the G-1 and other AAF virtual-hangar aircraft. AAF now executes missions in the virtual- and real-hangar mode producing freely available datasets for studying aerosol, cloud, and radiative processes in the atmosphere. AAF is also heavily engaged in the maturation and testing of newly developed airborne sensors to help foster the next generation of airborne instruments. In the presentation we will showcase science applications based on measurements from recent field campaigns such as CARES, CALWATER and TCAP.

  1. Arming and firing system for DISTANT RUNNER

    SciTech Connect

    Skenandore, L.H.; Johnson, J.P.

    1982-03-01

    Sandia A and F systems Division 1132 provided arming and firing support for the DISTANT RUNNER Test Program at White Sands Missile Range. This report describes the field support and the firing system that was used.

  2. JPRS report: Arms control, [May 17, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    1989-05-17

    This document contains articles on arms control. Some topics discussed are chemical weapons, NATO, Warsaw Pact, military operations, socialism, disarmament, short range missiles, missile modernization, troop withdrawals, weapons manufacturing plants, nuclear testing, detonated weapons, and weapons modernization.

  3. Phenotypic plasticity of post-fire activity and thermal biology of a free-ranging small mammal.

    PubMed

    Stawski, Clare; Körtner, Gerhard; Nowack, Julia; Geiser, Fritz

    2016-05-15

    Ecosystems can change rapidly and sometimes irreversibly due to a number of anthropogenic and natural factors, such as deforestation and fire. How individual animals exposed to such changes respond behaviourally and physiologically is poorly understood. We quantified the phenotypic plasticity of activity patterns and torpor use - a highly efficient energy conservation mechanism - in brown antechinus (Antechinus stuartii), a small Australian marsupial mammal. We compared groups in densely vegetated forest areas (pre-fire and control) with a group in a burned, open habitat (post-fire). Activity and torpor patterns differed among groups and sexes. Females in the post-fire group spent significantly less time active than the other groups, both during the day and night. However, in males only daytime activity declined in the post-fire group, although overall activity was also reduced on cold days in males for all groups. The reduction in total or diurnal activity in the post-fire group was made energetically possible by a ~3.4-fold and ~2.2-fold increase in the proportion of time females and males, respectively, used torpor in comparison to that in the pre-fire and control groups. Overall, likely due to reproductive needs, torpor was more pronounced in females than in males, but low ambient temperatures increased torpor bout duration in both sexes. Importantly, for both male and female antechinus and likely other small mammals, predator avoidance and energy conservation - achieved by reduced activity and increased torpor use - appear to be vital for post-fire survival where ground cover and refuges have been obliterated.

  4. The Neanderthal lower arm.

    PubMed

    De Groote, Isabelle

    2011-10-01

    Neanderthal forearms have been described as being very powerful. Different individual features in the lower arm bones have been described to distinguish Neanderthals from modern humans. In this study, the overall morphology of the radius and ulna is considered, and morphological differences among Neanderthals, Upper Paleolithic Homo sapiens and recent H. sapiens are described. Comparisons among populations were made using a combination of 3D geometric morphometrics and standard multivariate methods. Comparative material included all available complete radii and ulnae from Neanderthals, early H. sapiens and archaeological and recent human populations, representing a wide geographical and lifestyle range. There are few differences among the populations when features are considered individually. Neanderthals and early H. sapiens fell within the range of modern human variation. When the suite of measurements and shapes were analyzed, differences and similarities became apparent. The Neanderthal radius is more laterally curved, has a more medially placed radial tuberosity, a longer radial neck, a more antero-posteriorly ovoid head and a well-developed proximal interosseous crest. The Neanderthal ulna has a more anterior facing trochlear notch, a lower M. brachialis insertion, larger relative mid-shaft size and a more medio-lateral and antero-posterior sinusoidal shaft. The Neanderthal lower arm morphology reflects a strong cold-adapted short forearm. The forearms of H. sapiens are less powerful in pronation and supination. Many differences between Neanderthals and H. sapiens can be explained as a secondary consequence of the hyper-polar body proportions of the Neanderthals, but also as retentions of the primitive condition of other hominoids.

  5. Arm dominance affects feedforward strategy more than feedback sensitivity during a postural task.

    PubMed

    Walker, Elise H E; Perreault, Eric J

    2015-07-01

    Handedness is a feature of human motor control that is still not fully understood. Recent work has demonstrated that the dominant and nondominant arm each excel at different behaviors and has proposed that this behavioral asymmetry arises from lateralization in the cerebral cortex: the dominant side specializes in predictive trajectory control, while the nondominant side is specialized for impedance control. Long-latency stretch reflexes are an automatic mechanism for regulating posture and have been shown to contribute to limb impedance. To determine whether long-latency reflexes also contribute to asymmetric motor behavior in the upper limbs, we investigated the effect of arm dominance on stretch reflexes during a postural task that required varying degrees of impedance control. Our results demonstrated slightly but significantly larger reflex responses in the biarticular muscles of the nondominant arm, as would be consistent with increased impedance control. These differences were attributed solely to higher levels of voluntary background activity in the nondominant biarticular muscles, indicating that feedforward strategies for postural stability may differ between arms. Reflex sensitivity, which was defined as the magnitude of the reflex response for matched levels of background activity, was not significantly different between arms for a broad subject population ranging from 23 to 51 years of age. These results indicate that inter-arm differences in feedforward strategies are more influential during posture than differences in feedback sensitivity, in a broad subject population. Interestingly, restricting our analysis to subjects under 40 years of age revealed a small increase in long-latency reflex sensitivity in the nondominant arm relative to the dominant arm. Though our subject numbers were small for this secondary analysis, it suggests that further studies may be required to assess the influence of reflex lateralization throughout development.

  6. Arm Dominance Affects Feedforward Strategy more than Feedback Sensitivity during a Postural Task

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Elise H. E.; Perreault, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Handedness is a feature of human motor control that is still not fully understood. Recent work has demonstrated that the dominant and nondominant arm each excel at different behaviors, and has proposed that this behavioral asymmetry arises from lateralization in the cerebral cortex: the dominant side specializes in predictive trajectory control, while the nondominant side is specialized for impedance control. Long-latency stretch reflexes are an automatic mechanism for regulating posture, and have been shown to contribute to limb impedance. To determine whether long-latency reflexes also contribute to asymmetric motor behavior in the upper limbs, we investigated the effect of arm dominance on stretch reflexes during a postural task that required varying degrees of impedance control. Our results demonstrated slightly but significantly larger reflex responses in the biarticular muscles of the nondominant arm, as would be consistent with increased impedance control. These differences were attributed solely to higher levels of voluntary background activity in the nondominant biarticular muscles, indicating that feedforward strategies for postural stability may differ between arms. Reflex sensitivity, which was defined as the magnitude of the reflex response for matched levels of background activity, was not significantly different between arms for a broad subject population ranging from 23–51 years of age. These results indicate that inter-arm differences in feedforward strategies are more influential during posture than differences in feedback sensitivity, in a broad subject population. Interestingly, restricting our analysis to subjects under 40 years of age revealed a small increase in long-latency reflex sensitivity in the nondominant arm relative to the dominant arm. Though our subject numbers were small for this secondary analysis, it suggests that further studies may be required to assess the influence of reflex lateralization throughout development. PMID

  7. A ultra-small-angle self-mixing sensor system with high detection resolution and wide measurement range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bo; Wang, Dehui; Zhou, Lin; Wu, Shuang; Xiang, Rong; Zhang, Wenhua; Gui, Huaqiao; Liu, Jianguo; Wang, Huanqing; Lu, Liang; Yu, Benli

    2017-06-01

    The self-mixing technique based on the traditional reflecting mirror has been demonstrated with great merit for angle sensing applications. Here we demonstrate a modified self-reflection-mixing angle measurement system by combine a right-angle prism to self-mixing angle measurement. In our system, the wavelength is crucial to the angle measurement resolution. For a microchip solid-state laser, the measurement resolution can reach 0.49 mrad, while the resolution for the He-Ne laser is 0.53 mrad. In addition, the ranges in the system with the microchip solid-state laser and He-Ne laser are up to 22 mrad and 24.9 mrad respectively. This modified angle measurement system effectively combines the advantage of self-mixing measurement system with a compact structure, providing interesting features such as of high requisition of resolution and precision.

  8. Effort, success, and nonuse determine arm choice.

    PubMed

    Schweighofer, Nicolas; Xiao, Yupeng; Kim, Sujin; Yoshioka, Toshinori; Gordon, James; Osu, Rieko

    2015-07-01

    How do humans choose one arm or the other to reach single targets in front of the body? Current theories of reward-driven decisionmaking predict that choice results from a comparison of "action values," which are the expected rewards for possible actions in a given state. In addition, current theories of motor control predict that in planning arm movements, humans minimize an expected motor cost that balances motor effort and endpoint accuracy. Here, we test the hypotheses that arm choice is determined by comparison of action values comprising expected effort and expected task success for each arm, as well as a handedness bias. Right-handed subjects, in either a large or small target condition, were first instructed to use each hand in turn to shoot through an array of targets and then to choose either hand to shoot through the same targets. Effort was estimated via inverse kinematics and dynamics. A mixed-effects logistic-regression analysis showed that, as predicted, both expected effort and expected success predicted choice, as did arm use in the preceding trial. Finally, individual parameter estimation showed that the handedness bias correlated with mean difference between right- and left-arm success, leading to overall lower use of the left arm. We discuss our results in light of arm nonuse in individuals' poststroke.

  9. Why we cannot grow a human arm.

    PubMed

    Ricci, John L

    2013-11-01

    There are several significant issues that prevent us from growing a human arm now, or within the next 10-20 years. From a tissue engineering perspective, while we can grow many of the components necessary for construction of a human arm, we can only grow them in relatively small volumes, and when scaled up to large volumes we lack the ability to develop adequate blood/nerve supply. From a genetic engineering perspective, we will probably never be able to turn on the specific genes necessary to "grow an arm" unless it is attached to a fetus and this presents enormous ethical issues related to farming of human organs and structures. Perhaps the most daunting problem facing the transplantation of a tissue engineered or transplanted arm is that of re-innervation of the structure. Since the sensory and motor nerve cells of the arm are located outside of the structure, re-innervation requires those nerves to regenerate over relatively large distances to repopulate the nervous system of the arm. This is something with which we have had little success. We can grow repair parts, but "growing an arm" presents too many insurmountable problems. The best we could possibly do with tissue engineering or genetic engineering would be the equivalent of a fetal arm and the technical problems, costs, and ethical hurdles are enormous. A more likely solution is a functional, permanent, neuroelectronically-controlled prosthesis. These are nearly a reality today.

  10. Small viscosity asymptotics for the inertial range of local structure and for the wall region of wall-bounded turbulent shear flow.

    PubMed Central

    Barenblatt, G I; Chorin, A J

    1996-01-01

    The small viscosity asymptotics of the inertial range of local structure and of the wall region in wallbounded turbulent shear flow are compared. The comparison leads to a sharpening of the dichotomy between Reynolds number dependent scaling (power-type) laws and the universal Reynolds number independent logarithmic law in wall turbulence. It further leads to a quantitative prediction of an essential difference between them, which is confirmed by the results of a recent experimental investigation. These results lend support to recent work on the zero viscosity limit of the inertial range in turbulence. PMID:11607688

  11. Multi-speckle X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy in the ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering range

    PubMed Central

    Möller, Johannes; Chushkin, Yuriy; Prevost, Sylvain; Narayanan, Theyencheri

    2016-01-01

    Multi-speckle X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) measurements in the ultra-small-angle range are performed using a long pinhole collimation instrument in combination with two-dimensional photon-counting and high-sensitivity imaging detectors. The feasibility of the presented setup to measure dynamics on different time and length scales pertinent to colloidal systems is shown. This setup offers new research opportunities, such as for example in the investigation of non-equilibrium dynamics in optically opaque, complex systems over length scales from tens of nanometres to several micrometres. In addition, due to the short duration of the X-ray exposure involved in the ultra-small-angle range, possible radiation-induced effects are alleviated. Furthermore, the performance of two different detectors, a photon-counting Pilatus 300K and an integrating FReLoN CCD, are compared, and their applicability for accurate XPCS measurements is demonstrated. PMID:27359141

  12. Long-range correlations in the mechanics of small DNA circles under topological stress revealed by multi-scale simulation

    PubMed Central

    Sutthibutpong, Thana; Matek, Christian; Benham, Craig; Slade, Gabriel G.; Noy, Agnes; Laughton, Charles; K. Doye, Jonathan P.; Louis, Ard A.; Harris, Sarah A.

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that gene regulation can be achieved through activator and repressor proteins that bind to DNA and switch particular genes on or off, and that complex metabolic networks determine the levels of transcription of a given gene at a given time. Using three complementary computational techniques to study the sequence-dependence of DNA denaturation within DNA minicircles, we have observed that whenever the ends of the DNA are constrained, information can be transferred over long distances directly by the transmission of mechanical stress through the DNA itself, without any requirement for external signalling factors. Our models combine atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) with coarse-grained simulations and statistical mechanical calculations to span three distinct spatial resolutions and timescale regimes. While they give a consensus view of the non-locality of sequence-dependent denaturation in highly bent and supercoiled DNA loops, each also reveals a unique aspect of long-range informational transfer that occurs as a result of restraining the DNA within the closed loop of the minicircles. PMID:27664220

  13. Prevalence, Genetic Characterization, and 18S Small Subunit Ribosomal RNA Diversity of Trypanosoma rangeli in Triatomine and Mammal Hosts in Endemic Areas for Chagas Disease in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Ocaña-Mayorga, Sofia; Aguirre-Villacis, Fernanda; Pinto, C. Miguel; Vallejo, Gustavo A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Trypanosoma rangeli is a nonpathogenic parasite for humans; however, its medical importance relies in its similarity and overlapping distribution with Trypanosoma cruzi, causal agent of Chagas disease in the Americas. The genetic diversity of T. rangeli and its association with host species (triatomines and mammals) has been identified along Central and the South America; however, it has not included data of isolates from Ecuador. This study reports infection with T. rangeli in 18 genera of mammal hosts and five species of triatomines in three environments (domestic, peridomestic, and sylvatic). Higher infection rates were found in the sylvatic environment, in close association with Rhodnius ecuadoriensis. The results of this study extend the range of hosts infected with this parasite and the geographic range of the T. rangeli genotype KP1(−)/lineage C in South America. It was not possible to detect variation on T. rangeli from the central coastal region and southern Ecuador with the analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA) gene, even though these areas are ecologically different and a phenotypic subdivision of R. ecuadoriensis has been found. R. ecuadoriensis is considered one of the most important vectors for Chagas disease transmission in Ecuador due to its wide distribution and adaptability to diverse environments. An extensive knowledge of the trypanosomes circulating in this species of triatomine, and associated mammal hosts, is important for delineating transmission dynamics and preventive measures in the endemic areas of Ecuador and Northern Peru. PMID:26645579

  14. Prevalence, Genetic Characterization, and 18S Small Subunit Ribosomal RNA Diversity of Trypanosoma rangeli in Triatomine and Mammal Hosts in Endemic Areas for Chagas Disease in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Ocaña-Mayorga, Sofia; Aguirre-Villacis, Fernanda; Pinto, C Miguel; Vallejo, Gustavo A; Grijalva, Mario J

    2015-12-01

    Trypanosoma rangeli is a nonpathogenic parasite for humans; however, its medical importance relies in its similarity and overlapping distribution with Trypanosoma cruzi, causal agent of Chagas disease in the Americas. The genetic diversity of T. rangeli and its association with host species (triatomines and mammals) has been identified along Central and the South America; however, it has not included data of isolates from Ecuador. This study reports infection with T. rangeli in 18 genera of mammal hosts and five species of triatomines in three environments (domestic, peridomestic, and sylvatic). Higher infection rates were found in the sylvatic environment, in close association with Rhodnius ecuadoriensis. The results of this study extend the range of hosts infected with this parasite and the geographic range of the T. rangeli genotype KP1(-)/lineage C in South America. It was not possible to detect variation on T. rangeli from the central coastal region and southern Ecuador with the analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA) gene, even though these areas are ecologically different and a phenotypic subdivision of R. ecuadoriensis has been found. R. ecuadoriensis is considered one of the most important vectors for Chagas disease transmission in Ecuador due to its wide distribution and adaptability to diverse environments. An extensive knowledge of the trypanosomes circulating in this species of triatomine, and associated mammal hosts, is important for delineating transmission dynamics and preventive measures in the endemic areas of Ecuador and Northern Peru.

  15. [A comparison of direct sequencing and ARMS assay performance in EGFR mutation analysis of non-small cell lung cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Li, Chenchen; Wu, Jianzhong; Wang, Zhuo; Feng, Jifeng

    2014-08-20

    背景与目的 以表皮生长因子受体(epidermal growth factor receptor, EGFR)为靶点治疗非小细胞肺癌(non-small cell lung cancer, NSCLC)是现在治疗肺癌的前沿手段,因此检测EGFR是否突变成为治疗肺癌的关键一步。本研究旨在探讨直接测序法和ARMS法检测NSCLC患者的EGFR基因突变情况及检出率。 方法 收集自2012年4月-2013年6月本中心接受进行EGFR基因突变检测的NSCLC患者,分别用直接测序法和ARMS法对这些患者的肿瘤组织标本进行检测,检测其中EGFR基因第18-21外显子的突变情况,并比较两者方法的优劣。结果 在该451例两种方法均检测的患者中,两种方法均检测到突变且突变结果一致者127例,结果不一致者5例,均无突变者186例,直接测序法检测到突变而ARMS法未检测到突变者50例,反之83例。50例中有33例为ARMS法29种突变之外的突变。直接测序法检测的突变率为40.4%,ARMS法检测的突变率为47.7%,ARMS法的突变检出率明显高于直接测序法(P<0.001)。在204例石蜡组织中,ARMS法的突变检出率59.80%明显高于直接测序法41.67%(P<0.001);而在240例新鲜组织中,两种方法无统计学差异(P=0.083)。结论 直接测序法和ARMS法检测EGFR基因突变基本一致,ARMS法更为灵敏,且操作方便快捷,但是价格昂贵。对于肿瘤组织含量较少的样本中,ARMS法更为敏感,明显优于直接测序法。直接测序法可以检测到ARMS试剂盒内不包含的少见突变。结合两种方法检测结果更为可靠全面。

  16. The arms race

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehan, M.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive examination of the nature of the contemporary arms race, the forces that encourage arms competition, and the means by which these forces can be controlled. The author provides analyses of such specific issues as the viability of arms control agreements; the possibilities for nuclear disarmament; the means of deterrence, detection, and defense; and the methods of destruction themselves - nuclear, conventional, chemical, and space weapons.

  17. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    North Glebe Road, Arlington, Virginia 22201. JPRS-TAC-85-065 16 December 1985 WORLDWIDE REPORT ARMS CONTROL CONTENTS SDI AND SPACE ARMS French...34U.S.-USSR Geneva Talks" for "European Conferences". JPRS-TAO85-065 16 December 1985 SDI AND SPACE ARMS FRENCH PRIME MINISTER DISCUSSES SDI...imbalances in conventional weapons can really be discussed. As far as space is concerned, we want to avoid the emergence of weapons which are highly

  18. Data on surface-water, streambed-interstitial water, and bed-sediment quality for selected locations in the small arms impact area of central Fort Gordon, Georgia, September 4-6, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Priest, Sheryln; Stamey, Timothy C.; Lawrence, Stephen J.

    2002-01-01

    In September 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Environmental and Natural Resources Management Office of the U.S. Army Signal Center and Fort Gordon (U.S. Department of the Army), conducted a chemical assessment of surface water, streambed-interstitial water, and bed sediments within the small arms impact area of Fort Gordon Military Installation. The study was conducted in support of the development of an Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan (INRMP) for Fort Gordon, Georgia. An effective INRMP ensures that natural resources conservation measures and U.S. Army activities on the military base are integrated and consistent with Federal requirements to manage military installations on an ecosystem basis. Filtered water samples were collected from five sites along South Prong Creek and three sites along Marcum Branch Creek for chemical analyses of major ions, nutrients, and selected trace elements. On-site measurements of pH, temperature, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen were made at the eight sites. Filtered water collected showed varying concentrations in both surface- and streambed-interstitial water. Bed-sediment samples collected from South Prong Creek contain elevated levels of arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, nickel, selenium, vanadium, and total organic carbon relative to previous concentrations (McConnell and others, 2000). Bed-sediment samples collected from Marcum Branch Creek contain elevated levels of beryllium, copper, lead, manganese, mercury, selenium, and total organic carbon relative to previous concentrations (McConnell and others, 2000).

  19. Radial arm strike rail

    DOEpatents

    McKeown, Mark H.; Beason, Steven C.

    1991-01-01

    The radial arm strike rail assembly is a system for measurement of bearings, directions, and stereophotography for geologic mapping, particularly where magnetic compasses are not appropriate. The radial arm, pivoting around a shaft axis, provides a reference direction determination for geologic mapping and bearing or direction determination. The centerable and levelable pedestal provide a base for the radial arm strike rail and the telescoping camera pedestal. The telescoping feature of the radial arm strike rail allows positioning the end of the rail for strike direction or bearing measurement with a goniometer.

  20. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data Products from Principal Investigators

    DOE Data Explorer

    The PI data sets have been made available by ARM principal investigators (PI) or by others for use by the scientific community through the ARM Archive. These data are value-added products to particular ARM data sets or are derived research data of value to ARM science. Principal Investigators' names, date ranges, and research sites involved are listed in table format with the titles of the data products available. Titles are links to a page of additional details (such as the PI's contact information) and a link to the directory where the data set resides. Users will be requested to create a password, but the data files are free for viewing and downloading. The URL to go directly to the ARM Archive, bypassing the information pages, is http://www.archive.arm.gov/. The Office of Biological and Environmental Research in DOE's Office of Science is responsible for the ARM Program. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  1. The DOE ARM Aerial Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Hubbe, John M.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Mei, Fan; Chand, Duli; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Kluzek, Celine D.; Andrews, Elisabeth; Biraud, S.; McFarquhar, Greg

    2014-05-01

    The Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a climate research user facility operating stationary ground sites that provide long-term measurements of climate relevant properties, mobile ground- and ship-based facilities to conduct shorter field campaigns (6-12 months), and the ARM Aerial Facility (AAF). The airborne observations acquired by the AAF enhance the surface-based ARM measurements by providing high-resolution in-situ measurements for process understanding, retrieval-algorithm development, and model evaluation that are not possible using ground- or satellite-based techniques. Several ARM aerial efforts were consolidated into the AAF in 2006. With the exception of a small aircraft used for routine measurements of aerosols and carbon cycle gases, AAF at the time had no dedicated aircraft and only a small number of instruments at its disposal. In this "virtual hangar" mode, AAF successfully carried out several missions contracting with organizations and investigators who provided their research aircraft and instrumentation. In 2009, AAF started managing operations of the Battelle-owned Gulfstream I (G-1) large twin-turboprop research aircraft. Furthermore, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 provided funding for the procurement of over twenty new instruments to be used aboard the G-1 and other AAF virtual-hangar aircraft. AAF now executes missions in the virtual- and real-hangar mode producing freely available datasets for studying aerosol, cloud, and radiative processes in the atmosphere. AAF is also engaged in the maturation and testing of newly developed airborne sensors to help foster the next generation of airborne instruments.

  2. ARM Climate Research Facility Annual Report 2005

    SciTech Connect

    J. Voyles

    2005-12-31

    Through the ARM Program, the DOE funded the development of several highly instrumented ground stations for studying cloud formation processes and their influence on radiative transfer, and for measuring other parameters that determine the radiative properties of the atmosphere. This scientific infrastructure, and resultant data archive, is a valuable national and international asset for advancing scientific knowledge of Earth systems. In fiscal year (FY) 2003, the DOE designated ARM sites as a national scientific user facility: the ARM Climate Research (ACRF). The ACRF has enormous potential to contribute to a wide range interdisciplinary science in areas such as meteorology, atmospheric aerosols, hydrology, biogeochemical cycling, and satellite validation, to name only a few.

  3. Molecular Assembly of Wheat Gliadins into Nanostructures: A Small-Angle X-ray Scattering Study of Gliadins in Distilled Water over a Wide Concentration Range.

    PubMed

    Sato, Nobuhiro; Matsumiya, Aoi; Higashino, Yuki; Funaki, Satoshi; Kitao, Yuki; Oba, Yojiro; Inoue, Rintaro; Arisaka, Fumio; Sugiyama, Masaaki; Urade, Reiko

    2015-10-07

    Gliadin, one of the major proteins together with glutenin composing gluten, affects the physical properties of wheat flour dough. In this study, nanoscale structures of hydrated gliadins extracted into distilled water were investigated primarily by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) over a wide range of concentrations. Gliadins are soluble in distilled water below 10 wt %. Guinier analyses of SAXS profiles indicate that gliadins are present as monomers together with small amounts of dimers and oligomers in a very dilute solution. The SAXS profiles also indicate that interparticle interference appears above 0.5 wt % because of electrostatic repulsion among gliadin assemblies. Above 15 wt %, gliadins form gel-like hydrated solids. At greater concentrations, a steep upturn appears in the low-q region owing to the formation of large aggregates, and a broad shoulder appears in the middle-q region showing density fluctuation inside. This study demonstrates that SAXS can effectively disclose the nanostructure of hydrated gliadin assemblies.

  4. Introductory Handbook for Small Arms Ammunition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1967-07-01

    pec ific desi n . The f ollowing are examples of s tandard no- menclatur e : Item Cartridge Cartri d e Cartridge MM or Caliber 7. 62mm , NATO 5 ... 56mm Caliber . 30 6 . CARTRIDGE CASE Ball Ball Ball Model M80 Ml 93 M2 The cartridge case holds the primer, propellant 3 Sl’CTION II...CARTRIDGE IDENTIFICATION Figures 5 , 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 illustrate the various types of 7.62mm, 5.56mm, caliber .30, caliber .30 carbine

  5. Small Arms: Treated Uniforms for Personal Protection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Permethrin-treatment of field-worn U.S. Military uniforms has been standard practice since 1991. The uniform fabric composition has changed significantly from 100% cotton to 50:50 nylon:cotton Battle Dress Uniforms (BDUs), to 50:50 nylon:cotton Army Combat Uniforms (ACUs) with wrinkle-free finish, a...

  6. ARM Mentor Selection Process

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2015-10-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program was created in 1989 with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop several highly instrumented ground stations to study cloud formation processes and their influence on radiative transfer. In 2003, the ARM Program became a national scientific user facility, known as the ARM Climate Research Facility. This scientific infrastructure provides for fixed sites, mobile facilities, an aerial facility, and a data archive available for use by scientists worldwide through the ARM Climate Research Facility—a scientific user facility. The ARM Climate Research Facility currently operates more than 300 instrument systems that provide ground-based observations of the atmospheric column. To keep ARM at the forefront of climate observations, the ARM infrastructure depends heavily on instrument scientists and engineers, also known as lead mentors. Lead mentors must have an excellent understanding of in situ and remote-sensing instrumentation theory and operation and have comprehensive knowledge of critical scale-dependent atmospheric processes. They must also possess the technical and analytical skills to develop new data retrievals that provide innovative approaches for creating research-quality data sets. The ARM Climate Research Facility is seeking the best overall qualified candidate who can fulfill lead mentor requirements in a timely manner.

  7. Use of a new ultra-long-range terrestrial LiDAR system to monitor the mass balance of very small glaciers in the Swiss Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, M.; Huss, M.; Hoelzle, M.

    2015-12-01

    Measuring glacier mass balance is important as it directly reflects the climatic forcing on the glacier surface. Today, repeated comparison of digital elevation models (DEMs) is a popular and widely used approach to derive surface elevation, volume and mass changes for a large number of glaciers. In high-mountain environments, airborne laser scanning (ALS) techniques currently provide the most accurate and highest resolution DEMs on the catchment scale, allowing the computation of glacier changes on an annual or even semi-annual basis. For monitoring individual glaciers though, terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) is easier and more cost-efficiently applied on the seasonal timescale compared to ALS. Since most recently, the application of the latest generation of ultra-long-range near infrared TLS systems allows the acquisition of surface elevation information over snow and ice of unprecedented quality and over larger zones than with previous near infrared TLS devices. Although very small glaciers represent the majority in number in most mountain ranges on Earth, their response to climatic changes is still not fully understood and field measurements are sparse. Therefore, a programme was set up in 2012 to monitor both the seasonal and annual surface mass balance of six very small glaciers across the Swiss Alps using the direct glaciological method. As often nearly the entire surface is visible from one single location, TLS is a highly promising technique to generate repeated high-resolution DEMs as well as to derive seasonal geodetic mass balances of very small ice masses. In this study, we present seasonal surface elevation, volume and geodetic mass changes for five very small glaciers in Switzerland (Glacier de Prapio, Glacier du Sex Rouge, St. Annafirn, Schwarzbachfirn and Pizolgletscher) derived from the comparison of seasonally repeated high-resolution DEMs acquired since autumn 2013 with the new ultra-long-range TLS device Riegl VZ-6000. We show the different

  8. Rapidly expanding genetic diversity and host range of the Circoviridae viral family and other Rep encoding small circular ssDNA genomes

    PubMed Central

    Delwart, Eric; Li, Linlin

    2011-01-01

    The genomes of numerous circoviruses and distantly related circular DNA viruses encoding a rolling circle replication initiator protein (Rep) have been characterized from the tissues of mammals, fish, insects, and plants (geminivirus and nanovirus), human and animal feces, in an algae cell, and in diverse environmental samples. We review the genome organization, phylogenetic relationships and initial prevalence studies of cycloviruses, a proposed new genus in the Circoviridae family. Viral fossil rep sequences were also identified integrated on the chromosomes of mammals, frogs, lancelets, crustaceans, mites, gastropods, roundworms, placozoans, hydrozoans, protozoans, land plants, fungi, algae, and phytoplasma bacterias and their plasmids, reflecting their past host range. An ancient origin for viruses with rep-encoding single stranded small circular genomes, predating the diversification of eukaryotes, is discussed. The cellular hosts and pathogenicity of many recently described rep-containing circular genomes remain to be determined. Future studies of the virome of single cell and multi-cellular eukaryotes are likely to further extend the known diversity and host-range of small rep-containing circular viral genomes. PMID:22155583

  9. This week?s Citation Classic: 'Stickel, L. F. A comparison of certain methods of measuring ranges of small mammals. J. Mammalogy 35: 1-15, 1954.'

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.

    1986-01-01

    During my first employment as a junior biologist conducting food habits analyses at the Patuxent Research Refuge (now Patuxent Wildlife Research Center) of the US Fish and Wildlife Service, the first station director, Arnold L. Nelson, gave each staff biologist the opportunity to spend a little time conducting field studies on the 2,600-acre research area. These studies were to help in ecological evaluation of the area, but also, no doubt, functioned as a morale builder for biologists daily engaged in difficult, demanding and confining laboratory work. I undertook to measure the population density of small mammals in different habitats. The state-of-the-art methods recommended to me and prevalent in the literature worried me, especially after preliminary field work. Reading the classic, paper by W.H. Burt [Terrioriality and home range concepts as applied to mammals. J. Mammalogy 24:346-352, 1943] was a turning point for me in seeing that knowledge of home-range size was the key to measuring population density. My first papers employed these concepts in field evaluations. However, they could give-only limited attention to the question of how home ranges could be measured. Furthermore, the importance of knowledge of the home range to habitat evaluation and to understanding animal behavior was becoming increasingly apparent. Advocacy of many different methods of measuring home ranges appeared in the literature. It did not seem possible to evaluate them objectively. It occurred to me that artificial populations could be used to help in understanding the mechanisms of measuring home ranges. The effects of random trap-visiting, bias toward central traps, trap-spacing, range shape, and other factors could be considered. So grids of traps were inked onto oversize graph paper, and simulated ranges were cut from plastic to be tossed as randomly as possible on the trap-grids. It was a slow, laborious job. Analysis showed that random captures in artificial populations produced

  10. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    by S. Kulik U.S. Commitment to Space Arms Reagan Cited Weinberger Hit on ABM Treaty SDI, ABM Testing Violates Accords Said to Undermine ABM Treaty...that the creation of a large scale ABM system with outer space based elements is "a justified approach" to arms control. Yet the implementation of...countries agree that this is a new, long-term round of the arms race, and that the development of ABM weapons and the defense" system as a whole will

  11. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Service, 1000 North Glebe Road, Arlington, Virginia 22201. JPRS-TAC-86-013 1 February 1986 WORLDWIDE REPORT ARMS CONTROL CONTENTS SDI AND SPACE ...ARMS LE SOIR on Possible European Space Defense (Pierre Lefevre; Brussels LE SOIR, 12 Dec 85) 1 SALT/START ISSUES USSR Hits U.S. Accusations of...PRS«TAO86*013 1 February 1986 SDI AND SPACE ARMS LE SOIR ON POSSIBLE EUROPEAN SPACE DEFENSE Brussels LE SOIR in French 12 Dec 85 p 8 [Article by

  12. MVACS Robotic Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonitz, R.; Slostad, J.; Bon, B.; Braun, D.; Brill, R.; Buck, C.; Fleischner, R.; Haldeman, A.; Herman, J.; Hertzel, M.; Noon, D.; Pixler, G.; Schenker, P.; Ton, T.; Tucker, C.; Zimmerman, W.

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of the Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor (MVACS) Robotic Arm is to support to the other MVACS science instruments by digging trenches in the Martian soil; acquiring and dumping soil samples into the thermal evolved gas analyzer (TEGA); positioning the Soil Temperature Probe (STP) in the soil: positioning the Robotic Arm Air Temperature Sensor (RAATS) at various heights above the surface, and positioning the Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) for taking images of the surface, trench, soil samples, magnetic targets and other objects of scientific interest within its workspace.

  13. Star formation scales and efficiency in Galactic spiral arms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eden, D. J.; Moore, T. J. T.; Urquhart, J. S.; Elia, D.; Plume, R.; Rigby, A. J.; Thompson, M. A.

    2015-09-01

    We positionally match a sample of infrared-selected young stellar objects, identified by combining the Spitzer Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire, Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer and Herschel Space Observatory Herschel infrared Galactic Plane Survey, to the dense clumps identified in the millimetre continuum by the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey in two Galactic lines of sight centred towards l = 30° and 40°. We calculate the ratio of infrared luminosity, LIR, to the mass of the clump, Mclump, in a variety of Galactic environments and find it to be somewhat enhanced in spiral arms compared to the interarm regions when averaged over kiloparsec scales. We find no compelling evidence that these changes are due to the mechanical influence of the spiral arm on the star formation efficiency rather than, e.g. different gradients in the star formation rate due to patchy or intermittent star formation, or local variations that are not averaged out due to small source samples. The largest variation in LIR/Mclump is found in individual clump values, which follow a lognormal distribution and have a range of over three orders of magnitude. This spread is intrinsic as no dependence of LIR/Mclump with Mclump was found. No difference was found in the luminosity distribution of sources in the arm and interarm samples and a strong linear correlation was found between LIR and Mclump.

  14. First observations of tracking clouds using scanning ARM cloud radars

    SciTech Connect

    Borque, Paloma; Giangrande, Scott; Kollias, Pavlos

    2014-12-01

    Tracking clouds using scanning cloud radars can help to document the temporal evolution of cloud properties well before large drop formation (‘‘first echo’’). These measurements complement cloud and precipitation tracking using geostationary satellites and weather radars. Here, two-dimensional (2-D) Along-Wind Range Height Indicator (AW-RHI) observations of a population of shallow cumuli (with and without precipitation) from the 35-GHz scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program Southern Great Plains (SGP) site are presented. Observations from the ARM SGP network of scanning precipitation radars are used to provide the larger scale context of the cloud field and to highlight the advantages of the SACR to detect the numerous, small, non-precipitating cloud elements. A new Cloud Identification and Tracking Algorithm (CITA) is developed to track cloud elements. In CITA, a cloud element is identified as a region having a contiguous set of pixels exceeding a preset reflectivity and size threshold. The high temporal resolution of the SACR 2-D observations (30 sec) allows for an area superposition criteria algorithm to match cloud elements at consecutive times. Following CITA, the temporal evolution of cloud element properties (number, size, and maximum reflectivity) is presented. The vast majority of the designated elements during this cumulus event were short-lived non-precipitating clouds having an apparent life cycle shorter than 15 minutes. The advantages and disadvantages of cloud tracking using an SACR are discussed.

  15. Arm MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... arm MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan uses strong magnets to create pictures of the upper and lower ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

  16. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-23

    GDR, handguns , ammunition, explo- sives, communications and pioneer technology, certain ships, and military supplies are produced. In 1989, 1...appointed by the interior minister, and the defense, trade, and foreign ministers can issue licenses for arms traders to sign contracts. In disputed...Impossible Thought The group of politicians, diplomats, and soldiers who want to use arms control and disarmament to further their Own concealed

  17. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    ABM (Moscow TASS, 9, 10 Nov 85) 5 .U.S. ’New Interpretation’ 5 U.S. Posture Unchanged 5 PRAVDA 27 Oct Review of Week’s International Events...Space Arms Race (Beijing XINHUA, 8 Nov 85) ........................... 34 Briefs Senators Hit ABM Change 35 CSSR Representative Addresses UN...SDI AND SPACE ARMS TASS REPORTS NITZE NOVEMBER REMARKS ON SDI, ABM U.S. ’New Interpretation’ LD901421 Moscow TASS in English 1334 GMT 9 Nov 85

  18. Worldwide Report. Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    knowledgeable people and came to the conclusion that the Pentagon official who has taught his son from infancy to fear and hate the USSR has influenced...missile. The U.S. Administration fears that defeat of the. MX in Congress could undermine the U.S. position>at the arms talks here. The Soviet delegation...swaggering. Behind this there is not only the fear that the gigantic arms ex- penditure could bring about a deficit crisis of enormous proportions

  19. ARM for Platform Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patte, Mathieu; Poupat, Jean-Luc; Le Meur, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    The activities described in this paper are part of the CNES R&T “Study of a Cortex-R ARM based architecture” performed by Airbus DS Space System & Electronics in 2014. With the support of CNES, Airbus DS has performed the porting of a representative space application software on an ARM based demonstration platform. This paper presents the platform itself, the activities performed at software level and the first results on this evaluation study.

  20. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    past 23 years, Senate President Jovito Salonga said yesterday. In an interview on government television, Salonga said the presence of nuclear arms...date and place not given] [Excerpts] The Bulgarian Government recently announced that it will reduce its armed forces by 10,000 soldiers, 200 tanks...unambiguous and does not leave any room for any kind of speculation, not even in Bonn’s government statement. Corresponding to the GDR’s peace

  1. Hello to Arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This image highlights the hidden spiral arms (blue) that were discovered around the nearby galaxy NGC 4625 by the ultraviolet eyes of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer.

    The image is composed of ultraviolet and visible-light data, from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer and the California Institute of Technology's Digitized Sky Survey, respectively. Near-ultraviolet light is colored green; far-ultraviolet light is colored blue; and optical light is colored red.

    As the image demonstrates, the lengthy spiral arms are nearly invisible when viewed in optical light while bright in ultraviolet. This is because they are bustling with hot, newborn stars that radiate primarily ultraviolet light.

    The youthful arms are also very long, stretching out to a distance four times the size of the galaxy's core. They are part of the largest ultraviolet galactic disk discovered so far.

    Located 31 million light-years away in the constellation Canes Venatici, NGC 4625 is the closest galaxy ever seen with such a young halo of arms. It is slightly smaller than our Milky Way, both in size and mass. However, the fact that this galaxy's disk is forming stars very actively suggests that it might evolve into a more massive and mature galaxy resembling our own.

    The armless companion galaxy seen below NGC 4625 is called NGC 4618. Astronomers do not know why it lacks arms but speculate that it may have triggered the development of arms in NGC 4625.

  2. Look at my Arms!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This image shows the hidden spiral arms that were discovered around the galaxy called NGC 4625 (top) by the ultraviolet eyes of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer. An armless companion galaxy called NGC 4618 is pictured below.

    Though the lengthy spiral arms are nearly invisible when viewed in optical light, they glow brightly in ultraviolet. This is because they are bustling with hot, newborn stars that radiate primarily ultraviolet light.

    The youthful arms are also very long, stretching out to a distance four times the size of the galaxy's core. They are part of the largest ultraviolet galactic disk discovered so far.

    Located 31 million light-years away in the constellation Canes Venatici, NGC 4625 is the closest galaxy ever seen with such a young halo of arms. It is slightly smaller than our Milky Way, both in size and mass. However, the fact that this galaxy's disk is forming stars very actively suggests that it might evolve into a more massive and mature galaxy resembling our own.

    Astronomers do not know why NGC 4618 lacks arms but speculate that it may have triggered the development of arms in NGC 4625.

  3. Kinematically redundant arm formulations for coordinated multiple arm implementations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Robert W.; Quiocho, Leslie J.; Cleghorn, Timothy F.

    1990-01-01

    Although control laws for kinematically redundant robotic arms were presented as early as 1969, redundant arms have only recently become recognized as viable solutions to limitations inherent to kinematically sufficient arms. The advantages of run-time control optimization and arm reconfiguration are becoming increasingly attractive as the complexity and criticality of robotic systems continues to progress. A generalized control law for a spatial arm with 7 or more degrees of freedom (DOF) based on Whitney's resolved rate formulation is given. Results from a simulation implementation utilizing this control law are presented. Furthermore, results from a two arm simulation are presented to demonstrate the coordinated control of multiple arms using this formulation.

  4. Feature extraction of micro-motion frequency and the maximum wobble angle in a small range of missile warhead based on micro-Doppler effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M.; Jiang, Y. S.

    2014-11-01

    Micro-Doppler effect is induced by the micro-motion dynamics of the radar target itself or any structure on the target. In this paper, a simplified cone-shaped model for ballistic missile warhead with micro-nutation is established, followed by the theoretical formula of micro-nutation is derived. It is confirmed that the theoretical results are identical to simulation results by using short-time Fourier transform. Then we propose a new method for nutation period extraction via signature maximum energy fitting based on empirical mode decomposition and short-time Fourier transform. The maximum wobble angle is also extracted by distance approximate approach in a small range of wobble angle, which is combined with the maximum likelihood estimation. By the simulation studies, it is shown that these two feature extraction methods are both valid even with low signal-to-noise ratio.

  5. A small-scale hyperacute compound eye featuring active eye tremor: application to visual stabilization, target tracking, and short-range odometry.

    PubMed

    Colonnier, Fabien; Manecy, Augustin; Juston, Raphaël; Mallot, Hanspeter; Leitel, Robert; Floreano, Dario; Viollet, Stéphane

    2015-02-25

    In this study, a miniature artificial compound eye (15 mm in diameter) called the curved artificial compound eye (CurvACE) was endowed for the first time with hyperacuity, using similar micro-movements to those occurring in the fly's compound eye. A periodic micro-scanning movement of only a few degrees enables the vibrating compound eye to locate contrasting objects with a 40-fold greater resolution than that imposed by the interommatidial angle. In this study, we developed a new algorithm merging the output of 35 local processing units consisting of adjacent pairs of artificial ommatidia. The local measurements performed by each pair are processed in parallel with very few computational resources, which makes it possible to reach a high refresh rate of 500 Hz. An aerial robotic platform with two degrees of freedom equipped with the active CurvACE placed over naturally textured panels was able to assess its linear position accurately with respect to the environment thanks to its efficient gaze stabilization system. The algorithm was found to perform robustly at different light conditions as well as distance variations relative to the ground and featured small closed-loop positioning errors of the robot in the range of 45 mm. In addition, three tasks of interest were performed without having to change the algorithm: short-range odometry, visual stabilization, and tracking contrasting objects (hands) moving over a textured background.

  6. Use of a precipitation-runoff model for simulating effects of forest management on streamflow in 11 small drainage basins, Oregon Coast Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risley, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    The Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) model of the U.S. Geological Survey was used to simulate the hydrologic effects of timber management in 11 small, upland drainage basins of the Coast Range in Oregon. The coefficients of determination for observed and simulated daily flow during the calibration periods ranged from 0.92 for the Flynn Creek Basin to 0.68 for the Priorli Creek Basin; percent error ranged from -0.25 for the Deer Creek Basin to -4.49 for the Nestucca River Basin. The coefficients of determination during the validation periods ranged from 0.90 for the Flynn Creek Basin to 0.66 for the Wind River Basin; percent error during the validation periods ranged from -0.91 for the Flynn Creek Basin to 22.3 for the Priorli Creek Basin. In addition to daily simulations, 42 storms were selected from the time-series periods in which the 11 basins were studied and used in hourly storm-mode simulations. Sources of simulation error included the quality of the input data, deficiencies in the PRMS model-algorithms, and the quality of parameter estimation. Times-series data from the Flynn Creek and Needle Branch Basins, collected during an earlier U.S. Geological Survey paired-watershed study, were used to evaluate the PRMS as a tool for predicting the hydrologic effects of timber-management practices. The Flynn Creek Basin remained forested and undisturbed during the data-collection period, while the Needle Branch Basin had been clearcut 82 percent at a midpoint during the period of data collection. Using the PRMS, streamflow at the Needle Branch Basin was simulated during the postlogging period using prelogging parameter values. Comparison of postlogging observed streamflow with the simulated data showed an increase in annual discharge volume of approximately 8 percent and a small increase in peak flows of from 1 to 2 percent. The simulated flows from the basins studied were generally insensitive to the number of hydrologic-response units used to replicate

  7. Advanced 360o FOV, wide energy range, non-HV, gated time of flight mass spectrometers for Small Satellites and Cubesats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paschalidis, N.; Jones, S.; Rodriguez, M.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Chornay, D. J.; Uribe, P.; Cameron, T.; Nanan, G.

    2015-12-01

    The time of flight technique is widely used for composition analysis of space plasma instruments. The foil - MCP/CEM combination is commonly used for E x TOF mass analysis at the cost of energy threshold, scattering, and direct particle interaction which ultimately affect performance. An alternative method especially effective at low energies is gated time of flight where the start foil is replaced with electric gating. There are several advantages of electric gating, including elimination of heavy HVPS required for pre-reacceleration to overcome foil thresholds, non- destructive interaction with atomic and molecular ions before analysis, and electronic controllability including geometric factor adjustment for flux dynamic range, FOV optimization, electronic filtering of most abundant elements in favor of minor species, and other properties affecting directly the scientific and engineering performance of the instruments. In addition special secondary emission surfaces can be used for triple coincidence when needed. The combination of electric gating and special surfaces works in an extensive energy range from 0 to tens of KeV without the need of start foil/HVPS making thus the use attractive to small satellites and cubesats. Those characteristics will be elaborated in the context of a gated time of flight wide field of view and energy range ion spectrometer combined with a neutral mass spectrometer (WINMS) developed at GSFC. The instrument prototypes have mass resolution adequate to separate N, O, OH, OH2; also static from ram moving H allowing thus separation of outgassing from ambient gases. A first implementation INMS with a mass <600 grams and size <1.5U is the main payload of the EXOCUBE Cubesat mission launched in January 2015 and already produced flight data; a second upgraded implementation is on onboard the GSFC Dellingr 6U CubeSat scheduled for launch in late 2015; and ongoing developments are baselined for other satellite missions.

  8. Geochemical Characteristics of Overbank Deposits after a Flood Event in a Small, Mountainous River System in the Oregon Coast Range, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, F. J.; Hatten, J. A.; Goni, M. A.; Gray, A. B.; Pasternack, G. B.

    2014-12-01

    The geochemical characteristics of particulate organic matter (POM) transported by rivers has broad implications in our understanding of aquatic nutrient dynamics, the fate of contaminants, environmental change in watersheds, and carbon export to depositional environments. The major fraction of this POM is mobilized during storms, especially in small mountainous river systems (SMRS) producing complex spatial-temporal POM patterns poorly documented due to logistical difficulties. In this study, we examine the use of overbank flood deposits as a surrogate of a quasi-Lagrangian POM sampling scheme to supplement the conventional Eulerian sampling scheme for POM. We report on the geochemical characteristics of 11 overbank deposits created after a significant flood (10 X mean discharge) along 80 km in the Alsea River, a SMRS in the Oregon Coast Range. We measure organic carbon, nitrogen, stable isotopes, and biomarkers such as lignin-derived phenols as well as particle size distribution and surface area of the deposited sediments. We compared those characteristics with the POM sampled during several storms at a fixed location. Our results suggest that despite the differences in local depositional conditions inferred from particle size distributions and texture, the geochemical properties of overbank deposits resemble the properties of the material in transport, mainly derived from a terrestrial source with a clear signal of gymnosperm wood. Furthermore, the normalized ranges of the geochemical indicators measured across space for one single event are comparable to, or even higher than, the normalized range of the same indicators measured along time at the fixed location. The implications of the amount and quality of the additional information offered by the overbank deposits in POM dynamics in watershed is discussed.

  9. Mystery Spiral Arms Explained?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-04-01

    Using a quartet of space observatories, University of Maryland astronomers may have cracked a 45-year mystery surrounding two ghostly spiral arms in the galaxy M106. The Maryland team, led by Yuxuan Yang, took advantage of the unique capabilities of NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton X-ray observatory, and data obtained almost a decade ago with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. NGC X-ray Image NGC 4258 X-ray Image M106 (also known as NGC 4258) is a stately spiral galaxy 23.5 million light-years away in the constellation Canes Venatici. In visible-light images, two prominent arms emanate from the bright nucleus and spiral outward. These arms are dominated by young, bright stars, which light up the gas within the arms. "But in radio and X-ray images, two additional spiral arms dominate the picture, appearing as ghostly apparitions between the main arms," says team member Andrew Wilson of the University of Maryland. These so-called "anomalous arms" consist mostly of gas. "The nature of these anomalous arms is a long-standing puzzle in astronomy," says Yang. "They have been a mystery since they were first discovered in the early 1960s." By analyzing data from XMM-Newton, Spitzer, and Chandra, Yang, Bo Li, Wilson, and Christopher Reynolds, all at the University of Maryland at College Park, have confirmed earlier suspicions that the ghostly arms represent regions of gas that are being violently heated by shock waves. Previously, some astronomers had suggested that the anomalous arms are jets of particles being ejected by a supermassive black hole in M106's nucleus. But radio observations by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's Very Long Baseline Array, and the Very Large Array in New Mexico, later identified another pair of jets originating in the core. "It is highly unlikely that an active galactic nucleus could have more than one pair of jets," says Yang. In 2001, Wilson, Yang, and Gerald Cecil

  10. Arms Industry limited

    SciTech Connect

    Wulf, H.

    1993-12-31

    The intent of this study is to give an overview of the present state of the world arms industry. It is an empirical account of the size of the industry and particularly its present problems. The authors examine the economic pressures that affect the international arms trade. Specifically, it raises the question of how dependent the industry is on weapons production and exports, and whether there are any alternatives. Export dependence of the major weapons producing countries is a major focus. The book focus`s on private industry as opposed to examination of national governments. Despite the passing of the Cold War and some brief post-Gulf War euphoria about the possibility of greater restrain on the part of weapons exporters, the conventional arms trade is alive and well, albeit with new variations.

  11. Robotic Arm Unwrapped

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken shortly after NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander touched down on the surface of Mars, shows the spacecraft's robotic arm in its stowed configuration, with its biobarrier successfully unpeeled. The 'elbow' of the arm can be seen at the top center of the picture, and the biobarrier is the shiny film seen to the left of the arm.

    The biobarrier is an extra precautionary measure for protecting Mars from contamination with any bacteria from Earth. While the whole spacecraft was decontaminated through cleaning, filters and heat, the robotic arm was given additional protection because it is the only spacecraft part that will directly touch the ice below the surface of Mars.

    Before the arm was heated, it was sealed in the biobarrier, which is made of a trademarked film called Tedlar that holds up to baking like a turkey-basting bag. This ensures that any new bacterial spores that might have appeared during the final steps before launch and during the journey to Mars will not contact the robotic arm.

    After Phoenix landed, springs were used to pop back the barrier, giving it room to deploy.

    The base of the lander's Meteorological Station can be seen in this picture on the upper left. Because only the base of the station is showing, this image tells engineers that the instrument deployed successfully.

    The image was taken on landing day, May 25, 2008, by the spacecraft's Surface Stereo Imager.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    means and ofI large-scale system of so-called ABM defense coupled with the buildup of strategic offensive arms is also aimed at smashing the strategic...strategic defense". On this basis they assert, firstly, that there is as yet no real threat of an all-embracing ABM system being deployed, and, se- PnlifUÜf...States is not violating any of its commitments on arms limitations, above all those envisaged under the ABM treaty. It is common knowledge that

  13. Worldwide Report Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-04

    GMT 4 Jan 87 LD] /9738 CSO: 5200/1128 11 U.S.«-USSR NUCLEAR AND SPACE ARMS TALKS GORBACHEV, REAGAN NEW YEAR MESSAGES ON DISARMAMENT Reagan to...Moscow PRAVDA in Russian 28 Dec 86 First Edition p 4 [Vitaliy Korionov "International Review"] [Excerpts] Only a few days remain until the New Year...105063 JPRS-TAC-87-OlO 4 FEBRUARY 1987 Worldwide Report ARMS CONTROL ’DUO QUALITY BFSPSSTEP * 19980515 022 FBIS FOREIGN BROADCAST■1NFORMAtlÖN

  14. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 541: Small Boy Nevada National Security Site and Nevada Test and Training Range, Nevada with ROTC 1

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Patrick

    2014-09-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 541 is co-located on the boundary of Area 5 of the Nevada National Security Site and Range 65C of the Nevada Test and Training Range, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 541 is a grouping of sites where there has been a suspected release of contamination associated with nuclear testing. This document describes the planned investigation of CAU 541, which comprises the following corrective action sites (CASs): 05-23-04, Atmospheric Tests (6) - BFa Site; 05-45-03, Atmospheric Test Site - Small Boy. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating CAAs and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable CAAs that will be presented in the investigation report. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on April 1, 2014, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Air Force; and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 541. The site investigation process also will be conducted in accordance with the Soils Activity Quality Assurance Plan, which establishes requirements, technical planning, and general quality practices to be applied to this activity. The potential contamination sources associated with CASs 05-23-04 and 05-45-03 are from nuclear testing activities conducted at the Atmospheric Tests (6) - BFa Site and Atmospheric Test Site - Small Boy sites. The presence and nature of

  15. Bayesian State-Space Modelling of Conventional Acoustic Tracking Provides Accurate Descriptors of Home Range Behavior in a Small-Bodied Coastal Fish Species

    PubMed Central

    Alós, Josep; Palmer, Miquel; Balle, Salvador; Arlinghaus, Robert

    2016-01-01

    State-space models (SSM) are increasingly applied in studies involving biotelemetry-generated positional data because they are able to estimate movement parameters from positions that are unobserved or have been observed with non-negligible observational error. Popular telemetry systems in marine coastal fish consist of arrays of omnidirectional acoustic receivers, which generate a multivariate time-series of detection events across the tracking period. Here we report a novel Bayesian fitting of a SSM application that couples mechanistic movement properties within a home range (a specific case of random walk weighted by an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process) with a model of observational error typical for data obtained from acoustic receiver arrays. We explored the performance and accuracy of the approach through simulation modelling and extensive sensitivity analyses of the effects of various configurations of movement properties and time-steps among positions. Model results show an accurate and unbiased estimation of the movement parameters, and in most cases the simulated movement parameters were properly retrieved. Only in extreme situations (when fast swimming speeds are combined with pooling the number of detections over long time-steps) the model produced some bias that needs to be accounted for in field applications. Our method was subsequently applied to real acoustic tracking data collected from a small marine coastal fish species, the pearly razorfish, Xyrichtys novacula. The Bayesian SSM we present here constitutes an alternative for those used to the Bayesian way of reasoning. Our Bayesian SSM can be easily adapted and generalized to any species, thereby allowing studies in freely roaming animals on the ecological and evolutionary consequences of home ranges and territory establishment, both in fishes and in other taxa. PMID:27119718

  16. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-28

    Dec 85 [Text] Moscow, December 3 TASS —TASS political news analyst valerity Vavilov writes: The defence ministers of the twelve West European NATO...that during the second Taiwan crisis of 1958, the use of nuclear arms against China was very close to reality. (In August of that year, the U.S. 7th

  17. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    34military activities, whether in the armed forces, their civilian sectors, or in the ’defence’ indus- try". In another paper Professor Carl Sagan ...spurring the development of new weapons. Star Wars is a case in point. As Carl Sagan puts it, the idea is doomed: "SDI is ruinously expensive, it can

  18. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-12

    thai, in the long run one cannot oven tell to willy frandi’and fgon fahr . ’r’ho Soviets arc thus evoking the suspicion that they are playing dirty...material resources and the knowledge of scientists in combatting diseases , if the resources were spent on it that are taken up by the arms race

  19. JPRS Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Joint-Stock Company"] [Text] A constituent conference of the "Ural- Kosmos " closed joint-stock company [aktsionernoye obshchestvo zakrytogo tipa] has...due to be destroyed under arms cuts. Their warheads will be replaced by communications satellites. The founders of the "Ural- Kosmos " company note

  20. Worldwide report: Arms control, [February 1, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    1986-02-01

    Partial contents of this report include: SDI and Space arms, Slat and Start Issues, Violations, Treaty, Fabrications, Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces, Missiles, Nuclear Issues, Deployment, Chemical Weapons, Biological Weapons, European Conferences, Nuclear Testing and Free Zone Proposals, Ussr Attacks, Rejection, Moratorium Stances, TV Interviews, Public, International Calls, Delegates, Friendships, Environmental, Domestics, International Services, Nuclear Blast, White House Assurance, Non-nuclear Claims, Blast Exposes, Perle Justification, Antisatellite Weapon Tests, X-ray Laser, Related issues, Nuclear Free Zones, Peaceful, Nuclear Weapons, Television Services, Resumption, Arm Controls.

  1. Molecular clouds in the Carina arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grabelsky, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    Results from the first large-scale survey in the CO(J = 1 to 0) line of the Vela-Carina-Centaurus region of the Southern Milky Way are reported. The observations, made with the Columbia University 1.2 m millimeter-wave telescope at Cerro Tololo, were spaced every beamwidth (0.125 deg) in the range 270 deg is less than or = l is less than or = 300 deg and -1 deg less than or = b less then or = 1 deg, with latitude extensions to cover all Carina arm emission beyond absolute b = 1 deg. In a concurrent survey made with the same telescope, every half-degree in latitude and longitude was sampled. Both surveys had a spectral coverage of 330 km/s with a resolution of 1.3 km/s. The Carina arm is the dominant feature in the data. Its abrupt tangent at l is approx. = 280 deg and characteristic loop in the l,v diagram are unmistakable evidence for CO spiral structure. When the emission is integrated over velocity and latitude, the height of the step seen in the tangent direction suggests that the arm-interarm contrast is at least 13:1. Comparison of the CO and H I data shows close agreement between these two species in a segment of the arm lying outside the solar circle. The distribution of the molecular layer about the galactic plane in the outer Galaxy is determined. Between R = 10.5 and 12.5 kpc, the average CO midplane dips from z = -48 to -167 pc below the b = 0 deg plane, following a similar well-known warping of the H I layer. In the same range of radii the half-thickness of the CO layer increases from 112 to 182 pc. Between l = 270 deg and 300 deg, 27 molecular clouds are identified and cataloged along with heliocentric distances and masses. An additional 16 clouds beyond 300 deg are cataloged from an adjoining CO survey made with the same telescope. The average mass for the Carina arm clouds is 1.4x 10(6)M (solar), and the average intercloud spacing along the arm is 700 pc. Comparison of the distribution of the Carina arm clouds with that of similarly massive

  2. Navy autonomy thwarts arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Arkin, W.M.

    1987-09-01

    During the past three decades the two superpowers have steadily modernized their naval forces, sent large numbers of nuclear weapons to sea, and engaged in provocative and potentially destabilizing operations. Currently the US is deploying new aircraft carriers, a new generation of fighter aircraft, and new surface ships with greater offensive and defensive power. The Soviet Union has deployed a new generation of attack submarines and is completing its first large aircraft carrier. And the Soviets are preparing to follow the US lead in deploying long-range, highly accurate sea-launched cruise missiles. These developments, accompanied by naval operations that increase the potential for superpower conflict at sea, should make naval arms control a high priority. But it has not been a focus of US-Soviet negotiations and only recently has garnered more interest from multilateral disarmament bodies. An examination of the record shows that bilateral efforts in this area have been minimal and impeded by strong opposition, particularly from the US Navy. The multilateral approach may be more promising because of five agreements affecting the seas that could offer precedents, but this will require improved coordination between the arms control and law of the sea processes. 10 references.

  3. Robotic Arm of Rover 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    JPL engineers examine the robotic arm of Mars Exploration Rover 1. The arm is modeled after a human arm, complete with joints, and holds four devices on its end, the Rock Abrasion Tool which can grind into Martian rocks, a microscopic imager, and two spectrometers for elemental and iron-mineral identification.

  4. The azimuthal path of myosin V and its dependence on lever-arm length.

    PubMed

    Lewis, John H; Beausang, John F; Sweeney, H Lee; Goldman, Yale E

    2012-02-01

    Myosin V (myoV) is a two-headed myosin capable of taking many successive steps along actin per diffusional encounter, enabling it to transport vesicular and ribonucleoprotein cargos in the dense and complex environment within cells. To better understand how myoV navigates along actin, we used polarized total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to examine angular changes of bifunctional rhodamine probes on the lever arms of single myoV molecules in vitro. With a newly developed analysis technique, the rotational motions of the lever arm and the local orientation of each probe relative to the lever arm were estimated from the probe's measured orientation. This type of analysis could be applied to similar studies on other motor proteins, as well as other proteins with domains that undergo significant rotational motions. The experiments were performed on recombinant constructs of myoV that had either the native-length (six IQ motifs and calmodulins [CaMs]) or truncated (four IQ motifs and CaMs) lever arms. Native-length myoV-6IQ mainly took straight steps along actin, with occasional small azimuthal tilts around the actin filament. Truncated myoV-4IQ showed an increased frequency of azimuthal steps, but the magnitudes of these steps were nearly identical to those of myoV-6IQ. The results show that the azimuthal deflections of myoV on actin are more common for the truncated lever arm, but the range of these deflections is relatively independent of its lever-arm length.

  5. Modules for Modeling Firing Range Best Management Practices within TREECS (trademark)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    points, impact berms for small arms firing ranges (SAFRs), demolition sites, grenade ranges, etc. Source loading management can involve rotating ...removal is performed primarily to remove intact duds, there can be exposed chunks of HE from low order detonations that can be removed. The extraction of...and perforation of duds that can expose HE. Sympathetic duds are low order detonations due to another round exploding close enough to the dud to

  6. ARM User Survey Report

    SciTech Connect

    Roeder, LR

    2010-06-22

    The objective of this survey was to obtain user feedback to, among other things, determine how to organize the exponentially growing data within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, and identify users’ preferred data analysis system. The survey findings appear to have met this objective, having received approximately 300 responses that give insight into the type of work users perform, usage of the data, percentage of data analysis users might perform on an ARM-hosted computing resource, downloading volume level where users begin having reservations, opinion about usage if given more powerful computing resources (including ability to manipulate data), types of tools that would be most beneficial to them, preferred programming language and data analysis system, level of importance for certain types of capabilities, and finally, level of interest in participating in a code-sharing community.

  7. Microelectromechanical safe arm device

    DOEpatents

    Roesler, Alexander W [Tijeras, NM

    2012-06-05

    Microelectromechanical (MEM) apparatus and methods for operating, for preventing unintentional detonation of energetic components comprising pyrotechnic and explosive materials, such as air bag deployment systems, munitions and pyrotechnics. The MEM apparatus comprises an interrupting member that can be moved to block (interrupt) or complete (uninterrupt) an explosive train that is part of an energetic component. One or more latching members are provided that engage and prevent the movement of the interrupting member, until the one or more latching members are disengaged from the interrupting member. The MEM apparatus can be utilized as a safe and arm device (SAD) and electronic safe and arm device (ESAD) in preventing unintentional detonations. Methods for operating the MEM apparatus include independently applying drive signals to the actuators coupled to the latching members, and an actuator coupled to the interrupting member.

  8. Robot arm apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Nachbar, Henry D.

    1992-12-01

    A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for conveying inspection and/or maintenance apparatus from outside the steam generator to the interior of the steam generator. The flexible conduit has a terminal working end which is translated into and around the interior of the steam generator. Three motors located outside the steam generator are employed for moving the terminal working end inside the steam generator in "x", "y", and "z" directions, respectively. Commonly conducted inspection and maintenance operations include visual inspection for damaged areas, water jet lancing for cleaning sludge deposits, core boring for obtaining sludge deposits, and scrubbing of internal parts.

  9. Robot arm apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Nachbar, Henry D.

    1992-01-01

    A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for conveying inspection and/or maintenance apparatus from outside the steam generator to the interior of the steam generator. The flexible conduit has a terminal working end which is translated into and around the interior of the steam generator. Three motors located outside the steam generator are employed for moving the terminal working end inside the steam generator in "x", "y", and "z" directions, respectively. Commonly conducted inspection and maintenance operations include visual inspection for damaged areas, water jet lancing for cleaning sludge deposits, core boring for obtaining sludge deposits, and scrubbing of internal parts.

  10. Robot arm apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Nachbar, H.D.

    1990-12-31

    A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for conveying inspection and/or maintenance apparatus from outside the steam generator to the interior of the steam generator. The flexible conduit has a terminal working end which is translated into and around the interior of the steam generator. Three motors located outside the steam generator are employed for moving the terminal working end inside the steam generator in ``x,`` ``y,`` and ``z`` directions, respectively. Commonly conducted inspection and maintenance operations include visual inspection for damaged areas, water jet lancing for cleaning sludge deposits, core boring for obtaining sludge deposits, and scrubbing of internal parts.

  11. Effects of spiral arms on star formation in nuclear rings of barred-spiral galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Woo-Young; Kim, Woong-Tae E-mail: wkim@astro.snu.ac.kr

    2014-09-01

    We use hydrodynamic simulations to study the effect of spiral arms on the star formation rate (SFR) in nuclear rings of barred-spiral galaxies. We find that spiral arms can be an efficient means of gas transport from the outskirts to the central parts, provided that the arms are rotating slower than the bar. While the ring star formation in models with no arms or corotating arms is active only during around the bar growth phase, arm-driven gas accretion both significantly enhances and prolongs the ring star formation in models with slow-rotating arms. The arm-enhanced SFR is larger by a factor of ∼3-20 than in the no-arm model, with larger values corresponding to stronger and slower arms. Arm-induced mass inflows also make dust lanes stronger. Nuclear rings in slow-arm models are ∼45% larger than in the no-arm counterparts. Star clusters that form in a nuclear ring exhibit an age gradient in the azimuthal direction only when the SFR is small, whereas no notable age gradient is found in the radial direction for models with arm-induced star formation.

  12. JPRS Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    negotiations on all weapons categories. He said on Sunday in the ZDF [second German television] program "Bonn Direkt " that German foreign policy has...JPRS-TAC-89-021 25 MAY 1989 fflflBBl FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE JPRS Report— Arms Control A99S07A51® REPRODUCED BY U.S...Libyan Envoy Requests Meeting [THAI RAT 14 May] 16 Paper Criticizes U.S. Warning [MATICHON 13 May] 17 Foreign Minister Interviewed [Bangkok Radio

  13. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    19980715 176 REPRODUCED BY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE SPRINGFIELD, VA. 22161 DTIC QUALITY INSPECTED X Arms...South Korean authorities are not in a position, for some reasons, to respond to our proposal right now, they should take at least practical measures...prevented, he said, nuclear weapons and their delivery vehicles should be removed. But, if the United States is not prepared for this right now, we

  14. Robotic Arm End Effector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Image illustrates the tools on the end of the arm that are used to acquire samples, image the contents of the scoop, and perform science experiments.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. JPRS Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    have to be comprehensively reduced before NATo cuts back on its arms. Those in the West, who attribute all progress to Gor- bachev’s behavior , have...disarmament expert Werner Hoyer stressed that there should not be any delay in beginning negotiations on this, from the German point of view. All...information or assistance, call FBIS, (202) 338-6735,or write to PO Box 2604, Washington, D.C. 20013. Department of Defense consumers are required to

  16. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-30

    Viewed, by Tang Tianri 29 Issues Assessed, by Tang Xiushan 31 SPACE ARMS USSR: Reports, Comments on Bush Trip to Europe To Push SDI (Various...85) 99 Indian Prime Minister Criticizes ’Star Wars’ (Bombay THE TIMES OF INDIA, 7 Jun 85) 101 Briefs USSR: U.S. Laser Test Planned 103 TASS...a tangible political disagree- ment. The Norwegian defense minister does not think that an attack will come of out of the blue . The foreign

  17. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    effective measures to feelings of those Americans who are demanding effective measures to limit the arms race, Weinberger hypocritically said that the...way to conduct effective negotiations." Mr Weinberger knows very well that speaking the language of diktat to the Soviet Union is an activity with...the ABM Treaty"] [Text] The Soviet-American Treaty on the Limitation of ABM Systems, concluded in May 1972, has now been in effect for more than 13

  18. JPRS Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    JPRS-TAC-89-025 21 JUNE 1989 !■■■■■ FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE -/P/? S #;# Arms Control \\ɘIÜ REPRODUCED BY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF...Compromise on SNF Issue [ S . Gjoka; ZERIIPOPULLIT 31 May] 11 U.S. Troop Reduction Proposals Critiqued [ S . Beqari; ZERI I POPULLIT 7 Jun] 12 BULGARIA...Petrov; RABOTNICHESKO DELO 7 Jun] 16 CZECHOSLOVAKIA Commentary Critiques Bush CFE, SNF Proposals [B. Zagar ; Bratislava PRAVDA 3 Jun] 18

  19. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    dangerous because the measure of control by central political organs of the state over conventional weapons and their military use is substan...It is always under the control and guidance of governments of the interested parties, it is the most manageable and has the least inertia. It...JPRS-TAC-89-001 10 JANUARY 1989 —JPRS Report— Arms Control nTSTRJBUTlON STATEMfcwTA Approved for public release; Distribution Unlimited n

  20. Sdi and arms control

    SciTech Connect

    DeWolf, H.G.

    1989-11-01

    President Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative, or SDI, and the pursuit of defenses to protect against ballistic missile attack are issues of significant debate. Some praise the proposal, first made in a presidential address to the nation on 23 March 1983, as a grand vision that will abolish nuclear blackmail by adopting a totally defensive posture. Others condemn it as being destabilizing, a Pandora's box of strategic transition that could precipitate armed conflict.

  1. Phoenix Robotic Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A vital instrument on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander is the robotic arm, which will dig into the icy soil and bring samples back to the science deck of the spacecraft for analysis. In September 2006 at a Lockheed Martin Space Systems clean room facility near Denver, spacecraft technician Billy Jones inspects the arm during the assembly phase of the mission.

    Using the robotic arm -- built by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena -- the Phoenix mission will study the history of water and search for complex organic molecules in the ice-rich soil.

    The Phoenix mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen, and the Max Planck Institute in Germany. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  2. Languages of arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Sherr, A.B.

    1985-11-01

    The author points out that the distinction between a component and subcomponent and a matter of Russian-English translation must be resolved if the Reagan-Gorbachev talks were to progress. The Reagan Administration did not create the problem of what is a component and what is a subcomponent; that was left unresolved in 1972. But the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization approach surely exacerbates it at a most inopportune time for arms control. US protestations that SDI does nothing to undermine the ABM Treaty ring hollow indeed when the professed aim of developing and testing various subcomponents is to arrive at a point of full systems development. If the Soviets were taking this same approach, no US arms control expert, in or out of government, would condone it once the activity had been identified by national technical means as probably ABM-related. The US would place the burden on the Soviets to explain, if they could, why it was not. The scope of the SDI program throws an entirely new factor into the equation. The price for pursuing SDI will be a stalemate in arms control negotiations for an indefinite future, increasing charges of cheating by both sides, and continuation of the chill in US-Soviet relations. Unless this prospect is reversed, good intentions and hopes for peace will be illusory. 7 references.

  3. Armed conflict and child health

    PubMed Central

    Rieder, Michael; Choonara, Imti

    2012-01-01

    Summary Armed conflict has a major impact on child health throughout the world. One in six children worldwide lives in an area of armed conflict and civilians are more likely to die than soldiers as a result of the conflict. In stark contrast to the effect on children, the international arms trade results in huge profits for the large corporations involved in producing arms, weapons and munitions. Armed conflict is not inevitable but is an important health issue that should be prevented. PMID:21393303

  4. A low background-rate detector for ions in the 5 to 50 keV energy range to be used for radioisotope dating with a small cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, P.G.

    1986-11-25

    Accelerator mass spectrometry in tandem Van de Graaff accelerators has proven successful for radioisotope dating small samples. We are developing a 20 cm diameter 30 to 40 keV cyclotron dedicated to high-sensitivity radioisotope dating, initially for /sup 14/C. At this energy, range and dE/dx methods of particle identification are impossible. Thus arises the difficult problem of reliably detecting 30 to 40 keV /sup 14/C at 10/sup -2/ counts/sec in the high background environment of the cyclotron, where lower energy ions, electrons, and photons bombard the detector at much higher rates. We have developed and tested an inexpensive, generally useful ion detector that allows dark-count rates below 10/sup -4/ counts/sec and excellent background suppression. With the cyclotron tuned near the /sup 13/CH background peak, to the frequency for /sup 14/C, the detector suppresses the background to 6 x 10/sup -4/ counts/sec. For each /sup 14/C ion the detectors grazing-incidence Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ conversion dynode emits about 20 secondary electrons, which are independently multiplied in separate pores of a microchannel plate. The output signal is proportional to the number of secondary electrons, allowing pulse-height discrimination of background. We have successfully tested the detector with positive /sup 12/C, /sup 23/Na, /sup 39/K, /sup 41/K, /sup 85/Rb, /sup 87/Rb, and /sup 133/Cs at 5 to 40 keV, and with 36 keV negative /sup 12/C and /sup 13/CH. It should detect ions and neutrals of all species, at energies above 5 keV, with good efficiency and excellent background discrimination. Counting efficiency and background discrimination improve with higher ion energy. The detector can be operated at least up to 2 x 10/sup -7/ Torr and be repeatedly exposed to air. The maximum rate is 10/sup 6.4/ ions/sec in pulse counting mode and 10/sup 9.7/ ions/sec in current integrating mode.

  5. Proton Arc Reduces Range Uncertainty Effects and Improves Conformality Compared With Photon Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy in Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Seco, Joao; Gu, Guan; Marcelos, Tiago; Kooy, Hanne; Willers, Henning

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: To describe, in a setting of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the theoretical dosimetric advantages of proton arc stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in which the beam penumbra of a rotating beam is used to reduce the impact of range uncertainties. Methods and Materials: Thirteen patients with early-stage NSCLC treated with proton SBRT underwent repeat planning with photon volumetric modulated arc therapy (Photon-VMAT) and an in-house-developed arc planning approach for both proton passive scattering (Passive-Arc) and intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT-Arc). An arc was mimicked with a series of beams placed at 10° increments. Tumor and organ at risk doses were compared in the context of high- and low-dose regions, represented by volumes receiving >50% and <50% of the prescription dose, respectively. Results: In the high-dose region, conformality index values are 2.56, 1.91, 1.31, and 1.74, and homogeneity index values are 1.29, 1.22, 1.52, and 1.18, respectively, for 3 proton passive scattered beams, Passive-Arc, IMPT-Arc, and Photon-VMAT. Therefore, proton arc leads to a 30% reduction in the 95% isodose line volume to 3-beam proton plan, sparing surrounding organs, such as lung and chest wall. For chest wall, V30 is reduced from 21 cm{sup 3} (3 proton beams) to 11.5 cm{sup 3}, 12.9 cm{sup 3}, and 8.63 cm{sup 3} (P=.005) for Passive-Arc, IMPT-Arc, and Photon-VMAT, respectively. In the low-dose region, the mean lung dose and V20 of the ipsilateral lung are 5.01 Gy(relative biological effectiveness [RBE]), 4.38 Gy(RBE), 4.91 Gy(RBE), and 5.99 Gy(RBE) and 9.5%, 7.5%, 9.0%, and 10.0%, respectively, for 3-beam, Passive-Arc, IMPT-Arc, and Photon-VMAT, respectively. Conclusions: Stereotactic body radiation therapy with proton arc and Photon-VMAT generate significantly more conformal high-dose volumes than standard proton SBRT, without loss of coverage of the tumor and with significant sparing of nearby organs, such as chest wall. In addition

  6. Probability-based prediction of activity in multiple arm muscles: implications for functional electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Chad V; Fuglevand, Andrew J

    2008-07-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) involves artificial activation of muscles with implanted electrodes to restore motor function in paralyzed individuals. The range of motor behaviors that can be generated by FES, however, is limited to a small set of preprogrammed movements such as hand grasp and release. A broader range of movements has not been implemented because of the substantial difficulty associated with identifying the patterns of muscle stimulation needed to elicit specified movements. To overcome this limitation in controlling FES systems, we used probabilistic methods to estimate the levels of muscle activity in the human arm during a wide range of free movements based on kinematic information of the upper limb. Conditional probability distributions were generated based on hand kinematics and associated surface electromyographic (EMG) signals from 12 arm muscles recorded during a training task involving random movements of the arm in one subject. These distributions were then used to predict in four other subjects the patterns of muscle activity associated with eight different movement tasks. On average, about 40% of the variance in the actual EMG signals could be accounted for in the predicted EMG signals. These results suggest that probabilistic methods ultimately might be used to predict the patterns of muscle stimulation needed to produce a wide array of desired movements in paralyzed individuals with FES.

  7. First observations of tracking clouds using scanning ARM cloud radars

    DOE PAGES

    Borque, Paloma; Giangrande, Scott; Kollias, Pavlos

    2014-12-01

    Tracking clouds using scanning cloud radars can help to document the temporal evolution of cloud properties well before large drop formation (‘‘first echo’’). These measurements complement cloud and precipitation tracking using geostationary satellites and weather radars. Here, two-dimensional (2-D) Along-Wind Range Height Indicator (AW-RHI) observations of a population of shallow cumuli (with and without precipitation) from the 35-GHz scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program Southern Great Plains (SGP) site are presented. Observations from the ARM SGP network of scanning precipitation radars are used to provide the larger scale context of the cloud fieldmore » and to highlight the advantages of the SACR to detect the numerous, small, non-precipitating cloud elements. A new Cloud Identification and Tracking Algorithm (CITA) is developed to track cloud elements. In CITA, a cloud element is identified as a region having a contiguous set of pixels exceeding a preset reflectivity and size threshold. The high temporal resolution of the SACR 2-D observations (30 sec) allows for an area superposition criteria algorithm to match cloud elements at consecutive times. Following CITA, the temporal evolution of cloud element properties (number, size, and maximum reflectivity) is presented. The vast majority of the designated elements during this cumulus event were short-lived non-precipitating clouds having an apparent life cycle shorter than 15 minutes. The advantages and disadvantages of cloud tracking using an SACR are discussed.« less

  8. Environmental Assessment of the Construction of the Joint Use Small Arms Range for the 934th Airlift Wing at Minneapolis-St. paul International Airport Air Reserve Station, Minnesota

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    lakes, rivers , and streams . Proper management of storm water flows, which can be exacerbated by high proportions of impervious surfaces associated with...Floodplains are areas of low-level ground present along rivers , stream channels, or coastal waters. Such lands might be subject to periodic or...of the United States include interstate and intrastate lakes, rivers , streams , and wetlands that are used for commerce, recreation, industry

  9. Rigidity of triskelion arms and clathrin nets.

    PubMed Central

    Jin, A J; Nossal, R

    2000-01-01

    Statistical analysis is applied to a set of electron micrographic images (Kocsis, E., B. L. Trus, C. J. Steer, M. E. Bisher, and A. C. Steven. 1991. J. Struct. Biol. 107:6-14), from which quantitative measures are obtained to support the notion that the three arms of a triskelion have statistically identical properties and exhibit independent structural fluctuations. Additionally, a study of local contour fluctuations, which indicates that the elastic properties of a triskelion arm are approximately constant over the entire arm length, is used along with a small deformation statistical mechanics theory to derive an effective, average flexural rigidity for the arms. This result is used to estimate the bending energy necessary to deform a clathrin patch, and comparison is made with the deformation energy of an equivalent area of non-clathrin-coated membrane. We estimate that the rigidity of the clathrin lattice is at least comparable to that of a typical membrane. Hence, the natural curvature of a clathrin cage can stabilize, and perhaps propel, the formation of intracellular coated vesicles. PMID:10692308

  10. Electromyographic investigation of hypnotic arm levitation: differences between voluntary arm elevation and involuntary arm levitation.

    PubMed

    Peter, Burkhard; Schiebler, Philipp; Piesbergen, Christoph; Hagl, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Thirty-three volunteers were randomly exposed to 3 conditions: hypnotic arm levitation, holding up the arm voluntarily without hypnosis, and imagined arm lifting without hypnosis. Trapezius, deltoid, extensor digitorum, flexor digitorum profundus, biceps brachii, and triceps brachii muscles were measured. Strain and muscle activity during lifting and holding up the right arm for 3 minutes were used as dependent variables. During hypnotic arm levitation, the total muscle activity was lower than during holding it up voluntarily (p < .01); the activity in the deltoid was 27% lower (p < .001). Without hypnosis, the muscle activity showed a positive correlation with strain. However, there was no such correlation in the hypnotic condition. Apparently, it is possible to reduce strain and to objectively measure muscle activity in an uplifted arm through hypnotic arm levitation.

  11. Controller arm for a remotely related slave arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salisbury, J. K., Jr. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A segmented controller arm configured and dimensioned to form a miniature kinematic replica of a remotely related slave arm is disclosed. The arm includes: (1) a plurality of joints for affording segments of the arm simultaneous angular displacement about a plurality of pairs of intersecting axes, (2) a plurality of position sensing devices for providing electrical signals indicative of angular displacement imparted to corresponding segments of the controller shaft about the axes, and (3) a control signal circuit for generating control signals to be transmitted to the slave arm. The arm is characterized by a plurality of yokes, each being supported for angular displacement about a pair of orthogonally related axes and counterbalanced against gravitation by a cantilevered mass.

  12. 10. Whitney Arms Company, Van Slyck steel engraving, 1880 Photocopied ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Whitney Arms Company, Van Slyck steel engraving, 1880 Photocopied from Charles B. Norton, American Inventions and Improvements in Breech-Loading Small Arms (Springfield, Mass., 1880), p. 154 The engraving does not seem to have been included in the earlier 1872 edition. This is probably the single most widely copied view of the Whitney Arms Company works, and it is without doubt the most accurate. Compare with site plan, photo CT-2-13. - Eli Whitney Armory, West of Whitney Avenue, Armory Street Vicinity, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  13. ARM Data Integrator

    SciTech Connect

    2014-02-06

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data Integrator (ADI) streamlines the development of scientific algorithms and analysis of time-series NetCDF data, and improves the content and consistency of the output data products produced by these algorithms. The framework automates the process of retrieving and preparing data for analysis, and allows users to design output data products through a graphical interface. It also provides a modular, flexible software development architecture that scientists can use to generate C, Python, and IDL source code templates that embed the pre and post processing logic allowing the scientist to focus on only their science. The input data, preprocessing, and output data specifications of algorithms are defined through a graphical interface and stored in a database. ADI implements workflow for data integration and supports user access to data through a library of software modules. Data preprocess capabilities supported include automated retrieval of data from input files, merging the retrieved data into appropriately sized chunks, and transformation of the data onto a common coordinate system grid. Through the graphical interface, users can view the details of both their data products and those in the ARM catalog and allows developers to use existing data product to build new data products. Views of the output data products include an overlay of how the design meets ARM archive’s data standards providing the user with a visual cue indicating where their output violates an archive standard. The ADI libraries access the information provided through the GUI via a Postgres database. The ADI framework and its supporting components can significantly decrease the time and cost of implementing scientific algorithms while improving the ability of scientists to disseminate their results.

  14. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    n r JPRS-TAC-85-057 25 November 1985 Worldwide Report ARMS CONTROL f-—*lf^ S ;.řS », ;r%^V; ,*’ \\i.*? 19980728 ■£*V’:: FBIS FOREIGN BROADCAST...why he had decided to extend a programme launched last year of aid to penetration techniques. He had asked the Atomic Energy Commisariat (CEA) for...ICBM s , i.e. for those systems which constitute the basis of the strategic potential of the USSR. No though restrictions are set for the systems in

  15. Phoenix Robotic Arm Rasp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This photograph shows the rasp protruding from the back of the scoop on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm engineering model in the Payload Interoperability Testbed at the University of Arizona, Tucson.

    This is the position the rasp will assume when it drills into the Martian soil to acquire an icy soil sample for analysis.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  16. Acoustical Evaluation of Combat Arms Firing Range, Vance AFB, Oklahoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-11

    Standard 48-20, the maximum level of continuous noise that is allowed to reach the ear shall not exceed 115 dBA and the maximum level of impulse noise that...is allowed to reach the ear shall not exceed 140 dB peak sound pressure level (SPL). 2 Distribution A: Approved for public release

  17. Acoustical Evaluation of Combat Arms Firing Range, Malmstrom AFB, Montana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-23

    Occupational and Environmental Health Dept/OEC 2510 Fifth St. Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433-7913 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER AFRL-SA...consultative letter recommends installing sound absorbing material to reduce the reverberant field. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Impulse noise, impact noise...progression. The frequency of the audio grams will need to be determined locally by the Occupational and Environmental Health Working Group. To reduce the

  18. Military Training Lands Historic Context: Large Arms Ranges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    or pentachlorophenol), where appropriate (e.g., areas with termite infestations or excessive rainfall). Concrete para- pets on temporary projects were...creosote, various salts, or pentachlorophenol), where appropriate (e.g., areas with termite infestations or excessive rainfall). Concrete para- pets on

  19. Acoustical Evaluation of Combat Arms Firing Range, Patrick AFB, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-26

    Analyzer, Type 3560-B-140, SN 2588445 (2) Larson Davis Microphone Pre- amplifier power supply, Type 2221, SN 0200 (3) Larson Davis Microphone...currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 26 Sep 2013 2. REPORT TYPE ...Distribution A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Case Number: 88ABW-2013-4213, 26 Sep 2013 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE USAF SCHOOL

  20. Acoustical Evaluation of Combat Arms Firing Range, Whiteman AFB, Missouri

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-20

    2013 d. Equipment: (1) B&K PULSE Analyzer, Type 3560-B-140, SN 2588445 (2) Larson Davis Microphone Pre- amplifier Power Supply, Type 2221, SN...currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 20 Jun 2013 2. REPORT TYPE ...for public release; distribution is unlimited. Case Number: 88ABW-2013-2987, 20 Jun 2013 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE USAF SCHOOL OF AEROSPACE

  1. Muscle moment arms of pelvic limb muscles of the ostrich (Struthio camelus)

    PubMed Central

    Smith, N C; Payne, R C; Jespers, K J; Wilson, A M

    2007-01-01

    Muscle moment arms were measured for major muscles of the pelvic limb of the ostrich (Struthio camelus) in order to assess specific functional behaviour and to apply this to locomotor performance. Pelvic limbs of six juvenile ostriches were used for this study. The tendon travel technique was used to measure moment arms of 21 muscles at the hip, knee, ankle and metatarsophalangeal joints throughout the ranges of motion observed during level running. Six of the 21 muscles measured were found to have moment arms that did not change with joint angle, whilst the remainder all demonstrated angle-dependent changes for at least one of the joints crossed. Moment arm lengths tended to be longest for the large proximal muscles, whilst the largest relative changes were found for the moment arms of the distal muscles. For muscles where moment arm varied with joint angle: all hip muscles were found to have increasing moment arms with extension of the joint, knee flexors were found to have moment arms that increased with extension, knee extensor moment arms were found to increase with flexion and ankle extensor moment arms increased with extension. The greatest relative changes were observed in the flexors of the metatarsophalangeal joint, for which a three-fold increase in moment arm was observed from flexion to full extension. Changes in muscle moment arm through the range of motion studied appear to optimize muscle function during stance phase, increasing the effective mechanical advantage of these muscles. PMID:17608640

  2. Axonemal Dynein Arms.

    PubMed

    King, Stephen M

    2016-11-01

    Axonemal dyneins form the inner and outer rows of arms associated with the doublet microtubules of motile cilia. These enzymes convert the chemical energy released from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis into mechanical work by causing the doublets to slide with respect to each other. Dyneins form two major groups based on the number of heavy-chain motors within each complex. In addition, these enzymes contain other components that are required for assembly of the complete particles and/or for the regulation of motor function in response to phosphorylations status, ligands such as Ca(2+), changes in cellular redox state and which also apparently monitor and respond to the mechanical state or curvature in which any given motor finds itself. It is this latter property, which is thought to result in waves of motor function propagating along the axoneme length. Here, I briefly describe our current understanding of axonemal dynein structure, assembly, and organization.

  3. Global arms proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, D.

    1991-09-01

    This paper reports that the United States delivered some US $11 billion of military hardware to Iran between 1969 and 1979, in the hopes of helping stabilize a volatile situation in the Middle East. That did not work. When Iran used the weapons against Iraq, the USSR, France, and a number of developing countries helped arm Iraq. It was this vast arsenal that Iraq deployed in its Kuwait-Persian Gulf War venture. Granted, those weapons were augmented by some U.S.-made equipment like TOW antitank missiles and Hawk antiaircraft missiles that were captured in the Iraqi attack on Kuwait. A report issued by the U.S. Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) in June cited that chain of events to demonstrate that the U.S. and other major exporters are gradually losing control of the weapons transferred (to other countries) as well as the technology and industry necessary to produce and support them.

  4. Robotic Arm Biobarrier Cable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on the 14th Martian day of the mission (June 7, 2008), shows the cable that held the Robotic Arm's biobarrier in place during flight has snapped. The cable's springs retracted to release the biobarrier right after landing.

    To the lower right of the image a spring is visible. Extending from that spring is a length of cable that snapped during the biobarrier's release. A second spring separated from the cable when it snapped and has been photographed on the ground under the lander near one of the legs.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  5. Experimental Surface Pressure Data Obtained on 65 deg Delta Wing Across Reynolds Number and Mach Number Ranges. Volume 2; Small-Radius Leading Edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Julio; Luckring, James M.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental wind tunnel test of a 65 deg. delta wing model with interchangeable leading edges was conducted in the Langley National Transonic Facility (NTF). The objective was to investigate the effects of Reynolds and Mach numbers on slender-wing leading-edge vortex flows with four values of wing leading-edge bluntness. Experimentally obtained pressure data are presented without analysis in tabulated and graphical formats across a Reynolds number range of 6 x 10(exp 6) to 84 x 10(exp 6) at a Mach number of 0.85 and across a Mach number range of 0.4 to 0.9 at Reynolds numbers of 6 x 10(exp 6) and 60 x 10(exp 6). Normal-force and pitching-moment coefficient plots for these Reynolds number and Mach number ranges are also presented.

  6. How do octopuses use their arms?

    PubMed

    Mather, J A

    1998-09-01

    A taxonomy of the movement patterns of the 8 flexible arms of octopuses is constructed. Components consist of movements of the arm itself, the ventral suckers and their stalks, as well as the relative position of arms and the skin web between them. Within 1 arm, combinations of components result in a variety of behaviors. At the level of all arms, 1 group of behaviors is described as postures, on the basis of the spread of all arms and the web to make a 2-dimensional surface whose position differs in the 3rd dimension. Another group of arm behaviors is actions, more or less coordinated and involving several to all arms. Arm control appears to be based on radial symmetry, relative equipotentiality of all arms, relative independence of each arm, and separability of components within the arm. The types and coordination of arm behaviors are discussed with relationship to biomechanical limits, muscle structures, and neuronal programming.

  7. Layers of Experience Using "Arms"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Laurinda; Coles, Alf; Ball, Derek; Morton, Pat; Coles, Matt; Ordman, Louise; Orr, Barry; Lam, Tung Ken

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the authors' personal accounts and their experiences in working on mathematics using "arms." "Arms" is an idea that first appeared as a program written by John Warwick and David Wooldridge in an ATM publication "Some Lessons in Mathematics with a Microcomputer," 1983. The introduction to…

  8. Arms control and the MX

    SciTech Connect

    Kroll, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    By 1969, Soviet ballistic missile deployments led the United States to project the vulnerability of Minuteman Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) silos along with an imbalance in ICBM capabilities. The Nixon Administration planned two simultaneous responses: strategic arms negotiations, to limit the threat through mutually agreed restraints; and the Safeguard Anti-Ballistic Missile defense program, to defend, as necessary, the threatened ICBM force. The US succeeded in neither. The planned defense did not materialize, even though SALT failed to limit the growth of the Soviet threat. In the years after SALT I, the US planned, but again did not carry through, ICBM programs to enhance ICBM survivability and at the same time to approach essential equivalence with Soviet capabilities. This dissertation examines the relationship of the two US responses and how arms control affected the MX ICBM system. First, the effects of US arms control objectives and optimism on the MX are analyzed from the first MX systems study in 1974, supporting the new Strategic Arms Limitation Talks, to the deployment of MX in current Minuteman silos, supporting the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks. Here US arms control contributed to MX delays and highlighted ICBM capability over ICBM survivability. Second, the effect of specific arms control provisions are addressed topically for each strategic arms agreement. The framework they establish allowed ICBM capabilities to increase, but constrained ICBM survivability.

  9. Beyond Arms-Control Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Jeanloz, Raymond; Fung, Inez; Bowyer, Ted W.; Wofsy, Steven

    2013-02-15

    Expanded monitoring of the environment, everywhere and at all times, can advance arms control around the world, enhancing transparency among nations. In particular, improved characterization of the atmosphere now offers powerful opportunities for global monitoring, with multiple societal benefits. It may be useful to think of environmental monitoring as a long-term objective of arms-control verification.

  10. LISA Long-Arm Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorpe, James I.

    2009-01-01

    An overview of LISA Long-Arm Interferometry is presented. The contents include: 1) LISA Interferometry; 2) Constellation Design; 3) Telescope Design; 4) Constellation Acquisition; 5) Mechanisms; 6) Optical Bench Design; 7) Phase Measurement Subsystem; 8) Phasemeter Demonstration; 9) Time Delay Interferometry; 10) TDI Limitations; 11) Active Frequency Stabilization; 12) Spacecraft Level Stabilization; 13) Arm-Locking; and 14) Embarassment of Riches.

  11. Joint derivation method for determining optical properties based on steady-state spatially resolved diffuse reflectance measurement at small source-detector separations and large reduced albedo range: theory and simulation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhenzhi; Fan, Ying; Zhao, Huijuan; Xu, Kexin

    2012-06-01

    Accurate determination of the optical properties (the absorption coefficient μ(a) and the reduced scattering coefficient μ(s) (')) of tissues is very important in a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Optical diffusion theory is frequently used as the forward model for describing the photon transfer in media with large reduced albedos (a(')) and in large source-detector separations (SDS). Several other methods (PN approximation, hybrid diffusion-P3 approximation) have also been published that describe photon transfer in media with low a(') or small SDSs. We studied the theoretical models for the steady-state spatially resolved diffuse reflectance measurement to accurately determine μ(a) and μ(s) (') at large a(') range but small SDSs. Instead of using a single model, a joint derivation method is proposed. The developed method uses one of the best aforementioned theoretical methods separately in five ranges of a(') determined from several forward models. In the region of small SDSs (the range between 0.4 and 8 mm) and large a(') range (between 0.5 and 0.99), the best theoretical derivation model was determined. The results indicate that the joint derivation method can improve the derivation accuracy and that a(') range can be determined by the steady-state spatially resolved diffuse reflectance measurement.

  12. The Changing Nature of the International Arms Market.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-03-01

    products as well. Some Russian firms, for example, have approached once-bitter enemies South Africa and Israel for assistance in marketing and advertising ...products for the international arms market .79 Promoters also emphasize the range’s location (far from international borders and sources of electronic...Copy IDA PAPER P-3122 THE CHANGING NATURE OF THE INTERNATIONAL ARMS MARKET Andrew W. Hull David R. Markov March 1996 Approved for public

  13. Small fishes crossed a large mountain range: Quaternary stream capture events and freshwater fishes on both sides of the Taebaek Mountains.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daemin; Hirt, M Vincent; Simons, Andrew M; Won, Yong-Jin

    2016-08-31

    The Taebaek Mountains in South Korea serves as the most apparent biogeographic barrier for South Korean freshwater fishes, resulting in two distinct ichthyofaunal assemblages on the eastern (East/Japan Sea slope) and western (Yellow Sea and Korea Strait slopes) sides of the mountain range. Of nearly 100 species of native primary freshwater fishes in South Korea, only 18 species occur naturally on both sides of the mountain range. Interestingly, there are five rheophilic species (Phoxinus phoxinus, Coreoleuciscus splendidus, Ladislavia taczanowskii, Iksookimia koreensis and Koreocobitis rotundicaudata) found on both sides of the Taebaek Mountains that are geographically restricted to the Osip River (and several neighboring rivers, for L. taczanowskii and I. koreensis) on the eastern side of the mountain range. The Osip River and its neighboring rivers also shared a rheophilic freshwater fish, Liobagrus mediadiposalis, with the Nakdong River on the western side of the mountain range. We assessed historical biogeographic hypotheses on the presence of these rheophilic fishes, utilizing DNA sequence data from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Results of our divergence time estimation indicate that ichthyofaunal transfers into the Osip River (and several neighboring rivers in East Sea slope) have occurred from the Han (Yellow Sea slope) and Nakdong (Korea Strait slope) rivers since the late-Pleistocene. The inferred divergence times for the ichthyofaunal transfer across the Taebaek Mountains were consistent with the timing of hypothesized multiple reactivations of the Osip River Fault (late-Pleistocene), suggesting that the Osip River Fault reactivations may have caused stream capture events, followed by ichthyofaunal transfer, not only between the Osip and Nakdong rivers, but also between the Osip and Han rivers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Detection of short range order in SiO2 thin-films by grazing-incidence wide and small-angle X-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Kohki; Ogura, Atsushi; Hirosawa, Ichiro; Suwa, Tomoyuki; Teramoto, Akinobu; Ohmi, Tadahiro

    2016-04-01

    The effects of the fabrication process conditions on the microstructure of silicon dioxide thin films of <10 nm thickness are presented. The microstructure was investigated using grazing-incidence wide and small-angle X-ray scattering methods with synchrotron radiation. The combination of a high brilliance light source and grazing incident configuration enabled the observation of very weak diffuse X-ray scattering from SiO2 thin films. The results revealed different microstructures, which were dependent on oxidizing species or temperature. The micro-level properties differed from bulk properties reported in the previous literature. It was indicated that these differences originate from inner stress. The detailed structure in an amorphous thin film was not revealed owing to detection difficulties.

  15. Analysis of scapular kinematics during active and passive arm elevation

    PubMed Central

    Kai, Yoshihiro; Gotoh, Masafumi; Takei, Kazuto; Madokoro, Kazuya; Imura, Takeshi; Murata, Shin; Morihara, Toru; Shiba, Naoto

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Early postoperative passive motion exercise after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair remains controversial. To better understand this issue, this study was aimed at evaluating scapular kinematics and muscle activities during passive arm elevation in healthy subjects. [Subjects and Methods] The dominant shoulders of 27 healthy subjects were examined. Electromagnetic sensors attached to the scapula, thorax, and humerus were used to determine three-dimensional scapular kinematics during active arm elevation with or without external loads and passive arm elevation. Simultaneously, the activities of seven shoulder muscles were recorded with surface and intramuscular fine-wire electrodes. [Results] Compared with active arm elevation, passive elevation between 30° and 100° significantly decreased the scapular upward rotation and increased the glenohumeral elevation angle. However, no significant differences in scapular posterior tilt and external rotation were observed between active and passive arm elevation, and scapular plane kinematics were not affected by muscle activity. [Conclusion] Unlike active motion with or without an external load, passive arm elevation significantly decreased the scapular upward rotation and significantly increased the mid-range glenohumeral elevation. These data, which suggest that passive arm elevation should be avoided during the early postoperative period, may expand the understanding of rehabilitation after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. PMID:27390438

  16. Is Negotiated Arms Control Possible?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panofsky, W. K. H.

    2014-11-01

    I had a very difficult time deciding on the topic of this talk, since Viki's interests cover such a broad range of activities with which I am also concerned. You can hear next week about the recent exciting work with the SLAC storage rings, a description of the design principles of such rings, and their future promise for new physics through Professor Richter's Loeb Lectures at Harvard. Talking about inelastic lepton scattering during an M.I.T. conference would be bringing coals to Newcastle, since the local M.I.T. physicists are primary agents in these experiments. Broad problems in high energy physics policy, for instance such questions as the relation between University users and the large laboratories, are matters of current concern to Viki and his friends in high energy physics, but I doubt whether many would sit still for a one-hour talk on that subject. I would therefore like to use the opportunity to express some personal views on certain current issues in arms control, since I know that there exists a wide spectrum of involvement and also opinion on this subject in the local community...

  17. ODYSSEUS autonomous walking robot: The leg/arm design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourbakis, N. G.; Maas, M.; Tascillo, A.; Vandewinckel, C.

    1994-01-01

    ODYSSEUS is an autonomous walking robot, which makes use of three wheels and three legs for its movement in the free navigation space. More specifically, it makes use of its autonomous wheels to move around in an environment where the surface is smooth and not uneven. However, in the case that there are small height obstacles, stairs, or small height unevenness in the navigation environment, the robot makes use of both wheels and legs to travel efficiently. In this paper we present the detailed hardware design and the simulated behavior of the extended leg/arm part of the robot, since it plays a very significant role in the robot actions (movements, selection of objects, etc.). In particular, the leg/arm consists of three major parts: The first part is a pipe attached to the robot base with a flexible 3-D joint. This pipe has a rotated bar as an extended part, which terminates in a 3-D flexible joint. The second part of the leg/arm is also a pipe similar to the first. The extended bar of the second part ends at a 2-D joint. The last part of the leg/arm is a clip-hand. It is used for selecting several small weight and size objects, and when it is in a 'closed' mode, it is used as a supporting part of the robot leg. The entire leg/arm part is controlled and synchronized by a microcontroller (68CH11) attached to the robot base.

  18. ARM CLASIC ER2 CRS/EDOP

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald Heymsfield

    2010-12-20

    Data was taken with the NASA ER-2 aircraft with the Cloud Radar System and other instruments in conjunction with the DOE ARM CLASIC field campaign. The flights were near the SGP site in north Central Oklahoma and targeted small developing convection. The CRS is a 94 GHz nadir pointing Doppler radar. Also on board the ER-2 was the Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL). Seven science flights were conducted but the weather conditions did not cooperate in that there was neither developing convection, or there was heavy rain.

  19. Small-angle neutron scattering study of the short-range organization of dispersed CsNi[Cr(CN){sub 6}] nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Ridier, Karl; Gillon, Béatrice; André, Gilles; Chaboussant, Grégory; Catala, Laure; Mazérat, Sandra; Mallah, Talal

    2015-09-21

    Prussian blue analogues magnetic nanoparticles (of radius R{sub 0} = 2.4–8.6 nm) embedded in PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone) or CTA{sup +} (cetyltrimethylammonium) matrices have been studied using neutron diffraction and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) at several concentrations. For the most diluted particles in neutral PVP, the SANS signal is fully accounted for by a “single-particle” spherical form factor with no structural correlations between the nanoparticles and with radii comparable to those inferred from neutron diffraction. For higher concentration in PVP, structural correlations modify the SANS signal with the appearance of a structure factor peak, which is described using an effective “mean-field” model. A new length scale R{sup * }≈ 3R{sub 0}, corresponding to an effective repulsive interaction radius, is evidenced in PVP samples. In CTA{sup +}, electrostatic interactions play a crucial role and lead to a dense layer of CTA{sup +} around the nanoparticles, which considerably alter the SANS patterns as compared to PVP. The SANS data of nanoparticles in CTA{sup +} are best described by a core-shell model without visible inter-particle structure factor.

  20. ARM Lead Mentor Selection Process

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, DL

    2013-03-13

    The ARM Climate Research Facility currently operates more than 300 instrument systems that provide ground-based observations of the atmospheric column. To keep ARM at the forefront of climate observations, the ARM infrastructure depends heavily on instrument scientists and engineers, also known as Instrument Mentors. Instrument Mentors must have an excellent understanding of in situ and remote-sensing instrumentation theory and operation and have comprehensive knowledge of critical scale-dependent atmospheric processes. They also possess the technical and analytical skills to develop new data retrievals that provide innovative approaches for creating research-quality data sets.

  1. Accurate detection for a wide range of mutation and editing sites of microRNAs from small RNA high-throughput sequencing profiles

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yun; Ji, Bo; Song, Renhua; Wang, Shengpeng; Li, Ting; Zhang, Xiaotuo; Chen, Kun; Li, Tianqing; Li, Jinyan

    2016-01-01

    Various types of mutation and editing (M/E) events in microRNAs (miRNAs) can change the stabilities of pre-miRNAs and/or complementarities between miRNAs and their targets. Small RNA (sRNA) high-throughput sequencing (HTS) profiles can contain many mutated and edited miRNAs. Systematic detection of miRNA mutation and editing sites from the huge volume of sRNA HTS profiles is computationally difficult, as high sensitivity and low false positive rate (FPR) are both required. We propose a novel method (named MiRME) for an accurate and fast detection of miRNA M/E sites using a progressive sequence alignment approach which refines sensitivity and improves FPR step-by-step. From 70 sRNA HTS profiles with over 1.3 billion reads, MiRME has detected thousands of statistically significant M/E sites, including 3′-editing sites, 57 A-to-I editing sites (of which 32 are novel), as well as some putative non-canonical editing sites. We demonstrated that a few non-canonical editing sites were not resulted from mutations in genome by integrating the analysis of genome HTS profiles of two human cell lines, suggesting the existence of new editing types to further diversify the functions of miRNAs. Compared with six existing studies or methods, MiRME has shown much superior performance for the identification and visualization of the M/E sites of miRNAs from the ever-increasing sRNA HTS profiles. PMID:27229138

  2. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program (ARM) -- Summer 1995 review

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, G.; Ruderman, M.; Treiman, S.

    1995-10-01

    ARM is a highly focused program designed to improve the understanding of the transport of infrared and solar radiation through the atmosphere. The program pays particular attention to the interaction of radiation with the three phases of water. The goals of ARM are usually articulated in terms of improvements in climate models. The authors agree that ARM can indeed make significant contributions to the understanding of climate change. In addition the authors believe that the results of the program will have wide applicability to a broad range of problems, including more accurate short-term and seasonal weather forecasting. This report examines the issues of anomalous atmospheric absorption and makes recommendations concerning future directions for the ARM program.

  3. Time Domain Simulations of Arm Locking in LISA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorpe, J. I.; Maghami, P.; Livas, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Arm locking is a technique that has been proposed for reducing laser frequency fluctuations in the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). a gravitational-wave observatory sensitive' in the milliHertz frequency band. Arm locking takes advantage of the geometric stability of the triangular constellation of three spacecraft that comprise LISA to provide a frequency reference with a stability in the LISA measurement band that exceeds that available from a standard reference such as an optical cavity or molecular absorption line. We have implemented a time-domain simulation of arm locking including the expected limiting noise sources (shot noise, clock noise. spacecraft jitter noise. and residual laser frequency noise). The effect of imperfect a priori knowledge of the LISA heterodyne frequencies and associated "pulling" of an arm locked laser is included. We find that our implementation meets requirements both on the noise and dynamic range of the laser frequency.

  4. Late Glacial and Holocene Fire History From Radiocarbon Dating of Charcoal in Valley-Bottom Sediments in Small Watersheds of the Oregon Coast Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancaster, S. T.; Frueh, W. T.

    2011-12-01

    A large number (N = 351) of radiocarbon dates of charcoal from valley-bottom sediments in headwater valleys of the southern Oregon Coast Range provides the basis for a new index of fire frequency during the past 17,000 years in this steep landscape covered by dense coniferous forest. Study areas were chosen for their relative lack of recent forest disturbance by harvest or fire, and sampling of stream banks and terrace risers was random, weighted by deposit volume and bank or riser area. This sampling methodology was designed to characterize sediment residence times within valley-bottom storage, and the overall shape of the calibrated age distribution is therefore assumed representative of the dependence of charcoal preservation probability on calibrated age. A proxy record of fire history in the study areas is obtained by fitting a gamma distribution to the weighted mean calibrated charcoal ages by the method of moments; calculating the relative difference between the fit and the normalized histogram, with 50-year bin-widths, of charcoal ages; and smoothing that relative difference with a gaussian distribution, the standard deviation of which is at least two bin-widths and inversely proportional to the value of the fit distribution at larger ages. The calibrated charcoal age mean and variance of 1900 yrs BP and 7.39 x 106 yr2, respectively, yield shape and scale parameters of the fit gamma distribution of 0.490 and 3880 yrs, respectively. This heavy-tailed distribution indicates that probabilities of charcoal evacuation are not simply proportional to relative volume of encasing sediment deposits but, rather, decrease with deposit age. The smoothed proxy record of relative fire frequency has a global maximum at 7700 BP and prominent local maxima at 600 BP and 5700 BP, in order of decreasing magnitude; a global minimum at 4500 BP and local minimum at 1800 BP roughly bracket a period of fluctuating but relatively low fire frequency during the period 5000-1500 BP

  5. Big Data, Small Data: Accessing and Manipulating Geoscience Data Ranging From Repositories to Student-Collected Data Sets Using GeoMapApp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwillie, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    We often demand information and data to be accessible over the web at no cost, and no longer do we expect to spend time labouriously compiling data from myriad sources with frustratingly-different formats. Instead, we increasingly expect convenience and consolidation. Recent advances in web-enabled technologies and cyberinfrastructure are answering those calls by providing data tools and resources that can transform undergraduate education. By freeing up valuable classroom time, students can focus upon gaining deeper insights and understanding from real-world data. GeoMapApp (http://www.geomapapp.org) is a map-based data discovery and visualisation tool developed at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory. GeoMapApp promotes U-Learning by working across all major computer platforms and functioning anywhere with internet connectivity, by lowering socio-economic barriers (it is free), by seamlessly integrating thousands of built-in research-grade data sets under intuitive menus, and by being adaptable to a range of learning environments - from lab sessions, group projects, and homework assignments to in-class pop-ups. GeoMapApp caters to casual and specialist users alike. Contours, artificial illumination, 3-D displays, data point manipulations, cross-sectional profiles, and other display techniques help students better grasp the content and geospatial context of data. Layering capabilities allow easy data set comparisons. The core functionality also applies to imported data sets: Student-collected data can thus be imported and analysed using the same techniques. A new Save Session function allows educators to preserve a pre-loaded state of GeoMapApp. When shared with a class, the saved file allows every student to open GeoMapApp at exactly the same starting point from which to begin their data explorations. Examples of built-in data sets include seafloor crustal age, earthquake locations and focal mechanisms, analytical geochemistry, ocean water physical properties, US and

  6. Arm-use dependent lateralization of gamma and beta oscillations in primate medial motor areas.

    PubMed

    Hosaka, Ryosuke; Nakajima, Toshi; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Mushiake, Hajime

    2015-02-01

    The neurons in the motor cortex show lateralization depending on the arm to use. To investigate if local field potential (LFP) oscillations change with contralateral and ipsilateral arm use, we analyzed the power of LFP in supplementary motor areas (SMA) and pre-SMA while animals performed a delayed-response arm use task under visual guidance and memory-based. LFP power changed with the laterality of the arm use, but it was frequency dependent. Specifically, power in the gamma range increased during contralateral arm use, while beta power increased with ipsilateral arm use. Subsequently, we confirmed that the frequency-dependent laterality was true also for the memory-driven movements. Our data therefore suggest that gamma oscillation is linked to the local neuronal activities in the contralateral hemisphere, and beta oscillation is related to withholding undesired arm movements by suppression of the local neuronal activities of the ipsilateral hemisphere.

  7. Exoskeletal technology. [teleoperator arm system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vykukal, H. C.

    1974-01-01

    Possible applications are considered of a master-sleeve teleoperator arm system, developed in exoskeletal space suit technology, as therapeutic aid, orthotic device, or for therapy on patients with neurological disorders.

  8. Arm transplantation: prospects and visions.

    PubMed

    Jones, N F; Schneeberger, S

    2009-03-01

    Based on the results of above-elbow replantation, it is possible that above-elbow arm transplantation will be successful and result in a superior functional outcome as defined by the Chen criteria. Above-elbow arm transplantation is probably technically simpler than distal forearm or wrist transplantation, especially since the macroanastomoses do not require microsurgical expertise. However, hand function depends on reinnervation of forearm muscles and the distance for nerves to regenerate for reinnervation of intrinsic muscles of the hand is significant. The vascularized bone marrow transplanted with the arm holds potential to induce chimerism and promote tolerance but could also make the recipient more susceptible to graft-versus-host disease. Prospective trials comparing the functional results after above-elbow arm transplantation with the functional results achieved by the best neuronal-controlled above-elbow prosthesis are warranted and will determine the gold standard of upper-extremity reconstruction.

  9. ARM Standards Policy Committee Report

    SciTech Connect

    Cialella, A; Jensen, M; Koontz, A; McFarlane, S; McCoy, R; Monroe, J; Palanisamy, G; Perez, R; Sivaraman, C

    2012-09-19

    Data and metadata standards promote the consistent recording of information and are necessary to ensure the stability and high quality of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility data products for scientific users. Standards also enable automated routines to be developed to examine data, which leads to more efficient operations and assessment of data quality. Although ARM Infrastructure agrees on the utility of data and metadata standards, there is significant confusion over the existing standards and the process for allowing the release of new data products with exceptions to the standards. The ARM Standards Policy Committee was initiated in March 2012 to develop a set of policies and best practices for ARM data and metadata standards.

  10. The Perseus arm in the anticenter direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monguió, M.; Grosbøl, P.; Figueras, F.

    2015-05-01

    The stellar overdensity due to the Perseus arm has been detected in the anticenter direction through individual field stars. For that purpose, a Str&{uml;o}mgren photometric survey covering 16° ^2 was developed with the Wide Field Camera at the Isaac Newton Telescope. This photometry allowed us to compute individual physical parameters for these stars using a new method based on atmospheric models and evolutionary tracks. The analysis of the surface density as a function of distance for intermediate young stars in this survey allowed us to detect an overdensity at 1.6±0.2 kpc from the Sun, that can be associated with the Perseus arm, with a surface density amplitude of ˜14%. The significance of the detection is above 4σ for all the cases. The fit for the radial scale length of the Galactic disk provided values in the range [2.9,3.5] kpc for the population of the B4-A1 stars. We also analyzed the interstellar visual absorption distribution, and its variation as a function of distance is coherent with a dust layer before the Perseus arm location.

  11. Note: Seesaw actuation of atomic force microscope probes for improved imaging bandwidth and displacement range

    SciTech Connect

    Torun, H.; Torello, D.; Degertekin, F. L.

    2011-08-15

    The authors describe a method of actuation for atomic force microscope (AFM) probes to improve imaging speed and displacement range simultaneously. Unlike conventional piezoelectric tube actuation, the proposed method involves a lever and fulcrum ''seesaw'' like actuation mechanism that uses a small, fast piezoelectric transducer. The lever arm of the seesaw mechanism increases the apparent displacement range by an adjustable gain factor, overcoming the standard tradeoff between imaging speed and displacement range. Experimental characterization of a cantilever holder implementing the method is provided together with comparative line scans obtained with contact mode imaging. An imaging bandwidth of 30 kHz in air with the current setup was demonstrated.

  12. Gas Sensors Based on Single-Arm Waveguide Interferometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarkisov, Sergey; Curley, Michael; Diggs, Darnell; Adamovsky, Grigory

    1998-01-01

    Various optical technologies can be implemented in chemical sensing. Sensitive, rugged, and compact systems will be more likely built using interferometric waveguide sensors. Currently existing sensors comprise dual-arm systems with external reference arm, dual-arm devices with internal reference arm such as integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer, and single-arm systems which employ the interference between different waveguide modes. These latter ones are the most compact and rugged but still sensitive enough to monitor volatile pollutants such as NH3 coming out of industrial refrigerators and fertilizer plants and stocks, NO, NO2, SO2, emitted by industrial burning processes. Single-arm devices in planar waveguide configuration most frequently use two orthogonally polarized modes TE (sub i) and TM (sub i) of the same order i. Sensing effect is based on the difference in propagation conditions for the modes caused by the environment. However, dual-mode single-order interferometers still have relatively low sensitivity with respect to the environment related changes in the waveguide core because of small difference between propagation constants of TE (sub i) and TM (sub i) modes of the same order. Substantial sensitivity improvement without significant complication can be achieved for planar waveguide interferometers using modes of different orders with much greater difference between propagation constants.

  13. Unequal-Arms Michelson Interferometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinto, Massimo; Armstrong, J. W.

    2000-01-01

    Michelson interferometers allow phase measurements many orders of magnitude below the phase stability of the laser light injected into their two almost equal-length arms. If, however, the two arms are unequal, the laser fluctuations can not be removed by simply recombining the two beams. This is because the laser jitters experience different time delays in the two arms, and therefore can not cancel at the photo detector. We present here a method for achieving exact laser noise cancellation, even in an unequal-arm interferometer. The method presented in this paper requires a separate readout of the relative phase in each arm, made by interfering the returning beam in each arm with a fraction of the outgoing beam. By linearly combining the two data sets with themselves, after they have been properly time shifted, we show that it is possible to construct a new data set that is free of laser fluctuations. An application of this technique to future planned space-based laser interferometer detector3 of gravitational radiation is discussed.

  14. Unequal-Arms Michelson Interferometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinto, Massimo; Armstrong, J. W.

    1999-01-01

    Michelson interferometers allow phase measurements many orders of magnitude below the phase stability of the laser light injected into their two almost equal-length arms. If, however, the two arms are unequal, the laser fluctuations can not be removed by simply recombining the two beams. This is because the laser jitters experience different time delays in the two arms, and therefore can not cancel at the photo detector. We present here a method for achieving exact laser noise cancellation, even in an unequal-arm interferometer. The method presented in this paper requires a separate readout of the relative phase in each arm, made by interfering the returning beam in each arm with a fraction of the outgoing beam. By linearly combining the two data sets with themselves, after they have been properly time-shifted, we show that it is possible to construct a new data set that is free of laser fluctuations. An application of this technique to future planned space-based laser interferometer detectors of gravitational radiation is discussed.

  15. Naval arms control: The opposition

    SciTech Connect

    Blaker, J.R.

    1990-02-01

    The author observes that hope that naval arms control agreements might bolster Soviet mellowing and inhibit a return to confrontation must be balanced against the likelihood that whether or not the United States negotiates on naval arms control has little real effect on what happens in the Soviet Union and against the undesirability of being pinned down to a less advantageous military position if things go sour. The hope that U.S. willingness to formally limit and reduce American naval capabilities and options would compel the Soviets to reduce even further their potent land-based power on the Eurasian continent or their strategic nuclear power has to be balanced against the possibility that Soviet willingness to make such reductions is driven by factors that have very little to do with the naval relationship between the two nations. Ultimately, then, we are driven back to the dilemma faced by the professional military regarding naval arms control. Without compelling evidence that naval arms control proposals are beneficial in themselves, the author notes we need a clear exposition of how they fit with other negotiations to improve national security and a much better understanding of the role naval arms control negotiations should play in a comprehensive national arms control strategy.

  16. A method for removing arm backscatter from EPID images

    SciTech Connect

    King, Brian W.; Greer, Peter B.

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To develop a method for removing the support arm backscatter from images acquired using current Varian electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs).Methods: The effect of arm backscatter on EPID images was modeled using a kernel convolution method. The parameters of the model were optimized by comparing on-arm images to off-arm images. The model was used to develop a method to remove the effect of backscatter from measured EPID images. The performance of the backscatter removal method was tested by comparing backscatter corrected on-arm images to measured off-arm images for 17 rectangular fields of different sizes and locations on the imager. The method was also tested using on- and off-arm images from 42 intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) fields.Results: Images generated by the backscatter removal method gave consistently better agreement with off-arm images than images without backscatter correction. For the 17 rectangular fields studied, the root mean square difference of in-plane profiles compared to off-arm profiles was reduced from 1.19% (standard deviation 0.59%) on average without backscatter removal to 0.38% (standard deviation 0.18%) when using the backscatter removal method. When comparing to the off-arm images from the 42 IMRT fields, the mean {gamma} and percentage of pixels with {gamma} < 1 were improved by the backscatter removal method in all but one of the images studied. The mean {gamma} value (1%, 1 mm) for the IMRT fields studied was reduced from 0.80 to 0.57 by using the backscatter removal method, while the mean {gamma} pass rate was increased from 72.2% to 84.6%.Conclusions: A backscatter removal method has been developed to estimate the image acquired by the EPID without any arm backscatter from an image acquired in the presence of arm backscatter. The method has been shown to produce consistently reliable results for a wide range of field sizes and jaw configurations.

  17. An Overview of NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, P. A.; Mazanek, D. D.; Reeves, D. M.; Chodas, P. W.; Gates, M. M.; Johnson, L. N.; Ticker, R. L.

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) as a capability demonstration for future human exploration, including use of high-power solar electric propulsion, which allows for the efficient movement of large masses through deep space. The ARM will also demonstrate the capability to conduct proximity operations with natural space objects and crewed operations beyond the security of quick Earth return. The Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), currently in formulation, will visit a large near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface, conduct a demonstration of a slow push planetary defense technique, and redirect the multi-ton boulder into a stable orbit around the Moon. Once returned to cislunar space in the mid-2020s, astronauts aboard an Orion spacecraft will dock with the robotic vehicle to explore the boulder and return samples to Earth. The ARM is part of NASA's plan to advance technologies, capabilities, and spaceflight experience needed for a human mission to the Martian system in the 2030s. The ARM and subsequent availability of the asteroidal material in cis-lunar space, provide significant opportunities to advance our knowledge of small bodies in the synergistic areas of science, planetary defense, and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). NASA established the Formulation Assessment and Support Team (FAST), comprised of scientists, engineers, and technologists, which supported ARRM mission requirements formulation, answered specific questions concerning potential target asteroid physical properties, and produced a publically available report. The ARM Investigation Team is being organized to support ARM implementation and execution. NASA is also open to collaboration with its international partners and welcomes further discussions. An overview of the ARM robotic and crewed segments, including mission requirements, NEA targets, and mission operations, and a discussion

  18. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    small schoolchildren learning their com- puter ABCs . The "turtle" is plugged into a computer and the robot rolls over a paper-covered floor drawing...conclusion: "There will always be unresolvable problems concerning the reliability of computer programs. This makes it highly probable that the ( ABM ...data as if tossing tiny balls that are shot down by another computer running an ABM control system program. But even if it is possible to conduct

  19. 49 CFR 234.223 - Gate arm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gate arm. 234.223 Section 234.223 Transportation... Maintenance Standards § 234.223 Gate arm. Each gate arm, when in the downward position, shall extend across... clearly viewed by approaching highway users. Each gate arm shall start its downward motion not less...

  20. 49 CFR 234.223 - Gate arm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gate arm. 234.223 Section 234.223 Transportation... SYSTEMS Maintenance, Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.223 Gate arm. Each gate arm, when... maintained in a condition sufficient to be clearly viewed by approaching highway users. Each gate arm...

  1. 49 CFR 234.223 - Gate arm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gate arm. 234.223 Section 234.223 Transportation... SYSTEMS Maintenance, Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.223 Gate arm. Each gate arm, when... maintained in a condition sufficient to be clearly viewed by approaching highway users. Each gate arm...

  2. 49 CFR 234.223 - Gate arm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gate arm. 234.223 Section 234.223 Transportation... Maintenance Standards § 234.223 Gate arm. Each gate arm, when in the downward position, shall extend across... clearly viewed by approaching highway users. Each gate arm shall start its downward motion not less...

  3. 49 CFR 234.223 - Gate arm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gate arm. 234.223 Section 234.223 Transportation... SYSTEMS Maintenance, Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.223 Gate arm. Each gate arm, when... maintained in a condition sufficient to be clearly viewed by approaching highway users. Each gate arm...

  4. Algorithms for Unequal-Arm Michelson Interferometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giampieri, Giacomo; Hellings, Ronald W.; Tinto, Massimo; Bender, Peter L.; Faller, James E.

    1994-01-01

    A method of data acquisition and data analysis is described in which the performance of Michelson-type interferometers with unequal arms can be made nearly the same as interferometers with equal arms. The method requires a separate readout of the relative phase in each arm, made by interfering the returning beam in each arm with a fraction of the outgoing beam.

  5. 22 CFR 130.3 - Armed forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Armed forces. 130.3 Section 130.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.3 Armed forces. Armed forces means the army, navy, marine, air force, or coast guard,...

  6. 22 CFR 130.3 - Armed forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Armed forces. 130.3 Section 130.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.3 Armed forces. Armed forces means the army, navy, marine, air force, or coast guard,...

  7. 22 CFR 130.3 - Armed forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Armed forces. 130.3 Section 130.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.3 Armed forces. Armed forces means the army, navy, marine, air force, or coast guard,...

  8. 22 CFR 130.3 - Armed forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Armed forces. 130.3 Section 130.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.3 Armed forces. Armed forces means the army, navy, marine, air force, or coast guard,...

  9. 22 CFR 130.3 - Armed forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Armed forces. 130.3 Section 130.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.3 Armed forces. Armed forces means the army, navy, marine, air force, or coast guard,...

  10. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the ARM Aerial Facility

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the largest global change research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary goal of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of cloud and radiation physics in global climate models in order to improve the climate simulation capabilities of these models. ARM data is collected both through permanent monitoring stations and field campaigns around the world. Airborne measurements required to answer science questions from researchers or to validate ground data are also collected. To find data from all categories of aerial operations, follow the links from the AAF information page at http://www.arm.gov/sites/aaf. Tables of information will provide start dates, duration, lead scientist, and the research site for each of the named campaigns. The title of a campaign leads, in turn, to a project description, contact information, and links to the data. Users will be requested to create a password, but the data files are free for viewing and downloading. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  11. Effect of arm exchange on the liquid-solid transition of dense suspensions of star polymers.

    PubMed

    Puaud, Fanny; Nicolai, Taco; Benyahia, Lazhar; Nicol, Erwan

    2013-10-10

    Star polymers with dynamic arm exchange are formed in water by self-assembly of amphiphilic diblock copolymers based on poly(ethylene oxide) end capped with a small hydrophobic block. The arm exchange was arrested in situ by photo-cross-linking of the core. The effect of dynamic arm exchange on the osmotic compressibility and viscosity was investigated systematically as a function of the concentration and temperature. The discontinuous liquid-solid transition reported for dense polymeric micelle suspensions was found to be preserved after dynamic arm exchange was arrested in situ. The effect of cross-linking and aggregation number on the liquid-solid transition was investigated.

  12. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-11-22

    dinosaurs (and a large number of other species which disappeared "simultaneously") might have become extinct because a large comet hit the earth’s...long-range nature, that is to say a significantly increased risk of cancer and major genetic damage. Another very great problem is the risk of attacks

  13. Computing Relative Joint Positions of Robot Arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, L. K.

    1986-01-01

    Vector-algebra method developed for extracting Denavit-Hartenberg parameters for any assembled robot arm. Method for extracting relative joint geometry of robot arms useful to researchers who need data for existing robot arms for either validation of mathematical models or for studies involving actual control of these devices. Method, does not require robot arm to be disassembled, also useful in recalibration of misalined or bent robot arm and becomes useful industrial procedure. Merit of method is errors not propagated.

  14. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    highly toxic mycotoxins , which experts describe as particularly suited for acts of sabotage and terrorism, [passage omitted] A few aspects of how FRG...Saxonian city of Neustadt am Ruebengerge proved to be useful for the Iraqis in their search for mycotoxins . Josef Kuehn, 40, is doing all kinds of export...small. At a price of DM60,000 Iraq received 100 milligrams of HT-2 mycotoxin and over 100 milli- gram of T-2 mycotoxin . Kuehn now says he does not

  15. Proprioceptive Interaction between the Two Arms in a Single-Arm Pointing Task.

    PubMed

    Kigawa, Kazuyoshi; Izumizaki, Masahiko; Tsukada, Setsuro; Hakuta, Naoyuki

    2015-01-01

    Proprioceptive signals coming from both arms are used to determine the perceived position of one arm in a two-arm matching task. Here, we examined whether the perceived position of one arm is affected by proprioceptive signals from the other arm in a one-arm pointing task in which participants specified the perceived position of an unseen reference arm with an indicator paddle. Both arms were hidden from the participant's view throughout the study. In Experiment 1, with both arms placed in front of the body, the participants received 70-80 Hz vibration to the elbow flexors of the reference arm (= right arm) to induce the illusion of elbow extension. This extension illusion was compared with that when the left arm elbow flexors were vibrated or not. The degree of the vibration-induced extension illusion of the right arm was reduced in the presence of left arm vibration. In Experiment 2, we found that this kinesthetic interaction between the two arms did not occur when the left arm was vibrated in an abducted position. In Experiment 3, the vibration-induced extension illusion of one arm was fully developed when this arm was placed at an abducted position, indicating that the brain receives increased proprioceptive input from a vibrated arm even if the arm was abducted. Our results suggest that proprioceptive interaction between the two arms occurs in a one-arm pointing task when the two arms are aligned with one another. The position sense of one arm measured using a pointer appears to include the influences of incoming information from the other arm when both arms were placed in front of the body and parallel to one another.

  16. Kootenay Lake Fertilization Experiment, Year 15 (North Arm) and Year 3 (South Arm) (2006) Report

    SciTech Connect

    Schindler, E.U.; Sebastian, D.; Andrusak, G.F.

    2009-07-01

    This report summarizes results from the fifteenth year (2006) of nutrient additions to the North Arm of Kootenay Lake and three years of nutrient additions to the South Arm. Experimental fertilization of the lake has been conducted using an adaptive management approach in an effort to restore lake productivity lost as a result of nutrient uptake in upstream reservoirs. The primary objective of the experiment is to restore kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka) populations, which are the main food source for Gerrard rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus). The quantity of agricultural grade liquid fertilizer (10-34-0, ammonium polyphosphate and 28-0-0, urea ammonium nitrate) added to the North Arm in 2006 was 44.7 tonnes of P and 248.4 tonnes of N. The total fertilizer load added to the South Arm was 257 tonnes of nitrogen; no P was added. Kootenay Lake has an area of 395 km{sup 2}, a maximum depth of 150 m, a mean depth of 94 m, and a water renewal time of approximately two years. Kootenay Lake is a monomictic lake, generally mixing from late fall to early spring and stratifying during the summer. Surface water temperatures generally exceed 20 C for only a few weeks in July. Results of oxygen profiles were similar to previous years with the lake being well oxygenated from the surface to the bottom depths at all stations. Similar to past years, Secchi disc measurements at all stations in 2006 indicate a typical seasonal pattern of decreasing depths associated with the spring phytoplankton bloom, followed by increasing depths as the bloom gradually decreases by the late summer and fall. Total phosphorus (TP) ranged from 2-7 {micro}g/L and tended to decrease as summer advanced. Over the sampling season dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations decreased, with the decline corresponding to nitrate (the dominant component of DIN) being utilized by phytoplankton during summer stratification. Owing to the importance of epilimnetic nitrate

  17. A review of assistive devices for arm balancing.

    PubMed

    Dunning, A G; Herder, J L

    2013-06-01

    Due to neuromuscular disorders (e.g., Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy) people often loose muscle strength and become wheelchair bound. It is important to use muscles as much as possible. To allow this, and to increase independency of patients, an arm orthosis can be used to perform activities of daily life. The orthosis compensates for the gravity force of the arm, allowing people to perform movements with smaller muscle forces. For patients, the aesthetics of the orthosis is one of the critical issues. This paper presents the state-of-the-art in passive and wearable active arm orthoses, and investigates how to proceed towards a suitable structure for a wearable passive arm orthosis, that is able to balance the arm within its natural range of motion and is inconspicuous; in the ideal case it fits underneath the clothes. Existing devices were investigated with respect to the body interface, the volume, and the workspace. According to these evaluation metrics it is investigated to what extent the devices are wearable and inconspicuous. Furthermore, the balancing principle of the devices, the architecture, force transmission through the devices, and alignment with the body joints are investigated. It appears that there is only one wearable passive orthosis presented in literature. This orthosis can perform throughout the natural workspace of the arm, but is still too bulky to be inconspicuous. The other passive orthoses were conspicuous and mounted to the wheelchair. Except one, the wearable active orthoses were all conspicuous and heavy due to a large backpack to enclose the actuators. They also could not achieve the entire natural workspace of the human arm. A future design of an inconspicuous, wearable, passive arm orthoses should stay close to the body, be comfortable to wear, and supports pronation and supination.

  18. Modeling of two-hot-arm horizontal thermal actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Dong; Khajepour, Amir; Mansour, Raafat

    2003-03-01

    Electrothermal actuators have a very promising future in MEMS applications since they can generate large deflection and force with low actuating voltages and small device areas. In this study, a lumped model of a two-hot-arm horizontal thermal actuator is presented. In order to prove the accuracy of the lumped model, finite element analysis (FEA) and experimental results are provided. The two-hot-arm thermal actuator has been fabricated using the MUMPs process. Both the experimental and FEA results are in good agreement with the results of lumped modeling.

  19. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    ZVEZDA, 28 Aug 85) 84 INTERMEDIATE-RANGE NUCLEAR FORCES Commentator on INF Siting, Peace Movement (Arie Kuiper ; Amsterdam DE TIJD, 12 Jul 85...be " 100 per cent effective. . ;; "Would you not buckle up the seat ’t belt in your car if you knew it was only 90 per cent effective...FORCES COMMENTATOR ON INF SITING, PEACE MOVEMENT Amsterdam DE TIJD in Dutch 12 Jul 85 p 17 [Commentary by Arie Kuiper : "No Humor in the Kremlin

  20. A proposal for automatic fruit harvesting by combining a low cost stereovision camera and a robotic arm.

    PubMed

    Font, Davinia; Pallejà, Tomàs; Tresanchez, Marcel; Runcan, David; Moreno, Javier; Martínez, Dani; Teixidó, Mercè; Palacín, Jordi

    2014-06-30

    This paper proposes the development of an automatic fruit harvesting system by combining a low cost stereovision camera and a robotic arm placed in the gripper tool. The stereovision camera is used to estimate the size, distance and position of the fruits whereas the robotic arm is used to mechanically pickup the fruits. The low cost stereovision system has been tested in laboratory conditions with a reference small object, an apple and a pear at 10 different intermediate distances from the camera. The average distance error was from 4% to 5%, and the average diameter error was up to 30% in the case of a small object and in a range from 2% to 6% in the case of a pear and an apple. The stereovision system has been attached to the gripper tool in order to obtain relative distance, orientation and size of the fruit. The harvesting stage requires the initial fruit location, the computation of the inverse kinematics of the robotic arm in order to place the gripper tool in front of the fruit, and a final pickup approach by iteratively adjusting the vertical and horizontal position of the gripper tool in a closed visual loop. The complete system has been tested in controlled laboratory conditions with uniform illumination applied to the fruits. As a future work, this system will be tested and improved in conventional outdoor farming conditions.

  1. A Proposal for Automatic Fruit Harvesting by Combining a Low Cost Stereovision Camera and a Robotic Arm

    PubMed Central

    Font, Davinia; Pallejà, Tomàs; Tresanchez, Marcel; Runcan, David; Moreno, Javier; Martínez, Dani; Teixidó, Mercè; Palacín, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes the development of an automatic fruit harvesting system by combining a low cost stereovision camera and a robotic arm placed in the gripper tool. The stereovision camera is used to estimate the size, distance and position of the fruits whereas the robotic arm is used to mechanically pickup the fruits. The low cost stereovision system has been tested in laboratory conditions with a reference small object, an apple and a pear at 10 different intermediate distances from the camera. The average distance error was from 4% to 5%, and the average diameter error was up to 30% in the case of a small object and in a range from 2% to 6% in the case of a pear and an apple. The stereovision system has been attached to the gripper tool in order to obtain relative distance, orientation and size of the fruit. The harvesting stage requires the initial fruit location, the computation of the inverse kinematics of the robotic arm in order to place the gripper tool in front of the fruit, and a final pickup approach by iteratively adjusting the vertical and horizontal position of the gripper tool in a closed visual loop. The complete system has been tested in controlled laboratory conditions with uniform illumination applied to the fruits. As a future work, this system will be tested and improved in conventional outdoor farming conditions. PMID:24984059

  2. Arms Control past and future

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, T.R.

    1991-12-01

    I am going to talk today about Arms Control. First, I want to go over the recent history of the process. Five years ago, the pace of arms control changed dramatically. From an outsider it probably didn't appear that way -- but those working it, the shift from the historic glacial speed normally associated with this process to one of pressures -- political and economic -- national and global -- to actually conclude meaningful, verifiable agreements was a major change. Then, I want to spend a few minutes covering the future of arms control new that we have lost our enemy, and it is no longer a bipolar world. I also want to leave time for easy questions.

  3. Arms Control past and future

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, T.R.

    1991-12-01

    I am going to talk today about Arms Control. First, I want to go over the recent history of the process. Five years ago, the pace of arms control changed dramatically. From an outsider it probably didn`t appear that way -- but those working it, the shift from the historic glacial speed normally associated with this process to one of pressures -- political and economic -- national and global -- to actually conclude meaningful, verifiable agreements was a major change. Then, I want to spend a few minutes covering the future of arms control new that we have lost our enemy, and it is no longer a bipolar world. I also want to leave time for easy questions.

  4. Scanning ARM Cloud Radar Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Widener, K; Bharadwaj, N; Johnson, K

    2012-06-18

    The scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) is a polarimetric Doppler radar consisting of three different radar designs based on operating frequency. These are designated as follows: (1) X-band SACR (X-SACR); (2) Ka-band SACR (Ka-SACR); and (3) W-band SACR (W-SACR). There are two SACRs on a single pedestal at each site where SACRs are deployed. The selection of the operating frequencies at each deployed site is predominantly determined by atmospheric attenuation at the site. Because RF attenuation increases with atmospheric water vapor content, ARM's Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites use the X-/Ka-band frequency pair. The Southern Great Plains (SGP) and North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites field the Ka-/W-band frequency pair. One ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1) has a Ka/W-SACR and the other (AMF2) has a X/Ka-SACR.

  5. Ergonomically neutral arm support system

    DOEpatents

    Siminovitch, Michael J; Chung, Jeffrey Y; Dellinges, Steven; Lafever, Robin E

    2005-08-02

    An ergonomic arm support system maintains a neutral position for the forearm. A mechanical support structure attached to a chair or other mounting structure supports the arms of a sitting or standing person. The system includes moving elements and tensioning elements to provide a dynamic balancing force against the forearms. The support structure is not fixed or locked in a rigid position, but is an active dynamic system that is maintained in equipoise by the continuous operation of the opposing forces. The support structure includes an armrest connected to a flexible linkage or articulated or pivoting assembly, which includes a tensioning element such as a spring. The pivoting assembly moves up and down, with the tensioning element providing the upward force that balances the downward force of the arm.

  6. 8. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING DETAIL OF RANGE 3 TARGET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING DETAIL OF RANGE 3 TARGET END, Interior - Winchester Repeating Arms Company, Tract K Shooting Range, 125 Munson Street (rear section), New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  7. 6. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING DETAIL OF RANGE 1 TARGET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING DETAIL OF RANGE 1 TARGET END, Interior - Winchester Repeating Arms Company, Tract K Shooting Range, 125 Munson Street (rear section), New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  8. 3. VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING OPEN SPACE AT RANGE BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING OPEN SPACE AT RANGE BUILDING AT NORTH END, Interior - Winchester Repeating Arms Company, Tract K Shooting Range, 125 Munson Street (rear section), New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  9. Welcome to the U. S. arms superstore

    SciTech Connect

    Hartung, W.D. )

    1993-09-01

    After the 1991 Gulf War, the [open quotes]Big Five[close quotes]--the United States, France, Britain, the Soviet Union, and China--initiated talks on limiting the flow of arms to the Middle East and the United Nations established an arms register as a way to promote a more open international dialogue concerning the problem of conventional arms proliferation. Two and a half years later, the promises about arms controls have been forgotten in favor of a policy to sell arms to any nation possessing sufficient cash to purchase them. The promises to curb the weapons trade may have been forgotten because of the new dynamics that are driving the arms trade in the post-Cold War era. This article seeks to define these dynamics and to suggest means of getting the arms control process back on track. The rationale behind the commercialization of arms and means of combatting the arms exportation problem are emphasized. 18 refs.

  10. Do the Two Outer Arms Lead in NGC 4622?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrd, G.; Buta, R.; Freeman, T.

    2001-12-01

    NGC 4622 is a nearly face-on spiral with an intriguing morphology. Byrd et al (1989) pointed out that besides a pair of outer arms winding outward clockwise (CW), NGC4622 has a weaker, single inner arm winding outward counter clockwise (CCW). Byrd et al noted that one set of arms must be leading, a very rare configuration. Buta, Crocker, and Byrd (1992) showed using BVI photometry that the single inner arm is a stellar dynamical feature, not an unusual dust distribution. NGC 4622 was thus the most convincing case of a galaxy having leading spiral structure. However, which set of arms is leading? Based on theory and numerical simulations, Byrd, Freeman, and Howard (1993) suggested that the inner arm leads. We have obtained new HST WFPC2 images of NGC4622 in B, V, and I (http://bama.ua.edu/ rbuta/ngc4622/). These images, with a ground based Fabry-Perot H-alpha velocity field, have given the surprising result that THE TWO OUTER ARMS IN NGC4622 MUST BE LEADING! de Vaucouleurs (1958) used silhouetted dust lanes to identify the near side of disk galaxies. Although the inclination is low (23 deg.), clear dust lanes are seen silhouetted on the east side of NGC4622's kinematic line of nodes (p.a. 20 deg.). We observe that the north half of the galaxy is receding, which implies the disk rotates CW. The two outer CW arms thus lead, not the single inner CCW arm. This unexpected result requires a completely new theoretical interpretation. Alternatively, the old model could be valid with the dust silhouette method being wrong for NGC 4622, given its low inclination. However, the dust features are much more clearly silhouetted east of the line of nodes than west. Our HST images also indicate that NGC4622's unusual arm pattern could be due to a merger with a small companion. A short, linear dust lane splits the nucleus nearly in half suggesting that the perturber was destroyed in a passage close to the nucleus. Supported by NASA/STScI Grant GO 8707 and by NSF Grant RUI 9802918.

  11. The DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's LES ARM Symbiotic Simulation and Observation (LASSO) Workflow: Initialization, Forcing and Multiscale Data Assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.; Cheng, X.; Gustafson, W. I., Jr.; Xiao, H.; Endo, S.; Vogelmann, A. M.; Toto, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is developing a routine large-eddy simulation (LES) modeling framework at the ARM Climate Research Facility sites, known as the "LES ARM Symbiotic Simulation and Observation" (LASSO) Workflow. The routine simulations will be assessed using comprehensive ARM observations of the atmosphere and land-surface states, particularly cloud observations. Since small changes in thermodynamic profiles can manifest large changes in cloud properties, successful simulations require careful initialization, appropriate forcing, and possibly suitable lateral boundary conditions. We use a multiscale data assimilation (MS-DA) system as a major methodology for producing forcing datasets required by the LES modeling. The MS-DA will be implemented in the regional Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model at a cloud resolving resolution (~1 km). MS-DA leverages existing reanalyses (e.g., the NCEP North American Regional Reanalysis, NARR) and operational forecasting products (e.g. the North American Mesoscale Forecast System, NAM; the High-Resolution Rapid Refresh, HRRR) products, and takes advantage of ARM observations to directly constrain the spectra of horizontal scales down to a few km. The analysis from the MS-DA allows deriving initial conditions and forcing datasets for a range of spatial and temporal scales, developing hydrometeor forcing, exploring time-varying boundary conditions, and diagnosing other needed thermodynamic variables. It is stressed that the datasets from the MS-DA are integrated with datasets from other sources to form ensembles to account for uncertainties. The methodologies, implementation and evaluations are presented.

  12. Hand/Wrist/Arm Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... your doctor right away.Start OverDiagnosisYou may have TENDINITIS, inflammation of a tendon.Self CareUse an over- ... OverDiagnosisYour may have TENNIS ELBOW, a type of TENDINITIS.Self CareRest the arm, apply ice packs to ...

  13. Minorities in the Armed Forces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griggs, Anthony

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes the findings of the Congressional Black Caucus and the specially formed task force; reports that high ranking officers have pledged to attack racial discrimination; and describes an association of minority officers whose purpose is to enhance the image of the armed forces within the minority community. (Author/JM)

  14. ARM Climate Modeling Best Estimate Data

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, S.; Jensen, M.; McCoy, R. B.; Klein, S. A.; Cederwall, R. T.; Wiscombe, W. J.; Clothiaux, E. E.; Gaustad, K. L.; Golaz, J.-C.; Hall, S.; Johnson, K. L.; Lin, Y.; Long, C. N.; Mather, J. H.; McCord, R. A.; McFarlane, S. A.; Palanisamy, G.; Shi, Y.; Turner, D. D.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program (www.arm.gov) was created in 1989 to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. A central activity is the acquisition of detailed observations of clouds and radiation, as well as related atmospheric variables for climate model evaluation and improvement. Since 1992, ARM has established six permanent ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF) sites and deployed an ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) in diverse climate regimes around the world (Fig. 1) to perform long-term continuous field measurements. The time record of ACRF data now exceeds a decade at most ACRF fixed sites and ranges from several months to one year for AMF deployments. Billions of measurements are currently stored in millions of data files in the ACRF Data Archive. The long-term continuous ACRF data provide invaluable information to improve our understanding of the interaction between clouds and radiation, and an observational basis for model validation and improvement and climate studies. Given the huge number of data files and current diversity of archived ACRF data structures, however, it can be difficult for an outside user such as a climate modeler to quickly find the ACRF data product(s) that best meets their research needs. The required geophysical quantities may exist in multiple data streams, and over the history of ACRF operations, the measurements could be obtained by a variety of instruments, reviewed with different levels of data quality assurance, or derived using different algorithms. In addition, most ACRF data are stored in daily-based files with a temporal resolution that ranges from a few seconds to a few minutes, which is much finer than that sought by some users. Therefore, it is not as convenient for data users to perform quick comparisons over large spans of data, and this

  15. Magnetic and gaseous spiral arms in M83

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frick, P.; Stepanov, R.; Beck, R.; Sokoloff, D.; Shukurov, A.; Ehle, M.; Lundgren, A.

    2016-01-01

    Context. The magnetic field configurations in several nearby spiral galaxies contain magnetic arms that are sometimes located between the material arms. The nearby barred galaxy M83 provides an outstanding example of a spiral pattern seen in tracers of gas and magnetic field. Aims: We analyse the spatial distribution of magnetic fields in M83 and their relation to the material spiral arms. Methods: Isotropic and anisotropic wavelet transforms are used to decompose the images of M83 in various tracers to quantify structures in a range of scales from 0.2 to 10 kpc. We used radio polarization observations at λ6.2 cm and λ13 cm obtained with the VLA, Effelsberg and ATCA telescopes and APEX sub-mm observations at 870 μm, which are first published here, together with maps of the emission of warm dust, ionized gas, molecular gas, and atomic gas. Results: The spatial power spectra are similar for the tracers of dust, gas, and total magnetic field, while the spectra of the ordered magnetic field are significantly different. As a consequence, the wavelet cross-correlation between all material tracers and total magnetic field is high, while the structures of the ordered magnetic field are poorly correlated with those of other tracers. The magnetic field configuration in M83 contains pronounced magnetic arms. Some of them are displaced from the corresponding material arms, while others overlap with the material arms. The pitch angles of the magnetic and material spiral structures are generally similar. The magnetic field vectors at λ6.2 cm are aligned with the outer material arms, while significant deviations occur in the inner arms and, in particular, in the bar region, possibly due to non-axisymmetric gas flows. Outside the bar region, the typical pitch angles of the material and magnetic spiral arms are very close to each other at about 10°. The typical pitch angle of the magnetic field vectors is about 20° larger than that of the material spiral arms. Conclusions

  16. Ka-Band ARM Zenith Radar (KAZR) Instrument Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Widener, K; Bharadwaj, N; Johnson, K

    2012-03-06

    The Ka-band ARM zenith radar (KAZR) is a zenith-pointing Doppler cloud radar operating at approximately 35 GHz. The KAZR is an evolutionary follow-on radar to ARM's widely successful millimeter-wavelength cloud radar (MMCR). The main purpose of the KAZR is to provide vertical profiles of clouds by measuring the first three Doppler moments: reflectivity, radial Doppler velocity, and spectra width. At the sites where the dual-polarization measurements are made, the Doppler moments for the cross-polarization channel are also available. In addition to the moments, velocity spectra are also continuously recorded for each range gate.

  17. Soft-sediment deformation produced by tides in a meizoseismic area, Turnagain Arm, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greb, S.F.; Archer, A.W.

    2007-01-01

    Turnagain Arm is a semidiurnal hypertidal estuary in southeastern Alaska with a recorded tidal range of 9 m. Contorted bedding and flow rolls preserved in tidal sediments within the estuary have previously been interpreted as resulting from the Mw 9.2 Great Alaskan earthquake of 1964. Horizons of flow rolls between undeformed beds in sediments and rock strata have been used to infer ancient earthquakes in other areas. Although many types of soft-sediment deformation structures can be formed by earthquakes, observations of sedimentation on tidal flats in the inner parts of Turnagain Arm in the summers of 2003 and 2004 show that a wide range of soft-sediment deformation structures, similar to those inferred to have been formed by earthquakes, can form in macrotidal estuaries in the absence of seismic shock. During sedimentation rate measurements in 2004, soft-sediment deformation structures were recorded that formed during one day's tide, either in response to overpressurization of tidal flats during rapid tidal drawdown or by shear stress exerted on the bed by the passage of a 1.8 m tidal bore. Structures consisted of How rolls, dish structures, flames, and small dewatering pipes in a bed 17 cm thick. In the future, if the flow rolls in Turnagain Arm were found in isolated outcrops across an area 11 km in length, in an estuary known to have been influenced by large-magnitude earthquakes, would they be interpreted as seismites? These examples show that caution is needed when using horizons of flow rolls to infer paleoseismicity in estuarine deposits because many of the mechanisms (tidal flux, tidal bores, slumping, flooding) that can cause deformation in rapidly deposited, unconsolidated silts and sands, are orders of magnitude more common than great earthquakes. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  18. Finding and characterizing candidate targets for the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chodas, P.

    2014-07-01

    NASA's proposed Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) leverages key on-going activities in Human Exploration and Space Technology to advance NASA's goals in these areas. One primary objective of ARM would be to develop and demonstrate a high-power Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) vehicle which would have the capability of moving significant amounts of mass around the solar system. SEP would be a key technology for robust future missions to deep space destinations, possibly including human missions to asteroids or to Mars. ARM would use the SEP vehicle to redirect up to hundreds of tons of material from a near-Earth asteroid into a stable lunar orbit, where a crew flying in an Orion vehicle would rendezvous and dock with it. The crew would perform an extra-vehicular activity (EVA), sample the material, and bring it back to the Earth; follow-on visits would also be possible. Two ARM mission concepts are being studied: one is to go to a small 4-10-meter-diameter asteroid, capture the entire asteroid and guide it into lunar orbit; the other is to go to a large 100-500 meter asteroid, remove a 1-10 meter boulder, and bring the boulder back into lunar orbit. A planetary defense demonstration could be included under either concept. Although some candidate targets are already known for both mission concepts, an observation campaign has been organized to identify more mission candidates. This campaign naturally leverages off of NASA's NEO Observations Program. Enhancements to asteroid search capabilities which will come online soon should increase the discovery rates for ARM candidates and hazardous asteroids alike. For the small-asteroid ARM concept, candidate targets must be smaller than about 12 meters, must follow Earth-like orbits and must naturally approach the Earth closely in the early 2020s, providing the opportunity for a low-velocity capture into the Earth/Moon system. About a dozen candidates are known with absolute magnitudes in the right range and with orbits

  19. Multidirectional manual arm strength and its relationship with resultant shoulder moment and arm posture.

    PubMed

    La Delfa, Nicholas J; Potvin, Jim R

    2016-12-01

    Previous work has quantified manual force capabilities for ergonomics design, but the number of studies and range of conditions tested are limited in scope. Therefore, the aims of this study were to collect seated manual arm strength (MAS) data from 24 females in several unique exertion directions (n = 26) and hand locations relative to the shoulder (n = 8), and to investigate the associations between MAS and shoulder/elbow moments. MAS was generally highest when the direction of force application was oriented parallel to the vector from the shoulder to knuckle, and weakest when oriented orthogonal to that vector. Moderate correlations were found between MAS and: (1) resultant shoulder moment (r = 0.34), (2) resultant moment arms (r = -0.545) and (3) elbow flexion/extension moment (r = 0.481). Our strength data will be used in the development of a comprehensive MAS predictive method, so that strength capabilities can be predicted to help design acceptable tasks in the workplace. Practitioner Summary: This study sought to enhance our understanding of one-handed manual arm strength capabilities for ergonomics task evaluations. Our findings provide researchers and practitioners with manual strength data for off-axis force directions, as well as hand locations not previously measured. These data will contribute to future methods for predicting strength capabilities.

  20. New technologies and the arms race

    SciTech Connect

    Schaerf, C.; Reid, B.H.; Carlton, D.

    1989-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the International Conference on Technology, the Arms Race and Arms Control. Topics covered include: Cosmic space and the role of Europe and Non-military justification for investments in military technologies.

  1. Low-cost robotic arm control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, John R.

    2008-04-01

    A low-cost robotic arm and controller system is presented. The controller is a desktop model of the robotic arm with the same degrees of freedom whose joints are equipped with sensors. Manipulating the controller by hand causes the robotic arm to mimic the movement in maser-slave fashion. The system takes advantage of the low cost and wide availability of hobby radio control components and uses a low-cost, easy-to-program microprocessor. The system is implemented with a video camera on the robotic arm, and the arm is mounted on an unmanned omnidirectional vehicle inspection robot. With a camera on the end of a robot arm, the vehicle inspection system can reach difficult to-access regions of the vehicle underbody. Learning to manipulate the robot arm with this controller is faster than learning with a traditional joystick. Limitations of the microcontroller are discussed, and suggestions for further development of the robot arm and control are made.

  2. Sprinkle Test by Phoenix's Robotic Arm (Movie)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander used its Robotic Arm during the mission's 15th Martian day since landing (June 9, 2008) to test a 'sprinkle' method for delivering small samples of soil to instruments on the lander deck. This sequence of four images from the spacecraft's Surface Stereo Imager covers a period of 20 minutes from beginning to end of the activity.

    In the single delivery of a soil sample to a Phoenix instrument prior to this test, the arm brought the scooped up soil over the instrument's opened door and turned over the scoop to release the soil. The sprinkle technique, by contrast, holds the scoop at a steady angle and vibrates the scoop by running the motorized rasp located beneath the scoop. This gently jostles some material out of the scoop to the target below.

    For this test, the target was near the upper end the cover of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer instrument suite, or MECA. The cover is 20 centimeters (7.9 inches) across. The scoop is about 8.5 centimeters (3.3 inches) across.

    Based on the test's success in delivering a small quantity and fine-size particles, the Phoenix team plans to use the sprinkle method for delivering samples to MECA and to the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA. The next planned delivery is to MECA's Optical Microscope, via the port in the MECA cover visible at the bottom of these images.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. Health surveillance mechanisms used by armed forces worldwide.

    PubMed

    Capleton, Alexander C; Wickramatillake, Hemantha; Rushton, Lesley

    2004-12-01

    Health surveillance is an essential tool in monitoring health in an armed force and in helping to protect the health of service personnel. This study used a literature search and direct contacts with individual countries to identify and evaluate health surveillance mechanisms used by armed forces worldwide. The study identified several health surveillance mechanisms ranging from periodic health assessments of personnel to complex databases of medical data linked to demographic and other supporting data. Essential elements of an effective health surveillance system are outlined, including the requirement that systems are adequately supported and allow the routine monitoring of health at the population level consistently throughout an armed force and consistently during times of peace and during operations. Areas for further research and development include linking of data on hazardous exposures, jobs and the locations of personnel with medical data, and the follow-up of personnel beyond their military service.

  4. Overcoming Robot-Arm Joint Singularities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, L. K.; Houck, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    Kinematic equations allow arm to pass smoothly through singular region. Report discusses mathematical singularities in equations of robotarm control. Operator commands robot arm to move in direction relative to its own axis system by specifying velocity in that direction. Velocity command then resolved into individual-joint rotational velocities in robot arm to effect motion. However, usual resolved-rate equations become singular when robot arm is straightened.

  5. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data Plots and Figures

    DOE Data Explorer

    ARM Program data is available in daily diagnostic plots that can be easily grouped into daily, weekly, monthly, and even yearly increments. By visualizing ARM data in thumbnail-sized data plots, users experience highly-browsable subsets of data available at the Data Archive including complimentary data products derived from data processed by ARM. These thumbnails allow users to quickly scan for a particular type of condition, like a clear day or a day with persistent cirrus. From a diagnostics perspective, the data plots assist in looking for missing data, for data exceeding a particular range, or for loading multiple variables (e.g., shortwave fluxes and precipitation), and to determine whether a certain science or data quality condition is associated with some other parameter (e.g., high wind or rain).[taken from http://www.arm.gov/data/data_plots.stm] Several interfaces and tools have been developed to make data plots easy to generate and manipulate. For example, the NCVWeb is an interactive NetCDF data plotting tool that ARM users can use to plot data as they order it or to plot regular standing data orders. It allows production of detailed tables, extraction of data, statistics output, comparison plotting, etc. without the need for separate visualization software. Users will be requested to create a password, but the data plots are free for viewing and downloading.

  6. The Mars Surveyor '01 Rover and Robotic Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonitz, Robert G.; Nguyen, Tam T.; Kim, Won S.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander will carry with it both a Robotic Arm and Rover to support various science and technology experiments. The Marie Curie Rover, the twin sister to Sojourner Truth, is expected to explore the surface of Mars in early 2002. Scientific investigations to determine the elemental composition of surface rocks and soil using the Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) will be conducted along with several technology experiments including the Mars Experiment on Electrostatic Charging (MEEC) and the Wheel Abrasion Experiment (WAE). The Rover will follow uplinked operational sequences each day, but will be capable of autonomous reactions to the unpredictable features of the Martian environment. The Mars Surveyor 2001 Robotic Arm will perform rover deployment, and support various positioning, digging, and sample acquiring functions for MECA (Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment) and Mossbauer Spectrometer experiments. The Robotic Arm will also collect its own sensor data for engineering data analysis. The Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) mounted on the forearm of the Robotic Arm will capture various images with a wide range of focal length adjustment during scientific experiments and rover deployment

  7. 32 CFR 935.134 - Arm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Arm signals. 935.134 Section 935.134 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.134 Arm signals. (a) Any person operating a motor vehicle and... signal for a turn or stop is made by fully extending the left arm as follows: (1) Left turn—extend...

  8. 33 CFR 154.510 - Loading arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Loading arms. 154.510 Section 154... FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Equipment Requirements § 154.510 Loading arms. (a) Each mechanical loading arm used for transferring oil or hazardous material and placed into...

  9. 32 CFR 935.134 - Arm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Arm signals. 935.134 Section 935.134 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.134 Arm signals. (a) Any person operating a motor vehicle and... signal for a turn or stop is made by fully extending the left arm as follows: (1) Left turn—extend...

  10. 32 CFR 935.134 - Arm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Arm signals. 935.134 Section 935.134 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.134 Arm signals. (a) Any person operating a motor vehicle and... signal for a turn or stop is made by fully extending the left arm as follows: (1) Left turn—extend...

  11. 32 CFR 935.134 - Arm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arm signals. 935.134 Section 935.134 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.134 Arm signals. (a) Any person operating a motor vehicle and... signal for a turn or stop is made by fully extending the left arm as follows: (1) Left turn—extend...

  12. 33 CFR 154.510 - Loading arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loading arms. 154.510 Section 154... FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Equipment Requirements § 154.510 Loading arms. (a) Each mechanical loading arm used for transferring oil or hazardous material and placed into...

  13. 32 CFR 935.134 - Arm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Arm signals. 935.134 Section 935.134 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.134 Arm signals. (a) Any person operating a motor vehicle and... signal for a turn or stop is made by fully extending the left arm as follows: (1) Left turn—extend...

  14. 33 CFR 154.510 - Loading arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Loading arms. 154.510 Section 154... FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Equipment Requirements § 154.510 Loading arms. (a) Each mechanical loading arm used for transferring oil or hazardous material and placed into...

  15. 33 CFR 154.510 - Loading arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Loading arms. 154.510 Section 154... FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Equipment Requirements § 154.510 Loading arms. (a) Each mechanical loading arm used for transferring oil or hazardous material and placed into...

  16. 33 CFR 154.510 - Loading arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Loading arms. 154.510 Section 154... FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Equipment Requirements § 154.510 Loading arms. (a) Each mechanical loading arm used for transferring oil or hazardous material and placed into...

  17. 77 FR 30875 - Armed Forces Day, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8823 of May 18, 2012 Armed Forces Day, 2012 By the President of the United... circumstances. On Armed Forces Day, we pay tribute to the unparalleled service of our Armed Forces and recall... Day. I direct the Secretary of Defense on behalf of the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps,...

  18. Arm Tremor, Tardive Dyskinesia, and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Emmerik, R. E. A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The arm tremor of adults (n=32) diagnosed as having mental retardation and/or tardive dyskinesia was examined through an analysis of the acceleration properties of several arm postures. The degree of arm acceleration was increased in all subjects compared to a control group without mental retardation. Effects of neuroleptic medication were noted.…

  19. Spirality: Spiral arm pitch angle measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, Douglas W.; Boe, Benjamin; Pfountz, Casey; Davis, Benjamin L.; Hartley, Matthew; Pour Imani, Hamed; Slade, Zac; Kennefick, Daniel; Kennefick, Julia

    2015-12-01

    Spirality measures spiral arm pitch angles by fitting galaxy images to spiral templates of known pitch. Written in MATLAB, the code package also includes GenSpiral, which produces FITS images of synthetic spirals, and SpiralArmCount, which uses a one-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform to count the spiral arms of a galaxy after its pitch is determined.

  20. Small Arms - Hand and Shoulder Weapons and Machine Guns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-24

    dispense mixture at a rate of 50 ± 10 g/min/m2 temperature control to ± 2 °C. Mud bath Viscosity of 4600 centipoises. Salt-water solution 5% sodium ...take up to 1 day to prepare and achieve the proper viscosity. (2) The bentonite clay is also referred to as the following common names: sodium ...bentonite, sodium montmorillonite, Wyoming bentonite, and montmorillonite. The pH must be between 8.3 and 9.1. It must have the following

  1. Small Arms Systems Section Annual Conference, Exhibition & Firing Demonstration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    4P Q 4* Gfl d d HH H HH O Of) ’S o H Of) <M d >> 0« WD PP...Pr oc L et li Su ty I * ^ - < 1 i • NVHOOHd . 4P 1 fl + + (I M OINTSEB^1 < Hftwś ^^ i • • c U s a l! ^ IS 1;: 5/3 s...than necessary for Swiss defense requirements, and equally clearly designed to compete in the international military ammunition market . But

  2. The Evaluation of Small Arms Effectiveness Criteria. Volume 2: Appendixes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-05-01

    C0 Q0 C 0 4 4 0. I4U 4p 0 A)~ 01 _0aC1 aUPUAAJPJ)LP".’CUaM) CCU)UP c C = C I p CP0 0 Ca aC fA J 0 0 0 A 4 4 0 C = 101 10 CU 0 a l- n M...000001D00 C..JC. NO0 O 000 0- C0*C .󈧄 C00D0 C) on C>’I-0 Z I v .0 r- mL 1- D) a, f, 80 0 0 4p n’ 0 n 1) 00 7 C .t 4 De 0. ) 4r - (\\U JD C .0 ’,In M (7 1...0 NO aY Nco oo -o o o~ o o o o~ 40CoC00N0-0- - .f . *. . . 0. . . . . * . I . . I. . . . . . .......I OJ S 00o0O0o oooo 0- 0 12 Q1 11 4P - o (V o o

  3. Data Fusion Methods for Small Arms Localization Solutions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    Symmetric Projectiles. 1. 1. Atglen, PA: Schiffer Books , 2004. Print. [7] Fisher, N.I. Statistical Analysis of Circular Data. 1. 1. Cambridge...Cambridge University Press, 2011. 169-218. eBook . <http://ebooks.cambridge.org/ebook.jsf?bid=CBO9780511564345>. [8] Abramowitz, M. and Stegun, I. A. (ed

  4. The Modeling and Application of Small Arms Wound Ballistics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    Systems Analysis Activity (AMSAA) Ms. Donna Querido AMSAA Dr. William Bruchey U.S. Army Ballistic Research Laboratory (BRL) Mr. Edward Davis BRL Mr. John ...Prnving Ornnnd SaOi Qzgni•atl Dir, USAMSAA 2 Commander ATTN: AMXSY-G (L. deLattre) US Army Armament Research, Development, AMXSY-G (D. Querido ) and

  5. Regenerator cross arm seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Jackman, Anthony V.

    1988-01-01

    A seal assembly for disposition between a cross arm on a gas turbine engine block and a regenerator disc, the seal assembly including a platform coextensive with the cross arm, a seal and wear layer sealingly and slidingly engaging the regenerator disc, a porous and compliant support layer between the platform and the seal and wear layer porous enough to permit flow of cooling air therethrough and compliant to accommodate relative thermal growth and distortion, a dike between the seal and wear layer and the platform for preventing cross flow through the support layer between engine exhaust and pressurized air passages, and air diversion passages for directing unregenerated pressurized air through the support layer to cool the seal and wear layer and then back into the flow of regenerated pressurized air.

  6. Cold warriors target arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacs, J.

    1995-09-01

    While disagreements over the conflict in Bosnia have strained US relations with Western Europe and Russia, these divisions will pale in comparison to the tensions that will arise if recent congressional arms control decisions become law. If the Republicans who dominate Congress are successful, a series of arms control agreements painstakingly negotiated by Republican and Democratic presidents could be consigned to the ash heap. This list includes the Start I and Start II nuclear reduction agreements, the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty and the ongoing negotiations to achieve a comprehensive test ban (CTB) by 1996. US leadership in the post-Cold War era will undermined as the international community, already skeptical about this country`s direction, will question the ability of the executive branch to surmount isolantionist impulses.

  7. Too many cooks Arms control by Committee: Managing negotiations with the Russians. [Book review about arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Bunn, G.

    1992-01-01

    The title for [open quotes]Too Many Cooks Arms Control by Committee: Managing Negotiations with the Russians[close quotes] comes from the cumbersome way in which arms control must be negotiated with interagency and congressional committees, as well as with foreign diplomats. The author's purpose for the book is to add to the recorded history of early negotiations, to help with teaching about arms control talks, and to distill lessons from 30 years of negotiations. The author reviews seven case studies of arms control negotiations against a common set of key questions. In addition to the comprehensive and partial test ban negotiations and the Non-Proliferation Treaty, the author covers Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) I and II, the Intermediate-range Nuclear Forces (INF) talks, and the Conventional Forces in Europe Treaty. Special attention is paid to presidential management of the unwieldy negotiating process, including the use of instructions to negotiators and White House bargaining tactics at home and abroad.

  8. Passive Ranging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    1981). 5. R. Courant and D. Hilbert, Methods of Mathematical Physics , Vol. I, English ed., * Interscience, New York, 1953. 32 32 APPENDIX A CALCULATION...K Courant and D. Hilbert, Methods of Mathematical Physics , Vol. I, English ed., * Interscience, New York, 1953. A-8 APPENDIX B * RANGING ACCURACY IN

  9. Dual arm master controller development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuban, D. P.; Perkins, G. S.

    1985-01-01

    The advanced servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features resulted in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed to human factor design and performance tradeoffs associated with the corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented.

  10. Hand-arm vibration syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Shixin (Cindy); House, Ronald A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To provide family physicians with an understanding of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, symptoms, diagnosis, and management of hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS), an important and common occupational disease in Canada. Sources of information A MEDLINE search was conducted for research and review articles on HAVS. A Google search was conducted to obtain gray literature relevant to the Canadian context. Additional references were obtained from the articles identified. Main message Hand-arm vibration syndrome is a prevalent occupational disease affecting workers in multiple industries in which vibrating tools are used. However, it is underdiagnosed in Canada. It has 3 components—vascular, in the form of secondary Raynaud phenomenon; sensorineural; and musculoskeletal. Hand-arm vibration syndrome in its more advanced stages contributes to substantial disability and poor quality of life. Its diagnosis requires careful history taking, in particular occupational history, physical examination, laboratory tests to rule out alternative diagnoses, and referral to an occupational medicine specialist for additional investigations. Management involves reduction of vibration exposure, avoidance of cold conditions, smoking cessation, and medication. Conclusion To ensure timely diagnosis of HAVS and improve prognosis and quality of life, family physicians should be aware of this common occupational disease and be able to elicit the relevant occupational history, refer patients to occupational medicine clinics, and appropriately initiate compensation claims. PMID:28292796

  11. Trigonometric parallaxes of star forming regions in the Scutum spiral arm

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, M.; Wu, Y. W.; Immer, K.; Zhang, B.; Sanna, A.; Brunthaler, A.; Menten, K. M.; Reid, M. J.; Dame, T. M.

    2014-10-01

    We report measurements of trigonometric parallaxes for six high-mass star-forming regions in the Scutum spiral arm of the Milky Way as part of the BeSSeL Survey. Combining our measurements with 10 previous measurements from the BeSSeL Survey yields a total sample of 16 sources in the Scutum arm with trigonometric parallaxes in the Galactic longitude range from 5° to 32°. Assuming a logarithmic spiral model, we estimate a pitch angle of 19.°8 ± 3.°1 for the Scutum arm, which is larger than pitch angles reported for other spiral arms. The high pitch angle of the arm may be due to the arm's proximity to the Galactic bar. The Scutum arm sources show an average peculiar motion of 4 km s{sup –1} slower than the Galactic rotation and 8 km s{sup –1} toward the Galactic center. While the direction of this non-circular motion has the same sign as determined for sources in other spiral arms, the motion toward the Galactic center is greater for the Scutum arm sources.

  12. High precision detector robot arm system

    DOEpatents

    Shu, Deming; Chu, Yong

    2017-01-31

    A method and high precision robot arm system are provided, for example, for X-ray nanodiffraction with an X-ray nanoprobe. The robot arm system includes duo-vertical-stages and a kinematic linkage system. A two-dimensional (2D) vertical plane ultra-precision robot arm supporting an X-ray detector provides positioning and manipulating of the X-ray detector. A vertical support for the 2D vertical plane robot arm includes spaced apart rails respectively engaging a first bearing structure and a second bearing structure carried by the 2D vertical plane robot arm.

  13. Assessing the Organizational Climate in the Belgian Armed Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    Coordinates for the different subgroups (military norms - unweighted scores*) Target groups (n) SUPPORTIVE INNOVATIVE PURPOSIVE RULES Services Army (237) 9.2...basis of the total target group . Results may be biased for 6 Assessing the Orgqnizational Climate in the Belgian Armed Forces (very) small groups. In...the case of weighted scores the mean of the target group is computed on the basis of the means for the subgroups; by doing so all subgroups are

  14. Prosthetic Tool For Holding Small Ferromagnetic Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, William E.; Carden, James R.; Belcher, Jewell G., Jr.; Vest, Thomas W.

    1995-01-01

    Tool attached to prosthetic hand or arm enables user to hold nails, screws, nuts, rivets, and other small ferromagnetic objects on small magnetic tip. Device adjusted to hold nail or screw at proper angle for hammering or for use of screwdriver, respectively. Includes base connector with threaded outer surface and lower male member inserted in standard spring-action, quick-connect/quick-disconnect wrist adapter on prosthetic hand or arm.

  15. Long-range tactile masking occurs in the postural body schema.

    PubMed

    D'Amour, Sarah; Harris, Laurence R

    2016-02-01

    Long-range tactile masking has been reported between mirror symmetric body locations. This suggests a general principle of contralateral inhibition between corresponding points on each side of the body that may serve to enhance distinguishing touches on the two halves of the body. Do such effects occur before or after posture is added to the body schema? Here, we address this question by exploring the effect of arm position on long-range tactile masking. The influence of arm position was investigated using different positions of both the test and masking arms. Tactile sensitivity was measured on one forearm, while vibrotactile-masking stimulation was applied to the opposite arm or to a control site on the shoulder. No difference was found in sensitivity when test arm position was varied. Physical contact between the arms significantly increased the effectiveness of a masking stimulus applied to the other arm. Long-range masking between the arms was strongest when the arms were held parallel to each other and was abolished if the position of either the test arm or the masking arm was moved from this position. Modulation of the effectiveness of masking by the position of both the test and masking arms suggests that these effects occur after posture information is added to the body's representation in the brain.

  16. Placement of the VenaTech LP Caval Filter in the Elderly: Feasibility and Clinical Benefits of Insertion Via the Arm

    SciTech Connect

    Le Blanche, Alain F. Pautas, Eric; Gouin, Isabelle; Baguees, Audrey; Piette, Francois; Chaibi, Pascal

    2005-12-15

    Purpose. To evaluate routine use of access sites in the arm for percutaneous caval filter placement (PCFP) in elderly patients. Neck arthritis, patient anxiety, access site thrombosis or fecal/urinary incontinence complicating jugular or femoral access may require alternative access sites in this population. Methods. Access via the right arm was chosen for PCFP (VenaTech LP). The indication for PCFP was deep vein thrombosis, a history of pulmonary embolism, and a contraindication to anticoagulant therapy. Ultrasound-guided puncture was performed after diameter measurement of the arm veins (O{sub AV}). The filter was inserted with standard imaging procedures. Procedural difficulty was graded and compared with O{sub AV} and the angle from the arm vein to the superior vena cava ({alpha}{sub AV/SVC}). Results. Over 2 years, 16 patients (14 women, 2 men) with an average age of 90 years (range 79-97 years) were included in the study. The average O{sub AV} value of the basilic or brachial veins was 4.2 mm (range 3.0-5.1 mm). The minimal O{sub AV} for successful access was determined after the first 15 patients. No hematoma occurred at the puncture sites. The average {alpha}{sub AV/SVC} value was 62 deg. (range 29 deg. - 90 deg.). Arm access was possible in 12 of 16 patients (75%) with O{sub AV} {>=} 3.5 mm and {alpha}{sub AV/SVC} {>=} 29 deg. Every procedure via the arm was graded 'easy' by the operator, regardless of angulation values. Femoral access was used in one case due to the impossibility of traversing the heart (patient no. 2), and jugular access was used in 3 of 16 (19%) patients due to puncture failure (patient no. 4), small O{sub AV} (3 mm) (patient no. 6), and stenosis of the distal right subclavian vein (patient no.16), respectively. Conclusion. PCFP via the arm can be routinely accomplished in patients older than 75 years, provided O{sub AV} {>=} 3.5 mm, and {alpha}{sub AV/SVC} {>=} 200119 d.

  17. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abell, Paul; Gates, Michele; Johnson, Lindley; Chodas, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Ticker, Ronald

    2016-07-01

    To achieve its long-term goal of sending humans to Mars, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to proceed in a series of incrementally more complex human spaceflight missions. Today, human flight experience extends only to Low-Earth Orbit (LEO), and should problems arise during a mission, the crew can return to Earth in a matter of minutes to hours. The next logical step for human spaceflight is to gain flight experience in the vicinity of the Moon. These cis-lunar missions provide a "proving ground" for the testing of systems and operations while still accommodating an emergency return path to the Earth that would last only several days. Cis-lunar mission experience will be essential for more ambitious human missions beyond the Earth-Moon system, which will require weeks, months, or even years of transit time. In addition, NASA has been given a Grand Challenge to find all asteroid threats to human populations and know what to do about them. Obtaining knowledge of asteroid physical properties combined with performing technology demonstrations for planetary defense provide much needed information to address the issue of future asteroid impacts on Earth. Hence the combined objectives of human exploration and planetary defense give a rationale for the Asteroid Re-direct Mission (ARM). Mission Description: NASA's ARM consists of two mission segments: 1) the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), the first robotic mission to visit a large (greater than ~100 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface along with regolith samples, demonstrate a planetary defense technique, and return the asteroidal material to a stable orbit around the Moon; and 2) the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), in which astronauts will take the Orion capsule to rendezvous and dock with the robotic vehicle, conduct multiple extravehicular activities to explore the boulder, and return to Earth with samples. NASA's proposed

  18. Intraoperative positioning of mobile C-arms using artificial fluoroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressel, Philipp; Wang, Lejing; Kutter, Oliver; Traub, Joerg; Heining, Sandro-Michael; Navab, Nassir

    2010-02-01

    In trauma and orthopedic surgery, imaging through X-ray fluoroscopy with C-arms is ubiquitous. This leads to an increase in ionizing radiation applied to patient and clinical staff. Placing these devices in the desired position to visualize a region of interest is a challenging task, requiring both skill of the operator and numerous X-rays for guidance. We propose an extension to C-arms for which position data is available that provides the surgeon with so called artificial fluoroscopy. This is achieved by computing digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) from pre- or intraoperative CT data. The approach is based on C-arm motion estimation, for which we employ a Camera Augmented Mobile C-arm (CAMC) system, and a rigid registration of the patient to the CT data. Using this information we are able to generate DRRs and simulate fluoroscopic images. For positioning tasks, this system appears almost exactly like conventional fluoroscopy, however simulating the images from the CT data in realtime as the C-arm is moved without the application of ionizing radiation. Furthermore, preoperative planning can be done on the CT data and then visualized during positioning, e.g. defining drilling axes for pedicle approach techniques. Since our method does not require external tracking it is suitable for deployment in clinical environments and day-to-day routine. An experiment with six drillings into a lumbar spine phantom showed reproducible accuracy in positioning the C-arm, ranging from 1.1 mm to 4.1 mm deviation of marker points on the phantom compared in real and virtual images.

  19. Grand-design Spiral Arms in a Young Forming Circumstellar Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomida, Kengo; Machida, Masahiro N.; Hosokawa, Takashi; Sakurai, Yuya; Lin, Chia Hui

    2017-01-01

    We study formation and long-term evolution of a circumstellar disk in a collapsing molecular cloud core using a resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulation. While the formed circumstellar disk is initially small, it grows as accretion continues, and its radius becomes as large as 200 au toward the end of the Class-I phase. A pair of grand-design spiral arms form due to gravitational instability in the disk, and they transfer angular momentum in the highly resistive disk. Although the spiral arms disappear in a few rotations as expected in a classical theory, new spiral arms form recurrently as the disk, soon becoming unstable again by gas accretion. Such recurrent spiral arms persist throughout the Class-0 and I phases. We then perform synthetic observations and compare our model with a recent high-resolution observation of a young stellar object Elias 2–27, whose circumstellar disk has grand-design spiral arms. We find good agreement between our theoretical model and the observation. Our model suggests that the grand-design spiral arms around Elias 2–27 are consistent with material arms formed by gravitational instability. If such spiral arms commonly exist in young circumstellar disks, it implies that young circumstellar disks are considerably massive and gravitational instability is the key process of angular momentum transport.

  20. A real-time robot arm collision detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaffer, Clifford A.; Herb, Gregory M.

    1990-01-01

    A data structure and update algorithm are presented for a prototype real time collision detection safety system for a multi-robot environment. The data structure is a variant of the octree, which serves as a spatial index. An octree recursively decomposes 3-D space into eight equal cubic octants until each octant meets some decomposition criteria. The octree stores cylspheres (cylinders with spheres on each end) and rectangular solids as primitives (other primitives can easily be added as required). These primitives make up the two seven degrees-of-freedom robot arms and environment modeled by the system. Octree nodes containing more than a predetermined number N of primitives are decomposed. This rule keeps the octree small, as the entire environment for the application can be modeled using a few dozen primitives. As robot arms move, the octree is updated to reflect their changed positions. During most update cycles, any given primitive does not change which octree nodes it is in. Thus, modification to the octree is rarely required. Incidents in which one robot arm comes too close to another arm or an object are reported. Cycle time for interpreting current joint angles, updating the octree, and detecting/reporting imminent collisions averages 30 milliseconds on an Intel 80386 processor running at 20 MHz.

  1. Milestones in Strategic Arms Control, 1945 2000: United States Air Force Roles and Outcomes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-01

    Importantly, under this and other mutual treaties, it is a ritual that also takes place frequently in Russia as American inspectors exercise the same...trial collapse; the myth of the self-defending daylight-bomber forma - tion and the inevitable turning to less efficient bombing by night; the... quiche —or do arms control.”43 Air Force arms-control policy was developed by a small group of analysts reporting to the chief of staff. The nexus of arms

  2. ASSEMBLY AND CHARACTERIZATION OF 8-ARM AND 12-ARM DNA BRANCHED JUNCTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xing

    2012-01-01

    Branched DNA molecules can be assembled into objects and networks directed by sticky-ended cohesion. The connectivity of these species is limited by the number of arms flanking the branch point. To date, the only branched junctions constructed contain six or fewer arms. We report the construction of DNA branched junctions that contain either 8 or 12 double helical arms surrounding a branch point. The design of the 8-arm junction expoits the limits of a previous approach to thwart branch migration, but the design of the 12-arm junction uses a new to principle achieve this end. The 8-arm junction is stable with 16 nucleotide pairs per arm, but the 12-arm junction has been stabilized by 24 nucleotide pairs per arm. Ferguson analysis of these junctions in combination with three, four, five, and six-arm junctions indicates a linear increase in friction constant as the number of arms increases; the four-arm junction migrates anomalously at 4°C., suggesting stacking of its domains. All strands in both the 8-arm and 12-arm junctions show similar responses to hydroxyl radical autofootprinting analysis, indicating that they lack any dominant stacking structures. The stability of the 12-arm junction demonstrates that the number of arms in a junction is not limited to the case of having adjacent identical base pairs flanking the junction. The ability to construct eight-arm and twelve-arm junctions increases the number of objects, graphs and networks that can be built from branched DNA components. In principle, the stick structure corresponding to cubic close packing is now a possible target for assembly by DNA nanotechnology. PMID:17564446

  3. Arms Control: a Selected Bibliography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    THE REAGAN YEARS. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1987. (JX1974.7 R33 1987) Seaborg , Glenn T. STEMMING THE TIDE: ARMS CONTROL IN THE JOHNSON YEARS...William, and Seaborg , Glenn T. "Non-Nuclear States Move to End Testing." BULLETIN OF THE ATOMIC SCIENTISTS, Vol. 45, June 1989, pp. 36-37. "European...STRATEGIC OFFENSIVE FORCE REDUCTION PORTION OF THE NUCLEAR AND SPACE TALKS IN GENEVA, by Edward L. Warner, III, Glenn A. Kent, and Randall J. DeValk. Note N

  4. NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, P. A.; Mazanek, D. D.; Reeves, D. M.; Chodas, P. W.; Gates, M. M.; Johnson, L. N.; Ticker, R. L.

    2017-01-01

    Mission Description and Objectives: NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) consists of two mission segments: 1) the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), a robotic mission to visit a large (greater than approximately 100 meters diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface along with regolith samples, and return the asteroidal material to a stable orbit around the Moon; and 2) the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), in which astronauts will explore and investigate the boulder and return to Earth with samples. The ARRM is currently planned to launch at the end of 2021 and the ARCM is scheduled for late 2026.

  5. Python-ARM Radar Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Jonathan Helmus, Scott Collis

    2013-03-17

    The Python-ARM Radar Toolkit (Py-ART) is a collection of radar quality control and retrieval codes which all work on two unifying Python objects: the PyRadar and PyGrid objects. By building ingests to several popular radar formats and then abstracting the interface Py-ART greatly simplifies data processing over several other available utilities. In addition Py-ART makes use of Numpy arrays as its primary storage mechanism enabling use of existing and extensive community software tools.

  6. Confronting Emergent Nuclear-Armed Regional Adversaries: Prospects for Neutralization, Strategies for Escalation Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    C O R P O R A T I O N Research Report Confronting Emergent Nuclear-Armed Regional Adversaries Prospects for Neutralization, Strategies for...Armed Regional Adversaries: Prospects for Neutralization, Strategies for Escalation Management 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...states with small nuclear arsenals. It examines prospects for neutralizing their nuclear capabilities via combinations of offensive and defensive

  7. Effects of Aging on Arm Swing during Gait: The Role of Gait Speed and Dual Tasking.

    PubMed

    Mirelman, Anat; Bernad-Elazari, Hagar; Nobel, Tomer; Thaler, Avner; Peruzzi, Agnese; Plotnik, Meir; Giladi, Nir; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M

    2015-01-01

    Healthy walking is characterized by pronounced arm swing and axial rotation. Aging effects on gait speed, stride length and stride time variability have been previously reported, however, less is known about aging effects on arm swing and axial rotation and their relationship to age-associated gait changes during usual walking and during more challenging conditions like dual tasking. Sixty healthy adults between the ages of 30-77 were included in this study designed to address this gap. Lightweight body fixed sensors were placed on each wrist and lower back. Participants walked under 3 walking conditions each of 1 minute: 1) comfortable speed, 2) walking while serially subtracting 3's (Dual Task), 3) walking at fast speed. Aging effects on arm swing amplitude, range, symmetry, jerk and axial rotation amplitude and jerk were compared between decades of age (30-40; 41-50; 51-60; 61-77 years). As expected, older adults walked slower (p = 0.03) and with increased stride variability (p = 0.02). Arm swing amplitude decreased with age under all conditions (p = 0.04). In the oldest group, arm swing decreased during dual task and increased during the fast walking condition (p<0.0001). Similarly, arm swing asymmetry increased during the dual task in the older groups (p<0.004), but not in the younger groups (p = 0.67). Significant differences between groups and within conditions were observed in arm swing jerk (p<0.02), axial rotation amplitude (p<0.02) and axial jerk (p<0.001). Gait speed, arm swing amplitude of the dominant arm, arm swing asymmetry and axial rotation jerk were all independent predictors of age in a multivariate model. These findings suggest that the effects of gait speed and dual tasking on arm swing and axial rotation during walking are altered among healthy older adults. Follow-up work is needed to examine if these effects contribute to reduced stability in aging.

  8. Robotic-Arm Assisted Surgery in Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Elmallah, Randa K; Cherian, Jeffrey J; Jauregui, Julio J; Padden, David A; Harwin, Steven F; Mont, Michael A

    2015-05-01

    Complications following total hip arthroplasty (THA), such as dislocation, component loosening and wear, continue to be common indications for revision surgery. Multiple studies have attributed some of these problems to poor acetabular cup alignment and placement outside of the purported radiographic safe zone. In addition, it has been shown that conventional manually performed acetabular cup placement may not lead to optimal alignment, regardless of surgical experience. Additionally, incorrect leg length and offset can lead to dissatisfaction and instability. Therefore, robotic-arm assisted surgery has been introduced to improve accuracy of cup placement and leg length, and to offset with the aim of reducing the risk of hip instability and improving satisfaction after primary THA. Our aim was to prospectively review the use of robotic-arm assisted surgery in 224 patients and to assess whether the pre-operatively determined radiographic targets were achieved post-operatively and the proportion of acetabular cups outside of the safe zone. Pre-determined anteversion and inclination were 15 and 40 degrees, respectively. Our results have shown that the use of robotic-arm assisted surgery resulted in a post-operative mean inclination of 40 degrees (range, 34 to 51 degrees) and a mean anteversion of 16 degrees (range, 9 to 25 degrees). Ninety-nine percent of the patients remained within the pre-designated safe zone. Evidence has shown that robotic-arm assisted surgery may have improved accuracy in cup placement when compared to conventional surgery and possibly to computer-assisted surgery. When compared to the literature on robotic-arm assisted surgery, our results were comparable. We believe that this surgical technique may aid in reducing post-operative THA complications, such as aseptic loosening and dislocations, but further prospective studies are needed to evaluate clinical outcomes and long-term results.

  9. Evolution of Gas Across Spiral Arms in the Whirlpool Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louie, Melissa Nicole

    To investigate the dynamic evolution of gas across spiral arms, we conducted a detailed study of the gas and star formation along the spiral arms in the Whirlpool Galaxy, M51. This nearby, face-on spiral galaxy provides a unique laboratory to study the relationship between gas dynamics and star formation. The textbook picture of interstellar medium (ISM) evolution is rapidly changing. Molecular gas was once believed to form along spiral arms from the diffuse atomic gas in the inter-arm regions. Star formation occurs within giant molecular clouds during spiral arm passage. Lastly, the molecular gas is photo-dissociated back into atomic gas by massive stars on the downstream side of the spiral arm. Recent evidence, however, is revealing a new picture of the interstellar medium and the process of star formation. We seek development of a new picture by studying the development and evolution of molecular gas and the role of large scale galactic dynamics in organizing the interstellar medium. This thesis begins by presenting work measuring the geometrical offsets between interstellar gas and recent star formation. Interstellar gas is traced by atomic hydrogen and carbon monoxide (CO). Star formation is traced by ionized hydrogen recombination lines and infrared emission from dust warmed by young bright stars. Measuring these offsets can help determine the underlying large scale galactic dynamics. Along the spiral arms in M51, offsets between CO and the star formation tracers suggest that gas is flowing through the spiral arms, but the offsets do not show the expected signature of a single pattern speed and imply a more complicated pattern. This thesis also examines the intermediate stages of gas evolution, by studying a denser component of the ISM closer to which stars will form. Only a small percent of the bulk molecular gas will become dense enough to form stars. HCN and HCO+ probe densities ˜104 cm-3, where as the bulk gas is 500 cm-3. This thesis looks at HCN and

  10. Characterizing the Vertical Distribution of Aerosols Over the ARM SGP Site

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Ferrare, Connor Flynn, David Turner

    2009-05-05

    This project focused on: 1) evaluating the performance of the DOE ARM SGP Raman lidar system in measuring profiles of water vapor and aerosols, and 2) the use of the Raman lidar measurements of aerosol and water vapor profiles for assessing the vertical distribution of aerosols and water vapor simulated by global transport models and examining diurnal variability of aerosols and water vapor. The highest aerosol extinction was generally observed close to the surface during the nighttime just prior to sunrise. The high values of aerosol extinction are most likely associated with increased scattering by hygroscopic aerosols, since the corresponding average relative humidity values were above 70%. After sunrise, relative humidity and aerosol extinction below 500 m decreased with the growth in the daytime convective boundary layer. The largest aerosol extinction for altitudes above 1 km occurred during the early afternoon most likely as a result of the increase in relative humidity. The water vapor mixing ratio profiles generally showed smaller variations with altitude between day and night. We also compared simultaneous measurements of relative humidity, aerosol extinction, and aerosol optical thickness derived from the ARM SGP Raman lidar and in situ instruments on board a small aircraft flown routinely over the ARM SGP site. In contrast, the differences between the CARL and IAP aerosol extinction measurements are considerably larger. Aerosol extinction derived from the IAP measurements is, on average, about 30-40% less than values derived from the Raman lidar. The reasons for this difference are not clear, but may be related to the corrections for supermicron scattering and relative humidity that were applied to the IAP data. The investigators on this project helped to set up a major field mission (2003 Aerosol IOP) over the DOE ARM SGP site. One of the goals of the mission was to further evaluate the aerosol and water vapor retrievals from this lidar system

  11. Arms races between and within species.

    PubMed

    Dawkins, R; Krebs, J R

    1979-09-21

    An adaptation in one lineage (e.g. predators) may change the selection pressure on another lineage (e.g. prey), giving rise to a counter-adaptation. If this occurs reciprocally, an unstable runaway escalation or 'arms race' may result. We discuss various factors which might give one side an advantage in an arms race. For example, a lineage under strong selection may out-evolve a weakly selected one (' the life-dinner principle'). We then classify arms races in two independent ways. They may be symmetric or asymmetric, and they may be interspecific or intraspecific. Our example of an asymmetric interspecific arms race is that between brood parasites and their hosts. The arms race concept may help to reduce the mystery of why cuckoo hosts are so good at detecting cuckoo eggs, but so bad at detecting cuckoo nestlings. The evolutionary contest between queen and worker ants over relative parental investment is a good example of an intraspecific asymmetric arms race. Such cases raise special problems because the participants share the same gene pool. Interspecific symmetric arms races are unlikely to be important, because competitors tend to diverge rather than escalate competitive adaptations. Intraspecific symmetric arms races, exemplified by adaptations for male-male competition, may underlie Cope's Rule and even the extinction of lineages. Finally we consider ways in which arms races can end. One lineage may drive the other to extinction; one may reach an optimum, thereby preventing the other from doing so; a particularly interesting possibility, exemplified by flower-bee coevolution, is that both sides may reach a mutual local optimum; lastly, arms races may have no stable and but may cycle continuously. We do not wish necessarily to suggest that all, or even most, evolutionary change results from arms races, but we do suggest that the arms race concept may help to resolve three long-standing questions in evolutionary theory.

  12. Lever arm dysfunction in cerebral palsy gait.

    PubMed

    Theologis, Tim

    2013-11-01

    Skeletal structures act as lever arms during walking. Muscle activity and the ground reaction against gravity exert forces on the skeleton, which generate torque (moments) around joints. These lead to the sequence of movements which form normal human gait. Skeletal deformities in cerebral palsy (CP) affect the function of bones as lever arms and compromise gait. Lever arm dysfunction should be carefully considered when contemplating treatment to improve gait in children with CP.

  13. Dynamic analysis for robot arm control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.

    1983-01-01

    Explicit state equations provide detailed analytic insight into the dynamic behavior of a robot arm and facilitate the understanding of the control problem. The analytic strength of explicit state equations is exemplified for a given robot arm. In fact, for the quoted example, the explicit and exact state equations involve considerably less computation than the use of the known most efficient general-purpose computational algorithm for robot arm dynamics.

  14. Simplified robot arm dynamics for control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.; Paul, R. P.

    1981-01-01

    A brief summary and evaluation is presented on the use of symbolic state equation techniques in order to represent robot arm dynamics with sufficient accuracy for controlling arm motion. The use of homogeneous transformations and the Lagrangian formulation of mechanics offers a convenient frame for the derivation, analysis and simplification of complex robot dynamics equations. It is pointed out that simplified state equations can represent robot arm dynamics with good accuracy.

  15. Introduction to Reading and Visualizing ARM Data

    SciTech Connect

    Mather, James

    2014-02-18

    Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program standard data format is NetCDF 3 (Network Common Data Form). The object of this tutorial is to provide a basic introduction to NetCDF with an emphasis on aspects of the ARM application of NetCDF. The goal is to provide basic instructions for reading and visualizing ARM NetCDF data with the expectation that these examples can then be applied to more complex applications.

  16. Enlargement of measurable strain range in biaxial cruciform test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiwatari, Akinobu; Sumikawa, Satoshi; Hiramoto, Jiro; Kitani, Yasushi; Kuwabara, Toshihiro

    2016-10-01

    In order to improve the accuracy of FEA in the assessment of crack and wrinkle risk, and in the amount of springback, the plastic anisotropy of a material should be measured over a wide strain range by a biaxial test, especially by a cruciform test. In this study, slit arm strengthening of a cruciform test specimen was investigated: its slit arms were melted by laser irradiation, and then mertensitized by quenching. One and a half times or larger measureable strain range was obtained by one laser irradiated line in a slit arm of a cruciform specimen compared with a specimen without laser irradiation.

  17. Normative data for arm swing asymmetry: how (a)symmetrical are we?

    PubMed

    Plate, A; Sedunko, D; Pelykh, O; Schlick, C; Ilmberger, J R; Bötzel, K

    2015-01-01

    Arm swing asymmetry during gait may be a sensitive sign for early Parkinson's disease. There is only very limited information about how much asymmetry can be considered to be physiological. To assess the normal range of arm swing asymmetry, we investigated 60 healthy subjects. The influence of age, gender, and additional mental tasks (dual-tasking) on arm swing asymmetry was assessed. Limb kinematics of 60 healthy persons in three age groups (between 40 and 75 years) were measured with an ultrasound motion capture system while subjects walked on a treadmill. Treadmill velocity was varied (3 steps) and mental loads (2 different tasks) were applied in different trials. Additionally, a group of 7 patients with early Parkinson's disease was investigated. Arm swing amplitude as well as arm swing asymmetry varied considerably in the healthy subjects. Elderly subjects swung their arms more than younger participants. Only the more demanding mental load caused a significant asymmetry, i.e., arm swing was reduced on the right side. In the patient group, asymmetry was considerably higher and even more enhanced by mental loads. Our data indicate that an asymmetry index above 50 (i.e., one side has twice the amplitude of the other) may be considered abnormal. Evaluation of arm swing asymmetry may be used as part of a test battery for early Parkinson's disease. Such testing may become even more important when disease-modifying drugs become available for Parkinson's disease.

  18. Comprehensive quantitative investigation of arm swing during walking at various speed and surface slope conditions.

    PubMed

    Hejrati, Babak; Chesebrough, Sam; Bo Foreman, K; Abbott, Jake J; Merryweather, Andrew S

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that inclusion of arm swing in gait rehabilitation leads to more effective walking recovery in patients with walking impairments. However, little is known about the correct arm-swing trajectories to be used in gait rehabilitation given the fact that changes in walking conditions affect arm-swing patterns. In this paper we present a comprehensive look at the effects of a variety of conditions on arm-swing patterns during walking. The results describe the effects of surface slope, walking speed, and physical characteristics on arm-swing patterns in healthy individuals. We propose data-driven mathematical models to describe arm-swing trajectories. Thirty individuals (fifteen females and fifteen males) with a wide range of height (1.58-1.91m) and body mass (49-98kg), participated in our study. Based on their self-selected walking speed, each participant performed walking trials with four speeds on five surface slopes while their whole-body kinematics were recorded. Statistical analysis showed that walking speed, surface slope, and height were the major factors influencing arm swing during locomotion. The results demonstrate that data-driven models can successfully describe arm-swing trajectories for normal gait under varying walking conditions. The findings also provide insight into the behavior of the elbow during walking.

  19. Stereotypical reaching movements of the octopus involve both bend propagation and arm elongation.

    PubMed

    Hanassy, S; Botvinnik, A; Flash, T; Hochner, B

    2015-05-13

    The bend propagation involved in the stereotypical reaching movement of the octopus arm has been extensively studied. While these studies have analyzed the kinematics of bend propagation along the arm during its extension, possible length changes have been ignored. Here, the elongation profiles of the reaching movements of Octopus vulgaris were assessed using three-dimensional reconstructions. The analysis revealed that, in addition to bend propagation, arm extension movements involve elongation of the proximal part of the arm, i.e., the section from the base of the arm to the propagating bend. The elongations are quite substantial and highly variable, ranging from an average strain along the arm of -0.12 (i.e. shortening) up to 1.8 at the end of the movement (0.57 ± 0.41, n = 64 movements, four animals). Less variability was discovered in an additional set of experiments on reaching movements (0.64 ± 0.28, n = 30 movements, two animals), where target and octopus positions were kept more stationary. Visual observation and subsequent kinematic analysis suggest that the reaching movements can be broadly segregated into two groups. The first group involves bend propagation beginning at the base of the arm and propagating towards the arm tip. In the second, the bend is formed or present more distally and reaching is achieved mainly by elongation and straightening of the segment proximal to the bend. Only in the second type of movements is elongation significantly positively correlated with the distance of the bend from the target. We suggest that reaching towards a target is generated by a combination of both propagation of a bend along the arm and arm elongation. These two motor primitives may be combined to create a broad spectrum of reaching movements. The dynamical model, which recapitulates the biomechanics of the octopus muscular hydrostatic arm, suggests that achieving the observed elongation requires an extremely low ratio of longitudinal to transverse muscle

  20. NetCDF structure versioning on the ARM program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macduff, M.; Beus, S.; Ermold, B.; Sivaraman, C.

    2011-12-01

    The DOE ARM program has produced netcdf data for more than 600 instruments (and more than 100 unique types) since 1994. In addition to instrument changes over time, the software processes have gone through several iterations. So, while the data is in a common netcdf format, some significant variability has occurred over time. Processes that use long-time ranges of these data are forced to deal with these unannounced changes and determine their relevance. In 2006 the ARM program adopted a definition for the structure of a netcdf data file. Using this definition, libraries, a database and management tools were developed to create, store, review, use and enforce changes to the structure of the netcdf files. These are stored as discrete versions allowing for clarity and consistency over time. ARM recently completed the migration of most of the active instruments into this new system and has more than 200 versions created. Having these versions is an important tool for communicating and planning data reprocessing and especially for higher order products to use as a reference of known, documented change. This paper discusses the implementation of structure versioning on ARM, the benefits we foresee and its limitations.

  1. Science Plan for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM)

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of this Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Plan is to articulate the scientific issues driving the ARM Program, and to relate them to DOE`s programmatic objectives for ARM, based on the experience and scientific progress gained over the past five years. ARM programmatic objectives are to: (1) Relate observed radiative fluxes and radiances in the atmosphere, spectrally resolved and as a function of position and time, to the temperature and composition of the atmosphere, specifically including water vapor and clouds, and to surface properties, and sample sufficient variety of situations so as to span a wide range of climatologically relevant possibilities; (2) develop and test parameterizations that can be used to accurately predict the radiative properties and to model the radiative interactions involving water vapor and clouds within the atmosphere, with the objective of incorporating these parameterizations into general circulation models. The primary observational methods remote sending and other observations at the surface, particularly remote sensing of clouds, water vapor and aerosols.

  2. Overview and Updated Status of the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abell, Paul; Mazanek, Daniel D.; Reeves, David M.; Chodas, Paul; Gates, Michele; Johnson, Lindley N.; Ticker, Ronald

    2016-10-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a mission to visit a large near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder and regolith samples from its surface, demonstrate a planetary defense technique known as the enhanced gravity tractor, and return the asteroidal material to a stable orbit around the Moon. Once returned to cislunar space in the mid-2020s, astronauts will explore the boulder and return to Earth with samples. This Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is part of NASA's plan to advance the technologies, capabilities, and spaceflight experience needed for a human mission to the Martian system in the 2030s and other destinations, as well as provide other broader benefits. Subsequent human and robotic missions to the asteroidal material would also be facilitated by its return to cislunar space. Although ARM is primarily a capability demonstration mission (i.e., technologies and associated operations), there exist significant opportunities to advance our knowledge of small bodies in the synergistic areas of science, planetary defense, asteroidal resources and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and capability and technology demonstrations. Current plans are for the robotic mission to be launched in late 2021 with the crewed mission segment conducted using an Orion capsule via a Space Launch System rocket in 2026. In order to maximize the knowledge return from the mission, NASA is providing accommodations for payloads to be carried on the robotic segment of the mission and also organizing an ARM Investigation Team. The Investigation Team will be comprised of scientists, technologists, and other qualified and interested individuals from US industry, government, academia, and international institutions to help plan the implementation and execution of ARM. The presentation will provide a mission overview and the most recent update concerning the robotic and crewed segments of ARM, including the mission requirements, and potential

  3. Arms Transfers to the Irish Republican Army.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    and Policy Sciences 3 • " . %" "i - .% *’ -.. " - ’ .’’" -W%" . ’% G " %,’’ .- "S.*" *’I % ’ %- ABSTRACT 1, - This -ia, describes the arms transfer...from the policy of divestiture added insult to injury. There were sharp increases in the late 󈨀s in both arms manufacturing and in the volume of...through arms transfers to the Irish rebels coincided in time with several relevant changes; (1) the coordination of Eastern bloc arms 45 transfer policies

  4. Changing patterns of US arms transfers

    SciTech Connect

    Salomone, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    The thesis has three purposes. First is to explore the changing patterns of US arms transfers from Fiscal Year 1950 (FY 1950) through Fiscal Year 1980 (FY 1980). Second, is to describe and assess the decision-making process for arms transfers within the US Government. Third is to examine and critique the conventional wisdom concerning US arms transfers, to support that wisdom, or to offer an alternate empirically supported view. The conventional wisdom about US arms transfer is that they have been rising at an alarming rate, and that this is the result of an arms transfer decision-making process which is out of control. This belief is founded on an empirically based proposition that arms transfers have been rising at an alarming rate. However, this proposition has never been empirically validated. To explore this conventional wisdom, the author establishes the historical, political and defense policy contexts for US arms transfers over the period FY 1950 through FY 1980. The author critiques the conventional wisdom about US arms transfers, analyzes the many ways that arms transfers have been measured, and explores the impediments to accurate measurement and assessment of the phenomenon.

  5. Low friction high speed rocker arm

    SciTech Connect

    Simko, A.O.

    1987-07-28

    A valve train is described for an internal combustion engine comprising, a camshaft mounted close above the cylinder head face of the engine, a one-piece essentially U-shaped rocker arm mounted above the camshaft for an arcuate movement and defined by a bottom wall integral with a pair of laterally spaced upstanding side walls. The bottom wall has a cylindrical fulcrum surface projecting upwardly. A lash adjuster fixedly supports above the rocker arm against lateral movement and has a lower surface engaging the cylindrical fulcrum surface with a contact establishing a pure rolling motion without friction of the rocker arm upon the lash adjuster lower surface. A reciprocatingly mounted valve stem engages one end of the rocker arm for reciprocation of the valve. The other end of the rocker arm rotatably supports a dual function roller engagable with a cam lobe on the camshaft for arcuate pivoting of the rocker arm about its fulcrum upon rotation of the camshaft. Support means supports the roller for both an arcuate movement of its axis of rotation along a predetermined path providing a pure rolling motion of the rocker arm about its fulcrum upon the lash adjuster surface. This confines the roller and arm in a manner preventing a longitudinal sliding movement of the rocker arm fulcrum surface relative to the lash adjuster surface.

  6. Disk's Spiral Arms Point to Possible Planets

    NASA Video Gallery

    Simulations of young stellar systems suggest that planets embedded in a circumstellar disk can produce many distinctive structures, including rings, gaps and spiral arms. This video compares comput...

  7. Plantar flexor moment arm and muscle volume predict torque-generating capacity in young men.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Josh R; Piazza, Stephen J

    2014-03-01

    Muscle volume is known to correlate with maximal joint torque in humans, but the role of muscle moment arm in determining maximal torque is less clear. Moderate correlations have been reported between maximal isometric knee extensor torque and knee extensor moment arm, but no such observations have been made for the ankle joint. It has been suggested that smaller muscle moment arms may enhance force generation at high rates of joint rotation, but this has not yet been observed for ankle muscles in vivo. The purpose of the present study was to correlate plantar flexor moment arm and plantar flexor muscle volume with maximal plantar flexor torque measured at different rates of plantar flexion. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to quantify the plantar flexor moment arm and muscle volume of the posterior compartment in 20 healthy young men. Maximal plantar flexor torque was measured isometrically and at three plantar flexion speeds using an isokinetic dynamometer. Plantar flexor torque was significantly correlated with muscle volume (0.222 < R(2) < 0.322) and with muscle moment arm at each speed (0.323 < R(2) < 0.494). While muscle volume was strongly correlated with body mass and stature, moment arm was not. The slope of the torque-moment arm regression line decreased as the rate of joint rotation increased, indicating that subjects with small moment arms experienced smaller reductions in torque at high speeds. The findings of this study suggest that plantar flexor moment arm is a determinant of joint strength that is at least as important as muscle size.

  8. Holddown arm release mechanism used on Saturn vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, J. D.; Tolson, B. A.

    1975-01-01

    With the development of the Saturn launch vehicle, it became mandatory to develop a system for restraining the vehicle until after all checks and engine thrust buildup were completed. The basic Saturn I holddown arm constrains the vehicle by clamping it between a fixed support and a movable jaw. The jaw is on a link pinned to rotate sufficiently to release the vehicle. There are three links in the jaw (restraining) system arranged so that with a small force provided by a pneumatic separator mechanism, the large loads of the vehicle can be restrained. Design details discussed are the link system, the separator, adjustments, and the energy absorber. The function of preloading is discussed. The secondary release system is described. Finally, the design differences between the Saturn I and the Saturn V arm are described.

  9. Modelling and control of robotic arms fabricated from orthotropic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamurthy, K.; Chandrashekhara, K.; Roy, S.

    1989-05-01

    A dynamic model for single-link robotic manipulators fabricated from orthotropic composite materials is presented. The equations of motion are derived using Hamilton's principle and include the coupling between the rigid body motion and elastic motion. An optimal controller is designed for rest-to-rest maneuvers without large starting or stopping transients and with minimum residual vibration. Results presented for aluminum, steel, graphite/epoxy, and boron/epoxy indicate that the motion induced vibration is significantly less for the composite robotic arms, and that substantial savings in energy are achieved. Furthermore, it was seen that the magnitude of the control spillover effects, an issue of great concern in designing control systems for flexible structures, was very small for the composite robotic arms.

  10. Cortical Spiking Network Interfaced with Virtual Musculoskeletal Arm and Robotic Arm

    PubMed Central

    Dura-Bernal, Salvador; Zhou, Xianlian; Neymotin, Samuel A.; Przekwas, Andrzej; Francis, Joseph T.; Lytton, William W.

    2015-01-01

    Embedding computational models in the physical world is a critical step towards constraining their behavior and building practical applications. Here we aim to drive a realistic musculoskeletal arm model using a biomimetic cortical spiking model, and make a robot arm reproduce the same trajectories in real time. Our cortical model consisted of a 3-layered cortex, composed of several hundred spiking model-neurons, which display physiologically realistic dynamics. We interconnected the cortical model to a two-joint musculoskeletal model of a human arm, with realistic anatomical and biomechanical properties. The virtual arm received muscle excitations from the neuronal model, and fed back proprioceptive information, forming a closed-loop system. The cortical model was trained using spike timing-dependent reinforcement learning to drive the virtual arm in a 2D reaching task. Limb position was used to simultaneously control a robot arm using an improved network interface. Virtual arm muscle activations responded to motoneuron firing rates, with virtual arm muscles lengths encoded via population coding in the proprioceptive population. After training, the virtual arm performed reaching movements which were smoother and more realistic than those obtained using a simplistic arm model. This system provided access to both spiking network properties and to arm biophysical properties, including muscle forces. The use of a musculoskeletal virtual arm and the improved control system allowed the robot arm to perform movements which were smoother than those reported in our previous paper using a simplistic arm. This work provides a novel approach consisting of bidirectionally connecting a cortical model to a realistic virtual arm, and using the system output to drive a robotic arm in real time. Our techniques are applicable to the future development of brain neuroprosthetic control systems, and may enable enhanced brain-machine interfaces with the possibility for finer control of

  11. Cortical Spiking Network Interfaced with Virtual Musculoskeletal Arm and Robotic Arm.

    PubMed

    Dura-Bernal, Salvador; Zhou, Xianlian; Neymotin, Samuel A; Przekwas, Andrzej; Francis, Joseph T; Lytton, William W

    2015-01-01

    Embedding computational models in the physical world is a critical step towards constraining their behavior and building practical applications. Here we aim to drive a realistic musculoskeletal arm model using a biomimetic cortical spiking model, and make a robot arm reproduce the same trajectories in real time. Our cortical model consisted of a 3-layered cortex, composed of several hundred spiking model-neurons, which display physiologically realistic dynamics. We interconnected the cortical model to a two-joint musculoskeletal model of a human arm, with realistic anatomical and biomechanical properties. The virtual arm received muscle excitations from the neuronal model, and fed back proprioceptive information, forming a closed-loop system. The cortical model was trained using spike timing-dependent reinforcement learning to drive the virtual arm in a 2D reaching task. Limb position was used to simultaneously control a robot arm using an improved network interface. Virtual arm muscle activations responded to motoneuron firing rates, with virtual arm muscles lengths encoded via population coding in the proprioceptive population. After training, the virtual arm performed reaching movements which were smoother and more realistic than those obtained using a simplistic arm model. This system provided access to both spiking network properties and to arm biophysical properties, including muscle forces. The use of a musculoskeletal virtual arm and the improved control system allowed the robot arm to perform movements which were smoother than those reported in our previous paper using a simplistic arm. This work provides a novel approach consisting of bidirectionally connecting a cortical model to a realistic virtual arm, and using the system output to drive a robotic arm in real time. Our techniques are applicable to the future development of brain neuroprosthetic control systems, and may enable enhanced brain-machine interfaces with the possibility for finer control of

  12. Proprioceptive illusions created by vibration of one arm are altered by vibrating the other arm.

    PubMed

    Hakuta, Naoyuki; Izumizaki, Masahiko; Kigawa, Kazuyoshi; Murai, Norimitsu; Atsumi, Takashi; Homma, Ikuo

    2014-07-01

    There is some evidence that signals coming from both arms are used to determine the perceived position and movement of one arm. We examined whether the sense of position and movement of one (reference) arm is altered by increases in muscle spindle signals in the other (indicator) arm in blindfolded participants (n = 26). To increase muscle spindle discharge, we applied 70-80 Hz muscle vibration to the elbow flexors of the indicator arm. In a first experiment, proprioceptive illusions in the vibrated reference arm in a forearm position-matching task were compared between conditions in which the indicator arm elbow flexors were vibrated or not vibrated. We found that the vibration illusion of arm extension induced by vibration of reference arm elbow flexors was reduced in the presence of vibration of the indicator elbow flexors. In a second experiment, participants were asked to describe their perception of the illusion of forearm extension movements of the reference arm evoked by vibration of reference arm elbow flexors in response to on/off and off/on transitions of vibration of non-reference arm elbow flexors. When vibration of non-reference arm elbow flexors was turned on, they reported a sensation of slowing down of the illusion of the reference arm. When it was turned off, they reported a sensation of speeding up. To conclude, the present study shows that both the sense of limb position and the sense of limb movement of one arm are dependent to some extent on spindle signals coming from the other arm.

  13. The 'Arm Force Field' method to predict manual arm strength based on only hand location and force direction.

    PubMed

    La Delfa, Nicholas J; Potvin, Jim R

    2017-03-01

    This paper describes the development of a novel method (termed the 'Arm Force Field' or 'AFF') to predict manual arm strength (MAS) for a wide range of body orientations, hand locations and any force direction. This method used an artificial neural network (ANN) to predict the effects of hand location and force direction on MAS, and included a method to estimate the contribution of the arm's weight to the predicted strength. The AFF method predicted the MAS values very well (r(2) = 0.97, RMSD = 5.2 N, n = 456) and maintained good generalizability with external test data (r(2) = 0.842, RMSD = 13.1 N, n = 80). The AFF can be readily integrated within any DHM ergonomics software, and appears to be a more robust, reliable and valid method of estimating the strength capabilities of the arm, when compared to current approaches.

  14. Arm sway holds sway: locomotor-like modulation of leg reflexes when arms swing in alternation.

    PubMed

    Massaad, F; Levin, O; Meyns, P; Drijkoningen, D; Swinnen, S P; Duysens, J

    2014-01-31

    It has been argued that arm movements are important during human gait because they affect leg activity due to neural coupling between arms and legs. Consequently, one would expect that locomotor-like alternating arm swing is more effective than in-phase swing in affecting the legs' motor output. Other alternating movements such as trunk rotation associated to arm swing could also affect leg reflexes. Here, we assessed how locomotor-like movement patterns would affect soleus H-reflexes in 13 subjects performing arm swing in the sagittal plane (ipsilateral, contralateral and bilateral in-phase versus locomotor-like anti-phase arm movements) and trunk rotation with the legs stationary, and leg stepping with the arms stationary. Findings revealed that soleus H-reflexes were suppressed for all arm, trunk or leg movements. However, a marked reflex modulation occurred during locomotor-like anti-phase arm swing, as was also the case during leg stepping, and this modulation flattened out during in-phase arm swing. This modulation had a peculiar bell shape and showed maximum suppression at a moment where the heel-strike would occur during a normal walking cycle. Furthermore, this modulation was independent from electromyographic activity, suggesting a spinal processing at premotoneuronal level. Therefore, trunk movement can affect legs' output, and a special neural coupling occurs between arms and legs when arms move in alternation. This may have implications for gait rehabilitation.

  15. Films on the arms race

    SciTech Connect

    Dowling, J.

    1983-01-01

    Films convey the historical perspectives, the biographical stories, the insights of the participants, and the horror of nuclear war - far better than can any physicist. While films are not very efficient for covering details, derivation, or numbers, they can not be beaten in showing what really happens in a nuclear explosion, in getting across general concepts, in illustrating the parameters of a problem, and the problem itself. Most importantly, films and TV can reach the people who must be informed about these issues if we are to resolve the problems. The author points out how films can contribute to an understanding of the issues of the arms race and nuclear war, with references to specific films. An annotated bibliography of 37 films is then presented.

  16. Stable optical spring in the Advanced LIGO detector with unbalanced arms and in the Michelson-Sagnac interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vostrosablin, Nikita; Vyatchanin, Sergey P.

    2014-03-01

    Optical rigidity in the Advanced LIGO gravitational-wave detector, operated on the dark port regime, is unstable. We show that the same interferometer with excluded symmetric mechanical mode but with unbalanced arms allows us to get stable optical spring for the antisymmetric mechanical mode. The arm detuning necessary to get stability is shown to be a small one—it corresponds to small power in the signal port. We show that stable optical spring may be also obtained in the Michelson-Sagnac interferometer with both power and signal recycling mirrors and unbalanced arms.

  17. Sensory-Feedback Exoskeletal Arm Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    An, Bin; Massie, Thomas H.; Vayner, Vladimir

    2004-01-01

    An electromechanical exoskeletal arm apparatus has been designed for use in controlling a remote robotic manipulator arm. The apparatus, called a force-feedback exoskeleton arm master (F-EAM) is comfortable to wear and easy to don and doff. It provides control signals from the wearer s arm to a robot arm or a computer simulator (e.g., a virtual-reality system); it also provides force and torque feedback from sensors on the robot arm or from the computer simulator to the wearer s arm. The F-EAM enables the wearer to make the robot arm gently touch objects and finely manipulate them without exerting excessive forces. The F-EAM features a lightweight design in which the motors and gear heads that generate force and torque feedback are made smaller than they ordinarily would be: this is achieved by driving the motors to power levels greater than would ordinarily be used in order to obtain higher torques, and by providing active liquid cooling of the motors to prevent overheating at the high drive levels. The F-EAM (see figure) includes an assembly that resembles a backpack and is worn like a backpack, plus an exoskeletal arm mechanism. The FEAM has five degrees of freedom (DOFs) that correspond to those of the human arm: 1. The first DOF is that of the side-to-side rotation of the upper arm about the shoulder (rotation about axis 1). The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 1 via drum 1 and a planar four-bar linkage. 2. The second DOF is that of the up-and-down rotation of the arm about the shoulder. The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 2 via drum 2. 3. The third DOF is that of twisting of the upper arm about its longitudinal axis. This DOF is implemented in a cable remote-center mechanism (CRCM). The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 3, which drives the upper-arm cuff and the mechanism below it. A bladder inflatable by gas or liquid is placed between the cuff and the wearer s upper arm to compensate for misalignment

  18. Arm position does not attenuate visual loss in patients with homonymous field deficits.

    PubMed

    Smith, Daniel T; Lane, Alison R; Schenk, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    One of the most common and debilitating consequences of stroke is the loss of vision in the contralesional visual field. Clinicians typically regard this loss as irreversible and attempts at visual restoration have delivered only small and unreliable improvements. However, Schendel and Robertson [Schendel, K., & Robertson, L. C. (2004). Reaching out to see: Arm position can attenuate human visual loss. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 16(6), 935-943] reported that the visual abilities of a hemianopic patient (WM) were significantly improved when the left arm was extended into the blind field. They suggest that visual stimuli near the arm recruited bimodal visual-tactile neurons, and this activity was sufficient to bring the stimulus into awareness. This result has enormous potential therapeutic value, but given that it is a single case study there are a number of reasons to be cautious about interpreting the data. Here, we investigate the effects of manipulating arm position on visual loss in a sample of five patients with homonymous field deficits. None of our patients showed any evidence of improved implicit or explicit visual ability in the blind field as a consequence of moving the arm. We suggest that WMs improvement was the consequence of a spatial bias towards the space containing his extended arm rather than the recruitment of bimodal neurons, and conclude that manipulating arm position is of little therapeutic value to patients with dense hemianopia.

  19. The Development of Bone Mineral Lateralization in the Arms

    PubMed Central

    Siminoski, Kerry; Lee, Kwok-Choy; Abish, Sharon; Alos, Nathalie; Bell, Lorraine; Blydt-Hansen, Tom; Couch, Robert; Cummings, Elizabeth A.; Ellsworth, Janet; Feber, Janusz; Fernandez, Conrad V.; Halton, Jacqueline; Huber, Adam M.; Israels, Sara; Jurencak, Roman; Lang, Bianca; Laverdière, Caroline; LeBlanc., Claire; Lewis, Victor; Midgley, Julian; Miettunen, Paivi M.; Oen, Kiem; Phan, Veronique; Pinsk, Maury; Rauch, Frank; Rodd, Celia; Roth, Johannes; Saint-Cyr, Claire; Scuccimarri, Rosie; Stephure, David; Taback, Shayne; Wilson, Beverly; Ward, Leanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Bone mineral content (BMC) exhibits sidedness in the arms after the age of 8 years, but it is not known whether BMC is greater in the dominant arm from birth or whether lateralization develops in early childhood. To address this, we examined bone mineral status in relation to handedness and age. Methods Subjects (n = 158) were children recently initiating glucocorticoid for underlying disease (leukemia 43%, rheumatic conditions 39%, nephrotic syndrome 18%). Handedness was determined by questionnaire and BMC by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results Median age was 7.2 years (range, 1.5 to 17.0 years), 49% were male, and the spine BMD Z-score was −0.9 (SD, 1.3). By linear regression, BMC sidedness in the arms was significantly related to age (r = 0.294, p = 0.0005). Breakpoint analysis revealed two lines with a knot at 6.0 years (95% CI, 4.5–7.5 years). The formula for the first line was: dominant:nondominant arm BMC ratio = 0.029 × age [in years] + 0.850 (r = 0.323, p = 0.017). The slope of the second line was not different from 0 (p = 0.332), while the slopes for the two lines were significantly different (p = 0.027). Conclusions These results show that arm BMC sidedness in this patient group develops up to age six years and then remains stable into late adolescence. This temporal profile is consistent with mechanical stimulation of the skeleton in response to asymmetrical muscle use as handedness becomes manifest. PMID:22744715

  20. C-arm perfusion imaging with a fast penalized maximum-likelihood approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frysch, Robert; Pfeiffer, Tim; Bannasch, Sebastian; Serowy, Steffen; Gugel, Sebastian; Skalej, Martin; Rose, Georg

    2014-03-01

    Perfusion imaging is an essential method for stroke diagnostics. One of the most important factors for a successful therapy is to get the diagnosis as fast as possible. Therefore our approach aims at perfusion imaging (PI) with a cone beam C-arm system providing perfusion information directly in the interventional suite. For PI the imaging system has to provide excellent soft tissue contrast resolution in order to allow the detection of small attenuation enhancement due to contrast agent in the capillary vessels. The limited dynamic range of flat panel detectors as well as the sparse sampling of the slow rotating C-arm in combination with standard reconstruction methods results in limited soft tissue contrast. We choose a penalized maximum-likelihood reconstruction method to get suitable results. To minimize the computational load, the 4D reconstruction task is reduced to several static 3D reconstructions. We also include an ordered subset technique with transitioning to a small number of subsets, which adds sharpness to the image with less iterations while also suppressing the noise. Instead of the standard multiplicative EM correction, we apply a Newton-based optimization to further accelerate the reconstruction algorithm. The latter optimization reduces the computation time by up to 70%. Further acceleration is provided by a multi-GPU implementation of the forward and backward projection, which fulfills the demands of cone beam geometry. In this preliminary study we evaluate this procedure on clinical data. Perfusion maps are computed and compared with reference images from magnetic resonance scans. We found a high correlation between both images.

  1. 31 CFR 543.301 - Arms or any related materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Arms or any related materiel. 543.301... Definitions § 543.301 Arms or any related materiel. The term arms or any related materiel means arms or... of arms and related materiel and technical training and assistance intended solely for support of...

  2. 31 CFR 543.301 - Arms or any related materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Arms or any related materiel. 543.301... Definitions § 543.301 Arms or any related materiel. The term arms or any related materiel means arms or... of arms and related materiel and technical training and assistance intended solely for support of...

  3. 31 CFR 543.301 - Arms or any related materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Arms or any related materiel. 543.301... Definitions § 543.301 Arms or any related materiel. The term arms or any related materiel means arms or... of arms and related materiel and technical training and assistance intended solely for support of...

  4. 31 CFR 543.301 - Arms or any related materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Arms or any related materiel. 543.301... Definitions § 543.301 Arms or any related materiel. The term arms or any related materiel means arms or... of arms and related materiel and technical training and assistance intended solely for support of...

  5. Dual-arm manipulators with adaptive control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, Homayoun (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The described and improved multi-arm invention of this application presents three strategies for adaptive control of cooperative multi-arm robots which coordinate control over a common load. In the position-position control strategy, the adaptive controllers ensure that the end-effector positions of both arms track desired trajectories in Cartesian space despite unknown time-varying interaction forces exerted through a load. In the position-hybrid control strategy, the adaptive controller of one arm controls end-effector motions in the free directions and applied forces in the constraint directions; while the adaptive controller of the other arm ensures that the end-effector tracks desired position trajectories. In the hybrid-hybrid control strategy, the adaptive controllers ensure that both end-effectors track reference position trajectories while simultaneously applying desired forces on the load. In all three control strategies, the cross-coupling effects between the arms are treated as disturbances which are compensated for by the adaptive controllers while following desired commands in a common frame of reference. The adaptive controllers do not require the complex mathematical model of the arm dynamics or any knowledge of the arm dynamic parameters or the load parameters such as mass and stiffness. Circuits in the adaptive feedback and feedforward controllers are varied by novel adaptation laws.

  6. 78 FR 30731 - Armed Forces Day, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8984 of May 17, 2013 Armed Forces Day, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Since the earliest days of our Union, America has been blessed with an..., liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. And on Armed Forces Day, we honor those who serve bravely...

  7. 75 FR 28185 - Armed Forces Day, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ...#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8522 of May 14, 2010 Armed Forces Day, 2010 By the President of the United... Armed Forces Day, we pay tribute to these patriots who risk their lives, sometimes giving their last... days of independence. Today, we have the greatest military force in the history of the world because...

  8. 21 CFR 890.3640 - Arm sling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Arm sling. 890.3640 Section 890.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3640 Arm sling. (a) Identification....

  9. 21 CFR 890.3640 - Arm sling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Arm sling. 890.3640 Section 890.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3640 Arm sling. (a) Identification....

  10. 21 CFR 890.3640 - Arm sling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Arm sling. 890.3640 Section 890.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3640 Arm sling. (a) Identification....

  11. Design of a biomimetic robotic octopus arm.

    PubMed

    Laschi, C; Mazzolai, B; Mattoli, V; Cianchetti, M; Dario, P

    2009-03-01

    This paper reports the rationale and design of a robotic arm, as inspired by an octopus arm. The octopus arm shows peculiar features, such as the ability to bend in all directions, to produce fast elongations, and to vary its stiffness. The octopus achieves these unique motor skills, thanks to its peculiar muscular structure, named muscular hydrostat. Different muscles arranged on orthogonal planes generate an antagonistic action on each other in the muscular hydrostat, which does not change its volume during muscle contractions, and allow bending and elongation of the arm and stiffness variation. By drawing inspiration from natural skills of octopus, and by analysing the geometry and mechanics of the muscular structure of its arm, we propose the design of a robot arm consisting of an artificial muscular hydrostat structure, which is completely soft and compliant, but also able to stiffen. In this paper, we discuss the design criteria of the robotic arm and how this design and the special arrangement of its muscular structure may bring the building of a robotic arm into being, by showing the results obtained by mathematical models and prototypical mock-ups.

  12. 21 CFR 890.3640 - Arm sling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Arm sling. 890.3640 Section 890.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3640 Arm sling. (a) Identification....

  13. 21 CFR 890.3640 - Arm sling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arm sling. 890.3640 Section 890.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3640 Arm sling. (a) Identification....

  14. Teaching Undergraduates about Nuclear Arms and Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Michael J.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear arms education is being addressed in many academic disciplines and can be approached from many viewpoints. Rationale, ethical issues, instructional strategies, European views, and course materials are considered. A syllabus and references are also included for a course titled "Physics of Nuclear Arms and Nuclear War." (DH)

  15. Research in lightweight elastic robotic arms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nartker, T. A.

    1993-06-01

    The program involved a series of individual projects coordinated to develop controls for a flexible light weight robot arm. A hydraulically actuated 3-link robot arm was installed on a PRAB hydraulic base, and was designed of tubular steel. A PERT program chart was prepared (appendix B) on which various interrelated project milestones were projected.

  16. Whither the Third World Arms Producers?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    for 17 percent of the world arms market and 20 percent of the Third World market. The share of Third World arms exporters in 1984 reached almost 15...percent of the world market and about 18 percent of the Third World market. The present article examines these trends and some of their implications in greater detail.

  17. Floating-point performance of ARM cores and their efficiency in classical molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolskiy, V.; Stegailov, V.

    2016-02-01

    Supercomputing of the exascale era is going to be inevitably limited by power efficiency. Nowadays different possible variants of CPU architectures are considered. Recently the development of ARM processors has come to the point when their floating point performance can be seriously considered for a range of scientific applications. In this work we present the analysis of the floating point performance of the latest ARM cores and their efficiency for the algorithms of classical molecular dynamics.

  18. Kinematic analysis of 7 DOF anthropomorphic arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreutz-Delgado, K.; Long, M.; Seraji, H.

    1990-01-01

    A kinematic analysis of anthropomorphic seven-degree-of-freedom serial link spatial manipulators with revolute joints is presented. To uniquely determine joint angles for a given end-effector position and orientation, the redundancy is parameterized by a scalar variable which corresponds to the angle between the arm plane and a reference plane. The forward kinematic mappings from joint-space to end-effector coordinates and arm angle and the augmented Jacobian matrix which gives end-effector and arm angle rates as functions of joint rates are given. Conditions under which the augmented Jacobian becomes singular are given and are shown to correspond to the arm being either at a kinematically singular configuration or at a nonsingular configuration for which the arm angle ceases to parameterize the redundancy.

  19. Anthropomorphic dual-arm space telemanipulation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jau, Bruno M.

    1990-01-01

    Dexterous dual-arm manipulations are feasible with the system described and illustrated in the paper. The structure is based on an extensible host arm that carries the dual-arm robot which comprises two 7-DOF arms each of which includes a hand with a thumb and three fingers with 4 DOF each. Joint compliance can be stiffened to any level, and the operator uses arm harnesses and gloves to utilize the robotics in an anthropomorphic fashion. The configuration eliminates coordinate-transformation computations, and the system is found to achieve a control-frequency rate of 1000 Hz for its direct man/machine interfaces based on fiber-optic cables. The electronics control for the system utilizes a sensory system consisting of force, position, and compliance sensors. The robotics system is expected to be a user-friendly device that permits assembly, repair, tethering, and other complex mechanical operations.

  20. Lever arm extension of myosin VI is unnecessary for the adjacent binding state.

    PubMed

    Ikezaki, Keigo; Komori, Tomotaka; Arai, Yoshiyuki; Yanagida, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Myosin VI is a processive myosin that has a unique stepping motion, which includes three kinds of steps: a large forward step, a small forward step and a backward step. Recently, we proposed the parallel lever arms model to explain the adjacent binding state, which is necessary for the unique motion. In this model, both lever arms are directed the same direction. However, experimental evidence has not refuted the possibility that the adjacent binding state emerges from myosin VI folding its lever arm extension (LAE). To clarify this issue, we constructed a myosin VI/V chimera that replaces the myosin VI LAE with the IQ3-6 domains of the myosin V lever arm, which cannot fold, and performed single molecule imaging. Our chimera showed the same stepping patterns as myosin VI, indicating the LAE is not responsible for the adjacent binding state.